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Full text of "ICC IBC (2012): International Building Code"

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NOTICE OF INCORPORATION 

United States Legal Document 

J^" All citizens and residents are hereby advised that 
this is a legally binding document duly incorporated by 
reference and that failure to comply with such 
requirements as hereby detailed within may subject you 
to criminal or civil penalties under the law. Ignorance of 
the law shall not excuse noncompliance and it is the 
responsibility of the citizens to inform themselves as to 
the laws that are enacted in the United States of America 
and in the states and cities contained therein. "^& 

* * 

ICC IBC (2012), the International Building Code, 
as mandated and incorporated by the States and 
Municipalities including Maryland in the 
Code of Maryland Administrative Regulations (COMAR) 
Section 05.02.01.02. 






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INTERNATIONAL 
CODE COUNCIL* 



INTERNATIONAL 

BUILDING 

CODE @ 



A Member of the international Code Family* 



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Become a Building Safety Professional Member 
and Learn Mora about She Code Council 

GO TO WWW.ICCSAFE.ORG for All Your Technical and 
Professional Needs Including: 

> Codes, Standards and Gi sidelines 

> Membership Benefits 

> Education and Certification 

> Communications on Industry News 



2012 International Building Code 



First Printing: May 201 1 
Second Printing: June 201 1 



ISBN:978- 1-60983-040-3 (soft-cover edition) 
ISBN: 978-1-60983-039-7 (loose-leaf edition) 



COPYRIGHT ©2011 

by 

INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL, INC. 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This 2012 International Building Code is a copyrighted work owned by the International Code 
Council, Inc. Without advance written permission from the copyright owner, no part of this book may be reproduced, distributed 
or transmitted in any form or by any means, including, without limitation, electronic, optical or mechanical means (by way of 
example, and not limitation, photocopying, or recording by or in an information storage retrieval system). For information on 
permission to copy material exceeding fair use, please contact: Publications, 4051 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, IL 
60478-5795. Phone 1-888-ICC-SAFE (422-7233). 

Trademarks: "International Code Council," the "International Code Council" logo and the "International Building Code" are 
trademarks of the International Code Council, Inc. 



PRINTED IN THE U.S.A. 



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Development 



Adoption 



Internationally, code officials recognize the need for a modern, up-to-date building code addressing 
the design and installation of building systems through requirements emphasizing performance. 
The International Building Code®, in this 2012 edition, is designed to meet these needs through 
model code regulations that safeguard the public health and safety in all communities, large and 
small. 

This comprehensive building code establishes minimum regulations for building systems using 
prescriptive and performance-related provisions. It is founded on broad-based principles that make 
possible the use of new materials and new building designs. This 2012 edition is fully compatible 
with all of the International Codes® (l-Codes®) published by the International Code Council (ICC)®, 
including the International Energy Conservation Code 9 , International Existing Building Code 9 , Inter- 
national Fire Code 9 , International Fuel Gas Code®, International Green Construction Code™ (to be 
available March 2012), International Mechanical Code 9 , ICC Performance Code 9 , International 
Plumbing Code®, International Private Sewage Disposal Code®, International Property Maintenance 
Code®, International Residential Code®, International Swimming Pool and Spa Code™ (to be avail- 
able March 2012), International Wildland-Urban Interface Code® and International Zoning Code®. 

The International Building Code provisions provide many benefits, among which is the model 
code development process that offers an international forum for building professionals to discuss 
performance and prescriptive code requirements. This forum provides an excellent arena to debate 
proposed revisions. This model code also encourages international consistency in the application of 
provisions. 



The first edition of the International Building Code (2000) was the culmination of an effort initiated 
in 1997 by the ICC. This included five drafting subcommittees appointed by ICC and consisting of 
representatives of the three statutory members of the International Code Council at that time, 
including: Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc. (BOCA), International Con- 
ference of Building Officials (ICBO) and Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI). The 
intent was to draft a comprehensive set of regulations for building systems consistent with and 
inclusive of the scope of the existing model codes. Technical content of the latest model codes pro- 
mulgated by BOCA, ICBO and SBCCI was utilized as the basis for the development, followed by pub- 
lic hearings in 1997, 1998 and 1999 to consider proposed changes. This 2012 edition presents the 
code as originally issued, with changes reflected in the 2003, 2006 and 2009 editions and further 
changes approved by the ICC Code Development Process through 2010. A new edition such as this is 
promulgated every 3 years. 

This code is founded on principles intended to establish provisions consistent with the scope of a 
building code that adequately protects public health, safety and welfare; provisions that do not 
unnecessarily increase construction costs; provisions that do not restrict the use of new materials, 
products or methods of construction; and provisions that do not give preferential treatment to par- 
ticular types or classes of materials, products or methods of construction. 



The International Building Code is available for adoption and use by jurisdictions internationally. Its 
use within a governmental jurisdiction is intended to be accomplished through adoption by refer- 
ence in accordance with proceedings establishing the jurisdiction's laws. At the time of adoption, 
jurisdictions should insert the appropriate information in provisions requiring specific local informa- 
tion, such as the name of the adopting jurisdiction. These locations are shown in bracketed words in 
small capital letters in the code and in the sample legislation. The sample adoption ordinance on 
page xix addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordinance, including the information 
required for insertion into the code text. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



Maintenance 



The International Building Code is kept up to date through the review of proposed changes submit- 
ted by code enforcing officials, industry representatives, design professionals and other interested 
parties. Proposed changes are carefully considered through an open code development process in 
which all interested and affected parties may participate. 

The contents of this work are subject to change both through the Code Development Cycles and 
the governmental body that enacts the code into law. For more information regarding the code 
development process, contact the Codes and Standards Development Department of the Interna- 
tional Code Council. 

While the development procedure of the International Building Code assures the highest degree 
of care, ICC, its members and those participating in the development of this code do not accept any 
liability resulting from compliance or noncompliance with the provisions because ICC does not have 
the power or authority to police or enforce compliance with the contents of this code. Only the gov- 
ernmental body that enacts the code into law has such authority. 



Code Development Committee Responsibilities 
(Letter Designations in Front of Section Numbers) 



In each code development cycle, proposed changes to the code are considered at the Code Devel- 
opment Hearings by the applicable International Building Code Development Committee (IBC-Fire 
Safety, General, Means of Egress or Structural). Proposed changes to a code section that has a num- 
ber beginning with a letter in brackets are considered by a different code development committee. 
For example, proposed changes to code sections that have [F] in front of them (e.g., [F] 903.1.1.1) 
are considered by the International Fire Code Development Committee during the portion of the 
code development hearings when the International Fire Code Development Committee meets. 

The content of sections in this code that begin with a letter designation is maintained by another 
code development committee in accordance with the following: 

[A] = Administrative Code Development Committee; 

[E] = International Energy Conservation Code Development Committee (Commercial Energy 

Committee or Residential Energy Committee, as applicable); 

[EB] = International Existing Building Code Development Committee; 

[F] = International Fire Code Development Committee; 
[FG] = International Fuel Gas Code Development Committee; 

[M] = International Mechanical Code Development Committee; and 
[P] = International Plumbing Code Development Committee. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



Note that, for the development of the 2015 edition of the l-Codes, there will be two groups of 
code development committees and they will meet in separate years. The groupings are as follows: 



Group A Codes 

(Heard in 2012, Code Change Proposals 

Deadline: January 3, 2012) 


Group B Codes 

(Heard in 2013, Code Change Proposals 

Deadline: January 3, 2013) 


International Building Code 


Administrative Provisions (Chapter 1 all codes except 
IRC and ICCPC, administrative updates to currently ref- 
erenced standards, and designated definitions) 


International Fuel Gas Code 


International Energy Conservation Code 


International Mechanical Code 


International Existing Building Code 


International Plumbing Code 


International Fire Code 


International Private Sewage 
Disposal Code 


International Green Construction Code 




ICC Performance Code 




International Property Maintenance Code 




International Residential Code 




International Swimming Pool and Spa Code 




International Wildland-Urban Interface Code 




International Zoning Code 



Code change proposals submitted for code sections that have a letter designation in front of 
them will be heard by the respective committee responsible for such code sections. Because differ- 
ent committees will meet in different years, it is possible that some proposals for this code will be 
heard by a committee in a different year than the year in which the primary committee for this code 
meets. 

For instance, every section of Chapter 1 of this code is designated as the responsibility of the 
Administrative Code Development Committee, and that committee is part of the Group B code 
hearings. This committee will conduct its code development hearings in 2013 to consider all code 
change proposals for Chapter 1 of this code and proposals for Chapter 1 of all l-Codes. Therefore, 
any proposals received for Chapter 1 of this code will be deferred for consideration in 2013 by the 
Administrative Code Development Committee. 

Another example is Section 903.1 which is designated as the responsibility of the International 
Fire Code Development Committee, along with most of the provisions in Chapter 9. This committee 
will conduct its code development hearings in 2013 to consider all code change proposals to the 
International Fire Code and any portions of other codes that it is responsible for, including Section 
903.1 and most of the provisions of Chapter 9 (designated with [F] in front of those sections). 
Therefore, any proposals received for Section 903.1 in Chapter 9 will be deferred for consideration 
in 2013 by the International Fire Code Development Committee. 

In some cases, another committee in Group A will be responsible for a section of this code. For 
example, Section 1210.3 has a [P] in front of the numbered section, indicating that this section of 
the code is the responsibility of the International Plumbing Code Development Committee. The 
International Plumbing Code is in Group A; therefore, any code change proposals to this section will 
be due before the Group A deadline of January 3, 2012, and these code change proposals will be 
assigned to the International Plumbing Code Development Committee for consideration. 

It is very important that anyone submitting code change proposals understand which code devel- 
opment committee is responsible for the section of the code that is the subject of the code change 
proposal. For further information on the code development committee responsibilities, please visit 
the ICC web site at www.iccsafe.org/scoping. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 



Marginal Markings 



Solid vertical lines in the margins within the body of the code indicate a technical change from the 
requirements of the 2009 edition. Deletion indicators in the form of an arrow (^) are provided in 
the margin where an entire section, paragraph, exception or table has been deleted or an item in a 
list of items or a table has been deleted. 

A single asterisk [*] placed in the margin indicates that text or a table has been relocated within 
the code. A double asterisk [**] placed in the margin indicates that the text or table immediately 
following it has been relocated there from elsewhere in the code. The following table indicates 
such relocations in the 2012 edition of the International Building Code. 



2012 LOCATION 


2009 LOCATION 


407.4 


1014.2 


410.6 


1015.6 


424 


402.6.3 


712.1 


708.1 


712.1.2 


708.2, Exception 1 


712.1.3 


708.2, Exception 2 


712.1.3.1 


708.2, Exception 2.1 


712.1.3.2 


708.2, Exception 2.2 


712.1.4 


708.2, Exception 3 


712.1.5 


708.2, Exception 4 


712.1.6 


708.2, Exception 5 


712.1.7 


708.2, Exception 6 


712.1.8 


708.2, Exception 7 


712.1.9 


708.2, Exception 8 


712.1.10 


r 708.2, Exception 9 


712.1.11 


708.2, Exception 10 


712.1.12 


708.2, Exception 11 


712.1.13 


708.2, Exception 12 


712.1.14 


708.2, Exception 13 


712.1.15 


708.2, Exception 14 


712.1.16 


708.2, Exception 15 


712.1.18 


708.2, Exception 16 


713.3 through 713.14.1.1 


708.3 through 708.14.1.1 


909.21 through 909.21.11 


708.14.2 through 708.14.2.11 


1004.1.1.2 


1004.6 


1008.1.9.8 


1008.1.4.4 


1013.8 


1405.13.2 


1028.10.1 


1017.4 


1028.10.1.1 


1017.4.1 


1028.10.1.1 


1017.4.2 


1028.10.1.2 


1017.4.3 


1210.3.1 


2903.1 


1210.3.2 


2903.2 


1406.2.1 


1406.2.1.1 


1406.2.2 


1406.2.1 


1607.6 


1605.4 


1704.3 


1705.1 


1704.4 


1709.1 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



2012 LOCATION 


2009 LOCATION 


1704.5 


1710.1 


1705.1.1 


1704.15 


1705.4.2 


1704.11 


1705.10 


1706.1 


1705.11 


1707.1 


1705.12 


1708.1 


3313.1 


3311.4 



C®©rfination between the International Building and Fire Codes 



Italicized Terms 



Because the coordination of technical provisions is one of the benefits of adopting the ICC family of 
model codes, users will find the ICC codes to be a very flexible set of model documents. To accom- 
plish this flexibility some technical provisions are duplicated in some of the model code documents. 
While the International Codes are provided as a comprehensive set of model codes for the built 
environment, documents are occasionally adopted as a stand-alone regulation. When one of the 
model documents is adopted as the basis of a stand-alone code, that code should provide a com- 
plete package of requirements with enforcement assigned to the entity for which the adoption is 
being made. 

The model codes can also be adopted as a family of complimentary codes. When adopted 
together there should be no conflict of any of the technical provisions. When multiple model codes 
are adopted in a jurisdiction it is important for the adopting authority to evaluate the provisions in 
each code document and determine how and by which agency(ies) they will be enforced. It is 
important, therefore, to understand that where technical provisions are duplicated in multiple 
model documents, the enforcement duties must be clearly assigned by the local adopting jurisdic- 
tion. ICC remains committed to providing state-of-the-art model code documents that, when 
adopted locally, will reduce the cost to government of code adoption and enforcement and protect 
the public health, safety and welfare. 



Selected terms set forth in Chapter 2, Definitions, are italicized where they appear in code text 
(except those in Sections 1903 through 1908 where italics indicate provisions that differ from ACI 
318). Such terms are not italicized where the definition set forth in Chapter 2 does not impart the 
intended meaning in the use of the term. The terms selected have definitions which the user should 
read carefully to facilitate better understanding of the code. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 8 



viii 2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



Effectiwe Use of the Internal ional Build ing Code 



The International Building Code® (IBC®) is a model code that provides minimum requirements to 
safeguard the public health, safety and general welfare of the occupants of new and existing build- 
ings and structures. The IBC is fully compatible with the ICC family of codes, including: International 
Energy Conservation Code® (IECC®), International Existing Building Code® (IEBC®), International Fire 
Code® (IFC®), International Fuel Gas Code® (IFGC®), International Green Construction Code™ 
(IGCC™) (to be available March 2012), International Mechanical Code® (IMC®), ICC Performance 
Code® (ICCPC®), International Plumbing Code® (IPC®), International Private Sewage Disposal Code m 
(IPSDC 8 ), International Property Maintenance Code® (IPMC®), International Residential Code® 
(IRC®), International Swimming Pool and Spa Code™ (ISPSC™) (to be available March 2012), Interna- 
tional Wildland-Urban Interface Code® (IWUIC®) and International Zoning Code® (IZC®). 

The IBC addresses structural strength, means of egress, sanitation, adequate lighting and ventila- 
tion, accessibility, energy conservation and life safety in regards to new and existing buildings, facil- 
ities and systems. The codes are promulgated on a 3-year cycle to allow for new construction 
methods and technologies to be incorporated into the codes. Alternative materials, designs and 
methods not specifically addressed in the code can be approved by the code official where the pro- 
posed materials, designs or methods comply with the intent of the provisions of the code (see Sec- 
tion 104.11). 

The IBC applies to all occupancies, including one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses that 
are not within the scope of the IRC. The IRC is referenced for coverage of detached one- and two- 
family dwellings and townhouses as defined in the Exception to Section 101.2 and the definition for 
"townhouse" in Chapter 2. The IBC applies to all types of buildings and structures unless exempted. 
Work exempted from permits is listed in Section 105.2. 



Arrangement and Format ©f the 2012 IBC 

Before applying the requirements of the IBC, it is beneficial to understand its arrangement and for- 
mat. The IBC, like other codes published by ICC, is arranged and organized to follow sequential steps 
that generally occur during a plan review or inspection. 



Chapters 


Subjects 


1-2 


Administration and definitions 


3 


Use and occupancy classifications 


4,31 


Special requirements for specific occupancies or elements 


5-6 


Height and area limitations based on type of construction 


7-9 


Fire resistance and protection requirements 


10 


Requirements for evacuation 


11 


Specific requirements to allow use and access to a building for persons with 
disabilities 


12-13, 27-30 


Building systems, such as lighting, HVAC, plumbing fixtures, elevators 


14-26 


Structural components— performance and stability 


32 


Encroachment outside of property lines 


33 


Safeguards during construction 


34 


Existing building allowances 


35 


Referenced standards 


Appendices A-M 


Appendices 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



The IBC requirements for high-hazard, fire-resistance-rated construction, interior finish, fire pro- 
tection systems, means of egress, emergency and standby power, and temporary structures are 
directly correlated with the requirements of the IFC. The following chapters/sections of the IBC are 
correlated to the IFC: 



IBC 
Chapter/Section 


IFC 
Chapter/Section 


Subject 


Sections 307, 414, 415 


Chapters 50-60; 62-67 


High-hazard requirements 


Chapter 7 


Chapter 7 


Fire-resistance-rated construction 


Chapter 8 


Chapter 8 


Interior finish, decorative materials and 
furnishings 


Chapter 9 


Chapter 9 


Fire protection systems 


Chapter 10 


Chapter 10 


Means of egress 


Chapter 27 


Section 604 


Standby and emergency power 


Section 3103 


Chapter 24 


Temporary structures 



The IBC requirements for smoke control systems, and smoke and fire dampers are directly corre- 
lated to the requirements of the IMC. IBC Chapter 28 is a reference to the IMC and the IFGC for 
chimney, fireplaces and barbeques, and all aspects of mechanical systems. The following chapters/ 
sections of the IBC are correlated with the IMC: 



IBC 
Chapter/Section 


IMC 
Chapter/Section 


Subject 


Section 716 


Section 607 


Smoke and fire dampers 


Section 909 


Section 513 


Smoke control 



The IBC requirements for plumbing fixtures and toilet rooms are directly correlated to the 
requirements of the IPC. The following chapters/sections of the IBC are correlated with the IPC: 



IBC 

Chapter/Section 


IPC 
Chapter/Section 


Subject 


Chapter 29 


Chapters 3&4 


Plumbing fixtures and facilities 



The following is a chapter-by-chapter synopsis of the scope and intent of the provisions of the 
International Building Code. 

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration. Chapter 1 establishes the limits of applicability of the 
code and describes how the code is to be applied and enforced. Chapter 1 is in two parts, Part 1— 
Scope and Application (Sections 101-102) and Part 2— Administration and Enforcement (Sections 
103-116). Section 101 identifies which buildings and structures come under its purview and refer- 
ences other ICC codes as applicable. Standards and codes are scoped to the extent referenced (see 
Section 102.4). 

The building code is intended to be adopted as a legally enforceable document and it cannot be 
effective without adequate provisions for its administration and enforcement. The provisions of 
Chapter 1 establish the authority and duties of the code official appointed by the jurisdiction having 
authority and also establish the rights and privileges of the design professional, contractor and 
property owner. 

Chapter 2 Definitions. All terms that are defined in the code are listed alphabetically in Chapter 
2. Terms are defined in Chapter 2. Defined terms that are pertinent to a specific chapter are also 
listed in that chapter. While a defined term may be listed in one chapter or another, the meaning is 
applicable throughout the code. 

Codes are technical documents and every word, term and punctuation mark can impact the 
meaning of the code text and the intended results. The code often uses terms that have a unique 
meaning in the code and the code meaning can differ substantially from the ordinarily understood 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



meaning of the term as used outside of the code. Where understanding of a term's definition is 
especially key to or necessary for understanding a particular code provision, the term is shown in 
italics wherever it appears in the code. 

This is true only for those terms that have a meaning that is unique to the code. In other words, 
the generally understood meaning of a term or phrase might not be sufficient or consistent with the 
meaning prescribed by the code; therefore, it is essential that the code-defined meaning be known. 

Definitions are deemed to be of prime importance in establishing the meaning and intent of the 
code text that uses the terms. The user of the code should be familiar with and consult this chapter 
because the definitions are essential to the correct interpretation of the code and because the user 
may not be aware that a term is defined. 

Chapter 3 Use and Occupancy Classification. Chapter 3 provides for the classification of 
buildings, structures and parts thereof based on the purpose or purposes for which they are used. 
Section 302 identifies the groups into which all buildings, structures and parts thereof must be clas- 
sified. Sections 303 through 312 identify the occupancy characteristics of each group classification. 
In some sections, specific group classifications having requirements in common are collectively 
organized such that one term applies to all. For example, Groups A-l, A-2, A-3, A-4 and A-5 are indi- 
vidual groups for assembly-type buildings. The general term "Group A," however, includes each of 
these individual groups. Other groups include Business (B), Educational (E), Factory (F-l, F-2), High 
Hazard (H-l, H-2, H-3, H-4, H-5), Institutional (1-1, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4), Mercantile (M), Residential (R-l, R-2, 
R-3, R-4), Storage (S-l, S-2) and Utility (U). In some occupancies, the smaller number means a higher 
hazard, but that is not always the case. 

Defining the use of the buildings is very important as it sets the tone for the remaining chapters 
of the code. Occupancy works with the height, area and construction type requirements in Chapters 
5 and 6, as well as the special provisions in Chapter 4, to determine "equivalent risk," or providing a 
reasonable level of protection or life safety for building occupants. The determination of equivalent 
risk involves three interdependent considerations: (1) the level of fire hazard associated with the 
specific occupancy of the facility; (2) the reduction of fire hazard by limiting the floor area(s) and the 
height of the building based on the fuel load (combustible contents and burnable building compo- 
nents); and (3) the level of overall fire resistance provided by the type of construction used for the 
building. The greater the potential fire hazards indicated as a function of the group, the lesser the 
height and area allowances for a particular construction type. 

Occupancy classification also plays a key part in organizing and prescribing the appropriate pro- 
tection measures. As such, threshold requirements for fire protection and means of egress systems 
are based on occupancy classification (see Chapters 9 and 10). Other sections of the code also con- 
tain requirements respective to the classification of building groups. For example, Section 706 deals 
with requirements for fire wall fire-resistance ratings that are tied to the occupancy classification of 
a building and Section 803.9 contains interior finish requirements that are dependent upon the 
occupancy classification. The use of the space, rather than the occupancy of the building is utilized 
for determining occupant loading (Section 1004) and live loading (Section 1607). 

Chapter 4 Special Detailed Requirements Based On Use and Occupancy. Chapter 4 con- 
tains the requirements for protecting special uses and occupancies, which are supplemental to the 
remainder of the code. Chapter 4 contains provisions that may alter requirements found elsewhere 
in the code; however, the general requirements of the code still apply unless modified within the 
chapter. For example, the height and area limitations established in Chapter 5 apply to all special 
occupancies unless Chapter 4 contains height and area limitations. In this case, the limitations in 
Chapter 4 supersede those in other sections. An example of this is the height and area limitations 
for open parking garages given in Section 406.3.5, which supersede the limitations given in Section 
503. 

In some instances, it may not be necessary to apply the provisions of Chapter 4. For example, if a 
covered mall building complies with the provisions of the code for Group M, Section 402 does not 
apply; however, other sections that deal with a use, process or operation must be applied to that 
specific occupancy, such as stages and platforms, special amusement buildings and hazardous 
materials (Sections 410, 411 and 414). 

The chapter includes requirements for buildings and conditions that apply to one or more 
groups, such as high-rise buildings, underground buildings or atriums. Special uses may also imply 
specific occupancies and operations, such as for Group H, hazardous materials, application of flam- 
mable finishes, drying rooms, organic coatings and combustible storage or hydrogen cutoff rooms, 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



all of which are coordinated with the IFC. Unique consideration is taken for special use areas, such 
as covered mall buildings, motor-vehicle-related occupancies, special amusement buildings and air- 
craft-related occupancies. Special facilities within other occupancies are considered, such as stages 
and platforms, motion picture projection rooms and storm shelters. Finally, in order that the overall 
package of protection features can be easily understood, unique considerations for specific occu- 
pancies are addressed: Groups 1-1, 1-2, 1-3, R-l, R-2, R-3 (by definition R-4), ambulatory care facilities 
and live/work units. 

Chapter 5 General Building Heights and Areas. Chapter 5 contains the provisions that regu- 
late the minimum type of construction for area limits and height limits based on the occupancy of 
the building. Height and area increases (including allowances for basements, mezzanines and equip- 
ment platforms) are permitted based on open frontage for fire department access, and the type of 
sprinkler protection provided and separation (Sections 503-506, 509). These thresholds are reduced 
for buildings over three stories in height in accordance with Section 506.4.1. Provisions include the 
protection and/or separation of incidental accessory occupancies (Table 508.2.5), accessory occu- 
pancies (Sections 508.2) and mixed uses in the same building (Sections 506.5, 508.3, 508.4 and 509). 
Unlimited area buildings are permitted in certain occupancies when they meet special provisions 
(Section 507). 

Table 503 is the keystone in setting thresholds for building size based on the building's use and 
the materials with which it is constructed. If one then looks at Table 503, the relationship among 
group classification, allowable heights and areas and types of construction becomes apparent. 
Respective to each group classification, the greater the fire-resistance rating of structural elements, 
as represented by the type of construction, the greater the floor area and height allowances. The 
greater the potential fire hazards indicated as a function of the group, the lesser the height and area 
allowances for a particular construction type. 

Chapter 6 Types of Construction. The interdependence of these fire safety considerations can 
be seen by first looking at Tables 601 and 602, which show the fire-resistance ratings of the principal 
structural elements comprising a building in relation to the five classifications for types of construc- 
tion. Type I construction is the classification that generally requires the highest fire-resistance rat- 
ings for structural elements, whereas Type V construction, which is designated as a combustible 
type of construction, generally requires the least amount of fire-resistance-rated structural ele- 
ments. The greater the potential fire hazards indicated as a function of the group, the lesser the 
height and area allowances for a particular construction type. Section 603 includes a list of combus- 
tible elements that can be part of a noncombustible building (Types I and II construction). 

Chapter 7 Fire and Smoke Protection Features. The provisions of Chapter 7 present the fun- 
damental concepts of fire performance that all buildings are expected to achieve in some form. This 
chapter identifies the acceptable materials, techniques and methods by which proposed construc- 
tion can be designed and evaluated against to determine a building's ability to limit the impact of 
fire. The fire-resistance-rated construction requirements within Chapter 7 provide passive resis- 
tance to the spread and effects of fire. Types of separations addressed include fire walls, fire barri- 
ers, fire partitions, horizontal assemblies, smoke barriers and smoke partitions. A fire produces heat 
that can weaken structural components and smoke products that cause property damage and place 
occupants at risk. The requirements of Chapter 7 work in unison with height and area requirements 
(Chapter 5), active fire detection and suppression systems (Chapter 9) and occupant egress require- 
ments (Chapter 10) to contain a fire should it occur while helping ensure occupants are able to 
safely exit. 

Chapter S Interior Finishes. This chapter contains the performance requirements for control- 
ling fire growth within buildings by restricting interior finish and decorative materials. Past fire 
experience has shown that interior finish and decorative materials are key elements in the develop- 
ment and spread of fire. The provisions of Chapter 8 require materials used as interior finishes and 
decorations to meet certain flame-spread index or flame-propagation criteria based on the relative 
fire hazard associated with the occupancy. As smoke is also a hazard associated with fire, this chap- 
ter contains limits on the smoke development characteristics of interior finishes. The performance 
of the material is evaluated based on test standards. 

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems. Chapter 9 prescribes the minimum requirements for active 
systems of fire protection equipment to perform the following functions: detect a fire; alert the 
occupants or fire department of a fire emergency; and control smoke and control or extinguish the 

xii 201 2 INTERN ATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



fire. Generally, the requirements are based on the occupancy, the height and the area of the build- 
ing, because these are the factors that most affect fire-fighting capabilities and the relative hazard 
of a specific building or portion thereof. This chapter parallels and is substantially duplicated in 
Chapter 9 of the International Fire Code (IFC); however, the IFC Chapter 9 also contains periodic 
testing criteria that are not contained in the IBC. In addition, the special fire protection system 
requirements based on use and occupancy found in IBC Chapter 4 are duplicated in IFC Chapter 9 as 
a user convenience. 

Chapter 10 Means of Egress. The general criteria set forth in Chapter 10 regulating the design 
of the means of egress are established as the primary method for protection of people in buildings 
by allowing timely relocation or evacuation of building occupants. Both prescriptive and perfor- 
mance language is utilized in this chapter to provide for a basic approach in the determination of a 
safe exiting system for all occupancies. It addresses all portions of the egress system (i.e., exit 
access, exits and exit discharge) and includes design requirements as well as provisions regulating 
individual components. The requirements detail the size, arrangement, number and protection of 
means of egress components. Functional and operational characteristics also are specified for the 
components that will permit their safe use without special knowledge or effort. The means of 
egress protection requirements work in coordination with other sections of the code, such as pro- 
tection of vertical openings (see Chapter 7), interior finish (see Chapter 8), fire suppression and 
detection systems (see Chapter 9) and numerous others, all having an impact on life safety. Chapter 
10 of the IBC is duplicated in Chapter 10 of the IFC; however, the IFC contains two additional sec- 
tions on the means of egress system in existing buildings. 

Chapter 11 Accessibility. Chapter 11 contains provisions that set forth requirements for accessi- 
bility of buildings and their associated sites and facilities for people with physical disabilities. The 
fundamental philosophy of the code on the subject of accessibility is that everything is required to 
be accessible. This is reflected in the basic applicability requirement (see Section 1103.1). The 
code's scoping requirements then address the conditions under which accessibility is not required 
in terms of exceptions to this general mandate. While the IBC contains scoping provisions for acces- 
sibility (e.g., what, where and how many), ICC/ANSI A117.1, Accessible and Usable Buildings and 
Facilities, is the referenced standard for the technical provisions (i.e., how). 

There are many accessibility issues that not only benefit people with disabilities, but also provide 
a tangible benefit to people without disabilities. This type of requirement can be set forth in the 
code as generally applicable without necessarily identifying it specifically as an accessibility-related 
issue. Such a requirement would then be considered as having been "mainstreamed." For example, 
visible alarms are located in Chapter 9 and ramp requirements are addressed in Chapter 10. 

Accessibility criteria for existing buildings are addressed in Section 3411. Appendix E is supple- 
mental information included in the code to address accessibility for items in the new Americans 
with Disabilities Act/Architectural Barriers Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADA/ABA) that were not typ- 
ically enforceable through the standard traditional building code enforcement approach system 
(e.g., beds, room signage). The International Residential Code (IRC) references Chapter 11 for acces- 
sibility provisions; therefore, this chapter may be applicable to housing covered under the IRC. 

Chapter 12 Interior Environment. Chapter 12 provides minimum standards for the interior 
environment of a building. The standards address the minimum sizes of spaces, minimum tempera- 
ture levels, and minimum light and ventilation levels. The collection of requirements addresses lim- 
iting sound transmission through walls, ventilation of attic spaces and under floor spaces (crawl 
spaces). Finally, the chapter provides minimum standards for toilet and bathroom construction, 
including privacy shielding and standards for walls, partitions and floors to resist water intrusion 
and damage. 

Chapter IB Energy Efficiency. The purpose of Chapter 13 is to provide minimum design 
requirements that will promote efficient utilization of energy in buildings. The requirements are 
directed toward the design of building envelopes with adequate thermal resistance and low air 
leakage, and toward the design and selection of mechanical, water heating, electrical and illumina- 
tion systems that promote effective use of depletable energy resources. For the specifics of these 
criteria, Chapter 13 requires design and construction in compliance with the International Energy 
Conservation Code (IECC). 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



Chapter 14 Exterior Wails. This chapter addresses requirements for exterior walls of buildings. 
Minimum standards for wall covering materials, installation of wall coverings and the ability of the 
wall to provide weather protection are provided. This chapter also requires exterior walls that are 
close to lot lines, or that are bearing walls for certain types of construction, to comply with the min- 
imum fire-resistance ratings specified in Chapters 6 and 7. The installation of each type of wall cov- 
ering, be it wood, masonry, vinyl, metal composite material or an exterior insulation and finish 
system, is critical to its long-term performance in protecting the interior of the building from the 
elements and the spread of fire. Special attention to the use of combustible materials on the exte- 
rior of the building such as balconies, eaves, decks and architectural trim is the focus of Section 
1406. 

Chapter 15 Roof Assemblies and Rooftop Structures. Chapter 15 provides standards for 
both roof assemblies as well as structures which sit on top of the roof of buildings. The criteria 
address roof construction and covering which includes the weather-protective barrier at the roof 
and, in most circumstances, a fire-resistant barrier. The chapter is prescriptive in nature and is 
based on decades of experience with various traditional materials. These prescriptive rules are very 
important for satisfying performance of one type of roof covering or another. Section 1509 
addresses rooftop structures including penthouses, tanks, towers and spires. Rooftop penthouses 
larger than prescribed in this chapter must be treated as a story under Chapter 5. 

Chapter 16 Structural Design. Chapter 16 prescribes minimum structural loading requirements 
for use in the design and construction of buildings and structural components. It includes minimum 
design loads, as well as permitted design methodologies. Standards are provided for minimum 
design loads (live, dead, snow, wind, rain, flood and earthquake as well as load combinations). The 
application of these loads and adherence to the serviceability criteria will enhance the protection of 
life and property. The chapter references and relies on many nationally recognized design stan- 
dards. A key standard is the American Society of Civil Engineer's Minimum Design Loads for Build- 
ings and Other Structures (ASCE 7). Structural design needs to address the conditions of the site and 
location. Therefore maps of rainfall, seismic, snow and wind criteria in different regions are pro- 
vided. 

Chapter 17 Structural Tests and Special Inspections. Chapter 17 provides a variety of pro- 
cedures and criteria for testing materials and assemblies, for labeling materials and assemblies, and 
for special inspection of structural assemblies. This chapter expands on the requirements of Chapter 
1 regarding the roles and responsibilities of the building official regarding approval of building com- 
ponents. It also provides additional duties and responsibilities for the owner, contractor, design 
professionals and special inspectors. Proper assembly of structural components, proper quality of 
materials used, and proper application of materials are essential to ensuring that a building, once 
constructed, complies with the structural and fire-resistance minimums of the code and the 
approved design. To determine this compliance often requires continuous or frequent inspection 
and testing. Chapter 17 establishes these special inspection and testing standards as well as report- 
ing of the work to the building official. 

Chapter 18 Soils and Foundations. Chapter 18 contains minimum requirements for design, 
construction and resistance to water intrusion of foundation systems for buildings and other struc- 
tures. It provides criteria for the geotechnical and structural considerations in the selection and 
installation of adequate support for the loads transferred from the structure above. The uncertain- 
ties of foundation construction make it extremely difficult to address every potential failure within 
the text of the code. The chapter includes requirements for soils investigation and site preparation 
for receiving a foundation including the allowed load-bearing values for soils and for protecting the 
foundation from water intrusion. Section 1808 addresses the basic requirements for all foundation 
types. Later sections address foundation requirements that are specific to shallow foundations and 
deep foundations. Due care must be exercised in the planning and design of foundation systems 
based on obtaining sufficient soils information, the use of accepted engineering procedures, experi- 
ence and good technical judgment. 

Chapter 19 Concrete. This chapter provides minimum accepted practices to the design and con- 
struction of buildings and structural components using concrete-both plain and reinforced. Chapter 
19 is formatted to parallel American Concrete Institute (ACI) 318, Building Code Requirements for 
Structural Concrete. The chapter also includes references to additional standards. Structural con- 
crete must be designed and constructed to comply with this code and all listed standards. There are 
specific sections of the chapter addressing concrete slabs, anchorage to concrete, shotcrete, rein- 
forced gypsum concrete and concrete-filled pipe columns. Because of the variable properties of 

xiv 2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



material and numerous design and construction options available in the uses of concrete, due care 
and control throughout the construction process is necessary. 

Chapter 20 Aluminum. Chapter 20 contains standards for the use of aluminum in building con- 
struction. Only the structural applications of aluminum are addressed. The chapter does not 
address the use of aluminum in specialty products such as storefront or window framing or archi- 
tectural hardware. The use of aluminum in heating, ventilating or air-conditioning systems is 
addressed in the International Mechanical Code (IMC). The chapter references national standards 
from the Aluminum Association for use of aluminum in building construction, AA ASM 35, Alumi- 
num Sheet Metal Work in Building Construction, and AA ADM 1, Aluminum Design Manual. By utiliz- 
ing the standards set forth, a proper application of this material can be obtained. 

Chapter 21 Masonry. This chapter provides comprehensive and practical requirements for 
masonry construction. The provisions of Chapter 21 require minimum accepted practices and the 
use of standards for the design and construction of masonry structures. The provisions address: 
material specifications and test methods; types of wall construction; criteria for engineered and 
empirical designs; required details of construction including the execution of construction. Masonry 
design methodologies including allowable stress design, strength design and empirical design are 
covered by provisions of the chapter. Also addressed are masonry fireplaces and chimneys, 
masonry heaters and glass unit masonry. Fire-resistant construction using masonry is also required 
to comply with Chapter 7. Masonry foundations are also subject to the requirements of Chapter 18. 

Chapter 22 Steel. Chapter 22 provides the requirements necessary for the design and construc- 
tion of structural steel (including composite construction), cold-formed steel, steel joists, steel cable 
structures and steel storage racks. The chapter specifies appropriate design and construction stan- 
dards for these types of structures. It also provides a road map of the applicable technical require- 
ments for steel structures. Steel is a noncombustible building material commonly associated with 
Types I and II construction; however, it is permitted to be used in all types of construction. The code 
requires that materials used in the design of structural steel members conform to designated 
national standards. Chapter 22 is involved with the design and use of steel materials using the spec- 
ifications and standards of the American Institute for Steel Construction, the American Iron and 
Steel Institute, the Steel Joist Institute and the American Society of Civil Engineers. 

Chapter 23 Wood. This chapter provides minimum guidance for the design of buildings and 
structures that use wood and wood-based products in their framing and fabrication. The chapter is 
organized around three design methodologies: allowable stress design (ASD), load and resistance- 
factor design (LRFD) and conventional light-frame construction. Included in the chapter are refer- 
ences to design and manufacturing standards for various wood and wood-based products; general 
construction requirements; design criteria for lateral force-resisting systems and specific require- 
ments for the application of the three design methods. In general, only Type III, IV or V buildings 
may be constructed of wood. Accordingly Chapter 23 is referenced when the combination of the 
occupancy (determined in Chapter 3) and the height and area of the building (determined in Chap- 
ter 5) indicate that construction can be Type III, IV or V. 

Chapter 24 Glass and Glaiing. This chapter establishes regulations for glass and glazing used in 
buildings and structures that, when installed, are subjected to wind, snow and dead loads. Engi- 
neering and design requirements are included in the chapter. Additional structural requirements 
are found in Chapter 16. A second concern of this chapter is glass and glazing used in areas where it 
is likely to have an impact on the occupants. Section 2406 identifies hazardous locations where glaz- 
ing installed must either be safety glazing or blocked to prevent human impact. Safety glazing must 
meet stringent standards and be appropriately marked or identified. Additional standards for glass 
and glazing in guards, handrails, elevator hoistways and elevator cars, and in athletic facilities are 
provided. 

Chapter 25 Gypsum Board and Plaster. Chapter 25 contains the provisions and referenced 
standards that regulate the design, construction and quality of gypsum board and plaster. These 
represent the most common interior and exterior finish materials in the building industry. This 
chapter primarily addresses quality-control-related issues with regard to material specifications and 
installation requirements. Most products are manufactured under the control of industry stan- 
dards. The building official or inspector primarily needs to verify that the appropriate product is 
used and properly installed for the intended use and location. While often simply used as wall and 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



ceiling coverings, proper design and application are necessary to provide weather resistance and 
required fire protection for both structural and nonstructural building components. 

Chapter 26 Plastic. The use of plastics in building construction and components is addressed in 
Chapter 26. This chapter provides standards addressing foam plastic insulation, foam plastics used 
as interior finish and trim, and other plastic veneers used on the inside or outside of a building. Plas- 
tic siding is regulated by Chapter 14. Sections 2606 through 2611 address the use of light-transmit- 
ting plastics in various configurations such as walls, roof panels, skylights, signs and as glazing. 
Requirements for the use of fiber-reinforced polymers, fiberglass reinforced polymers and reflective 
plastic core insulation are also contained in this chapter. Some plastics exhibit rapid flame spread 
and heavy smoke density characteristics when exposed to fire. Additionally, exposure to the heat 
generated by a fire can cause some plastics to deform, which can affect their performance. The 
requirements and limitations of this chapter are necessary to control the use of plastic and foam 
plastic products such that they do not compromise the safety of building occupants. 

Chapter 27 Electrical. Since electrical systems and components are an integral part of almost all 
structures, it is necessary for the code to address the installation of such systems. For this purpose, 
Chapter 27 references the National Electrical Code (NEC). In addition, Section 2702 addresses emer- 
gency and standby power requirements. Such systems must comply with the International Fire Code 
(IFC) and referenced standards. This section also provides references to the various code sections 
requiring emergency and standby power, such as high-rise buildings and buildings containing haz- 
ardous materials. 

Chapter 28 Mechanical Systems. Nearly all buildings will include mechanical systems. This 
chapter provides references to the International Mechanical Code (IMC) and the International Fuel 
Gas Code (IFGC) for the design and installation of mechanical systems. In addition, the chapter ref- 
erences Chapter 21 of the IBC for masonry chimneys, fireplaces and barbecues. 

Chapter 29 Plumbing Systems. Chapter 29 regulates the minimum number of plumbing fix- 
tures that must be provided for every type of building. This chapter also regulates the location of 
the required fixtures in various types of buildings. This section requires separate facilities for males 
and females except for certain types of small occupancies. The regulations in this chapter come 
directly from Chapters 3 and 4 of the International Plumbing Code (IPC). 

Chapter 30 Elevators and Conveying Systems. Chapter 30 provides standards for the instal- 
lation of elevators into buildings. Referenced standards provide the requirements for the elevator 
system and mechanisms. Detailed standards are provided in the chapter for hoistway enclosures, 
hoistway venting and machine rooms. New provisions are added in the 2009 IBC for Fire Service 
Access Elevators required in high-rise buildings and for the optional choice of Occupant Evacuation 
Elevators (see Section 403). 

Chapter 31 Special Construction. Chapter 31 contains a collection of regulations for a variety 
of unique structures and architectural features. Pedestrian walkways and tunnels connecting two 
buildings are addressed in Section 3104. Membrane and air-supported structures are addressed by 
Section 3102. Safeguards for swimming pool safety are found in Section 3109. Standards for tempo- 
rary structures, including permit requirements are provided in Section 3103. Structures as varied as 
awnings, marquees, signs, telecommunication and broadcast towers and automatic vehicular gates 
are also addressed (see Sections 3105 through 3108 and 3110). 

Chapter 32 Encroachments into the Public Right-of-way. Buildings and structures from 
time to time are designed to extend over a property line and into the public right-of-way. Local reg- 
ulations outside of the building code usually set limits to such encroachments, and such regulations 
take precedence over the provisions of this chapter. Standards are provided for encroachments 
below grade for structural support, vaults and areaways. Encroachments above grade are divided 
into below 8 feet, 8 feet to 15 feet, and above 15 feet, because of headroom and vehicular height 
issues. This includes steps, columns, awnings, canopies, marquees, signs, windows, balconies. Simi- 
lar architectural features above grade are also addressed. Pedestrian walkways must also comply 
with Chapter 31. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



Chapter 33 Safeguards During Construction. Chapter 33 provides safety requirements dur- 
ing construction and demolition of buildings and structures. These requirements are intended to 
protect the public from injury and adjoining property from damage. In addition the chapter pro- 
vides for the progressive installation and operation of exit stairways and standpipe systems during 
construction. 

Chapter 34 Existing Structures. The provisions in Chapter 34 deal with alternative methods or 
reduced compliance requirements when dealing with existing building constraints. This chapter 
allows for a controlled departure from full compliance with the technical codes, without compro- 
mising the minimum standards for fire prevention and life safety features of the rehabilitated build- 
ing. Provisions are divided by addition, alterations, repairs, change of occupancy and moved 
structures. There are further allowances for registered historic buildings. There are also special 
allowances for replacement of existing stairways, replacement of glass and accessibility require- 
ments. The fire escape requirements in Section 3406 are consistent with the fire escape require- 
ments in Section 1030 of the International Fire Code (IFC). 

Section 3412, Compliance Alternatives, allows for existing buildings to be evaluated so as to 
show that alterations, while not meeting new construction requirements, will improve the current 
existing situation. Provisions are based on a numerical scoring system involving 18 various safety 
parameters and the degree of code compliance for each issue. 

Chapter 34 is repeated in the International Existing Building Code (IEBC). Sections 3402 through 
3409 are repeated as IEBC Chapter 3 and Section 3410 as Chapter 13. 

Chapter 35 Referenced Standards. The code contains numerous references to standards that 
are used to regulate materials and methods of construction. Chapter 35 contains a comprehensive 
list of all standards that are referenced in the code, including the appendices. The standards are 
part of the code to the extent of the reference to the standard (see Section 102.4). Compliance with 
the referenced standard is necessary for compliance with this code. By providing specifically 
adopted standards, the construction and installation requirements necessary for compliance with 
the code can be readily determined. The basis for code compliance is, therefore, established and 
available on an equal basis to the building code official, contractor, designer and owner. 

Chapter 35 is organized in a manner that makes it easy to locate specific standards. It lists all of 
the referenced standards, alphabetically, by acronym of the promulgating agency of the standard. 
Each agency's standards are then listed in either alphabetical or numeric order based upon the stan- 
dard identification. The list also contains the title of the standard; the edition (date) of the standard 
referenced; any addenda included as part of the ICC adoption; and the section or sections of this 
code that reference the standard. 



Appendices. Appendices are provided in the IBC to offer optional or supplemental criteria to the 
provisions in the main chapters of the code. Appendices provide additional information for adminis- 
tration of the Department of Building Safety as well as standards not typically administered by all 
building departments. Appendices have the same force and effect as the first 35 chapters of the IBC 
only when explicitly adopted by the jurisdiction. 

Appendix A Employee Qualifications. Effective administration and enforcement of the family 
of International Codes depends on the training and expertise of the personnel employed by the 
jurisdiction and his or her knowledge of the codes. Section 103 of the code establishes the Depart- 
ment of Building Safety and calls for the appointment of a building official and deputies such as 
plans examiners and inspectors. Appendix A provides standards for experience, training and certifi- 
cation for the building official and the other staff mentioned in Chapter 1. 

Appendix B Board of Appeals. Section 112 of Chapter 1 requires the establishment of a board 
of appeals to hear appeals regarding determinations made by the building official. Appendix B pro- 
vides qualification standards for members of the board as well as operational procedures of such 
board. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



Appendix C Group U — Agricultural Buildings. Appendix C provides a more liberal set of 
standards for the construction of agricultural buildings, rather than strictly following the Utility 
building provision, reflective of their specific usage and limited occupant load. The provisions of the 
appendix, when adopted, allow reasonable heights and areas commensurate with the risk of agri- 
cultural buildings. 

Appendix D Fire Districts. Fire districts have been a tool used to limit conflagration hazards in 
areas of a city with intense and concentrated development. More frequently used under the model 
codes which preceded the International Building Code (IBC), the appendix is provided to allow juris- 
dictions to continue the designation and use of fire districts. Fire District standards restrict certain 
occupancies within the district, as well as setting higher minimum construction standards. 

Appendix E Supplemental Accessibility Requirements. The Architectural and Transporta- 
tion Barriers Compliance Board (U.S. Access Board) has revised and updated its accessibility guide- 
lines for buildings and facilities covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the 
Architectural Barriers Act (ABA). Appendix E includes scoping requirements contained in the new 
ADA/ABA Accessibility Guidelines that are not in Chapter 11 and not otherwise mentioned or main- 
streamed throughout the code. Items in the appendix deal with subjects not typically addressed in 
building codes (e.g., beds, room signage, transportation facilities). 

Appendix FRodentproofing. The provisions of this appendix are minimum mechanical methods 
to prevent the entry of rodents into a building. These standards, when used in conjunction with 
cleanliness and maintenance programs, can significantly reduce the potential of rodents invading a 
building. 

Appendix G Flood-resistant Construction. Appendix G is intended to fulfill the flood-plain 
management and administrative requirements of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) that 
are not included in the code. Communities that adopt the International Building Code (IBC) and 
Appendix G will meet the minimum requirements of NFIP as set forth in Title 44 of the Code of Fed- 
eral Regulations. 

Appendix H Signs. Appendix H gathers in one place the various code standards that regulate the 
construction and protection of outdoor signs. Whenever possible, the appendix provides standards 
in performance language, thus allowing the widest possible application. 

Appendix I Patio Covers. Appendix I provides standards applicable to the construction and use 
of patio covers. It is limited in application to patio covers accessory to dwelling units. Covers of 
patios and other outdoor areas associated with restaurants, mercantile buildings, offices, nursing 
homes or other nondwelling occupancies would be subject to standards in the main code and not 
this appendix. 

Appendix J Grading. Appendix J provides standards for the grading of properties. The appendix 
also provides standards for administration and enforcement of a grading program including permit 
and inspection requirements. Appendix J was originally developed in the 1960s and used for many 
years in jurisdictions throughout the western states. It is intended to provide consistent and uni- 
form code requirements anywhere grading is considered an issue. 

Appendix K Administrative Provisions. Appendix K primarily provides administrative provi- 
sions for jurisdictions adopting and enforcing NFPA 70— the National Electrical Code (NEC). The pro- 
visions contained in this appendix are compatible with administrative and enforcement provisions 
contained in Chapter 1 of the IBC and the other International Codes. Annex H of NFPA 70 also con- 
tains administrative provisions for the NEC; however, some of its provisions are not compatible with 
IBC Chapter 1. Section K110 also contains technical provisions that are unique to this appendix and 
are in addition to technical standards of NFPA 70. 

Appendix L Earthquake Recording Instrumentation. The purpose of this appendix is to fos- 
ter the collection of ground motion data, particularly from strong-motion earthquakes. When this 
ground motion data is synthesized, it may be useful in developing future improvements to the 
earthquake provisions of the code. 

xviii 2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



Appendix M Tsunami-Generated Flood Hazard. Addressing a tsunami risk for all types of 
construction in a tsunami hazard zone through building code requirements would typically not be 
cost effective, making tsunami resistant construction impractical at an individual building level. 
However, this appendix does allow the adoption and enforcement of requirements for tsunami haz- 
ard zones that regulate the presence of high risk or high hazard structures. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



The International Codes are designed and promulgated to be adopted by reference by legislative action. Jurisdictions wishing to 
adopt the 2012 International Building Code as an enforceable regulation governing structures and premises should ensure that 
certain factual information is included in the adopting legislation at the time adoption is being considered by the appropriate 
governmental body. The following sample adoption legislation addresses several key elements, including the information 
required for insertion into the code text. 

SAMPLE LEGISLATION FOR ADOPTIOW OF 

THE INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 

ORDINANCE NO. 

A[N] [ORDINANCE/STATUTE/REGULATiON] of the [JURISDICTION] adopting the 2012 edition of the International Building Code, 
regulating and governing the conditions and maintenance of all property, buildings and structures; by providing the standards for 
supplied utilities and facilities and other physical things and conditions essential to ensure that structures are safe, sanitary and 
fit for occupation and use; and the condemnation of buildings and structures unfit for human occupancy and use and the demoli- 
tion of such structures in the [JURISDICTION]; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; repealing 

[ORDINANCE/STATUTE/REGULATION] No. of the [JURISDICTION] and all other ordinances or parts of laws in conflict 

therewith. 

The [GOVERNING BODY] of the [JURISDICTION] does ordain as follows: 

Section 1. That a certain document, three (3) copies of which are on file in the office of the [TITLE OF JURISDICTION'S KEEPER 
OF RECORDS] of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], being marked and designated as the International Building Code 2012 edition 
including Appendix Chapters [FILL IN THE APPENDIX CHAPTERS BEING ADOPTED] (see International Building Code Section 
101.2.1, 2012 edition), as published by the International Code Council, be and is hereby adopted as the Building Code of the 
[JURISDICTION], in the State of [STATE NAME] for regulating and governing the conditions and maintenance of all property, 
buildings and structures; by providing the standards for supplied utilities and facilities and other physical things and conditions 
essential to ensure that structures are safe, sanitary and fit for occupation and use; and the condemnation of buildings and struc- 
tures unfit for human occupancy and use and the demolition of such structures as herein provided; providing for the issuance of 
permits and collection of fees therefor; and each and all of the regulations, provisions, penalties, conditions and terms of said 
Building Code on file m the office of the [JURISDICTION] are hereby referred to, adopted, and made a part hereof, as if fully set 
out in this legislation, with the additions, insertions, deletions and changes, if any, prescribed in Section 2 of this ordinance. 
Section 2. The following sections are hereby revised: 

Section 101.1. Insert: [NAME OF JURISDICTION] 

Section 1612.3. Insert: [NAME OF JURISDICTION] 

Section 1612.3. Insert: [DATE OF ISSUANCE] 

Section 3412.2. Insert: [DATE IN ONE LOCATION] 

Section 3. That [ORDINANCE/STATUTE/REGULATION] No. of [JURISDICTION] entitled [FILL IN HERE THE COMPLETE 

TITLE OF THE LEGISLATION OR LAWS IN EFFECT AT THE PRESENT TIME SO THAT THEY WILL BE REPEALED BY DEFINITE MEN- 
TION] and all other ordinances or parts of laws in conflict herewith are hereby repealed. 

Section 4. That if any section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this legislation is, for any reason, held to be unconstitu- 
tional, such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of this ordinance. The [GOVERNING BODY] hereby 
declares that it would have passed this law, and each section, subsection, clause or phrase thereof, irrespective of the fact that 
any one or more sections, subsections, sentences, clauses and phrases be declared unconstitutional. 

Section 5. That nothing in this legislation or in the Building Code hereby adopted shall be construed to affect any suit or pro- 
ceeding impending in any court, or any rights acquired, or liability incurred, or any cause or causes of action acquired or exist- 
ing, under any act or ordinance hereby repealed as cited in Section 3 of this law; nor shall any just or legal right or remedy of any 
character be lost, impaired or affected by this legislation. 

Section 6. That the [JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF RECORDS] is hereby ordered and directed to cause this legislation to be pub- 
lished. (An additional provision may be required to direct the number of times the legislation is to be published and to specify 
that it is to be in a newspaper in general circulation. Posting may also be required.) 

Section 7. That this law and the rules, regulations, provisions, requirements, orders and matters established and adopted hereby 
shall take effect and be in full force and effect [TIME PERIOD] from and after the date of its final passage and adoption. 

2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE*" „„, 



xxj . 201 2 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 1 SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION. ... 1 312 Utility and Miscellaneous Group U 50 



PART 1— SCOPE AND APPLICATION 1 

Section 

101 General 1 

102 Applicability 1 

PART 2— ADMINISTRATION AND 

ENFORCEMENT 2 

103 Department of Building Safety 2 

104 Duties and Powers of Building Official 2 

105 Permits 3 

106 Floor and Roof Design Loads 5 

107 Submittal Documents 5 

108 Temporary Structures and Uses 7 

109 Fees 7 

1 10 Inspections 7 

111 Certificate of Occupancy 8 

112 Service Utilities 9 

113 Board of Appeals 9 

1 14 Violations 9 

115 Stop Work Order 9 

116 Unsafe Structures and Equipment 10 

CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS 11 

Section 

201 General , 11 

202 Definitions 11 

CHAPTER 3 USE AND OCCUPANCY 

CLASSIFICATION 41 

Section 

301 General 41 

302 Classification 41 

303 Assembly Group A 41 

304 Business Group B 42 

305 Educational Group E 42 

306 Factory Group F 42 

307 High-hazard Group H 43 

308 Institutional Group 1 48 

309 Mercantile Group M 49 

310 Residential Group R 49 

311 Storage Group S 50 

2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 4 SPECIAL DETAILED 

REQUIREMENTS BASED ON 

USE AND OCCUPANCY 53 

Section 

401 Scope 53 

402 Covered Mall and Open Mall Buildings 53 

403 High-rise Buildings 57 

404 Atriums 59 

405 Underground Buildings 60 

406 Motor- vehicle-related Occupancies 61 

407 Group 1-2 65 

408 Group 1-3 67 

409 Motion Picture Projection Rooms 69 

410 Stages, Platforms and Technical 

Production Areas 70 

41 1 Special Amusement Buildings 72 

412 Aircraft-related Occupancies 73 

413 Combustible Storage 75 

414 Hazardous Materials 75 

415 Groups HI, H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5 80 

416 Application of Flammable Finishes 89 

417 Drying Rooms 89 

418 Organic Coatings 90 

419 Live/work Units 90 

420 Groups 1-1, R-l, R-2, R-3 91 

421 Hydrogen Cutoff Rooms 91 

422 Ambulatory Care Facilities 92 

423 Storm Shelters 92 

424 Children's Play Structures 92 

CHAPTER 5 GENERAL BUILDING 

HEIGHTS AND AREAS 95 

Section 

501 General 95 

502 Definitions 95 

503 General Building Height and Area Limitations . . 95 

504 Building Height 95 

505 Mezzanines and Equipment Platforms 97 

506 Building Area Modifications 98 

507 Unlimited Area Buildings 99 

508 Mixed Use and Occupancy 101 

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509 Incidental Uses 102 

510 Special Provisions 103 

CHAPTER 6 TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION ..... 107 
Section 

601 General 107 

602 Construction Classification 107 

603 Combustible Material in 

Type I and II Construction 109 

CHAPTER 7 FIRE AND SMOKE 

PROTECTION FEATURES Ill 

Section 

701 General Ill 

702 Definitions Ill 

703 Fire-resistance Ratings and Fire Tests Ill 

704 Fire-resistance Rating of 

Structural Members 112 

705 Exterior Walls 114 

706 Fire Walls 118 

707 Fire Barriers 120 

708 Fire Partitions 122 

709 Smoke Barriers 123 

710 Smoke Partitions 123 

711 Horizontal Assemblies 124 

712 Vertical Openings 125 

713 Shaft Enclosures 126 

714 Penetrations 128 

715 Fire-resistant Joint Systems 130 

716 Opening Protectives 131 

717 Ducts and Air Transfer Openings 138 

718 Concealed Spaces 142 

719 Fire-resistance Requirements for Plaster 144 

720 Thermal- and Sound-insulating Materials 144 

721 Prescriptive Fire Resistance 145 

722 Calculated Fire Resistance 168 

CHAPTER 8 INTERIOR FINISHES 197 

Section 

801 General 197 

802 Definitions 197 

803 Wall and Ceiling Finishes 197 

804 Interior Floor Finish 200 

805 Combustible Materials in Types I 

and II Construction 200 



806 Decorative Materials and Trim 200 

807 Insulation 201 

808 Acoustical Ceiling Systems 201 

CHAPTER 9 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS ... 203 
Section 

901 General 203 

902 Definitions 203 

903 Automatic Sprinkler Systems 204 

904 Alternative Automatic 

Fire-extinguishing Systems 210 

905 Standpipe Systems 211 

906 Portable Fire Extinguishers 214 

907 Fire Alarm and Detection Systems 215 

908 Emergency Alarm Systems 225 

909 Smoke Control Systems 226 

910 Smoke and Heat Vents 234 

911 Fire Command Center 235 

912 Fire Department Connections 236 

913 Fire Pumps 237 

914 Emergency Responder Safety Features 238 

915 Emergency Responder Radio Coverage 238 

CHAPTER 10 MEANS OF EGRESS 239 

Section 

1001 Administration 239 

1002 Definitions 239 

1003 General Means of Egress 239 

1004 Occupant Load 240 

1005 Means of Egress Sizing 242 

1006 Means of Egress Illumination 243 

1007 Accessible Means of Egress 243 

1008 Doors, Gates and Turnstiles 246 

1009 Stairways 252 

1010 Ramps 256 

101 1 Exit Signs 257 

1012 Handrails 258 

1013 Guards 259 

1014 Exit Access 261 

1015 Exit and Exit Access Doorways 262 

1016 Exit Access Travel Distance 263 

1017 Aisles 264 

101 8 Corridors 264 

1019 Egress Balconies 265 



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1020 Exits 266 

1021 Number of Exits and Exit Configuration 266 

1022 Interior Exit Stairways and Ramps 267 

1023 Exit Passageways 269 

1024 Luminous Egress Path Markings 270 

1025 Horizontal Exits 271 

1026 Exterior Exit Stairways and Ramps 272 

1027 Exit Discharge 273 

1028 Assembly 274 

1029 Emergency Escape and Rescue 278 

CHAPTER 11 ACCESSIBILITY 281 

Section 

1101 General 281 

1102 Definitions 281 

1103 Scoping Requirements 281 

1 104 Accessible Route 282 

1105 Accessible Entrances 283 

1106 Parking and Passenger Loading Facilities 283 

1 107 Dwelling Units and Sleeping Units 284 

1108 Special Occupancies 288 

1109 Other Features and Facilities 290 

1110 Signage 293 

CHAPTER 12 INTERIOR ENVIRONMENT 295 

Section 

1201 General 295 

1202 Definitions 295 

1203 Ventilation 295 

1204 Temperature Control 296 

1205 Lighting 296 

1206 Yards or Courts 297 

1207 Sound Transmission 297 

1208 Interior Space Dimensions 297 

1209 Access to Unoccupied Spaces 298 

1210 Toilet and Bathroom Requirements 298 

CHAPTER 13 ENERGY EFFICIENCY 301 

Section 

1301 General 301 

CHAPTER 14 EXTERIOR WALLS 303 

Section 

1401 Genera] 303 



1402 Definitions 303 

1403 Performance Requirements 303 

1404 Materials 304 

1405 Installation of Wall Coverings 304 

1406 Combustible Materials on the 

Exterior Side of Exterior Walls 309 

1407 Metal Composite Materials (MCM) 310 

1408 Exterior Insulation and 

Finish Systems (EIFS) 313 

1409 High-pressure Decorative Exterior-grade 

Compact Laminates (HPL) 313 

CHAPTER 15 ROOF ASSEMBLIES AND 

ROOFTOP STRUCTURES 315 

Section 

1501 General 315 

1502 Definitions 315 

1503 Weather Protection 315 

1504 Performance Requirements 316 

1505 Fire Classification 316 

1506 Materials 317 

1507 Requirements for Roof Coverings 317 

1508 Roof Insulation 329 

1509 Rooftop Structures 329 

1510 Reroofing 331 

1511 Solar Photovoltaic Panels/modules 332 

CHAPTER 16 STRUCTURAL DESIGN 333 

Section 

1601 General 333 

1602 Definitions and Notations 333 

1603 Construction Documents 333 

1604 General Design Requirements 334 

1605 Load Combinations 337 

1606 Dead Loads 339 

1607 Live Loads 339 

1608 Snow Loads 345 

1609 Wind Loads 348 

1610 Soil Lateral Loads 358 

1611 Rain Loads 359 

1612 Flood Loads 365 

1613 Earthquake Loads 366 

1614 Atmospheric Ice Loads 376 

1615 Structural Integrity 376 



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CHAPTER 17 STRUCTURAL TESTS AND 

SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 379 

Section 

1701 General 379 

1702 Definitions 379 

1703 Approvals 379 

1 704 Special Inspections, Contractor Responsibility 

and Structural Observations 380 

1705 Required Verification and Inspection 382 

1706 Design Strengths of Materials 389 

1707 Alternative Test Procedure 390 

1708 Test Safe Load 390 

1709 In-situ Load Tests 390 

1710 Preconstruction Load Tests 390 

1711 Material and Test Standards 391 

CHAPTER 18 SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 393 

Section 

1801 General 393 

1802 Definitions 393 

1803 Geotechnical Investigations 393 

1 804 Excavation, Grading and Fill 395 

1805 Dampproofing and Waterproofing 396 

1806 Presumptive Load-bearing Values of Soils .... 397 

1 807 Foundation Walls, Retaining Walls and 

Embedded Posts and Poles 398 

1808 Foundations 404 

1809 Shallow Foundations 407 

1810 Deep Foundations 408 

CHAPTER 19 CONCRETE 42! 

Section 

1901 General 421 

1902 Definitions 421 

1903 Specifications for Tests and Materials 421 

1904 Durability Requirements 421 

1905 Modifications to ACI 318 423 

1906 Structural Plain Concrete 426 

1907 Minimum Slab Provisions 426 

1 908 Anchorage to Concrete — Allowable 

Stress Design 426 

1909 Anchorage to Concrete — Strength Design 426 

1910 Shotcrete 427 

1911 Reinforced Gypsum Concrete 428 

1912 Concrete-filled Pipe Columns 428 



CHAPTER 20 ALUMINUM 431 

Section 

2001 General 431 

2002 Materials 431 

CHAPTER 21 MASONRY 433 

Section 

2101 General 433 

2102 Definitions and Notations 433 

2103 Masonry Construction Materials 435 

2104 Construction 436 

2105 Quality Assurance 436 

2106 Seismic Design 438 

2107 Allowable Stress Design 438 

2108 Strength Design of Masonry 438 

2109 Empirical Design of Masonry 438 

21 10 Glass Unit Masonry 440 

2111 Masonry Fireplaces 441 

2112 Masonry Heaters 443 

2113 Masonry Chimneys 443 

CHAPTER 22 STEEL 449 

Section 

2201 General 449 

2202 Definitions 449 

2203 Identification and Protection of Steel 

for Structural Purposes 449 

2204 Connections 449 

2205 Structural Steel 449 

2206 Composite Structural Steel and 

Concrete Structures 449 

2207 Steel Joists 450 

2208 Steel Cable Structures 450 

2209 Steel Storage Racks 451 

2210 Cold-formed Steel 451 

221 1 Cold-formed Steel Light-frame Construction . . 45 1 

CHAPTER 23 WOOD 453 

Section 

2301 General 453 

2302 Definitions 453 

2303 Minimum Standards and Quality 453 

2304 General Construction Requirements 457 

2305 General Design Requirements for 

Lateral Force-resisting Systems 467 

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2306 Allowable Stress Design 468 

2307 Load and Resistance Factor Design 470 

2308 Conventional Light-frame Construction 470 

CHAPTER 24 GLASS AND GLAZING 519 

Section 

2401 General 519 

2402 Definitions 519 

2403 General Requirements for Glass 519 

2404 Wind, Snow, Seismic and 

Dead Loads on Glass 519 

2405 Sloped Glazing and Skylights 520 

2406 Safety Glazing 522 

2407 Glass in Handrails and Guards 524 

2408 Glazing in Athletic Facilities 524 

2409 Glass in Elevator Hoistways and 

Elevator Cars 525 

CHAPTER 25 GYPSUM BOARD 

AND PLASTER 527 

Section 

2501 General 527 

2502 Definitions 527 

2503 Inspection 527 

2504 Vertical and Horizontal Assemblies 527 

2505 Shear Wall Construction 527 

2506 Gypsum Board Materials 527 

2507 Lathing and Plastering 528 

2508 Gypsum Construction 528 

2509 Gypsum Board in Showers and 

Water Closets 529 

25 1 Lathing and Furring for Cement 

Plaster (Stucco) 529 

251 1 Interior Plaster 530 

2512 Exterior Plaster 530 

2513 Exposed Aggregate Plaster 531 

CHAPTER 26 PLASTIC 533 

Section 

2601 General 533 

2602 Definitions 533 

2603 Foam Plastic Insulation 533 

2604 Interior Finish and Trim 536 

2605 Plastic Veneer 537 

2606 Light-transmitting Plastics 537 

2607 Light-transmitting Plastic Wall Panels 538 

2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



2608 Light-transmitting Plastic Glazing 539 

2609 Light-transmitting Plastic Roof Panels 539 

2610 Light-transmitting Plastic Skylight Glazing ...540 

261 1 Light-transmitting Plastic Interior Signs 541 

2612 Fiber-reinforced Polymer 541 

2613 Reflective Plastic Core Insulation 542 

CHAPTER 27 ELECTRICAL 543 

Section 

2701 General 543 

2702 Emergency and Standby Power Systems 543 

CHAPTER 28 MECHANICAL SYSTEMS 545 

Section 

2801 General 545 

CHAPTER 29 PLUMBING SYSTEMS 547 

Section 

2901 General 547 

2902 Minimum Plumbing Facilities 547 

CHAPTER 30 ELEVATORS AND 

CONVEYING SYSTEMS 551 

Section 

3001 General 551 

3002 Hoistway Enclosures 55 1 

3003 Emergency Operations 551 

3004 Hoistway Venting 552 

3005 Conveying Systems 552 

3006 Machine Rooms 553 

3007 Fire Service Access Elevator 553 

3008 Occupant Evacuation Elevators 555 

CHAPTER 31 SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION 557 

Section 

3101 General 557 

3 1 02 Membrane Structures 557 

3103 Temporary Structures 558 

3104 Pedestrian Walkways and Tunnels 558 

3105 Awnings and Canopies 559 

3106 Marquees 559 

3107 Signs 560 

3108 Telecommunication and Broadcast Towers. . . . 560 

3109 Swimming Pool Enclosures and 

Safety Devices 560 

3110 Automatic Vehicular Gates 56 1 



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3111 Solar Photovoltaic Panels/modules 561 

CHAPTER 32 ENCROACHMENTS INTO THE 

PUBLIC RIGHT-OF-WAY 563 

Section 

3201 General 563 

3202 Encroachments 563 

CHAPTER 33 SAFEGUARDS DURING 

CONSTRUCTION 565 

Section 

3301 General 565 

3302 Construction Safeguards 565 

3303 Demolition 565 

3304 Site Work 565 

3305 Sanitary 566 

3306 Protection of Pedestrians 566 

3307 Protection of Adjoining Property 567 

3308 Temporary Use of Streets, Alleys and 

Public Property 567 

3309 Fire Extinguishers 567 

3310 Means of Egress 567 

331 1 Standpipes 567 

3312 Automatic Sprinkler System 568 

3313 Water Supply for Fire Protection 568 

CHAPTER 34 EXISTING STRUCTURES 569 

Section 

3401 General 569 

3402 Definitions 569 

3403 Additions 569 

3404 Alterations 570 

3405 Repairs 571 

3406 Fire Escapes 572 

3407 Glass Replacement 572 

3408 Change of Occupancy 572 

3409 Historic Buildings 573 

3410 Moved Structures 573 

3411 Accessibility for Existing Buildings 573 

3412 Compliance Alternatives 575 

CHAPTER 35 REFERENCED STANDARDS 587 



APPENDIX A EMPLOYEE 

QUALIFICATIONS 611 

Section 

A101 Building Official Qualifications 611 

A102 Referenced Standards 611 

APPENDIX B BOARD OF APPEALS 613 

Section 

B101 General 613 

APPENDIX C GROUP U— AGRICULTURAL 

BUILDINGS 615 

Section 

C101 General 615 

C102 Allowable Height and Area 615 

C103 Mixed Occupancies 615 

C104 Exits 615 

APPENDIX D FIRE DISTRICTS 617 

Section 

D101 General 617 

D102 Building Restrictions 617 

D103 Changes to Buildings 618 

D 1 04 Buildings Located Partially in the 

Fire District 618 

D105 Exceptions to Restrictions in Fire District 618 

D106 Referenced Standards 619 

APPENDIX E SUPPLEMENTARY ACCESSIBILITY 
REQUIREMENTS 621 

Section 

E101 General 621 

E102 Definitions 621 

El 03 Accessible Route 621 

E104 Special Occupancies 621 

El 05 Other Features and Facilities 622 

E106 Telephones 622 

E107 Signage 623 

E108 Bus Stops 623 

El 09 Transportation Facilities and Stations 624 

El 10 Airports 625 

El 11 Referenced Standards 625 



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APPENDIX F RODENTPROOFING 627 

Section 

F101 General 627 

APPENDIX G FLOOD-RESISTANT 

CONSTRUCTION 629 

Section 

G101 Administration 629 

G102 Applicability 629 

G103 Powers and Duties 629 

G104 Permits 630 

G105 Variances 630 

G201 Definitions 631 

G301 Subdivisions 632 

G401 Site Improvement 632 

G501 Manufactured Homes 632 

G601 Recreational Vehicles 633 

G701 Tanks 633 

G801 Other Building Work 633 

G901 Temporary Structures and 

Temporary Storage 633 

G1001 Utility and Miscellaneous Group U 633 

Gl 101 Referenced Standards 634 

APPENDIX H SIGNS 635 

Section 

H101 General 635 

H102 Definitions 635 

H103 Location 635 

H104 Identification 635 

H105 Design and Construction 636 

H106 Electrical 636 

H107 Combustible Materials 636 

H108 Animated Devices 636 

H109 Ground Signs 636 

HI 10 Roof Signs 637 

Hill Wall Signs 637 

HI 12 Projecting Signs 637 

HI 13 Marquee Signs 638 

H114 Portable Signs 638 

HI 15 Referenced Standards 638 

APPENDIX 1 PATIO COVERS 639 

Section 

1101 General 639 



1102 Definitions 639 

1103 Exterior Walls and Openings 639 

1104 Height 639 

1105 Structural Provisions 639 

APPENDIX J GRADING 641 

Section 

J101 General 641 

J102 Definitions 641 

J103 Permits Required 641 

J 104 Permit Application and Submittals 641 

J105 Inspections 642 

J106 Excavations 642 

J107 Fills 642 

J108 Setbacks 642 

J109 Drainage and Terracing 644 

J110 Erosion Control 644 

Jill Referenced Standards 644 

APPENDIX K ADMINISTRATIVE 

PROVISIONS 645 

Section 

K101 General 645 

K102 Applicability 645 

K103 Permits 645 

K104 Construction Documents 646 

K105 Alternative Engineered Design 646 

K106 Required Inspections 646 

K107 Prefabricated Construction 646 

K108 Testing 647 

K109 Reconnection 647 

Kl 10 Condemning Electrical Systems 647 

Kl 1 1 Electrical Provisions 647 

APPENDIX L EARTHQUAKE RECORDING 

INSTRUMENTATION 649 

L101 General 649 

APPENDIX M TSUMANI-GENERATED FLOOD 

HAZARD 651 

Ml 01 Tsunami-generated Flood Hazard 651 

M102 Referenced Standards 651 

INDEX 653 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUiLDING CODE 8 



CHAPTER 1 

SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



PART 1— SCOPE AND APPLICATION 



SECTION 101 
GENERAL 

[A] 101.1 Title. These regulations shall be known as the 
Building Code of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], hereinafter 
referred to as "this code." 

[A] 101.2 Scope. The provisions of this code shall apply to 
| the construction, alteration, relocation, enlargement, replace- 
ment, repair, equipment, use and occupancy, location, main- 
tenance, removal and demolition of every building or 
structure or any appurtenances connected or attached to such 
buildings or structures. 

Exception: Detached one- and two-family dwellings and 
multiple single-family dwellings (townhouses) not more 
than three stories above grade plane in height with a sepa- 
rate means of egress and their accessory structures shall 
comply with the International Residential Code. 

[A] 101.2.1 Appendices. Provisions in the appendices 
shall not apply unless specifically adopted. 

[A] 101.3 Intent. The purpose of this code is to establish the 
minimum requirements to safeguard the public health, safety 
and general welfare through structural strength, means of 
egress facilities, stability, sanitation, adequate light and venti- 
lation, energy conservation, and safety to life and property 
from fire and other hazards attributed to the built environ- 
ment and to provide safety to fire fighters and emergency 
responders during emergency operations. 

[A] 101.4 Referenced codes. The other codes listed in Sec- 
tions 101.4.1 through 101.4.6 and referenced elsewhere in 
this code shall be considered part of the requirements of this 
code to the prescribed extent of each such reference. 

[A] 101.4.1 Gas. The provisions of the International Fuel 
Gas Code shall apply to the installation of gas piping from 
the point of delivery, gas appliances and related accesso- 
ries as covered in this code. These requirements apply to 
gas piping systems extending from the point of delivery to 
the inlet connections of appliances and the installation and 
operation of residential and commercial gas appliances 
and related accessories. 

[A] 101.4.2 Mechanical. The provisions of the Interna- 
tional Mechanical Code shall apply to the installation, 
alterations, repairs and replacement of mechanical sys- 
tems, including equipment, appliances, fixtures, fittings 
and/or appurtenances, including ventilating, heating, cool- 
ing, air-conditioning and refrigeration systems, incinera- 
tors and other energy-related systems. 

[A] 101.4.3 Plumbing. The provisions of the Interna- 
tional Plumbing Code shall apply to the installation, alter- 
ation, repair and replacement of plumbing systems, 



including equipment, appliances, fixtures, fittings and 
appurtenances, and where connected to a water or sewage 
system and all aspects of a medical gas system. The provi- 
sions of the International Private Sewage Disposal Code 
shall apply to private sewage disposal systems. 

[A] 101.4.4 Property maintenance. The provisions of the 
International Property Maintenance Code shall apply to 
existing structures and premises; equipment and facilities; 
light, ventilation, space heating, sanitation, life and fire 
safety hazards; responsibilities of owners, operators and 
occupants; and occupancy of existing premises and struc- 
tures. 

[A] 101.4.5 Fire prevention. The provisions of the Inter- 
national Fire Code shall apply to matters affecting or 
relating to structures, processes and premises from the 
hazard of fire and explosion arising from the storage, han- 
dling or use of structures, materials or devices; from con- 
ditions hazardous to life, property or public welfare in the 
occupancy of structures or premises; and from the con- 
struction, extension, repair, alteration or removal of fire 
suppression, automatic sprinkler systems and alarm sys- 
tems or fire hazards in the structure or on the premises 
from occupancy or operation. 

[A] 101.4.6 Energy. The provisions of the International 
Energy Conservation Code shall apply to all matters gov- 
erning the design and construction of buildings for energy 
efficiency. 



SECTION 102 
APPLICABILITY 

[A] 102.1 General. Where there is a conflict between a gen- 
eral requirement and a specific requirement, the specific 
requirement shall be applicable. Where, in any specific case, 
different sections of this code specify different materials, 
methods of construction or other requirements, the most 
restrictive shall govern. 

[A] 102.2 Other laws. The provisions of this code shall not 
be deemed to nullify any provisions of local, state or federal 
law. 

[A] 102.3 Application of references. References to chapter 
or section numbers, or to provisions not specifically identi- 
fied by number, shall be construed to refer to such chapter, 
section or provision of this code. 

[A] 102.4 Referenced codes and standards. The codes and 
standards referenced in this code shall be considered part of 
the requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of each 
such reference and as further regulated in Sections 102.4.1 
and 102.4.2. 

[A] 102.4.1 Conflicts. Where conflicts occur between pro- 
visions of this code and referenced codes and standards, 
the provisions of this code shall apply. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



[A] 102.4.2 Provisions in referenced codes and stan- 
dards. Where the extent of the reference to a referenced 
code or standard includes subject matter that is within the 
scope of this code or the International Codes listed in Sec- 
tion 101.4, the provisions of this code or the International 
Codes listed in Section 101.4, as applicable, shall take pre- 
cedence over the provisions in the referenced code or stan- 
dard. 

[A] 102.5 Partial invalidity. In the event that any part or pro- 
vision of this code is held to be illegal or void, this shall not 
have the effect of making void or illegal any of the other parts 
or provisions. 

[A] 102.6 Existing structures. The legal occupancy of any 
structure existing on the date of adoption of this code shall be 
permitted to continue without change, except as is specifi- 
cally covered in this code, the International Property Mainte- 
nance Code or the International Fire Code, or as is deemed 
necessary by the building official for the general safety and 
welfare of the occupants and the public. 



PART 2— ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT 



SECTION 103 
DEPARTMENT OF BUILDING SAFETY 

[A] 103.1 Creation of enforcement agency. The Depart- 
ment of Building Safety is hereby created and the official in 
charge thereof shall be known as the building official. 

[A] 103.2 Appointment. The building official shall be 
appointed by the chief appointing authority of the jurisdic- 
tion. 

[A] 103.3 Deputies. In accordance with the prescribed proce- 
dures of this jurisdiction and with the concurrence of the 
appointing authority, the building official shall have the 
authority to appoint a deputy building official, the related 
technical officers, inspectors, plan examiners and other 
employees. Such employees shall have powers as delegated 
by the building official. For the maintenance of existing prop- 
erties, see the International Property Maintenance Code. 



SECTION 104 
DUTIES AND POWERS OF BUILDING OFFICIAL 

[A] 104.1 General. The building official is hereby authorized 
and directed to enforce the provisions of this code. The build- 
ing official shall have the authority to render interpretations 
of this code and to adopt policies and procedures in order to 
clarify the application of its provisions. Such interpretations, 
policies and procedures shall be in compliance with the intent 
and purpose of this code. Such policies and procedures shall 
not have the effect of waiving requirements specifically pro- 
vided for in this code. 

[A] 104.2 Applications and permits. The building official 
shall receive applications, review construction documents 
and issue permits for the erection, and alteration, demolition 
and moving of buildings and structures, inspect the premises 



for which such permits have been issued and enforce compli- 
ance with the provisions of this code. 

[A] 104.3 Notices and orders. The building official shall 
issue all necessary notices or orders to ensure compliance 
with this code. 

[A] 104.4 Inspections. The building official shall make all of 
the required inspections, or the building official shall have the 
authority to accept reports of inspection by approved agen- 
cies or individuals. Reports of such inspections shall be in 
writing and be certified by a responsible officer of such 
approved agency or by the responsible individual. The build- 
ing official is authorized to engage such expert opinion as 
deemed necessary to report upon unusual technical issues that 
arise, subject to the approval of the appointing authority. 

[A] 104.5 Identification. The building official shall carry 
proper identification when inspecting structures or premises 
in the performance of duties under this code. 

[A] 104.6 Right of entry. Where it is necessary to make an 
inspection to enforce the provisions of this code, or where the 
building official has reasonable cause to believe that there 
exists in a structure or upon a premises a condition which is 
contrary to or in violation of this code which makes the struc- 
ture or premises unsafe, dangerous or hazardous, the building 
official is authorized to enter the structure or premises at rea- 
sonable times to inspect or to perform the duties imposed by 
this code, provided that if such structure or premises be occu- 
pied that credentials be presented to the occupant and entry 
requested. If such structure or premises is unoccupied, the 
building official shall first make a reasonable effort to locate 
the owner or other person having charge or control of the 
structure or premises and request entry. If entry is refused, the 
building official shall have recourse to the remedies provided 
by law to secure entry. 

[A] 104.7 Department records. The building official shall 
keep official records of applications received, permits and 
certificates issued, fees collected, reports of inspections, and 
notices and orders issued. Such records shall be retained in 
the official records for the period required for retention of 
public records. 

[A] 104.8 Liability. The building official, member of the 
board of appeals or employee charged with the enforcement 
of this code, while acting for the jurisdiction in good faith and 
without malice in the discharge of the duties required by this 
code or other pertinent law or ordinance, shall not thereby be 
rendered liable personally and is hereby relieved from per- 
sonal liability for any damage accruing to persons or property 
as a result of any act or by reason of an act or omission in the 
discharge of official duties. Any suit instituted against an 
officer or employee because of an act performed by that offi- 
cer or employee in the lawful discharge of duties and under 
the provisions of this code shall be defended by legal repre- 
sentative of the jurisdiction until the final termination of the 
proceedings. The building official or any subordinate shall 
not be liable for cost in any action, suit or proceeding that is 
instituted in pursuance of the provisions of this code. 

[A] 104.9 Approved materials and equipment. Materials, 
equipment and devices approved by the building official shall 



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SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



be constructed and installed in accordance with such 
approval. 

[A] 104.9.1 Used materials and equipment. The use of 
used materials which meet the requirements of this code 
for new materials is permitted. Used equipment and 
devices shall not be reused unless approved by the build- 
ing official. 

[A] 104.10 Modifications. Wherever there are practical diffi- 
culties involved in carrying out the provisions of this code, 
the building official shall have the authority to grant modifi- 
cations for individual cases, upon application of the owner or 
owner's representative, provided the building official shall 
first find that special individual reason makes the strict letter 
of this code impractical and the modification is in compliance 
with the intent and purpose of this code and that such modifi- 
cation does not lessen health, accessibility, life and fire 
safety, or structural requirements. The details of action grant- 
ing modifications shall be recorded and entered in the files of 
the department of building safety. 

[A] 104.10.1 Flood hazard areas. The building official 
shall not grant modifications to any provision required in 
flood hazard areas as established by Section 1 612.3 unless 
a determination has been made that: 

1. A showing of good and sufficient cause that the 
unique characteristics of the size, configuration or 
topography of the site render the elevation standards 
of Section 1612 inappropriate. 

2. A determination that failure to grant the variance 
would result in exceptional hardship by rendering 
the lot undevelopable. 

3. A determination that the granting of a variance will 
not result in increased flood heights, additional 
threats to public safety, extraordinary public 
expense, cause fraud on or victimization of the pub- 
lic, or conflict with existing laws or ordinances. 

4. A determination that the variance is the minimum 
necessary to afford relief, considering the flood haz- 
ard. 

5. Submission to the applicant of written notice speci- 
fying the difference between the design flood eleva- 
tion and the elevation to which the building is to be 
built, stating that the cost of flood insurance will be 
commensurate with the increased risk resulting from 
the reduced floor elevation, and stating that con- 
struction below the design flood elevation increases 
risks to life and property. 

[A] 104.11 Alternative materials, design and methods of 
construction and equipment. The provisions of this code 
are not intended to prevent the installation of any material or 
to prohibit any design or method of construction not specifi- 
cally prescribed by this code, provided that any such alterna- 
tive has been approved. An alternative material, design or 
method of construction shall be approved where the building 
official finds that the proposed design is satisfactory and 
complies with the intent of the provisions of this code, and 
that the material, method or work offered is, for the purpose 
intended, at least the equivalent of that prescribed in this code 



in quality, strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, durability 
and safety. 

[A] 104.11.1 Research reports. Supporting data, where 
necessary to assist in the approval of materials or assem- 
blies not specifically provided for in this code, shall con- 
sist of valid research reports from approved sources. 

[A] 104.11.2 Tests. Whenever there is insufficient evi- 
dence of compliance with the provisions of this code, or 
evidence that a material or method does not conform to the 
requirements of this code, or in order to substantiate 
claims for alternative materials or methods, the building 
official shall have the authority to require tests as evidence 
of compliance to be made at no expense to the jurisdiction. 
Test methods shall be as specified in this code or by other 
recognized test standards. In the absence of recognized 
and accepted test methods, the building official shall 
approve the testing procedures. Tests shall be performed 
by an approved agency. Reports of such tests shall be 
retained by the building official for the period required for 
retention of public records. 



SECTION 105 
PERMITS 

[A] 105.1 Required. Any owner or authorized agent who 
intends to construct, enlarge, alter, repair, move, demolish, or 
change the occupancy of a building or structure, or to erect, 
install, enlarge, alter, repair, remove, convert or replace any 
electrical, gas, mechanical or plumbing system, the installa- 
tion of which is regulated by this code, or to cause any such 
work to be done, shall first make application to the building 
official and obtain the required permit. 

[A] 105.1.1 Annual permit. In lieu of an individual per- 
mit for each alteration to an already approved electrical, 
gas, mechanical or plumbing installation, the building offi- 
cial is authorized to issue an annual permit upon applica- 
tion therefor to any person, firm or corporation regularly 
employing one or more qualified tradepersons in the build- 
ing, structure or on the premises owned or operated by the 
applicant for the permit. 

[A] 105.1.2 Annual permit records. The person to whom 
an annual permit is issued shall keep a detailed record of 
alterations made under such annual permit. The building 
official shall have access to such records at all times or 
such records shall be filed with the building official as des- 
ignated. 

[A] 105.2 Work exempt from permit. Exemptions from 
permit requirements of this code shall not be deemed to grant 
authorization for any work to be done in any manner in viola- 
tion of the provisions of this code or any other laws or ordi- 
nances of this jurisdiction. Permits shall not be required for 
the following: 

Building: 

1. One- story detached accessory structures used as 
tool and storage sheds, playhouses and similar 
uses, provided the floor area is not greater than 120 
square feet (11 m 2 ). 



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2. Fences not over 7 feet (2134 mm) high. 

3. Oil derricks. 

4. Retaining walls that are not over 4 feet (1219 mm) 
in height measured from the bottom of the footing 
to the top of the wall, unless supporting a sur- 
charge or impounding Class I, II or IIIA liquids. 

5. Water tanks supported directly on grade if the 
capacity is not greater than 5,000 gallons (18 925 
L) and the ratio of height to diameter or width is 
not greater than 2:1. 

6. Sidewalks and driveways not more than 30 inches 
(762 mm) above adjacent grade, and not over any 
basement or story below and are not part of an 
accessible route. 

7. Painting, papering, tiling, carpeting, cabinets, 
counter tops and similar finish work. 

8. Temporary motion picture, television and theater 
stage sets and scenery. 

9. Prefabricated swimming pools accessory to a 
Group R-3 occupancy that are less than 24 inches 
(610 mm) deep, are not greater than 5,000 gallons 
(18 925 L) and are installed entirely above ground. 

10. Shade cloth structures constructed for nursery or 
agricultural purposes, not including service sys- 
tems. 

11. Swings and other playground equipment accessory 
to detached one- and two-family dwellings. 

12. Window awnings in Group R-3 and U occupan- 
cies, supported by an exterior wall that do not proj- 
ect more than 54 inches (1372 mm) from the 
exterior wall and do not require additional support. 

13. Nonfixed and movable fixtures, cases, racks, coun- 
ters and partitions not over 5 feet 9 inches (1753 
mm) in height. 

Electrical: 

Repairs and maintenance: Minor repair work, includ- 
ing the replacement of lamps or the connection of 
approved portable electrical equipment to approved 
permanently installed receptacles. 

Radio and television transmitting stations: The pro- 
visions of this code shall not apply to electrical equip- 
ment used for radio and television transmissions, but do 
apply to equipment and wiring for a power supply and 
the installations of towers and antennas. 

Temporary testing systems: A permit shall not be 
required for the installation of any temporary system 
required for the testing or servicing of electrical equip- 
ment or apparatus. 

Gas: 

1. Portable heating appliance. 

2. Replacement of any minor part that does not alter 
approval of equipment or make such equipment 
unsafe. 



Mechanical: 

1. Portable heating appliance. 

2. Portable ventilation equipment. 

3. Portable cooling unit. 

4. Steam, hot or chilled water piping within any heat- 
ing or cooling equipment regulated by this code. 

5. Replacement of any part that does not alter its 
approval or make it unsafe. 

6. Portable evaporative cooler. 

7. Self-contained refrigeration system containing 10 
pounds (5 kg) or less of refrigerant and actuated by 
motors of 1 horsepower (746 W) or less. 

Plumbing: 

1 . The stopping of leaks in drains, water, soil, waste or 
vent pipe, provided, however, that if any concealed 
trap, drain pipe, water, soil, waste or vent pipe 
becomes defective and it becomes necessary to 
remove and replace the same with new material, 
such work shall be considered as new work and a 
permit shall be obtained and inspection made as pro- 
vided in this code. 

2. The clearing of stoppages or the repairing of leaks in 
pipes, valves or fixtures and the removal and rein- 
stallation of water closets, provided such repairs do 
not involve or require the replacement or rearrange- 
ment of valves, pipes or fixtures. 

[A] 105.2.1 Emergency repairs. Where equipment 
replacements and repairs must be performed in an emer- 
gency situation, the permit application shall be submitted 
within the next working business day to the building offi- 
cial. 

[A] 105.2.2 Repairs. Application or notice to the building 
official is not required for ordinary repairs to structures, 
replacement of lamps or the connection of approved porta- 
ble electrical equipment to approved permanently installed 
receptacles. Such repairs shall not include the cutting 
away of any wall, partition or portion thereof, the removal 
or cutting of any structural beam or load-bearing support, 
or the removal or change of any required means of egress, 
or rearrangement of parts of a structure affecting the 
egress requirements; nor shall ordinary repairs include 
addition to, alteration of, replacement or relocation of any 
standpipe, water supply, sewer, drainage, drain leader, gas, 
soil, waste, vent or similar piping, electric wiring or 
mechanical or other work affecting public health or gen- 
eral safety. 

[A J 105.2.3 Public service agencies. A permit shall not be 
required for the installation, alteration or repair of genera- 
tion, transmission, distribution or metering or other related 
equipment that is under the ownership and control of pub- 
lic service agencies by established right. 

[A] 105.3 Application for permit. To obtain a permit, the 
applicant shall first file an application therefor in writing on a 



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form furnished by the department of building safety for that 
purpose. Such application shall: 

1. Identify and describe the work to be covered by the 
permit for which application is made. 

2. Describe the land on which the proposed work is to be 
done by legal description, street address or similar 
description that will readily identify and definitely 
locate the proposed building or work. 

3. Indicate the use and occupancy for which the proposed 
work is intended. 

4. Be accompanied by construction documents and other 
information as required in Section 107. 

5. State the valuation of the proposed work. 

6. Be signed by the applicant, or the applicant's autho- 
rized agent. 

7. Give such other data and information as required by the 
building official. 

[A] 105.3.1 Action on application. The building official 
shall examine or cause to be examined applications for 
permits and amendments thereto within a reasonable time 
after filing. If the application or the construction docu- 
ments do not conform to the requirements of pertinent 
laws, the building official shall reject such application in 
writing, stating the reasons therefor. If the building official 
is satisfied that the proposed work conforms to the require- 
ments of this code and laws and ordinances applicable 
thereto, the building official shall issue a permit therefor as 
soon as practicable. 

[A] 105.3.2 Time limitation of application. An applica- 
tion for a permit for any proposed work shall be deemed to 
have been abandoned 180 days after the date of filing, 
unless such application has been pursued in good faith or a 
permit has been issued; except that the building official is 
authorized to grant one or more extensions of time for 
additional periods not exceeding 90 days each. The exten- 
sion shall be requested in writing and justifiable cause 
demonstrated. 

[A] 105.4 Validity of permit. The issuance or granting of a 
permit shall not be construed to be a permit for, or an 
approval of, any violation of any of the provisions of this 
code or of any other ordinance of the jurisdiction. Permits 
presuming to give authority to violate or cancel the provi- 
sions of this code or other ordinances of the jurisdiction shall 
not be valid. The issuance of a permit based on construction 
documents and other data shall not prevent the building offi- 
cial from requiring the correction of errors in the construction 
documents and other data. The building official is also autho- 
rized to prevent occupancy or use of a structure where in vio- 
lation of this code or of any other ordinances of this 
jurisdiction. 

[A] 105.5 Expiration. Every permit issued shall become 
invalid unless the work on the site authorized by such permit 
is commenced within 180 days after its issuance, or if the 
work authorized on the site by such permit is suspended or 
abandoned for a period of 180 days after the time the work is 
commenced. The building official is authorized to grant, in 



writing, one or more extensions of time, for periods not more 
than 1 80 days each. The extension shall be requested in writ- 
ing and justifiable cause demonstrated. 

[A] 105.6 Suspension or revocation. The building official is 
authorized to suspend or revoke a permit issued under the 
provisions of this code wherever the permit is issued in error 
or on the basis of incorrect, inaccurate or incomplete informa- 
tion, or in violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of 
the provisions of this code. 

[A] 105.7 Placement of permit. The building permit or copy 
shall be kept on the site of the work until the completion of 
the project. 



SECTION 106 
FLOOR AND ROOF DESIGN LOADS 

[A] 106.1 Live loads posted. Where the live loads for which 
each floor or portion thereof of a commercial or industrial 
building is or has been designed to exceed 50 psf (2.40 kN/ 
m 2 ), such design live loads shall be conspicuously posted by 
the owner in that part of each story in which they apply, using 
durable signs. It shall be unlawful to remove or deface such 
notices 

[A] 106.2 Issuance of certificate of occupancy. A certificate 
of occupancy required by Section 111 shall not be issued 
until the floor load signs, required by Section 106.1, have 
been installed. 

[A] 106.3 Restrictions on loading. It shall be unlawful to 
place, or cause or permit to be placed, on any floor or roof of 
a building, structure or portion thereof, a load greater than is 
permitted by this code. 



SECTION 107 

SUBMITTAL DOCUMENTS 

[A] 107.1 General. Submittal documents consisting of con- 
struction documents, statement of special inspections, geo- 
technical report and other data shall be submitted in two or 
more sets with each permit application. The construction doc- 
uments shall be prepared by a registered design professional 
where required by the statutes of the jurisdiction in which the 
project is to be constructed. Where special conditions exist, 
the building official is authorized to require additional con- 
struction documents to be prepared by a registered design 
professional. 

Exception: The building official is authorized to waive the 
submission of construction documents and other data not 
required to be prepared by a registered design professional 
if it is found that the nature of the work applied for is such 
that review of construction documents is not necessary to 
obtain compliance with this code. 

[A] 107.2 Construction documents. Construction docu- 
ments shall be in accordance with Sections 107.2.1 through 
107.2.5. 

[A] 107.2.1 Information on construction documents. 

Construction documents shall be dimensioned and drawn 
upon suitable material. Electronic media documents are 



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permitted to be submitted when approved by the building 
official. Construction documents shall be of sufficient 
clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent of the 
work proposed and show in detail that it will conform to 
the provisions of this code and relevant laws, ordinances, 
rules and regulations, as determined by the building offi- 
cial. 

[A] 107.2.2 Fire protection system shop drawings. Shop 
drawings for the fire protection system(s) shall be submit- 
ted to indicate conformance to this code and the construc- 
tion documents and shall be approved prior to the start of 
system installation. Shop drawings shall contain all infor- 
mation as required by the referenced installation standards 
in Chapter 9. 

[A] 107.2.3 Means of egress. The construction documents 
shall show in sufficient detail the location, construction, 
size and character of all portions of the means of egress 
including the path of the exit discharge to the public way 
in compliance with the provisions of this code. In other 
than occupancies in Groups R-2, R-3, and 1-1, the con- 
struction documents shall designate the number of occu- 
pants to be accommodated on every floor, and in all rooms 
and spaces. 

[A] 107.2.4 Exterior wall envelope. Construction docu- 
ments for all buildings shall describe the exterior wall 
envelope in sufficient detail to determine compliance with 
this code. The construction documents shall provide 
details of the exterior wall envelope as required, including 
flashing, intersections with dissimilar materials, corners, 
end details, control joints, intersections at roof, eaves or 
parapets, means of drainage, water-resistive membrane 
and details around openings. 

The construction documents shall include manufac- 
turer's installation instructions that provide supporting 
documentation that the proposed penetration and opening 
details described in the construction documents maintain 
the weather resistance of the exterior wall envelope. The 
supporting documentation shall fully describe the exterior 
wall system which was tested, where applicable, as well as 
the test procedure used. 

[A] 107.2.5 Site plan. The construction documents sub- 
mitted with the application for permit shall be accompa- 
nied by a site plan showing to scale the size and location 
of new construction and existing structures on the site, dis- 
tances from lot lines, the established street grades and the 
proposed finished grades and, as applicable, flood hazard 
areas, floodways, and design flood elevations; and it shall 
be drawn in accordance with an accurate boundary line 
survey. In the case of demolition, the site plan shall show 
construction to be demolished and the location and size of 
existing structures and construction that are to remain on 
the site or plot. The building official is authorized to waive 
or modify the requirement for a site plan when the applica- 
tion for permit is for alteration or repair or when other- 
wise warranted. 

[A] 107.2.5.1 Design flood elevations. Where design 
flood elevations are not specified, they shall be estab- 
lished in accordance with Section 1612.3.1. 



[A] 107.3 Examination of documents. The building official 
shall examine or cause to be examined the accompanying 
submittal documents and shall ascertain by such examina- 
tions whether the construction indicated and described is in 
accordance with the requirements of this code and other perti- 
nent laws or ordinances. 

[A] 107.3.1 Approval of construction documents. When 
the building official issues a permit, the construction docu- 
ments shall be approved, in writing or by stamp, as 
"Reviewed for Code Compliance." One set of construc- 
tion documents so reviewed shall be retained by the build- 
ing official. The other set shall be returned to the 
applicant, shall be kept at the site of work and shall be 
open to inspection by the building official or a duly autho- 
rized representative. 

[A] 107.3.2 Previous approvals. This code shall not 
require changes in the construction documents, construc- 
tion or designated occupancy of a structure for which a 
lawful permit has been heretofore issued or otherwise law- 
fully authorized, and the construction of which has been 
pursued in good faith within 180 days after the effective 
date of this code and has not been abandoned. 

[A] 107.3.3 Phased approval. The building official is 
authorized to issue a permit for the construction of founda- 
tions or any other part of a building or structure before the 
construction documents for the whole building or structure 
have been submitted, provided that adequate information 
and detailed statements have been filed complying with 
pertinent requirements of this code. The holder of such 
permit for the foundation or other parts of a building or 
structure shall proceed at the holder's own risk with the 
building operation and without assurance that a permit for 
the entire structure will be granted. 

[A] 107.3.4 Design professional in responsible charge. 
When it is required that documents be prepared by a regis- 
tered design professional, the building official shall be 
authorized to require the owner to engage and designate on 
the building permit application a registered design profes- 
sional who shall act as the registered design professional 
in responsible charge. If the circumstances require, the 
owner shall designate a substitute registered design pro- 
fessional in responsible charge who shall perform the 
duties required of the original registered design profes- 
sional in responsible charge. The building official shall be 
notified in writing by the owner if the registered design 
professional in responsible charge is changed or is unable 
to continue to perform the duties. 

The registered design professional in responsible 
charge shall be responsible for reviewing and coordinating 
submittal documents prepared by others, including phased 
and deferred submittal items, for compatibility with the 
design of the building. 

[A] 107.3.4.1 Deferred submittals. For the purposes 
of this section, deferred submittals are defined as those 
portions of the design that are not submitted at the time 
of the application and that are to be submitted to the 
building official within a specified period. 



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Deferral of any submittal items shall have the prior 
approval of the building official. The registered design 
professional in responsible charge shall list the 
deferred submittals on the construction documents for 
review by the building official. 

Documents for deferred submittal items shall be 
submitted to the registered design professional in 
responsible charge who shall review them and forward 
them to the building official with a notation indicating 
that the deferred submittal documents have been 
reviewed and found to be in general conformance to the 
design of the building. The deferred submittal items 
shall not be installed until the deferred submittal docu- 
ments have been approved by the building official. 
[A] 107.4 Amended construction documents. Work shall 
be installed in accordance with the approved construction 
documents, and any changes made during construction that 
are not in compliance with the approved construction docu- 
ments shall be resubmitted for approval as an amended set of 
construction documents. 

[A] 107.5 Retention of construction documents. One set of 
approved construction documents shall be retained by the 
building official for a period of not less than 180 days from 
date of completion of the permitted work, or as required by 
state or local laws. 



SECTION 108 
TEMPORARY STRUCTURES AND USES 
[A] 108.1 General. The building official is authorized to 
issue a permit for temporary structures and temporary uses. 
Such permits shall be limited as to time of service, but shall 
not be permitted for more than 180 days. The building official 
is authorized to grant extensions for demonstrated cause. 

[A] 108.2 Conformance. Temporary structures and uses 
shall conform to the structural strength, fire safety, means of 
egress, accessibility, light, ventilation and sanitary require- 
ments of this code as necessary to ensure public health, safety 
and general welfare. 

[A] 108.3 Temporary power. The building official is autho- 
rized to give permission to temporarily supply and use power 
in part of an electric installation before such installation has 
been fully completed and the final certificate of completion 
has been issued. The part covered by the temporary certificate 
shall comply with the requirements specified for temporary 
lighting, heat or power in NFPA 70. 

[A] 108.4 Termination of approval. The building official is 
authorized to terminate such permit for a temporary structure 
or use and to order the temporary structure or use to be dis- 
continued. 



SECTION 109 

FEES 

[A] 109.1 Payment of fees. A permit shall not be valid until 
the fees prescribed by law have been paid, nor shall an 
amendment to a permit be released until the additional fee, if 
any, has been paid. 



[A] 109.2 Schedule of permit fees. On buildings, structures, 
electrical, gas, mechanical, and plumbing systems or altera- 
tions requiring a. permit, a fee for each permit shall be paid as 
required, in accordance with the schedule as established by 
the applicable governing authority. 

[A] 109.3 Building permit valuations. The applicant for a 
permit shall provide an estimated permit value at time of 
application. Permit valuations shall include total value of 
work, including materials and labor, for which the permit is 
being issued, such as electrical, gas, mechanical, plumbing 
equipment and permanent systems. If, in the opinion of the 
building official, the valuation is underestimated on the appli- 
cation, the permit shall be denied, unless the applicant can 
show detailed estimates to meet the approval of the building 
official. Final building permit valuation shall be set by the 
building official. 

[A] 109.4 Work commencing before permit issuance. Any 
person who commences any work on a building, structure, 
electrical, gas, mechanical or plumbing system before obtain- 
ing the necessary permits shall be subject to a fee established 
by the building official that shall be in addition to the required 
permit fees. 

[A] 109.5 Related fees. The payment of the fee for the con- 
struction, alteration, removal or demolition for work done in 
connection to or concurrently with the work authorized by a 
building permit shall not relieve the applicant or holder of the 
permit from the payment of other fees that are prescribed by 
law. 

[A] 109.6 Refunds. The building official is authorized to 
establish a refund policy. 



SECTION 110 
INSPECTIONS 

[A] 110.1 General. Construction or work for which & permit 
is required shall be subject to inspection by the building offi- 
cial and such construction or work shall remain accessible 
and exposed for inspection purposes until approved. 
Approval as a result of an inspection shall not be construed to 
be an approval of a violation of the provisions of this code or 
of other ordinances of the jurisdiction. Inspections presuming 
to give authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this 
code or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction shall not be 
valid. It shall be the duty of the permit applicant to cause the 
work to remain accessible and exposed for inspection pur- 
poses. Neither the building official nor the jurisdiction shall 
be liable for expense entailed in the removal or replacement 
of any material required to allow inspection. 

[A] 110.2 Preliminary inspection. Before issuing a. permit, 
the building official is authorized to examine or cause to be 
examined buildings, structures and sites for which an applica- 
tion has been filed. 

[A] 110.3 Required inspections. The building official, upon 
notification, shall make the inspections set forth in Sections 
110.3.1 through 110.3.10. 

[A] 110.3.1 Footing and foundation inspection. Footing 
and foundation inspections shall be made after excavations 
for footings are complete and any required reinforcing 



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steel is in place. For concrete foundations, any required 
forms shall be in place prior to inspection. Materials for 
the foundation shall be on the job, except where concrete 
is ready mixed in accordance with ASTM C 94, the con- 
crete need not be on the job. 

[A] 110.3.2 Concrete slab and under-floor inspection. 
Concrete slab and under-floor inspections shall be made 
after in-slab or under-floor reinforcing steel and building 
service equipment, conduit, piping accessories and other 
ancillary equipment items are in place, but before any con- 
crete is placed or floor sheathing installed, including the 
subfloor. 

[A] 110.3.3 Lowest floor elevation. In flood hazard areas, 
upon placement of the lowest floor, including the base- 
ment, and prior to further vertical construction, the eleva- 
tion certification required in Section 1612.5 shall be 
submitted to the building official. 

[A] 110.3.4 Frame inspection. Framing inspections shall 
be made after the roof deck or sheathing, all framing, fire- 
blocking and bracing are in place and pipes, chimneys and 
vents to be concealed are complete and the rough electri- 
cal, plumbing, heating wires, pipes and ducts are 
approved. 

[A] 110.3.5 Lath and gypsum board inspection. Lath 
and gypsum board inspections shall be made after lathing 
and gypsum board, interior and exterior, is in place, but 
before any plastering is applied or gypsum board joints 
and fasteners are taped and finished. 

Exception: Gypsum board that is not part of a fire- 
resistance-rated assembly or a shear assembly. 
[A] 110.3.6 Fire- and smoke-resistant penetrations. 
Protection of joints and penetrations in fire-resistance- 
rated assemblies, smoke barriers and smoke partitions 
shall not be concealed from view until inspected and 
approved. 

[A] 110.3.7 Energy efficiency inspections. Inspections 
shall be made to determine compliance with Chapter 1 3 
and shall include, but not be limited to, inspections for: 
envelope insulation R- and U- values, fenestration [/-value, 
duct system tf- value, and HVAC and water-heating equip- 
ment efficiency. 

[A] 110.3.8 Other inspections. In addition to the inspec- 
tions specified in Sections 110.3.1 through 110.3.7, the 
building official is authorized to make or require other 
inspections of any construction work to ascertain compli- 
ance with the provisions of this code and other laws that 
are enforced by the department of building safety. 

[A] 110.3.9 Special inspections. For special inspections, 
see Chapter 17. 

[A] 110.3.10 Final inspection. The final inspection shall 
be made after all work required by the building permit is 
completed. 

[A] 110.3.10.1 Flood hazard documentation. If 

located in a flood hazard area, documentation of the 
elevation of the lowest floor as required in Section 



1612.5 shall be submitted to the building official prior 1 
to the final inspection. 1 

[A] 110.4 Inspection agencies. The building official is 
authorized to accept reports of approved inspection agencies, 
provided such agencies satisfy the requirements as to qualifi- 
cations and reliability. 

[A] 110.5 Inspection requests. It shall be the duty of the 
holder of the building permit or their duly authorized agent to 
notify the building official when work is ready for inspection. 
It shall be the duty of the permit holder to provide access to 
and means for inspections of such work that are required by 
this code. 

[A] 110.6 Approval required. Work shall not be done 
beyond the point indicated in each successive inspection 
without first obtaining the approval of the building official. 
The building official, upon notification, shall make the 
requested inspections and shall either indicate the portion of 
the construction that is satisfactory as completed, or notify 
the permit holder or his or her agent wherein the same fails to 
comply with this code. Any portions that do not comply shall 
be corrected and such portion shall not be covered or con- 
cealed until authorized by the building official. 



SECTION 111 
CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY 

[A] 111.1 Use and occupancy. No building or structure shall 
be used or occupied, and no change in the existing occupancy 
classification of a building or structure or portion thereof 
shall be made, until the building official has issued a certifi- 
cate of occupancy therefor as provided herein. Issuance of a 
certificate of occupancy shall not be construed as an approval 
of a violation of the provisions of this code or of other ordi- 
nances of the jurisdiction. 

Exception: Certificates of occupancy are not required for 
work exempt from permits under Section 105.2. 

[A] 111.2 Certificate issued. After the building official 
inspects the building or structure and finds no violations of 
the provisions of this code or other laws that are enforced by 
the department of building safety, the building official shall 
issue a certificate of occupancy that contains the following: 

1. The building permit number. 

2. The address of the structure. 

3. The name and address of the owner. 

4. A description of that portion of the structure for which 
the certificate is issued. 

5. A statement that the described portion of the structure 
has been inspected for compliance with the require- 
ments of this code for the occupancy and division of 
occupancy and the use for which the proposed occu- 
pancy is classified. 

6. The name of the building official. 

1. The edition of the code under which the permit was 
issued. 



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8. The use and occupancy, in accordance with the provi- 
sions of Chapter 3. 

9. The type of construction as defined in Chapter 6. 

10. The design occupant load. 

11. If an automatic sprinkler system is provided, whether 
the sprinkler system is required. 

12. Any special stipulations and conditions of the build- 
ing permit. 

[A] 111.3 Temporary occupancy. The building official is 
authorized to issue a temporary certificate of occupancy 
before the completion of the entire work covered by the per- 
mit, provided that such portion or portions shall be occupied 
safely. The building official shall set a time period during 
which the temporary certificate of occupancy is valid. 

[A] 111.4 Revocation. The building official is authorized to, 
in writing, suspend or revoke a certificate of occupancy or 
completion issued under the provisions of this code wherever 
the certificate is issued in error, or on the basis of incorrect 
information supplied, or where it is determined that the build- 
ing or structure or portion thereof is in violation of any ordi- 
nance or regulation or any of the provisions of this code. 



SECTION 112 
SERVICE UTILITIES 

[A] 112.1 Connection of service utilities. No person shall 
make connections from a utility, source of energy, fuel or 
power to any building or system that is regulated by this code 
for which a permit is required, until released by the building 
official. 

[A] 112.2 Temporary connection. The building official shall 
have the authority to authorize the temporary connection of 
the building or system to the utility source of energy, fuel or 
power. 

[A] 112.3 Authority to disconnect service utilities. The 

building official shall have the authority to authorize discon- 
nection of utility service to the building, structure or system 
regulated by this code and the referenced codes and standards 
set forth in Section 101.4 in case of emergency where neces- 
sary to eliminate an immediate hazard to life or property or 
when such utility connection has been made without the 
approval required by Section 112.1 or 112.2. The building 
official shall notify the serving utility, and wherever possible 
the owner and occupant of the building, structure or service 
system of the decision to disconnect prior to taking such 
action. If not notified prior to disconnecting, the owner or 
occupant of the building, structure or service system shall be 
notified in writing, as soon as practical thereafter. 



SECTION 113 
BOARD OF APPEALS 

[A] 113.1 General. In order to hear and decide appeals of 
orders, decisions or determinations made by the building offi- 
cial relative to the application and interpretation of this code, 
there shall be and is hereby created a board of appeals. The 
board of appeals shall be appointed by the applicable govern- 



ing authority and shall hold office at its pleasure. The board 
shall adopt rules of procedure for conducting its business. 

[A] 113.2 Limitations on authority. An application for 
appeal shall be based on a claim that the true intent of this 
code or the rules legally adopted thereunder have been incor- 
rectly interpreted, the provisions of this code do not fully 
apply or an equally good or better form of construction is pro- 
posed. The board shall have no authority to waive require- 
ments of this code. 

[A] 113.3 Qualifications. The board of appeals shall consist 
of members who are qualified by experience and training to 
pass on matters pertaining to building construction and are 
not employees of the jurisdiction. 



SECTION 114 
VIOLATIONS 

[A] 114.1 Unlawful acts. It shall be unlawful for any person, 
firm or corporation to erect, construct, alter, extend, repair, 
move, remove, demolish or occupy any building, structure or 
equipment regulated by this code, or cause same to be done, 
in conflict with or in violation of any of the provisions of this 
code. 

[A] 114.2 Notice of violation. The building official is autho- 
rized to serve a notice of violation or order on the person 
responsible for the erection, construction, alteration, exten- 
sion, repair, moving, removal, demolition or occupancy of a 
building or structure in violation of the provisions of this 
code, or in violation of a permit or certificate issued under the 
provisions of this code. Such order shall direct the discontinu- 
ance of the illegal action or condition and the abatement of 
the violation. 

[A] 114.3 Prosecution of violation. If the notice of violation 
is not complied with promptly, the building official is autho- 
rized to request the legal counsel of the jurisdiction to insti- 
tute the appropriate proceeding at law or in equity to restrain, 
correct or abate such violation, or to require the removal or 
termination of the unlawful occupancy of the building or 
structure in violation of the provisions of this code or of the 
order or direction made pursuant thereto. 

[A] 114.4 Violation penalties. Any person who violates a 
provision of this code or fails to comply with any of the 
requirements thereof or who erects, constructs, alters or 
repairs a building or structure in violation of the approved 
construction documents or directive of the building official, 
or of a permit or certificate issued under the provisions of this 
code, shall be subject to penalties as prescribed by law. 



SECTION 115 
STOP WORK ORDER 

[A] 115.1 Authority. Whenever the building official finds 
any work regulated by this code being performed in a manner 
either contrary to the provisions of this code or dangerous or 
unsafe, the building official is authorized to issue a stop work 
order. 

[A] 115.2 Issuance. The stop work order shall be in writing 
and shall be given to the owner of the property involved, or to 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



the owner's agent, or to the person doing the work. Upon issu- 
ance of a stop work order, the cited work shall immediately 
cease. The stop work order shall state the reason for the order, 
and the conditions under which the cited work will be permit- 
ted to resume. 

[A] 115.3 Unlawful continuance. Any person who shall con- 
tinue any work after having been served with a stop work 
order, except such work as that person is directed to perform 
to remove a violation or unsafe condition, shall be subject to 
penalties as prescribed by law. 



SECTION 116 
UNSAFE STRUCTURES AND EQUIPMENT 

[A] 116.1 Conditions. Structures or existing equipment that 
are or hereafter become unsafe, insanitary or deficient 
because of inadequate means of egress facilities, inadequate 
light and ventilation, or which constitute a fire hazard, or are 
otherwise dangerous to human life or the public welfare, or 
that involve illegal or improper occupancy or inadequate 
maintenance, shall be deemed an unsafe condition. Unsafe 
structures shall be taken down and removed or made safe, as 
the building official deems necessary and as provided for in 
this section. A vacant structure that is not secured against 
entry shall be deemed unsafe. 

[A] 116.2 Record. The building official shall cause a report 
to be filed on an unsafe condition. The report shall state the 
occupancy of the structure and the nature of the unsafe condi- 
tion. 

[A] 116.3 Notice. If an unsafe condition is found, the build- 
ing official shall serve on the owner, agent or person in con- 
trol of the structure, a written notice that describes the 
condition deemed unsafe and specifies the required repairs or 
improvements to be made to abate the unsafe condition, or 
that requires the unsafe structure to be demolished within a 
stipulated time. Such notice shall require the person thus noti- 
fied to declare immediately to the building official acceptance 
or rejection of the terms of the order. 

[A] 116.4 Method of service. Such notice shall be deemed 
properly served if a copy thereof is (a) delivered to the owner 
personally; (b) sent by certified or registered mail addressed 
to the owner at the last known address with the return receipt 
requested; or (c) delivered in any other manner as prescribed 
by local law. If the certified or registered letter is returned 
showing that the letter was not delivered, a copy thereof shall 
be posted in a conspicuous place in or about the structure 
affected by such notice. Service of such notice in the forego- 
ing manner upon the owner's agent or upon the person 
responsible for the structure shall constitute service of notice 
upon the owner. 

[A] 116.5 Restoration. The structure or equipment deter- 
mined to be unsafe by the building official is permitted to be 
restored to a safe condition. To the extent that repairs, altera- 
tions or additions are made or a change of occupancy occurs 
during the restoration of the structure, such repairs, altera- 
tions, additions or change of occupancy shall comply with the 
requirements of Section 105.2.2 and Chapter 34. 



10 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BWLDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 2 

DEFINITIONS 



SECTION 201 
GENERAL 

201.1 Scope. Unless otherwise expressly stated, the follow- 
ing words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have 
the meanings shown in this chapter. 

201.2 Interchangeability. Words used in the present tense 
include the future; words stated in the masculine gender 
include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes 
the plural and the plural, the singular. 

201.3 Terms defined in other codes. Where terms are not 
defined in this code and are defined in the International 
Energy Conservation Code, International Fuel Gas Code, 
International Fire Code, International Mechanical Code or 
International Plumbing Code, such terms shall have the 
meanings ascribed to them as in those codes. 

201.4 Terms not defined. Where terms are not defined 
through the methods authorized by this section, such terms 
shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context 
implies. 



SECTION 202 
DEFINITIONS 

24-HOUR CARE. The actual time that a person is an occu- 
pant within a facility for the purpose of receiving care. It 
shall not include a facility that is open for 24 hours and is 
capable of providing care to someone visiting the facility dur- 
ing any segment of the 24 hours. 

AAC MASONRY. Masonry made of autoclaved aerated 
concrete (AAC) units, manufactured without internal rein- 
forcement and bonded together using thin- or thick-bed mor- 
tar. 

ACCESSIBLE. A site, building, facility or portion thereof 
that complies with Chapter 11. 

ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS. A continuous and 
unobstructed way of egress travel from any accessible point 
in a building ox facility to a public way. 

ACCESSIBLE ROUTE. A continuous, unobstructed path 
that complies with Chapter 1 1 . 

ACCESSIBLE UNIT. A dwelling unit or sleeping unit that 
complies with this code and the provisions for Accessible 
units in ICC Al 17.1. 

ACCREDITATION BODY. An approved, third-party orga- 
nization that is independent of the grading and inspection 
agencies, and the lumber mills, and that initially accredits and 
subsequently monitors, on a continuing basis, the compe- 
tency and performance of a grading or inspection agency 
related to carrying out specific tasks. 

[A] ADDITION. An extension or increase in floor area or 
height of a building or structure. 



ADHERED MASONRY VENEER. Veneer secured and 
supported through the adhesion of an approved bonding 
material applied to an approved backing. 

ADOBE CONSTRUCTION. Construction in which the 
exterior load-bearing and nonload-bearing walls and parti- 
tions are of unfired clay masonry units, and floors, roofs and 
interior framing are wholly or partly of wood or other 
approved materials. 

Adobe, stabilized. Unfired clay masonry units to which 
admixtures, such as emulsified asphalt, are added during 
the manufacturing process to limit the units' water absorp- 
tion so as to increase their durability. 

Adobe, unstabilized. Unfired clay masonry units that do 
not meet the definition of "Adobe, stabilized." 

[F] AEROSOL. A product that is dispensed from an aerosol 
container by a propellant. Aerosol products shall be classified 
by means of the calculation of their chemical heats of com- 
bustion and shall be designated Level 1, Level 2 or Level 3. 

Level 1 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical 
heat of combustion that is less than or equal to 8,600 Brit- 
ish thermal units per pound (Btu/lb) (20 kJ/g). 

Level 2 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical 
heat of combustion that is greater than 8,600 Btu/lb (20 kJ/ 
g), but less than or equal to 13,000 Btu/lb (30 kJ/g). 

Level 3 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical 
heat of combustion that is greater than 13,000 Btu/lb (30 

kJ/g). 

[F] AEROSOL CONTAINER. A metal can or a glass or 
plastic bottle designed to dispense an aerosol. Metal cans 
shall be limited to a maximum size of 33.8 fluid ounces (1000 
ml). Glass or plastic bottles shall be limited to a maximum 
size of 4 fluid ounces (118 ml). 

AGGREGATE. In roofing, crushed stone, crushed slag or 
water-worn gravel used for surfacing for roof coverings. 

AGRICULTURAL BUILDING. A structure designed and 
constructed to house farm implements, hay, grain, poultry, 
livestock or other horticultural products. This structure shall 
not be a place of human habitation or a place of employment 
where agricultural products are processed, treated or pack- 
aged, nor shall it be a place used by the public. 

AIR-INFLATED STRUCTURE. A structure that uses air- 
pressurized membrane beams, arches or other elements to 
enclose space. Occupants of such a structure do not occupy 
the pressurized area used to support the structure. 

AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURE. A structure wherein the 
shape of the structure is attained by air pressure and occu- 
pants of the structure are within the elevated pressure area. 
Air-supported structures are of two basic types: 

Double skin. Similar to a single skin, but with an attached 
liner that is separated from the outer skin and provides an 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



11 



DEFINITIONS 



airspace which serves for insulation, acoustic, aesthetic or 
similar purposes. 

Single skin. Where there is only the single outer skin and 
the air pressure is directly against that skin. 

AISLE. An unenclosed exit access component that defines 
and provides a path of egress travel. 

AISLE ACCESSWAY. That portion of an exit access that 
leads to an aisle. 

[F] ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. Afire alarm 
system component such as a bell, horn, speaker, light or text 
display that provides audible, tactile or visible outputs, or any 
combination thereof. 

[F] ALARM SIGNAL. A signal indicating an emergency 
requiring immediate action, such as a signal indicative of fire. 

[F] ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. A feature of 
automatic fire detection and alarm systems to reduce 
unwanted alarms wherein smoke detectors report alarm con- 
ditions for a minimum period of time, or confirm alarm con- 
ditions within a given time period, after being automatically 
reset, in order to be accepted as a valid alarm-initiation sig- 
nal. 

ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN. A method of propor- 
tioning structural members, such that elastically computed 
stresses produced in the members by nominal loads do not 
exceed specified allowable stresses (also called "working 
stress design"). 

[A] ALTERATION. Any construction or renovation to an 
existing structure other than repair or addition. 

ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE. A device that has a 
series of steps between 50 and 70 degrees (0.87 and 1.22 rad) 
from horizontal, usually attached to a center support rail in an 
alternating manner so that the user does not have both feet on 
the same level at the same time. 

AMBULATORY CARE FACILITY. Buildings or portions 
thereof used to provide medical, surgical, psychiatric, nursing 
or similar care on a less than 24-hour basis to individuals who 
are rendered incapable of self-preservation by the services 
provided. 

ANCHOR. Metal rod, wire or strap that secures masonry to 
its structural support. 

ANCHOR BUILDING. An exterior perimeter building of a 
group other than H having direct access to a covered or open 
mall building but having required means of egress indepen- 
dent of the mall. 

ANCHORED MASONRY VENEER. Veneer secured with 
approved mechanical fasteners to an approved backing 

ANNULAR SPACE. The opening around the penetrating 
item. 

[F] ANNUNCIATOR. A unit containing one or more indica- 
tor lamps, alphanumeric displays or other equivalent means 
in which each indication provides status information about a 
circuit, condition or location. 

[A] APPROVED. Acceptable to the building official or 
authority having jurisdiction. 



[A] APPROVED AGENCY. An established and recognized 
agency regularly engaged in conducting tests or furnishing 
inspection services, when such agency has been approved. 

APPROVED FABRICATOR. An established and qualified 
person, firm or corporation approved by the building official 
pursuant to Chapter 17 of this code. 

APPROVED SOURCE. An independent person, firm or 
corporation, approved by the building official, who is compe- 
tent and experienced in the application of engineering princi- 
ples to materials, methods or systems analyses. 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA. Plain or ornamen- 
tal hard-burned modified clay units, larger in size than brick, 
with glazed or unglazed ceramic finish. 

AREA (for masonry). 

Gross cross-sectional. The area delineated by the out-to- 
out specified dimensions of masonry in the plane under 
consideration. 

Net cross-sectional. The area of masonry units, grout and 
mortar crossed by the plane under consideration based on 
out-to-out specified dimensions. 

AREA, BUILDING. The area included within surrounding 
exterior walls (or exterior walls and fire walls) exclusive of 
vent shafts and courts. Areas of the building not provided 
with surrounding walls shall be included in the building area 
if such areas are included within the horizontal projection of 
the roof or floor above. 

AREA OF REFUGE. An area where persons unable to use 
stairways can remain temporarily to await instructions or 
assistance during emergency evacuation. 

AREAWAY. A subsurface space adjacent to a building open 
at the top or protected at the top by a grating or guard. 

ASSEMBLY SEATING, MULTILEVEL. See "Multilevel 
assembly seating." 

ATRIUM. An opening connecting two or more stories other 
than enclosed stairways, elevators, hoistways, escalators, 
plumbing, electrical, air-conditioning or other equipment, 
which is closed at the top and not defined as a mall. Stories, 
as used in this definition, do not include balconies within 
assembly groups or mezzanines that comply with Section 
505. 

ATTIC. The space between the ceiling beams of the top story 
and the roof rafters. 

[F] AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. 
A notification appliance that alerts by the sense of hearing. 

AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE (AAC). Low 
density cementitious product of calcium silicate hydrates, 
whose material specifications are defined in ASTM C 1386. 

[Fj AUTOMATIC. As applied to fire protection devices, a 
device or system providing an emergency function without 
the necessity for human intervention and activated as a result 
of a predetermined temperature rise, rate of temperature rise 
or combustion products. 

[F] AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. 
An approved system of devices and equipment which auto- 



12 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



matically detects a fire and discharges an approved fire-extin- 
guishing agent onto or in the area of a fire. 

[F] AUTOMATIC SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM. A 
fire alarm system that has initiation devices that utilize smoke 
detectors for protection of an area such as a room or space 
with detectors to provide early warning of fire. 

[F] AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. An automatic 
sprinkler system, for fire protection purposes, is an integrated 
system of underground and overhead piping designed in 
accordance with fire protection engineering standards. The 
system includes a suitable water supply. The portion of the 
system above the ground is a network of specially sized or 
hydraulically designed piping installed in a structure or area, 
generally overhead, and to which automatic sprinklers are 
connected in a systematic pattern. The system is usually acti- 
vated by heat from a fire and discharges water over the fire 
area. 

[F] AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL. The root 
mean square, A-weighted sound pressure level measured over 
a 24-hour period, or the time any person is present, whichever 
time period is less. 

AWNING. An architectural projection that provides weather 
protection, identity or decoration and is partially or wholly 
supported by the building to which it is attached. An awning 
is comprised of a lightweight frame structure over which a 
covering is attached. 

BACKING. The wall or surface to which the veneer is 
secured. 

[F] BALED COTTON. A natural seed fiber wrapped in and 
secured with industry accepted materials, usually consisting 
of burlap, woven polypropylene, polyethylene or cotton or 
sheet polyethylene, and secured with steel, synthetic or wire 
bands or wire; also includes linters (lint removed from the 
cottonseed) and motes (residual materials from the ginning 
process). 

[F] BALED COTTON, DENSELY PACKED. Cotton 
made into banded bales with a packing density of at least 22 
pounds per cubic foot (360 kg/m 3 ), and dimensions comply- 
ing with the following: a length of 55 inches (1397 mm), a 
width of 21 inches (533.4 mm) and a height of 27.6 to 35.4 
inches (701 to 899 mm). 

BALLAST. In roofing, ballast comes in the form of large 
stones or paver systems or light-weight interlocking paver 
systems and is used to provide uplift resistance for roofing 
systems that are not adhered or mechanically attached to the 
roof deck. 

[F] BARRICADE. A structure that consists of a combination 
of walls, floor and roof, which is designed to withstand the 
rapid release of energy in an explosion and which is fully 
confined, partially vented or fully vented; or other effective 
method of shielding from explosive materials by a natural or 
artificial barrier. 

Artificial barricade. An artificial mound or revetment a 
minimum thickness of 3 feet (914 mm). 



Natural barricade. Natural features of the ground, such 
as hills, or timber of sufficient density that the surrounding 
exposures that require protection cannot be seen from the 
magazine or building containing explosives when the trees 
are bare of leaves. 

BASE FLOOD. The flood having a 1-percent chance of 
being equaled or exceeded in any given year. 

BASE FLOOD ELEVATION. The elevation of the base 
flood, including wave height, relative to the National Geo- 
detic Vertical Datum (NGVD), North American Vertical 
Datum (NAVD) or other datum specified on the Flood Insur- 
ance Rate Map (FIRM). 

BASEMENT (for flood loads). The portion of a building 
having its floor subgrade (below ground level) on all sides. 
This definition of "Basement" is limited in application to the 
provisions of Section 1612. 

BASEMENT. A story that is not a story above grade plane 
(see "Story above grade plane"). This definition of "Base- 
ment" does not apply to the provisions of Section 1612 for 
flood loads. 

BEARING WALL STRUCTURE. A building or other 
structure in which vertical loads from floors and roofs are pri- 
marily supported by walls. 

BED JOINT. The horizontal layer of mortar on which a 
masonry unit is laid. 

BLEACHERS. Tiered seating supported on a dedicated 
structural system and two or more rows high and is not a 
building element (see "Grandstands"). 

BOARDING HOUSE. A building arranged or used for lodg- 
ing for compensation, with or without meals, and not occu- 
pied as a single-family unit. 

[F] BOILING POINT. The temperature at which the vapor 
pressure of a liquid equals the atmospheric pressure of 14.7 
pounds per square inch (psia) (101 kPa) or 760 mm of mer- 
cury. Where an accurate boiling point is unavailable for the 
material in question, or for mixtures which do not have a con- 
stant boiling point, for the purposes of this classification, the 
20-percent evaporated point of a distillation performed in 
accordance with ASTM D 86 shall be used as the boiling 
point of the liquid. 

BOND BEAM. A horizontal grouted element within 
masonry in which reinforcement is embedded. 

BRACED WALL LINE. A series of braced wall panels in a 
single story that meets the requirements of Section 2308.3 or 
2308.12.4. 

BRACED WALL PANEL. A section of wall braced in 
accordance with Section 2308.9.3 or 2308.12.4. 

BRICK. 

Calcium silicate (sand lime brick). A pressed and subse- 
quently autoclaved unit that consists of sand and lime, 
with or without the inclusion of other materials. 

Clay or shale. A solid or hollow masonry unit of clay or 
shale, usually formed into a rectangular prism, then burned 
or fired in a kiln; brick is a ceramic product. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



13 



DEFINITIONS 



Concrete. A concrete masonry unit made from Portland 
cement, water, and suitable aggregates, with or without the 
inclusion of other materials. 

[A] BUILDING. Any structure used or intended for support- 
ing or sheltering any use or occupancy. 

BUILDING AREA. See "Area, building." 

BUILDING ELEMENT. A fundamental component of 
building construction, listed in Table 601, which may or may 
not be of fire-resistance-rated construction and is constructed 
of materials based on the building type of construction. 

BUILDING HEIGHT. See "Height, building." 

BUILDING LINE. The line established by law, beyond 
which a building shall not extend, except as specifically pro- 
vided by law. 

[A] BUILDING OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated 
authority charged with the administration and enforcement of 
this code, or a duly authorized representative. 

BUILT-UP ROOF COVERING. Two or more layers of felt 
cemented together and surfaced with a cap sheet, mineral 
aggregate, smooth coating or similar surfacing material. 

CABLE-RESTRAINED, AIR-SUPPORTED STRUC- 
TURE. A structure in which the uplift is resisted by cables or 
webbings which are anchored to either foundations or dead 
men. Reinforcing cable or webbing is attached by various 
methods to the membrane or is an integral part of the mem- 
brane. This is not a cable-supported structure. 

CANOPY. A permanent structure or architectural projection 
of rigid construction over which a covering is attached that 
provides weather protection, identity or decoration. A can- 
opy is permitted to be structurally independent or supported 
by attachment to a building on one or more sides. 

[F] CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. 
A system supplying carbon dioxide (C0 2 ) from a pressurized 
vessel through fixed pipes and nozzles. The system includes a 
manual- or automatic-actuating mechanism. 

CARE SUITE. A group of treatment rooms, care recipient 
sleeping rooms and their associated support rooms or spaces 
and circulation space within Group 1-2 occupancies where 
staff are in attendance for supervision of all care recipients 
within the suite, and the suite is in compliance with the 
requirements of Section 407.4.3. 

CAST STONE. A building stone manufactured from Port- 
land cement concrete precast and used as a trim, veneer or 
facing on or in buildings or structures. 

[F] CEILING LIMIT. The maximum concentration of an 
air-borne contaminant to which one may be exposed. The 
ceiling limits utilized are those published in DOL 29 CFR 
Part 1910.1000. The ceiling Recommended Exposure Limit 
(REL-C) concentrations published by the U.S. National Insti- 
tute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Threshold 
Limit Value— Ceiling (TLV-C) concentrations published by 
the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygen- 
ists (ACGIH), Ceiling Work place Environmental Exposure 
Level (WEEL-Ceiling) Guides published by the American 
Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), and other approved, 



consistent measures are allowed as surrogates for hazardous 
substances not listed in DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1000. 

CEILING RADIATION DAMPER. A listed device 
installed in a ceiling membrane of a fire-resistance-rated 
floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly to limit automatically 
the radiative heat transfer through an air inlet/outlet opening. 

CELL (Group 1-3 occupancy). A room within a housing 
unit in a detention or correctional facility used to confine 
inmates or prisoners. 

CELL (masonry). A void space having a gross cross-sec- 
tional area greater than l'/ 2 square inches (967 mm 2 ). 

CELL TIER. Levels of cells vertically stacked above one 
another within a housing unit. 

CEMENT PLASTER. A mixture of portland or blended 
cement, Portland cement or blended cement and hydrated 
lime, masonry cement or plastic cement and aggregate and 
other approved materials as specified in this code. 

CERAMIC FIBER BLANKET. A mineral wool insulation 
material made of alumina-silica fibers and weighing 4 to 10 
pounds per cubic foot (pcf) (64 to 160 kg/m 3 ). 

CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE. A certificate stating 
that materials and products meet specified standards or that 
work was done in compliance with approved construction 
documents. 

[M] CHIMNEY. A primarily vertical enclosure containing 
one or more passageways for conveying flue gases to the out- 
side atmosphere. 

CHIMNEY TYPES. 

High-heat appliance type. An approved chimney for 
removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning, 
high-heat appliances producing combustion gases in 
excess of 2000°F (1093°C) measured at the appliance flue 
outlet (see Section 2113.11.3). 

Low-heat appliance type. An approved chimney for 
removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning, 
low-heat appliances producing combustion gases not in 
excess of 1000°F (538°C) under normal operating condi- 
tions, but capable of producing combustion gases of 
HOOT (760°C) during intermittent forces firing for peri- 
ods up to 1 hour. Temperatures shall be measured at the 
appliance flue outlet. 

Masonry type. A field-constructed chimney of solid 
masonry units or stones. 

Medium-heat appliance type. An approved chimney for 
removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning, 
medium-heat appliances producing combustion gases not 
exceeding 2000°F (1093°C) measured at the appliance 
flue outlet (see Section 21 13. 1 1.2). 

CIRCULATION PATH. An exterior or interior way of pas- 
sage from one place to another for pedestrians. 

[F] CLEAN AGENT. Electrically nonconducting, volatile or 
gaseous fire extinguishant that does not leave a residue upon 
vaporation. 



14 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



CLEANOUT. An opening to the bottom of a grout space of 
sufficient size and spacing to allow the removal of debris. 

CLINIC, OUTPATIENT. Buildings or portions thereof 
used to provide medical care on less than a 24-hour basis to 
persons who are not rendered incapable of self-preservation 
by the services provided. 

[F] CLOSED SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazard- 
ous material involving a closed vessel or system that remains 
closed during normal operations where vapors emitted by the 
product are not liberated outside of the vessel or system and 
the product is not exposed to the atmosphere during normal 
operations; and all uses of compressed gases. Examples of 
closed systems for solids and liquids include product con- 
veyed through a piping system into a closed vessel, system or 
piece of equipment. 

COLLAR JOINT. Vertical longitudinal space between 
wythes of masonry or between masonry wythe and backup 
construction that is permitted to be filled with mortar or 
grout. 

COLLECTOR. A horizontal diaphragm element parallel 
and in line with the applied force that collects and transfers 
diaphragm shear forces to the vertical elements of the lateral- 
force-resisting system and/or distributes forces within the 
diaphragm. 

COMBINATION FIRE/SMOKE DAMPER. A listed 
device installed in ducts and air transfer openings designed to 
close automatically upon the detection of heat and resist the 
passage of flame and smoke. The device is installed to oper- 
ate automatically, controlled by a smoke detection system, 
and where required, is capable of being positioned from afire 
command center 

[F] COMBUSTIBLE DUST. Finely divided solid material 
that is 420 microns or less in diameter and which, when dis- 
persed in air in the proper proportions, could be ignited by a 
flame, spark or other source of ignition. Combustible dust 
will pass through a U.S. No. 40 standard sieve. 

[F] COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS. Readily ignitable and free- 
burning materials in a fibrous or shredded form, such as 
cocoa fiber, cloth, cotton, excelsior, hay, hemp, henequen, 
istle, jute, kapok, oakum, rags, sisal, Spanish moss, straw, 
tow, wastepaper, certain synthetic fibers or other like materi- 
als. This definition does not include densely packed baled 
cotton. 

[F] COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. A liquid having a closed 
cup flash point at or above 100°F (38°C). Combustible liq- 
uids shall be subdivided as follows: 

Class II. Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or 
above 100°F (38°C) and below U0°F (60°C). 

Class IIIA. Liquids having a closed cup flask point at or 
above MOT (60°C) and below 200°F (93°C). 

Class IIIB. Liquids having a closed cap flash point at or 
above 200°F (93 °C). 

The category of combustible liquids does not include com- 
pressed gases or cryogenic fluids. 



COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL. That portion of 
exit access which the occupants are required to traverse 
before two separate and distinct paths of egress travel to two 
exits are available. Paths that merge are common paths of 
travel. Common paths of egress travel shall be included 
within the permitted travel distance. 

COMMON USE. Interior or exterior circulation paths, 
rooms, spaces or elements that are not for public use and are 
made available for the shared use of two or more people. 

[F] COMPRESSED GAS. A material, or mixture of materi- 
als, that: 

1. Is a gas at 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 pounds per square 
inch atmosphere (psia) (101 kPa) of pressure; and 

2. Has a boiling point of 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 psia 
(101 kPa) which is either liquefied, nonliquefied or in 
solution, except those gases which have no other 
health- or physical-hazard properties are not considered 
to be compressed until the pressure in the packaging 
exceeds 41 psia (282 kPa) at 68°F (20°C). 

The states of a compressed gas are categorized as follows: 

1. Nonliquefied compressed gases are gases, other than 
those in solution, which are in a packaging under the 
charged pressure and are entirely gaseous at a tempera- 
ture of 68°F (20°C). 

2. Liquefied compressed gases are gases that, in a packag- 
ing under the charged pressure, are partially liquid at a 
temperature of 68°F (20°C). 

3. Compressed gases in solution are nonliquefied gases 
that are dissolved in a solvent. 

4. Compressed gas mixtures consist of a mixture of two or 
more compressed gases contained in a packaging, the 
hazard properties of which are represented by the prop- 
erties of the mixture as a whole. 

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF MASONRY. Maxi- 
mum compressive force resisted per unit of net cross-sec- 
tional area of masonry, determined by the testing of masonry 
prisms 

CONCRETE 

Carbonate aggregate. Concrete made with aggregates 
consisting mainly of calcium or magnesium carbonate, 
such as limestone or dolomite, and containing 40 percent 
or less quartz, chert or flint. 

Cellular. A lightweight insulating concrete made by mix- 
ing a preformed foam with Portland cement slurry and 
having a dry unit weight of approximately 30 pcf (480 kg/ 
m 3 ). 

Lightweight aggregate. Concrete made with aggregates 
of expanded clay, shale, slag or slate or sintered fly ash or 
any natural lightweight aggregate meeting ASTM C 330 
and possessing equivalent fire-resistance properties and 
weighing 85 to 1 15 pcf (1360 to 1840 kg/m 3 ). 

Perlite. A lightweight insulating concrete having a dry 
unit weight of approximately 30 pcf (480 kg/m 3 ) made 
with perlite concrete aggregate. Perlite aggregate is pro- 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



15 



DEFINITIONS 



duced from a volcanic rock which, when heated, expands 
to form a glass-like material of cellular structure. 

Sand-lightweight. Concrete made with a combination of 
expanded clay, shale, slag, slate, sintered fly ash, or any 
natural lightweight aggregate meeting ASTM C 330 and 
possessing equivalent fire-resistance properties and natu- 
ral sand. Its unit weight is generally between 105 and 120 
pcf (1680 and 1920 kg/m 3 ). 

Siliceous aggregate. Concrete made with normal-weight 
aggregates consisting mainly of silica or compounds other 
than calcium or magnesium carbonate, which contains 
more than 40-percent quartz, chert or flint. 

Vermiculite. A light weight insulating concrete made 
with vermiculite concrete aggregate which is laminated 
micaceous material produced by expanding the ore at high 
temperatures. When added to a Portland cement slurry the 
resulting concrete has a dry unit weight of approximately 
30 pcf (480 kg/m 3 ). 

CONGREGATE LIVING FACILITIES. A building or 
part thereof that contains sleeping units where residents share 
bathroom and/or kitchen facilities. 

[F] CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. A desig- 
nated location at a facility staffed by trained personnel on a 
continuous basis where alarm or supervisory signals are mon- 
itored and facilities are provided for notification of the fire 
department or other emergency services. 

[A] CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. Written, graphic 
and pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing 
the design, location and physical characteristics of the ele- 
ments of a project necessary for obtaining a building permit. 

CONSTRUCTION TYPES. See Section 602. 

Type I. See Section 602.2. 

Type II. See Section 602.2. 

Type III. See Section 602.3. 

Type IV. See Section 602.4. 

Type V. See Section 602.5. 

[F] CONTINUOUS GAS DETECTION SYSTEM. A gas 
detection system where the analytical instrument is main- 
tained in continuous operation and sampling is performed 
without interruption. Analysis is allowed to be performed on 
a cyclical basis at intervals not to exceed 30 minutes. 

[F] CONTROL AREA. Spaces within a building where 
quantities of hazardous materials not exceeding the maxi- 
mum allowable quantities per control area are stored, dis- 
pensed, used or handled. See also the definition of "Outdoor 
control area" in the International Fire Code. 

CONTROLLED LOW-STRENGTH MATERIAL. A self- 
compacted, cementitious material used primarily as a backfill 
in place of compacted fill. 

CONVENTIONAL LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUC- 
TION. A type of construction whose primary structural ele- 
ments are formed by a system of repetitive wood-framing 
members. See Section 2308 for conventional light-frame con- 
struction provisions. 



CORNICE. A projecting horizontal molded element located 
at or near the top of an architectural feature. 

CORRIDOR. An enclosed exit access component that 
defines and provides a path of egress travel. 

CORROSION RESISTANCE. The ability of a material to 
withstand deterioration of its surface or its properties when 
exposed to its environment. 

[F] CORROSIVE. A chemical that causes visible destruc- 
tion of, or irreversible alterations in, living tissue by chemical 
action at the point of contact. A chemical shall be considered 
corrosive if, when tested on the intact skin of albino rabbits 
by the method described in DOTn 49 CFR, Part 173.137, 
such chemical destroys or changes irreversibly the structure 
of the tissue at the point of contact following an exposure 
period of 4 hours. This term does not refer to action on inani- 
mate surfaces. 

COURT. An open, uncovered space, unobstructed to the sky, 
bounded on three or more sides by exterior building walls or 
other enclosing devices. 

COVERED MALL BUILDING. A single building enclos- 
ing a number of tenants and occupants, such as retail stores, 
drinking and dining establishments, entertainment and 
amusement facilities, passenger transportation terminals, 
offices and other similar uses wherein two or more tenants 
have a main entrance into one or more malls. Anchor build- 
ings shall not be considered as a part of the covered mall 
building. The term "covered mall building" shall include 
open mall buildings as defined below. 

Mall. A roofed or covered common pedestrian area within 
a covered mall building that serves as access for two or 
more tenants and not to exceed three levels that are open 
to each other. The term "mall" shall include open malls as 
defined below. 

Open mall. An unroofed common pedestrian way serving 
a number of tenants not exceeding three levels. Circulation 
at levels above grade shall be permitted to include open 
exterior balconies leading to exits discharging at grade. 

Open mall building. Several structures housing a number 
of tenants, such as retail stores, drinking and dining estab- 
lishments, entertainment and amusement facilities, offices, 
and other similar uses, wherein two or more tenants have a 
main entrance into one or more open malls. Anchor build- 
ings are not considered as a part of the open mall building. 

CRIPPLE WALL. A framed stud wall extending from the 
top of the foundation to the underside of floor framing for the 
lowest occupied floor level. 

[F] CRYOGENIC FLUID. A liquid having a boiling point 
lower than -150°F (-101°C) at 14.7 pounds per square inch 
atmosphere (psia) (an absolute pressure of 101 kPa). 

CUSTODIAL CARE. Assistance with day-to-day living 
tasks; such as assistance with cooking, taking medication, 
bathing, using toilet facilities and other tasks of daily living. 
Custodial care include occupants who evacuate at a slower 
rate and/or who have mental and psychiatric complications. 



16 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



DALLE GLASS. A decorative composite glazing material 
made of individual pieces of glass that are embedded in a cast 
matrix of concrete or epoxy. 

DAMPER. See "Ceiling radiation damper," "Combination 
fire/smoke damper," "Fire damper" and "Smoke damper." 

DANGEROUS. Any building, structure or portion thereof 
that meets any of the conditions described below shall be 
deemed dangerous: 

1. The building or structure has collapsed, has partially 
collapsed, has moved off its foundation or lacks the 
necessary support of the ground. 

2. There exists a significant risk of collapse, detachment 
or dislodgment of any portion, member, appurtenance 
or ornamentation of the building or structure under ser- 
vice loads. 

[F] DAY BOX. A portable magazine designed to hold explo- 
sive materials constructed in accordance with the require- 
ments for a Type 3 magazine as defined and classified in 
Chapter 56 of the International Fire Code. 

DEAD LOAD. The weight of materials of construction 
incorporated into the building, including but not limited to 
walls, floors, roofs, ceilings, stairways, built-in partitions, 
finishes, cladding and other similarly incorporated architec- 
tural and structural items, and the weight of fixed service 
equipment, such as cranes, plumbing stacks and risers, elec- 
trical feeders, heating, ventilating and air-conditioning sys- 
tems and automatic sprinkler systems. 

DECORATIVE GLASS. A carved, leaded or Dalle glass or 
glazing material whose purpose is decorative or artistic, not 
functional; whose coloring, texture or other design qualities 
or components cannot be removed without destroying the 
glazing material and whose surface, or assembly into which it 
is incorporated, is divided into segments. 

[F] DECORATIVE MATERIALS. All materials applied 
over the building interior finish for decorative, acoustical or 
other effect (such as curtains, draperies, fabrics, streamers 
and surface coverings), and all other materials utilized for 
decorative effect (such as batting, cloth, cotton, hay, stalks, 
straw, vines, leaves, trees, moss and similar items), including 
foam plastics and materials containing foam plastics. Decora- 
tive materials do not include floor coverings, ordinary win- 
dow shades, interior finish and materials 0.025 inch (0.64 
mm) or less in thickness applied directly to and adhering 
tightly to a substrate. 

DEEP FOUNDATION. A deep foundation is a foundation 
element that does not satisfy the definition of a shallow foun- 
dation. 

[F] DEFLAGRATION. An exothermic reaction, such as the 
extremely rapid oxidation of a flammable dust or vapor in air, 
in which the reaction progresses through the unburned mate- 
rial at a rate less than the velocity of sound. A deflagration 
can have an explosive effect. 

[F] DELUGE SYSTEM. A sprinkler system employing 
open sprinklers attached to a piping system connected to a 
water supply through a valve that is opened by the operation 
of a detection system installed in the same areas as the sprin- 



klers. When this valve opens, water flows into the piping sys- 
tem and discharges from all sprinklers attached thereto. 

DESIGN DISPLACEMENT. See Section 1905.1.1. 

DESIGN EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION. The 
earthquake ground motion that buildings and structures are 
specifically proportioned to resist in Section 1613. 

DESIGN FLOOD. The flood associated with the greater of 
the following two areas: 

1. Area with a flood plain subject to a 1 -percent or greater 
chance of flooding in any year; or 

2. Area designated as a flood hazard area on a commu- 
nity' s flood hazard map, or otherwise legally desig- 
nated. 

DESIGN FLOOD ELEVATION. The elevation of the 
"design flood," including wave height, relative to the datum 
specified on the community's legally designated flood hazard 
map. In areas designated as Zone AO, the design flood eleva- 
tion shall be the elevation of the highest existing grade of the 
building 's perimeter plus the depth number (in feet) specified 
on the flood hazard map. In areas designated as Zone AO 
where a depth number is not specified on the map, the depth 
number shall be taken as being equal to 2 feet (610 mm). 

DESIGN PROFESSIONAL, REGISTERED. See "Regis- 
tered design professional." 

DESIGN PROFESSIONAL IN RESPONSIBLE 
CHARGE, REGISTERED. See "Registered design profes- 
sional in responsible charge." 

DESIGN STRENGTH. The product of the nominal strength 
and a resistance factor (or strength reduction factor). 

DESIGNATED SEISMIC SYSTEM. Those nonstructural 
components that require design in accordance with Chapter 
13 of ASCE 7 and for which the component importance fac- 
tor, I P , is greater than 1 in accordance with Section 13.1.3 of 
ASCE 7. 

[F] DETACHED BUILDING. A separate single-story 
building, without a basement or crawl space, used for the 
storage or use of hazardous materials and located an 
approved distance from all structures. 

DETAILED PLAIN CONCRETE STRUCTURAL 
WALL. See Section 1905.1.1 

DETECTABLE WARNING. A standardized surface fea- 
ture built in or applied to walking surfaces or other elements 
to warn visually impaired persons of hazards on a circulation 
path. 

[F] DETECTOR, HEAT. A fire detector that senses heat- 
either abnormally high temperature or rate of rise, or both. 

[F] DETONATION. An exothermic reaction characterized 
by the presence of a shock wave in the material which estab- 
lishes and maintains the reaction. The reaction zone pro- 
gresses through the material at a rate greater than the velocity 
of sound. The principal heating mechanism is one of shock 
compression. Detonations have an explosive effect. 

DETOXIFICATION FACILITIES. Facilities that provide 
treatment for substance abuse, serving care recipients who are 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



17 



DEFINITIONS 



incapable of self-preservation or who are harmful to them- 
selves or others. 

DIAPHRAGM. A horizontal or sloped system acting to 
transmit lateral forces to the vertical-resisting elements. 
When the term "diaphragm" is used, it shall include horizon- 
tal bracing systems. 

Diaphragm, blocked. In light-frame construction, a dia- 
phragm in which all sheathing edges not occurring on a 
framing member are supported on and fastened to block- 
ing. 

Diaphragm boundary. In light-frame construction, a 
location where shear is transferred into or out of the dia- 
phragm sheathing. Transfer is either to a boundary ele- 
ment or to another force-resisting element. 

Diaphragm chord. A diaphragm boundary element per- 
pendicular to the applied load that is assumed to take axial 
stresses due to the diaphragm moment. 

Diaphragm flexible. A diaphragm is flexible for the pur- 
pose of distribution of story shear and torsional moment 
where so indicated in Section 12.3.1 of ASCE 7. 

Diaphragm, rigid. A diaphragm is rigid for the purpose 
of distribution of story shear and torsional moment when 
the lateral deformation of the diaphragm is less than or 
equal to two times the average story drift. 

Diaphram, unblocked. A diaphragm that has edge nailing 
at supporting members only. Blocking between supporting 
structural members at panel edges is not included. Dia- 
phragm panels are field nailed to supporting members. 

DIMENSIONS. 

Nominal. The specified dimension plus an allowance for 
the joints with which the units are to be laid. Nominal 
dimensions are usually stated in whole numbers. Thick- 
ness is given first, followed by height and then length. 

Specified. Dimensions specified for the manufacture or 
construction of a unit, joint element. 

[F] DISPENSING. The pouring or transferring of any mate- 
rial from a container, tank or similar vessel, whereby vapors, 
dusts, fumes, mists or gases are liberated to the atmosphere. 

DOOR, BALANCED. A door equipped with double-pivoted 
hardware so designed as to cause a semicounter balanced 
swing action when opening. 

DORMITORY. A space in a building where group sleeping 
accommodations are provided in one room, or in a series of 
closely associated rooms, for persons not members of the 
same family group, under joint occupancy and single man- 
agement, as in college dormitories or fraternity houses. 

DRAFTSTOP. A material, device or construction installed 
to restrict the movement of air within open spaces of con- 
cealed areas of building components such as crawl spaces, 
floor/ceiling assemblies, roof/ceiling assemblies and attics. 

DRAG STRUT. See "Collector." 

DRILLED SHAFT. A drilled shaft is a cast-in-place deep 
foundation element constructed by drilling a hole (with or 



without permanent casing) into soil or rock and filling it with 
fluid concrete. 

Socketed drilled shaft. A socketed drilled shaft is a 
drilled shaft with a permanent pipe or tube casing that 
extends down to bedrock and an uncased socket drilled 
into the bedrock. 

[F] DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. A 
powder composed of small particles, usually of sodium bicar- 
bonate, potassium bicarbonate, urea-potassium-based bicar- 
bonate, potassium chloride or monoammonium phosphate, 
with added particulate material supplemented by special 
treatment to provide resistance to packing, resistance to mois- 
ture absorption (caking) and the proper flow capabilities. 

DRY FLOODPROOFING. A combination of design modi- 
fications that results in a building or structure, including the 
attendant utility and sanitary facilities, being water tight with 
walls substantially impermeable to the passage of water and 
with structural components having the capacity to resist loads 
as identified in ASCE 7. 

DURATION OF LOAD. The period of continuous applica- 
tion of a given load, or the aggregate of periods of intermit- 
tent applications of the same load. 

DWELLING. A building that contains one or two dwelling 
units used, intended or designed to be used, rented, leased, let 
or hired out to be occupied for living purposes. 

DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete, inde- 
pendent living facilities for one or more persons, including 
permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking 
and sanitation. 

DWELLING UNIT OR SLEEPING UNIT, MULTI- 
STORY. See definition for "Multistory unit." 

EGRESS COURT. A court or yard which provides access to 
a public way for one or more exits. 

[F] ELEVATOR GROUP. A grouping of elevators in a 
building located adjacent or directly across from one another 
that responds to common hall call buttons. 

[F] EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. A system to pro- 
vide indication and warning of emergency situations involv- 
ing hazardous materials. 

[F] EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. An approved 
location on the premises where signals from emergency 
equipment are received and which is staffed by trained per- 
sonnel. 

EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. An 
operable window, door or other similar device that provides 
for a means of escape and access for rescue in the event of an 
emergency. 

[F] EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICA- 
TIONS. Dedicated manual or automatic facilities for origi- 
nating and distributing voice instructions, as well as alert and 
evacuation signals pertaining to a fire emergency, to the 
occupants of a building. 

EMPLOYEE WORK AREA. All or any portion of a space 
used only by employees and only for work. Corridors, toilet 



18 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



rooms, kitchenettes and break rooms are not employee work 
areas. 

ENTRANCE, PUBLIC. See "Public entrance." 

ENTRANCE, RESTRICTED. See "Restricted entrance." 

ENTRANCE, SERVICE. See "Service entrance." 

EQUIPMENT PLATFORM. An unoccupied, elevated plat- 
form used exclusively for mechanical systems or industrial 
process equipment, including the associated elevated walk- 
ways, stairs, alternating tread devices and ladders necessary 
to access the platform (see Section 505.3). 

ESSENTIAL FACILITIES. Buildings and other structures 
that are intended to remain operational in the event of 
extreme environmental loading from flood, wind, snow or 
earthquakes 

[F] EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. An appliance or piece of 
equipment that consists of a top, a back and two sides provid- 
ing a means of local exhaust for capturing gases, fumes, 
vapors and mists. Such enclosures include laboratory hoods, 
exhaust fume hoods and similar appliances and equipment 
used to locally retain and exhaust the gases, fumes, vapors 
and mists that could be released. Rooms or areas provided 
with general ventilation, in themselves, are not exhausted 
enclosures. 

EXISTING CONSTRUCTION. Any buildings and struc- 
tures for which the start of construction commenced before 
the effective date of the community's first flood plain man- 
agement code, ordinance or standard. "Existing construction" 
is also referred to as "existing structures." 

EXISTING STRUCTURE (For Section 1612.2). See 

"Existing construction". 

EXISTING STRUCTURE (For Chapter 34). A structure 
erected prior to the date of adoption of the appropriate code, 
or one for which a legal building permit has been issued. 

EXIT. That portion of a means of egress system between the 
exit access and the exit discharge ox public way. Exit compo- 
nents include exterior exit doors at the level of exit discharge, 
interior exit stairways, interior exit ramps, exit passageways, 
exterior exit stairways and exterior exit ramps and horizontal 
exits. 

EXIT ACCESS. That portion of a means of egress system 
that leads from any occupied portion of a building or struc- 
ture to an exit. 

EXIT ACCESS DOORWAY. A door or access point along 
the path of egress travel from an occupied room, area or space 
where the path of egress enters an intervening room, corri- 
dor, exit access stair or exit access ramp. 

EXIT ACCESS RAMP. An interior ramp that is not a 
required interior exit ramp. 

EXIT ACCESS STAIRWAY. An interior stairway that is 
not a required interior exit stairway. 

EXIT DISCHARGE. That portion of a means of egress sys- 
tem between the termination of an exit and a public way. 

EXIT DISCHARGE, LEVEL OF. The story at the point at 
which an exit terminates and an exit discharge begins. 



EXIT HARDWARE, FIRE. See "Fire exit hardware." 

EXIT, HORIZONTAL. A path of egress travel from one 
building to an area in another building on approximately the 
same level, or a path of egress travel through or around a wall 
or partition to an area on approximately the same level in the 
same building, which affords safety from fire and smoke 
from the area of incidence and areas communicating there- 
with. 

EXIT PASSAGEWAY. An exit component that is separated 
from other interior spaces of a building or structure by fire- 
resistance-rated construction and opening protectives, and 
provides for a protected path of egress travel in a horizontal 
direction to an exit or to the exit discharge. 

EXPANDED VINYL WALL COVERING. Wall covering 
consisting of a woven textile backing, an expanded vinyl base 
coat layer and a nonexpanded vinyl skin coat. The expanded 
base coat layer is a homogeneous vinyl layer that contains a 
blowing agent. During processing, the blowing agent decom- 
poses, causing this layer to expand by forming closed cells. 
The total thickness of the wall covering is approximately 
0.055 inch to 0.070 inch (1 .4 mm to 1.78 mm). 

[F] EXPLOSION. An effect produced by the sudden violent 
expansion of gases, which may be accompanied by a shock 
wave or disruption, or both, of enclosing materials or struc- 
tures. An explosion could result from any of the following: 

1 . Chemical changes such as rapid oxidation, deflagration 
or detonation, decomposition of molecules and run- 
away polymerization (usually detonations). 

2. Physical changes such as pressure tank ruptures. 

3. Atomic changes (nuclear fission or fusion). 

[F] EXPLOSIVE. A chemical compound, mixture or device, 
the primary or common purpose of which is to function by 
explosion. The term includes, but is not limited to, dynamite, 
black powder, pellet powder, initiating explosives, detona- 
tors, safety fuses, squibs, detonating cord, igniter cord, ignit- 
ers and display fireworks, 1.3G. 

The term "explosive" includes any material determined to 
be within the scope of USC Title 18: Chapter 40 and also 
includes any material classified as an explosive other than 
consumer fireworks, 1 .4G by the hazardous materials regula- 
tions of DOTn 49 CFR Parts 100-185. 

High explosive. Explosive material, such as dynamite, 
which can be caused to detonate by means of a No. 8 test 
blasting cap when unconfined. 

Low explosive. Explosive material that will burn or defla- 
grate when ignited. It is characterized by a rate of reaction 
that is less than the speed of sound. Examples of low 
explosives include, but are not limited to, black powder; 
safety fuse; igniters; igniter cord; fuse lighters; fireworks, 
1 .3G and propellants, 1 .3C. 

Mass-detonating explosives. Division 1.1, 1.2 and 1.5 
explosives alone or in combination, or loaded into various 
types of ammunition or containers, most of which can be 
expected to explode virtually instantaneously when a 
small portion is subjected to fire, severe concussion, 
impact, the impulse of an initiating agent or the effect of a 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



19 



DEFINITIONS 



considerable discharge of energy from without. Materials 
that react in this manner represent a mass explosion haz- 
ard. Such an explosive will normally cause severe struc- 
tural damage to adjacent objects. Explosive propagation 
could occur immediately to other items of ammunition and 
explosives stored sufficiently close to and not adequately 
protected from the initially exploding pile with a time 
interval short enough so that two or more quantities must 
be considered as one for quantity-distance purposes. 

UN/DOTn Class 1 explosives. The former classification 
system used by DOTn included the terms "high" and 
"low" explosives as defined herein. The following terms 
further define explosives under the current system applied 
by DOTn for all explosive materials defined as hazard 
Class 1 materials. Compatibility group letters are used in 
concert with the division to specify further limitations on 
each division noted (i.e., the letter G identifies the material 
as a pyrotechnic substance or article containing a pyro- 
technic substance and similar materials). 

Division 1.1. Explosives that have a mass explosion 
hazard. A mass explosion is one which affects almost 
the entire load instantaneously. 

Division 1.2. Explosives that have a projection hazard 
but not a mass explosion hazard. 

Division 1.3. Explosives that have a fire hazard and 
either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard 
or both, but not a mass explosion hazard. 

Division 1.4. Explosives that pose a minor explosion 
hazard. The explosive effects are largely confined to 
the package and no projection of fragments of apprecia- 
ble size or range is to be expected. An external fire 
must not cause virtually instantaneous explosion of 
almost the entire contents of the package. 

Division 1.5. Very insensitive explosives. This division 
is comprised of substances that have a mass explosion 
hazard, but that are so insensitive there is very little 
probability of initiation or of transition from burning to 
detonation under normal conditions of transport. 

Division 1.6. Extremely insensitive articles which do 
not have a mass explosion hazard. This division is com- 
prised of articles that contain only extremely insensi- 
tive detonating substances and which demonstrate a 
negligible probability of accidental initiation or propa- 
gation. 

EXTERIOR INSULATION AND FINISH SYSTEMS 
(EIFS). EIFS are nonstructural, nonload-bearing, exterior 
wall cladding systems that consist of an insulation board 
attached either adhesively or mechanically, or both, to the 
substrate; an integrally reinforced base coat and a textured 
protective finish coat. 

EXTERIOR INSULATION AND FINISH SYSTEMS 
(EIFS) WITH DRAINAGE. An EIFS that incorporates a 
means of drainage applied over a water-resistive barrier. 

EXTERIOR SURFACES. Weather-exposed surfaces. 

EXTERIOR WALL. A wall, bearing or nonbearing, that is 
used as an enclosing wall for a building, other than a fire 



wall, and that has a slope of 60 degrees (1.05 rad) or greater 
with the horizontal plane. 

EXTERIOR WALL COVERING. A material or assembly 
of materials applied on the exterior side of exterior walls for 
the purpose of providing a weather-resisting barrier, insula- 
tion or for aesthetics, including but not limited to, veneers, 
siding, exterior insulation and finish systems, architectural 
trim and embellishments such as cornices, soffits, facias, gut- 
ters and leaders. 

EXTERIOR WALL ENVELOPE. A system or assembly of 
exterior wall components, including exterior wall finish 
materials, that provides protection of the building structural 
members, including framing and sheathing materials, and 
conditioned interior space, from the detrimental effects of the 
exterior environment. 

F RATING. The time period that the through-penetration 
firestop system limits the spread of fire through the penetra- 
tion when tested in accordance with ASTM E 814 or UL 
1479. 

FABRIC PARTITION. A partition consisting of a finished 
surface made of fabric, without a continuous rigid backing, 
that is directly attached to a framing system in which the ver- 
tical framing members are spaced greater than 4 feet (1219 
mm) on center. 

FABRICATED ITEM. Structural, load-bearing or lateral 
load-resisting assemblies consisting of materials assembled 
prior to installation in a building or structure, or subjected to 
operations such as heat treatment, thermal cutting, cold work- 
ing or reforming after manufacture and prior to installation in 
a building or structure. Materials produced in accordance 
with standard specifications referenced by this code, such as 
rolled structural steel shapes, steel reinforcing bars, masonry 
units and wood structural panels, or in accordance with a ref- 
erenced standard which provides requirements for quality 
control done under the supervisions of a third-party quality 
control agency, shall not be considered "fabricated items." | 

[F] FABRICATION AREA. An area within a semiconduc- 
tor fabrication facility and related research and development 
areas in which there are processes using hazardous produc- 
tion materials. Such areas are allowed to include ancillary 
rooms or areas such as dressing rooms and offices that are 
directly related to the fabrication area processes. 

FACILITY. All or any portion of buildings, structures, site 
improvements, elements and pedestrian or vehicular routes 
located on a site. 

FACTORED LOAD. The product of a nominal load and a 
loadfactor. 

FIBER-CEMENT SIDING. A manufactured, fiber-rein- 
forcing product made with an inorganic hydraulic or calcium 
silicate binder formed by chemical reaction and reinforced 
with discrete organic or inorganic nonasbestos fibers, or both. 
Additives that enhance manufacturing or product perfor- 
mance are permitted. Fiber-cement siding products have 
either smooth or textured faces and are intended for exterior 
wall and related applications. 

FIBER-REINFORCED POLYMER. A polymeric compos- I 
ite material consisting of reinforcement fibers, such as glass, | 



20 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



impregnated with a fiber-binding polymer which is then 
molded and hardened. Fiber-reinforced polymers are permit- 
ted to contain cores laminated between fiber-reinforced poly- 
mer facings. 

FIBERBOARD. A fibrous, homogeneous panel made from 
lignocellulosic fibers (usually wood or cane) and having a 
density of less than 3 1 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) (497 kg/ 
m 3 ) but more than 10 pcf (160 kg/m 3 ). 

FIELD NAILING. See "Nailing, field." 

[F] FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. See "Manual fire 
alarm box." 

[F] FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. A system compo- 
nent that receives inputs from automatic and manual fire 
alarm devices and may be capable of supplying power to 
detection devices and transponders or off-premises transmit- 
ters. The control unit may be capable of providing a transfer 
of power to the notification appliances and transfer of condi- 
tion to relays or devices. 

[F] FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. A signal initiated by a fire 
alarm-initiating device such as a manual fire alarm box, 
automatic fire detector, waterflow switch or other device 
whose activation is indicative of the presence of a fire or fire 
signature. 

[F] FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. A system or portion of a com- 
bination system consisting of components and circuits 
arranged to monitor and annunciate the status of fire alarm or 
supervisory signal-initiating devices, and to initiate the appro- 
priate response to those signals. 

FIRE AREA. The aggregate floor area enclosed and 
bounded by fire walls, fire barriers, exterior walls or hori- 
zontal assemblies of a building. Areas of the building not pro- 
vided with surrounding walls shall be included in the fire area 
if such areas are included within the horizontal projection of 
the roof or floor next above. 

FIRE BARRIER. A fire-resistance-rated wall assembly of 
materials designed to restrict the spread of fire in which con- 
tinuity is maintained. 

[F] FIRE COMMAND CENTER. The principal attended or 
unattended location where the status of detection, alarm com- 
munications and control systems is displayed, and from 
which the systems can be manually controlled. 

FIRE DAMPER. A listed device installed in ducts and air 
transfer openings designed to close automatically upon detec- 
tion of heat and resist the passage of flame. Fire dampers are 
classified for use in either static systems that will automati- 
cally shut down in the event of a fire, or in dynamic systems 
that continue to operate during a fire. A dynamic fire damper 
is tested and rated for closure under elevated temperature air- 
flow. 

[F] FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. A device designed 
to detect the presence of a fire signature and to initiate action. 

FIRE DOOR. The door component of afire door assembly. 

FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. Any combination of a fire door, 
frame, hardware and other accessories that together provide a 
specific degree of fire protection to the opening. 



FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY, FLOOR. See "Floor fire door 
assembly." 

FIRE EXIT HARDWARE. Panic hardware that is listed 
for use on fire door assemblies. 

[F] FIRE LANE. A road or other passageway developed to 
allow the passage of fire apparatus. A fire lane is not neces- 
sarily intended for vehicular traffic other than fire apparatus. 

FIRE PARTITION. A vertical assembly of materials 
designed to restrict the spread of fire in which openings are 
protected. 

FIRE PROTECTION RATING. The period of time that an 
opening protective will maintain the ability to confine a fire 
as determined by tests prescribed in Section 715. Ratings are 
stated in hours or minutes. 

[F] FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. Approved devices, 
equipment and systems or combinations of systems used to 
detect a fire, activate an alarm, extinguish or control a fire, 
control or manage smoke and products of a fire or any combi- 
nation thereof. 

FIRE-RATED GLAZING. Glazing with either a fire pro- 
tection rating or afire-resistance rating. 

FIRE RESISTANCE. That property of materials or their 
assemblies that prevents or retards the passage of excessive 
heat, hot gases or flames under conditions of use. 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING. The period of time a build- 
ing element, component or assembly maintains the ability to 
confine a fire, continues to perform a given structural func- 
tion, or both, as determined by the tests, or the methods based 
on tests, prescribed in Section 703. 

FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEM. An assemblage of 
specific materials or products that are designed, tested and 
fire-resistance rated in accordance with either ASTM E 1966 
or UL 2079 to resist for a prescribed period of time the pas- 
sage of fire through joints made in or between fire-resistance- 
rated assemblies. 

[F] FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS. Building and fire control 
functions that are intended to increase the level of life safety 
for occupants or to control the spread of harmful effects of 

fire. 

FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE. The distance measured 
from the building face to one of the following: 

1 . The closest interior lot line; 

2. To the centerline of a street, an alley or public way; or 

3. To an imaginary line between two buildings on the 
property. 

The distance shall be measured at right angles from the 
face of the wall. 

FIRE WALL. A fire-resistance-rated wall having protected 
openings, which restricts the spread of fire and extends con- 
tinuously from the foundation to or through the roof, with 
sufficient structural stability under fire conditions to allow 
collapse of construction on either side without collapse of the 
wall. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



21 



DEFINITIONS 



FIRE WINDOW ASSEMBLY. A window constructed and 
glazed to give protection against the passage of fire. 

FIREBLOCKING. Building materials, or materials 
approved for use as fireblocking, installed to resist the free 
passage of flame to other areas of the building through con- 
cealed spaces. 

FIREPLACE. A hearth and fire chamber or similar prepared 
place in which a fire may be made and which is built in con- 
junction with a chimney. 

FIREPLACE THROAT. The opening between the top of 
the firebox and the smoke chamber. 

FIRESTOP, MEMBRANE PENETRATION. See "Mem- 
brane penetration firestop." 

FIRESTOP, PENETRATION. See "Penetration firestop." 

FIRESTOP SYSTEM, THROUGH PENETRATION. 
See "Through penetration firestop system." 

[F] FIREWORKS. Any composition or device for the pur- 
pose of producing a visible or audible effect for entertainment 
purposes by combustion, deflagration or detonation that 
meets the definition of 1.4G fireworks or 1.3G fireworks as 
set forth herein. 

Fireworks, 1.3G. Large fireworks devices, which are 
explosive materials, intended for use in fireworks displays 
and designed to produce audible or visible effects by com- 
bustion, deflagration or detonation. Such 1.3G fireworks 
include, but are not limited to, firecrackers containing 
more than 130 milligrams (2 grains) of explosive composi- 
tion, aerial shells containing more than 40 grams of pyro- 
technic composition, and other display pieces which 
exceed the limits for classification as 1 .4G fireworks. Such 
1.3G fireworks are also described as fireworks, UN0335 
by the DOTn. 

Fireworks, 1.4G. Small fireworks devices containing 
restricted amounts of pyrotechnic composition designed 
primarily to produce visible or audible effects by combus- 
tion. Such 1.4G fireworks which comply with the con- 
struction, chemical composition and labeling regulations 
of the DOTn for fireworks, UN0336, and the U.S. Con- 
sumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) as set forth in 
CPSC 16 CFR: Parts 1500 and 1507, are not explosive 
materials for the purpose of this code. 

FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO). A commercial busi- 
ness granted the right by the airport sponsor to operate on an 
airport and provide aeronautical services, such as fueling, 
hangaring, tie-down and parking, aircraft rental, aircraft 
maintenance and flight instruction. 

FIXED SEATING. Furniture or fixture designed and 
installed for the use of sitting and secured in place including 
bench-type seats and seats with or without backs or arm rests. 

FLAME SPREAD. The propagation of flame over a surface. 

FLAME SPREAD INDEX. A comparative measure, 
expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from visual 
measurements of the spread of flame versus time for a mate- 
rial tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723. 



[F] FLAMMABLE GAS. A material that is a gas at 68°F 
(20°C) or less at 14.7 pounds per square inch atmosphere 
(psia) (101 kPa) of pressure [a material that has a boiling 
point of 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 psia (101 kPa)] which: 

1 . Is ignitable at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) when in a mixture of 
1 3 percent or less by volume with air; or 

2. Has a flammable range at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) with air 
of at least 12 percent, regardless of the lower limit. 

The limits specified shall be determined at 14.7 psi (101 
kPa) of pressure and a temperature of 68°F (20°C) in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 681. 

[F] FLAMMABLE LIQUEFIED GAS. A liquefied com- 
pressed gas which, under a charged pressure, is partially liq- 
uid at a temperature of 68°F (20°C) and which is flammable. 

[F] FLAMMABLE LIQUID. A liquid having a closed cup 
flash point below 100°F (38°C). Flammable liquids are fur- 
ther categorized into a group known as Class I liquids. The 
Class I category is subdivided as follows: 

Class IA. Liquids having a. flash point below 73°F (23 °C) 
and a boiling point below 100°F (38°C). 

Class IB. Liquids having a flash point below 73°F (23°C) 
and a boiling point at or above 100°F (38°C). 

Class IC. Liquids having a flash point at or above 73°F 
(23°C) and below 100°F (38°C). The category of flamma- 
ble liquids does not include compressed gases or cryo- 
genic fluids. 

[F] FLAMMABLE MATERIAL. A material capable of 
being readily ignited from common sources of heat or at a 
temperature of 600°F (316°C) or less. 

[F] FLAMMABLE SOLID. A solid, other than a blasting 
agent or explosive, that is capable of causing fire through 
friction, absorption or moisture, spontaneous chemical 
change, or retained heat from manufacturing or processing, or 
which has an ignition temperature below 212°F (100°C) or 
which burns so vigorously and persistently when ignited as to 
create a serious hazard. A chemical shall be considered a 
flammable solid as determined in accordance with the test 
method of CPSC 16 CFR; Part 1500.44, if it ignites and burns 
with a self-sustained flame at a rate greater than 0.1 inch (2.5 
mm) per second along its major axis. 

[F] FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. The concentra- 
tion of flammable constituents in air that exceed 25 percent of 
their lower flammable limit (LFL). 

[F] FLASH POINT. The minimum temperature in degrees 
Fahrenheit at which a liquid will give off sufficient vapors to 
form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface or in the 
container, but will not sustain combustion. The flash point of 
a liquid shall be determined by appropriate test procedure and 
apparatus as specified in ASTM D 56, ASTM D 93 or ASTM 
D 3278. 

FLIGHT. A continuous run of rectangular treads, winders or 
combination thereof from one landing to another. 



22 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 8 



DEFINITIONS 



FLOOD or FLOODING. A general and temporary condi- 
tion of partial or complete inundation of normally dry land 
from: 

1. The overflow of inland or tidal waters. 

2. The unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of sur- 
face waters from any source. 

FLOOD DAMAGE-RESISTANT MATERIALS. Any 
construction material capable of withstanding direct and pro- 
longed contact with floodwaters without sustaining any dam- 
age that requires more than cosmetic repair. 

FLOOD, DESIGN. See "Design flood." 

FLOOD ELEVATION, DESIGN. See "Design flood eleva- 
tion." 

FLOOD HAZARD AREA. The greater of the following two 
areas: 

1. The area within a flood plain subject to a 1-percent or 
greater chance of flooding in any year. 

2. The area designated as a flood hazard area on a com- 
munity's flood hazard map, or otherwise legally desig- 
nated. 

FLOOD HAZARD AREAS, SPECIAL. See "Special 
flood hazard areas." 

FLOOD HAZARD AREA SUBJECT TO HIGH- 
VELOCITY WAVE ACTION. Area within the flood haz- 
ard area that is subject to high-velocity wave action, and 
shown on a Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) or other flood 
hazard map as Zone V, VO, VE or VI -30. 

FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP (FIRM). An official 
map of a community on which the Federal emergency Man- 
agement Agency (FEMA) has delineated both the special 
flood hazard areas and the risk premium zones applicable to 
the community. 

FLOOD INSURANCE STUDY. The official report pro- 
vided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency con- 
taining the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM), the Flood 
Boundary and Floodway Map (FBFM), the water surface ele- 
vation of the base flood and supporting technical data. 

FLOODWAY. The channel of the river, creek or other 
watercourse and the adjacent land areas that must be reserved 
in order to discharge the base flood without cumulatively 
increasing the water surface elevation more than a designated 
height. 

FLOOR AREA, GROSS. The floor area within the inside 
perimeter of the exterior walls of the building under consider- 
ation, exclusive of vent shafts and courts, without deduction 
for corridors, stairways, closets, the thickness of interior 
walls, columns or other features. The floor area of a building, 
or portion thereof, not provided with surrounding exterior 
walls shall be the usable area under the horizontal projection 
of the roof or floor above. The gross floor area shall not 
include shafts with no openings or interior courts. 

FLOOR AREA, NET. The actual occupied area not includ- 
ing unoccupied accessory areas such as corridors, stairways, 
toilet rooms, mechanical rooms and closets. 



FLOOR FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. A combination of a 
fire door, a frame, hardware and other accessories installed in 
a horizontal plane, which together provide a specific degree 
of fire protection to a through-opening in a fire-resistance- 
rated floor (see Section 711.8). 

[F] FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A special sys- 
tem discharging a foam made from concentrates, either 
mechanically or chemically, over the area to be protected. 

FOAM PLASTIC INSULATION. A plastic that is inten- 
tionally expanded by the use of a foaming agent to produce a 
reduced-density plastic containing voids consisting of open 
or closed cells distributed throughout the plastic for thermal 
insulating or acoustical purposes and that has a density less 
than 20 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) (320 kg/m 3 ). 

FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING. Tiered seating 
having an overall shape and size that is capable of being 
reduced for purposes of moving or storing and is not a build- 
ing element. 

FOOD COURT. A public seating area located in the mall 
that serves adjacent food preparation tenant spaces. 

FOSTER CARE FACILITIES. Facilities that provide care 
to more than five children, 2'/, years of age or less. 

FOUNDATION PIER. An isolated vertical foundation 
member whose horizontal dimension measured at right 
angles to its thickness does not exceed three times its thick- 
ness and whose height is equal to or less than four times its 
thickness. 

FRAME STRUCTURE. A building or other structure in 
which vertical loads from floors and roofs are primarily sup- 
ported by columns. 

[F] GAS CABINET. A fully enclosed, ventilated noncom- 
bustible enclosure used to provide an isolated environment 
for compressed gas cylinders in storage or use. Doors and 
access ports for exchanging cylinders and accessing pressure- 
regulating controls are allowed to be included. 

[F] GAS ROOM. A separately ventilated, fully enclosed 
room in which only compressed gases and associated equip- 
ment and supplies are stored or used. 

[F] GASEOUS HYDROGEN SYSTEM. An assembly of 
piping, devices and apparatus designed to generate, store, 
contain, distribute or transport a nontoxic, gaseous hydrogen- 
containing mixture having at least 95-percent hydrogen gas 
by volume and not more than 1 -percent oxygen by volume. 
Gaseous hydrogen systems consist of items such as com- 
pressed gas containers, reactors and appurtenances, including 
pressure regulators, pressure relief devices, manifolds, 
pumps, compressors and interconnecting piping and tubing 
and controls. 

GLASS FIBERBOARD. Fibrous glass roof insulation con- 
sisting of inorganic glass fibers formed into rigid boards 
using a binder. The board has a top surface faced with asphalt 
and kraft reinforced with glass fiber. 

GLUED BUILT-UP MEMBER. A structural element, the 
section of which is composed of built-up lumber, wood struc- 
tural panels or wood structural panels in combination with 
lumber, all parts bonded together with structural adhesives. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



23 



DEFINITIONS 



GRADE FLOOR OPENING. A window or other opening 
located such that the sill height of the opening is not more 
than 44 inches (1118 mm) above or below the finished 
ground level adjacent to the opening. 

GRADE (LUMBER). The classification of lumber in regard 
to strength and utility in accordance with American Softwood 
Lumber Standard DOC PS 20 and the grading rules of an 
approved lumber rules- writing agency. 

GRADE PLANE. A reference plane representing the aver- 
age of finished ground level adjoining the building at exterior 
walls. Where the finished ground level slopes away from the 
exterior walls, the reference plane shall be established by the 
lowest points within the area between the building and the lot 
line or, where the lot line is more than 6 feet (1829 mm) from 
the building, between the building and a point 6 feet (1829 
mm) from the building. 

GRADE PLANE, STORY ABOVE. See "Story above 
grade plane." 

GRANDSTAND. Tiered seating supported on a dedicated 
structural system and two or more rows high and is not a 
building element (see "Bleachers"). 

GROSS LEASABLE AREA. The total floor area designed 
for tenant occupancy and exclusive use. The area of tenant 
occupancy is measured from the centerlines of joint partitions 
to the outside of the tenant walls. All tenant areas, including 
areas used for storage, shall be included in calculating gross 
leasable area. 

GROUP HOME. A facility for social rehabilitation, sub- 
stance abuse or mental health problems that contains a group 
housing arrangement that provides custodial care but does 
not provide acute care. 

GUARD. A building component or a system of building 
components located at or near the open sides of elevated 
walking surfaces that minimizes the possibility of a fall from 
the walking surface to a lower level. 

GYPSUM BOARD. Gypsum wallboard, gypsum sheathing, 
gypsum base for gypsum veneer plaster, exterior gypsum sof- 
fit board, predecorated gypsum board or water-resistant gyp- 
sum backing board complying with the standards listed in 
Tables 2506.2, 2507.2 and Chapter 35. 

GYPSUM PLASTER. A mixture of calcined gypsum or cal- 
cined gypsum and lime and aggregate and other approved 
materials as specified in this code. 

GYPSUM VENEER PLASTER. Gypsum plaster applied to 
an approved base in one or more coats normally not exceed- 
ing 7 4 inch (6.4 mm) in total thickness. 

HABITABLE SPACE. A space in a building for living, 
sleeping, eating or cooking. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, closets, 
halls, storage or utility spaces and similar areas are not con- 
sidered habitable spaces. 

[F] HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A 
fire-extinguishing system using one or more atoms of an ele- 
ment from the halogen chemical series: fluorine, chlorine, 
bromine and iodine. 



[F] HANDLING. The deliberate transport by any means to a 
point of storage or use. 

HANDRAIL. A horizontal or sloping rail intended for grasp- 
ing by the hand for guidance or support. 

HARDBOARD. A fibrous-felted, homogeneous panel made 
from lignocellulosic fibers consolidated under heat and pres- 
sure in a hot press to a density not less than 3 1 pcf (497 kg/ 
m 3 ). 

[F] HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. Those chemicals or sub- 
stances that are physical hazards or health hazards as classi- 
fied in Section 307 and the International Fire Code, whether 
the materials are in usable or waste condition. 

[F] HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). 
A solid, liquid or gas associated with semiconductor manu- 
facturing that has a degree-of-hazard rating in health, flam- 
mability or instability of Class 3 or 4 as ranked by NFPA 704 
and which is used directly in research, laboratory or produc- 
tion processes which have as their end product materials that 
are not hazardous. 

HEAD JOINT. Vertical mortar joint placed between 
masonry units within the wythe at the time the masonry units 
are laid. 

[F] HEALTH HAZARD. A classification of a chemical for 
which there is statistically significant evidence that acute or 
chronic health effects are capable of occurring in exposed 
persons. The term "health hazard" includes chemicals that are 
toxic or highly toxic, and corrosive. 

HEAT DETECTOR. See "Detector, heat." 

HEIGHT, BUILDING. The vertical distance from grade 
plane to the average height of the highest roof surface. 

HELICAL PILE. Manufactured steel deep foundation ele- 
ment consisting of a central shaft and one or more helical 
bearing plates. A helical pile is installed by rotating it into the 
ground. Each helical bearing plate is formed into a screw 
thread with a uniform defined pitch. 

HELIPAD. A structural surface that is used for the landing, 
taking off, taxiing and parking of helicopters. 

HELIPORT. An area of land or water or a structural surface 
that is used, or intended for the use, for the landing and taking 
off of helicopters, and any appurtenant areas that are used, or 
intended for use, for heliport buildings or other heliport facil- 
ities. 

HELISTOP. The same as "heliport," except that no fueling, 
defueling, maintenance, repairs or storage of helicopters is 
permitted. 

HIGH-PRESSURE DECORATIVE EXTERIOR-GRADE 
COMPACT LAMINATE (HPL). Panels consisting of layers 
of cellulose fibrous material impregnated with thermosetting 
resins and bonded together by a high-pressure process to form 
a homogeneous nonporous core suitable for exterior use. 

HIGH-PRESSURE DECORATIVE EXTERIOR-GRADE 
COMPACT LAMINATE (HPL) SYSTEM. An exterior 
wall covering fabricated using HPL in a specific assembly 
including joints, seams, attachments, substrate, framing and 
other details as appropriate to a particular design. 



24 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BU!LD!NG CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



HIGH-RISE BUILDING. A building with an occupied floor 
located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level 
of fire department vehicle access. 

[F] HIGHLY TOXIC. A material which produces a lethal 
dose or lethal concentration that falls within any of the fol- 
lowing categories: 

1. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD 50 ) of 50 
milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight when 
administered orally to albino rats weighing between 
200 and 300 grams each. 

2. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD 50 ) of 200 
milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight when 
administered by continuous contact for 24 hours (or 
less if death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare skin 
of albino rabbits weighing between 2 and 3 kilograms 
each. 

3. A chemical that has a median lethal concentration 
(LC 30 ) in air of 200 parts per million by volume or less 
of gas or vapor, or 2 milligrams per liter or less of mist, 
fume or dust, when administered by continuous inhala- 
tion for 1 hour (or less if death occurs within 1 hour) to 
albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each. 

Mixtures of these materials with ordinary materials, such 
as water, might not warrant classification as highly toxic. 
While this system is basically simple in application, any haz- 
ard evaluation that is required for the precise categorization 
of this type of material shall be performed by experienced, 
technically competent persons. 

HISTORIC BUILDINGS. Buildings that are listed in or eli- 
gible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places, or 
designated as historic under an appropriate state or local law 
(see Sections 3409 and 3411.9). 

HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLY. A fire-resistance-rated floor 
or roof assembly of materials designed to restrict the spread 
of fire in which continuity is maintained. 

HORIZONTAL EXIT. See "Exit, horizontal." 

HOSPITALS AND PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITALS. Facili- 
ties that provide care or treatment for the medical, psychiat- 
ric, obstetrical, or surgical treatment of care recipients that 
are incapable of self-preservation. 

HOUSING UNIT. A dormitory or a group of cells with a 
common dayroom in Group 1-3. 

[F] HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. An HPM liquid that is 
defined as either a Class I flammable liquid or a Class II or 
Class III A combustible liquid. 

[F] HPM ROOM. A room used in conjunction with or serv- 
ing a Group H-5 occupancy, where HPM is stored or used 
and which is classified as a Group H-2, H-3 or H-4 occu- 
pancy. 

HURRICANE-PRONE REGIONS. Areas vulnerable to 
hurricanes defined as: 

1. The U. S. Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico coasts 
where the ultimate design wind speed, V uh , for Risk 
Category buildings is greater than 115 mph (51.4 m/s); 
and 



2. Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, Virgin Islands and Ameri- 
can Samoa. 

[F] HYDROGEN CUTOFF ROOM. A room or space that 
is intended exclusively to house a gaseous hydrogen system. 

ICE-SENSITIVE STRUCTURE. A structure for which the 
effect of an atmospheric ice load governs the design of a 
structure or portion thereof. This includes, but is not limited 
to, lattice structures, guyed masts, overhead lines, light sus- 
pension and cable-stayed bridges, aerial cable systems (e.g., 
for ski lifts or logging operations), amusement rides, open 
catwalks and platforms, flagpoles and signs. 

[F] IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND 
HEALTH (IDLH). The concentration of air-borne contami- 
nants which poses a threat of death, immediate or delayed 
permanent adverse health effects, or effects that could pre- 
vent escape from such an environment. This contaminant 
concentration level is established by the National Institute of 
Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) based on both tox- 
icity and flammability. It generally is expressed in parts per 
million by volume (ppmv/v) or milligrams per cubic meter 
(mg/m 3 ). If adequate data do not exist for precise establish- 
ment of IDLH concentrations, an independent certified indus- 
trial hygienist, industrial toxicologist, appropriate regulatory 
agency or other source approved by the building official shall 
make such determination. 

IMPACT LOAD. The load resulting from moving machin- 
ery, elevators, craneways, vehicles and other similar forces 
and kinetic loads, pressure and possible surcharge from fixed 
or moving loads. 

INCAPABLE OF SELF-PRESERVATION. Persons 
because of age, physical limitations, mental limitations, 
chemical dependency, or medical treatment who cannot 
respond as an individual to an emergency situation. 

[F] INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. Materials that, when 
mixed, have the potential to react in a manner that generates 
heat, fumes, gases or byproducts which are hazardous to life 
or property. 

[F] INERT GAS. A gas that is capable of reacting with other 
materials only under abnormal conditions such as high tem- 
peratures, pressures and similar extrinsic physical forces. 
Within the context of the code, inert gases do not exhibit 
either physical or health hazard properties as defined (other 
than acting as a simple asphyxiant) or hazard properties other 
than those of a compressed gas. Some of the more common 
inert gases include argon, helium, krypton, neon, nitrogen 
and xenon. 

[F] INITIATING DEVICE. A system component that origi- 
nates transmission of a change-of-state condition, such as in a 
smoke detector, manual fire alarm box or supervisory switch. 

INSPECTION CERTIFICATE. An identification applied 
on a product by an approved agency containing the name of 
the manufacturer, the function and performance characteris- 
tics, and the name and identification of an approved agency 
that indicates that the product or material has been inspected 
and evaluated by an approved agency (see Section 1703.5 
and "Label," "Manufacturer's designation" and "Mark"). 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



25 



DEFINITIONS 



INTENDED TO BE OCCUPIED AS A RESIDENCE. 
This refers to a dwelling unit or sleeping unit that can or will 
be used all or part of the time as the occupant's place of 
abode. 

INTERIOR EXIT RAMP. An exit component that serves to 
meet one or more means of egress design requirements, such 
as required number of exits or exit access travel distance, and 
provides for a protected path of egress travel to the exit dis- 
charge or public way. 

INTERIOR EXIT STAIRWAY. An exit component that 
serves to meet one or more means of egress design require- 
ments, such as required number of exits or exit access travel 
distance, and provides for a protected path of egress travel to 
the exit discharge or public way. 

INTERIOR FINISH. Interior finish includes interior wall 
and ceiling finish and interior floor finish. 

INTERIOR FLOOR FINISH. The exposed floor surfaces 
of buildings including coverings applied over a finished floor 
or stair, including risers. 

INTERIOR FLOOR- WALL BASE. Interior floor finish 
trim used to provide a functional or decorative border at the 
intersection of walls and floors. 

INTERIOR SURFACES. Surfaces other than weather 
exposed surfaces. 

INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH. The exposed 
interior surfaces of buildings, including but not limited to: 
fixed or movable walls and partitions; toilet room privacy 
partitions; columns; ceilings; and interior wainscoting, panel- 
ing or other finish applied structurally or for decoration, 
acoustical correction, surface insulation, structural fire resis- 
tance or similar purposes, but not including trim. 

INTERLAYMENT. A layer of felt or nonbituminous satu- 
rated felt not less than 18 inches (457 mm) wide, shingled 
between each course of a wood-shake roof covering. 

INTUMESCENT FIRE-RESISTANT COATINGS. Thin 
film liquid mixture applied to substrates by brush, roller, 
spray or trowel which expands into a protective foamed layer 
to provide fire-resistant protection of the substrates when 
exposed to flame or intense heat. 

JOINT. The opening in or between adjacent assemblies that 
is created due to building tolerances, or is designed to allow 
independent movement of the building in any plane caused 
by thermal, seismic, wind or any other loading. 

[A] JURISDICTION. The governmental unit that has 
adopted this code under due legislative authority. 

L RATING. The air leakage rating of a through penetration 
firestop system or a fire-resistant joint system when tested in 
accordance with UL 1479 or UL 2079, respectively. 

[A] LABEL. An identification applied on a product by the 
manufacturer that contains the name of the manufacturer, the 
function and performance characteristics of the product or 
material, and the name and identification of an approved 
agency and that indicates that the representative sample of the 
product or material has been tested and evaluated by an 
approved agency (see Section 1703.5 and "Inspection certifi- 
cate," "Manufacturer's designation" and "Mark"). 



[A] LABELED. Equipment, materials or products to which 
has been affixed a label, seal, symbol or other identifying 
mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory, inspection 
agency or other organization concerned with product evalua- 
tion that maintains periodic inspection of the production of 
the above-labeled items and whose labeling indicates either 
that the equipment, material or product meets identified stan- 
dards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified 
purpose. 

LEVEL OF EXIT DISCHARGE. See "Exit discharge, 
level of." 

LIGHT-DIFFUSING SYSTEM. Construction consisting in 
whole or in part of lenses, panels, grids or baffles made with 
light-transmitting plastics positioned below independently 
mounted electrical light sources, skylights or light-transmit- 
ting plastic roof panels. Lenses, panels, grids and baffles that 
are part of an electrical fixture shall not be considered as a 
light-diffusing system. 

LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUCTION. A type of construc- 
tion whose vertical and horizontal structural elements are pri- 
marily formed by a system of repetitive wood or cold-formed 
steel framing members. 

LIGHT-TRANSMITTING PLASTIC ROOF PANELS. 
Structural plastic panels other than skylights that are fastened 
to structural members, or panels or sheathing and that are 
used as light-transmitting media in the plane of the roof. 

LIGHT-TRANSMITTING PLASTIC WALL PANELS. 
Plastic materials that are fastened to structural members, or to 
structural panels or sheathing, and that are used as light-trans- 
mitting media in exterior walls. 

LIMIT STATE. A condition beyond which a structure or 
member becomes unfit for service and is judged to be no lon- 
ger useful for its intended function (serviceability limit state) 
or to be unsafe (strength limit state). 

[Fj LIQUID. A material that has a melting point that is equal 
to or less than 68°F (20°C) and a boiling point that is greater 
than 68°F (20°C) at 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute 
(psia) (101 kPa). When not otherwise identified, the term 
"liquid" includes both flammable and combustible liquids. 

[F] LIQUID STORAGE ROOM. A room classified as a 
Group H-3 occupancy used for the storage of flammable or 
combustible liquids in a closed condition. 

[F] LIQUID USE, DISPENSING AND MIXING ROOM. 
A room in which Class I, II and EIA flammable or combusti- 
ble liquids are used, dispensed or mixed in open containers. 

[A] LISTED. Equipment, materials, products or services 
included in a list published by an organization acceptable to 
the building official and concerned with evaluation of prod- 
ucts or services that maintains periodic inspection of produc- 
tion of listed equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of 
services and whose listing states either that the equipment, 
material, product or service meets identified standards or has 
been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose. 

LIVE/WORK UNIT. A dwelling unit or sleeping unit in 
which a significant portion of the space includes a nonresi- 
dential use that is operated by the tenant. 



26 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



LIVE LOAD. A load produced by the use and occupancy of 
the building or other structure that does not include construc- 
tion or environmental loads such as wind load, snow load, 
rain load, earthquake load, flood load or dead load. 

LIVE LOAD, ROOF. A load on a roof produced: 

1 . During maintenance by workers, equipment and mate- 
rials; 

2. During the life of the structure by movable objects such 
as planters or other similar small decorative appurte- 
nances that are not occupancy related; or 

3. By the use and occupancy of the roof such as for roof 
gardens or assembly areas. 

LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN (LRFD). 
A method of proportioning structural members and their con- 
nections using load and resistance factors such that no appli- 
cable limit state is reached when the structure is subjected to 
appropriate load combinations. The term "LRFD" is used in 
the design of steel and wood structures. 

LOAD EFFECTS. Forces and deformations produced in 
structural members by the applied loads. 

LOAD FACTOR. A factor that accounts for deviations of 
the actual load from the nominal load, for uncertainties in the 
analysis that transforms the load into a load effect, and for the 
probability that more than one extreme load will occur simul- 
taneously. 

LOADS. Forces or other actions that result from the weight 
of building materials, occupants and their possessions, envi- 
ronmental effects, differential movement and restrained 
dimensional changes. Permanent loads are those loads in 
which variations over time are rare or of small magnitude, 
such as dead loads. All other loads are variable loads (see 
also "Nominal loads"). 

[A] LOT. A portion or parcel of land considered as a unit. 

[A] LOT LINE. A line dividing one lot from another, or 
from a street or any public place. 

[F] LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). The minimum 
concentration of vapor in air at which propagation of flame 
will occur in the presence of an ignition source. The LFL is 
sometimes referred to as "LEL" or "lower explosive limit." 

LOWEST FLOOR. The floor of the lowest enclosed area, 
including basement, but excluding any unfinished or flood- 
resistant enclosure, usable solely for vehicle parking, build- 
ing access or limited storage provided that such enclosure is 
not built so as to render the structure in violation of Section 
1612. 

MAIN WINDFORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM. An assem- 
blage of structural elements assigned to provide support and 
stability for the overall structure. The system generally 
receives wind loading from more than one surface 

MALL BUILDING, COVERED and MALL BUILDING, 
OPEN. See "Covered mall building." 

[F] MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX. A manually operated 
device used to initiate an alarm signal. 

[A] MANUFACTURER'S DESIGNATION. An identifica- 
tion applied on a product by the manufacturer indicating that 



a product or material complies with a specified standard or 
set of rules (see also "Inspection certificate," "Label" and 
"Mark"). 

I A] MARK. An identification applied on a product by the 
manufacturer indicating the name of the manufacturer and the 
function of a product or material (see also "Inspection certifi- 
cate," "Label" and "Manufacturer's designation"). 

MARQUEE. A canopy that has a top surface which is sloped 
less than 25 degrees from the horizontal and is located less 
than 10 feet (3.05 m) from operable openings above or adja- 
cent to the level of the marquee. 

MASONRY. A built-up construction or combination of 
building units or materials of clay, shale, concrete, glass, gyp- 
sum, stone or other approved units bonded together with or 
without mortar or grout or other accepted methods of joining. 

Ashlar masonry. Masonry composed of various-sized 
rectangular units having sawed, dressed or squared bed 
surfaces, properly bonded and laid in mortar. 

Coursed ashlar. Ashlar masonry laid in courses of stone 
of equal height for each course, although different courses 
shall be permitted to be of varying height. 

Glass unit masonry. Masonry composed of glass units 

bonded by mortar. 

Plain masonry. Masonry in which the tensile resistance of 
the masonry is taken into consideration and the effects of 
stresses in reinforcement are neglected. 

Random ashlar. Ashlar masonry laid in courses of stone 
set without continuous joints and laid up without drawn 
patterns. When composed of material cut into modular 
heights, discontinuous but aligned horizontal joints are 
discernible. 

Reinforced masonry. Masonry construction in which 
reinforcement acting in conjunction with the masonry is 
used to resist forces. 

Solid masonry. Masonry consisting of solid masonry 
units laid contiguously with the joints between the units 
filled with mortar. 

Unreinforced (plain) masonry. Masonry in which the 
tensile resistance of masonry is taken into consideration 
and the resistance of the reinforcing steel, if present, is 
neglected. 

MASONRY UNIT. Brick, tile, stone, glass block or concrete 
block conforming to the requirements specified in Section 
2103. 

Hollow. A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in 
any plane parallel to the load-bearing surface is less than 
75 percent of its gross cross-sectional area measured in 
the same plane. 

Solid. A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in 
every plane parallel to the load-bearing surface is 75 per- 
cent or more of its gross cross-sectional area measured in 
the same plane. 

MASTIC FIRE-RESISTANT COATINGS. Liquid mix- 
ture applied to a substrate by brush, roller, spray or trowel 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



27 



DEFINITIONS 



that provides fire-resistant protection of a substrate when 
exposed to flame or intense heat. 

MEANS OF EGRESS. A continuous and unobstructed path 
of vertical and horizontal egress travel from any occupied 
portion of a building or structure to a public way. A means of 
egress consists of three separate and distinct parts: the exit 
access, the exit and the exit discharge. 

MECHANICAL-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. 
Open parking garages employing parking machines, lifts, 
elevators or other mechanical devices for vehicles moving 
from and to street level and in which public occupancy is pro- 
hibited above the street level. 

MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT SCREEN. A rooftop struc- 
ture, not covered by a roof, used to aesthetically conceal 
plumbing, electrical or mechanical equipment from view. 

MECHANICAL SYSTEMS. For the purposes of determin- 
ing seismic loads in ASCE 7, mechanical systems shall 
include plumbing systems as specified therein. 

MEDICAL CARE. Care involving medical or surgical pro- 
cedures, nursing or for psychiatric purposes. 

MEMBRANE-COVERED CABLE STRUCTURE. A 
nonpressurized structure in which a mast and cable system 
provides support and tension to the membrane weather bar- 
rier and the membrane imparts stability to the structure. 

MEMBRANE-COVERED FRAME STRUCTURE. A 
nonpressurized building wherein the structure is composed of 
a rigid framework to support a tensioned membrane which 
provides the weather barrier. 

MEMBRANE PENETRATION. A breach in one side of a 
floor-ceiling, roof-ceiling or wall assembly to accommodate 
an item installed into or passing through the breach. 

MEMBRANE-PENETRATION FIRESTOP. A material, 
device or construction installed to resist for a prescribed time 
period the passage of flame and heat through openings in a 
protective membrane in order to accommodate cables, cable 
trays, conduit, tubing, pipes or similar items. 

MEMBRANE-PENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEM. 
An assemblage consisting of a fire-resistance-rated floor-ceil- 
ing, roof-ceiling or wall assembly, one or more penetrating 
items installed into or passing through the breach in one side 
of the assembly and the materials or devices, or both, 
installed to resist the spread of fire into the assembly for a 
prescribed period of time. 

MERCHANDISE PAD. A merchandise pad is an area for 
display of merchandise surrounded by aisles, permanent fix- 
tures or walls. Merchandise pads contain elements such as 
nonfixed and moveable fixtures, cases, racks, counters and 
partitions as indicated in Section 105.2 from which customers 
browse or shop. 

METAL COMPOSITE MATERIAL (MCM). A factory- 
manufactured panel consisting of metal skins bonded to both 
faces of a plastic core. 

METAL COMPOSITE MATERIAL (MCM) SYSTEM. 
An exterior wall covering fabricated using MCM in a specific 
assembly including joints, seams, attachments, substrate, 
framing and other details as appropriate to a particular design. 



METAL ROOF PANEL. An interlocking metal sheet hav- 
ing a minimum installed weather exposure of 3 square feet 
(0.279 m 2 ) per sheet. 

METAL ROOF SHINGLE. An interlocking metal sheet 
having an installed weather exposure less than 3 square feet 
(0.279 m 2 ) per sheet. 

MEZZANINE. An intermediate level or levels between the 
floor and ceiling of any story and in accordance with Section 
505. 

MICROPILE. A micropile is a bored, grouted-in-place deep 
foundation element that develops its load-carrying capacity 
by means of a bond zone in soil, bedrock or a combination of 
soil and bedrock. 

MINERAL BOARD. A rigid felted thermal insulation board 
consisting of either felted mineral fiber or cellular beads of 
expanded aggregate formed into flat rectangular units. 

MINERAL FIBER. Insulation composed principally of 
fibers manufactured from rock, slag or glass, with or without 
binders. 

MINERAL WOOL. Synthetic vitreous fiber insulation 
made by melting predominately igneous rock or furnace slag, 
and other inorganic materials, and then physically forming 
the melt into fibers. 

MODIFIED BITUMEN ROOF COVERING. One or more 
layers of polymer-modified asphalt sheets. The sheet materi- 
als shall be fully adhered or mechanically attached to the sub- 
strate or held in place with an approved ballast layer. 

MORTAR. A mixture consisting of cementitious materials, 
fine aggregates, water, with or without admixtures, that is 
used to construct unit masonry assemblies. 

MORTAR, SURFACE-BONDING. A mixture to bond 
concrete masonry units that contains hydraulic cement, glass 
fiber reinforcement with or without inorganic fillers or 
organic modifiers and water. 

MULTILEVEL ASSEMBLY SEATING. Seating that is 
arranged in distinct levels where each level is comprised of 
either multiple rows, or a single row of box seats accessed 
from a separate level. 

[F] MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. Two or 
more single-station alarm devices that can be interconnected 
such that actuation of one causes all integral or separate audi- 
ble alarms to operate. It also can consist of one single-station 
alarm device having connections to other detectors or to a 
manual fire alarm box. 

[F] MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. Two or 
more single-station alarm devices that are capable of inter- 
connection such that actuation of one causes the appropriate 
alarm signal to operate in all interconnected alarms. 

MULTISTORY UNIT. A dwelling unit or sleeping unit with 
tiabitable space located on more than one story. 

NAILING, BOUNDARY. A special nailing pattern required 
by design at the boundaries of diaphragms. 

NAILING, EDGE. A special nailing pattern required by 
design at the edges of each panel within the assembly of a 
diaphragm or shear wall. 



28 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



NAILING, FIELD. Nailing required between the sheathing 
panels and framing members at locations other than boundary 
nailing and edge nailing. 

NATURALLY DURABLE WOOD. The heartwood of the 
following species except for the occasional piece with corner 
sapwood, provided 90 percent or more of the width of each 
side on which it occurs is heartwood. 

Decay resistant. Redwood, cedar, black locust and black 
walnut. 

Termite resistant. Redwood, Alaska yellow cedar, East- 
ern red cedar and both heartwood and all sapwood of 
Western red cedar. 

NOMINAL LOADS. The magnitudes of the loads specified 
in Chapter 16 (dead, live, soil, wind, snow, rain, flood and 
earthquake). 

NOMINAL SIZE (LUMBER). The commercial size desig- 
nation of width and depth, in standard sawn lumber and 
glueddaminated lumber grades; somewhat larger than the 
standard net size of dressed lumber, in accordance with 
DOCPS 20 for sawn lumber and with the AF&PA NDS for 
glued-laminated lumber. 

NONCOMBUSTIBLE MEMBRANE STRUCTURE. A 
membrane structure in which the membrane and all compo- 
nent parts of the structure are noncombustible. 

[F] NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE 
(NTP). A temperature of 70°F (21 °C) and a pressure of 1 
atmosphere [14.7 psia (101 kPa)]. 

NOSING. The leading edge of treads of stairs and of land- 
ings at the top of stairway flights. 

[F] NOTIFICATION ZONE. See "Zone, notification." 

[F] NUISANCE ALARM. An alarm caused by mechanical 
failure, malfunction, improper installation or lack of proper 
maintenance, or an alarm activated by a cause that cannot be 
determined. 

NURSING HOMES. Facilities that provide care, including 
both intermediate care facilities and skilled nursing facilities 
where any of the persons are incapable of self-preservation. 

OCCUPANT LOAD. The number of persons for which the 
means of egress of a building or portion thereof is designed. 

OCCUPIABLE SPACE. A room or enclosed space 
designed for human occupancy in which individuals congre- 
gate for amusement, educational or similar purposes or in 
which occupants are engaged at labor, and which is equipped 
with means of egress and light and ventilation facilities meet- 
ing the requirements of this code. 

OPEN PARKING GARAGE. A structure or portion of a 
structure with the openings as described in Section 406.5.2 on 
two or more sides that is used for the parking or storage of 
private motor vehicles as described in Section 406.5.3. 

[F] OPEN SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous 
material involving a vessel or system that is continuously 
open to the atmosphere during normal operations and where 
vapors are liberated, or the product is exposed to the atmo- 
sphere during normal operations. Examples of open systems 



for solids and liquids include dispensing from or into open 
beakers or containers, dip tank and plating tank operations. 

[F] OPERATING BUILDING. A building occupied in con- 
junction with the manufacture, transportation or use of explo- 
sive materials. Operating buildings are separated from one 
another with the use of intraplant or intraline distances 

ORDINARY PRECAST STRUCTURAL WALL. See 
Section 1905.1.1. 

ORDINARY REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUC- 
TURAL WALL. See Section 1905.1.1. 

ORDINARY STRUCTURAL PLAIN CONCRETE 
WALL. See Section 1905.1.1. 

[F] ORGANIC PEROXIDE. An organic compound that 
contains the bivalent -O-O- structure and which may be con- 
sidered to be a structural derivative of hydrogen peroxide 
where one or both of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced 
by an organic radical. Organic peroxides can pose an explo- 
sion hazard {detonation or deflagration) or they can be shock 
sensitive. They can also decompose into various unstable 
compounds over an extended period of time. 

Class I. Those formulations that are capable of deflagra- 
tion but not detonation. 

Class II. Those formulations that burn very rapidly and 
that pose a moderate reactivity hazard. 

Class III. Those formulations that burn rapidly and that 
pose a moderate reactivity hazard. 

Class IV. Those formulations that burn in the same man- 
ner as ordinary combustibles and that pose a minimal reac- 
tivity hazard. 

Class V. Those formulations that burn with less intensity 
than ordinary combustibles or do not sustain combustion 
and that pose no reactivity hazard. 

Unclassified detonable. Organic peroxides that are capa- 
ble of detonation. These peroxides pose an extremely high 
explosion hazard through rapid explosive decomposition. 

ORTHOGONAL. To be in two horizontal directions, at 90 
degrees (1.57 rad) to each other. 

OTHER STRUCTURES. Structures, other than buildings, 
for which loads are specified in Chapter 16. 

OUTPATIENT CLINIC. See "Clinic, outpatient." 

[A] OWNER. Any person, agent, firm or corporation having 
a legal or equitable interest in the property. 

[F] OXIDIZER. A material that readily yields oxygen or 
other oxidizing gas, or that readily reacts to promote or initi- 
ate combustion of combustible materials and, if heated or 
contaminated, can result in vigorous self-sustained decompo- 
sition. 

Class 4. An oxidizer that can undergo an explosive reac- 
tion due to contamination or exposure to thermal or physi- 
cal shock and that causes a severe increase in the burning 
rate of combustible materials with which it comes into 
contact. Additionally, the oxidizer causes a severe increase 
in the burning rate and can cause spontaneous ignition of 
combustibles. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



29 



DEFINITIONS 



Class 3. An oxidizer that causes a severe increase in the 
burning rate of combustible materials with which it comes 
in contact. 

Class 2. An oxidizer that will cause a moderate increase in 
the burning rate of combustible materials with which it 
comes in contact. 

Class 1. An oxidizer that does not moderately increase the 
burning rate of combustible materials. 

[F] OXIDIZING GAS. A gas that can support and accelerate 
combustion of other materials more than air does. 

PANEL (PART OF A STRUCTURE). The section of a 
floor, wall or roof comprised between the supporting frame of 
two adjacent rows of columns and girders or column bands of 
floor or roof construction. 

PANIC HARDWARE. A door-latching assembly incorpo- 
rating a device that releases the latch upon the application of 
a force in the direction of egress travel. See also "Fire exit 
hardware." 

PART1CLEBOARD. A generic term for a panel primarily 
composed of cellulosic materials (usually wood), generally in 
the form of discrete pieces or particles, as distinguished from 
fibers. The cellulosic material is combined with synthetic 
resin or other suitable bonding system by a process in which 
the interparticle bond is created by the bonding system under 
heat and pressure. 

PENETRATION FIRESTOP. A through-penetration fire- 
stop or a membrane-penetration firestop. 

PENTHOUSE. An enclosed, unoccupied rooftop structure 
used for sheltering mechanical and electrical equipment, 
tanks, elevators and related machinery, and vertical shaft 
openings. 

PERFORMANCE CATEGORY. A designation of wood 
structural panels as related to the panel performance used in 
Chapter 23. 

[A] PERMIT. An official document or certificate issued by 
the authority having jurisdiction which authorizes perfor- 
mance of a specified activity. 

[A] PERSON. An individual, heirs, executors, administrators 
or assigns, and also includes a firm, partnership or corpora- 
tion, its or their successors or assigns, or the agent of any of 
the aforesaid. 

PERSONAL CARE SERVICE. The care of persons who do 
not require medical care. Personal care involves responsibil- 
ity for the safety of the persons while inside the building 

PHOTOLUMINESCENT. Having the property of emitting 
light that continues for a length of time after excitation by 
visible or invisible light has been removed. 

PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES/SHINGLES. A roof cov- 
ering composed of flat-plate photovoltaic modules fabricated 
in sheets that resemble three-tab composite shingles. 

[F] PHYSICAL HAZARD. A chemical for which there is 
evidence that it is a combustible liquid, cryogenic fluid, 
explosive, flammable (solid, liquid or gas), organic peroxide 
(solid or liquid), oxidizer (solid or liquid), oxidizing gas, 
pyrophoric (solid, liquid or gas), unstable (reactive) material 



(solid, liquid or gas) or water-reactive material (solid or liq- 
uid), 

[F] PHYSIOLOGICAL WARNING THRESHOLD 
LEVEL. A concentration of air-borne contaminants, nor- 
mally expressed in parts per million (ppm) or milligrams per 
cubic meter (mg/m 3 ), that represents the concentration at 
which persons can sense the presence of the contaminant due 
to odor, irritation or other quick-acting physiological 
response. When used in conjunction with the permissible 
exposure limit (PEL) the physiological warning threshold 
levels are those consistent with the classification system used 
to establish the PEL. See the definition of "Permissible expo- 
sure limit (PEL)" in the International Fire Code. 

PLACE OF RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. See "Religious wor- 
ship, place of." 

PLASTIC, APPROVED. Any thermoplastic, thermosetting 
or reinforced thermosetting plastic material that conforms to 
combustibility classifications specified in the section applica- 
ble to the application and plastic type. 

PLASTIC GLAZING. Plastic materials that are glazed or 
set in frame or sash and not held by mechanical fasteners that 
pass through the glazing material. 

PLATFORM. A raised area within a building used for wor- 
ship, the presentation of music, plays or other entertainment; 
the head table for special guests; the raised area for lecturers 
and speakers; boxing and wrestling rings; theater-in-the- 
round stages; and similar purposes wherein there are no over- 
head hanging curtains, drops, scenery or stage effects other 
than lighting and sound. A temporary platform is one 
installed for not more than 30 days. 

POLYPROPYLENE SIDING. A shaped material, made 
principally from polypropylene homopolymer, or copolymer, 
which in some cases contains fillers or reinforcements, that is 
used to clad exterior walls of buildings. 

PORCELAIN TILE. Porcelain tile shall conform to the 
requirements of ANSI 137.1.3 for ceramic tile having an 
absorption of 0.5 percent or less according to ANSI 137.4.1— 
Class Table and ANSI 137.1.6.1 Allowable Properties by Tile 
Type-Table 10. 

POSITIVE ROOF DRAINAGE. The drainage condition in 
which consideration has been made for all loading deflections 
of the roof deck, and additional slope has been provided to 
ensure drainage of the roof within 48 hours of precipitation. 

PREFABRICATED WOOD I- JOIST. Structural member 
manufactured using sawn or structural composite lumber 
flanges and wood structural panel webs bonded together with 
exterior exposure adhesives, which forms an "I" cross-sec- 
tional shape. 

PRESTRESSED MASONRY. Masonry in which internal 
stresses have been introduced to counteract potential tensile 
stresses in masonry resulting from applied loads. 

PRIMARY FUNCTION. A primary function is a major 
activity for which the facility is intended. Areas that contain a 
primary function include, but are not limited to, the customer 
service lobby of a bank, the dining area of a cafeteria, the 
meeting rooms in a conference center, as well as offices and 



30 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 8 



DEFINITIONS 



other work areas in which the activities of the public accom- 
modation or other private entity using the facility are carried 
out. Mechanical rooms, boiler rooms, supply storage rooms, 
employee lounges or locker rooms, janitorial closets, 
entrances, corridors and restrooms are not areas containing a 
primary function. 

PRIMARY STRUCTURAL FRAME. The primary struc- 
tural frame shall include all of the following structural mem- 
bers: 

1. The columns; 

2. Structural members having direct connections to the 
columns, including girders, beams, trusses and span- 
drels; 

3. Members of the floor construction and roof construc- 
tion having direct connections to the columns; and 

4. Bracing members that are essential to the vertical sta- 
bility of the primary structural frame under gravity 
loading shall be considered part of the primary struc- 
tural frame whether or not the bracing member carries 
gravity loads. 

PRISM. An assemblage of masonry units and mortar with or 
without grout used as a test specimen for determining proper- 
ties of the masonry. 

PROSCENIUM WALL. The wall that separates the stage 
from the auditorium or assembly seating area. 

| PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITALS. See "Hospitals." 

PUBLIC ENTRANCE. An entrance that is not a service 
entrance or a restricted entrance. 

PUBLIC-USE AREAS. Interior or exterior rooms or spaces 
that are made available to the general public. 

[A] PUBLIC WAY. A street, alley or other parcel of land 
open to the outside air leading to a street, that has been 
deeded, dedicated or otherwise permanently appropriated to 
the public for public use and which has a clear width and 
height of not less than 10 feet (3048 mm). 

[F] PYROPHORIC. A chemical with an auto-ignition tem- 
perature in air, at or below a temperature of 1 30°F (54.4°C). 

[F] PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION. A chemical mix- 
ture that produces visible light displays or sounds through a 
self-propagating, heat-releasing chemical reaction which is 
initiated by ignition. 

RAMP. A walking surface that has a running slope steeper 
than one unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope). 

RAMP-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. Open 
parking garages employing a series of continuously rising 
floors or a series of interconnecting ramps between floors 
permitting the movement of vehicles under their own power 
from and to the street level. 

[F] RECORD DRAWINGS. Drawings ("as builts") that 
document the location of all devices, appliances, wiring 
sequences, wiring methods and connections of the compo- 
nents of a fire alarm system as installed. 

REFLECTIVE PLASTIC CORE FOIL INSULATION. 
An insulation material packaged in rolls, that is less than 0.5 



inches thick, with at least one exterior low emittance surface 
(0. 1 or less) and a core material containing voids or cells. 

[A] REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An indi- 
vidual who is registered or licensed to practice their respec- 
tive design profession as defined by the statutory 
requirements of the professional registration laws of the state 
or jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed. 

[A] REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL IN 
RESPONSIBLE CHARGE. A registered design profes- 
sional engaged by the owner to review and coordinate certain 
aspects of the project, as determined by the building official, 
for compatibility with the design of the building or structure, 
including submittal documents prepared by others, deferred 
submittal documents and phased submittal documents. 

RELIGIOUS WORSHIP, PLACE OF. A building or por- 
tion thereof intended for the performance of religious ser- 
vices. 

[A] REPAIR. The reconstruction or renewal of any part of an 
existing building for the purpose of its maintenance. 

REROOFING. The process of recovering or replacing an 
existing roof covering. See "Roof recover" and "Roof 
replacement." 

RESIDENTIAL AIRCRAFT HANGAR. An accessory 
building less than 2,000 square feet (186 m 2 ) and 20 feet 
(6096 mm) in building height constructed on a one- or two- 
family property where aircraft are stored. Such use will be 
considered as a residential accessory use incidental to the 
dwelling. 

RESISTANCE FACTOR. A factor that accounts for devia- 
tions of the actual strength from the nominal strength and the 
manner and consequences of failure (also called "strength 
reduction factor"). 

RESTRICTED ENTRANCE. An entrance that is made 
available for common use on a controlled basis, but not public 
use, and that is not a service entrance. 

RETRACTABLE AWNING. A retractable awning is a 
cover with a frame that retracts against a building or other 
structure to which it is entirely supported. 

RISK CATEGORY. A categorization of buildings and other 
structures for determination of flood, wind, snow, ice and 
earthquake loads based on the risk associated with unaccept- 
able performance. 

RISK-TARGETED MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTH- 
QUAKE (MCE R ) GROUND MOTION RESPONSE 
ACCELERATIONS. The most severe earthquake effects con- 
sidered by this code, determined for the orientation that results in 
the largest maximum response to horizontal ground motions and 
with adjustment for targeted risk. 

ROOF ASSEMBLY (For application to Chapter 15 only). 
A system designed to provide weather protection and resis- 
tance to design loads. The system consists of a roof covering 
and roof deck or a single component serving as both the roof 
covering and the roof deck. A roof assembly includes the roof 
deck, vapor retarder, substrate or thermal barrier, insulation, 
vapor retarder and roof covering. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



31 



DEFINITIONS 



ROOF COVERING. The covering applied to the roof deck 
for weather resistance, fire classification or appearance. 

ROOF COVERING SYSTEM. See "Roof assembly." 

ROOF DECK. The flat or sloped surface constructed on top 
of the exterior walls of a building or other supports for the 
purpose of enclosing the story below, or sheltering an area, to 
protect it from the elements, not including its supporting 
members or vertical supports. 

ROOF DRAINAGE, POSITIVE. See "Positive roof drain- 
age." 

ROOF RECOVER. The process of installing an additional 
roof covering over a prepared existing roof covering without 
removing the existing roof covering. 

ROOF REPAIR. Reconstruction or renewal of any part of 
an existing roof for the purposes of its maintenance. 

ROOF REPLACEMENT. The process of removing the 
existing roof covering, repairing any damaged substrate and 
installing a new roof covering. 

ROOF VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process 
of supplying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing 
such air from, attics, cathedral ceilings or other enclosed 
spaces over which a roof assembly is installed. 

ROOFTOP STRUCTURE. A structure erected on top of the 
roof deck or on top of any part of a building. 

RUBBLE MASONRY. Masonry composed of roughly 
shaped stones. 

Coursed rubble. Masonry composed of roughly shaped 
stones fitting approximately on level beds and well 
bonded. 

Random rubble. Masonry composed of roughly shaped 
stones laid without regularity of coursing but well bonded 
and fitted together to form well-divided joints. 

Rough or ordinary rubble. Masonry composed of 
unsquared field stones laid without regularity of coursing 
but well bonded. 

RUNNING BOND. The placement of masonry units such 
that head joints in successive courses are horizontally offset 
at least one-quarter the unit length. 

SALLYPORT. A security vestibule with two or more doors 
or gates where the intended purpose is to prevent continuous 
and unobstructed passage by allowing the release of only one 
door or gate at a time. 

SCISSOR STAIR. Two interlocking stairways providing 
two separate paths of egress located within one stairwell 
enclosure. 

SCUPPER. An opening in a wall or parapet that allows water 
to drain from a roof. 

SECONDARY MEMBERS. The following structural mem- 
bers shall be considered secondary members and not part of 
the primary structural frame: 

1. Structural members not having direct connections to 
the columns; 



2. Members of the floor construction and roof construe- I 
tion not having direct connections to the columns; and j 

3. Bracing members other than those that are part of the 
primary structural frame. 

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY. A classification 
assigned to a structure based on its risk category and the 
severity of the design earthquake ground motion at the site. 

SEISMIC FORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM. That part of 
the structural system that has been considered in the design to 
provide the required resistance to the prescribed seismic 
forces. 

SELF-CLOSING. As applied to afire door or other opening 
protective, means equipped with an device that will ensure 
closing after having been opened. 

SELF-LUMINOUS. Illuminated by a self-contained power 
source, other than batteries, and operated independently of 
external power sources. 

SELF-PRESERVATION, INCAPABLE OF. See "Incapa- 
ble of self-preservation." 

SELF-SERVICE STORAGE FACILITY. Real property 
designed and used for the purpose of renting or leasing indi- 
vidual storage spaces to customers for the purpose of storing 
and removing personal property on a self-service basis. 

[F] SERVICE CORRIDOR. A fully enclosed passage used 
for transporting HPM and purposes other than required 
means of egress. 

SERVICE ENTRANCE. An entrance intended primarily for 
delivery of goods or services. 

SHAFT. An enclosed space extending through one or more 
stories of a building, connecting vertical openings in succes- 
sive floors, or floors and roof. 

SHAFT ENCLOSURE. The walls or construction forming 
the boundaries of a shaft. 

SHALLOW FOUNDATION. A shallow foundation is an 
individual or strip footing, a mat foundation, a slab-on-grade 
foundation or a similar foundation element. 

SHEAR WALL. (For Chapter 23) A wall designed to resist 
lateral forces parallel to the plane of a wall. 

Shear wall, perforated. A wood structural panel sheathed 
wall with openings, that has not been specifically designed 
and detailed for force transfer around openings. 

Shear wall segment, perforated. A section of shear wall 
with full-height sheathing that meets the height-to-width 
ratio limits of Section 4.3.4 of AF&PA SDPWS. 

SHEAR WALL (For Chapter 21) 

Detailed plain masonry shear wall. A masonry shear 
wall designed to resist lateral forces neglecting stresses in 
reinforcement, and designed in accordance with Section 
2106.1. 

Intermediate prestressed masonry shear wall. A pre- 
stressed masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral 
forces considering stresses in reinforcement, and designed 
in accordance with Section 2106.1. 



32 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 8 



DEFINITIONS 



Intermediate reinforced masonry shear wall. A 
masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces consid- 
ering stresses in reinforcement, and designed in accor- 
dance with Section 2106.1. 

Ordinary plain masonry shear wall. A masonry shear 
wall designed to resist lateral forces neglecting stresses in 
reinforcement, and designed in accordance with Section 
2106.1. 

Ordinary plain prestressed masonry shear wall. A pre- 
stressed masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral 
forces considering stresses in reinforcement, and designed 
in accordance with Section 2106.1. 

Ordinary reinforced masonry shear wall. A masonry 
shear wall designed to resist lateral forces considering 
stresses in reinforcement, and designed in accordance with 
Section 2106.1. 

Special prestressed masonry shear wall. A prestressed 
masonry shear wall designed to resist lateral forces consid- 
ering stresses in reinforcement and designed in accordance 
with Section 2106.1 except that only grouted, laterally 
restrained tendons are used. 

Special reinforced masonry shear wall. A masonry 
shear wall designed to resist lateral forces considering 
stresses in reinforcement, and designed in accordance with 
Section 2106.1. 

SINGLE-PLY MEMBRANE. A roofing membrane that is 
field applied using one layer of membrane material (either 
homogeneous or composite) rather than multiple layers. 

[F] SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. An assembly 
incorporating the detector, the control equipment and the 
alarm-sounding device in one unit, operated from a power 
supply either in the unit or obtained at the point of installa- 
tion. 

SITE. A parcel of land bounded by a lot line or a designated 
portion of a public right-of-way. 

SITE CLASS. A classification assigned to a site based on the 
types of soils present and their engineering properties as 
defined in Section 1613.3.2. 

SITE COEFFICIENTS. The values of F a and F v indicated 
in Tables 1613.3.3(1) and 1613.3.3(2), respectively. 

SITE-FABRICATED STRETCH SYSTEM. A system, 
fabricated on site and intended for acoustical, tackable or aes- 
thetic purposes, that is comprised of three elements: 

1 . A frame (constructed of plastic, wood, metal or other 
material) used to hold fabric in place, 

2. A core material (infill, with the correct properties for 
the application), and 

3. An outside layer, comprised of a textile, fabric or vinyl, 
that is stretched taut and held in place by tension or 
mechanical fasteners via the frame. 

SKYLIGHT, UNIT. A factory-assembled, glazed fenestra- 
tion unit, containing one panel of glazing material that allows 
for natural lighting through an opening in the roof assembly 
while preserving the weather-resistant barrier of the roof. 



SKYLIGHTS AND SLOPED GLAZING. Glass or other 
transparent or translucent glazing material installed at a slope 
of 15 degrees (0.26 rad) or more from vertical. Glazing mate- 
rial in skylights, including unit skylights, solariums, sun- 
rooms, roofs and sloped walls, are included in this definition. 

SLEEPING UNIT. A room or space in which people sleep, 
which can also include permanent provisions for living, eat- 
ing, and either sanitation or kitchen facilities but not both. 
Such rooms and spaces that are also part of a dwelling unit 
are not sleeping units. 

[F] SMOKE ALARM. A single- or multiple-station alarm 
responsive to smoke. See also definitions of "Multiple-sta- 
tion smoke alarm" and "Single station smoke alarm." 

SMOKE BARRIER. A continuous membrane, either verti- 
cal or horizontal, such as a wall, floor or ceiling assembly, 
that is designed and constructed to restrict the movement of 

smoke. 

SMOKE COMPARTMENT. A space within a building 
enclosed by smoke barriers on all sides, including the top and 
bottom. 

SMOKE DAMPER. A listed device installed in ducts and 
air transfer openings designed to resist the passage of smoke. 
The device is installed to operate automatically, controlled by 
a smoke detection system, and where required, is capable of 
being positioned from afire command center. 

[F] SMOKE DETECTOR. A listed device that senses visi- 
ble or invisible particles of combustion. 

SMOKE-DEVELOPED INDEX. A comparative measure, 
expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from measure- 
ments of smoke obscuration versus time for a material tested 
in accordance with ASTM E 84. 

SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY SEATING. Seating 
served by means of egress that is not subject to smoke accu- 
mulation within or under a structure. 

SMOKEPROOF ENCLOSURE. An exit stairway designed 
and constructed so that the movement of the products of com- 
bustion produced by a fire occurring in any part of the build- 
ing into the enclosure is limited. 

[F] SOLID. A material that has a melting point, decomposes 
or sublimes at a temperature greater than 68°F (20°C). 

SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDING. A special amuse- 
ment building is any temporary or permanent building or por- 
tion thereof that is occupied for amusement, entertainment or 
educational purposes and that contains a device or system 
that conveys passengers or provides a walkway along, around 
or over a course in any direction so arranged that the means of 
egress path is not readily apparent due to visual or audio dis- 
tractions or is intentionally confounded or is not readily avail- 
able because of the nature of the attraction or mode of 
conveyance through the building or structure. 

SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD AREA. The land area sub- 
ject to flood hazards and shown on a Flood Insurance Rate 
Map or other flood hazard map as Zone A, AE, A 1-30, A99, 
AR, AO, AH, V, VO, VE or VI -30. 

SPECIAL INSPECTION. Inspection of construction requir- 
ing the expertise of an approved special inspector in order to 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



33 



DEFINITIONS 



ensure compliance with this code and the approved construc- 
tion documents. 

Continuous special inspection. Special inspection by the 
special inspector who is present when and where the work 
to be inspected is being performed. 

Periodic special inspection. Special inspection by the 
special inspector who is intermittently present where the 
work to be inspected has been or is being performed. 

SPECIAL INSPECTOR. A qualified person employed or 
retained by an approved agency and approvedby the building 
official as having the competence necessary to inspect a par- 
ticular type of construction requiring special inspection. 

SPECIAL STRUCTURAL WALL. See Section 1905.1.1. 

SPECIFIED. Required by construction documents. 

SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF 
MASONRY, f' m . Minimum compressive strength, expressed 
as force per unit of net cross-sectional area, required of the 
masonry used in construction by the construction documents, 
and upon which the project design is based. Whenever the 
quantity f' m is under the radical sign, the square root of 
numerical value only is intended and the result has units of 
pounds per square inch (psi) (MPa). 

SPLICE. The result of a factory and/or field method of join- 
ing or connecting two or more lengths of a fire-resistant joint 
system, into a continuous entity. 

SPRAYED FIRE-RESISTANT MATERIALS. Cementi- 
tious or fibrous materials that are sprayed to provide fire- 
resistant protection of the substrates. 

STACK BOND. The placement of masonry units in a bond 
pattern is such that head joints in successive courses are verti- 
cally aligned. For the purpose of this code, requirements for 
stack bond shall apply to masonry laid in other than running 
bond. 

STAGE. A space within a building utilized for entertainment 
or presentations, which includes overhead hanging curtains, 
drops, scenery or stage effects other than lighting and sound. 

STAIR. A change in elevation, consisting of one or more ris- 
ers. 

STAIR, SCISSOR. See "Scissor stair." 

STAIRWAY. One or more flights of stairs, either exterior or 
interior, with the necessary landings and platforms connect- 
ing them, to form a continuous and uninterrupted passage 
from one level to another. 

STAIRWAY, EXIT ACCESS. See "Exit access stairway." 

STAIRWAY, EXTERIOR. A stairway that is open on at 
least one side, except for required structural columns, beams, 
handrails and guards. The adjoining open areas shall be 
either yards, courts or public ways. The other sides of the 
exterior stairway need not be open. 

STAIRWAY, INTERIOR. A stairway not meeting the defi- 
nition of an exterior stairway. 

STAIRWAY, INTERIOR EXIT. See "Interior exit stair- 
way." 



STAIRWAY, SPIRAL. A stairway having a closed circular 
form in its plan view with uniform section-shaped treads 
attached to and radiating from a minimum-diameter support- 
ing column. 

[F] STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF. Standpipe 
classes are as follows: 

Class I system. A system providing 2'/ 2 -inch (64 mm) 
hose connections to supply water for use by fire depart- 
ments and those trained in handling heavy fire streams. 

Class II system. A system providing l'/,-inch (38 mm) 
hose stations to supply water for use primarily by the 
building occupants or by the fire department during initial 
response. 

Class III system. A system providing l'/ 2 -inch (38 mm) 
hose stations to supply water for use by building occu- 
pants and 2'/ 2 -inch (64 mm) hose connections to supply a 
larger volume of water for use by fire departments and 
those trained in handling heavy fire streams. 

[F] STANDPIPE, TYPES OF. Standpipe types are as fol- 
lows: 

Automatic dry. A dry standpipe system, normally filled 
with pressurized air, that is arranged through the use of a 
device, such as dry pipe valve, to admit water into the sys- 
tem piping automatically upon the opening of a hose 
valve. The water supply for an automatic dry standpipe 
system shall be capable of supplying the system demand. 

Automatic wet. A wet standpipe system that has a water 
supply that is capable of supplying the system demand 
automatically. 

Manual dry. A dry standpipe system that does not have a 
permanent water supply attached to the system. Manual 
dry standpipe systems require water from a fire depart- 
ment pumper to be pumped into the system through the 
fire department connection in order to meet the system 
demand. 

Manual wet. A wet standpipe system connected to a water 
supply for the purpose of maintaining water within the 
system but does not have a water supply capable of deliv- 
ering the system demand attached to the system. Manual- 
wet standpipe systems require water from a fire depart- 
ment pumper (or the like) to be pumped into the system in 
order to meet the system demand. 

Semiautomatic dry. A dry standpipe system that is 
arranged through the use of a device, such as a deluge 
valve, to admit water into the system piping upon activa- 
tion of a remote control device located at a hose connec- 
tion. A remote control activation device shall be provided 
at each hose connection. The water supply for a semiauto- 
matic dry standpipe system shall be capable of supplying 
the system demand. 

START OF CONSTRUCTION. The date of issuance for 
new construction and substantial improvements to existing 
structures, provided the actual start of construction, repair, 
reconstruction, rehabilitation, addition, placement or other 
improvement is within 180 days after the date of issuance. 
The actual start of construction means the first placement of 



34 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



permanent construction of a building (including a manufac- 
tured home) on a site, such as the pouring of a slab or foot- 
ings, installation of pilings or construction of columns. 

Permanent construction does not include land preparation 
(such as clearing, excavation, grading or filling), the installa- 
tion of streets or walkways, excavation for a basement, foot- 
ings, piers or foundations, the erection of temporary forms or 
the installation of accessory buildings such as garages or 
sheds not occupied as dwelling units or not part of the main 
building. For a substantial improvement, the actual "start of 
construction" means the first alteration of any wall, ceiling, 
floor or other structural part of a building, whether or not that 
alteration affects the external dimensions of the building. 

STEEL CONSTRUCTION, COLD-FORMED. That type 
of construction made up entirely or in part of steel structural 
members cold formed to shape from sheet or strip steel such 
as roof deck, floor and wall panels, studs, floor joists, roof 
joists and other structural elements. 

STEEL JOIST. Any steel structural member of a building or 
structure made of hot-rolled or cold-formed solid or open- 
web sections, or riveted or welded bars, strip or sheet steel 
members, or slotted and expanded, or otherwise deformed 
rolled sections. 

STEEL MEMBER, STRUCTURAL. Any steel structural 
member of a building or structure consisting of a rolled steel 
structural shape other than cold-formed steel, or steel joist 
members. 

STEEP SLOPE. A roof slope greater than two units vertical 
in 12 units horizontal (17-percent slope). 

STONE MASONRY. Masonry composed of field, quarried 
or cast stone units bonded by mortar. 

Ashlar stone masonry. Stone masonry composed of rect- 
angular units having sawed, dressed or squared bed sur- 
faces and bonded by mortar. 

Rubble stone masonry. Stone masonry composed of 
irregular-shaped units bonded by mortar. 

[F] STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. The keep- 
ing, retention or leaving of hazardous materials in closed con- 
tainers, tanks, cylinders, or similar vessels; or vessels 
supplying operations through closed connections to the ves- 
sel. 

STORM SHELTER. A building, structure or portions 
thereof, constructed in accordance with ICC 500 and desig- 
nated for use during a severe wind storm event, such as a hur- 
ricane or tornado. 

Community storm shelter. A storm shelter not defined as 
a "Residential Storm Shelter." 

Residential storm shelter. A storm shelter serving occu- 
pants of dwelling units and having an occupant load not 
exceeding 16 persons. 

STORY. That portion of a building included between the 
upper surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or 
roof next above (also see "Basement," "Building height," 
"Grade plane " and "Mezzanine"). It is measured as the verti- 
cal distance from top to top of two successive tiers of beams 
or finished floor surfaces and, for the topmost story, from the 



top of the floor finish to the top of the ceiling joists or, where 
there is not a ceiling, to the top of the roof rafters. 

STORY ABOVE GRADE PLANE. Any story having its 
finished floor surface entirely above grade plane, or in which 
the finished surface of the floor next above is: 

1 . More than 6 feet (1 829 mm) above grade plane; or 

2. More than 12 feet (3658 mm) above the finished 
ground level at any point. 

STRENGTH (For Chapter 21). 

Design strength. Nominal strength multiplied by a 
strength reduction factor. 

Nominal strength. Strength of a member or cross section 
calculated in accordance with these provisions before 
application of any strength-reduction factors. 

Required strength. Strength of a member or cross section 
required to resist factored loads. 

STRENGTH (For Chapter 16). 

Nominal strength. The capacity of a structure or member 
to resist the effects of loads, as determined by computa- 
tions using specified material strengths and dimensions 
and equations derived from accepted principles of struc- 
tural mechanics or by field tests or laboratory tests of 
scaled models, allowing for modeling effects and differ- 
ences between laboratory and field conditions. 

Required strength. Strength of a member, cross section 
or connection required to resist factored loads or related 
internal moments and forces in such combinations as stip- 
ulated by these provisions. 

Strength Design. A method of proportioning structural 
members such that the computed forces produced in the 
members by factored loads do not exceed the member 
design strength [also called "load and resistance factor 
design" (LRFD)]. The term "strength design" is used in 
the design of concrete and masonry structural elements. 

STRUCTURAL COMPOSITE LUMBER. Structural 
member manufactured using wood elements bonded together 
with exterior adhesives. Examples of structural composite 
lumber are: 

Laminated strand lumber (LSL). A compsite of wood 
strand elements with wood fibers primarily oriented along 
the length of the member, where the least dimension of the 
wood strand elements is 0.10 inches (2.54 mm) or less and 
their average lengths are a minimum of 150 times the least 
dimension of the wood strand elements. 

Laminated veneer lumber (LVL). A composite of wood 
veneer sheet elements with wood fibers primarily oriented 
along the length of the member, where the veneer element 
thicknesses are 0.25 inches (6.4 mm) or less. 

Oriented strand lumber (OSL). A composite of wood 
strand elements with wood fibers primarily oriented along 
the length of the member, where the least dimension of the 
wood strand elements is 0.10 inches (2.54 mm) or less and 
their average lengths are a minimum of 75 times and less 
than 1 50 times the least dimension of the wood strand ele- 
ments. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



35 



DEFINITIONS 



Parallel strand lumber (PSL). A composite of wood 
strand elements with wood fibers primarily oriented along 
the length of the member where the least dimension of the 
wood strand elements is 0.25 inches (6.4 mm) or less and 
their average lengths are a minimum of 300 times the least 
dimension of the wood strand elements. 

STRUCTURAL GLUED-LAMINATED TIMBER. An 
engineered, stress-rated product of a timber laminating plant, 
comprised of assemblies of specially selected and prepared 
wood laminations in which the grain of all laminations is 
approximately parallel longitudinally and the laminations are 
bonded with adhesives. 

STRUCTURAL OBSERVATION. The visual observation 
of the structural system by a registered design professional 
for general conformance to the approved construction docu- 
ments. Structural observation does not include or waive the 
responsibility for the inspection required by Section 110, 
1705 or other sections of this code. 

[A] STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed. 

SUBDIAPHRAGM. A portion of a larger wood diaphragm 
designed to anchor and transfer local forces to primary dia- 
phragm struts and the main diaphragm. 

SUBSTANTIAL DAMAGE. Damage of any origin sus- 
tained by a structure whereby the cost of restoring the struc- 
ture to its before-damaged condition would equal or exceed 
50 percent of the market value of the structure before the 
damage occurred. 

SUBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENT. Any repair, recon- 
struction, rehabilitation, addition or improvement of a build- 
ing or structure, the cost of which equals or exceeds 50 
percent of the market value of the structure before the 
improvement or repair is started. If the structure has sus- 
tained substantial damage, any repairs are considered sub- 
stantial improvement regardless of the actual repair work 
performed. The term does not, however, include either: 

1. Any project for improvement of a building required to 
correct existing health, sanitary or safety code viola- 
tions identified by the building official and that are the 
minimum necessary to assure safe living conditions. 

2. Any alteration of a historic structure provided that the 
alteration will not preclude the structure's continued 
designation as a historic structure. 

SUBSTANTIAL STRUCTURAL DAMAGE. A condition 
where: 

1. In any story, the vertical elements of the lateral force- 
resisting system have suffered damage such that the lat- 
eral load-carrying capacity of the structure in any hori- 

j zontal direction has been reduced by more than 33 

percent from its predamage condition; or 

2. The capacity of any vertical gravity load-carrying com- 
ponent, or any group of such components, that supports 
more than 30 percent of the total area of the structure's 
floors and roofs has been reduced more than 20 percent 
from its predamage condition and the remaining capac- 
ity of such affected elements, with respect to all dead 
and live loads, is less than 75 percent of that required 



by this code for new buildings of similar structure, pur- 
pose and location. 

[E] SUNROOM. A one-story structure attached to a building 
with a glazing area in excess of 40 percent of the gross area of 
the structure's exterior walls and roof. 

[F] SUPERVISING STATION. A facility that receives sig- 
nals and at which personnel are in attendance at all times to 
respond to these signals. 

[F] SUPERVISORY SERVICE. The service required to 
monitor performance of guard tours and the operative condi- 
tion of fixed suppression systems or other systems for the 
protection of life and property. 

[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. A signal indicating the need 
of action in connection with the supervision of guard tours, 
the fire suppression systems or equipment or the maintenance 
features of related systems. 

[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. 
An initiation device, such as a valve supervisory switch, 
water-level indicator or low-air pressure switch on a dry-pipe 
sprinkler system, whose change of state signals an off-normal 
condition and its restoration to normal of a fire protection or 
life safety system, or a need for action in connection with 
guard tours, fire suppression systems or equipment or mainte- 
nance features of related systems. 

SUSCEPTIBLE BAY. A roof or portion thereof with: 

1. A slope less than V 4 -inch per foot (0.0208 rad); or 

2. On which water is impounded upon it, in whole or in 
part, and the secondary drainage system is functional 
but the primary drainage system is blocked. 

A roof surface with a slope of V 4 -inch per foot (0.0208 
rad) or greater towards points of free drainage is not a suscep- 
tible bay. 

SWIMMING POOL. Any structure intended for swimming, 
recreational bathing or wading that contains water over 24 
inches (610 mm) deep. This includes in-ground, above- 
ground and on-ground pools; hot tubs; spas and fixed-in- 
place wading pools. 

T RATING. The time period that the penetration firestop 
system, including the penetrating item, limits the maximum 
temperature rise to 325°F (163°C) above its initial tempera- 
ture through the penetration on the nonfire side when tested 
in accordance with ASTM E 814 or UL 1479. 

TECHNICAL PRODUCTION AREA. Open elevated 
areas or spaces intended for entertainment technicians to 
walk on and occupy for servicing and operating entertain- 
ment technology systems and equipment. Galleries, includ- 
ing fly and lighting galleries, gridirons, catwalks, and similar 
areas are designed for these purposes. 

TECHNICALLY INFEASIBLE. An alteration of a build- 
ing or a facility that has little likelihood of being accom- 
plished because the existing structural conditions require the 
removal or alteration of a load-bearing member that is an 
essential part of the structural frame, or because other exist- 
ing physical or site constraints prohibit modification or addi- 
tion of elements, spaces or features which are in full and strict 



36 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



compliance with the minimum requirements for new con- 
struction and which are necessary to provide accessibility. 

TENT. A structure, enclosure or shelter, with or without 
sidewalls or drops, constructed of fabric or pliable material 
supported in any manner except by air or the contents it pro- 
tects. 

[E] THERMAL ISOLATION. A separation of conditioned 
spaces, between a sunroom and a dwelling unit, consisting of 
existing or new walls, doors or windows. 

THERMOPLASTIC MATERIAL. A plastic material that 
is capable of being repeatedly softened by increase of temper- 
ature and hardened by decrease of temperature. 

THERMOSETTING MATERIAL. A plastic material that 
is capable of being changed into a substantially nonreform- 
able product when cured. 

THIN-BED MORTAR. Mortar for use in construction of 
AAC unit masonry v/ith joints 0.06 inch (1.5 mm) or less. 

THROUGH PENETRATION. A breach in both sides of a 
floor, floor-ceiling or wall assembly to accommodate an item 
passing through the breaches. 

THROUGH-PENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEM. An 
assemblage consisting of a fire-resistance-rated floor, floor- 
ceiling, or wall assembly, one or more penetrating items pass- 
ing through the breaches in both sides of the assembly and the 
materials or devices, or both, installed to resist the spread of 
fire through the assembly for a prescribed period of time. 

TIE-DOWN (HOLD-DOWN). A device used to resist uplift 
of the chords of shear walls. 

TIE, WALL. Metal connector that connects wythes of 
masonry walls together. 

TILE, STRUCTURAL CLAY. A hollow masonry unit 
composed of burned clay, shale, fire clay or mixture thereof, 
and having parallel cells. 

[F] TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF. Storage of tires where 
the area available for storage exceeds 20,000 cubic feet (566 
m 3 ). 

[A] TOWNHOUSE. A single-family dwelling unit con- 
structed in a group of three or more attached units in which 
each unit extends from the foundation to roof and with open 
space on at least two sides. 

[F] TOXIC. A chemical falling within any of the following 
categories: 

1. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD 50 ) of 
more than 50 milligrams per kilogram, but not more 
than 500 milligrams per kilogram of body weight when 
administered orally to albino rats weighing between 
200 and 300 grams each. 

2. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD 50 ) of 
more than 200 milligrams per kilogram, but not more 
than 1,000 milligrams per kilogram of body weight 
when administered by continuous contact for 24 hours 
(or less if death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare 
skin of albino rabbits weighing between 2 and 3 kilo- 
grams each. 



3. A chemical that has a median lethal concentration 
(LC 50 ) in air of more than 200 parts per million, but not 
more than 2,000 parts per million by volume of gas or 
vapor, or more than 2 milligrams per liter but not more 
than 20 milligrams per liter of mist, fume or dust, when 
administered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour (or 
less if death occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats weigh- 
ing between 200 and 300 grams each. 

TRANSIENT. Occupancy of a dwelling unit or sleeping unit 
for not more than 30 days. 

TRANSIENT AIRCRAFT. Aircraft based at another loca- 
tion and that is at the transient location for not more than 90 
days. 

TREATED WOOD. Wood and wood-based materials that 
use vacuum-pressure impregnation processes to enhance fire 
retardant or preservative properties. 

Fire-retardant-treated wood. Pressure-treated lumber 
and plywood that exhibit reduced surface-burning charac- 
teristics and resist propagation of fire. 

Preservative-treated wood. Pressure-treated wood prod- 
ucts that exhibit reduced susceptibility to damage by 
fungi, insects or marine borers. 

TRIM. Picture molds, chair rails, baseboards, handrails, 
door and window frames and similar decorative or protective 
materials used in fixed applications. 

[F] TROUBLE SIGNAL. A signal initiated by the fire 
alarm system or device indicative of a fault in a monitored 
circuit or component. 

TUBULAR DAYLIGHTING DEVICE (TDD). A non- 
operable fenestration unit primarily designed to transmit day- 
light from a roof surface to an interior ceiling via a tubular 
conduit. The basic unit consists of an exterior glazed weather- 
ing surface, a light-transmitting tube with a reflective interior 
surface, and an interior-sealing device such as a translucent 
ceiling panel. The unit can be factory assembled, or field- 
assembled from a manufactured kit. 

24-HOUR CARE. See "24-hour care" located preceding 
"AAC masonry." 

TYPE A UNIT. A dwelling unit or sleeping unit designed 
and constructed for accessibility in accordance with this code 
and the provisions for Type A units in ICC Al 17.1. 

TYPE B UNIT. A dwelling unit or sleeping unit designed 
and constructed for accessibility in accordance with this code 
and the provisions for Type B units in ICC A 1 1 7. 1 , consistent 
with the design and construction requirements of the federal 
Fair Housing Act. 

UNDERLAYMENT. One or more layers of felt, sheathing 
paper, nonbituminous saturated felt or other approved mate- 
rial over which a steep-slope roof covering is applied. 

UNIT SKYLIGHT. See "Skylight, unit." 

[F] UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIAL. A material, 
other than an explosive, which in the pure state or as commer- 
cially produced, will vigorously polymerize, decompose, 
condense or become self-reactive and undergo other violent 
chemical changes, including explosion, when exposed to 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



37 



DEFINITIONS 



heat, friction or shock, or in the absence of an inhibitor, or in 
the presence of contaminants, or in contact with incompatible 
materials. Unstable (reactive) materials are subdivided as fol- 
lows: 

Class 4. Materials that in themselves are readily capable 
of detonation or explosive decomposition or explosive 
reaction at normal temperatures and pressures. This class 
includes materials that are sensitive to mechanical or 
localized thermal shock at normal temperatures and pres- 
sures. 

Class 3. Materials that in themselves are capable of deto- 
nation or of explosive decomposition or explosive reaction 
but which require a strong initiating source or which must 
be heated under confinement before initiation. This class 
includes materials that are sensitive to thermal or mechan- 
ical shock at elevated temperatures and pressures. 

Class 2. Materials that in themselves are normally unsta- 
ble and readily undergo violent chemical change but do 
not detonate. This class includes materials that can 
undergo chemical change with rapid release of energy at 
normal temperatures and pressures, and that can undergo 
violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and 
pressures. 

Class 1. Materials that in themselves are normally stable 
but which can become unstable at elevated temperatures 
and pressure. 

[F] USE (MATERIAL). Placing a material into action, 
including solids, liquids and gases. 

VAPOR PERMEABLE MEMBRANE. The property of 
having a moisture vapor permeance rating of 10 perms (5.7 x 
10-10 kg/Pa x s x m 2 ) or greater, when tested in accordance 
with the desiccant method using Procedure A of ASTM E 96. 
A vapor permeable material permits the passage of moisture 
vapor. 

VAPOR RETARDER CLASS. A measure of a material or 
assembly's ability to limit the amount of moisture that passes 
through that material or assembly. Vapor retarder class shall 
be defined using the desiccant method of ASTM E 96 as fol- 
lows: 

Class I: 0.1 perm or less. 

Class II: 0.1 < perm < 1 .0 perm. 

Class III: 1.0 < perm < 10 perm. 

VEHICLE BARRIER. A component or a system of compo- 
nents, near open sides of a garage floor or ramp or building 
walls that act as restraints for vehicles. 

VEHICULAR GATE. A gate that is intended for use at a 
vehicular entrance or exit to a facility, building or portion 
thereof, and that is not intended for use by pedestrian traffic. 

VENEER. A facing attached to a wall for the purpose of pro- 
viding ornamentation, protection or insulation, but not 
counted as adding strength to the wall. 

[M] VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of 
supplying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing 
such air from, any space. 



VINYL SIDING. A shaped material, made principally from 
rigid polyvinyl chloride (PVC), that is used as an exterior 
wall covering. 

[F] VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A 
notification appliance that alerts by the sense of sight. 

WALKWAY, PEDESTRIAN. A walkway used exclusively 
as a pedestrian trafficway. 

WALL. A vertical element with a horizontal length-to-thick- 
ness ratio greater than three, used to enclose space. 

Cavity wall. A wall built of masonry units or of concrete, 
or a combination of these materials, arranged to provide an 
airspace within the wall, and in which the inner and outer 
parts of the wall are tied together with metal ties. 

Composite wall. A wall built of a combination of two or 
more masonry units bonded together, one forming the 
backup and the other forming the facing elements. 

Dry-stacked, surface-bonded wall. A wall built of con- 
crete masonry units where the units are stacked dry, with- 
out mortar on the bed or head joints, and where both sides 
of the wall are coated with a surface-bonding mortar. 

Masonry-bonded hollow wall. A multi-wvr/je wall built 
of masonry units arranged to provide an air space between 
the wythes and with the wythes bonded together with 
masonry units. 

Parapet wall. The part of any wall entirely above the roof 
line. 

WALL, LOAD-BEARING. Any wall meeting either of the 
following classifications: 

1 . Any metal or wood stud wall that supports more than 
100 pounds per linear foot (1459 N/m) of vertical load 
in addition to its own weight. 

2. Any masonry or concrete wall that supports more than 
200 pounds per linear foot (2919 N/m) of vertical load 
in addition to its own weight. 

WALL, NONLOAD-BEARING. Any wall that is not a 
load-bearing wall. 

WALL PIER. See Section 1905.1.1. 

[F] WATER-REACTIVE MATERIAL. A material that 
explodes; violently reacts; produces flammable, toxic or other 
hazardous gases; or evolves enough heat to cause autoigni- 
tion or ignition of combustibles upon exposure to water or 
moisture. Water-reactive materials are subdivided as follows: 

Class 3. Materials that react explosively with water with- 
out requiring heat or confinement. 

Class 2. Materials that react violently with water or have 
the ability to boil water. Materials that produce flammable, 
toxic or other hazardous gases or evolve enough heat to 
cause autoignition or ignition of combustibles upon expo- 
sure to water or moisture. 

Class 1. Materials that react with water with some release 
of energy, but not violently. 

WATER-RESISTIVE BARRIER. A material behind an 
exterior wall covering that is intended to resist liquid water 



38 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



that has penetrated behind the exterior covering from further 
intruding into the exterior wall assembly. 

WEATHER-EXPOSED SURFACES. Surfaces of walls, 
ceilings, floors, roofs, soffits and similar surfaces exposed to 
the weather except the following: 

1. Ceilings and roof soffits enclosed by walls, fascia, 
bulkheads or beams that extend a minimum of 12 
inches (305 mm) below such ceiling or roof soffits. 

2. Walls or portions of walls beneath an unenclosed roof 
area, where located a horizontal distance from an open 
exterior opening equal to at least twice the height of the 
opening. 

3. Ceiling and roof soffits located a minimum horizontal 
distance of 10 feet (3048 mm) from the outer edges of 
the ceiling or roof soffits. 

[F] WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A 
solution of water and potassium-carbonate-based chemical, 
potassium-acetate-based chemical or a combination thereof, 
forming an extinguishing agent. 

WHEELCHAIR SPACE. A space for a single wheelchair 
and its occupant. 

WIND-BORNE DEBRIS REGION. Areas within hurri- 
cane-prone regions located: 

1. Within 1 mile (1.61 km) of the coastal mean high water 
line where the ultimate design wind speed, V idl , is 130 
mph (58 m/s) or greater; or 

2. In areas where the ultimate design wind speed is 140 
mph (63.6 m/s) or greater; or Hawaii. 

For Risk Category II buildings and structures and Risk 
Category III buildings and structures, except health care 
facilities, the windborne debris region shall be based on Fig- 
ure 1609 A. For Risk Category IV buildings and structures 
and Risk Category III health care facilities, the windborne 
debris region shall be based on Figure 1609B. 

WINDFORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM, MAIN. See 
"Main Windforce-Resisting System." 

WIND SPEED, V ull . Ultimate design wind speeds. 

WIND SPEED, V asd . Nominal design wind speeds. 

WINDER. A tread with nonparallel edges. 

WIRE BACKING. Horizontal strands of tautened wire 
attached to surfaces of vertical supports which, when covered 
with the building paper, provide a backing for cement plaster 

[F] WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM. A system or a 
part of a system that can transmit and receive signals without 
the aid of wire. 

WOOD SHEAR PANEL. A wood floor, roof or wall com- 
ponent sheathed to act as a shear wall or diaphragm. 

WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL. A panel manufactured 
from veneers, wood strands or wafers or a combination of 
veneer and wood strands or wafers bonded together with 
waterproof synthetic resins or other suitable bonding sys- 
tems. Examples of wood structural panels are: 



Composite panels. A wood structural panel that is com- 
prised of wood veneer and reconstituted wood-based 
material and bonded together with waterproof adhesive; 

Oriented strand board (OSB). A mat-formed wood 
structural panel comprised of thin rectangular wood 
strands arranged in cross-aligned layers with surface lay- 
ers normally arranged in the long panel direction and 
bonded with waterproof adhesive; or 

Plywood. A wood structural panel comprised of plies of 
wood veneer arranged in cross-aligned layers. The plies 
are bonded with waterproof adhesive that cures on appli- 
cation of heat and pressure. 

[F] WORKSTATION. A defined space or an independent 
principal piece of equipment using HPM within a fabrication 
area where a specific function, laboratory procedure or 
research activity occurs. Approved or listed hazardous mate- 
rials storage cabinets, flammable liquid storage cabinets or 
gas cabinets serving a workstation are included as part of the 
workstation. A workstation is allowed to contain ventilation 
equipment, fire protection devices, detection devices, electri- 
cal devices and other processing and scientific equipment. 

WYTHE. Each continuous, vertical section of a wall, one 
masonry unit in thickness. 

YARD. An open space, other than a court, unobstructed from 
the ground to the sky, except where specifically provided by 
this code, on the lot on which a building is situated. 

[F] ZONE. A defined area within the protected premises. A 
zone can define an area from which a signal can be received, 
an area to which a signal can be sent or an area in which a 
form of control can be executed. 

[F] ZONE, NOTIFICATION. An area within a building or 
facility covered by notification appliances which are acti- 
vated simultaneously. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 3 



39 



40 201 2 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 3 

USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



SECTION 301 
GENERAL 

301.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall control the 
classification of all buildings and structures as to use and 
occupancy. 



SECTION 302 
CLASSIFICATION 

302.1 General. Structures or portions of structures shall be 
classified with respect to occupancy in one or more of the 
groups listed in this section. A room or space that is intended 
to be occupied at different times for different purposes shall 
comply with all of the requirements that are applicable to 
each of the purposes for which the room or space will be 
occupied. Structures with multiple occupancies or uses shall 
comply with Section 508. Where a structure is proposed for a 
purpose that is not specifically provided for in this code, such 
structure shall be classified in the group that the occupancy 
most nearly resembles, according to the fire safety and rela- 
tive hazard involved. 

1. Assembly (see Section 303): Groups A-l, A-2, A-3, 
A-4 and A-5 

2. Business (see Section 304): Group B 

3. Educational (see Section 305): Group E 

4. Factory and Industrial (see Section 306): Groups F-l 

and F-2 

5. High Hazard (see Section 307): Groups H-l, H-2, H- 
3, H-4 and H-5 

6. Institutional (see Section 308): Groups 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 
and 1-4 

7. Mercantile (see Section 309): Group M 

8. Residential (see Section 310): Groups R-l, R-2, R-3 
and R-4 

9. Storage (see Section 311): Groups S-l and S-2 

10. Utility and Miscellaneous (see Section 312): Group U 



SECTION 303 
ASSEMBLY GROUP A 

303.1 Assembly Group A. Assembly Group A occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a 
portion thereof, for the gathering of persons for purposes such 
as civic, social or religious functions; recreation, food or 
drink consumption or awaiting transportation. 

303.1.1 Small buildings and tenant spaces. A building or 
tenant space used for assembly purposes with an occupant 
load of less than 50 persons shall be classified as a Group 
B occupancy. 



303.1.2 Small assembly spaces. The following rooms and 
spaces shall not be classified as Assembly occupancies: 

1. A room or space used for assembly purposes with 
an occupant load of less than 50 persons and acces- 
sory to another occupancy shall be classified as a 
Group B occupancy or as part of that occupancy. 

2. A room or space used for assembly purposes that is 
less than 750 square feet (70 m 2 ) in area and acces- 
sory to another occupancy shall be classified as a 
Group B occupancy or as part of that occupancy. 

303.1.3 Associated with Group E occupancies. A room 
or space used for assembly purposes that is associated with 
a Group E occupancy is not considered a separate occu- 
pancy. 

303.1.4 Accessory to places of religious worship. 
Accessory religious educational rooms and religious audi- 
toriums with occupant loads of less than 100 are not con- 
sidered separate occupancies. 

303.2 Assembly Group A-l. Assembly uses, usually with 
fixed seating, intended for the production and viewing of the 
performing arts or motion pictures including, but not limited 
to: 

Motion picture theaters 

Symphony and concert halls 

Television and radio studios admitting an audience 

Theaters 

303.3 Assembly Group A-2. Assembly uses intended for 
food and/or drink consumption including, but not limited to: 

Banquet halls 

Casinos (gaming areas) 

Nightclubs 

Restaurants, cafeterias and similar dining facilities 

(including associated commercial kitchens) 
Taverns and bars 

303.4 Assembly Group A-3. Assembly uses intended for 
worship, recreation or amusement and other assembly uses 
not classified elsewhere in Group A including, but not limited 
to: 

Amusement arcades 

Art galleries 

Bowling alleys 

Community halls 

Courtrooms 

Dance halls (not including food or drink consumption) 

Exhibition halls 

Funeral parlors 

Gymnasiums (without spectator seating) 

Indoor swimming pools (without spectator seating) 

Indoor tennis courts (without spectator seating) 

Lecture halls 

Libraries 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



41 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



Museums 

Places of religious worship 

Pool and billiard parlors 

Waiting areas in transportation terminals 

303.5 Assembly Group A-4. Assembly uses intended for 
viewing of indoor sporting events and activities with specta- 
tor seating including, but not limited to: 

Arenas 
Skating rinks 
Swimming pools 
Tennis courts 

303.6 Assembly Group A-S. Assembly uses intended for 
participation in or viewing outdoor activities including, but 
not limited to: 

Amusement park structures 

Bleachers 

Grandstands 

Stadiums 



SECTION 304 
BUSINESS GROUPS 

304.1 Business Group B. Business Group B occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a 
portion thereof, for office, professional or service-type trans- 
actions, including storage of records and accounts. Business 
occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, the follow- 



SECTION 305 
EDUCATIONAL GROUP E 

305.1 Educational Group E. Educational Group E occu- 
pancy includes, among others, the use of a building or struc- 
ture, or a portion thereof, by six or more persons at any one 
time for educational purposes through the 12th grade. 

305.1.1 Accessory to places of religious worship. Reli- 
gious educational rooms and religious auditoriums, which 
are accessory to places of religious worship in accordance 
with Section 303.1.4 and have occupant loads of less than 
100, shall be classified as Group A-3 occupancies. 

305.2 Group E, day care facilities. This group includes 
buildings and structures or portions thereof occupied by more 
than five children older than 2'/ 2 years of age who receive 
educational, supervision or personal care services for fewer 
than 24 hours per day. 

305.2.1 Within places of religious worship. Rooms and 
spaces within places of religious worship providing such 
day care during religious functions shall be classified as 
part of the primary occupancy. 

305.2.2 Five or fewer children. A facility having five or 
fewer children receiving such day care shall be classified 
as part of the primary occupancy. 

305.2.3 Five or fewer children in a dwelling unit. A 
facility such as the above within a dwelling unit and hav- 
ing five or fewer children receiving such day care shall be 
classified as a Group R-3 occupancy or shall comply with 
the International Residential Code. 



Airport traffic control towers 

Ambulatory care facilities 

Animal hospitals, kennels and pounds 

Banks 

Barber and beauty shops 

Car wash 

Civic administration 

Clinic, outpatient 

Dry cleaning and laundries: pick-up and delivery stations 

and self-service 
Educational occupancies for students above the 12th grade 
Electronic data processing 
Laboratories: testing and research 
Motor vehicle showrooms 
Post offices 
Print shops 
Professional services (architects, attorneys, dentists, 

physicians, engineers, etc.) 
Radio and television stations 
Telephone exchanges 
Training and skill development not within a school or 

academic program 

304.2 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chap- 
ter 2: 

AMBULATORY CARE FACILITY. 
CLINIC, OUTPATIENT. 



SECTION 306 
FACTORY GROUP F 

306.1 Factory Industrial Group F. Factory Industrial Group 
F occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or 
structure, or a portion thereof, for assembling, disassembling, 
fabricating, finishing, manufacturing, packaging, repair or 
processing operations that are not classified as a Group H 
hazardous or Group S storage occupancy. 

306.2 Moderate-hazard factory industrial, Group F-l. 
Factory industrial uses which are not classified as Factory 
Industrial F-2 Low Hazard shall be classified as F-l Moder- 
ate Hazard and shall include, but not be limited to, the follow- 
ing: 

Aircraft (manufacturing, not to include repair) 

Appliances 

Athletic equipment 

Automobiles and other motor vehicles 

Bakeries 

Beverages: over 16-percent alcohol content 

Bicycles 

Boats 

Brooms or brushes 

Business machines 

Cameras and photo equipment 

Canvas or similar fabric 

Carpets and rugs (includes cleaning) 

Clothing 



42 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



Construction and agricultural machinery 

Disinfectants 

Dry cleaning and dyeing 

Electric generation plants 

Electronics 

Engines (including rebuilding) 

Food processing and commercial kitchens not associated 

with restaurants, cafeterias and similar dining facilities 
Furniture 
Hemp products 
Jute products 
Laundries 
Leather products 
Machinery 
Metals 

Millwork (sash and door) 
Motion pictures and television filming (without 

spectators) 
Musical instruments 
Optical goods 
Paper mills or products 
Photographic film 
Plastic products 
Printing or publishing 
Recreational vehicles 
Refuse incineration 
Shoes 

Soaps and detergents 
Textiles 
Tobacco 
Trailers 
Upholstering 
Wood; distillation 
Woodworking (cabinet) 

306.3 Low-hazard factory industrial, Group F-2. Factory 
industrial uses that involve the fabrication or manufacturing 
of noncombustible materials which during finishing, packing 
or processing do not involve a significant fire hazard shall be 
classified as F-2 occupancies and shall include, but not be 
limited to, the following: 

Beverages: up to and including 16-percent alcohol content 

Brick and masonry 

Ceramic products 

Foundries 

Glass products 

Gypsum 

Ice 

Metal products (fabrication and assembly) 



SECTION 307 
HIGH-HAZARD GROUP H 

[F] 307.1 High-hazard Group H. High-hazard Group H 
occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or 
structure, or a portion thereof, that involves the manufactur- 
ing, processing, generation or storage of materials that consti- 
tute a physical or health hazard in quantities in excess of 
those allowed in control areas complying with Section 414, 
based on the maximum allowable quantity limits for control 



areas set forth in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2). Hazardous 
occupancies are classified in Groups H-l, H-2, H-3, H-4 and 
H-5 and shall be in accordance with this section, the require- 
ments of Section 415 and the International Fire Code. Haz- 
ardous materials stored, or used on top of roofs or canopies 
shall be classified as outdoor storage or use and shall comply 
with the International Fire Code. 

Exceptions: The following shall not be classified as 
Group H, but shall be classified as the occupancy that they 
most nearly resemble. 

1 . Buildings and structures occupied for the applica- 
tion of flammable finishes, provided that such 
buildings or areas conform to the requirements of 
Section 416 and the International Fire Code. 

2. Wholesale and retail sales and storage of flamma- 
ble and combustible liquids in mercantile occupan- 
cies conforming to the International Fire Code. 

3. Closed piping system containing flammable or 
combustible liquids or gases utilized for the opera- 
tion of machinery or equipment. 

4. Cleaning establishments that utilize combustible 
liquid solvents having a flash point of 140°F 
(60°C) or higher in closed systems employing 
equipment listed by an approved testing agency, 
provided that this occupancy is separated from all 
other areas of the building by 1-hour fire barriers 
constructed in accordance with Section 707 or 1- 
hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accor- 
dance with Section 71 1, or both. 

5. Cleaning establishments that utilize a liquid sol- 
vent having a flash point at or above 200°F (93°C). 

6. Liquor stores and distributors without bulk storage. 

7. Refrigeration systems. 

8. The storage or utilization of materials for agricul- 
tural purposes on the premises. 

9. Stationary batteries utilized for facility emergency 
power, uninterruptable power supply or telecom- 
munication facilities, provided that the batteries 
are provided with safety venting caps and ventila- 
tion is provided in accordance with the Interna- 
tional Mechanical Code. 

10. Corrosives shall not include personal or household 
products in their original packaging used in retail 
display or commonly used building materials. 

1 1 . Buildings and structures occupied for aerosol stor- 
age shall be classified as Group S-l, provided that 
such buildings conform to the requirements of the 
International Fire Code. 

12. Display and storage of nonflammable solid and 
nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous 
materials in quantities not exceeding the maximum 
allowable quantity per control area in Group M or 
S occupancies complying with Section 414.2.5. 

13. The storage of black powder, smokeless propel] ant 
and small arms primers in Groups M and R-3 and 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



43 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



special industrial explosive devices in Groups B, F, 
M and S, provided such storage conforms to the 
quantity limits and requirements prescribed in the 
International Fire Code. 

[F] 307.1.1 Hazardous materials. Hazardous materials in 
any quantity shall conform to the requirements of this 
code, including Section 414, and the International Fire 
Code. 

[F] 307.2 Definitions. The following terms are defined in 

Chapter 2: 

AEROSOL. 

Level 1 aerosol products. 
Level 2 aerosol products. 
Level 3 aerosol products. 

AEROSOL CONTAINER. 

BALED COTTON. 

BALED COTTON, DENSELY PACKED. 

BARRICADE. 

Artificial barricade. 
Natural barricade. 

BOILING POINT. 
CLOSED SYSTEM. 
COMBUSTIBLE DUST. 
COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS. 
COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. 

Class II. 

Class II1A. 

Class IIIB. 
COMPRESSED GAS. 
CONTROL AREA. 
CORROSIVE. 
CRYOGENIC FLUID. 
DAY BOX. 
DEFLAGRATION. 
DETONATION. 
DISPENSING. 
EXPLOSION. 
EXPLOSIVE. 

High explosive. 

Low explosive. 

Mass-detonating explosives. 

UN/DOTn Class 1 explosives. 
Division 1.1. 
Division 1.2. 
Division 1.3. 
Division 1.4. 



Division 1.5. 
Division 1.6. 
FIREWORKS. 

Fireworks, 1.3G. 

Fireworks, 1.4G. 
FLAMMABLE GAS. 
FLAMMABLE LIQUEFIED GAS. 
FLAMMABLE LIQUID. 

Class IA. 

Class IB. 

Class IC. 
FLAMMABLE MATERIAL. 
FLAMMABLE SOLID. 
FLASH POINT. 
HANDLING. 

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. 
HEALTH HAZARD. 
HIGHLY TOXIC. 
INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. 
INERT GAS. 
OPEN SYSTEM. 
OPERATING BUILDING. 
ORGANIC PEROXIDE. 

Class I. 

Class II. 

Class HI. 

Class IV. 

Class V. 

Unclassified detonable. 
OXIDIZER. 

Class 4. 

Class 3. 

Class 2. 

Class 1. 
OXIDIZING GAS. 
PHYSICAL HAZARD. 
PYROPHORIC. 

PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION. 
TOXIC. 
UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIAL. 

Class 4. 

Class 3. 

Class 2. 

Class 1. 



44 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



WATER-REACTIVE MATERIAL. 

Class 3. 

Class 2. 

Class 1. 

[F] 307.3 High -hazard Group H-l. Buildings and structures 
containing materials that pose a detonation hazard shall be 
classified as Group H-l. Such materials shall include, but not 
be limited to, the following: 

Detonable pyrophoric materials 
Explosives: 

Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 
Division 1.4 
Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 



Organic peroxides, unclassified detonable 

Oxidizers, Class 4 

Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 3 detonable and Class 4 

[F] 307.3.1 Occupancies containing explosives not clas- 
sified as H-l. The following occupancies containing 
explosive materials shall be classified as follows: 

1. Division 1.3 explosive materials that are used and 
maintained in a fonn where either confinement or 
configuration will not elevate the hazard from a 
mass fire to mass explosion hazard shall be allowed 
in H-2 occupancies. 

2. Articles, including articles packaged for shipment, 
that are not regulated as a Division 1.4 explosive 
under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and 
Exoplosives regulations, or unpackaged articles 
used in process operations that do not propagate a 
detonation or deflagration between articles shall be 
allowed in H-3 occupancies. 



[F] TABLE 307.1(1) 
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARD"' l ' mnp 



MATERIAL 


CLASS 


GROUP 

WHEN THE 

MAXIMUM 

ALLOWABLE 

QUANTITY IS 

EXCEEDED 


STORAGE" 


USE-CLOSED SYSTEMS" 


USE-OPEN SYSTEMS" 


Solid 
pounds 
(cubic 

feet) 


Liquid 
gallons 
(pounds) 


Gas 

(cubic feet 

at NTP) 


Solid 
pounds 
(cubic 

feet) 


Liquid 
gallons 
(pounds) 


Gas 

(cubic feet 

at NTP) 


Solid 
pounds 
(cubic 

feet) 


Liquid 
gallons 
(pounds) 


Combustible dust 


N/A 


H-2 


Noteq 


N/A 


N/A 


Noteq 


N/A 


N/A 


Noteq 


N/A 


Combustible 
liquid 0- ' 


II 
IIIA 
IIIB 


H-2 or H-3 
H-2 or H-3 

N/A 


N/A 


120 de 

330"' c 

13,200° f 


N/A 


N/A 


120 d 

330 d 

13,200* 


N/A 


N/A 


30 d 

80 d 

3,300 f 


Combustible fiber 


Loose 
Baled" 


H-3 


(100) 
(1,000) 


N/A 


N/A 


(100) 
(1,000) 


N/A 


N/A 


(20) 
(200) 


N/A 


Consumer fireworks 


1.4G 


H-3 


125 d, c ,l 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


Cryogenics, 
flammable 


N/A 


H-2 


N/A 


45 d 


N/A 


N/A 


45 d 


N/A 


N/A 


10 d 


Cryogenics, inert 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


NL 


N/A 


N/A 


NL 


N/A 


N/A 


Cryogenics, 
oxidizing 


N/A 


H-3 


N/A 


45 d 


N/A 


N/A 


45" 


N/A 


N/A 


10 d 


Explosives 


Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 
Division 1.4 
Division 1.4G 
Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 


H-l 
H-l 
H-l or H-2 
H-3 
H-3 
H-l 
H-l 


1 C - S 

50°' g 

125 d ' e '' 

l e - g 
r u, s 


(D e ' s 
(D CE 
(5)°'- 
(50)°' 8 
N/A 
(1) c 8 

N/A 


N/A 
N/A 

N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.25 E 
0.25 s 
l 8 
50 8 
N/A 
0.25 g 
N/A 


(0.25) 8 
(0.25) g 
(If 
(50)s 
N/A 
(0.25) 8 
N/A 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.25 8 

0.25 g 

l g 

N/A 
N/A 
0.25 g 
N/A 


(0.25) g 
(0.25) 8 
(l) g 
N/A 
N/A 
(0.25) g 
N/A 


Flammable gas 


Gaseous 
Liquefied 


H-2 


N/A 


N/A 
(150) d ' e 


l,000 de 

N/A 


N/A 


N/A 
(150) dc 


l,000 de 

N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


Flammable liquid 


1A 
IBandIC 


H-2 

or H-3 


N/A 


30"° 
120 de 


N/A 


N/A 


30 d 
120" 


N/A 


N/A 


10 d 
30 d 


Flammable liquid, 
combination 
(1A, IB, 1C) 


N/A 


H-2 
or H-3 


N/A 


120 d.e,h 


N/A 


N/A 


120 dh 


N/A 


N/A 


30 dh 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



45 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



[F] TABLE 307.1(1)— (continued) 
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARD 8 



MATERIAL 


CLASS 


GROUP 

WHEN THE 

MAXIMUM 

ALLOWABLE 

QUANTITY IS 

EXCEEDED 


STORAGE" 


USE-CLOSED SYSTEMS" 


USE-OPEN SYSTEMS" 


Solid 
pounds 
(cubic 

feet) 


Liquid 
gallons 
(pounds) 


Gas 

(cubic feet 

at NTP) 


Solid 
pounds 
(cubic 

feet) 


Liquid 
gallons 
(pounds) 


Gas 

(cubic feet 

at NTP) 


Solid 
pounds 
(cubic 

feet) 


Liquid 
gallons 
(pounds) 


Flammable solid 


N/A 


H-3 


125 de 


N/A 


N/A 


125 d 


N/A 


N/A 


25 d 


N/A 


Inert gas 


Gaseous 
Liquefied 


N/A 
N/A 


N/A 
N/A 


N/A 
N/A 


NL 
NL 


N/A 
N/A 


N/A 
N/A 


NL 
NL 


N/A 
N/A 


N/A 
N/A 


Organic peroxide 


UD 
I 
II 
III 
IV 
V 


H-l 
H-2 
H-3 
H-3 

N/A 
N/A 


1Cg 

50"' " 

125"' e 

NL 

NL 


(1) e. S 
(5) d,e 

(50)"' e 
(125) d ' e 

NL 

NL 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.25 s 
l d 
50" 

125 d 
NL 

NL 


(0.25) s 
(l) d 
(50) d 

(125) d 
NL 
NL 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.25 s 
l d 
10 d 
25" 
NL 
NL 


(0.25) 8 
(D d 
(10) d 
(25) d 

NL 
NL 


Oxidizer 


4 
3 k 
2 
1 


H-l 

H-2 or H-3 

H-3 

N/A 


io d -= 

250* e 
4,000 B ' f 


(10) de 

(250) d ' e 
(4,000) M 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.25 s 

2 d 

250 d 

4,000' 


(0.25) s 

(2) d 

(250) d 

(4,000)' 


N/A 

N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.25 8 

2 d 

50 d 
1,000' 


(0.25) 8 
(2) d 
(50) d 

(1,000)' 


Oxidizing gas 


Gaseous 
Liquefied 


H-3 


N/A 
N/A 


N/A 
(150f e 


l,500 dc 

N/A 


N/A 
N/A 


N/A 
(150) de 


l,500 d - e 

N/A 


N/A 
N/A 


N/A 
N/A 


Pyrophoric material 


N/A 


H-2 


4 e . E 


(4) eE 


50 e£ 


I s 


(l) s 


10 s 








Unstable (reactive) 


4 
3 
2 
1 


H-l 

H-l or H-2 

H-3 

N/A 


p. s 

5 d,e 
50 cU 

NL 


(1)^ 
(5) d ' e 
(50) d ' e 

NL 


10 s 
50 d ' e 
250 d ' e 

NL 


0.25 s 

l d 

50 d 

NL 


(0.25) s 
(l) d 

(50) d 
NL 


2 e -s 

10 de 
250 d ' e 

NL 


0.25 s 

l d 
10 d 

NL 


(0.25) £ 
(l) d 
(10) d 

NL 


Water reactive 


3 

2 
1 


H-2 
H-3 

N/A 


gd.e 

50 4e 

NL 


(5) de 
(50) d ' c 

NL 


N/A 

N/A 
N/A 


5 d 
50" 
NL 


(5) d 
(50) d 

NL 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


l d 
10 d 
NL 


(l) d 
(10) d 
NL 



For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.028 m 3 , 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 
NL = Not Limited; N/A = Not Applicable; UD = Unclassified Detonable 

a. For use of control areas, see Section 414.2. 

b. The aggregate quantity in use and storage shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage. 

c. The quantities of alcoholic beverages in retail and wholesale sales occupancies shall not be limited provided the liquids are packaged in individual containers 
not exceeding 1.3 gallons. In retail and wholesale sales occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuffs, consumer or industrial products, and cosmetics 
containing not more than 50 percent by volume of water-miscible liquids with the remainder of the solutions not being flammable, shall not be limited, 
provided that such materials are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons. 

d. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 903.3. 1.1. Where Note e also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

e. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, day boxes, gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures or in 
listed safety cans in accordance with Section 5003.9. 10 of the International Fire Code. Where Note d also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied 
accumulatively. 

f. The permitted quantities shall not be limited in a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3. 1.1. 

g. Permitted only in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 
h. Containing not more than the maximum allowable quantity per control area of Class IA, IB or IC flammable liquids. 

i. The maximum allowable quantity shall not apply to fuel oil storage complying with Section 603.3.2 of the International Fire Code. 

j. Quantities in parenthesis indicate quantity units in parenthesis at the head of each column. 

k. A maximum quantity of 200 pounds of solid or 20 gallons of liquid Class 3 oxidizers is allowed when such materials are necessary for maintenance purposes, 

operation or sanitation of equipment. Storage containers and the manner of storage shall be approved. 
1. Net weight of the pyrotechnic composition of the fireworks. Where the net weight of the pyrotechnic composition of the fireworks is not known, 25 percent of 

the gross weight of the fireworks, including packaging, shall be used. 
m.For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 5003.1.2 of the International Fire Code. 
n. For storage and display quantities in Group M and storage quantities in Group S occupancies complying with Section 414.2.5, see Tables 414.2.5(1) and 

414.2.5(2). 
o. Densely packed baled cotton that complies with the packing requirements of ISO 8115 shall not be included in this material class, 
p. The following shall not be included in determining the maximum allowable quantities: 

1 . Liquid or gaseous fuel in fuel tanks on vehicles. 

2. Liquid or gaseous fuel in fuel tanks on motorized equipment operated in accordance with this code. 

3. Gaseous fuels in piping systems and fixed appliances regulated by the International Fuel Gas Code. 

4. Liquid fuels in piping systems and fixed appliances regulated by the International Mechanical Code. 

q. Where manufactured, generated or used in such a manner that the concentration and conditions create a fire or explosion hazard based on information 
prepared in accordance with Section 414.1.3. 



46 



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USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



[F] TABLE 307.1(2) 
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POSING A HEALTH HAZARD" b ci 



MATERIAL 


STORAGE" 


USE-CLOSED SYSTEMS" 


USE-OPEN SYSTEMS" 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 6 ' ' 


Gas (cubic feet 
at NTP) e 


Solid pounds 6 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds)" 


Gas (cubic feet 
at NTP) e 


Solid pounds" 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds)' 


Corrosive 


5,000 


500 


Gaseous 8 10 f 
Liquefied 

(150) h 


5,000 


500 


Gaseous 810' 

Liquefied 

(150)" 


1,000 


100 


Highly toxic 


10 


(10) h 


Gaseous 20 s 

Liquefied 

(4)** 


10 


(lO) 1 


Gaseous 20 s 

Liquefied 

(4)M. 


3 


(3) ! 


Toxic 


500 


(500) h 


Gaseous 810' 

Liquefied 

(150)' h 


500 


(500)' 


Gaseous 810' 

Liquefied 

(150)'* 


125 


(125) 



For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.028 m 3 , 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

a. For use of control areas, see Section 414.2. 

b. In retail and wholesale sales occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuffs, consumer or industrial products, and cosmetics, containing not more than 50 
percent by volume of water-miscible liquids and with the remainder of the solutions not being flammable, shall not be limited, provided that such materials 
are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons. 

c. For storage and display quantities in Group M and storage quantities in Group S occupancies complying with Section 414.2.5, see Tables 414.2.5(1) and 
414.2.5(2). 

d. The aggregate quantity in use and storage shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage. 

e. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 903.3. 1.1. Where Note f also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

f. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures as specified in 
the International Fire Code. Where Note e also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

g. Allowed only when stored in approved exhausted gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures as specified in the International Fire Code. 
h. Quantities in parenthesis indicate quantity units in parenthesis at the head of each column. 

i. For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 5003. 1 .2 of the International Fire Code. 



[F] 307.4 High-hazard Group H-2. Buildings and structures 
containing materials that pose a deflagration hazard or a haz- 
ard from accelerated burning shall be classified as Group H- 
2. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the fol- 
lowing: 

Class I, II or IIIA flammable or combustible liquids which 
are used or stored in normally open containers or sys- 
tems, or in closed containers or systems pressurized at 
more than 15 psi (103.4 kPa) gage 

Combustible dusts where manufactured, generated or used 
in such a manner that the concentration and conditions 
create a fire or explosion hazard based on information 
prepared in accordance with Section 414.1.3 

Cryogenic fluids, flammable 

Flammable gases 

Organic peroxides, Class I 

Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally 
open containers or systems, or in closed containers or 
sytems pressurized at more than 15 psi (103 kPa) gage 

Pyrophoric liquids, solids and gases, nondetonable 

Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 3, nondetonable 

Water-reactive materials. Class 3 

[F] 307.5 High-hazard Group H-3. Buildings and structures 
containing materials that readily support combustion or that 
pose a physical hazard shall be classified as Group H-3. Such 
materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Class I, II or IIIA flammable or combustible liquids that 
are used or stored in normally closed containers or 
systems pressurized at 1 5 pounds per square inch gauge 



(103.4 kPa) or less 
Combustible fibers, other than densely packed baled 

cotton 
Consumer fireworks, 1.4G (Class C, Common) 
Cryogenic fluids, oxidizing 
Flammable solids 
Organic peroxides, Class II and III 
Oxidizers, Class 2 
Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally 

closed containers or systems pressurized at 15 pounds 

per square inch gauge (103 kPa) or less 
Oxidizing gases 

Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 2 
Water-reactive materials, Class 2 

[F] 307.6 High-hazard Group H-4. Buildings and structures 
which contain materials that are health hazards shall be clas- 
sified as Group H-4. Such materials shall include, but not be 
limited to, the following: 

Corrosives 

Highly toxic materials 

Toxic materials 

[F] 307.7 High-hazard Group H-5. Semiconductor fabrica- 
tion facilities and comparable research and development 
areas in which hazardous production materials (HPM) are 
used and the aggregate quantity of materials is in excess of 
those listed in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2) shall be classi- 
fied as Group H-5. Such facilities and areas shall be designed 
and constructed in accordance with Section 415.10. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



47 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



[F] 307.8 Multiple hazards. Buildings and structures con- 
taining a material or materials representing hazards that are 
classified in one or more of Groups H-l, H-2, H-3 and H-4 
shall conform to the code requirements for each of the occu- 
pancies so classified. 



SECTION 308 
INSTITUTIONAL GROUP I 

308.1 Institutional Group I. Institutional Group I occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a 
portion thereof, in which care or supervision is provided to 
persons who are or are not capable of self-preservation with- 
out physical assistance or in which persons are detained for 
penal or correctional purposes or in which the liberty of the 
occupants is restricted. Institutional occupancies shall be 
classified as Group 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 or 1-4. 

308.2 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chap- 
ter 2: 

24-HOUR CARE. 

CUSTODIAL CARE. 

DETOXIFICATION FACILITIES. 

FOSTER CARE FACILITIES. 

HOSPITALS AND PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITALS. 

INCAPABLE OF SELF-PRESERVATION. 

MEDICAL CARE. 

NURSING HOMES. 

308.3 Institutional Group 1-1. This occupancy shall include 
buildings, structures or portions thereof for more than 16 per- 
sons who reside on a 24 hour basis in a supervised environ- 
ment and receive custodial care. The persons receiving care 
are capable of self preservation. This group shall include, but 
not be limited to, the following: 

Alcohol and drug centers 

Assisted living facilities 

Congregate care facilities 

Convalescent facilities 

Group homes 

Halfway houses 

Residential board and custodial care facilities 

Social rehabilitation facilities 

308.3.1 Five or fewer persons receiving care. A facility 
such as the above with five or fewer persons receiving 
such care shall be classified as Group R-3 or shall comply 
with the International Residential Code provided an auto- 
matic sprinkler system is installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.3 or with Section P2904 of the International 
Residential Code. 

308.3.2 Six to sixteen persons receiving care. A facility 
such as above, housing not fewer than six and not more 
than 16 persons receiving such care, shall be classified as 
Group R-4. 

308.4 Institutional Group 1-2. This occupancy shall include 
buildings and structures used for medical care on a 24-hour 
basis for more than five persons who are incapable of self- 



preservation. This group shall include, but not be limited to, 
the following: 

Foster care facilities 
Detoxification facilities 
Hospitals 
Nursing homes 
Psychiatric hospitals 

308.4.1 Five or fewer persons receiving care. A facility 
such as the above with five or fewer persons receiving 
such care shall be classified as Group R-3 or shall comply 
with the International Residential Code provided an auto- 
matic sprinkler system is installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.3 or with Section P2904 of the International 
Residential Code. 

308.5 Institutional Group 1-3. This occupancy shall include 
buildings and structures that are inhabited by more than five 
persons who are under restraint or security. An 1-3 facility is 
occupied by persons who are generally incapable of self- 
preservation due to security measures not under the occu- 
pants' control. This group shall include, but not be limited to, 
the following: 

Correctional centers 

Detention centers 

Jails 

Prerelease centers 

Prisons 

Reformatories 

Buildings of Group 1-3 shall be classified as one of the 
occupancy conditions indicated in Sections 308.5.1 through 
308.5.5 (see Section 408.1). 

308.5.1 Condition 1. This occupancy condition shall 
include buildings in which free movement is allowed from 
sleeping areas, and other spaces where access or occu- 
pancy is permitted, to the exterior via means of egress 
without restraint. A Condition 1 facility is permitted to be 
constructed as Group R. 

308.5.2 Condition 2. This occupancy condition shall 
include buildings in which free movement is allowed from 
sleeping areas and any other occupied smoke compartment 
to one or more other smoke compartments. Egress to the 
exterior is impeded by locked exits. 

308.5.3 Condition 3. This occupancy condition shall 
include buildings in which free movement is allowed 
within individual smoke compartments, such as within a 
residential unit comprised of individual sleeping units and 
group activity spaces, where egress is impeded by remote- 
controlled release of means of egress from such a smoke 
compartment to another smoke compartment. 

308.5.4 Condition 4. This occupancy condition shall 
include buildings in which free movement is restricted 
from an occupied space. Remote-controlled release is pro- 
vided to permit movement from sleeping units, activity 
spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke com- 
partment to other smoke compartments. 

308.5.5 Condition 5. This occupancy condition shall 
include buildings in which free movement is restricted 
from an occupied space. Staff-controlled manual release is 



48 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



provided to permit movement from sleeping units, activity 
spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke com- 
partment to other smoke compartments. 

308.6 Institutional Group 1-4, day care facilities. This 
group shall include buildings and structures occupied by 
more than five persons of any age who receive custodial care 
for fewer than 24 hours per day by persons other than parents 
or guardians, relatives by blood, marriage or adoption, and in 
a place other than the home of the person cared for. This 
group shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Adult day care 
Child day care 

308.6.1 Classification as Group E. A child day care facil- 
ity that provides care for more than five but no more than 
100 children 2'/ 2 years or less of age, where the rooms in 
which the children are cared for are located on a level of 
exit discharge serving such rooms and each of these child 
care rooms has an exit door directly to the exterior, shall 
be classified as Group E. 

308.6.2 Within a place of religious worship. Rooms and 
spaces within places of religious worship providing such 
care during religious functions shall be classified as part of 
the primary occupancy. 

308.6.3 Five or fewer persons receiving care. A facility 
having five or fewer persons receiving custodial care shall 
be classified as part of the primary occupancy. 

308.6.4 Five or fewer persons receiving care in a dwell- 
ing unit. A facility such as the above within a dwelling 
unit and having five or fewer persons receiving custodial 
care shall be classified as a Group R-3 occupancy or shall 
comply with the International Residential Code. 



SECTION 309 
MERCANTILE GROUP M 

309.1 Mercantile Group M. Mercantile Group M occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure or a 
portion thereof, for the display and sale of merchandise and 
involves stocks of goods, wares or merchandise incidental to 
such puiposes and accessible to the public. Mercantile occu- 
pancies shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Department stores 

Drug stores 

Markets 

Motor fuel-dispensing facilities 

Retail or wholesale stores 

Sales rooms 

309.2 Quantity of hazardous materials. The aggregate 
quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or non- 
combustible liquid hazardous materials stored or displayed in 
a single control area of a Group M occupancy shall not 
exceed the quantities in Table 414.2.5(1). 



SECTION 310 
RESIDENTIAL GROUP R 

310.1 Residential Group R. Residential Group R includes, 
among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion 
thereof, for sleeping purposes when not classified as an Insti- 
tutional Group I or when not regulated by the International 
Residential Code. 

310.2 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chap- 
ter 2: 

BOARDING HOUSE. 

CONGREGATE LIVING FACILITIES. 

DORMITORY. 

GROUP HOME. 

PERSONAL CARE SERVICE. 

TRANSIENT. 

310.3 Residential Group R-l. Residential occupancies con- 
taining sleeping units where the occupants are primarily tran- 
sient in nature, including: 

Boarding houses {transient) with more than 10 occupants 
Congregate living facilities (transient) with more than 10 

occupants 
Hotels (transient) 
Motels (transient) 

310.4 Residential Group R-2. Residential occupancies con- 
taining sleeping units or more than two dwelling units where 
the occupants are primarily permanent in nature, including: 

Apartment houses 

Boarding houses (nontransient) with more than 16 

occupants 
Congregate living facilities (nontransient) with more 

than 16 occupants 
Convents 
Dormitories 

Fraternities and sororities 
Hotels (nontransient) 
Live/work units 
Monasteries 
Motels (nontransient) 
Vacation timeshare properties 

310.5 Residential Group R-3. Residential occupancies 
where the occupants are primarily permanent in nature and 
not classified as Group R-l, R-2, R-4 or I, including: 

Buildings that do not contain more than two dwelling 

units 
Boarding houses (nontransient) with 16 or fewer 

occupants 
Boarding houses (transient) with 10 or fewer occupants 
Care facilities that provide accommodations for five or 

fewer persons receiving care 
Congregate living facilities (nontransient) with 16 or 

fewer occupants 
Congregate living facilities (transient) with 10 or fewer 

occupants 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



49 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



310.5.1 Care facilities within a dwelling. Care facilities 
for five or fewer persons receiving care that are within a 
single-family dwelling are permitted to comply with the 
International Residential Code provided an automatic 
sprinkler system is installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.3 or with Section P2904 of the International Resi- 
dential Code. 

310.6 Residential Group R-4. This occupancy shall include 
buildings, structures or portions thereof for more than five but 
not more than 16 persons, excluding staff, who reside on a 
24-hour basis in a supervised residential environment and 
receive custodial care. The persons receiving care are capa- 
ble of self-preservation. This group shall include, but not be 
limited to, the following: 

Alcohol and drug centers 

Assisted living facilities 

Congregate care facilities 

Convalescent facilities 

Group homes 

Halfway houses 

Residential board and custodial care facilities 

Social rehabilitation facilities 

Group R-4 occupancies shall meet the requirements for 
construction as defined for Group R-3, except as otherwise 
provided for in this code. 



SECTION 311 
STORAGE GROUP S 

311.1 Storage Group S. Storage Group S occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a 
portion thereof, for storage that is not classified as a hazard- 
ous occupancy. 

311.2 Moderate-hazard storage, Group S-l. Buildings 
occupied for storage uses that are not classified as Group S-2, 
including, but not limited to, storage of the following: 

Aerosols, Levels 2 and 3 

Aircraft hangar (storage and repair) 

Bags: cloth, burlap and paper 

Bamboos and rattan 

Baskets 

Belting: canvas and leather 

Books and paper in rolls or packs 

Boots and shoes 

Buttons, including cloth covered, pearl or bone 

Cardboard and cardboard boxes 

Clothing, woolen wearing apparel 

Cordage 

Dry boat storage (indoor) 

Furniture 

Furs 

Glues, mucilage, pastes and size 

Grains 

Horns and combs, other than celluloid 

Leather 

Linoleum 

Lumber 



Motor vehicle repair garages complying with the 

maximum allowable quantities of hazardous materials 
listed in Table 307.1(1) (see Section 406.8) 

Photo engravings 

Resilient flooring 

Silks 

Soaps 

Sugar 

Tires, bulk storage of 

Tobacco, cigars, cigarettes and snuff 

Upholstery and mattresses 

Wax candles 

311.3 Low-hazard storage, Group S-2. Includes, among 
others, buildings used for the storage of noncombustible 
materials such as products on wood pallets or in paper cartons 
with or without single thickness divisions; or in paper wrap- 
pings. Such products are permitted to have a negligible 
amount of plastic trim, such as knobs, handles or film wrap- 
ping. Group S-2 storage uses shall include, but not be limited 
to, storage of the following: 

Asbestos 

Beverages up to and including 16-percent alcohol in 

metal, glass or ceramic containers 
Cement in bags 
Chalk and crayons 

Dairy products in nonwaxed coated paper containers 
Dry cell batteries 
Electrical coils 
Electrical motors 
Empty cans 
Food products 

Foods in noncombustible containers 
Fresh fruits and vegetables in nonplastic trays or 

containers 
Frozen foods 
Glass 

Glass bottles, empty or filled with noncombustible liquids 
Gypsum board 
Inert pigments 
Ivory 
Meats 

Metal cabinets 

Metal desks with plastic tops and trim 
Metal parts 
Metals 
Mirrors 

Oil-filled and other types of distribution transformers 
Parking garages, open or enclosed 
Porcelain and pottery 
Stoves 

Talc and soapstones 
Washers and dryers 



SECTION 312 
UTILITY AND MISCELLANEOUS GROUP U 

312.1 General. Buildings and structures of an accessory 
character and miscellaneous structures not classified in any 



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specific occupancy shall be constructed, equipped and main- 
tained to conform to the requirements of this code commen- 
surate with the fire and life hazard incidental to their 
occupancy. Group U shall include, but not be limited to, the 
following: 

Agricultural buildings 

Aircraft hangars, accessory to a one- or two-family 

residence (see Section 412.5) 
Barns 
Carports 

Fences more than 6 feet (1829 mm) in height 
Grain silos, accessory to a residential occupancy 
Greenhouses 
Livestock shelters 
Private garages 
Retaining walls 
Sheds 
Stables 
Tanks 
Towers 



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CHAPTER 4 

SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED 



SECTION 401 
SCOPE 

401.1 Detailed use and occupancy requirements. In addi- 
tion to the occupancy and construction requirements in this 
code, the provisions of this chapter apply to the special uses 
and occupancies described herein. 



SECTION 402 
COVERED MALL AND OPEN MALL BUILDINGS 

Section 402 has been completely reorganized from the 2009 
code; therefore, the * and ** margin indicators have not been 
included for clarity. 

402.1 Applicability. The provisions of this section shall 
apply to buildings or structures defined herein as covered or 
open mall buildings not exceeding three floor levels at any 
point nor more than three stories above grade plane. Except 
as specifically required by this section, covered and open 
mall buildings shall meet applicable provisions of this code. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Foyers and lobbies of Groups B, R- 1 and R-2 are not 
required to comply with this section. 

2. Buildings need not comply with the provisions of 
this section where they totally comply with other 
applicable provisions of this code. 

402.1.1 Open space. A covered mall building and 
attached anchor buildings and parking garages shall be 
surrounded on all sides by a permanent open space or not 
less than 60 feet (18 288 mm). An open mall building and 
anchor buildings and parking parking garages adjoining 
the perimeter line shall be surrounded on all sides by a 
permanent open space of not less than 60 feet (18 288 
mm). 

Exception: The permanent open space of 60 feet (18 
288 mm) shall be permitted to be reduced to not less 
than 40 feet (12 192 mm), provided the following 
requirements are met: 

1 . The reduced open space shall not be allowed for 
more than 75 percent of the perimeter of the cov- 
ered or open mall building and anchor buildings; 

2. The exterior wall facing the reduced open space 
shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 
3 hours; 

3. Openings in the exterior wall facing the reduced 
open space shall have opening protectives with a 
fire protection rating of not less than 3 hours; and 

4. Group E, H, I or R occupancies are not located 
within the covered or open mall building or 
anchor buildings. 



402.1.2 Open mall building perimeter line. For the pur- 
pose of this code, a perimeter line shall be established. 
The perimeter line shall encircle all buildings and struc- 
tures which comprise the open mall building and shall 
encompass any open-air interior walkways, open-air 
courtyards or similar open-air spaces. The perimeter line 
shall define the extent of the open mall building. Anchor 
buildings and parking structures shall be outside of the 
perimeter line and are not considered as part of the open 
mall building. 

402.2 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chap- 
ter 2: 

ANCHOR BUILDING. 

COVERED MALL BUILDING. 

Mall. 

Open mall. 

Open mall building. 
FOOD COURT. 
GROSS LEASABLE AREA. 

402.3 Lease plan. Each owner of a covered mall building or 
of an open mall building shall provide both the building and 
fire departments with a lease plan showing the location of 
each occupancy and its exits after the certificate of occupancy 
has been issued. No modifications or changes in occupancy 
or use shall be made from that shown on the lease plan with- 
out prior approval of the building official. 

402.4 Construction. The construction of covered and open 
mall buildings, anchor buildings and parking garages associ- 
ated with a mall building shall comply with Sections 402.4.1 
through 402.4.3. 

402.4.1 Area and types of construction. The building 
area of any covered mall or open building, including 
anchor buildings, of Types I, II, HI and IV construction 
shall not be limited provided the anchor buildings do not 
exceed three stories above grade plane. 

The construction type of open parking garages and 
enclosed parking garages shall comply with Sections 
406.5 and 406.6, respectively. 

Exception: The type of construction allowable build- 
ing height and building area of anchor buildings 
greater than three stories above grade plane shall com- 
ply with Section 503, as modified by Sections 504 and 
506. 

402.4.2 Fire-resistance-rated separation. Fire-resis- 
tance-rated separation is not required between tenant 
spaces and the mall. Fire-resistance-rated separation is not 
required between a food court and adjacent tenant spaces 
or the mall. 



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402.4.2.1 Tenant separations. Each tenant space shall 
be separated from other tenant spaces by afire partition 
complying with Section 708. A tenant separation wall 
is not required between any tenant space and the mall. 

402.4.2.2 Anchor building separation. An anchor 
building shall be separated from the covered or open 
mall building by fire walls complying with Section 
706. 

Exceptions: 

1. Anchor buildings of not more than three sto- 
ries above grade plane that have an occu- 
pancy classification the same as that permitted 
for tenants of the mall building shall be sepa- 
rated by 2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire barri- 
ers complying with Section 707. 

2. The exterior walls of anchor buildings sepa- 
rated from an open mall building by an open 
mall shall comply with Table 602. 

402.4.2.2.1 Openings between anchor building 

and mall. Except for the separation between Group 
R-l sleeping units and the mall, openings between 
anchor buildings of Type IA, IB, IIA or IIB con- 
struction and the mall need not be protected. 

402.4.2.3 Parking garages. An attached garage for the 
storage of passenger vehicles having a capacity of not 
more than nine persons and open parking garages shall 
be considered as a separate building where it is sepa- 
rated from the covered or open mall building or anchor 
building by not less than 2-hour fire barriers con- 
structed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal 
assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, 
or both. 

Parking garages, open or enclosed, which are sepa- 
rated from covered mall buildings, open mall buildings 
or anchor buildings shall comply with the provisions of 
Table 602. 

Pedestrian walkways and tunnels which connect 
garages to mall buildings or anchor buildings shall be 
constructed in accordance with Section 3104. 

402.4.3 Open mall construction. Floor assemblies in, and 
roof assemblies over, the open mall of an open mall build- 
ing shall be open to the atmosphere for not less than 20 
feet (9096 mm), measured perpendicular from the face of 
the tenant spaces on the lowest level, from edge of balcony 
to edge of balcony on upper floors and from edge of roof 
line to edge of roof line. The openings within, or the 
unroofed area of, an open mall shall extend from the low- 
est/grade level of the open mall through the entire roof 
assembly. Balconies on upper levels of the mall shall not 
project into the required width of the opening. 

402.4.3.1 Pedestrian walkways. Pedestrian walkways 
connecting balconies in an open mall shall be located 
not less than 20 feet (9096 mm) from any other pedes- 
trian walkway. 

[F] 402.5 Automatic sprinkler system. Covered and open 
mall buildings and buildings connected shall be protected 



throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1, which shall comply with the all of the 
following: 

1 . The automatic sprinkler system shall be complete and 
operative throughout occupied space in the mall build- 
ing prior to occupancy of any of the tenant spaces. 
Unoccupied tenant spaces shall be similarly protected 
unless provided with approved alternative protection. 

2. Sprinkler protection for the mall of a covered mall 
building shall be independent from that provided for 
tenant spaces or anchor buildings. 

3. Sprinkler protection for the tenant spaces of an open 
mall building shall be independent from that provided 
for anchor buildings. 

4. Sprinkler protection shall be provided beneath exterior 
circulation balconies located adjacent to an open mall. 

5. Where tenant spaces are supplied by the same system, 
they shall be independently controlled. 

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system, shall not be 
required in spaces or areas of open parking garages 
separated from the covered or open mall building in 
accordance with Section 402.4.2.3 and constructed in 
accordance with Section 406.5. 

402.6 Interior finishes and features. Interior finishes 
within the mall and installations within the mall shall comply 
with Sections 402.6.1 through 402.6.4. 

402.6.1 Interior finish. Interior wall and ceiling finishes 
within the mall of a covered mall building and within the 
exits of covered or open mall buildings shall have a mini- 
mum flame spread index and smoke-developed index of 
Class B in accordance with Chapter 8. Interior floor fin- 
ishes shall meet the requirements of Section 804. 

402.6.2 Kiosks. Kiosks and similar structures (temporary 
or permanent) located within the mall of a covered mall 
building or within the perimeter line of an open mall 
building shall meet the following requirements: 

1. Combustible kiosks or other structures shall not be 
located within a covered or open mall unless con- 
structed of any of the following materials: 

1.1. Fire-retardant-treated wood complying with 
Section 2303.2. 

1 .2. Foam plastics having a maximum heat 
release rate not greater than 100 kW (105 
Btu/h) when tested in accordance with the 
exhibit booth protocol in UL 1975 or when 
tested in accordance with NFPA 289 using 
the 20 kW ignition source. 

1.3. Aluminum composite material (ACM) meet- 
ing the requirements of Class A interior fin- 
ish in accordance with Chapter 8 when tested 
as an assembly in the maximum thickness 
intended. 

2. Kiosks or similar structures located within the mall 
shall be provided with approved automatic sprinkler 
system and detection devices. 



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3. The horizontal separation between kiosks or group- 
ings thereof and other structures within the mall 
shall be not less than 20 feet (6096 mm). 

4. Each kiosk or similar structure or groupings thereof 
shall have an area not greater than 300 square feet 
(28 m 2 ). 

402.6.3 Children's play structures. Children's play 
structures located within the mall of a covered mall build- 
ing or within the perimeter line of an open mall building 
shall comply with Section 424. The horizontal separation 
between children's play structures, kiosks and similar 
structures within the mall shall be not less than 20 feet 
(6096 mm). 

402.6.4 Plastic signs. Plastic signs affixed to the store- 
front of any tenant space facing a mall or open mall shall 
be limited as specified in Sections 402.6.4.1 through 
402.6.4.5. 

402.6.4.1 Area. Plastic signs shall be not more than 20 
percent of the wall area facing the mall. 

402.6.4.2 Height and width. Plastic signs shall be not 
greater than 36 inches (914 mm) in height, except that 
if the sign is vertical, the height shall be not greater 
than 96 inches (2438 mm) and the width shall be not 
greater than 36 inches (914 mm). 

402.6.4.3 Location. Plastic signs shall be located not 
less than 18 inches (457 mm) from adjacent tenants. 

402.6.4.4 Plastics other than foam plastics. Plastics 
other than foam plastics used in signs shall be light- 
transmitting plastics complying with Section 2606.4 or 
shall have a self-ignition temperature of 650°F (343 °C) 
or greater when tested in accordance with ASTM D 
1929, and aflame spread index not greater than 75 and 
smoke-developed index not greater than 450 when 
tested in the manner intended for use in accordance 
with ASTM E 84 or UL 723 or meet the acceptance cri- 
teria of Section 803.1.2.1 when tested in accordance 
with NFPA 286. 

402.6.4.4.1 Encasement. Edges and backs of plastic 
signs in the mall shall be fully encased in metal. 

402.6.4.5 Foam plastics. Foam plastics used in signs 
shall have flame-retardant characteristics such that the 
sign has a maximum heat-release rate of 150 kilowatts 
when tested in accordance with UL 1975 or when 
tested in accordance with NFPA 289 using the 20 kW 
ignition source, and the foam plastics shall have the 
physical characteristics specified in this section. Foam 
plastics used in signs installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 402.6.4 shall not be required to comply with the 
flame spread and smoke-developed indices specified in 
Section 2603.3. 

402.6.4.5.1 Density. The density of foam plastics 
used in signs shall be not less than 20 pounds per 
cubic foot (pcf) (320 kg/ m 3 ). 

402.6.4.5.2 Thickness. The thickness of foam plas- 
tic signs shall not be greater than 7 2 inch (12.7 mm). 



[F] 402.7 Emergency systems. Covered and open mall 
buildings, anchor buildings and associated parking garages 
shall be provided with emergency systems complying with 
Sections 402.7.1 through 402.7.5. 

[F] 402.7.1 Standpipe system. Covered and open mall 
buildings shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe 
system as required by Section 905.3.3. 

[F] 402.7.2 Smoke control. Where a covered mall build- 
ing contains an atrium, a smoke control system shall be 
provided in accordance with Section 404.5. 

Exception: A smoke control system is not required in 
covered mall buildings where an atrium connects only 
two stories. 
[F] 402.7.3 Standby power. Covered mall buildings 
greater than 50,000 square feet (4645 m 2 ) in area and open 
mall buildings greater than 50,000 square feet (4645 m 2 ) 
within the established perimeter line shall be provided 
with standby power systems that are capable of operating 
the emergency voice/alarm communication system. 

[F] 402.7.4 Emergency voice/alarm communication 
system. Where the total floor area is greater than 50,000 
square feet (4645 m 2 ) within either a covered mall build- 
ing or within the perimeter line of an open mall building, 
an emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be 
provided. 

Emergency voice/alarm communication systems serv- 
ing a mall, required or otherwise, shall be accessible to the 
fire department. The systems shall be provided in accor- 
dance with Section 907.5.2.2. 

[F] 402.7.5 Fire department access to equipment. 
Rooms or areas containing controls for air-conditioning 
systems, automatic fire-extinguishing systems, automatic 
sprinkler systems or other detection, suppression or control 
elements shall be identified for use by the fire department. 

402.8 Means of egress. Covered mall buildings, open mall 
buildings and each tenant space within a mall building shall 
be provided with means of egress as required by this section 
and this code. Where there is a conflict between the require- 
ments of this code and the requirements of Sections 402.8.1 
through 402.8.8, the requirements of Sections 402.8.1 
through 402.8.8 shall apply. 

402.8.1 Mall width. For the purpose of providing required 
egress, malls are permitted to be considered as corridors 
but need not comply with the requirements of Section 
1005.1 of this code where the width of the mall is as spec- 
ified in this section. 

402.8.1.1 Minimum width. The aggregate clear egress 
width of the mall in either a covered or open mall 
building shall be not less than 20 feet (6096 mm). The 
mall width shall be sufficient to accommodate the 
occupant load served. No portion of the minimum 
required aggregate egress width shall be less than 10 
feet (3048 mm) measured to a height of 8 feet (2438 
mm) between any projection of a tenant space border- 
ing the mall and the nearest kiosk, vending machine, 
bench, display opening, food court or other obstruction 
to means of egress travel. 



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402.8.2 Determination of occupant load. The occupant 
load permitted in any individual tenant space in a covered 
or open mall building shall be determined as required by 
this code. Means of egress requirements for individual ten- 
ant spaces shall be based on the occupant load thus deter- 
mined. 

402.8.2.1 Occupant formula. In determining required 
means of egress of the mall, the number of occupants 
for whom means of egress are to be provided shall be 
based on gross leasable area of the covered or open 
mall building (excluding anchor buildings) and the 
occupant load factor as determined by Equation 4-1. 

OLF = (0.00007) (GLA) + 25 (Equation 4-1) 

where: 

OLF = The occupant load factor (square feet per 
person). 

GLA - The gross leasable area (square feet). 

Exception: Tenant spaces attached to a covered or 
open mall building but with a means of egress sys- 
tem that is totally independent of the open mall of an 
open mall building or of a covered mall building 
shall not be considered as gross leasable area for 
determining the required means of egress for the 
mall building. 

402.8.2.2 OLF range. The occupant load factor (OLF) 
is not required to be less than 30 and shall not exceed 
50. 

402.8.2.3 Anchor buildings. The occupant load of 
anchor buildings opening into the mall shall not be 
included in computing the total number of occupants 
for the mall. 

402.8.2.4 Food courts. The occupant load of a food 
court shall be determined in accordance with Section 
1004. For the purposes of determining the means of 
egress requirements for the mall, the food court occu- 
pant load shall be added to the occupant load of the 
covered or open mall building as calculated above. 

402.8.3 Number of means of egress. Wherever the dis- 
tance of travel to the mall from any location within a ten- 
ant space used by persons other than employees is greater 
than 75 feet (22 860 mm) or the tenant space has an occu- 
pant load of 50 or more, no fewer than two means of 
egress shall be provided. 

402.8.4 Arrangements of means of egress. Assembly 
occupancies with an occupant load of 500 or more located 
within a covered mall building shall be so located such 
that their entrance will be immediately adjacent to a prin- 
cipal entrance to the mall and shall have not less than one- 
half of their required means of egress opening directly to 
the exterior of the covered mall building. Assembly occu- 
pancies located within the perimeter line of an open mall 
building shall be permitted to have their main exit open to 
the open mall. 

402.8.4.1 Anchor building means of egress. Required 
means of egress for anchor buildings shall be provided 
independently from the mall means of egress system. 



The occupant load of anchor buildings opening into the 
mall shall not be included in determining means of 
egress requirements for the mall. The path of egress 
travel of malls shall not exit through anchor buildings. 
Malls terminating at an anchor building where no other 
means of egress has been provided shall be considered 
as a dead-end mall. 

402.8.5 Distance to exits. Within each individual tenant 
space in a covered or open mall building, the distance of 
travel from any point to an exit or entrance to the mall 
shall be not greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm). 

The distance of travel from any point within a mall of a 
covered mall building to an exit shall be not greater than 
200 feet (60 960 mm). The maximum distance of travel 
from any point within an open mall to the perimeter line of 
the open mall building shall be not greater than 200 feet 
(60 960 mm). 

402.8.6 Access to exits. Where more than one exit is 
required, they shall be so arranged that it is possible to 
travel in either direction from any point in a mall of a cov- 
ered mall building to separate exits or from any point in an 
open mall of an open mall building to two separate loca- 
tions on the perimeter line, provided neither location is an 
exterior wall of an anchor building or parking garage. The 
width of an exit passageway or corridor from a mall shall 
be not less than 66 inches (1676 mm). 

Exception: Access to exits are permitted by way of a 
dead-end mall which does not exceed a length equal to 
twice the width of the mall measured at the narrowest 
location within the dead-end portion of the mall. 

402.8.6.1 Exit passageways. Where exit passageways 
provide a secondary means of egress from a tenant 
space, doorways to the exit passageway shall be pro- 
tected by 1 -hour fire door assemblies that are self- or 
automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance 
with Section 716.5.9.3. 

402.8.7 Service areas fronting on exit passageways. 

Mechanical rooms, electrical rooms, building service areas 
and service elevators are permitted to open directly into 
exit passageways, provided the exit passageway is sepa- 
rated from such rooms with not less than 1 -hour fire barri- 
ers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or 
horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 71 1, or both. The/«Ve protection rating of openings in 
the fire barriers shall be not less than 1 hour. 

402.8.8 Security grilles and doors. Horizontal sliding or 
vertical security grilles or doors that are a part of a 
required means of egress shall conform to the following: 

1. They shall remain in the full open position during 
the period of occupancy by the general public. 

2. Doors or grilles shall not be brought to the closed 
position when there are 10 or more persons occupy- 
ing spaces served by a single exit or 50 or more per- 
sons occupying spaces served by more than one exit. 

3. The doors or grilles shall be openable from within 
without the use of any special knowledge or effort 
where the space is occupied. 



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4. Where two or more exits are required, not more than 
one-half of the exits shall be permitted to include 
either a horizontal sliding or vertical rolling grille or 
door. 



SECTION 403 
HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS 

403.1 Applicability. High-rise buildings shall comply with 
Sections 403.2 through 403.6. 

Exception: The provisions of Sections 403.2 through 
403.6 shall not apply to the following buildings and struc- 
tures: 

1. Airport traffic control towers in accordance with 
Section 412.3. 

2. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 
406.5. 

3. Buildings with a Group A-5 occupancy in accor- 
dance with Section 303.6. 

4. Special industrial occupancies in accordance with 
Section 503.1.1. 

5. Buildings with a Group H-l, H-2 or H-3 occupancy 
in accordance with Section 415. 

403.2 Construction. The construction of high-rise buildings 
shall comply with the provisions of Sections 403.2.1 through 
403.2.4. 

403.2.1 Reduction in fire-resistance rating. The fire- 
resistance-rating reductions listed in Sections 403.2.1.1 
and 403.2.1.2 shall be allowed in buildings that have 
sprinkler control valves equipped with supervisory initiat- 
ing devices and water-flow initiating devices for each 
floor. 

403.2.1.1 Type of construction. The following reduc- 
tions in the minimum fire-resistance rating of the 
building elements in Table 601 shall be permitted as 
follows: 

1. For buildings not greater than 420 feet (128 000 
mm) in building height, the fire-resistance rating 
of the building elements in Type 1A construction 
shall be permitted to be reduced to the minimum 
fire- resistance ratings for the building elements 
in Type IB. 

Exception: The required fire-resistance rat- 
ing of columns supporting floors shall not be 
permitted to be reduced. 

2. In other than Group F-l, M and S-l occupancies, 
the fire-resistance rating of the building elements 
in Type IB construction shall be permitted to be 
reduced to the fire- resistance ratings in Type 
IIA. 

3. The building height and building area limitations 
of a building containing building elements with 
reduced fire-resistance ratings shall be permitted 
to be the same as the building without such 
reductions. 



403.2.1.2 Shaft enclosures. For buildings not greater 
than 420 feet (128 000 mm) in building height, the 
required fire-resistance rating of the fire barriers 
enclosing vertical shafts, other than exit enclosures and 
elevator hoistway enclosures, is permitted to be 
reduced to 1 hour where automatic sprinklers are 
installed within the shafts at the top and at alternate 
floor levels. 

403.2.2 Seismic considerations. For seismic consider- 
ations, see Chapter 16. 

403.2.3 Structural integrity of interior exit stairways 
and elevator hoistway enclosures. For high-rise build- 
ings of Risk Category III or IV in accordance with Section 
1604.5, and for all buildings that are more than 420 feet 
(128 000 mm) in building height, enclosures for interior 
exit stairways and elevator hoistway enclosures shall com- 
ply with Sections 403.2.3.1 through 403.2.3.4. 

403.2.3.1 Wall assembly. The wall assemblies making 
up the enclosures for interior exit stairways and eleva- 
tor hoistway enclosures shall meet or exceed Soft Body 
Impact Classification Level 2 as measured by the test 
method described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M. 

403.2.3.2 Wall assembly materials. The face of the 
wall assemblies making up the enclosures for interior 
exit stairways and elevator hoistway enclosures that are 
not exposed to the interior of the enclosures for interior 
exit stairways or elevator hoistway enclosure shall be 
constructed in accordance with one of the following 
methods: 

1. The wall assembly shall incorporate no fewer 
than two layers of impact-resistant construction 
board each of which meets or exceeds Hard Body 
Impact Classification Level 2 as measured by the 
test method described in ASTM C 1629/C 
1629M. 

2. The wall assembly shall incorporate no fewer 
than one layer of impact-resistant construction 
material that meets or exceeds Hard Body Impact 
Classification Level 3 as measured by the test 
method described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M. 

3. The wall assembly incorporates multiple layers 
of any material, tested in tandem, that meets or 
exceeds Hard Body Impact Classification Level 3 
as measured by the test method described in 
ASTM C 1629/C 1629M. 

403.2.3.3 Concrete and masonry walls. Concrete or 
masonry walls shall be deemed to satisfy the require- 
ments of Sections 403.2.3.1 and 403.2.3.2. 

403.2.3.4 Other wall assemblies. Any other wall 
assembly that provides impact resistance equivalent to 
that required by Sections 403.2.3.1 and 403.2.3.2 for 
Hard Body Impact Classification Level 3, as measured 
by the test method described in ASTM C 1629/C 
1629M, shall be permitted. 

403.2.4 Sprayed fire-resistant materials (SFRM). The 

bond strength of the SFRM installed throughout the build- 
ing shall be in accordance with Table 403.2.4. 



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TABLE 403.2.4 
MINIMUM BOND STRENGTH 



HEIGHT OF BUILDING 8 


SFRM MINIMUM BOND STRENGTH 


Up to 420 feet 


430 psf 


Greater than 420 feet 


1,000 psf 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot (psf) = 0.0479 kW/rrr. 
a. Above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access. 

[F] 403.3 Automatic sprinkler system. Buildings and struc- 
tures shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and a 
secondary water supply where required by Section 903.3.5.2. 

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be 
required in spaces or areas of: 

1. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 
406.5. 

2. Telecommunications equipment buildings used 
exclusively for telecommunications equipment, 
associated electrical power distribution equipment, 
batteries and standby engines, provided that those 
spaces or areas are equipped throughout with an 
automatic fire detection system in accordance with 
Section 907.2 and are separated from the remainder 
of the building by not less than 1 -hour fire barriers 
constructed in accordance with Section 707 or not 
less than 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed 
in accordance with Section 71 . 1, or both. 

[F] 403.3.1 Number of sprinkler risers and system 
design. Each sprinkler system zone in buildings that are 
more than 420 feet (128 000 mm) in building height shall 
be supplied by no fewer than two risers. Each riser shall 
supply sprinklers on alternate floors. If more than two ris- 
ers are provided for a zone, sprinklers on adjacent floors 
shall not be supplied from the same riser. 

[F] 403.3.1.1 Riser location. Sprinkler risers shall be 
placed in interior exit stairways and ramps that are 
remotely located in accordance with Section 1015.2. 

[Fj 403.3.2 Water supply to required fire pumps. 
Required fire pumps shall be supplied by connections to 
no fewer than two water mains located in different streets. 
Separate supply piping shall be provided between each 
connection to the water main and the pumps. Each connec- 
tion and the supply piping between the connection and the 
pumps shall be sized to supply the flow and pressure 
required for the pumps to operate. 

Exception: Two connections to the same main shall be 
permitted provided the main is valved such that an 
interruption can be isolated so that the water supply 
will continue without interruption through no fewer 
than one of the connections. 

[F] 403.3.3 Fire pump room. Fire pumps shall be located 
in rooms protected in accordance with Section 913.2.1. 

[F] 403.4 Emergency systems. The detection, alarm and 
emergency systems of high-rise buildings shall comply with 
Sections 403.4.1 through 403.4.9. 



[F] 403.4.1 Smoke detection. Smoke detection shall 
provided in accordance with Section 907.2.13.1. 



be 



[F] 403.4.2 Fire alarm system. A fire alarm system shall 
be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.13. 

[F] 403.4.3 Standpipe system. A high-rise building shall 
be equipped with a standpipe system as required by Sec- 
tion 905.3. 

[F] 403.4.4 Emergency voice/alarm communication 
system. An emergency voice/alarm communication sys- 
tem shall be provided in accordance with Section 
907.5.2.2. 

[F] 403.4.5 Emergency responder radio coverage. 
Emergency responder radio coverage shall be provided in 
accordance with Section 510 of the International Fire 
Code. 

[F] 403.4.6 Fire command. A fire command center com- 
plying with Section 911 shall be provided in a location 
approved by the fire department. 

403.4.7 Smoke removal. To facilitate smoke removal in 
post-fire salvage and overhaul operations, buildings and 
structures shall be equipped with natural or mechanical 
ventilation for removal of products of combustion in 
accordance with one of the following: 

1. Easily identifiable, manually operable windows or 
panels shall be distributed around the perimeter of 
each floor at not more than 50-foot (15 240 mm) 
intervals. The area of operable windows or panels 
shall be not less than 40 square feet (3.7 m 2 ) per 50 
linear feet (15 240 mm) of perimeter. 

Exceptions: 

1. In Group R-l occupancies, each sleeping 
unit or suite having an exterior wall shall 
be permitted to be provided with 2 square 
feet (0.19 m 2 ) of venting area in lieu of the 
area specified in Item 1 . 

2. Windows shall be permitted to be fixed 
provided that glazing can be cleared by fire 
fighters. 

2. Mechanical air-handling equipment providing one 
exhaust air change every 15 minutes for the area 
involved. Return and exhaust air shall be moved 
directly to the outside without recirculation to other 
portions of the building. 

3. Any other approved design that will produce equiv- 
alent results. 

[F] 403.4.8 Standby power. A standby power system 
complying with Chapter 27 and Section 3003 shall be pro- 
vided for standby power loads specified in 403.4.8.2. 
Where elevators are provided in a high-rise building for 
accessible means of egress, fire service access or occupant 
self-evacuation, the standby power system shall also com- 
ply with Sections 1007.4, 3007 or 3008, as applicable. 

[F] 403.4.8.1 Special requirements for standby 
power systems. If the standby system is a generator set 
inside a building, the system shall be located in a sepa- 
rate room enclosed with 2-hour fire barriers con- 
structed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal 
assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, 



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or both. System supervision with manual start and 
transfer features shall be provided at the fire command 
center. 

[F] 403.4.8.2 Standby power loads. The following are 
classified as standby power loads: 

1. Power and lighting for the fire command center 
required by Section 403.4.6; 

2. Ventilation and automatic fire detection equip- 
ment for smokeproof enclosures; and 

3. Elevators. 

[F] 403.4.9 Emergency power systems. An emergency 
power system complying with Chapter 27 shall be pro- 
vided for emergency power loads specified in Section 
403.4.9.1. 

[F] 403.4.9.1 Emergency power loads. The following 
are classified as emergency power loads: 

1. Exit signs and means of egress illumination 
required by Chapter 10; 

2. Elevator car lighting; 

3. Emergency voice/alarm communications sys- 
tems; 

4. Automatic fire detection systems; 

5. Fire alarm systems; and 

6. Electrically powered fire pumps. 

403.5 Means of egress and evacuation. The means of egress 
in high-rise buildings shall comply with Sections 403.5.1 
through 403.5.6. 

403.5.1 Remoteness of interior exit stairways. Required 
interior exit stairways shall be separated by a distance not 
less than 30 feet (9144 mm) or not less than one-fourth of 
the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of 
the building or area to be served, whichever is less. The 
distance shall be measured in a straight line between the 
nearest points of the interior exit stair-ways. In buildings 
with three or more interior exit stairways, no fewer than 
two of the interior exit stairways shall comply with this 
section. Interlocking or scissor stairs shall be counted as 
one interior exit stairway. 

403.5.2 Additional exit stairway. For buildings other 
than Group R-2 that are more than 420 feet (128 000 mm) 
in building height, one additional exit stairway meeting 
the requirements of Sections 1009 and 1022 shall be pro- 
vided in addition to the minimum number of exits required 
by Section 1021.1. The total width of any combination of 
remaining exit stairways with one exit stairway removed 
shall be not less than the total width required by Section 
1005.1. Scissor stairs shall not be considered the addi- 
tional exit stairway required by this section. 

Exception: An additional exit stairway shall not be 
required to be installed in buildings having elevators 
used for occupant self-evacuation in accordance with 
Section 3008. 



403.5.3 Stairway door operation. Stairway doors other 
than the exit discharge doors shall be permitted to be 
locked from the stairway side. Stairway doors that are 
locked from the stairway side shall be capable of being 
unlocked simultaneously without unlatching upon a signal 
from tho fire command center. 

403.5.3.1 Stairway communication system. A tele- 
phone or other two-way communications system con- 
nected to an approved constantly attended station shall 
be provided at not less than every fifth floor in each 
stairway where the doors to the stairway are locked. 

403.5.4 Smokeproof enclosures. Every required exit 
stairway serving floors more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) 
above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access 
shall be a smokeproof enclosure in accordance with Sec- 
tions 909.20 and 1022.10. 

403.5.5 Luminous egress path markings. Luminous 
egress path markings shall be provided in accordance with 
Section 1024. 

403.5.6 Emergency escape and rescue. Emergency 
escape and rescue openings required by Section 1029 are 
not required. 

403.6 Elevators. Elevator installation and operation in high- 
rise buildings shall comply with Chapter 30 and Sections 
403.6.1 and 403.6.2. 

403.6.1 Fire service access elevator. In buildings with an 
occupied floor more than 120 feet (36 576 mm) above the 
lowest level of fire department vehicle access, no fewer 
than two fire service access elevators, or all elevators, 
whichever is less, shall be provided in accordance with 
Section 3007. Each fire service access elevator shall have 
a capacity of not less than 3500 pounds (1588 kg). 

403.6.2 Occupant evacuation elevators. Where installed 
in accordance with Section 3008, passenger elevators for 
general public use shall be permitted to be used for occu- 
pant self-evacuation. 

SECTION 404 
ATRIUMS 

404.1 General. In other than Group H occupancies, and 
where permitted by Section 712.1.6, the provisions of Sec- 
tions 404.1 through 404.9 shall apply to buildings or struc- 
tures containing vertical openings defined as "Atriums." 

404.1.1 Definition. The following term is defined in 
Chapter 2: 

ATRIUM. 

404.2 Use. The floor of the atrium shall not be used for other 
than low fire hazard uses and only approved materials and 
decorations in accordance with the International Fire Code 
shall be used in the atrium space. 

Exception: The atrium floor area is permitted to be used 
for any approved use where the individual space is pro- 
vided with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1. 



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[F] 404.3 Automatic sprinkler protection. An approved 
automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the 
entire building. 

Exceptions: 

1. That area of a building adjacent to or above the 
atrium need not be sprinklered provided that portion 
of the building is separated from the atrium portion 
by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in 
accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assem- 
blies constructed in accordance with Section 71 1, or 
both. 

2. Where the ceiling of the atrium is more than 55 feet 
(16 764 mm) above the floor, sprinkler protection at 
the ceiling of the atrium is not required. 

[F] 404.4 Fire alarm system. Afire alarm system shall be 
provided in accordance with Section 907.2.14. 

404.5 Smoke control. A smoke control system shall be 
installed in accordance with Section 909. 

Exception: Smoke control is not required for atriums that 
connect only two stories. 

404.6 Enclosure of atriums. Atrium spaces shall be sepa- 
rated from adjacent spaces by a 1-hour fire barrier con- 
structed in accordance with Section 707 or a horizontal 
assembly constructed in accordance with Section 711, or 
both. 

Exception: A fire barrier is not required where a glass 
wall forming a smoke partition is provided. The glass 
wall shall comply with all of the following: 

1. Automatic sprinklers are provided along both sides 
of the separation wall and doors, or on the room side 
only if there is not a walkway on the atrium side. 
The sprinklers shall be located between 4 inches and 
12 inches (102 mm and 305 mm) away from the 
glass and at intervals along the glass not greater than 
6 feet (1829 mm). The sprinkler system shall be 
designed so that the entire surface of the glass is wet 
upon activation of the sprinkler system without 
obstruction; 

1.1. The glass wall shall be installed in a gas- 
keted frame in a manner that the framing 
system deflects without breaking (loading) 
the glass before the sprinkler system oper- 
ates; and 

1.2. Where glass doors are provided in the glass 
wall, they shall be either self-closing or auto- 
matic-closing. 

2. A fire barrier is not required where a glass-block 
wall assembly complying with Section 2110 and 
having a 3 / 4 -hour/i>e protection rating is provided. 

3. Afire barrier is not required between the atrium and 
the adjoining spaces of any three floors of the atrium 
provided such spaces are accounted for in the design 
of the smoke control system. 



[F] 404.7 Standby power. Equipment required to provide 
smoke control shall be connected to a standby power system 
in accordance with Section 909.11. 

404.8 Interior finish. The interior finish of walls and ceil- 
ings of the atrium shall be not less than Class B with no 
reduction in class for sprinkler protection. 

404.9 Travel distance. In other than the lowest level of the 
atrium, where the required means of egress is through the 
atrium space, the portion of exit access travel distance within 
the atrium space shall be not greater than 200 feet (60 960 
mm). The travel distance requirements for areas of buildings 
open to the atrium and where access to the exits is not 
through the atrium, shall comply with the requirements of 
Section 1016. 



SECTION 405 
UNDERGROUND BUILDINGS 

405.1 General. The provisions of Sections 405.2 through 
405.10 apply to building spaces having a floor level used for 
human occupancy more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the 
finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge. 

Exception: The provisions of Section 405 are not appli- 
cable to the following buildings or portions of buildings: 

1. One- and two-family dwellings, sprinklered in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.3. 

2. Parking garages provided with automatic sprinkler 
systems in compliance with Section 405.3. 

3. Fixed guideway transit systems. 

4. Grandstands, bleachers, stadiums, arenas and simi- 
lar facilities. 

5. Where the lowest story is the only story that would 
qualify the building as an underground building and 
has an area not greater than 1,500 square feet (139 
m 2 ) and has an occupant load less than 10. 

6. Pumping stations and other similar mechanical 
spaces intended only for limited periodic use by ser- 
vice or maintenance personnel. 

405.2 Construction requirements. The underground portion 
of the building shall be of Type I construction. 

[F] 405.3 Automatic sprinkler system. The highest level of 
exit discharge serving the underground portions of the build- 
ing and all levels below shall be equipped with an automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. Water-flow switches and control valves shall be 
supervised in accordance with Section 903.4. 

405.4 Compartmentation. Compartmentation shall be in 
accordance with Sections 405.4.1 through 405.4.3. 

405.4.1 Number of compartments. A building having a 
floor level more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) below the fin- 
ished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge shall be 
divided into no fewer than two compartments of approxi- 
mately equal size. Such compartmentation shall extend 



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through the highest level of exit discharge serving the 
underground portions of the building and all levels below. 

Exception: The lowest story need not be compart- 
mented where the area is not greater than 1 ,500 square 
feet (1 39 m 2 ) and has an occupant load of less than 10. 

405.4.2 Smoke barrier penetration. The compartments 
shall be separated from each other by a smoke barrier in 
accordance with Section 709. Penetrations between the 
two compartments shall be limited to plumbing and elec- 
trical piping and conduit that are firestopped in accordance 
with Section 714. Doorways shall be protected by fire 
door assemblies that are automatic-closing by smoke 
detection in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3 and are 
installed in accordance with NFPA 105 and Section 
716.5.3. Where provided, each compartment shall have an 
air supply and an exhaust system independent of the other 
compartments. 

405.4.3 Elevators. Where elevators are provided, each 
compartment shall have direct access to an elevator. 
Where an elevator serves more than one compartment, an 
elevator lobby shall be provided and shall be separated 
from each compartment by a smoke barrier in accordance 
with Section 709. Doors shall be gasketed, have a drop sill 
and be automatic-closing by smoke detection in accor- 
dance with Section 716.5.9.3. 

405.5 Smoke control system. A smoke control system shall 
be provided in accordance with Sections 405.5.1 and 405.5.2. 

405.5.1 Control system. A smoke control system is 
required to control the migration of products of combus- 
tion in accordance with Section 909 and the provisions of 
this section. Smoke control shall restrict movement of 
smoke to the general area of fire origin and maintain 
means of egress in a usable condition. 

405.5.2 Compartment smoke control system. Where 
compartmentation is required, each compartment shall 
have an independent smoke control system. The system 
shall be automatically activated and capable of manual 
operation in accordance with Sections 907.2.18 and 
907.2.19. 

[F] 405.6 Fire alarm systems. Afire alarm system shall be 
provided where required by Sections 907.2.18 and 907.2.19. 

405.7 Means of egress. Means of egress shall be in accor- 
dance with Sections 405.7.1 and 405.7.2. 

405.7.1 Number of exits. Each floor level shall be pro- 
vided with no fewer than two exits. Where compartmenta- 
tion is required by Section 405.4, each compartment shall 
have no fewer than one exit and shall also have no fewer 
than one exit access doorway into the adjoining compart- 
ment. 

405.7.2 Smokeproof enclosure. Every required stairway 
serving floor levels more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below 
the finished floor of its level of exit discharge shall comply 
with the requirements for a smokeproof enclosure as pro- 
vided in Section 1022.10. 



[F] 405.8 Standby power. A standby power system comply- 
ing with Chapter 27 shall be provided standby power loads 
specified in Section 405.8.1. 

[F] 405.8.1 Standby power loads. The following loads 
are classified as standby power loads: 

1 . Smoke control system. 

2. Ventilation and automatic fire detection equipment 
for smokeproof enclosures. 

3. Fire pumps. 

Standby power shall be provided for elevators in accor- 
dance with Section 3003. 

|F] 405.8.2 Pick-up time. The standby power system shall 
pick up its connected loads within 60 seconds of failure of 
the normal power supply. 

[F] 405.9 Emergency power. An emergency power system 
complying with Chapter 27 shall be provided for emergency 
power loads specified in Section 405.9.1. 

[F] 405.9.1 Emergency power loads. The following loads 
are classified as emergency power loads: 

1 . Emergency voice/alarm communications systems. 

2. Fire alarm systems. 

3. Automatic fire detection systems. 

4. Elevator car lighting. 

5. Means of egress and exit sign illumination as 
required by Chapter 10. 

[F] 405.10 Standpipe system. The underground building 
shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system in 
accordance with Section 905. 

SECTION 406 
MOTOR-VEHICLE-RELATED OCCUPANCIES 

Section 406 has been completely reorganized from the 2009 
code; therefore, the * and ** margin indicators have not been 
included for clarity. 

406.1 General. Motor- vehicle-related occupancies shall 
comply with Sections 406.1 through 406.8. 

406.2 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chap- 
ter 2: 

MECHANICAL-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. 

OPEN PARKING GARAGE. 

RAMP-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. 

406.3 Private garages and carports. Private garages and 
carports shall comply with Sections 406.3.1 through 406.3.5. 

406.3.1 Classification. Buildings or parts of buildings 
classified as Group U occupancies because of the use or 
character of the occupancy shall be not greater than 1 ,000 
square feet (93 m 2 ) in area or one story in height except as 
provided in Section 406.3.2. Any building or portion 
thereof that exceeds the limitations specified in this sec- 
tion shall be classified in the occupancy group other than 
Group U that it most nearly resembles. 



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406.3.2 Area increase. Group U occupancies used for the 
storage of private or pleasure-type motor vehicles where 
no repair work is completed or fuel is dispensed are per- 
mitted to be 3,000 square feet (279 m 2 ) where the follow- 
ing provisions are met: 

1. For a mixed occupancy building, the exterior wall 
and opening protection for the Group U portion of 
the building shall be as required for the major occu- 
pancy of the building. For such a mixed occupancy 
building, the allowable floor area of the building 
shall be as permitted for the major occupancy con- 
tained therein. 

2. For a building containing only a Group U occu- 
pancy, the exterior wall shall not be required to have 
a fire- resistance rating and the area of openings 
shall not be limited where the fire separation dis- 
tance is 5 feet (1524 mm) or more. 

More than one 3,000-square-foot (279 m 2 ) Group U 
occupancy shall be permitted to be in the same structure, 
provided each 3,000-square-foot (279 m 2 ) area is sepa- 
rated by fire walls complying with Section 706. 

406.3.3 Garages and carports. Carports shall be open on 
no fewer than two sides. Carport floor surfaces shall be of 
approved noncombustible material. Carports not open on 
at least two sides shall be considered a garage and shall 
comply with the provisions of this section for garages. 

Exception: Asphalt surfaces shall be permitted at 
ground level in carports. 

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or 
other vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of 
liquids to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry door- 
way. 

406.3.4 Separation. Separations shall comply with the 
following: 

1. The private garage shall be separated from the 
dwelling unit and its attic area by means of gypsum 
board, not less than V 2 inch (12.7 mm) in thickness, 
applied to the garage side. Garages beneath habit- 
able rooms shall be separated from all habitable 
rooms above by not less than a 5 / 8 -inch (15.9 mm) 
Type X gypsum board or equivalent and 7 2 -inch 
(12.7 mm) gypsum board applied to structures sup- 
porting the separation from habitable rooms above 
the garage. Door openings between a private garage 
and the dwelling unit shall be equipped with either 
solid wood doors or solid or honeycomb core steel 
doors not less than l 3 / g inches (34.9 mm) in thick- 
ness, or doors in compliance with Section 716.5.3 
with a fire protection rating of not less than 20 min- 
utes. Openings from a private garage directly into a 
room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permit- 
ted. Doors shall be self-closing and self-latching. 

2. Ducts in a private garage and ducts penetrating the 
walls or ceilings separating the dwelling unit, 
including its attic area, from the garage shall be con- 
structed of sheet steel of not less than 0.019 inches 



(0.48 mm), in thickness, and shall have no openings § 
into the garage. 1 

3. A separation is not required between a Group R-3 
and U carport, provided the carport is entirely open 
on two or more sides and there are not enclosed 
areas above. 

406.3.5 Automatic garage door openers. Automatic 
garage door openers, if provided, shall be listed in accor- 
dance with UL 325. 

406.4 Public parking garages. Parking garages other than 
private parking garages, shall be classified as public parking 
garages and shall comply with the provisions of Sections 
406.4.2 through 406.4.8 and shall be classified as either an 
open parking garage or an enclosed parking garage. Open 
parking garages shall also comply with Section 406.5. 
Enclosed parking garages shall also comply with Section 
406.6. See Section 510 for special provisions for parking 
garages. 

406.4.1 Clear height. The clear height of each floor level 
in vehicle and pedestrian traffic areas shall be not less than 
7 feet (2134 mm). Vehicle and pedestrian areas accommo- 
dating van-accessible parking shall comply with Section 
1106.5. 

406.4.2 Guards. Guards shall be provided in accordance 
with Section 1013. Guards serving as vehicle barriers 
shall comply with Sections 406.4.3 and 1013. 

406.4.3 Vehicle barriers. Vehicle barriers not less than 2 
feet 9 inches (835 mm) in height shall be placed at the 
ends of drive lanes, and at the end of parking spaces where 
the vertical distance to the ground or surface directly 
below is greater than 1 foot (305 mm). Vehicle barriers 
shall comply with the loading requirements of Section 
1607.8.3. 

Exception: Vehicle barriers are not required in vehicle 
storage compartments in a mechanical access parking 
garage. 

406.4.4 Ramps. Vehicle ramps shall not be considered as 
required exits unless pedestrian facilities are provided. 
Vehicle ramps that are utilized for vertical circulation as 
well as for parking shall not exceed a slope of 1:15 (6.67 
percent). 

406.4.5 Floor surface. Parking surfaces shall be of con- 
crete or similar noncombustible and nonabsorbent materi- 
als. 

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or 
other vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of 
liquids to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry door- 
way. 

Exceptions: 

1. Asphalt parking surfaces shall be permitted at 
ground level. 

2. Floors of Group S-2 parking garages shall not be 
required to have a sloped surface. 

406.4.6 Mixed occupancy separation. Parking garages 
shall be separated from other occupancies in accordance 
with Section 508.1. 



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406.4.7 Special hazards. Connection of a parking garage 
with any room in which there is a fuel-fired appliance 
shall be by means of a vestibule providing a two-doorway 
separation. 

Exception: A single door shall be allowed provided the 
sources of ignition in the appliance are not less than 1 8 
inches (457 mm) above the floor. 

406.4.8 Attached to rooms. Openings from a parking 
garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes 
shall not be permitted. 

406.5 Open parking garages. Open parking garages shall 
comply with Sections 406.5.1 through 406.5.11. 

406.5.1 Construction. Open parking garages shall be of 
Type I, II or IV construction. Open parking garages shall 
meet the design requirements of Chapter 16. For vehicle 
barriers, see Section 406.4.3. 

406.5.2 Openings. For natural ventilation purposes, the 
exterior side of the structure shall have uniformly distrib- 
uted openings on two or more sides. The area of such 
openings in exterior walls on a tier shall be not less than 
20 percent of the total perimeter wall area of each tier. The 
aggregate length of the openings considered to be provid- 
ing natural ventilation shall be not less than 40 percent of 
the perimeter of the tier. Interior walls shall be not less 
than 20 percent open with uniformly distributed openings. 

Exception: Openings are not required to be distributed 
over 40 percent of the building perimeter where the 
required openings are uniformly distributed over two 
opposing sides of the building. 

406.5.2.1 Openings below grade. Where openings 
below grade provide required natural ventilation, the 
outside horizontal clear space shall be one and one-half 
times the depth of the opening. The width of the hori- 
zontal clear space shall be maintained from grade down 
to the bottom of the lowest required opening. 

406.5.3 Uses. Mixed uses shall be allowed in the same 
building as an open parking garage subject to the provi- 
sions of Sections 402.4.2.3, 406.5.11, 508.1, 510.3, 510.4 
and 510.7. 

406.5.4 Area and height. Area and height of open park- 
ing garages shall be limited as set forth in Chapter 5 for 
Group S-2 occupancies and as further provided for in Sec- 
tion 508.1. 



TABLE 406. 
OPEN PARKING GARAGES 



406.5.4.1 Single use. Where the open parking garage 
is used exclusively for the parking or storage of private 
motor vehicles, with no other uses in the building, the 
area and height shall be permitted to comply with Table 
406.5.4, along with increases allowed by Section 
406.5.5. 

Exception: The grade-level tier is permitted to con- 
tain an office, waiting and toilet rooms having a total 
combined area of not more than 1,000 square feet 
(93 m 2 ). Such area need not be separated from the 
open parking garage. 

In open parking garages having a spiral or sloping 
floor, the horizontal projection of the structure at any 
cross section shall not exceed the allowable area per 
parking tier. In the case of an open parking garage hav- 
ing a continuous spiral floor, each 9 feet 6 inches (2896 
mm) of height, or portion thereof, shall be considered a 
tier. 

The clear height of a parking tier shall be not less 
than 7 feet (2134 mm), except that a lower clear height 
is permitted in mechanical-access open parking 
garages where approved by the building official. 

406.5.5 Area and height increases. The allowable area 
and height of open parking garages shall be increased in 
accordance with the provisions of this section. Garages 
with sides open on three-fourths of the building's perime- 
ter are permitted to be increased by 25 percent in area and 
one tier in height. Garages with sides open around the 
entire building's perimeter are permitted to be increased 
by 50 percent in area and one tier in height. For a side to 
be considered open under the above provisions, the total 
area of openings along the side shall not be less than 50 
percent of the interior area of the side at each tier and such 
openings shall be equally distributed along the length of 
the tier. For purposes of calculating the interior area of the 
side, the height shall not exceed 7 feet (2134 mm). 

Allowable tier areas in Table 406.5.4 shall be increased 
for open parking garages constructed to heights less than 
the table maximum. The gross tier area of the garage shall 
not exceed that permitted for the higher structure. No 
fewer than three sides of each such larger tier shall have 
continuous horizontal openings not less than 30 inches 
(762 mm) in clear height extending for not less than 80 
percent of the length of the sides and no part of such larger 
tier shall be more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) horizontally 
from such an opening. In addition, each such opening shall 

.5.4 

AREA AND HEIGHT 



TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 


AREA PER TIER 
(square feet) 


HEIGHT (in tiers) 


Ramp access 


Mechanical access 


Automatic sprinkler system 


No 


Yes 


IA 


Unlimited 


Unlimited 


Unlimited 


Unlimited 


IB 


Unlimited 


12 tiers 


12 tiers 


18 tiers 


IIA 


50,000 


10 tiers 


10 tiers 


1 5 tiers 


IIB 


50,000 


8 tiers 


8 tiers 


12 tiers 


IV 


50,000 


4 tiers 


4 tiers 


4 tiers 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 nr. 



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face a street or yard accessible to a street with a width of 
not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) for the full length of the 
opening, and standpipes shall be provided in each such 
tier. 

Open parking garages of Type II construction, with all 
sides open, shall be unlimited in allowable area where the 
building height does not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). For 
a side to be considered open, the total area of openings 
along the side shall not be less than 50 percent of the inte- 
rior area of the side at each tier and such openings shall be 
equally distributed along the length of the tier. For pur- 
poses of calculating the interior area of the side, the height 
shall not exceed 7 feet (2134 mm). All portions of tiers 
shall be within 200 feet (60 960 mm) horizontally from 
such openings or other natural ventilation openings as 
defined in Section 406.5.2. These openings shall be per- 
mitted to be provided in courts with a minimum dimen- 
sion of 20 feet (6096 mm) for the full width of the 
openings. 

406.5.6 Fire separation distance. Exterior walls and 
openings in exterior walls shall comply with Tables 601 
and 602. The distance to an adjacent lot line shall be deter- 
mined in accordance with Table 602 and Section 705. 

406.5.7 Means of egress. Where persons other than park- 
ing attendants are permitted, open parking garages shall 
meet the means of egress requirements of Chapter 10. 
Where no persons other than parking attendants are per- 
mitted, there shall be no fewer than two exit stairways. 
Each exit stairway shall be not less than 36 inches (914 
mm) in width. Lifts shall be permitted to be installed for 
use of employees only, provided they are completely 
enclosed by noncombustible materials. 

[F] 406.5.8 Standpipe system. An open parking garage 
shall be equipped with a standpipe system as required by 
Section 905.3. 

406.5.9 Enclosure of vertical openings. Enclosure shall 
not be required for vertical openings except as specified in 
Section 406.5.7. 

406.5.10 Ventilation. Ventilation, other than the percent- 
age of openings specified in Section 406.5.2, shall not be 
required. 

406.5.11 Prohibitions. The following uses and alterations 
are not permitted: 

1 . Vehicle repair work. 

2. Parking of buses, trucks and similar vehicles. 

3. Partial or complete closing of required openings in 
exterior walls by tarpaulins or any other means. 

4. Dispensing of fuel. 

406.6 Enclosed parking garages. Enclosed parking garages 
shall comply with Sections 406.6.1 through 406.6.3. 

406.6.1 Heights and areas. Enclosed vehicle parking 
garages and portions thereof that do not meet the defini- 
tion of open parking garages shall be limited to the allow- 
able heights and areas specified in Table 503 as modified 
by Sections 504, 506 and 507. Roof parking is permitted. 



406.6.2 Ventilation. A mechanical ventilation system 
shall be provided in accordance with the International 
Mechanical Code. 

[F] 406.6.3 Automatic sprinkler system. An enclosed 
parking garage shall be equipped with an automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with Section 903.2.10. 

406.7 Motor fuel-dispensing facilities. Motor fuel-dispens- 
ing facilities shall comply with the International Fire Code 
and Sections 406.7.1 and 406.7.2. 

406.7.1 Vehicle fueling pad. The vehicle shall be fueled 
on noncoated concrete or other approved paving material 
having a resistance not exceeding 1 megohm as deter- 
mined by the methodology in EN 1081. 

406.7.2 Canopies. Canopies under which fuels are dis- 
pensed shall have a clear, unobstructed height of not less 
than 13 feet 6 inches (4115 mm) to the lowest projecting 
element in the vehicle drive-through area. Canopies and 
their supports over pumps shall be of noncombustible 
materials, fire-retardant-treated wood complying with 
Chapter 23, wood of Type IV sizes or of construction pro- 
viding 1 -hour fire resistance. Combustible materials used 
in or on a canopy shall comply with one of the following: 

1 . Shielded from the pumps by a noncombustible ele- 
ment of the canopy, or wood of Type IV sizes; 

2. Plastics covered by aluminum facing having a thick- 
ness of not less than 0.010 inch (0.30 mm) or corro- 
sion-resistant steel having a base metal thickness of 
not less than 0.016 inch (0.41 mm). The plastic shall 
have & flame spread index of 25 or less and a smoke- 
developed index of 450 or less when tested in the 
form intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 
84 or UL 723 and a self-ignition temperature of 
650°F (343°C) or greater when tested in accordance 
with ASTM D 1929; or 

3. Panels constructed of light-transmitting plastic 
materials shall be permitted to be installed in cano- 
pies erected over motor vehicle fuel-dispensing sta- 
tion fuel dispensers, provided the panels are located 
not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from any building 
on the same lot and face yards or streets not less 
than 40 feet (1 2 192 mm) in width on the other sides. 
The aggregate areas of plastics shall be not greater 
than 1,000 square feet (93 m 2 ). The maximum area 
of any individual panel shall be not greater than 100 
square feet (9.3 m 2 ). 

406.7.2.1 Canopies used to support gaseous hydro- 
gen systems. Canopies that are used to shelter dispens- 
ing operations where flammable compressed gases are 
located on the roof of the canopy shall be in accordance 
with the following: 

1. The canopy shall meet or exceed Type I construc- 
tion requirements. 

2. Operations located under canopies shall be lim- 
ited to refueling only. 

3. The canopy shall be constructed in a manner that 
prevents the accumulation of hydrogen gas. 



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406.8 Repair garages. Repair garages shall be constructed 
in accordance with the International Fire Code and Sections 
406.8.1 through 406.8.6. This occupancy shall not include 
motor fuel-dispensing facilities, as regulated in Section 
406.7. 

406.8.1 Mixed uses. Mixed uses shall be allowed in the 
same building as a repair garage subject to the provisions 
of Section 508.1. 

406.8.2 Ventilation. Repair garages shall be mechanically 
ventilated in accordance with the International Mechani- 
cal Code. The ventilation system shall be controlled at the 
entrance to the garage. 

406.8.3 Floor surface. Repair garage floors shall be of 
concrete or similar noncombustible and nonabsorbent 
materials. 

Exception: Slip-resistant, nonabsorbent, interior floor 
finishes having a critical radiant flux not more than 
0.45 W/cm 2 , as determined by NFPA 253, shall be per- 
mitted. 

406.8.4 Heating equipment. Heating equipment shall be 
installed in accordance with the International Mechanical 
Code. 

[F] 406.8.5 Gas detection system. Repair garages used 
for the repair of vehicles fueled by nonodorized gases such 
as hydrogen and nonodorized LNG, shall be provided with 
a flammable gas detection system. 

[F] 406.8.5.1 System design. The flammable gas 
detection system shall be listed or approved and shall 
be calibrated to the types of fuels or gases used by vehi- 
cles to be repaired. The gas detection system shall be 
designed to activate when the level of flammable gas 
exceeds 25 percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL). 
Gas detection shall be provided in lubrication or chassis 
service pits of repair garages used for repairing non- 
odorized LNG-fueled vehicles. 

[F] 406.8.5.1.1 Gas detection system compo- 
nents. Gas detection system control units shall be 
listed and labeled in accordance with UL 864 or UL 
2017. Gas detectors shall be listed and labeled in 
accordance with UL 2075 for use with the gases and 
vapors being detected. 

[F] 406.8.5.2 Operation. Activation of the gas detec- 
tion system shall result in all of the following: 

1. Initiation of distinct audible and visual alarm sig- 
nals in the repair garage. 

2. Deactivation of all heating systems located in the 
repair garage. 

3. Activation of the mechanical ventilation system, 
where the system is interlocked with gas detec- 
tion. 

[F] 406.8.5.3 Failure of the gas detection system. 
Failure of the gas detection system shall result in the 
deactivation of the heating system, activation of the 
mechanical ventilation system where the system is 
inter-locked with the gas detection system and cause a 
trouble signal to sound in an approved location. 



[F] 406.8.6 Automatic sprinkler system. A repair garage 
shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.2.9.1. 



SECTION 407 
GROUP 1-2 

407.1 General. Occupancies in Group 1-2 shall comply with 
the provisions of Sections 407.1 through 407.10 and other 
applicable provisions of this code. 

407.2 Corridors continuity and separation. Corridors in 
occupancies in Group 1-2 shall be continuous to the exits and 
shall be separated from other areas in accordance with Sec- 
tion 407.3 except spaces conforming to Sections 407.2.1 
through 407.2.4. 

407.2.1 Waiting and similar areas. Waiting areas and 
similar spaces constructed as required for corridors shall 
be permitted to be open to a corridor, only where all of the 
following criteria are met: 

1. The spaces are not occupied as care recipient's I 
sleeping rooms, treatment rooms, incidental uses in 
accordance with Section 509, or hazardous uses. j 

2. The open space is protected by an automatic fire 
detection system installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 907. 

3. The corridors onto which the spaces open, in the 
same smoke compartment, are protected by an auto- 
matic fire detection system installed in accordance 
with Section 907, or the smoke compartment in 
which the spaces are located is equipped throughout 
with quick-response sprinklers in accordance with 
Section 903.3.2. 

4. The space is arranged so as not to obstruct access to 
the required exits. 

407.2.2 Care providers' stations. Spaces for care pro- 
viders', supervisory staff, doctors' and nurses' charting, 
communications and related clerical areas shall be permit- 
ted to be open to the corridor, where such spaces are con- 
structed as required for corridors. 

407.2.3 Psychiatric treatment areas. Areas wherein psy- 
chiatric care recipients who are not capable of self-preser- 
vation are housed, or group meeting or multipurpose 
therapeutic spaces other than incidental uses in accordance 
with Section 509, under continuous supervision by facility 
staff, shall be permitted to be open to the corridor, where 
the following criteria are met: 

1. Each area does not exceed 1,500 square feet (140 
m 2 ). 

2. The area is located to permit supervision by the 
facility staff. 

3. The area is arranged so as not to obstruct any access 
to the required exits. 

4. The area is equipped with an automatic fire detec- 
tion system installed in accordance with Section 
907.2. 



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** 



5. Not more than one such space is permitted in any 
one smoke compartment. 

6. The walls and ceilings of the space are constructed 
as required for corridors. 

407.2.4 Gift shops. Gift shops and associated storage that 
are less than 500 square feet (455 m 2 ) in area shall be per- 
mitted to be open to the corridor where such spaces are 
constructed as required for corridors. 

407.3 Corridor wall construction. Corridor walls shall be 
constructed as smoke partitions in accordance with Section 
710. 

407.3.1 Corridor doors. Corridor doors, other than those 
in a wall required to be rated by Section 509.4 or for the 
enclosure of a vertical opening or an exit, shall not have a 
required fire protection rating and shall not be required to 
be equipped with self-closing or automatic-closing 
devices, but shall provide an effective barrier to limit the 
transfer of smoke and shall be equipped with positive 
latching. Roller latches are not permitted. Other doors 
shall conform to Section 716.5. 

407.4 Means of egress. Group 1-2 occupancies shall be pro- 
vided with means of egress complying with Chapter 10 and 
Sections 407.4. 1 through 407.4.3. 

407.4.1 Direct access to a corridor. Habitable rooms in 
Group 1-2 occupancies shall have an exit access door lead- 
ing directly to a corridor. 

Exceptions: 

1. Rooms with exit doors opening directly to the 
outside at ground level. 

2. Rooms arranged as care suites complying with 
Section 407.4.3 

407.4.1.1 Locking devices. Locking devices that 
restrict access to a care recipient's room from the corri- 
dor and that are operable only by staff from the corri- 
dor side shall not restrict the means of egress from the 
care recipient's room. 

Exceptions: 

1. This section shall not apply to rooms in psy- 
chiatric treatment and similar care areas. 

2. Locking arrangements in accordance with 
Section 1008.1.9.6. 

407.4.2 Travel distance. The travel distance between any 
point in a Group 1-2 occupancy sleeping room and an exit 
access door in that room shall be not greater than 50 feet 
(15 240 mm). 

407.4.3 Group 1-2 care suites. Care suites in Group 1-2 
shall comply with Section 407.4.3.1 through 407.4.3.4 and 
either Section 407.4.3.5 or 407.4.3.6. 

407.4.3.1 Exit access through care suites. Exit access 
from all other portions of a building not classified as a 
care suite shall not pass through a care suite. In a care 
suite required to have more than one exit, one exit 
access is permitted to pass through an adjacent care 
suite provided all of the other requirements of Sections 
407.4 and 1014.2 are satisfied. 



407.4.3.2 Separation. Care mites shall be separated 
from other portions of the building by a smoke partition 
complying with Section 710. 

407.4.3.3 One intervening room. For rooms other than 
sleeping rooms located within a care suite, exit access 
travel from the care suite shall be permitted through 
one intervening room where the travel distance to the 
exit access door from the care suite is not greater than 
100 feet (30 480 mm). 

407.4.3.4 Two intervening rooms. For rooms other 
than sleeping rooms located within a care suite, exit 
access travel within the care suite shall be permitted 
through two intervening rooms where the travel dis- 
tance to the exit access door from the care suite is not 
greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm). 

407.4.3.5 Care suites containing sleeping room 
areas. Sleeping rooms shall be permitted to be grouped 
into care suites with one intervening room if one of the 
following conditions is met: 

1 . The intervening room within the care suite is not 
used as an exit access for more than eight care 
recipient beds. 

2. The arrangement of the care suite allows for 
direct and constant visual supervision by care 
providers. 

407.4.3.5.1 Area. Care suites containing sleeping 
rooms shall be not greater than 5,000 square feet 
(465 m 2 ) in area. 

407.4.3.5.2 Exit access. Any sleeping room, or any 
care suite that contains sleeping rooms, of more than 
1,000 square feet (93 m 2 ) shall have no fewer than 
two exit access doors from the care suite located in 
accordance with Section 1015.2. 

407.4.3.5.3 Travel distance. The travel distance 
between any point in a care suite containing sleep- 
ing rooms and an exit access door from that care 
suite shall be not greater than 100 feet (30 480 mm). 

407.4.3.6 Care suites not containing sleeping rooms. 
Areas not containing sleeping rooms, but only treat- 
ment areas and the associated rooms, spaces or circula- 
tion space shall be permitted to be grouped into care 
suites and shall conform to the limitations in Section 
407.4.3.6.1 and 407.4.3.6.2. 

407.4.3.6.1 Area. Care mites of rooms, other than 
sleeping rooms, shall have an area not greater than 
1 0,000 square feet (929 m 2 ). 

407.4.3.6.2 Exit access. Care suites, other than 
sleeping rooms, with an area of more than 2,500 
square feet (232 m 2 ) shall have no fewer than two 
exit access doors from the care suite located in 
accordance with Section 1015.2. 

407.5 Smoke barriers. Smoke barriers shall be provided to 
subdivide every story used by persons receiving care, treat- 
ment or sleeping and to divide other stories with an occupant 
load of 50 or more persons, into no fewer than two smoke 



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| compartments. Such stories shall be divided into smoke com- 
partments with an area of not more than 22,500 square feet 
(2092 m 2 ) and the travel distance from any point in a smoke 
compartment to a smoke barrier door shall be not greater than 
200 feet (60 960 mm). The smoke barrier shall be in accor- 
dance with Section 709. 

407.5.1 Refuge area. Refuge areas shall be provided 
within each smoke compartment. The size of the refuge 
area shall accommodate the occupants and care recipients 
from the adjoining smoke compartment. Where a smoke 
compartment is adjoined by two or more smoke compart- 
ments, the minimum area of the refuge area shall accom- 
modate the largest occupant load of the adjoining 
compartments. The size of the refuge area shall provide 
the following: 

1. Not less than 30 net square feet (2.8 m 2 ) for each 
care recipient confined to bed or litter. 

2. Not less than 6 square feet (0.56 m 2 ) for each ambu- 
latory care recipient not confined to bed or litter and 
for other occupants. 

Areas or spaces permitted to be included in the calcula- 
tion of refuge area are corridors, sleeping areas, treatment 
rooms, lounge or dining areas and other low-hazard areas. 

407.5.2 Independent egress. A means of egress shall be 
provided from each smoke compartment created by smoke 
barriers without having to return through the smoke com- 
partment from which means of egress originated. 

407.5.3 Horizontal assemblies. Horizontal assemblies 
supporting smoke barriers required by this section shall be 
designed to resist the movement of smoke and shall com- 
ply with Section 71 1.9. 

[F] 407.6 Automatic sprinkler system. Smoke compart- 
ments containing sleeping rooms shall be equipped through- 
out with an automatic fire sprinkler system in accordance 
with Sections 903.3.1.1 and 903.3.2. 

[F] 407.7 Fire alarm system. A fire alarm system shall be 
provided in accordance with Section 907.2.6. 

[F] 407.8 Automatic fire detection. Corridors in nursing 
homes, long-term care facilities, detoxification facilities and 
spaces permitted to be open to the corridors by Section 407.2 
shall be equipped with an automatic fire detection system. 
Hospitals shall be equipped with smoke detection as required 
in Section 407.2. 

Exceptions: 

1. Corridor smoke detection is not required where 
sleeping rooms are provided with smoke detectors 
that comply with UL 268. Such detectors shall pro- 
vide a visual display on the corridor side of each 
sleeping room and an audible and visual alarm at the 
care provider's station attending each unit. 

2. Corridor smoke detection is not required where 
sleeping room doors are equipped with automatic 
door-closing devices with integral smoke detectors 
on the unit sides installed in accordance with their 
listing, provided that the integral detectors perform 
the required alerting function. 



407.9 Secured yards. Grounds are permitted to be fenced 
and gates therein are permitted to be equipped with locks, 
provided that safe dispersal areas having 30 net square feet 
(2.8 m 2 ) for bed and litter care recipients and 6 net square 
feet (0.56 m 2 ) for ambulatory care recipients and other occu- 
pants are located between the building and the fence. Such 
provided safe dispersal area shall be located not less than 50 
feet (15 240 mm) from the building they serve. 

407.10 Hyperbaric facilities. Hyperbaric facilities in Group 
1-2 occupancies shall meet the requirements contained in 
Chapter 20 of NFPA 99. 



SECTION 408 
GROUP !-3 

408.1 General. Occupancies in Group 1-3 shall comply with 
the provisions of Sections 408.1 through 408.11 and other 
applicable provisions of this code (see Section 308.5). 

408.1.1 Definition. The following terms are defined in 
Chapter 2: 

CELL. 

CELL TIER. 

HOUSING UNIT. 
SALLYPORT. 

408.2 Other occupancies. Buildings or portions of buildings 
in Group 1-3 occupancies where security operations necessi- 
tate the locking of required means of egress shall be permit- 
ted to be classified as a different occupancy. Occupancies 
classified as other than Group 1-3 shall meet the applicable 
requirements of this code for that occupancy provided provi- 
sions are made for the release of occupants at all times. 

Means of egress from detention and correctional occupan- 
cies that traverse other use areas shall, as a minimum, con- 
form to requirements for detention and correctional 
occupancies. 

Exception: It is permissible to exit through a horizontal 
exit into other contiguous occupancies that do not conform 
to detention and correctional occupancy egress provisions 
but that do comply with requirements set forth in the 
appropriate occupancy, as long as the occupancy is not a 
Group H use. 

408.3 Means of egress. Except as modified or as provided 
for in this section, the means of egress provisions of Chapter 
10 shall apply. 

408.3.1 Door width. Doors to resident sleeping units shall 
have a clear width of not less than 28 inches (7 1 1 mm). 

408.3.2 Sliding doors. Where doors in a means of egress 
are of the horizontal-sliding type, the force to slide the 
door to its fully open position shall be not greater than 50 
pounds (220 N) with a perpendicular force against the 
door of 50 pounds (220 N). 

408.3.3 Guard tower doors. A hatch or trap door not less 
than 16 square feet (610 m 2 ) in area through the floor and 
having dimensions of not less than 2 feet (610 mm) in any 



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direction shall be permitted to be used as a portion of the 
means of egress from guard towers. 

408.3.4 Spiral stairways. Spiral stairways that conform 
to the requirements of Section 1009.12 are permitted for 
access to and between staff locations. 

408.3.5 Ship ladders. Ship ladders shall be permitted for 
egress from control rooms or elevated facility observation 
rooms in accordance with Section 1009.14. 

408.3.6 Exit discharge. Exits are permitted to discharge 
into a fenced or walled courtyard. Enclosed yards or 
courts shall be of a size to accommodate all occupants, be 
located not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the build- 
ing and have an area of not less than 15 square feet (1.4 
m 2 ) per person. 

408.3.7 Sallyports. A sallyport shall be permitted in a 
means of egress where there are provisions for continuous 
and unobstructed passage through the sallyport during an 
emergency egress condition. 

408.3.8 Interior exit stairway and ramp construction. 
One interior exit stairway or ramp in each building shall 
be permitted to have glazing installed in doors and interior 
walls at each landing level providing access to the interior 
exit stairway or ramp, provided that the following condi- 
tions are met: 

1. The interior exit stairway or ramp shall not serve 
more than four floor levels. 

2. Exit doors shall be not less than V 4 -hour fire door 
assemblies complying with Section 716.5 

3. The total area of glazing at each floor level shall not 
exceed 5,000 square inches (3.2 m 2 ) and individual 
panels of glazing shall not exceed 1,296 square 
inches (0.84 m 2 ). 

4. The glazing shall be protected on both sides by an 
automatic sprinkler system. The sprinkler system 
shall be designed to wet completely the entire sur- 
face of any glazing affected by fire when actuated. 

5. The glazing shall be in a gasketed frame and 
installed in such a manner that the framing system 
will deflect without breaking (loading) the glass 
before the sprinkler system operates. 

6. Obstructions, such as curtain rods, drapery traverse 
rods, curtains, drapes or similar materials shall not 
be installed between the automatic sprinklers and 
the glazing. 

408.4 Locks. Egress doors are permitted to be locked in 
accordance with the applicable use condition. Doors from a 
refuge area to the outside are permitted to be locked with a 
key in lieu of locking methods described in Section 408.4.1 . 
The keys to unlock the exterior doors shall be available at all 
times and the locks shall be operable from both sides of the 
door. 

408.4.1 Remote release. Remote release of locks on doors 
in a means of egress shall be provided with reliable means 
of operation, remote from the resident living areas, to 



release locks on all required doors. In Occupancy Condi- 
tions 3 or 4, the arrangement, accessibility and security of 
the release mechanisms required for egress shall be such 
that with the minimum available staff at any time, the lock 
mechanisms are capable of being released within 2 min- 
utes. 

Exception: Provisions for remote locking and unlock- 
ing of occupied rooms in Occupancy Condition 4 are 
not required provided that not more than 10 locks are 
necessary to be unlocked in order to move occupants 
from one smoke compartment to a refuge area within 3 
minutes. The opening of necessary locks shall be 
accomplished with not more than two separate keys. 

408.4.2 Power-operated doors and locks. Power-oper- 
ated sliding doors or power-operated locks for swinging 
doors shall be operable by a manual release mechanism at 
the door, and either emergency power or a remote 
mechanical operating release shall be provided. 

Exception: Emergency power is not required in facili- 
ties with 10 or fewer locks complying with the excep- 
tion to Section 408.4.1. 

408.4.3 Redundant operation. Remote release, mechani- 
cally operated sliding doors or remote release, mechani- 
cally operated locks shall be provided with a mechanically 
operated release mechanism at each door, or shall be pro- 
vided with a redundant remote release control. 

408.4.4 Relock capability. Doors remotely unlocked 
under emergency conditions shall not automatically relock 
when closed unless specific action is taken at the remote 
location to enable doors to relock. 

408.5 Protection of vertical openings. Any vertical opening 
shall be protected by a shaft enclosure in accordance with 
Section 713, or shall be in accordance with Section 408.5.1. 

408.5.1 Floor openings. Openings in floors within a hous- 
ing unit are permitted without a shaft enclosure, provided 
all of the following conditions are met: 

1. The entire normally occupied areas so intercon- 
nected are open and unobstructed so as to enable 
observation of the areas by supervisory personnel; 

2. Means of egress capacity is sufficient for all occu- 
pants from all interconnected cell tiers and areas; 

3. The height difference between the floor levels of the 
highest and lowest cell tiers shall not exceed 23 feet 
(7010 mm); and 

4. Egress from any portion of the cell tier to an exit or 
exit access door shall not require travel on more than 
one additional floor level within the housing unit. 

408.5.2 Shaft openings in communicating floor levels. 
Where a floor opening is permitted between communicat- 
ing floor levels of a housing unit in accordance with Sec- 
tion 408.5.1, plumbing chases serving vertically staked 
individual cells contained with the housing unit shall be 
permitted without a shaft enclosure. 

408.6 Smoke barrier. Occupancies in Group 1-3 shall have 
smoke barriers complying with Sections 408.8 and 709 to 



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divide every story occupied by residents for sleeping, or any 
other story having an occupant load of 50 or more persons, 
into no fewer than two smoke compartments. 

Exception: Spaces having a direct exit to one of the fol- 
lowing, provided that the locking arrangement of the doors 
involved complies with the requirements for doors at the 
smoke barrier for the use condition involved: 

1 . A public way. 

2. A building separated from the resident housing area 
by a 2-hour fire-resistance-rated assembly or 50 feet 
(15 240 mm) of open space. 

3. A secured yard or court having a holding space 50 
feet (15 240 mm) from the housing area that pro- 
vides 6 square feet (0.56 m 2 ) or more of refuge area 
per occupant, including residents, staff and visitors. 

408.6.1 Smoke compartments. The number of residents 
in any smoke compartment shall be not more than 200. 
The travel distance to a door in a smoke barrier from any 
room door required as exit access shall be not greater than 
150 feet (45 720 mm). The travel distance to a door in a 
smoke barrier from any point in a room shall be not 
greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm). 

408.6.2 Refuge area. Not less than 6 net square feet (0.56 
m 2 ) per occupant shall be provided on each side of each 
smoke barrier for the total number of occupants in adjoin- 
ing smoke compartments. This space shall be readily avail- 
able wherever the occupants are moved across the smoke 
barrier in a fire emergency. 

408.6.3 Independent egress. A means of egress shall be 
provided from each smoke compartment created by smoke 
barriers without having to return through the smoke com- 
partment from which means of egress originates. 

408.7 Security glazing. In occupancies in Group 1-3, win- 
dows and doors in 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accor- 
dance with Section 707, fire partitions constructed in 
accordance with Section 708 and smoke barriers constructed 
in accordance with Section 709 shall be permitted to have 
security glazing installed provided that the following condi- 
tions are met. 

1. Individual panels of glazing shall not exceed 1,296 
square inches (0.84 m 2 ). 

2. The glazing shall be protected on both sides by an auto- 
matic sprinkler system. The sprinkler system shall be 
designed to, when actuated, wet completely the entire 
surface of any glazing affected by fire. 

3. The glazing shall be in a gasketed frame and installed 
in such a manner that the framing system will deflect 
without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprin- 
kler system operates. 

4. Obstructions, such as curtain rods, drapery traverse 
rods, curtains, drapes or similar materials shall not be 
installed between the automatic sprinklers and the glaz- 
ing. 

408.8 Subdivision of resident housing areas. Sleeping areas 
and any contiguous day room, group activity space or other 
common spaces where residents are housed shall be separated 



from other spaces in accordance with Sections 408.8.1 
through 408.8.4. 

408.8.1 Occupancy Conditions 3 and 4. Each sleeping 
area in Occupancy Conditions 3 and 4 shall be separated 
from the adjacent common spaces by a smoke-tight parti- 
tion where the travel distance from the sleeping area 
through the common space to the corridor exceeds 50 feet 
(15 240 mm). 

408.8.2 Occupancy Condition 5. Each sleeping area in 
Occupancy Condition 5 shall be separated from adjacent 
sleeping areas, corridors and common spaces by a smoke- 
tight partition. Additionally, common spaces shall be sepa- 
rated from the corridor by a smoke-tight partition. 

408.8.3 Openings in room face. The aggregate area of 
openings in a solid sleeping room face in Occupancy Con- 
ditions 2, 3, 4 and 5 shall not exceed 120 square inches 
(0.77 m 2 ). The aggregate area shall include all openings 
including door undercuts, food passes and grilles. Open- 
ings shall be not more than 36 inches (914 mm) above the 
floor. In Occupancy Condition 5, the openings shall be 
closeable from the room side. 

408.8.4 Smoke-tight doors. Doors in openings in parti- 
tions required to be smoke tight by Section 408.8 shall be 
substantial doors, of construction that will resist the pas- 
sage of smoke. Latches and door closures are not required 
on cell doors. 

408.9 Windowless buildings. For the purposes of this sec- 
tion, a windowless building or portion of a building is one 
with nonopenable windows, windows not readily breakable 
or without windows. Windowless buildings shall be provided 
with an engineered smoke control system to provide a tenable 
environment for exiting from the smoke compartment in the 
area of fire origin in accordance with Section 909 for each 
windowless smoke compartment. 

[F] 408.10 Fire alarm system. Afire alarm system shall be 
provided in accordance with Section 907.2.6.3. 

[FJ 408.11 Automatic sprinkler system. Group 1-3 occu- 
pancies shall be equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.2.6. 



SECTION 409 
MOTION PICTURE PROJECTION ROOMS 

409.1 General. The provisions of Sections 409.1 through 
409.5 shall apply to rooms in which ribbon-type cellulose 
acetate or other safety film is utilized in conjunction with 
electric arc, xenon or other light-source projection equipment 
that develops hazardous gases, dust or radiation. Where cellu- 
lose nitrate film is utilized or stored, such rooms shall comply 
with NFPA 40. 

409.1.1 Projection room required. Every motion picture 
machine projecting film as mentioned within the scope of 
this section shall be enclosed in a projection room. Appur- 
tenant electrical equipment, such as rheostats, transform- 
ers and generators, shall be within the projection room or 
in an adjacent room of equivalent construction. 



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409.2 Construction of projection rooms. Every projection 
room shall be of permanent construction consistent with the 
construction requirements for the type of building in which 
the projection room is located. Openings are not required to 
be protected. 

The room shall have a floor area of not less than 80 square 
feet (7.44 m 2 ) for a single machine and not less than 40 
square feet (3.7 m 2 ) for each additional machine. Each motion 
picture projector, floodlight, spotlight or similar piece of 
equipment shall have a clear working space of not less than 
30 inches by 30 inches (762 mm by 762 mm) on each side 
and at the rear thereof, but only one such space shall be 
required between two adjacent projectors. The projection 
room and the rooms appurtenant thereto shall have a ceiling 
height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches (2286 mm). The aggre- 
gate of openings for projection equipment shall not exceed 25 
percent of the area of the wall between the projection room 
and the auditorium. Openings shall be provided with glass or 
other approved material, so as to close completely the open- 
ing. 

409.3 Projection room and equipment ventilation. Ventila- 
tion shall be provided in accordance with the International 
Mechanical Code. 

409.3.1 Supply air. Each projection room shall be pro- 
vided with adequate air supply inlets so arranged as to pro- 
vide well-distributed air throughout the room. Air inlet 
ducts shall provide an amount of air equivalent to the 
amount of air being exhausted by projection equipment. 
Air is permitted to be taken from the outside; from adja- 
cent spaces within the building, provided the volume and 
infiltration rate is sufficient; or from the building air-con- 
ditioning system, provided it is so arranged as to provide 
sufficient air when other systems are not in operation. 

409.3.2 Exhaust air. Projection rooms are permitted to be 
exhausted through the lamp exhaust system. The lamp 
exhaust system shall be positively interconnected with the 
lamp so that the lamp will not operate unless there is the 
required airflow. Exhaust air ducts shall terminate at the 
exterior of the building in such a location that the exhaust 
air cannot be readily recirculated into any air supply sys- 
tem. The projection room ventilation system is permitted 
to also serve appurtenant rooms, such as the generator and 
rewind rooms. 

409.3.3 Projection machines. Each projection machine 
shall be provided with an exhaust duct that will draw air 
from each lamp and exhaust it directly to the outside of the 
building. The lamp exhaust is permitted to serve to 
exhaust air from the projection room to provide room air 
circulation. Such ducts shall be of rigid materials, except 
for a flexible connector approved for the purpose. The 
projection lamp or projection room exhaust system, or 
both, is permitted to be combined but shall not be inter- 
connected with any other exhaust or return system, or 
both, within the building. 

409.4 Lighting control. Provisions shall be made for control 
of the auditorium lighting and the means of egress lighting 
systems of theaters from inside the projection room and from 
not less than one other convenient point in the building. 



409.5 Miscellaneous equipment. Each projection room shall 
be provided with rewind and film storage facilities. 



SECTION 410 
STAGES, PLATFORMS AND TECHNICAL I 

PRODUCTION AREAS 1 

410.1 Applicability. The provisions of Sections 410.1 
through 410.8 shall apply to all parts of buildings and struc- 
tures that contain stages or platforms and similar appurte- 
nances as herein defined. 

410.2 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chap- 
ter 2: 

PLATFORM. 

PROCENIUM WALL. 

STAGE. 

TECHNICAL PRODUCTION AREA. 1 

410.3 Stages. Stage construction shall comply with Sections 
410.3.1 through 410.3.8. 

410.3.1 Stage construction. Stages shall be constructed of 
materials as required for floors for the type of construction 
of the building in which such stages are located. 

Exception: Stages need not be constructed of the same 
materials as required for the type of construction pro- 
vided the construction complies with one of the follow- 
ing: 

1. Stages of Type IIB or IV construction with a 
nominal 2-inch (51 mm) wood deck, provided 
that the stage is separated from other areas in 
accordance with Section 410.3.4. 

2. In buildings of Type IIA, IIIA and VA construc- 
tion, a fire-resistance-rated floor is not required, 
provided the space below the stage is equipped 
with an automatic sprinkler system or fire-extin- 
guishing system in accordance with Section 903 
or 904. 

3. In all types of construction, the finished floor 
shall be constructed of wood or approved non- 
combustible materials. Openings through stage 
floors shall be equipped with tight-fitting, solid 
wood trap doors with approved safety locks. 

410.3.1.1 Stage height and area. Stage areas shall be 
measured to include the entire performance area and 
adjacent backstage and support areas not separated 
from the pqerformance area by fire-resistance-rated 
construction. Stage height shall be measured from the 
lowest point on the stage floor to the highest point of 
the roof or floor deck above the stage. 

410.3.2 Technical production areas: galleries, gridirons I 
and catwalks. Beams designed only for the attachment of § 
portable or fixed theater equipment, gridirons, galleries 
and catwalks shall be constructed of approved materials 
consistent with the requirements for the type of construc- 
tion of the building; and a fire-resistance rating shall not 



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be required. These areas shall not be considered to be 
floors, stones, mezzanines or levels in applying this code. 

Exception: Floors of fly galleries and catwalks shall be 
constructed of any approved material. 

410.3.3 Exterior stage doors. Where protection of open- 
ings is required, exterior exit doors shall be protected with 
fire door assemblies that comply with Section 716. Exte- 
rior openings that are located on the stage for means of 
egress or loading and unloading purposes, and that are 
likely to be open during occupancy of the theater, shall be 
constructed with vestibules to prevent air drafts into the 
auditorium. 

410.3.4 Proscenium wall. Where the stage height is 
greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm), all portions of the stage 
shall be completely separated from the seating area by a 
proscenium wall with not less than a 2-hour fire- resistance 
rating extending continuously from the foundation to the 
roof. 

410.3.5 Proscenium curtain. Where a proscenium wall is 
required to have a. fire-resistance rating, the stage open- 
ing shall be provided with a fire curtain complying with 
NFPA 80 or an approved water curtain complying with 
Section 903.3.1.1 or, in facilities not utilizing the provi- 
sions of smoke-protected assembly seating in accordance 
with Section 1028.6.2, a smoke control system complying 
with Section 909 or natural ventilation designed to main- 
tain the smoke level not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) above 
the floor of the means of egress. 

410.3.6 Scenery. Combustible materials used in sets and 
scenery shall meet the fire propagation performance crite- 
ria of NFPA 701, in accordance with Section 806 and the 
International Fire Code. Foam plastics and materials con- 
taining foam plastics shall comply with Section 2603 and 
the International Fire Code. 

410.3.7 Stage ventilation. Emergency ventilation shall be 
provided for stages larger than 1 ,000 square feet (93 m 2 ) in 
floor area, or with a stage height greater than 50 feet (15 
240 mm). Such ventilation shall comply with Section 
410.3.7.1 or 410.3.7.2. 

410.3.7.1 Roof vents. Two or more vents constructed 
to open automatically by approved heat-activated 
devices and with an aggregate clear opening area of not 
less than 5 percent of the area of the stage shall be 
located near the center and above the highest part of the 
stage area. Supplemental means shall be provided for 
manual operation of the ventilator. Curbs shall be pro- 
vided as required for skylights in Section 2610.2. Vents 
shall be labeled. 

[F] 410.3.7.2 Smoke control. Smoke control in accor- 
dance with Section 909 shall be provided to maintain 
the smoke layer interface not less than 6 feet (1829 
mm) above the highest level of the assembly seating or 
above the top of the proscenium opening where a pro- 
scenium wall is provided in compliance with Section 
410.3.4. 

410.4 Platform construction. Permanent platforms shall be 
constructed of materials as required for the type of construc- 



tion of the building in which the permanent platform is 
located. Permanent platforms are permitted to be constructed 
of fire-retardant-treated wood for Types I, II and IV con- 
struction where the platforms are not more than 30 inches 
(762 mm) above the main floor, and not more than one-third 
of the room floor area and not more than 3,000 square feet 
(279 m 2 ) in area. Where the space beneath the permanent 
platform is used for storage or any purpose other than equip- 
ment, wiring or plumbing, the floor assembly shall be not less 
than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. Where the 
space beneath the permanent platform is used only for equip- 
ment, wiring or plumbing, the underside of the permanent 
platform need not be protected. 

410.4.1 Temporary platforms. Platforms installed for a 
period of not more than 30 days are permitted to be con- 
structed of any materials permitted by the code. The space 
between the floor and the platform above shall only be 
used for plumbing and electrical wiring to platform equip- 
ment. 

410.5 Dressing and appurtenant rooms. Dressing and 
appurtenant rooms shall comply with Sections 410.5.1 and 
410.5.2. 

410.5.1 Separation from stage. The stage shall be sepa- 
rated from dressing rooms, scene docks, property rooms, 
workshops, storerooms and compartments appurtenant to 
the stage and other parts of the building by fire barriers 
constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal- 
assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 71 1, or 
both. The fire-resistance rating shall be not less than 2 
hours for stage heights greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm) 
and not less than 1 hour for stage heights of 50 feet (15 
240 mm) or less. 

410.5.2 Separation from each other. Dressing rooms, ** 
scene docks, property rooms, workshops, storerooms and 
compartments appurtenant to the stage shall be separated 
from each other by not less than 1-hour fire barriers con- 
structed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal 
assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or 
both. 

410.6 Means of egress. Except as modified or as provided 
for in this section, the provisions of Chapter 10 shall apply. 

410.6.1 Arrangement. Where two or more exits or exit 
access doorways from the stage are required in accordance 
with Section 1015.1, no fewer than one exit or exit access 
doorway shall be provided on each side of a stage. 

410.6.2 Stairway and ramp enclosure. Exit access stair- 
ways and ramps serving a stage or platform are not 
required to be enclosed. Exit access stairways serving 
technical production areas are not required to be enclosed. 

410.6.3 Technical production areas. Technical produc- 
tion areas shall be provided with means of egress and 
means of escape in accordance with Sections 410.6.3.1 
through 410.6.3.5. 

410.6.3.1 Means of egress. No fewer than one means 
of egress shall be provided from technical production 
areas. 



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410.6.3.2 Travel distance. The length of exit access 
travel shall be not greater than 300 feet (91 440 mm) 
for buildings without a sprinkler system and 400 feet 
(121 900 mm) for buildings equipped throughout with 
an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1. 

410.6.3.3 Two means of egress. Where two means of 
egress are required, the common path of travel shall be 
not greater than 100 feet (30 480 mm). 

Exception: A means of escape to a roof in place of 
a second means of egress is permitted. 

410.6.3.4 Path of egress travel. The following exit 
access components are permitted where serving techni- 
cal production areas: 

1. Stairways. 

2. Ramps. 

3. Spiral stairways. 

4. Catwalks. 

5. Alternating tread devices. 

6. Permanent ladders. 

410.6.3.5 Width. The path of egress travel within and 
from technical support areas shall be not less than 22 
inches (559 mm). 

[F] 410.7 Automatic sprinkler system. Stages shall be 
equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1. Sprinklers shall be installed under 
the roof and gridiron and under all catwalks and galleries 
over the stage. Sprinklers shall be installed in dressing 
rooms, performer lounges, shops and storerooms accessory to 
such stages. 

Exceptions: 

1. Sprinklers are not required under stage areas less 
than 4 feet (1219 mm) in clear height that are uti- 
lized exclusively for storage of tables and chairs, 
provided the concealed space is separated from the 
adjacent spaces by not Type X gypsum board not 
less than 5 / 8 -inch (15.9 mm) in thickness. 

2. Sprinklers are not required for stages 1,000 square 
feet (93 m 2 ) or less in area and 50 feet (15 240 mm) 
or less in height where curtains, scenery or other 
combustible hangings are not retractable vertically. 
Combustible hangings shall be limited to a single 
main curtain, borders, legs and a single backdrop. 

3. Sprinklers are not required within portable orchestra 
enclosures on stages. 

[F] 410.8 Standpipes. Standpipe systems shall be provided 
in accordance with Section 905. 



SECTION 411 
SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDINGS 

411.1 General. Special amusement buildings having an occu- 
pant load of 50 or more shall comply with the requirements 
for the appropriate Group A occupancy and Sections 411.1 



through 411.8. Amusement buildings having an occupant 
load of less than 50 shall comply with the requirements for a 
Group B occupancy and Sections 411.1 through 411.8. 

Exception: Amusement buildings or portions thereof that 
are without walls or a roof and constructed to prevent the 
accumulation of smoke need not comply with this section. 

For flammable decorative materials, see the International 
Fire Code. 

411.2 Definition. The following term is defined in Chapter 

2: 

SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDING. 

[F] 411.3 Automatic fire detection. Special amusement 
buildings shall be equipped with an automatic fire detection 
system in accordance with Section 907. 

[F] 411.4 Automatic sprinkler system. Special amusement 
buildings shall be equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where 
the special amusement building is temporary, the sprinkler 
water supply shall be of an approved temporary means. 

Exception: Automatic sprinklers are not required where 
the total floor area of a temporary special amusement 
building is less than 1,000 square feet (93 m 2 ) and the 
travel distance from any point to an exit is less than 50 feet 
(15 240 mm). 

[F] 411.5 Alarm. Actuation of a single smoke detector, the 
automatic sprinkler system or other automatic fire detection 
device shall immediately sound an alarm at the building at a 
constantly attended location from which emergency action 
can be initiated including the capability of manual initiation 
of requirements in Section 907.2.12.2. 

[F] 411.6 Emergency voice/alarm communications sys- 
tem. An emergency voice/alarm communications system 
shall be provided in accordance with Sections 907.2.12 and 
907.5.2.2, which is also permitted to serve as a public address 
system and shall be audible throughout the entire special 
amusement building. 

411.7 Exit marking. Exit signs shall be installed at the 
required exit or exit access doorways of amusement buildings 
in accordance with this section and Section 1011. Approved 
directional exit markings shall also be provided. Where mir- 
rors, mazes or other designs are utilized that disguise the path 
of egress travel such that they are not apparent, approved and 
listed low-level exit signs that comply with Section 1011.5, 
and directional path markings listed in accordance with UL 
1994, shall be provided and located not more than 8 inches 
(203 mm) above the walking surface and on or near the path 
of egress travel. Such markings shall become visible in an 
emergency. The directional exit marking shall be activated by 
the automatic fire detection system and the automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2. 

411.7.1 Photo luminescent exit signs. Where photo lumi- 
nescent exit signs are installed, activating light source and 
viewing distance shall be in accordance with the listing 
and markings of the signs. 

411.8 Interior finish. The interior finish shall be Class A in 
accordance with Section 803.1. 



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SECTION 412 
AIRCRAFT-RELATED OCCUPANCIES 

412.1 General. Aircraft-related occupancies shall comply 
with Sections 412.1 through 412.7 and the International Fire 
Code. 

412.2 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chap- 
ter 2: 

FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO). 

HELIPORT. 
HELISTOP. 

RESIDENTIAL AIRCRAFT HANGAR. 
TRANSIENT AIRCRAFT. 

412.3 Airport traffic control towers. The provisions of Sec- 
tions 412.3.1 through 412.3.5 shall apply to airport traffic 
control towers not exceeding 1,500 square feet (140 m 2 ) per 
floor occupied only for the following uses: 

1 . Airport traffic control cab. 

2. Electrical and mechanical equipment rooms. 

3. Airport terminal radar and electronics rooms. 

4. Office spaces incidental to the tower operation. 

5. Lounges for employees, including sanitary facilities. 

412.3.1 Type of construction. Airport traffic control tow- 
ers shall be constructed to comply with the height and area 
limitations of Table 412.3.2. 

TABLE 412.3.1 

HEIGHT AND AREA LIMITATIONS FOR AIRPORT TRAFFIC 

CONTROL TOWERS 



TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 


HEIGHT 8 
(feet) 


MAXIMUM AREA 
(square feet) 


IA 


Unlimited 


1,500 


IB 


240 


1,500 


IIA 


100 


1,500 


IIB 


85 


1,500 


IIIA 


65 


1,500 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 . 
a. Height to be measured from grade plane to cab floor. 

412.3.2 Egress. Not less than one exit stairway shall be 
permitted for airport traffic control towers of any height 
provided that the occupant load per floor is not greater 
than 15. The stairway shall conform to the requirements 
of Section 1009. The stairway shall be separated from ele- 
vators by a distance of not less than one-half of the diago- 
nal of the area served measured in a straight line. The exit 
stairway and elevator hoistway are permitted to be located 
in the same shaft enclosure, provided they are separated 
from each other by a 4-hour fire barrier having no open- 
ings. Such stair-way shall be pressurized to not less than 
0.15 inch of water column (43 Pa) and not greater than 
0.35 inch of water column (101 Pa) in the shaft relative to 
the building with stairway doors closed. Stairways need 



not extend to the roof as specified in Section 1009.16. The 
provisions of Section 403 do not apply. 

Exception: Smokeproof enclosures as set forth in Sec- 
tion 1022.10 are not required where required stairways 
are pressurized. 

[F] 412.3.3 Automatic fire detection systems. Airport 
traffic control towers shall be provided with an automatic 
fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 
907.2. 

[F] 412.3.4 Standby power. A standby power system that 
conforms to Chapter 27 shall be provided in airport traffic 
control towers more than 65 feet (19 812 mm) in height. 
Power shall be provided to the following equipment: 

1. Pressurization equipment, mechanical equipment 
and lighting. 

2. Elevator operating equipment. 

3. Fire alarm and smoke detection systems. 

412.3.5 Accessibility. Airport traffic control towers need 
not be accessible as specified in the provisions of Chapter 
11. 

412.4 Aircraft hangars. Aircraft hangars shall be in accor- 
dance with Sections 412.4.1 through 412.4.6. 

412.4.1 Exterior walls. Exterior walls located less than 30 
feet (9144 mm) from lot lines or a public way shall have a 
fire-resistance rating not less than 2 hours. 

412.4.2 Basements. Where hangars have basements, 
floors over basements shall be of Type I A construction 
and shall be made tight against seepage of water, oil or 
vapors. There shall be no opening or communication 
between basements and the hangar. Access to basements 
shall be from outside only. 

412.4.3 Floor surface. Floors shall be graded and drained 
to prevent water or fuel from remaining on the floor. Floor 
drains shall discharge through an oil separator to the sewer 
or to an outside vented sump. 

Exception: Aircraft hangars with individual lease 
spaces not exceeding 2,000 square feet (186 m 2 ) each in 
which servicing, repairing or washing is not conducted 
and fuel is not dispensed shall have floors that are 
graded toward the door, but shall not require a separa- 
tor. 

412.4.4 Heating equipment. Heating equipment shall be 
placed in another room separated by 2-hour fire barriers 
constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal 
assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 71 1, or 
both. Entrance shall be from the outside or by means of a 
vestibule providing a two-doorway separation. 

Exceptions: 

1. Unit heaters and vented infrared radiant heating 
equipment suspended not less than 10 feet (3048 
mm) above the upper surface of wings or engine 
enclosures of the highest aircraft that are permit- 



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ted to be housed in the hangar need not be located 
in a separate room provided they are mounted not 
less than 8 feet (2438 mm) above the floor in 
shops, offices and other sections of the hangar 
communicating with storage or service areas. 

2. Entrance to the separated room shall be permitted 
by a single interior door provided the sources of 
ignition in the appliances are not less than„18 
inches (457 mm) above the floor. 

412.4.5 Finishing. The process of "doping," involving use 
of a volatile flammable solvent, or of painting, shall be 
carried on in a separate detached building equipped with 
automatic fire-extinguishing equipment in accordance 
with Section 903. 

[F] 412.4.6 Fire suppression. Aircraft hangars shall be 
provided with a fire suppression system designed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 409, based upon the classification for 
the hangar given in Table 412.4.6. 

Exception: Where a fixed base operator has separate 
repair facilities on site, Group II hangars operated by a 
fixed base operator used for storage of transient air- 
craft only shall have a fire suppression system, but the 
system is exempt from foam requirements. 

[F] 412.4.6.1 Hazardous operations. Any Group III 
aircraft hangar according to Table 412.4.6 that contains 
hazardous operations including, but not limited to, the 
following shall be provided with a Group I or II fire 
suppression system in accordance with NFPA 409 as 
applicable: 

1. Doping. 

2. Hot work including, but not limited to, welding, 
torch cutting and torch soldering. 

3. Fuel transfer. 

4. Fuel tank repair or maintenance not including 
defueled tanks in accordance with NFPA 409, 



inerted tanks or tanks that have never been 
fueled. 

5. Spray finishing operations. 

6. Total fuel capacity of all aircraft within the 
unsprinklered single fire area in excess of 1,600 
gallons (6057 L). 

7. Total fuel capacity of all aircraft within the maxi- 
mum single fire area in excess of 7,500 gallons 
(28 390 L) for a hangar with an automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with Section 903 .3. 1.1. 

[F] 412.4.6.2 Separation of maximum single fire 
areas. Maximum single fire areas established in accor- 
dance with hangar classification and construction type 
in Table 412.4.6 shall be separated by 2-hour fire walls 
constructed in accordance with Section 706. In deter- 
mining the maximum single fire area as set forth in 
Table 412.4.6, ancillary uses which are separated from 
aircraft servicing areas by afire barrier of not less than 
one hour, constructed in accordance with Section 707 
shall not be included in the area. 

412.5 Residential aircraft hangars. Residential aircraft 
hangars shall comply with Sections 412.5.1 through 412.5.5. 

412.5.1 Fire separation. A hangar shall not be attached to 
a dwelling unless separated by a fire barrier having afire- 
resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. Such separation 
shall be continuous from the foundation to the underside 
of the roof and unpierced except for doors leading to the 
dwelling unit. Doors into the dwelling unit shall be 
equipped with self-closing devices and conform to the 
requirements of Section 716 with a noncombustible raised 
sill not less than 4 inches (102 mm) in height. Openings 
from a hanger directly into a room used for sleeping pur- 
poses shall not be permitted. 

412.5.2 Egress. A hangar shall provide two means of 
egress. One of the doors into the dwelling shall be consid- 
ered as meeting only one of the two means of egress. 



[F] TABLE 412.4.6 
HANGAR FIRE SUPPRESSION REQUIREMENTS 3 bc 



MAXIMUM SINGLE 
FIRE AREA 
(square feet) 


TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 


IA 


IB 


HA 


MB 


IIIA 


NIB 


IV 


VA 


VB 


> 40,001 


Group I 


Group I 


Group I 


Group I 


Group I 


Group I 


Group I 


Group I 


Group I 


40,000 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


30,000 


Group III 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


20,000 


Group III 


Group III 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


15,000 


Group m 


Group III 


Group III 


Group II 


Group III 


Group II 


Group III 


Group II 


Group II 


12,000 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group II 


Group II 


8,000 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group II 


5,000 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 . 

a. Aircraft hangars with a door height greater than 28 feet shall be provided with fire suppression for a Group I hangar regardless of maximum fire area. 

b. Groups shall be as classified in accordance with NFPA 409. 

c. Membrane structures complying with Section 3102 shall be classified as a Group IV hangar. 



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|F] 412.5.3 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms shall be pro- 
vided within the hangar in accordance with Section 
907.2.21. 

412.5.4 Independent systems. Electrical, mechanical and 
plumbing drain, waste and vent (DWV) systems installed 
within the hangar shall be independent of the systems 
installed within the dwelling. Building sewer lines shall be 
permitted to be connected outside the structures. 

Exception: Smoke detector wiring and feed for electri- 
cal subpanels in the hangar. 

412.5.5 Height and area limits. Residential aircraft han- 
gars shall be not greater than 2,000 square feet (186 m 2 ) in 
area and 20 feet (6096 mm) in building height. 

[F] 412.6 Aircraft paint hangars. Aircraft painting opera- 
tions where flammable liquids are used in excess of the maxi- 
mum allowable quantities per control area listed in Table 
307.1(1) shall be conducted in an aircraft paint hangar that 
complies with the provisions of Sections 412.6.1 through 
412.6.6. 

[F] 412.6.1 Occupancy group. Aircraft paint hangars 
shall be classified as Group H-2. Aircraft paint hangars 
shall comply with the applicable requirements of this code 
and the International Fire Code for such occupancy. 

412.6.2 Construction. The aircraft paint hangar shall be 
of Type I or II construction. 

[F] 412.6.3 Operations. Only those flammable liquids 
necessary for painting operations shall be permitted in 
quantities less than the maximum allowable quantities per 
control area in Table 307.1(1). Spray equipment cleaning 
operations shall be conducted in a liquid use, dispensing 
and mixing room. 

[F] 412.6.4 Storage. Storage of flammable liquids shall 
be in a liquid storage room. 

[F] 412.6.5 Fire suppression. Aircraft paint hangars shall 
be provided with fire suppression as required by NFPA 
409. 

[F] 412.6.6 Ventilation. Aircraft paint hangars shall be 
provided with ventilation as required in the International 
Mechanical Code. 

[F] 412.7 Heliports and helistops. Heliports and helistops 
shall be permitted to be erected on buildings or other loca- 
tions where they are constructed in accordance with Sections 
412.7.1 through 412.7.5. 

[F] 412.7.1 Size. The landing area for helicopters less than 
3,500 pounds (1588 kg) shall be not less than 20 feet 
(6096 mm) in length and width. The landing area shall be 
surrounded on all sides by a clear area having a minimum 
average width at roof level of 15 feet (4572 mm) but with 
no width less than 5 feet (1524 mm). 

[F] 412.7.2 Design. Helicopter landing areas and the sup- 
ports thereof on the roof of a building shall be noncombus- 
tible construction. Landing areas shall be designed to 
confine any flammable liquid spillage to the landing area 
itself and provisions shall be made to drain such spillage 
away from any exit or stairway serving the helicopter 
landing area or from a structure housing such exit or stair- 



way. For structural design requirements, see Section 
1605.4. 

[F] 412.7.3 Means of egress. The means of egress from 
heliports and helistops shall comply with the provisions of 
Chapter 10. Landing areas located on buildings or struc- 
tures shall have two or more means of egress. For landing 
areas less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in length or less than 
2,000 square feet (186 m 2 ) in area, the second means of 
egress is permitted to be a fire escape, alternating tread 
device or ladder leading to the floor below. 

[F] 412.7.4 Rooftop heliports and helistops. Rooftop 
heliports and helistops shall comply with NFPA 418. 

[F] 412.7.5 Standpipe system. In buildings equipped 
with a standpipe system, the standpipe shall extend to the 
roof level in accordance with Section 905.3.6. 



SECTION 413 
COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE 

413.1 General. High-piled stock or rack storage in any occu- 
pancy group shall comply with the International Fire Code. 

413.2 Attic, under-floor and concealed spaces. Attic, 
under-floor and concealed spaces used for storage of combus- 
tible materials shall be protected on the storage side as 
required for 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. Open- 
ings shall be protected by assemblies that are self-closing and 
are of noncombustible construction or solid wood core not 
less than l 3 / 4 inch (45 mm) in thickness. 

Exception: Neither fire resistant construction nor open 
protectives are required in any of the following locations: 

1. Areas protected by approved automatic sprinkler 
systems. 

2. Group R-3 and U occupancies. 



SECTION 414 
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 

[F] 414.1 General. The provisions of Sections 414.1 through 
414.7 shall apply to buildings and structures occupied for the 
manufacturing, processing, dispensing, use or storage of haz- 
ardous materials. 

[F] 414.1.1 Other provisions. Buildings and structures 
with an occupancy in Group H shall comply with this sec- 
tion and the applicable provisions of Section 415 and the 
International Fire Code. 

[F] 414.1.2 Materials. The safe design of hazardous 
material occupancies is material dependent. Individual 
material requirements are also found in Sections 307 and 
415, and in the International Mechanical Code and the 
International Fire Code. 

[F] 414.1.2.1 Aerosols. Level 2 and 3 aerosol products 
shall be stored and displayed in accordance with the 
International Fire Code. See Section 311.2 and the 
International Fire Code for occupancy group require- 
ments. 



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[F] 414.1.3 Information required. A report shall be sub- 
mitted to the building official identifying the maximum 
expected quantities of hazardous materials to be stored, 
used in a closed system and used in an open system, and 
subdivided to separately address hazardous material clas- 
sification categories based on Tables 307.1(1) and 
307.1(2). The methods of protection from such hazards, 
including but not limited to control areas, fire protection 
systems and Group H occupancies shall be indicated in the 
report and on the construction documents. The opinion 
and report shall be prepared by a qualified person, firm or 
corporation approved by the building official and provided 
without charge to the enforcing agency. 

For buildings and structures with an occupancy in 
Group H, separate floor plans shall be submitted identify- 
ing the locations of anticipated contents and processes so 
as to reflect the nature of each occupied portion of every 
building and structure. 

[F] 414.2 Control areas. Control areas shall comply with 
Sections 414.2.1 through 414.2.5 and the International Fire 
Code. 

[F] 414.2.1 Construction requirements. Control areas 
shall be separated from each other by fire barriers con- 
structed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal 
assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or 
both. 

[F| 414.2.2 Percentage of maximum allowable quanti- 
ties. The percentage of maximum allowable quantities of 
hazardous materials per control area permitted at each 
floor level within a building shall be in accordance with 
Table 414.2.2. 

[F] 414.2.3 Number. The maximum number of control 

areas within a building shall be in accordance with Table 

414.2.2. 

[F] 414.2.4 Fire-resistance-rating requirements. The 

required fire-resistance rating for fire barriers shall be in 

accordance with Table 414.2.2. The floor assembly of the 

control area and the construction supporting the floor of 



the control area shall have & fire-resistance rating of not 
less than 2 hours. 

Exception: The floor assembly of the control area and 
the construction supporting the floor of the control area 
are allowed to be 1-hour fire-resistance rated in build- 
ings of Types 1IA, IIIA and VA construction, provided 
that both of the following conditions exist: 

1. The building is equipped throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1; and 

2. The building is three or fewer stories above 
grade plane. 

[F] 414.2.5 Hazardous material in Group M display 
and storage areas and in Group S storage areas. The 

aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflamma- 
ble or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials permit- 
ted within a single control area of a Group M display and 
storage area, a Group S storage area or an outdoor control 
area is permitted to exceed the maximum allowable quan- 
tities per control area specified in Tables 307.1(1) and 
307.1(2) without classifying the building or use as a Group 
H occupancy, provided that the materials are displayed 
and stored in accordance with the International Fire Code 
and quantities do not exceed the maximum allowable 
specified in Table 414.2.5(1). 

In Group M occupancy wholesale and retail sales uses, 
indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall 
not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control 
area as indicated in Table 414.2.5(2), provided that the 
materials are displayed and stored in accordance with the 
International Fire Code. 

The maximum quantity of aerosol products in Group M 
occupancy retail display areas, storage areas adjacent to 
retail display areas and retail storage areas shall be in 
accordance with the International Fire Code. 

[F] 414.3 Ventilation. Rooms, areas or spaces of Group H in 
which explosive, corrosive, combustible, flammable or 







[F] TABLE 414.2.2 
DESIGN AND NUMBER OF CONTROL AREAS 




FLOOR LEVEL 


PERCENTAGE OF THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE 
QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA" 


NUMBER OF CONTROL AREAS 
PER FLOOR 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING FOR 
FIRE BARRIERS IN HOURS" 




Higher than 9 


5 


1 


2 




7-9 


5 


2 


2 




6 


12.5 


2 


2 


Above grade 
plane 


5 

4 


12.5 
12.5 


2 
2 


2 

2 




3 


50 


2 


1 




2 


75 


3 


1 




1 


100 


4 


1 


Below grade 


1 

2 


75 
50 


3 
2 


1 
1 


plane 


Lower than 2 


Not Allowed 


Not Allowed 


Not Allowed 



a. Percentages shall be of the maximum allowable quantity per control area shown in Tables 307. 1 ( 1 ) and 307. 1 (2), with all increases allowed in the notes to 
those tables. 

b. Separation shall include fire barriers and horizontal assemblies as necessary to provide separation from other portions of the building. 



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highly toxic dusts, mists, fumes, vapors or gases are or may 
be emitted due to the processing, use, handling or storage of 
materials shall be mechanically ventilated as required by the 
International Fire Code and the International Mechanical 
Code. 

Ducts conveying explosives or flammable vapors, fumes 
or dusts shall extend directly to the exterior of the building 
without entering other spaces. Exhaust ducts shall not extend 
into or through ducts and plenums. 

Exception: Ducts conveying vapor or fumes having flam- 
mable constituents less than 25 percent of their lower 
flammable limit (LFL) are permitted to pass through other 
spaces. 

Emissions generated at workstations shall be confined to 
the area in which they are generated as specified in the Inter- 
national Fire Code and the International Mechanical Code. 



The location of supply and exhaust openings shall be in 
accordance with the International Mechanical Code. Exhaust 
air contaminated by highly toxic material shall be treated in 
accordance with the International Fire Code. 

A manual shutoff control for ventilation equipment 
required by this section shall be provided outside the room 
adjacent to the principal access door to the room. The switch 
shall be of the break-glass type and shall be labeled: VENTI- 
LATION SYSTEM EMERGENCY SHUTOFF. 

[F] 414.4 Hazardous material systems. Systems involving 
hazardous materials shall be suitable for the intended applica- 
tion. Controls shall be designed to prevent materials from 
entering or leaving process or reaction systems at other than 
the intended time, rate or path. Automatic controls, where 
provided, shall be designed to be fail safe. 

[F] 414.5 Inside storage, dispensing and use. The inside 
storage, dispensing and use of hazardous materials shall be in 



[F] TABLE 414.2.5(1) 

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER INDOOR AND OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA IN GROUP M AND S OCCUPANCIES 

NONFLAMMABLE SOLIDS AND NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS"*' 



CONDITION 


MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA 


Material 8 Class 


Solids 
pounds 


Liquids 
gallons 


A. Health-hazard materials— nonflammable and noncombustible solids and liquids 


1 . Corrosives'" 


Not Applicable 


9,750 


975 


2. Highly toxics 


Not Applicable 


20 b ' c 


2 b,c 


3. Toxics'" 


Not Applicable 


1,000 


100 


B. Physical-hazard materials— nonflammable and noncombustible solids and liquids 


1. Oxidizers' 1 '' 


4 


Not Allowed 


Not Allowed 


3 


1,150 s 


115 


2 


2,250" 


225 


1 


18,000 ij 


1,800 '- J 


2. Unstable (reactives) bx 


4 


Not Allowed 


Not Allowed 


3 


550 


55 


2 


1,150 


115 


1 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


3. Water reactives 


3 b,c 


550 


55 


2 b,c 


1,150 


115 


1 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 



For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

a. Hazard categories are as specified in the International Fire Code, 

b. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings that are sprinklered in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. When Note c also 
applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

c. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, in accordance with the International Fire Code. 
When Note b also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

d. See Table 414.2.2 for design and number of control areas. 

e. Allowable quantities for other hazardous material categories shall be in accordance with Section 307. 

f. Maximum quantities shall be increased 100 percent in outdoor control areas. 

g. Maximum amounts are permitted to be increased to 2,250 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or 
packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each. 

h. Maximum amounts are permitted to be increased to 4,500 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or 

packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each, 
i. The permitted quantities shall not be limited in a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 . 
j. Quantities are unlimited in an outdoor control area. 



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[F] TABLE 414.2.5(2) 
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY OF FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL SALES 

OCCUPANCIES PER CONTROL AREA 3 



TYPE OF LIQUID 


MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA (gallons) 


Sprinklered in accordance with note 
b densities and arrangements 


Sprinklered in accordance with Tables 3404.3.6.3(4) 

through 3404.3.6.3(8) and Table 3404.3.7.5.1 of the 

International Fire Code 


Nonsprinklered 


Class IA 


60 


60 


30 


Class IB, IC, II and IIIA 


7,500 c 


15,000 c 


1,600 


Class IIIB 


Unlimited 


Unlimited 


13,200 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 , 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m . 

a. Control areas shall be separated from each other by not less than a 1 -hour fire barrier wall. 

b. To be considered as sprinklered, a building shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system with a design providing minimum 
densities as follows: 

1 . For uncartoned commodities on shelves 6 feet or less in height where the ceiling height does not exceed 1 8 feet, quantities are those permitted with a 
minimum sprinkler design density of Ordinary Hazard Group 2. 

2. For cartoned, palletized or racked commodities where storage is 4 feet 6 inches or less in height and where the ceiling height does not exceed 18 feet, 
quantities are those permitted with a minimum sprinkler design density of 0.21 gallon per minute per square foot over the most remote 1,500-square-foot 
area. 

c. Where wholesale and retail sales or storage areas exceed 50,000 square feet in area, the maximum allowable quantities are allowed to be increased by 2 
percent for each 1,000 square feet of area in excess of 50,000 square feet, up to a maximum of 100 percent of the table amounts. A control area separation is 
not required. The cumulative amounts, including amounts attained by having an additional control area, shall not exceed 30,000 gallons. 

accordance with Sections 414.5.1 through 414.5.4 of this 
code and the International Fire Code. 



[F] 414.5.1 Explosion control. Explosion control shall be 
provided in accordance with the International Fire Code 
as required by Table 414.5.1 where quantities of hazard- 
ous materials specified in that table exceed the maximum 
allowable quantities in Table 307.1(1) or where a struc- 
ture, room or space is occupied for purposes involving 
explosion hazards as required by Section 415 or the Inter- 
national Fire Code. 

[F] 414.5.2 Monitor control equipment. Monitor control 
equipment shall be provided where required by the Inter- 
national Fire Code. 

[F] 414.5.3 Emergency or standby power. Where 
mechanical ventilation, treatment systems, temperature 
control, alarm, detection or other electrically operated sys- 
tems are required by the International Fire Code or this 
code, such systems shall be provided with an emergency 
or standby power system in accordance with Chapter 27. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Emergency or standby power are not required for 
the following storage areas: 

1.1. Mechanical ventilation for storage of 
Class IB and Class IC flammable and 
combustible liquids in closed containers 
not exceeding 6.5 gallons (25 L) capacity. 

1.2. Storage areas for Class 1 and 2 oxidizers. 

1.3. Storage areas for Class II, III, IV and V 
organic peroxides. 

1.4. Storage, use and handling areas for 
asphyxiant, irritant and radioactive gases. 

1.5. For storage, use and handling areas for 
highly toxic or toxic materials, see Sec- 
tions 6004.2.2.8 and 6004.3.4.2 of the 
International Fire Code. 



2. Standby power for mechanical ventilation, treat- 
ment systems and temperature control systems 
shall not be required where an approved fail-safe 
engineered system is installed. 

[F] 414.5.4 Spill control, drainage and containment. 
Rooms, buildings or areas occupied for the storage of solid 
and liquid hazardous materials shall be provided with a 
means to control spillage and to contain or drain off spill- 
age and fire protection water discharged in the storage area 
where required in the International Fire Code. The meth- 
ods of spill control shall be in accordance with the Inter- 
national Fire Code. 

[F] 414.6 Outdoor storage, dispensing and use. The out- 
door storage, dispensing and use of hazardous materials shall 
be in accordance with the International Fire Code. 

[F] 414.6.1 Weather protection. Where weather protec- 
tion is provided for sheltering outdoor hazardous material 
storage or use areas, such areas shall be considered out- 
door storage or use when the weather protection structure 
complies with Sections 414.6.1.1 through 414.6.1.3. 

[F] 414.6.1.1 Walls. Walls shall not obstruct more than 
one side of the structure. 

Exception: Walls shall be permitted to obstruct por- 
tions of multiple sides of the structure, provided that 
the obstructed area is not greater than 25 percent of 
the structure's perimeter. 

[F] 414.6.1.2 Separation distance. The distance from 
the structure to buildings, lot lines, public ways or 
means of egress to & public way shall be not less than 
the distance required for an outside hazardous material 
storage or use area without weather protection. 

[F] 414.6.1.3 Noncombustible construction. The 
overhead structure shall be of approved noncombusti- 
ble construction with a maximum area of 1,500 square 
feet (140 m 2 ). 

Exception: The maximum area is permitted to be 
increased as provided by Section 506. 



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[F] 414.7 Emergency alarms. Emergency alarms for the 
detection and notification of an emergency condition in 
Group H occupancies shall be provided as set forth herein. 

[F] 414.7.1 Storage. An approved manual emergency 
alarm system shall be provided in buildings, rooms or 
areas used for storage of hazardous materials. Emergency 
alarm-initiating devices shall be installed outside of each 
interior exit or exit access door of storage buildings, rooms 
or areas. Activation of an emergency alarm-initiating 
device shall sound a local alarm to alert occupants of an 
emergency situation involving hazardous materials. 

[F] 414.7.2 Dispensing, use and handling. Where haz- 
ardous materials having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in 



accordance with NFPA 704 are transported through corri- 
dors, interior exit stairways or ramps, or exit passageways 
there shall be an emergency telephone system, a local 
manual alarm station or an approved alarm-initiating 
device at not more than 150-foot (45 720 mm) intervals 
and at each exit and exit access doorway throughout the 
transport route. The signal shall be relayed to an approved 
central, proprietary or remote station service or constantly 
attended on-site location and shall initiate a local audible 
alarm. 

[F] 414.7.3 Supervision. Emergency alarm systems shall 
be supervised by an approved central, proprietary or 





[F] TABLE 414.5.1 
EXPLOSION CONTROL REQUIREMENTS- 




MATERIAL 


CLASS 


EXPLOSION CONTROL METHODS 


Barricade construction 


Explosion (deflagration) venting 

or explosion (deflagration) 

prevention systems" 


HAZARD CATEGORY 




Combustible dusts c 


— 


Not Required 


Required 


Cryogenic flammables 


— 


Not Required 


Required 


Explosives 


Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 
Division 1.4 
Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 


Required 
Required 
Not Required 
Not Required 
Required 
Required 


Not Required 
Not Required 
Required 
Required 
Not Required 
Not Required 


Flammable gas 


Gaseous 
Liquefied 


Not Required 
Not Required 


Required 
Required 


Flammable liquid 


IA d 
1B C 


Not Required 
Not Required 


Required 
Required 


Organic peroxides 


U 
I 


Required 
Required 


Not Permitted 
Not Permitted 


Oxidizer liquids and solids 


4 


Required 


Not Permitted 


Pyrophoric gas 


— 


Not Required 


Required 


Unstable (reactive) 


4 

3 Detonable 

3 Nondetonable 


Required 

Required 

Not Required 


Not Permitted 

Not Permitted 

Required 


Water-reactive liquids and solids 


3 
2 s 


Not Required 
Not Required 


Required 
Required 


SPECIAL USES 




Acetylene generator rooms 


— 


Not Required 


Required 


Grain processing 


— 


Not Required 


Required 


Liquefied petroleum gas-distribu- 
tion facilities 


— 


Not Required 


Required 


Where explosion hazards exist f 


Detonation 
Deflagration 


Required 
Not Required 


Not Permitted 
Required 



a. See Section 414.1.3. 

b. See the International Fire Code. 

c. As generated during manufacturing or processing. 

d. Storage or use. 

e. In open use or dispensing. 

f. Rooms containing dispensing and use of hazardous materials when an explosive environment can occur because of the characteristics or nature of the 
hazardous materials or as a result of the dispensing or use process. 

g. A method of explosion control shall be provided when Class 2 water-reactive materials can form potentially explosive mixtures. 



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remote station service or shall initiate an audible and 
visual signal at a constantly attended on-site location. 

SECTION 415 
GROUPS H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4 AND H-5 

Section 415 has been completely reorganized from the 2009 
code; therefore, the * and ** margin indicators have not been 
included for clarity. 

[F] 415.1 Scope. The provisions of Sections 415.1 through 
415. 10 shall apply to the storage and use of hazardous materi- 
als in excess of the maximum allowable quantities per control 
area listed in Section 307.1. Buildings and structures with an 
occupancy in Group H shall also comply with the applicable 
provisions of Section 414 and the International Fire Code. 

[F] 415.2 Definitions. The following terms are defined in 
Chapter 2: 

CONTINUOUS GAS DETECTION SYSTEM. 

DETACHED BUILDING. 

EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. 

EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. 

FABRICATION AREA. 

FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. 

GAS CABINET. 

GASROOM. 

HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). 

HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. 

HPM ROOM. 

IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND 
HEALTH (IDLH). 

LIQUID. 

LIQUID STORAGE ROOM. 

LIQUID USE, DISPENSING AND MIXING ROOM. 

LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). 

NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (NTP). 

PHYSIOLOGICAL WARNING THRESHOLD LEVEL. 

SERVICE CORRIDOR. 

SOLID. 

STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. 

USE (MATERIAL). 

WORKSTATION. 

[F] 415.3 Automatic fire detection systems. Group H 
occupancies shall be provided with an automatic fire detec- 
tion system in accordance with Section 907.2. 

[F] 415.4 Automatic sprinkler system. Group H occupan- 
cies shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.2.5. 

[F] 415.5 Fire separation distance. Group H occupancies 
shall be located on property in accordance with the other pro- 



visions of this chapter. In Groups H-2 and H-3, not less than 
25 percent of the perimeter wall of the occupancy shall be an 
exterior wall. 

Exceptions: 

1. Liquid use, dispensing and mixing rooms having a 
floor area of not more than 500 square feet (46.5 m 2 ) 
need not be located on the outer perimeter of the 
building where they are in accordance with the 
International Fire Code and NFPA 30. 

2. Liquid storage rooms having a floor area of not 
more than 1,000 square feet (93 m 2 ) need not be 
located on the outer perimeter where they are in 
accordance with the International Fire Code and 
NFPA 30. 

3. Spray paint booths that comply with the Interna- 
tional Fire Code need not be located on the outer 
perimeter. 

[F] 415.5.1 Group H occupancy minimum tire separa- 
tion distance. Regardless of any other provisions, build- 
ings containing Group H occupancies shall be set back to 
the minimum fire separation distance as set forth in Sec- 
tions 415.5.1.1 through 415.5.1.4. Distances shall be mea- 
sured from the walls enclosing the occupancy to lot lines, 
including those on a public way. Distances to assumed lot 
lines established for the purpose of determining exterior 
wall and opening protection are not to be used to establish 
the minimum fire separation distance for buildings on 
sites where explosives are manufactured or used when 
separation is provided in accordance with the quantity dis- 
tance tables specified for explosive materials in the Inter- 
national Fire Code. 

[F] 415.5.1.1 Group H-1. Group H-1 occupancies 
shall be set back not less than 75 feet (22 860 mm) and 
not less than required by the International Fire Code. 

Exception: Fireworks manufacturing buildings 
separated in accordance with NFPA 1 124. 

[F] 415.5.1.2 Group H-2. Group H-2 occupancies 
shall be set back not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) where 
the area of the occupancy is greater than 1 ,000 square 
feet (93 m 2 ) and it is not required to be located in a 
detached building. 

[F] 415.5.1.3 Groups H-2 and H-3. Group H-2 and H- 
3 occupancies shall be set back not less than 50 feet (15 
240 mm) where a detached building is required (see 
Table 415.3.2). 

[F] 415.5.1.4 Explosive materials. Group H-2 and H- 
3 occupancies containing materials with explosive 
characteristics shall be separated as required by the 
International Fire Code. Where separations are not 
specified, the distances required shall be determined by 
a technical report issued in accordance with Section 
414.1.3. 

[F] 415.5.2 Detached buildings for Group H-1, H-2 or 
H-3 occupancy. The storage or use of hazardous materials 
in excess of those amounts listed in Table 415.5.2 shall be 



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in accordance with the applicable provisions of Sections 
415.6 and 415.7. 

[F] 415.5.2.1 Wall and opening protection. Where a 
detached building is required by Table 415.5.2, there 
are no requirements for wall and opening protection 
based on fire separation distance. 

[F] 415.6 Special provisions for Group H-l occupancies. 
Group H-l occupancies shall be in buildings used for no 
other purpose, shall not exceed one story in height and be 
without basements, crawl spaces or other under-floor spaces. 
Roofs shall be of lightweight construction with suitable ther- 
mal insulation to prevent sensitive material from reaching its 
decomposition temperature. Group H-l occupancies contain- 
ing materials that are in themselves both physical and health 
hazards in quantities exceeding the maximum allowable 
quantities per control area in Table 307.1(2) shall comply 
with requirements for both Group H-l and H-4 occupancies. 

[F] 415.6.1 Floors in storage rooms. Floors in storage 
areas for organic peroxides, pyrophoric materials and 
unstable (reactive) materials shall be of liquid-tight, non- 
combustible construction. 

[F] 415.7 Special provisions for Group H-2 and H-3 occu- 
pancies. Group H-2 and H-3 occupancies containing quanti- 
ties of hazardous materials in excess of those set forth in 
Table 415.5.2 shall be in detached buildings used for manu- 



facturing, processing, dispensing, use or storage of hazardous 
materials. Materials listed for Group H-l occupancies in Sec- 
tion 307.3 are permitted to be located within Group H-2 or H- 
3 detached buildings provided the amount of materials per 
control area do not exceed the maximum allowed quantity 
specified in Table 307. 1(1). 

[F] 415.7.1 Detached buildings. Detached buildings 
shall not exceed one story in height and shall be without 
basements, crawl spaces or other under-floor spaces. 

[F] 415.7.2 Multiple hazards. Group H-2 or H-3 occu- 
pancies containing materials which are in themselves both 
physical and health hazards in quantities exceeding the 
maximum allowable quantities per control area in Table 
307.1(2) shall comply with requirements for Group H-2, 
H-3 or H-4 occupancies as applicable. 

[F] 415.7.3 Separation of incompatible materials. Haz- 
ardous materials other than those listed in Table 415.3.2 
shall be allowed in manufacturing, processing, dispensing, 
use or storage areas when separated from incompatible 
materials in accordance with the provisions of the Interna- 
tional Fire Code. 

[F] 415.7.4 Water reactives. Group H-2 and H-3 occu- | 
pancies containing water-reactive materials shall be resis- 
tant to water penetration. Piping for conveying liquids 
shall not be over or through areas containing water reac- 



[F] TABLE 415.5.2 
DETACHED BUILDING REQUIRED 



A DETACHED BUILDING IS REQUIRED WHEN THE QUANTITY OF MATERIAL EXCEEDS THAT LISTED HEREIN 


Material 


Class 


Solids and Liquids (tons)"" 


Gases (cubic feet)"' 6 


Explosives 


Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 
Division 1.4 
Division 1.4 C 
Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 

1 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Not Applicable 


Oxidizers 


Class 4 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Unstable (reactives) detonable 


Class 3 or 4 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Oxidizer, liquids and solids 


Class 3 
Class 2 


1,200 
2,000 


Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 


Organic peroxides 


Detonable 
Class I 
Class II 

Class III 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 

25 

50 


Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 


Unstable (reactives) nondetonable 


Class 3 
Class 2 


1 

25 


2,000 
10,000 


Water reactives 


Class 3 
Class 2 


1 

25 


Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 


Pyrophoric gases 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


2,000 



For SI: 1 ton = 906 kg, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m 3 , 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 

a. For materials that are detonable, the distance to other buildings or lot lines shall be in accordance with Chapter 33 of the International Fire Code based on 
trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalence of the material. For materials classified as explosives, see Chapter 56 of the International Fire Code. 

b. "Maximum Allowable Quantity" means the maximum allowable quantity per control area set forth in Table 307.1(1). 

c. Limited to Division 1.4 materials and articles, including articles packaged for shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, 
Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (BATF) regulations or unpackaged articles used in process operations that do not propagate a detonation or deflagration 
between articles, provided the net explosive weight of individual articles does not exceed 1 pound. 



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tives, unless isolated by approved liquid-tight construc- 
tion. 

Exception: Fire protection piping shall be permitted 
over or through areas containing water reactives with- 
out isolating it with liquid-tight construction. 

[F] 415.7.5 Floors in storage rooms. Floors in storage 
areas for organic peroxides, oxidizers, pyrophoric materi- 
als, unstable (reactive) materials and water-reactive solids 
and liquids shall be of liquid-tight, noncombustible con- 
struction. 

[F] 415.7.6 Waterproof room. Rooms or areas used for 
the storage of water-reactive solids and liquids shall be 
constructed in a manner that resists the penetration of 
water through the use of waterproof materials. Piping car- 
rying water for other than approved automatic sprinkler 
systems shall not be within such rooms or areas. 

[F] 415.8 Group H-2. Occupancies in Group H-2 shall be 
constructed in accordance with Sections 415.8.1 through 
415.8.4 and the International Fire Code. 

[F] 415.8.1 Combustible dusts, grain processing and 
storage. The provisions of Sections 415.8.1.1 through 
415.8.1.6 shall apply to buildings in which materials that 
produce combustible dusts are stored or handled. Build- 
ings that store or handle combustible dusts shall comply 
with the applicable provisions of NFPA 61, NFPA 85, 
NFPA 120, NFPA 484, NFPA 654, NFPA 655 and NFPA 
664, and the International Fire Code. 

[F] 415.8.1.1 Type of construction and height excep- 
tions. Buildings shall be constructed in compliance 
with the height and area limitations of Table 503 for 
Group H-2; except that where erected of Type I or II 
construction, the heights and areas of grain elevators 
and similar structures shall be unlimited, and where of 
Type IV construction, the maximum building height 
shall be 65 feet (19 812 mm) and except further that, in 
isolated areas, the maximum building height of Type 
IV structures shall be increased to 85 feet (25 908 mm). 

[F] 415.8.1.2 Grinding rooms. Every room or space 
occupied for grinding or other operations that produce 
combustible dusts shall be enclosed with fire barriers 
constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizon- 
tal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 
711, or both. The fire-resistance rating of the enclosure 
shall be not less than 2 hours where the area is not more 
than 3,000 square feet (279 m 2 ), and not less than 4 
hours where the area is greater than 3,000 square feet 
(279 m 2 ). 

[F] 415.8.1.3 Conveyors. Conveyors, chutes, piping 
and similar equipment passing through the enclosures 
of rooms or spaces shall be constructed dirt tight and 
vapor tight, and be of approved noncombustible materi- 
als complying with Chapter 30. 

[F] 415.8.1.4 Explosion control. Explosion control 
shall be provided as specified in the International Fire 
Code, or spaces shall be equipped with the equivalent 
mechanical ventilation complying with the Interna- 
tional Mechanical Code. 



[F] 415.8.1.5 Grain elevators. Grain elevators, malt 
houses and buildings for similar occupancies shall not 
be located within 30 feet (9144 mm) of interior lot lines 
or structures on the same lot, except where erected 
along a railroad right-of-way. 

[F] 415.8.1.6 Coal pockets. Coal pockets located less 
than 30 feet (9144 mm) from interior lot lines or from 
structures on the same lot shall be constructed of not 
less than Type IB construction. Where more than 30 
feet (9144mm) from interior lot lines, or where erected 
along a railroad right-of-way, the minimum type of 
construction of such structures not more than 65 feet 
(19 812 mm) in building height shall be Type IV. 

[F] 415.8.2 Flammable and combustible liquids. The 

storage, handling, processing and transporting of flamma- 
ble and combustible liquids in Groups H-2 and H-3 occu- 
pancies shall be in accordance with Sections 415.8.2.1 
through 415.8.2.9, the International Mechanical Code and 
the International Fire Code. 

[F] 415.8.2.1 Mixed occupancies. Where the storage 
tank area is located in a building of two or more occu- 
pancies and the quantity of liquid exceeds the maxi- 
mum allowable quantity for one control area, the use 
shall be completely separated from adjacent occupan- 
cies in accordance with the requirements of Section 
508.4. 

[F] 415.8.2.1.1 Height exception. Where storage 
tanks are located within a building no more than one 
story above grade plane, the height limitation of 
Section 503 shall not apply for Group H. 

[F] 415.8.2.2 Tank protection. Storage tanks shall be 
noncombustible and protected from physical damage. 
Fire barriers or horizontal assemblies or both around 
the storage tanks shall be permitted as the method of 
protection from physical damage. 

[F] 415.8.2.3 Tanks. Storage tanks shall be approved 
tanks conforming to the requirements of the Interna- 
tional Fire Code. 

[F] 415.8.2.4 Leakage containment. A liquid-tight 
containment area compatible with the stored liquid 
shall be provided. The method of spill control, drainage 
control and secondary containment shall be in accor- 
dance with the International Fire Code. 

Exception: Rooms where only double-wall storage 
tanks conforming to Section 415.8.2.3 are used to 
store Class I, II and IIIA flammable and combustible 
liquids shall not be required to have a leakage con- 
tainment area. 

[Fl 415.8.2.5 Leakage alarm. An approved automatic 
alarm shall be provided to indicate a leak in a storage 
tank and room. The alarm shall sound an audible signal, 
15 dBa above the ambient sound level, at every point of 
entry into the room in which the leaking storage tank is 
located. An approved sign shall be posted on every 
entry door to the tank storage room indicating the 
potential hazard of the interior room environment, or 
the sign shall state: WARNING, WHEN ALARM 



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SOUNDS, THE ENVIRONMENT WITHIN THE 
ROOM MAY BE HAZARDOUS. The leakage alarm 
shall also be supervised in accordance with Chapter 9 
to transmit a trouble signal. 

[F] 415.8.2.6 Tank vent. Storage tank vents for Class 
I, II or IIIA liquids shall terminate to the outdoor air in 
accordance with the International Fire Code. 

[F] 415.8.2.7 Room ventilation. Storage tank areas 
storing Class I, II or IIIA liquids shall be provided with 
mechanical ventilation. The mechanical ventilation sys- 
tem shall be in accordance with the International 
Mechanical Code and the International Fire Code. 

[F] 415.8.2.8 Explosion venting. Where Class I liq- 
uids are being stored, explosion venting shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with the International Fire Code. 

[F] 415.8.2.9 Tank openings other than vents. Tank 
openings other than vents from tanks inside buildings 
shall be designed to ensure that liquids or vapor con- 
centrations are not released inside the building. 

[F] 415.8.3 Liquefied petroleum gas facilities. The con- 
struction and installation of liquefied petroleum gas facili- 
ties shall be in accordance with the requirements of this 
code, the International Fire Code, the International 
Mechanical Code, the International Fuel Gas Code and 
NFPA 58. 

[F] 415.8.4 Dry cleaning plants. The construction and 
installation of dry cleaning plants shall be in accordance 
with the requirements of this code, the International 
Mechanical Code, the International Plumbing Code and 
NFPA 32. Dry cleaning solvents and systems shall be clas- 
sified in accordance with the International Fire Code. 

[F] 415.9 Groups H-3 and H-4. Groups H-3 and H-4 shall 
be constructed in accordance with the applicable provisions 
of this code and the International Fire Code. 

[F] 415.9.1 Flammable and combustible liquids. The 

storage, handling, processing and transporting of flamma- 
ble and combustible liquids in Group H-3 occupancies 
shall be in accordance with Section 415.8.2. 

[F] 415.9.2 Gas rooms. Where gas rooms are provided, 
such rooms shall be separated from other areas by not less 
than l-hour/(Ve barriers constructed in accordance with 
Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accor- 
dance with Section 71 1, or both. 

[F] 415.9.3 Floors in storage rooms. Floors in storage 
areas for corrosive liquids and highly toxic or toxic materi- 
als shall be of liquid-tight, noncombustible construction. 

[F] 415.9.4 Separation-highly toxic solids and liquids. 

Highly toxic solids and liquids not stored in approved haz- 
ardous materials storage cabinets shall be isolated from 
other hazardous materials storage by not less than 1-hour 
fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 
or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with 
Section 7 1 1 , or both. 

[F] 415.10 Group H-5. In addition to the requirements set 
forth elsewhere in this code, Group H-5 shall comply with the 



provisions of Sections 415.10.1 through 415.10.11 and the 
International Fire Code. 

[F] 415.10.1 Fabrication areas. Fabrication areas shall 
comply with Sections 415.10.1.1 through 415.10.1.8. 

[F] 415.10.1.1 Hazardous materials. Hazardous 
materials and hazardous production materials (HPM) 
shall comply with Sections 415.10.1.1.1 and 
415.10.1.1.2. 

[F] 415.10.1.1.1 Aggregate quantities. The aggre- 
gate quantities of hazardous materials stored and 
used in a single fabrication area shall not exceed the 
quantities set forth in Table 415.10.1.1.1. 

Exception: The quantity limitations for any haz- 
ard category in Table 415.10.1.1.1 shall not apply 
where the fabrication area contains quantities of 
hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum 
allowable quantities per control area established 
by Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2). 

[F] 415.10.1.1.2 Hazardous production materi- 
als. The maximum quantities of hazardous produc- 
tion materials (HPM) stored in a single fabrication 
area shall not exceed the maximum allowable quan- 
tities per control area established by Tables 
307.1(1) and 307.1(2). 

[F] 415.10.1.2 Separation. Fabrication areas, whose 
sizes are limited by the quantity of hazardous materials 
allowed by Table 415.10.1.1.1, shall be separated from 
each other, from corridors and from other parts of the 
building by not less than 1-hour fire barriers con- 
structed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal 
assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, 
or both. 

Exceptions: 

1. Doors within such^zre barrier walls, including 
doors to corridors, shall be only self-closing 
fire door assemblies having a fire protection 
rating of not less than 3 / 4 hour. 

2. Windows between fabrication areas and cor- 
ridors are permitted to be fixed glazing listed 
and labeled for a fire protection rating of not 
less than 3 / 4 hour in accordance with Section 
716. 

[F] 415.10.1.3 Location of occupied levels. Occupied 
levels of fabrication areas shall be located at or above 
the first story above grade plane. 

[F] 415.10.1.4 Floors. Except for surfacing, floors 
within fabrication areas shall be of noncombustible 
construction. 

Openings through floors of fabrication areas are 
permitted to be unprotected where the interconnected 
levels are used solely for mechanical equipment 
directly related to such fabrication areas (see also Sec- 
tion 415.10.1.5). 

Floors forming a part of an occupancy separation 
shall be liquid tight. 



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[F] 415.10.1.5 Shafts and openings through floors. 
Elevator hoistways, vent shafts and other openings 
through floors shall be enclosed where required by Sec- 
tions 712 and 713. Mechanical, duct and piping pene- 
trations within a fabrication area shall not extend 
through more than two floors. The annular space 
around penetrations for cables, cable trays, tubing, pip- 
ing, conduit or ducts shall be sealed at the floor level to 
restrict the movement of air. The fabrication area, 
including the areas through which the ductwork and 
piping extend, shall be considered a single conditioned 
environment. 

[F] 415.10.1.6 Ventilation. Mechanical exhaust venti- 
lation at the rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute 
per square foot [0.005 1 m 3 /(s • m 2 )] of floor area shall 
be provided throughout the portions of the fabrication 
area where HPM are used or stored. The exhaust air 
duct system of one fabrication area shall not connect to 
another duct system outside that fabrication area 
within the building. 

A ventilation system shall be provided to capture 
and exhaust gases, fumes and vapors at workstations. 

Two or more operations at a workstation shall not 
be connected to the same exhaust system where either 
one or the combination of the substances removed 
could constitute a fire, explosion or hazardous chemical 
reaction within the exhaust duct system. 

Exhaust ducts penetrating fire barriers constructed 
in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assem- 
blies constructed in accordance with Section 711 shall 
be contained in a shaft of equivalent fire-resistance- 
rated construction. Exhaust ducts shall not penetrate 
fire walls. 

Fire dampers shall not be installed in exhaust ducts. 

[F] 415.10.1.7 Transporting hazardous production 
materials to fabrication areas. HPM shall be trans- 
ported to fabrication areas through enclosed piping or 
tubing systems that comply with Section 415.10.6, 
through service corridors complying with Section 
415.10.3, or in corridors as permitted in the exception 
to Section 415.10.2. The handling or transporting of 
HPM within service corridors shall comply with the 
International Fire Code. 

[F] 415.10.1.8 Electrical. Electrical equipment and 
devices within the fabrication area shall comply with 
NFPA 70. The requirements for hazardous locations 
need not be applied where the average air change is at 
least four times that set forth in Section 415.10.1.6 and 
where the number of air changes at any location is not 
less than three times that required by Section 
415.10.1.6. The use of recirculated air shall be permit- 
ted. 

[F] 415.10.1.8.1 Workstations. Workstations shall 
not be energized without adequate exhaust ventila- 
tion. See Section 415.10.1.6 for workstation 
exhaust ventilation requirements. 



[F] 415.10.2 Corridors. Corridors shall comply with 
Chapter 10 and shall be separated bom fabrication area?, 
as specified in section 415.10.1.2. Corridors shall not con- 
tain HPM and shall not be used for transporting such 
materials except through closed piping systems as pro- 
vided in Section 415.10.6.4 

Exception: Where existing fabrication areas are 
altered or modified, HPM is allowed to be transported 
in existing corridors, subject to the following condi- 
tions: 

1 . Nonproduction HPM is allowed to be transported 
in corridors if utilized for maintenance, lab work 
and testing. 

2. Where existing fabrication areas are altered or 
modified, HPM is allowed to be transported in 
existing corridors, subject to the following con- 
ditions: 

2.1. Corridors. Corridors adjacent to the fab- 
rication area where the alteration work is 
to be done shall comply with Section 
1018 for a length determined as follows: 

2.1.1. The length of the common wall 
of the corridor and the 
fabrication area; and 

2.1.2. For the distance along the 
corridor to the point of entry of 
HPM into the corridor serving 
thai fabrication area. 

2.2. Emergency alarm system. There shall be 
an emergency telephone system, a local 
manual alarm station or other approved 
alarm-initiating device within corridors at 
not more than 150-foot (45 720 mm) 
intervals and at each exit and doorway. 
The signal shall be relayed to an approved 
central, proprietary or remote station ser- 
vice or the emergency control station and 
shall also initiate a local audible alarm. 

2.3. Pass-throughs. Self-closing doors having 
a fire protection rating of not less than 1 
hour shall separate pass-throughs from 
existing corridors. Pass-throughs shall be 
constructed as required for the corridors 
and protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system. 

[F] 415.10.3 Service corridors. Service corridors within 
a Group H-5 occupancy shall comply with Sections 
415.10.3.1 through 415.10.3.4. 

[F] 415.10.3.1 Use conditions. Service corridors shall 
be separated from corridors as required by Section 
415.10.1.2. Service corridors shall not be used as a 
required corridor. 

[F] 415.10.3.2 Mechanical ventilation. Service corri- 
dors shall be mechanically ventilated as required by 
Section 415.10.1.6 or at not less than six air changes 
per hour, whichever is greater. 



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[F] TABLE 415.10.1.1.1 
QUANTITY LIMITS FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN A SINGLE FABRICATION AREA IN GROUP H-5 B 



HAZARD CATEGORY 


SOLIDS 
(pounds per square foot) 


LIQUIDS 
(gallons per square foot) 


GAS 

(cubic feet @ NTP/square foot) 


PHYSICAL-HAZARD MATERIALS 


Combustible dust 


Noteb 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Combustible fiber Loose 
Baled 


Noteb 
Notes b, c 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Combustible liquid II 

IIIA 
IIIB 

Combination Class I, II and IIIA 


Not Applicable 


0.01 

0.02 

Not Limited 

0.04 


Not Applicable 


_ . Flammable 
Cryogenic gas . . 

Oxidizing 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Noted 
1.25 


Explosives 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Flammable gas Gaseous 
Liquefied 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Noted 
Noted 


Flammable liquid IA 

IB 

IC 
Combination Class IA, IB and IC 
Combination Class I, n and IIIA 


Not Applicable 


0.0025 
0.025 
0.025 
0.025 
0.04 


Not Applicable 


Flammable solid 


0.001 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Unclassified 
detonable 
Class I 
Organic peroxide Class II 
Class III 
Class IV 
Class V 


Noteb 

Noteb 

0.025 

0.1 

Not Limited 

Not Limited 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Oxidizing gas Gaseous 
Liquefied 

Combination of gaseous and liquefiec 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


1.25 
1.25 

1.25 


Oxidizer Class 4 
Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 

Combination Class 1,2,3 


Noteb 
0.003 
0.003 
0.003 
0.003 


Noteb 
0.03 
0.03 
0.03 
0.03 


Not Applicable 


Pyrophoric materials 


0.01 


0.00125 


Notes d and e 


Unstable (reactive) Class 4 
Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 


Noteb 

0.025 

0.1 

Not Limited 


Noteb 

0.0025 

0.01 

Not Limited 


Noteb 

Noteb 

Noteb 

Not Limited 


Water reactive Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 


Noteb 

0.25 

Not Limited 


0.00125 

0.025 

Not Limited 


Not Applicable 


HEALTH-HAZARD MATERIALS 


Corrosives 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Highly toxic 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Noted 


Toxics 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Noted 



For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 4.882 kg/m 2 , 1 gallon per square foot = 40.7 L/m\ 1 cubic foot @ NTP/square foot = 0.305 m 3 @ NTP/nr, 1 cubic foot = 
0.02832 m 3 . 

a. Hazardous materials within piping shall not be included in the calculated quantities. 

b. Quantity of hazardous materials in a single fabrication shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2). 

c. Densely packed baled cotton that complies with the packing requirements of ISO 8115 shall not be included in this material class. 

d. The aggregate quantity of flammable, pyrophoric, toxic and highly toxic gases shall not exceed 9,000 cubic feet at NTP. 

e. The aggregate quantity of pyrophoric gases in the building shall not exceed the amounts set forth in Table 415.5.2. 



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[F] 415. 10.3.3 Means of egress. The distance of travel 
from any point in a service corridor to an exit, exit 
access corridor or door into a. fabrication area shall be 
not greater than 75 feet (22 860 mm). Dead ends shall 
be not greater than 4 feet (1219 mm) in length. There 
shall be not less than two exits, and not more than one- 
half of the required means of egress shall require travel 
into a fabrication area. Doors from service corridors 
shall swing in the direction of egress travel and shall be 
self-closing. 

[F] 415.10.3.4 Minimum width. The clear width of a 
service corridor shall be not less than 5 feet (1524 
mm), or 33 inches (838 mm) wider than the widest cart 
or truck used in the service corridor, whichever is 
greater. 

[F] 415.10.3.5 Emergency alarm system. Emergency 
alarm systems shall be provided in accordance with this 
section and Sections 414.7.1 and MM 2. The maxi- 
mum allowable quantity per control area provisions 
shall not apply to emergency alarm systems required 
forHPM. 

[F] 415.10.3.5.1 Service corridors. An emergency 
alarm system shall be provided in service corridors, 
with no fewer than one alarm device in each service 
corridor. 

[F] 415.10.3.5.2 Corridors and interior exit stair- 
ways and ramps. Emergency alarms for corridors, 
interior exit stairways and ramps and exit passage- 
ways shall comply with Section 414.7.2. 

[F] 415.10.3.5.3 Liquid storage rooms, HPM 
rooms and gas rooms. Emergency alarms for liquid 
storage rooms, HPM rooms and gas rooms shall 
comply with Section 414.7.1. 

[F] 415.10.3.5.4 Alarm-initiating devices. An 
approved emergency telephone system, local alarm 
manual pull stations, or other approved alarm-initi- 
ating devices are allowed to be used as emergency 
alarm-initiating devices. 

[F] 415.10.3.5.5 Alarm signals. Activation of the 
emergency alarm system shall sound a local alarm 
and transmit a signal to the emergency control sta- 
tion. 

[F] 415.10.4 Storage of hazardous production materi- 
als. Storage of hazardous production materials (HPM) in 
fabrication areas shall be within approved or listed stor- 
age cabinets or gas cabinets or within a workstation. The 
storage of HPM in quantities greater than those listed in 
Section 5004.2 of the International Fire Code shall be in 
liquid storage rooms, HPM rooms or gas rooms as appro- 
priate for the materials stored. The storage of other hazard- 
ous materials shall be in accordance with other applicable 
provisions of this code and the International Fire Code. 

[F] 415.10.5 HPM rooms, gas rooms, liquid storage 
room construction. HPM rooms, gas rooms and liquid 
shall be constructed in accordance with Sections 
415.10.5.1 through 415. 10.5.9. 



[F] 415.10.5.1 HPM rooms and gas rooms. HPM 
rooms and gas rooms shall be separated from other 
areas by fire barriers constructed in accordance with 
Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in 
accordance with Section 711, or both. The fire-resis- 
tance rating shall be not less than 2 hours where the 
area is 300 square feet (27.9 m 2 ) or more and not less 
than 1 hour where the area is less than 300 square feet 
(27.9 m 2 ). 

[F] 415.10.5.2 Liquid storage rooms. Liquid storage 
rooms shall be constructed in accordance with the fol- 
lowing requirements: 

1 . Rooms greater than 500 square feet (46.5 m 2 ) in 
area, shall have no fewer than one exterior door 
approved for fire department access. 

2. Rooms shall be separated from other areas by fire 
barriers constructed in accordance with Section 
707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in 
accordance with Section 711, or both. The fire- 
resistance rating shall be not less than 1 hour for 
rooms up to 150 square feet (13.9 m 2 ) in area and 
not less than 2 hours where the room is more than 
150 square feet (13.9 m 2 ) in area. 

3. Shelving, racks and wainscotting in such areas 
shall be of noncombustible construction or wood 
of not less than 1-inch (25 mm) nominal thick- 
ness or fire-retardant-treated wood complying 
with Section 2303.2. 

4. Rooms used for the storage of Class I flammable 
liquids shall not be located in a basement. 

[F] 415.10.5.3 Floors. Except for surfacing, floors of 
HPM rooms and liquid storage rooms shall be of non- 
combustible liquid-tight construction. Raised grating 
over floors shall be of noncombustible materials. 

[F] 415.10.5.4 Location. Where HPM rooms, liquid 
storage rooms and gas rooms are provided, they shall 
have no fewer than one exterior wall and such wall 
shall be not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) from lot lines, 
including lot lines adjacent to public ways. 

[F] 415.10.5.5 Explosion control. Explosion control 
shall be provided where required by Section 414.5.1. 

[F] 415.10.5.6 Exits. Where two exits are required 
from HPM rooms, liquid storage rooms and gas rooms, 
one shall be directly to the outside of the building. 

[F] 415.10.5.7 Doors. Doors in a fire barrier wall, 
including doors to corridors, shall be self-closing fire 
door assemblies having a fire protection rating of not 
less than 3 / 4 hour. 

[F] 415.10.5.8 Ventilation. Mechanical exhaust venti- 
lation shall be provided in liquid storage rooms, HPM 
rooms and gas rooms at the rate of not less than 1 cubic 
foot per minute per square foot (0.044 L/s/m 2 ) of floor 
area or six air changes per hour, whichever is greater, 
for categories of material. 

Exhaust ventilation for gas rooms shall be designed 
to operate at a negative pressure in relation to the sur- 



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rounding areas and direct the exhaust ventilation to an 
exhaust system. 

[F] 415.10.5.9 Emergency alarm system. An 
approved emergency alarm system shall be provided 
for HPM rooms, liquid storage rooms and gas rooms. 

Emergency alarm-initiating devices shall be 
installed outside of each interior exit door of such 
rooms. 

Activation of an emergency alarm-initiating device 
shall sound a local alarm and transmit a signal to the 
emergency control station. 

An approved emergency telephone system, local 
alarm manual pull stations or other approved alarm-ini- 
tiating devices are allowed to be used as emergency 
alarm-initiating devices. 

[F] 415.10.6 Piping and tubing. Hazardous production 
materials piping and tubing shall comply with this section 
andASMEB31.3. 

[F] 415.10.6.1 HPM having a health-hazard rank- 
ing of 3 or 4. Systems supplying HPM liquids or gases 
having a health-hazard ranking of 3 or 4 shall be 
welded throughout, except for connections, to the sys- 
tems that are within a ventilated enclosure if the mate- 
rial is a gas, or an approved method of drainage or 
containment is provided for the connections if the 
material is a liquid. 

[F] 415.10.6.2 Location in service corridors. Hazard- 
ous production materials supply piping or tubing in ser- 
vice corridors shall be exposed to view. 

[F] 415.10.6.3 Excess flow control. Where HPM 
gases or liquids are carried in pressurized piping above 
15 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (103.4 kPa), 
excess flow control shall be provided. Where the piping 
originates from within a liquid storage room, HPM 
room or gas room, the excess flow control shall be 
located within the liquid storage room, HPM room or 
gas room. Where the piping originates from a bulk 
source, the excess flow control shall be located as close 
to the bulk source as practical. 

[F] 415.10.6.4 Installations in corridors and above 
other occupancies. The installation of HPM piping 
and tubing within the space defined by the walls of cor- 
ridors and the floor or roof above, or in concealed 
spaces above other occupancies, shall be in accordance 
with Sections 415.10.6.1 through 415.10.6.3 and the 
following conditions: 

1 . Automatic sprinklers shall be installed within the 
space unless the space is less than 6 inches (152 
mm) in the least dimension. 

2. Ventilation not less than six air changes per hour 
shall be provided. The space shall not be used to 
convey air from any other area. 

3. Where the piping or tubing is used to transport 
HPM liquids, a receptor shall be installed below 
such piping or tubing. The receptor shall be 
designed to collect any discharge or leakage and 



drain it to an approved location. The 1-hour 
enclosure shall not be used as part of the receptor. 

4. HPM supply piping and tubing and nonmetallic 
waste lines shall be separated from the corridor 
and from occupancies other than Group H-5 by 
fire barriers that have a. fire-resistance rating of 
not less than 1 hour. Where gypsum wallboard is 
used, joints on the piping side of the enclosure 
are not required to be taped, provided the joints 
occur over framing members. Access openings 
into the enclosure shall be protected by approved 
fire protection-rated assemblies. 

5. Readily accessible manual or automatic remotely 
activated fail-safe emergency shutoff valves shall 
be installed on piping and tubing other than waste 
lines at the following locations: 

5.1. At branch connections into the fabrication 
area. 

5.2. At entries into corridors. 

Exception: Transverse crossings of the corridors by 
supply piping that is enclosed within a ferrous pipe 
or tube for the width of the corridor need not com- 
ply with Items 1 through 5. 

[F] 415.10.6.5 Identification. Piping, tubing and HPM 
waste lines shall be identified in accordance with ANSI 
A13.1 to indicate the material being transported. 

[F] 415.10.7 Continuous gas detection systems. A con- 
tinuous gas detection system shall be provided for HPM 
gases where the physiological warning threshold level of 
the gas is at a higher level than the accepted permissible 
exposure limit (PEL) for the gas and for flammable gases 
in accordance with Sections 415.10.7.1 and 415.10.7.2. 

[F] 415.10.7.1 Where required. A continuous gas 
detection system shall be provided in the areas identi- 
fied in Sections 415.10.7.1.1 through 415.10.7.1.4. 

[F] 415.10.7.1.1 Fabrication areas. A continuous 
gas detection system shall be provided in fabrication 
areas where gas is used in the fabrication area. 

[F] 415.10.7.1.2 HPM rooms. A continuous gas 
detection system shall be provided in HPM rooms 
where gas is used in the room. 

[F] 415.10.7.1.3 Gas cabinets, exhausted enclo- 
sures and gas rooms. A continuous gas detection 
system shall be provided in gas cabinets and 
exhausted enclosures. A continuous gas detection 
system shall be provided in gas rooms where gases 
are not located in gas cabinets or exhausted enclo- 
sures. 

[F] 415.10.7.1.4 Corridors. Where gases are trans- 
ported in piping placed within the space defined by 
the walls of a corridor and the floor or roof above 
the corridor, a continuous gas detection system shall 
be provided where piping is located and in the corri- 
dor. 

Exception: A continuous gas detection system is 
not required for occasional transverse crossings 



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of the corridors by supply piping that is enclosed 
in a ferrous pipe or tube for the width of the cor- 
ridor. 

[F] 415.10.7.2 Gas detection system operation. The 
continuous gas detection system shall be capable of 
monitoring the room, area or equipment in which the 
gas is located at or below all the following gas concen- 
trations: 

1. Immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) 
values where the monitoring point is within an 
exhausted enclosure, ventilated enclosure or gas 
cabinet. 

2. Permissible exposure limit (PEL) levels where 
the monitoring point is in an area outside an 
exhausted enclosure, ventilated enclosure or gas 
cabinet. 

3. For flammable gases, the monitoring detection 
threshold level shall be vapor concentrations in 
excess of 25 percent of the lower flammable limit 
(LFL) where the monitoring is within or outside 
an exhausted enclosure, ventilated enclosure or 
gas cabinet. 

4. Except as noted in this section, monitoring for 
highly toxic and toxic gases shall also comply 
with Chapter 60 of the International Fire Code. 

[F] 415.10.7.2.1 Alarms. The gas detection system 
shall initiate a local alarm and transmit a signal to 
the emergency control station when a short-term 
hazard condition is detected. The alarm shall be both 
visual and audible and shall provide warning both 
inside and outside the area where the gas is detected. 
The audible alarm shall be distinct from all other 
alarms. 

[F] 415.10.7.2.2 Shutoff of gas supply. The gas 
detection system shall automatically close the shut- 
off valve at the source on gas supply piping and tub- 
ing related to the system being monitored for which 
gas is detected when a short-term hazard condition 
is detected. Automatic closure of shutoff valves 
shall comply with the following: 

1. Where the gas detection sampling point initi- 
ating the gas detection system alarm is within 
a gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure, the shut- 
off valve in the gas cabinet or exhausted 
enclosure for the specific gas detected shall 
automatically close. 

2. Where the gas detection sampling point initi- 
ating the gas detection system alarm is within 
a room and compressed gas containers are not 
in gas cabinets or an exhausted enclosure, the 
shutoff valves on all gas lines for the specific 
gas detected shall automatically close. 

3. Where the gas detection sampling point initi- 
ating the gas detection system alarm is within 
a piping distribution manifold enclosure, the 
shutoff valve supplying the manifold for the 



compressed gas container of the specific gas 
detected shall automatically close. 

Exception: Where the gas detection sampling 
point initiating the gas detection system alarm is 
at the use location or within a gas valve enclosure 
of a branch line downstream of a piping distribu- 
tion manifold, the shutoff valve for the branch 
line located in the piping distribution manifold 
enclosure shall automatically close. 

[F] 415.10.8 Manual fire alarm system. An approved 
manual fire alarm system shall be provided throughout 
buildings containing Group H-5. Activation of the alarm 
system shall initiate a local alarm and transmit a signal to 
the emergency control station. Tat fire alarm system shall 
be designed and installed in accordance with Section 907. 

[F] 415.10.9 Emergency control station. An emergency 
control station shall be provided in accordance with Sec- 
tions 415.10.9.1 through 415.10.9.3. 

[F] 415.10.9.1 Location. The emergency control sta- 
tion shall be located on the premises at an approved 
location outside the fabrication area. 

[F] 415.10.9.2 Staffing. Trained personnel shall con- 
tinuously staff the emergency control station. 

[F] 415.10.9.3 Signals. The emergency control station 
shall receive signals from emergency equipment and 
alarm and detection systems. Such emergency equip- 
ment and alarm and detection systems shall include, but 
not be limited to, the following where such equipment 
or systems are required to be provided either in this 
chapter or elsewhere in this code: 

1. Automatic sprinkler system alarm and monitoring 
systems. 

2. Manual fire alarm systems. 

3. Emergency alarm systems. 

4. Continuous gas detection systems. 

5. Smoke detection systems. 

6. Emergency power system. 

7. Automatic detection and alarm systems for pyro- 
phoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liquids 
required in Section 2705.2.3.4 of the Interna- 
tional Fire Code. 

8. Exhaust ventilation flow alarm devices for pyro- 
phoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liquids 
cabinet exhaust ventilation systems required in 
Section 2705.2.3.4 of the International Fire 
Code. 

[F] 415.10.10 Emergency power system. An emergency 
power system shall be provided in Group H-5 occupancies 
where required in Section 415.10.10.1. The emergency 
power system shall be designed to supply power automati- 
cally to required electrical systems when the normal elec- 
trical supply system is interrupted. 

[F] 415.10.10.1 Required electrical systems. Emer- 
gency power shall be provided for electrically operated 



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equipment and connected control circuits for the fol- 
lowing systems: 

1. HPM exhaust ventilation systems. 

2. HPM gas cabinet ventilation systems. 

3. HPM exhausted enclosure ventilation systems. 

4. HPM gas room ventilation systems. 

5. HPM gas detection systems. 

6. Emergency alarm systems. 
1. Manual fire alarm systems. 

8. Automatic sprinkler system monitoring and 
alarm systems. 

9. Automatic alarm and detection systems for 
pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive 
liquids required in Section 2705.2.3.4 of the 
International Fire Code. 

1 0. Flow alarm switches for pyrophoric liquids and 
Class 3 water-reactive liquids cabinet exhaust 
ventilation systems required in Section 
2705.2.3.4 of the International Fire Code. 

11. Electrically operated systems required else- 
where in this code or in the International Fire 
Code applicable to the use, storage or handling 
of HPM. 

[F] 415.10.10.2 Exhaust ventilation systems. Exhaust 
ventilation systems are allowed to be designed to oper- 
ate at not less than one-half the normal fan speed on the 
emergency power system where it is demonstrated that 
the level of exhaust will maintain a safe atmosphere. 

[F] 415.10.11 Automatic sprinkler system protection in 
exhaust ducts for HPM. An approved automatic sprin- 
kler system shall be provided in exhaust ducts conveying 
gases, vapors, fumes, mists or dusts generated from HPM 
in accordance with Sections 415.10.11.1 through 
415.10.1 1.3 and the International Mechanical Code. 

[F] 415.10.11.1 Metallic and noncombustible non- 
metallic exhaust ducts. An approved automatic sprin- 
kler system shall be provided in metallic and 
noncombustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts where all of 
the following conditions apply: 

1. Where the largest cross-sectional diameter is 
equal to or greater than 10 inches (254 mm). 

2. The ducts are within the building. 

3. The ducts are conveying flammable gases, vapors 
or fumes. 

[F] 415.10.11.2 Combustible nonmetallic exhaust 
ducts. Automatic sprinkler system protection shall be 
provided in combustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts 
where the largest cross-sectional diameter of the duct is 
equal to or greater than 10 inches (254 mm). 

Exception: Duct need not be provided with auto- 
matic sprinkler protection as follows: 

1. Ducts listed or approved for applications with- 
out automatic sprinkler system protection. 



2. Ducts not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) 
length installed below ceiling level. 



in 



[F] 415.10.11.3 Automatic sprinkler locations. 

Sprinkler systems shall be installed at 12- foot (3658 
mm) intervals in horizontal ducts and at changes in 
direction. In vertical ducts, sprinklers shall be installed 
at the top and at alternate floor levels. 



SECTION 416 
APPLICATION OF FLAMMABLE FINISHES 

[F] 416.1 General. The provisions of this section shall apply 
to the construction, installation and use of buildings and 
structures, or parts thereof, for the application of flammable 
finishes. Such construction and equipment shall comply with 
the International Fire Code. 

[F] 416.2 Spray rooms. Spray rooms shall be enclosed with 
not less than 1 -hour fire barriers constructed in accordance 
with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in 
accordance with Section 711, or both. Floors shall be water- 
proofed and drained in an approved manner. 

[F] 416.2.1 Surfaces. The interior surfaces of spray 
rooms shall be smooth and shall be so constructed to per- 
mit the free passage of exhaust air from all parts of the 
interior and to facilitate washing and cleaning, and shall be 
so designed to confine residues within the room. Alumi- 
num shall not be used. 

[F] 416.2.2 Ventilation. Mechanical ventilation and 
interlocks with the spraying operation shall be in accor- 
dance with the International Mechanical Code. 

[F] 416.3 Spraying spaces. Spraying spaces shall be venti- 
lated with an exhaust system to prevent the accumulation of 
flammable mist or vapors in accordance with the Interna- 
tional Mechanical Code. Where such spaces are not sepa- 
rately enclosed, noncombustible spray curtains shall be 
provided to restrict the spread of flammable vapors. 

[F] 416.3.1 Surfaces. The interior surfaces of spraying 
spaces shall be smooth and continuous without edges; 
shall be so constructed to permit the free passage of 
exhaust air from all parts of the interior and to facilitate 
washing and cleaning; and shall be so designed to confine 
residues within the spraying space. Aluminum shall not be 
used. 

[F] 416.4 Spray booths. Spray booths shall be designed, 
constructed and operated in accordance with the Interna- 
tional Fire Code 

[F] 416.5 Fire protection. An automatic sprinkler system or 
fire-extinguishing system shall be provided in all spray, dip 
and immersing spaces and storage rooms and shall be 
installed in accordance with Chapter 9. 



SECTION 417 
DRYING ROOMS 

[F] 417.1 General. A drying room or dry kiln installed 
within a building shall be constructed entirely of approved 
noncombustible materials or assemblies of such materials 



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regulated by the approved rules or as required in the general 
and specific sections of this chapter for special occupancies 
and where applicable to the general requirements of the Inter- 
national Mechanical Code. 

[F] 417.2 Piping clearance. Overhead heating pipes shall 
have a clearance of not less than 2 inches (5 1 mm) from com- 
bustible contents in the dryer. 

[F] 417.3 Insulation. Where the operating temperature of 
the dryer is 175°F (79°C) or more, metal enclosures shall be 
insulated from adjacent combustible materials by not less 
than 12 inches (305 mm) of airspace, or the metal walls shall 
be lined with V^-inch (6.35 mm) insulating mill board or other 
approved equivalent insulation. 

[F] 417.4 Fire protection. Drying rooms designed for high- 
hazard materials and processes, including special occupan- 
cies as provided for in Chapter 4, shall be protected by an 
approved automatic fire-extinguishing system complying 
with the provisions of Chapter 9. 



SECTION 418 
ORGANIC COATINGS 

[F] 418.1 Building features. Manufacturing of organic coat- 
ings shall be done only in buildings that do not have pits or 
basements. 

[F] 418.2 Location. Organic coating manufacturing opera- 
tions and operations incidental to or connected therewith 
shall not be located in buildings having other occupancies. 

[F] 418.3 Process mills. Mills operating with close clear- 
ances and that process flammable and heat-sensitive materi- 
als, such as nitrocellulose, shall be located in a detached 
building or noncombustible structure. 

[F] 418.4 Tank storage. Storage areas for flammable and 
combustible liquid tanks inside of structures shall be located 
at or above grade and shall be separated from the processing 
area by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in 
accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies con- 
structed in accordance with Section 71 1, or both. 

[F] 418.5 Nitrocellulose storage. Nitrocellulose storage 
shall be located on a detached pad or in a separate structure or 
a room enclosed with not less than 2-hour fire barriers con- 
structed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assem- 
blies constructed in accordance with Section 71 1, or both. 

[F] 418.6 Finished products. Storage rooms for finished 
products that are flammable or combustible liquids shall be 
separated from the processing area by not less than 2-hour 
fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or 
horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 
711, or both. 



SECTION 419 
LIVE/WORK UNITS 

419.1 General. A live/work unit shall comply with Sections 
419.1 through 419.9. 

Exception: Dwelling or sleeping units that include an 
office that is less than 10 percent of the area of the dwell- 



ing unit are permitted to be classified as dwelling units 
with accessory occupancies in accordance with Section 
508.2. 

419.1.1 Limitations. The following shall apply to all live/ 
work areas: 

1 . The live/work unit is permitted to be not greater than 
3,000 square feet (279 m 2 ) in area; 

2. The nonresidential area is permitted to be not more 
than 50 percent of the area of each live/work unit; 

3. The nonresidential area function shall be limited to 
the first or main floor only of the live/work unit; and 

4. Not more than five nonresidential workers or 
employees are allowed to occupy the nonresidential 
area at any one time. 

419.2 Occupancies. Live/work units shall be classified as a 
Group R-2 occupancy. Separation requirements found in Sec- 
tions 420 and 508 shall not apply within the live/work unit 
where the live/work unit is in compliance with Section 419. 
Nonresidential uses which would otherwise be classified as 
either a Group H or S occupancy shall not be permitted in a 
live/work unit. 

Exception: Storage shall be permitted in the live/work 
unit provided the aggregate area of storage in the nonresi- 
dential portion of the live/work unit shall be limited to 10 
percent of the space dedicated to nonresidential activities. 

419.3 Means of egress. Except as modified by this section, 
the means of egress components for a live/work unit shall be 
designed in accordance with Chapter 10 for the function 

served. 

419.3.1 Egress capacity. The egress capacity for each ele- 
ment of the live/work unit shall be based on the occupant 
load for the function served in accordance with Table 
1004.1.1. 

419.3.2 Spiral stairways. Spiral stairways that conform 
to the requirements of Section 1009.12 shall be permitted. 

419.4 Vertical openings. Floor openings between floor lev- 
els of a live/work unit are permitted without enclosure. 

[F] 419.5 Fire protection. The live/work unit shall be pro- 
vided with a monitored fire alarm system where required by 
Section 907.2.9 and an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.2.8. 

419.6 Structural. Floor loading for the areas within a live/ 
work unit shall be designed to conform to Table 1607.1 based 
on the function within the space. 

419.7 Accessibility. Accessibility shall be designed in accor- 
dance with Chapter 1 1 for the function served. 

419.8 Ventilation. The applicable ventilation requirements 
of the International Mechanical Code shall apply to each area 
within the live/work unit for the function within that space. 

419.9 Plumbing facilities. The nonresidential area of the 
live/work unit shall be provided with minimum plumbing 
facilities as specified by Chapter 29, based on the function of 
the nonresidential area. Where the nonresidential area of the 
live/work unit is required to be accessible by Section 



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1103.2.13, the plumbing fixtures specified by Chapter 29 
shall be accessible. 



SECTION 420 
GROUPS !-1,R-1,R-2, R-3 

420.1 General. Occupancies in Groups 1-1, R-l , R-2 and R-3 
shall comply with the provisions of Sections 420. 1 through 
420.5 and other applicable provisions of this code. 

420.2 Separation walls. Walls separating dwelling units in 
the same building, walls separating sleeping units in the same 
building and walls separating dwelling or sleeping units from 
other occupancies contiguous to them in the same building 
shall be constructed as fire partitions in accordance with Sec- 
tion 708. 

420.3 Horizontal separation. Floor assemblies separating 
dwelling units in the same buildings, floor assemblies sepa- 
rating sleeping units in the same building and floor assem- 
blies separating dwelling or sleeping units from other 
occupancies contiguous to them in the same building shall be 
constructed as horizontal assemblies in accordance with Sec- 
tion 711. 

[F] 420.4 Automatic sprinkler system. Group R occupan- 
cies shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.2.8. Group 1-1 occu- 
pancies shall be equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.2.6. Quick- 
response or residential automatic sprinklers shall be installed 
in accordance with Section 903.3.2. 

[F] 420.5 Smoke detection and fire alarm systems. Fire 
alarm systems and smoke alarms shall be provided in Group 
1-1, R-l and R-2 occupancies in accordance with Sections 
907.2.6, 907.2.8 and 907.2.9, respectively. Single-or multi- 
ple-station smoke alarms shall be in accordance with Section 
907.2.11. 



SECTION 421 
HYDROGEN CUTOFF ROOMS 

[F] 421.1 General. Where required by the International Fire 
Code, hydrogen cutoff rooms shall be designed and con- 
structed in accordance with Sections 421.1 through 421.8. 

[F] 421.2 Definitions. The following terms are defined in 
Chapter 2: 

GASEOUS HYDROGEN SYSTEM. 

HYDROGEN CUTOFF ROOM. 

[F] 421.3 Location. Hydrogen cutoff rooms shall not be 
located below grade. 

[F] 421.4 Design and construction. Hydrogen cutoff rooms 
shall be classified with respect to occupancy in accordance 
with Section 302.1 and separated from other areas of the 
building by not less than 1 -hour fire barriers constructed in 
accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies con- 



structed in accordance with Section 711, or both; or as 
required by Section 508.2, 508.3 or 508.4, as applicable. 

[F] 421.4.1 Opening protectives. Doors within the fire 
barriers, including doors to corridors, shall be self-closing 
in accordance with Section 716. Interior door openings 
shall be electronically interlocked to prevent operation of 
the hydrogen system when doors are opened or ajar or the 
room shall be provided with a mechanical exhaust ventila- 
tion system designed in accordance with Section 
421.4.1.1. 

[F] 421.4.1.1 Ventilation alternative. Where an 
exhaust system is used in lieu of the interlock system 
required by Section 421.4.1, exhaust ventilation sys- 
tems shall operate continuously and shall be designed 
to operate at a negative pressure in relation to the sur- 
rounding area. The average velocity of ventilation at 
the face of the door opening with the door in the fully 
open position shall not be less than 60 feet per minute 
(0.3048 m/s) and not less than 45 feet per minute 
(0.2287 m/s) at any point in the door opening. 

[F] 421.4.2 Windows. Operable windows in interior walls 
shall not be permitted. Fixed windows shall be permitted 
where in accordance with Section 716. 

[F] 421.5 Ventilation. Cutoff rooms shall be provided with 
mechanical ventilation in accordance with the applicable pro- 
visions for repair garages in Chapter 5 of the International 
Mechanical Code. 

[F] 421.6 Gas detection system. Hydrogen cutoff rooms 
shall be provided with an approved flammable gas detection 
system in accordance with Sections 421.6.1 through 421.6.3. 

[F] 421.6.1 System design. The flammable gas detection 
system shall be listed for use with hydrogen and any other 
flammable gases used in the room. The gas detection sys- 
tem shall be designed to activate when the level of flam- 
mable gas exceeds 25 percent of the lower flammability 
limit (LFL) for the gas or mixtures present at their antici- 
pated temperature and pressure. 

[F] 421.6.2 Operation. Activation of the gas detection 
system shall result in all of the following: 

1 . Initiation of distinct audible and visual alarm signals 
both inside and outside of the cutoff room. 

2. Activation of the mechanical ventilation system. 

[F] 421.6.3 Failure of the gas detection system. Failure 
of the gas detection system shall result in activation of the 
mechanical ventilation system, cessation of hydrogen gen- 
eration and the sounding of a trouble signal in an approved 
location. 

[F] 421.7 Explosion control. Explosion control shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Chapter 9 of the International Fire 
Code. 

[F] 421.8 Standby power. Mechanical ventilation and gas 
detection systems shall be connected to a standby power sys- 
tem in accordance with Chapter 27. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



91 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



SECTION 422 
AMBULATORY CARE FACHLITIES 

422.1 General. Occupancies classified as ambulatory care 
facilities shall comply with the provisions of Sections 422.1 
through 422.7 and other applicable provisions of this code. 

422.2 Separation. Ambulatory care facilities where the 
potential for four or more care recipients are to be incapable 
of self-preservation at any time, whether rendered incapable 
by staff or staff accepted responsibility for a care recipient 
already incapable, shall be separated from adjacent spaces, 
corridors or tenants with a fire partition installed in accor- 
dance with Section 708. 

422.3 Smoke compartments. Where the aggregate area of 
one or more ambulatory care facilities is greater than 10,000 
square feet (929 m 2 ) on one story, the story shall be provided 
with a smoke barrier to subdivide the story into no fewer than 
two smoke compartments. The area of any one such smoke 
compartment shall be not greater than 22,500 square feet 
(2092 m 2 ). The travel distance from any point in a smoke 
compartment to a smoke barrier door shall be not greater than 
200 feet (60 960 mm). The smoke barrier shall be installed 
in accordance with Section 709 with the exception that smoke 
barriers shall be continuous from outside wall to an outside 
wall, a floor to a floor, or from a smoke barrier to a smoke 
barrier or a combination thereof. 

422.4 Refuge area. Not less than 30 net square feet (2.8 m 2 ) 
for each nonambulatory care recipient shall be provided 
within the aggregate area of corridors, care recipient rooms, 
treatment rooms, lounge or dining areas and other low-hazard 
areas within each smoke compartment. Each occupant of an 
ambulatory care facility shall be provided with access to a 
refuge area without passing through or utilizing adjacent ten- 
ant spaces. 

422.5 Independent egress. A means of egress shall be pro- 
vided from each smoke compartment created by smoke barri- 
ers without having to return through the smoke compartment 
from which means of egress originated. 

[F] 422.6 Automatic sprinkler systems. Automatic sprinkler 
systems shall be provided for ambulatory care facilities in 
accordance with Section 903.2.2. 

[F] 422.7 Fire alarm systems. Afire alarm system shall be 
provided for ambulatory care facilities in accordance with 
Section 907.2.2.1. 



SECTION 423 
STORM SHELTERS 

423.1 General. In addition to other applicable requirements 
in this code, storm shelters shall be constructed in accordance 
with ICC-500. 

423.1.1 Scope. This section applies to the construction of 
storm shelters constructed as separate detached buildings 
or constructed as safe rooms within buildings for the pur- 
pose of providing safe refuge from storms that produce 
high winds, such as tornados and hurricanes. Such struc- 
tures shall be designated to be hurricane shelters, tornado 
shelters, or combined hurricane and tornado shelters. 



423.2 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chap- 
ter 2: 

STORM SHELTER. 

Community storm shelter. 

Residential storm shelter. 



SECTION 424 
CHILDREN'S PLAY STRUCTURES 

424.1 Children's play structures. Children's play structures 
installed inside all occupancies covered by this code that 
exceed 10 feet (3048 mm) in height and 150 square feet (14 
m 2 ) in area shall comply with Sections 424.2 through 424.5. 

424.2 Materials. Children's play structures shall be con- 
structed of noncombustible materials or of combustible mate- 
rials that comply with the following: 

1. Fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Section 
2303.2. 

2. Light-transmitting plastics complying with Section 
2606. 

3. Foam plastics (including the pipe foam used in soft- 
contained play equipment structures) having a maxi- 
mum heat-release rate not greater than 100 kilowatts 
when tested in accordance with UL 1975 or when 
tested in accordance with NFPA 289, using the 20 kW 
ignition source. 

4. Aluminum composite material (ACM) meeting the 
requirements of Class A interior finish in accordance 
with Chapter 8 when tested as an assembly in the maxi- 
mum thickness intended for use. 

5. Textiles and films complying with the flame propaga- 
tion performance criteria contained in NFPA 701. 

6. Plastic materials used to construct rigid components of 
soft-contained play equipment structures (such as 
tubes, windows, panels, junction boxes, pipes, slides 
and decks) exhibiting a peak rate of heat release not 
exceeding 400 kW/ m 2 when tested in accordance with 
ASTM E 1354 at an incident heat flux of 50 kW/m 2 in 
the horizontal orientation at a thickness of 6 mm. 

7. Ball pool balls, used in soft-contained play equipment 
structures, having a maximum heat-release rate not 
greater than 100 kilowatts when tested in accordance 
with UL 1 975 or when tested in accordance with NFPA 
289, using the 20 kW ignition source. The minimum 
specimen test size shall be 36 inches by 36 inches (914 
mm by 914 mm) by an average of 21 inches (533 mm) 
deep, and the balls shall be held in a box constructed of 
galvanized steel poultry netting wire mesh. 

8. Foam plastics shall be covered by a fabric, coating or 
film meeting the flame propagation performance crite- 
ria of NFPA 701. 

9. The floor covering placed under the children's play 
structure shall exhibit a Class I interior floor finish clas- 
sification, as described in Section 804, when tested in 
accordance with NFPA 253. 



** 



92 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



[F] 424.3 Fire protection. Children's play structures shall be 
provided with the same level of approved fire suppression 
and detection devices required for other structures in the 
same occupancy. 

424.4 Separation. Children's play structures shall have a 
horizontal separation from building walls, partitions and from 
elements of the means of egress of not less than 5 feet (1 524 
mm). Children's playground structures shall have a horizon- 
tal separation from other children's play structures of not less 
than 20 feet (6090 mm). 

424.5 Area limits. Children's play structures shall be not 
greater than 300 square feet (28 m 2 ) in area, unless a special 
investigation, acceptable to the building official, has demon- 
strated adequate fire safety. 



201 2 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 93 



94 2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 5 

GCMCQAI E3E 111 niMP UCinbUTO A Mft ADCAQ 



SECTION 501 
GENERAL 

501.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter control the height 
and area of structures hereafter erected and additions to exist- 
ing structures. 

[F] 501.2 Address identification. New and existing build- 
ings shall be provided with approved address numbers or let- 
ters. Each character shall be not less than 4 inches (102 mm) 
in height and not less than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) in width. They 
shall be installed on a contrasting background and be plainly 
visible from the street or road fronting the property. When 
required by the fire code official, address numbers shall be 
provided in additional approved locations to facilitate emer- 
gency response. Where access is by means of a private road 
and the building address cannot be viewed from the public 
way, a monument, pole or other approved sign or means shall 
be used to identify the structure. Address numbers shall be 
maintained. 



SECTION 502 
DEFINITIONS 

502.1 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chap- 
ter 2: 

AREA, BUILDING. 

BASEMENT. 

EQUIPMENT PLATFORM. 

GRADE PLANE. 

HEIGHT, BUILDING. 

MEZZANINE. 



SECTION 503 

GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHT AND AREA 

LIMITATIONS 

503.1 General. The building height and area shall not 
exceed the limits specified in Table 503 based on the type of 
construction as determined by Section 602 and the occupan- 
cies as determined by Section 302 except as modified hereaf- 
ter. Each portion of a building separated by one or more fire 
walls complying with Section 706 shall be considered to be a 
separate building. 

503.1.1 Special industrial occupancies. Buildings and 
structures designed to house special industrial processes 
that require large areas and unusual building heights to 
accommodate craneways or special machinery and equip- 
ment, including, among others, rolling mills; structural 
metal fabrication shops and foundries; or the production 
and distribution of electric, gas or steam power, shall be 
exempt from the building height and area limitations of 
Table 503. 



503.1.2 Buildings on same lot. Two or more buildings on 
the same lot shall be regulated as separate buildings or 
shall be considered as portions of one building if the build- 
ing height of each building and the aggregate building 
area of the buildings are within the limitations of Table 
503 as modified by Sections 504 and 506. The provisions 
of this code applicable to the aggregate building shall be 
applicable to each building. 

503.1.3 Type I construction. Buildings of Type I con- 
struction permitted to be of unlimited tabular building 
heights and areas are not subject to the special require- 
ments that allow unlimited area buildings in Section 507 
or unlimited building height in Sections 503.1.1 and 504.3 
or increased building heights and areas for other types of 
construction. 



SECTION 504 
BUILDING HEIGHT 

504.1 General. The building height permitted by Table 503 
shall be increased in accordance with Sections 504.2 and 
504.3. 

Exception: The building height of one-story aircraft han- 
gars, aircraft paint hangars and buildings used for the man- 
ufacturing of aircraft shall not be limited if the building is 
provided with an automatic sprinkler system or automatic 
fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Chapter 9 
and is entirely surrounded by public ways or yards not less 
in width than one and one-half times the building height. 

504.2 Automatic sprinkler system increase. Where a build- 
ing is equipped throughout with an approved automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the 
value specified in Table 503 for maximum building height is 
increased by 20 feet (6096 mm) and the maximum number of 
stories is increased by one. These increases are permitted in 
addition to the building area increase in accordance with Sec- 
tions 506.2 and 506.3. For Group R buildings equipped 
throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.2, the value specified in 
Table 503 for maximum building height is increased by 20 
feet (6096 mm) and the maximum number of stories is 
increased by one, but shall not exceed 60 feet (18 288 mm) or 
four stories, respectively. 

Exception: The use of an automatic sprinkler system to 
increase building heights shall not be permitted for the fol- 
lowing conditions: 

1 . Buildings, or portions of buildings, classified as a 
Group 1-2 occupancy of Type IIB, III, IV or V con- 
struction. 

2. Buildings, or portions of buildings, classified as a 
Group H-l, H-2, H-3 or H-5 occupancy. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



95 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



3. Buildings where an automatic sprinkler system is 
substituted for fire-resistance rated construction in 
accordance with Table 601, Note d. 

504.3 Roof structures. Towers, spires, steeples and other 
roof structures shall be constructed of materials consistent 
with the required type of construction of the building except 
where other construction is permitted by Section 1509.2.5. 



Such structures shall not be used for habitation or storage. 
The structures shall be unlimited in height if of noncombusti- 
ble materials and shall not extend more than 20 feet (6096 
mm) above the allowable building height if of combustible 
materials (see Chapter 15 for additional requirements). 



TABLE 503 

ALLOWABLE BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 3 -" 

Building height limitations shown in feet above grade plane. Story limitations shown as stories above grade plane. 

Building area limitations shown in square feet, as determined by the definition of "Area, building," per story 



GROUP 




TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 


TYPEI 


TYPE II 


TYPE III 


TYPE IV 


TYPEV 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


HT 


A 


B 


HEIGHT (feet) 


UL 


160 


65 


55 


65 


55 


65 


50 


40 


STORIES(S) 
AREA (A) 


A-l 


s 

A 


UL 
UL 


5 
UL 


3 
15,500 


2 
8,500 


3 
14,000 


2 
8,500 


3 
15,000 


2 
11,500 


1 
5,500 


A-2 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


3 
15,500 


2 
9,500 


3 
14,000 


2 
9,500 


3 
15,000 


2 
11,500 


1 
6,000 


A-3 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


3 
15,500 


2 
9,500 


3 
14,000 


2 
9,500 


3 
15,000 


2 
1 1,500 


1 
6,000 


A-4 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


3 
15,500 


2 
9,500 


3 
14,000 


2 
9,500 


3 
15,000 


2 
11,500 


1 
6,000 


A-5 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 

UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 
UL 


B 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


5 
37,500 


3 
23,000 


5 
28,500 


3 
19,000 


5 
36,000 


3 
18,000 


2 
9,000 


E 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


5 
UL 


3 
26,500 


2 
14,500 


3 
23,500 


2 
14,500 


3 
25,500 


1 
18,500 


1 
9,500 


F-l 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


4 
25,000 


2 
15,500 


3 
19,000 


2 
12,000 


4 
33,500 


2 
14,000 


1 
8,500 


F-2 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


5 
37,500 


3 
23,000 


4 

28,500 


3 
18,000 


5 
50,500 


3 
21,000 


2 
13,000 


HI 


S 

A 


1 
21,000 


1 
16,500 


1 
11,000 


1 
7,000 


1 

9,500 


1 
7,000 


1 
10,500 


1 
7,500 


NP 
NP 


H-2 


S 
A 


UL 
21 ,000 


3 
16,500 


2 
1 1,000 


1 
7,000 


2 
9,500 


1 
7,000 


2 
10,500 


1 
7,500 


1 
3,000 


H-3 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


6 
60,000 


4 
26,500 


2 
14,000 


4 
17,500 


2 
13,000 


4 
25,500 


2 
10,000 


1 
5,000 


H-4 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


7 
UL 


5 
37,500 


3 
17,500 


5 
28,500 


3 
17,500 


5 
36,000 


3 
18,000 


2 
6,500 


H-5 


S 

A 


4 
UL 


4 
UL 


3 
37,500 


3 
23,000 


3 
28,500 


3 
19,000 


3 
36,000 


3 
18,000 


2 
9,000 


1-1 


S 
A 


UL 

UL 


9 
55,000 


4 
19,000 


3 
10,000 


4 
16,500 


3 
10,000 


4 
18,000 


3 
10,500 


2 
4,500 


1-2 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


4 
UL 


2 
15,000 


1 
11,000 


1 
12,000 


NP 
NP 


1 
12,000 


1 
9,500 


NP 
NP 


1-3 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


4 
UL 


2 
15,000 


1 

10,000 


2 
10,500 


1 
7,500 


2 
12,000 


2 
7,500 


1 
5,000 


1-4 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


5 
60,500 


3 
26,500 


2 
13,000 


3 
23,500 


2 
13,000 


3 
25,500 


1 
18,500 


1 
9,000 



(continued) 



96 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



TABLE 503— continued 
ALLOWABLE BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS ab 



GROUP 




TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 


TYPEI 


TYPE II 


TYPE III 


TYPE IV 


TYPEV 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


HT 


A 


B 


HEIGHT (feet) 


UL 


160 


65 


55 


65 


55 


65 


50 


40 


STORIES(S) 
AREA (A) 


M 


s 

A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


4 
21,500 


2 
12,500 


4 
18,500 


2 
12,500 


4 
20,500 


3 
14,000 


1 

9,000 


R-l 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
20,500 


3 
12,000 


2 
7,000 


R-2 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
20,500 


3 
12,000 


2 
7,000 


R-3 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


4 
UL 


4 
UL 


4 

UL 


4 
UL 


4 
UL 


3 

UL 


3 
UL 


R-4 


S 

A 


UL 

UL 


11 
UL 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
20,500 


3 
12,000 


2 
7,000 


S-1 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


11 
48,000 


4 
26,000 


2 
17,500 


3 
26,000 


2 
17,500 


4 
25,500 


3 
14,000 


1 
9,000 


S-2 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


11 
79,000 


5 
39,000 


3 
26,000 


4 
39,000 


3 
26,000 


5 
38,500 


4 
21,000 


2 
13,500 


U 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


5 
35,500 


4 
19,000 


2 
8,500 


3 
14,000 


2 
8,500 


4 
18,000 


2 
9,000 


1 
5,500 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 ml 

A = building area per story, S = stories above grade plane, UL = Unlimited, NP = Not permitted. 

a. See the following sections for general exceptions to Table 503: 

1 . Section 504.2, Allowable building height and story increase due to automatic sprinkler system installation. 

2. Section 506.2, Allowable building area increase due to street frontage. 

3. Section 506.3, Allowable building area increase due to automatic sprinkler system installation. 

4. Section 507, Unlimited area buildings. 

b. See Chapter 4 for specific exceptions to the allowable height and areas in Chapter 5. 



SECTION 505 
MEZZANINES AND EQUIPMENT PLATFORMS 

505.1 General. Mezzanines shall comply with Section 505.2. 
Equipment platforms shall comply with Section 505.3. 

505.2 Mezzanines. A mezzanine or mezzanines in compli- 
ance with Section 505.2 shall be considered a portion of the 
story below. Such mezzanines shall not contribute to either 
the building area or number of stories as regulated by Section 
503.1. The area of the mezzanine shall be included in deter- 
mining the fire area. The clear height above and below the 
mezzanine floor construction shall be not less than 7 feet 
(2134 mm). 

505.2.1 Area limitation. The aggregate area of a mezza- 
nine or mezzanines within a room shall be not greater than 
one-third of the floor area of that room or space in which 
they are located. The enclosed portion of a room shall not 
be included in a determination of the floor area of the 
room in which the mezzanine is located. In determining 
the allowable mezzanine area, the area of the mezzanine 
shall not be included in the floor area of the room. 

Where a room contains both a mezzanine and an equip- 
ment platform, the aggregate area of the two raised floor 



levels shall be not greater than two-thirds of the floor area 
of that room or space in which they are located. 

Exceptions: 

1. The aggregate area of mezzanines in buildings 
and structures of Type I or II construction for 
special industrial occupancies in accordance with 
Section 503.1.1 shall be not greater than two- 
thirds of the floor area of the room. 

2. The aggregate area of mezzanines in buildings 
and structures of Type I or II construction shall 
be not greater than one-half of the floor area of 
the room in buildings and structures equipped 
throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and 
an approved emergency voice/alarm communica- 
tion system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2. 

505.2.2 Means of egress. The means of egress for mezza- 
nines shall comply with the applicable provisions of Chap- 
ter 10. 

505.2.3 Openness. A mezzanine shall be open and unob- 
structed to the room in which such mezzanine is located 



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GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



except for walls not more than 42 inches (1067 mm) in 
height, columns and posts. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Mezzanines or portions thereof are not required to 
be open to the room in which the mezzanines are 
located, provided that the occupant load of the 
aggregate area of the enclosed space is not 
greater than 10. 

2. A mezzanine having two or more means of egress 
is not required to be open to the room in which 
the mezzanine is located if at least one of the 
means of egress provides direct access to an exit 
from the mezzanine level. 

3 . Mezzanines or portions thereof are not required to 
be open to the room in which the mezzanines are 
located, provided that the aggregate floor area of 
the enclosed space is not greater than 10 percent 
of the mezzanine area. 

4. In industrial facilities, mezzanines used for con- 
trol equipment are permitted to be glazed on all 
sides. 

5. In occupancies other than Groups H and I, that 
are no more than two stories above grade plane 
and equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1, a mezzanine having two or more 
means of egress shall not be required to be open 
to the room in which the mezzanine is located. 

505.3 Equipment platforms. Equipment platforms in build- 
ings shall not be considered as a portion of the floor below. 
Such equipment platforms shall not contribute to either the 
building area or the number of stories as regulated by Section 
503.1. The area of the equipment platform shall not be 
included in determining the fire area in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903. Equipment platforms shall not be a part of any mez- 
zanine and such platforms and the walkways, stairs, 
alternating tread devices and ladders providing access to an 
equipment platform shall not serve as a part of the means of 
egress from the building. 

505.3.1 Area limitation. The aggregate area of all equip- 
ment platforms within a room shall be not greater than 
two-thirds of the area of the room in which they are 
located. Where an equipment platform is located in the 
same room as a mezzanine, the area of the mezzanine shall 
be determined by Section 505.2.1 and the combined aggre- 
gate area of the equipment platforms and mezzanines shall 
be not greater than two-thirds of the room in which they 
are located. 

505.3.2 Automatic sprinkler system. Where located in a 
building that is required to be protected by an automatic 
sprinkler system, equipment platforms shall be fully pro- 
tected by sprinklers above and below the platform, where 
required by the standards referenced in Section 903.3. 

505.3.3 Guards. Equipment platforms shall have guards 
where required by Section 1013.2. 



SECTION 506 
BUILDING AREA MODIFICATIONS 

506.1 General. The building areas limited by Table 503 shall 
be permitted to be increased due to frontage (I f ) and auto- 
matic sprinkler system protection (IJ in accordance with 
Equation 5-1: 

A a = {A t + [A, x I f ] + [A, x /J } (Equation 5-1) 

where: 

A a = Allowable building area per story (square feet). 

A, = Tabular building area per story in accordance with 
Table 503 (square feet). 

L = Area increase factor due to frontage as calculated in 
accordance with Section 506.2. 

I s = Area increase factor due to sprinkler protection as 
calculated in accordance with Section 506.3. 

506.2 Frontage increase. Every building shall adjoin or have 
access to a public way to receive a building area increase for 
frontage. Where a building has more than 25 percent of its 
perimeter on a public way or open space having a width of 
not less than 20 feet (6096 mm), the frontage increase shall be 
determined in accordance with Equation 5-2: 

(Equation 5-2) 



/, 



where: 



•0.25]W30 



h = 
F = 



Area increase due to frontage. 

Building perimeter that fronts on a public way or open 
space having 20 feet (6096 mm) open minimum width 
(feet). 

P = Perimeter of entire building (feet). 

W = Width of public way or open space (feet) in accordance 
with Section 506.2.1. 

506.2.1 Width limits. To apply this section the value of W 
shall be not less than 20 feet (6096 mm). Where the value 
of W varies along the perimeter of the building, the calcu- 
lation performed in accordance with Equation 5-2 shall be 
based on the weighted average calculated in accordance 
with Equation 5-3 for portions of the exterior perimeter 
walls where the value of W is greater than or equal to 20 
feet (6096 mm). Where the value of W is greater than 30 
feet (9144 mm), a value of 30 feet (9144 mm) shall be 
used in calculating the weighted average, regardless of the 
actual width of the open space. W shall be measured per- 
pendicular from the face of the building to the closest inte- 
rior lot line. Where the building fronts on a public way, the 
entire width of the public way shall be used. Where two or 
more buildings are on the same lot, W shall be measured 
from the exterior face of each building to the opposing 
exterior face of each adjacent building, as applicable. 

Weighted average W - (L, x w, + L 2 x w 2 + L 3 x w 3 . . .)/F. 

(Equation 5-3) 

where: 

L„ = Length of a portion of the exterior perimeter wall. 

w n = Width of open space associated with that portion of 
the exterior perimeter wall. 



98 



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GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



F - Building perimeter that fronts on a public way or 
open space having a width of 20 feet (6096 mm) or 
more. 

Exception: Where the building meets the requirements 
of Section 507, as applicable, except for compliance 
with the 60-foot (18 288 mm) public way or yard 
requirement, and the value of W is greater than 30 feet 
(9144 mm), the value of W divided by 30 shall be lim- 
ited to a maximum of 2. 
506.2.2 Open space limits. Such open space shall be 
either on the same lot or dedicated for public use and shall 
be accessed from a street or approved fire lane. 

506.3 Automatic sprinkler system increase. Where a build- 
ing is equipped throughout with an approved automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the 
building area limitation in Table 503 is permitted to be 
increased by an additional 200 percent (7 S = 2) for buildings 
with more than one story above grade plane and an additional 
300 percent (Z s = 3) for buildings with no more than one story 
above grade plane. These increases are permitted in addition 
to the height and story increases in accordance with Section 
504.2. 

Exception: The use of an automatic sprinkler system to 
increase the building area limitation shall not be permitted 
for the following conditions: 

1. Buildings classified as a Group H-l occupancy. 

2. Buildings, or portions of buildings, classified as 
either a Group H-2 or H-3 occupancy. For buildings 
containing such occupancies, the allowable area 
shall be determined in accordance with Section 
508.4.2, with the sprinkler system increase applica- 
ble only to the portions of the building not classified 
as Group H-2 or H-3. 

3. Buildings where an automatic sprinkler system is 
substituted for fire-resistance rated construction in 
accordance with Table 601, Note d. 

506.4 Single occupancy buildings with more than one 
story. The total allowable building area of a single occu- 
pancy building with more than one story above grade plane 
shall be determined in accordance with this section. The 
actual aggregate building area at all stories in the building 
shall not exceed the total allowable building area. 

Exception: A single basement need not be included in the 
total allowable building area, provided such basement 
does not exceed the area permitted for a building with no 
more than one story above grade plane. 

506.4.1 Area determination. The total allowable building 
area of a single occupancy building with more than one 
story above grade plane shall be determined by multiply- 
ing the allowable building area per story (A a ), as deter- 
mined in Section 506.1, by the number of stories above 
grade plane as listed below: 

1. For buildings with two stories above grade plane, 
multiply by 2; 

2. For buildings with three or more stories above grade 
plane, multiply by 3; and 



3. No story shall exceed the allowable building area 
per story (A u ), as determined in Section 506.1, for 
the occupancies on that story. 

Exceptions: 

1. Unlimited area buildings in accordance with Sec- 
tion 507. 

2. The maximum area of a building equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.2 shall be deter- 
mined by multiplying the allowable area per story 
(AJ, as determined in Section 506.1, by the num- 
ber of stories above grade plane. 

506.5 Mixed occupancy area determination. The total 
allowable building area for buildings containing mixed occu- 
pancies shall be determined in accordance with the applicable 
provisions of this section. A single basement need not be 
included in the total allowable building area, provided such 
basement does not exceed the area permitted for a building 
with no more than one story above grade plane. 

506.5.1 No more than one story above grade plane. For 
buildings with no more than one story above grade plane 
and containing mixed occupancies, the total building area 
shall be determined in accordance with the applicable pro- 
visions of Section 508.1. 

506.5.2 More than one story above grade plane. For 
buildings with more than one story above grade plane and 
containing mixed occupancies, each story shall individu- 
ally comply with the applicable requirements of Section 
508.1. For buildings with more than three stories above 
grade plane, the total building area shall be such that the 
aggregate sum of the ratios of the actual area of each story 
divided by the allowable area of such stories based on the 
applicable provisions of Section 508.1 shall not exceed 3. 



SECTION 507 
UNLIMITED AREA BUILDINGS 

507.1 General. The area of buildings of the occupancies and 
configurations specified in Sections 507.1 through 507.12 
shall not be limited. 

Exception: Other occupancies shall be permitted in 
unlimited area buildings in accordance with the provisions 
of Section 508.2. 

Where Sections 507.2 through 507.12 require buildings to 
be surrounded and adjoined by public ways and yards, those 
open spaces shall be determined as follows: 

1. Yards shall be measured from the building perimeter in 
all directions to the closest interior lot lines or to the 
exterior face of an opposing building located on the 
same lot, as applicable. 

2 Where the building fronts on a public way, the entire 
width of the public way shall be used. 

507.2 Nonsprinklered, one story. The area of a Group F-2 
or S-2 building no more than one story in height shall not be 
limited where the building is surrounded and adjoined by 



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public ways or yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in 
width. 

507.3 Sprinklered, one story. The area of a Group B, F, M 
or S building no more than one story above grade plane of 
any construction type, or the area of a Group A-4 building no 
more than one story above grade plane of other than Type V 
construction, shall not be limited where the building is pro- 
vided with an automatic sprinkler system throughout in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and is surrounded and 
adjoined by public ways or yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 
mm) in width. 

Exceptions: 

1. Buildings and structures of Types I and II construc- 
tion for rack storage facilities that do not have 
access by the public shall not be limited in height, 
provided that such buildings conform to the require- 
ments of Sections 507.3 and 903.3.1.1 and Chapter 
32 of the International Fire Code. 

2. The automatic sprinkler system shall not be required 
in areas occupied for indoor participant sports, such 
as tennis, skating, swimming and equestrian activi- 
ties in occupancies in Group A-4, provided that: 

2.1. Exit doors directly to the outside are pro- 
vided for occupants of the participant sports 
areas; and 

2.2. The building is equipped with a fire alarm 
system with manual fire alarm boxes 
installed in accordance with Section 907. 

507.3.1 Mixed occupancy buildings with Groups A-l 
and A-2. Group A- 1 and A-2 occupancies of other than 
Type V construction shall be permitted within mixed 
occupancy buildings of unlimited area complying with 
Section 507.3, provided: 

1. Group A-l and A-2 occupancies are separated from 
other occupancies as required for separated occu- 
pancies in Section 508.4.4 with no reduction 
allowed in the fire-resistance rating of the separa- 
tion based upon the installation of an automatic 
sprinkler system; 

2. Each area of the portions of the building used for 
Group A-l or A-2 occupancies shall not exceed the 
maximum allowable area permitted for such occu- 
pancies in Section 503.1; and 

3. Exit doors from Group A-l and A-2 occupancies 
shall discharge directly to the exterior of the build- 
ing. 

507.4 Two story. The area of a Group B, F, M or S building 
no more than two stories above grade plane shall not be lim- 
ited where the building is equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 
and is surrounded and adjoined by public ways or yards not 
less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width. 

507.5 Reduced open space. The public ways or yards of 60 
feet (18 288 mm) in width required in Sections 507.2, 507.3, 
507.4, 507.6 and 507.1 1 shall be permitted to be reduced to 



not less than 40 feet (12 192 mm) in width provided all of the 
following requirements are met: 

1. The reduced width shall not be allowed for more than 
75 percent of the perimeter of the building. 

2. The exterior walls facing the reduced width shall have 
& fire-resistance rating of not less than 3 hours. 

3. Openings in the exterior walls facing the reduced width 
shall have opening protectives with a fire protection 
rating of not less than 3 hours. 

507.6 Group A-3 buildings of Type II construction. The 
area of a Group A-3 building no more than one story above 
grade plane, used as & place of religious worship, community 
hall, dance hall, exhibition hall, gymnasium, lecture hall, 
indoor swimming pool or tennis court of Type II construction, 
shall not be limited provided all of the following criteria are 
met: 

1 . The building shall not have a stage other than a plat- 
form. 

2. The building shall be equipped throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

3. The building shall be surrounded and adjoined by public 
ways or yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in 
width. 

507.7 Group A-3 buildings of Types III and IV construc- 
tion. The area of a Group A-3 building of Type III or IV con- 
struction, with no more than one story above grade plane, 
and used as a place of religious worship, community hall, 
dance hall, exhibition hall, gymnasium, lecture hall, indoor 
swimming pool or tennis court, shall not be limited provided 
all of the following criteria are met: 

1 . The building shall not have a stage other than a plat- 
form. 

2. The building shall be equipped throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

3. The assembly floor shall be located at or within 21 
inches (533 mm) of street or grade level and all exits 
are provided with ramps complying with Section 
1010.1 to the street or grade level. 

4. The building shall be surrounded and adjoined by pub- 
lic ways or yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in 
width. 

507.8 Group H occupancies. Group H-2, H-3 and H-4 occu- 
pancies shall be permitted in unlimited area buildings con- 
taining Group F and S occupancies in accordance with 
Sections 507.3 and 507.4 and the provisions of Sections 
507.8.1 through 507.8.4. 

507.8.1 Allowable area. The aggregate floor area of 
Group H occupancies located in an unlimited area building 
shall not exceed 10 percent of the area of the building nor 
the area limitations for the Group H occupancies as speci- 
fied in Table 503 as modified by Section 506.2 based upon 
the perimeter of each Group H floor area that fronts on a 
public way or open space. 



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507.8.1.1 Located within the building. The aggregate 
floor area of Group H occupancies not located at the 
perimeter of the building shall not exceed 25 percent of 
the area limitations for the Group H occupancies as 
specified in Table 503. 

507.8.1.1.1 Liquid use, dispensing and mixing 
rooms. Liquid use, dispensing and mixing rooms 
having a floor area of not more than 500 square feet 
(46.5 m 2 ) need not be located on the outer perimeter 
of the building where they are in accordance with 
the International Fire Code and NFPA 30. 

507.8.1.1.2 Liquid storage rooms. Liquid storage 
rooms having a floor area of not more than 1,000 
square feet (93 m 2 ) need not be located on the outer 
perimeter where they are in accordance with the 
International Fire Code and NFPA 30. 

507.8.1.1.3 Spray paint booths. Spray paint booths 
that comply with the International Fire Code need 
not be located on the outer perimeter. 

507.8.2 Located on building perimeter. Except as pro- 
vided for in Section 507.8.1.1, Group H occupancies shall 
be located on the perimeter of the building. In Group H-2 
and H-3 occupancies, not less than 25 percent of the 
perimeter of such occupancies shall be an exterior wall. 

507.8.3 Occupancy separations. Group H occupancies 
shall be separated from the remainder of the unlimited area 
building and from each other in accordance with Table 
508.4. 

507.8.4 Height limitations. For two-story unlimited area 
buildings, Group H occupancies shall not be located more 
than one story above grade plane unless permitted based 
on the allowable height in stories and feet as set forth in 
Table 503 for the type of construction of the unlimited 
area building. 

507.9 Aircraft paint hangar. The area of a Group H-2 air- 
craft paint hangar no more than one story above grade plane 
shall not be limited where such aircraft paint hangar complies 
with the provisions of Section 412.6 and is surrounded and 
adjoined by public ways or yards not less in width than one 
and one-half times the building height. 

507.10 Group E buildings. The area of a Group E building 
no more than one story above grade plane, of Type II, IIIA or 
IV construction, shall not be limited provided all of the fol- 
lowing criteria are met: 

1. Each classroom shall have not less than two means of 
egress, with one of the means of egress being a direct 
exit to the outside of the building complying with Sec- 
tion 1020. 

2. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3. 1.1. 

3. The building is surrounded and adjoined by public 
ways or yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in 
width. 



507.11 Motion picture theaters. In buildings of Type II con- 
struction, the area of a motion picture theater located on the 
first story above grade plane shall not be limited provided the 
building is provided with an automatic sprinkler system 
throughout in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and is sur- 
rounded and adjoined by public ways or yards not less than 
60 feet ( 1 8 288 mm) in width. 

507.12 Covered and open mall buildings and anchor 
buildings. The area of covered and open mall buildings and 
anchor buildings not exceeding three stories in height that 
comply with Section 402 shall not be limited. 



SECTION 508 
MIXED USE AND OCCUPANCY 

508.1 General. Each portion of a building shall be individu- 
ally classified in accordance with Section 302.1. Where a 
building contains more than one occupancy group, the build- 
ing or portion thereof shall comply with the applicable provi- 
sions of Section 508.2, 508.3 or 508.4, or a combination of 
these sections. 

Exceptions: 

1. Occupancies separated in accordance with Section 
510. 

2. Where required by Table 415.5.2, areas of Group H- 
1, H-2 and H-3 occupancies shall be located in a 
detached building or structure. 

3. Uses within live/work units, complying with Section 
419, are not considered separate occupancies. 

508.2 Accessory occupancies. Accessory occupancies are 
those occupancies that are ancillary to the main occupancy of 
the building or portion thereof. Accessory occupancies shall 
comply with the provisions of Sections 508.2.1 through 
508.2.4. 

508.2.1 Area limitations. Aggregate accessory occupan- 
cies shall not occupy more than 10 percent of the building 
area of the story in which they are located and shall not 
exceed the tabular values in Table 503, without building 
area increases in accordance with Section 506 for such 
accessory occupancies. 

508.2.2 Occupancy classification. Accessory occupan- 
cies shall be individually classified in accordance with 
Section 302.1 . The requirements of this code shall apply to 
each portion of the building based on the occupancy clas- 
sification of that space. 

508.2.3 Allowable building area and height. The allow- 
able building area and height of the building shall be 
based on the allowable building area and height for the 
main occupancy in accordance with Section 503.1. The 
height of each accessory occupancy shall not exceed the 
tabular values in Table 503, without increases in accor- 
dance with Section 504 for such accessory occupancies. 
The building area of the accessory occupancies shall be in 
accordance with Section 508.2.1. 



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* 



508.2.4 Separation of occupancies. No separation is 
required between accessory occupancies and the main 
occupancy. 

Exceptions: 

1. Group H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5 occupancies shall 
be separated from all other occupancies in accor- 
dance with Section 508.4. 

2. Group 1-1, R-l, R-2 and R-3 dwelling units and 
sleeping units shall be separated from other 
dwelling or sleeping units and from accessory 
occupancies contiguous to them in accordance 
with the requirements of Section 420. 

508.3 Nonseparated occupancies. Buildings or portions of 
buildings that comply with the provisions of this section shall 
be considered as nonseparated occupancies. 

508.3.1 Occupancy Classification. Nonseparated occu- 
pancies shall be individually classified in accordance with 
Section 302.1. The requirements of this code shall apply 
to each portion of the building based on the occupancy 
classification of that space. In addition, the most restric- 
tive provisions of Chapter 9 which apply to the nonsepa- 
rated occupancies shall apply to the total nonseparated 
occupancy area. Where nonseparated occupancies occur 
in a high-rise building, the most restrictive requirements 
of Section 403 which apply to the nonseparated occupan- 
cies shall apply throughout the high-rise building. 

508.3.2 Allowable building area and height. The allow- 
able building area and height of the building or portion 
thereof shall be based on the most restrictive allowances 
for the occupancy groups under consideration for the type 
of construction of the building in accordance with Section 
503.1. 

508.3.3 Separation. No separation is required between 
nonseparated occupancies. 

Exceptions: 

1. Group H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5 occupancies shall 
be separated from all other occupancies in accor- 
dance with Section 508.4. 

2. Group 1-1, R-l, R-2 and R-3 dwelling units and 
sleeping units shall be separated from other 
dwelling or sleeping units and from other occu- 
pancies contiguous to them in accordance with 
the requirements of Section 420. 

508.4 Separated occupancies. Buildings or portions of 
buildings that comply with the provisions of this section shall 
be considered as separated occupancies. 

508.4.1 Occupancy classification. Separated occupancies 
shall be individually classified in accordance with Section 
302.1. Each separated space shall comply with this code 
based on the occupancy classification of that portion of the 
building. 

508.4.2 Allowable building area. In each story, the build- 
ing area shall be such that the sum of the ratios of the 
actual building area of each separated occupancy divided 
by the allowable building area of each separated occu- 
pancy shall not exceed 1 . 



508.4.3 Allowable height. Each separated occupancy 
shall comply with the building height limitations based on 
the type of construction of the building in accordance with 
Section 503.1. 

Exception: Special provisions permitted by Section 
510 shall permit occupancies at building heights other 
than provided in Section 503.1. 

508.4.4 Separation. Individual occupancies shall be sepa- 
rated from adjacent occupancies in accordance with Table 
508.4. 

508.4.4.1 Construction. Required separations shall be 
fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 
707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance 
with Section 71 1, or both, so as to completely separate 
adjacent occupancies. 



SECTION 509 
INCIDENTAL USES 

509.1 General Incidental uses located within single occu- 
pancy or mixed occupancy buildings shall comply with the 
provisions of this section. Incidental uses are ancillary func- 
tions associated with a given occupancy that generally pose a 
greater level of risk to that occupancy and are limited to those 
uses listed in Table 509. 

Exception: Incidental uses within and serving a dwelling 
unit are not required to comply with this section. 

509.2 Occupancy classification. Incidental uses shall not be 
individually classified in accordance with Section 302.1. 
Incidental uses shall be included in the building occupancies 
within which they are located. 

509.3 Area limitations. Incidental uses shall not occupy 
more than 10 percent of the building area of the story in 
which they are located. 

509.4 Separation and protection. The incidental uses listed 
in Table 509 shall be separated from the remainder of the 
building or equipped with an automatic sprinkler system, or 
both, in accordance with the provisions of that table. 

509.4.1 Separation. Where Table 509 specifies a fire- 
resistance-rated separation, the incidental uses shall be 
separated from the remainder of the building by afire bar- 
rier constructed in accordance with Section 707 or a hori- 
zontal assembly constructed in accordance with Section 
711, or both. Construction supporting l-hour/;>e barriers 
or horizontal assemblies used for incidental use separa- 
tions in buildings of Type IIB, IIIB and VB construction is 
not required to be fire-resistance rated unless required by 
other sections of this code. 

509.4.2 Protection. Where Table 509 permits an auto- 
matic sprinkler system without a fire barrier, the inciden- 
tal uses shall be separated from the remainder of the 
building by construction capable of resisting the passage 
of smoke. The walls shall extend from the top of the foun- 
dation or floor assembly below to the underside of the 
ceiling that is a component of a fire-resistance-rated floor 
assembly or roof assembly above or to the underside of the 
floor or roof sheathing, deck or slab above. Doors shall be 



** 



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TABLE 508.4 
REQUIRED SEPARATION OF OCCUPANCIES (HOURS) 
















OCCUPANCY 


A 
S 


,E 
NS 


1-1,1 
S 


-3, 1-4 
NS 


1-2 

S NS 


R a 
S 1 NS 


F-2, S-2", U 
S NS 


[ B, F-1 , M, 
S-1 

S MS 


H-1 


H-2 


H-3 


,H-4 


H-5 


A,E 


N 


N 


1 


2 


2 


NP 


1 


2 


N 


1 


1 


2 


NP 


NP 


3 


4 


2 


NS 

3 


S 

2 


NS 

NP 


1-1,1-3,1-4 





— 


N 


N 


2 


NP 


1 


NP 


1 


2 


1 


2 


NP 


NP 


3 


NP 


2 


NP 


2 


NP 


1-2 





— 


— 


— 


N 


N 


2 


NP 


2 


NP 


2 


NP 


NP 


NP 


3 


NP 


2 


NP 


2 


NP 


R d 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


N 


N 


V 


2 C 


1 


2 


NP 


NP 


3 


NP 


2 


NP 


2 


NP 


F-2, S-2 b , U 


■ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


N 


N 


1 


2 


NP 


NP 


3 


4 


2 


3 


2 


NP 


B, F-1, M, S-1 





— 


















N 


N 


NP 


NP 


2 


3 


1 


2 


1 


NP 


H-l 


























N 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


H-2 






























N 


NP 


1 


NP 


1 


NP 


H-3, H-4 





— 






























l d 


NP 


1 


NP 


H-5 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




















— 


— 


— 


N 


NP 



S - Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3. 1 1 

NS = Buildings not equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903 3 1 1 

N = No separation requirement. 

NP = Not permitted. 

a See Section 420. 

b. The required separation from areas used only for private or pleasure vehicles shall be reduced by 1 hour but to not less than 1 hour 

c. See Section 406.3.4. 

d. Separation is not required between occupancies of the same classification. 



self- or automatic-closing upon detection of smoke in 
accordance with Section 716.5.9.3. Doors shall not have 
air transfer openings and shall not be undercut in excess of 
the clearance permitted in accordance with NFPA 80. 
Walls surrounding the incidental use shall not have air 
transfer openings unless provided with smoke dampers in 
accordance with Section 710.7. 

509.4.2.1 Protection limitation. Except as specified in 
Table 509 for certain incidental uses, where an auto- 
matic sprinkler system is provided in accordance with 
Table 509, only the space occupied by the incidental 
use need be equipped with such a system. 

SECTiON 510 
SPECIAL PROVISIONS 

510.1 General. The provisions in Sections 510.2 through 
510.9 shall permit the use of special conditions that are 
exempt from, or modify, the specific requirements of this 
chapter regarding the allowable building heights and areas of 
buildings based on the occupancy classification and type of 
construction, provided the special condition complies with 
the provisions specified in this section for such condition and 
other applicable requirements of this code. The provisions of 
Sections 510.2 through 510.8 are to be considered indepen- 
dent and separate from each other. 

510.2 Horizontal building separation allowance. A build- 
ing shall be considered as separate and distinct buildings for 
the purpose of determining area limitations, continuity of fire 



walls, limitation of number of stories and type of construction 
where all of the following conditions are met: 

1 . The buildings are separated with a horizontal assembly 
having afire-resistance rating of not less than 3 hours. 

2. The building below the horizontal assembly is not 
greater than one story above grade plane. 

3. The building below the horizontal assembly is of Type 
IA construction. 

4. Shaft, stairway, ramp and escalator enclosures through 
the horizontal assembly shall have not less than a 2- 
hour fire-resistance rating with opening protectives in 
accordance with Section 716.5. 

Exception: Where the enclosure walls below the 
horizontal assembly have not less than a 3-hour fire- 
resistance rating with opening protectives in accor- 
dance with Section 716.5, the enclosure walls 
extending above the horizontal assembly shall be 
permitted to have a 1-hour fire-resistance rating, 
provided: 

1. The building above the horizontal assembly is 
not required to be of Type I construction; 

2. The enclosure connects fewer than four sto- 
ries; and 

3. The enclosure opening protectives above the 
horizontal assembly have afire protection rat- 
ing of not less than 1 hour. 

5. The building or buildings above the horizontal assem- 
bly shall be permitted to have multiple Group A occu- 



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TABLE 509 
INCIDENTAL USES 



ROOM OR AREA 



Furnace room where any piece of equipment is over 400,000 Btu per 
hour input 



Rooms with boilers where the largest piece of equipment is over 15 
psi and 10 horsepower 



Refriger ant machinery room 

Hydrogen cutoff rooms, not classified as Group H 



SEPARATION AND/OR PROTECTION 



1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system 



1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system 



1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system 



hour in Group B, F, M, S and U occupancies; 2 hours in Group A, E, 
I and R occupancies. 



Incinerator rooms 



Paint shops, not classified as Group H, located in occupancies other 
than Group F 



Laboratories and vocational shops, not classified as Group H, located 
in a Group E or 1-2 occupancy 



Laundry rooms over 100 square feet 



Group 1-3 cells equipped with padded surfaces 



Waste and linen collection rooms located in either Group L2 
occupancies or ambulatory care facilities 



Waste and linen collection rooms over 100 square feet 



Stationary storage battery systems having a liquid electrolyte capacity 
of more than 50 gallons for flooded lead-acid, nickel cadmium or 
VRLA, or more than 1 ,000 pounds for lithium-ion and lithium metal 
polymer used for facility standby power, emergency power or 
uninterruptable power supplies 



2 hours and automatic sprinkler system 



2 hours; or 1 hour and provide automatic sprinkler system 



1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system 



1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system 



1 hour 



1 hour 



1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system 



1 hour in Group B, F, M, S and U occupancies; 2 hours in Group A, E, 
I and R occupancies. 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m\ 1 pound per square inch (psi) = 6.9 kPa, 1 British thermal unit (Btu) per hour = 0.293 watts, 1 horsepower = 746 watts, 1 
gallon = 3.785 L. 



pancy uses, each with an occupant load of less 300, or 
Group B, M, R or S occupancies. 
6. The building below the horizontal assembly shall be 
protected throughout by an approved automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, and 
shall be permitted to be any of the following occupan- 
cies: 

6.1. Group S-2 parking garage used for the parking 
and storage of private motor vehicles; 

6.2. Multiple Group A, each with an occupant load 
of less than 300; 

6.3. Group B; 

6.4. Group M; 

6.5. Group R; and 

6.6. Uses incidental to the operation of the building 
(including entry lobbies, mechanical rooms, 
storage areas and similar uses). 

7. The maximum building height in feet (mm) shall not 
exceed the limits set forth in Section 503 for the build- 
ing having the smaller allowable height as measured 
from the grade plane. 
510.3 Group S-2 enclosed parking garage with Group S-2 
open parking garage above. A Group S-2 enclosed parking 
garage with not more than one story above grade plane and 
located below a Group S-2 open parking garage shall be clas- 
sified as a separate and distinct building for the purpose of 



determining the type of construction where all of the follow- 
ing conditions are met: 

1 . The allowable area of the building shall be such that the 
sum of the ratios of the actual area divided by the 
allowable area for each separate occupancy shall not 
exceed 1. 

2. The Group S-2 enclosed parking garage is of Type I or 
II construction and is at least equal to the fire-resis- 
tance requirements of the Group S-2 open parking 
garage. 

3. The height and the number of tiers of the Group S-2 
open parking garage shall be limited as specified in 
Table 406.5.4. 

4. The floor assembly separating the Group S-2 enclosed 
parking garage and Group S-2 open parking garage 
shall be protected as required for the floor assembly of 
the Group S-2 enclosed parking garage. Openings 
between the Group S-2 enclosed parking garage and 
Group S-2 open parking garage, except exit openings, 
shall not be required to be protected. 

5. The Group S-2 enclosed parking garage is used exclu- 
sively for the parking or storage of private motor vehi- 
cles, but shall be permitted to contain an office, waiting 
room and toilet room having a total area of not more 
than 1,000 square feet (93 m 2 ), and mechanical equip- 
ment rooms incidental to the operation of the building. 



104 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



510.4 Parking beneath Group R. Where a maximum one 
story above grade plane Group S-2 parking garage, enclosed 
or open, or combination thereof, of Type I construction or 
open of Type IV construction, with grade entrance, is pro- 
vided under a building of Group R, the number of stories to 
be used in determining the minimum type of construction 
shall be measured from the floor above such a parking area. 
The floor assembly between the parking garage and the 
Group R above shall comply with the type of construction 
required for the parking garage and shall also provide a. fire- 
resistance rating not less than the mixed occupancy separa- 
tion required in Section 508.4. 

510.5 Group R-l and R-2 buildings of Type MA con- 
struction. The height limitation for buildings of Type IDA 
construction in Groups R-l and R-2 shall be increased to six 
stories and 75 feet (22 860 mm) where the first floor assem- 
bly above the basement has afire-resistance rating of not less 
than 3 hours and the floor area is subdivided by 2-hour fire- 
resistance-rated fire walls into areas of not more than 3,000 
square feet (279 m 2 ). 

510.6 Group R-l and R-2 buildings of Type IIA construc- 
tion. The height limitation for buildings of Type IIA con- 
struction in Groups R-l and R-2 shall be increased to nine 
stories and 100 feet (30 480 mm) where the building is sepa- 
rated by not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from any other 
building on the lot and from lot lines, the exits are segregated 
in an area enclosed by a 2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire wall 
and the first floor assembly has afire-resistance rating of not 
less than 1 7 2 hours. 

510.7 Open parking garage beneath Groups A, I, B, M 
and R. Open parking garages constructed under Groups A, I, 
B, M and R shall not exceed the height and area limitations 
permitted under Section 406.5. The height and area of the 
portion of the building above the open parking garage shall 
not exceed the limitations in Section 503 for the upper occu- 
pancy. The height, in both feet and stories, of the portion of 
the building above the open parking garage shall be mea- 
sured from grade plane and shall include both the open park- 
ing garage and the portion of the building above the parking 
garage. 

510.7.1 Fire separation. Fire barriers constructed in 
accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies con- 
structed in accordance with Section 711 between the park- 
ing occupancy and the upper occupancy shall correspond 
to the required fire-resistance rating prescribed in Table 
508.4 for the uses involved. The type of construction shall 
apply to each occupancy individually, except that struc- 
tural members, including main bracing within the open 
parking structure, which is necessary to support the upper 
occupancy, shall be protected with the more restrictive 
fire-resistance-rated assemblies of the groups involved as 
shown in Table 601. Means of egress for the upper occu- 
pancy shall conform to Chapter 10 and shall be separated 
from the parking occupancy by fire barriers having not 
less than a 2-hour fire-resistance rating as required by 
Section 706 with self-closing doors complying with Sec- 
tion 716 or horizontal assemblies having not less than a 2- 
hour fire-resistance rating as required by Section 711, 
with self-closing doors complying with Section 716. 



Means of egress from the open parking garage shall com- 
ply with Section 406.5. 

510.8 Group B or M with Group S-2 open parking garage. 
Group B or M occupancies located not higher than the first 
story above grade plane shall be considered as a separate and 
distinct building for the purpose of determining the type of 
construction where all of the following conditions are met: 

1 . The buildings are separated with a horizontal assembly 
having afire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours. 

2. The occupancies in the building below the horizontal 
assembly are limited to Groups B and M. 

3. The occupancy above the horizontal assembly is lim- 
ited to a Group S-2 open parking garage. 

4. The building below the horizontal assembly is of Type 
I or II construction but not less than the type of con- 
struction required for the Group S-2 open parking 
garage above. 

5. The height and area of the building below the horizon- 
tal assembly does not exceed the limits set forth in Sec- 
tion 503. 

6. The height and area of the Group S-2 open parking 
garage does not exceed the limits set forth in Section 
405.5. The height, in both feet and stories, of the Group 
S-2 open parking garage shall be measured from grade 
plane and shall include the building below the horizon- 
tal assembly. 

1 . Exits serving the Group S-2 open parking garage dis- 
charge directly to a street or public way and are sepa- 
rated from the building below the horizontal assembly 
by 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with 
Section 707 or 2-hour horizontal assemblies con- 
structed in accordance with Section 71 1, or both. 

510.9 Multiple buildings above a horizontal assembly. 

Where two or more buildings are provided above the horizon- 
tal assembly separating a Group S-2 parking garage or build- 
ing below from the buildings above in accordance with the 
special provisions in Sections 510.2, 510.3 or 510.8, the 
buildings above the horizontal assembly shall be regarded as 
separate and distinct buildings from each other and shall 
comply with all other provisions of this code as applicable to 
each separate and distinct building. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



105 



10S 2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 6 

TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 



SECTION 601 
GENERAL 

601.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall control the 
classification of buildings as to type of construction. 



SECTION 602 
CONSTRUCTION CLASSIFICATION 

602.1 General. Buildings and structures erected or to be 
erected, altered or extended in height or area shall be classi- 
fied in one of the five construction types defined in Sections 

602.2 through 602.5. The building elements shall have afire- 
resistance rating not less than that specified in Table 601 and 
exterior walls shall have afire-resistance rating not less than 
that specified in Table 602. Where required to have a fire- 
resistance rating by Table 601, building elements shall com- 
ply with the applicable provisions of Section 703.2. The pro- 
tection of openings, ducts and air transfer openings in 
building elements shall not be required unless required by 
other provisions of this code. 

602.1.1 Minimum requirements. A building or portion 
thereof shall not be required to conform to the details of a 
type of construction higher than that type which meets the 
minimum requirements based on occupancy even though 



certain features of such a building actually conform to a 
higher type of construction. 

602.2 Types I and II. Types I and II construction are those 
types of construction in which the building elements listed in 
Table 601 are of noncombustible materials, except as permit- 
ted in Section 603 and elsewhere in this code. 

602.3 Type 111. Type III construction is that type of construc- 
tion in which the exterior walls are of noncombustible materi- 
als and the interior building elements are of any material 
permitted by this code. Fire-retardant-treated wood framing 
complying with Section 2303.2 shall be permitted within 
exterior wall assemblies of a 2-hour rating or less. 

602.4 Type IV. Type IV construction (Heavy Timber, HT) is 
that type of construction in which the exterior walls are of 
noncombustible materials and the interior building elements 
are of solid or laminated wood without concealed spaces. The 
details of Type IV construction shall comply with the provi- 
sions of this section. Fire-retardant-treated wood framing 
complying with Section 2303.2 shall be permitted within 
exterior wall assemblies with a 2-hour rating or less. Mini- 
mum solid sawn nominal dimensions are required for struc- 
tures built using Type IV construction (HT). For glued- 
laminated members the equivalent net finished width and 
depths corresponding to the minimum nominal width and 



TABLE 601 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING REQUIREMENTS FOR BUILDING ELEMENTS (HOURS) 



BUILDING ELEMENT 


TYPE I 


TYPE II 


TYPE III 


TYPE IV 


TYPEV 


A 


B 


A" 


B 


A" 


B 


HT 


A d 


B 


Primary structural frame 8 (see Section 202) 


3 a 


2" 


1 





1 





HT 


1 





Bearing walls 
Exterior'' s 
Interior 


3 

3 a 


2 
2 a 


1 
1 






2 
1 


2 



2 
1/HT 


1 
1 






Nonbearing walls and partitions 
Exterior 


See Table 602 


Nonbearing walls and partitions 
Interior 




















See 
Section 
602.4.6 








Floor construction and associated secondary members 
(see Section 202) 


2 


2 


1 





1 





HT 


1 





Roof construction and associated secondary members 
(see Section 202) 


lV 2 b 


i b,c 


Jb.0 


o c 


]lw 





HT 


,b,c 






For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Roof supports: Fire-resistance ratings of primary structural frame and bearing walls are permitted to be reduced by 1 hour where supporting a roof only. 

b. Except in Group F-l , H, M and S-l occupancies, fire protection of structural members shall not be required, including protection of roof framing and decking 
where every part of the roof construction is 20 feet or more above any floor immediately below. Fire-retardant-treated wood members shall be allowed to be 
used for such unprotected members. 

c. In all occupancies, heavy timber shall be allowed where a I -hour or less fire-resistance rating is required. 

d. An approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1. 1 shall be allowed to be substituted for 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction, 
provided such system is not otherwise required by other provisions of the code or used for an allowable area increase in accordance with Section 506.3 or an 
allowable height increase in accordance with Section 504.2. The 1 -hour substitution for the fire resistance of exterior walls shall not be permitted. 

e. Not less than the fire-resistance rating required by other sections of this code. 
Not less than the fire-resistance rating based on fire separation distance (see Table 602). 
Not less than the fire-resistance rating as referenced in Section 704.10 



r. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



107 



TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 



depths of solid sawn lumber are required as specified in Table 
602.4. 

TABLE 602.4 
WOOD MEMBER SIZE EQUIVALENCIES 



MINIMUM NOMINAL SOLID 
SAWN SIZE 


MINIMUM GLUED-LAMINATED 
NET SIZE 


Width, inch 


Depth, inch 


Width, inch 


Depth, inch 


8 


8 


6\ 


8V 4 


6 


10 


5 


10V 2 


6 


8 


5 


8'/ 4 


6 


6 


5 


6 


4 


6 


3 


67 s 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

602.4.1 Columns. Wood columns shall be sawn or glued 
laminated and shall be not less than 8 inches (203 mm), 
nominal, in any dimension where supporting floor loads 
and not less than 6 inches (152 mm) nominal in width and 
not less than 8 inches (203 mm) nominal in depth where 
supporting roof and ceiling loads only. Columns shall be 
continuous or superimposed and connected in an approved 
manner. 

602.4.2 Floor framing. Wood beams and girders shall be 
of sawn or glued-laminated timber and shall be not less 
than 6 inches (152 mm) nominal in width and not less than 
10 inches (254 mm) nominal in depth. Framed sawn or 
glued-laminated timber arches, which spring from the 
floor line and support floor loads, shall be not less than 8 
inches (203 mm) nominal in any dimension. Framed tim- 
ber trusses supporting floor loads shall have members of 
not less than 8 inches (203 mm) nominal in any dimen- 
sion. 

602.4.3 Roof framing. Wood-frame or glued-laminated 
arches for roof construction, which spring from the floor 
line or from grade and do not support floor loads, shall 
have members not less than 6 inches (152 mm) nominal in 



width and have not less than 8 inches (203 mm) nominal 
in depth for the lower half of the height and not less than 6 
inches (152 mm) nominal in depth for the upper half. 
Framed or glued-laminated arches for roof construction- 
that spring from the top of walls or wall abutments, framed 
timber trusses and other roof framing, which do not sup- 
port floor loads, shall have members not less than 4 inches 
(102 mm) nominal in width and not less than 6 inches (152 
mm) nominal in depth. Spaced members shall be permit- 
ted to be composed of two or more pieces not less than 3 
inches (76 mm) nominal in thickness where blocked sol- 
idly throughout their intervening spaces or where spaces 
are tightly closed by a continuous wood cover plate of not 
less than 2 inches (5 1 mm) nominal in thickness secured to 
the underside of the members. Splice plates shall be not 
less than 3 inches (76 mm) nominal in thickness. Where 
protected by approved automatic sprinklers under the roof 
deck, framing members shall be not less than 3 inches (76 
mm) nominal in width. 

602.4.4 Floors. Floors shall be without concealed spaces. 
Wood floors shall be of sawn or glued-laminated planks, 
splined or tongue-and-groove, of not less than 3 inches (76 
mm) nominal in thickness covered with 1-inch (25 mm) 
nominal dimension tongue-and-groove flooring, laid 
crosswise or diagonally, or 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) particle- 
board or planks not less than 4 inches (102 mm) nominal 
in width set on edge close together and well spiked and 
covered with 1-inch (25 mm) nominal dimension flooring 
or l5 / 32 -inch (12 mm) wood structural panel or 0.5-inch 
(12.7 mm) particleboard. The lumber shall be laid so that 
no continuous line of joints will occur except at points of 
support. Floors shall not extend closer than 0.5 inch (12.7 
mm) to walls. Such 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) space shall be cov- 
ered by a molding fastened to the wall and so arranged that 
it will not obstruct the swelling or shrinkage movements 
of the floor. Corbeling of masonry walls under the floor 
shall be permitted to be used in place of molding. 



TABLE 602 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING REQUIREMENTS FOR EXTERIOR WALLS BASED ON FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE 3 ' eh 



FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE = 
X (feet) 


TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 


OCCUPANCY GROUP H' 


OCCUPANCY 
GROUP F-1.M, S-1 9 


OCCUPANCY 
GROUP A, B, E, F-2, 1, R, S-2 9 , U b 


X<5 C 


All 


3 


2 


1 


5<X<10 


IA 

Others 


3 
2 


2 
1 


1 
1 


10<X<30 


IA,IB 
IIB, VB 

Others 


2 
1 
1 


1 


1 


l d 



l d 


X>30 


All 












For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Load-bearing exterior walls shall also comply with the fire-resistance rating requirements of Table 601. 

b. For special requirements for Group U occupancies, see Section 406.3. 

c. See Section 706.1.1 for party walls. 

d. Open parking garages complying with Section 406 shall not be required to have a fire-resistance raring. 

e. The fire-resistance rating of an exterior wall is determined based upon the fire separation distance of the exterior wall and the story in which the wall is 
located. 

f. For special requirements for Group H occupancies, see Section 415.5. 

g. For special requirements for Group S aircraft hangars, see Section 412.4.1. 

h. Where Table 705.8 permits nonbearing exterior walls with unlimited area of unprotected openings, the required fire-resistance rating for the exterior walls is 
hours. 



108 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 



602.4.5 Roofs. Roofs shall be without concealed spaces 
and wood roof decks shall be sawn or glued laminated, 
splined or tongue-and-groove plank, not less than 2 inches 
(51 mm) nominal in thickness, 1 7 8 -inch-thick (32 mm) 
wood structural panel (exterior glue), or of planks not less 
than 3 inches (76 mm) nominal in width, set on edge close 
together and laid as required for floors. Other types of 
decking shall be permitted to be used if providing equiva- 
lent fire resistance and structural properties. 

6(12.4.6 Partitions. Partitions shall be of solid wood con- 
struction formed by not less than two layers of 1-inch (25 
mm) matched boards or laminated construction 4 inches 
(102 mm) thick, or of 1-hour fire-resistance-rated con- 
struction. 

602.4.7 Exterior structural members. Where a horizon- 
tal separation of 20 feet (6096 mm) or more is provided, 
wood columns and arches conforming to heavy timber 
sizes shall be permitted to be used externally. 

602.5 Type V. Type V construction is that type of construc- 
tion in which the structural elements, exterior walls and inte- 
rior walls are of any materials permitted by this code. 

SECTION 603 

COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL IN TYPE I AND II 

CONSTRUCTION 

603.1 Allowable materials. Combustible materials shall be 
permitted in buildings of Type I or II construction in the fol- 
lowing applications and in accordance with Sections 603 1 1 
through 603.1.3: 

1. Fire-retardant-treated wood shall be permitted in: 

1.1. Nonbearing partitions where the required fire- 
resistance rating is 2 hours or less. 

1.2. Nonbearing exterior walls where fire-resistance 
rated construction is not required. 

1.3. Roof construction, including girders, trusses, 
framing and decking. 

Exception: In buildings of Type IA construction 
exceeding two stories above grade plane, fire-retar- 
dant-treated wood is not permitted in roof construction 
where the vertical distance from the upper floor to the 
roof is less than 20 feet (6096 mm). 

2. Thermal and acoustical insulation, other than foam 
plastics, having aflame spread index of not more than 

25. 

Exceptions: 

1. Insulation placed between two layers of non- 
combustible materials without an intervening 
airspace shall be allowed to have a flame 
spread index of not more than 1 00. 

2. Insulation installed between a finished floor 
and solid decking without intervening airspace 
shall be allowed to have a flame spread index 
of not more than 200. 

3. Foam plastics in accordance with Chapter 26. 



4. Roof coverings that have an A, B or C classifi- 
cation. 

5. Interior floor finish and floor covering materi- 
als installed in accordance with Section 804. 

6. Millwork such as doors, door frames, window 
sashes and frames. 

7. Interior wall and ceiling finishes installed in 
accordance with Sections 801 and 803. 

8. Trim installed in accordance with Section 806. 

9. Where not installed greater than 15 feet (4572 
mm) above grade, show windows, nailing or 
furring strips and wooden bulkheads below 
show windows, including their frames, aprons 
and show cases. 

10. Finish flooring installed in accordance with 
Section 805. 

11. Partitions dividing portions of stores, offices or 
similar places occupied by one tenant only and 
that do not establish a corridor serving an occu- 
pant load of 30 or more shall be permitted to be 
constructed of fire-retardant-treated wood, 1- 
hour fire-resistance-rated construction or of 
wood panels or similar light construction up to 
6 feet (1 829 mm) in height. 

12. Stages and platforms constructed in accordance 
with Sections 410.3 and 410.4, respectively. 

13. Combustible exterior wall coverings, balconies 
and similar projections and bay or oriel win- 
dows in accordance with Chapter 14. 

14. Blocking such as for handrails, millwork, cabi- 
nets and window and door frames. 

15. Light-transmitting plastics as permitted by 
Chapter 26. 

16. Mastics and caulking materials applied to pro- 
vide flexible seals between components of exte- 
rior wall construction. 

17. Exterior plastic veneer installed in accordance 
with Section 2605.2. 

18. Nailing or furring strips as permitted by Section 
803.4. 

19. Heavy timber as permitted by Note c to Table 
601 and Sections 602.4.7 and 1406.3. 

20. Aggregates, component materials and admix- 
tures as permitted by Section 703.2.2. 

21. Sprayed fire-resistant materials and intumes- 
cent and mastic fire-resistant coatings, deter- 
mined on the basis of fire-resistance tests in 
accordance with Section 703.2 and installed in 
accordance with Sections 1705.13 and 1705.14, 
respectively. 

22. Materials used to protect penetrations in fire- 
resistance-rated assemblies in accordance with 
Section 714. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



109 



TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 



23. Materials used to protect joints in fire-resis- 
tance-rated assemblies in accordance with Sec- 
tion 715. 

24. Materials allowed in the concealed spaces of 
buildings of Types I and II construction in 
accordance with Section 718.5. 

25. Materials exposed within plenums complying 
with Section 602 of the International Mechani- 
cal Code. 

603.1.1 Ducts. The use of nonmetallic ducts shall be per- 
mitted where installed in accordance with the limitations 
of the International Mechanical Code. 

603.1.2 Piping. The use of combustible piping materials 
shall be permitted where installed in accordance with the 
limitations of the International Mechanical Code and the 
International Plumbing Code. 

603.1.3 Electrical. The use of electrical wiring methods 
with combustible insulation, tubing, raceways and related 
components shall be permitted where installed in accor- 
dance with the limitations of this code. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 

111) 



CHAPTER 7 

FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



SECTION 701 
GENERAL 

701.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
materials, systems and assemblies used for structural fire 
resistance and fire-resistance-rated construction separation of 
adjacent spaces to safeguard against the spread of fire and 
smoke within a building and the spread of fire to or from 
buildings. 

701.2 Multiple use fire assemblies. Fire assemblies that 
serve multiple purposes in a building shall comply with all of 
the requirements that are applicable for each of the individual 
fire assemblies. 



SECTION 702 
DEFINITIONS 

702.1 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chap- 
ter 2: 

ANNULAR SPACE. 

BUILDING ELEMENT. 

CEILING RADIATION DAMPER. 

COMBINATION FIRE/SMOKE DAMPER. 

DAMPER. 

DRAFTSTOP 

F RATING, 

FIRE BARRIER. 

FIRE DAMPER. 

FIRE DOOR. 

FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. 

FIRE PARTITION. 

FIRE PROTECTION RATING. 
| FIRE-RATED GLAZING. 

FIRE RESISTANCE. 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING. 

FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEM. 

FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE. 

FIRE WALL. 

FIRE WINDOW ASSEMBLY. 

FIREBLOCKING. 

FLOOR FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. 

HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLY. 

JOINT. 
| L RATING. 

MEMBRANE PENETRATION. 



MEMBRANE-PENETRATION FIRESTOP. 

MEMBRANE-PENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEM. 

MINERAL FIBER. 

MINERAL WOOL. 

PENETRATION FIRESTOP. 

SELF-CLOSING. 

SHAFT. 

SHAFT ENCLOSURE. 

SMOKE BARRIER. 

SMOKE COMPARTMENT. 

SMOKE DAMPER. 

SPLICE. 

T RATING. 

THROUGH PENETRATION. 

THROUGH-PENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEM. 



SECTION 703 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS AND FIRE TESTS 

703.1 Scope. Materials prescribed herein for fire resistance 
shall conform to the requirements of this chapter. 

703.2 Fire-resistance ratings. The fire-resistance rating of 
building elements, components or assemblies shall be deter- 
mined in accordance with the test procedures set forth in 
ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263 or in accordance with Section 703.3. 
Where materials, systems or devices that have not been tested 
as part of a fire-resistance-rated assembly are incorporated 
into the building element, component or assembly, sufficient 
data shall be made available to the building official to show 
that the required fire-resistance rating is not reduced. Materi- 
als and methods of construction used to protect joints and 
penetrations in fire-resistance-rated building elements, com- 
ponents or assemblies shall not reduce the required fire-resis- 
tance rating. 

Exception: In determining the fire-resistance rating of 
exterior bearing walls, compliance with the ASTM E 1 19 
or UL 263 criteria for unexposed surface temperature rise 
and ignition of cotton waste due to passage of flame or 
gases is required only for a period of time corresponding 
to the required fire-resistance rating of an exterior non- 
bearing wall with the same fire separation distance, and in 
a building of the same group. When the fire-resistance rat- 
ing determined in accordance with this exception exceeds 
the fire-resistance rating determined in accordance with 
ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263, the fire exposure time period, 
water pressure and application duration criteria for the 
hose stream test of ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263 shall be based 
upon the fire-resistance rating determined in accordance 
with this exception. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 9 



111 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



703.2.1 Nonsymmetrical wall construction. Interior 
walls and partitions of nonsymmetrical construction shall 
be tested with both faces exposed to the furnace, and the 
assigned fire-resistance rating shall be the shortest dura- 
tion obtained from the two tests conducted in compliance 
with ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263. When evidence is furnished 
to show that the wall was tested with the least fire-resistant 
side exposed to the furnace, subject to acceptance of the 
building official, the wall need not be subjected to tests 
from the opposite side (see Section 705.5 for exterior 
walls). 

703.2.2 Combustible components. Combustible aggre- 
gates are permitted in gypsum and Portland cement con- 
crete mixtures for fire-resistance-rated construction. Any 
component material or admixture is permitted in assem- 
blies if the resulting tested assembly meets the fire-resis- 
tance test requirements of this code. 

703.2.3 Restrained classification. Fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies tested under ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263 shall not 
be considered to be restrained unless evidence satisfactory 
to the building official is furnished by the registered 
design professional showing that the construction qualifies 
for a restrained classification in accordance with ASTM E 
1 19 or UL 263. Restrained construction shall be identified 
on the plans. 

703.3 Alternative methods for determining fire resistance. 
The application of any of the alternative methods listed in this 
section shall be based on the fire exposure and acceptance 
criteria specified in ASTM E 119 or UL 263. The required 
fire resistance of a building element, component or assembly 
shall be permitted to be established by any of the following 
methods or procedures: 

1. Fire-resistance designs documented in sources. 

2. Prescriptive designs of fire-resistance-rated building 
elements, components or assemblies as prescribed in 

Section 721. 

3. Calculations in accordance with Section 722. 

4. Engineering analysis based on a comparison of build- 
ing element, component or assemblies designs having 
fire-resistance ratings as determined by the test proce- 
dures set forth in ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263. 

5. Alternative protection methods as allowed by Section 
104.11. 

703.4 Automatic sprinklers. Under the prescriptive fire- 
resistance requirements of the International Building Code, 
the fire-resistance rating of a building element, component or 
assembly shall be established without the use of automatic 
sprinklers or any other fire suppression system being incor- 
porated as part of the assembly tested in accordance with the 
fire exposure, procedures, and acceptance criteria specified in 
ASTM E 119 or UL 263. However, this section shall not pro- 
hibit or limit the duties and powers of the building official 
allowed by Sections 104.10 and 104.1 1. 

703.5 Noncombustibility tests. The tests indicated in Sec- 
tions 703.5.1 and 703.5.2 shall serve as criteria for accep- 
tance of building materials as set forth in Sections 602.2, 



602.3 and 602.4 in Type I, II, III and IV construction. The 
term "noncombustible" does not apply to the flame spread 
characteristics of interior finish or trim materials. A material 
shall not be classified as a noncombustible building construc- 
tion material if it is subject to an increase in combustibility or 
flame spread beyond the limitations herein established 
through the effects of age, moisture or other atmospheric con- 
ditions. 

703.5.1 Elementary materials. Materials required to be 
noncombustible shall be tested in accordance with ASTM 
E136. 

703.5.2 Composite materials. Materials having a struc- 
tural base of noncombustible material as determined in 
accordance with Section 703.5.1 with a surfacing not more 
than 0.125 inch (3.18 mm) thick that has aflame spread 
index not greater than 50 when tested in accordance with 
ASTM E 84 or UL 723 shall be acceptable as noncombus- 
tible materials. 

703.6 Fire-resistance-rated glazing. Fire-resistance-rated 
glazing, when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1 19 or UL 
263 and complying with the requirements of Section 707, 
shall be permitted. Fire-resistance-rated glazing shall bear a 
label marked in accordance with Table 716.3 issued by an 
agency and shall be permanently identified on the glazing. 

703.7 Marking and identification. Fire walls, fire barriers, 
fire partitions, smoke barriers and smoke partitions or any 
other wall required to have protected openings or penetra- 
tions shall be effectively and permanently identified with 
signs or stenciling. Such identification shall: 

1. Be located in accessible concealed floor, floor-ceiling 
or attic spaces; 

2. Be located within 15 feet (4572 mm ) of the end of each 
wall and at intervals not exceeding 30 feet (9144 mm) 
measured horizontally along the wall or partition; and 

3. Include lettering not less than 3 inches (76 mm ) in 
height with a minimum 3 / g inch (9.5 mm) stroke in a 
contrasting color incorporating the suggested wording. 
"FIRE AND/OR SMOKE BARRIER— PROTECT 
ALL OPENINGS" or other wording. 

Exception: Walls in Group R-2 occupancies that do 
not have a removable decorative ceiling allowing 
access to the concealed space. 



SECTION 704 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING OF 

STRUCTURAL MEMBERS 

704.1 Requirements. The fire-resistance ratings of struc- 
tural members and assemblies shall comply with this section 
and the requirements for the type of construction as specified 
in Table 601. The. fire-resistance ratings shall not be less than 
the ratings required for the fire-resistance-rated assemblies 
supported by the structural members. 

Exception: Fire barriers, fire partitions, smoke barriers 
and horizontal assemblies as provided in Sections 707.5, 
708.4, 709.4 and 71 1.4, respectively. 



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704.2 Column protection. Where columns are required to 
have protection to be fire-resistance rated, the entire column 
shall be provided individual encasement protection by pro- 
tecting it on all sides for the full column length, including 
connections to other structural members, with materials hav- 
ing the required fire-resistance rating. Where the column 
extends through a ceiling, the encasement protection shall be 
continuous from the top of the foundation or floor/ceiling 
assembly below through the ceiling space to the top of the 
column. 

704.3 Protection of the primary structural frame other 
than columns. Members of the primary structural frame 
other than columns that are required to have protection to 
achieve a fire-resistance rating and support more than two 
floors or one floor and roof, or support a load-bearing wall or 
a nonload-bearing wall more than two stories high, shall be 
provided individual encasement protection by protecting 
them on all sides for the full length, including connections to 
other structural members, with materials having the required 
fire-resistance rating. 

Exception: Individual encasement protection on all sides 
shall be permitted on all exposed sides provided the extent 
of protection is in accordance with the required fire-resis- 
tance rating, as determined in Section 703. 

704.4 Protection of secondary members. Secondary mem- 
bers that are required to have a. fire-resistance rating shall be 
protected by individual encasement protection, by the mem- 
brane or ceiling of a horizontal assembly in accordance with 
Section 71 1, or by a combination of both. 

704.4.1 Light-frame construction. King studs and 
boundary elements that are integral elements in load-bear- 
ing walls of light-frame construction shall be permitted to 
have required fire-resistance ratings provided by the 
membrane protection provided for the load-bearing wall. 

704.5 Truss protection. The required thickness and con- 
struction of fire-resistance-rated assemblies enclosing trusses 
shall be based on the results of full-scale tests or combina- 
tions of tests on truss components or on approved calcula- 
tions based on such tests that satisfactorily demonstrate that 
the assembly has the required fire resistance. 

704.6 Attachments to structural members. The edges of 
lugs, brackets, rivets and bolt heads attached to structural 
members shall be permitted to extend to within 1 inch (25 
mm) of the surface of the fire protection. 

704.7 Reinforcing. Thickness of protection for concrete or 
masonry reinforcement shall be measured to the outside of 
the reinforcement except that stirrups and spiral reinforce- 
ment ties are permitted to project not more than 0.5-inch 
(12.7 mm) into the protection. 

704.8 Embedments and enclosures. Pipes, wires, conduits, 
ducts or other service facilities shall not be embedded in the 
required fire protective covering of a structural member that 
is required to be individually encased. 

704.9 Impact protection. Where the fire protective covering 
of a structural member is subject to impact damage from 
moving vehicles, the handling of merchandise or other activ- 
ity, the fire protective covering shall be protected by corner 



guards or by a substantial jacket of metal or other noncom- 
bustible material to a height adequate to provide full protec- 
tion, but not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the finished 
floor. 

Exception: Corner protection is not required on concrete 
columns in open or enclosed parking garages. 

704.10 Exterior structural members. Load-bearing struc- 
tural members located within the exterior walls or on the out- 
side of a building or structure shall be provided with the 
highest fire-resistance rating as determined in accordance 
with the following: 

1. As required by Table 601 for the type of building ele- 
ment based on the type of construction of the building; 

2. As required by Table 601 for exterior bearing walls 
based on the type of construction; and 

3. As required by Table 602 for exterior walls based on 
the fire separation distance. 

704.11 Bottom flange protection. Fire protection is not 
required at the bottom flange of lintels, shelf angles and 
plates, spanning not more than 6 feet 4 inches (1931 mm) j 
whether part of the primary structural frame or not, and from 
the bottom flange of lintels, shelf angles and plates not part of 
the structural frame, regardless of span. 

704.12 Seismic isolation systems. Fire-resistance ratings for 
the isolation system shall meet the fire-resistance rating 
required for the columns, walls or other structural elements in 
which the isolation system is installed in accordance with 
Table 601. Isolation systems required to have afire-resis- 
tance rating shall be protected with approved materials or 
construction assemblies designed to provide the same degree 
of fire resistance as the structural element in which it is 
installed when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1 19 or UL 
263 (see Section 703.2). 

Such isolation system protection applied to isolator units 
shall be capable of retarding the transfer of heat to the isolator 
unit in such a manner that the required gravity load-carrying 
capacity of the isolator unit will not be impaired after expo- 
sure to the standard time-temperature curve fire test pre- 
scribed in ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263 for a duration not less than 
that required for the fire-resistance rating of the structure ele- 
ment in which it is installed. 

Such isolation system protection applied to isolator units 
shall be suitably designed and securely installed so as not to 
dislodge, loosen, sustain damage or otherwise impair its abil- 
ity to accommodate the seismic movements for which the iso- 
lator unit is designed and to maintain its integrity for the 
purpose of providing the required fire-resistance protection. 

704.13 Sprayed fire-resistant materials (SFRM). Sprayed 
fire-resistant materials (SFRM) shall comply with Sections 
704.13.1 through 704.13.5. 

704.13.1 Fire- resistance rating. The application of 
SFRM shall be consistent with the fire-resistance rating 
and the listing, including, but not limited to, minimum 
thickness and dry density of the applied SFRM, method of 
application, substrate surface conditions and the use of 



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FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



bonding adhesives, sealants, reinforcing or other materi- 
als. 

704.13.2 Manufacturer's installation instructions. The 
application of SFRM shall be in accordance with the man- 
ufacturer's installation instructions. The instructions shall 
include, but are not limited to, substrate temperatures and 
surface conditions and SFRM handling, storage, mixing, 
conveyance, method of application, curing and ventilation. 

704.13.3 Substrate condition. The SFRM shall be 
applied to a substrate in compliance with Sections 
704.13.3.1 through 704.13.3.2. 

704.13.3.1 Surface conditions. Substrates to receive 
SFRM shall be free of dirt, oil, grease, release agents, 
loose scale and any other condition that prevents adhe- 
sion. The substrates shall also be free of primers, paints 
and encapsulants other than those fire tested and listed 
by a nationally recognized testing agency. Primed, 
painted or encapsulated steel shall be allowed, provided 
that testing has demonstrated that required adhesion is 
maintained. 

704.13.3.2 Primers, paints and encapsulants. Where 
the SFRM is to be applied over primers, paints or 
encapsulants other than those specified in the listing, 
the material shall be field tested in accordance with 
ASTM E 736. Where testing of the SFRM with prim- 
ers, paints or encapsulants demonstrates that required 
adhesion is maintained, SFRM shall be permitted to be 
applied to primed, painted or encapsulated wide flange 
steel shapes in accordance with the following condi- 
tions: 

1. The beam flange width does not exceed 12 inches 
(305 mm); or 

2. The column flange width does not exceed 16 
inches (400 mm); or 

3. The beam or column web depth does not exceed 
16 inches (400 mm). 

4. The average and minimum bond strength values 
shall be determined based on a minimum of five 
bond tests conducted in accordance with ASTM 
E 736. Bond tests conducted in accordance with 
ASTM E 736 shall indicate a minimum average 
bond strength of 80 percent and a minimum indi- 
vidual bond strength of 50 percent, when com- 
pared to the bond strength of the SFRM as 
applied to clean uncoated V 8 -inch thick (3 mm) 
steel plate. 

704.13.4 Temperature. A minimum ambient and sub- 
strate temperature of 40°F (4.44°C) shall be maintained 
during and for a minimum of 24 hours after the application 
of the SFRM, unless the manufacturer's installation 
instructions allow otherwise. 

704.13.5 Finished condition. The finished condition of 
SFRM applied to structural members or assemblies shall 
not, upon complete drying or curing, exhibit cracks, voids, 
spalls, delamination or any exposure of the substrate. Sur- 
face irregularities of SFRM shall be deemed acceptable. 



SECTION 705 
EXTERIOR WALLS 

705.1 General. Exterior walls shall comply with this section. 

705.2 Projections. Cornices, eave overhangs, exterior balco- 
nies and similar projections extending beyond the exterior 
wall shall conform to the requirements of this section and 
Section 1406. Exterior egress balconies and exterior exit 
stairways and ramps shall also comply with Sections 1019 
and 1026, respectively. Projections shall not extend any 
closer to the line used to determine the fire separation dis- 
tance than shown in Table 705.2. 

TABLE 705.2 
MINIMUM DISTANCE OF PROJECTION 



FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE 
(FSD) 


MINIMUM DISTANCE FROM LINE 
USED TO DETERMINE FSD 


feet to less than 2 feet 


Projections not permitted 


2 feet to less than 5 feet 


24 inches 


5 feet or greater 


40 inches 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

Exception: Buildings on the same lot and considered as 
portions of one building in accordance with Section 705.3 
are not required to comply with this section. 

705.2.1 Type I and II construction. Projections from 
walls of Type I or II construction shall be of noncombusti- 
ble materials or combustible materials as allowed by Sec- 
tions 1406.3 and 1406.4. 

705.2.2 Type III, IV or V construction. Projections from 
walls of Type III, IV or V construction shall be of any 
approved material. 

705.2.3 Combustible projections. Combustible projec- 
tions extending to within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the line used 
to determine the fire separation distance, or located where 
openings are not permitted, or where protection of some 
openings is required shall be of at least 1-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction, Type IV construction, fire-retar- 
dant-treated wood or as required by Section 1406.3. 

Exception: Type VB construction shall be allowed for 
combustible projections in Group R-3 and U occupan- 
cies with a fire separation distance greater than or equal 
to 5 feet (1524 mm). 

705.3 Buildings on the same lot. For the purposes of deter- 
mining the required wall and opening protection, projections | 
and roof-covering requirements, buildings on the same lot 
shall be assumed to have an imaginary line between them. 

Where a new building is to be erected on the same lot as 
an existing building, the location of the assumed imaginary 
line with relation to the existing building shall be such that 
the exterior wall and opening protection of the existing build- 
ing meet the criteria as set forth in Sections 705.5 and 705.8. 

Exception: Two or more buildings on the same lot shall 
either be regulated as separate buildings or shall be consid- 
ered as portions of one building if the aggregate area of 
such buildings is within the limits specified in Chapter 5 
for a single building. Where the buildings contain different 
occupancy groups or are of different types of construction, 



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the area shall be that allowed for the most restrictive occu- 
pancy or construction. 

705.4 Materials. Exterior walls shall be of materials permit- 
ted by the building type of construction. 

705.5 Fire-resistance ratings. Exterior walls shall be fire- 
resistance rated in accordance with Tables 601 and 602 and 
this section. The required fire-resistance rating of exterior 
walls with a fire separation distance of greater than 10 feet 
(3048 mm) shall be rated for exposure to fire from the inside. 
The required fire- resistance rating of exterior walls with a 
fire separation distance of less than or equal to 10 feet (3048 
mm) shall be rated for exposure to fire from both sides. 

705.6 Structural stability. The wall shall extend to the 
height required by Section 705.11 and shall have sufficient 
structural stability such that it will remain in place for the 
duration of time indicated by the required fire-resistance rat- 
ing. Where exterior walls have a minimum fire separation 
distance of not less than 30 feet (91 44 mm), interior structural 
elements which brace the exterior wall but which are not 
located within the plane of the exterior wall shall have the 
minimum fire-resistance rating required in Table 601 for that 
structural element. Structural elements which brace the exte- 
rior wall but are located outside of the exterior wall or within 
the plane of the exterior wall shall have the minimum fire- 



resistance rating required in Tables 601 and 602 for the exte- 
rior wall. 

705.7 Unexposed surface temperature. Where protected 
openings are not limited by Section 705.8, the limitation on 
the rise of temperature on the unexposed surface of exterior 
walls as required by ASTM E 119 or UL 263 shall not apply. 
Where protected openings are limited by Section 705.8, the 
limitation on the rise of temperature on the unexposed surface 
of exterior walls as required by ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263 shall 
not apply provided that a correction is made for radiation 
from the unexposed exterior wall surface in accordance with 
the following formula: 

(Equation 7-1) 



where: 



K = 

A = 
A r = 



F,= 



Equivalent area of protected openings. 

Actual area of protected openings. 

Area of exterior wall surface in the story under 
consideration exclusive of openings, on which the 
temperature limitations of ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263 for 
walls are exceeded. 

An "equivalent opening factor" derived from Figure 
705.7 based on the average temperature of the 
unexposed wall surface and the fire-resistance rating 
of the wall. 




200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 
Average temperature of unexposed surface (°F) 



For SI: °C = [(°F) - 32] / 1.8. 



FIGURE 705.7 
EQUIVALENT OPENING FACTOR 



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705.8 Openings. Openings in exterior walls shall comply 
with Sections 705.8.1 through 705.8.6. 

705.8.1 Allowable area of openings. The maximum area 
of unprotected and protected openings permitted in an 
exterior wall in any story of a building shall not exceed the 
percentages specified in Table 705.8. 

Exceptions: 

I. In other than Group H occupancies, unlimited 
unprotected openings are permitted in the first 
story above grade plane either: 

1.1. Where the wall faces a street and has a 
fire separation distance of more than 15 
feet (4572 mm); or 



1.2. Where the wall faces an unoccupied 
space. The unoccupied space shall be on 
the same lot or dedicated for public use, 
shall not be less than 30 feet (9144 mm) 
in width and shall have access from a 
street by a posted fire lane in accordance 
with the International Fire Code. 

2. Buildings whose exterior bearing walls, exterior 
nonbearing walls and exterior primary structural 
frame are not required to be fire-resistance rated 
shall be permitted to have unlimited unprotected 
openings. 
705.8.2 Protected openings. Where openings are required 
to be protected, fire doors and fire shutters shall comply 



TABLE 705.8 

MAXIMUM AREA OF EXTERIOR WALL OPENINGS BASED ON 

FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE AND DEGREE OF OPENING PROTECTION 



FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE (feet) 



DEGREE OF OPENING PROTECTION 



Unprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS) 



to less than 3 b 



3 to less than 5 d 



5tolessthanl0 M ' j 



10 to less than 15 e 



15 to less than 20 f ' 



20tolessthan25 f ' e 



Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S) 1 



Protected (P) 



Unprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS) 



Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)' 



Protected (P) 



Unprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS) 



Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)' 



Protected (P) 



Unprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS) 



Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)' 



Protected (P) 



Unprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS) 



ALLOWABLE AREA" 



Not Permitted 



Not Permitted 



Not Permitted 



Not Permitted 



15% 



1.1% 



10%" 



25% 



25% 



15% h 



45 % 



45% 



Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)' 



Protected (P) 



Unprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS) 



Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)' 



Protected (P) 



25tolessthan30 f ' g 



30 or greater 



Unprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS) 



Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S) 1 



Protected (P) 



Unprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS) 



Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)' 



Protected (P) 



25% 



75% 



75% 



45'; 



No Limit 



No Limit 



70% 



No Limit 



No Limit 



No Limit 



Not Required 



Not Required 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

UP, NS = Unprotected openings in buildings not equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 
UP, S = Unprotected openings in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 
P = Openings protected with an opening protective assembly in accordance with Section 705.8.2. 

a. Values indicated are the percentage of the area of the exterior wall, per story. 

b. For the requirements for fire walls of buildings with differing heights, see Section 706.6.1. 

c. For openings in a fire wall for buildings on the same lot, see Section 706.8. 

d. The maximum percentage of unprotected and protected openings shall be 25 percent for Group R-3 occupancies. 

e. Unprotected openings shall not be permitted for openings with a fire separation distance of less than 15 feet for Group H-2 and H-3 occupancies. 

f. The area of unprotected and protected openings shall not be limited for Group R-3 occupancies, with a fire separation distance of 5 feet or greater. 

g. The area of openings in an open parking structure with a fire separation distance of 10 feet or greater shall not be limited. 
h. Includes buildings accessory to Group R-3. 

i. Not applicable to Group H-l, H-2 and H-3 occupancies. 

j. For special requirements for Group U occupancies, see Section 406.3.2. 



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with Section 716.5 and fire window assemblies shall com- 
ply with Section 716.6. 

Exception: Opening protectives are not required where 
the building is equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 
and the exterior openings are protected by a water cur- 
tain using automatic sprinklers approved for that use. 

705.8.3 Unprotected openings. Where unprotected open- 
ings are permitted, windows and doors shall be con- 
structed of any approved materials. Glazing shall conform 
to the requirements of Chapters 24 and 26. 

705.8.4 Mixed openings. Where both unprotected and 
protected openings are located in the exterior wall in any 
story of a building, the total area of openings shall be 
determined in accordance with the following: 

(AJa p ) + (AJa u ) < 1 (Equation 7-2) 

where: 

A p = Actual area of protected openings, or the equivalent 
area of protected openings, A e (see Section 705.7). 

a = Allowable area of protected openings. 

A u = Actual area of unprotected openings. 

a u = Allowable area of unprotected openings. 

705.8.5 Vertical separation of openings. Openings in 
exterior walls in adjacent stories shall be separated verti- 
cally to protect against fire spread on the exterior of the 
buildings where the openings are within 5 feet (1524 mm) 
of each other horizontally and the opening in the lower 
stoty is not a protected opening with afire protection rat- 
ing of not less than 3 / 4 hour. Such openings shall be sepa- 
rated vertically at least 3 feet (914 mm) by spandrel 
girders, exterior walls or other similar assemblies that 
have afire-resistance rating of at least 1 hour or by flame 
barriers that extend horizontally at least 30 inches (762 
mm) beyond the exterior wall. Flame barriers shall also 
have a. fire-resistance rating of at least 1 hour. The unex- 
posed surface temperature limitations specified in ASTM 
E 119 or UL 263 shall not apply to the flame barriers or 
vertical separation unless otherwise required by the provi- 
sions of this code. 

Exceptions: 

1. This section shall not apply to buildings that are 
three stories or less above grade plane. 

2. This section shall not apply to buildings equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

3. Open parking garages. 

705.8.6 Vertical exposure. For buildings on the same lot, 
opening protectives having a fire protection rating of not 
less than 3 / 4 hour shall be provided in every opening that is 
less than 15 feet (4572 mm) vertically above the roof of an 
adjacent building or structure based on assuming an imag- 
inary line between them. The opening protectives are 
required where the fire separation distance between the 



imaginary line and the adjacent building or structure is less 
than 15 feet (4572 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1. Opening protectives are not required where the 
roof assembly of the adjacent building or struc- 
ture has afire-resistance rating of not less than 1 
hour for a minimum distance of 10 feet (3048 
mm) from the exterior wall facing the imaginary 
line and the entire length and span of the support- 
ing elements for the fire-resistance-rated roof 
assembly has a fire-resistance rating of not less 
than 1 hour. 

2. Buildings on the same lot and considered as por- 
tions of one building in accordance with Section 
705.3 are not required to comply with Section 
705.8.6. 

705.9 Joints. Joints made in or between exterior walls 
required by this section to have afire-resistance rating shall 
comply with Section 715. 

Exception: Joints in exterior walls that are permitted to 
have unprotected openings. 

705.9.1 Voids. The void created at the intersection of a 
floor/ceiling assembly and an exterior curtain wall assem- 
bly shall be protected in accordance with Section 715.4. 

705.10 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations by air 
ducts and air transfer openings in fire-resistance-rated exte- 
rior walls required to have protected openings shall comply 
with Section 717. 

Exception: Foundation vents installed in accordance with 
this code are permitted. 

705.11 Parapets. Parapets shall be provided on exterior 
walls of buildings. 

Exceptions: A parapet need not be provided on an exte- 
rior wall where any of the following conditions exist: 

1. The wall is not required to be fire-resistance rated in 
accordance with Table 602 because of fire separa- 
tion distance. 

2. The building has an area of not more than 1,000 
square feet (93 m 2 ) on any floor. 

3. Walls that terminate at roofs of not less than 2-hour 
fire-resistance-rated construction or where the roof, 
including the deck or slab and supporting construc- 
tion, is constructed entirely of noncombustible mate- 
rials. 

4. One-hour fire-resistance-rated exterior walls that 
terminate at the underside of the roof sheathing, 
deck or slab, provided: 

4.1. Where the roof/ceiling framing elements are 
parallel to the walls, such framing and ele- 
ments supporting such framing shall not be 
of less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated con- 
struction for a width of 4 feet (1220 mm) for 
Groups R and U and 10 feet (3048 mm) for 



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FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



other occupancies, measured from the inte- 
rior side of the wall. 

4.2. Where roof/ceiling framing elements are not 
parallel to the wall, the entire span of such 
framing and elements supporting such fram- 
ing shall not be of less than 1 -hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction. 

4.3. Openings in the roof shall not be located 
within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the 1-hour fire- 
resistance-rated exterior wall for Groups R 
and U and 10 feet (3048 mm) for other occu- 
pancies, measured from the interior side of 
the wall. 

4.4. The entire building shall be provided with 
not less than a Class B roof covering. 

5. In Groups R-2 and R-3 where the entire building is 
provided with a Class C roof covering, the exterior 
wall shall be permitted to terminate at the underside 
of the roof sheathing or deck in Type III, IV and V 
construction, provided: 

5.1 . The roof sheathing or deck is constructed of 
approved noncombustible materials or of 
fire-retardant-treated wood for a distance of 
4 feet (1220 mm); or 

5.2. The roof is protected with 0. 625-inch (16 
mm) Type X gypsum board directly beneath 
the underside of the roof sheathing or deck, 
supported by a minimum of nominal 2-inch 
(5 1 mm) ledgers attached to the sides of the 
roof framing members for a minimum dis- 
tance of 4 feet (1220 mm). 

6. Where the wall is permitted to have at least 25 per- 
cent of the exterior wall areas containing unpro- 
tected openings based on fire separation distance as 
determined in accordance with Section 705.8. 

705.11.1 Parapet construction. Parapets shall have the 
same fire-resistance rating as that required for the sup- 
porting wall, and on any side adjacent to a roof surface, 
shall have noncombustible faces for the uppermost 18 
inches (457 mm), including counterflashing and coping 
materials. The height of the parapet shall not be less than 
30 inches (762 mm) above the point where the roof surface 
and the wall intersect. Where the roof slopes toward a par- 
apet at a slope greater than two units vertical in 12 units 
horizontal (16.7-percent slope), the parapet shall extend to 
the same height as any portion of the roof within afire 
separation distance where protection of wall openings is 
required, but in no case shall the height be less than 30 
inches (762 mm). 



SECTION 706 
FIRE WALLS 

706. 1 General. Each portion of a building separated by one 
or more fire walls that comply with the provisions of this sec- 
tion shall be considered a separate building. The extent and 
location of such fire walls shall provide a complete separa- 



tion. Where a fire wall also separates occupancies that are 
required to be separated by a fire barrier wall, the most 
restrictive requirements of each separation shall apply. 

706.1.1 Party walls. Any wall located on a lot line 
between adjacent buildings, which is used or adapted for 
joint service between the two buildings, shall be con- 
structed as a fire wall in accordance with Section 706. 
Party walls shall be constructed without openings and 
shall create separate buildings. 

Exception: Openings in a party wall separating an 
anchor building and a mall shall be in accordance with 
Section 402.7.3.1. 

706.2 Structural stability. Fire walls shall have sufficient 
structural stability under fire conditions to allow collapse of 
construction on either side without collapse of the wall for the 
duration of time indicated by the required fire-resistance rat- 
ing or shall be constructed as double fire walls in accordance 
withNFPA221. 

706.3 Materials. Fire walls shall be of any approved non- 
combustible materials. 

Exception: Buildings of Type V construction. 

706.4 Fire-resistance rating. Fire walls shall have a fire- 
resistance rating of not less than that required by Table 
706.4. 

TABLE 706.4 
FiRE WALL FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS 



GROUP 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


A,B,E,H-4,I,R-1,R-2,U 


3 a 


F-l,H-3 b ,H-5,M, S-l 


3 


H-l.H-2 


4" 


F-2, S-2, R-3, R-4 


2 



a. In Type II or V construction, walls shall be permitted to have a 2-hour 
fire-resistance rating. 

b. For Group H-l, H-2orH-3 buildings, also see Sections 415.6 and 41 5.7. 

706.5 Horizontal continuity. Fire walls shall be continuous 
from exterior wall to exterior wall and shall extend at least 1 8 
inches (457 mm) beyond the exterior surface of exterior 
walls. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Fire walls shall be permitted to terminate at the inte- 
rior surface of combustible exterior sheathing or sid- 
ing provided the exterior wall has & fire-resistance 
rating of at least 1 hour for a horizontal distance of 
at least 4 feet (1220 mm) on both sides of the fire 
wall. Openings within such exterior walls shall be 
protected by opening protectives having a fire pro- 
tection rating of not less than 3 / 4 hour. 

2. Fire walls shall be permitted to terminate at the inte- 
rior surface of noncombustible exterior sheathing, 
exterior siding or other noncombustible exterior fin- 
ishes provided the sheathing, siding, or other exte- 
rior noncombustible finish extends a horizontal 
distance of at least 4 feet (1220 mm) on both sides of 
the fire wall. 



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3. Fire walls shall be permitted to terminate at the inte- 
rior surface of noncombustible exterior sheathing 
where the building on each side of the fire wall is 
protected by an automatic sprinkler system installed 
in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

706.5.1 Exterior walls. Where the fire wall intersects 
exterior walls, the fire-resistance rating and opening pro- 
tection of the exterior walls shall comply with one of the 
following: 

1. The exterior walls on both sides of the fire wall shall 
have a 1-hour fire-resistance rating with 3 / 4 -hour 
protection where opening protection is required by 
Section 705.8. The. fire-resistance rating of the exte- 
rior wall shall extend a minimum of 4 feet (1220 
mm) on each side of the intersection of the fire wall 
to exterior wall. Exterior wall intersections at fire 
walls that form an angle equal to or greater than 180 
degrees (3.14 rad) do not need exterior wall protec- 
tion. 

2. Buildings or spaces on both sides of the intersecting 
fire wall shall assume to have an imaginary lot line 
at the //re wall and extending beyond the exterior of 
the fire wall. The location of the assumed line in 
relation to the exterior walls and the fire wall shall 
be such that the exterior wall and opening protection 
meet the requirements set forth in Sections 705.5 
and 705.8. Such protection is not required for exte- 
rior walls terminating at fire walls that form an 
angle equal to or greater than 180 degrees (3. 14 rad). 

706.5.2 Horizontal projecting elements. Fire walls shall 
extend to the outer edge of horizontal projecting elements 
such as balconies, roof overhangs, canopies, marquees and 
similar projections that are within 4 feet (1220 mm) of the 
fire wall. 

Exceptions: 

1. Horizontal projecting elements without con- 
cealed spaces, provided the exterior wall behind 
and below the projecting element has not less 
than 1 -hour fire-resistance-rated construction for 
a distance not less than the depth of the projecting 
element on both sides of the fire wall. Openings 
within such exterior walls shall be protected by 
opening protectives having a fire protection rat- 
ing of not less than 3 / 4 hour. 

2. Noncombustible horizontal projecting elements 
with concealed spaces, provided a minimum 1- 
hour fire-resistance-rated wall extends through 
the concealed space. The projecting element shall 
be separated from the building by a minimum of 
1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction for a 
distance on each side of the fire wall equal to the 
depth of the projecting element. The wall is not 
required to extend under the projecting element 
where the building exterior wall is not less than 
1 -hour fire-resistance rated for a distance on each 
side of the fire wall equal to the depth of the pro- 
jecting element. Openings within such exterior 
walls shall be protected by opening protectives 



having afire protection rating of not less than 3 / 4 
hour. 

3. For combustible horizontal projecting elements 
with concealed spaces, the fire wall need only 
extend through the concealed space to the outer 
edges of the projecting elements. The exterior 
wall behind and below the projecting element 
shall be of not less than 1-hour fire-resistance- 
rated construction for a distance not less than the 
depth of the projecting elements on both sides of 
the/(Ve wall. Openings within such exterior walls 
shall be protected by opening protectives having 
a fire-protection rating of not less than 3 / 4 hour. 

706.6 Vertical continuity. Fire walls shall extend from the 
foundation to a termination point at least 30 inches (762 mm) 
above both adjacent roofs. 

Exceptions: 

1. Stepped buildings in accordance with Section 
706.6.1. 

2. Two-hour fire-resistance-rated walls shall be permit- 
ted to terminate at the underside of the roof sheath- 
ing, deck or slab, provided: 

2.1. The lower roof assembly within 4 feet ( 1 220 
mm) of the wall has not less than a 1-hour 
fire-resistance rating and the entire length 
and span of supporting elements for the rated 
roof assembly has afire-resistance rating of 
not less than 1 hour. 

2.2. Openings in the roof shall not be located 
within 4 feet (1220 mm) of the fire wall. 

2.3. Each building shall be provided with not less 
than a Class B roof covering. 

3. Walls shall be permitted to terminate at the under- 
side of noncombustible roof sheathing, deck or slabs 
where both buildings are provided with not less than 
a Class B roof covering. Openings in the roof shall 
not be located within 4 feet (1220 mm) of the fire 
wall. 

4. In buildings of Type III, IV and V construction, 
walls shall be permitted to terminate at the underside 
of combustible roof sheathing or decks, provided: 

4.1. There are no openings in the roof within 4 
feet (1220 mm) of the fire wall, 

4.2. The roof is covered with a minimum Class B 
roof covering, and 

4.3. The roof sheathing or deck is constructed of 
fire-retardant-treated wood for a distance of 
4 feet (1220 mm) on both sides of the wall or 
the roof is protected with 5 / 8 -inch (15.9 mm) 
Type X gypsum board directly beneath the 
underside of the roof sheathing or deck, sup- 
ported by a minimum of 2-inch (51 mm) 
nominal ledgers attached to the sides of the 
roof framing members for a minimum dis- 



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FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



tance of 4 feet (1220 mm) on both sides of 
they're wall. 

5. In buildings designed in accordance with Section 
510. 2, fire walls located above the 3-hour horizontal 
assembly required by Section 510.2, Item 1 shall be 
permitted to extend from the top of this horizontal 
assembly. 

6. Buildings with sloped roofs in accordance with Sec- 
tion 706.6.2. 

706.6.1 Stepped buildings. Where afire wall serves as an 
exterior wall for a building and separates buildings having 
different roof levels, such wall shall terminate at a point 
not less than 30 inches (762 mm) above the lower roof 
level, provided the exterior wall for a height of 15 feet 
(4572 mm) above the lower roof is not less than 1-hour 
fire-resistance-rated construction from both sides with 
openings protected by fire assemblies having afire protec- 
tion rating of not less than 3 / 4 hour. 

Exception: Where the, fire wall terminates at the under- 
side of the roof sheathing, deck or slab of the lower 
roof, provided: 

1. The lower roof assembly within 10 feet (3048 
mm) of the wall has not less than a 1-hour fire- 
resistance rating and the entire length and span 
of supporting elements for the rated roof assem- 
bly has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 
hour. 

2. Openings in the lower roof shall not be located 
within 10 feet (3048 mm) of they're wall. 

706.6.2 Buildings with sloped roofs. Where a fire wall 
serves as an interior wall for a building, and the roof on 
one side or both sides of the fire wall slopes toward the 
fire wall at a slope greater than two units vertical in 12 
units horizontal (2:12), the fire wall shall extend to a 
height equal to the height of the roof located 4 feet (1219 
mm) from the fire wall plus 30 inches (762 mm). In no 
case shall the extension of the fire wall be less than 30 
inches (762 mm). 

706.7 Combustible framing in fire walls. Adjacent combus- 
tible members entering into a concrete or masonry fire wall 
from opposite sides shall not have less than a 4-inch (102 
mm) distance between embedded ends. Where combustible 
members frame into hollow walls or walls of hollow units, 
hollow spaces shall be solidly filled for the full thickness of 
the wall and for a distance not less than 4 inches (102 mm) 
above, below and between the structural members, with non- 
combustible materials approved for fireblocking. 

706.8 Openings. Each opening through afire wall shall be 
protected in accordance with Section 716.5 and shall not 
exceed 156 square feet (15 m 2 ). The aggregate width of open- 
ings at any floor level shall not exceed 25 percent of the 
length of the wall. 

Exceptions: 

1. Openings are not permitted in party walls con- 
structed in accordance with Section 706.1.1. 



2. Openings shall not be limited to 156 square feet (15 
m 2 ) where both buildings are equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

706.9 Penetrations. Penetrations of fire walls shall comply 
with Section 714. 

706.10 Joints. Joints made in or between fire walls shall 
comply with Section 715. 

706.11 Ducts and air transfer openings. Ducts and air 
transfer openings shall not penetrate fire walls. 

Exception: Penetrations by ducts and air transfer openings 
of fire walls that are not on a lot line shall be allowed pro- 
vided the penetrations comply with Section 717. The size 
and aggregate width of all openings shall not exceed the 
limitations of Section 706.8. 



SECTION 707 
FIRE BARRIERS 

707.1 General. Fire barriers installed as required elsewhere 
in this code or the International Fire Code shall comply with 
this section. 

707.2 Materials. Fire barriers shall be of materials permitted 
by the building type of construction. 

707.3 Fire-resistance rating. The fire-resistance rating of 
fire barriers shall comply with this section. 

707.3.1 Shaft enclosures. The fire-resistance rating of the 
fire barrier separating building areas from a shaft shall 
comply with Section 713.4. 

707.3.2 Interior exit stairway and ramp construction. 
The fire-resistance rating of the fire barrier separating 
building areas from an interior exit stairway or ramp shall 
comply with Section 1022.1. 

707.3.3 Enclosures for exit access stairways. The fire- 
resistance rating of the fire barrier separating building 
areas from an exit access stairway or ramp shall comply 
with Section 1009.3.1.2. 

707.3.4 Exit passageway. The fire-resistance rating of 
the fire barrier separating building areas from an exit pas- 
sageway shall comply with Section 1023.3. 

707.3.5 Horizontal exit. The fire-resistance rating of the 
separation between building areas connected by a horizon- 
tal exit shall comply with Section 1025.1. 

707.3.6 Atriums. The fire-resistance rating of the fire 
barrier separating atriums shall comply with Section 
404.6. 

707.3.7 Incidental uses. The fire barrier separating inci- 
dental uses from other spaces in the building shall have a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than that indicated in 
Table 509. 

707.3.8 Control areas. Fire barriers separating control 
areas shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 
that required in Section 414.2.4. 

707.3.9 Separated occupancies. Where the provisions of 
Section 508.4 are applicable, the fire barrier separating 



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mixed occupancies shall have a fire-resistance rating of 
not less than that indicated in Table 508.4 based on the 
occupancies being separated. 

707.3.10 Fire areas. The fire barriers or horizontal 
assemblies, or both, separating a single occupancy into 
different fire areas shall have a fire-resistance rating of 
not less than that indicated in Table 707.3. 10. The fire bar- 
riers or horizontal assemblies, or both, separating fire 
areas of mixed occupancies shall have a fire-resistance 
rating of not less than the highest value indicated in Table 
707.3.10 for the occupancies under consideration. 

TABLE 707.3.10 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING REQUIREMENTS FOR FIRE 

BARRIER ASSEMBLIES OR HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLIES 

BETWEEN FIRE AREAS 



OCCUPANCY GROUP 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


H-l,H-2 


4 


F-I.H-3, S-1 


3 


A, B, E, F-2, H-4, H-5, 
I, M, R, S-2 


2 


U 


1 



707.4 Exterior walls. Where exterior walls serve as a part of 
a required fire-resistance-rated shaft or stairway or ramp 
enclosure, or separation, such walls shall comply with the 
requirements of Section 705 for exterior walls and the fire- 
resistance-rated enclosure or separation requirements shall 
not apply. 

Exception: Exterior walls required to be fire-resistance 
rated in accordance with Section 1019 for exterior egress 
balconies, Section 1022.7 for interior exit stairways and 
ramps and Section 1026.6 for exterior exit stairways and 
ramp. 

707.5 Continuity. Fire barriers shall extend from the top of 
the foundation or floor/ceiling assembly below to the under- 
side of the floor or roof sheathing, slab or deck above and 
shall be securely attached thereto. Such fire barriers shall be 
continuous through concealed space, such as the space above 
a suspended ceiling. Joints and voids at intersections shall 
comply with Sections 707.8 and 707.9 

707.5.1 Supporting construction. The supporting con- 
struction for afire barrier shall be protected to afford the 
required fire- resistance rating of the fire barrier sup- 
ported. Hollow vertical spaces within afire barrier shall 
be fireblocked in accordance with Section 718.2 at every 
floor level. 

Exceptions: 

1 . The maximum required fire-resistance rating for 
assemblies supporting fire barriers separating 
tank storage as provided for in Section 415.8.2.1 
shall be 2 hours, but not less than required by 
Table 601 for the building construction type. 

2. Shaft enclosures shall be permitted to terminate 
at a top enclosure complying with Section 
713.12. 

3. Supporting construction for 1-hour fire barriers 
required by Table 509 in buildings of Type IIB, 



IIIB and VB construction is not required to be 
fire-resistance rated unless required by other sec- 
tions of this code. 

4. Interior exit stairway and ramp enclosures 
required by Section 1022.2 and exit access stair- 
way and ramp enclosures required by Section 
1009.3 shall be permitted to terminate at a top 
enclosure complying with Section 713.12. 

707.6 Openings. Openings in a fire barrier shall be protected 
in accordance with Section 716. Openings shall be limited to 
a maximum aggregate width of 25 percent of the length of the 
wall, and the maximum area of any single opening shall not 
exceed 156 square feet (15 m 2 ). Openings in enclosures for 
exit access stairways and ramps, interior exit stairways and 
ramps and exit passageways shall also comply with Sections 
1022.3 and 1023.5, respectively. 

Exceptions: 

1. Openings shall not be limited to 156 square feet (15 
m 2 ) where adjoining floor areas are equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1 .1. 

2. Openings shall not be limited to 156 square feet (15 
m 2 ) or an aggregate width of 25 percent of the length 
of the wall where the opening protective is a fire 
door serving enclosures for exit access stairways, 
exit access ramps, interior exit stairways and interior 
exit ramps. 

3. Openings shall not be limited to 156 square feet (15 
m 2 ) or an aggregate width of 25 percent of the length 
of the wall where the opening protective has been 
tested in accordance with ASTM E 119 or UL 263 
and has a minimum fire-resistance rating not less 
than the fire-resistance rating of the wall. 

4. Fire window assemblies permitted in atrium separa- 
tion walls shall not be limited to a maximum aggre- 
gate width of 25 percent of the length of the wall. 

5. Openings shall not be limited to 156 square feet (15 
m 2 ) or an aggregate width of 25 percent of the length 
of the wall where the opening protective is a fire 
door assembly in a fire barrier separating an enclo- 
sures for exit access stairways, exit access ramps, 
interior exit stairways and interior exit ramps from 
an exit passageway in accordance with Section 
1022.2.1. 

707.7 Penetrations. Penetrations of fire barriers shall com- 
ply with Section 714. 

707.7.1 Prohibited penetrations. Penetrations into enclo- 
sures for exit access stairways, exit access ramps, interior 
exit stairways, interior exit ramps or an exit passageway 
shall be allowed only when permitted by Section 
1009.3.1.5, 1022.5 or 1023.6, respectively. 

707.8 Joints. Joints made in or between fire barriers, and 
joints made at the intersection of fire barriers with underside 
of a fire-resistance rated floor or roof sheathing, slab, or deck 
above, and the exterior vertical wall intersection shall comply 
with Section 715. 



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707.9 Voids at intersections. The voids created at the inter- 
section of a fire barrier and a non-fire-resistance-rated roof 
assembly shall be filled. An approved material or system 
shall be used to fill the void, shall be securely installed in or 
on the intersection for its entire length so as not to dislodge, 
loosen or otherwise impair its ability to accommodate 
expected building movements and to retard the passage of 
fire and hot gases. 

707.10 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations in a 
fire barrier by ducts and air transfer openings shall comply 
with Section 717. 



SECTION 708 
FIRE PARTITIONS 

708.1 General. The following wall assemblies shall comply 
with this section. 

1 . Walls separating dwelling units in the same building as 
required by Section 420.2. 

2. Walls separating sleeping units in the same building as 
required by Section 420.2. 

3. Walls separating tenant spaces in covered and open 
mall buildings as required by Section 402.4.2.1. 

4. Corridor walls as required by Section 1018.1. 

5. Elevator lobby separation as required by Section 
713.14.1. 

708.2 Materials. The walls shall be of materials permitted by 
the building type of construction. 

708.3 Fire-resistance rating. Fire partitions shall have afire- 
resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. 

Exceptions: 

1. Corridor walls permitted to have a V 2 hour fire- resis- 
tance rating by Table 1018.1. 

2. Dwelling unit and sleeping unit separations in build- 
ings of Type IIB, MB and VB construction shall 
have fire-resistance ratings of not less than V 2 hour 
in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

708.4 Continuity. Fire partitions shall extend from the top of 
the foundation or floor/ceiling assembly below to the under- 
side of the floor or roof sheathing, slab or deck above or to 
the fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly 
above, and shall be securely attached thereto. In combustible 
construction where the fire partitions are not required to be 
continuous to the sheathing, deck or slab, the space between 
the ceiling and the sheathing, deck or slab above shall be fire- 
blocked or draftstopped in accordance with Sections 718.2 
and 718.3 at the partition line. The supporting construction 
shall be protected to afford the required fire-resistance rating 
of the wall supported, except for walls separating tenant 
spaces in covered and open mall buildings, walls separating 



dwelling units, walls separating sleeping units and corridor 
walls, in buildings of Type IIB, IIIB and VB construction. 

Exceptions: 

1 . The wall need not be extended into the crawl space 
below where the floor above the crawl space has a 
minimum 1-hour fire-resistance rating. 

2. Where the room-side fire-resistance-rated mem- 
brane of the corridor is carried through to the under- 
side of the floor or roof sheathing, deck or slab of a 
fire-resistance-rated floor or roof above, the ceiling 
of the corridor shall be permitted to be protected by 
the use of ceiling materials as required for a 1 -hour 
fire-resistance-rated floor or roof system. 

3. Where the corridor ceiling is constructed as 
required for the corridor walls, the walls shall be 
permitted to terminate at the upper membrane of 
such ceiling assembly. 

4. The fire partitions separating tenant spaces in a cov- 
ered or open mall building, complying with Section 
402.7.2, are not required to extend beyond the 
underside of a ceiling that is not part of a fire-resis- 
tance-rated assembly. A wall is not required in attic 
or ceiling spaces above tenant separation walls. 

5. Attic fireblocking or draftstopping is not required at | 
the partition line in Group R-2 buildings that do not 
exceed four stories above grade plane, provided the 
attic space is subdivided by draftstopping into areas 
not exceeding 3,000 square feet (279 m 2 ) or above 
every two dwelling units, whichever is smaller. 

6. Fireblocking or draftstopping is not required at the 
partition line in buildings equipped with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed throughout in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, provided 
that automatic sprinklers are installed in combusti- 
ble floor/ceiling and roof/ceiling spaces. 

708.5 Exterior wails. Where exterior walls serve as a part of 
a required fire-resistance-rated separation, such walls shall 
comply with the requirements of Section 705 for exterior 
walls, and the fire-resistance-rated separation requirements 
shall not apply. 

Exception: Exterior walls required to be fire-resistance 
rated in accordance with Section 1019.2 for exterior egress 
balconies, Section 1022.7 for interior exit stairways and 
ramps and Section 102.6.6 for exterior exit stairways and 
ramps. 

708.6 Openings. Openings in a fire partition shall be pro- 
tected in accordance with Section 716. 

708.7 Penetrations. Penetrations of fire partitions shall com- 
ply with Section 714. 

708.8 Joints. Joints made in or between fire partitions shall 
comply with Section 715. 



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708.9 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations in afire 
partition by ducts and air transfer openings shall comply with 
Section 717. 



SECTION 709 
SMOKE BARRIERS 

709.1 General. Smoke barriers shall comply with this sec- 
tion. 

709.2 Materials. Smoke barriers shall be of materials permit- 
ted by the building type of construction. 

709.3 Fire-resistance rating. A 1-hour fire-resistance rating 
is required for smoke barriers. 

Exception: Smoke barriers constructed of minimum 0. 10- 
inch-thick (2.5 mm) steel in Group 1-3 buildings. 

709.4 Continuity. Smoke barriers shall form an effective 
membrane continuous from outside wall to outside wall and 
from the top of the foundation or floor/ceiling assembly 
below to the underside of the floor or roof sheathing, deck or 
slab above, including continuity through concealed spaces, 
such as those found above suspended ceilings, and interstitial 
structural and mechanical spaces. The supporting construc- 
tion shall be protected to afford the required fire-resistance 
rating of the wall or floor supported in buildings of other than 
Type IIB, IIIB or VB construction. 

Exceptions: 

1. Smoke-barrier walls are not required in interstitial 
spaces where such spaces are designed and con- 
structed with ceilings that provide resistance to the 
passage of fire and smoke equivalent to that pro- 
vided by the smoke-barrier walls. 

2. Smoke barriers used for elevator lobbies in accor- 
dance with Section 405.4.3, 3007.4.2 or 3008.11.2 
are not required to extend from outside wall to out- 
side wall. 

3. Smoke barriers used for areas of refuge in accor- 
dance with Section 1007.6.2 are not required to 
extend from outside wall to outside wall. 

709.5 Openings. Openings in a smoke barrier shall be pro- 
tected in accordance with Section 716. 

Exceptions: 

1. In Group 1-2 and ambulatory care facilities, where 
doors are installed across corridors, a pair of oppo- 
site-swinging doors without a center mullion shall 
be installed having vision panels with fire-protec- 
tion-rated glazing materials in fire-protection-rated 
frames, the area of which shall not exceed that 
tested. The doors shall be close fitting within opera- 
tional tolerances, and shall not have undercuts in 
excess of 3 / 4 -inch, louvers or grilles. The doors shall 
have head and jamb stops, astragals or rabbets at 
meeting edges and shall be automatic-closing by 
smoke detection in accordance with Section 
716.5.9.3. Where permitted by the door manufac- 
turer's listing, positive-latching devices are not 
required. 



2. In Group 1-2 and ambulatory care facilities, horizon- j 
tal sliding doors installed in accordance with Section 
1008.1.4.3 and protected in accordance with Section 
716. 

709.6 Penetrations. Penetrations of smoke barriers shall 
comply with Section 714. 

709.7 Joints. Joints made in or between smoke barriers shall 
comply with Section 715. 

709.8 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations in a 
smoke barrier by ducts and air transfer openings shall comply 
with Section 717. 



SECTION 710 
SMOKE PARTITIONS 

710.1 General. Smoke partitions installed as required else- 
where in the code shall comply with this section. 

710.2 Materials. The walls shall be of materials permitted by 
the building type of construction. 

710.3 Fire-resistance rating. Unless required elsewhere in 
the code, smoke partitions are not required to have afire- 
resistance rating. 

710.4 Continnity. Smoke partitions shall extend from the top 
of the foundation or floor below to the underside of the floor 
or roof sheathing, deck or slab above or to the underside of 
the ceiling above where the ceiling membrane is constructed 
to limit the transfer of smoke. 

710.5 Openings. Openings in smoke partitions shall comply 
with Sections 710.5.1 and 710.5.2. 

710.5.1 Windows. Windows in smoke partitions shall be 
sealed to resist the free passage of smoke or be automatic- 
closing upon detection of smoke. 

710.5.2 Doors. Doors in smoke partitions shall comply 
with Sections 710.5.2.1 through 710.5.2.3. 

710.5.2.1 Louvers. Doors in smoke partitions shall not 
include louvers. 

710.5.2.2 Smoke and draft control doors. Where 
required elsewhere in the code, doors in smoke parti- 
tions shall meet the requirements for a smoke and draft 
control door assembly tested in accordance with UL 
1784. The air leakage rate of the door assembly shall 
not exceed 3.0 cubic feet per minute per square foot 
(0.015424 m 3 /(s • nr)) of door opening at 0.10 inch 
(24.9 Pa) of water for both the ambient temperature test 
and the elevated temperature exposure test. Installation 
of smoke doors shall be in accordance with NFPA 105. 

710.5.2.3 Self- or automatic-closing doors. Where 
required elsewhere in the code, doors in smoke parti- 
tions shall be self- or automatic-closing by smoke 
detection in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3. 

710.6 Penetrations. The space around penetrating items shall j 
be filled with an approved material to limit the free passage 
of smoke. 

710.7 Joints. Joints shall be filled with an approved material 1 
to limit the free passage of smoke. | 



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710.8 Ducts and air transfer openings. The space around a 
duct penetrating a smoke partition shall be filled with an 
approved material to limit the free passage of smoke. Air 
transfer openings in smoke partitions shall be provided with a 
smoke damper complying with Section 717.3.2.2. 

Exception: Where the installation of a smoke damper will 
interfere with the operation of a required smoke control 
system in accordance with Section 909, approved alterna- 
tive protection shall be utilized. 



SECTION 711 
HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLIES 

711.1 General. Floor and roof assemblies required to have a 
fire-resistance rating shall comply with this section. Nonfire- 
resi stance-rated floor and roof assemblies shall comply with 
Section 714.4.2. 

711.2 Materials. The floor and roof assemblies shall be of 
materials permitted by the building type of construction. 

711.3 Fire-resistance rating. The. fire-resistance rating of 
floor and roof assemblies shall not be less than that required 
by the building type of construction. Where the floor assem- 
bly separates mixed occupancies, the assembly shall have a 
fire- resistance rating of not less than that required by Section 

508.4 based on the occupancies being separated. Where the 
floor assembly separates a single occupancy into different 
fire areas, the assembly shall have afire-resistance rating of 
not less than that required by Section 707.3.10. Horizontal 
assemblies separating dwelling units in the same building and 
horizontal assemblies separating sleeping units in the same 
building shall be a minimum of 1-hour fire-resistance-rated 
construction. 

Exception: Dwelling unit and sleeping unit separations in 
buildings of Type IIB, IIIB and VB construction shall 
have fire-resistance ratings of not less than 7 2 hour in 
buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

711.3.1 Ceiling panels. Where the weight of lay-in ceiling 
panels, used as part of fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or 
roof/ceiling assemblies, is not adequate to resist an upward 
force of 1 pound per square foot (48 Pa), wire or other 
approved devices shall be installed above the panels to 
prevent vertical displacement under such upward force. 

711.3.2 Access doors. Access doors shall be permitted in 
ceilings of fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling and roof/ceil- 
ing assemblies provided such doors are tested in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 119 or UL 263 as horizontal 
assemblies and labeled by an approved agency for such 
purpose. 

711.3.3 Unusable space. In 1-hour fire-resistance-rated 
floor assemblies, the ceiling membrane is not required to 
be installed over unusable crawl spaces. In 1-hour fire- 
resistance-rated roof assemblies, the floor membrane is 
not required to be installed where unusable attic space 
occurs above. 

711.4 Continuity. Assemblies shall be continuous without 
openings, penetrations or joints except as permitted by this 



section and Sections 712.1, 714.4, 715, 1009.3 and 1022.1. | 
Skylights and other penetrations through a fire-resistance- 
rated roof deck or slab are permitted to be unprotected, pro- 
vided that the structural integrity of the fire-resistance-rated 
roof assembly is maintained. Unprotected skylights shall not 
be permitted in roof assemblies required to be fire-resistance 
rated in accordance with Section 705.8.6. The supporting 
construction shall be protected to afford the required fire- 
resistance rating of the horizontal assembly supported. 

Exception: In buildings of Type IIB, IIIB or VB construc- 
tion, the construction supporting the horizontal assembly 
is not required to be fire-resistance-rated at the following: 

1. Horizontal assemblies at the separations of inciden- 
tal uses as specified by Table 509, provided the 
required fire-resistance rating does not exceed 1 
hour. 

2. Horizontal assemblies at the separations of dwelling 
units and sleeping units as required by Section 
420.3. 

3. Horizontal assemblies at smoke barriers constructed 
in accordance with Section 709. 

711.4.1 Nonfire-resistance-rated assemblies. Joints in or 
between floor assemblies without a required fire-resis- 
tance rating shall comply with one of the following: 

1. The joint shall be concealed within the cavity of a 
wall. 

2. The joint shall be located above a ceiling. 

3. The joint shall be sealed, treated or covered with an 
approved material or system to resist the free pas- 
sage of flame and the products of combustion. 

Exception: Joints meeting one of the joint exceptions 
listed in Section 715.1. 

711.5 Penetrations. Penetrations of horizontal assemblies, 
whether concealed or unconcealed, shall comply with Section 

714. 

711.6 Joints. Joints made in or between horizontal assem- 
blies shall comply with Section 715. The void created at the 
intersection of a floor/ceiling assembly and an exterior cur- 
tain wall assembly shall be protected in accordance with Sec- 
tion 715.4. 

711.7 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations in hori- 
zontal assemblies by ducts and air transfer openings shall 
comply with Section 717. 

711.8 Floor lire door assemblies. Floor fire door assemblies 
used to protect openings in fire-resistance-rated floors shall 
be tested in accordance with NFPA 288, and shall achieve a 
fire-resistance rating not less than the assembly being pene- 
trated. Floor fire door assemblies shall be labeled by an 
approved agency. The label shall be permanently affixed and 
shall specify the manufacturer, the test standard and the fire- 
resistance rating. 

711.9 Smoke barrier. Where horizontal assemblies are 
required to resist the movement of smoke by other sections of 
this code in accordance with the definition of smoke barrier, 
penetrations and joints in such horizontal assemblies shall be 



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protected as required for smoke barriers in accordance with 
Sections 714.5 and 715.6. Regardless of the number of stories 
connected by elevator shaft enclosures, doors located in ele- 
vator shaft enclosures that penetrate the horizontal assembly 
shall be protected by enclosed elevator lobbies complying 
with Section 713.14.1. Openings through horizontal assem- 
blies shall be protected by shaft enclosures complying with 
Section 713. Horizontal assemblies shall not be allowed to 
have unprotected vertical openings. 



** SECTION 712 

VERTICAL OPENINGS 

712.1 General. The provisions of this section shall apply to 
the vertical opening applications listed in Sections 712.1.1 
through 712.1.18. 

712.1.1 Shaft enclosures. Vertical openings contained 
entirely within a shaft enclosure complying with Section 
713 shall be permitted. 

712.1.2 Individual dwelling unit. Unconcealed vertical 
openings totally within an individual residential dwelling 
unit and connecting four stories or less shall be permitted. 

712.1.3 Escalator openings. Where a building is 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, an escalator opening 
shall be protected according to Section 712.1.3.1 or 
712.1.3.2. 

712.1.3.1 Opening size. Protection by a draft curtain 
and closely spaced sprinklers in accordance with NFPA 
13 shall be permitted where the area of the vertical 
opening between stories does not exceed twice the hor- 
izontal projected area of the escalator. In other than 
Groups B and M, this application is limited to openings 
that do not connect more than four stories. 

712.1.3.2 Automatic shutters. Protection of the open- 
ing by approved shutters at every penetrated floor shall 
be permitted in accordance with this section. The shut- 
ters shall be of noncombustible construction and have a 
fire -resistance rating of not less than 1.5 hours. The 
shutter shall be so constructed as to close immediately 
upon the actuation of a smoke detector installed in 
accordance with Section 907.3.1 and shall completely 
shut off the well opening. Escalators shall cease opera- 
tion when the shutter begins to close. The shutter shall 
operate at a speed of not more than 30 feet per minute 
(152.4 mm/s) and shall be equipped with a sensitive 
leading edge to arrest its progress where in contact with 
any obstacle, and to continue its progress on release 
there from. 

712.1.4 Penetrations. Penetrations shall be protected in 
accordance with Section 714. 

712.1.5 Ducts. Penetrations by ducts shall be protected in 
accordance with Section 717.6. Grease ducts shall be pro- 
tected in accordance with the International Mechanical 
Code. 

712.1.6 Atriums. In other than Group H occupancies, atri- 
ums complying with Section 404 shall be permitted. 



712.1.7 Masonry chimney. Approved masonry chimneys 
shall be permitted where the annular space is fireblocked 
at each floor level in accordance with Section 718.2.5. 

712.1.8 Two-story openings. In other than Groups 1-2 and 
1-3, a floor opening that is not used as one of the applica- 
tions listed in this section shall be permitted if it complies 
with all of the items below. 

1 . Does not connect more than two stories. 

2. Does not contain a stairway or ramp required by 
Chapter 10. 

3. Does not penetrate a horizontal assembly that sepa- 
rates fire areas or smoke barriers that separate 
smoke compartments. 

4. Is not concealed within the construction of a wall or 
a floor/ceiling assembly. 

5. Is not open to a corridor in Group I and R occupan- 
cies. 

6. Is not open to a corridor on nonsprinklered floors. 

7. Is separated from floor openings and air transfer 
openings serving other floors by construction con- 
forming to required shaft enclosures. 

712.1.9 Parking garages. Automobile ramps in open and 
enclosed parking garages shall be permitted where con- 
structed in accordance with Sections 406.5 and 406.6, 
respectively. 

712.1.10 Mezzanine. Vertical openings between a mezza- 
nine complying with Section 505 and the floor below shall 
be permitted. 

712.1.11 Joints. Joints shall be permitted where comply- 
ing with Section 715. 

712.1.12 Unenclosed stairs and ramps. Vertical floor 
openings created by unenclosed stairs or ramps in accor- 
dance with Sections 1009.2 and 1009.3 shall be permitted. 

712.1.13 Floor fire doors. Vertical openings shall be per- 
mitted where protected by floor fire doors in accordance 
with Section 711.8. 

712.1.14. Group 1-3. In Group 1-3 occupancies, vertical 
openings shall be permitted in accordance with Section 
408.5. 

712.1.15 Elevators in parking garages. Vertical open- 
ings for elevator hoistways in open or enclosed parking 
garages that serve only the parking garage, and complying 
with Sections 406.5 and 406.6 respectively, shall be per- 
mitted. 

712.1.16 Duct systems in parking garages. Vertical 
openings for mechanical exhaust or supply duct systems in 
open or enclosed parking garages complying with Sections 
406.5 and 406.6 respectively, shall be permitted to be 
unenclosed where such duct system is contained within 
and serves only the parking garage. 

712.1.17 Nonfire-resistance-rated joints. Joints in or 
between floors without a required fire-resistance rating 
shall be permitted in accordance with Section 71 1.4.1. 



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712.1.18 Openings otherwise permitted. Vertical open- 
ings shall be permitted where allowed by other sections of 
this code. 



** SECTION 713 

SHAFT ENCLOSURES 

713.1 General. The provisions of this section shall apply to 
shafts required to protect openings and penetrations through 
floor/ceiling and roof/ceiling assemblies. Exit access stair- 
ways and exit access ramps shall be protected in accordance 
with the applicable provisions of Section 1009. Interior exit 
stairways and interior exit ramps shall be protected in accor- 
dance with the requirements of Section 1022. 

713.2 Construction. Shaft enclosures shall be constructed as 
fire barriers in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal 
assemblies in accordance with Section 71 1, or both. 

713.3 Materials. The shaft enclosure shall be of materials 
permitted by the building type of construction. 

713.4 Fire-resistance rating. Shaft enclosures shall have a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours where connect- 
ing four stories or more, and not less than 1 hour where con- 
necting less than four stories. The number of stories 
connected by the shaft enclosure shall include any basements 
but not any mezzanines. Shaft enclosures shall have a fire- 
resistance rating not less than the floor assembly penetrated, 
but need not exceed 2 hours. Shaft enclosures shall meet the 
requirements of Section 703.2.1. 

713.5 Continuity. Shaft enclosures shall be constructed as 
fire barriers in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal 
assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, or 
both, and shall have continuity in accordance with Section 

707.5 for fire barriers or Section 711.4 for horizontal assem- 
blies as applicable. 

713.6 Exterior walls. Where exterior walls serve as a part of 
a required shaft enclosure, such walls shall comply with the 
requirements of Section 705 for exterior walls and the fire- 
resistance-rated enclosure requirements shall not apply. 

Exception: Exterior walls required to be fire-resistance 
rated in accordance with Section 101 9.2 for exterior egress 

I balconies, Section 1022.7 for interior exit stairways and 
ramps and Section 1026.6 for exterior exit stairways and 
ramps. 

713.7 Openings. Openings in a shaft enclosure shall be pro- 
tected in accordance with Section 716 as required for fire 
barriers. Doors shall be self- or automatic-closing by smoke 
detection in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3. 

713.7.1 Prohibited openings. Openings other than those 
necessary for the purpose of the shaft shall not be permit- 
ted in shaft enclosures. 

713.8 Penetrations. Penetrations in a shaft enclosure shall be 
protected in accordance with Section 714 as required foxfire 

| barriers. Structural elements, such as beams or joists, where 



protected in accordance with Section 714 shall be permitted 
to penetrate a shaft enclosure. 

713.8.1 Prohibited penetrations. Penetrations other than 
those necessary for the purpose of the shaft shall not be 
permitted in shaft enclosures. 

713.9 Joints. Joints in a shaft enclosure shall comply with 
Section 715. 

713.10 Duct and air transfer openings. Penetrations of a 
shaft enclosure by ducts and air transfer openings shall com- 
ply with Section 717. 

713.11 Enclosure at the bottom. Shafts that do not extend to 
the bottom of the building or structure shall comply with one 
of the following: 

1. They shall be enclosed at the lowest level with con- 
struction of the same fire-resistance rating as the low- 
est floor through which the shaft passes, but not less 
than the rating required for the shaft enclosure. 

2. They shall terminate in a room having a use related to 
the purpose of the shaft. The room shall be separated 
from the remainder of the building by fire barriers con- 
structed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal 
assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 711, 
or both. The fire-resistance rating and opening protec- 
tives shall be at least equal to the protection required 
for the shaft enclosure. 

3. They shall be protected by approved fire dampers 
installed in accordance with their listing at the lowest 
floor level within the shaft enclosure. 

Exceptions: 

1. The fire-resistance-rated room separation is not 
required, provided there are no openings in or pene- 
trations of the shaft enclosure to the interior of the 
building except at the bottom. The bottom of the 
shaft shall be closed off around the penetrating items 
with materials permitted by Section 718.3.1 for 
draftstopping, or the room shall be provided with an 
approved automatic sprinkler system. 

2. A shaft enclosure containing a refuse chute or laun- 
dry chute shall not be used for any other purpose and 
shall terminate in a room protected in accordance 
with Section 713.13.4. 

3. The fire-resistance-rated room separation and the 
protection at the bottom of the shaft are not required 
provided there are no combustibles in the shaft and 
there are no openings or other penetrations through 
the shaft enclosure to the interior of the building. 

713.12 Enclosure at top. A shaft enclosure that does not 
extend to the underside of the roof sheathing, deck or slab of 
the building shall be enclosed at the top with construction of 
the same fire-resistance rating as the topmost floor pene- 
trated by the shaft, but not less than the fire-resistance rating 
required for the shaft enclosure. 



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1713.13 Refuse and laundry chutes. In other than Group 1-2, 
refuse and laundry chutes, access and termination rooms and 
incinerator rooms shall meet the requirements of Sections 
713.13.1 through 713.13.6. 

Exceptions: 

1. Chutes serving and contained within a single dwell- 
ing unit. 

2. Refuse and laundry chutes in Group 1-2 shall com- 
ply with the provisions of NFPA 82, Chapter 5. 

713.13.1 Refuse, recycling and laundry chute enclo- 
sures. A shaft enclosure containing a refuse, recycling, or 
laundry chute shall not be used for any other purpose and 
shall be enclosed in accordance with Section 713.4. Open- 
ings into the shaft, including those from access rooms and 
termination rooms, shall be protected in accordance with 
this section and Section 716. Openings into chutes shall 
not be located in corridors. Doors shall be self- or auto- 
matic-closing upon the actuation of a smoke detector in 
accordance with Section 716.5.9.3, except that heat-acti- 
vated closing devices shall be permitted between the shaft 
and the termination room. 

713.13.2 Materials. A shaft enclosure containing a refuse, 
| recycling, or laundry chute shall be constructed of materi- 
als as permitted by the building type of construction. 

1713.13.3 Refuse, recycling and laundry chute access 
rooms. Access openings for refuse, recycling and laundry 
chutes shall be located in rooms or compartments enclosed 
by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accor- 
dance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies con- 
structed in accordance with Section 711, or both. 
Openings into the access rooms shall be protected by 
opening protectives having afire protection rating of not 
less than 3 / 4 hour. Doors shall be self- or automatic-closing 
upon the detection of smoke in accordance with Section 
716.5.9.3. 

| 713.13.4 Termination room. Refuse, recycling, and laun- 
dry chutes shall discharge into an enclosed room separated 
from the remainder of the building by fire barriers con- 
structed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal 
assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 7 1 1 , or 
both. Openings into the termination room shall be pro- 
tected by opening protectives having & fire protection rat- 

| ing equal to the protection required for the shaft enclosure. 
Doors shall be self- or automatic-closing upon the detec- 
tion of smoke in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3. 
Refuse chutes shall not terminate in an incinerator room. 

| Refuse, recycling and laundry rooms that are not provided 
with chutes need only comply with Table 509. 

713.13.5 Incinerator room. Incinerator rooms shall com- 
ply with Table 509. 

713.13.6 Automatic sprinkler system. An approved 
automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in accordance 
with Section 903.2.11.2. 

713.14 Elevator, dumbwaiter and other hoistways. Eleva- 
tor, dumbwaiter and other hoistway enclosures shall be con- 
structed in accordance with Section 713 and Chapter 30. 



713.14.1 Elevator lobby. An enclosed elevator lobby 
shall be provided at each floor where an elevator shaft 
enclosure connects more than three stories. The lobby 
enclosure shall separate the elevator shaft enclosure doors 
from each floor by fire partitions. In addition to the 
requirements in Section 708 for fire partitions, doors pro- 
tecting openings in the elevator lobby enclosure walls 
shall also comply with Section 716.5.3 as required for cor- 
ridor walls and penetrations of the elevator lobby enclo- 
sure by ducts and air transfer openings shall be protected 
as required for corridors in accordance with Section 
717.5.4.1. Elevator lobbies shall have at least one means of 
egress complying with Chapter 10 and other provisions 
within this code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Enclosed elevator lobbies are not required at the 
level(s) of exit discharge, provided the level(s) of 
equipped with an automatic 
in accordance with Section 



exit discharge is 
sprinkler system 
903.3.1.1. 



2. Elevators not required to be located in a shaft in 
accordance with Section 712.1 are not required to 
have enclosed elevator lobbies. 

3. Enclosed elevator lobbies are not required where 
additional doors are provided at the hoistway 
opening in accordance with Section 3002.6. Such 
doors shall comply with the smoke and draft con- 
trol door assembly requirements in Section 
716.5.3.1 when tested in accordance with UL 
1784 without an artificial bottom seal. 

4. Enclosed elevator lobbies are not required where 
the building is protected by an automatic sprin- 
kler system installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. This exception shall not 
apply to the following: 

4.1. Group 1-2 occupancies; 

4.2. Group 1-3 occupancies; and 

4.3. Elevators serving floor levels over 75 feet 
(22 860 mm) above the lowest level of 
fire department vehicle access in high-rise 
buildings. 

5. Smoke partitions shall be permitted in lieu of fire 
partitions to separate the elevator lobby at each 
floor where the building is equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 
In addition to the requirements in Section 710 for 
smoke partitions, doors protecting openings in 
the smoke partitions shall also comply with Sec- 
tions 710.5.2.2, 710.5.2.3, and 716.5.9 and duct 
penetrations of the smoke partitions shall be pro- 
tected as required for corridors in accordance 
with Section 717.5.4.1. 

6. Enclosed elevator lobbies are not required where 
the elevator hoistway is pressurized in accor- 
dance with Section 909.21. 



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7. Enclosed elevator lobbies are not required where 
the elevator serves only open parking garages in 
accordance with Section 406.5. 

713.14.1.1 Areas of refuge. Areas of refuge shall be 
provided as required in Section 1007. 



SECTION 714 
PENETRATIONS 

714.1 Scope. The provisions of this section shall govern the 
materials and methods of construction used to protect 
through penetrations and membrane penetrations of horizon- 
tal assemblies and fire-resistance-rated wall assemblies. 

714.1.1 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations of 
fire-resistance-rated walls by ducts that are not protected 
with dampers shall comply with Sections 714.2 through 
714.3.3. Penetrations of horizontal assemblies not pro- 
tected with a shaft as permitted by Section 717.6, and not 
required to be protected with fire dampers by other sec- 
tions of this code, shall comply with Sections 714.4 
through 714.4.2.2. Ducts and air transfer openings that are 
protected with dampers shall comply with Section 717. 

714.2 Installation details. Where sleeves are used, they shall 
be securely fastened to the assembly penetrated. The space 
between the item contained in the sleeve and the sleeve itself 
and any space between the sleeve and the assembly pene- 
trated shall be protected in accordance with this section. Insu- 
lation and coverings on or in the penetrating item shall not 
penetrate the assembly unless the specific material used has 
been tested as part of the assembly in accordance with this 
section. 

714.3 Fire-resistance-rated walls. Penetrations into or 
through fire walls, fire barriers, smoke barrier walls and /if re 
partitions shall comply with Sections 714.3.1 through 
714.3.3. Penetrations in smoke barrier walls shall also com- 
ply with Section 714.5. 

714.3.1 Through penetrations. Through penetrations of 
fire-resistance-rated walls shall comply with Section 
714.3.1.1 or 714.3. 1.2. 

Exception: Where the penetrating items are steel, fer- 
rous or copper pipes, tubes or conduits, the annular 
space between the penetrating item and the fire-resis- 
tance-rated wall is permitted to be protected as follows: 

1 . In concrete or masonry walls where the penetrat- 
ing item is a maximum 6-inch (152 mm) nominal 
diameter and the area of the opening through the 
wall does not exceed 144 square inches (0.0929 
m 2 ), concrete, grout or mortar is permitted where 
it is installed the full thickness of the wall or the 
thickness required to maintain the fire-resistance 
rating; or 

2. The material used to fill the annular space shall 
prevent the passage of flame and hot gases suffi- 
cient to ignite cotton waste when subjected to 
ASTM E 119 or UL 263 time-temperature fire 



conditions under a minimum positive pressure 
differential of 0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) of water at the 
location of the penetration for the time period 
equivalent to the. fire- resistance rating of the con- 
struction penetrated. 

714.3.1.1 Fire-resistance-rated assemblies. Penetra- 
tions shall be installed as tested in an approved fire- 
resistance-rated assembly. 

714.3.1.2 Through-penetration firestop system. 
Through penetrations shall be protected by an 
approved penetration firestop system installed as tested 
in accordance with ASTM E 814 or UL 1479, with a 
minimum positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch 
(2.49 Pa) of water and shall have an F rating of not less 
than the required fire-resistance rating of the wall pen- 
etrated. 

714.3.2 Membrane penetrations. Membrane penetra- 
tions shall comply with Section 714.3.1. Where walls or 
partitions are required to have a fire-resistance rating, 
recessed fixtures shall be installed such that the required 
fire-resistance will not be reduced. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Membrane penetrations of maximum 2-hour fire- 
resistance-rated walls and partitions by steel elec- 
trical boxes that do not exceed 16 square inches 
(0.0 103 m 2 ) in area, provided the aggregate area 
of the openings through the membrane does not 
exceed 100 square inches (0.0645 m 2 ) in any 100 
square feet (9.29 m 2 ) of wall area. The annular 
space between the wall membrane and the box 
shall not exceed V 8 inch (3.1 mm). Such boxes on 
opposite sides of the wall or partition shall be 
separated by one of the following: 

1.1. By a horizontal distance of not less than 
24 inches (610 mm) where the wall or 
partition is constructed with individual 
noncommunicating stud cavities; 

1.2. By a horizontal distance of not less than 
the depth of the wall cavity where the 
wall cavity is filled with cellulose loose- 
fill, rockwool or slag mineral wool insula- 
tion; 

1.3. By solid fireblocking in accordance with 
Section 718.2.1; 

1.4. By protecting both outlet boxes with 
listed putty pads; or 

1.5. By other listed materials and methods. 

2. Membrane penetrations by listed electrical boxes 
of any material, provided such boxes have been 
tested for use in fire-resistance-rated assemblies 
and are installed in accordance with the instruc- 
tions included in the listing. The annular space 
between the wall membrane and the box shall not 
exceed V 8 inch (3.1 mm) unless listed otherwise. 



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Such boxes on opposite sides of the wall or parti- 
tion shall be separated by one of the following: 

2. 1 . By the horizontal distance specified in the 
listing of the electrical boxes; 

2.2. By solid fireblocking in accordance with 
Section 718.2.1; 

2.3. By protecting both boxes with listed putty 
pads; or 

2.4. By other listed materials and methods. 

3. Membrane penetrations by electrical boxes of 
any size or type, which have been listed as part of 
a wall opening protective material system for use 
in fire-resistance-rated assemblies and are 
installed in accordance with the instructions 
included in the listing. 

4. Membrane penetrations by boxes other than elec- 
trical boxes, provided such penetrating items and 
the annular space between the wall membrane 
and the box, are protected by an approved mem- 
brane penetration firestop system installed as 
tested in accordance with ASTM E 814 or UL 
1479, with a minimum positive pressure differen- 
tial of 0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) of water, and shall have 
an F and T rating of not less than the required 
fire-resistance rating of the wall penetrated and 
be installed in accordance with their listing. 

5. The annular space created by the penetration of 
an automatic sprinkler, provided it is covered by 
a metal escutcheon plate. 

714.3.3 Dissimilar materials. Noncombustible penetrat- 
ing items shall not connect to combustible items beyond 
the point of firestopping unless it can be demonstrated that 
the fire-resistance integrity of the wall is maintained. 

714.4 Horizontal assemblies. Penetrations of a floor, floor/ 
ceiling assembly or the ceiling membrane of a roof/ceiling 
assembly not required to be enclosed in a shaft by Section 
712.1 shall be protected in accordance with Sections 714.4.1 
through 714.4.2.2. 

714.4.1 Fire-resistance-rated assemblies. Penetrations of 
the fire-resistance-rated floor, floor/ceiling assembly or 
the ceiling membrane of a roof/ceiling assembly shall 
comply with Sections 714.4.1.1 through 714.4.1.4. Pene- 
trations in horizontal smoke barriers shall also comply 
with 714.5. 

714.4.1.1 Through penetrations. Through penetra- 
tions of fire-resistance-rated horizontal assemblies 
shall comply with Section 714.4.1.1.1 or 714.4.1.1.2. 

Exceptions: 

1. Penetrations by steel, ferrous or copper con- 
duits, pipes, tubes or vents or concrete or 
masonry items through a single fire-resis- 
tance-rated floor assembly where the annular 
space is protected with materials that prevent 



the passage of flame and hot gases sufficient 
to ignite cotton waste when subjected to 
ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263 time- temperature fire 
conditions under a minimum positive pressure 
differential of 0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) of water at 
the location of the penetration for the time 
period equivalent to the fire-resistance rating 
of the construction penetrated. Penetrating 
items with a maximum 6-inch (152 mm) nom- 
inal diameter shall not be limited to the pene- 
tration of a single fire-resistance-rated floor 
assembly, provided the aggregate area of the 
openings through the assembly does not 
exceed 144 square inches (92 900 mm 2 ) in any 
1 00 square feet (9.3 m 2 ) of floor area. 

2. Penetrations in a single concrete floor by steel, 
ferrous or copper conduits, pipes, tubes or 
vents with a maximum 6-inch (152 mm) nom- 
inal diameter, provided the concrete, grout or 
mortar is installed the full thickness of the 
floor or the thickness required to maintain the 
fire-resistance rating. The penetrating items 
shall not be limited to the penetration of a sin- 
gle concrete floor, provided the area of the 
opening through each floor does not exceed 
144 square inches (92 900 mm 2 ). 

3. Penetrations by listed electrical boxes of any 
material, provided such boxes have been 
tested for use in fire-resistance-rated assem- 
blies and installed in accordance with the 
instructions included in the listing. 

714.4.1.1.1 Installation. Through penetrations shall 
be installed as tested in the approved fire-resistance- 
rated assembly. 

714.4.1.1.2 Through-penetration firestop system. 
Through penetrations shall be protected by an 
approved through- penetration firestop system 
installed and tested in accordance with ASTM E 814 
or UL 1479, with a minimum positive pressure dif- 
ferential of 0.01 inch of water (2.49 Pa). The system 
shall have an F rating/T rating of not less than 1 hour 
but not less than the required rating of the floor pen- 
etrated. 

Exceptions: 

1. Floor penetrations contained and located 
within the cavity of a wall above the floor 
or below the floor do not require a T rating. 

2. Floor penetrations by floor drains, tub 
drains or shower drains contained and 
located within the concealed space of a hor- 
izontal assembly do not require a T rating. 

714.4.1.2 Membrane penetrations. Penetrations of 
membranes that are part of a horizontal assembly shall 
comply with Section 714.4.1.1.1 or 714.4.1.1.2. Where 
floor/ceiling assemblies are required to have a fire- 



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resistance rating, recessed fixtures shall be installed 
such that the required fire resistance will not be 
reduced. 

Exceptions: 

1. Membrane penetrations by steel, ferrous or 
copper conduits, pipes, tubes or vents, or con- 
crete or masonry items where the annular 
space is protected either in accordance with 
Section 714.4.1.1 or to prevent the free pas- 
sage of flame and the products of combustion. 
The aggregate area of the openings through 
the membrane shall not exceed 100 square 
inches (64 500 mm 2 ) in any 100 square feet 
(9.3 m 2 ) of ceiling area in assemblies tested 
without penetrations. 

2. Ceiling membrane penetrations of maximum 
2-hour horizontal assemblies by steel electri- 
cal boxes that do not exceed 1 6 square inches 
(10 323 mm 2 ) in area, provided the aggregate 
area of such penetrations does not exceed 100 
square inches (44 500 mm 2 ) in any 100 square 
feet (9.29 m 2 ) of ceiling area, and the annular 
space between the ceiling membrane and the 
box does not exceed 7 8 inch (3.2 mm). 

3. Membrane penetrations by electrical boxes of 
any size or type, which have been listed as part 
of an opening protective material system for 
use in horizontal assemblies and are installed 
in accordance with the instructions included in 
the listing. 

4. Membrane penetrations by listed electrical 
boxes of any material, provided such boxes 
have been tested for use in fire-resistance- 
rated assemblies and are installed in accor- 
dance with the instructions included in the list- 
ing. The annular space between the ceiling 
membrane and the box shall not exceed 7 g 
inch (3.2 mm) unless listed otherwise. 

5. The annular space created by the penetration 
of a fire sprinkler, provided it is covered by a 
metal escutcheon plate. 

6. Noncombustible items that are cast into con- 
crete building elements and that do not pene- 
trate both top and bottom surfaces of the 
element. 

7. The ceiling membrane of 1- and 2-hour fire- 
resistance-rated horizontal assemblies is per- 
mitted to be interrupted with the double wood 
top plate of a. fire-resistance- rated wall assem- 
bly, provided that all penetrating items 
through the double top plates are protected in 
accordance with Section 714.4.1.1.1 or 
714.4.1.1.2. The fire-resistance rating of the 
wall shall not be less than the rating of the hor- 
izontal assembly. 

714.4.1.3 Dissimilar materials. Noncombustible pene- 
trating items shall not connect to combustible materials 



beyond the point of firestopping unless it can be dem- 
onstrated that the fire-resistance integrity of the hori- 
zontal assembly is maintained. 

714.4.2 Nonftre-resistance-rated assemblies. Penetra- 
tions of nonfire-resistance-rated floor or floor/ceiling 
assemblies or the ceiling membrane of a nonfire-resis- 
tance-rated roof/ceiling assembly shall meet the require- 
ments of Section 713 or shall comply with Section 
714.4.2.1 or 714.4.2.2. 

714.4.2.1 Noncombustible penetrating items. Non- 
combustible penetrating items that connect not more 
than five stories are permitted, provided that the annu- 
lar space is filled to resist the free passage of flame and 
the products of combustion with an approved noncom- 
bustible material or with a fill, void or cavity material 
that is tested and classified for use in through-penetra- 
tion firestop systems. 

714.4.2.2 Penetrating items. Penetrating items that 
connect not more than two stories are permitted, pro- 
vided that the annular space is filled with an approved 
material to resist the free passage of flame and the 
products of combustion. 

714.5 Penetrations in smoke barriers. Penetrations in 
smoke barriers shall be protected by an approved through- 
penetration firestop system installed and tested in accordance 
with the requirements of UL 1479 for air leakage. The L rat- 
ing of the system measured at 0.30 inch (7.47 Pa) of water in 
both the ambient temperature and elevated temperature tests, 
shall not exceed: 

1 . 5.0 cfm per square foot (0.025m 3 / s • m 2 ) of penetration 
opening for each through-penetration firestop system; 
or 

2. A total cumulative leakage of 50 cfm (0.024m 3 /s) for 
any 100 square feet (9.3 m 2 ) of wall area, or floor area. 



SECTION 715 
FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEMS 

715.1 General. Joints installed in or between fire-resistance- 
rated walls, floor or floor/ceiling assemblies and roofs or 
roof/ceiling assemblies shall be protected by an approved 
fire-resistant joint system designed to resist the passage of 
fire for a time period not less than the required fire-resistance 
rating of the wall, floor or roof in or between which it is 
installed. Fire-resistant joint systems shall be tested in accor- 
dance with Section 715.3. 

Exception: Fire-resistant joint systems shall not be 
required for joints in all of the following locations: 

1 . Floors within a single dwelling unit. 

2. Floors where the joint is protected by a shaft enclo- 
sure in accordance with Section 713. 

3. Floors within atriums where the space adjacent to 
the atrium is included in the volume of the atrium 
for smoke control purposes. 

4. Floors within malls. 



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5. Floors and ramps within open and enclosed parking 
garages or structures constructed in accordance with 
Sections 406.5 and 406.6, respectively. 

6. Mezzanine floors. 

7. Walls that are permitted to have unprotected open- 
ings. 

8. Roofs where openings are permitted. 

9. Control joints not exceeding a maximum width of 
0.625 inch (15.9 mm) and tested in accordance with 
ASTME119orUL263. 

715.1.1 Curtain wall assembly. The void created at the 
intersection of a floor/ceiling assembly and an exterior 
curtain wall assembly shall be protected in accordance 
with Section 7 15.4. 

715.2 Installation. A fire-resistant joint system shall be 
| securely installed in accordance with the listing criteria in or 

on the joint for its entire length so as not to dislodge, loosen 
or otherwise impair its ability to accommodate expected 
building movements and to resist the passage of fire and hot 
gases. 

715.3 Fire test criteria. Fire-resistant joint systems shall be 
tested in accordance with the requirements of either ASTM E 
1966 or UL 2079. Nonsymmetrical wall joint systems shall 
be tested with both faces exposed to the furnace, and the 
assigned fire-resistance rating shall be the shortest duration 
obtained from the two tests. When evidence is furnished to 
show that the wall was tested with the least fire-resistant side 
exposed to the furnace, subject to acceptance of the building 
official, the wall need not be subjected to tests from the oppo- 
site side. 

Exception: For exterior walls with a horizontal fire sepa- 
ration distance greater than 5 feet (1524 mm), the joint 
system shall be required to be tested for interior fire expo- 
sure only. 

715.4 Exterior curtain wall/floor intersection.Where fire 
resistance-rated floor or floor/ceiling assemblies are required, 
voids created at the intersection of the exterior curtain wall 
assemblies and such floor assemblies shall be sealed with an 
approved system to prevent the interior spread of fire. 
Such systems shall be securely installed and tested in 
accordance with ASTM E 2307 to provide an F rating for a 
time period at least equal to the fire-resistance rating of the 
floor assembly. Height and fire-resistance requirements for 
curtain wall spandrels shall comply with Section 705.8.5. 

Exception: Voids created at the intersection of the exte- 
rior curtain wall assemblies and such floor assemblies 
where the vision glass extends to the finished floor level 
shall be permitted to be sealed with an approved material 
to prevent the interior spread of fire. Such material shall be 
securely installed and capable of preventing the passage of 
flame and hot gases sufficient to ignite cotton waste where 
subjected to ASTM E 119 time-temperature fire condi- 
tions under a minimum positive pressure differential of 
0.01 inch (0.254 mm) of water column (2.5 Pa) for the 
time period at least equal to the fire- resistance rating of 
the floor assembly. 



715.4.1 Exterior curtain wall/nonfire-resistance-rated 
floor assembly intersections. Voids created at the inter- 
section of exterior curtain wall assemblies and nonfire- 
resi stance-rated floor or floor/ceiling assemblies shall be 
sealed with an approved material or system to retard the 
interior spread of fire and hot gases between stories. 

715.5 Spandrel wall. Height and fire-resistance requirements 
for curtain wall spandrels shall comply with Section 705.8.5. 
Where Section 705.8.5 does not require a fire-resistance- 
rated spandrel wall, the requirements of Section 715.4 shall 
still apply to the intersection between the spandrel wall and 
the floor. 

715.6 Fire-resistant joint systems in smoke barriers. Fire- 
resistant joint systems in smoke barriers, and joints at the 
intersection of a horizontal smoke barrier and an exterior cur- 
tainwall, shall be tested in accordance with the requirements 
of UL 2079 for air leakage. The L rating of the joint system | 
shall not exceed 5 cfm per linear foot (0.00775 m 3 /s m) of 
joint at 0.30 inch (7.47 Pa) of water for both the ambient tem- 
perature and elevated temperature tests. 



SECTION 716 
OPENING PROTECTIVES 

716.1 General. Opening protectives required by other sec- 
tions of this code shall comply with the provisions of this sec- 
tion. 

716.2 Fire-resistance-rated glazing. Fire-resistance-rated 
glazing tested as part of a fire-resistance-rated wall assembly 
in accordance with ASTM E 119 or UL 263 and labeled in 
accordance with Section 703.5 shall be permitted in fire 
doors and fire window assemblies where tested and installed j 
in accordance with their listings and shall not otherwise be 
required to comply with this section. 

716.3 Marking fire-rated glazing assemblies. Fire-rated 
glazing assemblies shall be marked in accordance with 
Tables 716.3, 716.5, and 716.6. 

716.3.1 Fire-rated glazing that exceeds the code 
requirements. Fire-rated glazing assemblies marked as 
complying with hose stream requirements (H) shall be per- 
mitted in applications that do not require compliance with 
hose stream requirements. Fire-rated glazing assemblies 
marked as complying with temperature rise requirements 
(T) shall be permitted in applications that do not require 
compliance with temperature rise requirements. Fire-rated 
glazing assemblies marked with ratings (XXX) that 
exceed the ratings required by this code shall be permitted. 

716.4 Alternative methods for determining fire protection 
ratings. The application of any of the alternative methods 
listed in this section shall be based on the fire exposure and 
acceptance criteria specified in NFPA 252, NFPA 257 or UL 
9. The required fire resistance of an opening protective shall 
be permitted to be established by any of the following meth- 
ods or procedures: 

1 . Designs documented in approved sources. 

2. Calculations performed in an approved manner. 



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3. Engineering analysis based on a comparison of opening 
protective designs having fire protection ratings as 
determined by the test procedures set forth in NFPA 

252,NFPA257orUL9. 

4. Alternative protection methods as allowed by Section 
104.11. 

716.5 Fire door and shutter assemblies. Approved fire door 
and fire shutter assemblies shall be constructed of any mate- 
rial or assembly of component materials that conforms to the 
test requirements of Section 716.5.1, 716.5.2 or 716.5.3 and 
the, fire protection rating indicated in Table 716.5. Fire door 
frames with transom lights, sidelights or both shall be permit- 
ted in accordance with Section 716.5.6. Fire door assemblies 
and shutters shall be installed in accordance with the provi- 
sions of this section and NFPA 80. 

Exceptions: 

1. Labeled protective assemblies that conform to the 
requirements of this section or UL 10A, UL 14B and 
UL 14C for tin-clad fire door assemblies. 

2. Floor fire door assemblies in accordance with Sec- 
tion 71 1.8. 

716.5.1 Side-hinged or pivoted swinging doors. Fire 
door assemblies with side-hinged and pivoted swinging 
doors shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 252 or UL 
IOC. After 5 minutes into the NFPA 252 test, the neutral 
pressure level in the furnace shall be established at 40 
inches (1016 mm) or less above the sill. 

716.5.2 Other types of assemblies. Fire door assemblies 
with other types of doors, including swinging elevator 
doors and fire shutter assemblies, bottom and side-hinged 
chute intake doors, and top-hinged chute discharge doors, 
shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 252 or UL 10B. 
The pressure in the furnace shall be maintained as nearly 
equal to the atmospheric pressure as possible. Once estab- 
lished, the pressure shall be maintained during the entire 
test period. 

716.5.3 Door assemblies in corridors and smoke barri- 
ers. Fire door assemblies required to have a minimum fire 
protection rating of 20 minutes where located in corridor 
walls or smoke barrier walls having a. fire-resistance rat- 



ing in accordance with Table 716.5 shall be tested in 
accordance with NFPA 252 or UL 10C without the hose 
stream test. 

Exceptions: 

1. Viewports that require a hole not larger than 1 
inch (25 mm) in diameter through the door, have 
at least a 0.25-inch-thick (6.4 mm) glass disc and 
the holder is of metal that will not melt out where 
subject to temperatures of 1,700°F (927°C). 

2. Corridor door assemblies in occupancies of 
Group 1-2 shall be in accordance with Section 

407.3.1. 

3. Unprotected openings shall be permitted for cor- 
ridors in multitheater complexes where each 
motion picture auditorium has at least one-half of 
its required exit or exit access doorways opening 
directly to the exterior or into an exit passageway. 

4. Horizontal sliding doors in smoke barriers that 
comply with Sections 408.3 and 408.8.4 in occu- 
pancies in Group 1-3. 

716.5.3.1 Smoke and draft control. Fire door assem- 
blies shall also meet the requirements for a smoke and 
draft control door assembly tested in accordance with 
UL 1784. The air leakage rate of the door assembly 
shall not exceed 3.0 cubic feet per minute per square 
foot (0.01524 m 3 /s • m 2 ) of door opening at 0.10 inch 
(24.9 Pa) of water for both the ambient temperature and 
elevated temperature tests. Louvers shall be prohibited. 
Installation of smoke doors shall be in accordance with 
NFPA 105. 

716.5.3.2 Glazing in door assemblies. In a 20-minute 
fire door assembly, the glazing material in the door 
itself shall have a minimum fire-protection-rated glaz- 
ing of 20 minutes and shall be exempt from the hose 
stream test. Glazing material in any other part of the 
door assembly, including transom lights and sidelights, 
shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 257 or UL 9, 
including the hose stream test, in accordance with Sec- 
tion 716.6. 



TABLE 716.3 
MARKING FIRE-RATED GLAZING ASSEMBLIES 



FIRE TEST STANDARD 


MARKING 


DEFINITION OF MARKING 


ASTME119orUL263 


W 


Meets wall assembly criteria. 


NFPA 257 or UL 9 


OH 


Meets fire window assembly criteria including the hose stream test. 


NFPA 252 or UL 10B or UL 10C 


D 
H 

T 


Meets fire door assembly criteria. 

Meets fire door assembly "Hose Stream" test. 

Meets 450°F temperature rise criteria for 30 minutes 




XXX 


The time in minutes of the fire resistance or fire protection 
rating of the glazing assembly 



ForSI:°C = [(°F)-32]/1.8. 



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TABLE 716.5 
OPENING FIRE PROTECTION ASSEMBLIES, RATINGS AND MARKINGS 



TYPE OF 
ASSEMBLY 


REQUIRED 
WALL 

ASSEMBLY 
RATING 
(hours) 


MINIMUM 
FIRE DOOR 
AND FIRE 
SHUTTER 
ASSEMBLY 
RATING 


DOOR VISION 
PANEL SIZE 


FIRE RATED 

GLAZING MARKING 

DOOR VISION PANEL" 


MINIMUM SIDELIGHT/ 

TRANSOM ASSEMBLY 

RATING (hours) 


FIRE-RATED GLAZING MARKING 
SIDELITEATRANSOM PANEL 


Fire protection 


Fire 
resistance 


Fire protection 


Fire 
resistance 






(hours) 














Fire walls and fire 
baniers having a 
required fire-resis- 
tance rating 
greater than 1 hour 


4 


3 


Not Permitted 


Not Permitted 


Not Permitted 


4 


Not Permitted 


W-240 


3 


3" 


Not Permitted 


Not Permitted 


Not Permitted 


3 


Not Permitted 


W-180 


2 


l'/ 2 


100 sq. in. c 


<100sq.in. = D-H-90 
>100 sq.in.= 
D-H-W-90 


Not Permitted 


2 


Not Permitted 


W-1.20 


l 1 /, 


IV, 


100 sq. in. 1 


<100sq.in. = D-H-90 
>100 sq.in.= 


Not Permitted 


IV, 


Not Permitted 


W-90 










D-H-W-90 










Shaft, exit enclo- 
sures and exit pas- 
sageway walls 


2 


l'/ 2 


100sq.in. cd 


<100sq.in. = D-H-90 

> 100 sq.in.= 
D-H-T-or D-H-T-W-90 


Not Permitted 


2 


Not Permitted 


W-120 


Fire barriers hav- 


















ing a required fire- 


















resistance rating 


















of 1 hour: 


















Enclosures for 








<100 sq.in. = D-H-60 










shafts, exit access 
stairways, exit ac- 


1 


1 


lOOsq. in. cd 


>100 sq.in.= 
D-H-T-60orD-H-T-W- 


Not 
Permitted 


1 


Not Permitted 


W-60 


cess ramps, inte- 








60 










rior exit stairways, 


















interior exit ramps 


















and exit 


















passageway walls 
























Fire protection 




Other fire barriers 


1 


% 


Maximum 
size tested 


D-H-NT-45 


% 


D-H-NT-45 


Fire partitions: 


1 


V 


Maximum 
size tested 


D-20 


V 




D-HOH-45 


Corridor walls 


0.5 


V 


Maximum 
size tested 


D-20 


% 




D-H-OH-20 


Other fire 


1 


% 


Maximum 
size tested 


D-H-45 


% 




D-H-45 


partitions 


0.5 


% 


Maximum 

size tested 


D-H-20 


% 




D-H-20 



(continued) 



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TABLE 716.5— continued 
OPENING FIRE PROTECTION ASSEMBLIES, RATINGS AND MARKINGS 



TYPE OF 
ASSEMBLY 


REQUIRED 
WALL 

ASSEMBLY 
RATING 
(hours) 


MINIMUM 

FIRE DOOR 

AND FIRE 

SHUTTER 

ASSEMBLY 

RATING 

(hours) 


DOOR VISION 
PANEL SIZE 


FIRE RATED 

GLAZING MARKING 

DOOR VISION PANEL 6 


MINIMUM SIDELIGHT/ 

TRANSOM ASSEMBLY 

RATING (hours) 


FIRE-RATED GLAZING 

MARKING SIDELITE/TRANSOM 
PANEL 


Fire 
protection 


Fire 
resistance 


Fire protection 


Fire 
resistance 


Exterior walls 


3 


1V 2 


100sq.in. c 


<100 sq.in. = D-H-90 
>100 sq.in = D-H-W-90 


Not Permitted 


3 


Not Permitted 


W-180 


2 


1V 2 


lOOsq. in. c 


<100 sq.in. = D-H-90 
>100 sq.in. = D-H-W-90 


Not Permitted 


2 


Not Permitted 


W-120 




Fire Protection 




1 


% 


Maximum 
size tested 


D-H-45 


% 


D-H-45 


Smoke barriers 




Fire protection 




1 


l/b 

'3 


Maximum 
size tested 


D-20 


3 / 4 


D-H-OH-45 



For SI: I square inch = 645.2 mm. 

a. Two doors, each with a fire protection rating of 1 7, hours, installed on opposite sides of the same opening in a fire wall, shall be deemed equivalent in fire 
protection rating to one 3 -hour fire door. 

b. For testing requirements, see Section 716.6.3. 

c. Fire-resistance-rated glazing tested to ASTM E 1 19 in accordance with Section 716.2 shall be permitted, in the maximum size tested. 

d. Except where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler and the fire-rated glazing meets the criteria established in Section 716.5.5. 

e. Under the column heading "Fire-rated glazing marking door vision panel," W refers to the fire-resistance rating of the glazing, not the frame. 



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716.5.4 Door assemblies in other fire partitions. Fire 
door assemblies required to have a minimum fire protec- 
tion rating of 20 minutes where located in other fire parti- 
tions having a fire-resistance rating of 0.5 hour in 
accordance with Table 716.5 shall be tested in accordance 
with NFPA 252, UL 10B or UL IOC with the hose stream 
test. 

716.5.5 Doors in interior exit stairways and ramps and 

exit passageways. Fire door assemblies in interior exit 
stairways and ramps and exit passageways shall have a 
maximum transmitted temperature rise of not more than 
450°F (250°C) above ambient at the end of 30 minutes of 
standard fire test exposure. 

Exception: The maximum transmitted temperature 
rise is not required in buildings equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

716.5.5.1 Glazing in doors. Fire-protection-rated glaz- 
ing in excess of 100 square inches (0.065 m 2 ) is not per- 
mitted. Fire-resistance-rated glazing in excess of 100 
square inches (0.065 m 2 ) shall be permitted in fire door 
assemblies when tested as components of the door 
assemblies, and not as glass lights, and shall have a 
maximum transmitted temperature rise of 450° F (250° 
C) in accordance with Section 716.5.5. 

716.5.6 Fire door frames with transom lights and side- 
lights. Door frames with transom lights, sidelights, or 
both, shall be permitted where a 3 / 4 -hour fire protection 
rating or less is required in accordance with Table 716.5. 
Fire door frames with transom lights, sidelights, or both, 
installed with fire-resistance-rated glazing tested as an 
assembly in accordance with ASTM E 119 or UL 263 
shall be permitted where a fire protection rating exceeding 
3 / 4 hour is required in accordance with Table 716.5. 

716.5.7 Labeled protective assemblies. Fire door assem- 
blies shall be labeled by an approved agency. The labels 
shall comply with NFPA 80, and shall be permanently 
affixed to the door or frame. 

716.5.7.1 Fire door labeling requirements. Fire 
doors shall be labeled showing the name of the manu- 
facturer or other identification readily traceable back to 
the manufacturer, the name or trademark of the third- 
party inspection agency, the fire protection rating and, 
where required for fire doors in interior exit stairways 
and ramps and exit passageways by Section 716.5.5, 
the maximum transmitted temperature end point. 
Smoke and draft control doors complying with UL 
1784 shall be labeled as such and shall also comply 
with Section 716.5.7.3. Labels shall be approved and 
permanently affixed. The label shall be applied at the 
factory or location where fabrication and assembly are 
performed. 

716.5.7.1.1 Light kits, louvers and components. 
Listed light kits and louvers and their required prep- 
arations shall be considered as part of the labeled 
door where such installations are done under the list- 
ing program of the third-party agency. Where tested 
for such use, fire doors and door assemblies shall be 



permitted to consist of components, including glaz- 
ing, vision light kits and hardware that are labeled, 
listed or classified by different third-party agencies. 

716.5.7.2 Oversized doors. Oversized fire doors shall 
bear an oversized fire door label by an approved 
agency or shall be provided with a certificate of inspec- 
tion furnished by an approved testing agency. When a 
certificate of inspection is furnished by an approved 
testing agency, the certificate shall state that the door 
conforms to the requirements of design, materials and 
construction, but has not been subjected to the fire test. 

716.5.7.3 Smoke and draft control door labeling 
requirements. Smoke and draft control doors comply- 
ing with UL 1784 shall be labeled in accordance with 
Section 716.5.6.1 and shall show the letter "S" on the 
fire-rating label of the door. This marking shall indicate 
that the door and frame assembly are in compliance 
when listed or labeled gasketing is also installed. 

716.5.7.4 Fire door frame labeling requirements. 
Fire door frames shall be labeled showing the names of 
the manufacturer and the third-party inspection agency. 

716.5.8 Glazing material. Fire-protection-rated glazing 
conforming to the opening protection requirements in Sec- 
tion 716.5 shall be permitted in fire door assemblies. 

716.5.8.1 Size limitations. Fire-protection-rated glaz- 
ing shall comply with the size limitations of NFPA 80, 
and as provided in Sections 716.5.8.1.1 and 
716.5.8.1.2. 

716.5.8.1.1 Fire-resistance-rated glazing in door 
assemblies in fire walls and fire barriers rated 

greater than 1 hour. Fire-resistance-rated glazing 
tested to ASTM E 119 or UL 263 and NFPA 252, 
UL 10B or UL 10C shall be permitted in fire door 
assemblies located in fire walls and in fire barriers 
in accordance with Table 716.5 to the maximum size 
tested and in accordance with their listings. 

716.5.8.1.2 Fire-protection-rated glazing in door 
assemblies in fire walls and fire barriers rated 
greater than 1 hour. Fire-protection-rated glazing 
shall be prohibited in fire walls and fire barriers 
except as provided in Sections 716.5.8.1.2.1 and 
716.5.8.1.2.2. 

716.5.8.1.2.1 Horizontal exits. Fire-protection- 
rated glazing shall be permitted as vision panels 
in self-closing swinging fire door assemblies 
serving as horizontal exits in fire walls where 
limited to 100 square inches (0.065 m 2 ) with no 
dimension exceeding 10 inches (0.3 mm). 

716.5.8.1.2.2 Fire barriers. Fire-protection-rated 
glazing shall be permitted in fire doors having a 
lV 2 -hour fire protection rating intended for 
installation in fire barriers, where limited to 100 
square inches (0.065 m 2 ). 

716.5.8.2 Elevator, stairway and ramp protectives. 
Approved fire-protection-rated glazing used in fire 
door assemblies in elevator, stairways and ramps enclo- 
sures shall be so located as to furnish clear vision of the 



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passageway or approach to the elevator, stairway or 
ramp. 

716.5.8.3 Labeling. Fire-protection-rated glazing shall 
bear a label or other identification showing the name of 
the manufacturer, the test standard and information 
required in Section 716.5.8.3.1 that shall be issued by 
an approved agency and shall be permanently identi- 
fied on the glazing. 

716.5.8.3.1 Identification. For fire -protection-rated 
glazing, the label shall bear the following four part 
identification: "D - H or NH - T or NT - XXX." "D" 
indicates that the glazing shall be used in fire door 
assemblies and that the glazing meets the fire pro- 
tection requirements of NFPA 252. "H" shall indi- 
cate that the glazing meets the hose stream 
requirements of NFPA 252. "NH" shall indicate that 
the glazing does not meet the hose stream require- 
ments of the test. "T" shall indicate that the glazing 
meets the temperature requirements of Section 
716.5.5.1. "NT" shall indicate that the glazing does 
not meet the temperature requirements of Section 
716.5.5.1. The placeholder "XXX" shall specify the 
fire-protection-rating period, in minutes. 

716.5.8.4 Safety glazing. Fire-protection-rated glazing 
installed in fire doors in areas subject to human impact 
in hazardous locations shall comply with Chapter 24. 

716.5.9 Door closing. Fire doors shall be self- or auto- 
matic-closing in accordance with this section. Self-closing 
chute intake doors shall not fail in a "door open" position 
in the event of a closer failure. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fire doors located in common walls separating 
sleeping units in Group R-l shall be permitted 
without automatic- or self-closing devices. 

2. The elevator car doors and the associated hoist- 
way enclosure doors at the floor level designated 
for recall in accordance with Section 3003.2 shall 
be permitted to remain open during Phase I emer- 
gency recall operation. 

716.5.9.1 Latch required. Unless otherwise specifi- 
cally permitted, single fire doors and both leaves of 
pairs of side-hinged swinging fire doors shall be pro- 
vided with an active latch bolt that will secure the door 
when it is closed. 

716.5.9.1.1 Chute intake door latching. Chute 
intake doors shall be positive latching, remaining 
latched and closed in the event of latch spring failure 
during a fire emergency. 

716.5.9.2 Automatic-closing tire door assemblies. 
Automatic-closing fire door assemblies shall be self- 
closing in accordance with NFPA 80. 

716.5.9.3 Smoke-activated doors. Automatic-closing 
doors installed in the following locations shall be auto- 
matic-closing by the actuation of smoke detectors 
installed in accordance with Section 907.3 or by loss of 
power to the smoke detector or hold-open device. 



Doors that are automatic-closing by smoke detection 
shall not have more than a 10-second delay before the 
door starts to close after the smoke detector is actuated: 

1 . Doors installed across a corridor. 

2. Doors that protect openings in exits or corri- 
dors required to be of fire-resistance-rated con- 
struction. 

3. Doors that protect openings in walls that are 
capable of resisting the passage of smoke in 
accordance with Section 509.4. 

4. Doors installed in smoke barriers in accordance 
with Section 709.5. 

5. Doors installed in fire partitions in accordance 
with Section 708.6. 

6. Doors installed in a. fire wall in accordance with 
Section 706.8. 

7. Doors installed in shaft enclosures in accor- 
dance with Section 713.7. 

8. Doors installed in refuse and laundry chutes 
and access and termination rooms in accor- 
dance with Section 713.13. Automatic-closing 
chute intake doors installed in refuse and laun- 
dry chutes shall also meet the requirements of 
Sections 716.5.9 and 716.5.9.1.1. 

9. Doors installed in the walls for compartmenta- 
tion of underground buildings in accordance 
with Section 405.4.2. 

10. Doors installed in the elevator lobby walls of 
underground buildings in accordance with Sec- 
tion 405.4.3. 

11. Doors installed in smoke partitions in accor- 
dance with Section 710.5.2.3. 

716.5.9.4 Doors in pedestrian ways. Vertical sliding 
or vertical rolling steel fire doors in openings through 
which pedestrians travel shall be heat activated or acti- 
vated by smoke detectors with alarm verification. 

716.5.10 Swinging fire shutters. Where fire shutters of 
the swinging type are installed in exterior openings, not 
less than one row in every three vertical rows shall be 
arranged to be readily opened from the outside, and shall 
be identified by distinguishing marks or letters not less 
than 6 inches (152 mm) high. 

716.5.11 Rolling fire shutters. Where fire shutters of the 
rolling type are installed, such shutters shall include 
approved automatic-closing devices. 

716.6 Fire-protection-rated glazing. Glazing in/f>e window 
assemblies shall be fire protection rated in accordance with 
this section and Table 716.6. Glazing in fire door assemblies 
shall comply with Section 716.5.8. Fire-protection-rated glaz- 
ing in fire window assemblies shall be tested in accordance 
with and shall meet the acceptance criteria of NFPA 257 or 
UL 9. Fire-protection-rated glazing shall also comply with 
NFPA 80. Openings in nonfire-resistance-rated exterior wall 
assemblies that require protection in accordance with Section 
705.3, 705.8, 705.8.5 or 705.8.6 shall have a fire protection 



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rating of not less than % hour. Fire-protection-rated glazing in 
0.5-hour fire-resistance-rated partitions is permitted to have a 
0.33-hour fire protection rating. 

716.6.1 Testing under positive pressure. NFPA 257 or 
UL 9 shall evaluate fire-protection-rated glazing under 
positive pressure. Within the first 10 minutes of a test, the 
pressure in the furnace shall be adjusted so at least two- 
thirds of the test specimen is above the neutral pressure 
plane, and the neutral pressure plane shall be maintained at 
that height for the balance of the test. 

716.6.2 Nonsymmetrical glazing systems. Nonsymmetri- 
cal fire-protection-rated glazing systems in fire partitions, 
fire barriers or in exterior walls with a fire separation dis- 
tance of 5 feet (1524 mm) or less pursuant to Section 705 
shall be tested with both faces exposed to the furnace, and 
the assigned fire protection rating shall be the shortest 
duration obtained from the two tests conducted in compli- 
ance with NFPA 257 or UL 9. 

716.6.3 Safety glazing. Fire-protection-rated glazing 
installed in fire window assemblies in areas subject to 
human impact in hazardous locations shall comply with 
Chapter 24. 

716.6.4 Glass and glazing. Glazing in fire window assem- 
blies shall be fire-protection-rated glazing installed in 
accordance with and complying with the size limitations 
set forth in NFPA 80. 

716.6.5 Installation. Fire-protection-rated glazing shall be 
in the fixed position or be automatic-closing and shall be 
installed in approved frames. 

716.6.6 Window mullions. Metal mullions that exceed a 
nominal height of 12 feet (3658 mm) shall be protected 
with materials to afford the same fire-resistance rating as 
required for the wall construction in which the protective 
is located. 



716.6.7 Interior fire window assemblies. Fire-protec- 
tion-rated glazing used m fire window assemblies located 
in fire partitions and fire barriers shall be limited to use in 
assemblies with a maximum fire-resistance rating of 1 
hour in accordance with this section. 

716.6.7.1 Where 3 / 4 -hour fire protection window 
assemblies permitted. Fire-protection-rated glazing 
requiring 45-minute opening protection in accordance 
with Table 716.6 shall be limited to fire partitions 
designed in accordance with Section 708 and /ire barri- 
ers utilized in the applications set forth in Sections 
707.3.6 and 707.3.8 where the fire-resistance rating 
does not exceed 1 hour. Fire-resistance-rated glazing 
assemblies tested in accordance with ASTM E 1 19 or 
UL 263 shall not be subject to the limitations of this 
section. 

716.6.7.2 Area limitations. The total area of the glaz- 
ing in fire-protection-rated windows assemblies shall 
not exceed 25 percent of the area of a common wall 
with any room. 

716.6.7.3 Where 7,-hour fire-protection window 
assemblies permitted. Fire-protection-rated glazing 
shall be permitted in window assemblies tested to 
NFPA 257 or UL 9 in smoke barriers and fire parti- 
tions requiring V 3 -hour opening protection in accor- 
dance with Table 716.6. 

716.6.8 Labeling requirements. Fire -protection-rated 
glazing shall bear a label or other identification showing 
the name of the manufacturer, the test standard and infor- 
mation required in Table 716.6 that shall be issued by an 
approved agency and shall be permanently identified on 
the glazing. 



L 



TABLE 716.6 
FIRE WINDOW ASSEMBLY FIRE PROTECTION RATINGS 



TYPE OF WALL 

ASSEMBLY 


REQUIRED WALL 

ASSEMBLY RATING 

(hours) 


MINIMUM FIRE 

WINDOW ASSEMBLY 

RATING (hours) 


FIRE-RATED 
GLAZING MARKING 


Interior walls 
Fire walls 

Fire barriers 

Incidental use areas (707.3.6), 

Mixed occupancy separations (707.3.8) 

Fire partitions 

Smoke barriers 


All 
>1 

1 

1 

1 
0.5 

1 


NP a 
NF 
NP a 

3 / 4 

% 
V, 


w-xxx b 

W-XXX b 

w-xxx b 

OH-45 or W-60 

OH-45 or W-60 
OH-20orW-30 
OH-45 or W-60 


Exterior walls 


>1 

1 

0.5 


1% 

7 5 


OH-90 or W-XXX b 
OH-45 or W-60 
OH-20 or W-30 


Party wall 


All 


NP 


Not Applicable 



NP - Not Permitted. 

a. Not permitted except fire-resistance-rated glazing assemblies tested to ASTM E 1 1 9 or UL 263, as specified in Section 7 1 6.2. 

b. XXX = The fire rating duration period in minutes, which shall be equal to the fire-resistance rating required for the wall assembly. 



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SECTION 717 
DUCTS AND AIR TRANSFER OPENINGS 

717.1 General. The provisions of this section shall govern 
the protection of duct penetrations and air transfer openings 
in assemblies required to be protected and duct penetrations 
in nonfire-resi stance-rated floor assemblies. 

717.1.1 Ducts that penetrate fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies without dampers. Ducts that penetrate fire- 
resistance-rated assemblies and are not required by this 
section to have dampers shall comply with the require- 
ments of Sections 714.2 through 714.3.3. Ducts that pene- 
trate horizontal assemblies not required to be contained 
within a shaft and not required by this section to have 
dampers shall comply with the requirements of Sections 
714.4 through 714.4.2.2. 

717.1.1.1 Ducts that penetrate nonfire-resistance- 
rated assemblies. The space around a duct penetrating 
a nonfire-resistance-rated floor assembly shall comply 
with Section 717.6.3. 

717.2 Installation. Fire dampers, smoke dampers, combina- 
tion fire/smoke dampers and ceiling radiation dampers 
located within air distribution and smoke control systems 
shall be installed in accordance with the requirements of this 
section, the manufacturer's installation instructions and the 
dampers' listing. 

717.2.1 Smoke control system. Where the installation of 
a fire damper will interfere with the operation of a 
required smoke control system in accordance with Section 
909, approved alternative protection shall be utilized. 
Where mechanical systems including ducts and dampers 
utilized for normal building ventilation serve as part of the 
smoke control system, the expected performance of these 
systems in smoke control mode shall be addressed in the 
rational analysis required by Section 909.4. 

717.2.2 Hazardous exhaust ducts. Fire dampers for haz- 
ardous exhaust duct systems shall comply with the Inter- 
national Mechanical Code. 

717.3 Damper testing, ratings and actuation. Damper test- 
ing, ratings and actuation shall be in accordance with Sec- 
tions 717.3.1 through 717.3.3. 

717.3.1 Damper testing. Dampers shall be listed and 
labeled in accordance with the standards in this section. 
Fire dampers shall comply with the requirements of UL 
555. Only fire dampers labeled for use in dynamic systems 
shall be installed in heating, ventilation and air-condition- 
ing systems designed to operate with fans on during a fire. 
Smoke dampers shall comply with the requirements of UL 
555S. Combination fire/smoke dampers shall comply with 
the requirements of both UL 555 and UL 555S. Ceiling 
radiation dampers shall comply with the requirements of 
UL 555C or shall be tested as part of a fire-resistance-rated 
floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly in accordance with 
ASTME119orUL263. 

717.3.2 Damper rating. Damper ratings shall be in accor- 
dance with Sections 717.3.2.1 through 717.3.2.3. 



717.3.2.1 Fire damper ratings. Fire dampers shall 
have the minimum fire protection rating specified in 
Table 717.3.2.1 for the type of penetration. 



TABLE 717.3.2.1 
FIRE DAMPER RATING 



TYPE OF 
PENETRATION 


MINIMUM 

DAMPER 

RATING (hours) 


Less than 3-hour fire-resistance-rated assemblies 


1.5 


3-hour or greater fire-resistance-rated assemblies 


3 



717.3.2.2 Smoke damper ratings. Smoke damper 
leakage ratings shall be Class I or II. Elevated tempera- | 
ture ratings shall not be less than 250°F (121°C). 

717.3.2.3 Combination fire/smoke damper ratings. 

Combination fire/smoke dampers shall have the mini- 
mum fire protection rating specified foxfire dampers in 
Table 717.3.2.1 for the type of penetration and shall 
also have a minimum smoke damper rating as specified | 
in Section 717.3.2.2. 1 

717.3.3 Damper actuation. Damper actuation shall be in 
accordance with Sections 717.3.3.1 through 717.3.3.4 as 
applicable. 

717.3.3.1 Fire damper actuation device. The fire 
damper actuation device shall meet one of the follow- 
ing requirements: 

1. The operating temperature shall be approxi- 
mately 50°F (10°C) above the normal tempera- 
ture within the duct system, but not less than 
160°F(7rC). 

2. The operating temperature shall be not more than 
350°F (177°C) where located in a smoke control 
system complying with Section 909. 

717.3.3.2 Smoke damper actuation. The smoke 
damper shall close upon actuation of a listed smoke 
detector or detectors installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 907.3 and one of the following methods, as appli- 
cable: 

1. Where a smoke damper is installed within a duct, 
a smoke detector shall be installed in the duct 
within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the damper with no 
air outlets or inlets between the detector and the 
damper. The detector shall be listed for the air 
velocity, temperature and humidity anticipated at 
the point where it is installed. Other than in 
mechanical smoke control systems, dampers 
shall be closed upon fan shutdown where local 
smoke detectors require a minimum velocity to 
operate. 

2. Where a smoke damper is installed above smoke 
barrier doors in a smoke barrier, a spot-type 
detector listed for releasing service shall be 
installed on either side of the smoke barrier door 
opening. 



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3. Where a smoke damper is installed within an air 
transfer opening in a wall, a spot-type detector 
listed for releasing service shall be installed 
within 5 feet (1524 mm) horizontally of the 
damper. 

4. Where a smoke damper is installed in a corridor 
wall or ceiling, the damper shall be permitted to 
be controlled by a smoke detection system 
installed in the corridor. 

5. Where a total-coverage smoke detector system is 
provided within areas served by a heating, venti- 
lation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, 
smoke dampers shall be permitted to be con- 
trolled by the smoke detection system. 

717.3.3.3 Combination fire/smoke damper actua- 
tion. Combination fire/smoke damper actuation shall be 
in accordance with Sections 717.3.3.1 and 717.3.3.2. 
Combination fire/smoke dampers installed in smoke 
control system shaft penetrations shall not be activated 
by local area smoke detection unless it is secondary to 
the smoke management system controls. 

717.3.3.4 Ceiling radiation damper actuation. The 
operating temperature of a ceiling radiation damper 
actuation device shall be 50°F (27.8°C) above the nor- 
mal temperature within the duct system, but not less 
thanl60°F(71°C). 

717.4 Access and identification. Fire and smoke dampers 
shall be provided with an approved means of access, which is 
large enough to permit inspection and maintenance of the 
damper and its operating parts. The access shall not affect the 
integrity of fire-resistance-rated assemblies. The access open- 
ings shall not reduce the fire-resistance rating of the assem- 
bly. Access points shall be permanently identified on the 
exterior by a label having letters not less than V 2 inch (12.7 
mm) in height reading: FIRE/SMOKE DAMPER, SMOKE 
DAMPER or FIRE DAMPER. Access doors in ducts shall be 
tight fitting and suitable for the required duct construction. 

717.5 Where required. Fire dampers, smoke dampers and 
combination fire/smoke dampers shall be provided at the 
locations prescribed in Sections 717.5.1 through 717.5.7 and 
717.6. Where an assembly is required to have both fire damp- 
ers and smoke dampers, combination fire/smoke dampers or a 
fire damper and a smoke damper shall be required. 

717.5.1 Fire walls. Ducts and air transfer openings per- 
mitted in fire walls in accordance with Section 706.11 
shall be protected with listed fire dampers installed in 
accordance with their listing. 

717.5.1.1 Horizontal exits. A listed smoke damper 
designed to resist the passage of smoke shall be pro- 
vided at each point a duct or air transfer opening pene- 
trates afire wall that serves as a horizontal exit. 

717.5.2 Fire barriers. Ducts and air transfer openings of 
fire barriers shall be protected with approved fire dampers 
installed in accordance with their listing. Ducts and air 

| transfer openings shall not penetrate enclosures for stair- 



ways, ramps and exit passageways except as permitted by 
Sections 1022.4 and 1023.6, respectively. 

Exception: Fire dampers are not required at penetra- 
tions of fire barriers where any of the following apply: 

1 . Penetrations are tested in accordance with ASTM 
E 119 or UL 263 as part of the fire-resistance- 
rated assembly. 

2. Ducts are used as part of an approved smoke con- 
trol system in accordance with Section 909 and 
where the use of a fire damper would interfere 
with the operation of a smoke control system. 

3. Such walls are penetrated by ducted HVAC sys- 
tems, have a required fire-resistance rating of 1 
hour or less, are in areas of other than Group H 
and are in buildings equipped throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. For the purposes 
of this exception, a ducted HVAC system shall be 
a duct system for conveying supply, return or 
exhaust air as part of the structure's HVAC sys- 
tem. Such a duct system shall be constructed of 
sheet steel not less than No. 26 gage thickness 
and shall be continuous from the air-handling 
appliance or equipment to the air outlet and inlet 
terminals. 

717.5.2.1 Horizontal exits. A listed smoke damper 
designed to resist the passage of smoke shall be pro- 
vided at each point a duct or air transfer opening pene- 
trates a fire barrier that serves as a horizontal exit . 
717.5.3 Shaft enclosures. Shaft enclosures that are per- 
mitted to be penetrated by ducts and air transfer openings 
shall be protected with approved fire and smoke dampers 
installed in accordance with their listing. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fire dampers are not required at penetrations of 
shafts where: 

1.1. Steel exhaust subducts are extended at 
least 22 inches (559 mm) vertically in 
exhaust shafts, provided there is a contin- 
uous airflow upward to the outside; or 

1.2. Penetrations are tested in accordance with 
ASTM E 119 or UL 263 as part of the 
fire-resistance-rated assembly; or 

1.3. Ducts are used as part of an approved 
smoke control system designed and 
installed in accordance with Section 909 
and where the fire damper will interfere 
with the operation of the smoke control 
system; or 

1.4. The penetrations are in parking garage 
exhaust or supply shafts that are separated 
from other building shafts by not less than 
2-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. 



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2. In Group B and R occupancies equipped through- 
out with an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1, smoke dampers are 
not required at penetrations of shafts where: 

2.1. Kitchen, clothes dryer, bathroom and toi- 
let room exhaust openings are installed 
with steel exhaust subducts, having a 
minimum wall thickness of 0.0187-inch 
(0.4712 mm) (No. 26 gage); 

2.2. The subducts extend at least 22 inches 
(559 mm) vertically; and 

2.3. An exhaust fan is installed at the upper 
terminus of the shaft that is powered con- 
tinuously in accordance with the provi- 
sions of Section 909.1 1, so as to maintain 
a continuous upward airflow to the out- 
side. 

3. Smoke dampers are not required at penetration of 
exhaust or supply shafts in parking garages that 
are separated from other building shafts by not 
less than 2-hour fire-resistance-rated construc- 
tion. 

4. Smoke dampers are not required at penetrations 
of shafts where ducts are used as part of an 
approved mechanical smoke control system 
designed in accordance with Section 909 and 
where the smoke damper will interfere with the 
operation of the smoke control system. 

5. Fire dampers and combination fire/smoke damp- 
ers are not required in kitchen and clothes dryer 
exhaust systems when installed in accordance 
with the International Mechanical Code. 

717.5.4 Fire partitions. Ducts and air transfer openings 
that penetrate fire partitions shall be protected with listed 
fire dampers installed in accordance with their listing. 

Exceptions: In occupancies other than Group H, fire 
dampers are not required where any of the following 
apply: 

1. Corridor walls in buildings equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and the duct 
is protected as a through penetration in accor- 
dance with Section 714. 

2. Tenant partitions in covered and open mall build- 
ings where the walls are not required by provi- 
sions elsewhere in the code to extend to the 
underside of the floor or roof sheathing, slab or 
deck above. 

3. The duct system is constructed of approved mate- 
rials in accordance with the International 
Mechanical Code and the duct penetrating the 
wall complies with all of the following require- 
ments: 

3.1. The duct shall not exceed 100 square 
inches (0.06 m 2 ). 



3.2. The duct shall be constructed of steel a 
minimum of 0.0217 inch (0.55 mm) in 
thickness. 

3.3. The duct shall not have openings that 
communicate the corridor with adjacent 
spaces or rooms. 

3.4. The duct shall be installed above a ceil- 
ing. 

3.5. The duct shall not terminate at a wall reg- 
ister in the fire-resistance-rated wall. 

3.6. A minimum 12-inch-long (305 mm) by 
0.060-inch-thick (1.52 mm) steel sleeve 
shall be centered in each duct opening. 
The sleeve shall be secured to both sides 
of the wall and all four sides of the sleeve 
with minimum l'/ 2 -inch by l'/ 2 -inch by 
0.060-inch (38 mm by 38 mm by 1.52 
mm) steel retaining angles. The retaining 
angles shall be secured to the sleeve and 
the wall with No. 10 (M5) screws. The 
annular space between the steel sleeve 
and the wall opening shall be filled with 
mineral wool batting on all sides. 

4. Such walls are penetrated by ducted HVAC sys- 
tems, have a required fire-resistance rating of 1 
hour or less, and are in buildings equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 
For the purposes of this exception, a ducted 
HVAC system shall be a duct system for convey- 
ing supply, return or exhaust air as part of the 
structure's HVAC system. Such a duct system 
shall be constructed of sheet steel not less than 
No. 26 gage thickness and shall be continuous 
from the air-handling appliance or equipment to 
the air outlet and inlet terminals. 

717.5.4.1 Corridors. A listed smoke damper designed 
to resist the passage of smoke shall be provided at each 
point a duct or air transfer opening penetrates a corri- 
dor enclosure required to have smoke and draft control 
doors in accordance with Section 7 1 6.5.3. 

Exceptions: 

1. Smoke dampers are not required where the 
building is equipped throughout with an 
approved smoke control system in accordance 
with Section 909, and smoke dampers are not 
necessary for the operation and control of the 
system. 

2. Smoke dampers are not required in corridor 
penetrations where the duct is constructed of 
steel not less than 0.019 inch (0.48 mm) in 
thickness and there are no openings serving 
the corridor. 

717.5.5 Smoke barriers. A listed smoke damper designed 
to resist the passage of smoke shall be provided at each 



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point a duct or air transfer opening penetrates a smoke bar- 
rier. Smoke dampers and smoke damper actuation meth- 
ods shall comply with Section 717.3.3.2. 

Exception: Smoke dampers are not required where the 
openings in ducts are limited to a single smoke com- 
partment and the ducts are constructed of steel. 

717.5.6 Exterior walls. Ducts and air transfer openings in 
fire-resistance-rated exterior walls required to have pro- 
tected openings in accordance with Section 705.10 shall 
be protected with listed fire dampers installed in accor- 
dance with their listing. 

717.5.7 Smoke partitions. A listed smoke damper 
designed to resist the passage of smoke shall be provided 
at each point that an air transfer opening penetrates a 
smoke partition. Smoke dampers and smoke damper actua- 
tion methods shall comply with Section 717.3.3.2. 

Exception: Where the installation of a smoke damper 
will interfere with the operation of a required smoke 
control system in accordance with Section 909, 
approved alternative protection shall be utilized. 

717.6 Horizontal assemblies. Penetrations by ducts and air 
transfer openings of a floor, floor/ceiling assembly or the 
ceiling membrane of a roof/ceiling assembly shall be pro- 
tected by a shaft enclosure that complies with Section 713 or 
shall comply with Sections 717.6.1 through 717.6.3. 

717.6.1 Through penetrations. In occupancies other than 
Groups 1-2 and 1-3, a duct constructed of approved materi- 
als in accordance with the International Mechanical Code 
that penetrates a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling assem- 
bly that connects not more than two stories is permitted 
without shaft enclosure protection, provided a listed fire 
damper is installed at the floor line or the duct is protected 
in accordance with Section 714.4. For air transfer open- 
ings, see Section 712.1.8. 

Exception: A duct is permitted to penetrate three floors 
or less without & fire damper at each floor, provided 
such duct meets all of the following requirements: 

1. The duct shall be contained and located within 
the cavity of a wall and shall be constructed of 
steel having a minimum wall thickness of 0.0187 
inches (0.4712 mm) (No. 26 gage). 

2. The duct shall open into only one dwelling or 
sleeping unit and the duct system shall be contin- 
uous from the unit to the exterior of the building. 

3. The duct shall not exceed 4-inch (102 mm) nomi- 
nal diameter and the total area of such ducts shall 
not exceed 100 square inches (0.065 m 2 ) in any 
100 square feet (9.3 m 2 ) of floor area. 

4. The annular space around the duct is protected 
with materials that prevent the passage of flame 
and hot gases sufficient to ignite cotton waste 
where subjected to ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263 time- 
temperature conditions under a minimum posi- 
tive pressure differential of 0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) of 
water at the location of the penetration for the 



time period equivalent to the fire-resistance rat- 
ing of the construction penetrated. 

5. Grille openings located in a ceiling of a fire-resis- 
tance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly 
shall be protected with a listed ceiling radiation 
damper installed in accordance with Section 
717.6.2.1. 

717.6.2 Membrane penetrations. Ducts and air transfer 
openings constructed of approved materials in accordance 
with the International Mechanical Code that penetrate the 
ceiling membrane of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or 
roof/ceiling assembly shall be protected with one of the 
following: 

1. A shaft enclosure in accordance with Section 713. 

2. A listed ceiling radiation damper installed at the 
ceiling line where a duct penetrates the ceiling of a 
fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling 
assembly. 

3. A listed ceiling radiation damper installed at the 
ceiling line where a diffuser with no duct attached 
penetrates the ceiling of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ 
ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly. 

717.6.2.1 Ceiling radiation dampers. Ceiling radia- 
tion dampers shall be tested in accordance with Section 
717.3.1. Ceiling radiation dampers shall be installed in 
accordance with the details listed in the fire-resistance- 
rated assembly and the manufacturer's installation 
instructions and the listing. Ceiling radiation dampers 
are not required where either of the following applies: 

1 . Tests in accordance with ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263 
have shown that ceiling radiation dampers are 
not necessary in order to maintain the fire-resis- 
tance rating of the assembly. 

2. Where exhaust duct penetrations are protected in 
accordance with Section 714.4.1.2, are located 
within the cavity of a wall and do not pass 
through another dwelling unit or tenant space. 

717.6.3 Nonfire-resistance-rated floor assemblies. Duct 
systems constructed of approved materials in accordance 
with the International Mechanical Code that penetrate 
nonfire-resistance-rated floor assemblies shall be pro- 
tected by any of the following methods: 

1 . A shaft enclosure in accordance with Section 713. 

2. The duct connects not more than two stories, and the 
annular space around the penetrating duct is pro- 
tected with an approved noncombustible material 
that resists the free passage of flame and the prod- 
ucts of combustion. 

3. The duct connects not more than three stories, and 
the annular space around the penetrating duct is 
protected with an approved noncombustible mate- 
rial that resists the free passage of flame and the 
products of combustion and a fire damper is 
installed at each floor line. 

Exception: Fire dampers are not required in 
ducts within individual residential dwelling units. 



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717.7 Flexible ducts and air connectors. Flexible ducts and 
air connectors shall not pass through any fire -resistance-rated 
assembly. Flexible air connectors shall not pass through any 

wall, floor or ceiling. 



SECTION 718 
CONCEALED SPACES 

718.1 General. Fireblocking and draftstopping shall be 
installed in combustible concealed locations in accordance 
with this section. Fireblocking shall comply with Section 
718.2. Draftstopping in floor/ceiling spaces and attic spaces 
shall comply with Sections 718.3 and 718.4, respectively. 
The permitted use of combustible materials in concealed 
spaces of buildings of Type I or II construction shall be lim- 
ited to the applications indicated in Section 718.5. 

718.2 Fireblocking. In combustible construction, fireblock- 
ing shall be installed to cut off concealed draft openings (both 
vertical and horizontal) and shall form an effective barrier 
between floors, between a top story and a roof or attic space. 
Fireblocking shall be installed in the locations specified in 
Sections 718.2.2 through 718.2.7. 

718.2.1 Fireblocking materials. Fireblocking shall con- 
sist of the following materials: 

1. Two-inch (51 mm) nominal lumber. 

2. Two thicknesses of 1-inch (25 mm) nominal lumber 
with broken lap joints. 

3. One thickness of 0.719-inch (18.3 mm) wood struc- 
tural panels with joints backed by 0.719-inch (18.3 
mm) wood structural panels. 

4. One thickness of 0.75-inch (19.1 mm) particleboard 
with joints backed by 0.75-inch (19 mm) particle- 
board. 

5. One-half-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board. 

6. One-fourth-inch (6.4 mm) cement-based millboard. 

7. Batts or blankets of mineral wool, mineral fiber or 
other approved materials installed in such a manner 
as to be securely retained in place. 

8. Cellulose insulation installed as tested for the spe- 
cific application. 

718.2.1.1 Batts or blankets of mineral wool or min- 
eral Fiber. Batts or blankets of mineral wool or mineral 
fiber or other approved nonrigid materials shall be per- 
mitted for compliance with the 10-foot (3048 mm) hor- 
izontal fireblocking in walls constructed using parallel 
rows of studs or staggered studs. 

718.2.1.2 Unfaced fiberglass. Unfaced fiberglass batt 
insulation used as fireblocking shall fill the entire cross 
section of the wall cavity to a minimum height of 16 
inches (406 mm) measured vertically. When piping, 
conduit or similar obstructions are encountered, the 
insulation shall be packed tightly around the obstruc- 
tion. 

718.2.1.3 Loose-Fill insulation material. Loose-fill 
insulation material, insulating foam sealants and caulk 



materials shall not be used as a fireblock unless specifi- 
cally tested in the form and manner intended for use to 
demonstrate its ability to remain in place and to retard 
the spread of fire and hot gases. 

718.2.1.4 Fireblocking integrity. The integrity of fire- 
blocks shall be maintained. 

718.2.1.5 Double stud walls. Batts or blankets of min- 
eral or glass fiber or other approved nonrigid materials 
shall be allowed as fireblocking in walls constructed 
using parallel rows of studs or staggered studs. 

718.2.2 Concealed wall spaces. Fireblocking shall be 
provided in concealed spaces of stud walls and partitions, 
including furred spaces, and parallel rows of studs or stag- 
gered studs, as follows: 

1. Vertically at the ceiling and floor levels. 

2. Horizontally at intervals not exceeding 10 feet (3048 
mm). 

718.2.3 Connections between horizontal and vertical 
spaces. Fireblocking shall be provided at interconnections 
between concealed vertical stud wall or partition spaces 
and concealed horizontal spaces created by an assembly of 
floor joists or trusses, and between concealed vertical and 
horizontal spaces such as occur at soffits, drop ceilings, 
cove ceilings and similar locations. 

718.2.4 Stairways. Fireblocking shall be provided in con- 
cealed spaces between stair stringers at the top and bottom 
of the run. Enclosed spaces under stairs shall also comply 
with Section 1009.9.3. 

718.2.5 Ceiling and floor openings. Where required by 
Section 712.1.7, Exception 1 of Section 714.4.1.2 or Sec- 
tion 714.4.2, fireblocking of the annular space around 
vents, pipes, ducts, chimneys and fireplaces at ceilings and 
floor levels shall be installed with a material specifically 
tested in the form and manner intended for use to demon- 
strate its ability to remain in place and resist the free pas- 
sage of flame and the products of combustion. 

718.2.5.1 Factory-built chimneys and fireplaces. 

Factory-built chimneys and fireplaces shall be fire- 
blocked in accordance with UL 103 and UL 127. 

718.2.6 Exterior wall coverings. Fireblocking shall be 
installed within concealed spaces of exterior wall cover- 
ings and other exterior architectural elements where per- 
mitted to be of combustible construction as specified in 
Section 1406 or where erected with combustible frames. 
Fireblocking shall be installed at maximum intervals of 20 
feet (6096 mm) in either dimension so that there will be no 
concealed space exceeding 100 square feet (9.3 m 2 ) 
between fireblocking. Where wood furring strips are used, 
they shall be of approved wood of natural decay resistance 
or preservative-treated wood. If noncontinuous, such ele- 
ments shall have closed ends, with at least 4 inches (102 
mm) of separation between sections. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fireblocking of cornices is not required in single- 
family dwellings. Fireblocking of cornices of a 



142 



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FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



two-family dwelling is required only at the line of 
dwelling unit separation. 

2. Fireblocking shall not be required where the 
exterior wall covering is installed on noncombus- 
tible framing and the face of the exterior wall 
covering exposed to the concealed space is cov- 
ered by one of the following materials: 

2. 1 . Aluminum having a minimum thickness 
of 0.019 inch (0.5 mm). 

2.2. Corrosion-resistant steel having a base 
metal thickness not less than 0.016 inch 
(0.4 mm) at any point. 

2.3. Other approved noncombustible materi- 
als. 

3. Fireblocking shall not be required where the 
exterior wall covering has been tested in accor- 
dance with, and complies with the acceptance cri- 
teria of, NFPA 285. The exterior wall covering 
shall be installed as tested in accordance with 
NFPA 285. 

718.2.7 Concealed sleeper spaces. Where wood sleepers 
are used for laying wood flooring on masonry or concrete 
fire-resistance-rated floors, the space between the floor 
slab and the underside of the wood flooring shall be filled 
with an approved material to resist the free passage of 
flame and products of combustion or fireblocked in such a 
manner that there will be no open spaces under the floor- 
ing that will exceed 100 square feet (9.3 m 2 ) in area and 
such space shall be filled solidly under permanent parti- 
tions so that there is no communication under the flooring 
between adjoining rooms. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fireblocking is not required for slab-on-grade 
floors in gymnasiums. 

2. Fireblocking is required only at the juncture of 
each alternate lane and at the ends of each lane in 
a bowling facility. 

718.3 Draftstopping in floors. In combustible construction, 
draftstopping shall be installed to subdivide floor/ceiling 
assemblies in the locations prescribed in Sections 718.3.2 
through 718.3.3. 

718.3.1 Draftstopping materials. Draftstopping materials 
shall not be less than V 2 -inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board, 3 / 8 - 
inch (9.5 mm) wood structural panel, 3 / g -inch (9.5 mm) 
particleboard, 1-inch (25-mm) nominal lumber, cement 
fiberboard, batts or blankets of mineral wool or glass fiber, 
or other approved materials adequately supported. The 
integrity of draftstops shall be maintained. 

718.3.2 Groups R-l, R-2, R-3 and R-4. Draftstopping 
shall be provided in floor/ceiling spaces in Group R-l 
buildings, in Group R-2 buildings with three or more 
dwelling units, in Group R-3 buildings with two dwelling 
units and in Group R-4 buildings. Draftstopping shall be 



located above and in line with the dwelling unit and sleep- 
ing unit separations. 

Exceptions: 

1. Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2, 
provided that automatic sprinklers are also 
installed in the combustible concealed spaces 
where the draftstopping is being omitted. [ 

718.3.3 Other groups. In other groups, draftstopping shall 
be installed so that horizontal floor areas do not exceed 
1,000 square feet (93 m 2 ). 

Exception: Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

718.4 Draftstopping in attics. In combustible construction, 
draftstopping shall be installed to subdivide attic spaces and 
concealed roof spaces in the locations prescribed in Sections 
718.4.2 and 718.4.3. Ventilation of concealed roof spaces 
shall be maintained in accordance with Section 1203.2. 

718.4.1 Draftstopping materials. Materials utilized for 
draftstopping of attic spaces shall comply with Section 
718.3.1. 

718.4.1.1 Openings. Openings in the partitions shall be 
protected by self-closing doors with automatic latches 
constructed as required for the partitions. 

718.4.2 Groups R-l and R-2. Draftstopping shall be pro- 
vided in attics, mansards, overhangs or other concealed 
roof spaces of Group R-2 buildings with three or more 
dwelling units and in all Group R-l buildings. Draftstop- 
ping shall be installed above, and in line with, sleeping 
unit and dwelling unit separation walls that do not extend 
to the underside of the roof sheathing above. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Where corridor walls provide a sleeping unit or 
dwelling unit separation, draftstopping shall only 
be required above one of the corridor walls. 

2. Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

3. In occupancies in Group R-2 that do not exceed 
four stories above grade plane, the attic space 
shall be subdivided by draftstops into areas not 
exceeding 3,000 square feet (279 m 2 ) or above 
every two dwelling units, whichever is smaller. 

4. Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2, 
provided that automatic sprinklers are also 
installed in the combustible concealed space 
where the draftstopping is being omitted. | 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



143 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



718.4.3 Other groups. Draftstopping shall be installed in 
attics and concealed roof spaces, such that any horizontal 
area does not exceed 3,000 square feet (279 m 2 ). 

Exception: Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

718.5 Combustible materials in concealed spaces in Type I 
or II construction. Combustible materials shall not be per- 
mitted in concealed spaces of buildings of Type I or II con- 
struction. 

Exceptions: 

1. Combustible materials in accordance with Section 
603. 

2. Combustible materials exposed within plenums 
complying with Section 602 of the International 
Mechanical Code. 

3. Class A interior finish materials classified in accor- 
dance with Section 803. 

4. Combustible piping within partitions or shaft enclo- 
sures installed in accordance with the provisions of 
this code. 

5. Combustible piping within concealed ceiling spaces 
installed in accordance with the International 
Mechanical Code and the International Plumbing 
Code. 

6. Combustible insulation and covering on pipe and 
tubing, installed in concealed spaces other than ple- 
nums, complying with Section 720.7. 



SECTION 719 

FIRE-RESISTANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR 

PLASTER 

719.1 Thickness of plaster. The minimum thickness of gyp- 
sum plaster or Portland cement plaster used in a fire-resis- 
tance-rated system shall be determined by the prescribed fire 
tests. The plaster thickness shall be measured from the face of 
the lath where applied to gypsum lath or metal lath. 

719.2 Plaster equivalents. For fire -resistance purposes, 7 2 
inch (12.7 mm) of unsanded gypsum plaster shall be deemed 
equivalent to V 4 inch (19.1 mm) of one-to-three gypsum sand 
plaster or 1 inch (25 mm) of Portland cement sand plaster. 

719.3 Noncombustible furring. In buildings of Type 1 and II 
construction, plaster shall be applied directly on concrete or 
masonry or on approved noncombustible plastering base and 
furring. 

719.4 Double reinforcement. Plaster protection more than 1 
inch (25 mm) in thickness shall be reinforced with an addi- 
tional layer of approved lath embedded at least 3 / 4 inch (19.1 
mm) from the outer surface and fixed securely in place. 

Exception: Solid plaster partitions or where otherwise 
determined by fire tests. 

719.5 Plaster alternatives for concrete. In reinforced con- 
crete construction, gypsum plaster or Portland cement plaster 
is permitted to be substituted for V 2 inch (12.7 mm) of the 



required poured concrete protection, except that a minimum 
thickness of V 8 inch (9.5 mm) of poured concrete shall be pro- 
vided in reinforced concrete floors and 1 inch (25 mm) in 
reinforced concrete columns in addition to the plaster finish. 
The concrete base shall be prepared in accordance with Sec- 
tion 2510.7. 



SECTION 720 
THERMAL- AND SOUND-INSULATING MATERIALS 

720.1 General. Insulating materials, including facings such 
as vapor retarders and vapor-permeable membranes, similar 
coverings and all layers of single and multilayer reflective 
foil insulations, shall comply with the requirements of this 
section. Where a flame spread index or a smoke-developed 
index is specified in this section, such index shall be deter- 
mined in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723. Any mate- 
rial that is subject to an increase in flame spread index or 
smoke-developed index beyond the limits herein established 
through the effects of age, moisture or other atmospheric con- 
ditions shall not be permitted. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fiberboard insulation shall comply with Chapter 23. 

2. Foam plastic insulation shall comply with Chapter 
26. 

3. Duct and pipe insulation and duct and pipe cover- 
ings and linings in plenums shall comply with the 
International Mechanical Code. 

4. All layers of single and multilayer reflective plastic 
core insulation shall comply with Section 2613. 

720.2 Concealed installation. Insulating materials, where 
concealed as installed in buildings of any type of construc- 
tion, shall have a flame spread index of not more than 25 and 
a smoke-developed index of not more than 450. 

Exception: Cellulose loose-fill insulation that is not spray 
applied, complying with the requirements of Section 
720.6, shall only be required to meet the smoke-developed 
index of not more than 450. 

720.2.1 Facings. Where such materials are installed in 
concealed spaces in buildings of Type III, IV or V con- 
struction, the flame spread and smoke-developed limita- 
tions do not apply to facings, coverings, and layers of 
reflective foil insulation that are installed behind and in 
substantial contact with the unexposed surface of the ceil- 
ing, wall or floor finish. 

Exception: All layers of single and multilayer reflec- 
tive plastic core insulation shall comply with Section 
2613. 

720.3 Exposed installation. Insulating materials, where 
exposed as installed in buildings of any type of construction, 
shall have a flame spread index of not more than 25 and a 
smoke-developed index of not more than 450. 

Exception: Cellulose loose-fill insulation that is not spray 
applied complying with the requirements of Section 720.6 
shall only be required to meet the smoke-developed index 
of not more than 450. 



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720.3.1 Attic floors. Exposed insulation materials 
installed on attic floors shall have a critical radiant flux of 
not less than 0.12 watt per square centimeter when tested 
in accordance with ASTM E 970. 

720.4 Loose-fill insulation. Loose-fill insulation materials 
that cannot be mounted in the ASTM E 84 or UL 723 appara- 
tus without a screen or artificial supports shall comply with 
the flame spread and smoke-developed limits of Sections 
720.2 and 720.3 when tested in accordance with CAN/ULC 
SI 02.2. 

Exception: Cellulose loose-fill insulation shall not be 
required to be tested in accordance with CAN/ULC 
S102.2, provided such insulation complies with the 
requirements of Section 720.2 or 720.3, as applicable, and 
Section 720.6. 

720.5 Roof insulation. The use of combustible roof insula- 
tion not complying with Sections 720.2 and 720.3 shall be 
permitted in any type of construction provided it is covered 
with approved roof coverings directly applied thereto. 

720.6 Cellulose loose-fill insulation. Cellulose loose-fill 
insulation shall comply with CPSC 16 CFR Part 1209 and 
CPSC 16 CFR Part 1404. Each package of such insulating 
material shall be clearly labeled in accordance with CPSC 16 
CFR Part 1209 and CPSC 16 CFR Part 1404. 

720.7 Insulation and covering on pipe and tubing. Insula- 
tion and covering on pipe and tubing shall have a flame 
spread index of not more than 25 and a smoke-developed 
index of not more than 450. 

Exception: Insulation and covering on pipe and tubing 
installed in plenums shall comply with the International 
Mechanical Code. 



SECTION 721 
PRESCRIPTIVE FIRE RESISTANCE 

721.1 General. The provisions of this section contain pre- 
scriptive details of fire-resistance-rated building elements, 
components or assemblies. The materials of construction 
listed in Tables 721.1(1), 721.1(2), and 721.1(3) shall be 
assumed to have the fire-resistance ratings prescribed 
therein. Where materials that change the capacity for heat dis- 
sipation are incorporated into a fire-resistance-rated assem- 
bly, fire test results or other substantiating data shall be made 
available to the building official to show that the required 
fire-resistance-rating time period is not reduced. 

721.1.1 Thickness of protective coverings. The thickness 
of fire-resistant materials required for protection of struc- 



tural members shall be not less than set forth in Table 
721.1(1), except as modified in this section. The figures 
shown shall be the net thickness of the protecting materials 
and shall not include any hollow space in back of the pro- 
tection. 

721.1.2 Unit masonry protection. Where required, metal 
ties shall be embedded in bed joints of unit masonry for 
protection of steel columns. Such ties shall be as set forth 
in Table 721.1(1) or be equivalent thereto. 

721.1.3 Reinforcement for cast-in-place concrete col- 
umn protection. Cast-in-place concrete protection for 
steel columns shall be reinforced at the edges of such 
members with wire ties of not less than 0. 1 8 inch (4.6 mm) 
in diameter wound spirally around the columns on a pitch 
of not more than 8 inches (203 mm) or by equivalent rein- 
forcement. 

721.1.4 Plaster application. The finish coat is not 
required for plaster protective coatings where they comply 
with the design mix and thickness requirements of Tables 
721.1(1), 721.1(2) and 721.1(3). 

721.1.5 Bonded prestressed concrete tendons. For mem- 
bers having a single tendon or more than one tendon 
installed with equal concrete cover measured from the 
nearest surface, the cover shall not be less than that set 
forth in Table 721.1(1). For members having multiple ten- 
dons installed with variable concrete cover, the average 
tendon cover shall not be less than that set forth in Table 
721.1(1), provided: 

1. The clearance from each tendon to the nearest 
exposed surface is used to determine the average 
cover. 

2. In no case can the clear cover for individual tendons 
be less than one-half of that set forth in Table 
721.1(1). A minimum cover of 3 / 4 inch (19.1 mm) 
for slabs and 1 inch (25 mm) for beams is required 
for any aggregate concrete. 

3. For the purpose of establishing a fire-resistance rat- 
ing, tendons having a clear covering less than that 
set forth in Table 721.1(1) shall not contribute more 
than 50 percent of the required ultimate moment 
capacity for members less than 350 square inches 
(0.226 m 2 ) in cross-sectional area and 65 percent for 
larger members. For structural design purposes, 
however, tendons having a reduced cover are 
assumed to be fully effective. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



145 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721.1(1) 

MINIMUM PROTECTION OF STRUCTURAL PARTS BASED ON TIME PERIODS 

FOR VARIOUS NONCOMBUSTIBLE INSULATING MATERIALS" 1 



STRUCTURAL 
PARTS TO BE 
PROTECTED 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


INSULATING MATERIAL USED 


MINIMUM THICKNESS OF 

INSULATING MATERIAL 

FOR THE FOLLOWING 

FIRE-RESISTANCE 

PERIODS (inches) 


4 
hours 


3 

hours 


2 
hours 


1 
hour 


1 . Steel columns 
and all of primary 
trusses 
(continued) 


1-1.1 


Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete, members 6" x 6" or 
greater (not including sandstone, granite and siliceous gravel)." 


2V 2 


2 


IV, 


1 


1-1.2 


Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete, members 8" x 8" or 
greater (not including sandstone, granite and siliceous gravel)." 


2 


1V 2 


1 


1 


1-1.3 


Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete, members 
12" x 12" or greater (not including sandstone, granite and siliceous gravel)." 


1V 2 


1 


1 


1 


1-1.4 


Siliceous aggregate concrete and concrete excluded in Item 1-1.1, members 6" x 6" or 
greater." 


3 


2 


l'/ 2 


1 


1-1.5 


Siliceous aggregate concrete and concrete excluded in Item 1-1.1, members 8" x 8" or 
greater." 


2% 


2 


1 


1 


1-1.6 


Siliceous aggregate concrete and concrete excluded in Item 1-1.1, members 
12" x 12" or greater." 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1-2.1 


Clay or shale brick with brick and mortar fill." 


3% 


— 


— 


2-V, 


1-3.1 


4" hollow clay tile in two 2" layers; 7 2 " mortar between tile and column; V 8 " metal mesh 
0.046" wire diameter in horizontal joints; tile fill." 


4 


— 


— 


— 


1-3.2 


2" hollow clay tile; V 4 " mortar between tile and column; 3 / s " metal mesh 0.046" wire 
diameter in horizontal joints; limestone concrete fill"; plastered with 3 / 4 " gypsum plas- 
ter. 


3 


— 


— 


— 


1-3.3 


2" hollow clay tile with outside wire ties 0.08" diameter at each course of tile or 3 / s " 
metal mesh 0.046" diameter wire in horizontal joints; limestone or trap-rock concrete 
fill" extending 1" outside column on all sides. 


— 


— 


3 


— 


1-3.4 


2" hollow clay tile with outside wire ties 0.08" diameter at each course of tile with or 
without concrete fill; 3 / 4 " mortar between tile and column. 


— 


— 


— 


2 


1-4.1 


Cement plaster over metal lath wire tied to V 4 " cold-rolled vertical channels with 0.049" 
(No. 18 B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 3" to 6" on center. Plaster mixed 
1:2 7, by volume, cement to sand. 


— 


— 


27," 


\ 


1-5.1 


Vermiculite concrete, 1 :4 mix by volume over paperbacked wire fabric lath wrapped 
directly around column with additional 2" x 2" 0.065" /0.065" (No. 16/16 B.W. gage) 
wire fabric placed 3 / 4 " from outer concrete surface. Wire fabric tied with 0.049" (No. 1 8 
B.W. gage) wire spaced 6" on center for inner layer and 2" on center for outer layer. 


2 


— 


— 


— 


1-6.1 


Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster over metal lath wrapped around column and 
furred 1 V 4 " from column flanges. Sheets lapped at ends and tied at 6" intervals with 
0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) tie wire. Plaster pushed through to flanges. 


l7 2 


1 


— 


— 


1-6.2 


Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster over self-furring metal lath wrapped directly 
around column, lapped 1 " and tied at 6" intervals with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire. 


l 3 / 4 


l 5 / g 


1 


— 


1-6.3 


Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster on metal lath applied to 3 / 4 " cold-rolled channels 
spaced 24" apart vertically and wrapped flatwise around column. 


l'/ 2 


— 


— 


— 


1-6.4 


Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster over two layers of '/," plain full-length gypsum 
lath applied tight to column flanges. Lath wrapped with 1 " hexagonal mesh of No. 20 
gage wire and tied with doubled 0.035" diameter (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 
23" on center. For three-coat work, the plaster mix for the second coat shall not exceed 
1 00 pounds of gypsum to 27 2 cubic feet of aggregate for the 3-hour system. 


2V 2 


2 


— 


— 



(continued) 



146 



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FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721.1(1)— continued 

MINIMUM PROTECTION OF STRUCTURAL PARTS BASED ON TIME PERIODS 

FOR VARIOUS NONCOMBUSTIBLE INSULATING MATERIALS" 1 



STRUCTURAL 
PARTS TO BE 
PROTECTED 



ITEM 
NUMBER 



INSULATING MATERIAL USED 



MINIMUM THICKNESS OF 

INSULATING MATERIAL 

FOR THE FOLLOWING 

FIRE-RESISTANCE 

PERIODS (inches) 



4 
hours 



3 
hours 



2 
hours 



1 
hour 



1-6.5 



Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster over one layer of 7 2 " plain full-length gypsum 
lath applied tight to column flanges. Lath tied with doubled 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) 
wire ties spaced 23" on center and scratch coat wrapped with 1 " hexagonal mesh 0.035" 
(No. 20 B.W. gage) wire fabric. For three-coat work, the plaster mix for the second coat 
shall not exceed 100 pounds of gypsum to 2 7 2 cubic feet of aggregate. 



-7.1 



Multiple layers of 7 2 " gypsum wallboard c adhesively d secured to column flanges and 
successive layers. Wallboard applied without horizontal joints. Corner edges of each 
layer staggered. Wallboard layer below outer layer secured to column with doubled 
0.049" (No. 1 8 B.W. gage) steel wire ties spaced 15" on center. Exposed corners taped 
and treated. 



1-7.2 



Three layers of 5 / g " Type X gypsum wallboard. c First and second layer held in place by 
V g " diameter by l 3 / g " long ring shank nails with V l6 " diameter heads spaced 24" on cen- 
ter at corners. Middle layer also secured with metal straps at mid-height and 18" from 
each end, and by metal corner bead at each corner held by the metal straps. Third layer 
attached to corner bead with 1" long gypsum wallboard screws spaced 12" on center. 



W 



1 . Steel columns 
and all of primary 
trusses 



1-7.3 



Three layers of 7 g " Type X gypsum wallboard, each layer screw attached to l 5 / g " steel 
studs 0.01 8" thick (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) at each corner of column. Middle 
layer also secured with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) double-strand steel wire ties, 24" on 
center. Screws are No. 6 by 1" spaced 24" on center for inner layer, No. 6 by l 5 / g " 
spaced 12" on center for middle layer and No. ! 
layer. 



VL 



by 27 4 " spaced 12" on center for outer 



1-8.1 



Wood-fibered gypsum plaster mixed 1:1 by weight gypsum-to-sand aggregate applied 
over metal lath. Lath lapped 1" and tied 6" on center at all end, edges and spacers with 
0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) steel tie wires. Lath applied over '/ 2 " spacers made of 3 / 4 " 
furring channel with 2" legs bent around each corner. Spacers located 1" from top and 
bottom of member and a maximum of 40" on center and wire tied with a single strand 
of 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) steel tie wires. Corner bead tied to the lath at 6" on center 
along each corner to provide plaster thickness. 



17. 



1-9.1 



Minimum W8x35 wide flange steel column (w/d > 0.75) with each web cavity filled 
even with the flange tip with normal weight carbonate or siliceous aggregate concrete 
(3,000 psi minimum compressive strength with 145 pcf ± 3 pcf unit weight). Reinforce 
the concrete in each web cavity with a minimum No. 4 deformed reinforcing bar 
installed vertically and centered in the cavity, and secured to the column web with a 
minimum No. 2 horizontal deformed reinforcing bar welded to the web every 18" on 
center vertically. As an alternative to the No. 4 rebar, 3 / 4 " diameter by 3" long headed 
studs, spaced at 12" on center vertically, shall be welded on each side of the web mid- 
way between the column flanges. 



See 

Note 

n 



2-1.1 



2. Webs or flanges 
of steel beams and 
girders 
(continued) 



Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete (not including sand- 
stone, granite and siliceous gravel) with 3" or finer metal mesh placed 1" from the fin- 
ished surface anchored to the top flange and providing not less than 0.025 square inch 
of steel area per foot in each direction. 



17, 



2-1.2 



Siliceous aggregate concrete and concrete excluded in Item 2-1.1 with 3" or finer metal 
mesh placed 1" from the finished surface anchored to the top flange and providing not 
less than 0.025 square inch of steel area per foot in each direction. 



27, 



IV, 



2-2. 



Cement plaster on metal lath attached to 3 / 4 " cold-rolled channels with 0.04" (No. 18 
B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 3" to 6" on center. Plaster mixed 1 :2 7 2 by volume, cement 
to sand. 



27 2 " 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



147 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721 .1 (1 )— continued 

MINIMUM PROTECTION OF STRUCTURAL PARTS BASED ON TIME PERIODS 

FOR VARIOUS NONCOMBUSTIBLE INSULATING MATERIALS" 1 



STRUCTURAL 
PARTS TO BE 
PROTECTED 



ITEM 
NUMBER 



INSULATING MATERIAL USED 



MINIMUM THICKNESS OF 

INSULATING MATERIAL 

FOR THE FOLLOWING 

FIRE-RESISTANCE 

PERIODS (inches) 



4 
hours 



3 
hours 



2 
hours 



1 
hour 



2-3.1 



Vermiculite gypsum plaster on a metal lath cage, wire tied to 0.165" diameter (No. 8 
B.W. gage) steel wire hangers wrapped around beam and spaced 16" on center. Metal 
lath ties spaced approximately 5" on center at cage sides and bottom. 



2-4.1 



2. Webs or 
flanges of steel 
beams and 
girders 



Two layers of 5 / g " Type X gypsum wallboard c are attached to U-shaped brackets spaced 
24" on center. 0.018" thick (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) l 5 / g " deep by 1" galvanized 
steel runner channels are first installed parallel to and on each side of the top beam 
flange to provide a 7 2 " clearance to the flange. The channel runners are attached to steel 
deck or concrete floor construction with approved fasteners spaced 1 2" on center. U- 
shaped brackets are formed from members identical to the channel runners. At the bent 
portion of the U-shaped bracket, the flanges of the channel are cut out so that l 5 / g " deep 
corner channels can be inserted without attachment parallel to each side of the lower 
flange. 

As an alternative, 0.021" thick (No. 24 carbon sheet steel gage) 1" x 2" runner and cor- 
ner angles may be used in lieu of channels, and the web cutouts in the U-shaped brackets 
may be omitted. Each angle is attached to the bracket with V 2 "-long No. 8 self-drilling 
screws. The vertical legs of the U-shaped bracket are attached to the runners with one 
'/," long No. 8 self-drilling screw. The completed steel framing provides a 2V g " and 1 V 2 " 
space between the inner layer of wallboard and the sides and bottom of the steel beam, 
respectively. The inner layer of wallboard is attached to the top runners and bottom cor- 
ner channels or corner angles with l'/ 4 "-long No. 6 self-drilling screws spaced 16" on 
center. The outer layer of wallboard is applied with l 3 / 4 "-long No. 6 self-drilling screws 
spaced 8" on center. The bottom corners are reinforced with metal corner beads. 



IV, 



2-4.2 



Three layers of 5 / 8 " Type X gypsum wallboard attached to a steel suspension system as 
described immediately above utilizing the 0.018" thick (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) 
1 " x 2" lower corner angles. The framing is located so that a 2'/ s " and 2" space is pro- 
vided between the inner layer of wallboard and the sides and bottom of the beam, 
respectively. The first two layers of wallboard are attached as described immediately 
above. A layer of 0.035" thick (No. 20 B.W. gage) 1 " hexagonal galvanized wire mesh is 
applied under the soffit of the middle layer and up the sides approximately 2". The mesh 
is held in position with the No. 6 l 5 / 8 "-long screws installed in the vertical leg of the bot- 
tom corner angles. The outer layer of wallboard is attached with No. 6 2'/ 4 "-long screws 
spaced 8" on center. One screw is also installed at the mid-depth of the bracket in each 
layer. Bottom corners are finished as described above. 



17 a 



3. Bonded pre- 
tensioned rein- 
forcement in 
prestressed 
concrete 6 



3-1.1 



Carbonate, lightweight, sand-lightweight and siliceous f aggregate concrete 
Beams or girders 



Solid ' 



2V, 



I 1 /, 



IV, 



(continued) 



148 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721.1(1)— continued 

MINIMUM PROTECTION OF STRUCTURAL PARTS BASED ON TIME PERIODS 

FOR VARIOUS NONCOMBUSTIBLE INSULATING MATERIALS" 1 



STRUCTURAL 
PARTS TO BE 
PROTECTED 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


INSULATING MATERIAL USED 


MINIMUM THICKNESS OF 

INSULATING MATERIAL 

FOR THE FOLLOWING 

FIRE-RESISTANCE 

PERIODS (inches) 


4 
hours 


3 
hours 


2 
hours 


1 

hour 


4. Bonded or 
unbonded post- 
tensioned ten- 
dons in pre- 
stressed 
concrete 6 ' ' 


4-1.1 


Carbonate, lightweight, sand-lightweight and siliceous' aggregate concrete 
Unrestrained members: 
Solid slabs' 1 
Beams and girders J 
8" wide 
greater than 12" wide 


3 


2 

4'/ 2 
2'/ 2 


1'A 

2% 

2 


1% 
l'/ 2 


4-1.2 


Carbonate, lightweight, sand-lightweight and siliceous aggregate 
Restrained members: k 
Solid slabs' 1 
Beams and girders' 
8" wide 
greater than 1 2" wide 


iv 4 

27 2 

2 


1 

2 
l 3 / 4 


iv 2 


— 


5. Reinforcing 
steel in rein- 
forced concrete 
columns, beams 
girders and 
trusses 


5-1.1 


Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete, members 12" or 
larger, square or round. (Size limit does not apply to beams and girders monolithic 
with floors.) 

Siliceous aggregate concrete, members 12" or larger, square or round. (Size limit does 
not apply to beams and girders monolithic with floors.) 


l'/ 2 

2 


l'/ 2 
l'/ 2 


l'/ 2 

i'/ 2 


17, 
17 2 


6. Reinforcing 
steel in rein- 
forced concrete 
joists' 


6-1.1 
6-1.2 


Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete 
Siliceous aggregate concrete 


l'/ 4 
1% 


iv 4 

l'/ 2 


1 
1 


X 
X 


7. Reinforcing 
and tie rods in 
floor and roof 
slabs' 


7-1.1 
7-1.2 


Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete 
Siliceous aggregate concrete 


1 

i'/ 4 


1 
1 


X 

1 


X 
X 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.2 mm 2 , 1 cubic foot = 0.0283 m 3 , I pound per cubic foot = 16.02 kg/m 3 . 

a. Reentrant parts of protected members to be filled solidly. 

b. Two layers of equal thickness with a 3 / 4 -inch airspace between. 

c. For all of the construction with gypsum wallboard described in Table 721.1(1), gypsum base for veneer plaster of the same size, thickness and core type shall 
be permitted to be substituted for gypsum wallboard, provided attachment is identical to that specified for the wallboard and the joints on the face layer are 
reinforced, and the entire surface is covered with a minimum of 7 l6 -inch gypsum veneer plaster. 

d. An approved adhesive qualified under ASTM E 119 or UL 263. 

e. Where lightweight or sand-lightweight concrete having an oven-dry weight of 1 10 pounds per cubic foot or less is used, the tabulated minimum cover shall be 
permitted to be reduced 25 percent, except that in no case shall the cover be less than 3 / 4 inch in slabs or l'/ 2 inches in beams or girders. 

f. For solid slabs of siliceous aggregate concrete, increase tendon cover 20 percent. 

g. Adequate provisions against spalling shall be provided by U-shaped or hooped stirrups spaced not to exceed the depth of the member with a clear cover of 1 
inch. 

h. Prestressed slabs shall have a thickness not less than that required in Table 721.1(3) for the respective fire-resistance time period. 

i. Fire coverage and end anchorages shall be as follows: Cover to the prestressing steel at the anchor shall be 7 2 inch greater than that required away from the 

anchor. Minimum cover to steel-bearing plate shall be 1 inch in beams and 3 / 4 inch in slabs, 
j. For beam widths between 8 inches and 12 inches, cover thickness shall be permitted to be determined by interpolation, 
k. Interior spans of continuous slabs, beams and girders shall be permitted to be considered restrained. 
1. For use with concrete slabs having a comparable fire endurance where members are framed into the structure in such a manner as to provide equivalent 

performance to that of monolithic concrete construction, 
m. Generic fire-resistance ratings (those not designated as PROPRIETARY* in the listing) in GA 600 shall be accepted as if herein listed, 
n. No additional insulating material is required on the exposed outside face of the column flange to achieve a 1-hour fire-resistance rating. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



149 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721 .1(2) 
RATED FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS ao ' p 



MATERIAL 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CONSTRUCTION 


MINIMUM FINISHED 
THICKNESS FACE-TO- 

FACE" (inches) 


4 
hours 


3 
hours 


2 
hours 


1 
hour 


1. Brick of clay 
or shale 


1-1.1 


Solid brick of clay or shale . 


6 


4.9 


3.8 


2.7 


1-1.2 


Hollow brick, not filled. 


5.0 


4.3 


3.4 


2.3 


1-1.3 


Hollow brick unit wall, grout or filled with perlite vermiculite or expanded shale aggre- 
gate. 


6.6 


5.5 


4.4 


3.0 


1-2.1 


4" nominal thick units at least 75 percent solid backed with a hat-shaped metal furring 
channel 3 / 4 " thick formed from 0.021" sheet metal attached to the brick wall on 24" cen- 
ters with approved fasteners, and V 2 " Type X gypsum wallboard attached to the metal 
furring strips with l"-long Type S screws spaced 8" on center. 


— 


— 


5 d 


— 


2. Combination 
of clay brick and 
load-bearing hol- 
low clay tile 


2-1.1 


4" solid brick and 4" tile (at least 40 percent solid). 


— 


8 


— 


— 


2-1.2 


4" solid brick and 8" tile (at least 40 percent solid). 


12 


— 


— 


— 


3. Concrete 
masonry units 


3- 1 . 1 r - g 


Expanded slag or pumice. 


4.7 


4.0 


3.2 


2.1 


3-1.2 f ' 8 


Expanded clay, shale or slate. 


5.1 


4.4 


3.6 


2.6 


3-1. 3 f 


Limestone, cinders or air-cooled slag. 


5.9 


5.0 


4.0 


2.7 


3-1.4 rg 


Calcareous or siliceous gravel. 


6.2 


5.3 


4.2 


2.8 


4. Solid con- 
crete 11 ' ' 


4-1.1 


Siliceous aggregate concrete. 


7.0 


6.2 


5.0 


3.5 


Carbonate aggregate concrete. 


6.6 


5.7 


4.6 


3.2 


Sand-lightweight concrete. 


5.4 


4.6 


3.8 


2.7 


Lightweight concrete. 


5.1 


4.4 


3.6 


2.5 


5. Glazed or 
unglazed facing 
tile, nonload- 
bearing 


5-1.1 


One 2" unit cored 15 percent maximum and one 4" unit cored 25 percent maximum with 
3 / 4 " mortar-filled collar joint. Unit positions reversed in alternate courses. 


— 


6% 


— 


— 


5-1.2 


One 2" unit cored 15 percent maximum and one 4" unit cored 40 percent maximum with 
3 / 4 " mortar-filled collar joint. Unit positions side with 3 / 4 " gypsum plaster. Two wythes 
tied together every fourth course with No. 22 gage corrugated metal ties. 


— 


6 3 / 4 


— 


— 


5-1.3 


One unit with three cells in wall thickness, cored 29 percent maximum. 


— 


— 


6 


— 


5-1.4 


One 2" unit cored 22 percent maximum and one 4" unit cored 41 percent maximum with 
7 4 " mortar-filled collar joint. Two wythes tied together every third course with 0.030" 
(No. 22 galvanized sheet steel gage) corrugated metal ties. 


— 


— 


6 


— 


5-1.5 


One 4" unit cored 25 percent maximum with 3 / 4 " gypsum plaster on one side. 


— 


— 


4% 


— 


5-1.6 


One 4" unit with two cells in wall thickness, cored 22 percent maximum. 


— 


— 


— 


4 


5-1.7 


One 4" unit cored 30 percent maximum with 3 / 4 " vermiculite gypsum plaster on one side. 


— 


— 


4% 


— 


5-1.8 


One 4" unit cored 39 percent maximum with V 4 " gypsum plaster on one side. 


— 


— 


— 


4V 2 



(continued) 



150 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



MATERIAL 



6. Solid gypsum 
plaster 



7. Solid perlite 
and Portland 
cement 



8. Solid neat 
wood fibered 
gypsum plaster 



9. Solid wall- 
board partition 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721.1(2)— continued 
RATED FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS "■"•" 



ITEM 
NUMBER 



6-1.1 



6-1.2 



10. Hollow (stud 
less) gypsum 
wallboard parti- 
tion 



6-1.3 



6-2.1 



CONSTRUCTION 



V 4 " by 0.055" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) vertical cold-rolled channels, 16" on cen- 
ter with 2.6-pound flat metal lath applied to one face and tied with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. 
Gage) wire at 6" spacing. Gypsum plaster each side mixed 1:2 by weight, gypsum to 
sand aggregate. __ 



3 / 4 " by 0.05" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) cold-rolled channels 16" on center with 
metal lath applied to one face and tied with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire at 6" spac- 
ing. Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster each side. For three-coat work, the plaster mix 
for the second coat shall not exceed 1 00 pounds of gypsum to 2 ' / 2 cubic feet of aggregate 
for the 1-hour system. 



3 / 4 " by 0.055" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) vertical cold-rolled channels, 16" on cen- 
ter with 3 / 8 " gypsum lath applied to one face and attached with sheet metal clips. Gyp- 
sum plaster each side mixed 1 :2 by weight, gypsum to sand aggregate. 



MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO- 

FACE"(inches) 



4 
hours 



Studless with 7 2 " full-length plain gypsum lath and gypsum plaster each side. Plaster 
mixed 1:1 for scratch coat and 1:2 for brown coat, by weight, gypsum to sand aggregate. 



6-2.2 



Studless with 7 2 " full-length plain gypsum lath and perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster 
each side. 



6-2.3 



7-1.1 



8-1.1 



9-1.1 



10-1.1 



Studless partition with %" rib metal lath installed vertically adjacent edges tied 6" on 
center with No. 18 gage wire ties, gypsum plaster each side mixed 1 :2 by weight, gyp- 
sum to sand aggregate. 



Perlite mixed in the ratio of 3 cubic feet to 100 pounds of Portland cement and machine 
applied to stud side of 1 7 2 " mesh by 0.058-inch (No. 17 B.W. gage) paper-backed 
woven wire fabric lath wire-tied to 4"-deep steel trussed wire" studs 16" on center. Wire 
ties of 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) galvanized steel wire 6" on center vertically. 



3 / 4 " by 0.055-inch (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) cold-rolled channels, 12" on center 
with 2.5-pound flat metal lath applied to one face and tied with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. 
gage) wire at 6" spacing. Neat gypsum plaster applied each side. ___ 



3 
hours 



2 
hours 



27/ 



One full-length layer V 2 " Type X gypsum wallboard 6 laminated to each side of 1" full- 
length V-edge gypsum coreboard with approved laminating compound. Vertical joints 
of face layer and coreboard staggered at least 3". 



One full-length layer of 7 S " Type X gypsum wallboard e attached to both sides of wood 
or metal top and bottom runners laminated to each side of l"x 6" full-length gypsum 
coreboard libs spaced 2" on center with approved laminating compound. Ribs centered 
at vertical joints of face plies and joints staggered 24" in opposing faces. Ribs may be 
recessed 6" from the top and bottom. 



10-1.2 



1 " regular gypsum V-edge full-length backing board attached to both sides of wood or 
metal top and bottom runners with nails or l 5 / 8 " drywall screws at 24" on center. Mini- 
mum width of rumors l 5 / s ". Face layer of 7 2 " regular full-length gypsum wallboard lam 
inated to outer faces of backing board with approved laminating compound. 



27; 



1 

hour 



37' 



4 5 /' 



(continued) 



2 d 



27; 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



151 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721.1(2) —continued 
RATED FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS a ° " 



MATERIAL 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CONSTRUCTION 


MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO- 

FACE b (inches) 


4 
hours 


3 
hours 


2 
hours 


1 
hour 


1 1 . Noncombusti- 
ble studs-interior 
partition with 
plaster each side 


11-1.1 


3'/ 4 " x 0.044" (No. 18 carbon sheet steel gage) steel studs spaced 24" on center. 7 8 " gyp- 
sum plaster on metal lath each side mixed 1:2 by weight, gypsum to sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


4 3 // 


11-1.2 


3V g " x 0.055" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) approved nailable k studs spaced 24" on 
center. 5 / 8 " neat gypsum wood-fibered plaster each side over 3 / 8 " rib metal lath nailed to 
studs with 6d common nails, 8" on center. Nails driven l'/ 4 " and bent over. 


— 


— 


5% 


— 


11-1.3 


4" x 0.044" (No. 18 carbon sheet steel gage) channel-shaped steel studs at 16" on center. 
On each side approved resilient clips pressed onto stud flange at 16" vertical spacing, '/ 
4 " pencil rods snapped into or wire tied onto outer loop of clips, metal lath wire-tied to 
pencil rods at 6" intervals, 1" perlite gypsum plaster, each side. 


— 


7 5/d 
' '8 


— 


— 


11-1.4 


2'/ 2 " x 0.044" (No. 18 carbon sheet steel gage) steel studs spaced 16" on center. Wood 
fibered gypsum plaster mixed 1:1 by weight gypsum to sand aggregate applied on 3 / 4 - 
pound metal lath wire tied to studs, each side. 3 / 4 " plaster applied over each face, includ- 
ing finish coat. 


— 


— 


47 4 d 


— 


1 2. Wood studs 
interior partition 
with plaster each 
side 


12-1. l lm 


2" x 4" wood studs 16" on center with 5 / 8 " gypsum plaster on metal lath. Lath attached 
by 4d common nails bent over or No. 14 gage by 1 V 4 " by 3 / 4 " crown width staples spaced 
6" on center. Plaster mixed 1:1'/, for scratch coat and 1 :3 for brown coat, by weight, 
gypsum to sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


_ 


5'/ 8 


12-1.2' 


2" x 4" wood studs 16" on center with metal lath and 7 / 8 " neat wood-fibered gypsum 
plaster each side. Lath attached by 6d common nails, 7" on center. Nails driven 1 7 4 " and 
bent over. 


— 


— 


57 2 d 


— 


12-1.3' 


2" x 4" wood studs 16" on center with 3 / 8 " perforated or plain gypsum lath and V," gyp- 
sum plaster each side. Lath nailed with l'/ 8 " by No. 13 gage by 19 / 64 " head plasterboard 
blued nails, 4" on center. Plaster mixed 1:2 by weight, gypsum to sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


5V 4 


12-1.4' 


2" x 4" wood studs 16" on center with 7 S " Type X gypsum lath and V 2 " gypsum plaster 
each side. Lath nailed with 1 7 8 " by No. 13 gage by '%„" head plasterboard blued nails, 
5" on center. Plaster mixed 1 :2 by weight, gypsum to sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


5'4 


13. Noncombusti- 
ble studs-interior 
partition with gyp- 
sum wallboard 
each side 


13-1.1 


0.018" (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) channel -shaped studs 24" on center with one 
full-length layer of V 8 " Type X gypsum wallboard 8 applied vertically attached with 1 " 
long No. 6 drywall screws to each stud. Screws are 8" on center around the perimeter 
and 12" on center on the intermediate stud. The wallboard may be applied horizontally 
when attached to 3 5 / 8 " studs and the horizontal joints are staggered with those on the 
opposite side. Screws for the horizontal application shall be 8" on center at vertical 
edges and 12" on center at intermediate studs. 


— 


— 


— 


2V 


13-1.2 


0.018" (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) channel-shaped studs 25" on center with two 
full-length layers of 7," Type X gypsum wallboard" applied vertically each side. First 
layer attached with 1 "-long, No. 6 drywall screws, 8" on center around the perimeter and 
12" on center on the intermediate stud. Second layer applied with vertical joints offset 
one stud space from first layer using 1%" long, No. 6 drywall screws spaced 9" on center 
along vertical joints, 12" on center at intermediate studs and 24" on center along top and 
sottom runners. 


— 


— 


3% d 


— 


13-1.3 


0.055" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) approved nailable metal studs' 24" on center 
with full-length 5 / 8 " Type X gypsum wallboard applied vertically and nailed 7" on center 
with 6d cement-coated common nails. Approved metal fastener grips used with nails at 
vertical butt joints along studs. 


— 


— 


— 


4 7 4 



(continued) 



152 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



F!RE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721.1(2)— continued 
RATED FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS ao p 



MATERIAL 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CONSTRUCTION 


MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO- 

FACE b (inches) 


4 
hours 


3 

hours 


2 
hours 


1 
hour 


14. Wood 
studs-interior par- 
tition with gyp- 
sum wallboard 
each side 


14-1. l h - m 


2" x 4" wood studs 16" on center with two layers of 7 8 " regular gypsum 
wallboard 6 each side, 4d cooler" or wallboard" nails at 8" on center first layer, 5d 
cooler" or wallboard" nails at 8" on center second layer with laminating compound 
between layers, joints staggered. First layer applied full length vertically, second 
layer applied horizontally or vertically. 


— 


— 


— 


5 


14-1.2'-™ 


2" x 4" wood studs 16" on center with two layers '/," regular gypsum wallboard' - 
applied vertically or horizontally each side k , joints staggered. Nail base layer with 5d 
cooler" or wallboard" nails at 8" on center face layer with 8d cooler" or wallboard" 
nails at 8" on center. 


— 


— 


— 


57. 2 


14-1.3'-™ 


2" x 4" wood studs 24" on center with 5 / 8 " Type X gypsum wallboard 6 applied verti- 
cally or horizontally nailed with 6d cooler" or wallboard" nails at 7" on center with 
end joints on nailing members. Stagger joints each side. 


— 


— 


— 


4-V 4 


14-1.4' 


2" x 4" fire-retardant-treated wood studs spaced 24" on center with one layer of 
5 / s " Type X gypsum wallboard' applied with face paper grain (long dimension) paral- 
lel to studs. Wallboard attached with 6d cooler" or wallboard" nails at 7" on center. 


— 


— 


— 


4-7 4 d 


14-1.5'- m 


2" x 4" wood studs 16" on center with two layers V g " Type X gypsum wallboard 6 
each side. Base layers applied vertically and nailed with 6d cooler" or wallboard" 
nails at 9" on center. Face layer applied vertically or horizontally and nailed with 8d 
cooler" or wallboard" nails at 7" on center. For nail-adhesive application, base layers 
are nailed 6" on center. Face layers applied with coating of approved wallboard 
adhesive and nailed 12" on center. 


— 


— 


6 


— 


14-1.6' 


2" x 3" fire-retardant-treated wood studs spaced 24" on center with one layer of 
5 / b " Type X gypsum wallboard 6 applied with face paper grain (long dimension) at 
right angles to studs. Wallboard attached with 6d cement-coated box nails spaced 7" 
on center. 


— 


— 


— 


3% d 


15. Exterior or 
interior walls 
(continued) 


15-1. I 1 '" 1 


Exterior surface with 3 / 4 " drop siding over V 2 " gypsum sheathing on 2" x 4" wood 
studs at 1 6" on center, interior surface treatment as required for 1 -hour-rated exterior 
or interior 2" x 4" wood stud partitions. Gypsum sheathing nailed with l 3 / 4 " by No. 
1 1 gage by 7 / ]6 " head galvanized nails at 8" on center. Siding nailed with 7d galva- 
nized smooth box nails. 


— 


— 


— 


Var- 
ies 


15-1.2"" 


2" x 4" wood studs 16" on center with metal lath and V 4 " cement plaster on each 
side. Lath attached with 6d common nails 7" on center driven to 1 " minimum pene- 
tration and bent over. Plaster mix 1:4 for scratch coat and 1:5 for brown coat, by vol- 
ume, cement to sand. 


— 


— 


— 


5% 


15-1.3 m 


2" x 4" wood studs 1 6" on center with 7 / 8 " cement plaster (measured from the face of 
studs) on the exterior surface with interior surface treatment as required for interior 
wood stud partitions in this table. Plaster mix 1 :4 for scratch coat and 1 :5 for brown 
coat, by volume, cement to sand. 


— 


— 


— 


Var- 
ies 


15-1.4 


3 5 / 8 " No. 16 gage noncombustible studs 16" on center with 7 / 8 " cement plaster (mea- 
sured from the face of the studs) on the exterior surface with interior surface treat- 
ment as required for interior, nonhealing, noncombustible stud partitions in this 
table. Plaster mix 1 :4 for scratch coat and 1:5 for brown coat, by volume, cement to 
sand. 


— 


— - 


— 


Var- 

ies d 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



153 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721 .1 (2)— continued 
RATED FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS a ° p 



MATERIAL 



ITEM 
NUMBER 



CONSTRUCTION 



MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO- 

FACE" (inches) 



4 
hours 



3 
hours 



2 
hours 



1 
hour 



15-1.5" 



2'/ 4 " x 3 3 / 4 " clay face brick with cored holes over V 2 " gypsum sheathing on exterior sur- 
face of 2" x 4" wood studs at 16" on center and two layers 5 / g " Type X gypsum wallboard 6 
on interior surface. Sheathing placed horizontally or vertically with vertical joints over 
studs nailed 6" on center with l 3 / 4 " x No. 11 gage by 7 / l6 " head galvanized nails. Inner 
layer of wallboard placed horizontally or vertically and nailed 8" on center with 6d cool- 
er" or wallboard" nails. Outer layer of wallboard placed horizontally or vertically and 
nailed 8" on center with 8d cooler" or wallboard" nails. All joints staggered with vertical 
joints over studs. Outer layer joints taped and finished with compound. Nail heads cov- 
ered with joint compound. 0.035 inch (No. 20 galvanized sheet gage) corrugated galva- 
nized steel wall ties 3 / 4 " by 6 5 / 8 " attached to each stud with two 8d cooler" or wallboard" 
nails every sixth course of bricks. 



15-1.6'- 



15. Exterior or 
interior walls 
(continued) 



2" x 6" fire-retardant-treated wood studs 16" on center. Interior face has two layers of 5 / 8 " 
Type X gypsum with the base layer placed vertically and attached with 6d box nails 12" 
on center. The face layer is placed horizontally and attached with 8d box nails 8" on cen- 
ter at joints and 12" on center elsewhere. The exterior face has a base layer of 5 / 8 " Type X 
gypsum sheathing placed vertically with 6d box nails 8" on center at joints and 12" on 
center elsewhere. An approved building paper is next applied, followed by self-furred 
exterior lath attached with 2'/ 2 ", No. 12 gage galvanized roofing nails with a 3 / 8 " diameter 
head and spaced 6" on center along each stud. Cement plaster consisting of a'/ 2 " brown 
coat is then applied. The scratch coat is mixed in the proportion of 1:3 by weight, cement 
to sand with 10 pounds of hydrated lime and 3 pounds of approved additives or admix- 
tures per sack of cement. The brown coat is mixed in the proportion of 1 :4 by weight, 
cement to sand with the same amounts of hydrated lime and approved additives or admix- 
tures used in the scratch coat. 



15-1.7 1 ' 



2" x 6" wood studs 16" on center. The exterior face has a layer of 5 / 8 " Type X gypsum 
sheathing placed vertically with 6d box nails 8" on center at joints and 12" on center else- 
where. An approved building paper is next applied, followed by 1" by No. 18 gage self- 
furred exterior lath attached with 8d by 2'/ 2 " long galvanized roofing nails spaced 6" on 
center along each stud. Cement plaster consisting of a'/ 2 " scratch coat, a bonding agent 
and a 1 /," brown coat and a finish coat is then applied. The scratch coat is mixed in the 
proportion of 1 :3 by weight, cement to sand with 10 pounds of hydrated lime and 3 
pounds of approved additives or admixtures per sack of cement. The brown coat is mixed 
in the proportion of 1:4 by weight, cement to sand with the same amounts of hydrated 
lime and approved additives or admixtures used in the scratch coat. The interior is cov- 
ered with 3 / 8 " gypsum lath with 1" hexagonal mesh of 0.035 inch (No. 20 B.W. gage) 
woven wire lath furred out 5 /, 6 " and I" perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster. Lath nailed 
with 1 7 8 " by No. 13 gage by 19 / 64 " head plasterboard glued nails spaced 5" on center. 
Mesh attached by l 3 / 4 " by No. 12 gage by 3 / 8 " head nails with 3 / s " furrings, spaced 8" on 
center. The plaster mix shall not exceed 100 pounds of gypsum to 2'/ 2 cubic feet of aggre- 
gate. 



8% 



(continued) 



154 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721.1(2)— continued 
RATED FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS aop 



MATERIAL 



ITEM 
NUMBER 



15-1.8'- 



CONSTRUCTION 



15. Exterior or 
interior walls 
(continued) 



15-1.9 



15-1.10 



15-1.11 



i5-1.12 cl 



2" x 6" wood studs 16" on center. The exterior face has a layer of 5 / 8 " Type X gypsum 
sheathing placed vertically with 6d box nails 8" on center at joints and 12" on center 
elsewhere. An approved building paper is next applied, followed by 1 7 2 " by No. 17 gage 
self-furred exterior lath attached with 8d by 2'/ 2 " long galvanized roofing nails spaced 6" 
on center along each stud. Cement plaster consisting of a V 2 " scratch coat, and a'/ 2 " 
brown coat is then applied. The plaster may be placed by machine. The scratch coat is 
mixed in the proportion of 1:4 by weight, plastic cement to sand. The brown coat is 
mixed in the proportion of 1 :5 by weight, plastic cement to sand. The interior is covered 
with 3 / s " gypsum lath with 1" hexagonal mesh of No. 20 gage woven wire lath furred out 
5 / ]6 " and 1" perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster. Lath nailed with l'/ 8 " by No. 13 gage 
by l9 / 64 " head plasterboard glued nails spaced 5" on center. Mesh attached by l 3 / 4 " by No. 
12 gage by %" head nails with V 8 " furrings, spaced 8" on center. The plaster mix shall 
not exceed 1 00 pounds of gypsum to 2 V 2 cubic feet of aggregate. 



4" No. 18 gage, nonload-bearing metal studs, 16" on center, with 1" Portland cement 
lime plaster [measured from the back side of the 3 / 4 -pound expanded metal lath] on the 
exterior surface. Interior surface to be covered with 1" of gypsum plaster on 3 / 4 -pound 
expanded metal lath proportioned by weight- 1 :2 for scratch coat, 1 :3 for brown, gypsum 
to sand. Lath on one side of the partition fastened to V 4 " diameter pencil rods supported 
by No. 20 gage metal clips, located 16" on center vertically, on each stud. 3" thick min- 
eral fiber insulating batts friction fitted between the studs. 



MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO- 

FACE" (inches) 



4 
hours 



3 
hours 



Steel studs 0.060" thick, 4" deep or 6" at 16" or 24" centers, with V 2 " Glass Fiber Rein- 
forced Concrete (GFRC) on the exterior surface. GFRC is attached with flex anchors at 
24" on center, with 5" leg welded to studs with two V 2 "-long flare-bevel welds, and 4" 
foot attached to the GFRC skin with 5 / g " thick GFRC bonding pads that extend 2'/ 2 " 
beyond the flex anchor foot on both sides. Interior surface to have two layers of V 2 " Type 
X gypsum wallboard. 6 The first layer of wallboard to be attached with 1 "-long Type S 
buglehead screws spaced 24" on center and the second layer is attached with l 5 / 8 "-long 
Type S screws spaced at 12" on center. Cavity is to be filled with 5" of 4 pcf (nominal) 
mineral fiber batts. GFRC has 1 V 2 " returns packed with mineral fiber and caulked on the 
exterior. 



Steel studs 0.060" thick, 4" deep or 6" at 16" or 24" centers, respectively, with V 2 " Glass 
Fiber Reinforced Concrete (GFRC) on the exterior surface. GFRC is attached with flex 
anchors at 24" on center, with 5" leg welded to studs with two V 2 "-long flare-bevel 
welds, and 4" foot attached to the GFRC skin with 5 / 8 " -thick GFRC bonding pads that 
extend 2'/ 2 " beyond the flex anchor foot on both sides. Interior surface to have one layer 
of 5 / 8 " Type X gypsum wallboard , attached with 1 V 4 "-long Type S buglehead screws 
spaced 12" on center. Cavity is to be filled with 5" of 4 pcf (nominal) mineral fiber batts. 
GFRC has 1 V 2 " returns packed with mineral fiber and caulked on the exterior. 



2" x 6" wood studs at 16" with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior and exte- 
rior sides covered with %" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4' wide, applied horizontally or 
vertically with vertical joints over studs, and fastened with 2'/ 4 " Type S drywall screws, 
spaced 12" on center. Cavity to be filled with 5'/ 2 " mineral wool insulation. 



2 

hours 



8V a 



6V 2 d 



1 
hour 



6V. 



6 3 /, 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



155 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721.1(2)— continued 
RATED FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS aop 



MATERIAL 



ITEM 
NUMBER 



15-1.13" 



1.5-1.14" 



15-1.15" 



CONSTRUCTION 



x 6" wood studs at 16" with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior and exterior 
sides covered with %" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4' wide, applied vertically with all joints 
over framing or blocking and fastened with 2'/ 4 " Type S drywall screws, spaced 12" on 
center. R- 19 mineral fiber insulation installed in stud cavity. 



2" x 6" wood studs at 16" with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior and exterior 
sides covered with %" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4' wide, applied horizontally or verti- 
cally with vertical joints over studs, and fastened with 27 4 " Type S drywall screws, spaced 
7" on center. 



2" x 4" wood studs at 16" with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior and exterior 
sides covered with 5 / s " Type X gypsum wallboard and sheathing, respectively, 4' wide, 
applied horizontally or vertically with vertical joints over studs, and fastened with 2'/ 4 " 
Type S drywall screws, spaced 12" on center. Cavity to be filled with 37 2 " mineral wool 
insulation. 



15-1.16" 



15. Exterior or 
interior walls 
(continued) 



2" x 6" wood studs at 24" centers with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior and 
exterior side covered with two layers of 5 / 8 " Type X gypsum wallboard, 4' wide, applied 
horizontally with vertical joints over studs. Base layer fastened with 27 4 " Type S drywall 
screws, spaced 24" on center and face layer fastened with Type S drywall screws, spaced 
on center, wallboard joints covered with paper tape and joint compound, fastener heads 
covered with joint compound. Cavity to be filled with 57 2 " mineral wool insulation. 



15-2.1" 



15-2.2" 



15-2.3' 



MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO- 

FACE" (inches) 



4 
hours 



3%" No. 16 gage steel studs at 24" on center or 2" x 4" wood studs at 24" on center. Metal 
lath attached to the exterior side of studs with minimum 1" long No. 6 drywall screws at 6" 
on center and covered with minimum V 4 " thick Portland cement plaster. Thin veneer brick 
units of clay or shale complying with ASTM C 1088, Grade TBS or better, installed in run- 
ning bond in accordance with Section 1405.10. Combined total thickness of the Portland 
cement plaster, mortar and thin veneer brick units shall be not less than l7 4 ". Interior side 
covered with one layer of 3 / 8 " thick Type X gypsum wallboard attached to studs with 1" 
long No. 6 drywall screws at 12" on center. 



3 5 / 8 " No. 16 gage steel studs at 24" on center or 2" x 4" wood studs at 24" on center. Metal 
lath attached to the exterior side of studs with minimum 1" long No. 6 drywall screws at 6" 
on center and covered with minimum V 4 " thick Portland cement plaster. Thin veneer brick 
units of clay or shale complying with ASTM C 1088, Grade TBS or better, installed in run- 
ning bond in accordance with Section 1405.10. Combined total thickness of the Portland 
cement plaster, mortar and thin veneer brick units shall be not less than 2". Interior side 
covered with two layers of 5 / 8 " thick Type X gypsum wallboard. Bottom layer attached to 
studs with 1" long No. 6 drywall screws at 24" on center. Top layer attached to studs with 
l 5 / 8 " long No. 6 drywall screws at 12" on center. 



3 5 / 8 " No. 16 gage steel studs at 16" on center or 2"x 4" wood studs at 16" on center. Where 
metal lath is used, attach to the exterior side of studs with minimum 1" long No. 6 drywall 
screws at 6" on center. Brick units of clay or shale not less than 2%" thick complying with 
ASTM C 216 installed in accordance with Section 1405.6 with a minimum 1" air space. 
Interior side covered with one layer of 7 8 " thick Type X gypsum wallboard attached to 
studs with 1" long No. 6 drywall screws at 12" on center. 



3 

hours 



2 
hours 



1 
hour 



6% 



67, 



4 3 / 4 



67 8 



7 7 /, 



(continued) 



156 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721.1(2)— continued 
RATED FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS aop 



MATERIAL 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CONSTRUCTION 


MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO- 

FACE" (inches) 


4 
hours 


3 
hours 


2 

hours 


1 
hour 


15. Exterior or 
interior walls 


15-2.4" 


3 5 / 8 " No. 16 gage steel studs at 16" on center or 2" x 4" wood studs at 16" on center. 
Where metal lath is used, attach to the exterior side of studs with minimum 1 " long No. 6 
drywall screws at 6" on center. Brick units of clay or shale not less than 2 5 / 8 " thick com- 
plying with ASTM C 216 installed in accordance with Section 1405.6 with a minimum 
1 " air space. Interior side covered with two layers of 5 / 8 " thick Type X gypsum wall- 
board. Bottom layer attached to studs with 1 " long No. 6 drywall screws at 24" on center. 
Top layer attached to studs with l 5 / s " long No. 6 drywall screws at 12" on center. 


— 


— 


87, 


— 


16. Exterior walls 
rated for fire 
resistance from 
the inside only in 
accordance with 
Section 705.5. 


16-1.1" 


2" x 4" wood studs at 16" centers with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior 
side covered with 5 / g " Type X gypsum wallboard, 4" wide, applied horizontally 
unblocked, and fastened with 2'/ 4 " Type S drywall screws, spaced 12" on center, wall- 
board joints covered with paper tape and joint compound, fastener heads covered with 
joint compound. Exterior covered with 3 / 8 " wood structural panels, applied vertically, 
horizontal joints blocked and fastened with 6d common nails (bright) — 12" on center in 
the field, and 6" on center panel edges. Cavity to be filled with 3'/ 2 " mineral wool insula- 
tion. Rating established for exposure from interior side only. 


— 


— 


— 


4V 2 


16-1.2" 


2" x 6" wood studs at 16" centers with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior 
side covered with 5 / 8 " Type X gypsum wallboard, 4" wide, applied horizontally or verti- 
cally with vertical joints over studs and fastened with 2'/ 4 " Type S drywall screws, 
spaced 12" on center, wallboard joints covered with paper tape and joint compound, fas- 
tener heads covered with joint compound, exterior side covered with 7 /| 6 " wood struc- 
tural panels fastened with 6d common nails (bright) spaced 12" on center in the field and 
6" on center along the panel edges. Cavity to be filled with 5'/ 2 " mineral wool insulation. 
Rating established from the gypsum-covered side only. 


— 


— 


— 


6'/ l6 


16-1.3" 


2" x 6" wood studs at 16" centers with double top plates, single bottom plates; interior 
side covered with %" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4" wide, applied vertically with all 
joints over framing or blocking and fastened with 2 V 4 " Type S drywall screws spaced 7" 
on center. Joints to be covered with tape and joint compound. Exterior covered with 3 / 8 " 
wood structural panels, applied vertically with edges over framing or blocking and fas- 
tened with 6d common nails (bright) at 1 2" on center in the field and 6" on center on 
panel edges. R-19 mineral fiber insulation installed in stud cavity. Rating established 
from the gypsum-covered side only. 


— 


— 


— 


6'/ 2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.2 mm 2 , 1 cubic foot = 0.0283 m 3 . 

a. Staples with equivalent holding power and penetration shall be permitted to be used as alternate fasteners to nails for attachment to wood framing. 

b. Thickness shown for brick and clay tile is nominal thicknesses unless plastered, in which case thicknesses are net. Thickness shown for concrete masonry and 
clay masonry is equivalent thickness defined in Section 722.3.1 for concrete masonry and Section 722.4.1.1 for clay masonry. Where all cells are solid 
grouted or filled with silicone-treated perlite loose-fill insulation; vermiculite loose-fill insulation; or expanded clay, shale or slate lightweight aggregate, the 
equivalent thickness shall be the thickness of the block or brick using specified dimensions as defined in Chapter 21. Equivalent thickness may also include 
the thickness of applied plaster and lath or gypsum wallboard, where specified. 

c. For units in which the net cross-sectional area of cored brick in any plane parallel to the surface containing the cores is at least 75 percent of the gross cross- 
sectional area measured in the same plane. 

d. Shall be used for nonbearing purposes only. 

e. For all of the construction with gypsum wallboard described in this table, gypsum base for veneer plaster of the same size, thickness and core type shall be 
permitted to be substituted for gypsum wallboard, provided attachment is identical to that specified for the wallboard, and the joints on the face layer are 
reinforced and the entire surface is covered with a minimum of V ]6 -inch gypsum veneer plaster. 

f. The fire-resistance time period for concrete masonry units meeting the equivalent thicknesses required for a 2-hour fire-resistance rating in Item 3, and having 
a thickness of not less than 7 5 / 8 inches is 4 hours when cores which are not grouted are filled with silicone-treated perlite loose-fill insulation; vermiculite 
loose-fill insulation; or expanded clay, shale or slate lightweight aggregate, sand or slag having a maximum particle size of 3 / 8 inch. 

g. The fire-resistance rating of concrete masonry units composed of a combination of aggregate types or where plaster is applied directly to the concrete 
masonry shall be determined in accordance with ACI 216.1/TMS 0216. Lightweight aggregates shall have a maximum combined density of 65 pounds per 
cubic foot. 

(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



157 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721.1(2)— continued 
RATED FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS ao ' 

See also Note b. The equivalent thickness shall be permitted to include the thickness of cement plaster or 1 .5 times the thickness of gypsum plaster applied in 
accordance with the requirements of Chapter 25. 

Concrete walls shall be reinforced with horizontal and vertical temperature reinforcement as required by Chapter 19. 
Studs are welded truss wire studs with 0.1 8 inch (No. 7 B.W. gage) flange wire and 0. 18 inch (No. 7 B.W. gage) truss wires. 
Nailable metal studs consist of two channel studs spot welded back to back with a crimped web forming a nailing groove. 

Wood structural panels shall be permitted to be installed between the fire protection and the wood studs on either the interior or exterior side of the wood 
frame assemblies in this table, provided the length of the fasteners used to attach the fire protection is increased by an amount at least equal to the thickness of 
the wood structural panel. 

.For studs with a slenderness ratio, l/d, greater than 33, the design stress shall be reduced to 78 percent of allowable F" c . For studs with a slenderness ratio, 
l/d, not exceeding 33, the design stress shall be reduced to 78 percent of the adjusted stress F 1 ^ calculated for studs having a slenderness ratio l/d of 33. 
For properties of cooler or wallboard nails, see ASTM C 514, ASTM C 547 or ASTM F 1667. 

Generic fire-resistance ratings (those not designated as PROPRIETARY* in the listing) in the GA 600 shall be accepted as if herein listed. 
NCMA TEK 5-8A shall be permitted for the design of fire walls. 
The design stress of studs shall be equal to a maximum of 1 00 percent of the allowable F' c calculated in accordance with Section 2306. 



TABLE 721.1(3) 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEMS 3 " 



FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CEILING CONSTRUCTION 


THICKNESS OF FLOOR OR 

ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 


MINIMUM THICKNESS OF 
CEILING 
(inches) 


4 
hours 


3 
hours 


2 
hours 


1 
hour 


4 
hours 


3 

hours 


2 
hours 


1 
hour 


1. Siliceous aggre- 
gate concrete 


1-1.1 


Slab (no ceiling required). Minimum cover over nonpre- 
stressed reinforcement shall not be less than 

3, ,. b 
'4 ' 


7.0 


6.2 


5.0 


3.5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2. Carbonate 
aggregate concrete 


2-1.1 


6.6 


5.7 


4.6 


3.2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3. Sand-light- 
weight concrete 


3-1.1 


5.4 


4.6 


3.8 


2.7 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4. Lightweight 
concrete 


4-1.1 


5.1 


4.4 


3.6 


2.5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


5. Reinforced 
concrete 


5-1.1 


Slab with suspended ceiling of vermiculite gypsum plaster 
over metal lath attached to 3 / 4 " cold-rolled channels spaced 
12" on center. Ceiling located 6" minimum below joists. 


3 


2 


— 


— 


1 


% 


— 


— 


5-2.1 


3 / 8 " Type X gypsum wallboard" attached to 0.018 inch (No. 
25 carbon sheet steel gage) by 7 / g " deep by 27 s " hat-shaped 
galvanized steel channels with 1 "-long No. 6 screws. The 
channels are spaced 24" on center, span 35" and are sup- 
ported along their length at 35" intervals by 0.033" (No. 21 
galvanized sheet gage) galvanized steel flat strap hangers 
having formed edges that engage the lips of the channel. 
The strap hangers are attached to the side of the concrete 
joists with %," by l'/ 4 " long power-driven fasteners. The 
wallboard is installed with the long dimension perpendicu- 
lar to the channels. All end joints occur on channels and 
supplementary channels are installed parallel to the main 
channels, 12" each side, at end joint occurrences. The fin- 
ished ceiling is located approximately 12" below the soffit 
of the floor slab. 


— 




2% 


— 


— 


— 


% 


— 



(continued) 



158 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721.1(3)— continued 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEMS 3 " 



FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CEILING CONSTRUCTION 


THICKNESS OF FLOOR 

OR ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 


MINIMUM THICKNESS OF 
CEILING 
(inches) 


4 

hours 


3 
hours 


2 
hours 


1 
hour 


4 
hours 


3 
hours 


2 

hours 


1 
hour 


6. Steel joists con- 
structed with a 
poured reinforced 
concrete slab on 
metal lath forms or 
steel form units' 1, e 


6-1.1 


Gypsum plaster on metal lath attached to the bottom cord 
with single No. 16 gage or doubled No. 18 gage wire ties 
spaced 6" on center. Plaster mixed 1:2 for scratch coat, 1:3 
for brown coat, by weight, gypsum-to-sand aggregate for 2- 
hour system. For 3-hour system plaster is neat. 


— 


— 


2% 


2'/ 4 


— 


— 


\ 


% 


6-2.1 


Vermiculite gypsum plaster on metal lath attached to the 
bottom chord with single No. 16 gage or doubled 0.049- 
inch (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire ties 6" on center. 


— 


2 


— 


— 


— 


% 


— 


— 


6-3.1 


Cement plaster over metal lath attached to the bottom chord 
of joists with single No. 16 gage or doubled 0.049" (No. 18 
B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 6" on center. Plaster mixed 1 :2 
for scratch coat, 1:3 for brown coat for 1-hour system and 
1 : 1 for scratch coat, 1:1 '/ 2 for brown coat for 2-hour sys- 
tem, by weight, cement to sand. 


— 


— 


— 


2 


— 


— 


— 


V 


6-4.1 


Ceiling of 5 / g " Type X wallboard c attached to 7 / 8 " deep by 
2 5 / B " by 0.021 inch (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) hat- 
shaped furring channels 12" on center with 1" long No. 6 
wallboard screws at 8" on center. Channels wire tied to bot- 
tom chord of joists with doubled 0.049 inch (No. 18 B.W. 
gage) wire or suspended below joists on wire hangers. 8 


— 


— 


27 2 


— 


— 


— 


% 


— 


6-5.1 


Wood-fibered gypsum plaster mixed 1:1 by weight gypsum 
to sand aggregate applied over metal lath. Lath tied 6" on 
center to V 4 " channels spaced 13'/ 2 " on center. Channels 
secured to joists at each intersection with two strands of 
0.049 inch (No. 18 B.W. gage) galvanized wire. 


— 


— 


2V 2 


— 


— 


— 


% 


— 


7. Reinforced con- 
crete slabs and joists 
with hollow clay tile 
fillers laid end to 
end in rows 2'/," or 
more apart; rein- 
forcement placed 
between rows and 
concrete cast around 
and over tile. 


7-1.1 


'%" gypsum plaster on bottom of floor or roof construction. 


— 


— 


8 h 


— 


— 


— 


\ 


— 


7-1.2 


None 


— 


— 


— 


57 2 ' 


— 


— 


— 


— 


8. Steel joists con- 
structed with a rein- 
forced concrete slab 
on top poured on a V 
," deep steel deck. e 


8-1.1 


Vermiculite gypsum plaster on metal lath attached to V 4 " 
cold-rolled channels with 0.049" (No. 1 8 B.W. gage) wire 
ties spaced 6" on center. 


2'A j 


— 


— 


— 


J / 4 


— 


— 


— 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



159 



FiRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721.1(3)— continued 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEMS 8 " 



FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CEILING CONSTRUCTION 


THICKNESS OF FLOOR OR 
ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 


MINIMUM THICKNESS OF 
CEILING 
(inches) 


4 
hours 


3 
hours 


2 
hours 


1 

hour 


4 
hours 


3 
hours 


2 
hours 


1 
hour 


9. 3" deep cellular 
steel deck with 
concrete slab on 
top. Slab thickness 
measured to top. 


9-1.1 


Suspended ceiling of vermiculite gypsum plaster base coat 
and vermiculite acoustical plaster on metal lath attached at 
6" intervals to 3 / 4 " cold-rolled channels spaced 12" on cen- 
ter and secured to 1 7 2 " cold-rolled channels spaced 36" on 
center with 0.065" (No. 16 B.W. gage) wire. 1 '/," channels 
supported by No. 8 gage wire hangers at 36" on center. 
Beams within envelope and with a 27," airspace between 
beam soffit and lath have a 4-hour rating. 


27 2 


— 


— 


— 


17/ 


— 


— 


— 


10. 1 V,"-deep steel 
roof deck on steel 
framing. Insula- 
tion board, 30 pcf 
density, composed 
of wood fibers with 
cement binders of 
thickness shown 
bonded to deck 
with unified 
asphalt adhesive. 
Covered with a 
Class A or B roof 
covering. 


10-1.1 


Ceiling of gypsum plaster on metal lath. Lath attached to 
3 / 4 " furring channels with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire 
ties spaced 6" on center. 3 / 4 " channel saddle tied to 2" chan- 
nels with doubled 0.065" (No. 16 B.W. gage) wire ties. 2" 
channels spaced 36" on center suspended 2" below steel 
framing and saddle-tied with 0.165" (No. 8 B.W. gage) 
wire. Plaster mixed 1:2 by weight, gypsum-to-sand aggre- 
gate. 


— 


— 


i 7 4 


1 


— 


— 


V 


%' 


11. l'/ 2 "-deep steel 
roof deck on steel- 
framing wood fiber 
insulation board, 
17.5 pcf density on 
top applied over a 
15-lb asphalt-satu- 
rated felt. Class A 
or B roof covering. 


11-1.1 


Ceiling of gypsum plaster on metal lath. Lath attached to 
3 / 4 " furring channels with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire 
ties spaced 6" on center. V 4 " channels saddle tied to 2" 
channels with doubled 0.065" (No. 16 B.W. gage) wire ties. 
2" channels spaced 36" on center suspended 2" below steel 
framing and saddle tied with 0.165" (No. 8 B.W. gage) 
wire. Plaster mixed 1:2 for scratch coat and 1:3 for brown 
coat, by weight, gypsum-to-sand aggregate for 1-hour sys- 
tem. For 2-hour system, plaster mix is 1:2 by weight, gyp- 
sum-to-sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


l7 2 


1 


— 


— 


X s 


\ l 



(continued) 



160 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 8 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721.1(3) —continued 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEMS 3 '' 



FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CEILING CONSTRUCTION 


THICKNESS OF FLOOR 

OR ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 


MINIMUM THICKNESS OF 
CEILING 
(inches) 


4 
hours 


3 
hours 


2 
hours 


1 
hour 


4 
hours 


3 
hours 


2 
hours 


1 
hour 


12. l'/ 2 " deep steel 
roof deck on steel- 
framing insulation 
of rigid board con- 
sisting of expanded 
perlite and fibers 
impregnated with 
integral asphalt 
waterproofing; den- 
sity 9 to 12pcf 
secured to metal 
roof deck by 7 2 " 
wide ribbons of 
waterproof, cold- 
process liquid adhe- 
sive spaced 6" 
apart. Steel joist or 
light steel construc- 
tion with metal roof 
deck, insulation, 
and Class A or B 
built-up roof cover- 
ing. 6 


12-1.1 


Gypsum-vermiculite plaster on metal lath wire tied at 6" 
intervals to V 4 " furring channels spaced 1 2" on center and 
wire tied to 2" runner channels spaced 32" on center. 
Runners wire tied to bottom chord of steel joists. 




— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


\ 


— 


13. Double wood 
floor over wood 
joists spaced 16" on 
center. mn 


13-1.1 


Gypsum plaster over 3 / s " Type X gypsum lath. Lath initially 
applied with not less than four 1 7 S " by No. 13 gage by ,9 / 64 " 
head plasterboard blued nails per bearing. Continuous strip- 
ping over lath along all joist lines. Stripping consists of 3" 
wide strips of metal lath attached by 1 7 2 " by No. 11 gage 
by 7 2 " head roofing nails spaced 6" on center. Alternate 
stripping consists of 3" wide 0.049" diameter wire stripping 
weighing 1 pound per square yard and attached by No. 16 
gage by 1 7," by 3 / 4 " crown width staples, spaced 4" on cen- 
ter. Where alternate stripping is used, the lath nailing may 
consist of two nails at each end and one nail at each inter- 
mediate bearing. Plaster mixed 1 :2 by weight, gypsum-to- 
sand aggregate. 


— 














7 / 8 


13-1.2 


Cement or gypsum plaster on metal lath. Lath fastened with 
l7 2 " by No. 1 1 gage by 7 / 16 " head barbed shank roofing 
nails spaced 5" on center. Plaster mixed 1 :2 for scratch coat 
and 1 :3 for brown coat, by weight, cement to sand aggre- 
gate. 
















% 


13-1.3 


Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster on metal lath secured 
to joists with 1 7 2 " by No. 1 1 gage by 7 / 16 " head barbed 
shank roofing nails spaced 5" on center. 












— 


— 


\ 


13-1.4 


7," Type X gypsum wallboard nailed to joists with 5d 
cooler" or wallboard" nails at 6" on center. End joints of 
wallboard centered on joists. 
















'A 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 8 



161 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721 .1 (3) —continued 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEMS 3 " 



FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CEILING CONSTRUCTION 


THICKNESS OF FLOOR 

OR ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 


MINIMUM THICKNESS OF 
CEILING 
(inches) 


4 
hours 


3 
hours 


2 
hours 


1 
hour 


4 
hours 


3 
hours 


2 
hours 


1 
hour 


14. Plywood 
stressed skin panels 
consisting of 5 / 8 " - 
thick interior C-D 
(exterior glue) top 
stressed skin on 2" x 
6" nominal (mini- 
mum) stringers. 
Adjacent panel 
edges joined with 8d 
common wire nails 
spaced 6" on center. 
Stringers spaced 1 2" 
maximum on center. 


14-1.1 


'/," -thick wood fiberboard weighing 15 to 18 pounds per 
cubic foot installed with long dimension parallel to string- 
ers or V 8 " C-D (exterior glue) plywood glued and/or nailed 
to stringers. Nailing to be with 5d cooler or wallboard 
nails at 12" on center. Second layer of 7 2 " Type X gypsum 
wallboard 1 ' applied with long dimension perpendicular to 
joists and attached with 8d cooler or wallboard" nails at 6" 
on center at end joints and 8" on center elsewhere. Wall- 
board joints staggered with respect to fiberboard joints. 
















1 


15. Vermiculite con- 
crete slab propor- 
tioned 1:4 (Portland 
cement to vermicu- 
lite aggregate) on a 
l'/ 2 " -deep steel 
deck supported on 
individually pro- 
tected steel framing. 
Maximum span of 
deck 6'- 10" where 
deck is less than 
0.019 inch (No. 26 
carbon steel sheet 
gage) or greater. 
Slab reinforced with 
4" x 8" 0.109/0.083" 
(No. I2 / I4 B.W. gage) 
welded wire mesh. 


15-1.1 


None 


— 


— 


— 


y 


— 


— 


— 


— 


16. Perlite concrete 
slab proportioned 
1 :6 (Portland cement 
to perlite aggregate) 
on a 1V 4 " -deep steel 
deck supported on 
individually pro- 
tected steel framing. 
Slab reinforced with 
4" x 8" 0.109/0.083" 
(No.' 2 /, 4 B.W.gage) 
welded wire mesh. 


16-1.1 


None 


— 


— 


— 


3V 2 J 


— 


— 


— 


— 



(continued) 



162 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721.1(3)— continued 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEMS 3 " 



FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 



17. Perlite concrete 
slab proportioned 
1:6 (Portland 
cement to perlite 
aggregate) on a 9 / 16 " 
deep steel deck 
supported by steel 
joists 4' on center. 
Class A or B roof 
covering on top. 



ITEM 
NUMBER 



CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



THICKNESS OF FLOOR 

OR ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 



4 
hours 



17-1.1 



18. Perlite concrete 
slab proportioned 
1:6 (Portland 
cement to perlite 
aggregate) on 1 '// 
deep steel deck sup- 
ported on individu- 
ally protected steel 
framing. Maximum 
span of deck 6'- 10" 
where deck is less 
than 0.019" (No. 26 
carbon sheet steel 
gage) and 8'-0" 
where deck is 
0.019" (No. 26 car- 
bon sheet steel 
gage) or greater. 
Slab reinforced with 
0.042" (No. 19 
B.W. gage) hexago- 
nal wire mesh. 
Class A or B roof 
covering on top. 



Perlite gypsum plaster on metal lath wire tied to V 4 " furring 
channels attached with 0.065" (No. 1 6 B.W. gage) wire ties 
to lower chord of joists. 



3 
hours 



2 
hours 



F 



18-1.1 



19. Floor and beam 
construction con- 
sisting of 3" -deep 
cellular steel floor 
unit mounted on 
steel members with 
1:4 (proportion of 
Portland cement to 
perlite aggregate) 
perlite-concrete 
floor slab on top. 



19-1.1 



None 



Suspended envelope ceiling of perlite gypsum plaster on 
metal lath attached to 3 / 4 " cold-rolled channels, secured to 
1 V 2 " cold-rolled channels spaced 42" on center supported 
by 0.203 inch (No. 6 B.W. gage) wire 36" on center. Beams 
in envelope with 3" minimum airspace between beam soffit 
and lath have a 4-hour rating. 



27/ 



1 
hour 



MINIMUM THICKNESS OF 
CEILING 
(inches) 



4 
hours 



27/ 



3 
hours 



2 
hours 



% 



1 
hour 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



163 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721.1(3)— continued 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOFSYSTEMS aq 



FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 



20. Perlite concrete proportioned 1:6 
(Portland cement to perlite aggre- 
gate) poured to V s " thickness above 
top of corrugations of 1 5 / 16 " -deep gal- 
vanized steel deck maximum span 8'- 
0" for 0.024" (No. 24 galvanized 
sheet gage) or 6?0" for 0.019" (No. 26 
galvanized sheet gage) with deck sup- 
ported by individually protected steel 
framing. Approved polystyrene foam 
plastic insulation board having a 
flame spread not exceeding 75 (1 " to 
4" thickness) with vent holes that 
approximate 3 percent of the board 
surface area placed on top of perlite 
slurry. A 2' by 4' insulation board 
contains six 2 3 / 4 " diameter holes. 
Board covered with 2'/ 4 " minimum 
perlite concrete slab. Slab reinforced 
with mesh consisting of 0.042" (No. 
19 B.W. gage) galvanized steel wire 
twisted together to form 2" hexagons 
with straight 0.065" (No. 16 B.W. 
gage) galvanized steel wire woven 
into mesh and spaced 3". Alternate 
slab reinforcement shall be permitted 
to consist of 4" x 8" , 0.109/0.238" 
(No. 12/4 B.W. gage), or 2" x 2" , 
0.083/0.083" (No. 14/14 B.W. gage) 
welded wire fabric. Class A or B roof 
covering on top. 



ITEM 

NUMBER 



20- 



CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



THICKNESS OF FLOOR OR 

ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 



4 
hours 



None 



3 
hours 



21. Wood joists, wood I-joists, floor 
trusses and flat or pitched roof trusses 
spaced a maximum 24" o.c. with '/," 
wood structural panels with exterior 
glue applied at right angles to top of 
joist or top chord of trusses with 8d 
nails. The wood structural panel 
thickness shall not be less than nomi- 
nal V," nor less than required by 
Chapter 23. 



21-1.1 



Base layer 5 / g " Type X gypsum wall- 
board applied at right angles to joist or 
truss 24" o.c. with 1 7 4 " Type S or Type 
W drywall screws 24" o.c. Face layer 5 / 
" Type X gypsum wallboard or veneer 
base applied at right angles to joist or 
truss through base layer with l 7 / 8 " Type 
S or Type W drywall screws 12" o.c. at 
joints and intermediate joist or truss. 
Face layer Type G drywall screws 
placed 2" back on either side of face 
layer end joints, 12" o.c. 



2 
hours 



Varies 



1 
hour 



MINIMUM THICKNESS 

OF CEILING 

(inches) 



4 
hours 



3 
hours 



Varies 



2 
hours 



1 
hour 



17, 



(continued) 



164 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721.1(3)— continued 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEMS 8 " 



FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CEILING CONSTRUCTION 


THICKNESS OF FLOOR OR 

ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 


MINIMUM THICKNESS OF 
CEILING 
(inches) 


4 
hours 


3 
hours 


2 
hours 


1 
hour 


4 
hours 


3 
hours 


2 
hours 


1 
hour 


22. Steel joists, floor trusses and flat 
or pitched roof trusses spaced a 
maximum 24" ox. with V 2 " wood 
structural panels with exterior glue 
applied at right angles to top of joist 
or top chord of trusses with No. 8 
screws. The wood structural panel 
thickness shall not be less than nom- 
inal V 2 " nor less than required by 
Chapter 23. 


22-1.1 


Base layer 5 / g " Type X gypsum board 
applied at right angles to steel framing 24" 
on center with 1 " Type S drywall screws 
spaced 24" on center. Face layer 5 / s " Type 
X gypsum board applied at right angles to 
steel framing attached through base layer 
with l 5 / 8 " Type S drywall screws 12" on 
center at end joints and intermediate joints 
and 1 V 2 " Type G drywall screws 12 inches 
on center placed 2" back on either side of 
face layer end joints. Joints of the face 
layer are offset 24" from the joints of the 
base layer. 


— 


— 


— 


Varies 


— 


— 


— 


l'/ 4 


23. Wood I-joist (minimum joist 
depth 9V 4 " with a minimum flange 
depth of l 5 / l6 " and a minimum 
flange cross-sectional area of 2.3 
square inches) at 24" o.c. spacing 
with 1 inch by 4 inch (nominal) 
wood furring strip spacer applied 
parallel to and covering the bottom 
of the bottom flange of each mem- 
ber, tacked in place. 2" mineral wool 
insulation, 3.5 pcf (nominal) 
installed adjacent to the bottom 
flange of the I-joist and supported by 
the 1 " x 4" furring strip spacer. 


23-1.1 


'/ 2 " deep single leg resilient channel 16" on 
center (channels doubled at wallboard end 
joints), placed perpendicular to the furring 
ship and joist and attached to each joist by 
l 7 / 8 " Type S drywall screws. 5 / 8 " Type C 
gypsum wallboard applied perpendicular 
to the channel with end joints staggered at 
least 4' and fastened with 1 7 8 " Type S dry- 
wall screws spaced 7" on center. Wall- 
board joints to be taped and covered with 
joint compound. 


— 


— 


— 


Varies 


— 


— 


— 


% 


24. Wood I-joist (minimum I-joist 
depth 9'/ 4 " with a minimum flange 
depth of 1 7 2 " and a minimum flange 
cross-sectional area of 5.25 square 
inches; minimum web thickness of 
3 / 8 ") @ 24" o.c, l l / 2 " mineral wool 
insulation (2.5 pcf -nominal) resting 
on hat-shaped furring channels. 


24-1.1 


Minimum 0.026" thick hat-shaped channel 
16" o.c (channels doubled at wallboard 
end joints), placed perpendicular to the 
joist and attached to each joist by 1 V g " 
Type S drywall screws. 7 8 " Type C gyp- 
sum wallboard applied perpendicular to 
the channel with end joints staggered and 
fastened with 1 7 8 " Type S drywall screws 
spaced 12" o.c. in the field and 8" o.c. at 
the wallboard ends. Wallboard joints to be 
taped and covered with joint compound. 


— 


— 


— 


Varies 


— 


— 


— 


% 


25. Wood I-joist (minimum I-joist 
depth 9'/ 4 " with a minimum flange 
depth of 1 V 2 " and a minimum flange 
cross-sectional area of 5.25 square 
inches; minimum web thickness of 
7 / 16 ") @ 24" o.c, 1 '/," mineral wool 
insulation (2.5 pcf-nominal) resting 
on resilient channels. 


25-1.1 


Minimum 0.019" thick resilient channel 
16" o.c. (channels doubled at wallboard 
end joints), placed perpendicular to the 
joist and attached to each joist by l 5 / s " 
Type S drywall screws. 5 / 8 " Type C gyp- 
sum wallboard applied perpendicular to 
the channel with end joints staggered and 
fastened with 1 " Type S drywall screws 
spaced 12" o.c in the field and 8" o.c. at 
the wallboard ends. Wallboard joints to be 
taped and covered with joint compound. 


— 


— 


— 


Varies 


— 


— 


— 


\ 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



165 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721.1(3)— continued 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEMS 3 " 



FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 


ITEM 

NUMBER 


CEILING CONSTRUCTION 


THICKNESS OF FLOOR OR 

ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 


MINIMUM THICKNESS OF 
CEILING 
(inches) 


4 
hours 


3 
hours 


2 

hours 


1 
hour 


4 
hours 


3 

hours 


2 

hours 


1 
hour 


26. Wood I-joist (minimum 1-joist 
depth 9'/ 4 " with a minimum flange 
thickness of 1 '/," and a minimum 
flange cross-sectional area of 2.25 
square inches; minimum web thick- 
ness of 3 / 8 ") @ 24" ox. 


26-1.1 


Two layers of V 2 " Type X gypsum wall- 
board applied with the long dimension 
perpendicular to the I-joists with end 
joints staggered. The base layer is fas- 
tened with l 5 / g " Type S dry wall screws 
spaced 12" ox. and the face layer is fas- 
tened with 2" Type S drywall screws 
spaced 12" ox. in the field and 8" ox. on 
the edges. Face layer end joints shall not 
occur on the same I-joist as base layer end 
joints and edge joints shall be offset 24" 
from base layer joints. Face layer to also 
be attached to base layer with 1 '/," Type 
G drywall screws spaced 8" o.c. placed 6" 
from face layer end joints. Face layer 
wallboard joints to be taped and covered 
with joint compound. 


— 


— 


— 


Varies 


— 


— 


— 


1 


27. Wood I-joist (minimum I-joist 
depth 9'/ 2 " with a minimum flange 
depth of 1 5 / 16 " and a minimum 
flange cross-sectional area of 1.95 
square inches; minimum web thick- 
ness of 
V) @ 24" ox. 


27-1.1 


Minimum 0.019" thick resilient channel 
16" o.c. (channels doubled at wallboard 
end joints), placed perpendicular to the 
joist and attached to each joist by l 5 / 8 " 
Type S drywall screws. Two layers of V 2 " 
Type X gypsum wallboard applied with 
the long dimension perpendicular to the I- 
joists with end joints staggered. The base 
layer is fastened with 1 7 4 " Type S drywall 
screws spaced 1 2" o.c. and the face layer 
is fastened with l 3 / 8 " Type S drywall 
screws spaced 12" o.c. Face layer end 
joints shall not occur on the same I-joist 
as base layer end joints and edge joints 
shall be offset 24" from base layer joints. 
Face layer to also be attached to base 
layer with 1 '/," Type G drywall screws 
spaced 8" o.c. placed 6" from face layer 
end joints. Face layer wallboard joints to 
be taped and covered with joint com- 
pound. 


— 


— 


— 


Varies 


— 


— 


— 


1 



(continued) 



166 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 8 



F!RE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721.1(3)— continued 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEMS" q 



FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CEILING CONSTRUCTION 


THICKNESS OF FLOOR OR 
ROOF SLAB (inches) 


MINIMUM THICKNESS OF 
CEILING (inches) 


4 
hours 


3 
hours 


2 
hours 


1 
hour 


4 
hours 


3 
lours 


2 

hours 


1 
hour 


28. Wood I-joist (minimum I-joist 
depth 9'/ 4 " with a minimum flange 
depth of 1 '/," and a minimum flange 
cross-sectional area of 2.25 square 
inches; minimum web thickness of 
7 S ") @ 24" o.c. Unfaced fiberglass 
insulation is installed between the I- 
joists supported on the upper surface 
of the flange by stay wires spaced 
12" o.c. 


28-1.1 


Base layer of 5 / 8 " Type C gypsum wall- 
Doard attached directly to I-joists with 
1V 8 " Type S drywall screws spaced 12" 
o.c. with ends staggered. Minimum 
0.0179" thick hat-shaped 7 / g -inch fur- 
ring channel 16" o.c. (channels doubled 
at wallboard end joints), placed perpen- 
dicular to the joist and attached to each 
joist by l 5 / s " Type S drywall screws 
after the base layer of gypsum wall- 
board has been applied. The middle and 
face layers of V s " Type C gypsum wall- 
board applied perpendicular to the 
channel with end joints staggered. The 
middle layer is fastened with 1 " Type S 
drywall screws spaced 12" o.c. The face 
layer is applied parallel to the middle 
layer but with the edge joints offset 24" 
from those of the middle layer and fas- 
tened with l 5 / 8 " Type S drywall screws 
8" o.c. The joints shall be taped and 
covered with joint compound. 


— 


— 


— 


Varies 


— 


— 


2% 


— 


29. Channel-shaped 18 gage steel 
joists (minimum depth 8" ) spaced a 
maximum 24" o.c. supporting 
tongue-and-groove wood structural 
panels (nominal minimum 3 / 4 " thick) 
applied perpendicular to framing 
members. Structural panels attached 
with l 5 / s " Type S-12 screws spaced 
12" o.c. 


29-1.1 


Base layer V g " Type X gypsum board 
applied perpendicular to bottom of 
framing members with 1 V s " Type S-12 
screws spaced 12" o.c. Second layer 7 8 " 
Type X gypsum board attached perpen- 
dicular to framing members with l 5 / 8 " 
Type S-12 screws spaced 12" o.c. Sec- 
ond layer joints offset 24" from base 
layer. Third layer V 8 " Type X gypsum 
board attached perpendicular to framing 
members with 2 3 / s " Type S-12 screws 
spaced 12" o.c. Third layer joints offset 
12" from second layer joints. Hat- 
shaped 7 / 8 -inch rigid furring channels 
applied at right angles to framing mem- 
bers over third layer with two 2 3 / 8 " Type 
S-12 screws at each framing member. 
Face layer %" Type X gypsum board 
applied at right angles to furring chan- 
nels with l'/ 8 " Type S screws spaced 
12" o.c. 


— 


— 


Varies 


— 


— 


— 


3% 


— 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



167 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 721.1(3)— continued 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEMS" q 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 ram, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, I cubic foot = 0.0283 m 3 , 
1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 pound per linear foot = 1 .4882 kg/m. 

a. Staples with equivalent holding power and penetration shall be permitted to be used as alternate fasteners to nails for attachment to wood framing. 

b. When the slab is in an unrestrained condition, minimum reinforcement cover shall not be less than l 5 / 8 inches for 4 hours (siliceous aggregate only); 1 '/„ 
inches for 4 and 3 hours; 1 inch for 2 hours (siliceous aggregate only); and 3 / 4 inch for all other restrained and unrestrained conditions. 

c. For all of the construction with gypsum wallboard described in this table, gypsum base for veneer plaster of the same size, thickness and core type shall be 
permitted to be substituted for gypsum wallboard, provided attachment is identical to that specified for the wallboard, and the joints on the face layer are 
reinforced and the entire surface is covered with a minimum of 7 l6 -inch gypsum veneer plaster. 

d. Slab thickness over steel joists measured at the joists for metal lath form and at the top of the form for steel form units. 

e. (a)The maximum allowable stress level for H-Series joists shall not exceed 22,000 psi. 

(b)The allowable stress for K-Series joists shall not exceed 26,000 psi, the nominal depth of such joist shall not be less than 10 inches and the nominal joist 
weight shall not be less than 5 pounds per linear foot. 

f. Cement plaster with 1 5 pounds of hydrated lime and 3 pounds of approved additives or admixtures per bag of cement. 

g. Gypsum wallboard ceilings attached to steel framing shall be permitted to be suspended with lV 2 -inch cold-formed carrying channels spaced 48 inches on 
center, which are suspended with No. 8 SWG galvanized wire hangers spaced 48 inches on center. Cross-furring channels are tied to the carrying channels 
with No. 1 8 SWG galvanized wire hangers spaced 48 inches on center. Cross-furring channels are tied to the carrying channels with No. 1 8 SWG galvanized 
wire (double strand) and spaced as required for direct attachment to the framing. This alternative is also applicable to those steel framing assemblies 
recognized under Note q. 

h. Six-inch hollow clay tile with 2-inch concrete slab above. 

i. Four-inch hollow clay tile with 1 '/ 2 -inch concrete slab above. 

j. Thickness measured to bottom of steel form units. 

k. Five-eighths inch of vermiculite gypsum plaster plus V 2 inch of approved vermiculite acoustical plastic. 

1. Furring channels spaced 12 inches on center. 

m. Double wood floor shall be permitted to be either of the following: 

(a) Subfloor of 1-inch nominal boarding, a layer of asbestos paper weighing not less than 14 pounds per 100 square feet and a layer of 1-inch nominal 
tongue-and-groove finished flooring; or 

(b) Subfloor of 1 -inch nominal tongue-and-groove boarding or 15 / 3 ,-inch wood structural panels with exterior glue and a layer of 1-inch nominal tongue-and- 
groove finished flooring or 1 % 2 -inch wood structural panel finish flooring or a layer of Type I Grade M-l particleboard not less than 5 / 8 -inch thick. 

n. The ceiling shall be permitted to be omitted over unusable space, and flooring shall be permitted to be omitted where unusable space occurs above. 

o. For properties of cooler or wallboard nails, see ASTM C 5 14, ASTM C 547 or ASTM F 1667. 

p. Thickness measured on top of steel deck unit. 

q. Generic fire-resistance ratings (those not designated as PROPRIETARY* in the listing) in the GA 600 shall be accepted as if herein listed. 



SECTION 722 
CALCULATED FIRE RESISTANCE 

722.1 General. The provisions of this section contain proce- 
dures by which the fire resistance of specific materials or 
combinations of materials is established by calculations. 
These procedures apply only to the information contained in 
this section and shall not be otherwise used. The calculated 
fire resistance of concrete, concrete masonry and clay 
masonry assemblies shall be permitted in accordance with 
ACI 216.1/TMS 0216. The calculated fire resistance of steel 
assemblies shall be permitted in accordance with Chapter 5 of 
ASCE 29. The calculated fire resistance of exposed wood 
members and wood decking shall be permitted in accordance 
with Chapter 16 of ANSI/AF&PA National Design Specifi- 
cation for Wood Construction (NDS). 

722.1.1 Definitions. The following terms are defined in 
Chapter 2: 

CERAMIC FIBER BLANKET. 

CONCRETE, CARBONATE AGGREGATE. 

CONCRETE, CELLULAR. 

CONCRETE, LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE. 

CONCRETE, PERLITE. 

CONCRETE, SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT. 

CONCRETE, SILICEOUS AGGREGATE. 

CONCRETE, VERMICULITE. 



GLASS FIBERBOARD. 

MINERAL BOARD. 

722.2 Concrete assemblies. The provisions of this section 
contain procedures by which the fire-resistance ratings of 
concrete assemblies are established by calculations. 

722.2.1 Concrete walls. Cast-in-place and precast con- 
crete walls shall comply with Section 722.2.1.1. Multi- 
wythe concrete walls shall comply with Section 722.2.1.2. 
Joints between precast panels shall comply with Section 
722.2.1.3. Concrete walls with gypsum wallboard or plas- 
ter finish shall comply with Section 722.2.1.4. 

722.2.1.1 Cast-in-place or precast walls. The mini- 
mum equivalent thicknesses of cast-in-place or precast 
concrete walls for fire-resistance ratings of 1 hour to 4 
hours are shown in Table 722.2.1.1. For solid walls 
with flat vertical surfaces, the equivalent thickness is 
the same as the actual thickness. The values in Table 
722.2.1.1 apply to plain, reinforced or prestressed con- 
crete walls. 

722.2.1.1.1 Hollow-core precast wall panels. For 
hollow-core precast concrete wall panels in which 
the cores are of constant cross section throughout 
the length, calculation of the equivalent thickness by 
dividing the net cross-sectional area (the gross cross 
section minus the area of the cores) of the panel by 
its width shall be permitted 



168 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 722.2.1.1 

MINIMUM EQUIVALENT THICKNESS OF CAST-IN-PLACE OR 

PRECAST CONCRETE WALLS, LOAD-BEARING OR 

NONLOAD-BEARING 



For At > s > 2t, the thickness to be used shall be 



CONCRETE 
TYPE 


MINIMUM SLAB THICKNESS (inches) 
FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING OF 


1 hour 


17 2 hours 


2 hours 


3 hours 


4 hours 


Siliceous 


3.5 


4.3 


5.0 


6.2 


7.0 


Carbonate 


3.2 


4.0 


4.6 


5.7 


6.6 


Sand-lightweight 


2.7 


3.3 


3.8 


4.6 


5.4 


Lightweight 


2.5 


3.1 


3.6 


4.4 


5.1 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

722.2.1.1.2 Core spaces filled. Where all of the core 
spaces of hollow-core wall panels are filled with 
loose-fill material, such as expanded shale, clay, or 
slag, or vermiculite or perlite, the fire-resistance rat- 
ing of the wall is the same as that of a solid wall of 
the same concrete type and of the same over all 
thickness. 

722.2.1.1.3 Tapered cross sections. The thickness 
of panels with tapered cross sections shall be that 
determined at a distance It or 6 inches (152 mm), 
whichever is less, from the point of minimum thick- 
ness, where f is the minimum thickness. 

722.2.1.1.4 Ribbed or undulating surfaces. The 
equivalent thickness of panels with ribbed or undu- 
lating surfaces shall be determined by one of the fol- 
lowing expressions: 

For s > At, the thickness to be used shall be t 

For s < It, the thickness to be used shall be f e 



1 + 



At 



-m e -t) 



(Equation 7-3) 



where: 

s = Spacing of ribs or undulations. 

t = Minimum thickness. 

t e = Equivalent thickness of the panel calculated as 
the net cross-sectional area of the panel 
divided by the width, in which the maximum 
thickness used in the calculation shall not 

exceed 2t. 

722.2.1.2 Multiwythe walls. For walls that consist of 
two wythes of different types of concrete, the fire-resis- 
tance ratings shall be permitted to be determined from 
Figure 722,2.1.2. 

722.2.1.2.1 Two or more wythes. The fire-resis- 
tance rating for wall panels consisting of two or 
more wythes shall be permitted to be determined by 
the formula: 

R = (R^ + R 2 - 59 +...+ R n 0S9 ) u (Equation 7-4) 

where: 

7? = The fire endurance of the assembly, minutes. 

/?,, R 2 , and R n - The fire endurances of the individual 
wythes, minutes. Values of R„° 59 for use in Equation 
7-4 are given in Table 722.2.1.2(1). Calculated fire- 
resistance, ratings are shown in Table 722.2.1.2(2). 



x 

CO > LU 

sll 

u--J — . 
Oqlij 

g°§ 



INSIDE WYTHE 
CARBONATE 



INSIDE WYTHE 
SILICEOUS 




12345 " 12345 
THICKNESS OF INSIDE WYTHE, INCHES 



OUTSIDE WYTHE 
CARBONATE 



OUTSIDE WYTHE 
SILICEOUS 



tr 
lli ouj 

£2* z 
gSStt 

^ooo 

*UjUJZ 

THICKNESS OF INSIDE WYTHE OF SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE, INCHES 




For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE 722.2.1.2 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS OF TWO-WYTHE CONCRETE WALLS 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



169 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 722.2.1.2(1) 
VALUES OF /? n 059 FOR USE IN EQUATION 7-4 



TYPE OF MATERIAL 








THICKNESS OF MATERIAL (inches) 


1'/, 


2 


2% 


3 


3% 


4 


4V, 


5 


5V, 


6 


BV, 


7 


Siliceous aggregate concrete 


5.3 


6.5 


8.1 


9.5 


11.3 


13.0 


14.9 


16.9 


18.8 


20.7 


22.8 


25.1 


Carbonate aggregate concrete 


5.5 


7.1 


8.9 


10.4 


12.0 


14.0 


16.2 


18.1 


20.3 


21.9 


24.7 


27.2 C 


Sand-lightweight concrete 


6.5 


8.2 


10.5 


12.8 


15.5 


18.1 


20.7 


23.3 


26.0 C 


Notec 


Notec 


Notec 


Lightweight concrete 


6.6 


8.8 


11.2 


13.7 


16.5 


19.1 


21.9 


24.7 


27.8 C 


Notec 


Notec 


Notec 


Insulating concrete" 


9.3 


13.3 


16.6 


18.3 


23.1 


26.5 C 


Notec 


Notec 


Notec 


Notec 


Notec 


Notec 


Airspace 13 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, ] pound per cubic foot = 16.02 kg/m 3 . 

a. Dry unit weight of 35 pcf or less and consisting of cellular, perlite or vermiculite concrete. 

b. The /?„ 055 value for one 7 2 " to 37 2 " airspace is 3.3. The R„ 055 value for two 7," to37 2 " airspaces is 6.7. 

c. The fire-resistance rating for this thickness exceeds 4 hours. 



TABLE 722.2.1.2(2) 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS BASED ON R 05 



R°, MINUTES 



60 



120 



180 



240 



a. Based on Equation 7-4. 



11.20 



16.85 



21.41 



25.37 



722.2.1.2.2 Foam plastic insolation. The fire-resis- 
tance ratings of precast concrete wall panels con- 
sisting of a layer of foam plastic insulation 
sandwiched between two wythes of concrete shall 
be permitted to be determined by use of Equation 7- 
4. Foam plastic insulation with a total thickness of 
less than 1 inch (25 mm) shall be disregarded. The 
R„ value for thickness of foam plastic insulation of 1 
inch (25 mm) or greater, for use in the calculation, is 
5 minutes; therefore /? n 059 = 2.5. 

722.2.1.3 Joints between precast wall panels. 
Joints between precast concrete wall panels which 
are not insulated as required by this section shall be 
considered as openings in walls. Uninsulated joints 
shall be included in determining the percentage of 
openings permitted by Table 705.8. Where openings 
are not permitted or are required by this code to be 
protected, the provisions of this section shall be used 
to determine the amount of joint insulation required. 
Insulated joints shall not be considered openings for 
purposes of determining compliance with the allow- 
able percentage of openings in Table 705.8. 

722.2.1.3.1 Ceramic fiber joint protection. Figure 
722.2. 1.3.1 shows thicknesses of ceramic fiber blan- 
kets to be used to insulate joints between precast 
concrete wall panels for various panel thicknesses 
and for joint widths of V 8 inch (9.5 mm) and 1 inch 
(25 mm) for fire-resistance ratings of 1 hour to 4 
hours. For joint widths between 3 / 8 inch (9.5 mm) 
and 1 inch (25 mm), the thickness of ceramic fiber 
blanket is allowed to be determined by direct inter- 




3 4 5 6 7 8 
PANEL THICKNESS, INCHES 




3 4 5 6 7 
PANEL THICKNESS, INCHES 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



5 
o 



UJ 

z 
*: 
o 



1 INCH MAXIMUM REGARDLESS 
OF OPENING RATING 



- CERAMIC FIBER 
BLANKET 




— b=| [*a — 



JOINT 
WIDTH 

CARBONATE OR 

■ SILICEOUS AGGREGATE 

CONCRETE 

SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT 

■ OR LIGHTWEIGHT 

CONCRETE 



FIGURE 722.2.1.3.1 
CERAMIC FIBER JOINT PROTECTION 



polation. Other tested and labeled materials are 
acceptable in place of ceramic fiber blankets. 

722.2.1.4 Walls with gypsum wallboard or plaster 
finishes. The fire-resistance rating of cast-in-place or 
precast concrete walls with finishes of gypsum wall- 
board or plaster applied to one or both sides shall be 
permitted to be calculated in accordance with the provi- 
sions of this section. 



170 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 8 



722.2.1.4.1 Nonflre-exposed side. Where the finish 
of gypsum wallboard or plaster is applied to the side 
of the wall not exposed to fire, the contribution of 
the finish to the total fire-resistance rating shall be 
determined as follows: The thickness of the finish 
shall first be corrected by multiplying the actual 
thickness of the finish by the applicable factor deter- 
mined from Table 722.2.1.4(1) based on the type of 
aggregate in the concrete. The corrected thickness of 
finish shall then be added to the actual or equivalent 
thickness of concrete and fire-resistance rating of 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



the concrete and finish determined from Table 
722.2.1.1, Figure 722.2.1.2 or Table 722.2.1.2(1). 

722.2.1.4.2 Fire-exposed side. Where gypsum wall- 
board or plaster is applied to the fire-exposed side of 
the wall, the contribution of the finish to the total 
fire-resistance rating shall be determined as fol- 
lows: The time assigned to the finish as established 
by Table 722.2.1.4(2) shall be added to the fire- 
resistance rating determined from Table 722.2.1. 1 
or Figure 722.2.1.2, or Table 722.2.1.2(1) for the 
concrete alone, or to the rating determined in Sec- 



TABLE 722.2.1.4(1) 
MULTIPLYING FACTOR FOR FINISHES ON NONFIRE-EXPOSED SIDE OF WALL 



TYPE OF FINISH APPLIED TO CONCRETE 
OR CONCRETE MASONRY WALL 


TYPE OF AGGREGATE USED IN CONCRETE OR CONCRETE MASONRY 


Concrete: siliceous 

or carbonate 

Concrete Masonry: 

siliceous or carbonate; 

solid clay brick 


Concrete: sand-lightweight 

Concrete Masonry: clay 

tile; hollow clay brick; 

concrete masonry units of 

expanded shale and < 20% 

sand 


Concrete: lightweight 

Concrete Masonry: 

concrete masonry units of 

expanded shale, expanded 

clay, expanded slag, or 

pumice < 20% sand 


Concrete Masonry: 
concrete masonry units 

of expanded slag, 
expanded clay, or pumice 


Portland cement- sand plaster 


1.00 


0.75 a 


0.75" 


0.50" 


Gypsum-sand plaster 


1.25 


1.00 


1.00 


1.00 


Gypsum-vermiculite or perlite plaster 


1.75 


1.50 


1.25 


1.25 


Gypsum wallboard 


3.00 


2.25 


2.25 


2.25 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. For Portland cement-sand plaster V 8 inch or less in thickness and applied directly to the concrete or concrete masonry on the nonfire-exposed side of the wall, 
the multiplying factor shall be 1 .00. 



TABLE 722.2.1.4(2) 
TIME ASSIGNED TO FINISH MATERIALS ON FIRE- 



EXPOSED SIDE OF WALL 



FINISH DESCRIPTION 


TIME (minutes) 


Gypsum wallboard 




3 / 8 inch 


10 


7 2 inch 


15 


5 / 8 inch 


20 


2 layers of 3 / 8 inch 


25 


1 layer 3 / 8 inch, 1 layer '/ 2 inch 


35 


2 layers 7 2 inch 


40 


Type X gypsum wallboard 




V 2 inch 


25 


5 / s inch 


40 


Portland cement-sand plaster applied directly to concrete masonry 


See Note a 


Portland cement-sand plaster on metal lath 




3 / 4 inch 


20 


7 / s inch 


25 


1 inch 


30 


Gypsum sand plaster on 3 / 8 -inch gypsum lath 




'/ 2 inch 


35 


5 / s inch 


40 


3 / 4 inch 


50 


Gypsum sand plaster on metal lath 




3 / 4 inch 


50 


7 / s inch 


60 


1 inch 


80 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. The actual thickness of Portland cement-sand plaster, provided it is 5 / g inch or less in thickness, shall be permitted to be included in determining the equivalent 
thickness of the masonry for use in Table 722.3.2. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 11 



171 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



tion 722.2.1.4.1 for the concrete and finish on the 
nonfire-exposed side. 

722.2.1.4.3 Nonsymmetrical assemblies. For a wall 
having no finish on one side or different types or 
thicknesses of finish on each side, the calculation 
procedures of Sections 722.2.1.4.1 and 722.2.1.4.2 
shall be performed twice, assuming either side of the 
wall to be the fire-exposed side. The fire-resistance 
rating of the wall shall not exceed the lower of the 
two values. 

Exception: For an exterior wall with a fire sepa- 
ration distance greater than 5 feet (1524 mm) the 
fire shall be assumed to occur on the interior side 
only. 

722.2.1.4.4 Minimum concrete fire-resistance rat- 
ing. Where finishes applied to one or both sides of a 
concrete wall contribute to the fire-resistance rating, 
the concrete alone shall provide not less than one- 
half of the total required fire-resistance rating. 
Additionally, the contribution to the fire resistance 
of the finish on the nonfire-exposed side of a load- 
bearing wall shall not exceed one-half the contribu- 
tion of the concrete alone. 

722.2.1.4.5 Concrete finishes. Finishes on concrete 
walls that are assumed to contribute to the total fire- 
resistance rating of the wall shall comply with the 
installation requirements of Section 722.3.2.5. 

722.2.2 Concrete floor and roof slabs. Reinforced and 
prestressed floors and roofs shall comply with Section 
722.2.2.1. Multicourse floors and roofs shall comply with 
Sections 722.2.2.2 and 722.2.2.3, respectively. 

722.2.2.1 Reinforced and prestressed floors and 
roofs. The minimum thicknesses of reinforced and pre- 
stressed concrete floor or roof slabs tor fire-resistance 
ratings of 1 hour to 4 hours are shown in Table 

722.2.2.1. 

TABLE 722.2.2.1 
MINIMUM SLAB THICKNESS (inches) 



DETERMINE THICKNESS HERE 



CONCRETE TYPE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


\\ 


2 


3 


4 


Siliceous 


3.5 


4.3 


5 


6.2 


7 


Carbonate 


3.2 


4 


4.6 


5.7 


6.6 


Sand-lightweight 


2.7 


3.3 


3.8 


4.6 


5.4 


Lightweight 


2.5 


3.1 


3.6 


4.4 


5.1 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



722.2.2.1.1 Hollow-core prestressed slabs. For 
hollow-core prestressed concrete slabs in which the 
cores are of constant cross section throughout the 
length, the equivalent thickness shall be permitted to 
be obtained by dividing the net cross-sectional area 
of the slab including grout in the joints, by its width. 

722.2.2.1.2 Slabs with sloping soffits. The thick- 
ness of slabs with sloping soffits (see Figure 
722.2.2.1 .2) shall be determined at a distance 2t or 6 
inches (152 mm), whichever is less, from the point 




2t OR 6 INCHES, 
WHICHEVER IS LESS 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE 722.2.2.1.2 

DETERMINATION OF SLAB THICKNESS 

FOR SLOPING SOFFITS 



of minimum thickness, where t is the minimum 
thickness. 

722.2.2.1.3 Slabs with ribbed soffits. The thickness 
of slabs with ribbed or undulating soffits (see Figure 
722.2.2.1.3) shall be determined by one of the fol- 
lowing expressions, whichever is applicable: 

For s > At, the thickness to be used shall be t 

For s < It, the thickness to be used shall be t e 

For At > s > 2f, the thickness to be used shall be 



t + ( A -l-\){t e -t) 



(Equation 7-5) 



where: 

s = Spacing of ribs or undulations. 

t = Minimum thickness. 

t c = Equivalent thickness of the slab calculated as 
the net area of the slab divided by the width, in 
which the maximum thickness used in the 
calculation shall not exceed 2t. 

722.2.2.2 Multicourse floors. The fire-resistance rat- 
ings of floors that consist of a base slab of concrete 




NEGLECT SHADED AREA IN CALCULATION OF EQUIVALENT THICKNESS 




For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

FIGURE 722.2.2.1.3 
SLABS WITH RIBBED OR UNDULATING SOFFITS 



172 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 8 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



with a topping (overlay) of a different type of concrete 
shall comply with Figure 722.2.2.2. 



CARBONATE BASE 



SILICEOUS BASE 




12345 12345 

THICKNESS OF NORMAL-WEIGHT CONCRETE BASE SLAB, INCHES 



CARBONATE OVERLAY 


5 

4 


SILICEOUS OVERLAY 




_____ ! ( ! 


^\ ' 


- 


V \ \ y hr - 


3 


V \ \\ 4nr - 


- 


\\V\ " 


2 


\ \2h\ \ 
\lhr.\ \\ 


- 


, \x\\ 


1 
n 


i i \ i \ i\ 


A. 



12345 " 12345 

THICKNESS OF SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE BASE SLAB, INCHES 



For SI: J inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE 722.2.2.2 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS FOR 

TWO-COURSE CONCRETE FLOORS 



722.2.2.3 Multicourse roofs. The fire-resistance rat- 
ings of roofs which consist of a base slab of concrete 
with a topping (overlay) of an insulating concrete or 
with an insulating board and built-up roofing shall 
comply with Figures 722.2.2.3(1) and 722.2.2.3(2). 

722.2.2.3.1 Heat transfer. For the transfer of heat, 
three-ply built-up roofing contributes 10 minutes to 
the fire-resistance rating. The fire-resistance rating 
for concrete assemblies such as those shown in Fig- 
ure 722.2.2.3(1) shall be increased by 10 minutes. 
This increase is not applicable to those shown in 
Figure 722.2.2.3(2). 

722.2.2.4 Joints in precast slabs. Joints between adja- 
cent precast concrete slabs need not be considered in 
calculating the slab thickness provided that a concrete 
topping at least 1 inch (25 mm) thick is used. Where no 
concrete topping is used, joints must be grouted to a 
depth of at least one-third the slab thickness at the joint, 
but not less than 1 inch (25 mm), or the joints must be 
made fire resistant by other approved methods. 

722.2.3 Concrete cover over reinforcement. The mini- 
mum thickness of concrete cover over reinforcement in 



concrete slabs, reinforced beams and prestressed beams 
shall comply with this section. 

722.2.3.1 Slab cover. The minimum thickness of con- 
crete cover to the positive moment reinforcement shall 
comply with Table 722.2.3(1) for reinforced concrete 
and Table 722.2.3(2) for prestressed concrete. These 
tables are applicable for solid or hollow-core one-way 
or two-way slabs with flat undersurfaces. These tables 
are applicable to slabs that are either cast in place or 
precast. For precast prestressed concrete not covered 
elsewhere, the procedures contained in PCI MNL 124 
shall be acceptable. 

722.2.3.2 Reinforced beam cover. The minimum 
thickness of concrete cover to the positive moment 
reinforcement (bottom steel) for reinforced concrete 
beams is shown in Table 722.2.3(3) for fire -resistance 
ratings of 1 hour to 4 hours. 

722.2.3.3 Prestressed beam cover. The minimum 
thickness of concrete cover to the positive moment pre- 
stressing tendons (bottom steel) for restrained and unre- 
strained prestressed concrete beams and stemmed units 
shall comply with the values shown in Tables 
722.2.3(4) and 722.2.3(5) foxfire-resistance ratings of 
1 hour to 4 hours. Values in Table 722.2.3(4) apply to 
beams 8 inches (203 mm) or greater in width. Values in 
Table 722.2.3(5) apply to beams or stems of any width, 
provided the cross-section area is not less than 40 
square inches (25 806 mm 2 ). In case of differences 
between the values determined from Table 722.2.3(4) 
or 722.2.3(5), it is permitted to use the smaller value. 
The concrete cover shall be calculated in accordance 
with Section 722.2.3.3.1. The minimum concrete cover 
for nonprestressed reinforcement in prestressed con- 
crete beams shall comply with Section 722.2.3.2. 

722.2.3.3.1 Calculating concrete cover. The con- 
crete cover for an individual tendon is the minimum 
thickness of concrete between the surface of the ten- 
don and the fire-exposed surface of the beam, except 
that for ungrouted ducts, the assumed cover thick- 
ness is the minimum thickness of concrete between 
the surface of the duct and the fire-exposed surface 
of the beam. For beams in which two or more ten- 
dons are used, the cover is assumed to be the aver- 
age of the minimum cover of the individual tendons. 
For corner tendons (tendons equal distance from the 
bottom and side), the minimum cover used in the 
calculation shall be one-half the actual value. For 
stemmed members with two or more prestressing 
tendons located along the vertical centerline of the 
stem, the average cover shall be the distance from 
the bottom of the member to the centroid of the ten- 
dons. The actual cover for any individual tendon 
shall not be less than one-half the smaller value 
shown in Tables 722.2.3(4) and 722.2.3(5), or 1 inch 
(25 mm), whichever is greater. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE* 



173 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



CELLULAR CONCRETE 



'■ CONCRETE' 



CARBONATE BASE 



SILICEOUS BASE 



SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT BASE 

r 




SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT BASE 



THICKNESS OF CONCRETE BASE SLAB, INCHES 



VERMICULITE CONCRETE 



*■ CONCRETE • 



CARBONATE BASE 



(c) 



LU —1 

> <z 





j i 1 — r 




v ">0 , 4hr. 


^ 


"»> v / , 3hr>N. 

. 2hr.,\X 


- 


1hr. \JS, 



SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT BASE 
4c 



y z 
i-o 




THICKNESS OF CONCRETE BASE SLAB, INCHES 






m 



OQ 

W< 
Ul O 

(e) zm 
*(£ 

O UJ 

n 
w 

s 



-STANDARD 3-PLY 
BUILT-UP ROOFING 



sss 



MINERAL BOARD 



■=. CONCRETE ■» • ■»■ 



sss 



CARBONATE BASE 



SILICEOUS BASE 





SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT BASE 

3r 




THICKNESS OF CONCRETE BASE SLAB, INCHES 



-STANDARD 3-PLY 
BUILD-UP ROOFING 






■GLASS FIBER BOARD, 



*. CONCRETE 



2ZZZZ 



CARBONATE BASE 



SILICEOUS BASE 



SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT BASE 

3r 




THICKNESS OF CONCRETE BASE SLAB, INCHES 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE 722.2.2.3(1) 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS FOR 
CONCRETE ROOF ASSEMBLIES 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE 722.2.2.3(2) 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS 

FOR CONCRETE ROOF ASSEMBLIES 



COVER THICKNESS FOR REI 


TABLE 722.2.3(1) 
NFORCED CONCRETE FLOOR OR ROOF SL/ 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING 


^BS (inches) 






CONCRETE AGGREGATE TYPE 




(hours) 


Restrained 


Unrestrained 


1 


1V 2 


2 


3 


4 


1 


1V, 


2 


3 


4 


Siliceous 


3 / 4 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


% 


I 


l'/ 4 


l\ 


Carbonate 


X j 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


iv 4 


IV, 


Sand-lightweight or lightweight 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


iv 4 


iv 4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



TABLE 722.2.3(2) 
COVER THICKNESS FOR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE FLOOR OR ROOF SLABS (inches) 






CONCRETE AGGREGATE TYPE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


Restrained 


Unrestrained 


1 


IV, 


2 


3 


4 


1 


1V, 


2 


3 


4 


Siliceous 


X 


X 


% 


X 


X 


1'/, 


17, 


1% 


2X 


2% 


Carbonate 


X 


X 


% 


X 


X 


1 


l 3 / s 


1% 


27 s 


27„ 


Sand-lightweight or lightweight 


X 


% 


X 


X 


X 


1 


l\ 


17 2 


2 


27 4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 i 



174 



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FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 722.2.3(3) 

MINIMUM COVER FOR MAIN REINFORCING BARS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS 

(APPLICABLE TO ALL TYPES OF STRUCTURAL CONCRETE) 



RESTRAINED OR 
UNRESTRAINED" 


BEAM 
WIDTH b (inches) 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


IV, 


2 


3 


4 


Restrained 


5 

7 

>10 




U 

X 
X 


X 
X 
X 


X 
X 
X 


V 

X 
X 


11/ « 

1 '4 

X 
X 


Unrestrained 


5 

7 

>10 




X 

X 
X 


1 

X 
X 


IX 

X 
X 


7u 

1 


3 
1% 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, I foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Tabulated values for restrained assemblies apply to beams spaced more than 4 feet on center. For restrained beams spaced 4 feet or less on center, minimum 

cover of V 4 inch is adequate for ratings of 4 hours or less, 
b For beam widths between the tabulated values, the minimum cover thickness can be determined by direct interpolation, 
c The cover for an individual reinforcing bar is the minimum thickness of concrete between the surface of the bar and the fire-exposed surface of the beam. For 

beams in which several bars are used, the cover for corner bars used in the calculation shall be reduced to one-half of the actual value. The cover for an 

individual bar must be not less than one-half of the value given in Table 722.2.3(3) nor less than 3 / 4 inch. 

TABLE 722.2.3(4) 
MINIMUM COVER FOR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BEAMS 8 INCHES OR GREATER IN WIDTH" 



RESTRAINED OR 
UNRESTRAINED' 


CONCRETE 
AGGREGATE TYPE 


BEAM WIDTH 
(inches) 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 




1 


1V 2 


2 


3 


4 


Restrained 


Carbonate or siliceous 

Carbonate or siliceous 

Sand lightweight 

Sand lightweight 


8 
>12 

8 
>12 


iv 2 

17 2 

17, 
17 2 


\\ 

17, 
17 2 
17 2 


IV, 

IV, 

17 2 


17/ 
17 2 
17, 
17 2 


27/ 

T 
I 5 // 


Unrestrained 


Carbonate or siliceous 

Carbonate or siliceous 

Sand lightweight 

Sand lightweight 


8 
>12 

8 
>12 


IV, 
17, 

17, 
17, 


17 4 
1V 2 
17, 
IV, 


27, 

1 7 V 
2 

1% 


5 C 
27 2 
37. 

2 


3 
27 2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. . . 

a. Tabulated values for restrained assemblies apply to beams spaced more than 4 feet on center. For restrained beams spaced 4 feet or less on center, minimum 
cover of 3 / 4 inch is adequate for 4-hour ratings or less. 

b. For beam widths between 8 inches and 12 inches, minimum cover thickness can be determined by direct interpolation. 

c. Not practical for 8-inch-wide beam but shown for purposes of interpolation. 

TABLE 722.2.3(5) 
MINIMUM COVER FOR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BEAMS OF ALL WIDTHS 



RESTRAINED OR 

UNRESTRAINED 3 


CONCRETE AGGREGATE TYPE 


BEAM AREA" 
A (square inches) 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


1V, 


2 


3 


4 


Restrained 


All 


40 < A < 150 


17 2 


17 2 


2 


27, 


— 


Carbonate or 
siliceous 


150 < A < 300 


17 2 


17 2 


17 2 


1V 4 


27 2 


300 < A 


17, 


17, 


17 2 


17 2 


2 


Sand lightweight 


150 < A 


17 2 


17 2 


17 2 


17 2 


2 


Unrestrained 


All 


40 < A < 150 


2 


2% 


— 


— 


— 


Carbonate or 
siliceous 


150 < A < 300 


17 2 


1% 


27 2 


— 


— 


300 < A 


17 2 


17, 


2 


3 C 


4 C 


Sand lightweight 


150 < A 


1% 


17 2 


2 


3 c 


4 C 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. . . 

a. Tabulated values for restrained assemblies apply to beams spaced more than 4 feet on center. For restrained beams spaced 4 feet or less on center, minimum 
cover of 7, inch is adequate for 4-hour ratings or less. 

b. The cross-sectional area of a stem is permitted to include a portion of the area in the flange, provided the width of the flange used in the calculation does not 
exceed three times the average width of the stem. 

c. U-shaped or hooped stirrups spaced not to exceed the depth of the member and having a minimum cover of 1 inch shall be provided. 



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175 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



722.2.4 Concrete columns. Concrete columns shall com- 
ply with this section. 

TABLE 722.2.4 
MINIMUM DIMENSION OF CONCRETE COLUMNS (inches) 



TYPES OF CONCRETE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


IV, 


2 a 


3" 


4 b 


Siliceous 


8 


9 


10 


12 


14 


Carbonate 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


Sand-lightweight 


8 


8'/ 2 


9 


107 2 


12 



For SI: 1 inch = 25 mm. 

a. The minimum dimension is permitted to be reduced to 8 inches for 
rectangular columns with two parallel sides at least 36 inches in length. 

b. The minimum dimension is permitted to be reduced to 10 inches for 
rectangular columns with two parallel sides at least 36 inches in length. 

722.2.4.1 Minimum size. The minimum overall 
dimensions of reinforced concrete columns for fire- 
resistance ratings of 1 hour to 4 hours for exposure to 
fire on all sides shall comply with this section. 

722.2.4.1.1 Concrete strength less than or equal 
to 12,000 psi. For columns made with concrete hav- 
ing a specified compressive strength,/',.., of less than 
or equal to 12,000 psi (82.7 MPa), the minimum 
dimension shall comply with Table 722.2.4. 

722.2.4.1.2 Concrete strength greater than 12,000 
psi. For columns made with concrete having a speci- 
fied compressive strength, / \, greater than 12,000 
psi (82.7 MPa), for fire-resistance ratings of 1 hour 
to 4 hours the minimum dimension shall be 24 
inches (610 mm). 

722.2.4.2 Minimum cover for R/C columns. The min- 
imum thickness of concrete cover to the main longitu- 
dinal reinforcement in columns, regardless of the type 
of aggregate used in the concrete and the specified 
compressive strength of concrete, / ' c , shall not be less 
than 1 inch (25 mm) times the number of hours of 
required fire resistance or 2 inches (51 mm), whichever 
is less. 

722.2.4.3 Tie and spiral reinforcement. For concrete 
columns made with concrete having a specified com- 
pressive strength,/;, greater than 12,000 psi (82.7 
MPa), tie and spiral reinforcement shall comply with 
the following: 

1. The free ends of rectangular ties shall terminate 
with a 135-degree (2.4 rad) standard tie hook. 

2. The free ends of circular ties shall terminate with 
a 90-degree (1.6 rad) standard tie hook. 

3. The free ends of spirals, including at lap splices, 
shall terminate with a 90-degree (1.6 rad) stan- 
dard tie hook. 

The hook extension at the free end of ties and spirals 
shall be the larger of six bar diameters and the exten- 



sion required by Section 7.1.3 of ACI 318. Hooks shall 
project into the core of the column. 

722.2.4.4 Columns built into walls. The minimum 
dimensions of Table 722.2.4 do not apply to a rein- 
forced concrete column that is built into a concrete or 
masonry wall provided all of the following are met: 

1. The fire-resistance rating for the wall is equal to 
or greater than the required rating of the column; 

2. The main longitudinal reinforcing in the column 
has cover not less than that required by Section 
722.2.4.2; and 

3. Openings in the wall are protected in accordance 
with Table 716.5. 

Where openings in the wall are not protected as 
required by Section 716.5, the minimum dimension of 
columns required to have afire-resistance rating of 3 
hours or less shall be 8 inches (203 mm), and 10 inches 
(254 mm) for columns required to have a fire- resis- 
tance rating of 4 hours, regardless of the type of aggre- 
gate used in the concrete. 

722.2.4.5 Precast cover units for steel columns. See 

Section 722.5.1.4. 

722.3 Concrete masonry. The provisions of this section con- 
tain procedures by which the fire-resistance ratings of con- 
crete masonry are established by calculations. 

722.3.1 Equivalent thickness. The equivalent thickness 
of concrete masonry construction shall be determined in 
accordance with the provisions of this section. 

722.3.1.1 Concrete masonry unit plus finishes. The 
equivalent thickness of concrete masonry assemblies, 
T ea , shall be computed as the sum of the equivalent 
thickness of the concrete masonry unit, T e , as deter- 
mined by Section 722.3.1.2, 722.3.1.3 o/ 722.3.1.4, 
plus the equivalent thickness of finishes, T eft deter- 
mined in accordance with Section 722.3.2: 



T =T+ T, 



(Equation 7-6) 



722.3.1.2 Ungrouted or partially grouted construc- 
tion. T e shall be the value obtained for the concrete 
masonry unit determined in accordance with ASTM C 
140. 

722.3.1.3 Solid grouted construction. The equivalent 
thickness, T e , of solid grouted concrete masonry units is 
the actual thickness of the unit. 

722.3.1.4 Airspaces and cells filled with loose-fill 

material. The equivalent thickness of completely filled 
hollow concrete masonry is the actual thickness of the 
unit when loose-fill materials are: sand, pea gravel, 
crushed stone, or slag that meet ASTM C 33 require- 
ments; pumice, scoria, expanded shale, expanded clay, 
expanded slate, expanded slag, expanded fly ash, or 
cinders that comply with ASTM C 331; or perlite or 
vermiculite meeting the requirements of ASTM C 549 
and ASTM C 516, respectively. 



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722.3.2 Concrete masonry walls. The. fire-resistance rat- 
ing of walls and partitions constructed of concrete 
masonry units shall be determined from Table 722.3.2. 
The rating shall be based on the equivalent thickness of 
the masonry and type of aggregate used. 

722.3.2.1 Finish on nonfire-exposed side. Where plas- 
ter or gypsum wallboard is applied to the side of the 
wall not exposed to fire, the contribution of the finish to 
the total fire-resistance rating shall be determined as 
follows: The thickness of gypsum wallboard or plaster 
shall be corrected by multiplying the actual thickness of 
the finish by applicable factor determined from Table 
722.2.1.4(1). This corrected thickness of finish shall be 
added to the equivalent thickness of masonry and the 
fire-resistance rating of the masonry and finish deter- 
mined from Table 722.3.2. 

722.3.2.2 Finish on fire-exposed side. Where plaster 
or gypsum wallboard is applied to the fire-exposed side 
of the wall, the contribution of the finish to the total 
fire-resistance rating shall be determined as follows: 
The time assigned to the finish as established by Table 
722.2.1.4(2) shall be added to the fire-resistance rating 
determined in Section 722.3.2 for the masonry alone, or 
in Section 722.3.2.1 for the masonry and finish on the 
nonfire-exposed side. 

722.3.2.3 Nonsymmetrical assemblies. For a wall 
having no finish on one side or having different types 
or thicknesses of finish on each side, the calculation 
procedures of this section shall be performed twice, 
assuming either side of the wall to be the fire-exposed 
side. The fire-resistance rating of the wall shall not 
exceed the lower of the two values calculated. 

Exception: For exterior walls with afire separation 
distance greater than 5 feet (1524 mm) the fire shall 
be assumed to occur on the interior side only. 

722.3.2.4 Minimum concrete masonry fire-resis- 
tance rating. Where the finish applied to a concrete 
masonry wall contributes to its fire-resistance rating, 
the masonry alone shall provide not less than one-half 
the total required fire-resistance rating. 



722.3.2.5 Attachment of finishes. Installation of fin- 
ishes shall be as follows: 

1. Gypsum wallboard and gypsum lath applied to 
concrete masonry or concrete walls shall be 
secured to wood or steel furring members spaced 
not more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center 
(o.c). 

2. Gypsum wallboard shall be installed with the 
long dimension parallel to the furring members 
and shall have all joints finished. 

3. Other aspects of the installation of finishes shall 
comply with the applicable provisions of Chap- 
ters 7 and 25. 

722.3.3 Multiwythe masonry walls. The fire-resistance 
rating of wall assemblies constructed of multiple wythes 
of masonry materials shall be permitted to be based on the 
fire-resistance rating period of each wythe and the contin- 
uous airspace between each wythe in accordance with the 
following formula: 

R A = (A, 059 + R 2 059 + ... + tf„ 059 + A, + A 2 + ... +A n ) L1 

(Equation 7-7) 

where: 

R A = Fire-resistance rating of the assembly (hours). 

R l: R 2 , ..., R n = Fire- resistance rating of wythes for 1, 2, 
n (hours), respectively. 

A,, A 2 , ...., A n = 0.30, factor for each continuous airspace 
for 1, 2, ...n, respectively, having a depth 
of V 2 inch (12.7 mm) or more between 
wythes. 

722.3.4 Concrete masonry lintels. Fire-resistance rat- 
ings for concrete masonry lintels shall be determined 
based upon the nominal thickness of the lintel and the 
minimum thickness of concrete masonry or concrete, or 
any combination thereof, covering the main reinforcing 
bars, as determined according to Table 722.3.4, or by 
approved alternate methods. 



TABLE 722.3.2 
MINIMUM EQUIVALENT THICKNESS (inches) OF BEARING OR NONBEARING CONCRETE MASONRY WALLS abcd 



TYPE OF AGGREGATE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


X 


% 


1 


1V 4 


1V 2 


1% 


2 


2V, 


2% 


2% 


3 


3V. 


3% 


3 3 / 4 


4 


Pumice or expanded slag 


1.5 


1.9 


2.1 


2.5 


2.7 


3.0 


3.2 


3.4 


3.6 


3.8 


4.0 


4.2 


4.4 


4.5 


4.7 


Expanded shale, clay or slate 


1.8 


2.2 


2.6 


2.9 


3.3 


3.4 


3.6 


3.8 


4.0 


4.2 


4.4 


4.6 


4.8 


4.9 


5.1 


Limestone, cinders or unexpanded slag 


1.9 


2.3 


2.7 


3.1 


3.4 


3.7 


4.0 


4.3 


4.5 


4.8 


5.0 


5.2 


5.5 


5.7 


5.9 


Calcareous or siliceous gravel 


2.0 


2.4 


2.8 


3.2 


3.6 


3.9 


4.2 


4.5 


4.8 


5.0 


5.3 


5.5 


5.8 


6.0 


6.2 



For SI: t inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Values between those shown in the table can be determined by direct interpolation. 

b. Where combustible members are framed into the wall, the thickness of solid material between the end of each member and the opposite face of the wall, or 
between members set in from opposite sides, shall not be less than 93 percent of the thickness shown in the table. 

c. Requirements of ASTM C 55, ASTM C 73, ASTM C 90 or ASTM C 744 shall apply. 

d. Minimum required equivalent thickness corresponding to the hourly fire-resistance rating for units with a combination of aggregate shall be determined by 
linear interpolation based on the percent by volume of each aggregate used in manufacture. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



177 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 722.3.4 

MINIMUM COVER OF LONGITUDINAL REINFORCEMENT IN 

FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED REINFORCED CONCRETE 



TABLE 722.3.5 

MINIMUM DIMENSION OF CONCRETE 

MASONRY COLUMNS (inches) 



NOMINAL WIDTH 
OF LINTEL (inches) 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


2 


3 


4 


6 


1% 


2 


— 


— 


8 


iv 2 


l7 2 


1% 


3 


10 or greater 


l 1 /. 


1V 2 


17 2 


l 3 / 

1 M 



FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


2 


3 


4 


8 inches 


1 inches 


1 2 inches 


1 4 inches 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

722.3.5 Concrete masonry columns. The fire-resistance 
rating of concrete masonry columns shall be determined 
based upon the least plan dimension of the column in 
accordance with Table 722.3.5 or by approved alternate 
methods. 

722.4 Clay brick and tile masonry. The provisions of this 
section contain procedures by which the fire-resistance rat- 
ings of clay brick and tile masonry are established by calcula- 
tions. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

722.4.1 Masonry walls. The fire- resistance rating of 
masonry walls shall be based upon the equivalent thick- 
ness as calculated in accordance with this section. The cal- 
culation shall take into account finishes applied to the wall 
and airspaces between wythes in multiwythe construction. 

722.4.1.1 Equivalent thickness. The fire-resistance 
ratings of walls or partitions constructed of solid or 
hollow clay masonry units shall be determined from 
Table 722.4.1(1) or 722.4.1(2). The equivalent thick- 
ness of the clay masonry unit shall be determined by 
Equation 7-8 when using Table 722.4.1(1). The fire - 



TABLE 722.4.1(1) 
FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS OF CLAY MASONRY WALLS 



MATERIAL TYPE 


MINIMUM REQUIRED EQUIVALENT THICKNESS FOR FIRE RESISTANCE" ° '(inches) 


1 hour 


2 hours 


3 hours 


4 hours 


Solid brick of clay or shale 11 


2.7 


3.8 


4.9 


6.0 


Hollow brick or tile of clay or shale, unfilled 


2.3 


3.4 


4.3 


5.0 


Hollow brick or tile of clay or shale, grouted 

or filled with materials specified in Section 722.4.1.1.3 


3.0 


4.4 


5.5 


6.6 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Equivalent thickness as determined from Section 722.4.1 .1. 

b. Calculated fire resistance between the hourly increments listed shall be determined by linear interpolation. 

c. Where combustible members are framed in the wall, the thickness of solid material between the end of each member and the opposite face of the wall, or 
between members set in from opposite sides, shall not be less than 93 percent of the thickness shown. 

d. For units in which the net cross-sectional area of cored brick in any plane parallel to the surface containing the cores is at least 75 percent of the gross cross- 
sectional area measured in the same plane. 

TABLE 722.4.1(2) 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS FOR BEARING STEEL FRAME BRICK VENEER WALLS OR PARTITIONS 



WALL OR PARTITION ASSEMBLY 


PLASTER SIDE 
EXPOSED (hours) 


BRICK FACED SIDE 
EXPOSED (hours) 


Outside facing of steel studs: 

V," wood fiberboard sheathing next to studs, 3 / 4 " airspace formed with 

3 / 4 " x l 5 / 8 " wood strips placed over the fiberboard and secured to the studs; 

metal or wire lath nailed to such strips, 3 3 / 4 " brick veneer held in place by filling 3 / 4 " airspace between 

the brick and lath with mortar. Inside facing of studs: 3 / 4 " unsanded gypsum plaster on metal or wire 

lath attached to s f l6 " wood strips secured to edges of the studs. 


1.5 


4 


Outside facing of steel studs: 

1" insulation board sheathing attached to studs, 1" airspace, and 3 3 / 4 " brick veneer attached to steel 
frame with metal ties every 5th course. Inside facing of studs: 7 / 8 " sanded gypsum plaster (1:2 mix) 
applied on metal or wire lath attached directly to the studs. 


1.5 


4 


Same as above except use 7 / 8 " vermiculite-gypsum plaster or 1" sanded gypsum plaster (1:2 mix) 
applied to metal or wire. 


2 


4 


Outside facing of steel studs: 

7," gypsum sheathing board, attached to studs, and 3 3 / 4 " brick veneer attached to steel frame with 
metal ties every 5th course. Inside facing of studs: 7 2 " sanded gypsum plaster (1:2 mix) applied to '/," 
perforated gypsum lath securely attached to studs and having strips of metal lath 3 inches wide 
applied to all horizontal joints of gypsum lath. 


2 


4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



178 



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FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



resistance rating determined from Table 722.4.1(1) 
shall be permitted to be used in the calculated fire- 
resistance rating procedure in Section 722.4.2. 

T = V ILH (Equation 7-8) 

where: 

T e = The equivalent thickness of the clay masonry unit 

(inches). 
V n = The net volume of the clay masonry unit (inch 3 ). 
L = The specified length of the clay masonry unit 

(inches). 
H = The specified height of the clay masonry unit 

(inches). 

722.4.1.1.1 Hollow clay units. The equivalent 
thickness, T e , shall be the value obtained for hollow 
clay units as determined in accordance with Equa- 
tion 7-8. The net volume, V n , of the units shall be 
determined using the gross volume and percentage 
of void area determined in accordance with ASTM 
C67. 

722.4.1.1.2 Solid grouted clay units. The equiva- 
lent thickness of solid grouted clay masonry units 
shall be taken as the actual thickness of the units. 

722.4.1.1.3 Units with filled cores. The equivalent 
thickness of the hollow clay masonry units is the 
actual thickness of the unit when completely filled 
with loose-fill materials of: sand, pea gravel, 
crushed stone, or slag that meet ASTM C 33 require- 
ments; pumice, scoria, expanded shale, expanded 
clay, expanded slate, expanded slag, expanded fly 
ash, or cinders in compliance with ASTM C 331 ; or 
perlite or vermiculite meeting the requirements of 
ASTM C 549 and ASTM C 516, respectively. 

722.4.1.2 Plaster finishes. Where plaster is applied to 
the wall, the total fire -re si stance rating shall be deter- 
mined by the formula: 

R = (R n 059 + pi) ' 7 (Equation 7-9) 

where: 

R =The fire-resistance rating of the assembly 

(hours). 
i? n = The fire-resistance rating of the individual wall 

(hours). 
pi = Coefficient for thickness of plaster. 

Values for R°- 59 for use in Equation 7-9 are given in 
Table 722.4.1(3). Coefficients for thickness of plaster 
shall be selected from Table 722.4.1(4) based on the 
actual thickness of plaster applied to the wall or parti- 
tion and whether one or two sides of the wall are plas- 
tered. 



TABLE 722.4.1(3) 
VALUES OF R„ ° 59 



F)„ 0.59 


A (hours) 


1 


1.0 


2 


1.50 


3 


1.91 


4 


2.27 



TABLE 722.4.1(4) 
COEFFICIENTS FOR PLASTER, pi" 


THICKNESS OF PLASTER (inch) 


ONE SIDE 


TWO SIDES 


% 


0.3 


0.6 


% 


0.37 


0.75 


% 


0.45 


0.90 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Values listed in table are for 1:3 sanded gypsum plaster. 

TABLE 722.4.1(5) 
REINFORCED MASONRY LINTELS 



NOMINAL 
LINTEL WIDTH (inches) 


MINIMUM LONGITUDINAL REINFORCEMENT 

COVER 

FOR FIRE RESISTANCE (inches) 


1 hour 


2 hours 


3 hours 


4 hours 


6 


1V 2 


2 


NP 


NP 


8 


17, 


1V 2 


1% 


3 


10 or more 


1V 2 


1V 2 


l'/ 2 


1% 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 
NP = Not permitted. 

TABLE 722.4.1(6) 
REINFORCED CLAY MASONRY COLUMNS 



COLUMN SIZE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING 
(hours) 




1 


2 


3 


4 


Minimum column dimension 
(inches) 


8 


10 


12 


14 



ForSLl inch = 25.4 mm. 

722.4.1.3 Multiwythe walls with airspace. Where a 
continuous airspace separates multiple wythes of the 
wall or partition, the total fire-resistance rating shall be 
determined by the formula: 

R = (fl, 059 + R 2°' 59 + -+R n 059 +as) IJ (Equation 7-10) 

where: 

R = The fire-resistance rating of the assembly 
(hours). 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



179 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



R t ,R 2 and R n = The fire-resistance rating of the 
individual wythes (hours). 

as = Coefficient for continuous airspace. 

Values for R n 059 for use in Equation 7-10 are given 
in Table 722.4.1(3). The coefficient for each continu- 
ous airspace of 7 2 inch to 3V 2 inches (12.7 to 89 mm) 
separating two individual wythes shall be 0.3. 

722.4.1.4 Nonsymmetrical assemblies. For a wall 
having no finish on one side or having different types 
or thicknesses of finish on each side, the calculation 
procedures of this section shall be performed twice, 
assuming either side to be the fire-exposed side of the 
wall. The fire resistance of the wall shall not exceed the 
lower of the two values determined. 

Exception: For exterior walls with a fire separation 
distance greater than 5 feet (1524 mm), the fire shall 
be assumed to occur on the interior side only. 

722.4.2 Multiwythe wails. The fire -resistance rating for 
walls or partitions consisting of two or more dissimilar 
wythes shall be permitted to be determined by the for- 
mula: 



R = (R° 59 + R 2 (y59 + ...+Rf- 59 ) ,: ' 
where: 



(Equation 7-11) 



R - The fire-resistance rating of the assembly (hours). 

R,, R 2 and R n - The fire-resistance rating of the 
individual wythes (hours). 

Values for R n 059 for use in Equation 7-1 1 are given in 
Table 722.4.1(3). 

722.4.2.1 Multiwythe walls of different material. For 

walls that consist of two or more wythes of different 
materials (concrete or concrete masonry units) in com- 
bination with clay masonry units, the fire-resistance 
rating of the different materials shall be permitted to be 
determined from Table 722.2.1.1 for concrete; Table 
722.3.2 for concrete masonry units or Table 722.4.1(1) 
or 722.4.1(2) for clay and tile masonry units. 

722.4.3 Reinforced clay masonry lintels. Fire-resistance 
ratings for clay masonry lintels shall be determined based 
on the nominal width of the lintel and the minimum cover- 
ing for the longitudinal reinforcement in accordance with 

Table 722.4.1(5). 

722.4.4 Reinforced clay masonry columns. The fire- 
resistance ratings shall be determined based on the last 
plan dimension of the column in accordance with Table 
722.4.1(6). The minimum cover for longitudinal reinforce- 
ment shall be 2 inches (51 mm). 

722.5 Steel assemblies. The provisions of this section con- 
tain procedures by which the fire-resistance ratings of steel 
assemblies are established by calculations. 

722.5.1 Structural steel columns. The fire-resistance rat- 
ings of steel columns shall be based on the size of the ele- 
ment and the type of protection provided in accordance 
with this section. 



722.5.1.1 General. These procedures establish a basis for 
determining the fire resistance of column assemblies as a 
function of the thickness of fire-resistant material and, the 
weight, W, and heated perimeter, D, of steel columns. As 
used in these sections, W is the average weight of a struc- 
tural steel column in pounds per linear foot. The heated 
perimeter, D, is the inside perimeter of the fire-resistant 
material in inches as illustrated in Figure 722.5.1(1). 




Jz 



bf 



D=4bf+2d-2t w 



D=2(a+d) 



D=2(b f + d) 



FIGURE 722.5.1(1) 

DETERMINATION OF THE HEATED PERIMETER OF 

STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMNS 

722.5.1.1.1 Nonload-bearing protection. The 
application of these procedures shall be limited to 
column assemblies in which the fire-resistant mate- 
rial is not designed to carry any of the load acting on 
the column. 

722.5.1.1.2 Embedments. In the absence of sub- 
stantiating fire-endurance test results, ducts, conduit, 
piping, and similar mechanical, electrical, and 
plumbing installations shall not be embedded in any 
required fire-resistant materials. 

722.5.1.1.3 Weight-to-perimeter ratio. Table 
722.5.1(1) contains weight-to-heated-perimeter 
ratios (W/D) for both contour and box fire-resistant 
profiles, for the wide flange shapes most often used 
as columns. For different fire-resistant protection 
profiles or column cross sections, the weight-to- 
heated-perimeter ratios (W/D) shall be determined in 
accordance with the definitions given in this section. 

722.5.1.2 Gypsum wallboard protection. The fire 
resistance of structural steel columns with weight-to- 
heated-perimeter ratios ( W/D) less than or equal to 3.65 
and which are protected with Type X gypsum wall- 
board shall be permitted to be determined from the fol- 
lowing expression: 



R = 130 



h(W'/D) 015 

2 



(Equation 7-12) 



where: 

R = Fire resistance (minutes). 

h = Total thickness of gypsum wallboard (inches). 

D = Heated perimeter of the structural steel column 
(inches). 

W = Total weight of the structural steel column and 
gypsum wallboard protection (pounds per linear 
foot). 

W' = W+ 50hD/l44. 



180 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



722.5.1.2.1 Attachment. The gypsum wallboard 
shall be supported as illustrated in either Figure 
722.5.1(2) for fire-resistance ratings of 4 hours or 
less, or Figure 722.5.1(3) for fire-resistance ratings 
of 3 hours or less. 

722.5.1.2.2 Gypsum wallboard equivalent to con- 
crete. The determination of the fire resistance of 
structural steel columns from Figure 722.5.1(4) is 
permitted for various thicknesses of gypsum wall- 
board as a function of the weight-to-heated-perime- 
ter ratio {W/D) of the column. For structural steel 
columns with weight-to-heated-perimeter ratios (W/D) 




No.8x1/2" SHEET STEEL 
SCREWS SPACED 12-o.c. 



SNAP-LOCK PITTSBURGH SEAM 

CORNER JOINT DETAILS (A) 



FIGURE 722.5.1(2) 

GYPSUM WALLBOARD PROTECTED STRUCTURAL STEEL 

COLUMNS WITH SHEET STEEL COLUMN COVERS 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 305 mm. 

1. Structural steel column, either wide flange or tubular shapes. 

2. Type X gypsum wallboard in accordance with ASTM C 1396. For single- 
layer applications, the wallboard shall be applied vertically with no 
horizontal joints. For multiple-layer applications, horizontal joints are 
permitted at a minimum spacing of 8 feet, provided that the joints in 
successive layers are staggered at least 12 inches. The total required 
thickness of wallboard shall be determined on the basis of the specified 
fire-resistance rating and the weight-to-heated-perimeter ratio (W/D) of 
the column. For fire-resistance ratings of 2 hours or less, one of the 
required layers of gypsum wallboard may be applied to the exterior of the 
sheet steel column covers with 1-inch long Type S screws spaced 1 inch 
from the wallboard edge and 8 inches on center. For such installations, 
0.0149-inch minimum thickness galvanized steel corner beads with 1 72- 
inch legs shall be attached to the wallboard with Type S screws spaced 12 
inches on center. 

3. For fire-resistance ratings of 3 hours or less, the column covers shall be 
fabricated from 0.0239-inch minimum thickness galvanized or stainless 
steel. For 4-hour fire-resistance ratings, the column covers shall be 
fabricated from 0.0239-inch minimum thickness stainless steel. The 
column covers shall be erected with the Snap Lock or Pittsburgh joint 
details. 

For fire-resistance ratings of 2 hours or less, column covers fabricated 
from 0.0269-inch minimum thickness galvanized or stainless steel shall be 
permitted to be erected with lap joints. The lap joints shall be permitted to 
be located anywhere around the perimeter of the column cover. The lap 
joints shall be secured with 7,-inch-long No. 8 sheet metal screws spaced 
12 inches on center. 

The column covers shall be provided with a minimum expansion 
clearance of '/„ inch per linear foot between the ends of the cover and any 
restraining construction. 



greater than 3.65, the thickness of gypsum wall- 
board required for specified fire-resistance ratings 
shall be the same as the thickness determined for a 
W14 x 233 wide flange shape. 

722.5.1.3 Sprayed fire-resistant materials. The fire 
resistance of wide-flange structural steel columns pro- 
tected with sprayed fire-resistant materials, as illus- 
trated in Figure 722.5.1(5), shall be permitted to be 
determined from the following expression: 

R = [C^W/D) + C 2 )h (Equation 7-13) 




© ■■ 




©— -f 



B 



1 LAYER = 5/8" OR 1/2" 



2 LAYERS = 1 1/4" OR 1" 





3 LAYERS = 1 7/8" OR 1 1/2" 



4 LAYERS = 2 1/2" OR 2" 



FIGURE 722.5.1(3) 

GYPSUM WALLBOARD PROTECTED STRUCTURAL STEEL 

COLUMNS WITH STEEL STUD/SCREW ATTACHMENT SYSTEM 

For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = -305 mm. 

1 . Structural steel column, either wide flange or tubular shapes. 

2. 1%-inch deep studs fabricated from 0.0179-inch minimum thickness 
galvanized steel with l 5 / l6 or F/ l6 -inch legs. The length of the steel studs 
shall be 7 2 inch less than the height of the assembly. 

3. Type X gypsum wallboard in accordance with ASTM C 1396. For single- 
layer applications, the wallboard shall be applied vertically with no 
horizontal joints. For multiple-layer applications, horizontal joints are 
permitted at a minimum spacing of 8 feet, provided that the joints in 
successive layers are staggered at least 12 inches. The total required 
thickness of wallboard shall be determined on the basis of the specified 
fire-resistance rating and the weight-to-heated-perimeter ratio (W/D) of 
the column. 

4. Galvanized 0.0149-inch minimum thickness steel corner beads with l7 2 - 
inch legs attached to the wallboard with 1 -inch-long Type S screws 
spaced 1 2 inches on center. 

5. No. 18 SWG steel tie wires spaced 24 inches on center. 

6. Sheet metal angles with 2-inch legs fabricated from 0.0221 -inch 
minimum thickness galvanized steel. 

7. Type S screws, 1 inch long, shall be used for attaching the first layer of 
wallboard to the steel studs and the third layer to the sheet metal angles at 
24 inches on center. Type S screws l 3 / 4 -inch long shall be used for 
attaching the second layer of wallboard to the steel studs and the fourth 
layer to the sheet metal angles at 12 inches on center. Type S screws 2'/ 4 
inches long shall be used for attaching the third layer of wallboard to the 
steel studs at 1 2 inches on center. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



181 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



fire-resistant material 



where: 

R = Fire resistance (minutes). 

h - Thickness of sprayed 
(inches). 

D - Heated perimeter of the structural steel column 
(inches). 

C, and C 2 = Material-dependent constants. 

W = Weight of structural steel columns (pounds per 
linear foot). 

The fire resistance of structural steel columns pro- 
tected with intumescent or mastic fire-resistant coatings 
shall be determined on the basis of fire-resistance tests 
in accordance with Section 703.2. 

722.5.1.3.1 Material-dependent constants. The 
material-dependent constants, Q and C 2 , shall be 
determined for specific fire-resistant materials on 
the basis of standard fire endurance tests in accor- 
dance with Section 703.2. Unless evidence is sub- 
mitted to the building official substantiating a 
broader application, this expression shall be limited 
to determining the fire resistance of structural steel 
columns with weight-to-heated-perimeter ratios (W/ 
D) between the largest and smallest columns for 
which standard fire-resistance test results are avail- 
able. 

722.5.1.3.2 Identification. Sprayed fire-resistant 
materials shall be identified by density and thickness 
required for a given fire-resistance rating. 



4 

3 

2 
1 1/2 


2 1/2" 


7 1 7/8" 


1 1/2" 


1 1/4" 


/, 
























'A 







































5/8" 
1/2" 



1.0 



2.0 



WEIGHT-TO-HEATED-PERIMETER RATIO (WIDf 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per linear foot/inch = 0.059 kg/m/mm. 

FIGURE 722.5.1(4) 

FiRE RESISTANCE OF STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMNS 

PROTECTED WITH VARIOUS THICKNESSES OF TYPE X 

GYPSUM WALLBOARD 



(Equation 7-14) 



moisture 



722.5.1.4 Concrete-protected columns. The fire resis- 
tance of structural steel columns protected with con- 
crete, as illustrated in Figure 722.5.1(6) (a) and (b), 
shall be permitted to be determined from the following 

expression: 

R = R o (l+0.03J 

where: 

/?„= 10 (W/Z3) 07 + 17 (h ] % - 2 ) x 
[1+26 {H/p c c c h(L + h)} 0S ] 

As used in these expressions: 

R = Fire endurance at equilibrium 
conditions (minutes). 

R = Fire endurance at zero moisture content 
(minutes). 

m = Equilibrium moisture content of the concrete by 
volume (percent). 

W = Average weight of the steel column (pounds per 
linear foot). 

D = Heated perimeter of the steel column (inches). 

h = Thickness of the concrete cover (inches). 

k c = Ambient temperature thermal conductivity of the 
concrete (Btu/hr ft °F). 

H = Ambient temperature thermal capacity of the 
steel column = 0. 1 1W (Btu/ ft °F). 

p c = Concrete density (pounds per cubic foot). 

c c = Ambient temperature specific heat of concrete 
(Btu/lb °F). 

L = Interior dimension of one side of a square 
concrete box protection (inches). 

722.5.1.4.1 Reentrant space filled. For wide-flange 
steel columns completely encased in concrete with 
all reentrant spaces filled [Figure 722.5. l(6)(c)], the 
thermal capacity of the concrete within the reentrant 
spaces shall be permitted to be added to the thermal 
capacity of the steel column, as follows: 

H = 0.UW+ GW 144) (bjd - A,) 

(Equation 7-15) 




a. The W/D ratios for typical wide flange columns are listed in Table 
721.5.1(1). For other column shapes, the W/D ratios shall be determined 
in accordance with Section 721.5.1.1. 



FIGURE 721.5.1(5) 

WIDE FLANGE STRUCTURE STEEL COLUMNS WITH 

SPRAYED FIRE-RESISTANT MATERIALS 



182 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



where: 

b f = Flange width of the steel column (inches). 

d = Depth of the steel column (inches). 

A s = Cross-sectional area of the steel column 
(square inches). 

722.5.1.4.2 Concrete properties unknown. If spe- 
cific data on the properties of concrete are not avail- 
able, the values given in Table 722.5.1(2) are 
permitted. 

722.5.1.4.3 Minimum concrete cover. For struc- 
tural steel column encased in concrete with all reen- 
trant spaces filled, Figure 722.5. l(6)(c) and Tables 
722.5.1(7) and 722.5.1(8) indicate the thickness of 



concrete cover required for various fire-resistance 
ratings for typical wide-flange sections. The thick- 
nesses of concrete indicated in these tables also 
apply to structural steel columns larger than those 
listed. 

722.5.1.4.4 Minimum precast concrete cover. For 
structural steel columns protected with precast con- 
crete column covers as shown in Figure 
722.5. l(6)(a), Tables 722.5.1(9) and 722.5.1(10) 
indicate the thickness of the column covers required 
for various fire-resistance ratings for typical wide- 
flange shapes. The thicknesses of concrete given in 
these tables also apply to structural steel columns 
larger than those listed. 



m: 



mtm 



h 




(a) 


(b) 


(c) 


PRECAST 


CONCRETE 


CONCRETE 


CONCRETE 


ENCASED 


ENCASED 


COLUMN 


STRUCTURAL 


WIDE-FLANGE 


COVERS 


TUBE 


SHAPE 



FIGURE 722.5.1(6) 

CONCRETE PROTECTED STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMNS 3 " 

a. When the inside perimeter of the concrete protection is not square, L shall be taken as the average of L, and L 2 . When the thickness of concrete cover is not 
constant, h shall be taken as the average of h t and h 2 . 

b. Joints shall be protected with a minimum 1 inch thickness of ceramic fiber blanket but in no case less than one-half the thickness of the column cover (see 
Section 722.2.1.3). 



D=2(w+d)+2(w-t web ) 
w 



□ 

o 

D 



nan 



D = izd 

d 






nan 



D 
□ 
a 



a. 

LO 
CM 



a 

a 
a 



nan 




ana 



0.25p 



D 
D 
D 




W SHAPE COLUMN STEEL PIPE COLUMN STRUCTURAL TUBE COLUMN 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

d - Depth of a wide flange column, outside diameter of pipe column, or outside dimension of structural tubing column (inches). 

«,„,, = Thickness of web of wide flange column (inches). 

w = Width of flange of wide flange column (inches). 

FIGURE 722.5.1 (7) 
CONCRETE OR CLAY MASONRY PROTECTED STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMNS 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



183 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 722.5.1(1) 
W/D RATIOS FOR STEEL COLUMNS 



STRUCTURAL SHAPE 


CONTOUR PROFILE 


BOX 
PROFILE 


STRUCTURAL SHAPE 


CONTOUR PROFILE 


BOX 
PROFILE 


W14x233 


2.55 


3.65 


WlOx 112 


1.81 


2.57 


x211 


2.32 


3.35 


xlOO 


1.64 


2.33 


xl93 


2.14 


3.09 


x88 


1.45 


2.08 


x 176 


1.96 


2.85 


x77 


1.28 


1.85 


xl59 j 


1.78 


2.60 


x68 


1.15 


1.66 


x 145 


1.64 1 


2.39 


x60 


1.01 


1.48 


x!32 


1.56 


2.25 


x54 


0.922 


1.34 


xl20 


1.42 


2.06 


x49 


0.84 


1.23 


x 109 


1.29 


1.88 


x45 


0.888 


1.24 


x99 


1.18 


1.72 


x39 


0.78 


1.09 


x90 


1.08 


1.58 


x33 


0.661 


0.93 


x82 


1.23 


1.68 




x74 


1.12 


1.53 


W8x67 


1.37 


1.94 


x68 


1.04 


1.41 


x58 


1.20 


1.71 


x61 


0.928 


1.28 


x48 


1.00 


1.44 


x53 


0.915 


1.21 


x40 


0.849 


1.23 


x48 


0.835 


1.10 


x35 


0.749 


1.08 


x43 


0.752 


0.99 


x31 


0.665 


0.97 




x28 


0.688 


0.96 


W12xl90 


2.50 


3.51 


x24 


0.591 


0.83 


xl70 


2.26 


3.20 


x21 


0.577 


0.77 


xl52 


2.04 


2.90 


xl8 


0.499 


0.67 


x 136 


1.86 


2.63 




x 120 


1.65 


2.36 


W6x25 


0.696 


1.00 


x 106 


1.47 


2.11 


x20 


0.563 


0.82 


x96 


1.34 


1.93 


xl6 


0.584 


0.78 


x87 


1.22 


1.76 


xl5 


0.431 


0.63 


x79 


1.11 


1.61 


xl2 


0.448 


0.60 


x72 


1.02 


1.48 


x9 


0.338 


0.46 


x65 


0.925 


1.35 




x58 


0.925 


1.31 


W5xl9 


0.644 


0.93 


x53 


0.855 


1.20 


xl6 


0.55 


0.80 


x50 


0.909 


1.23 




x45 


0.829 


1.12 


| W4xl3 


0.556 


0.79 


x40 


0.734 


1.00 





For SI: 1 pound per linear foot per inch = 0.059 kg/m/mm. 



TABLE 722.5.1(2) 
PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE 



PROPERTY 


NORMAL-WEIGHT CONCRETE 


STRUCTURAL LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE 


Thermal conductivity (fc c ) 


0.95 Btu/hr • ft • °F 


0.35 Btu/hr • ft • °F 


Specific heat (c c ) 


0.20 Btu/lb °F 


0.20 Btu/lb °F 


Density (P c ) 


145 lb/ft 3 


110 lb/ft 3 


Equilibrium (free) moisture content (m) by volume 


4% 


5% 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 lb/ft 3 = 1 6.01 85 kg/nr\ Btu/hr . ft • °F = 1.73 1 W/(m • K). 



184 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 722.5.1(3) 
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF CONCRETE OR CLAY MASONRY UNITS 



DENSITY (d m ) OF UNITS (lb/ft 3 ) 


THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY (K) OF UNITS (Btu/hr • ft • °F) 


Concrete Masonry Units 


80 


0.207 


85 


0.228 


90 


0.252 


95 


0.278 


100 


0.308 


105 


0.340 


110 


0.376 


115 


0.416 


120 


0.459 


125 


0.508 


130 


0.561 


135 


0.620 


140 


0.685 


145 


0.758 


150 


0.837 


Clay Masonry Units 


120 


1.25 


130 


2.25 



For SI: 1 pound per cubic foot = 16.0185 kg/m\ Btu/hr -ft • °F= 1.731 W/(m ■ K). 



TABLE 722.5.1(4) 
WEIGHT-TO-HEATED-PERIMETER RATIOS (W/D) FOR TYPICAL WIDE FLANGE BEAM AND GIRDER SHAPES 



STRUCTURAL SHAPE 


CONTOUR PROFILE 


BOX PROFILE 


STRUCTURAL SHAPE 


CONTOUR PROFILE 


BOX PROFILE 


W36 x 300 


2.50 


3.33 


W24 x 68 


0.942 


1.21 


x280 


2.35 


3.12 


x62 


0.934 


1.14 


x260 


2.18 


2.92 


x55 


0.828 


1.02 


x245 


2.08 


2.76 








x230 


1.95 


2.61 


W21 x 147 


1.87 


2.60 


x210 


1.96 


2.45 


x 132 


1.68 


2.35 


xl94 


1.81 


2.28 


xl22 


1.57 


2.19 


x 182 


1.72 


2.15 


x 111 


1.43 


2.01 


x 170 


1.60 


2.01 


x 101 


1.30 


1.84 


xl60 


1.51 


1.90 


x93 


1.40 


1.80 


xl50 


1.43 


1.79 


x83 


1.26 


1.62 


xl35 


1.29 


1.63 


x73 


1.11 


1.44 




x68 


1.04 


1.35 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 8 



185 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 722.5.1(4)— continued 
WEIGHT-TO-HEATED-PERIMETER RATIOS (W/O) FOR TYPICAL WIDE FLANGE BEAM AND GIRDER SHAPES 


STRUCTURAL SHAPE 


CONTOUR PROFILE 


BOX PROFILE 


STRUCTURAL SHAPE 


CONTOUR PROFILE 


BOX PROFILE 


W33 x 241 


2.13 


2.86 


W21 x 62 


0.952 


1.23 


x221 


1.97 


2.64 


x57 


0.952 


1.17 


x201 


1.79 


2.42 


x50 


0.838 


1.04 


xl52 


1.53 


1.94 


x44 


0.746 


0.92 


xl41 


1.43 


1.80 




xl30 


1.32 


1.67 


W18xll9 


1.72 


2.42 


xll8 


1.21 


1.53 


xl06 


1.55 


2.18 




x97 


1.42 


2.01 


W30x211 


2.01 


2.74 


x86 


1.27 


1.80 


xl91 


1.85 


2.50 


x76 


1.13 


1.60 


xl73 


1.66 


2.28 


x71 


1.22 


1.59 


x 132 


1.47 


1.85 


x65 


1.13 


1.47 


xl24 


1.39 


1.75 


x60 


1.04 


1.36 


x 1 16 


1.30 


1.65 


x55 


0.963 


1.26 


x 108 


1.21 


1.54 


x50 


0.88 


1.15 


x99 


1.12 


1.42 


x46 


0.878 


1.09 




x40 


0.768 


0.96 


W27 x 178 


1.87 


2.55 


x35 


0.672 


0.85 


x 161 


1.70 


2.33 




xl46 


1.55 


2.12 


W16xl00 


1.59 


2.25 


xll4 


1.39 


1.76 


x89 


1.43 


2.03 


xl02 


1.24 


1.59 


x77 


1.25 


1.78 


x94 


1.15 


1.47 


x67 


1.09 


1.56 


x84 


1.03 


1.33 


x57 


1.09 


1.43 




x50 


0.962 


1.26 




x45 


0.870 


1.15 


W24xl62 


1.88 


2.57 


x40 


0.780 


1.03 


xl46 


1.70 


2.34 


x36 


0.702 


0.93 


xl31 


1.54 


2.12 


x31 


0.661 


0.83 


x 117 


1.38 


1.91 


x26 


0.558 


0.70 


x 104 


1.24 


1.71 




x94 


1.28 


1.63 


W14xl32 


1.89 


3.00 


x84 


1.15 


1.47 


xl20 


1.71 


2.75 


x76 


1.05 


1.34 


xl09 


1.57 


2.52 






W14 x 99 


1.43 


2.31 


W10x30 


0.806 


1.12 


x90 


1.31 


2.11 


x26 


0.708 


0.98 


x82 


1.45 


2.12 


x22 


0.606 


0.84 


x74 


1.32 


1.93 


xl9 


0.607 


0.78 


x68 


1.22 


1.78 


xl7 


0.543 


0.70 


x61 


1.10 


1.61 


xl5 


0.484 


0.63 


x53 


1.06 


1.48 | xl2 


0.392 


0.51 


x48 


0.970 


1-35 I 



(continued) 



186 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 8 ' 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 722.5.1(4)— continued 
WEIGHT-TO-HEATED-PERIMETER RATIOS (W/D) FOR TYPICAL WIDE FLANGE BEAM AND GIRDER SHAPES 


STRUCTURAL SHAPE 


CONTOUR PROFILE 


BOX PROFILE STRUCTURAL SHAPE 


CONTOUR PROFILE 


BOX PROFILE 


W14x43 


0.874 


1.22 


W8x67 


1.65 


2.55 


x38 


0.809 


1.09 


x58 


1.44 


2.26 


x34 


0.725 


0.98 


x48 


1.21 


1.91 


x30 


0.644 


0.87 


x40 


1.03 


1.63 


x26 


0.628 


0.79 


x35 


0.907 


1.44 


x22 


0.534 


0.68 


x31 


0.803 


1.29 




x28 


0.819 


1.24 


W12x87 


1.47 


2.34 


x24 


0.704 


1.07 


x79 


1.34 


2.14 


x21 


0.675 


0.96 


x72 


1.23 


1.97 


xl8 


0.583 


0.84 


x65 


1.11 


1.79 


x 15 


0.551 


0.74 


x58 


1.10 


1.69 


xl3 


0.483 


0.65 


x53 


1.02 


1.55 


xlO 


0.375 


0.51 


x50 


1.06 


1.54 




x45 


0.974 


1.40 


W6x25 


0.839 


1.33 


x40 


0.860 


1.25 


x20 


0.678 


1.09 


x35 


0.810 


1.11 


x 16 


0.684 


0.96 


x30 


0.699 


0.96 


xl5 


0.521 


0.83 


x26 


0.612 


0.84 


xl2 


0.526 


0.75 


x22 


0.623 


0.77 


x9 


0.398 


0.57 


xl9 


0.540 


0.67 




x 16 


0.457 


0.57 


W5xl9 


0.776 


1.24 


xl4 


0.405 


0.50 


x 16 


0.664 


1.07 






WlOx 112 


2.17 


3.38 


W4xl3 


0.670 


1.05 


xlOO 


1.97 


3.07 




x88 


1.74 


2.75 


x77 


1.54 


2.45 


x68 


1.38 


2.20 


x60 


1.22 


1.97 


x54 


1.11 


1.79 


x49 


1.01 


1.64 


x45 


1.06 


1.59 


x39 


0.94 


1.40 


x33 


0.77 


1.20 









For SI: I pound per linear foot per inch = 0.059 kg/m/mm. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



187 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 722.5.1(5) 
FIRE RESISTANCE OF CONCRETE MASONRY PROTECTED STEEL COLUMNS 



COLUMN SIZE 


CONCRETE 

MASONRY 

DENSITY 

POUNDS PER 

CUBIC FOOT 


MINIMUM REQUIRED EQUIVALENT 
THICKNESS FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE 

RATING OF CONCRETE MASONRY 
PROTECTION ASSEMBLY, 7 e (inches) 


COLUMN SIZE 


CONCRETE 

MASONRY 

DENSITY 

POUNDS PER 

CUBIC FOOT 


MINIMUM REQUIRED EQUIVALENT 
THICKNESS FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE 

RATING OF CONCRETE MASONRY 
PROTECTION ASSEMBLY, TJinches) 


1 hour 


2 hours 


3 hours 


4 hours 


1 hour 


2 hours 


3 hours 


4 hours 


W14x82 


80 


0.74 


1.61 


2.36 


3.04 


W10x68 


80 


0.72 


1.58 


2.33 


3.01 


100 


0.89 


1.85 


2.67 


3.40 


100 


0.87 


1.83 


2.65 


3.38 


110 


0.96 


1.97 


2.81 


3.57 


110 


0.94 


1.95 


2.79 


3.55 


120 


1.03 


2.08 


2.95 


3.73 


120 


1.01 


2.06 


2.94 


3.72 


W14x68 


80 


0.83 


1.70 


2.45 


3.13 


W10x54 


80 


0.88 


1.76 


2.53 


3.21 


100 


0.99 


1.95 


2.76 


3.49 


100 


1.04 


2.01 


2.83 


3.57 


110 


1.06 


2.06 


2.91 


3.66 


110 


1.11 


2.12 


2.98 


3.73 


120 


1.14 


2.18 


3.05 


3.82 


120 


1.19 


2.24 


3.12 


3.90 


W14x53 


80 


0.91 


1.81 


2.58 


3.27 


W10x45 


80 


0.92 


1.83 


2.60 


3.30 


100 


1.07 


2.05 


2.88 


3.62 


100 


1.08 


2.07 


2.90 


3.64 


110 


1.15 


2.17 


3.02 


3.78 


110 


1.16 


2.18 


3.04 


3.80 


120 


1.22 


2.28 


3.16 


3.94 


120 


1.23 


2.29 


3.18 


3.96 


W14x43 


80 


1.01 


1.93 


2.71 


3.41 


W10x33 


80 


1.06 


2.00 


2.79 


3.49 


100 


1.17 


2.17 


3.00 


3.74 


100 


1.22 


2.23 


3.07 


3.81 


no 


1.25 


2.28 


3.14 


3.90 


110 


1.30 


2.34 


3.20 


3.96 


120 


1.32 


2.38 


3.27 


4.05 


120 


1.37 


2.44 


3.33 


4.12 


W12x72 


80 


0.81 


1.66 


2.41 


3.09 


W8x40 


80 


0.94 


1.85 


2.63 


3.33 


100 


0.91 


1.88 


2.70 


3.43 


100 


1.10 


2.10 


2.93 


3.67 


110 


0.99 


1.99 


2.84 


3.60 


110 


1.18 


2.21 


3.07 


3.83 


120 


1.06 


2.10 


2.98 


3.76 


120 


1.25 


2.32 


3.20 


3.99 


W12x58 


80 


0.88 


1.76 


2.52 


3.21 


W8x31 


80 


1.06 


2.00 


2.78 


3.49 


100 


1.04 


2.01 


2.83 


3.56 


100 


1.22 


2.23 


3.07 


3.81 


110 


1.11 


2.12 


2.97 


3.73 


110 


1.29 


2.33 


3.20 


3.97 


120 


1.19 


2.23 


3.11 


3.89 


120 


1.36 


2.44 


3.33 


4.12 


W12x50 


80 


0.91 


1.81 


2.58 


3.27 


W8x24 


80 


1.14 


2.09 


2.89 


3.59 


100 


1.07 


2.05 


2.88 


3.62 


100 


1.29 


2.31 


3.16 


3.90 


110 


1.15 


2.17 


3.02 


3.78 


110 


1.36 


2.42 


3.28 


4.05 


120 


1.22 


2.28 


3.16 


3.94 


120 


1.43 


2.52 


3.41 


4.20 


W12x40 


80 


1.01 


1.94 


2.72 


3.41 


W8xl8 


80 


1.22 


2.20 


3.01 


3.72 


100 


1.17 


2.17 


3.01 


3.75 


100 


1.36 


2.40 


3.25 


4.01 


110 


1.25 


2.28 


3.14 


3.90 


110 


1.42 


2.50 


3.37 


4.14 


120 


1.32 


2.39 


3.27 


4.06 


120 


1.48 


2.59 


3.49 


4.28 


4 x 4 x V, wall 
thickness 


80 


0.93 


1.90 


2.71 


3.43 


4 double extra 

strong 0.674 

wall thickness 


80 


0.80 


1.75 


2.56 


3.28 


100 


1.08 


2.13 


2.99 


3.76 


100 


0.95 


1.99 


2.85 


3.62 


110 


1.16 


2.24 


3.13 


3.91 


110 


1.02 


2.10 


2.99 


3.78 


120 


1.22 


2.34 


3.26 


4.06 


120 


1.09 


2.20 


3.12 


3.93 


4x4x 3 / 8 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.05 


2.03 


2.84 


3.57 


4 extra strong 
0.337 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.12 


2.11 


2.93 


3.65 


100 


1.20 


2.25 


3.11 


3.88 


100 


1.26 


2.32 


3.19 


3.95 


110 


1.27 


2.35 


3.24 


4.02 


110 


1.33 


2.42 


3.31 


4.09 




120 


1.34 


2.45 


3.37 


4.17 


120 


1.40 


2.52 


3.43 


4.23 



(continued) 



188 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 722.5.1(5)— continued 
FIRE RESISTANCE OF CONCRETE MASONRY PROTECTED STEEL COLUMNS 



COLUMN SIZE 


CONCRETE 

MASONRY 

DENSITY 

POUNDS PER 

CUBIC FOOT 


MINIMUM REQUIRED EQUIVALENT 
THICKNESS FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE 

RATING OF CONCRETE MASONRY 
PROTECTION ASSEMBLY, T, (inches) 


COLUMN SIZE 


CONCRETE 

MASONRY 

DENSITY 

POUNDS PER 

CUBIC FOOT 


MINIMUM REQUIRED EQUIVALENT 
THICKNESS FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE 

RATING OF CONCRETE MASONRY 
PROTECTION ASSEMBLY, T, (inches) 


1 hour 


2 hours 


3 hours 


4 hours 


1 hour 


2 hours 


3 hours 


4 hours 


4x4x V 4 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.21 


2.20 


3.01 


3.73 


4 standard 
0.237 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.26 


2.25 


3.07 


3.79 


100 


1.35 


2.40 


3.26 


4.02 


100 


1.40 


2.45 


3.31 


4.07 


110 


1.41 


2.50 


3.38 


4.16 


110 


1.46 


2.55 


3.43 


4.21 


120 


1.48 


2.59 


3.50 


4.30 


120 


1.53 


2.64 


3.54 


4.34 


6x6 x V 2 wall 
thickness 


80 


0.82 


1.75 


2.54 


3.25 


5 double extra 

strong 0.750 

wall thickness 


80 


0.70 


1.61 


2.40 


3.12 


100 


0.98 


1.99 


2.84 


3.59 


100 


0.85 


1.86 


2.71 


3.47 


110 


1.05 


2.10 


2.98 


3.75 


110 


0.91 


1.97 


2.85 


3.63 


120 


1.12 


2.21 


3.11 


3.91 


120 


0.98 


2.02 


2.99 


3.79 


6 x 6 x 3 / s wall 
thickness 


80 


0.96 


1.91 


2.71 


3.42 


5 extra strong 
0.375 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.04 


2.01 


2.83 


3.54 


100 


1.12 


2.14 


3.00 


3.75 


100 


1.19 


2.23 


3.09 


3.85 


110 


1.19 


2.25 


3.13 


3.90 


110 


1.26 


2.34 


3.22 


4.00 


120 


1.26 


2.35 


3.26 


4.05 


120 


1.32 


2.44 


3.34 


4.14 


6 x 6x 7 4 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.14 


2.11 


2.92 


3.63 


5 standard 
0.258 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.20 


2.19 


3.00 


3.72 


100 


1.29 


2.32 


3.18 


3.93 


100 


1.34 


2.39 


3.25 


4.00 


110 


1.36 


2.43 


3.30 


4.08 


110 


1.41 


2.49 


3.37 


4.14 


120 


1.42 


2.52 


3.43 


4.22 


120 


1.47 


2.58 


3.49 


4.28 


8x8x'/ 2 wall 
thickness 


80 


0.77 


1.66 


2.44 


3.13 


6 double extra 

strong 0.864 

wall thickness 


80 


0.59 


1.46 


2.23 


2.92 


100 


0.92 


1.91 


2.75 


3.49 


100 


0.73 


1.71 


2.54 


3.29 


110 


1.00 


2.02 


2.89 


3.66 


110 


0.80 


1.82 


2.69 


3.47 


120 


1.07 


2.14 


3.03 


3.82 


120 


0.86 


1.93 


2.83 


3.63 


8x8x 3 / 8 wall 
thickness 


80 


0.91 


1.84 


2.63 


3.33 


6 extra strong 
0.432 wall 
thickness 


80 


0.94 


1.90 


2.70 


3.42 


100 


1.07 


2.08 


2,92 


3.67 


100 


1.10 


2.13 


2.98 


3.74 


110 


1.14 


2.19 


3.06 


3.83 


110 


1.17 


2.23 


3.11 


3.89 


120 


1.21 


2.29 


3.19 


3.98 


120 


1.24 


2.34 


3.24 


4.04 


8 x 8 x V 4 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.10 


2.06 


2.86 


3.57 


6 standard 
0.280 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.14 


2.12 


2.93 


3.64 


100 


1.25 


2.28 


3.13 


3.87 


100 


1.29 


2.33 


3.19 


3.94 


110 


1.32 


2.38 


3.25 


4.02 


110 


1.36 


2.43 


3.31 


4.08 


120 


1.39 


2.48 


3.38 


4.17 


120 


1.42 


2.53 


3.43 


4.22 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per cubic feet = 16.02 kg/m 3 . 

Note: Tabulated values assume 1-inch air gap between masonry and steel section. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



189 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 722.5.1(6) 
FIRE RESISTANCE OF CLAY MASONRY PROTECTED STEEL COLUMNS 



COLUMN SIZE 


CLAY 

MASONRY 

DENSITY, 

POUNDS PER 

CUBIC FOOT 


MINIMUM REQUIRED EQUIVALENT 
THICKNESS FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE 

RATING OF CLAY MASONRY 
PROTECTION ASSEMBLY, 7" e (inches) 


COLUMN SIZE 


CLAY 

MASONRY 

DENSITY, 

POUNDS PER 

CUBIC FOOT 


MINIMUM REQUIRED EQUIVALENT 
THICKNESS FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE 

RATING OF CLAY MASONRY 
PROTECTION ASSEMBLY, T e (inches) 


1 hour 


2 hours 


3 hours 


4 hours 


1 hour 


2 hours 


3 hours 


4 hours 


W14x82 


120 


1.23 


2.42 


3.41 


4.29 


W10x68 


120 


1.27 


2.46 


3.26 


4.35 


130 


1.40 


2.70 


3.78 


4.74 


130 


1.44 


2.75 


3.83 


4.80 


Wl4 x 68 


120 


1.34 


2.54 


3.54 


4.43 


W10 x 54 


120 


1.40 


2.61 


3.62 


4.51 


130 


1.51 


2.82 


3.91 


4.87 


130 


1.58 


2.89 


3.98 


4.95 


W14x53 


120 


1.43 


2.65 


3.65 


4.54 


W10x45 


120 


1.44 


2.66 


3.67 


4.57 


130 


1.61 


2.93 


4.02 


4.98 


130 


1.62 


2.95 


4.04 


5.01 


W14x43 


120 


1.54 


2.76 


3.77 


4.66 


W10x33 


120 


1.59 


2.82 


3.84 


4.73 


130 


1.72 


3.04 


4.13 


5.09 


130 


1.77 


3.10 


4.20 


5.13 


W12x72 


120 


1.32 


2.52 


3.51 


4.40 


W8x40 


120 


1.47 


2.70 


3.71 


4.61 


130 


1.50 


2.80 


3.88 


4.84 


130 


1.65 


2.98 


4.08 


5.04 


W12x58 


120 


1.40 


2.61 


3.61 


4.50 


W8 x 31 


120 


1.59 


2.82 


3.84 


4.73 


130 


1.57 


2.89 


3.98 


4.94 


130 


1.77 


3.10 


4.20 


5.17 


WI2x50 


120 


1.43 


2.65 


3.66 


4.55 


W8x24 


120 


1.66 


2.90 


3.92 


4.82 


130 


1.61 


2.93 


4.02 


4.99 


130 


1.84 


3.18 


4.28 


5.25 


W12x40 


120 


1.54 


2.77 


3.78 


4.67 


W8xl8 


120 


1.75 


3.00 


4.01 


4.91 


130 


1.72 


3.05 


4.14 


5.10 


130 


1.93 


3.27 


4.37 


5.34 


STEEL TUBING 


STEEL PIPE 


NOMINAL TUBE 
SIZE (Inches) 


CLAY 

MASONRY 

DENSITY, 

POUNDS PER 

CUBIC FOOT 


MINIMUM REQUIRED EQUIVALENT 
THICKNESS FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE 

RATING OF CLAY MASONRY 
PROTECTION ASSEMBLY, ^(inches) 


NOMINAL PIPE 
SIZE (inches) 


CLAY 

MASONRY 

DENSITY, 

POUNDS PER 

CUBIC FOOT 


MINIMUM REQUIRED EQUIVALENT 
THICKNESS FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE 

RATING OF CLAY MASONRY 
PROTECTION ASSEMBLY, ^(inches) 


1 hour 


2 hours 


3 hours 


4 hours 


1 hour 


2 hours 


3 hours 


4 hours 


4x4x V 2 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.44 


2.72 


3.76 


4.68 


4 double extra 

strong 0.674 

wall thickness 


120 


1.26 


2.55 


3.60 


4.52 


130 


1.62 


3.00 


4.12 


5.11 


130 


1.42 


2.82 


3.96 


4.95 


4 x 4 x 3 / s wall 
thickness 


120 


1.56 


2.84 


3.88 


4.78 


4 extra strong 
0.337 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.60 


2.89 


3.92 


4.83 


130 


1.74 


3.12 


4.23 


5.21 


130 


1.77 


3.16 


4.28 


5.25 


4 x4x V 4 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.72 


2.99 


4.02 


4.92 


4 standard 
0.237 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.74 


3.02 


4.05 


4.95 


130 


1.89 


3.26 


4.37 


5.34 


130 


1.92 


3.29 


4.40 


5.37 


6x6 x V 2 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.33 


2.58 


3.62 


4.52 


5 double extra 

strong 0.750 

wall thickness 


120 


1.17 


2.44 


3.48 


4.40 


130 


1.50 


2.86 


3.98 


4.96 


130 


1.33 


2.72 


3.84 


4.83 


6 x 6 x V 8 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.48 


2.74 


3.76 


4.67 


5 extra strong 

0.375 
wall thickness 


120 


r 1.55 


2.82 


3.85 


4.76 


130 


1.65 


3.01 


4.13 


5.10 


130 


1.72 


3.09 


4.21 


5.18 


6x6x '/ 4 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.66 


2.91 


3.94 


4.84 


5 standard 
0.258 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.71 


2.97 


4.00 


4.90 


130 


1.83 


3.19 


4.30 


5.27 


130 


1.88 


3.24 


4.35 


5.32 


8x8xV 2 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.27 


2.50 


3.52 


4.42 


6 double extra 

strong 0.864 

wall thickness 


120 


1.04 


2.28 


3.32 


4.23 


130 


1.44 


2.78 


3.89 


4.86 


130 


1.19 


2.60 


3.68 


4.67 


8x8x 3 / 8 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.43 


2.67 


3.69 


4.59 


6 extra strong 


120 


1.45 


2.71 


3.75 


4.65 


130 


1.60 


2.95 


4.05 


5.02 


0.432 wall 
thickness 


130 


1.62 


2.99 


4.10 


5.08 


8x8x'/ 4 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.62 


2.87 


3.89 


4.78 


6 standard 


120 


1.65 


2.91 


3.94 


4.84 


130 


1.79 


3.14 


4.24 


5.21 


0.280 wall 
thickness 


130 


1.82 


3.19 


4.30 


5.27 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per cubic foot = 1 6.02 kg/m 3 . 



190 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



TABLE 722.5.1(7) 

MINIMUM COVER (inch) FOR STEEL COLUMNS ENCASED IN 

NORMAL-WEIGHT CONCRETE 3 [FIGURE 722.5.1 (6)(c)] 



STRUCTURAL SHAPE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


1V, 


2 


3 


4 


W14 x 233 


1 


1 


1 


17, 


2 


x 176 


27 2 


xl32 


2 


x90 


1V 2 


x61 


3 


x48 


iv 2 


27 2 


x43 


W12x 152 


1 


1 


1 


2 


27 2 


x96 


x65 


lV 2 


IV, 


3 


x50 


27 2 


x40 


W10x88 


1 


l'/ 2 


1V 2 


2 


3 


x49 


1 


27 2 


x45 


x39 


37 2 


x33 


2 


W8x67 


1 


1 


1V 2 


27 2 


3 


x58 


x48 


l'/ 2 


37, 


x31 


2 


3 


x21 


x 18 


4 


W6x25 


1 


1V 2 


2 


3 


37 2 


x20 


2 


2'/ 2 


4 


x 16 


37 2 


xl5 


■ iv 2 


x9 







FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 722.5.1(8) 

MINIMUM COVER (inch) FOR STEEL COLUMNS ENCASED IN 

STRUCTURAL LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE 3 [FIGURE 

722.5.1 (6)(c)] 



STRUCTURAL SHAPE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (HOURS) 


1 


1V, 


2 


3 


4 


W14 x 233 


1 


1 


1 


1 


l'/ 2 


xl93 


17 2 


x74 


2 


x61 


27 2 


x43 


i'/ 2 


2 


W12x65 


1 


1 


1 


1V 2 


2 


x53 


2 


2% 


x40 


17 2 


W10X112 


1 


1 


1 


l'/ 2 


2 


x88 


x60 


2 


2% 


x33 


17, 


W8x35 


1 


1 


iv 2 


2 


27, 


x28 


3 


x24 


27, 


xl8 


1V 2 


1 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. The tabulated thicknesses are based upon the assumed properties of 
structural lightweight concrete given in Table 722.5.1(2). 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. The tabulated thicknesses are based upon the assumed properties of 
normal-weight concrete given in Table 722.5.1(2). 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



191 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 722.5.1(9) 
MINIMUM COVER (inch) FOR STEEL COLUMNS IN NORMAL- 
WEIGHT PRECAST COVERS" [FIGURE 722.5.1 (6)(a)] 



STRUCTURAL SHAPE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


1% 


2 


3 


4 


W14 x 233 


1V 2 


l'/ 2 


17 2 


27, 


3 


x211 


37 2 


xl76 


2 


xl45 


3 


x 109 


2 


27 2 


x99 


4 


x61 


37 2 


x43 


47, 


W12x 190 


17 2 


l7 2 


17 2 


27 2 


37 2 


xl52 


2 


x 120 


3 


4 


x96 


x87 


2 


27, 


37, 


x58 


47 2 


x40 


W10xll2 


1 7, 


l7 2 


2 


3 


37 2 


x88 


4 


x77 


2 


27 2 


x54 


37 2 


x33 


47, 


W8x67 


1V 2 


17, 


2 


3 


4 


x58 


2 


27, 


37 2 


x48 


x28 


47 2 


x21 


27 2 


3 


xl8 


4 


W6x25 


17, 


2 


27 2 


37 2 


47 2 


x20 


27, 


3 


x 16 


4 


xl2 


2 




x9 


5 



TABLE 722.5.1(10) 

MINIMUM COVER (inch) FOR STEEL COLUMNS IN 

STRUCTURAL LIGHTWEIGHT PRECAST COVERS 3 [FIGURE 

722.5. 1(6)(a)] 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 ram. 

a. The tabulated thicknesses are based upon the assumed properties of 
normal-weight concrete given in Table 722.5.1(2). 



STRUCTURAL SHAPE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


IV, 


2 


3 


4 


W14 x 233 


17 2 


17 2 


1% 


2 


27 2 


x 176 


3 


xl45 


27 2 


xl32 


xl09 


x99 


2 


x68 


37, 


x43 


3 


W12 x 190 


17 2 


17 2 


17 2 


2 


27, 


xl52 


xl36 


3 


xl06 


2% 


x96 


37 2 


x87 


x65 


2 


x40 


3 


W10xll2 


I V 2 


17, 


17 2 


2 


3 


xlOO 


27 2 


x88 


x77 


2 


37, 


x60 


x39 


3 


x33 


2 


W8x67 


17 2 


17 2 


17 2 


27 2 


3 


x48 


2 


3 


37, 


x35 


x28 


2 


xl8 


27 2 


4 


W6x25 


17 2 


2 


2 


3 


37 2 


xl5 


27, 


4 


x9 


37 2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. The tabulated thicknesses are based upon the assumed properties of 
structural lightweight concrete given in Table 722.5. 1 (2). 



192 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



722.5.1.4.5 Masonry protection. The fire resis- 
tance of structural steel columns protected with con- 
crete masonry units or clay masonry units as 
illustrated in Figure 722.5.1(7), shall be permitted to 
be determined from the following expression: 

R = 0.17 (W/D) 01 + [0.285 (T e '- 6 /K 02 )] 
[1.0 + 42.7 {(A/d m T e )/(0.25p + T e )} M ] 



(Equation 7-16) 



where: 
R 



W: 



Fire-resistance rating of column assembly 
(hours). 

Average weight of steel column (pounds per 
foot). 



D = 



T = 



K 



d = 



P = 



Heated perimeter of steel column (inches) [see 
Figure 722.5.1(7)]. 

Equivalent thickness of concrete or clay 
masonry unit (inches) (see Table 722.3.2 Note 
a or Section 722.4.1). 

Thermal conductivity of concrete or clay 
masonry unit (Btu/hr ■ ft • °F) [see Table 
722.5.1(3)]. 

Cross-sectional area of steel column (square 
inches). 

Density of the concrete or clay masonry unit 
(pounds per cubic foot). 

Inner perimeter of concrete or clay masonry 
protection (inches) [see Figure 722.5.1(7)]. 

722.5.1.4.6 Equivalent concrete masonry thick- 
ness. For structural steel columns protected with 
concrete masonry, Table 722.5.1(5) gives the equiv- 
alent thickness of concrete masonry required for 
various fire-resistance ratings for typical column 
shapes. For structural steel columns protected with 
clay masonry, Table 722.5.1(6) gives the equivalent 
thickness of concrete masonry required for various 
fire-resistance ratings for typical column shapes. 

722.5.2 Structural steel beams and girders. The fire- 
resistance ratings of steel beams and girders shall be 
based upon the size of the element and the type of protec- 
tion provided in accordance with this section. 

722.5.2.1 Determination of fire resistance. These pro- 
cedures establish a basis for determining resistance of 
structural steel beams and girders which differ in size 
from that specified in approved fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies as a function of the thickness of fire-resis- 
tant material and the weight (W) and heated perimeter 
(D) of the beam or girder. As used in these sections, W 
is the average weight of a structural steel member in 
pounds per linear foot (plf). The heated perimeter, D, is 
the inside perimeter of the fire-resistant material in 
inches as illustrated in Figure 722.5.2. 




bf 



D = 3bf + 2d -2t m 



D = 2d*b f 



FIGURE 722.5.2 

DETERMINATION OF THE HEATED PERIMETER OF 

STRUCTURAL STEEL BEAMS AND GIRDERS 



722.5.2.1.1 Weight-to-heated perimeter. The 
weight-to-heated-perimeter ratios (W/D), for both 
contour and box fire-resistant protection profiles, for 
the wide flange shapes most often used as beams or 
girders are given in Table 722.5.1(4). For different 
shapes, the weight-to-heated-perimeter ratios (W/D) 
shall be determined in accordance with the defini- 
tions given in this section. 

722.5.2.1.2 Beam and girder substitutions. Except 
as provided for in Section 722.5.2.2, structural steel 
beams in approved fire-resistance-rated assemblies 
shall be considered the minimum permissible size. 
Other beam or girder shapes shall be permitted to be 
substituted provided that the weight- to-heated- 
perimeter ratio (W/D) of the substitute beam is equal 
to or greater than that of the beam specified in the 
approved assembly. 

722.5.2.2 Sprayed fire-resistant materials. The provi- 
sions in this section apply to structural steel beams and 
girders protected with sprayed fire-resistant materials. 
Larger or smaller beam and girder shapes shall be per- 
mitted to be substituted for beams specified in 
approved unrestrained or restrained fire-resistance- 
rated assemblies, provided that the thickness of the fire- 
resistant material is adjusted in accordance with the fol- 
lowing expression: 

h 2 = h. [(W, /£>.) + 0.60] / [(W 2 /D 2 ) + 0.60] 



(Equation 7-17) 
where: 
h = Thickness of sprayed fire-resistant material in 

inches. 
W = Weight of the structural steel beam or girder in 

pounds per linear foot. 

D = Heated perimeter of the structural steel beam in 
inches. 

Subscript 1 refers to the beam and fire-resistant 
material thickness in the approved assembly. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



193 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



Subscript 2 refers to the substitute beam or girder 
and the required thickness of fire-resistant material. 

The fire resistance of structural steel beams and 
girders protected with intumescent or mastic fire-resis- 
tant coatings shall be determined on the basis of fire- 
resistance tests in accordance with Section 703.2. 

722.5.2.2.1 Minimum thickness. The use of Equa- 
tion 7-17 is subject to the following conditions: 

1. The weight-to-heated-perimeter ratio for the 
substitute beam or girder (W/D 2 ) shall not be 
less than 0.37. 

2. The thickness of fire protection materials cal- 
culated for the substitute beam or girder (7 ; ) 
shall not be less than 3 /„ inch (9.5 mm). 

3. The unrestrained or restrained beam rating 
shall not be less than 1 hour. 

4. When used to adjust the material thickness for 
a restrained beam, the use of this procedure is 
limited to steel sections classified as compact 
in accordance with the A1SC Specification for 
Structural Steel Buildings, (AISC 360-05). 

722.5.2.3 Structural steel trusses. The fire resistance 
of structural steel trusses protected with fire-resistant 
materials sprayed to each of the individual truss ele- 
ments shall be permitted to be determined in accor- 
dance with this section. The thickness of the fire- 
resistant material shall be determined in accordance 
with Section 722.5.1.3. The weight-to-heated-perimeter 
ratio (W/D) of truss elements that can be simultane- 
ously exposed to fire on all sides shall be determined on 
the same basis as columns, as specified in Section 
722.5.1.1. The weight-to-heated-perimeter ratio (W/D) 
of truss elements that directly support floor or roof 
assembly shall be determined on the same basis as 
beams and girders, as specified in Section 722.5.2.1. 

The fire resistance of structural steel trusses pro- 
tected with intumescent or mastic fire-resistant coatings 
shall be determined on the basis of fire-resistance tests 
in accordance with Section 703.2. 

722.6 Wood assemblies. The provisions of this section con- 
tain procedures by which the fire-resistance ratings of wood 
assemblies are established by calculations. 

722.6.1 General. This section contains procedures for cal- 
culating the fire-resistance ratings of walls, floor/ceiling 
and roof/ceiling assemblies based in part on the standard 
method of testing referenced in Section 703.2. 

722.6.1.1 Maximum fire-resistance rating. Fire resis- 
tance ratings calculated for assemblies using the meth- 
ods in Section 722.6 shall be limited to a maximum of 1 
hour. 

722.6.1.2 Dissimilar membranes. Where dissimilar 
membranes are used on a wall assembly, the calcula- 
tion shall be made from the least fire-resistant (weaker) 
side. 

722.6.2 Walls, floors and roofs. These procedures apply 
to both load-bearing and nonload-bearing assemblies. 



722.6.2.1 Fire-resistance rating of wood frame 
assemblies. The fire-resistance rating of a wood frame 
assembly is equal to the sum of the time assigned to the 
membrane on the fire-exposed side, the time assigned 
to the framing members and the time assigned for addi- 
tional contribution by other protective measures such as 
insulation. The membrane on the unexposed side shall 
not be included in determining the fire resistance of the 
assembly. 

722.6.2.2 Time assigned to membranes. Table 
722.6.2(1) indicates the time assigned to membranes on 
the fire-exposed side. 

TABLE 722.6.2(1) 
TIME ASSIGNED TO WALLBOARD MEMBRANES 8 ' bcd 



DESCRIPTION OF FINISH 


TIME e (minutes) 


3 / s -inch wood structural panel bonded with 
exterior glue 


5 


15 / 32 -inch wood structural panel bonded with 
exterior glue 


10 


l % 2 -inch wood structural panel bonded with 
exterior glue 


15 


3 / 8 -inch gypsum wallboard 


10 


' c -inch gypsum wallboard 


15 


5 / 8 -inch gypsum wallboard 


30 


7,-inch Type X gypsum wallboard 


25 


5 / 8 -inch Type X gypsum wallboard 


40 


Double 3 / 8 -inch gypsum wallboard 


25 


7,-inch + 3 / 8 -inch gypsum wallboard 


35 


Double 7,-inch gypsum wallboard 


40 



For SI: J inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. These values apply only when membranes are installed on framing 
members which are spaced 16 inches o.c. or less. 

b. Gypsum wallboard installed over framing or furring shall be installed so 
that all edges are supported, except %-inch Type X gypsum wallboard 
shall be permitted to be installed horizontally with the horizontal joints 
staggered 24 inches each side and unsupported but finished. 

c. On wood frame floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assemblies, gypsum board 
shall be installed with the long dimension perpendicular to framing 
members and shall have all joints finished. 

d. The membrane on the unexposed side shall not be included in determining 
the fire resistance of the assembly. When dissimilar membranes are used 
on a wall assembly, the calculation shall be made from the least fire- 
resistant (weaker) side. 

e. The time assigned is not a finished rating. 



722.6.2.3 Exterior walls. For an exterior wall with a 
fire separation distance greater than 10 feet (3048 
mm), the wall is assigned a rating dependant on the 
interior membrane and the framing as described in 
Tables 722.6.2(1) and 722.6.2(2). The membrane on 
the outside of the nonfire-exposed side of exterior walls 
with a fire separation distance greater than 10 feet 
(3048 mm) may consist of sheathing, sheathing paper 
and siding as described in Table 722.6.2(3). 



194 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



722.6.2.4 Floors and roofs. In the case of a floor or 
roof, the standard test provides only for testing for fire 
exposure from below. Except as noted in Section 703.3, 
Item 5, floor or roof assemblies of wood framing shall 
have an upper membrane consisting of a subfloor and 
finished floor conforming to Table 722.6.2(4) or any 
other membrane that has a contribution to fire resis- 
tance of at least 1 5 minutes in Table 722.6.2(1). 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



722.6.2.5 Additional protection. Table 722.6.2(5) 
indicates the time increments to be added to the fire 
resistance where glass fiber, rockwool, slag mineral 
wool or cellulose insulation is incorporated in the 
assembly. 

722.6.2.6 Fastening. Fastening of wood frame assem- 
blies and the fastening of membranes to the wood fram- 
ing members shall be done in accordance with Chapter 
23. 



TABLE 722.6.2(2) 
TIME ASSIGNED FOR CONTRIBUTION OF WOOD FRAME abc 



DESCRIPTION 


TIME ASSIGNED TO FRAME (minutes) 


Wood studs 16 inches ox. 


20 


Wood floor and roof joists 16 inches o.c. 


10 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. This table does not apply to studs or joists spaced more than 16 inches o.c. 

b. All studs shall be nominal 2x4 and all joists shall have a nominal thickness of at least 2 inches. 

c. Allowable spans for joists shall be determined in accordance with Sections 2308.8, 2308.10.2 and 2308.10.3. 

TABLE 722.6.2(3) 
MEMBRANE 3 ON EXTERIOR FACE OF WOOD STUD WALLS 



SHEATHING 


PAPER 


EXTERIOR FINISH 


V s -inch T & G lumber 




Lumber siding 


5 /i () -inch exterior glue wood structural panel 


Sheathing paper 


Wood shingles and shakes 


V 2 -inch gypsum wallboard 




7 4 -inch wood structural panels-exterior type 


%-inch gypsum wallboard 




7 4 -inch hardboard 


7 2 -inch fiberboard 




Metal siding 

Stucco on metal lath 

Masonry veneer 

Vinyl siding 


None 


— 


V 8 -inch exterior-grade wood structural panels 



For SI: 1 pound/cubic foot = 16.0185 kg/m*. 

a. Any combination of sheathing, paper and exterior finish is permitted. 



TABLE 722.6.2(4) 
FLOORING OR ROOFING OVER WOOD FRAMING 3 



ASSEMBLY 


STRUCTURAL MEMBERS 


SUBFLOOR OR ROOF DECK 


FINISHED FLOORING OR ROOFING 


Floor 


Wood 


'%,-inch wood structural panels or 
' 7 lf) -inch T & G softwood 


Hardwood or softwood flooring on building paper resilient flooring, 
parquet floor felted-synthetic fiber floor coverings, carpeting, or 
ceramic tile on 3 / g -inch-thick panel-type underlay 
Ceramic tile on 1 7 4 -inch mortar bed 


Roof 


Wood 


l5 /, 2 -inch wood structural panels or 
'7 16 -inchT&G softwood 


Finished roofing material with or without insulation 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. This table applies only to wood joist construction. It is not applicable to wood truss construction. 

TABLE 722.6.2(5) 
TIME ASSIGNED FOR ADDITIONAL PROTECTION 



DESCRIPTION OF ADDITIONAL PROTECTION 



FIRE RESISTANCE (minutes) 



Add to the fire-resistance rating of wood stud walls if the spaces between the studs are completely filled with 
glass fiber mineral wool batts weighing not less than 2 pounds per cubic foot (0.6 pound per square foot of wall 
surface) or rockwool or slag material wool batts weighing not less than 3.3 pounds per cubic foot (1 pound per 
square foot of wall surface), or cellulose insulation having a nominal density not less than 2.6 pounds per cubic 
foot. 



For SI: I pound/cubic foot = 16.0185 kg/m 3 . 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



195 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



722.6.3 Design of fire-resistant exposed wood mem- 
bers. The fire-resistance rating, in minutes, of timber 
beams and columns with a minimum nominal dimension 
of 6 inches (152 mm) is equal to: 

Beams: 2.54Zb [4 -2(b/d)] for beams which may be 
exposed to fire on four sides. 

(Equation 7-18) 

2.54Zb [4 -{b/dj] for beams which may be 
exposed to fire on three sides. 

(Equation 7-19) 

Columns: 2.54ZJ [3 -(d/b)] for columns which may be 
exposed to fire on four sides 

(Equation 7-20) 

2.54Zd [3 -(d/2b)] for columns which may be 
exposed to fire on three sides. 

(Equation 7-21) 

where: 

b = The breadth (width) of a beam or larger side of a 
column before exposure to fire (inches). 

d - The depth of a beam or smaller side of a column 
before exposure to fire (inches). 

Z = Load factor, based on Figure 722.6.3(1). 



722.6.3.1 Equation 7-21. Equation 7-21 applies only 
where the unexposed face represents the smaller side of 
the column. If a column is recessed into a wall, its full 
dimension shall be used for the purpose of these calcu- 
lations. 

722.6.3.2 Allowable loads. Allowable loads on beams 
and columns are determined using design values given 
in AF&PA NDS. 

722.6.3.3 Fastener protection. Where minimum 1- 
hour/ire resistance is required, connectors and fasten- 
ers shall be protected from fire exposure by 1 7 2 inches 
(38 mm) of wood, or other approved covering or coat- 
ing for a 1-hour rating. Typical details for commonly 
used fasteners and connectors are shown in AITC 
Technical Note 7. 

722.6.3.4 Minimum size. Wood members are limited 
to dimensions of 6 inches (152 mm) nominal or greater. 
Glued-laminated timber beams utilize standard lami- 
nating combinations except that a core lamination is 
removed. The tension zone is moved inward and the 
equivalent of an extra nominal 2-inch-thick (51 mm) 
outer tension lamination is added. 



1.60 



1.50 



1.40 



Z 1-30 



1.20 



1.10 



1.0 















COLUM 


NS K e l/d < 


L11 










\ 










BEAMS 

K e l/d> 


- COLUM 
11 


MS V. 













































40 50 60 70 80 90 100 

LOAD ON MEMBERS AS A PERCENT OF DESIGN LOAD 



FIGURE 722.6.3(1) 
LOAD FIGURE 

K t = The effective length factor as noted in Figure 722.6.3(2). 
/ = The unsupported length of columns (inches). 



BUCKLING MODES 



THEORETICAL Ke VALUE 



RECOMMENDED DESIGN Kg 
WHEN IDEAL CONDITIONS 
APPROXIMATED 



END CONDITION CODE 



0.5 



0.65 



f 
? 



't 



0.7 



0.80 



4 



77, 
I 



1.0 



1.2 



'■f 






1.0 



1.0 



77, 
i 



2.0 



2.10 



"X 



A 



2.0 



2.4 



ROTATION FIXED, TRANSLATION FIXED 

ROTATION FREE, TRANSLATION FIXED 

ROTATION FIXED, TRANSLATION FREE 
ROTATION FREE, TRANSLATION FREE 



FIGURE 722.6.3(2) 
EFFECTIVE LENGTH FACTORS 



196 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 8 

INTERIOR FINISHES 



SECTION 801 
GENERAL 

801.1 Scope. Provisions of this chapter shall govern the use 
of materials used as interior finishes, trim and decorative 
materials. 

801.2 Interior wall and ceiling finish. The provisions of 
Section 803 shall limit the allowable fire performance and 
smoke development of interior wall and ceiling finish materi- 
als based on occupancy classification. 

801.3 Interior floor finish. The provisions of Section 804 
shall limit the allowable fire performance of interior floor fin- 
ish materials based on occupancy classification. 

[F| 801.4 Decorative materials and trim. Decorative mate- 
rials and trim shall be restricted by combustibility and the 
flame propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701, in 
accordance with Section 806. 

801.5 Applicability. For buildings in flood hazard areas as 
established in Section 1612.3, interior finishes, trim and dec- 
orative materials below the elevation required by Section 
1612 shall be flood-damage-resistant materials. 

801.6 Application. Combustible materials shall be permitted 
to be used as finish for walls, ceilings, floors and other inte- 
rior surfaces of buildings. 

801.7 Windows. Show windows in the exterior walls of the 
first story above grade plane shall be permitted to be of wood 
or of unprotected metal framing. 

801.8 Foam plastics. Foam plastics shall not be used as inte- 
rior finish except as provided in Section 803.4. Foam plastics 
shall not be used as interior trim except as provided in Sec- 
tion 806.3 or 2604.2. This section shall apply both to exposed 
foam plastics and to foam plastics used in conjunction with a 
textile or vinyl facing or cover. 

SECTION 802 

DEFINITIONS 
802.1 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chap- 
ter 2: 

EXPANDED VINYL WALL COVERING. 
FLAME SPREAD. 
FLAME SPREAD INDEX. 
INTERIOR FINISH. 
INTERIOR FLOOR FINISH. 
INTERIOR FLOOR-WALL BASE. 
INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH. 
SITE-FABRICATED STRETCH SYSTEM. 
SMOKE-DEVELOPED INDEX. 
TRIM. 



SECTION 803 
WALL AND CEILING FINISHES 
803.1 General. Interior wall and ceiling finish materials shall 
be classified for fire performance and smoke development in 
accordance with Section 803.1.1 or 803.1.2, except as shown 
in Sections 803.2 through 803.13. Materials tested in accor- 
dance with Section 803.1.2 shall not be required to be tested 
in accordance with Section 803.1.1. 

803.1.1 Interior wall and ceiling finish materials. Inte- 
rior wall and ceiling finish materials shall be classified in 
accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723. Such interior fin- 
ish materials shall be grouped in the following classes in 
accordance with their flame spread and smoke-developed 
indexes. 



Class A 
Class B 
Class C 

Exception 

803.1.2 



Flame spread index 0-25; smoke- 
developed index 0-450. 
Flame spread index 26-75; smoke- 
developed index 0-450. 
Flame spread index 76-200; smoke- 
developed index 0-450. 

: Materials tested in accordance with Section 



803.1.2 Room corner test tor interior wall or ceiling 
finish materials. Interior wall or ceiling finish materials 
shall be permitted to be tested in accordance with NFPA 
286. Interior wall or ceiling finish materials tested in 
accordance with NFPA 286 shall comply with Section 
803.1.2.1. 

803.1.2.1 Acceptance criteria for NFPA 286. The 
interior finish shall comply with the following: 

1. During the 40 kW exposure, flames shall not 
spread to the ceiling. 

2. The flame shall not spread to the outer extremity 
of the sample on any wall or ceiling. 

3. Flashover, as defined in NFPA 286, shall not 
occur. 

4. The peak heat release rate throughout the test 
shall not exceed 800 kW. 

5. The total smoke released throughout the test shall 
not exceed 1 ,000 m 2 . 

803.1.3 Room corner test for textile wall coverings and 
expanded vinyl wall coverings. Textile wall coverings 
and expanded vinyl wall coverings shall meet the criteria 
of Section 803.1.3.1 when tested in the manner intended 
for use in accordance with the Method B protocol of 
NFPA 265 using the product-mounting system, including 
adhesive. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



197 



INTERIOR FINISHES 



803.1.3.1 Acceptance criteria for NFPA 265. The 
interior finish shall comply with the following: 

1. During the 40 kW exposure, flames shall not 
spread to the ceiling. 

2. The flame shall not spread to the outer extremi- 
ties of the samples on the 8-foot by 12-foot (203 
by 305 mm) walls. 

3. Flashover, as defined in NFPA 265, shall not 
occur. 

4. The total smoke released throughout the test shall 
not exceed 1 ,000 m 2 . 

803.1.4 Acceptance criteria for textile and expanded 
vinyl wall or ceiling coverings tested to ASTM E 84 or 
UL 723. Textile wall and ceiling coverings and expanded 
vinyl wall and ceiling coverings shall have a Class A 
flame spread index in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 
723 and be protected by an automatic sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 
903.3.1.2. Test specimen preparation and mounting shall 
be in accordance with ASTM E 2404. 

803.2 Thickness exemption. Materials having a thickness 
less than 0.036 inch (0.9 mm) applied directly to the surface 
of walls or ceilings shall not be required to be tested. 

803.3 Heavy timber exemption. Exposed portions of struc- 
tural members complying with the requirements for buildings 
of Type IV construction in Section 602.4 shall not be subject 
to interior finish requirements. 

803.4 Foam plastics. Foam plastics shall not be used as inte- 
rior finish except as provided in Section 2603.10. This sec- 
tion shall apply both to exposed foam plastics and to foam 
plastics used in conjunction with a textile or vinyl facing or 
cover. 

803.5 Textile wall coverings. Where used as interior wall 
finish materials, textile wall coverings, including materials 
having woven or nonwoven, napped, tufted, looped or similar 
surface and carpet and similar textile materials, shall be tested 
in the manner intended for use, using the product mounting 
system, including adhesive, and shall comply with the 
requirements of Section 803.1 .2, 803.1.3 or 803.1.4. 

803.6 Textile ceiling coverings. Where used as interior ceil- 
ing finish materials, textile ceiling coverings, including mate- 
rials having woven or nonwoven, napped, tufted, looped or 
similar surface and carpet and similar textile materials, shall 
be tested in the manner intended for use, using the product 
mounting system, including adhesive, and shall comply with 
the requirements of Section 803.1.2 or 803.1.4. 

803.7 Expanded vinyl wall coverings. Where used as inte- 
rior wall finish materials, expanded vinyl wall coverings shall 
be tested in the manner intended for use, using the product 
mounting system, including adhesive, and shall comply with 
the requirements of Section 803.1.2, 803.1.3 or 803.1.4. 

803.8 Expanded vinyl ceiling coverings. Where used as 
interior ceiling finish materials, expanded vinyl ceiling cover- 
ings shall be tested in the manner intended for use, using the 
product mounting system, including adhesive, and shall com- 
ply with the requirements of Section 803. 1 .2 or 803.1 .4. 



803.9 Interior finish requirements based on group. Inte- 
rior wall and ceiling finish shall have a flame spread index 
not greater than that specified in Table 803.9 for the group 
and location designated. Interior wall and ceiling finish mate- 
rials tested in accordance with NFPA 286 and meeting the 
acceptance criteria of Section 803.1.2.1, shall be permitted to 
be used where a Class A classification in accordance with 
ASTM E 84 or UL 723 is required. 

803.10 Stability. Interior finish materials regulated by this 
chapter shall be applied or otherwise fastened in such a man- 
ner that such materials will not readily become detached 
where subjected to room temperatures of 200°F (93°C) for 
not less than 30 minutes. 

803.11 Application of interior finish materials to Fire- 
resistance-rated or noncombustible building elements. I 
Where interior finish materials are applied on walls, ceilings 
or structural elements required to have afire-resistance rat- 
ing or to be of noncombustible construction, they shall com- 
ply with the provisions of this section. 

803.11.1 Direct attachment and furred construction. 

Where walls and ceilings are required by any provision in 
this code to be of fire-resistance-rated or noncombustible 
construction, the interior finish material shall be applied 
directly against such construction or to furring strips not 
exceeding l7 4 inches (44 mm), applied directly against 
such surfaces. 

803.11.1.1 Furred construction. If the interior finish 
material is applied to furring strips, the intervening 
spaces between such furring strips shall comply with 
one of the following: 

1. Be filled with material that is inorganic or non- 
combustible; 

2. Be filled with material that meets the require- 
ments of a Class A material in accordance with 
Section 803.1.1 or 803.1.2; or 

3. Be fireblocked at a maximum of 8 feet (2438 
mm) in every direction in accordance with Sec- 1 
tion718. 

803.11.2 Set-out construction. Where walls and ceilings 
are required to be of fire-resistance-rated or noncombusti- 
ble construction and walls are set out or ceilings are 
dropped distances greater than specified in Section 
803.11.1, Class A finish materials, in accordance with 
Section 803.1.1 or 803.1.2, shall be used. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where interior finish materials are protected on 
both sides by an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

2. Where interior finish materials are attached to 
noncombustible backing or furring strips 
installed as specified in Section 803.11.1.1. 

803.11.2.1 Hangers and assembly members. The 

hangers and assembly members of such dropped ceil- 
ings that are below the horizontal fire-resistance rated 
floor or roof assemblies shall be of noncombustible 
materials. The construction of each set-out wall and 



198 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE # 



INTERIOR FINISHES 



TABLE 803.9 
INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH REQUIREMENTS BY OCCUPANCY" 



GROUP 


SPRINKLERED' 


NONSPRINKLERED 


Interior exit stairways, interior 

exit ramps and exit 

passageways' * 


Corridors and 

enclosure for exit 

access stairways 

and exit access 

ramps 


Rooms and 
enclosed 
spaces 


Interior exit stairways, 

interior exit ramps and exit 

passageways"' ° 


Corridors and 

enclosure for exit 

access stairways 

and exit access 

ramps 


Rooms and 
enclosed 
spaces 


A-1&A-2 


B 


B 


C 


A 


A" 


B e 


A-3 f , A-4, A-5 


B 


B 


c 


A 


A" 


C 


B,E,M,R-1 


B 


C 


c 


A 


B 


C 


R-4 


B 


C 


c 


A 


B 


B 


F 


C 


C 


c 


B 


C 


C 


H 


B 


B 


a 


A 


A 


B 


1-1 


B 


C 


c 


A 


B 


B 


1-2 


B 


B 


B M 


A 


A 


B 


1-3 


A 


A j 


c 


A 


A 


B 


1-4 


B 


B 


B h.i 


A 


A 


B 


R-2 


C 


C 


c 


B 


B 


C 


R-3 


C 


C 


c 


C 


C 


C 


S 


C 


c 


c 


B 


B 


c 


u 


No restrictions 


No restrictions 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929m 2 . 

a. Class C interior finish materials shall be permitted for wainscotting or paneling of not more than 1,000 square feet of applied surface area in the grade lobby 
where applied directly to a noncombustible base or over furring strips applied to a noncombustible base and fireblocked as required by Section 803.11.1. 

b. In other than Group 1-2 occupanicies in buildings less than three stories above grade plane of other than Group 1-3, Class B interior finish for nonsprinklered 
buildings and Class C interior finish for sprinklered buildings shall be permitted in interior exit stairways and ramps. 

c. Requirements for rooms and enclosed spaces shall be based upon spaces enclosed by partitions. Where a fire-resistance rating is required for structural 
elements, the enclosing partitions shall extend from the floor to the ceiling. Partitions that do not comply with this shall be considered enclosing spaces and the 
rooms or spaces on both sides shall be considered one. In determining the applicable requirements for rooms and enclosed spaces, the specific occupancy 
thereof shall be the governing factor regardless of the group classification of the building or structure. 

d. Lobby areas in Group A-l, A-2 and A-3 occupancies shall not be less than Class B materials. 

e. Class C interior finish materials shall be permitted in places of assembly with an occupant load of 300 persons or less. 

f . For places of religious worship, wood used for ornamental purposes, trusses, paneling or chancel furnishing shall be permitted. 

g. Class B material is required where the building exceeds two stories. 

h. Class C interior finish materials shall be permitted in administrative spaces. 

i. 

J- 



Class C interior finish materials shall be permitted in rooms with a capacity of four persons or less. 

Class B materials shall be permitted as wainscotting extending not more than 48 inches above the finished floor in corridors and exit access stairways and 

ramps. 

Finish materials as provided for in other sections of this code. 

Applies when protected by an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1 .2. 



horizontal fire-resistance rated floor or roof assembly 
shall be of fire-resistance-rated construction as required 
elsewhere in this code. 

Exception: In Types III and V construction, fire- 
retardant-treated wood shall be permitted for use as 
hangers and assembly members of dropped ceilings. 

803.11.3 Heavy timber construction. Wall and ceiling 
finishes of all classes as permitted in this chapter that are 
installed directly against the wood decking or planking of 
Type IV construction or to wood furring strips applied 
directly to the wood decking or planking shall be fire- 
blocked as specified in Section 803.11.1.1. 

803.11.4 Materials. An interior wall or ceiling finish 
material that is not more than l A inch (6.4 mm) thick shall 
be applied directly onto the wall, ceiling or structural ele- 
ment without the use of furring strips and shall not be sus- 



pended away from the building element to which it is 
applied. 

Exceptions: 

1. Noncombustible interior finish materials. 

2. Materials that meet the requirements of Class A 
materials in accordance with Section 803.1.1 or 
803.1.2 where the qualifying tests were made 
with the material furred out from the noncombus- 
tible backing shall be permitted to be used with 
furring strips. 

3. Materials that meet the requirements of Class A 
materials in accordance with Section 803.1.1 or 
803.1.2 where the qualifying tests were made 
with the material suspended away from the non- 
combustible backing shall be permitted to be 
used suspended away from the building element. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



199 



INTERIOR FINISHES 



803.12 High-density Polyethylene (HOPE) and Polypro- 
pylene (PP). Where high-density polyethylene or polypro- 
pylene is used as an interior finish it shall comply with 
Section 803.1.2. 

803.13 Site-fabricated stretch systems. Where used as inte- 
rior wall or interior ceiling finish materials, site-fabricated 
stretch systems containing all three components described in 
the definition in Section 802 shall be tested in the manner 
intended for use, and shall comply with the requirements of 
Section 803.1.1 or 803.1.2. If the materials are tested in 
accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723, specimen prepara- 
tion and mounting shall be in accordance with ASTM E 2573. 



SECTION 804 
INTERIOR FLOOR FINISH 

804.1 General. Interior floor finish and floor covering mate- 
rials shall comply with Sections 804.2 through 804.4.2. 

Exception: Floor finishes and coverings of a traditional 
type, such as wood, vinyl, linoleum or terrazzo, and resil- 
ient floor covering materials that are not comprised of 
fibers. 

804.2 Classification. Interior floor finish and floor covering 
materials required by Section 804.4.2 to be of Class I or II 
materials shall be classified in accordance with NFPA 253. 
The classification referred to herein corresponds to the classi- 
fications determined by NFPA 253 as follows: Class I, 0.45 
watts/cm 2 or greater; Class II, 0.22 watts/cm 2 or greater. 

804.3 Testing and identification. Interior floor finish and 
floor covering materials shall be tested by an agency in accor- 
dance with NFPA 253 and identified by a hang tag or other 
suitable method so as to identify the manufacturer or supplier 
and style, and shall indicate the interior floor finish or floor 
covering classification according to Section 804.2. Carpet- 
type floor coverings shall be tested as proposed for use, 
including underlayment. Test reports confirming the informa- 
tion provided in the manufacturer's product identification 
shall be furnished to the building official upon request. 

804.4 Interior floor finish requirements. Interior floor cov- 
ering materials shall comply with Sections 804.4.1 and 
804.4.2 and interior floor finish materials shall comply with 
Section 804.4.2. 

804.4.1 Test requirement. In all occupancies, interior 
floor covering materials shall comply with the require- 
ments of the DOC FF-1 "pill test" (CPSC 16 CFR Part 
1630) or with ASTM D 2859. 

804.4.2 Minimum critical radiant flux. In all occupan- 
cies, interior floor finish and floor covering materials in 
enclosures for stairways and ramps, exit passageways, cor- 
ridors and rooms or spaces not separated from corridors by 
partitions extending from the floor to the underside of the 
ceiling shall withstand a minimum critical radiant flux. 
The minimum critical radiant flux shall not be less than 
Class I in Groups 1-1, 1-2 and 1-3 and not less than Class II 
in Groups A, B, E, H, I- 4, M, R-l , R-2 and S. 

Exception: Where a building is equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 



Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, Class II materials are 
permitted in any area where Class I materials are 
required, and materials complying with DOC FF-1 "pill 
test" (CPSC 16 CFR Part 1630) or with ASTM D 2859 
are permitted in any area where Class II materials are 
required. 



SECTION 805 

COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS IN TYPES I AND II 

CONSTRUCTION 

805.1 Application. Combustible materials installed on or 
embedded in floors of buildings of Type I or II construction 
shall comply with Sections 805.1.1 through 805.1.3. 

Exception: Stages and platforms constructed in accor- 
dance with Sections 410.3 and 410.4, respectively. 

805.1.1 Subfloor construction. Floor sleepers, bucks and 
nailing blocks shall not be constructed of combustible 
materials, unless the space between the fire-resistance- 
rated floor assembly and the flooring is either solidly filled 
with noncombustible materials or fireblocked in accor- 
dance with Section 718, and provided that such open 
spaces shall not extend under or through permanent parti- 
tions or walls. 

805.1.2 Wood finish flooring. Wood finish flooring is 
permitted to be attached directly to the embedded or fire- 
blocked wood sleepers and shall be permitted where 
cemented directly to the top surface of fire-resistance- 
rated floor assemblies or directly to a wood subfloor 
attached to sleepers as provided for in Section 805.1.1. 

805.1.3 Insulating boards. Combustible insulating boards 
not more than V 2 inch (12.7 mm) thick and covered with 
finish flooring are permitted where attached directly to a 
noncombustible floor assembly or to wood subflooring 
attached to sleepers as provided for in Section 805.1.1. 



SECTION 806 
DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND TRIM 

[F] 806.1 General requirements. In occupancies in Groups 
A, E, I and R-l and dormitories in Group R-2, curtains, drap- 
eries, hangings and other decorative materials suspended 
from walls or ceilings shall meet the flame propagation per- 
formance criteria of NFPA 701 in accordance with Section 
806.2 or be noncombustible. 

Exceptions: 

1. Curtains, draperies, hangings and other decorative 
materials suspended from walls of sleeping units 
and dwelling units in dormitories in Group R-2 pro- 
tected by an approved automatic sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1 and 
such materials are limited to not more than 50 per- 
cent of the aggregate area of walls. 

2. Decorative materials, including, but not limited to, 
photographs and paintings in dormitories in Group 
R-2 where such materials are of limited quantities 



200 



2012 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



INTERIOR FINISHES 



such that a hazard of fire development or spread is 
not present. 

In Groups 1-1 and 1-2, combustible decorative materials 
shall meet the flame propagation criteria of NFPA 701 unless 
the decorative materials, including, but not limited to, photo- 
graphs and paintings, are of such limited quantities that a haz- 
ard of fire development or spread is not present. In Group 1-3, 
combustible decorative materials are prohibited. 

Fixed or movable walls and partitions, paneling, wall pads 
and crash pads applied structurally or for decoration, acousti- 
cal correction, surface insulation or other purposes shall be 
considered interior finish if they cover 10 percent or more of 
the wall or of the ceiling area, and shall not be considered 
decorative materials or furnishings. 

In Group B and M occupancies, fabric partitions sus- 
pended from the ceiling and not supported by the floor shall 
meet the flame propagation performance criteria in accor- 
dance with Section 806.2 and NFPA 701 or shall be noncom- 
bustible. 

[F] 806.1.1 Noncombustible materials. The permissible 
amount of noncombustible decorative material shall not be 
limited. 

[F] 806.1.2 Combustible decorative materials. The per- 
missible amount of decorative materials meeting the 
flame propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701 shall 
not exceed 10 percent of the specific wall or ceiling area to 
which it is attached. 

Exceptions: 

1. In auditoriums in Group A, the permissible 
amount of decorative material meeting the flame 
propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701 
shall not exceed 75 percent of the aggregate wall 
area where the building is equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 and where the material is 
installed in accordance with Section 803.1 1. 

2. The amount of fabric partitions suspended from 
the ceiling and not supported by the floor in 
Group B and M occupancies shall not be limited. 

[F] 806.2 Acceptance criteria and reports. Where required 
by Section 806.1, decorative materials shall be tested by an 
agency and meet the flame propagation performance criteria 
of NFPA 701 or such materials shall be noncombustible. 
Reports of test results shall be prepared in accordance with 
NFPA 701 and furnished to the building official upon request. 

[F] 806.3 Foam plastic. Foam plastic used as trim in any 
occupancy shall comply with Section 2604.2. 

[F] 806.4 Pyroxylin plastic. Imitation leather or other mate- 
rial consisting of or coated with a pyroxylin or similarly haz- 
ardous base shall not be used in Group A occupancies. 

[F] 806.5 Interior trim. Material, other than foam plastic 
used as interior trim, shall have a minimum Class C flame 
spread and smoke-developed index when tested in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723, as described in Section 
803.1.1. Combustible trim, excluding handrails and guard- 



rails, shall not exceed 10 percent of the specific wall or ceil- 
ing area in which it is attached. 

[F] 806.6 Interior floor- wall base. Interior floor-wall base 
that is 6 inches (152 mm) or less in height shall be tested in 
accordance with Section 804.2 and shall not be less than 
Class II. Where a Class I floor finish is required, the floor- 
wall base shall be Class I. 

Exception: Interior trim materials that comply with Sec- 
tion 806.5. 



SECTION 807 
INSULATION 

807.1 Insulation. Thermal and acoustical insulation shall 
comply with Section 720. 



SECTION 808 
ACOUSTICAL CEILING SYSTEMS 

808.1 Acoustical ceiling systems. The quality, design, fabri- 
cation and erection of metal suspension systems for acousti- 
cal tile and lay-in panel ceilings in buildings or structures 
shall conform with generally accepted engineering practice, 
the provisions of this chapter and other applicable require- 
ments of this code. 

808.1.1 Materials and installation. Acoustical materials 
complying with the interior finish requirements of Section 
803 shall be installed in accordance with the manufac- 
turer's recommendations and applicable provisions for 
applying interior finish. 

808.1.1.1 Suspended acoustical ceilings. Suspended 
acoustical ceiling systems shall be installed in accor- 
dance with the provisions of ASTM C 635 and ASTM 
C636. 

808.1.1.2 Fire-resistance-rated construction. Acous- 
tical ceiling systems that are part of fire-resistance- 
rated construction shall be installed in the same manner 
used in the assembly tested and shall comply with the 
provisions of Chapter 7. 



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CHAPTER 9 

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



SECTION 901 

GENERAL 

901.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall specify 
where fire protection systems are required and shall apply to 
the design, installation and operation of fire protection sys- 
tems. 

901.2 Fire protection systems. Fire protection systems shall 
be installed, repaired, operated and maintained in accordance 
with this code and the International Fire Code. 

Any fire protection system for which an exception or 
reduction to the provisions of this code has been granted shall 
be considered to be a required system. 

Exception: Any fire protection system or portion thereof 
not required by this code shall be permitted to be installed 
for partial or complete protection provided that such sys- 
tem meets the requirements of this code. 

901.3 Modifications. No person shall remove or modify any 
fire protection system installed or maintained under the provi- 
sions of this code or the International Fire Code without 
approval by the building official. 

901.4 Threads. Threads provided for fire department con- 
nections to sprinkler systems, standpipes, yard hydrants or 
any other fire hose connection shall be compatible with the 
connections used by the local fire department. 

901.5 Acceptance tests. Fire protection systems shall be 
tested in accordance with the requirements of this code and 
the International Fire Code. When required, the tests shall be 
conducted in the presence of the building official. Tests 
required by this code, the International Fire Code and the 
standards listed in this code shall be conducted at the expense 
of the owner or the owner's representative. It shall be unlaw- 
ful to occupy portions of a structure until the required fire 
protection systems within that portion of the structure have 
been tested and approved. 

901.6 Supervisory service. Where required, fire protection 
systems shall be monitored by an approved supervising sta- 
tion in accordance with NFPA 72. 

901.6.1 Automatic sprinkler systems. Automatic sprin- 
kler systems shall be monitored by an approved supervis- 
ing station. 

Exceptions: 

1. A supervising station is not required for auto- 
matic sprinkler systems protecting one- and two- 
family dwellings. 

2. Limited area systems serving fewer than 20 
sprinklers. 

901.6.2 Fire alarm systems. Fire alarm systems required 
by the provisions of Section 907.2 of this code and Sec- 
tions 907.2 and 907.9 of the International Fire Code shall 



be monitored by an approved supervising station in accor- 
dance with Section 907.6.5. 

Exceptions: 

1. Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms 
required by Section 907.2.11. 

2. Smoke detectors in Group 1-3 occupancies. 

3. Supervisory service is not required for automatic 
sprinkler systems in one- and two-family dwell- 
ings. 

901.6.3 Group H. Supervision and monitoring of emer- 
gency alarm, detection and automatic fire-extinguishing 
systems in Group H occupancies shall be in accordance 
with the International Fire Code. 

901.7 Fire areas. Where buildings, or portions thereof, are 
divided into fire areas so as not to exceed the limits estab- 
lished for requiring a fire protection system in accordance 
with this chapter, such fire areas shall be separated by fire 
barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or hori- 
zontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 
711, or both, having ^fire-resistance rating of not less than 
that determined in accordance with Section 707.3.10. 

[F] 901.8 Pump and riser room size. Fire pump and auto- 
matic sprinkler system riser rooms shall be designed with 
adequate space for all equipment necessary for the installa- 
tion, as defined by the manufacturer, with sufficient working 
room around the stationary equipment. Clearances around 
equipment to elements of permanent construction, including 
other installed equipment and appliances, shall be sufficient 
to allow inspection, service, repair or replacement without 
removing such elements of permanent construction or dis- 
abling the function of a required fire-resistance-rated assem- 
bly. Fire pump and automatic sprinkler system riser rooms 
shall be provided with a door(s) and unobstructed passage- 
way large enough to allow removal of the largest piece of 
equipment. 

SECTION 902 
DEFINITIONS 

902.1 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chap- 
ter 2: 

[F] ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. 
[F] ALARM SIGNAL. 
[F] ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. 
[F] ANNUNCIATOR. 

[F] AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. 
[F] AUTOMATIC. 

[F] AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. 
[F] AUTOMATIC SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM. 



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[F] AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. 

[F] AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL. 

[F] CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. 

[F] CEILING LIMIT. 

[F] CLEAN AGENT. 

[F] CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. 

[F] DELUGE SYSTEM. 

[F] DETECTOR, HEAT. 

[F] DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. 

[F] ELEVATOR GROUP. 

[F] EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. 

[F] EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICATIONS. 

[F] FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. 

[F] FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. 

[F] FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. 

[F] FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. 

FIRE AREA. 

[F] FIRE COMMAND CENTER. 

[F] FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. 

[F] FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. 

[F] FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS. 

[F] FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. 

[F] HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. 

[F] INITIATING DEVICE. 

[F] MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX. 

[F] MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. 

[F] MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. 

[F] NOTIFICATION ZONE. 

[F] NUISANCE ALARM. 

[F] RECORD DRAWINGS. 

[Fj SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. 

[F] SMOKE ALARM. 

[F] SMOKE DETECTOR. 

[F] SMOKEPROOF ENCLOSURE. 

[F] STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF. 

Class I system. 

Class II system. 

Class III system. 
[F] STANDPIPE, TYPES OF. 

Automatic dry. 

Automatic wet. 

Manual dry. 

Manual wet. 

Semiautomatic dry. 



[F] SUPERVISING STATION. 

[F] SUPERVISORY SERVICE. 

[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. 

[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. 

[F] TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF. 

[F] TROUBLE SIGNAL. 

[F] VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. 

[F] WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. 

[F] WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM. 

[F] ZONE. 

[F] ZONE, NOTIFICATION. 



SECTION 903 
AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 

[F] 903.1 General. Automatic sprinkler systems shall comply 
with this section. 

[F] 903.1.1 Alternative protection. Alternative automatic 
fire-extinguishing systems complying with Section 904 
shall be permitted in lieu of automatic sprinkler protection 
where recognized by the applicable standard and approved 
by the fire code official. 

[F] 903.2 Where required. Approved automatic sprinkler 
systems in new buildings and structures shall be provided in 
the locations described in Sections 903.2.1 through 903.2.12. 

Exception: Spaces or areas in telecommunications build- 
ings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, 
associated electrical power distribution equipment, batter- 
ies and standby engines, provided those spaces or areas are 
equipped throughout with an automatic smoke detection 
system in accordance with Section 907.2 and are separated 
from the remainder of the building by not less than 1-hour 
fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 
or not less than 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed 
in accordance with Section 71 1, or both. 

[F] 903.2.1 Group A. An automatic sprinkler system shall 
be provided throughout buildings and portions thereof 
used as Group A occupancies as provided in this section. 
For Group A-l, A-2, A-3 and A-4 occupancies, the auto- 
matic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout the 
floor area where the Group A-l, A-2, A-3 or A-4 occu- 
pancy is located, and in all floors from the Group A occu- 
pancy to, and including, the nearest level of exit discharge 
serving the Group A occupancy. For Group A-5 occupan- 
cies, the automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in 
the spaces indicated in Section 903.2. 1 .5. 

[F] 903.2.1.1 Group A-l. An automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be provided for Group A-l occupancies 
where one of the following conditions exists: 

1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 
nr); 

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or 
more; 



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3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a 
level of exit discharge serving such occupancies; 
or 

4. The fire area contains a multitheater complex. 

[F] 903.2.1.2 Group A-2. An automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be provided for Group A-2 occupancies 
where one of the following conditions exists: 

1. The fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464.5 

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 100 or 
more; or 

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a 
level of exit discharge serving such occupancies. 

[F] 903.2.1.3 Group A-3. An automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be provided for Group A-3 occupancies 
where one of the following conditions exists: 

1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 
m 2 ); 

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or 
more; or 

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a 
level of exit discharge serving such occupancies. 

[F] 903.2.1.4 Group A-4. An automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be provided for Group A-4 occupancies 
where one of the following