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Full text of "ICC IFC (2012): International Fire Code"

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NOTICE OF INCORPORATION 

United States Legal Document 

J^" All citizens and residents are hereby advised that 
this is a legally binding document duly incorporated by 
reference and that failure to comply with such 
requirements as hereby detailed within may subject you 
to criminal or civil penalties under the law. Ignorance of 
the law shall not excuse noncompliance and it is the 
responsibility of the citizens to inform themselves as to 
the laws that are enacted in the United States of America 
and in the states and cities contained therein. "^& 

* * 



ICC IFC (2012), the International Fire Code, 
as mandated by and incorporated by the States 
and Municipalities, including the Rules of the 
Council on Fire Prevention & Electrical Safety 
of the State of Wyoming, Chapter 1, Section 2, 
Clause A(iii' 






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; Beeomea Building Safety Professional Member 
and Learo More about the Code Council 

GO TO WWW.1CCSAFE.ORG for All Your Technical and 
Professional: Needs li-rJuding: 

> Codes, Standards and Guidelines 

> Membership Benefits 

> Education and Certification 

> Communications an Industry News 



2012 International Fire Code® 



First Printing: May 201 1 



ISBN: 978-1-60983-046-5 (soft-cover edition) 
ISBN: 978-1-60983-045-8 (loose-leaf edition) 



COPYRIGHT © 201 1 

by 

INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL, INC. 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED This 2012 International Fire Code® is a copyrighted work owned by the International Code Coun- 
cil Inc Without advance written permission from the copyright owner, no part of this book may be reproduced, distributed or 
transmitted in any form or by any means, including, without limitation, electronic, optical or mechanical means (by way ot 
example, and not limitation, photocopying, or recording by or in an information storage retrieval system). For mfonmtfioii on 
permission to copy material exceeding fair use, please contact: Publications, 4051 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, IL 
60478-5795. Phone 1-888-ICC-SAFE (422-7233). 

Trademarks: "International Code Council," the "International Code Council" logo and the "International Fire Code" are 
trademarks of the International Code Council, Inc. 



PRINTED IN THE U.S.A. 



DEC ifls"G 



Introduction 



Development 



Internationally, code officials recognize the need for a modern, up-to-date fire code addressing con- 
ditions hazardous to life and property from fire, explosion, handling or use of hazardous materials 
and the use and occupancy of buildings and premises. The International Fire Code®, in this 2012 edi- 
tion, is designed to meet these needs through model code regulations that safeguard the public 
health and safety in all communities, large and small. 

This comprehensive fire code establishes minimum regulations for fire prevention and fire pro- 
tection systems using prescriptive and performance-related provisions. It is founded on broad- 
based principles that make possible the use of new materials and new system designs. This 2012 
edition is fully compatible with all of the International Codes 9 (l-Codes®) published by the Interna- 
tional Code Council (ICC)®, including the International Building Code®, International Energy Conser- 
vation Code®, International Existing Building Code 9 , International Fuel Gas Code®, International 
Green Construction Code™ (to be available March 2012), International Mechanical Code®, ICC Per- 
formance Code®, International Plumbing Code 9 , International Private Sewage Disposal Code®, Inter- 
national Property Maintenance Code®, International Residential Code®, International Swimming 
Pool and Spa Code™ (to be available March 2012), International Wildland-Urban Interface Code® 
and International Zoning Code®. 

The International Fire Code provisions provide many benefits, among which is the model code 
development process that offers an international forum for fire safety professionals to discuss per- 
formance and prescriptive code requirements. This forum provides an excellent arena to debate 
proposed revisions. This model code also encourages international consistency in the application of 
provisions. 



The first edition of the International Fire Code (2000) was the culmination of an effort initiated in 
1997 by a development committee appointed by ICC and consisting of representatives of the three 
statutory members of the International Code Council: Building Officials and Code Administrators 
International, Inc. (BOCA), International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO) and Southern Build- 
ing Code Congress International (SBCCI). The intent was to draft a comprehensive set of fire safety 
regulations consistent with and inclusive of the scope of the existing model codes. Technical con- 
tent of the latest model codes promulgated by BOCA, ICBO and SBCCI was utilized as the basis for 
the development, followed by public hearings in 1998 and 1999 to consider proposed changes. This 
2012 edition presents the code as originally issued, with changes reflected in the 2003, 2006 and 
2009 editions and further changes approved through the ICC Code Development Process through 
2010. A new edition such as this is promulgated every three years. 

This code is founded on principles intended to establish provisions consistent with the scope of a 
fire code that adequately protects public health, safety and welfare; provisions that do not unneces- 
sarily increase construction costs; provisions that do not restrict the use of new materials, products 
or methods of construction; and provisions that do not give preferential treatment to particular 
types or classes of materials, products or methods of construction. 



2012 SNTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



Ad@pti@n 



The International Fire Code is available for adoption and use by jurisdictions internationally. Its use 
within a governmental jurisdiction is intended to be accomplished through adoption by reference in 
accordance with proceedings establishing the jurisdiction's laws. At the time of adoption, jurisdic- 
tions should insert the appropriate information in provisions requiring specific local information, 
such as the name of the adopting jurisdiction. These locations are shown in bracketed words in 
small capital letters in the code and in the sample ordinance. The sample adoption ordinance on 
page xxi addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordinance, including the information 
required for insertion into the code text. 



Maintenance 



The International Fire Code is kept up-to-date through the review of proposed changes submitted 
by code enforcing officials, industry representatives, design professionals and other interested par- 
ties. Proposed changes are carefully considered through an open code development process in 
which all interested and affected parties may participate. 

The contents of this work are subject to change both through the Code Development Cycles and 
the governmental body that enacts the code into law. For more information regarding the code 
development process, contact the Code and Standard Development Department of the Interna- 
tional Code Council. 

While the development procedure of the International Fire Code assures the highest degree of 
care, ICC, its members and those participating in the development of this code do not accept any lia- 
bility resulting from compliance or noncompliance with the provisions because ICC and its founding 
members do not have the power or authority to police or enforce compliance with the contents of 
this code. Only the governmental body that enacts the code into law has such authority. 



Code Development Committee Responsibilities 
(Letter Designations in Front of Section Numbers) 



In each code development cycle, proposed changes to the code are considered at the Code Devel- 
opment Hearings by the International Fire Code Development Committee, whose action constitutes 
a recommendation to the voting membership for final action on the proposed change. Proposed 
changes to a code section that has a number beginning with a letter in brackets are considered by a 
different code development committee. For example, proposed changes to code sections that have 
[B] in front of them (e.g. [B] 607.2) are considered by the appropriate International Building Code 
Development Committee (IBC-Means of Egress) at the code development hearings. 

The content of sections in this code that begin with a letter designation is maintained by another 
code development committee in accordance with the following: 

[B] = International Building Code Development Committee (IBC-Fire Safety, General, Means 
of Egress or Structural); 

[EB] = International Existing Building Code Development Committee; 

[FG] = International Fuel Gas Code Development Committee; 

[M] = International Mechanical Code Development Committee; and 

[P] = International Plumbing Code Development Committee. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



Note that for the development of the 2015 edition of the l-Codes, there will be two groups of 
code development committees and they will meet in separate years. The groupings are as follows: 



Group A Codes 

(Heard in 2012, Code Change Proposals 

Deadline: January 3, 2012) 


Group B Codes 

(Heard in 2013, Code Change Proposals 

Deadline: January 3, 2013) 


International Building Code 


Administrative Provisions (Chapter 1 all codes except 
IRC and ICCPC, administrative updates to currently ref- 
erenced standards, and designated definitions) 


International Fuel Gas Code 


International Energy Conservation Code 


International Mechanical Code 


International Existing Building Code 


International Plumbing Code 


International Fire Code 


International Private Sewage 
Disposal Code 


International Green Construction Code 




ICC Performance Code 




International Property Maintenance Code 




International Residential Code 




International Swimming Pool and Spa Code 




International Wildland-Urban Interface Code 




International Zoning Code 



Code change proposals submitted for code sections that have a letter designation in front of 
them will be heard by the respective committee responsible for such code sections. Because differ- 
ent committees will meet in different years, it is possible that some proposals for this code will be 
heard by a committee in a different year than the year in which the primary committee for this code 
meets. 

For example, Section 907.2.13.1.2 of this code (and the IBC) is designated as the responsibility of 
the International Mechanical Code Development Committee. This committee will conduct its code 
development hearings in 2012 to consider code change proposals in its purview, which includes any 
proposals to Section 907.2.13.1.2. 

Note also that every section of Chapter 1 of this code is designated as the responsibility of the 
Administrative Code Development Committee, and that committee is part of the Group B portion of 
the hearings. This committee will conduct its code development hearings in 2013 to consider all 
code change proposals for Chapter 1 of this code and proposals for Chapter 1 of all l-Codes. There- 
fore, any proposals received for Chapter 1 of this code will be deferred for consideration in 2013 by 
the Administrative Code Development Committee. 

It is very important that anyone submitting code change proposals understand which code devel- 
opment committee is responsible for the section of the code that is the subject of the code change 
proposal. For further information on the code development committee responsibilities, please visit 
the ICC web site at www.iccsafe.org/scoping. 



Marginal Markings 



Solid vertical lines in the margins within the body of the code indicate a technical change from the 
requirements of the 2009 edition. Deletion indicators in the form of an arrow (e*> ) are provided in 
the margin where an entire section, paragraph, exception or table has been deleted or an item in a 
list of items or a table has been deleted. 

A single asterisk [*] placed in the margin indicates that text or a table has been relocated within 
the code. A double asterisk [**] placed in the margin indicates that the text or table immediately 
following it has been relocated there from elsewhere in the code. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



The following table indicates such relocations in the 2012 International Fire Code: 



2012 LOCATION (**) 


2009 LOCATION (*) 


109.2 


107.5 


1004.1.1.2 


1004.6 


1008.1.9.8 


1008.1.4.4 


1028.10.1 


1017.4 


1028.10.1.1 


1017.4.1 


1028.10.1.2 


1017.4.3 


1103.2 


510.3 



Note that these * and ** margin markings are not shown for the Chapter reorganization of the IFC 
in this 2012 edition. For information on this reoranization, please see page vii. 



Coordination between the International Building and Fire Codes 



Italicized Terms 



Because the coordination of technical provisions is one of the benefits of adopting the ICC family of 
model codes, users will find the ICC codes to be a very flexible set of model documents. To accom- 
plish this flexibility some technical provisions are duplicated in some of the model code documents. 
While the International Codes are provided as a comprehensive set of model codes for the built 
environment, documents are occasionally adopted as a stand-alone regulation. When one of the 
model documents is adopted as the basis of a stand-alone code, that code should provide a com- 
plete package of requirements with enforcement assigned to the entity for which the adoption is 
being made. 

The model codes can also be adopted as a family of complementary codes. When adopted 
together there should be no conflict of any of the technical provisions. When multiple model codes 
are adopted in a jurisdiction it is important for the adopting authority to evaluate the provisions in 
each code document and determine how and by which agency(ies) they will be enforced. It is 
important, therefore, to understand that where technical provisions are duplicated in multiple 
model documents that enforcement duties must be clearly assigned by the local adopting jurisdic- 
tion. ICC remains committed to providing state-of-the-art model code documents that, when 
adopted locally, will reduce the cost to government of code adoption and enforcement and protect 
the public health, safety and welfare. 



Selected terms set forth in Chapter 2, Definitions, are italicized where they appear in code text. 
Such terms are not italicized where the definition set forth in Chapter 2 does not impart the 
intended meaning in the use of the term. The terms selected have definitions which the user should 
read carefully to facilitate better understanding of the code. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



Effective Use of the International Fire Code 



The International Fire Code® (IFC®) is a model code that regulates minimum fire safety requirements 
for new and existing buildings, facilities, storage and processes. The IFC addresses fire prevention, 
fire protection, life safety and safe storage and use of hazardous materials in new and existing build- 
ings, facilities and processes. The IFC provides a total approach of controlling hazards in all buildings 
and sites, regardless of the hazard being indoors or outdoors. 

The IFC is a design document. For example, before one constructs a building, the site must be 
provided with an adequate water supply for fire-fighting operations and a means of building access 
for emergency responders in the event of a medical emergency, fire or natural or technological 
disaster. Depending on the building's occupancy and uses, the IFC regulates the various hazards that 
may be housed within the building, including refrigeration systems, application of flammable fin- 
ishes, fueling of motor vehicles, high-piled combustible storage and the storage and use of hazard- 
ous materials. The IFC sets forth minimum requirements for these and other hazards and contains 
requirements for maintaining the life safety of building occupants, the protection of emergency 
responders, and to limit the damage to a building and its contents as the result of a fire, explosion 
or unauthorized hazardous material discharge. 



Arrangement and Format of the 2012 IFC 



Before applying the requirements of the IFC it is beneficial to understand its arrangement and for- 
mat. The IFC, like other codes published by the International Code Council, is arranged and orga- 
nized to follow sequential steps that generally occur during a plan review or inspection. The 2012 
IFC has been reorganized into 7 Parts as illustrated in the tables below. Each Part represents a broad 
subject matter and includes the chapters that logically fit under the subject matter of each Part. It is 
also foreseeable that additional chapters will need to be added in the future as regulations for new 
processes or operations are developed. Accordingly, the reorganization was designed to accommo- 
date such future chapters by providing reserved (unused) chapters in several of the Parts. This will 
allow the subject matter parts to be conveniently and logically expanded without requiring a major 
renumbering of the IFC chapters. 



2012 REORGANIZATION OF THE IFC 


Parts and Chapters 


Subject Matter 


Parti -Chapters land 2 


Administrative and definitions 


Part II -Chapters 3 and 4 


General safety provisions 


Part III - Chapters 5 through 11 


Building and equipment design features 


Part III - Chapters 12 through 19 


Reserved for future use 


Part IV - Chapters 20 through 36 


Special occupancies and operations 


Part IV - Chapters 37 through 49 


Reserved for future use 


Part V - Chapters 50 through 67 


Hazardous materials 


Part V - Chapters 68 through 79 


Reserved for future use 


Part VI -Chapter 80 


Referenced standards 


Part VII - Appendices A through J 


Adoptable and informational appendices 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



2012 IFC CHAPTER REORGANIZATION 



CHAPTER NUMBER 

2009 



10 



11 



12 



13 



14 



15 



16 



17 



18 



19 



20 



21 



22 



23 



24 



25 



26 



27 



28 



29 



30 



31 



32 



33 



34 



35 



36 



37 



38 



39 



CHAPTER NUMBER 

2012 



10 



20 



21 



22 



33 



24 



25 



26 



27 



28 



29 



30 



23 



32 



31 



34 



35 



50 



51 



52 



53 



54 



55 



56 



57 



58 



59 



60 



61 



62 



CHAPTER TITLE 



Scope and Administration 



Definitions 



General Requirements 



Emergency Planning and Preparedness 



Fire Service Features 



Building Services and Systems 



Fire-Resistance-Rated Construction 



Interior Finish, Decorative Materials and Furnishings 



Fire Protection Systems 



Means Of Egress 



Aviation Facilities 



Dry Cleaning 



Combustible Dust-Producing Operations 



Fire Safety during Construction and Demolition 



Flammable Finishes 



Fruit and Crop Ripening 



Fumigation and Insecticidal Fogging 



Semiconductor Fabrication Facilities 



Lumber Yards and Woodworking Facilities 



Manufacture of Organic Coatings 



ndustrial Ovens 



Motor Fuel-Dispensing Facilities and Repair Garages 



High-Piled Combustible Storage 



Tents and Other Membrane Structures 



Tire Rebuilding and Tire Storage 



Welding and Other Hot Work 



Hazardous Materials— General Provisions 



Aerosols 



Combustible Fibers 



Compressed Gases 



Corrosive Materials 



Cryogenic Fluids 



Explosives and Fireworks 



Flammable and Combustible Liquids 



Flammable Gases and Flammable Cryogenic Fluids 



Flammable Solids 



Highly Toxic and Toxic Materials 



Liquefied Petroleum Gases 



Organic Peroxides 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



2012 IFC CHAPTER REORGANIZATION — continued 


CHAPTER NUMBER 
2009 


CHAPTER NUMBER 
2012 


CHAPTER TITLE 


40 


63 


Oxidizers, Oxidizing Gases and Oxidizing Cryogenic 
Fluids 


41 


64 


Pyrophoric Materials 


42 


65 


Pyroxylin (Cellulose Nitrate) Plastics 


43 


66 


Unstable (Reactive) Materials 


44 


67 


Water-Reactive Solids and Liquids 


45 


36 


Marinas 


46 


11 


Construction Requirements for Existing Buildings 


47 


80 


Referenced Standards 


Appendix A-J 


Appendix A-J 


No changes in reorganization 



The IFC requirements for fire-resistive construction, interior finish, fire protection systems, 
means of egress and construction safeguards are directly correlated to the chapters containing par- 
allel requirements in the IBC, as follows: 



IFC Chapter 


Subject 


7 


Fire-resistance-rated construction 


8 


Interior finish, decorative materials and furnishings 


9 


Fire protection systems 


10 


Means of egress 


33 


Fire safety during constructin and demolition 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



The following is a chapter-by-chapter synopsis of the scope and intent of the provisions of the Inter- 
national Fire Code: 



PART I-ADMINISTRATIVE 



Chapter 1 Scope and Administration. This chapter contains provisions for the application, 
enforcement and administration of subsequent requirements of the code. In addition to establish- 
ing the scope of the code, Chapter 1 identifies which buildings and structures come under its pur- 
view. Chapter 1 is largely concerned with maintaining "due process of law" in enforcing the 
regulations contained in the body of the code. Only through careful observation of the administra- 
tive provisions can the code official reasonably expect to demonstrate that "equal protection under 
the law" has been provided. 

Chapter 2 Definitions. All terms that are defined in the code are listed alphabetically in Chapter 
2. While a defined term may be used in one chapter or another, the meaning provided in Chapter 2 
is applicable throughout the code. 

Where understanding of a term's definition is especially key to or necessary for understanding of 
a particular code provision, the term is shown in italics wherever it appears in the code. This is true 
only for those terms that have a meaning that is unique to the code. In other words, the generally 
understood meaning of a term or phrase might not be sufficient or consistent with the meaning pre- 
scribed by the code; therefore, it is essential that the code-defined meaning be known. 

Guidance regarding tense, gender and plurality of defined terms as well as guidance regarding 
terms not defined in this code are also provided. 



PART II-G ENERAL SAFET Y PROVISIONS 



Chapter 3 General Requirements. The open burning, ignition source, vacant building, miscella- 
neous storage, roof gardens and landscaped roofs and hazards to fire fighters requirements and 
precautions, among other general regulations, contained in this chapter are intended to improve 
premises safety for everyone, including construction workers, tenants, operations and maintenance 
personnel and emergency response personnel. As with other chapters of the International Fire 
Code, Section 302 contains a list of terms that are defined in Chapter 2 and are applicable to the 
chapter contents. 

Chapter 4 Emergency Planning and Preparedness. This chapter addresses the human con- 
tribution to life safety in buildings when a fire or other emergency occurs. The requirements for 
continuous training and scheduled fire, evacuation and lockdown drills can be as important as the 
required periodic inspections and maintenance of built-in fire protection features. The level of prep- 
aration by the occupants also improves the emergency responders' abilities during an emergency. 
The International Building Code (IBC) focuses on built-in fire protection features, such as automatic 
sprinkler systems, fire-resistance-rated construction and properly designed egress systems whereas 
this chapter fully addresses the human element. As with other chapters of the International Fire 
Code, Section 402 contains a list of terms that are defined in Chapter 2 and are applicable to the 
chapter contents. 



PART III -BUILPING AN D EQUIPME NT DESIGN FE AT URES 

Chapter 5 Fire Service Features. The requirements of this chapter apply to all buildings and 
occupancies and pertain to access roads; access to building openings and roofs; premises identifica- 
tion; key boxes; fire protection water supplies; fire command centers; fire department access to 
equipment and emergency responder radio coverage in buildings. As with other chapters of the 
International Fire Code, Section 502 contains a list of terms that are defined in Chapter 2 and are 
applicable to the chapter contents. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



Chapter 6 Building Services and Systems. This chapter focuses on building systems and ser- 
vices as they relate to potential safety hazards and when and how they should be installed. This 
chapter brings together all building system- and service-related issues for convenience and provides 
a more systematic view of buildings. The following building services and systems are addressed: 
fuel-fired appliances (Section 603), emergency and standby power systems (Section 604), electrical 
equipment, wiring and hazards (Section 605), mechanical refrigeration (Section 606), elevator recall 
and maintenance (Section 607), stationary storage battery systems (Section 608) and commercial 
kitchen hoods (Section 609). As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 602 con- 
tains a list of terms that are defined in Chapter 2 and are applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 7 Fire-resistance-rated Construction. The maintenance of assemblies required to 
be fire-resistance rated is a key component in a passive fire protection philosophy. Chapter 7 sets 
forth requirements to maintain required fire-resistance ratings of building elements and limit fire 
spread. The required maintenance of fire-resistance-rated assemblies and opening protectives is 
described in Section 703 while Section 704 covers the enclosure requirements for shafts in existing 
buildings. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 702 contains a list of terms 
that are defined in Chapter 2 and are applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 8 Interior Finish, Decorative Materials and Furnishings. The overall purpose of 
Chapter 8 is to regulate interior finishes, decorative materials and furnishings in new and existing 
buildings so that they do not significantly add to or create fire hazards within buildings. The provi- 
sions tend to focus on occupancies with specific risk characteristics, such as vulnerability of occu- 
pants, density of occupants, lack of familiarity with the building and societal expectations of 
importance. This chapter is consistent with Chapter 8 of the International Building Code (IBC), which 
regulates the interior finishes of new buildings. As with other chapters of the International Fire 
Code, Section 802 contains a list of terms that are defined in Chapter 2 and are applicable to the 
chapter contents. 

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems. Chapter 9 prescribes the minimum requirements for active 
systems of fire protection equipment to perform the functions of detecting a fire, alerting the occu- 
pants or fire department of a fire emergency, controlling smoke and controlling or extinguishing the 
fire. Generally, the requirements are based on the occupancy, the height and the area of the build- 
ing, because these are the factors that most affect fire-fighting capabilities and the relative hazard 
of a specific building or portion thereof. This chapter parallels and is substantially duplicated in 
Chapter 9 of the International Building Code; however, this chapter also contains periodic testing 
criteria that are not contained in the IBC. In addition, the special fire protection system require- 
ments based on use and occupancy found in Chapter 4 of the IBC are duplicated in Chapter 9 of the 
IFC as a user convenience. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 902 con- 
tains a list of terms that are defined in Chapter 2 and are applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 10 Means of Egress. The general criteria set forth in Chapter 10 regulating the design 
of the means of egress are established as the primary method for protection of people in buildings 
by allowing timely relocation or evacuation of building occupants. Both prescriptive and perfor- 
mance language is utilized in this chapter to provide for a basic approach in the determination of a 
safe exiting system for all occupancies. It addresses all portions of the egress system (i.e., exit 
access, exits and exit discharge) and includes design requirements as well as provisions regulating 
individual components. The requirements detail the size, arrangement, number and protection of 
means of egress components. Functional and operational characteristics also are specified for the 
components that will permit their safe use without special knowledge or effort. The means of 
egress protection requirements work in coordination with other sections of the code, such as pro- 
tection of vertical openings (see Chapter 7), interior finish (see Chapter 8), fire suppression and 
detection systems (see Chapter 9) and numerous others, all having an impact on life safety. Sections 
1002 through 1029 are duplicated text from Chapter 10 of the IBC; however, the IFC contains an 
additional Section 1030 on maintenance of the means of egress system in existing buildings. Retro- 
active minimum means of egress requirements for existing buildings are now found in Chapter 11 
(which was formerly Chapter 46). As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 
1002 contains a list of terms that are defined in Chapter 2 and are applicable to the chapter con- 
tents. 

Chapter 11 Construction Requirements for Existing Buildings. Chapter 11 (which was for- 
merly Chapter 46) applies to existing buildings constructed prior to the adoption of the code and 
intends to provide a minimum degree of fire and life safety to persons occupying existing buildings 
by providing for alterations to such buildings that do not comply with the minimum requirements of 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE* 



the International Building Code. Prior to the 2009 edition, its content existed in the IFC but in a ran- 
dom manner that was neither efficient nor user-friendly. In the 2007/2008 code development cycle, 
a code change (F294-07/08) was approved that consolidated the retroactive elements of IFC/2006 
Sections 607, 701, 704, 903, 905, 907 and 3406 (then 2506) and all of then-Section 1027 (Means of 
Egress for Existing Buildings) into a single chapter for easier and more efficient reference and appli- 
cation to existing buildings. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 1102 con- 
tains a list of terms that are defined in Chapter 2 and are applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapters 12 through 19. Reserved for future use. 



PART IY-SPECIAL OCCUPANCIES AND OPERATIONS 

Chapter 20 Aviation Facilities. Chapter 20 (which was formerly Chapter 11) specifies minimum 
requirements for the fire-safe operation of airports, heliports and helistops. The principal nonflight 
operational hazards associated with aviation involve fuel, facilities and operations. Therefore, safe 
use of flammable and combustible liquids during fueling and maintenance operations is empha- 
sized. Availability of portable Class B:C-rated fire extinguishers for prompt control or suppression of 
incipient fires is required. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 2002 con- 
tains a list of terms that are defined in Chapter 2 and are applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 21 Dry Cleaning. The provisions of Chapter 21 (which was formerly Chapter 12) are 
intended to reduce hazards associated with use of flammable and combustible dry cleaning sol- 
vents. These materials, like all volatile organic chemicals, generate significant quantities of static 
electricity and are thus readily ignitable. Many flammable and nonflammable dry cleaning solvents 
also possess health hazards when involved in a fire. As with other chapters of the International Fire 
Code, Section 2102 contains a list of terms that are defined in Chapter 2 and are applicable to the 
chapter contents. 

Chapter 22 Combustible Dust-producing Operations. The requirements of Chapter 22 
(which was formerly Chapter 13) seek to reduce the likelihood of dust explosions by managing the 
hazards of ignitable suspensions of combustible dusts associated with a variety of operations includ- 
ing woodworking, mining, food processing, agricultural commodity storage and handling and phar- 
maceutical manufacturing, among others. Ignition source control and good housekeeping practices 
in occupancies containing dust-producing operations are emphasized. As with other chapters of the 
International Fire Code, Section 2202 contains a list of terms that are defined in Chapter 2 and are 
applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 23 Motor Fuel-dispensing Facilities and Repair Garages. This chapter (which 
was formerly Chapter 22) provides provisions that regulate the storage and dispensing of both liq- 
uid and gaseous motor fuels at public and private automotive, marine and aircraft motor fuel-dis- 
pensing facilities, fleet vehicle motor fuel-dispensing facilities and repair garages. As with other 
chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 2302 contains a list of terms that are defined in 
Chapter 2 and are applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 24 Flammable Finishes. Chapter 24 (which was formerly Chapter 15) requirements 
govern operations where flammable or combustible finishes are applied by spraying, dipping, pow- 
der coating or flow-coating processes. As with all operations involving flammable or combustible 
liquids and combustible dusts or vapors, controlling ignition sources and methods of reducing or 
controlling flammable vapors or combustible dusts at or near these operations are emphasized. As 
with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 2402 contains a list of terms that are 
defined in Chapter 2 and are applicable to the chapter ontents. 

Chapter 25 Fruit and Crop Ripening. Chapter 25 (which was formerly Chapter 16) provides 
guidance that is intended to reduce the likelihood of explosions resulting from improper use or han- 
dling of ethylene gas used for crop-ripening and coloring processes. This is accomplished by regulat- 
ing ethylene gas generation; storage and distribution systems and controlling ignition sources. 
Design and construction of facilities for this use are regulated by the International Building Code to 
reduce the impact of potential accidents on people and buildings. 

xii 201 2 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE 



Chapter 26 Fumigation and Insecticidai Fogging. This chapter (which was formerly Chapter 
17} regulates fumigation and insecticidai fogging operations which use toxic pesticide chemicals to 
kill insects, rodents and other vermin. Fumigants and insecticidai fogging agents pose little hazard if 
properly applied; however, the inherent toxicity of all these agents and the potential flammability of 
some makes special precautions necessary when they are used. Requirements of this chapter are 
intended to protect both the public and fire fighters from hazards associated with these products. 
As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 2602 contains a list of terms that are 
defined in Chapter 2 and are applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 27 Semiconductor Fabrication Facilities. The requirements of this chapter (which 
was formerly Chapter 18) are intended to control hazards associated with the manufacture of elec- 
trical circuit boards or microchips, commonly called semiconductors. Though the finished product 
possesses no unusual hazards, materials commonly associated with semiconductor manufacturing 
are often quite hazardous and include flammable liquids, pyrophoric and flammable gases, toxic 
substances and corrosives. The requirements of this chapter are concerned with both life safety and 
property protection. However, the fire code official should recognize that the risk of extraordinary 
property damages is far more common than the risk of personal injuries from fire. As with other 
chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 2702 contains a list of terms that are defined in 
Chapter 2 and are applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 28 Lumber Yards and Woodworking Facilities. Provisions of this chapter (which 
was formerly Chapter 19) are intended to prevent fires and explosions, facilitate fire control and 
reduce exposures to and from facilities storing, selling or processing wood and forest products, 
including sawdust, wood chips, shavings, bark mulch, shorts, finished planks, sheets, posts, poles, 
timber and raw logs and the hazard they represent once ignited. This chapter requires active and 
passive fire protection features to reduce on- and off-site exposures, limit fire size and development 
and facilitate fire fighting by employees and the fire service. As with other chapters of the Interna- 
tional Fire Code, Section 2802 contains a list of terms that are defined in Chapter 2 and are applica- 
ble to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 29 Manufacture of Organic Coatings. This chapter (which was formerly Chapter 20) 
regulates materials and processes associated with the manufacture of paints as well as bituminous, 
asphaltic and other diverse compounds formulated to protect buildings, machines and objects from 
the effects of weather, corrosion and hostile environmental exposures. Paint for decorative, archi- 
tectural and industrial uses comprises the bulk of organic coating production. Painting and pro- 
cesses related to the manufacture of nonflammable and noncombustible or water-based products 
are exempt from the provisions of this chapter. The application of organic coatings is covered by 
Chapter 24. Elimination of ignition sources, maintenance of fire protection equipment and isolation 
or segregation of hazardous operations are emphasized. As with other chapters of the International 
Fire Code, Section 2902 contains a term that is defined in Chapter 2 and is applicable to the chapter 
contents. 

Chapter 30 Industrial Ovens. This chapter (which was formerly Chapter 21) addresses the fuel 
supply, ventilation, emergency shutdown equipment, fire protection and the operation and mainte- 
nance of industrial ovens, which are sometimes referred to as industrial heat enclosures or indus- 
trial furnaces. Compliance with this chapter is intended to reduce the likelihood of fires involving 
industrial ovens which are usually the result of the fuel in use or volatile vapors given off by the 
materials being heated or to manage the impact if a fire should occur. As with other chapters of the 
International Fire Code, Section 3002 contains a list of terms that are defined in Chapter 2 and are 
applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 31 Tents and Other Membrane Structures. The requirements in this chapter (which 
was formerly Chapter 24) are intended to protect temporary as well as permanent tents and air- 
supported and other membrane structures from fire by regulating structure location and access, 
anchorage, egress, heat-producing equipment, hazardous materials and operations, combustible 
vegetation, ignition sources, waste accumulation and requiring regular inspections and certifying 
continued compliance with fire safety regulations. As with other chapters of the International Fire 
Code, Section 3102 contains a list of terms that are defined in Chapter 2 and are applicable to the 
chapter contents. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® xm 



Chapter 32 High-piled Combustible Storage. This chapter (which was formerly Chapter 23) 
provides guidance for reasonable protection of life from hazards associated with the storage of 
combustible materials in closely packed piles or on pallets, in racks or on shelves where the top of 
storage is greater than 12 feet in height. It provides requirements for identifying various classes of 
commodities; general fire and life safety features including storage arrangements, smoke and heat 
venting, fire department access and housekeeping and maintenance requirements. The chapter 
attempts to define the potential fire severity and, in turn, determine fire and life safety protection 
measures needed to control, and in some cases suppress, a potential fire. This chapter does not 
cover miscellaneous combustible materials storage regulated in Section 315. As with other chapters 
of the International Fire Code, Section 3202 contains a list of terms that are defined in Chapter 2 and 
are applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 33 Fire Safety During Construction and Demolition. Chapter 33 (which was for- 
merly Chapter 14) outlines general fire safety precautions for all structures and all occupancies dur- 
ing construction and demolition operations. In general, these requirements seek to maintain 
required levels of fire protection, limit fire spread, establish the appropriate operation of equip- 
ment and promote prompt response to fire emergencies. Features regulated include fire protection 
systems, fire fighter access to the site and building, means of egress, hazardous materials storage 
and use and temporary heating equipment and other ignition sources. With the 2012 reorganiza- 
tion, this chapter now correlates with Chapter 33 of the IBC. 

Chapter 34 Tire Rebuilding and Tire Storage. The requirements of Chapter 34 (which was 
formerly Chapter 25) are intended to prevent or control fires and explosions associated with the 
remanufacture and storage of tires and tire byproducts. Additionally, the requirements are 
intended to minimize the impact of indoor and outdoor tire storage fires by regulating pile volume 
and location, segregating the various operations, providing for fire department access and a water 
supply and controlling ignition sources. 

Chapter 35 Welding and Other Hot Work. This chapter (which was formerly Chapter 26) cov- 
ers requirements for safety in welding and other types of hot work by reducing the potential for fire 
ignitions that usually result in large losses. Several different types of hot work would fall under the 
requirements found in Chapter 35, including both gas and electric arc methods and any open-torch 
operations. Many of the activities of this chapter focus on the actions of the occupants. As with 
other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 3502 contains a list of terms that are defined 
in Chapter 2 and are applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 36 Marinas. Chapter 36 (which was formerly Chapter 45) addresses the fire protection 
and prevention requirements for marinas. It was developed in response to the complications 
encountered by a number of fire departments responsible for the protection of marinas as well as 
fire loss history in marinas that lacked fire protection. Compliance with this chapter intends to 
establish safe practices in marina areas, provide an identification method for mooring spaces in the 
marina, provide fire fighters with safe operational areas and fire protection methods to extend hose 
lines in a safe manner. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 3602 contains 
a list of terms that are defined in Chapter 2 and are applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapters 37 through 49. Reserved for future use. 



PART V-HAZARDQUS MATERIALS 



Chapter 50 Hazardous Materials — General Provisions. This chapter (which was formerly 
Chapter 27) contains the general requirements for all hazardous chemicals in all occupancies. Haz- 
ardous chemicals are defined as those that pose an unreasonable risk to the health and safety of 
operating or emergency personnel, the public and the environment if not properly controlled dur- 
ing handling, storage, manufacture, processing, packaging, use, disposal or transportation. The gen- 
eral provisions of this chapter are intended to be companion provisions with the specific 
requirements of Chapters 51 through 67 (which were formerly Chapters 28 through 44) regarding a 
given hazardous material. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 5002 con- 
tains a list of terms that are defined in Chapter 2 and are applicable to the chapter contents. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



Chapter 51 Aerosols. Chapter 51 (which was formerly Chapter 28) addresses the prevention, 
control and extinguishment of fires and explosions in facilities where retail aerosol products are dis- 
played or stored. It is concerned with both life safety and property protection from a fire; however, 
historically, aerosol product fires have caused property loss more frequently than loss of life. 
Requirements for storing aerosol products are dependent on the level of aerosol product, level of 
sprinkler protection, type of storage condition and quantity of aerosol products. As with other chap- 
ters of the International Fire Code, Section 5102 contains a list of terms that are defined in Chapter 
2 and are applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 52 Combustible Fibers. Chapter 52 (which was formerly Chapter 29) establishes the 
requirements for storage and handling of combustible fibers, including animal, vegetable and syn- 
thetic fibers, whether woven into textiles, baled, packaged or loose. Operations involving combusti- 
ble fibers are typically associated with salvage, paper milling, recycling, cloth manufacturing, carpet 
and textile mills and agricultural operations, among others. The primary hazard associated with 
these operations is the abundance of materials and their ready ignitability. As with other chapters 
of the International Fire Code, Section 5202 contains a list of terms that are defined in Chapter 2 and 
are applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 53 Compressed Gases. This chapter (which was formerly Chapter 30) regulates the 
storage, use and handling of all flammable and nonflammable compressed gases, such as those that 
are used in medical facilities, air separation plants, industrial plants, agricultural equipment and 
similar occupancies. Standards for the design, construction and marking of compressed gas cylin- 
ders and pressure vessels are referenced. Compressed gases used in welding and cutting, cryogenic 
liquids and liquefied petroleum gases are also regulated under Chapters 35, 55 and 61, respectively. 
Compressed gases that are classified as hazardous materials are also regulated in Chapter 50, which 
includes general requirements. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 5302 
contains a list of terms that are defined in Chapter 2 and are applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 54 Corrosive Materials. Chapter 54 (which was formerly Chapter 31) addresses the 
hazards of corrosive materials that have a destructive effect on living tissues. Though corrosive 
gases exist, most corrosive materials are solid and classified as either acids or bases (alkalis). These 
materials may pose a wide range of hazards other than corrosivity, such as combustibility, reactivity 
or oxidizing hazards, and must conform to the requirements of the code with respect to all their 
known hazards. The focus of this chapter is on materials whose primary hazard is corrosivity; that is, 
the ability to destroy or irreparably damage living tissue on contact. As with other chapters of the 
International Fire Code, Section 5402 contains a list of terms that are defined in Chapter 2 and are 
applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 55 Cryogenic Fluids. This chapter (which was formerly Chapter 32) regulates the haz- 
ards associated with the storage, use and handling of cryogenic fluids through regulation of such 
things as pressure relief mechanisms and proper container storage. These hazards are in addition to 
the code requirements that address the other hazards of cryogenic fluids such as flammability and 
toxicity. These other characteristics are dealt with in Chapter 50 and other chapters, such as Chap- 
ter 58 dealing with flammable gases. Cryogens are hazardous because they are held at extremely 
low temperatures and high pressures. Many cryogenic fluids, however, are actually inert gases and 
would not be regulated elsewhere in the code. Cryogens are used for many applications but specifi- 
cally have had widespread use in the biomedical field and in space programs. As with other chapters 
of the International Fire Code, Section 5502 contains a list of terms that are defined in Chapter 2 and 
are applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 56 Explosives and Fireworks. This chapter (which was formerly Chapter 33) pre- 
scribes minimum requirements for the safe manufacture, storage, handling and use of explosives, 
ammunition and blasting agents for commercial and industrial occupancies. These provisions are 
intended to protect the general public, emergency responders and individuals who handle explo- 
sives. Chapter 56 also regulates the manufacturing, retail sale, display and wholesale distribution of 
fireworks, establishing the requirements for obtaining approval to manufacture, store, sell, dis- 
charge or conduct a public display, and references national standards for regulations governing 
manufacture, storage and public displays. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Sec- 
tion 5602 contains a list of terms that are defined in Chapter 2 and are applicable to the chapter 
contents. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



Chapter 57 Flammable and Combustible Liquids. The requirements of this chapter (which 
was formerly Chapter 34) are intended to reduce the likelihood of fires involving the storage, han- 
dling, use or transportation of flammable and combustible liquids. Adherence to these practices 
may also limit damage in the event of an accidental fire involving these materials. These liquids are 
used for fuel, lubricants, cleaners, solvents, medicine and even drinking. The danger associated with 
flammable and combustible liquids is that the vapors from these liquids, when combined with air in 
their flammable range, will burn or explode at temperatures near normal living and working envi- 
ronment. The protection provided by the code is to prevent the flammable and combustible liquids 
from being ignited. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 5702 contains a 
list of terms that are defined in Chapter 2 and are applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 58 Flammable Gases and Flammable Cryogenic Fluids. Chapter 58 (which was 
formerly Chapter 35) sets requirements for the storage and use of flammable gases. For safety pur- 
poses, there is a limit on the quantities of flammable gas allowed per control area. Exceeding these 
limitations increases the possibility of damage to both property and individuals. The principal haz- 
ard posed by flammable gas is its ready ignitability, or even explosivity, when mixed with air in the 
proper proportions. Consequently, occupancies storing or handling large quantities of flammable 
gas are classified as Group H-2 (high hazard) by the International Building Code. As with other chap- 
ters of the International Fire Code, Section 5802 contains a list of terms that are defined in Chapter 
2 and are applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 59 Flammable Solids. This chapter (which was formerly Chapter 36) addresses general 
requirements for storage and handling of flammable solids, especially magnesium; however, it is 
important to note that several other solid materials, primarily metals including, but not limited to, 
such metals as titanium, zirconium, hafnium, calcium, zinc, sodium, lithium, potassium, sodium/ 
potassium alloys, uranium, thorium and plutonium which, under the right conditions, can be explo- 
sion hazards. Some of these metals are almost exclusively laboratory materials but because of 
where they are used, fire service personnel must be trained to handle emergency situations. 
Because uranium, thorium and plutonium are also radioactive materials, they present still more 
specialized problems for fire service personnel. As with other chapters of the International Fire 
Code, Section 5902 contains a list of terms that are defined in Chapter 2 and are applicable to the 
chapter contents. 

Chapter SO Highly Toxic and Toxic Materials. The main purpose of this chapter (which was 
formerly Chapter 37) is to protect occupants, emergency responders and those in the immediate 
area of the building and facility from short-term, acute hazards associated with a release or general 
exposure to toxic and highly toxic materials. This chapter deals with all three states of toxic and 
highly toxic materials: solids, liquids and gases. The code does not address long-term exposure 
effects of these materials which are addressed by agencies such as the Environmental Protection 
Agency (EPA) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). As with other chapters of 
the International Fire Code, Section 6002 contains a list of terms that are defined in Chapter 2 and 
are applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 61 Liquefied Petroleum Gases. Chapter 61 (which was formerly Chapter 38) estab- 
lishes requirements for the safe handling, storing and use of LP-gas to reduce the possibility of dam- 
age to containers, accidental releases of LP-gas and exposure of flammable concentrations of LP-gas 
to ignition sources. LP-gas (notably Propane) is well known as a camping fuel for cooking, lighting, 
heating and refrigerating and also remains a popular standby fuel supply for auxiliary generators as 
well as being widely used as an alternative motor vehicle fuel. Its characteristic as a clean-burning 
fuel having resulted in the addition of propane dispensers to service stations throughout the coun- 
try. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 6102 contains a list of terms that 
are defined in Chapter 2 and are applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 62 Organic Peroxides. This chapter (which was formerly Chapter 39) addresses the 
hazards associated with the storage, handling and use of organic peroxides and intends to manage 
the fire and oxidation hazards of organic peroxides by preventing their uncontrolled release. These 
chemicals possess the characteristics of flammable or combustible liquids and are also strong oxidiz- 
ers. This unusual combination of properties requires special storage and handling precautions to 
prevent uncontrolled release, contamination, hazardous chemical reactions, fires or explosions. The 
requirements of this chapter pertain to industrial applications in which significant quantities of 
organic peroxides are stored or used; however, smaller quantities of organic peroxides still pose a 
significant hazard and, therefore, must be stored and used in accordance with the applicable provi- 
sions of this chapter and Chapter 50. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 

xvi 2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



6202 contains a list of terms that are defined in Chapter 2 and are applicable to the chapter con- 
tents. 

Chapter 63 Oxidizers, Oxidizing Gases arid Oxidizing Cryogenic Fluids. Chapter 63 
(which was formerly Chapter 40) addresses the hazards associated with solid, liquid, gaseous and 
cryogenic fluid oxidizing materials, including oxygen in home use, and establishes criteria for their 
safe storage and protection in indoor and outdoor storage facilities, minimizing the potential for 
uncontrolled releases and contact with fuel sources. Although oxidizers themselves do not burn, 
they pose unique fire hazards because of their ability to support combustion by breaking down and 
giving off oxygen. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 6302 contains a list 
of terms that are defined in Chapter 2 and are applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 64 Pyrophoric Materials. This chapter (which was formerly Chapter 41) regulates the 
hazards associated with pyrophoric materials, which are capable of spontaneously igniting in the air 
at or below a temperature of 130°F (54°C). Many pyrophoric materials also pose severe flammabil- 
ity or reactivity hazards. This chapter addresses only the hazards associated with pyrophoric materi- 
als. Materials that pose multiple hazards must conform to the requirements of the code with 
respect to all hazards. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 6402 contains a 
list of terms that are defined in Chapter 2 and are applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 65 Pyroxylin (Cellulose Nitrate) Plastics. This chapter (which was formerly Chapter 
42) addresses the significant hazards associated with pyroxylin (cellulose nitrate) plastics, which are 
the most dangerous and unstable of all plastic compounds. The chemically bound oxygen in their 
structure permits them to burn vigorously in the absence of atmospheric oxygen at a rate 15 times 
greater than comparable common combustibles. Strict compliance with the provisions of this chap- 
ter, along with proper housekeeping and storage arrangements, help to reduce the hazards associ- 
ated with pyroxylin (cellulose nitrate) plastics in a fire or other emergencies. 

Chapter 66 Unstable (Reactive) Materials. This chapter (which was formerly Chapter 43) 
addresses the hazards of unstable (reactive) liquid and solid materials as well as unstable (reactive) 
compressed gases. In addition to their unstable reactivity, these materials may pose other hazards, 
such as toxicity, corrosivity, explosivity, flammability or oxidizing potential. This chapter, however, 
intends to address those materials whose primary hazard is unstable reactivity. Materials that pose 
multiple hazards must conform to the requirements of the code with respect to all hazards. Strict 
compliance with the provisions of this chapter, along with proper housekeeping and storage 
arrangements, help to reduce the exposure hazards associated with unstable (reactive) materials in 
a fire or other emergency. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 6602 con- 
tains a list of terms that are defined in Chapter 2 and are applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapter 67 Water-reactive Solids and Liquids. This chapter (which was formerly Chapter 44) 
addresses the hazards associated with water-reactive materials that are solid or liquid at normal 
temperatures and pressures. In addition to their water reactivity, these materials may pose a wide 
range of other hazards, such as toxicity, flammability, corrosiveness or oxidizing potential. This 
chapter addresses only those materials whose primary hazard is water reactivity. Materials that 
pose multiple hazards must conform to the requirements of the code with respect to all hazards. 
Strict compliance with the requirements of this chapter, along with proper housekeeping and stor- 
age arrangements, helps to reduce the exposure hazards associated with water-reactive materials 
in a fire or other emergency. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 6702 
contains a list of terms that are defined in Chapter 2 and are applicable to the chapter contents. 

Chapters 68 through 79. Reserved for future use. 



PART VI-REFERENCED STANDARDS 



Chapter 80 Referenced Standards. The code contains several references to standards that are 
used to regulate materials and methods of construction. Chapter 80 (which was formerly Chapter 
47) contains a comprehensive list of all standards that are referenced in the code. The standards are 
part of the code to the extent of the reference to the standard (see Section 102.7). Compliance with 
the referenced standard is necessary for compliance with this code. By providing specifically 
adopted standards, the construction and installation requirements necessary for compliance with 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



the code can be readily determined. The basis for code compliance is, therefore, established and 
available on an equal basis to the code official, contractor, designer and owner. 

Chapter 80 is organized in a manner that makes it easy to locate specific standards. It lists all of 
the referenced standards, alphabetically, by acronym of the promulgating agency of the standard. 
Each agency's standards are then listed in either alphabetical or numeric order based upon the stan- 
dard identification. The list also contains the title of the standard; the edition (date) of the standard 
referenced; any addenda included as part of the ICC adoption; and the section or sections of this 
code that reference the standard. 



DABT VTT—APDPiyiriTlPF? 



Appendix A Board of Appeals. This appendix contains optional criteria that, when adopted, 
provides jurisdictions with detailed appeals, board member qualifications and administrative proce- 
dures to supplement the basic requirements found in Section 108 of the code. Note that the provi- 
sions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting 
ordinance (see sample ordinance on page xxi). 

Appendix B Fire-flow Requirements for Buildings. This appendix provides a tool for the use 
of jurisdictions in establishing a policy for determining fire-flow requirements in accordance with 
1FC Section 507.3. The determination of required fire flow is not an exact science, but having some 
level of information provides a consistent way of choosing the appropriate fire flow for buildings 
throughout a jurisdiction. The primary tool used in this appendix is a table which presents fire flow 
based on construction type and building area based on the correlation of the Insurance Services 
Office (ISO) method and the construction types used in the International Building Code. Note that 
the provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the 
adopting ordinance (see sample ordinance on page xxi). 

Appendix C Fire Hydrant Locations and Distribution. This appendix focuses on the location 
and spacing of fire hydrants which is important to the success of fire-fighting operations. The diffi- 
culty with determining the spacing of fire hydrants is that every situation is unique and has unique 
challenges. Finding one methodology for determining hydrant spacing is difficult. This particular 
appendix gives one methodology based on the required fire flow that fire departments can work 
with to set a policy for hydrant distribution around new buildings and facilities in conjunction with 
IFC Section 507.5. Note that the provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless 
specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance (see sample ordinance on page xxi). 

Appendix D Fire Apparatus Access Roads. This appendix contains more detailed elements for 
use with the basic access requirements found in IFC Section 503 which gives some minimum crite- 
ria, such as a maximum length of 150 feet and a minimum width of 20 feet, but in many cases does 
not state specific criteria. This appendix, like Appendices B and C, is a tool for jurisdictions looking 
for guidance in establishing access requirements and includes criteria for multiple-family residential 
developments, large one- and two-family subdivisions, specific examples for various types of turn- 
arounds for fire department apparatus and parking regulatory signage. Note that the provisions 
contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordi- 
nance (see sample ordinance on page xxi). 

Appendix E Hazard Categories. This appendix contains guidance for designers, engineers, 
architects, code officials, plans reviewers and inspectors in the classifying of hazardous materials so 
that proposed designs can be evaluated intelligently and accurately. The descriptive materials and 
explanations of hazardous materials and how to report and evaluate them on a Material Safety Data 
Sheet (MSDS) that are contained in this appendix are intended to be instructional as well as infor- 
mative. Note that this appendix is for information purposes and is not intended for adoption. 

Appendix F Hazard Ranking. The information in this appendix is intended to be a companion to 
the specific requirements of Chapters 51 through 67 which regulate the storage, handling and use 
of all hazardous materials classified as either physical or health hazards. These materials pose 
diverse hazards, including instability, reactivity, flammability, oxidizing potential or toxicity; there- 
fore, identifying them by hazard ranking is essential. This appendix lists the various hazardous mate- 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



rials categories that are defined in the code, along with the NFPA 704 hazard ranking for each. Note 
that the provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in 
the adopting ordinance (see sample ordinance on page xxi). 

Appendix G Cryogenic Fluids — -Weight and Volume Equivalents. This appendix gives the 
fire code official and design professional a ready reference tool for the conversion of the liquid 
weight and volume of cryogenic fluid to their corresponding volume of gas and vice versa and is a 
companion to the provisions of Chapter 55 of the code. Note that this appendix is for information 
purposes and is not intended for adoption. 

Appendix H Hazardous Materials Management Plan (HMMP) and Hazardous Materi- 
als Inventory Statement (HMIS) Instructions. This appendix is intended to assist businesses 
in establishing a Hazardous Materials Management Plan (HMMP) and Hazardous Materials Inven- 
tory Statement (HMIS) based on the classification and quantities of materials that would be found 
on site in storage and/or use. The sample forms and available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) 
provide the basis for the evaluations. It is also a companion to IFC Sections 407.5 and 407 6 which 
provide the requirement that the HMIS and HMMP be submitted when required by the fire code 
official. Note that the provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically 
referenced in the adopting ordinance (see sample ordinance on page xxi). 

Appendix I Fire Protection Systems — Noncompliant Conditions. The purpose of this IFC 
appendix, which was developed by the ICC Hazard Abatement in Existing Buildings Committee, is to 
provide the fire code official with a list of conditions that are readily identifiable by the inspector 
during the course of an inspection utilizing the International Fire Code. The specific conditions iden- 
tified in this appendix are primarily derived from applicable NFPA standards and pose a hazard to 
the proper operation of the respective systems. While these do not represent all of the conditions 
that pose a hazard or otherwise may impair the proper operation of fire protection systems, their 
identification in this adoptable appendix will provide a more direct path for enforcement by the fire 
code official. Note that the provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifi- 
cally referenced in the adopting ordinance (see sample ordinance on page xxi). 

Appendix J Building Information Sign. This new appendix replaces the emergency responder 
communications facilities provisions which previously occupied Appendix J and that have been relo- 
cated to Section 510 in the 2012 edition. It provides design, installation and maintenance require- 
ments for a Building Information Sign (BIS), a fire service tool to be utilized in the crucial initial 
response of fire fighters to a structure fire. The BIS placard is designed to be utilized within the ini- 
tial response time frame of an incident to assist fire fighters in their tactical size-up of a situation as 
soon as possible after arrival on the scene of a fire emergency. The BIS design is in the shape of a fire 
service Maltese Cross symbol and includes five spaces (the four wings plus the centerpiece of the 
cross symbol) in which information is placed about the tactical considerations of construction type 
and hourly rating, fire protection systems, occupancy type, content hazards and special features 
which could affect tactical decisions and operations. Note that the provisions contained in this 
appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance (see sample 
ordinance on page xxi). 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE 



xx 2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



LEGISLATION 

The International Codes are designed and promulgated to be adopted by reference by legislative action. Jurisdictions wishingto 
adopt the 2012 International Fire Code as an enforceable set of regulations for the safeguarding of life and property from fire 
and explosion hazards arising from the storage, handling and use of hazardous substances, materials and devices, and from con- 
ditions hazardous to life or property in the occupancy of buildings and premises should ensure that certain factual information is 
included in the adopting legislation at the time adoption is being considered by the appropriate governmental body. The follow- 
ing sample adoption legislation addresses several key elements, including the information required for insertion into the code 
text. 

SAMPLE LEGISLATION FOR ADOPTION OF 

THE INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE 

ORDINANCE NO. 

A[N] [ORDINANCE/STATUTE/REGULATION] of the [NAME OF JURISDICTION] adopting the 2012 edition of the International Fire 
Code, regulating and governing the safeguarding of life and property from fire and explosion hazards arising from the storage, 
handling and use of hazardous substances, materials and devices, and from conditions hazardous to life or property in the occu- 
pancy of buildings and premises in the [NAME OF JURISDICTION]; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees 

therefor; repealing [ORDINANCE/STATUTE/REGULATION] No. of the [NAME OF JURISDICTION] and all other ordinances or 

parts of laws in conflict therewith. 

The [GOVERNING BODY] of the [NAME OF JURISDICTION] does ordain as follows: 

Section 1. That a certain document, three (3) copies of which are on file in the office of the [TITLE OF JURISDICTION'S KEEPER 
OF RECORDS] of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], being marked and designated as the International Fire Code, 2012 edition, including 
Appendix Chapters [FILL IN THE APPENDIX CHAPTERS BEING ADOPTED] (see International Fire Code Section 101 .2.1, 2012 edi- 
tion), as published by the International Code Council, be and is hereby adopted as the Fire Code of the [NAME OF JURISDICTION], 
in the State of [STATE NAME] regulating and governing the safeguarding of life and property from fire and explosion hazards 
arising from the storage, handling and use of hazardous substances, materials and devices, and from conditions hazardous to life 
or property in the occupancy of buildings and premises as herein provided; providing for the issuance of permits and collection 
of fees therefor; and each and all of the regulations, provisions, penalties, conditions and terms of said Fire Code on file in the 
office of the [NAME OF JURISDICTION] are hereby referred to, adopted, and made a part hereof, as if fully set out in this legisla- 
tion, with the additions, insertions, deletions and changes, if any, prescribed in Section 2 of this ordinance. 

Section 2. That the following sections are hereby revised: 

Section 101.1. Insert: [NAME OF JURISDICTION] 

Section 109.4. Insert: [OFFENSE, DOLLAR AMOUNT, NUMBER OF DAYS] 

Section 1 1 1.4. Insert: [DOLLAR AMOUNT IN TWO LOCATIONS] 
Section 3. That the geographic limits referred to in certain sections of the 2012 International Fire Code are hereby established as 
follows: 

Section 5704.2.9.6.1 (geographic limits in which the storage of Class I and Class II liquids in above-ground tanks outside of 

buildings is prohibited): [JURISDICTION TO SPECIFY] 

Section 5706.2.4.4 (geographic limits in which the storage of Class I and Class II liquids in above-ground tanks is prohib- 
ited): [JURISDICTION TO SPECIFY] 
Section 5806.2 (geographic limits in which the storage of flammable cryogenic fluids in stationary containers is prohibited): 

[JURISDICTION TO SPECIFY] 

Section 6104.2 (geographic limits in which the storage of liquefied petroleum gas is restricted for the protection of heavily 

populated or congested areas): [JURISDICTION TO SPECIFY] 
Section 4. That [ORDINANCE/STATUTE/REGULATION] No. of [NAME OF JURISDICTION] entitled [FILL IN HERE THE COM- 
PLETE TITLE OF THE LEGISLATION OR LAWS IN EFFECT AT THE PRESENT TIME SO THAT THEY WILL BE REPEALED BY SPECIFIC 
REFERENCE] and all other ordinances or parts of laws in conflict herewith are hereby repealed. 

Section 5. That if any section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this legislation is, for any reason, held to be unconstitu- 
tional, such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of this ordinance. The [GOVERNING BODY] hereby 
declares that it would have passed this law, and each section, subsection, clause or phrase thereof, irrespective of the fact that 
any one or more sections, subsections, sentences, clauses and phrases be declared unconstitutional. 

201 2 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® XXI 



Section 6. That nothing in this legislation or in the Fire Code hereby adopted shall be construed to affect any suit or proceeding 
impending in any court, or any rights acquired, or liability incurred, or any cause or causes of action acquired or existing, under 
any act or ordinance hereby repealed as cited in Section 4 of this law; nor shall any just or legal right or remedy of any character 
be lost, impaired or affected by this legislation. 

Section 7. That the [JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF RECORDS] is hereby ordered and directed to cause this legislation to be pub- 
lished. (An additional provision may be required to direct the number of times the legislation is to be published and to specify 
that it is to be in a newspaper in general circulation. Posting may also be required.) 

Section 8. That this law and the rules, regulations, provisions, requirements, orders and matters established and adopted hereby 
shall take effect and be in full force and effect [TIME PERIOD] from and after the date of its final passage and adoption. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



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Part I — Administrative 1 

CHAPTER 1 SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION .... 1 

PART 1— GENERAL PROVISIONS 1 

Section 

101 Scope and General Requirements 1 

102 Applicability 1 

PART 2— ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 2 

103 Department of Fire Prevention 2 

104 General Authority and Responsibilities 3 

105 Permits 4 

106 Inspections 11 

107 Maintenance 12 

108 Board of Appeals 12 

109 Violations 12 

1 1 Unsafe Buildings 13 

111 Stop Work Order 13 

112 Service Utilities 13 

113 Fees 14 

CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS 15 

Section 

201 General 15 

202 General Definitions 15 

Part II — General Safety Provisions 45 

CHAPTER 3 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 45 

Section 

301 General 45 

302 Definitions 45 

303 Asphalt Kettles 45 

304 Combustible Waste Material 45 

305 Ignition Sources 46 

306 Motion Picture Projection Rooms and Film 46 

307 Open Burning, Recreational Fires and 

Portable Outdoor Fireplaces 46 

308 Open Flames 47 

309 Powered Industrial Trucks and Equipment 49 

310 Smoking 49 

3 1 1 Vacant Premises 49 



312 Vehicle Impact Protection 51 

313 Fueled Equipment 51 

314 Indoor Displays 51 

315 General Storage 51 

316 Hazards to Fire Fighters 52 

317 Rooftop Gardens and Landscaped Roofs 52 

318 Laundry Carts 53 

CHAPTER 4 EMERGENCY PLANNING 

AND PREPAREDNESS 55 

Section 

401 General 55 

402 Definitions 55 

403 Public Assemblages and Events 55 

404 Fire Safety and Evacuation Plans 56 

405 Emergency Evacuation Drills 57 

406 Employee Training and Response Procedures 58 

407 Hazard Communication 58 

408 Use and Occupancy-related Requirements 58 

Part III — Building and Equipment Design Features ... 63 

CHAPTER 5 FIRE SERVICE FEATURES 63 

Section 

501 General 63 

502 Definitions 63 

503 Fire Apparatus Access Roads 63 

504 Access to Building Openings and Roofs 64 

505 Premises Identification 64 

506 Key Boxes 65 

507 Fire Protection Water Supplies 65 

508 Fire Command Center 66 

509 Fire Protection and Utility Equipment 

Identification and Access 67 

510 Emergency Responder Radio Coverage 67 

CHAPTER 6 BUILDING SERVICES 

AND SYSTEMS 71 

Section 

601 General 71 

602 Definitions 71 

603 Fuel-fired Appliances 71 

604 Emergency and Standby Power Systems 74 



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605 Electrical Equipment, Wiring and Hazards 76 

606 Mechanical Refrigeration 79 

607 Elevator Operation, Maintenance and 

Fire Service Keys 81 

608 Stationary Storage Battery Systems 81 

609 Commercial Kitchen Hoods 83 

610 Commercial Kitchen Cooking Oil Storage 83 

CHAPTER 7 FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED 

CONSTRUCTION 85 

Section 

701 General 85 

702 Definitions 85 

703 Fire-resistance-rated Construction 85 

704 Floor Openings and Shafts 86 

CHAPTER 8 INTERIOR FINISH, 

DECORATIVE MATERIALS 

AND FURNISHINGS 87 

Section 

801 General 87 

802 Definitions 87 

803 Interior Wall and Ceiling Finish and 

Trim in Existing Buildings 87 

804 Interior Wall and Ceiling Trim and 

Interior Floor Finish in New and 

Existing Buildings 89 

805 Upholstered Furniture and Mattresses in 

New and Exisiting Buildings 90 

806 Decorative Vegetation in New and 

Existing Buildings 93 

807 Decorative Materials Other than Decorative 

Vegetation in New and Existing Buildings 93 

808 Furnishings Other than Upholstered 

Furniture and Mattresses or Decorative 

Materials in New and Existing Buildings 95 

CHAPTER 9 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS ..... 97 
Section 

901 General 97 

902 Definitions 99 

903 Automatic Sprinkler Systems 99 

904 Alternative Automatic Fire-extinguishing 

Systems 105 

905 Standpipe Systems 108 

906 Portable Fire Extinguishers Ill 



907 Fire Alarm and Detection Systems 113 

908 Emergency Alarm Systems 123 

909 Smoke Control Systems 124 

910 Smoke and Heat Removal 130 

911 Explosion Control 131 

912 Fire Department Connections 133 

913 Fire Pumps 133 

914 Fire Protection Based on Special Detailed 

Requirements of Use and Occupancy 134 

CHAPTER 10 MEANS OF EGRESS .139 

Section 

1001 Administration 139 

1002 Definitions 139 

1003 General Means of Egress 139 

1004 Occupant Load 140 

1005 Means of Egress Sizing 142 

1006 Means of Egress Illumination 143 

1007 Accessible Means of Egress 143 

1008 Doors, Gates and Turnstiles 146 

1009 Stairways 152 

1010 Ramps 156 

1011 Exit Signs 158 

1012 Handrails 159 

1013 Guards 160 

1014 Exit Access 161 

1015 Exit and Exit Access Doorways 162 

1016 Exit Access Travel Distance 163 

1017 Aisles 164 

1018 Corridors 165 

1019 Egress Balconies 166 

1020 Exits 166 

1021 Number of Exits and Exit Configuration 166 

1022 Interior Exit Stairways and Ramps 168 

1023 Exit Passageways 170 

1024 Luminous Egress Path Markings 171 

1025 Horizontal Exits 172 

1026 Exterior Exit Stairways and Ramps 1 73 

1027 Exit Discharge 173 

1028 Assembly 174 

1029 Emergency Escape and Rescue 179 

1030 Maintenance of the Means of Egress 180 



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CHAPTER 11 CONSTRUCTION 

REQUIREMENTS FOR 

EXISTING BUILDINGS 181 

Section 

1 101 General 181 

1 102 Definition 181 

1 103 Fire Safety Requirements for 

Existing Buildings 181 

1104 Means of Egress for Existing Buildings 186 

1 105 Requirements for Outdoor Operations 190 

CHAPTERS 12 through 19 RESERVED 191 

Part IV — Special Occupancies and Operations 193 

CHAPTER 20 AVIATION FACILITIES 193 

Section 

2001 General 193 

2002 Definitions 193 

2003 General Precautions 193 

2004 Aircraft Maintenance 193 

2005 Portable Fire Extinguishers 194 

2006 Aircraft Fueling 194 

2007 Helistops and Heliports 199 

CHAPTER 21 DRY CLEANING 201 

Section 

2101 General 201 

2102 Definitions 201 

2103 Classifications 201 

2104 General Requirements 201 

2105 Operating Requirements 201 

2106 Spotting and Pretreating 202 

2107 Dry Cleaning Systems 203 

2108 Fire Protection 203 

CHAPTER 22 COMBUSTIBLE DUST- 
PRODUCING OPERATIONS 205 

Section 

2201 General 205 

2202 Definition 205 

2203 Precautions 205 

2204 Explosion Protection 205 



CHAPTER 23 MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING 
FACILITIES AND REPAIR 
GARAGES 207 

Section 

2301 General 207 

2302 Definitions 207 

2303 Location of Dispensing Devices 207 

2304 Dispensing Operations 207 

2305 Operational Requirements 208 

2306 Flammable and Combustible Liquid Motor 

Fuel-dispensing Facilities 209 

2307 Liquefied Petroleum Gas Motor 

Fuel-dispensing Facilities 214 

2308 Compressed Natural Gas Motor 

Fuel-dispensing Facilities 214 

2309 Hydrogen Motor Fuel-dispensing 

and Generation Facilities 216 

2310 Marine Motor Fuel-dispensing Facilities 217 

231 1 Repair Garages 219 

CHAPTER 24 FLAMMABLE FINISHES .223 

Section 

2401 General 223 

2402 Definitions 223 

2403 Protection of Operations 223 

2404 Spray Finishing 225 

2405 Dipping Operations 228 

2406 Powder Coating 230 

2407 Electrostatic Apparatus 230 

2408 Organic Peroxides and 

Dual-component Coatings 23 1 

2409 Indoor Manufacturing of 

Reinforced Plastics 232 

2410 Floor Surfacing and Finishing Operations 232 

CHAPTER 25 FRUIT AND CROP RIPENING 233 

Section 

2501 General 233 

2502 Definitions 233 

2503 Ethylene Gas 233 

2504 Sources of Ignition 233 

2505 Combustible Waste 233 

2506 Ethylene Generators 233 

2507 Warning Signs 233 



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CHAPTER 26 FUMIGATION AND 

INSECTICIDAL FOGGING 235 

Section 

2601 General 235 

2602 Definitions 235 

2603 Fire Safety Requirements 235 

CHAPTER 27 SEMICONDUCTOR 

FABRICATION FACILITIES 237 

Section 

2701 General 237 

2702 Definitions 237 

2703 General Safety Provisions 237 

2704 Storage 241 

2705 Use and Handling 243 

CHAPTER 28 LUMBER YARDS AND 

WOODWORKING FACILITIES. ... 247 

Section 

2801 General 247 

2802 Definitions 247 

2803 General Requirements 247 

2804 Fire Protection 247 

2805 Plywood, Veneer and Composite 

Board Mills 248 

2806 Log Storage Areas 248 

2807 Storage of Wood Chips and Hogged Material 

Associated with Timber and Lumber 

Production Facilities 248 

2808 Storage and Processing of Wood Chips, 

Hogged Material, Fines, Compost and 

Raw Product Associated with Yard 

Waste and Recycling Facilities 248 

2809 Exterior Storage of Finished 

Lumber Products 249 

CHAPTER 29 MANUFACTURE OF 

ORGANIC COATINGS. 251 

Section 

2901 General 251 

2902 Definition 251 

2903 General Precautions 251 

2904 Electrical Equipment and Protection 25 1 

2905 Process Structures 252 

2906 Process Mills and Kettles 252 

2907 Process Piping 252 

2908 Raw Materials in Process Areas 252 



2909 Raw Materials and Finished Products 253 

CHAPTER 30 INDUSTRIAL OVENS 255 

Section 

3001 General 255 

3002 Definitions 255 

3003 Location 255 

3004 Fuel Piping 255 

3005 Interlocks 255 

3006 Fire Protection 255 

3007 Operation and Maintenance 255 

CHAPTER 31 TENTS AND OTHER 

MEMBRANE STRUCTURES 257 

Section 

3101 General 257 

3102 Definitions 257 

3103 Temporary Tents and Membrane 

Structures 257 

3104 Temporary and Permanent Tents 

and Membrane Structures 259 

CHAPTER 32 HIGH-PILED 

COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE 263 

Section 

3201 General 263 

3202 Definitions 263 

3203 Commodity Classification 263 

3204 Designation of High-piled Storage Areas 265 

3205 Housekeeping and Maintenance 267 

3206 General Fire Protection and 

Life Safety Features 267 

3207 Solid-piled and Shelf Storage 269 

3208 Rack Storage 269 

3209 Automated Storage 270 

3210 Specialty Storage 271 

CHAPTER 33 FIRE SAFETY DURING 
CONSTRUCTION AND 
DEMOLITION 273 

Section 

3301 General 273 

3302 Definitions 273 

3303 Temporary Heating Equipment 273 

3304 Precautions Against Fire 273 

3305 Flammable and Combustible Liquids 273 

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3306 Flammable Gases 274 

3307 Explosive Materials 274 

3308 Owner's Responsibility for Fire Protection 274 

3309 Fire Reporting 274 

3310 Access for Fire Fighting 274 

331 1 Means of Egress 274 

33 12 Water Supply for Fire Protection 274 

3313 Standpipes 275 

3314 Automatic Sprinkler System 275 

3315 Portable Fire Extinguishers 275 

33 1 6 Motorized Construction Equipment 275 

3317 Safeguarding Roofing Operations 275 

CHAPTER 34 TIRE REBUILDING 

AND TIRE STORAGE 277 

Section 

3401 General 277 

3402 Definitions 277 

3403 Tire Rebuilding 277 

3404 Precautions Against Fire 277 

3405 Outdoor Storage 277 

3406 Fire Department Access 278 

3407 Fencing 278 

3408 Fire Protection 278 

3409 Indoor Storage Arrangement 278 

CHAPTER 35 WELDING AND 

OTHER HOT WORK 279 

Section 

3501 General 279 

3502 Definitions 279 

3503 General Requirements 279 

3504 Fire Safety Requirements 279 

3505 Gas Welding and Cutting 280 

3506 Electric Arc Hot Work 281 

3507 Calcium Carbide Systems 281 

3508 Acetylene Generators 281 

3509 Piping Manifolds and Hose Systems for 

Fuel Gases and Oxygen 281 

CHAPTER 36 MARINAS 283 

Section 

3601 Scope 283 

3602 Definitions 283 



3603 General Precautions 283 

3604 Fire Protection Equipment 283 

3605 Marine Motor Fuel-dispensing Facilities 283 

CHAPTERS 37 through 49 RESERVED 285 

Part V — Hazardous Materials 287 

CHAPTER 50 HAZARDOUS MATERIALS- 
GENERAL PROVISIONS 287 

Section 

5001 General 287 

5002 Definitions 289 

5003 General Requirements 290 

5004 Storage 304 

5005 Use, Dispensing and Handling 307 

CHAPTER 51 AEROSOLS 311 

Section 

5101 General 311 

5102 Definitions 311 

5103 Classification of Aerosol Products 311 

5104 Inside Storage of Aerosol Products 311 

5105 Outside Storage 313 

5106 Retail Display 313 

5107 Manufacturing Facilities 315 

CHAPTER 52 COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS 317 

Section 

5201 General 317 

5202 Definitions 317 

5203 General Precautions 317 

5204 Loose Fiber Storage 317 

5205 Baled Storage 318 

CHAPTER 53 COMPRESSED GASES 319 

Section 

5301 General 319 

5302 Definitions 319 

5303 General Requirements 319 

5304 Storage of Compressed Gases 322 

5305 Use and Handling of Compressed Gases 323 

5306 Medical Gas Systems 323 

5307 Compressed Gases Not Otherwise Regulated 324 



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CHAPTER 54 CORROSIVE MATERIALS .325 

Section 

5401 General 325 

5402 Definition 325 

5403 General Requirements 325 

5404 Storage 325 

5405 Use 325 

CHAPTER 55 CRYOGENIC FLUIDS ............ 327 

Section 

5501 General 327 

5502 Definitions 327 

5503 General Requirements 327 

5504 Storage 329 

5505 Use and Handling 330 

CHAPTER 56 EXPLOSIVES 

AND FIREWORKS 333 

Section 

5601 General 333 

5602 Definitions 336 

5603 Record Keeping and Reporting 337 

5604 Explosive Materials Storage and Handling 337 

5605 Manufacture, Assembly and Testing of 

Explosives, Explosive Materials and 

Fireworks 343 

5606 Small Arms Ammunition and Small 

Arms Ammunition Components 346 

5607 Blasting 347 

5608 Fireworks Display 348 

5609 Temporary Storage of Consumer Fireworks 349 

CHAPTER 57 FLAMMABLE AND 

COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS 351 

Section 

5701 General 35 1 

5702 Definitions 35] 

5703 General Requirements 352 

5704 Storage 355 

5705 Dispensing, Use, Mixing and Handling 376 

5706 Special Operations 382 



CHAPTER 58 FLAMMABLE GASES 

AND FLAMMABLE 

CRYOGENIC FLUIDS 393 

Section 

5801 General 393 

5802 Definitions 393 

5803 General Requirements 393 

5804 Storage 394 

5805 Use 394 

5806 Flammable Cryogenic Fluids 394 

5807 Metal Hydride Storage Systems 395 

CHAPTER 59 FLAMMABLE SOLIDS 397 

Section 

5901 General 397 

5902 Definitions 397 

5903 General Requirements 397 

5904 Storage 397 

5905 Use 397 

5906 Magnesium 397 

CHAPTER 60 HIGHLY TOXIC AND 

TOXIC MATERIALS .399 

Section 

6001 General 399 

6002 Definitions 399 

6003 Highly Toxic and Toxic Solids and Liquids 399 

6004 Highly Toxic and Toxic Compressed Gases 400 

6005 Ozone Gas Generators 405 

CHAPTER 61 LIQUEFIED 

PETROLEUM GASES .407 

Section 

6101 General 407 

6102 Definitions 407 

6103 Installation of Equipment 407 

6104 Location of LP-gas Containers 408 

6105 Prohibited Use of LP-gas 409 

6106 Dispensing and Overfilling 409 

6107 Safety Precautions and Devices 409 

6108 Fire Protection 409 



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61 09 Storage of Portable LP-gas Containers 

Awaiting Use or Resale 409 

6110 LP-gas Containers Not in Service 411 

6111 Parking and Garaging of 

LP-gas Tank Vehicles 411 

CHAPTER 62 ORGANIC PEROXIDES 413 

Section 

6201 General 413 

6202 Definition 413 

6203 General Requirements 413 

6204 Storage 413 

6205 Use 415 

CHAPTER 63 OXIDIZERS, OXIDIZING 
GASES AND OXIDIZING 
CRYOGENIC FLUIDS 417 

Section 

6301 General 417 

6302 Definitions 417 

6303 General Requirements 417 

6304 Storage 418 

6305 Use 420 

6306 Liquid Oxygen in Home Health Care 420 

CHAPTER 64 PYROPHORIC MATERIALS 423 

Section 

6401 General 423 

6402 Definition 423 

6403 General Requirements 423 

6404 Storage 423 

6405 Use 424 

CHAPTER 65 PYROXYLIN (CELLULOSE 

NITRATE) PLASTICS 425 

Section 

6501 General 425 

6502 Definitions 425 

6503 General Requirements 425 

6504 Storage and Handling 425 



CHAPTER 66 UNSTABLE 

(REACTIVE) MATERIALS 427 

Section 

6601 General 427 

6602 Definition 427 

6603 General Requirements 427 

6604 Storage 427 

6605 Use 428 

CHAPTER 67 WATER-REACTIVE 

SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS 429 

Section 

6701 General 429 

6702 Definition 429 

6703 General Requirements 429 

6704 Storage 429 

6705 Use 430 

CHAPTERS 68 through 79 RESERVED. .......... 431 

Part VI — Referenced Standards 433 

CHAPTER 80 REFERENCED STANDARDS ...... 433 

Part VII — Appendices 443 

APPENDIX A BOARD OF APPEALS .443 

Section 

A101 General 443 

APPENDIX B FIRE-FLOW REQUIREMENTS 

FOR BUILDINGS 445 

Section 

B101 General 445 

B102 Definitions 445 

B103 Modifications 445 

B104 Fire-flow Calculation Area 445 

B105 Fire-flow Requirements for Buildings 445 

B106 Referenced Standards 445 



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APPENDIX C FIRE HYDRANT LOCATIONS 

AND DISTRIBUTION 447 

Section 

C101 General 447 

C102 Location 447 

C103 Number of Fire Hydrants 447 

C104 Consideration of Existing Fire Hydrants 447 

C105 Distribution of Fire Hydrants 447 

APPENDIX D FIRE APPARATUS 

ACCESS ROADS 449 

Section 

D101 General 449 

D102 Required Access 449 

D103 Minimum Specifications 449 

D104 Commercial and Industrial Developments 450 

D 105 Aerial Fire Apparatus Access Roads 450 

D106 Multiple- family Residential Developments 451 

D107 One- or Two-family Residential 

Developments 451 

D108 Referenced Standards 451 

APPENDIX E HAZARD CATEGORIES 453 

Section 

E101 General 453 

E102 Hazard Categories 453 

E103 Evaluation of Hazards 457 

E104 Referenced Standards 458 

APPENDIX F HAZARD RANKING 459 

Section 

F101 General 459 

F102 Referenced Standards 459 



APPENDIX H HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 

MANAGEMENT PLAN (HMMP) 
AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 
INVENTORY STATEMENT (HMIS) 

INSTRUCTIONS 463 

Section 

H101 HMMP 463 

H102 HMIS 463 

H103 Emergency Plan 464 

H104 Referenced Standards 464 

APPENDIX I FIRE PROTECTION 

SYSTEMS— NONCOMPLIANT 
CONDITIONS 471 

Section 

1101 Noncompliant Conditions 471 

1102 Referenced Standards 472 

APPENDIX J BUILDING INFORMATION 

SIGN 473 

Section 

J101 General 473 

J102 Referenced Standards 475 

INDEX 477 



APPENDIX G CRYOGENIC FLUIDS- 
WEIGHT AND VOLUME 
EQUIVALENTS ......... 

Section 

G101 General 



,461 



.461 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE' 



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Part I— Administrative 



CHAPTER 1 

SCOPE AMD ADMINISTRATION 



PART 1— GENERAL PROVISIONS 



SECTION 101 
SCOPE AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 

[A] 101.1 Title. These regulations shall be known as the Fire 
Code of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], hereinafter referred to as 
"this code." 

[A] 101.2 Scope. This code establishes regulations affecting 
or relating to structures, processes, premises and safeguards 
regarding: 

1. The hazard of fire and explosion arising from the stor- 
age, handling or use of structures, materials or devices; 

2. Conditions hazardous to life, property or public welfare 
in the occupancy of structures or premises; 

3. Fire hazards in the structure or on the premises from 
occupancy or operation; 

4. Matters related to the construction, extension, repair, 
alteration or removal of fire suppression or alarm sys- 
tems; and 

5. Conditions affecting the safety of fire fighters and 
emergency responders during emergency operations. 

[A] 101.2.1 Appendices. Provisions in the appendices 
shall not apply unless specifically adopted. 

[A] 101.3 Intent. The purpose of this code is to establish the 
minimum requirements consistent with nationally recognized 
good practice for providing a reasonable level of life safety 
and property protection from the hazards of fire, explosion or 
dangerous conditions in new and existing buildings, struc- 
tures and premises, and to provide safety to fire fighters and 
emergency responders during emergency operations. 

[A] 101.4 Severability. If a section, subsection, sentence, 
clause or phrase of this code is, for any reason, held to be 
unconstitutional, such decision shall not affect the validity of 
the remaining portions of this code. 

[A] 101.5 Validity. In the event any part or provision of this 
code is held to be illegal or void, this shall not have the effect 
of making void or illegal any of the other parts or provisions 
hereof, which are determined to be legal; and it shall be pre- 
sumed that this code would have been adopted without such 
illegal or invalid parts or provisions. 



SECTION 102 
APPLICABILITY 

[A] 102.1 Construction and design provisions. The con- 
struction and design provisions of this code shall apply to: 

1. Structures, facilities and conditions arising after the 
adoption of this code. 

2. Existing structures, facilities and conditions not legally 
in existence at the time of adoption of this code. 

3. Existing structures, facilities and conditions when 
required in Chapter 1 1. 

4. Existing structures, facilities and conditions which, in 
the opinion of the fire code official, constitute a distinct 
hazard to life or property. 

[A] 102.2 Administrative, operational and maintenance 
provisions. The administrative, operational and maintenance 
provisions of this code shall apply to: 

1. Conditions and operations arising after the adoption of 
this code. 

2. Existing conditions and operations. 

[A] 102.3 Change of use or occupancy. No change shall be 
made in the use or occupancy of any structure that would 
place the structure in a different division of the same group or 
occupancy or in a different group of occupancies, unless such 
structure is made to comply with the requirements of this 
code and the International Building Code. Subject to the 
approval of the fire code official, the use or occupancy of an 
existing structure shall be allowed to be changed and the 
structure is allowed to be occupied for purposes in other 
groups without conforming to all of the requirements of this 
code and the International. Building Code for those groups, 
provided the new or proposed use is less hazardous, based on 
life and fire risk, than the existing use. 

[Aj 102.4 Application of building code. The design and 
construction of new structures shall comply with the Interna- 
tional Building Code, and any alterations, additions, changes 
in use or changes in structures required by this code, which 
are within the scope of the International Building Code, shall 
be made in accordance therewith. 

[A] 102.5 Application of residential code. Where structures 
are designed and constructed in accordance with the Interna- 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



tional Residential Code, the provisions of this code shall 
apply as follows: 

1. Construction and design provisions: Provisions of this 
code pertaining to the exterior of the structure shall 
apply including, but not limited to, premises identifica- 
tion, fire apparatus access and water supplies. Where 
interior or exterior systems or devices are installed, 
construction permits required by Section 105.7 of this 
code shall also apply. 

2. Administrative, operational and maintenance provi- 
sions: All such provisions of this code shall apply. 

[A] 102.6 Historic buildings. The provisions of this code 
relating to the construction, alteration, repair, enlargement, 
restoration, relocation or moving of buildings or structures 
shall not be mandatory for existing buildings or structures 
identified and classified by the state or local jurisdiction as 
historic buildings when such buildings or structures do not 
constitute a distinct hazard to life or property. Fire protection 
in designated historic buildings and structures shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with an approved fire protection plan. 

[A] 102.7 Referenced codes and standards. The codes and 
standards referenced in this code shall be those that are listed 
in Chapter 80, and such codes and standards shall be consid- 
ered part of the requirements of this code to the prescribed 
| extent of each such reference and as further regulated in Sec- 
tions 102.7.1 and 102.7.2. 

| [A] 102.7.1 Conflicts. Where conflicts occur between pro- 
visions of this code and referenced codes and standards, 
the provisions of this code shall apply. 

[A] 102.7.2 Provisions in referenced codes and stan- 
dards. Where the extent of the reference to a referenced 
code or standard includes subject matter that is within the 
scope of this code, the provisions of this code, as applica- 
ble, shall take precedence over the provisions in the refer- 
enced code or standard. 

[A] 102.8 Subjects not regulated by this code. Where no 
applicable standards or requirements are set forth in this code, 
or are contained within other laws, codes, regulations, ordi- 
nances or bylaws adopted by the jurisdiction, compliance 
with applicable standards of the National Fire Protection 
Association or other nationally recognized fire safety stan- 
dards, as approved, shall be deemed as prima facie evidence 
of compliance with the intent of this code. Nothing herein 
shall derogate from the authority of the fire code official to 
determine compliance with codes or standards for those 
activities or installations within the fire code official's juris- 
diction or responsibility. 

[A] 102.9 Matters not provided for. Requirements that are 
essential for the public safety of an existing or proposed 
activity, building or structure, or for the safety of the occu- 
pants thereof, which are not specifically provided for by this 
code, shall be determined by the fire code official. 

[A] 102.10 Conflicting provisions. Where there is a conflict 
between a general requirement and a specific requirement, 
the specific requirement shall be applicable. Where, in a spe- 



cific case, different sections of this code specify different 
materials, methods of construction or other requirements, the 
most restrictive shall govern. 

[A] 102.11 Other laws. The provisions of this code shall not 
be deemed to nullify any provisions of local, state or federal 
law. 

[A] 102.12 Application of references. References to chapter 
or section numbers, or to provisions not specifically identi- 
fied by number, shall be construed to refer to such chapter, 
section or provision of this code. 



PART 2— ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



SECTION 103 
DEPARTMENT OF FIRE PREVENTION 

[AJ 103.1 General. The department of fire prevention is 
established within the jurisdiction under the direction of the 
fire code official. The function of the department shall be the 
implementation, administration and enforcement of the provi- 
sions of this code. 

[A] 103.2 Appointment. The fire code official shall be 
appointed by the chief appointing authority of the jurisdic- 
tion; and the fire code official shall not be removed from 
office except for cause and after full opportunity to be heard 
on specific and relevant charges by and before the appointing 
authority. 

[A] 103.3 Deputies. In accordance with the prescribed proce- 
dures of this jurisdiction and with the concurrence of the 
appointing authority, the fire code official shall have the 
authority to appoint a deputy fire code official, other related 
technical officers, inspectors and other employees. 

[A] 103.4 Liability. The fire code official, member of the 
board of appeals, officer or employee charged with the 
enforcement of this code, while acting for the jurisdiction, in 
good faith and without malice in the discharge of the duties 
required by this code or other pertinent law or ordinance, 
shall not thereby be rendered liable personally, and is hereby 
relieved from all personal liability for any damage accruing 
to persons or property as a result of an act or by reason of an 
act or omission in the discharge of official duties. 

[A] 103.4.1 Legal defense. Any suit instituted against any 
officer or employee because of an act performed by that 
officer or employee in the lawful discharge of duties and 
under the provisions of this code shall be defended by the 
legal representative of the jurisdiction until the final termi- 
nation of the proceedings. The fire code official or any 
subordinate shall not be liable for costs in an action, suit or 
proceeding that is instituted in pursuance of the provisions 
of this code; and any officer of the department of fire pre- 
vention, acting in good faith and without malice, shall be 
free from liability for acts performed under any of its pro- 
visions or by reason of any act or omission in the perfor- 
mance of official duties in connection therewith. 



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SECTION 104 
GENERAL AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITIES 

[A] 104.1 General. The fire code official is hereby autho- 
rized to enforce the provisions of this code and shall have the 
authority to render interpretations of this code, and to adopt 
policies, procedures, rules and regulations in order to clarify 
the application of its provisions. Such interpretations, poli- 
cies, procedures, rules and regulations shall be in compliance 
with the intent and purpose of this code and shall not have the 
effect of waiving requirements specifically provided for in 
this code. 

[A] 104.2 Applications and permits. The fire code official is 
authorized to receive applications, review construction docu- 
ments and issue permits for construction regulated by this 
code, issue permits for operations regulated by this code, 
inspect the premises for which such permits have been issued 
and enforce compliance with the provisions of this code. 

[A] 104.3 Right of entry. Whenever it is necessary to make 
an inspection to enforce the provisions of this code, or when- 
ever the/ire code official has reasonable cause to believe that 
there exists in a building or upon any premises any conditions 
or violations of this code which make the building or prem- 
ises unsafe, dangerous or hazardous, the fire code official 
shall have the authority to enter the building or premises at all 
reasonable times to inspect or to perform the duties imposed 
upon the fire code official by this code. If such building or 
premises is occupied, the fire code official shall present cre- 
dentials to the occupant and request entry. If such building or 
premises is unoccupied, the fire code official shall first make 
a reasonable effort to locate the owner or other person having 
charge or control of the building or premises and request 
entry. If entry is refused, the fire code official has recourse to 
every remedy provided by law to secure entry. 

[A] 104.3.1 Warrant. When the. fire code official has first 
obtained a proper inspection warrant or other remedy pro- 
vided by law to secure entry, an owner or occupant or per- 
son having charge, care or control of the building or 
premises shall not fail or neglect, after proper request is 
made as herein provided, to permit entry therein by the fire 
code official for the purpose of inspection and examination 
pursuant to this code. 

[A] 104.4 Identification. The fire code official shall carry 
proper identification when inspecting structures or premises 
in the performance of duties under this code. 

[A] 104.5 Notices and orders. The fire code official is autho- 
rized to issue such notices or orders as are required to affect 
compliance with this code in accordance with Sections 109.1 
and 109.2. 

[A] 104.6 Official records. The fire code official shall keep 
official records as required by Sections 104.6.1 through 
104.6.4. Such official records shall be retained for not less 
than five years or for as long as the structure or activity to 
which such records relate remains in existence, unless other- 
wise provided by other regulations. 

[A] 104.6.1 Approvals. A record of approvals shall be 
maintained by the, fire code official and shall be available 



for public inspection during business hours in accordance 
with applicable laws. 

[A] 104.6.2 Inspections. The fire code official shall keep a 
record of each inspection made, including notices and 
orders issued, showing the findings and disposition of 
each. 

[A] 104.6.3 Fire records. The fire department shall keep a 
record of fires occurring within its jurisdiction and of facts 
concerning the same, including statistics as to the extent of 
such fires and the damage caused thereby, together with 
other information as required by the fire code official. 
[A] 104.6.4 Administrative. Application for modifica- 
tion, alternative methods or materials and the final deci- 
sion of the fire code official shall be in writing and shall be 
officially recorded in the permanent records of the fire 
code official. 

[A] 104.7 Approved materials and equipment. All materi- 
als, equipment and devices approved by the fire code official 
shall be constructed and installed in accordance with such 
approval. 

[A] 104.7.1 Material and equipment reuse. Materials, 
equipment and devices shall not be reused or reinstalled 
unless such elements have been reconditioned, tested and 
placed in good and proper working condition and 
approved. 

[A] 104.7.2 Technical assistance. To determine the 
acceptability of technologies, processes, products, facili- 
ties, materials and uses attending the design, operation or 
use of a building or premises subject to inspection by the 
fire code official, the fire code official is authorized to 
require the owner or agent to provide, without charge to 
the jurisdiction, a technical opinion and report. The opin- 
ion and report shall be prepared by a qualified engineer, 
specialist, laboratory or fire safety specialty organization 
acceptable to the fire code official and shall analyze the 
fire safety properties of the design, operation or use of the 
building or premises and the facilities and appurtenances 
situated thereon, to recommend necessary changes. The 
fire code official is authorized to require design submittals 
to be prepared by, and bear the stamp of, a registered 
design professional. 
[A] 104.8 Modifications. Whenever there are practical diffi- 
culties involved in carrying out the provisions of this code, 
the fire code official shall have the authority to grant modifi- 
cations for individual cases, provided the fire code official 
shall first find that special individual reason makes the strict 
letter of this code impractical and the modification is in com- 
pliance with the intent and purpose of this code and that such 
modification does not lessen health, life and fire safety 
requirements. The details of action granting modifications 
shall be recorded and entered in the files of the department of 
fire prevention. 

[A] 104.9 Alternative materials and methods. The provi- 
sions of this code are not intended to prevent the installation 
of any material or to prohibit any method of construction not 
specifically prescribed by this code, provided that any such 
alternative has been approved. The fire code official is autho- 



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rized to approve an alternative material or method of con- 
struction where the fire code official finds that the proposed 
design is satisfactory and complies with the intent of the pro- 
visions of this code, and that the material, method or work 
offered is, for the purpose intended, at least the equivalent of 
that prescribed in this code in quality, strength, effectiveness, 
fire resistance, durability and safety. 

[A] 104.9.1 Research reports. Supporting data, when 
necessary to assist in the approval of materials or assem- 
blies not specifically provided for in this code, shall con- 
sist of valid research reports from approved sources. 

[A] 104.9.2 Tests. Whenever there is insufficient evidence 
of compliance with the provisions of this code, or evi- 
dence that a material or method does not conform to the 
requirements of this code, or in order to substantiate 
claims for alternative materials or methods, the fire code 
official shall have the authority to require tests as evidence 
of compliance to be made at no expense to the jurisdiction. 
Test methods shall be as specified in this code or by other 
recognized test standards. In the absence of recognized 
and accepted test methods, the fire code official shall 
approve the testing procedures. Tests shall be performed 
by an approved agency. Reports of such tests shall be 
retained by the fire code official for the period required for 
retention of public records. 

[A] 104.10 Fire investigations. The fire code official, the fire 
department or other responsible authority shall have the 
authority to investigate the cause, origin and circumstances of 
any fire, explosion or other hazardous condition. Information 
that could be related to trade secrets or processes shall not be 
made part of the public record, except as directed by a court 
of law. 

[A] 104.10.1 Assistance from other agencies. Police and 
other enforcement agencies shall have authority to render 
necessary assistance in the investigation of fires when 
requested to do so. 

[A] 104.11 Authority at fires and other emergencies. The 
fire chief or officer of the fire department in charge at the 
scene of a fire or other emergency involving the protection of 
life or property, or any part thereof, shall have the authority to 
direct such operation as necessary to extinguish or control 
any fire, perform any rescue operation, investigate the exis- 
tence of suspected or reported fires, gas leaks or other hazard- 
ous conditions or situations, or take any other action 
necessary in the reasonable performance of duty. In the exer- 
cise of such power, the fire chief is authorized to prohibit any 
person, vehicle, vessel or thing from approaching the scene, 
and is authorized to remove, or cause to be removed or kept 
away from the scene, any vehicle, vessel or thing which could 
impede or interfere with the operations of the fire department 
and, in the judgment of the fire chief, any person not actually 
and usefully employed in the extinguishing of such fire or in 
the preservation of property in the vicinity thereof. 

[A] 104.11.1 Barricades. The fire chief or officer of the 
fire department in charge at the scene of an emergency is 
authorized to place ropes, guards, barricades or other 
obstructions across any street, alley, place or private prop- 
erty in the vicinity of such operation so as to prevent acci- 



dents or interference with the lawful efforts of the fire 
department to manage and control the situation and to han- 
dle fire apparatus. 

[A] 104.11.2 Obstructing operations. No person shall 
obstruct the operations of the fire department in connec- 
tion with extinguishment or control of any fire, or actions 
relative to other emergencies, or disobey any lawful com- 
mand of the fire chief or officer of the fire department in 
charge of the emergency, or any part thereof, or any lawful 
order of a police officer assisting the fire department. 

[A] 104.11.3 Systems and devices. No person shall render 
a system or device inoperative during an emergency unless 
by direction of the fire chief or fire department official in 
charge of the incident. 



SECTION 105 
PERMITS 

[A] 105.1 General. Permits shall be in accordance with Sec- 
tions 105.1.1 through 105.7.16. 

[A] 105.1.1 Permits required. Any property owner or 
authorized agent who intends to conduct an operation or 
business, or install or modify systems and equipment 
which is regulated by this code, or to cause any such work 
to be done, shall first make application to the fire code 
official and obtain the required permit. 

[A] 105.1.2 Types of permits. There shall be two types of 
permits as follows: 

1. Operational permit. An operational permit allows 
the applicant to conduct an operation or a business 
for which a permit is required by Section 105.6 for 
either: 

1 . 1 . A prescribed period. 

1 .2. Until renewed or revoked. 

2. Construction permit. A construction permit allows 
the applicant to install or modify systems and equip- 
ment for which a permit is required by Section 
105.7. 

[A] 105.1.3 Multiple permits for the same location. 

When more than one permit is required for the same loca- 
tion, the fire code official is authorized to consolidate such 
permits into a single permit provided that each provision is 
listed in the permit. 

[A] 105.2 Application. Application for a permit required by 
this code shall be made to the fire code official in such form 
and detail as prescribed by the fire code official. Applications 
for permits shall be accompanied by such plans as prescribed 
by the fire code official. 

[A] 105.2.1 Refusal to issue permit. If the application for 
a permit describes a use that does not conform to the 
requirements of this code and other pertinent laws and 
ordinances, the fire code official shall not issue a permit, 
but shall return the application to the applicant with the 
refusal to issue such permit. Such refusal shall, when 
requested, be in writing and shall contain the reasons for 
refusal. 



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[A] 105.2.2 Inspection authorized. Before a new opera- 
tional permit is approved, the fire code official is autho- 
rized to inspect the receptacles, vehicles, buildings, 
devices, premises, storage spaces or areas to be used to 
determine compliance with this code or any operational 
constraints required. 

[A] 105.2.3 Time limitation of application. An applica- 
tion for a permit for any proposed work or operation shall 
be deemed to have been abandoned 1 80 days after the date 
of filing, unless such application has been diligently prose- 
cuted or a permit shall have been issued; except that the 
fire code official is authorized to grant one or more exten- 
sions of time for additional periods not exceeding 90 days 
each. The extension shall be requested in writing and justi- 
fiable cause demonstrated. 

[A] 105.2.4 Action on application. The fire code official 
shall examine or cause to be examined applications for 
permits and amendments thereto within a reasonable time 
after filing. If the application or the construction docu- 
ments do not conform to the requirements of pertinent 
laws, the, fire code official shall reject such application in 
writing, stating the reasons therefor. If the fire code offi- 
cial is satisfied that the proposed work or operation con- 
forms to the requirements of this code and laws and 
ordinances applicable thereto, the fire code official shall 
issue a permit therefor as soon as practicable. 

[A] 105.3 Conditions of a permit. A permit shall constitute 
permission to maintain, store or handle materials; or to con- 
duct processes which produce conditions hazardous to life or 
property; or to install equipment utilized in connection with 
such activities; or to install or modify any fire protection sys- 
tem or equipment or any other construction, equipment instal- 
lation or modification in accordance with the provisions of 
this code where a permit is required by Section 105.6 or 
105.7. Such permission shall not be construed as authority to 
violate, cancel or set aside any of the provisions of this code 
or other applicable regulations or laws of the jurisdiction. 

[A] 105.3.1 Expiration. An operational permit shall 
remain in effect until reissued, renewed or revoked, or for 
such a period of time as specified in the permit. Construc- 
tion permits shall automatically become invalid unless the 
work authorized by such permit is commenced within 180 
days after its issuance, or if the work authorized by such 
permit is suspended or abandoned for a period of 180 days 
after the time the work is commenced. Before such work 
recommences, a new permit shall be first obtained and the 
fee to recommence work, if any, shall be one-half the 
amount required for a new permit for such work, provided 
no changes have been made or will be made in the original 
construction documents for such work, and provided fur- 
ther that such suspension or abandonment has not 
exceeded one year. Permits are not transferable and any 
change in occupancy, operation, tenancy or ownership 
shall require that a new permit be issued. 

[A] 105.3.2 Extensions. A permittee holding an unexpired 
permit shall have the right to apply for an extension of the 
time within which the permittee will commence work 
under that permit when work is unable to be commenced 



within the time required by this section for good and satis- 
factory reasons. The fire code official is authorized to 
grant, in writing, one or more extensions of the time 
period of a permit for periods of not more than 180 days 
each. Such extensions shall be requested by the permit 
holder in writing and justifiable cause demonstrated. 

[A] 105.3.3 Occupancy prohibited before approval. The 
building or structure shall not be occupied prior to the //re 
code official issuing a permit and conducting associated 
inspections indicating the applicable provisions of this 
code have been met. 

[A] 105.3.4 Conditional permits. Where permits are 
required and upon the request of a permit applicant, the 
fire code official is authorized to issue a conditional permit 
to occupy the premises or portion thereof before the entire 
work or operations on the premises is completed, provided 
that such portion or portions will be occupied safely prior 
to full completion or installation of equipment and opera- 
tions without endangering life or public welfare. The fire 
code official shall notify the permit applicant in writing of 
any limitations or restrictions necessary to keep the permit 
area safe. The holder of a conditional permit shall proceed 
only to the point for which approval has been given, at the 
permit holder's own risk and without assurance that 
approval for the occupancy or the utilization of the entire 
premises, equipment or operations will be granted. 

[A] 105.3.5 Posting the permit. Issued permits shall be 
kept on the premises designated therein at all times and 
shall be readily available for inspection by the fire code 
official. 

[A] 105.3.6 Compliance with code. The issuance or 
granting of a permit shall not be construed to be a permit 
for, or an approval of, any violation of any of the provi- 
sions of this code or of any other ordinance of the jurisdic- 
tion. Permits presuming to give authority to violate or 
cancel the provisions of this code or other ordinances of 
the jurisdiction shall not be valid. The issuance of a permit 
based on construction documents and other data shall not 
prevent the fire code official from requiring the correction 
of errors in the construction documents and other data. 
Any addition to or alteration of approved construction 
documents shall be approved in advance by the fire code 
official, as evidenced by the issuance of a new or amended 
permit. 

[A] 105.3.7 Information on the permit. The fire code 
official shall issue all permits required by this code on an 
approved form furnished for that purpose. The permit 
shall contain a general description of the operation or 
occupancy and its location and any other information 
required by the fire code official. Issued permits shall bear 
the signature of the fire code official or other approved 
legal authorization. 

[A] 105.3.8 Validity of permit. The issuance or granting 
of a permit shall not be construed to be a permit for, or an 
approval of, any violation of any of the provisions of this 
code or of any other ordinances of the jurisdiction. Permits 
presuming to give authority to violate or cancel the provi- 
sions of this code or other ordinances of the jurisdiction 



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shall not be valid. The issuance of a permit based on con- 
struction documents, operational documents and other 
data shall not prevent the fire code official from requiring 
correction of errors in the documents or other data. 

[A] 105.4 Construction documents. Construction docu- 
ments shall be in accordance with this section. 

[A] 105.4.1 Submittals. Construction documents and sup- 
porting data shall be submitted in two or more sets with 
each application for a permit and in such form and detail 
as required by the fire code official. The construction doc- 
uments shall be prepared by a registered design profes- 
sional where required by the statutes of the jurisdiction in 
which the project is to be constructed. 

Exception: Thefire code official is authorized to waive 
the submission of construction documents and support- 
ing data not required to be prepared by a registered 
design professional if it is found that the nature of the 
work applied for is such that review of construction 
documents is not necessary to obtain compliance with 
this code. 

[A] 105.4.1.1 Examination of documents. The fire 
code official shall examine or cause to be examined the 
accompanying construction documents and shall ascer- 
tain by such examinations whether the work indicated 
and described is in accordance with the requirements of 
this code. 

[A] 105.4.2 Information on construction documents. 
Construction documents shall be drawn to scale upon suit- 
able material. Electronic media documents are allowed to 
be submitted when approved by the fire code official. 
Construction documents shall be of sufficient clarity to 
indicate the location, nature and extent of the work pro- 
posed and show in detail that it will conform to the provi- 
sions of this code and relevant laws, ordinances, rules and 
regulations as determined by the fire code official. 

[A] 105.4.2.1 Fire protection system shop drawings. 
Shop drawings for the fire protection system(s) shall be 
submitted to indicate compliance with this code and the 
construction documents, and shall be approved prior to 
the start of installation. Shop drawings shall contain all 
information as required by the referenced installation 
standards in Chapter 9. 

[A] 105.4.3 Applicant responsibility. It shall be the 
responsibility of the applicant to ensure that the construc- 
tion documents include all of the fire protection require- 
ments and the shop drawings are complete and in 
compliance with the applicable codes and standards. 

[A] 105.4.4 Approved documents. Construction docu- 
ments approved by the fire code official are approved with 
the intent that such construction documents comply in all 
respects with this code. Review and approval by the fire 
code official shall not relieve the applicant of the responsi- 
bility of compliance with this code. 

[A] 105.4.4.1 Phased approval. The fire code official 
is authorized to issue a permit for the construction of 
part of a structure, system or operation before the con- 
struction documents for the whole structure, system or 



operation have been submitted, provided that adequate 
information and detailed statements have been filed 
complying with pertinent requirements of this code. 
The holder of such permit for parts of a structure, sys- 
tem or operation shall proceed at the holder's own risk 
with the building operation and without assurance that 
a permit for the entire structure, system or operation 
will be granted. 

[A] 105.4.5 Corrected documents. Where field condi- 
tions necessitate any substantial change from the approved 
construction documents, the fire code official shall have 
the authority to require the corrected construction docu- 
ments to be submitted for approval. 

[A] 105.4.6 Retention of construction documents. One 
set of construction documents shall be retained by the fire 
code official for a period of not less than 1 80 days from 
date of completion of the permitted work, or as required 
by state or local laws. One set of approved construction 
documents shall be returned to the applicant, and said set 
shall be kept on the site of the building or work at all times 
during which the work authorized thereby is in progress. 

[A] 105.5 Revocation. The fire code official is authorized to 
revoke a permit issued under the provisions of this code when 
it is found by inspection or otherwise that there has been a 
false statement or misrepresentation as to the material facts in 
the application or construction documents on which the per- 
mit or approval was based including, but not limited to, any 
one of the following: 

1. The permit is used for a location or establishment other 
than that for which it was issued. 

2. The permit is used for a condition or activity other than 
that listed in the permit. 

3. Conditions and limitations set forth in the permit have 
been violated. 

4. There have been any false statements or misrepresenta- 
tions as to the material fact in the application for permit 
or plans submitted or a condition of the permit. 

5. The permit is used by a different person or firm than the 
name for which it was issued. 

6. The permittee failed, refused or neglected to comply 
with orders or notices duly served in accordance with 
the provisions of this code within the time provided 
therein. 

7. The permit was issued in error or in violation of an 
ordinance, regulation or this code. 

[A] 105.6 Required operational permits. The fire code offi- 
cial is authorized to issue operational permits for the opera- 
tions set forth in Sections 105.6.1 through 105.6.46. 

[A] 105.6.1 Aerosol products. An operational permit is 
required to manufacture, store or handle an aggregate 
quantity of Level 2 or Level 3 aerosol products in excess 
of 500 pounds (227 kg) net weight. 

[A] 105.6.2 Amusement buildings. An operational permit 
is required to operate a special amusement building. 



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[A] 105.6.3 Aviation facilities. An operational permit is 
required to use a Group H or Group S occupancy for air- 
craft servicing or repair and aircraft fuel-servicing vehi- 
cles. Additional permits required by other sections of this 
code include, but are not limited to, hot work, hazardous 
materials and flammable or combustible finishes. 

[A] 105.6.4 Carnivals and fairs. An operational permit is 
required to conduct a carnival or fair. 

[A] 105.6.5 Cellulose nitrate film. An operational permit 
is required to store, handle or use cellulose nitrate film in a 
Group A occupancy. 

[A] 105.6.6 Combustible dust-producing operations. 
An operational permit is required to operate a grain eleva- 
tor, flour starch mill, feed mill, or a plant pulverizing alu- 
minum, coal, cocoa, magnesium, spices or sugar, or other 
operations producing combustible dusts as defined in 
Chapter 2. 

[A] 105.6.7 Combustible fibers. An operational permit is 
required for the storage and handling of combustible fibers 
in quantities greater than 100 cubic feet (2.8 m 3 ). 

Exception: A permit is not required for agricultural 
storage. 

[A] 105.6.8 Compressed gases. An operational permit is 
required for the storage, use or handling at normal temper- 
ature and pressure (NTP) of compressed gases in excess 
of the amounts listed in Table 105.6.8. 

Exception: Vehicles equipped for and using com- 
pressed gas as a fuel for propelling the vehicle. 

TABLE 105.6.8 
PERMIT AMOUNTS FOR COMPRESSED GASES 



TYPE OF GAS 


AMOUNT 
(cubic feet at NTP) 


Corrosive 


200 


Flammable (except cryogenic fluids and 
liquefied petroleum gases) 


200 


Highly toxic 


Any Amount 


Inert and simple asphyxiant 


6,000 


Oxidizing (including oxygen) 


504 


Pyrophoric 


Any Amount 


Toxic 


Any Amount 



For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 nr. 

[A] 105.6.9 Covered and open mall buildings. An opera- 
tional permit is required for: 

1 . The placement of retail fixtures and displays, con- 
cession equipment, displays of highly combustible 
goods and similar items in the mall. 

2. The display of liquid- or gas-fired equipment in the 
mall. 

3. The use of open-flame or flame-producing equip- 
ment in the mall. 

[A] 105.6.10 Cryogenic fluids. An operational permit is 
required to produce, store, transport on site, use, handle or 



dispense cryogenic fluids in excess of the amounts listed 
in Table 105.6.10. 

Exception: Permits are not required for vehicles 
equipped for and using cryogenic fluids as a fuel for 
propelling the vehicle or for refrigerating the lading. 

TABLE 105.6.10 
PERMIT AMOUNTS FOR CRYOGENIC FLUIDS 



TYPE OF CRYOGENIC FLUID 


INSIDE 
BUILDING 
(gallons) 


OUTSIDE 
BUILDING 
(gallons) 


Flammable 


More than l 


60 


Inert 


60 


500 


Oxidizing (includes oxygen) 


10 


50 


Physical or health hazard not 
indicated above 


Any Amount 


Any Amount 



For SI: 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

[A] 105.6.11 Cutting and welding. An operational permit 
is required to conduct cutting or welding operations within 
the jurisdiction. 

[A] 105.6.12 Dry cleaning. An operational permit is 
required to engage in the business of dry cleaning or to 
change to a more hazardous cleaning solvent used in exist- 
ing dry cleaning equipment. 

[A] 105.6.13 Exhibits and trade shows. An operational 
permit is required to operate exhibits and trade shows. 

[A] 105.6.14 Explosives. An operational permit is 
required for the manufacture, storage, handling, sale or use 
of any quantity of explosives, explosive materials, fire- 
works or pyrotechnic special effects within the scope of 
Chapter 56. 

Exception: Storage in Group R-3 occupancies of 
smokeless propellant, black powder and small arms 
primers for personal use, not for resale and in accor- 
dance with Section 5606. 

[A] 105.6.15 Fire hydrants and valves. An operational 
permit is required to use or operate fire hydrants or valves 
intended for fire suppression purposes which are installed 
on water systems and accessible to a fire apparatus access 
road that is open to or generally used by the public. 

Exception: A permit is not required for authorized 
employees of the water company that supplies the sys- 
tem or the fire department to use or operate fire 
hydrants or valves. 

[A] 105.6.16 Flammable and combustible liquids. An 
operational permit is required: 

1 . To use or operate a pipeline for the transportation 
within facilities of flammable or combustible liq- 
uids. This requirement shall not apply to the off- 
site transportation in pipelines regulated by the 
Department of Transportation (DOTn) nor does it 
apply to piping systems. 

2. To store, handle or use Class I liquids in excess of 
5 gallons (19 L) in a building or in excess of 10 



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gallons (37.9 L) outside of a building, except that a 
permit is not required for the following: 

2. 1 . The storage or use of Class I liquids in the 
fuel tank of a motor vehicle, aircraft, 
motorboat, mobile power plant or mobile 
heating plant, unless such storage, in the 
opinion of the fire code official, would 
cause an unsafe condition. 

2.2. The storage or use of paints, oils, varnishes 
or similar flammable mixtures when such 
liquids are stored for maintenance, painting 
or similar purposes for a period of not more 
than 30 days. 

3. To store, handle or use Class II or Class IIIA liq- 
uids in excess of 25 gallons (95 L) in a building or 
in excess of 60 gallons (227 L) outside a building, 
except for fuel oil used in connection with oil- 
burning equipment. 

4. To store, handle or use Class IIIB liquids in tanks 
or portable tanks for fueling motor vehicles at 
motor fuel-dispensing facilities or where con- 
nected to fuel-burning equipment. 

Exception: Fuel oil and used motor oil used for 
space heating or water heating. 

5. To remove Class I or II liquids from an under- 
ground storage tank used for fueling motor vehi- 
cles by any means other than the approved, 
stationary on-site pumps normally used for dis- 
pensing purposes. 

6. To operate tank vehicles, equipment, tanks, plants, 
terminals, wells, fuel-dispensing stations, refiner- 
ies, distilleries and similar facilities where flam- 
mable and combustible liquids are produced, 
processed, transported, stored, dispensed or used. 

7. To place temporarily out of service (for more than 
90 days) an underground, protected above-ground 
or above-ground flammable or combustible liquid 
tank. 

8. To change the type of contents stored in a flamma- 
ble or combustible liquid tank to a material that 
poses a greater hazard than that for which the tank 
was designed and constructed. 

9. To manufacture, process, blend or refine flamma- 
ble or combustible liquids. 

10. To engage in the dispensing of liquid fuels into the 
fuel tanks of motor vehicles at commercial, indus- 
trial, governmental or manufacturing establish- 
ments. 

11. To utilize a site for the dispensing of liquid fuels 
from tank vehicles into the fuel tanks of motor 
vehicles, marine craft and other special equipment 
at commercial, industrial, governmental or manu- 
facturing establishments. 

[A] 105.6.17 Floor finishing. An operational permit is 
required for floor finishing or surfacing operations exceed- 



ing 350 square feet (33 m 2 ) using Class I or Class II liq- 
uids. 

[A] 105.6.18 Fruit and crop ripening. An operational 
permit is required to operate a fruit- or crop-ripening facil- 
ity or conduct a fruit-ripening process using ethylene gas. 

[A] 105.6.19 Fumigation and insecticidal fogging. An j 
operational permit is required to operate a business of 
fumigation or insecticidal fogging, and to maintain a j 
room, vault or chamber in which a toxic or flammable 
fumigant is used. 

[A] 105.6.20 Hazardous materials. An operational per- 
mit is required to store, transport on site, dispense, use or 
handle hazardous materials in excess of the amounts listed 
in Table 105.6.20. 

[A] 105.6.21 HPM facilities. An operational permit is 
required to store, handle or use hazardous production 
materials. 

[A] 105.6.22 High-piled storage. An operational permit is 
required to use a building or portion thereof as a high- 
piled storage area exceeding 500 square feet (46 m 2 ). 

[A] 105.6.23 Hot work operations. An operational permit 
is required for hot work including, but not limited to: 

1. Public exhibitions and demonstrations where hot 
work is conducted. 



2. Use of portable hot work equipment inside a 
ture. 



struc- 



Exception: Work that is conducted under a con- 
struction permit. 

3. Fixed- site hot work equipment, such as welding 
booths. 

4. Hot work conducted within a wildfire risk area. 

5. Application of roof coverings with the use of an 
open- flame device. 

6. When approved, the fire code official shall issue a 
permit to carry out a hot work program. This pro- 
gram allows approved personnel to regulate their 
facility's hot work operations. The approved person- 
nel shall be trained in the fire safety aspects denoted 
in this chapter and shall be responsible for issuing 
permits requiring compliance with the requirements 
found in Chapter 35. These permits shall be issued 
only to their employees or hot work operations 
under their supervision. 

[A] 105.6.24 Industrial ovens. An operational permit is 
required for operation of industrial ovens regulated by 
Chapter 30. 

[A] 105.6.25 Lumber yards and woodworking plants. 
An operational permit is required for the storage or pro- 
cessing of lumber exceeding 100,000 board feet (8,333 ft 3 ) 
(236 m 3 ). 

[A] 105.6.26 Liquid- or gas-fueled vehicles or equip- 
ment in assembly buildings. An operational permit is 
required to display, operate or demonstrate liquid- or gas- 
fueled vehicles or equipment in assembly buildings. 



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TABLE 105.6.20 

PERMIT AMOUNTS FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 



TABLE 105.6.20 — continued 
PERMIT AMOUNTS FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 



TYPE OF MATERIAL 



Combustible liquids 



Corrosive materials 
Gases 
Liquids 
Solids 



Explosive materials 



Flammable materials 
Gases 
Liquids 
Solids 



Highly toxic materials 
Gases 
Liquids 
Solids 



Oxidizing materials 
Gases 
Liquids 

Class 4 

Class 3 

Class 2 

Class I 
Solids 

Class 4 

Class 3 



AMOUNT 



See Section 105.6.16 



See Section 105.6.8 
55 gallons 
1000 pounds 



See Section 105.6.14 



See Section 105.6.8 
See Section 105.6.16 
100 pounds 



See Section 105.6.! 
Any Amount 
Any Amount 



See Section 105.6.8 

Any Amount 
1 gallon" 
10 gallons 
55 gallons 

Any Amount 
10 pounds 6 



Class 2 


100 pounds 


Class 1 


500 pounds 


Organic peroxides 




Liquids 




Class I 


Any Amount 


Class 11 


Any Amount 


Class III 


1 gallon 


Class IV 


2 gallons 


Class V 


No Permit Required 


Solids 




Class I 


Any Amount 


Class II 


Any Amount 


Class 111 


10 pounds 


Class IV 


20 pounds 


Class V 


No Permit Required 


Pyrophoric materials 




Gases 


Any Amount 


Liquids 


Any Amount 


Solids 


Any Amount 


Toxic materials 




Gases 


See Section 105.6.8 


Liquids 


10 gallons 


Solids 


100 pounds 


Unstable (reactive) materials 




Liquids 




Class 4 


Any Amount 


Class 3 


Any Amount 


Class 2 


5 gallons 


Class 1 


10 gallons 


Solids 




Class 4 


Any Amount 


Class 3 


Any Amount 


Class 2 


50 pounds 


Class 1 


1 00 pounds 



(continued) 



TYPE OF MATERIAL 



Water-reactive materials 
Liquids 

Class 3 

Class 2 

Class 1 
Solids 

Class 3 

Class 2 

Class 1 



AMOUNT 



Any Amount 
5 gallons 
55 gallons 

Any Amount 
50 pounds 
500 pounds 



For SI: 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 

a. 20 gallons when Table 5003.1.1(1) Note k applies and hazard 
identification signs in accordance with Section 5003.5 are provided for 
quantities of 20 gallons or less. 

b. 200 pounds when Table 5003.1.1(1) Note k applies and hazard 
identification signs in accordance with Section 5003.5 are provided for 
quantities of 200 pounds or less. 

[A] 105.6.27 LP-gas. An operational permit is required 
for: 

1 . Storage and use of LP-gas. 

Exception: A permit is not required for individual 
containers with a 500-gallon (1893 L) water capacity 
or less or multiple container systems having an aggre- j 
gate quantity not exceeding 500 gallons (1893 L), j 
serving occupancies in Group R-3. 

2. Operation of cargo tankers that transport LP-gas. 
[A] 105.6.28 Magnesium. An operational permit is 
required to melt, cast, heat treat or grind more than 10 
pounds (4.54 kg) of magnesium. 

[A] 105.6.29 Miscellaneous combustible storage. An 
operational permit is required to store in any building or 
upon any premises in excess of 2,500 cubic feet (71 m 3 ) 
gross volume of combustible empty packing cases, boxes, 
barrels or similar containers, rubber tires, rubber, cork or 
similar combustible material. 

[A] 105.630 Open burning. An operational permit is 
required for the kindling or maintaining of an open fire or 
a fire on any public street, alley, road, or other public or 
private ground. Instructions and stipulations of the permit 
shall be adhered to. 

Exception: Recreational fires. 
[A] 105.6.31 Open flames and torches. An operational 
permit is required to remove paint with a torch; or to use a 
torch or open-flame device in a wildfire risk area. 
[A] 105.6.32 Open flames and candles. An operational 
permit is required to use open flames or candles in connec- 
tion with assembly areas, dining areas of restaurants or 
drinking establishments. 

[A] 105.6.33 Organic coatings. An operational permit is 
required for any organic-coating manufacturing operation 
producing more than 1 gallon (4 L) of an organic coating 
in one day. 

[A] 105.6.34 Places of assembly. An operational permit is 
required to operate a place of assembly. 



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[A] 105.6.35 Private fire hydrants. An operational per- 
mit is required for the removal from service, use or opera- 
tion of private fire hydrants. 

Exception: A permit is not required for private indus- 
try with trained maintenance personnel, private fire bri- 
gade or fire departments to maintain, test and use 
private hydrants. 

[A] 105.6.36 Pyrotechnic special effects material. An 
operational permit is required for use and handling of 
pyrotechnic special effects material. 

[A] 105.6.37 Pyroxylin plastics. An operational permit is 
required for storage or handling of more than 25 pounds 
(1 1 kg) of cellulose nitrate (pyroxylin) plastics, and for the 
assembly or manufacture of articles involving pyroxylin 
plastics. 

[A] 105.6.38 Refrigeration equipment. An operational 
permit is required to operate a mechanical refrigeration 
unit or system regulated by Chapter 6. 

[A] 105.6.39 Repair garages and motor fuel-dispensing 
facilities. An operational permit is required for operation 
of repair garages, and automotive, marine and fleet motor 
fuel -dispensing facilities. 

[A] 105.6.40 Rooftop heliports. An operational permit is 
required for the operation of a rooftop heliport. 

[A] 105.6.41 Spraying or dipping. An operational permit 
is required to conduct a spraying or dipping operation uti- 
lizing flammable or combustible liquids, or the application 
of combustible powders regulated by Chapter 24. 

[A] 105.6.42 Storage of scrap tires and tire byproducts. 
An operational permit is required to establish, conduct or 
maintain storage of scrap tires and tire byproducts that 
exceeds 2,500 cubic feet (71 m 3 ) of total volume of scrap 
tires, and for indoor storage of tires and tire byproducts. 

[A] 105.6.43 Temporary membrane structures and 
tents. An operational permit is required to operate an air- 
supported temporary membrane structure or a tent having 
an area in excess of 400 square feet (37 m 2 ). 

Exceptions: 

1 . Tents used exclusively for recreational camping 
purposes. 

2. Tents open on all sides, which comply with all of 
the following: 

2.1. Individual tents having a maximum size 
of 700 square feet (65 m 2 ). 

2.2. The aggregate area of multiple tents 
placed side by side without a fire break 
clearance of not less than 12 feet (3658 
mm) shall not exceed 700 square feet (65 
m 2 ) total. 

2.3. A minimum clearance of 12 feet (3658 
mm) to structures and other tents shall be 
provided. 



[A] 105.6.44 Tire-rebuilding plants. An operational per- 
mit is required for the operation and maintenance of a tire- 
rebuilding plant. 

[A] 105.6.45 Waste handling. An operational permit is 
required for the operation of wrecking yards, junk yards 
and waste material-handling facilities. 

[A] 105.6.46 Wood products. An operational permit is 
required to store chips, hogged material, lumber or ply- 
wood in excess of 200 cubic feet (6 m 3 ). 

[A] 105.7 Required construction permits. The fire code 
official is authorized to issue construction permits for work as 
set forth in Sections 105.7.1 through 105.7.16. 

[A] 105.7.1 Automatic fire-extinguishing systems. A 
construction permit is required for installation of or modi- 
fication to an automatic fire-extinguishing system. Main- 
tenance performed in accordance with this code is not 
considered a modification and does not require a permit. 
[A] 105.7.2 Battery systems. A permit is required to 
install stationary storage battery systems having a liquid 
capacity of more than 50 gallons (189 L). 

[A] 105.7.3 Compressed gases. When the compressed 
gases in use or storage exceed the amounts listed in Table 
105.6.8, a construction permit is required to install, repair 
damage to, abandon, remove, place temporarily out of ser- 
vice, or close or substantially modify a compressed gas 
system. 

Exceptions: 

1. Routine maintenance. 

2. For emergency repair work performed on an 
emergency basis, application for permit shall be 
made within two working days of commence- 
ment of work. 

[A] 105.7.4 Cryogenic fluids. A construction permit is 
required for installation of or alteration to outdoor station- 
ary cryogenic fluid storage systems where the system 
capacity exceeds the amounts listed in Table 105.6.10. 
Maintenance performed in accordance with this code is 
not considered an alteration and does not require a con- 
struction permit. 

[A] 105.7.5 Emergency responder radio coverage sys- 
tem. A construction permit is required for installation of 
or modification to emergency responder radio coverage 
systems and related equipment. Maintenance performed in 
accordance with this code is not considered a modification 
and does not require a permit. 

[A] 105.7.6 Fire alarm and detection systems and 
related equipment. A construction permit is required for 
installation of or modification to fire alarm and detection 
systems and related equipment. Maintenance performed in 
accordance with this code is not considered a modification 
and does not require a permit. 

[A] 105.7.7 Fire pumps and related equipment. A con- 
struction permit is required for installation of or modifica- 



10 



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tion to fire pumps and related fuel tanks, jockey pumps, 
controllers and generators. Maintenance performed in 
accordance with this code is not considered a modification 
and does not require a permit. 

[AJ 105.7.8 Flammable and combustible liquids. A con- 
struction permit is required: 

1. To install, repair or modify a pipeline for the trans- 
portation of flammable or combustible liquids. 

2. To install, construct or alter tank vehicles, equip- 
ment, tanks, plants, terminals, wells, fuel-dispensing 
stations, refineries, distilleries and similar facilities 
where flammable and combustible liquids are pro- 
duced, processed, transported, stored, dispensed or 
used. 

3. To install, alter, remove, abandon or otherwise dis- 
pose of a flammable or combustible liquid tank. 

[A] 105.7.9 Hazardous materials. A construction permit 
is required to install, repair damage to, abandon, remove, 
place temporarily out of service, or close or substantially 
modify a storage facility or other area regulated by Chap- 
ter 50 when the hazardous materials in use or storage 
exceed the amounts listed in Table 105.6.20. 

Exceptions: 

1. Routine maintenance. 

2. For emergency repair work performed on an 
emergency basis, application for permit shall be 
made within two working days of commence- 
ment of work. 

[A] 105.7.10 Industrial ovens. A construction permit is 
required for installation of industrial ovens covered by 
Chapter 30. 

Exceptions: 

1. Routine maintenance. 

2. For repair work performed on an emergency 
basis, application for permit shall be made within 
two working days of commencement of work. 

[A] 105.7.11 LP-gas. A construction permit is required for 
installation of or modification to an LP-gas system. 

[A] 105.7.12 Private fire hydrants. A construction per- 
mit is required for the installation or modification of pri- 
vate fire hydrants. 

[A] 105.7.13 Solar photovoltaic power systems. A con- 
struction permit is required to install or modify solar pho- 
tovoltaic power systems. 

[A] 105.7.14 Spraying or dipping. A construction permit 
is required to install or modify a spray room, dip tank or 
booth. 

[A] 105.7.15 Standpipe systems. A construction permit is 
required for the installation, modification or removal from 
service of a standpipe system. Maintenance performed in 
accordance with this code is not considered a modification 
and does not require a permit. 

[A] 105.7.16 Temporary membrane structures and 
tents. A construction permit is required to erect an air-sup- 



ported temporary membrane structure or a tent having an 
area in excess of 400 square feet (37 nr). 

Exceptions: 

1. Tents used exclusively for recreational camping 
purposes. 

2. Funeral tents and curtains, or extensions attached 
thereto, when used for funeral services. 

3. Tents and awnings open on all sides, which com- 
ply with all of the following: 

3.1. Individual tents shall have a maximum 
size of 700 square feet (65 m 2 ). 

3.2. The aggregate area of multiple tents 
placed side by side without a fire break 
clearance of not less than 12 feet (3658 
mm) shall not exceed 700 square feet (65 
m 2 ) total. 

3.3. A minimum clearance of 12 feet (3658 
mm) to structures and other tents shall be 
maintained. 



SECTION 106 
INSPECTIONS 

[A] 106.1 Inspection authority. The fire code official is 
authorized to enter and examine any building, structure, 
marine vessel, vehicle or premises in accordance with Section 
104.3 for the purpose of enforcing this code. 

[A] 106.2 Inspections. The fire code official is authorized to 
conduct such inspections as are deemed necessary to deter- 
mine the extent of compliance with the provisions of this 
code and to approve reports of inspection by approved agen- 
cies or individuals. All reports of such inspections shall be 
prepared and submitted in writing for review and approval. 
Inspection reports shall be certified by a responsible officer 
of such approved agency or by the responsible individual. 
The fire code official is authorized to engage such expert 
opinion as deemed necessary to report upon unusual, detailed 
or complex technical issues subject to the approval of the 
governing body. 

[AJ 106.2.1 Inspection requests. It shall be the duty of the 
holder of the permit or their duly authorized agent to 
notify the fire code official when work is ready for inspec- 
tion. It shall be the duty of the permit holder to provide 
access to and means for inspections of such work that are 
required by this code. 

[A] 106.2.2 Approval required. Work shall not be done 
beyond the point indicated in each successive inspection 
without first obtaining the approval of the fire code offi- 
cial. The fire code official, upon notification, shall make 
the requested inspections and shall either indicate the por- 
tion of the construction that is satisfactory as completed, 
or notify the permit holder or his or her agent wherein the 
same fails to comply with this code. Any portions that do 
not comply shall be corrected, and such portion shall not 
be covered or concealed until authorized by the fire code 
official. 



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11 



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I A] 106.3 Concealed work. It shall be the duty of the permit 
applicant to cause the work to remain accessible and exposed 
for inspection purposes. Whenever any installation subject to 
inspection prior to use is covered or concealed without hav- 
ing first been inspected, the fire code official shall have the 
authority to require that such work be exposed for inspection. 
Neither the. fire code official nor the jurisdiction shall be lia- 
ble for expense entailed in the removal or replacement of any 
material required to allow inspection. 

f A] 106.4 Approvals. Approval as the result of an inspection 
shall not be construed to be an approval of a violation of the 
provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the jurisdic- 
tion. Inspections presuming to give authority to violate or 
cancel provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the 
jurisdiction shall not be valid. 



SECTION 107 
MAINTENANCE 

[A] 107.1 Maintenance of safeguards. Whenever or wher- 
ever any device, equipment, system, condition, arrangement, 
level of protection, or any other feature is required for com- 
pliance with the provisions of this code, or otherwise 
installed, such device, equipment, system, condition, arrange- 
ment, level of protection, or other feature shall thereafter be 
continuously maintained in accordance with this code and 
applicable referenced standards. 

[A] 107.2 Testing and operation. Equipment requiring peri- 
odic testing or operation to ensure maintenance shall be 
tested or operated as specified in this code. 

[A] 107.2.1 Test and inspection records. Required test 
and inspection records shall be available to the fire code 
official at all times or such records as the fire code official 
designates shall be filed with the fire code official. 

[A] 107.2.2 Reinspection and testing. Where any work or 
installation does not pass an initial test or inspection, the 
necessary corrections shall be made so as to achieve com- 
pliance with this code. The work or installation shall then 
be resubmitted to the fire code official for inspection and 
testing. 

[A] 107.3 Supervision. Maintenance and testing shall be 
under the supervision of a responsible person who shall 
ensure that such maintenance and testing are conducted at 
specified intervals in accordance with this code. 

[A] 107.4 Rendering equipment inoperable. Portable or 
fixed fire-extinguishing systems or devices, and fire-warning 
systems, shall not be rendered inoperative or inaccessible, 
except as necessary during emergencies, maintenance, 
repairs, alterations, drills or prescribed testing. 

[A] 107.5 Overcrowding. Overcrowding or admittance of 
any person beyond the approved capacity of a building or a 
portion thereof shall not be allowed. The fire code official, 
upon finding any overcrowding conditions or obstructions in 
aisles, passageways or other means of egress, or upon finding 
any condition which constitutes a life safety hazard, shall be 
authorized to cause the event to be stopped until such condi- 
tion or obstruction is corrected. 



SECTION 108 
BOARD OF APPEALS 

[A] 108.1 Board of appeals established. In order to hear and 
decide appeals of orders, decisions or determinations made 
by the. fire code official relative to the application and inter- 
pretation of this code, there shall be and is hereby created a 
board of appeals. The board of appeals shall be appointed by 
the governing body and shall hold office at its pleasure. The 
fire code official shall be an ex officio member of said board 
but shall have no vote on any matter before the board. The 
board shall adopt rules of procedure for conducting its busi- 
ness, and shall render all decisions and findings in writing to 
the appellant with a duplicate copy to the fire code official. 

[A] 108.2 Limitations on authority. An application for 
appeal shall be based on a claim that the intent of this code or 
the rules legally adopted hereunder have been incorrectly 
interpreted, the provisions of this code do not fully apply, or 
an equivalent method of protection or safety is proposed. The 
board shall have no authority to waive requirements of this 
code. 

[A] 108.3 Qualifications. The board of appeals shall consist 
of members who are qualified by experience and training to 
pass on matters pertaining to hazards of fire, explosions, haz- 
ardous conditions or fire protection systems, and are not 
employees of the jurisdiction. 



SECTION 109 
VIOLATIONS 

[A] 109.1 Unlawful acts. It shall be unlawful for a person, 
firm or corporation to erect, construct, alter, repair, remove, 
demolish or utilize a building, occupancy, premises or system 
regulated by this code, or cause same to be done, in conflict 
with or in violation of any of the provisions of this code. 

[A] 109.2 Owner/occupant responsibility. Correction and 
abatement of violations of this code shall be the responsibility 
of the owner. If an occupant creates, or allows to be created, 
hazardous conditions in violation of this code, the occupant 
shall be held responsible for the abatement of such hazardous 
conditions. 

[A] 109.3 Notice of violation. When the fire code official 
finds a building, premises, vehicle, storage facility or outdoor 
area that is in violation of this code, the fire code official is 
authorized to prepare a written notice of violation describing 
the conditions deemed unsafe and, when compliance is not 
immediate, specifying a time for reinspection. 

[A] 109.3.1 Service. A notice of violation issued pursuant 
to this code shall be served upon the owner, operator, 
occupant or other person responsible for the condition or 
violation, either by personal service, mail or by delivering 
the same to, and leaving it with, some person of responsi- 
bility upon the premises. For unattended or abandoned 
locations, a copy of such notice of violation shall be 
posted on the premises in a conspicuous place at or near 
the entrance to such premises and the notice of violation 
shall be mailed by certified mail with return receipt 
requested or a certificate of mailing, to the last known 
address of the owner, occupant or both. 



** 



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[A] 109.3.2 Compliance with orders and notices. A 
notice of violation issued or served as provided by this 
code shall be complied with by the owner, operator, occu- 
pant or other person responsible for the condition or viola- 
tion to which the notice of violation pertains. 

[A] 109.3.3 Prosecution of violations. If the notice of 
violation is not complied with promptly, the fire code offi- 
cial is authorized to request the legal counsel of the juris- 
diction to institute the appropriate legal proceedings at law 
or in equity to restrain, correct or abate such violation or to 
require removal or termination of the unlawful occupancy 
of the structure in violation of the provisions of this code 
or of the order or direction made pursuant hereto. 

[A] 109.3.4 Unauthorized tampering. Signs, tags or seals 
posted or affixed by the fire code official shall not be muti- 
lated, destroyed or tampered with, or removed, without 
authorization from the fire code official. 

[A] 109.4 Violation penalties. Persons who shall violate a 
provision of this code or shall fail to comply with any of the 
requirements thereof or who shall erect, install, alter, repair or 
do work in violation of the approved construction documents 
or directive of the fire code official, or of a permit or certifi- 
cate used under provisions of this code, shall be guilty of a 
[SPECIFY OFFENSE], punishable by a fine of not more than 
[AMOUNT] dollars or by imprisonment not exceeding [NUM- 
BER OF DAYS], or both such fine and imprisonment. Each day 
that a violation continues after due notice has been served 
shall be deemed a separate offense. 

[A] 109.4.1 Abatement of violation. In addition to the 
imposition of the penalties herein described, the fire code 
official is authorized to institute appropriate action to pre- 
vent unlawful construction or to restrain, correct or abate a 
violation; or to prevent illegal occupancy of a structure or 
premises; or to stop an illegal act, conduct of business or 
occupancy of a structure on or about any premises. 



SECTION 110 
UNSAFE BUILDINGS 

[A] 110.1 General. If during the inspection of a premises, a 
building or structure, or any building system, in whole or in 
part, constitutes a clear and inimical threat to human life, 
safety or health, the fire code official shall issue such notice 
or orders to remove or remedy the conditions as shall be 
deemed necessary in accordance with this section, and shall 
refer the building to the building department for any repairs, 
alterations, remodeling, removing or demolition required. 

[A] 110.1.1 Unsafe conditions. Structures or existing 
equipment that are or hereafter become unsafe or deficient 
because of inadequate means of egress or which constitute 
a fire hazard, or are otherwise dangerous to human life or 
the public welfare, or which involve illegal or improper 
occupancy or inadequate maintenance, shall be deemed an 
unsafe condition. A vacant structure which is not secured 
against unauthorized entry as required by Section 311 
shall be deemed unsafe. 

[A] 110.1.2 Structural hazards. When an apparent struc- 
tural hazard is caused by the faulty installation, operation 



or malfunction of any of the items or devices governed by 
this code, the fire code official shall immediately notify 
the building code official in accordance with Section 
110.1. 

[A] 1 10.2 Evacuation. The fire code official or the fire 
department official in charge of an incident shall be autho- 
rized to order the immediate evacuation of any occupied 
building deemed unsafe when such building has hazardous 
conditions that present imminent danger to building occu- 
pants. Persons so notified shall immediately leave the struc- 
ture or premises and shall not enter or re-enter until 
authorized to do so by fhe/;><? code official or the fire depart- 
ment official in charge of the incident. 

[A] 110.3 Summary abatement. Where conditions exist that 
are deemed hazardous to life and property, the. fire code offi- 
cial or fire department official in charge of the incident is 
authorized to abate summarily such hazardous conditions that 
are in violation of this code. 

[A] 110.4 Abatement. The owner, operator or occupant of a 
building or premises deemed unsafe by the fire code official 
shall abate or cause to be abated or corrected such unsafe 
conditions either by repair, rehabilitation, demolition or other 
approved corrective action. 



SECTION 111 
STOP WORK ORDER 

[A] 111.1 Order. Whenever the fire code official finds any 
work regulated by this code being performed in a manner 
contrary to the provisions of this code, or in a dangerous or 
unsafe manner, the, fire code official is authorized to issue a 
stop work order. 

[A] 111.2 Issuance. A stop work order shall be in writing and 
shall be given to the owner of the property, or to the owner's 
agent, or to the person doing the work. Upon issuance of a 
stop work order, the cited work shall immediately cease. The 
stop work order shall state the reason for the order, and the 
conditions under which the cited work is authorized to 
resume. 

[A] 111.3 Emergencies. Where an emergency exists, the. fire 
code official shall not be required to give a written notice 
prior to stopping the work. 

[A] 111.4 Failure to comply. Any person who shall continue 
any work after having been served with a stop work order, 
except such work as that person is directed to perform to 
remove a violation or unsafe condition, shall be liable to a 
fine of not less than [AMOUNT] dollars or more than [AMOUNT] 
dollars. 



SECTION 112 
SERVICE UTILITIES 

[A] 112.1 Authority to disconnect service utilities. They're 
code official shall have the authority to authorize disconnec- 
tion of utility service to the building, structure or system in 
order to safely execute emergency operations or to eliminate 
an immediate hazard. The fire code official shall notify the 
serving utility and, whenever possible, the owner and occu- 



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pant of the building, structure or service system of the deci- 
sion to disconnect prior to taking such action if not notified 
prior to disconnection. The owner or occupant of the build- 
ing, structure or service system shall be notified in writing as 
soon as practical thereafter. 



SECTION 113 
FEES 

[A] 113.1 Fees. A permit shall not be issued until the fees 
have been paid, nor shall an amendment to a permit be 
released until the additional fee, if any, has been paid. 

[A] 113.2 Schedule of permit fees. A fee for each permit 
shall be paid as required, in accordance with the schedule as 
established by the applicable governing authority. 

[A] 113.3 Work commencing before permit issuance. Any 
person who commences any work, activity or operation regu- 
lated by this code before obtaining the necessary permits 
shall be subject to an additional fee established by the appli- 
cable governing authority, which shall be in addition to the 
required permit fees. 

[A] 113.4 Related fees. The payment of the fee for the con- 
struction, alteration, removal or demolition of work done in 
connection to or concurrently with the work or activity autho- 
rized by a permit shall not relieve the applicant or holder of 
the permit from the payment of other fees that are prescribed 
by law. 

[A] 113.5 Refunds. The applicable governing authority is 
authorized to establish a refund policy. 



14 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



CHAPTER 2 

DEFINITIONS 



SECTION 201 
GENERAL 

201.1 Scope. Unless otherwise expressly stated, the follow- 
ing words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have 
the meanings shown in this chapter. 

201.2 Interchangeability. Words used in the present tense 
include the future; words stated in the masculine gender 
include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes 
the plural and the plural, the singular. 

201.3 Terms defined in other codes. Where terms are not 
defined in this code and are defined in the International 
Building Code, International Fuel Gas Code, International 
Mechanical Code or International Plumbing Code, such 
terms shall have the meanings ascribed to them as in those 
codes. 

201.4 Terms not defined. Where terms are not defined 
through the methods authorized by this section, such terms 
shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context 
implies. Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, I lth Edi- 
tion, shall be considered as providing ordinarily accepted 
meanings. 



SECTION 202 
GENERAL DEFINITIONS 

[B] 24-HOUR CARE. The actual time that a person is an 
occupant within a facility for the purpose of receiving care. 
It shall not include a facility that is open for 24 hours and is 
capable of providing care to someone visiting the facility dur- 
ing any segment of the 24 hours. 

[B] ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS. A continuous 
and unobstructed way of egress travel from any accessible 
point in a building or facility to a public way. 

[B] ACCESSIBLE ROUTE. A continuous, unobstructed 
path that complies with Chapter 11 of the International 
Building Code. 

AEROSOL. A product that is dispensed from an aerosol con- 
tainer by a propellant. 

Aerosol products shall be classified by means of the calcu- 
lation of their chemical heats of combustion and shall be des- 
ignated Level 1, Level 2 or Level 3. 

Level 1 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical 
heat of combustion that is less than or equal to 8,600 Brit- 
ish thermal units per pound (Btu/lb) (20 kJ/g). 

Level 2 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical 
heat of combustion that is greater than 8,600 Btu/lb (20 
kJ/g), but less than or equal to 13,000 Btu/lb (30 kJ/g). 

Level 3 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical 
heat of combustion that is greater than 13,000 Btu/lb (30 
kJ/g). 



AEROSOL CONTAINER. A metal can, or a glass or plastic 
bottle designed to dispense an aerosol. Metal cans shall be 
limited to a maximum size of 33.8 fluid ounces (1000 ml). 
Glass or plastic bottles shall be limited to a maximum size of 
4 fluid ounces (118 ml). 

AEROSOL WAREHOUSE. A building used for warehous- 
ing aerosol products. 

AGENCY. Any emergency responder department within the 
jurisdiction that utilizes radio frequencies for communica- 
tion. This could include, but not be limited to, various public 
safety agencies such as fire departments, emergency medical 
services and law enforcement. 

AGENT. A person who shall have charge, care or control of 
any structure as owner, or agent of the owner, or as executor, 
executrix, administrator, administratrix, trustee or guardian of 
the estate of the owner. Any such person representing the 
actual owner shall be bound to comply with the provisions of 
this code to the same extent as if that person was the owner. 

[B] AGRICULTURAL BUILDING. A structure designed 
and constructed to house farm implements, hay, grain, poul- 
try, livestock or other horticultural products. This structure 
shall not be a place of human habitation or a place of employ- 
ment where agricultural products are processed, treated or 
packaged, nor shall it be a place used by the public. 

[B] AIR-INFLATED STRUCTURE. A structure that uses 
air-pressurized membrane beams, arches or other elements to 
enclose space. Occupants of such a structure do not occupy 
the pressurized areas used to support the structure. 

[B] AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURE. A structure wherein | 
the shape of the structure is attained by air pressure, and 
occupants of the structure are within the elevated pressure 
area. Air supported structures are of two basic types: 

Double skin. Similar to a single skin, but with an attached 
liner that is separated from the outer skin and provides an 
airspace which serves for insulation, acoustic, aesthetic or 
similar purposes. 

Single skin. Where there is only the single outer skin and 
the air pressure is directly against that skin. 

AIRCRAFT MOTOR-VEHICLE FUEL-DISPENSING 
FACILITY. That portion of property where flammable or 
combustible liquids or gases used as motor fuels are stored 
and dispensed from fixed automotive-type equipment into the 
fuel tanks of aircraft. 

AIRCRAFT OPERATION AREA (AOA). Any area used 
or intended for use for the parking, taxiing, takeoff, landing 
or other ground-based aircraft activity. 

AIRPORT. An area of land or structural surface that is used, 
or intended for use, for the landing and taking off of aircraft 
with an overall length greater than 39 feet (11 887 mm) and 
an overall exterior fuselage width greater than 6.6 feet (2012 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



15 



DEFINITIONS 



mm), and any appurtenant areas that are used or intended for 
use for airport buildings and other airport facilities. 

[B] AISLE. An unenclosed exit access component that 
defines and provides a path of egress travel. 

[B] AISLE ACCESS WAY. That portion of an exit access 
that leads to an aisle. 

ALARM, NUISANCE. See "Nuisance alarm." 

ALARM DEVICE, MULTIPLE STATION. See "Multi- 
ple Station Alarm Device." 

ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A fire alarm 
system component such as a bell, horn, speaker, light or text 
display that provides audible, tactile or visible outputs, or any 
combination thereof. See also "Audible Alarm Notification 
Appliance" or "Visible Alarm Notification Appliance." 

ALARM SIGNAL. A signal indicating an emergency requir- 
ing immediate action, such as a signal indicative of fire. 

ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. A feature of auto- 
matic fire detection and alarm systems to reduce unwanted 
alarms wherein smoke detectors report alarm conditions for a 
minimum period of time, or confirm alarm conditions within 
a given time period, after being automatically reset, in order 
to be accepted as a valid alarm-initiation signal. 

ALCOHOL-BASED HAND RUB. An alcohol-containing 
preparation designed for application to the hands for reducing 
the number of viable microorganisms on the hands and con- 
taining ethanol or isopropanol in an amount not exceeding 
95-percent by volume. 

ALCOHOL-BLENDED FUELS. Flammable liquids con- 
sisting of 10-percent or greater, by volume, ethanol or other 
alcohols blended with gasoline. 

[A] ALTERATION. Any construction or renovation to an 
existing structure other than a repair or addition. 

[B] ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE. A device that has 
a series of steps between 50 and 70 degrees (0.87 and 1.22 
rad) from horizontal, usually attached to a center support rail 
in an alternating manner so that the user does not have both 
feet on the same level at the same time. 

[B] AMBULATORY CARE FACILITY. Buildings or por- 
tions thereof used to provide medical, surgical, psychiatric, 
nursing or similar care on a less-than-24-hour basis to per- 
sons who are rendered incapable of self-preservation by the 
services provided. 

AMMONIUM NITRATE. A chemical compound repre- 
sented by the formula NH 4 N0 3 . 

ANNUNCIATOR. A unit containing one or more indicator 
lamps, alphanumeric displays or other equivalent means in 
which each indication provides status information about a cir- 
cuit, condition or location. 

[A] APPROVED. Acceptable to the fire code official. 

[B] AREA, BUILDING. The area included within surround- 
ing exterior walls (or exterior walls and fire walls) exclusive 
of vent shafts and courts. Areas of the building not provided 
with surrounding walls shall be included in the building area 



if such areas are included within the horizontal projection of 
the roof or floor above. 

[B] AREA OF REFUGE. An area where persons unable to 
use stairways can remain temporarily to await instructions or 
assistance during emergency evacuation. 

ARRAY. The configuration of storage. Characteristics con- 
sidered in defining an array include the type of packaging, 
flue spaces, height of storage and compactness of storage. 

ARRAY, CLOSED. A storage configuration having a 6-inch 
(1 52 mm) or smaller width vertical flue space that restricts air 
movement through the stored commodity. 

[B] ATRIUM. An opening connecting two or more stories 
other than enclosed stairways, elevators, hoistways, escala- 
tors, plumbing, electrical, air-conditioning or other equip- 
ment, which is closed at the top and not defined as a mall. 
Stories, as used in this definition, do not include balconies 
within assembly groups or mezzanines that comply with Sec- 
tion 505 of the International Building Code. 

[B] ATTIC. The space between the ceiling beams of the top 
story and the roof rafters. 

AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A 
notification appliance that alerts by the sense of hearing. 

AUTOMATED RACK STORAGE. Automated rack stor- 
age is a stocking method whereby the movement of pallets, 
products, apparatus or systems are automatically controlled 
by mechanical or electronic devices. 

AUTOMATIC. As applied to fire protection devices, a 
device or system providing an emergency function without 
the necessity for human intervention and activated as a result 
of a predetermined temperature rise, rate of temperature rise 
or combustion products. 

AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. An 
approved system of devices and equipment which automati- 
cally detects a fire and discharges an approved fire-extin- 
guishing agent onto or in the area of a fire. 

AUTOMATIC SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM. A fire 
alarm system that has initiation devices that utilize smoke 
detectors for protection of an area such as a room or space 
with detectors to provide early warning of fire. 

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. An automatic 
sprinkler system, for fire protection purposes, is an integrated 
system of underground and overhead piping designed in 
accordance with fire protection engineering standards. The 
system includes a suitable water supply. The portion of the 
system above the ground is a network of specially sized or 
hydraulically designed piping installed in a structure or area, 
generally overhead, and to which automatic sprinklers are 
connected in a systematic pattern. The system is usually acti- 
vated by heat from a fire and discharges water over the fire 
area. 

AUTOMOTIVE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACIL- 
ITY. That portion of property where flammable or combusti- 
ble liquids or gases used as motor fuels are stored and 
dispensed from fixed equipment into the fuel tanks of motor 
vehicles. 



16 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL. The root mean 
square, A-weighted sound pressure level measured over a 24- 
hour period, or the time any person is present, whichever time 
period is less. 

[B] AWNING. An architectural projection that provides 
| weather protection, identity or decoration and is partially or 

wholly supported by the building to which it is attached. An 
| awning is comprised of a lightweight frame structure over 

which a covering is attached. 

BALED COTTON. See "Cotton." 

BALED COTTON, DENSELY PACKED. See "Cotton." 

BARRICADE. A structure that consists of a combination of 
walls, floor and roof, which is designed to withstand the rapid 
release of energy in an explosion and which is fully confined, 
partially vented or fully vented; or other effective method of 
shielding from explosive materials by a natural or artificial 
barrier. 

Artificial barricade. An artificial mound or revetment 
with a minimum thickness of 3 feet (914 mm). 

Natural barricade. Natural features of the ground, such 
as hills, or timber of sufficient density that the surrounding 
exposures that require protection cannot be seen from the 
magazine or building containing explosives when the trees 
are bare of leaves. 

BARRICADED. The effective screening of a building con- 
taining explosive materials from the magazine or other build- 
ing, railway or highway by a natural or an artificial barrier. A 
straight line from the top of any sidewall of the building con- 
taining explosive materials to the eave line of any magazine 
or other building or to a point 12 feet (3658 mm) above the 
center of a railway or highway shall pass through such bar- 
rier. 

[B] BASEMENT. A story that is not a story above grade 
plane. 

BATTERY SYSTEM, STATIONARY LEAD ACID. A 
system which consists of three interconnected subsystems: 

1. A lead-acid battery. 

2. A battery charger. 

3. A collection of rectifiers, inverters, converters and 
associated electrical equipment as required for a partic- 
ular application. 

BATTERY TYPES. 

Lithium-ion battery. A storage battery that consists of 
lithium ions embedded in a carbon graphite or nickel 
metal-oxide substrate. The electrolyte is a carbonate mix- 
ture or a gelled polymer. The lithium ions are the charge 
carriers of the battery. 

Lithium meta! polymer battery. A storage battery that is 
comprised of nonaqueous liquid or polymerized electro- 
lytes, which provide ionic conductivity between lithiated 
positive active material electrically separated from metal- 
lic lithium or lithiated negative active material. 

Nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd) battery. An alkaline storage 
battery in which the positive active material is nickel 



oxide, the negative contains cadmium and the electrolyte 
is potassium hydroxide. 

Nonrecomhinant battery. A storage battery in which, 
under conditions of normal use, hydrogen and oxygen gas- 
ses created by electrolysis are vented into the air outside of 
the battery. 

Recombinant battery. A storage battery in which, under 
conditions of normal use, hydrogen and oxygen gases cre- 
ated by electrolysis are converted back into water inside 
the battery instead of venting into the air outside of the 
battery. 

Stationary storage battery. A group of electrochemical 
cells interconnected to supply a nominal voltage of DC 
power to a suitably connected electrical load, designed for 
service in a permanent location. The number of cells con- 
nected in a series determines the nominal voltage rating of 
the battery. The size of the cells determines the discharge 
capacity of the entire battery. After discharge, it may be 
restored to a fully charged condition by an electric current 
flowing in a direction opposite to the flow of current when 
the battery is discharged. 

Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery. A lead-acid 
battery consisting of sealed cells furnished with a valve 
that opens to vent the battery whenever the internal pres- 
sure of the battery exceeds the ambient pressure by a set 
amount. In VRLA batteries, the liquid electrolyte in the 
cells is immobilized in an absorptive glass mat (AGM 
cells or batteries) or by the addition of a gelling agent (gel 
cells or gelled batteries). 

Vented (flooded) lead-acid battery. A lead-acid battery 
consisting of cells that have electrodes immersed in liquid 
electrolyte. Flooded lead-acid batteries have a provision 
for the user to add water to the cell and are equipped with 
a flame-arresting vent which permits the escape of hydro- 
gen and oxygen gas from the cell in a diffused manner 
such that a spark, or other ignition source, outside the cell 
will not ignite the gases inside the cell. 

BIN BOX. A five-sided container with the open side facing 
an aisle. Bin boxes are self-supporting or supported by a 
structure designed so that little or no horizontal or vertical 
space exists around the boxes. 

BLAST AREA. The area including the blast site and the 
immediate adjacent area within the influence of flying rock, 
missiles and concussion. 

BLAST SITE. The area in which explosive materials are 
being or have been loaded and which includes all holes 
loaded or to be loaded for the same blast and a distance of 50 
feet (15 240 mm) in all directions. 

BLASTER. A person qualified in accordance with Section 
3301.4 to be in charge of and responsible for the loading and 
firing of a blast. 

BLASTING AGENT. A material or mixture consisting of 
fuel and oxidizer, intended for blasting provided that the fin- 
ished product, as mixed for use or shipment, cannot be deto- 
nated by means of a No. 8 test detonator when unconfined. 
Blasting agents are labeled and placarded as Class 1.5 mate- 
rial by US DOTn. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



17 



DEFINITIONS 



[B] BLEACHERS. Tiered seating supported on a dedicated 
structural system and two or more rows high and is not a 
building element (see "Grandstands"). 

[B] BOARDING HOUSE. A building arranged or used for 
lodging for compensation, with or without meals, and not 
occupied as a single-family unit. 

BOILING POINT. The temperature at which the vapor pres- 
sure of a liquid equals the atmospheric pressure of 14.7 
pounds per square inch absolute (psia) (101 kPa) or 760 mm 
of mercury. Where an accurate boiling point is unavailable 
for the material in question, or for mixtures which do not 
have a constant boiling point, for the purposes of this classifi- 
cation, the 20-percent evaporated point of a distillation per- 
formed in accordance with ASTM D 86 shall be used as the 
boiling point of the liquid. 

BONFIRE. An outdoor fire utilized for ceremonial purposes. 

BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (BTU). The heat necessary to 
raise the temperature of 1 pound (0.454 kg) of water by 1 °F 
(0.5565°C). 

A] BUILDING. Any structure used or intended for support- 
ing or sheltering any use or occupancy. 

B] BUILDING AREA. See "Area, Building." 

B] BUILDING HEIGHT. See "Height, Building." 

A] BUILDING OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated 
authority charged with the administration and enforcement of 
the International Building Code, or a duly authorized repre- 
sentative. 

BULK OXYGEN SYSTEM. An assembly of equipment, 
such as oxygen storage containers, pressure regulators, safety 
devices, vaporizers, manifolds and interconnecting piping, 
that has a storage capacity of more than 20,000 cubic feet 
(566 m 3 ) of oxygen at normal temperature and pressure 
(NTP) including unconnected reserves on hand at the site. 
The bulk oxygen system terminates at the point where oxy- 
gen at service pressure first enters the supply line. The oxy- 
gen containers can be stationary or movable, and the oxygen 
can be stored as a gas or liquid. 

BULK PLANT OR TERMINAL. That portion of a prop- 
erty where flammable or combustible liquids are received by 
tank vessel, pipelines, tank car or tank vehicle and are stored 
or blended in bulk for the purpose of distributing such liquids 
by tank vessel, pipeline, tank car, tank vehicle, portable tank 
or container. 

BULK TRANSFER. The loading or unloading of flammable 
or combustible liquids from or between tank vehicles, tank 
cars or storage tanks. 

BULLET RESISTANT. Constructed so as to resist penetra- 
tion of a bullet of 150-grain M2 ball ammunition having a 
nominal muzzle velocity of 2,700 feet per second (fps) (824 
mps) when fired from a 30-caliber rifle at a distance of 100 
feet (30 480 mm), measured perpendicular to the target. 

CANOPY. A structure or architectural projection of rigid 
construction over which a covering is attached that provides 
weather protection, identity or decoration, and may be struc- 
turally independent or supported by attachment to a building 



on one end and by not less than one stanchion on the outer 
end. 

CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A 
system supplying carbon dioxide (C0 2 ) from a pressurized 
vessel through fixed pipes and nozzles. The system includes a 
manual- or automatic-actuating mechanism. 

[B] CARE SUITE. A group of treatment rooms, care recipi- 
ent sleeping rooms and their associated support rooms or 
spaces and circulation space within Group 1-2 occupancies 
where staff are in attendance for supervision of all care recip- 
ients within the suite, and the suite is in compliance with the 
requirements of Section 1014.2.2 through 1014.2.6. 

CARTON. A cardboard or fiberboard box enclosing a prod- 
uct. 

CEILING LIMIT. The maximum concentration of an air- 
borne contaminant to which one may be exposed. The ceiling 
limits utilized are those published in DOL 29 CFR Part 
1910.1000. The ceiling Recommended Exposure Limit 
(REL-C) concentrations published by the U.S. National Insti- 
tute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Threshold 
Limit Value-Ceiling (TLV-C) concentrations published by 
the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygen- 
ists (ACGIH), Ceiling Workplace Environmental Exposure 
Level (WEEL-Ceiling) Guides published by the American 
Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), and other approved, 
consistent measures are allowed as surrogates for hazardous 
substances not listed in DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1000. 

[EB] CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY. A change in the pur- 
pose or level of activity within a building that involves a 
change in application of the requirements of this code. 

CHEMICAL. An element, chemical compound or mixture 
of elements or compounds or both. 

CHEMICAL NAME. The scientific designation of a chemi- 
cal in accordance with the nomenclature system developed by 
the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, the 
Chemical Abstracts Service rules of nomenclature, or a name 
which will clearly identify a chemical for the purpose of con- 
ducting an evaluation. 

[M] CHIMNEY. A primarily vertical enclosure containing 
one or more passageways for conveying flue gases to the out- 
side atmosphere. 

CLEAN AGENT. Electrically nonconducting, volatile or 
gaseous fire extinguishant that does not leave a residue upon 
evaporation. 

[B] CLINIC-OUTPATIENT. Buildings or portions thereof 
used to provide medical care on a less-than-24-hour basis to 
persons who are not rendered incapable of self-preservation j 
by the services provided. 

CLOSED CONTAINER. A container sealed by means of a 
lid or other device such that liquid, vapor or dusts will not 
escape from it under ordinary conditions of use or handling. 

CLOSED SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous 
material involving a closed vessel or system that remains 
closed during normal operations where vapors emitted by the 
product are not liberated outside of the vessel or system and 
the product is not exposed to the atmosphere during normal 



18 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



operations; and all uses of compressed gases. Examples of 
closed systems for solids and liquids include product con- 
veyed through a piping system into a closed vessel, system or 
piece of equipment. 

COLD DECK. A pile of unfinished cut logs. 

COMBUSTIBLE DUST. Finely divided solid material 
which is 420 microns or less in diameter and which, when 
dispersed in air in the proper proportions, could be ignited by 
a flame, spark or other source of ignition. Combustible dust 
will pass through a U.S. No. 40 standard sieve. 

COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS. Readily ignitable and free-burn- 
ing materials in a fibrous or shredded form, such as cocoa 
fiber, cloth, cotton, excelsior, hay, hemp, henequen, istle, 
jute, kapok, oakum, rags, sisal, Spanish moss, straw, tow, 
wastepaper, certain synthetic fibers or other like materials. 
This definition does not include densely packed baled cotton. 

COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. A liquid having a closed cup 
flash point at or above 100°F (38°C). Combustible liquids 
shall be subdivided as follows: 

Class II. Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or 
above 100°F (38°C) and below MOT (60°C). 

Class IIIA. Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or 
above 140°F (60°C) and below 200°F (93 °C). 

Class MB. Liquids having closed cup flash points at or 
above 200°F (93°C). 

The category of combustible liquids does not include com- 
pressed gases or cryogenic fluids. 

[M] COMMERCIAL COOKING APPLIANCES. Appli- 
ances used in a commercial food service establishment for 
heating or cooking food and which produce grease vapors, 
steam, fumes, smoke or odors that are required to be removed 
through a local exhaust ventilation system. Such appliances 
include deep fat fryers, upright broilers, griddles, broilers, 
steam-jacketed kettles, hot-top ranges, under-fired broilers 
(charbroilers), ovens, barbecues, rotisseries, and similar 
appliances. For the purpose of this definition, a food service 
establishment shall include any building or a portion thereof 
used for the preparation and serving of food. 

COMMODITY. A combination of products, packing materi- 
als and containers. 

[B] COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL. That por- 
tion of exit access which the occupants are required to tra- 
verse before two separate and distinct paths of egress travel to 
two exits are available. Paths that merge are common paths of 
travel. Common paths of egress travel shall be included 
within the permitted travel distance. 

COMPRESSED GAS. A material, or mixture of materials 
which: 

1. Is a gas at 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) of 
pressure; and 

2. Has a boiling point of 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 psia 
(101 kPa) which is either liquefied, nonliquefied or in 
solution, except those gases which have no other 
health- or physical-hazard properties are not considered 



to be compressed until the pressure in the packaging 
exceeds 41 psia (28 kPa) at 68°F (20°C). 

The states of a compressed gas are categorized as follows: 

1 . Nonliquefied compressed gases are gases, other than 
those in solution, which are in a packaging under the 
charged pressure and are entirely gaseous at a tem- 
perature of 68°F (20°C). 

2. Liquefied compressed gases are gases that, in a 
packaging under the charged pressure, are partially 
liquid at a temperature of 68°F (20°C). 

3. Compressed gases in solution are nonliquefied gases 
that are dissolved in a solvent. 

4. Compressed gas mixtures consist of a mixture of 
two or more compressed gases contained in a pack- 
aging, the hazard properties of which are repre- 
sented by the properties of the mixture as a whole. 

COMPRESSED GAS CONTAINER. A pressure vessel 
designed to hold compressed gases at pressures greater than 
one atmosphere at 68°F (20°C) and includes cylinders, con- 
tainers and tanks. 

COMPRESSED GAS SYSTEM. An assembly of equip- 
ment designed to contain, distribute or transport compressed 
gases. It can consist of a compressed gas container or con- 
tainers, reactors and appurtenances, including pumps, com- 
pressors and connecting piping and tubing. 

[B] CONGREGATE LIVING FACILITIES. A building or 
part thereof that contains sleeping units where residents share 
bathroom and/or kitchen facilities. 

CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. A designated 
location at a facility staffed by trained personnel on a contin- 
uous basis where alarm or supervisory signals are monitored 
and facilities are provided for notification of the fire depart- 
ment or other emergency services. 

[A] CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. The written, 
graphic and pictorial documents prepared or assembled for 
describing the design, location and physical characteristics of 
the elements of the project necessary for obtaining a permit. 

CONTAINER. A vessel of 60 gallons (227 L) or less in 
capacity used for transporting or storing hazardous materials. 
Pipes, piping systems, engines and engine fuel tanks are not 
considered to be containers. 

CONTAINMENT SYSTEM. A gas-tight recovery system 
comprised of equipment or devices which can be placed over 
a leak in a compressed gas container, thereby stopping or 
controlling the escape of gas from the leaking container. 

CONTAINMENT VESSEL. A gas-tight recovery vessel 
designed so that a leaking compressed gas container can be 
placed within its confines thereby encapsulating the leaking 
container. 

CONTINUOUS GAS DETECTION SYSTEM. A gas 
detection system where the analytical instrument is main- 
tained in continuous operation and sampling is performed 
without interruption. Analysis is allowed to be performed on 
a cyclical basis at intervals not to exceed 30 minutes. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



19 



DEFINITIONS 



CONTROL AREA. Spaces within a building where quanti- 
ties of hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum 
allowable quantities per control area are stored, dispensed, 
used or handled. See also the definition of "Outdoor control 
area." 

[B] CORRIDOR. An enclosed exit access component that 
| defines and provides a path of egress travel. 

CORROSIVE. A chemical that causes visible destruction of, 
or irreversible alterations in, living tissue by chemical action 
at the point of contact. A chemical shall be considered corro- 
sive if, when tested on the intact skin of albino rabbits by the 
method described in DOTn 49 CFR 173.137, such chemical 
destroys or changes irreversibly the structure of the tissue at 
the point of contact following an exposure period of 4 hours. 
This term does not refer to action on inanimate surfaces. 

COTTON. 

Baled cotton. A natural seed fiber wrapped in and secured 
with industry-accepted materials, usually consisting of 
burlap, woven polypropylene, polyethylene or cotton or 
sheet polyethylene, and secured with steel, synthetic or 
wire bands, or wire; also includes linters (lint removed 
from the cottonseed) and motes (residual materials from 
the ginning process). 

Baled cotton, densely packed. Cotton, made into banded 
bales, with a packing density of at least 22 pounds per 
cubic foot (360 kg/m 3 ), and dimensions complying with 
the following: a length of 55 inches (1397 mm), a width of 
21 inches (533.4 mm) and a height of 27.6 to 35.4 inches 
(701 to 899 mm). 

Seed cotton. Perishable raw agricultural commodity con- 
sisting of cotton fiber (lint) attached to the seed of the cot- 
ton plant, which requires ginning to become a commercial 
product. 

[B] COURT. An open, uncovered space, unobstructed to the 
sky, bounded on three or more sides by exterior building 
walls or other enclosing devices. 

[B] COVERED MALL BUILDING. A single building 
enclosing a number of tenants and occupants such as retail 
stores, drinking and dining establishments, entertainment and 
amusement facilities, passenger transportation terminals, 
offices, and other similar uses wherein two or more tenants 
have a main entrance into one or more malls. Anchor build- 
ings shall not be considered as a part of the covered mall 
building. The term "covered mall building" shall include 
open mall buildings as defined below. 

Mall. A roofed or covered common pedestrian area within 
a covered mall building that serves as access for two or 
more tenants and not to exceed three levels that are open 
to each other. The term "mall" shall include open malls as 
defined below. 

Open mall. An unroofed common pedestrian way serving 
a number of tenants not exceeding three levels. Circulation 
at levels above grade shall be permitted to include open 
exterior balconies leading to exits discharging at grade. 

Open mall building. Several structures housing a number 
of tenants such as retail stores, drinking and dining estab- 



lishments, entertainment and amusement facilities, offices, 
and other similar uses wherein two or more tenants have a 
main entrance into one or more open malls. Anchor build- 
ings are not considered as a part of the open mall building. 

CRYOGENIC CONTAINER. A cryogenic vessel of any 
size used for the transportation, handling or storage of cryo- 
genic fluids. 

CRYOGENIC FLUID. A fluid having a boiling point lower 
than -130°F (-89.9°C) at 14.7 pounds per square inch atmo- 
sphere (psia) (an absolute pressure of 101.3 kPa). 

CRYOGENIC VESSEL. A pressure vessel, low-pressure 
tank or atmospheric tank designed to contain a cryogenic 
fluid on which venting, insulation, refrigeration or a combina- 
tion of these is used in order to maintain the operating pres- 
sure within the design pressure and the contents in a liquid 
phase. 

[B] CUSTODIAL CARE. Assistance with day-to-day living 
tasks, such as assistance with cooking, taking medication, 
bathing, using toilet facilities and other tasks of daily living. 
Custodial care includes persons receiving care who evacuate 
at a slower rate and/or who have mental and psychiatric com- 
plications. 

CYLINDER. A pressure vessel designed for pressures 
higher than 40 psia (275.6 kPa) and having a circular cross 
section. It does not include a portable tank, multi-unit tank 
car tank, cargo tank or tank car. 

[B] DAMPER. See "Fire damper" and "Smoke damper." 

DAY BOX. A portable magazine designed to hold explosive 
materials and constructed in accordance with the require- 
ments for a Type 3 magazine as defined and classified in 
Chapter 56. 

DECORATIVE MATERIALS. All materials applied over 
the building interior finish for decorative, acoustical or other 
effect (such as curtains, draperies, fabrics, streamers and sur- 
face coverings) and all other materials utilized for decorative 
effect (such as batting, cloth, cotton, hay, stalks, straw, vines, 
leaves, trees, moss and similar items), including foam plastics 
and materials containing foam plastics. Decorative materials 
do not include floor coverings, ordinary window shades, inte- 
rior finish and materials 0.025 inch (0.64 mm) or less in 
thickness applied directly to and adhering tightly to a sub- 
strate. 

DEFLAGRATION. An exothermic reaction, such as the 
extremely rapid oxidation of a flammable dust or vapor in air, 
in which the reaction progresses through the unburned mate- 
rial at a rate less than the velocity of sound. A deflagration 
can have an explosive effect. 

DELUGE SYSTEM. A sprinkler system employing open 
sprinklers attached to a piping system connected to a water 
supply through a valve that is opened by the operation of a 
detection system installed in the same area as the sprinklers. 
When this valve opens, water flows into the piping system 
and discharges from all sprinklers attached thereto. 

DESIGN PRESSURE. The maximum gauge pressure that a 
pressure vessel, device, component or system is designed to 



20 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



withstand safely under the temperature and conditions of use 

expected. 

DETACHED BUILDING. A separate single-story building, 
without a basement or crawl space, used for the storage or use 
of hazardous materials and located an approved distance 
from all structures. 

DETEARING. A process for rapidly removing excess wet 
coating material from a dipped or coated object or material by 
passing it through an electrostatic field. 

DETECTOR, HEAT. A fire detector that senses heat, either 
abnormally high temperature or rate of rise, or both. 

DETONATING CORD. A flexible cord containing a center 
core of high explosive used to initiate other explosives. 

DETONATION. An exothermic reaction characterized by 
the presence of a shock wave in the material which estab- 
lishes and maintains the reaction. The reaction zone pro- 
gresses through the material at a rate greater than the velocity 
of sound. The principal heating mechanism is one of shock 
compression. Detonations have an explosive effect. 

DETONATOR. A device containing any initiating or pri- 
mary explosive that is used for initiating detonation. A deto- 
nator shall not contain more than 154.32 grains (10 grams) of 
total explosives by weight, excluding ignition or delay 
charges. The term includes, but is not limited to, electric 
blasting caps of instantaneous and delay types, blasting caps 
for use with safety fuses, detonating cord delay connectors, 
and noninstantaneous and delay blasting caps which use deto- 
nating cord, shock tube or any other replacement for electric 
leg wires. All types of detonators in strengths through No. 8 
cap should be rated at 1 7 2 pounds (0.68 kg) of explosives per 
1,000 caps. For strengths higher than No. 8 cap, consult the 
manufacturer. 

I[B] DETOXIFICATION FACILITIES. Facilities that pro- 
vide treatment for substance abuse serving care recipients 
who are incapable of self-preservation or who are harmful to 
themselves or others. 

DIP TANK. A tank, vat or container of flammable or com- 
bustible liquid in which articles or materials are immersed for 
the purpose of coating, finishing, treating and similar pro- 
cesses. 

DISCHARGE SITE. The immediate area surrounding the 
fireworks mortars used for an outdoor fireworks display. 

DISPENSING. The pouring or transferring of any material 
from a container, tank or similar vessel, whereby vapors, 
dusts, fumes, mists or gases are liberated to the atmosphere. 

DISPENSING DEVICE, OVERHEAD TYPE. A dispens- 
ing device that consists of one or more individual units 
intended for installation in conjunction with each other, 
mounted above a dispensing area typically within the motor 
fuel-dispensing facility canopy structure, and characterized 
by the use of an overhead hose reel. 

DISPLAY SITE. The immediate area where a fireworks dis- 
play is conducted. The display area includes the discharge 
site, the fallout area and the required separation distance from 
the mortars to spectator viewing areas. The display area does 
not include spectator viewing areas or vehicle parking areas. 



[B] DOOR, BALANCED. A door equipped with double- 
pivoted hardware so designed as to cause a semicounter bal- 
anced swing action when opening. 

[B] DORMITORY. A space in a building where group 
sleeping accommodations are provided in one room, or in a 
series of closely associated rooms, for persons not members 
of the same family group, under joint occupancy and single 
management, as in college dormitories or fraternity houses. 

DRAFT CURTAIN. A structure arranged to limit the spread 
of smoke and heat along the underside of the ceiling or roof. 

[B] DRAFTSTOP. A material, device or construction 
installed to restrict the movement of air within open spaces of 
concealed areas of building components such as crawl spaces, 
floor/ceiling assemblies, roof/ceiling assemblies and attics. 

DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. A pow- 
der composed of small particles, usually of sodium bicarbon- 
ate, potassium bicarbonate, urea-potassium-based bicarbon- 
ate, potassium chloride or monoammomum phosphate, with 
added particulate material supplemented by special treatment 
to provide resistance to packing, resistance to moisture 
absorption (caking) and the proper flow capabilities. 

DRY CLEANING. The process of removing dirt, grease, 
paints and other stains from such items as wearing apparel, 
textiles, fabrics and rugs by use of nonaqueous liquids (sol- 
vents). 

DRY CLEANING PLANT. A facility in which dry cleaning 
and associated operations are conducted, including the office, 
receiving area and storage rooms. 

DRY CLEANING ROOM. An occupiable space within a 
building used for performing dry cleaning operations, the 
installation of solvent-handling equipment or the storage of 
dry cleaning solvents. 

DRY CLEANING SYSTEM. Machinery or equipment in 
which textiles are immersed or agitated in solvent or in which 
dry cleaning solvent is extracted from textiles. 

[B] DWELLING. A building that contains one or two dwell- 
ing units used, intended or designed to be used, rented, 
leased, let or hired out to be occupied for living purposes. 

[B] DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete, 
independent living facilities for one or more persons, includ- 
ing permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking 
and sanitation. 

EARLY SUPPRESSION FAST-RESPONSE (ESFR) 
SPRINKLER. A sprinkler listed for early suppression fast- 
response performance. 

[B] EGRESS COURT. A court or yard which provides 
access to a public way for one or more exits. 

ELECTROSTATIC FLUIDIZED BED. A container hold- 
ing powder coating material that is aerated from below so as 
to form an air-supported expanded cloud of such material that 
is electrically charged with a charge opposite to that of the 
object to be coated. Such object is transported through the 
container immediately above the charged and aerated materi- 
als in order to be coated. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE 8 



21 



DEFINITIONS 



ELEVATOR GROUP. A grouping of elevators in a building 
located adjacent or directly across from one another that 
respond to a common hall call button(s). 

EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. A system to provide 
indication and warning of emergency situations involving 
hazardous materials. 

EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. An approved loca- 
tion on the premises where signals from emergency equip- 
ment are received and which is staffed by trained personnel. 

[B] EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. 
An operable window, door or other similar device that pro- 
vides for a means of escape and access for rescue in the event 
of an emergency. 

EMERGENCY EVACUATION DRILL. An exercise per- 
formed to train staff and occupants and to evaluate their effi- 
ciency and effectiveness in carrying out emergency 
evacuation procedures. 

EMERGENCY SHUTOFF VALVE. A valve designed to 
shut off the flow of gases or liquids. 

EMERGENCY SHUTOFF VALVE, AUTOMATIC. A 
fail-safe automatic-closing valve designed to shut off the 
flow of gases or liquids initiated by a control system that is 
activated by automatic means. 

EMERGENCY SHUTOFF VALVE, MANUAL. A manu- 
ally operated valve designed to shut off the flow of gases or 
liquids. 

EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICATIONS. 
Dedicated manual or automatic facilities for originating and 
distributing voice instructions, as well as alert and evacuation 
signals pertaining to a fire emergency, to the occupants of a 
building. 

[B] EQUIPMENT PLATFORM. An unoccupied, elevated 
platform used exclusively for mechanical systems or indus- 
trial process equipment, including the associated elevated 
walkways, stairs, alternating tread devices and ladders neces- 
sary to access the platform (see Section 505.5 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code). 

EXCESS FLOW CONTROL. A fail-safe system or other 
approved means designed to shut off flow caused by a rup- 
ture in pressurized piping systems. 

EXCESS FLOW VALVE. A valve inserted into a com- 
pressed gas cylinder, portable tank or stationary tank that is 
designed to positively shut off the flow of gas in the event 
that its predetermined flow is exceeded. 

EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. An appliance or piece of 
equipment which consists of a top, a back and two sides pro- 
viding a means of local exhaust for capturing gases, fumes, 
vapors and mists. Such enclosures include laboratory hoods, 
exhaust fume hoods and similar appliances and equipment 
used to retain and exhaust locally the gases, fumes, vapors 
and mists that could be released. Rooms or areas provided 
with general ventilation, in themselves, are not exhausted 
enclosures. 

EXISTING. Buildings, facilities or conditions that are 
already in existence, constructed or officially authorized prior 
to the adoption of this code. 



[B] EXIT. That portion of a means of egress system between 
the exit access and the exit discharge or public way. Exit 
components include exterior exit doors at the level of exit dis- 
charge, interior exit stairways, interior exit ramps, exit pas- 
sageways, exterior exit stairways and exterior exit ramps and 
horizontal exits. 

[B] EXIT ACCESS. That portion of a means of egress sys- 
tem that leads from any occupied portion of a building or 
structure to an exit. 

[B] EXIT ACCESS DOORWAY. A door or access point 
along the path of egress travel from an occupied room, area or 
space where the path of egress enters an intervening room, 
corridor, exit access stair or exit access ramp. 

[B] EXIT ACCESS RAMP. An interior ramp that is not a 
required interior exit ramp. 

[B] EXIT ACCESS STAIRWAY. An interior stairway that 
is not a required interior exit stairway. 

[B] EXIT DISCHARGE. That portion of a means of egress 
system between the termination of an exit and a public way. 

[B] EXIT DISCHARGE, LEVEL OF. The story at the 
point at which an exit terminates and an exit discharge 
begins. 

[B] EXIT, HORIZONTAL. A path of egress travel from 
one building to an area in another building on approximately 
the same level, or a path of egress travel through or around a 
wall or partition to an area on approximately the same level in 
the same building, which affords safety from fire and smoke 
from the area of incidence and areas communicating there- 
with. 

[B] EXIT PASSAGEWAY. An exit component that is sepa- 
rated from other interior spaces of a building or structure by 
fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives, 
and provides for a protected path of egress travel in a hori- 
zontal direction to the exit discharge. | 

EXPANDED PLASTIC. A foam or cellular plastic material 
having a reduced density based on the presence of numerous 
small cavities or cells dispersed throughout the material. 

EXPLOSION. An effect produced by the sudden violent 
expansion of gases, which may be accompanied by a shock 
wave or disruption, or both, of enclosing materials or struc- 
tures. An explosion could result from any of the following: 

1. Chemical changes such as rapid oxidation, deflagration 
or detonation, decomposition of molecules and run- 
away polymerization (usually detonations). 

2. Physical changes such as pressure tank ruptures. 

3. Atomic changes (nuclear fission or fusion). 

EXPLOSIVE. A chemical compound, mixture or device, the 
primary or common purpose of which is to function by explo- 
sion. The term includes, but is not limited to, dynamite, black 
powder, pellet powder, initiating explosives, detonators, 
safety fuses, squibs, detonating cord, igniter cord, igniters 
and display fireworks, 1.3G. 

The term "Explosive" includes any material determined to 
be within the scope of USC Title 18: Chapter 40 and also 
includes any material classified as an explosive other than 



22 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



consumer fireworks, 1 .4G by the hazardous materials regula- 
tions of DOTn 49 CFR Parts 1 00- 1 85 . 

High explosive. Explosive material, such as dynamite, 
which can be caused to detonate by means of a No. 8 test 
blasting cap when unconfined. 

Low explosive. Explosive material that will burn or defla- 
grate when ignited. It is characterized by a rate of reaction 
that is less than the speed of sound. Examples of low 
explosives include, but are not limited to, black powder, 
safety fuse, igniters, igniter cord, fuse lighters, fireworks, 
1.3G and propellants, 1.3C. 

Mass-detonating explosives. Division 1.1, 1.2 and 1.5 
explosives alone or in combination, or loaded into various 
types of ammunition or containers, most of which can be 
expected to explode virtually instantaneously when a 
small portion is subjected to fire, severe concussion, 
impact, the impulse of an initiating agent or the effect of a 
considerable discharge of energy from without. Materials 
that react in this manner represent a mass explosion haz- 
ard. Such an explosive will normally cause severe struc- 
tural damage to adjacent objects. Explosive propagation 
could occur immediately to other items of ammunition and 
explosives stored sufficiently close to and not adequately 
protected from the initially exploding pile with a time 
interval short enough so that two or more quantities must 
be considered as one for quantity-distance purposes. 

UN/DOTn Class 1 explosives. The former classification 
system used by DOTn included the terms "high" and 
"low" explosives as defined herein. The following terms 
further define explosives under the current system applied 
by DOTn for all explosive materials defined as hazard 
Class 1 materials. Compatibility group letters are used in 
concert with the Division to specify further limitations on 
each division noted (i.e., the letter G identifies the material 
as a pyrotechnic substance or article containing a pyro- 
technic substance and similar materials). 

Division 1.1. Explosives that have a mass explosion 
hazard. A mass explosion is one which affects almost 
the entire load instantaneously. 

Division 1.2. Explosives that have a projection hazard 
but not a mass explosion hazard. 

Division 1.3. Explosives that have a fire hazard and 
either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard 
or both, but not a mass explosion hazard. 

Division 1.4. Explosives that pose a minor explosion 
hazard. The explosive effects are largely confined to 
the package and no projection of fragments of apprecia- 
ble size or range is to be expected. An external fire 
must not cause virtually instantaneous explosion of 
almost the entire contents of the package. 

Division 1.5. Very insensitive explosives. This division 
is comprised of substances that have a mass explosion 
hazard but which are so insensitive that there is very lit- 
tle probability of initiation or of transition from burning 
to detonation under normal conditions of transport. 

Division 1.6. Extremely insensitive articles which do 
not have a mass explosion hazard. This division is com- 



prised of articles that contain only extremely insensi- 
tive detonating substances and which demonstrate a 
negligible probability of accidental initiation or propa- 
gation. 

EXPLOSIVE MATERIAL. The term "explosive" material 
means explosives, blasting agents and detonators. 

[B] EXTERIOR WALL. A wall, bearing or nonbearing, that 
is used as an enclosing wall for a building, other than afire 
wall, and that has a slope of 60 degrees (1.05 rad) or greater 
with the horizontal plane. 

EXTRA-HIGH-RACK COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE. 
Storage on racks of Class I, II, III or IV commodities which 
exceed 40 feet (12 192 mm) in height and storage on racks of 
high-hazard commodities which exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) in 
height. 

FABRICATION AREA. An area within a semiconductor 
fabrication facility and related research and development 
areas in which there are processes using hazardous produc- 
tion materials. Such areas are allowed to include ancillary 
rooms or areas such as dressing rooms and offices that are 
directly related to the fabrication area processes. 

FACILITY. A building or use in a fixed location including 
exterior storage areas for flammable and combustible sub- 
stances and hazardous materials, piers, wharves, tank farms 
and similar uses. This term includes recreational vehicles, 
mobile home and manufactured housing parks, sales and stor- 
age lots. 

FAIL-SAFE. A design condition incorporating a feature for 
automatically counteracting the effect of an anticipated possi- 
ble source of failure; also, a design condition eliminating or 
mitigating a hazardous condition by compensating automati- 
cally for a failure or malfunction. 

FALLOUT AREA. The area over which aerial shells are 
fired. The shells burst over the area, and unsafe debris and 
malfunctioning aerial shells fall into this area. The fallout 
area is the location where a typical aerial shell dud falls to the 
ground depending on the wind and the angle of mortar place- 
ment. 

FALSE ALARM. The willful and knowing initiation or 
transmission of a signal, message or other notification of an 
event of fire when no such danger exists. 

FINES. Small pieces or splinters of wood byproducts that 
will pass through a 0.25-inch (6.4 mm) screen. 

FIRE ALARM. The giving, signaling or transmission to any 
public fire station, or company or to any officer or employee 
thereof, whether by telephone, spoken word or otherwise, of 
information to the effect that there is a fire at or near the place 
indicated by the person giving, signaling or transmitting such 
information. 

FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. See "Manual fire alarm 
box." 

FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. A system component 
that receives inputs from automatic and manual fire alarm 
devices and may be capable of supplying power to detection 
devices and transponder(s) or off-premises transmitter(s). 
The control unit may be capable of providing a transfer of 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



23 



DEFINITIONS 



power to the notification appliances and transfer of condition 
to relays or devices. 

FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. A signal initiated by a fire alarm- 
initiating device such as a manual fire alarm box, automatic 
fire detector, waterflow switch or other device whose activa- 
tion is indicative of the presence of a fire or fire signature. 

FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. A system or portion of a combi- 
nation system consisting of components and circuits arranged 
to monitor and annunciate the status of fire alarm or supervi- 
sory signal-initiating devices and to initiate the appropriate 
response to those signals. 

FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROAD. A road that provides 
fire apparatus access from a fire station to a facility, building 
or portion thereof. This is a general term inclusive of all other 
terms such as fire lane, public street, private street, parking 
lot lane and access roadway. 

[B] FIRE AREA. The aggregate floor area enclosed and 
bounded by fire walls, fire barriers, exterior walls or hori- 
zontal assemblies of a building. Areas of the building not pro- 
vided with surrounding walls shall be included in the fire area 
if such areas are included within the horizontal projection of 
the roof or floor next above. 

[B] FIRE BARRIER. A fire-resistance-rated wall assembly 
of materials designed to restrict the spread of fire in which 
continuity is maintained. 

FIRE CHIEF. The chief officer of the fire department serv- 
ing the jurisdiction, or a duly authorized representative. 

FIRE CODE OFFICIAL. The fire chief or other designated 
authority charged with the administration and enforcement of 
the code, or a duly authorized representative. 

FIRE COMMAND CENTER. The principal attended or 
unattended location where the status of detection, alarm com- 
munications and control systems is displayed, and from 
which the system(s) can be manually controlled. 

[B] FIRE DAMPER. A listed device installed in ducts and 
air transfer openings designed to close automatically upon 
detection of heat and resist the passage of flame. Fire damp- 
ers are classified for use in either static systems that will auto- 
matically shut down in the event of a fire, or in dynamic 
systems that continue to operate during afire. A dynamic fire 
damper is tested and rated for closure under elevated temper- 
ature airflow. 

FIRE DEPARTMENT MASTER KEY. A limited issue 
key of special or controlled design to be carried by fire 
department officials in command which will open key boxes 
on specified properties. 

FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. A device designed to 
detect the presence of a fire signature and to initiate action. 

[B] FIRE DOOR. The door component of a fire door assem- 
bly. 

[B] FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. Any combination of a fire 
door, frame, hardware and other accessories that together 
provide a specific degree of fire protection to the opening. 

[B] FIRE EXIT HARDWARE. Panic hardware that is listed 
for use on fire door assemblies. 



FIRE LANE. A road or other passageway developed to 
allow the passage of fire apparatus. A fire lane is not neces- 
sarily intended for vehicular traffic other than fire apparatus. 

[B] FIRE PARTITION. A vertical assembly of materials 
designed to restrict the spread of fire in which openings are 
protected. 

FIRE POINT. The lowest temperature at which a liquid will 
ignite and achieve sustained burning when exposed to a test 
flame in accordance with ASTM D 92. 

[B] FIRE PROTECTION RATING. The period of time 
that an opening protective assembly will maintain the ability 
to confine a fire as determined by tests prescribed in Section 
716 of the International Building Code. Ratings are stated in 
hours or minutes. 

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. Approved devices, equip- 
ment and systems or combinations of systems used to detect a 
fire, activate an alarm, extinguish or control a fire, control or 
manage smoke and products of a fire or any combination 
thereof. 

[B] FIRE RESISTANCE. That property of materials or their 
assemblies that prevents or retards the passage of excessive 
heat, hot gases or flames under conditions of use. 

[B] FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING. The period of time a 
building element, component or assembly maintains the abil- 
ity to confine a fire, continues to perform a given structural 
function, or both, as determined by the tests, or the methods 
based on tests, prescribed in Section 703 of the International 
Building Code. 

[B] FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEM. An assemblage 
of specific materials or products that are designed, tested and 
fire-resistance rated in accordance with either ASTM E 1966 
or UL 2079 to resist for a prescribed period of time the pas- 
sage of fire through joints made in or between fire-resistance- 
rated assemblies. 

FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS. Building and fire control 
functions that are intended to increase the level of life safety 
for occupants or to control the spread of the harmful effects 
of fire. 

[B] FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE. The distance mea- 
sured from the building face to one of the following: 

1. The closest interior lot line; 

2. To the centerline of a street, an alley or public way; or 

3. To an imaginary line between two buildings on the 
property. 

The distance shall be measured at right angles from the 
face of the wall. 

[B] FIRE WALL. A fire-resistance-rated wall having pro- 
tected openings, which restricts the spread of fire and extends 
continuously from the foundation to or through the roof, with 
sufficient structural stability under fire conditions to allow 
collapse of construction on either side without collapse of the 
wall. 

FIRE WATCH. A temporary measure intended to ensure 
continuous and systematic surveillance of a building or por- 
tion thereof by one or more qualified individuals for the pur- 



24 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



poses of identifying and controlling fire hazards, detecting 
early signs of unwanted fire, raising an alarm of fire and noti- 
fying the fire department. 

[B] FIREBLOCKING. Building materials, or materials 
approved for use as fireblocking, installed to resist the free 
passage of flame to other areas of the building through con- 
cealed spaces. 

FIREWORKS. Any composition or device for the purpose 
of producing a visible or an audible effect for entertainment 
purposes by combustion, deflagration or detonation that 
meets the definition of 1.4G fireworks or 1.3G fireworks as 
set forth herein. 

Fireworks, 1.4G. Small fireworks devices containing 
restricted amounts of pyrotechnic composition designed 
primarily to produce visible or audible effects by combus- 
tion. Such 1.4G fireworks which comply with the con- 
struction, chemical composition and labeling regulations 
of the DOTn for Fireworks, UN 0336, and the U.S. Con- 
sumer Product Safety Commission as set forth in CPSC 1 6 
CFR Parts 1500 and 1507, are not explosive materials for 
the purpose of this code. 

Fireworks, 1.3G. Large fireworks devices, which are 
explosive materials, intended for use in fireworks displays 
and designed to produce audible or visible effects by com- 
bustion, deflagration or detonation. Such 1.3G fireworks 
include, but are not limited to, firecrackers containing 
more than 130 milligrams (2 grains) of explosive composi- 
tion, aerial shells containing more than 40 grams of pyro- 
technic composition and other display pieces which 
exceed the limits for classification as 1 .4G fireworks. Such 
1.3G fireworks are also described as Fireworks, UN 0335 
by the DOTn. 

FIREWORKS DISPLAY. A presentation of fireworks for a 
public or private gathering. 

[B] FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO). A commercial 
business granted the right by the airport sponsor to operate on 
an airport and provide aeronautical services such as fueling, 
hangaring, tie-down and parking, aircraft rental, aircraft 
maintenance and flight instruction. 

[B] FIXED SEATING. Furniture or fixtures designed and 
installed for the use of sitting and secured in place including 
bench-type seats and seats with or without back or arm rests. 

[B] FLAME SPREAD. The propagation of flame over a sur- 
face. 

[B] FLAME SPREAD INDEX. A comparative measure, 
expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from visual 
measurements of the spread of flame versus time for a mate- 
rial tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723. 

FLAMMABLE CRYOGENIC FLUID. A cryogenic fluid 
that is flammable in its vapor state. 

FLAMMABLE FINISHES. Coatings to articles or materials 
in which the material being applied is a flammable liquid, 
combustible liquid, combustible powder, fiberglass resin or 
flammable or combustible gel coating. 

FLAMMABLE GAS. A material which is a gas at 68°F 
(20°C) or less at 14.7 pounds per square inch atmosphere 



(psia) (101 kPa) of pressure [a material that has a boiling 
point of 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 psia (101 kPa)] which: 

1. Is ignitable at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) when in a mixture of 
13 percent or less by volume with air; or 

2. Has a flammable range at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) with air 
of at least 12 percent, regardless of the lower limit. 

The limits specified shall be determined at 14.7 psi (101 
kPa) of pressure and a temperature of 68°F (20°C) in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 681. 

FLAMMABLE LIQUEFIED GAS. A liquefied com- 
pressed gas which, under a charged pressure, is partially liq- 
uid at a temperature of 68°F (20°C) and which is flammable. 

FLAMMABLE LIQUID. A liquid having a closed cup flash 
point below 100°F (38°C). Flammable liquids are further cat- 
egorized into a group known as Class I liquids. The Class I 
category is subdivided as follows: 

Class IA. Liquids having a flash point below 73°F (23°C) 
and having a boiling point below 100°F (38°C). 

Class IB. Liquids having a flash point below 73°F (23°C) 
and having a boiling point at or above 100°F (38°C). 

Class IC. Liquids having a flash point at or above 73°F 
(23°C) and below 100°F (38°C). 

The category of flammable liquids does not include com- 
pressed gases or cryogenic fluids. 

FLAMMABLE MATERIAL. A material capable of being 
readily ignited from common sources of heat or at a tempera- 
ture of 600°F (3 16°C) or less. 

FLAMMABLE SOLID. A solid, other than a blasting agent 
or explosive, that is capable of causing fire through friction, 
absorption of moisture, spontaneous chemical change or 
retained heat from manufacturing or processing, or which has 
an ignition temperature below 212°F (100°C) or which burns 
so vigorously and persistently when ignited as to create a 
serious hazard. A chemical shall be considered a flammable 
solid as determined in accordance with the test method of 
CPSC 16 CFR Part 1500.44, if it ignites and burns with a 
self-sustained flame at a rate greater than 0.1 inch (2.5 mm) 
per second along its major axis. 

FLAMMABLE VAPOR AREA. An area in which the con- 
centration of flammable constituents (vapor, gas, fume, mist 
or dust) in air exceeds 25 percent of their lower flammable 
limit (LFL) because of the flammable finish processes opera- 
tion. It shall include: 

1. The interior of spray booths. 

2. The interior of ducts exhausting from spraying pro- 
cesses. 

3. Any area in the direct path of spray or any area contain- 
ing dangerous quantities of air-suspended powder, 
combustible residue, dust, deposits, vapor or mists as a 
result of spraying operations. 

4. The area in the vicinity of dip tanks, drain boards or 
associated drying, conveying or other equipment during 
operation or shutdown periods. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



25 



DEFINITIONS 



The fire code official is authorized to determine the extent 
of the flammable vapor area, taking into consideration the 
material characteristics of the flammable materials, the 
degree of sustained ventilation and the nature of the opera- 
tions. 

FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. The concentration 
of flammable constituents in air that exceeds 25 percent of 
their lower flammable limit (LFL). 

FLASH POINT. The minimum temperature in degrees Fahr- 
enheit at which a liquid will give off sufficient vapors to form 
an ignitable mixture with air near the surface or in the con- 
tainer, but will not sustain combustion. The flash point of a 
liquid shall be detennined by appropriate test procedure and 
apparatus as specified in ASTM D 56, ASTM D 93 or ASTM 
D 3278. 

FLEET VEHICLE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING 
FACILITY. That portion of a commercial, industrial, gov- 
ernmental or manufacturing property where liquids used as 
fuels are stored and dispensed into the fuel tanks of motor 
vehicles that are used in connection with such businesses, by 
persons within the employ of such businesses. 

[Bj FLIGHT. A continuous run of rectangular treads, wind- 
ers or combination thereof from one landing to another. 

FLOAT. A floating structure normally used as a point of 
transfer for passengers and goods, or both, for mooring pur- 
poses. 

[B] FLOOR AREA, GROSS. The floor area within the 
inside perimeter of the exterior walls of the building under 
consideration, exclusive of vent shafts and courts, without 
deduction for corridors, stairways, closets, the thickness of 
interior walls, columns or other features. The floor area of a 
building, or portion thereof, not provided with surrounding 
exterior walls shall be the usable area under the horizontal 
projection of the roof or floor above. The gross floor area 
shall not include shafts with no openings or interior courts. 

[B] FLOOR AREA, NET. The actual occupied area not 
including unoccupied accessory areas such as corridors, stair- 
ways, toilet rooms, mechanical rooms and closets. 

FLUE SPACES. 

Longitudinal flue space. The flue space between rows of 
storage perpendicular to the direction of loading. 

Transverse flue space. The space between rows of stor- 
age parallel to the direction of loading. 

FLUIDIZED BED. A container holding powder coating 
material that is aerated from below so as to form an air-sup- 
ported expanded cloud of such material through which the 
preheated object to be coated is immersed and transported. 

FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A special system 
discharging a foam made from concentrates, either mechani- 
cally or chemically, over the area to be protected. 

[B] FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING. Tiered 
seating having an overall shape and size that is capable of 
being reduced for purposes of moving or storing and is not a 
building element. 



[B] FOSTER CARE FACILITIES. Facilities that provide I 
care to more than five children, 2'/ 2 years of age or less. | 

FUEL LIMIT SWITCH. A mechanism, located on a tank 
vehicle, that limits the quantity of product dispensed at one 

time. 

FUMIGANT. A substance which by itself or in combination 
with any other substance emits or liberates a gas, fume or 
vapor utilized for the destruction or control of insects, fungi, 
vermin, germs, rats or other pests, and shall be distinguished 
from insecticides and disinfectants which are essentially 
effective in the solid or liquid phases. Examples are methyl 
bromide, ethylene dibromide, hydrogen cyanide, carbon 
disulfide and sulfuryl fluoride. 

FUMIGATION. The utilization within an enclosed space of 
a fumigant in concentrations that are hazardous or acutely 
toxic to humans. 

FURNACE CLASS A. An oven or furnace that has heat uti- 
lization equipment operating at approximately atmospheric 
pressure wherein there is a potential explosion or fire hazard 
that could be occasioned by the presence of flammable vola- 
tiles or combustible materials processed or heated in the fur- 
nace. 

Note: Such flammable volatiles or combustible materials 
can, for instance, originate from the following: 

1. Paints, powders, inks, and adhesives from finishing 
processes, such as dipped, coated, sprayed and 
impregnated materials. 

2. The substrate material. 

3. Wood, paper and plastic pallets, spacers or packag- 
ing materials. 

4. Polymerization or other molecular rearrangements. 

Potentially flammable materials, such as quench oil, 
water-borne finishes, cooling oil or cooking oils, that pres- 
ent a hazard are ventilated according to Class A standards. 

FURNACE CLASS B. An oven or furnace that has heat uti- 
lization equipment operating at approximately atmospheric 
pressure wherein there are no flammable volatiles or combus- 
tible materials being heated. 

FURNACE CLASS C. An oven or furnace that has a poten- 
tial hazard due to a flammable or other special atmosphere 
being used for treatment of material in process. This type of 
furnace can use any type of heating system and includes a 
special atmosphere supply system. Also included in the Class 
C classification are integral quench furnaces and molten salt 
bath furnaces. 

FURNACE CLASS D. An oven or furnace that operates at 
temperatures from above ambient to over 5,000°F (2760°C) 
and at pressures normally below atmospheric using any type 
of heating system. These furnaces can include the use of spe- 
cial processing atmospheres. 

GAS CABINET. A fully enclosed, ventilated, noncombusti- j 
ble enclosure used to provide an isolated environment for 
compressed gas cylinders in storage or use. Doors and access 
ports for exchanging cylinders and accessing pressure-regu- 
lating controls are allowed to be included. 



26 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



GAS DETECTION SYSTEM, CONTINUOUS. See "Con- 
tinuous gas detection system." 

GAS ROOM. A separately ventilated, fully enclosed room in 
which only compressed gases and associated equipment and 
supplies are stored or used. 

[B] GRADE FLOOR OPENING. A window or other open- 
ing located such that the sill height of the opening is not more 
than 44 inches (1118 mm) above or below the finished 
ground level adjacent to the opening. 

[B] GRADE PLANE. A reference plane representing the 
average of finished ground level adjoining the building at 
exterior walls. Where the finished ground level slopes away 
from the exterior walls, the reference plane shall be estab- 
lished by the lowest points within the area between the build- 
ing and the lot line or, where the lot line is more than 6 feet 
(1829 mm) from the building, between the building and a 
point 6 feet (1829 mm) from the building. 
[B] GRANDSTAND. Tiered seating supported on a dedi- 
cated structural system and two or more rows high and is not 
a building element (see "Bleachers"). 

[B] GROUP HOME. A facility for social rehabilitation, 
substance abuse or mental health problems containing a 
group housing arrangement that provides custodial care but 
does not provide acute care. 

[B] GUARD. A building component or a system of building 
components located at or near the open sides of elevated 
walking surfaces that minimizes the possibility of a fall from 
the walking surface to a lower level. 

[B] GYPSUM BOARD. Gypsum wallboard, gypsum sheath- 
ing, gypsum base for gypsum veneer plaster, exterior gypsum 
soffit board, predecorated gypsum board or water-resistant 
gypsum backing board complying with the standards listed in 
Tables 2506.2 and 2507.2 and Chapter 35 of the International 
Building Code. 

[B] HABITABLE SPACE. A space in a building for living, 
sleeping, eating or cooking. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, closets, 
halls, storage or utility spaces and similar areas are not con- 
sidered habitable spaces. 

HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A fire- 
extinguishing system using one or more atoms of an element 
from the halogen chemical series: fluorine, chlorine, bromine 
and iodine. 

HANDLING. The deliberate transport by any means to a 
point of storage or use. 

[B] HANDRAIL. A horizontal or sloping rail intended for 
grasping by the hand for guidance or support. 

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. Those chemicals or sub- 
stances which are physical hazards or health hazards as 
defined and classified in this chapter, whether the materials 
are in usable or waste condition. 

HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). A 
solid, liquid or gas associated with semiconductor manufac- 
turing that has a degree-of-hazard rating in health, flammabil- 
ity or instability of Class 3 or 4 as ranked by NFPA 704 and 
which is used directly in research, laboratory or production 



processes which have, as their end product, materials that are 

not hazardous. 

HEALTH HAZARD. A classification of a chemical for 

which there is statistically significant evidence that acute or 

chronic health effects are capable of occurring in exposed 

persons. The term "health hazard" includes chemicals that are 

toxic, highly toxic and corrosive. 

HEAT DETECTOR. See "Detector, Heat." 

[B] HEIGHT, BUILDING. The vertical distance from grade 
plane to the average height of the highest roof surface. 
HELIPORT. An area of land or water or a structural surface 
that is used, or intended for use, for the landing and taking off 
of helicopters, and any appurtenant areas which are used, or 
intended for use, for heliport buildings and other heliport 
facilities. 

HELISTOP. The same as "Heliport," except that no fueling, 
defueling, maintenance, repairs or storage of helicopters is 
permitted. 

HI-BOY. A cart used to transport hot roofing materials on a 
roof. 

HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE. Storage of 
combustible materials in closely packed piles or combustible 
materials on pallets, in racks or on shelves where the top of 
storage is greater than 12 feet (3658 mm) in height. When 
required by the fire code official, high-piled combustible stor- 
age also includes certain high-hazard commodities, such as 
rubber tires, Group A plastics, flammable liquids, idle pallets 
and similar commodities, where the top of storage is greater 
than 6 feet (1 829 mm) in height. 

HIGH-PILED STORAGE AREA. An area within a build- 
ing which is designated, intended, proposed or actually used 
for high-piled combustible storage. 

[B] HIGH-RISE BUILDING. A building with an occupied 
floor located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest 
level of fire department vehicle access. 
HIGH- VOLTAGE TRANSMISSION LINE. An electrical 
power transmission line operating at or above 66 kilovolts. 

HIGHLY TOXIC. A material which produces a lethal dose 
or lethal concentration which falls within any of the follow- 
ing categories: 

1. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD 50 ) of 50 
milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight when 
administered orally to albino rats weighing between 
200 and 300 grams each. 

2. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD 50 ) of 200 
milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight when 
administered by continuous contact for 24 hours (or 
less if death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare skin 
of albino rabbits weighing between 2 and 3 kilograms 
each. 

3. A chemical that has a median lethal concentration 
(LC 50 ) in air of 200 parts per million by volume or less 
of gas or vapor, or 2 milligrams per liter or less of mist, 
fume or dust, when administered by continuous inhala- 
tion for one hour (or less if death occurs within 1 hour) 



I 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



27 



DEFINITIONS 



to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams 
each. 

Mixtures of these materials with ordinary materials, such 
as water, might not warrant classification as highly toxic. 
While this system is basically simple in application, any haz- 
ard evaluation that is required for the precise categorization 
of this type of material shall be performed by experienced, 
technically competent persons. 

HIGHLY VOLATILE LIQUID. A liquefied compressed 
gas with a boiling point of less than 68°F (20°C). 

HIGHWAY. A public street, public alley or public road. 

[B] HISTORIC BUILDINGS. Buildings that are listed in or 
eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places, 
or designated as historic under an appropriate state or local 
law. 

HOGGED MATERIALS. Wood waste materials produced 
from the lumber production process. 

[M] HOOD. An air-intake device used to capture by entrap- 
ment, impingement, adhesion or similar means, grease and 
similar contaminants before they enter a duct system. 

Type I. A kitchen hood for collecting and removing 
grease vapors and smoke. 

Type II. A general kitchen hood for collecting and remov- 
ing steam vapor, heat, odors and products of combustion. 

[B] HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLY. A fire-resistance-rated 
floor or roof assembly of materials designed to restrict the 
spread of fire in which continuity is maintained. 

[B] HORIZONTAL EXIT. See "Exit, Horizontal." 

[B] HOSPITALS AND PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITALS. 
Facilities that provide care or treatment for the medical, psy- 
chiatric, obstetrical, or surgical treatment of inpatient care 
recipients that are incapable of self-preservation. 

HOT WORK. Operations including cutting, welding, Ther- 
mit welding, brazing, soldering, grinding, thermal spraying, 
thawing pipe, installation of torch-applied roof systems or 
any other similar activity. 

HOT WORK AREA. The area exposed to sparks, hot slag, 
radiant heat, or convective heat as a result of the hot work. 

HOT WORK EQUIPMENT. Electric or gas welding or cut- 
ting equipment used for hot work. 

HOT WORK PERMITS. Permits issued by the responsible 
person at the facility under the hot work permit program per- 
mitting welding or other hot work to be done in locations 
referred to in Section 3503.3 and pre-permitted by the fire 
code official. 

HOT WORK PROGRAM. A permitted program, carried 
out by approved facilities -designated personnel, allowing 
them to oversee and issue permits for hot work conducted by 
their personnel or at their facility. The intent is to have 
trained, on-site, responsible personnel ensure that required 
hot work safety measures are taken to prevent fires and fire 
spread. 



HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. An HPM liquid that is 
defined as either a Class I flammable liquid or a Class II or 
Class IIIA combustible liquid. 

HPM ROOM. A room used in conjunction with or serving a 
Group H-5 occupancy, where HPM is stored or used and 
which is classified as a Group H-2, H-3 or H-4 occupancy. 

IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND 
HEALTH (IDLH). The concentration of air-borne contami- 
nants that poses a threat of death, immediate or delayed per- 
manent adverse health effects, or effects that could prevent 
escape from such an environment. This contaminant concen- 
tration level is established by the National Institute of Occu- 
pational Safety and Health (NIOSH) based on both toxicity 
and flammability. It generally is expressed in parts per mil- 
lion by volume (ppm v/v) or milligrams per cubic meter 
(mg/m 3 ). Where adequate data do not exist for precise estab- 
lishment of IDLH concentrations, an independent certified 
industrial hygienist, industrial toxicologist, appropriate reg- 
ulatory agency or other source approved by the fire code 
official shall make such determination. 

IMPAIRMENT COORDINATOR. The person responsible 
for the maintenance of a particular fire protection system. 

[B] INCAPABLE OF SELF-PRESERVATION. Persons 
because of age, physical limitations, mental limitations, 
chemical dependency, or medical treatment cannot respond 
as an individual to an emergency situation. 

INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. Materials that, when 
mixed, have the potential to react in a manner which gener- 
ates heat, fumes, gases or byproducts which are hazardous to 
life or property. 

INERT GAS. A gas that is capable of reacting with other 
materials only under abnormal conditions such as high tem- 
peratures, pressures and similar extrinsic physical forces. 
Within the context of the code, inert gases do not exhibit 
either physical or health hazard properties as defined (other 
than acting as a simple asphyxiant) or hazard properties other 
than those of a compressed gas. Some of the more common 
inert gases include argon, helium, krypton, neon, nitrogen 
and xenon. 

INHABITED BUILDING. A building regularly occupied in 
whole or in part as a habitation for people, or any place of 
religious worship, schoolhouse, railroad station, store or other 
structure where people are accustomed to assemble, except 
any building or structure occupied in connection with the 
manufacture, transportation, storage or use of explosive mate- 
rials. 

INITIATING DEVICE. A system component that origi- 
nates transmission of a change-of-state condition, such as in a 
smoke detector, manual fire alarm box, or supervisory switch. 

INSECTICIDAL FOGGING. The utilization of insecticidal 
liquids passed through fog-generating units where, by means 
of pressure and turbulence, with or without the application of 
heat, such liquids are transformed and discharged in the form 
of fog or mist blown into an area to be treated. 

[B] INTERIOR EXIT RAMP. An exit component that 1 
serves to meet one or more means of egress design require- I 
ments, such as required number of exits or exit access travel 1 



28 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



distance, and provides for a protected path of egress travel to 
the exit discharge or public way. 

[B] INTERIOR EXIT STAIRWAY. An exit component 
that serves to meet one or more means of egress design 
requirements, such as required number of exits or exit access 
travel distance, and provides for a protected path of egress 
travel to the exit discharge or public way. 

[B] INTERIOR FINISH. Interior finish includes interior 
wall and ceiling finish and interior floor finish. 

[B] INTERIOR FLOOR- WALL BASE. Interior floor fin- 
ish trim used to provide a functional or decorative border at 
the intersection of walls and floors. 

[B] INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH. The 
exposed interior surfaces of buildings, including but not lim- 
ited to: fixed or movable walls and partitions; toilet room pri- 
vacy partitions; columns; ceilings; and interior wainscoting, 
paneling or other finish applied structurally or for decoration, 
acoustical correction, surface insulation, structural fire resis- 
tance or similar purposes, but not including trim. 

IRRITANT. A chemical which is not corrosive, but which 
causes a reversible inflammatory effect on living tissue by 
chemical action at the site of contact. A chemical is a skin 
irritant if, when tested on the intact skin of albino rabbits by 
the methods of CPSC 16 CFR Part 1500.41 for an exposure 
of four or more hours or by other appropriate techniques, it 
results in an empirical score of 5 or more. A chemical is clas- 
sified as an eye irritant if so determined under the procedure 
listed in CPSC 16 CFR Part 1500.42 or other approved tech- 
niques. 

[A] JURISDICTION. The governmental unit that has 
adopted this code under due legislative authority. 

KEY BOX. A secure device with a lock operable only by a 
fire department master key, and containing building entry 
keys and other keys that may be required for access in an 
emergency. 

rA] LABELED. Equipment, materials or products to which 
have been affixed a label, seal, symbol or other identifying 
mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory, inspection 
agency or other organization concerned with product evalua- 
tion that maintains periodic inspection of the production of 
the above-labeled items and whose labeling indicates either 
that the equipment, material or product meets identified stan- 
dards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified 
purpose. 

[B] LEVEL OF EXIT DISCHARGE. See "Exit Discharge, 
Level of." 

LIMITED SPRAYING SPACE. An area in which opera- 
tions for touch-up or spot painting of a surface area of 9 
square feet (0.84 m 2 ) or less are conducted. 

LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG). A fluid in the liquid 
state composed predominantly of methane and which may 
contain minor quantities of ethane, propane, nitrogen or other 
components normally found in natural gas. 

LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LP-gas). A material 
which is composed predominantly of the following hydrocar- 



bons or mixtures of them: propane, propylene, butane (nor- 
mal butane or isobutane) and butylenes. 

LIQUID. A material having a melting point that is equal to 
or less than 68°F (20°C) and a boiling point which is greater 
than 68°F (20°C) at 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute 
(psia) (101 kPa). When not otherwise identified, the term 
"liquid" includes both flammable and combustible liquids. 

LIQUID OXYGEN AMBULATORY CONTAINER. A 
container used for liquid oxygen not exceeding 0.396 gallons 
(1.5 liters) specifically designed for use as a medical device 
as defined by 21 USC Chapter 9 that is intended for portable 
therapeutic use and to be filled from its companion base unit 
(a liquid oxygen home care container). 

LIQUID OXYGEN HOME CARE CONTAINER. A con- 
tainer used for liquid oxygen not exceeding 15.8 gallons (60 
liters) specifically designed for use as a medical device as 
defined by 21 USC Chapter 9 that is intended to deliver gas- 
eous oxygen for therapeutic use in a home environment. 

LIQUID STORAGE ROOM. A room classified as a Group 
H-3 occupancy used for the storage of flammable or combus- 
tible liquids in a closed condition. 

LIQUID STORAGE WAREHOUSE. A building classified 
as a Group H-2 or H-3 occupancy used for the storage of 
flammable or combustible liquids in a closed condition. 

[A] LISTED. Equipment, materials, products or services 
included in a list published by an organization acceptable to 
the fire code official and concerned with evaluation of prod- 
ucts or services that maintains periodic inspection of produc- 
tion of listed equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of 
services and whose listing states either that the equipment, 
material, product or service meets identified standards or has 
been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose. 

LOCKDOWN. An emergency situation, in other than a 
Group 1-3 occupancy, requiring that the occupants be shel- 
tered and secured in place within a building when normal 
evacuation would put occupants at risk. 

LONGITUDINAL FLUE SPACE. See "Flue Space— Lon- 
gitudinal." 

[A] LOT. A portion or parcel of land considered as a unit. 

[A] LOT LINE. A line dividing one lot from another, or 
from a street or any public place. 

LOW-PRESSURE TANK. A storage tank designed to with- 
stand an internal pressure greater than 0.5 pounds per square 
inch gauge (psig) (3.4 kPa) but not greater than 15 psig 
(103.4 kPa). 

LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT (LEL). See "Lower flam- 
mable limit." 

LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). The minimum 
concentration of vapor in air at which propagation of flame 
will occur in the presence of an ignition source. The LFL is 
sometimes referred to as LEL or lower explosive limit. 

LP-GAS CONTAINER. Any vessel, including cylinders, 
tanks, portable tanks and cargo tanks, used for transporting or 
storing LP-gases. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



29 



DEFINITIONS 



MAGAZINE. A building, structure or container, other than 
an operating building, approved for storage of explosive 
materials. 

Indoor. A portable structure, such as a box, bin or other 
container, constructed as required for Type 2, 4 or 5 maga- 
zines in accordance with NFPA 495, NFPA 1 124 or DOTy 
27 CFR Part 55 so as to be fire resistant and theft resistant. 

Type 1. A permanent structure, such as a building or 
igloo, that is bullet resistant, fire resistant, theft resistant, 
weather resistant and ventilated in accordance with the 
requirements of NFPA 495, NFPA 1 124 or DOTy 27 CFR 
Part 55. 

Type 2. A portable or mobile structure, such as a box, 
skid-magazine, trailer or semitrailer, constructed in accor- 
dance with the requirements of NFPA 495, NFPA 1 124 or 
DOTy 27 CFR Part 55 that is fire resistant, theft resistant, 
weather resistant and ventilated. If used outdoors, a Type 2 
magazine is also bullet resistant. 

Type 3. A fire resistant, theft resistant and weather resis- 
tant "day box" or portable structure constructed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 495, NFPA 1 124 or DOTy 27 CFR Part 
55 used for the temporary storage of explosive materials. 

Type 4. A permanent, portable or mobile structure such as 
a building, igloo, box, semitrailer or other mobile con- 
tainer that is fire resistant, theft resistant and weather resis- 
tant and constructed in accordance with NFPA 495, NFPA 
1 124 or DOTy 27 CFR Part 55. 

Type 5. A permanent, portable or mobile structure such as 
a building, igloo, box, bin, tank, semitrailer, bulk trailer, 
tank trailer, bulk truck, tank truck or other mobile con- 
tainer that is theft resistant, which is constructed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 495, NFPA 1 1 24 or DOTy 27 CFR Part 
55. 

MAGNESIUM. The pure metal and alloys, of which the 
major part is magnesium. 

[B] MALL. See "Covered mall building." 

MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX. A manually operated 
device used to initiate an alarm signal. 

MANUAL STOCKING METHODS. Stocking methods 
utilizing ladders or other nonmechanical equipment to move 
stock. 

MARINA. Any portion of the ocean or inland water, either 
naturally or artificially protected, for the mooring, servicing 
or safety of vessels and shall include artificially protected 
works, the public or private lands ashore, and structures or 
facilities provided within the enclosed body of water and 
ashore for the mooring or servicing of vessels or the servicing 
of their crews or passengers. 

MARINE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. 
That portion of property where flammable or combustible liq- 
uids or gases used as fuel for watercraft are stored and dis- 
pensed from fixed equipment on shore, piers, wharves, floats 
or barges into the fuel tanks of watercraft and shall include all 
other facilities used in connection therewith. 

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET (MSDS). Informa- 
tion concerning a hazardous material which is prepared in 



accordance with the provisions of DOL 29 CFR Part 
1910.1200 or in accordance with the provisions of a federally 
approved state OSHA plan. 

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CON- 
TROL AREA. The maximum amount of a hazardous mate- 
rial allowed to be stored or used within a control area inside a 
building or an outdoor control area. The maximum allowable 
quantity per control area is based on the material state (solid, 
liquid or gas) and the material storage or use conditions. 

[B] MEANS OF EGRESS. A continuous and unobstructed 
path of vertical and horizontal egress travel from any occu- 
pied portion of a building or structure to a public way. A 
means of egress consists of three separate and distinct parts: 
the exit access, the exit and the exit discharge. 

MECHANICAL STOCKING METHODS. Stocking meth- 
ods utilizing motorized vehicles or hydraulic jacks to move 
stock. 

[B] MEDICAL CARE. Care involving medical or surgical 
procedures, nursing or for psychiatric purposes. 

MEMBRANE STRUCTURE. An air-inflated, air-sup- 
ported, cable or frame-covered structure as defined by the 
International Building Code and not otherwise defined as a 
tent. See Chapter 31 of the International Building Code. 

[B] MERCHANDISE PAD. A merchandise pad is an area 
for display of merchandise surrounded by aisles, permanent 
fixtures or walls. Merchandise pads contain elements such as 
nonfixed and moveable fixtures, cases, racks, counters and 
partitions as indicated in Section 105.2 of the International 
Building Code from which customers browse or shop. 

METAL HYDRIDE. A generic name for compounds com- 
posed of metallic element(s) and hydrogen. 

METAL HYDRIDE STORAGE SYSTEM. A closed sys- 
tem consisting of a group of components assembled as a 
package to contain metal-hydrogen compounds for which 
there exists an equilibrium condition where the hydrogen- 
absorbing metal alloy (s), hydrogen gas and the metal-hydro- 
gen compound(s) coexist and where only hydrogen gas is 
released from the system in normal use. 

[B] MEZZANINE. An intermediate level or levels between 
the floor and ceiling of any story and in accordance with Sec- 
tion 505 of the International Building Code. 

MOBILE FUELING. The operation of dispensing liquid 
fuels from tank vehicles into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles. 
Mobile fueling may also be known by the terms "Mobile fleet 
fueling," "Wet fueling" and "Wet hosing." 

MORTAR. A tube from which fireworks shells are fired into 
the air. 

MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. Two or more 
single-station alarm devices that can be interconnected such 
that actuation of one causes all integral or separate audible 
alarms to operate. It also can consist of one single- station 
alarm device having connections to other detectors or to a 
manual fire alarm box. 

MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. Two or more 
single-station alarm devices that are capable of interconnec- 



30 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE 8 



DEFINITIONS 



tion such that actuation of one causes the appropriate alarm 
signal to operate in all interconnected alarms. 

NESTING. A method of securing flat-bottomed compressed 
gas cylinders upright in a tight mass using a contiguous three- 
point contact system whereby all cylinders within a group 
have a minimum of three points of contact with other cylin- 
ders, walls or bracing. 

NET EXPLOSIVE WEIGHT (net weight). The weight of 
explosive material expressed in pounds. The net explosive 
weight is the aggregate amount of explosive material con- 
tained within buildings, magazines, structures or portions 
thereof, used to establish quantity-distance relationships. 

NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (NTP). A 
temperature of 70°F (21°C) and a pressure of 1 atmosphere 
[14.7 psia (101 kPa)]. 

[B] NOSING. The leading edge of treads of stairs and of 
landings at the top of stairway flights. 

NOTIFICATION ZONE. See "Zone, notification." 

NUISANCE ALARM. An alarm caused by mechanical fail- 
ure, malfunction, improper installation or lack of proper 
maintenance, or an alarm activated by a cause that cannot be 
determined. 

| [B] NURSING HOMES. Facilities that provide care, 
including both intermediate care facilities and skilled nursing 

| facilities, where any of the persons are incapable of self-pres- 
ervation. 

OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION. For the purposes of 
this code, certain occupancies are defined as follows: 

| [B] Assembly Group A. Assembly Group A occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, 
or a portion thereof, for the gathering of persons for pur- 
poses such as civic, social or religious functions; recre- 
ation, food or drink consumption; or awaiting 
transportation. 

| Small buildings and tenant spaces. A building or ten- 

ant space used for assembly purposes with an occupant 
load of less than 50 persons shall be classified as a 
Group B occupancy. 

| Small assembly spaces. The following rooms and 

spaces shall not be classified as assembly occupancies: 

1 . A room or space used for assembly purposes with 
an occupant load of less than 50 persons and 
accessory to another occupancy shall be classi- 
fied as a Group B occupancy or as part of that 
occupancy. 

2. A room or space used for assembly purposes that 
is less than 750 square feet (70 m 2 ) in area and 
accessory to another occupancy shall be classi- 
fied as a Group B occupancy or as part of that 
occupancy. 

Associated with Group E occupancies. A room or 
space used for assembly purposes that are associated 
with a Group E occupancy are not considered separate 
occupancies. 



Accessory with places of religious worship. Acces- 
sory religious educational rooms and religious auditori- 
ums with occupant loads of less than 100 are not 
considered separate occupancies. 

Assembly Group A-l. Assembly uses, usually with 
fixed seating, intended for the production and viewing 
of performing arts or motion pictures including, but not 
limited to: 

Motion picture theaters 

Symphony and concert halls 

Television and radio studios admitting an audience 

Theaters 

Assembly Group A-2. Assembly uses intended for 
food and/or drink consumption including, but not lim- 
ited to: 

Banquet halls 
Casinos (gaming areas) 
Night clubs 

Restaurants, cafeterias and similar dining facilities 1 
(including associated commercial kitchens) | 

Taverns and bars 

Assembly Group A-3. Assembly uses intended for j 
worship, recreation or amusement and other assembly 
uses not classified elsewhere in Group A, including, but 
not limited to: 

Amusement arcades 

Art galleries 

Bowling alleys 

Community halls 

Courtrooms 

Dance halls (not including food or drink 

consumption) 
Exhibition halls 
Funeral parlors 

Gymnasiums (without spectator seating) 
Indoor swimming pools (without spectator seating) 
Indoor tennis courts (without spectator seating) 
Lecture halls 
Libraries 
Museums 

Places of religious worship 
Pool and billiard parlors 
Waiting areas in transportation terminals 

Assembly Group A-4. Assembly uses intended for j 
viewing of indoor sporting events and activities with 
spectator seating including, but not limited to: 

Arenas 
Skating rinks 
Swimming pools 
Tennis courts 

Assembly Group A-5. Assembly uses intended for | 
participation in or viewing outdoor activities including, 
but not limited to: 

Amusement park structures 

Bleachers 

Grandstands 

Stadiums 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE 8 



31 



DEFINITIONS 



[B] Business Group B. Business Group B occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, 
or a portion thereof, for office, professional or service-type 
transactions, including storage of records and accounts. 
Business occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, 
the following: 

Airport traffic control towers 

Ambulatory care facilities 

Animal hospitals, kennels and pounds 

Banks 

Barber and beauty shops 

Car wash 

Civic administration 

Clinic-outpatient 

Dry cleaning and laundries: pick-up and delivery sta- 
tions and self-service 

Educational occupancies for students above the 12th 
grade 

Electronic data processing 

Laboratories: testing and research 

Motor vehicle showrooms 

Post offices 

Print shops 

Professional services (architects, attorneys, dentists, 
physicians, engineers, etc.) 

Radio and television stations 

Telephone exchanges 

Training and skill development not within a school or 
academic program 

[Bj Educational Group E. Educational Group E occu- 
pancy includes, among others, the use of a building or 
structure, or a portion thereof, by six or more persons at 
any one time for educational purposes through the 12th 
grade. 

Accessory to places of worship. Religious educa- 
tional rooms and religious auditoriums, which are 
accessory to places of religious worship in accordance 
with Section 508.3.1 of the International Building 
Code and have occupant loads of less than 100, shall be 
classified as Group A-3 occupancies. 

Group E, day care facilities. This group includes 
buildings and structures or portions thereof occupied by 
more than five children older than 2V 2 years of age who 
receive educational, supervision or personal care ser- 
vices for less than 24 hours per day. 

Within places of worship. Rooms and spaces 
within places of worship providing such care during 
religious functions shall be classified as part of the 
primary occupancy. 

Five or fewer children. A facility having five or 
fewer children receiving such care shall be classified 
as part of the primary occupancy. 

Five or fewer children in a dwelling unit. A facil- 
ity such as the above within a dwelling unit and hav- 
ing five or fewer children receiving such care shall 
be classified as a Group R-3 occupancy or shall 
comply with the International Residential Code. 



[B] Factory Industrial Group F. Factory Industrial 
Group F occupancy includes, among others, the use of a 
building or structure, or a portion thereof, for assembling, 
disassembling, fabricating, finishing, manufacturing, 
packaging, repair or processing operations that are not 
classified as a Group H high-hazard or Group S storage 
occupancy. 

Factory Industrial F-l Moderate-hazard occupancy. 

Factory industrial uses which are not classified as Fac- 
tory Industrial F-2 Low Hazard shall be classified as F-l 
Moderate Hazard and shall include, but not be limited 
to, the following: 

Aircraft (manufacturing, not to include repair) 

Appliances 

Athletic equipment 

Automobiles and other motor vehicles 

Bakeries 

Beverages; over 16-percent alcohol content 

Bicycles 

Boats 

Brooms or brushes 

Business machines 

Cameras and photo equipment 

Canvas or similar fabric 

Carpets and rugs (includes cleaning) 

Clothing 

Construction and agricultural machinery 

Disinfectants 

Dry cleaning and dyeing 

Electric generation plants 

Electronics 

Engines (including rebuilding) 

Food processing and commercial kitchens not asso- 
ciated with restaurants, cafeterias and similar din- 
ing facilities 

Furniture 

Hemp products 

Jute products 

Laundries 

Leather products 

Machinery 

Metals 

Millwork (sash and door) 

Motion pictures and television filming (without 
spectators) 

Musical instruments 

Optical goods 

Paper mills or products 

Photographic film 

Plastic products 

Printing or publishing 

Refuse incineration 

Shoes 

Soaps and detergents 

Textiles 

Tobacco 

Trailers 

Upholstering 

Wood; distillation 

Woodworking (cabinet) 



32 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



[B] Factory Industrial F-2 Low-hazard Occupancy. 
Factory industrial uses involving the fabrication or manu- 
facturing of noncombustible materials which, during fin- 
ishing, packaging or processing do not involve a 
significant fire hazard, shall be classified as Group F-2 
occupancies and shall include, but not be limited to, the 
following: 

Beverages; up to and including 16-percent alcohol 

content 
Brick and masonry 
Ceramic products 
Foundries 
Glass products 
Gypsum 
Ice 
Metal products (fabrication and assembly) 

High-hazard Group H. High-hazard Group H occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, 
or a portion thereof, that involves the manufacturing, pro- 
cessing, generation or storage of materials that constitute a 
physical or health hazard in quantities in excess of those 
allowed in control areas complying with Section 
5003.8.3, based on the maximum allowable quantity limits 
for control areas set forth in Tables 5003.1.1(1) and 
5003.1.1(2). Hazardous occupancies are classified in 
Groups H-l, H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5 and shall be in accor- 
dance with this code and the requirements of Section 415 
of the International Building Code. Hazardous materials 
stored or used on top of roofs or canopies shall be classi- 
fied as outdoor storage or use and shall comply with this 
code. 

Exceptions: The following shall not be classified as 
Group H, but shall be classified as the occupancy that 
they most nearly resemble. 

1. Buildings and structures occupied for the appli- 
cation of flammable finishes, provided that such 
buildings or areas conform to the requirements 
of Chapter 24 of this code and Section 416 of 
the International Building Code. 

2. Wholesale and retail sales and storage of flam- 
mable and combustible liquids in mercantile 
occupancies conforming to Chapter 57. 

3. Closed piping system containing flammable or 
combustible liquids or gases utilized for the 
operation of machinery or equipment. 

4. Cleaning establishments that utilize combusti- 
ble liquid solvents having a flash point of 140°F 
(60°C) or higher in closed systems employing 
equipment listed by an approved testing agency, 
provided that this occupancy is separated from 
all other areas of the building by 1-hour fire 
barriers in accordance with Section 707 of the 
International Building Code or 1 -hour horizon- 
tal assemblies in accordance with Section 711 
of the International Building Code, or both. 



5. Cleaning establishments that utilize a liquid sol- 
vent having a flash point at or above 200°F 
(93°C). 

6. Liquor stores and distributors without bulk stor- 
age. 

7. Refrigeration systems. 

8. The storage or utilization of materials for agri- 
cultural purposes on the premises. 

9. Stationary batteries utilized for facility emer- 
gency power, uninterruptible power supply or 
telecommunication facilities, provided that the 
batteries are equipped with safety venting caps 
and ventilation is provided in accordance with 
the International Mechanical Code. 

10. Corrosives shall not include personal or house- 
hold products in their original packaging used 
in retail display or commonly used building 
materials. 

11. Buildings and structures occupied for aerosol 
storage shall be classified as Group S-l, pro- 
vided that such buildings conform to the 
requirements of Chapter 5 1 . 

12. Display and storage of nonflammable solid and 
nonflammable or noncombustible liquid haz- 
ardous materials in quantities not exceeding the 
maximum allowable quantity per control area 
in Group M or S occupancies complying with 
Section 5003.8.3.5. 

13. The storage of black powder, smokeless pro- 
pellant and small arms primers in Groups M 
and R-3 and special industrial explosive 
devices in Groups B, F, M and S, provided 
such storage conforms to the quantity limits 
and requirements of this code. 

High-hazard Group H-l. Buildings and structures con- 
taining materials that pose a detonation hazard shall be 
classified as Group H-l. Such materials shall include, but 
not be limited to, the following: 

Detonable pyrophoric materials 

Explosives: 

Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 
Division 1.4 
Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 

Organic peroxides, unclassified detonable 

Oxidizers, Class 4 

Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 3 detonable, and 

Class 4 

Occupancies containing explosives not classified as I 

H-l. The following occupancies containing explosive 1 

materials shall be classified as follows: § 

1. Division 1.3 explosive materials that are used and ** 
maintained in a form where either confinement or 



* 
* 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



33 



DEFINITIONS 



** 



configuration will not elevate the hazard from a 
mass fire hazard to mass explosion hazard shall be 
allowed in Group H-2 occupancies. 

2. Articles, including articles packaged for shipment, 
that are not regulated as a Division 1.4 explosive 
under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and 
Explosives regulations, or unpackaged articles used 
in process operations that do not propagate a detona- 
tion or deflagration between articles shall be 
allowed in H-3 occupancies. 

High-hazard Group H-2. Buildings and structures con- 
taining materials that pose a deflagration hazard or a haz- 
ard from accelerated burning shall be classified as Group 
H-2. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the 
following: 

Class I, II or IIIA flammable or combustible liquids 
which are used or stored in normally open containers 
or systems, or in closed containers or systems 
pressurized at more than 1 5 pounds per square inch 
gauge (103.4 kPa) 

Combustible dusts where manufactured, generated or 
used in such a manner that the concentration and 
conditions create a fire or explosion hazard based on 
information prepared in accordance with Section 
4 1 4. 1 .3 of the International Building Code 

Cryogenic fluids, flammable 

Flammable gases 

Organic peroxides, Class I 

Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally 
open containers or systems, or in closed containers or 
systems pressurized at more than 15 pounds per 
square inch gauge (103.4 kPa) 

Pyrophoric liquids, solids and gases, nondetonable 

Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 3, nondetonable 

Water-reactive materials, Class 3 

High-hazard Group H-3. Buildings and structures con- 
taining materials that readily support combustion or that 
pose a physical hazard shall be classified as Group H-3. 
Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the fol- 
lowing: 

Class I, II or IIIA flammable or combustible liquids that 
are used or stored in normally closed containers or 
systems pressurized at 15 pounds per square inch 
gauge (103.4 kPa) or less 

Combustible fibers, other than densely packed baled 
cotton 

Consumer fireworks, 1.4G (Class C, Common) 

Cryogenic fluids, oxidizing 

Flammable solids 

Organic peroxides, Class II and III 

Oxidizers, Class 2 

Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally 
closed containers or systems pressurized at 15 
pounds per square inch gauge (103 kPa) or less 

Oxidizing gases 



Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 2 
Water-reactive materials, Class 2 

High-hazard Group H-4. Buildings and structures which 
contain materials that are health hazards shall be classified 
as Group H-4. Such materials shall include, but not be lim- 
ited to, the following: 

Corrosives 

Highly toxic materials 

Toxic materials 

High-hazard Group H-5. Semiconductor fabrication 
facilities and comparable research and development areas 
in which hazardous production materials (HPM) are used 
and the aggregate quantity of materials is in excess of 
those listed in Tables 5003.1.1(1) and 5003.1.1(2) shall be 
classified as Group H-5. Such facilities and areas shall be 
designed and constructed in accordance with Section 
415.10 of the International Building Code. 

[B] Institutional Group I. Institutional Group I occu- 
pancy includes, among others, the use of a building or 
structure, or a portion thereof, in which care or supervision 
is provided to persons who are or are not capable of self 
preservation without physical assistance or in which per- 
sons are detained for penal or correctional purposes or in 
which the liberty of the occupants is restricted. Institu- 
tional occupancies shall be classified as Group 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 
or 1-4. 

Institutional Group 1-1. This occupancy shall include 
buildings, structures or parts thereof for more than 16 
persons who reside on a 24-hour basis in a supervised 
environment and receive custodial care. The persons 
receiving care are capable of self preservation. This 
group shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Alcohol and drug centers 

Assisted living facilities 

Congregate care facilities 

Convalescent facilities 

Group homes 

Half-way houses 

Residential board and custodial care facilities 

Social rehabilitation facilities 

Five or fewer persons receiving care. A facility 
such as the above with five or fewer persons receiv- 
ing such care shall be classified as Group R-3 or 
shall comply with the International Residential 
Code provided an automatic sprinkler system is 
installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 or 
International Residential Code Section P2904. 

Six to sixteen persons receiving care. A facility 
such as above, housing at least six and not more than 
16 persons receiving such care, shall be classified as 
Group R-4. 

Institutional Group 1-2. This occupancy shall include 
buildings and structures used for medical care on a 24- 
hour basis for more than five persons who are not capable 



34 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE 8 



DEFINITIONS 



of self-preservation. This group shall include, but not be 
limited to, the following: 

Foster care facilities 
Detoxification facilities 
Hospitals 
Nursing homes 
Psychiatric hospitals 

Five or fewer persons receiving care. A facility 
such as the above with five or fewer persons receiv- 
ing such care shall be classified as Group R-3 or 
shall comply with the International Residential 
Code provided an automatic sprinkler system is 
installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 or 
Section P2904 of the International Residential 
Code. 

Institutional Group 1-3. This occupancy shall include 
buildings and structures which are inhabited by more than 
five persons who are under restraint or security. An 1-3 
facility is occupied by persons who are generally incapa- 
ble of self-preservation due to security measures not under 
the occupants' control. This group shall include, but not be 
limited to, the following: 

Correctional centers 

Detention centers 

Jails 

Prerelease centers 

Prisons 

Reformatories 

Buildings of Group 1-3 shall be classified as one of the 
occupancy conditions indicated below: 

Condition 1. This occupancy condition shall include 
buildings in which free movement is allowed from 
sleeping areas and other spaces where access or occu- 
pancy is permitted to the exterior via means of egress 
without restraint. A Condition 1 facility is permitted to 
be constructed as Group R. 

Condition 2. This occupancy condition shall include 
buildings in which free movement is allowed from 
sleeping areas and any other occupied smoke compart- 
ment to one or more other smoke compartments. Egress 
to the exterior is impeded by locked exits. 

Condition 3. This occupancy condition shall include 
buildings in which free movement is allowed within 
individual smoke compartments, such as within a resi- 
dential unit comprised of individual sleeping units and 
group activity spaces, where egress is impeded by 
remote-controlled release of means of egress from such 
smoke compartment to another smoke compartment. 

Condition 4. This occupancy condition shall include 
buildings in which free movement is restricted from an 
occupied space. Remote-controlled release is provided 
to permit movement from sleeping units, activity 
spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke com- 
partment to other smoke compartments. 

Condition 5. This occupancy condition shall include 
buildings in which free movement is restricted from an 
occupied space. Staff-controlled manual release is pro- 



vided to permit movement from sleeping units, activity 
spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke com- 
partment to other smoke compartments. 

Institutional Group 1-4, day care facilities. This group 
shall include buildings and structures occupied by more 
than five persons of any age who receive custodial care for 
less than 24 hours by persons other than parents or guard- 
ians, relatives by blood, marriage, or adoption, and in a 
place other than the home of the person cared for. This 
group shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Adult day care 
Child day care 

Classification as Group E. A child day care facility 
that provides care for more than five but no more than 
100 children 2V 2 years or less of age, where the rooms 
in which the children are cared for are located on a level 
of exit discharge serving such rooms and each of these 
child care rooms has an exit door directly to the exte- 
rior, shall be classified as Group E. 

Within a place of religious worship. Rooms and 
spaces within places of religious worship providing 
such care during religious functions shall be classified 
as part of the primary occupancy. 

Five or fewer occupants receiving care. A facility 
having five or fewer persons receiving custodial care 
shall be classified as part of the primary occupancy. 

Five or fewer occupants receiving care in a dwelling 

unit. A facility such as the above within a dwelling 
unit and having five or fewer persons receiving custo- 
dial care shall be classified as a Group R-3 occupancy 
or shall comply with the International Residential- 
Code. 

[B] Mercantile Group M. Mercantile Group M occu- 
pancy includes, among others, the use of a building or 
structure or a portion thereof, for the display and sale of 
merchandise, and involves stocks of goods, wares or mer- 
chandise incidental to such purposes and accessible to the 
public. Mercantile occupancies shall include, but not be 
limited to, the following. 

Department stores 

Drug stores 

Markets 

Motor fuel -dispensing facilities 

Retail or wholesale stores 

Sales rooms 

[B] Residential Group R. Residential Group R includes, 
among others, the use of a building or structure, or a por- 
tion thereof, for sleeping purposes when not classified as 
an Institutional Group I or when not regulated by the 
International Residential Code in accordance with Section 
101.2 of the International Building Code. 

Residential Group R-l. Residential occupancies contain- 
ing sleeping units where the occupants are primarily tran- 
sient in nature, including: 

Boarding houses (transient) with more than 10 occu- 
pants 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



35 



DEFINITIONS 



Congregate living facilities (transient) with more 

than 1 occupants 
Hotels (transient) 
Motels (transient) 

Residential Group R-2. Residential occupancies contain- 
ing sleeping units or more than two dwelling units where 
the occupants are primarily permanent in nature, includ- 
ing: 

Apartment houses 

Boarding houses (nontransient) with more than 16 

occupants 
Congregate living facilities (nontransient) with more 

than 16 occupants 
Convents 
Dormitories 

Fraternities and sororities 
Hotels (nontransient) 
Live/work units 
Monasteries 
Motels (nontransient) 
Vacation timeshare properties 

Residential Group R-3. Residential occupancies where 
the occupants are primarily permanent in nature and not 
classified as Group R-l, R-2, R-4 or I, including: 

Boarding houses (nontransient) with 16 or fewer occu- 
pants 

Boarding houses (transient) with 10 or fewer occupants 

Buildings that do not contain more than two dwelling 
units 

Care facilities that provide accommodations for five or 
fewer persons receiving care 

Congregate living facilities (nontransient) with 16 or 
fewer occupants 

Congregate living facilities (transient) with 10 or fewer 
occupants 

Care facilities within a dwelling. Care facilities for 
five or fewer persons receiving care that are within a 
single-family dwelling are permitted to comply with 
the International Residential Code provided an auto- 
matic sprinkler system is installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.3 or Section P2904 of the International 
Residential Code. 

Residential Group R-4. This occupancy shall include 
buildings, structures or portions thereof for more than five 
but not more than 1 6 persons, excluding staff, who reside 
on a 24-hour basis in a supervised residential environment 
and receive custodial care. The persons receiving care are 
capable of self preservation. This group shall include, but 
not be limited to, the following: 

Alcohol and drug centers 

Assisted living facilities 

Congregate care facilities 

Convalescent facilities 

Group homes 

Halfway houses 

Residential board and custodial care facilities 

Social rehabilitation facilities 



Group R-4 occupancies shall meet the requirements for I 
construction as defined for Group R-3, except as otherwise 
provided for in the International Building Code. \ 

[B] Storage Group S. Storage Group S occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, 
or a portion thereof, for storage that is not classified as a 
hazardous occupancy. 

Moderate-hazard storage. Group S-l. Buildings occu- 
pied for storage uses that are not classified as Group S-2, 
including, but not limited to, storage of the following: 

Aerosols, Levels 2 and 3 

Aircraft hangar (storage and repair) 

Bags: cloth, burlap and paper 

Bamboos and rattan 

Baskets 

Belting: canvas and leather 

Books and paper in rolls or packs 

Boots and shoes 

Buttons, including cloth covered, pearl or bone 

Cardboard and cardboard boxes 

Clothing, woolen wearing apparel 

Cordage 

Dry boat storage (indoor) 

Furniture 

Furs 

Glues, mucilage, pastes and size 

Grains 

Horns and combs, other than celluloid 

Leather 

Linoleum 

Lumber 

Motor vehicle repair garages complying with the maxi- 
mum allowable quantities of hazardous materials 
listed in Table 5003.1.1(1) (see Section 406.8 of the 
International Building Code) 

Photo engravings 

Resilient flooring 

Silks 

Soaps 

Sugar 

Tires, bulk storage of 

Tobacco, cigars, cigarettes and snuff 

Upholstery and mattresses 

Wax candles 
Low-hazard storage, Group S-2. Includes, among oth- 
ers, buildings used for the storage of noncombustible 
materials such as products on wood pallets or in paper car- 
tons with or without single thickness divisions; or in paper 
wrappings. Such products are permitted to have a negligi- 
ble amount of plastic trim, such as knobs, handles or film 
wrapping. Storage uses shall include, but not be limited to, 
storage of the following: 

Asbestos 

Beverages up to and including 16-percent alcohol in 

metal, glass or ceramic containers 
Cement in bags 
Chalk and crayons 

Dairy products in nonwaxed coated paper containers 
Dry cell batteries 



36 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



Electrical coils 

Electrical motors 

Empty cans 

Food products 

Foods in noncombustible containers 

Fresh fruits and vegetables in nonplastic trays or 

containers 
Frozen foods 
Glass 
Glass bottles, empty or filled with noncombustible 

liquids 
Gypsum board 
Inert pigments 
Ivory 
Meats 

Metal cabinets 

Metal desks with plastic tops and trim 
Metal parts 
Metals 
Mirrors 

Oil-filled and other types of distribution transformers 
Parking garages, open or enclosed 
Porcelain and pottery 
Stoves 

Talc and soapstones 
Washers and dryers 

[B] Miscellaneous Group U. Buildings and structures of 
an accessory character and miscellaneous structures not 
classified in any specific occupancy shall be constructed, 
equipped and maintained to conform to the requirements 
of this code commensurate with the fire and life hazard 
incidental to their occupancy. Group U shall include, but 
not be limited to, the following: 

Agricultural buildings 

Aircraft hangar, accessory to a one- or two-family resi- 
dence (see Section 412.5 of the International Build- 
ing Code) 

Barns 

Carports 

Fences more than 6 feet (1829 mm) high 

Grain silos, accessory to a residential occupancy 

Greenhouses 

Livestock shelters 

Private garages 

Retaining walls 

Sheds 

Stables 

Tanks 

Towers 

[B] OCCUPANT LOAD. The number of persons for which 
the means of egress of a building or portion thereof is 
designed. 

OPEN BURNING. The burning of materials wherein prod- 
ucts of combustion are emitted directly into the ambient air 
without passing through a stack or chimney from an enclosed 
chamber. Open burning does not include road flares, smudge- 
pots and similar devices associated with safety or occupa- 
tional uses typically considered open flames, recreational 



fires or use of portable outdoor fireplaces. For the purpose of 
this definition, a chamber shall be regarded as enclosed when, 
during the time combustion occurs, only apertures, ducts, 
stacks, flues or chimneys necessary to provide combustion air 
and permit the escape of exhaust gas are open. 

[B] OPEN MALL. See "Covered mall building." 

[B] OPEN MALL BUILDING. See "Covered mall build- 
ing." 

[B] OPEN PARKING GARAGE. A structure or portion of 
a structure with the openings as described in Section 406.5.2 
of the International Building Code on two or more sides that 
is used for the parking or storage of private motor vehicles as 
described in Section 406.5 of the International Building 
Code. 

OPEN SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous 
material involving a vessel or system that is continuously 
open to the atmosphere during normal operations and where 
vapors are liberated, or the product is exposed to the atmo- 
sphere during normal operations. Examples of open systems 
for solids and liquids include dispensing from or into open 
beakers or containers, dip tank and plating tank operations. 

OPERATING BUILDING. A building occupied in con- 
junction with the manufacture, transportation or use of explo- 
sive materials. Operating buildings are separated from one 
another with the use of intraplant or intraline distances. 

OPERATING LINE. A group of buildings, facilities or 
workstations so arranged as to permit performance of the 
steps in the manufacture of an explosive or in the loading, 
assembly, modification and maintenance of ammunition or 
devices containing explosive materials. 

OPERATING PRESSURE. The pressure at which a system 
operates. 

ORGANIC COATING. A liquid mixture of binders such as 
alkyd, nitrocellulose, acrylic or oil, and flammable and com- 
bustible solvents such as hydrocarbon, ester, ketone or alco- 
hol, which, when spread in a thin film, convert to a durable 
protective and decorative finish. 

ORGANIC PEROXIDE. An organic compound that con- 
tains the bivalent -O-O- structure and which may be consid- 
ered to be a structural derivative of hydrogen peroxide where 
one or both of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by an 
organic radical. Organic peroxides can present an explosion 
hazard {detonation or deflagration) or they can be shock sen- 
sitive. They can also decompose into various unstable com- 
pounds over an extended period of time. 

Class I. Describes those formulations that are capable of 
deflagration but not detonation. 

Class II. Describes those formulations that bum very rap- 
idly and that pose a moderate reactivity hazard. 

Class III. Describes those formulations that burn rapidly 
and that pose a moderate reactivity hazard. 

Class IV. Describes those formulations that burn in the 
same manner as ordinary combustibles and that pose a 
minimal reactivity hazard. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



37 



DEFINITIONS 



Class V. Describes those formulations that burn with less 
intensity than ordinary combustibles or do not sustain 
combustion and that pose no reactivity hazard. 

Unclassified detonable. Organic peroxides that are capa- 
ble of detonation. These peroxides pose an extremely 
high-explosion hazard through rapid explosive decompo- 
sition. 

OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA. An outdoor area that con- 
tains hazardous materials in amounts not exceeding the maxi- 
mum allowable quantities of Table 5003.1.1(3) or Table 
5003.1.1(4). 

[B] OUTPATIENT CLINIC. See "Clinic-outpatient." 

OVERCROWDING. A condition that exists when either 
there are more people in a building, structure or portion 
thereof than have been authorized or posted by the fire code 
official, or when the fire code official determines that a threat 
exists to the safety of the occupants due to persons sitting 
and/or standing in locations that may obstruct or impede the 
use of aisles, passages, corridors, stairways, exits or other 
components of the means of egress. 

[A] OWNER. A corporation, firm, partnership, association, 
organization and any other group acting as a unit, or a person 
who has legal title to any structure or premises with or with- 
out accompanying actual possession thereof, and shall 
include the duly authorized agent or attorney, a purchaser, 
devisee, fiduciary and any person having a vested or contin- 
gent interest in the premises in question. 

OXIDIZER. A material that readily yields oxygen or other 
oxidizing gas, or that readily reacts to promote or initiate 
combustion of combustible materials and, if heated or con- 
taminated, can result in vigorous self-sustained decomposi- 
tion. 

Class 4. An oxidizer that can undergo an explosive reac- 
tion due to contamination or exposure to thermal or physi- 
cal shock and that causes a severe increase in the burning 
rate of combustible materials with which it comes into 
contact. Additionally, the oxidizer causes a severe increase 
in the burning rate and can cause spontaneous ignition of 
combustibles. 

Class 3. An oxidizer that causes a severe increase in the 
burning rate of combustible materials with which it comes 
in contact. 

Class 2. An oxidizer that will cause a moderate increase in 
the burning rate of combustible materials with which it 
comes in contact. 

Class 1. An oxidizer that does not moderately increase the 
burning rate of combustible materials. 

OXIDIZING CRYOGENIC FLUID. An oxidizing gas in 
the cryogenic state. 

OXIDIZING GAS. A gas that can support and accelerate 
combustion of other materials more than air does. 

OZONE-GAS GENERATOR. Equipment which causes the 
production of ozone. 

[B] PANIC HARDWARE. A door-latching assembly incor- 
porating a device that releases the latch upon the application 



of a force in the direction of egress travel. See also "Fire Exit 
Hardware." 

PASS-THROUGH. An enclosure installed in a wall with a 
door on each side that allows chemicals, HPM, equipment, 
and parts to be transferred from one side of the wall to the 
other. 

[B] PENTHOUSE. An enclosed, unoccupied rooftop struc- 
ture used for sheltering mechanical and electrical equipment, 
tanks, elevators and related machinery, and vertical shaft 
openings. 

PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LIMIT (PEL). The maxi- 
mum permitted 8-hour time-weighted-average concentration 
of an air-borne contaminant. The exposure limits to be uti- 
lized are those published in DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1000. 
The Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) concentrations 
published by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational 
Safety and Health (NIOSH), Threshold Limit Value-Time 
Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) concentrations published by 
the American Conference of Governmental Industrial 
Hygienists (ACGIH), Workplace Environmental Exposure 
Level (WEEL) Guides published by the American Industrial 
Hygiene Association (AIHA), and other approved, consistent 
measures are allowed as surrogates for hazardous substances 
not listed in DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1000. 

[A] PERMIT. An official document or certificate issued by 
the authority having jurisdiction which authorizes perfor- 
mance of a specified activity. 

[A] PERSON. An individual, heirs, executors, administrators 
or assigns, and also includes a firm, partnership or corpora- 
tion, its or their successors or assigns, or the agent of any of 
the aforesaid. 

[B] PERSONAL CARE SERVICE. The care of persons 
who do not require medical care. Personal care involves 
responsibility for the safety of the persons while inside the 
building. 

PESTICIDE. A substance or mixture of substances, includ- 
ing fungicides, intended for preventing, destroying, repelling 
or mitigating pests and substances or a mixture of substances 
intended for use as a plant regulator, defoliant or desiccant. 
Products defined as drugs in the Federal Food, Drug and Cos- 
metic Act are not pesticides. 

[B] PHOTOLUMINESCENT. Having the property of emit- 
ting light that continues for a length of time after excitation 
by visible or invisible light has been removed. 

PHYSICAL HAZARD. A chemical for which there is evi- 
dence that it is a combustible liquid, cryogenic fluid, explo- 
sive, flammable (solid, liquid or gas), organic peroxide (solid 
or liquid), oxidizer (solid or liquid), oxidizing gas, pyrophoric 
(solid, liquid or gas), unstable (reactive) material (solid, liq- 
uid or gas) or water-reactive material (solid or liquid). 

PHYSIOLOGICAL WARNING THRESHOLD. A con- 
centration of air-borne contaminants, normally expressed in 
parts per million (ppm) or milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m 3 ), 
that represents the concentration at which persons can sense 
the presence of the contaminant due to odor, irritation or other 
quick-acting physiological responses. When used in conjunc- 
tion with the permissible exposure limit (PEL), the physiologi- 



38 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



cal warning threshold levels are those consistent with the 
classification system used to establish the PEL. See the defini- 
tion of "Permissible exposure limit (PEL)." 

PIER. A structure built over the water, supported by pillars 
or piles, and used as a landing place, pleasure pavilion or sim- 
ilar purpose. 

[B] PLACE OF RELIGIOUS WORSHIP. See "Religious 
Worship, Place of." 

PLOSOPHORIC MATERIAL. Two or more unmixed, 
commercially manufactured, prepackaged chemical sub- 
stances including oxidizers, flammable liquids or solids, or 
similar substances that are not independently classified as 
explosives but which, when mixed or combined, form an 
explosive that is intended for blasting. 

PLYWOOD AND VENEER MILLS. Facilities where raw 
wood products are processed into finished wood products, 
including waferboard, oriented strandboard, fiberboard, com- 
posite wood panels and plywood. 

PORTABLE OUTDOOR FIREPLACE. A portable, out- 
door, solid-fuel-burning fireplace that may be constructed of 
steel, concrete, clay or other noncombustible material. A por- 
table outdoor fireplace may be open in design, or may be 
equipped with a small hearth opening and a short chimney or 
chimney opening in the top. 

POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCK. A forklift, tractor, 
platform lift truck or motorized hand truck powered by an 
electrical motor or internal combustion engine. Powered 
industrial trucks do not include farm vehicles or automotive 
vehicles for highway use. 

PRESSURE VESSEL. A closed vessel designed to operate 
at pressures above 15 psig (103 kPa). 

PRIMARY CONTAINMENT. The first level of contain- 
ment, consisting of the inside portion of that container which 
comes into immediate contact on its inner surface with the 
material being contained. 

PROCESS TRANSFER. The transfer of flammable or com- 
bustible liquids between tank vehicles or tank cars and pro- 
cess operations. Process operations may include containers, 
tanks, piping and equipment. 

PROPELLx4NT. The liquefied or compressed gas in an 
aerosol container that expels the contents from an aerosol 
container when the valve is actuated. A propellant is consid- 
ered flammable if it forms a flammable mixture with air, or if 
a flame is self-propagating in a mixture with air. 

PROXIMATE AUDIENCE. An audience closer to pyro- 
technic devices than allowed by NFPA 1123. 

[B] PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITALS. See "Hospitals." 

PUBLIC TRAFFIC ROUTE (PTR). Any public street, 
road, highway, navigable stream or passenger railroad that is 
used for through traffic by the general public. 

[B] PUBLIC WAY. A street, alley or other parcel of land 
open to the outside air leading to a street, that has been 
deeded, dedicated or otherwise permanently appropriated to 
the public for public use and which has a clear width and 
height of not less than 10 feet (3048 mm). 



PYROPHORIC. A chemical with an autoignition tempera- 
ture in air, at or below a temperature of 130°F (54°C). 
PYROTECHNIC ARTICLE. A pyrotechnic device for use 
in the entertainment industry, which is not classified as fire- 
works. 

PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION. A chemical mixture 
that produces visible light displays or sounds through a self- 
propagating, heat-releasing chemical reaction which is initi- 
ated by ignition. 

PYROTECHNIC SPECIAL EFFECT. A visible or audible 
effect for entertainment created through the use of pyrotech- 
nic materials and devices. 

PYROTECHNIC SPECIAL-EFFECT MATERIAL. A 
chemical mixture used in the entertainment industry to pro- 
duce visible or audible effects by combustion, deflagration or 
detonation. Such a chemical mixture predominantly consists 
of solids capable of producing a controlled, self-sustaining 
and self-contained exothermic chemical reaction that results 
in heat, gas sound, light or a combination of these effects. The 
chemical reaction functions without external oxygen. 

PYROTECHNICS. Controlled exothermic chemical reac- 
tions timed to create the effects of heat, hot gas, sound, dis- 
persion of aerosols, emission of visible light or a combination 
of such effects to achieve the maximum effect from the least 
volume of pyrotechnic composition. 

QUANTITY-DISTANCE (Q-D). The quantity of explosive 
material and separation distance relationships providing pro- 
tection. These relationships are based on levels of risk consid- 
ered acceptable for the stipulated exposures and are tabulated 
in the appropriate Q-D tables. The separation distances speci- 
fied afford less than absolute safety: 

Inhabited building distance (IBD). The minimum sepa- 
ration distance between an operating building or magazine 
containing explosive materials and an inhabited building 
or site boundary. 

Intermagaziee distance (IMD). The minimum separation 
distance between magazines. 

Intraline distance (ILD) or Intraplant distance (IPD). 
The distance to be maintained between any two operating 
buildings on an explosives manufacturing site when at 
least one contains or is designed to contain explosives, or 
the distance between a magazine and an operating build- 
ing. 

Minimum separation distance (D„). The minimum sepa- 
ration distance between adjacent buildings occupied in 
conjunction with the manufacture, transportation, storage 
or use of explosive materials where one of the buildings 
contains explosive materials and the other building does 
not. 

RAILWAY. A steam, electric or other railroad or railway 

that carriers passengers for hire. 

[B] RAMP. A walking surface that has a running slope 

steeper than one unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent 

slope). 

RAW PRODUCT. A mixture of natural materials such as 

tree, brush trimmings, or waste logs and stumps. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



39 



DEFINITIONS 



READY BOX. A weather-resistant container with a self- 
closing or automatic -closing cover that protects fireworks 
shells from burning debris. Tarpaulins shall not be considered 
as ready boxes. 

RECORD DRAWINGS. Drawings ("as builts") that docu- 
ment the location of all devices, appliances, wiring, 
sequences, wiring methods and connections of the compo- 
nents of a fire alarm system as installed. 

RECREATIONAL FIRE. An outdoor fire burning materi- 
als other than rubbish where the fuel being burned is not con- 
tained in an incinerator, outdoor fireplace, portable outdoor 
fireplace, barbeque grill or barbeque pit and has a total fuel 
area of 3 feet (914 mm) or less in diameter and 2 feet (610 
mm) or less in height for pleasure, religious, ceremonial, 
cooking, warmth or similar purposes. 

REDUCED FLOW VALVE. A valve equipped with a 
restricted flow orifice and inserted into a compressed gas cyl- 
inder, portable tank or stationary tank that is designed to 
reduce the maximum flow from the valve under full-flow 
conditions. The maximum flow rate from the valve is deter- 
mined with the valve allowed to flow to atmosphere with no 
other piping or fittings attached. 

REFINERY. A plant in which flammable or combustible liq- 
uids are produced on a commercial scale from crude petro- 
leum, natural gasoline or other hydrocarbon sources. 

REFRIGERANT. The fluid used for heat transfer in a refrig- 
eration system; the refrigerant absorbs heat and transfers it at 
a higher temperature and a higher pressure, usually with a 
change of state. 

[M] REFRIGERATING (REFRIGERATION) SYSTEM. 
A combination of interconnected refrigerant-containing parts 
constituting one closed refrigerant circuit in which a refriger- 
ant is circulated for the purpose of extracting heat. 

[A] REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An archi- 
tect or engineer, registered or licensed to practice profes- 
sional architecture or engineering, as defined by the statutory 
requirements of the professional registration laws of the state 
in which the project is to be constructed. 

[B] RELIGIOUS WORSHIP, PLACE OF. A building or 
portion thereof intended for the performance of religious ser- 
vices. 

REMOTE EMERGENCY SHUTOFF DEVICE. The 
combination of an operator-carried signaling device and a 
mechanism on the tank vehicle. Activation of the remote 
emergency shutoff device sends a signal to the tanker- 
mounted mechanism and causes fuel flow to cease. 

REMOTE SOLVENT RESERVOIR. A liquid solvent con- 
tainer enclosed against evaporative losses to the atmosphere 
during periods when the container is not being utilized, 
except for a solvent return opening not larger than 16 square 
inches (10 322 mm 2 ). Such return allows pump-cycled used 
solvent to drain back into the reservoir from a separate sol- 
vent sink or work area. 

REMOTELY LOCATED, MANUALLY ACTIVATED 
SHUTDOWN CONTROL. A control system that is 
designed to initiate shutdown of the flow of gases or liquids 



that is manually activated from a point located some distance 
from the delivery system. 

REPAIR GARAGE. A building, structure or portion thereof 
used for servicing or repairing motor vehicles. 

RESIN APPLICATION AREA. An area where reinforced 
plastics are used to manufacture products by hand lay-up or 
spray-fabrication methods. 

RESPONSIBLE PERSON. A person trained in the safety 
and fire safety considerations concerned with hot work. 
Responsible for reviewing the sites prior to issuing permits as 
part of the hot work permit program and following up as the 
job progresses. 

RETAIL DISPLAY AREA. The area of a Group M occu- 
pancy open for the purpose of viewing or purchasing mer- 
chandise offered for sale. Individuals in such establishments 
are free to circulate among the items offered for sale which 
are typically displayed on shelves, racks or the floor. 

ROLL COATING. The process of coating, spreading and 
impregnating fabrics, paper or other materials as they are 
passed directly through a tank or trough containing flamma- 
ble or combustible liquids, or over the surface of a roller 
revolving partially submerged in a flammable or combustible 
liquid. 

RUBBISH (TRASH). Combustible and noncombustible 
waste materials, including residue from the burning of coal, 
wood, coke or other combustible material, paper, rags, car- 
tons, tin cans, metals, mineral matter, glass crockery, dust and 
discarded refrigerators, and heating, cooking or incinerator- 
type appliances. 

SAFETY CAN. An approved container of not more than 5- 
gallon (19 L) capacity having a spring-closing lid and spout 
cover so designed that it will relieve internal pressure when 
subjected to fire exposure. 

[B] SCISSOR STAIR. Two interlocking stairways provid- 
ing two separate paths of egress located within one stairwell 
enclosure. 

SECONDARY CONTAINMENT. That level of contain- 
ment that is external to and separate from primary contain- 
ment. 

SEED COTTON. See "Cotton." 

SEGREGATED. Storage in the same room or inside area, 
but physically separated by distance from incompatible mate- 
rials. 

[Bj SELF-CLOSING. As applied to a fire door or other 
opening, means equipped with an approved device that will 
ensure closing after having been opened. 

[B] SELF-LUMINOUS. Illuminated by a self-contained 
power source, other than batteries, and operated indepen- 
dently of external power sources. 

[B] SELF-PRESERVATION, INCAPABLE OF. See 
"Incapable of Self-Preservation." 

SELF-SERVICE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACIL- 
ITY. That portion of motor fuel-dispensing facility where liq- 
uid motor fuels are dispensed from fixed approved 



40 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



dispensing equipment into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles by 
persons other than a motor fuel-dispensing facility attendant. 

SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITY. A 
building or a portion of a building in which electrical circuits 
or devices are created on solid crystalline substances having 
electrical conductivity greater than insulators but less than 
conductors. These circuits or devices are commonly known 
as semiconductors. 

SERVICE CORRIDOR. A fully enclosed passage used for 
transporting HPM and purposes other than required means of 
egress. 

SHELF STORAGE. Storage on shelves less than 30 inches 
(762 mm) deep with the distance between shelves not exceed- 
ing 3 feet (914 mm) vertically. For other shelving arrange- 
ments, see the requirements for rack storage. 

SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. An assembly 
incorporating the detector, the control equipment and the 
alarm-sounding device in one unit, operated from a power 
supply either in the unit or obtained at the point of installa- 
tion. 

[B] SITE. A parcel of land bounded by a lot line or a desig- 
nated portion of a public right-of-way. 

SITE-FABRICATED STRETCH SYSTEM. A system, 
fabricated on site and intended for acoustical, tackable or aes- 
thetic purposes, that is comprised of three elements: 

1 . A frame constructed of plastic, wood, metal or other 
material used to hold fabric in place; 

2. A core material (infill, with the correct properties for 
the application); and 

3. An outside layer, comprised of a textile, fabric or vinyl, 
that is stretched taut and held in place by tension or 
mechanical fasteners via the frame. 

[B] SLEEPING UNIT. A room or space in which people 
sleep, which can also include permanent provisions for liv- 
ing, eating, and either sanitation or kitchen facilities but not 
both. Such rooms and spaces that are also part of a dwelling 
unit are not sleeping units. 

SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION. A shotgun, rifle or pistol 
cartridge and any cartridge for propellant-actuated devices. 
This definition does not include military ammunition contain- 
ing bursting charges or incendiary, trace, spotting or pyro- 
technic projectiles. 

SMALL ARMS PRIMERS. Small percussion-sensitive 
explosive charges, encased in a cap, used to ignite propellant 
powder. 

SMOKE ALARM. A single- or multiple-station alarm 
responsive to smoke. See also "Single-station Smoke Alarm" 
and "Multiple-Station Smoke Alarm." 

[B] SMOKE BARRIER. A continuous membrane, either 
vertical or horizontal, such as a wall, floor, or ceiling assem- 
bly, that is designed and constructed to restrict the movement 
of smoke. 

[B] SMOKE COMPARTMENT. A space within a building 
enclosed by smoke barriers on all sides, including the top and 
bottom. 



[B] SMOKE DAMPER. A listed device installed in ducts 
and air transfer openings designed to resist the passage of 
smoke. The device is installed to operate automatically, con- 
trolled by a smoke detection system, and where required, is 
capable of being positioned from afire command center. 

SMOKE DETECTOR. A listed device that senses visible or 
invisible particles of combustion. 

[B] SMOKE-DEVELOPED INDEX. A comparative mea- 
sure, expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from 
measurements of smoke obscuration versus time for a mate- 
rial tested in accordance with ASTM E 84. 

[B] SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY SEATING. 
Seating served by means of egress that is not subject to 
smoke accumulation within or under a structure. 

SMOKELESS PROPELLANTS. Solid propellants, com- 
monly referred to as smokeless powders, used in small arms 
ammunition, cannons, rockets, propellant-actuated devices 
and similar articles. 

[B] SMOKEPROOF ENCLOSURE. An exit stairway 
designed and constructed so that the movement of the prod- 
ucts of combustion produced by a fire occurring in any part of 
the building into the enclosure is limited. 

SOLID. A material that has a melting point and decomposes 
or sublimes at a temperature greater than 68°F (20°C). 

SOLID SHELVING. Shelving that is solid, slatted or of 
other construction located in racks and which obstructs sprin- 
kler discharge down into the racks. 

SOLVENT DISTILLATION UNIT. An appliance that 
receives contaminated flammable or combustible liquids and 
which distills the contents to remove contaminants and 
recover the solvents. 

SOLVENT OR LIQUID CLASSIFICATIONS. A method 
for classifying solvents or liquids according to the following 
classes: 

Class I solvents. Liquids having a flash point below 
100°F (38°C). 

Class II solvents. Liquids having a flash point at or above 
100°F (38°C) and below 140°F (60°C). 

Class IIIA solvents. Liquids having a flash point at or 
above HOT (60°C) and below 200°F (93°C). 

Class IIIB solvents. Liquids having a flash point at or 
above 200°F (93°C). 

Class IV solvents. Liquids classified as nonflammable. 

SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDING. A building that is 
temporary, permanent or mobile that contains a device or sys- 
tem that conveys passengers or provides a walkway along, 
around or over a course in any direction as a form of amuse- 
ment arranged so that the egress path is not readily apparent 
due to visual or audio distractions or an intentionally con- 
founded egress path, or is not readily available because of the 
mode of conveyance through the building or structure. 

SPECIAL INDUSTRIAL EXPLOSIVE DEVICE. An 
explosive power pack containing an explosive charge in the 
form of a cartridge or construction device. The term includes 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



41 



DEFINITIONS 



but is not limited to explosive rivets, explosive bolts, explo- 
sive charges for driving pins or studs, cartridges for explo- 
wVe-actuated power tools and charges of explosives used in 
automotive air bag inflators, jet tapping of open hearth fur- 
naces and jet perforation of oil well casings. 

SPRAY BOOTH. A mechanically ventilated appliance of 
varying dimensions and construction provided to enclose or 
accommodate a spraying operation and to confine and limit 
the escape of spray vapor and residue and to exhaust it safely. 

SPRAY ROOM. A room designed to accommodate spraying 
operations, constructed in accordance with the International 
Building Code and separated from the remainder of the build- 
ing by a minimum l-hour/iVe barrier. 

SPRAYING SPACE. An area in which dangerous quantities 
of flammable vapors or combustible residues, dusts or depos- 
its are present due to the operation of spraying processes. The 
fire code official is authorized to define the limits of the 
spraying space in any specific case. 

| B] STAIR. A change in elevation, consisting of one or more 
risers. 

[B] STAIRWAY. One or more flights of stairs, either exte- 
rior or interior, with the necessary landings and platforms 
connecting them, to form a continuous and uninterrupted pas- 
sage from one level to another. 

[B] STAIRWAY, EXTERIOR. A stairway that is open on 
at least one side, except for required structural columns, 
beams, handrails and guards. The adjoining open areas shall 
be either yards, courts or public ways. The other sides of the 
exterior stairway need not be open. 

[B] STAIRWAY, INTERIOR. A stairway not meeting the 

definition of an exterior stairway. 

[B] STAIRWAY, INTERIOR EXIT. See "Interior Exit 

Stairway." 

[B] STAIRWAY, SPIRAL. A stairway having a closed cir- 
cular form in its plan view with uniform section-shaped 
treads attached to and radiating from a minimum-diameter 
supporting column. 

STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF. Standpipe system 
classes are as follows: 

Class I system. A system providing 27,-inch (64 mm) 
hose connections to supply water for use by fire depart- 
ments and those trained in handling heavy fire streams. 

Class II system. A system providing l'/ 2 -inch (38 mm) 
hose stations to supply water for use primarily by the 
building occupants or by the fire department during initial 
response. 

Class III system. A system providing l7 2 -inch (38 mm) 
hose stations to supply water for use by building occu- 
pants and 27,-inch (64 mm) hose connections to supply a 
larger volume of water for use by fire departments and 
those trained in handling heavy fire streams. 

STANDPIPE, TYPES OF. Standpipe types are as follows: 

Automatic dry. A dry standpipe system, normally filled 
with pressurized air, that is arranged through the use of a 
device, such as a dry pipe valve, to admit water into the 



system piping automatically upon the opening of a hose 
valve. The water supply for an automatic dry standpipe 
system shall be capable of supplying the system demand. 

Automatic wet. A wet standpipe system that has a water 
supply that is capable of supplying the system demand 
automatically. 

Manual dry. A dry standpipe system that does not have a 
permanent water supply attached to the system. Manual 
dry standpipe systems require water from a fire depart- 
ment pumper to be pumped into the system through the 
fire department connection in order to supply the system 
demand. 

Manual wet. A wet standpipe system connected to a water 
supply for the purpose of maintaining water within the 
system but which does not have a water supply capable of 
delivering the system demand attached to the system. 
Manual wet standpipe systems require water from a fire 
department pumper (or the like) to be pumped into the sys- 
tem in order to supply the system demand. 

Semiautomatic dry. A dry standpipe system that is 
arranged through the use of a device, such as a deluge 
valve, to admit water into the system piping upon activa- 
tion of a remote control device located at a hose connec- 
tion. A remote control activation device shall be provided 
at each hose connection. The water supply for a semiauto- 
matic dry standpipe system shall be capable of supplying 
the system demand. 

STATIC PILES. Piles in which processed wood product is 

mounded and is not being turned or moved. 

STEEL. Hot- or cold-rolled as defined by the International 
Building Code. 

STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. The keeping, 
retention or leaving of hazardous materials in closed contain- 
ers, tanks, cylinders, or similar vessels; or vessels supplying 
operations through closed connections to the vessel. 

[B] STORY. That portion of a building included between the 
upper surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or 
roof next above (also see "Mezzanine" and Section 502. 1 of 
the International Building Code). It is measured as the verti- 
cal distance from top to top of two successive tiers of beams 
or finished floor surfaces and, for the topmost story, from the 
top of the floor finish to the top of the ceiling joists or, where 
there is not a ceiling, to the top of the roof rafters. 
[B] STORY ABOVE GRADE PLANE. Any story having 
its finished floor surface entirely above grade plane, or in 
which the finished surface of the floor next above is: 

1. More than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade plane; or 

2. More than 12 feet (3658 mm) above the finished 
ground level at any point. 

SUPERVISING STATION. A facility that receives signals 
and at which personnel are in attendance at all times to 
respond to these signals. 

SUPERVISORY SERVICE. The service required to moni- 
tor performance of guard tours and the operative condition of 
fixed suppression systems or other systems for the protection 
of life and property. 



42 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. A signal indicating the need of 
action in connection with the supervision of guard tours, the 
fire suppression systems or equipment, or the maintenance 
features of related systems. 

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. An 
initiating device such as a valve supervisory switch, water 
level indicator, or low-air pressure switch on a dry-pipe sprin- 
kler system whose change of state signals an off-normal con- 
dition and its restoration to normal of a fire protection or life 
safety system; or a need for action in connection with guard 
tours, fire suppression systems or equipment, or maintenance 
features of related systems. 

SYSTEM. An assembly of equipment consisting of a tank, 
container or containers, appurtenances, pumps, compressors 
and connecting piping. 

TANK. A vessel containing more than 60 gallons (227 L). 

TANK, ATMOSPHERIC. A storage tank designed to oper- 
ate at pressures from atmospheric through 1.0 pound per 
square inch gauge (760 mm Hg through 812 mm Hg) mea- 
sured at the top of the tank. 

TANK, PORTABLE. A packaging of more than 60-gallon 
(227 L) capacity and designed primarily to be loaded into or 
on or temporarily attached to a transport vehicle or ship and 
equipped with skids, mountings or accessories to facilitate 
handling of the tank by mechanical means. It does not include 
any cylinder having less than a 1 ,000-pound (454 kg) water 
capacity, cargo tank, tank car tank or trailers carrying cylin- 
ders of more than 1 ,000-pound (454 kg) water capacity. 

TANK, PRIMARY. A listed atmospheric tank used to store 
liquid. See "Primary containment." 

TANK, PROTECTED ABOVE GROUND. A tank listed in 
accordance with UL 2085 consisting of a primary tank pro- 
vided with protection from physical damage and fire-resistive 
protection from a high-intensity liquid pool fire exposure. 
The tank may provide protection elements as a unit or may be 
an assembly of components, or a combination thereof. 

TANK, STATIONARY. Packaging designed primarily for 
stationary installations not intended for loading, unloading or 
attachment to a transport vehicle as part of its normal opera- 
tion in the process of use. It does not include cylinders having 
less than a 1 ,000-pound (454 kg) water capacity. 

TANK VEHICLE. A vehicle other than a railroad tank car 
or boat, with a cargo tank mounted thereon or built as an inte- 
gral part thereof, used for the transportation of flammable or 
combustible liquids, LP-gas or hazardous chemicals. Tank 
vehicles include self-propelled vehicles and full trailers and 
semitrailers, with or without motive power, and carrying part 
or all of the load. 

TENT. A structure, enclosure or shelter, with or without 
sidewalls or drops, constructed of fabric or pliable material 
supported by any manner except by air or the contents that it 
protects. 

THEFT RESISTANT. Construction designed to deter ille- 
gal entry into facilities for the storage of explosive materials. 



TIMBER AND LUMBER PRODUCTION FACILITIES. 
Facilities where raw wood products are processed into fin- 
ished wood products. 

TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF. Storage of tires where the 
area available for storage exceeds 20,000 cubic feet (566 m 3 ). 

TOOL. A device, storage container, workstation or process 
machine used in a fabrication area. 

TORCH-APPLIED ROOF SYSTEM. Bituminous roofing 
systems using membranes that are adhered by heating with a 
torch and melting asphalt back coating instead of mopping 
hot asphalt for adhesion. 

[B] TOWNHOUSE. A single-family dwelling unit con- 
structed in a group of three or more attached units in which 
each unit extends from the foundation to roof and with open 
space on at least two sides. 

TOXIC. A chemical falling within any of the following cate- 
gories: 

1. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD 50 ) of 
more than 50 milligrams per kilogram, but not more 
than 500 milligrams per kilogram of body weight when 
administered orally to albino rats weighing between 
200 and 300 grams each. 

2. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD 5() ) of 
more than 200 milligrams per kilogram but not more 
than 1,000 milligrams per kilogram of body weight 
when administered by continuous contact for 24 hours 
(or less if death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare 
skin of albino rabbits weighing between 2 and 3 kilo- 
grams each. 

3. A chemical that has a median lethal concentration 
(LC 50 ) in air of more than 200 parts per million but not 
more than 2,000 parts per million by volume of gas or 
vapor, or more than 2 milligrams per liter but not more 
than 20 milligrams per liter of mist, fume or dust, when 
administered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour (or 
less if death occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats weigh- 
ing between 200 and 300 grams each. 

TRAFFIC CALMING DEVICES. Traffic calming devices 
are design elements of fire apparatus access roads such as 
street alignment, installation of barriers, and other physical 
measures intended to reduce traffic and cut-through volumes, 
and slow vehicle speeds. 

[B] TRANSIENT. Occupancy of a dwelling unit or sleeping 
unit for not more than 30 days. 

[B] TRANSIENT AIRCRAFT. Aircraft based at another 
location and that is at the transient location for not more than 
90 days. 

TRANSVERSE FLUE SPACE. See "Flue space— Trans- 
verse." 

TRASH. See "Rubbish." 

TROUBLE SIGNAL. A signal initiated by the fire alarm 
system or device indicative of a fault in a monitored circuit or 
component. 

TUBE TRAILER. A semitrailer on which a number of tubu- 
lar gas cylinders have been mounted. A manifold is typically 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



43 



DEFINITIONS 



provided that connects the cylinder valves enabling gas to be 
discharged from one or more tubes or cylinders through a 
piping and control system. 

[B] TWENTY-FOUR HOUR CARE. See "24-hour Care" 
before the "A" entries. 

UNAUTHORIZED DISCHARGE. A release or emission 
of materials in a manner which does not conform to the provi- 
sions of this code or applicable public health and safety regu- 
lations. 

UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIAL. A material, other 
than an explosive, which in the pure state or as commercially 
produced, will vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense 
or become self-reactive and undergo other violent chemical 
changes, including explosion, when exposed to heat, friction 
or shock, or in the absence of an inhibitor, or in the presence 
of contaminants, or in contact with incompatible materials. 
Unstable (reactive) materials are subdivided as follows: 

Class 4. Materials that in themselves are readily capable 
of detonation or explosive decomposition or explosive 
reaction at normal temperatures and pressures. This class 
includes materials that are sensitive to mechanical or 
localized thermal shock at normal temperatures and pres- 
sures. 

Class 3. Materials that in themselves are capable of deto- 
nation or of explosive decomposition or explosive reaction 
but which require a strong initiating source or which must 
be heated under confinement before initiation. This class 
includes materials that are sensitive to thermal or mechan- 
ical shock at elevated temperatures and pressures. 

Class 2. Materials that in themselves are normally unsta- 
ble and readily undergo violent chemical change but do 
not detonate. This class includes materials that can 
undergo chemical change with rapid release of energy at 
normal temperatures and pressures, and that can undergo 
violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and 
pressures. 

Class 1. Materials that in themselves are normally stable 
but which can become unstable at elevated temperatures 
and pressure. 

UNWANTED FIRE. A fire not used for cooking, heating or 
recreational purposes or one not incidental to the normal 
operations of the property. 

USE (MATERIAL). Placing a material into action, includ- 
ing solids, liquids and gases. 

VAPOR PRESSURE. The pressure exerted by a volatile 
fluid as determined in accordance with ASTM D 323. 

[M] VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of 
supplying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing 
such air from, any space. 

VESSEL. A motorized watercraft, other than a seaplane on 
the water, used or capable of being used as a means of trans- 
portation. Nontransportation vessels, such as houseboats and 
boathouses, are included in this definition. 

VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A 
notification appliance that alerts by the sense of sight. 



WATER-REACTIVE MATERIAL. A material that 
explodes; violently reacts; produces flammable, toxic or other 
hazardous gases; or evolves enough heat to cause autoigni- 
tion or ignition of combustibles upon exposure to water or 
moisture. Water-reactive materials are subdivided as follows: 

Class 3. Materials that react explosively with water with- 
out requiring heat or confinement. 

Class 2. Materials that react violently with water or have 
the ability to boil water. Materials that produce flammable, 
toxic or other hazardous gases, or evolve enough heat to 
cause autoignition or ignition of combustibles upon expo- 
sure to water or moisture. 

Class 1. Materials that react with water with some release 
of energy, but not violently. 

WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. A solu- 
tion of water and potassium-carbonate-based chemical, potas- 
sium-acetate-based chemical or a combination thereof, 
forming an extinguishing agent. 

WET FUELING. See "Mobile Fueling." 

WET HOSING. See "Mobile Fueling." 

WHARF. A structure or bulkhead constructed of wood, 
stone, concrete or similar material built at the shore of a har- 
bor, lake or river for vessels to lie alongside of, and to anchor 
piers or floats. 

WILDFIRE RISK AREA. Land that is covered with grass, 
grain, brush or forest, whether privately or publicly owned, 
which is so situated or is of such inaccessible location that a 
fire originating upon it would present an abnormally difficult 
job of suppression or would result in great or unusual damage 
through fire or such areas designated by the fire code official. 

[B] WINDER. A tread with nonparallel edges. 

WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM. A system or a part 
of a system that can transmit and receive signals without the 
aid of wire. 

WORKSTATION. A defined space or an independent prin- 
cipal piece of equipment using HPM within a fabrication area 
where a specific function, laboratory procedure or research 
activity occurs. Approved or listed hazardous materials stor- 
age cabinets, flammable liquid storage cabinets or gas cabi- 
nets serving a workstation are included as part of the 
workstation. A workstation is allowed to contain ventilation 
equipment, fire protection devices, detection devices, electri- 
cal devices and other processing and scientific equipment. 

[B] YARD. An open space, other than a court, unobstructed 
from the ground to the sky, except where specifically pro- 
vided by the International Building Code, on the lot on which 
a building is situated. 

ZONE. A defined area within the protected premises. A zone 
can define an area from which a signal can be received, an 
area to which a signal can be sent or an area in which a form 
of control can be executed. 

ZONE, NOTIFICATION. An area within a building orfa- 
cility covered by notification appliances which are activated 
simultaneously. 



44 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



Part II— General Safety Provisions 



CHAPTER 3 

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 



SECTION 301 
GENERAL 

301.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
occupancy and maintenance of all structures and premises for 
precautions against fire and the spread of fire and general 
requirements of fire safety. 

301.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tion 105.6 for the activities or uses regulated by Sections 306, 
307, 308 and 315. 



SECTION 302 
DEFINITIONS 

302.1 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chap- 
ter 2: 

BONFIRE. 

HI-BOY. 

HIGH- VOLTAGE TRANSMISSION LINE. 

OPEN BURNING. 

PORTABLE OUTDOOR FIREPLACE. 

POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCK. 

RECREATIONAL FIRE. 



SECTION 303 
ASPHALT KETTLES 

303.1 Transporting. Asphalt (tar) kettles shall not be trans- 
ported over any highway, road or street when the heat source 
for the kettle is operating. 

Exception: Asphalt (tar) kettles in the process of patching 
road surfaces. 

303.2 Location. Asphalt (tar) kettles shall not be located 
within 20 feet (6096 mm) of any combustible material, com- 
bustible building surface or any building opening and within 
a controlled area identified by the use of traffic cones, barri- 
ers or other approved means. Asphalt (tar) kettles and pots 
shall not be utilized inside or on the roof of a building or 
structure. Roofing kettles and operating asphalt (tar) kettles 
shall not block means of egress, gates, roadways or entrances. 

303.3 Location of fuel containers. Fuel containers shall be 
located at least 10 feet (3048 mm) from the burner. 

Exception: Containers properly insulated from heat or 
flame are allowed to be within 2 feet (610 mm) of the 
burner. 



303.4 Attendant. An operating kettle shall be attended by a 
minimum of one employee knowledgeable of the operations 
and hazards. The employee shall be within 100 feet (30 480 
mm) of the kettle and have the kettle within sight. Ladders or 
similar obstacles shall not form a part of the route between 
the attendant and the kettle. 

303.5 Fire extinguishers. There shall be a portable fire extin- 
guisher complying with Section 906 and with a minimum 40- 
B:C rating within 25 feet (7620 mm) of each asphalt (tar) ket- 
tle during the period such kettle is being utilized. Addition- 
ally, there shall be one portable fire extinguisher with a 
minimum 3-A:40-B:C rating on the roof being covered. 

303.6 Lids. Asphalt (tar) kettles shall be equipped with tight- 
fitting lids. 

303.7 Hi-boys. Hi-boys shall be constructed of noncombusti- 
ble materials. Hi-boys shall be limited to a capacity of 55 gal- 
lons (208 L). Fuel sources or heating elements shall not be 
allowed as part of a hi-boy. 

303.8 Roofing kettles. Roofing kettles shall be constructed 
of noncombustible materials. 

303.9 Fuel containers under air pressure. Fuel containers 
that operate under air pressure shall not exceed 20 gallons (76 
L) in capacity and shall be approved. 



SECTION 304 
COMBUSTIBLE WASTE MATERIAL 
304.1 Waste accumulation prohibited. Combustible waste 
material creating a fire hazard shall not be allowed to accu- 
mulate in buildings or structures or upon premises. 

304.1.1 Waste material. Accumulations of wastepaper, 
wood, hay, straw, weeds, litter or combustible or flamma- 
ble waste or rubbish of any type shall not be permitted to 
remain on a roof or in any court, yard, vacant lot, alley, 
parking lot, open space, or beneath a grandstand, bleacher, 
pier, wharf, manufactured home, recreational vehicle or 
other similar structure. 

304.1.2 Vegetation. Weeds, grass, vines or other growth 
that is capable of being ignited and endangering property, 
shall be cut down and removed by the owner or occupant 
of the premises. Vegetation clearance requirements in 
urban-wildland interface areas shall be in accordance with 
the International Wildland-Urban Interface Code. 

304.1.3 Space underneath seats. Spaces underneath 
grandstand and bleacher seats shall be kept free from com- 
bustible and flammable materials. Except where enclosed 
in not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction in 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



45 



GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 



accordance with the International Building Code, spaces 
underneath grandstand and bleacher seats shall not be 
occupied or utilized for purposes other than means of 
egress. 

304.2 Storage. Storage of combustible rubbish shall not pro- 
duce conditions that will create a nuisance or a hazard to the 
public health, safety or welfare. 

304.3 Containers. Combustible rubbish, and waste material 
kept within or near a structure shall be stored in accordance 
with Sections 304.3.1 through 304.3.4. 

304.3.1 Spontaneous ignition. Materials susceptible to 
spontaneous ignition, such as oily rags, shall be stored in a 
listed disposal container. Contents of such containers shall 
be removed and disposed of daily. 

304.3.2 Capacity exceeding 5.33 cubic feet. Containers 
with a capacity exceeding 5.33 cubic feet (40 gallons) 
(0.15 m 3 ) shall be provided with lids. Containers and lids 
shall be constructed of noncombustible materials or of 
combustible materials with a peak rate of heat release not 
exceeding 300 kW/nf when tested in accordance with 
ASTM E 1354 at an incident heat flux of 50 kW/m 2 in the 
horizontal orientation. 

Exception: Wastebaskets complying with Section 808. 

304.3.3 Capacity exceeding 1.5 cubic yards. Dumpsters 
and containers with an individual capacity of 1.5 cubic 
yards [40.5 cubic feet (1.15 m 3 )] or more shall not be 
stored in buildings or placed within 5 feet (1524 mm) of 
combustible walls, openings or combustible roof eave 
lines. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Dumpsters or containers in areas protected by an 
approved automatic sprinkler system installed 
throughout in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 
903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3. 

2. Storage in a structure shall not be prohibited 
where the structure is of Type I or IIA construc- 
tion, located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) 
from other buildings and used exclusively for 
dumpster or container storage. 

304.3.4 Capacity of 1 cubic yard or more. Dumpsters 
with an individual capacity of 1.0 cubic yard [200 gallons 
(0.76 m 3 )] or more shall not be stored in buildings or 
placed within 5 feet (1524 mm) of combustible walls, 
openings or combustible roof eave lines unless the dump- 
sters are constructed of noncombustible materials or of 
combustible materials with a peak rate of heat release not 
exceeding 300 kW/m 2 when tested in accordance with 
ASTM E 1354 at an incident heat flux of 50 kW/m 2 in the 
horizontal orientation. 

Exceptions: 

1. Dumpsters in areas protected by an approved 
automatic sprinkler system installed throughout 
in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 903.3 1 2 
or 903.3.1.3. 



2. Storage in a structure shall not be prohibited 
where the structure is of Type I or IIA construc- 
tion, located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) 
from other buildings and used exclusively for 
dumpster or container storage. 

SECTION 305 
IGNITION SOURCES 

305.1 Clearance from ignition sources. Clearance between 
ignition sources, such as luminaires, heaters, flame-producing 
devices and combustible materials, shall be maintained in an 
approved manner. 

305.2 Hot ashes and spontaneous ignition sources. Hot 

ashes, cinders, smoldering coals or greasy or oily materials 
subject to spontaneous ignition shall not be deposited in a 
combustible receptacle, within 10 feet (3048 mm) of other 
combustible material including combustible walls and parti- 
tions or within 2 feet (610 mm) of openings to buildings. 

Exception: The minimum required separation distance to 
other combustible materials shall be 2 feet (610 mm) 
where the material is deposited in a covered, noncombusti- 
ble receptacle placed on a noncombustible floor, ground 
surface or stand. 

305.3 Open-flame warning devices. Open-flame warning 
devices shall not be used along an excavation, road, or any 
place where the dislodgment of such device might permit the 
device to roll, fall or slide on to any area or land containing 
combustible material. 

305.4 Deliberate or negligent burning. It shall be unlawful 
to deliberately or through negligence set fire to or cause the 
burning of combustible material in such a manner as to 
endanger the safety of persons or property. 



SECTION 306 
MOTION PICTURE PROJECTION ROOMS AND FILM 

306.1 Motion picture projection rooms. Electric arc, xenon 
or other light source projection equipment which develops 
hazardous gases, dust or radiation and the projection of rib- 
bon-type cellulose nitrate film, regardless of the light source 
used in projection, shall be operated within a motion picture 
projection room complying with Section 409 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

306.2 Cellulose nitrate film storage. Storage of cellulose 
nitrate film shall be in accordance with NFPA 40. 



SECTION 307 

OPEN BURNING, RECREATIONAL FIRES AND 

PORTABLE OUTDOOR FIREPLACES 

307.1 General. A person shall not kindle or maintain or 
authorize to be kindled or maintained any open burning 
unless conducted and approved in accordance with Sections 
307.1.1 through 307.5. 



46 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 



307.1.1 Prohibited open burning. Open burning shall be 
prohibited when atmospheric conditions or local circum- 
stances make such fires hazardous. 

Exception: Prescribed burning for the purpose of 
reducing the impact of wildland fire when authorized 
by the fire code official. 

307.2 Permit required. A permit shall be obtained from the 
fire code official in accordance with Section 105.6 prior to 
kindling a fire for recognized silvicultural or range or wildlife 
management practices, prevention or control of disease or 
pests, or a bonfire. Application for such approval shall only 
be presented by and permits issued to the owner of the land 
upon which the fire is to be kindled. 

307.2.1 Authorization. Where required by state or local 
law or regulations, open burning shall only be permitted 
with prior approval from the state or local air and water 
quality management authority, provided that all conditions 
specified in the authorization are followed. 

307.3 Extinguishment authority. When open burning cre- 
ates or adds to a hazardous situation, or a required permit for 
open burning has not been obtained, the fire code official is 
authorized to order the extinguishment of the open burning 
operation. 

307.4 Location. The location for open burning shall not be 
less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from any structure, and provi- 
sions shall be made to prevent the fire from spreading to 
within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of any structure. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Fires in approved containers that are not less than 15 
feet (4572 mm) from a structure. 

2. The minimum required distance from a structure 
shall be 25 feet (7620 mm) where the pile size is 3 
feet (914 mm) or less in diameter and 2 feet (610 
mm) or less in height. 

307.4.1 Bonfires. A bonfire shall not be conducted within 
50 feet (15 240 mm) of a structure or combustible material 
unless the fire is contained in a barbecue pit. Conditions 
which could cause a fire to spread within 50 feet (15 240 
mm) of a structure shall be eliminated prior to ignition. 

307.4.2 Recreational fires. Recreational fires shall not be 
conducted within 25 feet (7620 mm) of a structure or com- 
bustible material. Conditions which could cause a fire to 
spread within 25 feet (7620 mm) of a structure shall be 
eliminated prior to ignition. 

307.4.3 Portable outdoor fireplaces. Portable outdoor 
fireplaces shall be used in accordance with the manufac- 
turer's instructions and shall not be operated within 15 feet 
(3048 mm) of a structure or combustible material. 

Exception: Portable outdoor fireplaces used at one- 
and two-family dwellings. 

307.5 Attendance. Open burning, bonfires, recreational fires 
and use of portable outdoor fireplaces shall be constantly 
attended until the fire is extinguished. A minimum of one 
portable fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 with a 
minimum 4-A rating or other approved on-site fire-extin- 
guishing equipment, such as dirt, sand, water barrel, garden 



hose or water truck, shall be available for immediate utiliza- 
tion. 



SECTION 308 
OPEN FLAMES 

308.1 General. Open flame, fire and burning on all premises 
shall be in accordance with Sections 308.1.1 through 308.4.1 
and with other applicable sections of this code. 

308.1.1 Where prohibited. A person shall not take or uti- 
lize an open flame or light in a structure, vessel, boat or 
other place where highly flammable, combustible or 
explosive material is utilized or stored. Lighting appli- 
ances shall be well-secured in a glass globe and wire mesh 
cage or a similar approved device. 

308.1.2 Throwing or placing sources of ignition. No 
person shall throw or place, or cause to be thrown or 
placed, a lighted match, cigar, cigarette, matches, or other 
flaming or glowing substance or object on any surface or 
article where it can cause an unwanted fire. 

308.1.3 Torches for removing paint. Persons utilizing a 
torch or other flame-producing device for removing paint 
from a structure shall provide a minimum of one portable 
fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 and with a 
minimum 4-A rating, two portable fire extinguishers, each 
with a minimum 2-A rating, or a water hose connected to 
the water supply on the premises where such burning is 
done. The person doing the burning shall remain on the 
premises 1 hour after the torch or flame-producing device 
is utilized. 

308.1.4 Open-flame cooking devices. Charcoal burners 
and other open-flame cooking devices shall not be oper- 
ated on combustible balconies or within 10 feet (3048 
mm) of combustible construction. 

Exceptions: 

1 . One- and two- family dwellings. 

2. Where buildings, balconies and decks are pro- 
tected by an automatic sprinkler system. 

3. LP-gas cooking devices having LP-gas container 
with a water capacity not greater than 2'/ 2 pounds 
[nominal 1 pound (0.454 kg) LP-gas capacity]. 

308.1.5 Location near combustibles. Open flames such 
as from candles, lanterns, kerosene heaters and gas-fired 
heaters shall not be located on or near decorative material 
or similar combustible materials. 

308.1.6 Open-flame devices. Torches and other devices, 
machines or processes liable to start or cause fire shall not 
be operated or used in or upon wildfire risk areas, except 
by a permit in accordance with Section 105.6 secured from 
the fire code official. 

Exception: Use within inhabited premises or desig- 
nated campsites which are a minimum of 30 feet (9144 
mm) from grass-, grain-, brush- or forest-covered areas. 

308.1.6.1 Signals and markers. Flame-employing 
devices, such as lanterns or kerosene road flares, shall 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



47 



GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 



not be operated or used as a signal or marker in or upon 
wildfire risk areas. 

Exception: The proper use of fusees at the scenes of 
emergencies or as required by standard railroad 
operating procedures. 

308.1.6.2 Portable fueled open-flame devices. Porta- 
ble open-flame devices fueled by flammable or com- 
bustible gases or liquids shall be enclosed or installed 
in such a manner as to prevent the flame from contact- 
ing combustible material. 

Exceptions: 

1 . LP-gas-fueled devices used for sweating pipe 
joints or removing paint in accordance with 
Chapter 61. 

2. Cutting and welding operations in accordance 
with Chapter 35. 

3. Torches or flame-producing devices in accor- 
dance with Section 308.4. 

4. Candles and open-flame decorative devices in 
accordance with Section 308.3. 

308.1.7 Religious ceremonies. When, in the opinion of 
the fire code official, adequate safeguards have been taken, 
participants in religious ceremonies are allowed to carry 
hand-held candles. Hand-held candles shall not be passed 
from one person to another while lighted. 

308.1.7.1 Aisles and exits. Candles shall be prohibited 
in areas where occupants stand, or in an aisle or exit. 

308.1.8 Flaming food and beverage preparation. The 
preparation of flaming foods or beverages in places of 
assembly and drinking or dining establishments shall be in 
accordance with Sections 308.1.8.1 through 308.1.8.5. 

308.1.8.1 Dispensing. Flammable or combustible liq- 
uids used in the preparation of flaming foods or bever- 
ages shall be dispensed from one of the following: 

1. A 1-ounce (29.6 ml) container; or 

2. A container not exceeding 1-quart (946.5 ml) 
capacity with a controlled pouring device that 
will limit the flow to a 1-ounce (29.6 ml) serving. 

308.1.8.2 Containers not in use. Containers shall be 
secured to prevent spillage when not in use. 

308.1.8.3 Serving of flaming food. The serving of 
flaming foods or beverages shall be done in a safe man- 
ner and shall not create high flames. The pouring, 
ladling or spooning of liquids is restricted to a maxi- 
mum height of 8 inches (203 mm) above the receiving 
receptacle. 

308.1 .8.4 Location. Flaming foods or beverages shall 
be prepared only in the immediate vicinity of the table 
being serviced. They shall not be transported or carried 
while burning. 

308.1.8.5 Fire protection. The person preparing the 
flaming foods or beverages shall have a wet cloth towel 
immediately available for use in smothering the flames 
in the event of an emergency. 



308.2 Permits required. Permits shall be obtained from the 
fire code official in accordance with Section 105.6 prior to 
engaging in the following activities involving open flame, 
fire and burning: 

1. Use of a torch or flame-producing device to remove 
paint from a structure. 

2. Use of open flame, fire or burning in connection with 
Group A or E occupancies. 

3. Use or operation of torches and other devices, machines 
or processes liable to start or cause fire in or upon wild- 
fire risk areas. 

308.3 Group A occupancies. Open-flame devices shall not 
be used in a Group A occupancy. 

Exceptions: 

1. Open-flame devices are allowed to be used in the 
following situations, provided approved precautions 
are taken to prevent ignition of a combustible mate- 
rial or injury to occupants: 

1.1. Where necessary for ceremonial or religious 
purposes in accordance with Section 
308.1.7. 

1.2. On stages and platforms as a necessary part 
of a performance in accordance with Section 

308.3.2. 

1.3. Where candles on tables are securely sup- 
ported on substantial noncombustible bases 
and the candle flames are protected. 

2. Heat-producing equipment complying with Chapter 
6 and the International Mechanical Code. 

3. Gas lights are allowed to be used provided adequate 
precautions satisfactory to the fire code official are 
taken to prevent ignition of combustible materials. 

308.3.1 Open-flame decorative devices. Open-flame 
decorative devices shall comply with all of the following 
restrictions: 

1 . Class I and Class II liquids and LP-gas shall not be 
used. 

2. Liquid- or solid-fueled lighting devices containing 
more than 8 ounces (237 ml) of fuel must self- 
extinguish and not leak fuel at a rate of more than 
0.25 teaspoon per minute (1.26 ml per minute) if 
tipped over. 

3. The device or holder shall be constructed to pre- 
vent the spillage of liquid fuel or wax at the rate of 
more than 0.25 teaspoon per minute (1.26 ml per 
minute) when the device or holder is not in an 
upright position. 

4. The device or holder shall be designed so that it 
will return to the upright position after being tilted 
to an angle of 45 degrees from vertical. 

Exception: Devices that self-extinguish if 
tipped over and do not spill fuel or wax at the 
rate of more than 0.25 teaspoon per minute 
(1.26 ml per minute) if tipped over. 



48 



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5. The flame shall be enclosed except where open- 
ings on the side are not more than 0.375-inch (9.5 
mm) diameter or where openings are on the top 
and the distance to the top is such that a piece of 
tissue paper placed on the top will not ignite in 10 
seconds. 

6. Chimneys shall be made of noncombustible mate- 
rials and securely attached to the open-flame 
device. 

Exception: A chimney is not required to be 
attached to any open-flame device that will 
self-extinguish if the device is tipped over. 

7. Fuel canisters shall be safely sealed for storage. 

8. Storage and handling of combustible liquids shall 
be in accordance with Chapter 57. 

9. Shades, where used, shall be made of noncombus- 
tible materials and securely attached to the open- 
flame device holder or chimney. 

10. Candelabras with flame-lighted candles shall be 
securely fastened in place to prevent overturning, 
and shall be located away from occupants using 
the area and away from possible contact with 
drapes, curtains or other combustibles. 

308.3.2 Theatrical performances. Where approved, 
open-flame devices used in conjunction with theatrical 
performances are allowed to be used when adequate safety 
precautions have been taken in accordance with NFPA 
160. 

308.4 Group R occupancies. Open flame, fire and burning in 
Group R occupancies shall comply with the requirements of 
Sections 308.1 through 308.1.6.2 and Section 308.4.1. 

308.4.1 Group R-2 dormitories. Candles, incense and 
similar open-flame-producing items shall not be allowed 
in sleeping units in Group R-2 dormitory occupancies. 



SECTION 309 
POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCKS AND EQUIPMENT 

309.1 General. Powered industrial trucks and similar equip- 
ment including, but not limited to, floor scrubbers and floor 
buffers, shall be operated and maintained in accordance with 
Section 309.2 through 309.6. 

309.2 Battery chargers. Battery chargers shall be of an 
approved type. Combustible storage shall be kept a minimum 
of 3 feet (915 mm) from battery chargers. Battery charging 
shall not be conducted in areas accessible to the public. 

309.3 Ventilation. Ventilation shall be provided in an 
approved manner in battery-charging areas to prevent a dan- 
gerous accumulation of flammable gases. 

309.4 Fire extinguishers. Battery-charging areas shall be 
provided with a fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 
having a minimum 4-A:20-B:C rating within 20 feet (6096 
mm) of the battery charger. 

309.5 Refueling. Powered industrial trucks using liquid fuel, 
LP-gas or hydrogen shall be refueled outside of buildings or 



in areas specifically approved for that purpose. Fixed fuel- 
dispensing equipment and associated fueling operations shall 
be in accordance with Chapter 23. Other fuel-dispensing 
equipment and operations, including cylinder exchange for 
LP-gas-fueled vehicles, shall be in accordance with Chapter 
57 for flammable and combustible liquids or Chapter 61 for 
LP-gas. 

309.6 Repairs. Repairs to fuel systems, electrical systems 
and repairs utilizing open flame or welding shall be done in 
approved locations outside of buildings or in areas specifi- 
cally approved for that purpose. 



SECTION 310 

SMOKING 

310.1 General. The smoking or carrying of a lighted pipe, 
cigar, cigarette or any other type of smoking paraphernalia or 
material is prohibited in the areas indicated in Sections 310.2 
through 310.8. 

310.2 Prohibited areas. Smoking shall be prohibited where 
conditions are such as to make smoking a hazard, and in 
spaces where flammable or combustible materials are stored 
or handled. 

310.3 "No Smoking" signs. The fire code official is autho- 
rized to order the posting of "No Smoking" signs in a con- 
spicuous location in each structure or location in which 
smoking is prohibited. The content, lettering, size, color and 
location of required "No Smoking" signs shall be approved. 

310.4 Removal of signs prohibited. A posted "No Smoking" 
sign shall not be obscured, removed, defaced, mutilated or 
destroyed. 

310.5 Compliance with "No Smoking" signs. Smoking 
shall not be permitted nor shall a person smoke, throw or 
deposit any lighted or smoldering substance in any place 
where "No Smoking" signs are posted. 

310.6 Ash trays. Where smoking is permitted, suitable non- 
combustible ash trays or match receivers shall be provided on 
each table and at other appropriate locations. 

310.7 Burning objects. Lighted matches, cigarettes, cigars or 
other burning object shall not be discarded in such a manner 
that could cause ignition of other combustible material. 

310.8 Hazardous environmental conditions. When the fire 
code official determines that hazardous environmental condi- 
tions necessitate controlled use of smoking materials, the 
ignition or use of such materials in mountainous, brush-cov- 
ered or forest-covered areas or other designated areas is pro- 
hibited except in approved designated smoking areas. 



SECTION 311 
VACANT PREMISES 

311.1 General. Temporarily unoccupied buildings, struc- 
tures, premises or portions thereof, including tenant spaces, 
shall be safeguarded and maintained in accordance with Sec- 
tions 311.1.1 through 31 1.5.5. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



49 



GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 



311.1.1 Abandoned premises. Buildings, structures and 
premises for which an owner cannot be identified or 
located by dispatch of a certificate of mailing to the last 
known or registered address, which persistently or repeat- 
edly become unprotected or unsecured, which have been 
occupied by unauthorized persons or for illegal purposes, 
or which present a danger of structural collapse or fire 
spread to adjacent properties shall be considered aban- 
doned, declared unsafe and abated by demolition or reha- 
bilitation in accordance with the International Property 
Maintenance Code and the International Building Code. 

311.1.2 Tenant spaces. Storage and lease plans required 
by this code shall be revised and updated to reflect tempo- 
rary or partial vacancies. 

311.2 Safeguarding vacant premises. Temporarily unoccu- 
pied buildings, structures, premises or portions thereof shall 
be secured and protected in accordance with Sections 311.2.1 
through 31 1.2.3. 

311.2.1 Security. Exterior and interior openings accessi- 
ble to other tenants or unauthorized persons shall be 
boarded, locked, blocked or otherwise protected to prevent 
entry by unauthorized individuals. The fire code official is 
authorized to placard, post signs, erect barrier tape or take 
similar measures as necessary to secure public safety. 

311.2.2 Fire protection. Fire alarm, sprinkler and stand- 
pipe systems shall be maintained in an operable condition 
at all times. 

Exceptions: 

1. When the premises have been cleared of all com- 
bustible materials and debris and, in the opinion 
of the fire code official, the type of construction, 
fire separation distance and security of the prem- 
ises do not create a fire hazard. 

2. Where approved by the fire chief, buildings that 
will not be heated and where fire protection sys- 
tems will be exposed to freezing temperatures, 
fire alarm and sprinkler systems are permitted to 
be placed out of service and standpipes are per- 
mitted to be maintained as dry systems (without 
an automatic water supply), provided the build- 
ing has no contents or storage, and windows, 
doors and other openings are secured to prohibit 
entry by unauthorized persons. 

311.2.3 Fire separation. Fire-resistance-rated partitions, 
fire barriers and fire walls separating vacant tenant spaces 
from the remainder of the building shall be maintained. 
Openings, joints and penetrations in fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies shall be protected in accordance with Chapter 
7. 

311.3 Removal of combustibles. Persons owning, or in 
charge or control of, a vacant building or portion thereof, 
shall remove therefrom all accumulations of combustible 
materials, flammable or combustible waste or rubbish and 
shall securely lock or otherwise secure doors, windows and 
other openings to prevent entry by unauthorized persons. The 



premises shall be maintained clear of waste or hazardous 
materials. 

Exceptions: 

1. Buildings or portions of buildings undergoing addi- 
tions, alterations, repairs or change of occupancy in 
accordance with the International Building Code, 
where waste is controlled and removed as required 
by Section 304. 

2. Seasonally occupied buildings. 

311.4 Removal of hazardous materials. Persons owning or 
having charge or control of a vacant building containing haz- 
ardous materials regulated by Chapter 50 shall comply with 
the facility closure requirements of Section 5001.6. 

311.5 Placards. Any vacant or abandoned buildings or struc- 
tures determined to be unsafe pursuant to Section 1 10 of this 
code relating to structural or interior hazards shall be marked 
as required by Sections 31 1.5.1 through 311.5.5. 

311.5.1 Placard location. Placards shall be applied on the 
front of the structure and be visible from the street. Addi- 
tional placards shall be applied to the side of each entrance 
to the structure and on penthouses. 

311.5.2 Placard size and color. Placards shall be 24 
inches by 24 inches (610 mm by 610 mm) minimum in 
size with a red background, white reflective stripes and a 
white reflective border. The stripes and border shall have a 
2-inch (51 mm) minimum stroke. 

311.5.3 Placard date. Placards shall bear the date of their 
application to the building and the date of the most recent 
inspection. 

311.5.4 Placard symbols. The design of the placards shall 
use the following symbols: 

1. L.J This symbol shall mean that the structure had 
normal structural conditions at the time of marking. 

2. I_\J This symbol shall mean that structural or interior 
hazards exist and interior fire-fighting or rescue 
operations should be conducted with extreme cau- 
tion. 

3. \z\\ This symbol shall mean that structural or interior 
hazards exist to a degree that consideration should 
be given to limit fire fighting to exterior operations 
only, with entry only occurring for known life haz- 
ards. 

4. Vacant marker hazard identification symbols: The 
following symbols shall be used to designate known 
hazards on the vacant building marker. They shall be 
placed directly above the symbol. 

4.1. R/O— Roof open 

4.2. S/M — Stairs, steps and landing missing 

4.3. F/E — Avoid fire escapes 

4.4. H/F— Holes in floor 



50 



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311.5.5 Informational use. The use of these symbols 
shall be informational only and shall not in any way limit 
the discretion of the on-scene incident commander. 



SECTION 312 
VEHICLE IMPACT PROTECTION 

312.1 General. Vehicle impact protection required by this 
code shall be provided by posts that comply with Section 

312.2 or by other approved physical barriers that comply with 
Section 312.3. 

312.2 Posts. Guard posts shall comply with all of the follow- 
ing requirements: 

1. Constructed of steel not less than 4 inches (102 mm) in 
diameter and concrete filled. 

2. Spaced not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) between posts 
on center. 

3. Set not less than 3 feet (914 mm) deep in a concrete 
footing of not less than a 15-inch (381 mm) diameter. 

4. Set with the top of the posts not less than 3 feet (914 
mm) above ground. 

5. Located not less than 3 feet (914 mm) from the pro- 
tected object. 

312.3 Other barriers. Physical barriers shall be a minimum 
of 36 inches (914 mm) in height and shall resist a force of 
12,000 pounds (53 375 N) applied 36 inches (914 mm) above 
the adjacent ground surface. 

SECTION 313 
FUELED EQUIPMENT 

313.1 General. Fueled equipment including, but not limited 
to, motorcycles, mopeds, lawn-care equipment, portable gen- 
erators and portable cooking equipment, shall not be stored, 
operated or repaired within a building. 

Exceptions: 

1. Buildings or rooms constructed for such use in 
accordance with the International Building Code. 

2. Where allowed by Section 314. 

3. Storage of equipment utilized for maintenance pur- 
poses is allowed in approved locations when the 
aggregate fuel capacity of the stored equipment does 
not exceed 10 gallons (38 L) and the building is 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

313.1.1 Removal. The fire code official is authorized to 
require removal of fueled equipment from locations where 
the presence of such equipment is determined by the ./ire 
code official to be hazardous. 
313.2 Group R occupancies. Vehicles powered by flamma- 
ble liquids, Class II combustible liquids or compressed flam- 
mable gases shall not be stored within the living space of 
Group R buildings. 



SECTION 314 
INDOOR DISPLAYS 

314.1 General. Indoor displays constructed within any occu- 
pancy shall comply with Sections 314.2 through 314.4. 

314.2 Fixtures and displays. Fixtures and displays of goods 
for sale to the public shall be arranged so as to maintain free, 
immediate and unobstructed access to exits as required by 
Chapter 10. 

314.3 Highly combustible goods. The display of highly 
combustible goods, including but not limited to fireworks, 
flammable or combustible liquids, liquefied flammable gases, 
oxidizing materials, pyroxylin plastics and agricultural 
goods, in main exit access aisles, corridors, covered and open | 
malls, or within 5 feet (1524 mm) of entrances to exits and 
exterior exit doors is prohibited when a fire involving such 
goods would rapidly prevent or obstruct egress. 

314.4 Vehicles. Liquid- or gas-fueled vehicles, boats or other 
motorcraft shall not be located indoors except as follows: 

1. Batteries are disconnected. 

2. Fuel in fuel tanks does not exceed one-quarter tank or 5 
gallons (19 L) (whichever is least). 

3. Fuel tanks and fill openings are closed and sealed to 
prevent tampering. 

4. Vehicles, boats or other motorcraft equipment are not 
fueled or defueled within the building. 

SECTION 315 
GENERAL STORAGE 

315.1 General. Storage shall be in accordance with Sections 

315.2 through 315.4. 

315.2 Permit required. A permit for miscellaneous combus- 
tible storage shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6. 

315.3 Storage in buildings. Storage of materials in buildings 
shall be orderly and stacks shall be stable. Storage of combus- 
tible materials shall be separated from heaters or heating 
devices by distance or shielding so that ignition cannot occur. 

315.3.1 Ceiling clearance. Storage shall be maintained 2 
feet (610 mm) or more below the ceiling in nonsprinklered 
areas of buildings or a minimum of 18 inches (457 mm) 
below sprinkler head deflectors in sprinklered areas of 
buildings. 

315.3.2 Means of egress. Combustible materials shall not 
be stored in exits or enclosures for stairways and ramps. 

315.3.3 Equipment rooms. Combustible material shall 
not be stored in boiler rooms, mechanical rooms or electri- 
cal equipment rooms. 

315.3.4 Attic, under-floor and concealed spaces. Attic, 
under-floor and concealed spaces used for storage of com- 
bustible materials shall be protected on the storage side as 
required for 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. 
Openings shall be protected by assemblies that are self- 
closing and are of noncombustible construction or solid 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



51 



GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 



wood core not less than l 3 / 4 inches (44.5 mm) in thickness. 
Storage shall not be placed on exposed joists. 

Exceptions: 

1. Areas protected by approved automatic sprinkler 
systems. 

2. Group R-3 and Group U occupancies. 

315.4 Outside storage. Outside storage of combustible mate- 
rials shall not be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of a lot 
line. 

Exceptions: 

1. The separation distance is allowed to be reduced to 3 
feet (914 mm) for storage not exceeding 6 feet (1829 
mm) in height. 

2. The separation distance is allowed to be reduced 
when the fire code official determines that no hazard 
to the adjoining property exists. 

315.4.1 Storage beneath overhead projections from 
buildings. Where buildings are protected by automatic 
sprinklers, the outdoor storage, display and handling of 
combustible materials under eaves, canopies or other pro- 
jections or overhangs is prohibited except where automatic 
sprinklers are installed under such eaves, canopies or other 
projections or overhangs. 

315.4.2 Height. Storage in the open shall not exceed 20 
feet (6096 mm) in height. 

315.5 Storage underneath high-voltage transmission lines. 
Storage located underneath high-voltage transmission lines 
shall be in accordance with Section 316.6.2. 



SECTION 316 
HAZARDS TO FIRE FIGHTERS 

316.1 Trapdoors to be closed. Trapdoors and scuttle covers, 
other than those that are within a dwelling unit or automati- 
cally operated, shall be kept closed at all times except when 
in use. 

316.2 Shaftway markings. Vertical shafts shall be identified 
as required by this section. 

316.2.1 Exterior access to shaftways. Outside openings 
accessible to the fire department and which open directly 
on a hoistway or shaftway communicating between two or 
more floors in a building shall be plainly marked with the 
word SHAFTWAY in red letters at least 6 inches (152 
mm) high on a white background. Such warning signs 
shall be placed so as to be readily discernible from the out- 
side of the building. 

316.2.2 Interior access to shaftways. Door or window 
openings to a hoistway or shaftway from the interior of the 
building shall be plainly marked with the word SHAFT- 
WAY in red letters at least 6 inches (152 mm) high on a 
white background. Such warning signs shall be placed so 
as to be readily discernible. 

Exception: Marking shall not be required on shaftway 
openings which are readily discernible as openings 
onto a shaftway by the construction or arrangement. 



316.3 Pitfalls. The intentional design or alteration of build- 
ings to disable, injure, maim or kill intruders is prohibited. No 
person shall install and use firearms, sharp or pointed objects, 
razor wire, explosives, flammable or combustible liquid con- 
tainers, or dispensers containing highly toxic, toxic, irritant or 
other hazardous materials in a manner which may passively 
or actively disable, injure, maim or kill a fire fighter who 
forcibly enters a building for the purpose of controlling or 
extinguishing a fire, rescuing trapped occupants or rendering 
other emergency assistance. 

316.4 Obstructions on roofs. Wires, cables, ropes, antennas, 
or other suspended obstructions installed on the roof of a 
building having a roof slope of less than 30 degrees shall not 
create an obstruction that is less than 7 feet (2133 mm) high 
above the surface of the roof. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Such obstruction shall be permitted where the wire, 
cable, rope, antenna or suspended obstruction is 
encased in a white, 2-inch (51 mm) minimum diam- 
eter plastic pipe or an approved equivalent. 

2. Such obstruction shall be permitted where there is a 
solid obstruction below such that accidentally walk- 
ing into the wire, cable, rope, antenna or suspended 
obstruction is not possible. 

316.5 Security device. Any security device or system that 
emits any medium that could obscure a means of egress in 
any building, structure or premise shall be prohibited. 

316.6 Structures and outdoor storage underneath high- 
voltage transmission lines. Structures and outdoor storage 
underneath high- voltage transmission lines shall comply with 
Sections 316.6.1 and 316.6.2, respectively. 

316.6.1 Structures. Structures shall not be constructed 
within the utility easement beneath high-voltage transmis- 
sion lines. 

Exception: Restrooms and unoccupied telecommuni- 
cation structures of noncombustible construction less 
than 1 5 feet in height. 

316.6.2 Outdoor storage. Outdoor storage within the util- 
ity easement underneath high-voltage transmission lines 
shall be limited to noncombustible material. Storage of 
hazardous materials including, but not limited to, flamma- 
ble and combustible liquids is prohibited. 

Exception: Combustible storage, including vehicles 
and fuel storage for backup power equipment serving 
public utility equipment, is allowed, provided that a 
plan indicating the storage configuration is submitted 
and approved. 



SECTION 317 
ROOFTOP GARDENS AND LANDSCAPED ROOFS 

317.1 General. Rooftop gardens and landscaped roofs shall 
be installed and maintained in accordance with Sections 

317.2 through 317.5 and Sections 1505.0 and 1507.16 of the 
International Building Code. 



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GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 



317.2 Rooftop garden or landscaped roof size. Rooftop 
garden or landscaped roof areas shall not exceed 15,625 
square feet (1 ,450 m 2 ) in size for any single area with a maxi- 
mum dimension of 125 feet (39 m) in length or width. A min- 
imum 6-foot- wide (1.8 m) clearance consisting of a Class A- 
rated roof system complying with ASTM E 108 or UL 790 
shall be provided between adjacent rooftop gardens or land- 
scaped roof areas. 

317.3 Rooftop structure and equipment clearance. For all 
vegetated roofing systems abutting combustible vertical sur- 
faces, a Class A-rated roof system complying with ASTM E 
108 or UL 790 shall be achieved for a minimum 6-foot-wide 
(1.8 m) continuous border placed around rooftop structures 
and all rooftop equipment including, but not limited to, 
mechanical and machine rooms, penthouses, skylights, roof 
vents, solar panels, antenna supports, and building service 
equipment. 

317.4 Vegetation. Vegetation shall be maintained in accor- 
dance with Sections 317.4.1 and 317.4.2. 

317.4.1 Irrigation. Supplemental irrigation shall be pro- 
vided to maintain levels of hydration necessary to keep 
green roof plants alive and to keep dry foliage to a mini- 
mum. 

317.4.2 Dead foliage. Excess biomass, such as overgrown 
vegetation, leaves and other dead and decaying material, 
shall be removed at regular intervals not less than two 
times per year. 

317.4.3 Maintenance plan. The fire code official is autho- 
rized to require a maintenance plan for vegetation placed 
on roofs due to the size of a roof garden, materials used, or 
when a fire hazard exists to the building or exposures due 
to the lack of maintenance. 

317.5 Maintenance equipment. Fueled equipment stored on 
roofs and used for the care and maintenance of vegetation on 
roofs shall be stored in accordance with Section 313. 



SECTION 318 
LAUNDRY CARTS 

318.1 Laundry carts with a capacity of 1 cubic yard or 

more. Laundry carts with an individual capacity of 1 cubic 
yard [200 gallons (0.76 m 3 )] or more, used in laundries within 
Group B, F-l, I and R-l occupancies shall be constructed of 
noncombustible materials or materials having a peak rate of 
heat release not exceeding 300 kW/m 2 at a flux of 50 kW/m 2 
when tested in a horizontal orientation in accordance with 
ASTM E 1354. 

Exceptions: 

1. Laundry carts in areas protected by an approved 
automatic sprinkler system installed throughout in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1 .1 . 

2. Laundry carts in coin-operated laundries. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 53 



54 201 2 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



CHAPTER 4 

EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 



SECTION 401 
GENERAL 

401.1 Scope. Reporting of emergencies, coordination with 
emergency response forces, emergency plans and procedures 
for managing or responding to emergencies shall comply 
with the provisions of this section. 

Exception: Firms that have approved on-premises fire- 
fighting organizations and that are in compliance with 
approved procedures for fire reporting. 

401.2 Approval. Where required by this code, fire safety 
plans, emergency procedures and employee training pro- 
grams shall be approvedby the fire code official. 

401.3 Emergency responder notification. Notification of 
emergency responders shall be in accordance with Sections 
401.3.1 through 401.3.3. 

401.3.1 Fire events. In the event an unwanted fire occurs 
on a property, the owner or occupant shall immediately 
report such condition to the fire department. 

401.3.2 Alarm activations. Upon activation of a fire 
alarm signal, employees or staff shall immediately notify 
the fire department. 

401.3.3 Delayed notification. A person shall not, by ver- 
bal or written directive, require any delay in the reporting 
of a fire to the fire department. 

401.4 Required plan implementation. In the event an 
unwanted fire is detected in a building or a fire alarm acti- 
vates, the emergency plan shall be implemented. 

401.5 Making false report. A person shall not give, signal or 
transmit a false alarm. 

401.6 Emergency evacuation drills. The sounding of a fire 
alarm signal and the carrying out of an emergency evacuation 
drill in accordance with the provisions of Section 405 shall be 
allowed. 

401.7 Unplanned evacuation. Evacuations made necessary 
by the unplanned activation of a fire alarm system or by any 
other emergency shall not be substituted for a required evacu- 
ation drill. 

401.8 Interference with fire department operations. It 

shall be unlawful to interfere with, attempt to interfere with, 
conspire to interfere with, obstruct or restrict the mobility of 
or block the path of travel of a fire department emergency 
vehicle in any way, or to interfere with, attempt to interfere 
with, conspire to interfere with, obstruct or hamper any fire 
department operation. 



SECTION 402 
DEFINITIONS 

402.1 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chap- 
ter 2: 

EMERGENCY EVACUATION DRILL. 

LOCKDOWN. 



SECTION 403 
PUBLIC ASSEMBLAGES AND EVENTS 

403.1 Fire watch personnel. When, in the opinion of the fire 
code official, it is essential for public safety in a place of 
assembly or any other place where people congregate, 
because of the number of persons, or the nature of the perfor- 
mance, exhibition, display, contest or activity, the owner, 
agent or lessee shall provide one or more fire watch person- 
nel, as required and approved, to remain on duty during the 
times such places are open to the public, or when such activ- 
ity is being conducted. 

403.1.1 Duties. Fire watch personnel shall keep diligent 
watch for fires, obstructions to means of egress and other 
hazards during the time such place is open to the public or 
such activity is being conducted and take prompt measures 
for remediation of hazards, extinguishment of fires that 
occur and assist in the evacuation of the public from the 
structures. 

403.2 Public safety plan. In other than Group A or E occu- 
pancies, where the fire code official determines that an indoor 
or outdoor gathering of persons has an adverse impact on 
public safety through diminished access to buildings, struc- 
tures, fire hydrants and fire apparatus access roads or where 
such gatherings adversely affect public safety services of any 
kind, the fire code official shall have the authority to order the 
development of, or prescribe a plan for, the provision of an 
approved level of public safety. 

403.2.1 Contents. The public safety plan, where required 
by Section 403.2, shall address such items as emergency 
vehicle ingress and egress, fire protection, emergency 
egress or escape routes, emergency medical services, pub- 
lic assembly areas and the directing of both attendees and 
vehicles (including the parking of vehicles), vendor and 
food concession distribution, and the need for the presence 
of law enforcement, and fire and emergency medical ser- 
vices personnel at the event. 

403.3 Crowd managers. Trained crowd managers shall be 
provided for facilities or events where more than 1,000 per- 



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EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 



sons congregate. The minimum number of crowd managers 
shall be established at a ratio of one crowd manager to every 
250 persons. Where approved by the fire code official, the 
ratio of crowd managers shall be permitted to be reduced 
where the facility is equipped throughout with an approved 
automatic sprinkler system or based upon the nature of the 
event. 



SECTION 404 
FIRE SAFETY AND EVACUATION PLANS 

404.1 General. Fire safety, evacuation and lockdown plans 
and associated drills shall comply with the requirements of 
Sections 404.2 through 404.5.1. 

404.2 Where required. An approved fire safety and evacua- 
tion plan shall be prepared and maintained for the following 
occupancies and buildings. 

1 . Group A, other than Group A occupancies used exclu- 
sively for purposes of religious worship that have an 
occupant load less than 2,000. 

2. Group B buildings having an occupant load of 500 or 
more persons or more than 100 persons above or 
below the lowest level of exit discharge. 

3. Group E. 

4. Group F buildings having an occupant load of 500 or 
more persons or more than 100 persons above or 
below the lowest level of exit discharge. 

5. Group H. 

6. Group I. 

7. Group R-l. 

8. Group R-2 college and university buildings. 

9. Group R-4. 

10. High-rise buildings. 

1 1 . Group M buildings having an occupant load of 500 or 
more persons or more than 100 persons above or 
below the lowest level of exit discharge. 

12. Covered malls exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 
m 2 ) in aggregate floor area. 

113. Open mall buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet 
(4645 m 2 ) in aggregate area within perimeter line. 

14. Underground buildings. 

15. Buildings with an atrium and having an occupancy in 
Group A, E or M. 

404.3 Contents. Fire safety and evacuation plan contents 
shall be in accordance with Sections 404.3.1 and 404.3.2. 

404.3.1 Fire evacuation plans. Fire evacuation plans 
shall include the following: 

1. Emergency egress or escape routes and whether 
evacuation of the building is to be complete or, 
where approved, by selected floors or areas only. 

2. Procedures for employees who must remain to oper- 
ate critical equipment before evacuating. 



3. Procedures for assisted rescue for persons unable to 
use the general means of egress unassisted. 

4. Procedures for accounting for employees and occu- 
pants after evacuation has been completed. 

5. Identification and assignment of personnel responsi- 
ble for rescue or emergency medical aid. 

6. The preferred and any alternative means of notifying 
occupants of a fire or emergency. 

7. The preferred and any alternative means of reporting 
fires and other emergencies to the fire department or 
designated emergency response organization. 

8. Identification and assignment of personnel who can 
be contacted for further information or explanation 
of duties under the plan. 

9. A description of the emergency voice/alarm com- 
munication system alert tone and preprogrammed 
voice messages, where provided. 

404.3.2 Fire safety plans. Fire safety plans shall include 
the following: 

1. The procedure for reporting a fire or other emer- 
gency. 

2. The life safety strategy and procedures for notifying, 
relocating or evacuating occupants, including occu- 
pants who need assistance. 

3. Site plans indicating the following: 

3.1. The occupancy assembly point. 

3.2. The locations of fire hydrants. 

3.3. The normal routes of fire department vehicle 
access. 

4. Floor plans identifying the locations of the follow- 
ing: 

4.1. Exits. 

4.2. Primary evacuation routes. 

4.3. Secondary evacuation routes. 

4.4. Accessible egress routes. 

4.5. Areas of refuge. 

4.6. Exterior areas for assisted rescue. 

4.7. Manual fire alarm boxes. 

4.8. Portable fire extinguishers. 

4.9. Occupant-use hose stations. 

4.10. Fire alarm annunciators and controls. 

5. A list of major fire hazards associated with the nor- 
mal use and occupancy of the premises, including 
maintenance and housekeeping procedures. 

6. Identification and assignment of personnel responsi- 
ble for maintenance of systems and equipment 
installed to prevent or control fires. 

7. Identification and assignment of personnel responsi- 
ble for maintenance, housekeeping and controlling 
fuel hazard sources. 



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404.3.3 Lockdown plans. Where facilities develop a lock- 
down plan, the lockdown plan shall be in accordance with 
Sections 404.3.3.1 through 404.3.3.3. 

404.3.3.1 Lockdown plan contents. Lockdown plans 
shall be approved by the fire code official and shall 
include the following: 

1. Initiation. The plan shall include instructions for 
reporting an emergency that requires a lockdown. 

2. Accountability. The plan shall include account- 
ability procedures for staff to report the presence 
or absence of occupants. 

3. Recall. The plan shall include a prearranged sig- 
nal for returning to normal activity. 

4. Communication and coordination. The plan shall 
include an approved means of two-way commu- 
nication between a central location and each 
secured area. 

404.3.3.2 Training frequency. The training frequency 
shall be included in the lockdown plan. The lockdown 
drills shall not substitute for any of the fire and evacua- 
tion drills required in Section 405.2. 

404.3.3.3 Lockdown notification. The method of noti- 
fying building occupants of a lockdown shall be 
included in the plan. The method of notification shall 
be separate and distinct from the fire alarm signal. 

404.4 Maintenance. Fire safety and evacuation plans shall be 
reviewed or updated annually or as necessitated by changes 
in staff assignments, occupancy or the physical arrangement 
of the building. 

404.5 Availability. Fire safety and evacuation plans shall be 
available in the workplace for reference and review by 
employees, and copies shall be furnished to the fire code offi- 
cial for review upon request. 

404.5.1 Distribution. The fire safety and evacuation plans 
shall be distributed to the tenants and building service 
employees by the owner or owner's agent. Tenants shall 
distribute to their employees applicable parts of the fire 
safety plan affecting the employees' actions in the event of 
a fire or other emergency. 



SECTION 405 
EMERGENCY EVACUATION DRILLS 

405.1 General. Emergency evacuation drills complying with 
the provisions of this section shall be conducted at least annu- 
ally in the occupancies listed in Section 404.2 or when 
required by the fire code official. Drills shall be designed in 
cooperation with the local authorities. 

405.2 Frequency. Required emergency evacuation drills 
shall be held at the intervals specified in Table 405.2 or more 
frequently where necessary to familiarize all occupants with 
the drill procedure. 

405.3 Leadership. Responsibility for the planning and con- 
duct of drills shall be assigned to competent persons desig- 
nated to exercise leadership. 



405.4 Time. Drills shall be held at unexpected times and 
under varying conditions to simulate the unusual conditions 
that occur in case of fire. 

405.5 Record keeping. Records shall be maintained of 
required emergency evacuation drills and include the follow- 
ing information: 

1. Identity of the person conducting the drill. 

2. Date and time of the drill. 

3. Notification method used. 

4. Staff members on duty and participating. 

5. Number of occupants evacuated. 

6. Special conditions simulated. 

7. Problems encountered. 

8. Weather conditions when occupants were evacuated. 

9. Time required to accomplish complete evacuation. 

TABLE 405.2 

FIRE AND EVACUATION DRILL 

FREQUENCY AND PARTICIPATION 



GROUP OR 
OCCUPANCY 


FREQUENCY 


PARTICIPATION 


Group A 


Quarterly 


Employees 


Group B c 


Annually 


Employees 


Group E 


Monthly 2 


All occupants 


Group F 


Annually 


Employees 


Group I 


Quarterly on each shift 


Employees b 


Group R-l 


Quarterly on each shift 


Employees 


Group R-2 d 


Four annually 


All occupants 


Group R-4 


Quarterly on each shift 


Employees b 


High-rise buildings 


Annually 


Employees 



a. The frequency shall be allowed to be modified in accordance with Section 
408.3.2. 

b. Fire and evacuation drills in residential care assisted living facilities shall 
include complete evacuation of the premises in accordance with Section 
408.10.5. Where occupants receive habilitation or rehabilitation training, 
fire prevention and fire safety practices shall be included as part of the 
training program. 

c. Group B buildings having an occupant load of 500 or more persons or 
more than 1 00 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge. 

d. Applicable to Group R-2 college and university buildings in accordance 
with Section 408.3. 

405.6 Notification. Where required by the fire code official, 
prior notification of emergency evacuation drills shall be 
given to the fire code official. 

405.7 Initiation. Where a fire alarm system is provided, 
emergency evacuation drills shall be initiated by activating 
the fire alarm system. 

405.8 Accountability. As building occupants arrive at the 
assembly point, efforts shall be made to determine if all occu- 
pants have been successfully evacuated or have been 
accounted for. 

405.9 Recall and reentry. An electrically or mechanically 
operated signal used to recall occupants after an evacuation 
shall be separate and distinct from the signal used to initiate 



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the evacuation. The recall signal initiation means shall be 
manually operated and under the control of the person in 
charge of the premises or the official in charge of the inci- 
dent. No one shall reenter the premises until authorized to do 
so by the official in charge. 



SECTION 406 
EMPLOYEE TRAINING AND 
RESPONSE PROCEDURES 

406.1 General. Employees in the occupancies listed in Sec- 
tion 404.2 shall be trained in the fire emergency procedures 
described in their fire evacuation and fire safety plans. Train- 
ing shall be based on these plans and as described in Section 
404.3. 

406.2 Frequency. Employees shall receive training in the 
contents of fire safety and evacuation plans and their duties as 
part of new employee orientation and at least annually there- 
after. Records shall be kept and made available to the fire 
code official upon request. 

406.3 Employee training program. Employees shall be 
trained in fire prevention, evacuation and fire safety in accor- 
dance with Sections 406.3.1 through 406.3.4. 

406.3.1 Fire prevention training. Employees shall be 
apprised of the fire hazards of the materials and processes 
to which they are exposed. Each employee shall be 
instructed in the proper procedures for preventing fires in 
the conduct of their assigned duties. 

406.3.2 Evacuation training. Employees shall be famil- 
iarized with the fire alarm and evacuation signals, their 
assigned duties in the event of an alarm or emergency, 
evacuation routes, areas of refuge, exterior assembly areas 
and procedures for evacuation. 

406.3.3 Emergency lockdown training. Where a facility 
has a lockdown plan, employees shall be trained on their 
assigned duties and procedures in the event of an emer- 
gency lockdown. 

406.3.4 Fire safety training. Employees assigned fire- 
fighting duties shall be trained to know the locations and 
proper use of portable fire extinguishers or other manual 
fire-fighting equipment and the protective clothing or 
equipment required for its safe and proper use. 



SECTION 407 
HAZARD COMMUNICATION 

407.1 General. The provisions of Sections 407.2 through 
407.7 shall be applicable where hazardous materials subject 
to permits under Section 5001.5 are located on the premises 
or where required by the fire code official. 

407.2 Material Safety Data Sheets. Material Safety Data 
Sheets (MSDS) for all hazardous materials shall be either 
readily available on the premises as a paper copy, or where 
approved, shall be permitted to be readily retrievable by elec- 
tronic access. 

407.3 Identification. Individual containers of hazardous 
materials, cartons or packages shall be marked or labeled in 



accordance with applicable federal regulations. Buildings, 
rooms and spaces containing hazardous materials shall be 
identified by hazard warning signs in accordance with Sec- 
tion 5003.5. 

407.4 Training. Persons responsible for the operation of 
areas in which hazardous materials are stored, dispensed, 
handled or used shall be familiar with the chemical nature of 
the materials and the appropriate mitigating actions necessary 
in the event of a fire, leak or spill. Responsible persons shall 
be designated and trained to be liaison personnel for the fire 
department. These persons shall aid the fire department in 
preplanning emergency responses and identification of the 
locations where hazardous materials are located, and shall 
have access to Material Safety Data Sheets and be knowl- 
edgeable in the site emergency response procedures. 

407.5 Hazardous Materials Inventory Statement. Where 
required by the fire code official, each application for a per- 
mit shall include a Hazardous Materials Inventory Statement 
(HMIS) in accordance with Section 5001.5.2. 

407.6 Hazardous Materials Management Plan. Where 
required by the fire code official, each application for a per- 
mit shall include a Hazardous Materials Management Plan 
(HMMP) in accordance with Section 5001.5.1. The fire code 
official is authorized to accept a similar plan required by 
other regulations. 

407.7 Facility closure plans. The permit holder or applicant 
shall submit to the fire code official a facility closure plan in 
accordance with Section 5001.6.3 to terminate storage, dis- 
pensing, handling or use of hazardous materials. 



SECTION 408 
USE AND OCCUPANCY-RELATED REQUIREMENTS 

408.1 General. In addition to the other requirements of this 
chapter, the provisions of this section are applicable to spe- 
cific occupancies listed herein. 

408.2 Group A occupancies. Group A occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.2.1 and 
408.2.2 and Sections 401 through 406. 

408.2.1 Seating plan. The fire safety and evacuation plans 
for assembly occupancies shall include the information 
required by Section 404.3 and a detailed seating plan, 
occupant load and occupant load limit. Deviations from 
the approved plans shall be allowed provided the occupant 
load limit for the occupancy is not exceeded and the aisles 
and exit accessways remain unobstructed. 

408.2.2 Announcements. In theaters, motion picture the- 
aters, auditoriums and similar assembly occupancies in 
Group A used for noncontinuous programs, an audible 
announcement shall be made not more than 10 minutes 
prior to the start of each program to notify the occupants 
of the location of the exits to be used in the event of a fire 
or other emergency. 

Exception: In motion picture theaters, the announce- 
ment is allowed to be projected upon the screen in a 
manner approved by the fire code official. 



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408.3 Group E occupancies and Group R-2 college and 
university buildings. Group E occupancies shall comply 
with the requirements of Sections 408.3.1 through 408.3.4 
and Sections 401 through 406. Group R-2 college and univer- 
sity buildings shall comply with the requirements of Sections 
408.3.1 and 408.3.3 and Sections 401 through 406. 

408.3.1 First emergency evacuation drill. The first 
emergency evacuation drill of each school year shall be 
conducted within 10 days of the beginning of classes. 

408.3.2 Emergency evacuation drill deferral. In severe 
climates, the fire code official shall have the authority to 
modify the emergency evacuation drill frequency speci- 
fied in Section 405.2. 

408.3.3 Time of day. Emergency evacuation drills shall 
be conducted at different hours of the day or evening, dur- 
ing the changing of classes, when the school is at assem- 
bly, during the recess or gymnastic periods, or during 
other times to avoid distinction between drills and actual 
fires. In Group R-2 college and university buildings, one 
required drill shall be held during hours after sunset or 
before sunrise. 

408.3.4 Assembly points. Outdoor assembly areas shall 
be designated and shall be located a safe distance from the 
building being evacuated so as to avoid interference with 
fire department operations. The assembly areas shall be 
arranged to keep each class separate to provide account- 
ability of all individuals. 

408.4 Group H-5 occupancies. Group H-5 occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.4.1 through 
408 .4.4 and Sections 40 1 through 407 . 

408.4.1 Plans and diagrams. In addition to the require- 
ments of Section 404 and Section 407.6, plans and dia- 
grams shall be maintained in approved locations 
indicating the approximate plan for each area, the amount 
and type of HPM stored, handled and used, locations of 
shutoff valves for HPM supply piping, emergency tele- 
phone locations and locations of exits. 

408.4.2 Plan updating. The plans and diagrams required 
by Section 408.4.1 shall be maintained up to date and the 
fire code official and fire department shall be informed of 
all major changes. 

408.4.3 Emergency response team. Responsible persons 
shall be designated the on-site emergency response team 
and trained to be liaison personnel for the fire department. 
These persons shall aid the fire department in preplanning 
emergency responses, identifying locations where HPM is 
stored, handled and used, and be familiar with the chemi- 
cal nature of such material. An adequate number of per- 
sonnel for each work shift shall be designated. 

408.4.4 Emergency drills. Emergency drills of the on-site 
emergency response team shall be conducted on a regular 
basis but not less than once every three months. Records 
of drills conducted shall be maintained. 

408.5 Group 1-1 occupancies. Group 1-1 occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.5.1 through 
408.5.5 and Sections 401 through 406. 



408.5.1 Fire safety and evacuation plan. The fire safety 
and evacuation plan required by Section 404 shall include 
special staff actions including fire protection procedures 
necessary for residents and shall be amended or revised 
upon admission of any resident with unusual needs. 

408.5.2 Staff training. Employees shall be periodically 
instructed and kept informed of their duties and responsi- 
bilities under the plan. Such instruction shall be reviewed 
by the staff at least every two months. A copy of the plan 
shall be readily available at all times within the facility. 

408.5.3 Resident training. Residents capable of assisting 
in their own evacuation shall be trained in the proper 
actions to take in the event of a fire. The training shall 
include actions to take if the primary escape route is 
blocked. Where the resident is given rehabilitation or 
habilitation training, training in fire prevention and actions 
to take in the event of a fire shall be a part of the rehabili- 
tation training program. Residents shall be trained to assist 
each other in case of fire to the extent their physical and 
mental abilities permit them to do so without additional 
personal risk. 

408.5.4 Drill frequency. Emergency evacuation drills 
shall be conducted at least six times per year, two times 
per year on each shift. Twelve drills shall be conducted in 
the first year of operation. Drills are not required to com- 
ply with the time requirements of Section 405.4. 

408.5.5 Resident participation. Emergency evacuation 
drills shall involve the actual evacuation of residents to a 
selected assembly point. 

408.6 Group 1-2 occupancies. Group 1-2 occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.6.1 and 
408.6.2 and Sections 401 through 406. Drills are not required 
to comply with the time requirements of Section 405.4. 

408.6.1 Evacuation not required. During emergency 
evacuation drills, the movement of patients to safe areas or 
to the exterior of the building is not required. 

408.6.2 Coded alarm signal. When emergency evacua- 
tion drills are conducted after visiting hours or when 
patients or residents are expected to be asleep, a coded 
announcement is allowed instead of audible alarms. 

408.7 Group 1-3 occupancies. Group 1-3 occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.7.1 through 
408.7.4 and Sections 401 through 406. 

408.7.1 Employee training. Employees shall be 
instructed in the proper use of portable fire extinguishers 
and other manual fire suppression equipment. Training of 
new staff shall be provided promptly upon entrance on 
duty. Refresher training shall be provided at least annu- 
ally. 

408.7.2 Staffing. Group 1-3 occupancies shall be provided 
with 24-hour staffing. Staff shall be within three floors or 
300 feet (91 440 mm) horizontal distance of the access 
door of each resident housing area. In Use Conditions 3, 4 
and 5, as defined in Chapter 2, the arrangement shall be 
such that the staff involved can start release of locks nec- 
essary for emergency evacuation or rescue and initiate 



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other necessary emergency actions within 2 minutes of an 

alarm. 

Exception: Staff shall not be required to be within 
three floors or 300 feet (9144 mm) in areas in which all 
locks are unlocked remotely and automatically in 
accordance with Section 408.4 of the International 
Building Code. 

408.7.3 Notification. Provisions shall be made for resi- 
dents in Use Conditions 3, 4 and 5, as defined in Chapter 
2, to readily notify staff of an emergency. 

408.7.4 Keys. Keys necessary for unlocking doors 
installed in a means of egress shall be individually identi- 
fiable by both touch and sight. 

408.8 Group R-l occupancies. Group R-l occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.8.1 through 
408.8.3 and Sections 401 through 406. 

408.8.1 Evacuation diagrams. A diagram depicting two 
evacuation routes shall be posted on or immediately adja- 

Icent to every required egress door from each hotel or 
motel sleeping unit. 

408.8.2 Emergency duties. Upon discovery of a fire or 
| suspected fire, hotel and motel employees shall perform 

the following duties: 

1. Activate the fire alarm system, where provided. 

2. Notify the public fire department. 

3. Take other action as previously instructed. 

408.8.3 Fire safety and evacuation instructions. Infor- 
mation shall be provided in the fire safety and evacuation 
plan required by Section 404 to allow guests to decide 
whether to evacuate to the outside, evacuate to an area of 
refuge, remain in place, or any combination of the three. 

408.9 Group R-2 occupancies. Group R-2 occupancies shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 408.9.1 through 
408.9.4 and Sections 401 through 406. 

408.9.1 Emergency guide. A fire emergency guide shall 
be provided which describes the location, function and use 
of fire protection equipment and appliances accessible to 
residents, including fire alarm systems, smoke alarms, and 
portable fire extinguishers. The guide shall also include an 
emergency evacuation plan for each dwelling unit. 

408.9.2 Evacuation diagrams in Group R-2 dormito- 
ries. A diagram depicting two evacuation routes shall be 
posted on or immediately adjacent to every required egress 
door from each Group R-2 dormitory sleeping unit. 

408.9.3 Maintenance. Emergency guides shall be 
reviewed and approved in accordance with Section 401.2. 
Evacuation diagrams shall be reviewed and updated in 
accordance with Section 404.4. 

408.9.4 Distribution. A copy of the emergency guide 
shall be given to each tenant prior to initial occupancy. 

408.10 Group R-4 occupancies. Group R-4 occupancies 
shall comply with the requirements of Sections 408.10.1 
through 408.10.5 and Sections 401 through 406. 



408.10.1 Fire safety and evacuation plan. The fire safety 
and evacuation plan required by Section 404 shall include 
special staff actions, including fire protection procedures 
necessary for residents, and shall be amended or revised 
upon admission of a resident with unusual needs. 

408.10.2 Staff training. Employees shall be periodically 
instructed and kept informed of their duties and responsi- 
bilities under the plan. Such instruction shall be reviewed 
by the staff at least every two months. A copy of the plan 
shall be readily available at all times within the facility. 

408.10.3 Resident training. Residents capable of assist- 
ing in their own evacuation shall be trained in the proper 
actions to take in the event of a fire. The training shall 
include actions to take if the primary escape route is 
blocked. Where the resident is given rehabilitation or 
habilitation training, training in fire prevention and actions 
to take in the event of a fire shall be a part of the rehabili- 
tation training program. Residents shall be trained to assist 
each other in case of fire to the extent their physical and 
mental abilities permit them to do so without additional 
personal risk. 

408.10.4 Drill frequency. Emergency evacuation drills 
shall be conducted at least six times per year, two times 
per year on each shift. Twelve drills shall be conducted in 
the first year of operation. Drills are not required to com- 
ply with the time requirements of Section 405.4. 

408.10.5 Resident participation. Emergency evacuation 
drills shall involve the actual evacuation of residents to a 
selected assembly point and shall provide residents with 
experience in exiting through all required exits. All 
required exits shall be used during emergency evacuation 
drills. 

Exception: Actual exiting from windows shall not be 
required. Opening the window and signaling for help 
shall be an acceptable alternative. 
408.11 Covered and open mall buildings. Covered and 1 
open mall buildings shall comply with the provisions of Sec- § 
tions 408.11.1 through 408.1 1.3. 

408.11.1 Lease plan. A lease plan shall be prepared for 
each covered and open mall building. The plan shall j 
include the following information in addition to that 
required by Section 404.3.2: 

1 . Each occupancy, including identification of tenant. 

2. Exits from each tenant space. 

3. Fire protection features, including the following: 

3.1. Fire department connections. 

3.2. Fire command center. 

3.3. Smoke management system controls. 

3.4. Elevators, elevator machine rooms and con- 
trols. 

3.5. Hose valve outlets. 

3.6. Sprinkler and standpipe control valves. 

3.7. Automatic fire-extinguishing system areas. 



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3.8. Automatic fire detector zones. 

3.9. Fire barriers. 

408.1 1.1.1 Approval. The lease plan shall be submitted 
to the fire code official for approval, and shall be main- 
tained on site for immediate reference by responding 
fire service personnel. 

408.11.1.2 Revisions. The lease plans shall be revised 
annually or as often as necessary to keep them current. 
Modifications or changes in tenants or occupancies 
shall not be made without prior approval of the fire 
code official and building official. 

408.11.2 Tenant identification. Each occupied tenant 
space provided with a secondary exit to the exterior or exit 
corridor shall be provided with tenant identification by 
business name and/or address. Letters and numbers shall 
be posted on the corridor side of the door, be plainly legi- 
ble and shall contrast with their background. 

Exception: Tenant identification is not required for 
anchor stores. 

408.11.3 Maintenance. Unoccupied tenant spaces shall 
be: 

1 . Kept free from the storage of any materials. 

2. Separated from the remainder of the building by par- 
titions of at least 0.5-inch-thick (12.7 mm) gypsum 
board or an approved equivalent to the underside of 
the ceiling of the adjoining tenant spaces. 

3. Without doors or other access openings other than 
one door that shall be kept key locked in the closed 
position except during that time when opened for 
inspection. 

4. Kept free from combustible waste and be broom- 
swept clean. 



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Part III— Building and Equipment Design Features 

CHAPTER 5 

FIRE SERVICE FEATURES 



SECTION 501 
GENERAL 

501.1 Scope. Fire service features for buildings, structures 
and premises shall comply with this chapter. 

501.2 Permits. A permit shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tions 105.6 and 105.7. 

501.3 Construction documents. Construction documents for 
proposed fire apparatus access, location of fire lanes, security 
gates across fire apparatus access and construction docu- 
ments and hydraulic calculations for fire hydrant systems 
shall be submitted to the fire department for review and 
approval prior to construction. 

501.4 Timing of installation. When fire apparatus access 
roads or a water supply for fire protection is required to be 
installed, such protection shall be installed and made service- 
able prior to and during the time of construction except when 
approved alternative methods of protection are provided. 
Temporary street signs shall be installed at each street inter- 
section when construction of new roadways allows passage 
by vehicles in accordance with Section 505.2. 

SECTION 502 
DEFINITIONS 

502.1 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chap- 
ter!: 

| AGENCY. 

FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROAD. 

FIRE COMMAND CENTER. 

FIRE DEPARTMENT MASTER KEY. 

FIRE LANE. 

KEY BOX. 
| TRAFFIC CALMING DEVICES. 

SECTION 503 

FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROADS 

503.1 Where required. Fire apparatus access roads shall be 

provided and maintained in accordance with Sections 503.1.1 

through 503.1.3. 

503.1.1 Buildings and facilities. Approved fire apparatus 
access roads shall be provided for every facility, building 
or portion of a building hereafter constructed or moved 
into or within the jurisdiction. The fire apparatus access 
road shall comply with the requirements of this section 



and shall extend to within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of all por- 
tions of the facility and all portions of the exterior walls of 
the first story of the building as measured by an approved 
route around the exterior of the building or facility. 

Exception: The fire code official is authorized to 
increase the dimension of 150 feet (45 720 mm) where: 

1. The building is equipped throughout with an 
approved automatic sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 903.3.1.2 or 
903.3.1.3. 

2. Fire apparatus access roads cannot be installed 
because of location on property, topography, 
waterways, nonnegotiable grades or other similar 
conditions, and an approved alternative means of 
fire protection is provided. 

3. There are not more than two Group R-3 or Group 
U occupancies. 

503.1.2 Additional access. The fire code official is autho- 
rized to require more than one fire apparatus access road 
based on the potential for impairment of a single road by 
vehicle congestion, condition of terrain, climatic condi- 
tions or other factors that could limit access. 

503.1.3 High-piled storage. Fire department vehicle 
access to buildings used for high-piled combustible stor- 
age shall comply with the applicable provisions of Chapter 
32. 

503.2 Specifications. Fire apparatus access roads shall be 
installed and arranged in accordance with Sections 503.2.1 
through 503.2.8. 

503.2.1 Dimensions. Fire apparatus access roads shall 
have an unobstructed width of not less than 20 feet (6096 
mm), exclusive of shoulders, except for approved security 
gates in accordance with Section 503.6, and an unob- 
structed vertical clearance of not less than 13 feet 6 inches 
(4115 mm). 

503.2.2 Authority. The fire code official shall have the 
authority to require an increase in the minimum access 
widths where they are inadequate for fire or rescue opera- 
tions. 

503.2.3 Surface. Fire apparatus access roads shall be 
designed and maintained to support the imposed loads of 
fire apparatus and shall be surfaced so as to provide all- 
weather driving capabilities. 

503.2.4 Turning radius. The required turning radius of a 
fire apparatus access road shall be determined by the fire 
code official. 



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503.2.5 Dead ends. Dead-end fire apparatus access roads 
in excess of 150 feet (45 720 mm) in length shall be pro- 
vided with an approved area for turning around fire appa- 
ratus. 

503.2.6 Bridges and elevated surfaces. Where a bridge 
or an elevated surface is part of a fire apparatus access 
road, the bridge shall be constructed and maintained in 
accordance with AASHTO HB-17. Bridges and elevated 
surfaces shall be designed for a live load sufficient to carry 
the imposed loads of fire apparatus. Vehicle load limits 
shall be posted at both entrances to bridges when required 
by the fire code official. Where elevated surfaces designed 
for emergency vehicle use are adjacent to surfaces which 
are not designed for such use, approved barriers, approved 
signs or both shall be installed and maintained when 
required by the fire code official 

503.2.7 Grade. The grade of the fire apparatus access road 
shall be within the limits established by the fire code offi- 
cial based on the fire department's apparatus. 

503.2.8 Angles of approach and departure. The angles 
of approach and departure for fire apparatus access roads 
shall be within the limits established by the fire code offi- 
cial based on the fire department's apparatus. 

503.3 Marking. Where required by the fire code official, 
approved signs or other approved notices or markings that 
include the words NO PARKING— FIRE LANE shall be 
provided for fire apparatus access roads to identify such roads 
or prohibit the obstruction thereof. The means by which fire 
lanes are designated shall be maintained in a clean and legi- 
ble condition at all times and be replaced or repaired when 
necessary to provide adequate visibility. 

503.4 Obstruction of fire apparatus access roads. Fire 
apparatus access roads shall not be obstructed in any manner, 
including the parking of vehicles. The minimum widths and 
clearances established in Section 503.2.1 shall be maintained 
at all times. 

503.4.1. Traffic calming devices. Traffic calming devices 
shall be prohibited unless approved by the fire code offi- 
cial. 

503.5 Required gates or barricades. The fire code official is 
authorized to require the installation and maintenance of 
gates or other approved barricades across fire apparatus 
access roads, trails or other accessways, not including public 
streets, alleys or highways. Electric gate operators, where 
provided, shall be listed in accordance with UL 325. Gates 
intended for automatic operation shall be designed, con- 
structed and installed to comply with the requirements of 
ASTMF2200. 

503.5.1 Secured gates and barricades. When required, 
gates and barricades shall be secured in an approved man- 
ner. Roads, trails and other accessways that have been 
closed and obstructed in the manner prescribed by Section 
503.5 shall not be trespassed on or used unless authorized 
by the owner and the fire code official. 

Exception: The restriction on use shall not apply to 
public officers acting within the scope of duty. 



503.6 Security gates. The installation of security gates across 
a fire apparatus access road shall be approved by the fire 
chief. Where security gates are installed, they shall have an 
approved means of emergency operation. The security gates 
and the emergency operation shall be maintained operational 
at all times. Electric gate operators, where provided, shall be 
listed in accordance with UL 325. Gates intended for auto- 
matic operation shall be designed, constructed and installed 
to comply with the requirements of ASTM F 2200. 



SECTION 504 
ACCESS TO BUILDING OPENINGS AND ROOFS 

504.1 Required access. Exterior doors and openings required 
by this code or the International Building Code shall be 
maintained readily accessible for emergency access by the 
fire department. An approved access walkway leading from 
fire apparatus access roads to exterior openings shall be pro- 
vided when required by the fire code official. 

504.2 Maintenance of exterior doors and openings. Exte- 
rior doors and their function shall not be eliminated without 
prior approval. Exterior doors that have been rendered non- 
functional and that retain a functional door exterior appear- 
ance shall have a sign affixed to the exterior side of the door 
with the words THIS DOOR BLOCKED. The sign shall con- 
sist of letters having a principal stroke of not less than 3 / 4 inch 
(19.1 mm) wide and at least 6 inches (152 mm) high on a 
contrasting background. Required fire department access 
doors shall not be obstructed or eliminated. Exit and exit 
access doors shall comply with Chapter 10. Access doors for 
high-piled combustible storage shall comply with Section 
3206.6.1. 

504.3 Stairway access to roof. New buildings four or more 
stories above grade plane, except those with a roof slope 
greater than four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33.3- 
percent slope), shall be provided with a stairway to the roof. 
Stairway access to the roof shall be in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1009.13. Such stairway shall be marked at street and 
floor levels with a sign indicating that the stairway continues 
to the roof. Where roofs are used for roof gardens or for other 
purposes, stairways shall be provided as required for such 
occupancy classification. 



SECTION 505 
PREMISES IDENTIFICATION 

505.1 Address identification. New and existing buildings 
shall have approved address numbers, building numbers or 
approved building identification placed in a position that is 
plainly legible and visible from the street or road fronting the 
property. These numbers shall contrast with their back- 
ground. Where required by the fire code official, address 
numbers shall be provided in additional approved locations to 
facilitate emergency response. Address numbers shall be Ara- 
bic numbers or alphabetical letters. Numbers shall be a mini- 
mum of 4 inches (101.6 mm) high with a minimum stroke 
width of 0.5 inch (12.7 mm). Where access is by means of a 
private road and the building cannot be viewed from the pub- 
lic way, a monument, pole or other sign or means shall be 



I 



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used to identify the structure. Address numbers shall be main- 
tained. 

505.2 Street or road signs. Streets and roads shall be identi- 
fied with approved signs. Temporary signs shall be installed 
at each street intersection when construction of new road- 
ways allows passage by vehicles. Signs shall be of an 
approved size, weather resistant and be maintained until 
replaced by permanent signs. 



SECTION 506 
KEY BOXES 

506.1 Where required. Where access to or within a structure 
or an area is restricted because of secured openings or where 
immediate access is necessary for life-saving or fire-fighting 
purposes, the fire code official is authorized to require a key 
box to be installed in an approved location. The key box shall 
be of an approved type listed in accordance with UL 1037, 
and shall contain keys to gain necessary access as required by 
the fire code official. 

506.1.1 Locks. An approved lock shall be installed on 
gates or similar barriers when required by the fire code 
official. 

506.1.2 Key boxes for nonstandardized fire service ele- 
vator keys. Key boxes provided for nonstandardized fire 
service elevator keys shall comply with Section 506.1 and 
all of the following: 

1. The key box shall be compatible with an existing 
rapid entry key box system in use in the jurisdiction 
and approved by the fire code official. 

2. The front cover shall be permanently labeled with 
the words "Fire Department Use Only— Elevator 

Keys." 

3. The key box shall be mounted at each elevator bank 
at the lobby nearest to the lowest level of fire depart- 
ment access. 

4. The key box shall be mounted 5 feet 6 inches (1676 
mm) above the finished floor to the right side of the 
elevator bank. 

5. Contents of the key box are limited to fire service 
elevator keys. Additional elevator access tools, keys 
and information pertinent to emergency planning or 
elevator access shall be permitted when authorized 
by the fire code official. 

6. In buildings with two or more elevator banks, a sin- 
gle key box shall be permitted to be used when such 
elevator banks are separated by not more than 30 
feet (9144 mm). Additional key boxes shall be pro- 
vided for each individual elevator or elevator bank 
separated by more than 30 feet (9144 mm). 

Exception: A single key box shall be permitted to be 
located adjacent to a fire command center or the non- 
standard fire service elevator key shall be permitted to 
be secured in a key box used for other purposes and 
located in accordance with Section 506. 1 . 



506.2 Key box maintenance. The operator of the building 
shall immediately notify the fire code official and provide the 
new key when a lock is changed or rekeyed. The key to such 
lock shall be secured in the key box. 



SECTION 507 

FIRE PROTECTION WATER SUPPLIES 

507.1 Required water supply. An approved water supply 
capable of supplying the required fire flow for fire protection 
shall be provided to premises upon which facilities, buildings 
or portions of buildings are hereafter constructed or moved 
into or within the jurisdiction. 

507.2 Type of water supply. A water supply shall consist of 
reservoirs, pressure tanks, elevated tanks, water mains or 
other fixed systems capable of providing the required fire 
flow. 

507.2.1 Private fire service mains. Private fire service 
mains and appurtenances shall be installed in accordance 
with NFPA 24. 

507.2.2 Water tanks. Water tanks for private fire protec- 
tion shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 22. 

507.3 Fire flow. Fire flow requirements for buildings or por- 
tions of buildings and facilities shall be determined by an 
approved method. 

507.4 Water supply test. The fire code official shall be noti- 
fied prior to the water supply test. Water supply tests shall be 
witnessed by the fire code official or approved documenta- 
tion of the test shall be provided to the fire code official prior 
to final approval of the water supply system. 

507.5 Fire hydrant systems. Fire hydrant systems shall com- 
ply with Sections 507.5.1 through 507.5.6. 

507.5.1 Where required. Where a portion of the facility 
or building hereafter constructed or moved into or within 
the jurisdiction is more than 400 feet (122 m) from a 
hydrant on a fire apparatus access road, as measured by an 
approved route around the exterior of the facility or build- 
ing, on-site fire hydrants and mains shall be provided 
where required by the fire code official. 

Exceptions: 

1. For Group R-3 and Group U occupancies, the 
distance requirement shall be 600 feet (183 m). 

2. For buildings equipped throughout with an 
approved automatic sprinkler system installed 
in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 
903.3.1 .2, the distance requirement shall be 600 
feet (183 m). 

507.5.1.1 Hydrant for standpipe systems. Buildings 
equipped with a standpipe system installed in accor- 
dance with Section 905 shall have a fire hydrant within 
100 feet (30 m) of the fire department connections. 

Exception: The distance shall be permitted to 
exceed 100 feet (30 m) where approved by the fire 
code official. 



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507.5.2 Inspection, testing and maintenance. Fire 
hydrant systems shall be subject to periodic tests as 
required by the fire code official. Fire hydrant systems 
shall be maintained in an operative condition at all times 
and shall be repaired where defective. Additions, repairs, 
alterations and servicing shall comply with approved stan- 
dards. 

507.5.3 Private fire service mains and water tanks. Pri- 
vate fire service mains and water tanks shall be periodi- 
cally inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with 
NFPA 25 at the following intervals: 

1. Private fire hydrants (all types): Inspection annually 
and after each operation; flow test and maintenance 

annually. 

2. Fire service main piping: Inspection of exposed, 
annually; flow test every 5 years. 

3. Fire service main piping strainers: Inspection and 
maintenance after each use. 

507.5.4 Obstruction. Unobstructed access to fire hydrants 
shall be maintained at all times. The fire department shall 
not be deterred or hindered from gaining immediate access 
to fire protection equipment or fire hydrants. 

507.5.5 Clear space around hydrants. A 3-foot (914 
mm) clear space shall be maintained around the circumfer- 
ence of fire hydrants, except as otherwise required or 
approved. 

507.5.6 Physical protection. Where fire hydrants are sub- 
ject to impact by a motor vehicle, guard posts or other 
approved means shall comply with Section 312. 



SECTION 508 
FIRE COMMAND CENTER 

508. 1 General. Where required by other sections of this code 
and in all buildings classified as high-rise buildings by the 
International Building Code, a fire command center for fire 
department operations shall be provided and shall comply 
with Sections 508.1.1 through 508.1.5. 

508.1.1 Location and access. The location and accessibil- 
ity of the fire command center shall be approved by the 
fire chief. 

508.1.2 Separation. The fire command center shall be 
separated from the remainder of the building by not less 
than a 1 -hour /ire barrier constructed in accordance with 
Section 707 of the International Building Code or horizon- 
tal assembly constructed in accordance with Section 711 
of the International Building Code, or both. 

508.1.3 Size. The fire command center shall be a mini- 
mum of 200 square feet (19 m 2 ) in area with a minimum 
dimension of 10 feet (3048 mm). 

508.1.4 Layout approval. A layout of they're command 
center and all features required by this section to be con- 
tained therein shall be submitted for approval prior to 
installation. 



508.1.5 Required features. The fire command center 
shall comply with NFPA 72 and shall contain the follow- 
ing features: 

1. The emergency voice/alarm communication sys- 
tem control unit. 

2. The fire department communications system. 

3. Fire detection and alarm system annunciator. 

4. Annunciator unit visually indicating the location 
of the elevators and whether they are operational. 

5. Status indicators and controls for air distribution 

systems. 

6. The fire-fighter's control panel required by Sec- 
tion 909.16 for smoke control systems installed in 
the building. 

7. Controls for unlocking stairway doors simultane- 
ously. 

8. Sprinkler valve and water-flow detector display 
panels. 

9. Emergency and standby power status indicators. 

10. A telephone for fire department use with con- 
trolled access to the public telephone system. 

1 1 . Fire pump status indicators. 

12. Schematic building plans indicating the typical 
floor plan and detailing the building core, means 
of egress, fire protection systems, fire-fighting 
equipment and fire department access, and the 
location of fire walls, fire barriers, fire partitions, 
smoke barriers and smoke partitions. 

13. An approved Building Information Card that con- 
tains, but is not limited to, the following informa- 
tion: 

13.1. General building information that 
includes: property name, address, the 
number of floors in the building (above 
and below grade), use and occupancy 
classification (for mixed uses, identify the 
different types of occupancies on each 
floor), estimated building population (i.e., 
day, night, weekend); 

13.2. Building emergency contact information 
that includes: a list of the building's emer- 
gency contacts (e.g., building manager, 
building engineer, etc.) and their respec- 
tive work phone number, cell phone num- 
ber, and e-mail address; 

13.3. Building construction information that 
includes: the type of building construction 
(e.g., floors, walls, columns, and roof 
assembly); 

13.4. Exit stair information that includes: num- 
ber of exit stairs in the building, each exit 
stair designation and floors served, loca- 
tion where each exit stair discharges, exit 
stairs that are pressurized, exit stairs pro- 



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FIRE SERVICE FEATURES 



vided with emergency lighting, each exit 
stair that allows reentry, exit stairs pro- 
viding roof access; elevator information 
that includes: number of elevator banks, 
elevator bank designation, elevator car 
numbers and respective floors that they 
serve, location of elevator machine 
rooms, location of sky lobby, location of 
freight elevator banks; 

13.5. Building services and system information 
that includes: location of mechanical 
rooms, location of building management 
system, location and capacity of all fuel 
oil tanks, location of emergency genera- 
tor, location of natural gas service; 

13.6. Fire protection system information that 
includes: locations of standpipes, location 
of fire pump room, location of fire depart- 
ment connections, floors protected by 
automatic sprinklers, location of differ- 
ent types of automatic sprinkler systems 
installed (e.g., dry, wet, pre-action, etc.); 
and 

13.7. Hazardous material information that 
includes: location of hazardous material, 
quantity of hazardous material. 

14. Work table. 

15. Generator supervision devices, manual start and 
transfer features. 

16. Public address system, where specifically required 
by other sections of this code. 

17. Elevator fire recall switch in accordance with 
ASMEA17.1. 

18. Elevator emergency or standby power selector 
switch(es), where emergency or standby power is 
provided. 



SECTION 509 

FSRE PROTECTION AND UTILITY EQUIPMENT 

IDENTIFICATION AND ACCESS 

509.1 Identification. Fire protection equipment shall be 
identified in an approved manner. Rooms containing controls 
for air-conditioning systems, sprinkler risers and valves, or 
other fire detection, suppression or control elements shall be 
identified for the use of the fire department. Approved signs 
required to identify fire protection equipment and equipment 
location shall be constructed of durable materials, perma- 
nently installed and readily visible. 

509.1.1 Utility identification. Where required by the fire 
code official, gas shutoff valves, electric meters, service 
switches and other utility equipment shall be clearly and 
legibly marked to identify the unit or space that it serves. 
Identification shall be made in an approved manner, read- 
ily visible and shall be maintained. 



509.2 Equipment access. Approved access shall be provided 
and maintained for all fire protection equipment to permit 
immediate safe operation and maintenance of such equip- 
ment. Storage, trash and other materials or objects shall not 
be placed or kept in such a manner that would prevent such 
equipment from being readily accessible. 



SECTION 510 
EMERGENCY RESPONDER RADIO COVERAGE 

510.1 Emergency responder radio coverage in new build- 
ings. All new buildings shall have approved radio coverage 
for emergency responders within the building based upon the 
existing coverage levels of the public safety communication 
systems of the jurisdiction at the exterior of the building. This 
section shall not require improvement of the existing public 
safety communication systems. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Where approved by the building official and the fire 
code official, a wired communication system in 
accordance with Section 907.2.13.2 shall be permit- 
ted to be installed or maintained in lieu of an 
approved radio coverage system. 

2. Where it is determined by the fire code official that 
the radio coverage system is not needed. 

3. In facilities where emergency responder radio cover- 
age is required and such systems, components or 
equipment required could have a negative impact on 
the normal operations of that facility, the fire code 
official shall have the authority to accept an auto- 
matically activated emergency responder radio cov- 
erage system. 

510.2 Emergency responder radio coverage in existing 
buildings. Existing buildings shall be provided with 
approved radio coverage for emergency responders as 
required in Chapter 1 1 . 

510.3 Permit required. A construction permit for the instal- 
lation of or modification to emergency responder radio cover- 
age systems and related equipment is required as specified in 
Section 105.7.5. Maintenance performed in accordance with 
this code is not considered a modification and does not 
require a permit. 

510.4 Technical requirements. Systems, components, and 
equipment required to provide emergency responder radio 
coverage system shall comply with Sections 511.4.1 through 
511.4.2.5. 

510.4.1 Radio signal strength. The building shall be con- 
sidered to have acceptable emergency responder radio 
coverage when signal strength measurements in 95 percent 
of all areas on each floor of the building meet the signal 
strength requirements in Sections 510.4.1.1 and 510.4.1.2. 

510.4.1.1 Minimum signal strength into the build- 
ing. A minimum signal strength of -95 dBm shall be 
receivable within the building. 

510.4.1.2 Minimum signal strength out of the build- 
ing. A minimum signal strength of -95 dBm shall be 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



67 



FIRE SERVICE FEATURES 



received by the agency's radio system when transmit- 
ted from within the building. 
510.4.2 System design. The emergency responder radio 
coverage system shall be designed in accordance with Sec- 
tions 510.4.2.1 through 510.4.2.5. 

510.4.2.1 Amplification systems allowed. Buildings 
and structures which cannot support the required level 
of radio coverage shall be equipped with a radiating 
cable system, a distributed antenna system with Federal 
Communications Commission (FCC)-certified signal 
boosters, or other system approved by they're code offi- 
cial in order to achieve the required adequate radio cov- 
erage. 

510.4.2.2 Technical criteria. The fire code official 
shall maintain a document providing the specific tech- 
nical information and requirements for the emergency 
responder radio coverage system. This document shall 
contain, but not be limited to, the various frequencies 
required, the location of radio sites, effective radiated 
power of radio sites, and other supporting technical 
information. 

510.4.2.3 Secondary power. Emergency responder 
radio coverage systems shall be provided with an 
approved secondary source of power. The secondary 
power supply shall be capable of operating the emer- 
gency responder radio coverage system for a period of 
at least 24 hours. When primary power is lost, the 
power supply to the emergency responder radio cover- 
age system shall automatically transfer to the secondary 
power supply. 

510.4.2.4 Signal booster requirements. If used, signal 
boosters shall meet the following requirements: 

1. All signal booster components shall be contained 
in a National Electrical Manufacturer's Associa- 
tion (NEMA) 4-type waterproof cabinet. 

2. Battery systems used for the emergency power 
source shall be contained in a NEMA 4-type 
waterproof cabinet. 

3. The signal booster system and battery system 
shall be electrically supervised and monitored by 
a supervisory service, or when approved by the 
fire code official, shall sound an audible signal at 
a constantly attended location. 

4. Equipment shall have FCC certification prior to 
installation. 

510.4.2.5 Additional frequencies and change of fre- 
quencies. The emergency responder radio coverage 
system shall be capable of modification or expansion in 
the event frequency changes are required by the FCC or 
additional frequencies are made available by the FCC. 

510.5 Installation requirements. The installation of the pub- 
lic safety radio coverage system shall be in accordance with 
Sections 510.5.1 through 510.5.5. 

510.5.1 Approval prior to installation. Amplification 
systems capable of operating on frequencies licensed to 
any public safety agency by the FCC shall not be installed 



without prior coordination and approval of the fire code 
official. 

510.5.2 Minimum qualifications of personnel. The mini- 
mum qualifications of the system designer and lead instal- 
lation personnel shall include: 

1. A valid FCC-issued general radio operators license; 
and 

2. Certification of in-building system training issued 
by a nationally recognized organization, school or a 
certificate issued by the manufacturer of the equip- 
ment being installed. 

These qualifications shall not be required where dem- 
onstration of adequate skills and experience satisfactory to 
the fire code official is provided. 

510.5.3 Acceptance test procedure. When an emergency 
responder radio coverage system is required, and upon 
completion of installation, the building owner shall have 
the radio system tested to ensure that two-way coverage on 
each floor of the building is a minimum of 90 percent. The 
test procedure shall be conducted as follows: 

1. Each floor of the building shall be divided into a 
grid of 20 approximately equal test areas. 

2. The test shall be conducted using a calibrated porta- 
ble radio of the latest brand and model used by 
the agency talking through the agency's radio com- 
munications system. 

3. Failure of a maximum of two nonadjacent test areas 
shall not result in failure of the test. 

4. In the event that three of the test areas fail the 
test, in order to be more statistically accurate, the 
floor shall be permitted to be divided into 40 equal 
test areas. Failure of a maximum of four nonadjacent 
test areas shall not result in failure of the test. If the 
system fails the 40-area test, the system shall be 
altered to meet the 90 percent coverage requirement. 

5. A test location approximately in the center of each 
test area shall be selected for the test, with the radio 
enabled to verify two-way communications to and 
from the outside of the building through the public 
agency's radio communications system. Once the 
test location has been selected, that location shall 
represent the entire test area. Failure in the selected 
test location shall be considered failure of that test 
area. Additional test locations shall not be permitted. 

6. The gain values of all amplifiers shall be measured 
and the test measurement results shall be kept on file 
with the building owner so that the measurements 
can be verified during annual tests. In the event that 
the measurement results become lost, the building 
owner shall be required to rerun the acceptance test 
to reestablish the gain values. 

7. As part of the installation a spectrum analyzer or 
other suitable test equipment shall be utilized to 
ensure spurious oscillations are not being generated 
by the subject signal booster. This test shall be con- 



68 



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ducted at time of installation and subsequent annual 
inspections. 

510.5.4 FCC compliance. The emergency responder 
radio coverage system installation and components shall 
also comply with all applicable federal regulations includ- 
ing, but not limited to, FCC 47 CFR Part 90.219. 

510.6 Maintenance. The emergency responder radio cover- 
age system shall be maintained operational at all times in 
accordance with Sections 510.6.1 through 510.6.3. 

510.6.1 Testing and proof of compliance. The emer- 
gency responder radio coverage system shall be inspected 
and tested annually or whenever structural changes occur 
including additions or remodels that could materially 
change the original field performance tests. Testing shall 
consist of the following: 

1. In-building coverage test as described in Section 
510.5.4. 

2. Signal boosters shall be tested to ensure that the gain 
is the same as it was upon initial installation and 
acceptance. 

3. Backup batteries and power supplies shall be tested 
under load of a period of one hour to verify that they 
will properly operate during an actual power outage. 
If within the 1 -hour test period the battery exhibits 
symptoms of failure, the test shall be extended for 
additional 1-hour periods until the integrity of the 
battery can be determined. 

4. All other active components shall be checked to ver- 
ify operation within the manufacturer's specifica- 
tions. 

5. At the conclusion of the testing, a report, which shall 
verify compliance with Section 510.5.4, shall be 
submitted to the fire code official. 

510.6.2 Additional frequencies. The building owner shall 
modify or expand the emergency responder radio coverage 
system at their expense in the event frequency changes are 
required by the FCC or additional frequencies are made 
available by the FCC. Prior approval of a public safety 
radio coverage system on previous frequencies does not 
exempt this section. 

510.6.3 Field testing. Agency personnel shall have the 
right to enter onto the property at any reasonable time to 
conduct field testing to verify the required level of radio 
coverage. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE 19 69 



70 2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



CHAPTER 6 

BUILDING SERVICES AMD SYSTEMS 



SECTION 601 
GENERAL 

601.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall apply to the 
installation, operation and maintenance of fuel-fired appli- 
ances and heating systems, emergency and standby power 
systems, electrical systems and equipment, mechanical 
refrigeration systems, elevator recall, stationary storage bat- 

1 tery systems and commercial kitchen equipment. 

601.2 Permits. Permits shall be obtained for refrigeration 
systems, battery systems and solar photovoltaic power sys- 
tems as set forth in Sections 105.6 and 105.7. 

SECTION 602 
DEFINITIONS 

602.1 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chap- 

BATTERY SYSTEM, STATIONARY LEAD-ACID. 
BATTERY TYPES. 

COMMERCIAL COOKING APPLIANCES. 
HOOD. 

Type I. 

Type II. 

REFRIGERANT. 
REFRIGERATION SYSTEM. 



SECTION 603 
FUEL-FIRED APPLIANCES 

603 J Installation. The installation of nonportable fuel gas 
appliances and systems shall comply the International Fuel 
Gas Code. The installation of all other fuel-fired appliances 
other than internal combustion engines, oil lamps and porta- 
ble devices such as blow torches, melting pots and weed 
burners, shall comply with this section and the International 
Mechanical Code. 

603 1.1 Manufacturer's instructions. The installation 
shall be made in accordance with the manufacturer's 
instructions and applicable federal, state and local rules 
and regulations. Where it becomes necessary to change 
modify or alter a manufacturer's instructions in any way' 
written approval shall first be obtained from the manufac- 
turer. 

603.1 2 Approval. The design, construction and installa- 
tion of fuel-fired appliances shall be in accordance with 
the International Fuel Gas Code and the International 
Mechanical Code. 

603.1.3 Electrical wiring and equipment. Electrical wir- 
ing and equipment used in connection with oil-burning 

2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



equipment shall be installed and maintained in accordance 
with Section 605 and NFPA 70. 

603.1 4 Fuel oil. The grade of fuel oil used in a burner 
shall be that for which the burner is approved and as stipu- 
lated by the burner manufacturer. Oil containing gasoline 
shall not be used. Waste crankcase oil shall be an accept- 
able fuel in Group F, M and S occupancies, when utilized 
in equipment listed for use with waste oil and when such 
equipment is installed in accordance with the manufac- 
turer s instructions and the terms of its listing. 

603.1.5 Access. The installation shall be readily accessible 
tor cleaning hot sutfaces; removing burners; replacing 
motors, controls, air filters, chimney connectors, draft reg- 
ulators and other working parts; and for adjusting, clean- 
ing and lubricating parts. 

603.1.6 Testing, diagrams and instructions. After instal- 
lation of the oil-burning equipment, operation and com- 
bustion performance tests shall be conducted to determine 
that the burner is in proper operating condition and that all 
accessory equipment, controls, and safety devices function 
properly. 

603.1.6.1 Diagrams. Contractors installing industrial 
oil-burning systems shall furnish not less than two cop- 
ies of diagrams showing the main oil lines and control- 
ling valves, one copy of which shall be posted at the 
oil-burning equipment and another at an approved loca- 
tion that will be accessible in case of emergency. 

603.1.6.2 Instructions. After completing the installa- 
tion, the installer shall instruct the owner or operator in 
the proper operation of the equipment. The installer 
shall also furnish the owner or operator with the name 
and telephone number of persons to contact for techni- 
cal information or assistance and routine or emergency 
services. J 

603.1.7 Clearances. Working clearances between oil- 
fired appliances and electrical panelboards and equipment 
shall be in accordance with NFPA 70. Clearances between 
oil-fired equipment and oil supply tanks shall be in accor- 
dance with NFPA 3 1. 

[B, FG, M] 603.2 Chimneys. Masonry chimneys shall be 
constructed m accordance with the International Building 
Code. Factory-built chimneys shall be installed in accordance 
with the International Mechanical Code. Metal chimneys 
shall be constructed and installed in accordance with NFPA 

603.3 1 Fuel oil storage systems. Fuel oil storage systems 
shall be installed m accordance with this code. Fuel-oil piping 
systems shall be installed in accordance with the Interna- 
tional Mechanical Code. 

603.3.1 Fuel oil storage in outside, above-ground tanks 

Where connected to a fuel-oil piping system, the maxi- 



71 



BUILDING SERVICES AMD SYSTEMS 



mum amount of fuel oil storage allowed outside above 
ground without additional protection shall be 660 gallons 
(2498 L) The storage of fuel oil above ground m quanti- 
ties exceeding 660 gallons (2498 L) shall comply with 
NFPA31. 

603 3.2 Fuel oil storage inside buildings. Fuel oil storage 
inside buildings shall comply with Sections 603.3.2.1 
through 603.3.2.5 or Chapter 57. 

603 3 2.1 Quantity limits. One or more fuel oil storage 
tanks containing Class II or III combustible liquid shall 
be permitted in a building. The aggregate capacity ot 
all such tanks shall not exceed 660 gallons (2498 L). 
Exception: The aggregate capacity limit shall be 
permitted to be increased to 3,000 gallons (11 356 
L) of Class II or HI liquid for storage in protected 
above-ground tanks complying with Section 
5704.2.9.7, when all of the following conditions are 
met: 

1 The entire 3,000-gallon (11 356 L) quantity 
shall be stored in protected above-ground 
tanks; 
2. The 3,000-gallon (11 356 L) capacity shall be 
permitted to be stored in a single tank or mul- 
tiple smaller tanks; and 

3 The tanks shall be located in a room protected 
by an automatic sprinkler system complying 
with Section 903.3.1.1. 

603 3.2.2 Restricted use and connection. Tanks 
installed in accordance with Section 603.3.2 shall be 
used only to supply fuel oil to fuel-burning or generator 
equipment installed in accordance with Section 
603 3 2 4 Connections between tanks and equipment 
supplied by such tanks shall be made using closed pip- 
ing systems. 

603.3.2.3 Applicability of maximum allowable quan- 
tity" and control area requirements. The quantity of 
combustible liquid stored in tanks complying with Sec- 
tion 603 3 2 shall not be counted towards the maximum 
allowable quantity set forth in Table 5003.1.1(1), and 
such tanks shall not be required to be located in a con- 
trol area. 

603 3.2.4 Installation. Tanks and piping systems shall 
be installed and separated from other uses in accor- 
dance with Section 915 and Chapter 13, both of the 
International Mechanical Code, as applicable. 

Exception: Protected above-ground tanks comply- 
ing with Section 5704.2.9.6 shall not be required to 
be separated from surrounding areas. 
603 3 2.5 Tanks in basements. Tanks in basements 
shal'l be located not more than two stories below grade 
plane. 
603 3 3 Underground storage of fuel oil. The storage of 
fuel oil in underground storage tanks shall comply with 
NFPA31. 



72 



603 4 Portable unvented heaters. Portable unvented fuel- 
fired heating equipment shall be prohibited in occupancies in 
Groups A, E, I, R-l, R-2, R-3 and R-4. 
Exceptions: 

1 Listed and approved unvented fuel-fired heaters, 
including portable outdoor gas-fired heating appli- 
ances, in one- and two-family dwellings. 

2 Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall 
be allowed in accordance with Section 603.4.2. 

603 4 1 Prohibited locations. Unvented fuel-fired heating 
equipment shall not be located in, or obtain combustion air 
from, any of the following rooms or spaces: sleeping 
rooms, bathrooms, toilet rooms or storage closets. 
603 4 2 Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances. 
Portable gas-fired heating appliances located outdoors 
shall be in accordance with Sections 603.4.2.1 through 
603.4.2.3.4. 

603 4.2.1 Location. Portable outdoor gas-fired heating 
appliances shall be located in accordance with Sections 
603.4.2.1.1 through 603.4.2.1.4. 

603 4 2.1.1 Prohibited locations. The storage or 
use of portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances 
is prohibited in any of the following locations: 

1. Inside of any occupancy when connected to 
the fuel gas container. 

2. Inside of tents, canopies and membrane struc- 
tures. 

3. On exterior balconies. 
Exception: As allowed in Section 6.19 of 
NFPA 58. 

603.4.2.1.2 Clearance to buildings. Portable out- 
door gas-fired heating appliances shall be located at 
least 5 feet (1524 mm) from buildings. 
603 4.2.1.3 Clearance to combustible materials. 
Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall 
not be located beneath, or closer than 5 feet (1524 
mm) to combustible decorations and combustible 
overhangs, awnings, sunshades or similar combusti- 
ble attachments to buildings. 
603 4.2.1.4 Proximity to exits. Portable outdoor 
gas-fired heating appliances shall not be located 
within 5 feet (1524 mm) of exits or exit discharges. 
603 4 2.2 Installation and operation. Portable outdoor 
gas-fired heating appliances shall be installed and oper- 
ated in accordance with Sections 603.4.2.2.1 through 
603.4.2.2.4. 

603.4.2.2.1 Listing and approval. Only listed and 
approved portable outdoor gas-fired heating appli- 
ances utilizing a fuel gas container that is integral to 
the appliance shall be used. 

603.4.2.2.2 Installation and maintenance. Portable 
outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be 
installed and maintained in accordance with the 
manufacturer's instructions. 



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603.4.2.2.3 Tip-over switch. Portable outdoor gas- 
fired heating appliances shall be equipped with a tilt 
or tip-over switch that automatically shuts off the 
flow of gas if the appliance is tilted more than 15 
degrees (0.26 rad) from the vertical. 

603.4.2.2.4 Guard against contact. The heating 
element or combustion chamber of portable outdoor 
gas-fired heating appliances shall be permanently 
guarded so as to prevent accidental contact by per- 
sons or material. 

603.4.2.3 Gas containers. Fuel gas containers for por- 
table outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall comply 
with Sections 603.4.2.3.1 through 603.4.2.3.4. 

603.4.2.3.1 Approved containers. Only approved 
DOTn or ASME gas containers shall be used. 

603.4.2.3.2 Container replacement. Replacement 
of fuel gas containers in portable outdoor gas-fired 
heating appliances shall not be conducted while the 
public is present. 

603.4.2.3.3 Container capacity. The maximum 
individual capacity of gas containers used in con- 
nection with portable outdoor gas-fired heating 
appliances shall not exceed 20 pounds (9 kg). 

603.4.2.3.4 Indoor storage prohibited. Gas con- 
tainers shall not be stored inside of buildings except 
in accordance with Section 6109.9. 

603.5 Heating appliances. Heating appliances shall be listed 
and shall comply with Sections 603.5.1 and 603.5.2. 

603.5.1 Guard against contact. The heating element or 
combustion chamber shall be permanently guarded so as 
to prevent accidental contact by persons or material. 

603.5.2 Heating appliance installation and mainte- 
nance. Heating appliances shall be installed and main- 
tained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, 
the International Building Code, the International 
Mechanical Code, the International Fuel Gas Code and 
NFPA 70. 

603.6 Chimneys and appliances. Chimneys, incinerators, 
smokestacks or similar devices for conveying smoke or hot 
gases to the outer air and the stoves, furnaces, fireboxes or 
boilers to which such devices are connected, shall be main- 
tained so as not to create a fire hazard. 

603.6.1 Masonry chimneys. Masonry chimneys that, 
upon inspection, are found to be without a flue liner and 
that have open mortar joints which will permit smoke or 
gases to be discharged into the building, or which are 
cracked as to be dangerous, shall be repaired or relined 
with a listed chimney liner system installed in accordance 
with the manufacturer's installation instructions or a flue 
lining system installed in accordance with the require- 
ments of the International Building Code and appropriate 
for the intended class of chimney service. 

603.6.2 Metal chimneys. Metal chimneys which are cor- 
roded or improperly supported shall be repaired or 
replaced. 



603.6.3 Decorative shrouds. Decorative shrouds installed 
at the termination of factory-built chimneys shall be 
removed except where such shrouds are listed and labeled 
for use with the specific factory-built chimney system and 
are installed in accordance with the chimney manufac- 
turer's installation instructions. 

603.6.4 Factory-built chimneys. Existing factory-built 
chimneys that are damaged, corroded or improperly sup- 
ported shall be repaired or replaced. 

603.6.5 Connectors. Existing chimney and vent connec- 
tors that are damaged, corroded or improperly supported 
shall be repaired or replaced. 

603.7 Discontinuing operation of unsafe heating appli- 
ances. The fire code official is authorized to order that mea- 
sures be taken to prevent the operation of any existing stove, 
oven, furnace, incinerator, boiler or any other heat-producing 
device or appliance found to be defective or in violation of 
code requirements for existing appliances after giving notice 
to this effect to any person, owner, firm or agent or operator 
in charge of the same. They're code official is authorized to 
take measures to prevent the operation of any device or appli- 
ance without notice when inspection shows the existence of 
an immediate fire hazard or when imperiling human life. The 
defective device shall remain withdrawn from service until 
all necessary repairs or alterations have been made. 

603.7.1 Unauthorized operation. It shall be a violation of 
this code for any person, user, firm or agent to continue 
the utilization of any device or appliance (the operation of 
which has been discontinued or ordered discontinued in 
accordance with Section 603.7) unless written authority to 
resume operation is given by the fire code official. Remov- 
ing or breaking the means by which operation of the 
device is prevented shall be a violation of this code. 

603.8 Incinerators. Commercial, industrial and residential- 
type incinerators and chimneys shall be constructed in accor- 
dance with the International Building Code, the International 
Fuel Gas Code and the International Mechanical Code. 

603.8.1 Residential incinerators. Residential incinerators 
shall be of an approved type. 

603.8.2 Spark arrestor. Incinerators shall be equipped 
with an effective means for arresting sparks. 

603.8.3 Restrictions. Where the fire code official deter- 
mines that burning in incinerators located within 500 feet 
(152 m) of mountainous, brush or grass-covered areas will 
create an undue fire hazard because of atmospheric condi- 
tions, such burning shall be prohibited. 

603.8.4 Time of burning. Burning shall take place only 
during approved hours. 

603.8.5 Discontinuance. The fire code official is autho- 
rized to require incinerator use to be discontinued immedi- 
ately if the fire code official determines that smoke 
emissions are offensive to occupants of surrounding prop- 
erty or if the use of incinerators is determined by the /we 
code official to constitute a hazardous condition. 

603.9 Gas meters. Above-ground gas meters, regulators and 
piping subject to damage shall be protected by a barrier com- 



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plying with Section 312 or otherwise protected in an 
approved manner. 



SECTION 604 
EMERGENCY AND STANDBY POWER SYSTEMS 

604.1 Installation. Emergency and standby power systems 
required by this code or the International Building Code shall 
be installed in accordance with this code, NFPA 110 and 
NFPA 111. Existing installations shall be maintained in 
accordance with the original approval. 

604.1.1 Stationary generators. Stationary emergency and 
standby power generators required by this code shall be 
listed in accordance with UL 2200. 

604.2 Where required. Emergency and standby power sys- 
tems shall be provided where required by Sections 604.2.1 
through 604.2. 18.4. 

604.2.1 Group A occupancies. Emergency power shall be 
provided for emergency voice/alarm communication sys- 
tems in Group A occupancies in accordance with Section 
907.2.1.1. 

604.2.2 Smoke control systems. Standby power shall be 
provided for smoke control systems in accordance with 
Section 909.11. 

604.2.3 Exit signs. Emergency power shall be provided 
for exit signs in accordance with Section 1011.6.3. 

604.2.4 Means of egress illumination. Emergency power 
shall be provided for means of egress illumination in 
accordance with Section 1006.3. 

604.2.5 Accessible means of egress elevators. Standby 
power shall be provided for elevators that are part of an 
accessible means of egress in accordance with Section 
1007.4. 

604.2.6 Accessible means of egress platform lifts. 

Standby power in accordance with this section or ASME 
A 18.1 shall be provided for platform lifts that are part of 
an accessible means of egress in accordance with Section 
1007.5. 

604.2.7 Horizontal sliding doors. Standby power shall be 
provided for horizontal sliding doors in accordance with 
Section 1008.1.4.3. 

604.2.8 Semiconductor fabrication facilities. Emer- 
gency power shall be provided for semiconductor fabrica- 
tion facilities in accordance with Section 2703.15. 

604.2.9 Membrane structures. Emergency power shall 
be provided for exit signs in temporary tents and mem- 
brane structures in accordance with Section 3103.12.6.1. 
Standby power shall be provided for auxiliary inflation 
systems in permanent membrane structures in accordance 
with the International Building Code. 

604.2.10 Hazardous materials. Emergency or standby 
power shall be provided in occupancies with hazardous 
materials in accordance with Sections 5004.7 and 
5005.1.5. 



604.2.11 Highly toxic and toxic materials. Emergency 
power shall be provided for occupancies with highly toxic 
or toxic materials in accordance with Sections 6004.2.2.8 
and 6004.3.4.2. 

604.2.12 Organic peroxides. Standby power shall be pro- 
vided for occupancies with organic peroxides in accor- 
dance with Section 6204.1 .1 1. 

604.2.13 Covered and open mall buildings. Covered 
mall buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m 2 ) and 
open mall buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 
m 2 ) within the established perimeter line shall be provided 
with standby power systems that are capable of operating 
the emergency voice/alarm communication system. 

604.2.14 High-rise buildings. Standby power, light and 
emergency systems in high-rise buildings shall comply 
with the requirements of Sections 604.2.14.1 through 
604.2.14.3. 

604.2.14.1 Standby power. A standby power system 
shall be provided. Where the standby system is a gener- 
ator set inside a building, the system shall be located in 
a separate room enclosed with 2-hour fire barriers con- 
structed in accordance with Section 707 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code or horizontal assemblies 
constructed in accordance with Section 711 of the 
International Building Code, or both. System supervi- 
sion with manual start and transfer features shall be 
provided at the fire command center. 

604.2.14.1.1 Fuel supply. An on-premises fuel sup- 
ply, sufficient for not less than 2-hour full-demand 
operation of the system, shall be provided. 

Exception: When approved, the system shall be 
allowed to be supplied by natural gas pipelines. 

604.2.14.1.2 Capacity. The standby system shall 
have a capacity and rating that supplies all equip- 
ment required to be operational at the same time. 
The generating capacity is not required to be sized to 
operate all of the connected electrical equipment 
simultaneously. 

604.2.14.1.3 Connected facilities. Power and light- 
ing facilities for the fire command center and eleva- 
tors specified in Sections 403.4.8.2 and 403.6 of the 
International Building Code, as applicable, shall be 
transferable to the standby source. Standby power 
shall be provided for at least one elevator to serve all 
floors and be transferable to any elevator. 

604.2.14.2 Separate circuits and luminaires. Separate 
lighting circuits and luminaires shall be required to pro- 
vide sufficient light with an intensity of not less than 1 
footcandle (1 1 lux) measured at floor level in all means 
of egress corridors, stairways, smokeproof enclosures, 
elevator cars and lobbies, and other areas that are 
clearly a part of the escape route. 

604.2.14.2.1 Other circuits. Circuits supplying 
lighting for the fire command center and mechanical 
equipment rooms shall be transferable to the standby 
source. 



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604.2.14.3 Emergency systems. Exit signs, exit illumi- 
nation as required by Chapter 10, electrically powered 
fire pumps required to maintain pressure, and elevator 
car lighting are classified as emergency systems and 
shall operate within 10 seconds of failure of the normal 
power supply and shall be capable of being transferred 
to the standby source. 

Exception: Exit sign, exit and means of egress illu- 
mination are permitted to be powered by a standby 
source in buildings of Group F and S occupancies. 

604.2.15 Underground buildings. Emergency and 
standby power systems in underground buildings covered 
in Chapter 4 of the International Building Code shall com- 
ply with Sections 604.2.15.1 and 604.2.15.2. 

604.2.15.1 Standby power. A standby power system 
complying with this section and NFPA 70 shall be pro- 
vided for standby power loads as specified in Section 
604.2.15.1.1. 

[B] 604.2.15.1.1 Standby power loads. The fol- 
lowing loads are classified as standby power loads: 

1. Smoke control system. 

2. Ventilation and automatic fire detection 
equipment for smokeproof enclosures. 

3. Fire pumps. 

4. Standby power shall be provided for elevators 
in accordance with Section 3003 of the Inter- 
national Building Code. 

604.2.15.1.2 Pickup time. The standby power sys- 
tem shall pick up its connected loads within 60 sec- 
onds of failure of the normal power supply. 

604.2.15.2 Emergency power. An emergency power 
system complying with this code and NFPA 70 shall be 
provided for emergency power loads as specified in 
Section 604.2.15.2.1. 

[B] 604.2.15.2.1 Emergency power loads. The fol- 
lowing loads are classified as emergency power 
loads: 

1. Emergency voice/alarm communication sys- 
tems. 

2. Fire alarm systems. 

3. Automatic fire detection systems. 

4. Elevator car lighting. 

5. Means of egress lighting and exit sign illumi- 
nation as required by Chapter 10. 

604.2.16 Group 1-3 occupancies. Power-operated sliding 
doors or power-operated locks for swinging doors in 
Group 1-3 occupancies shall be operable by a manual 
release mechanism at the door, and either emergency 
power or a remote mechanical operating release shall be 
provided. 

Exception: Emergency power is not required in facili- 
ties where provisions for remote locking and unlocking 
of occupied rooms in Occupancy Condition 4 are not 
required as set forth in the International Building Code. 



604.2.17 Airport traffic control towers. A standby 
power system shall be provided in airport traffic control 
towers more than 65 feet (19 812 mm) in height. Power 
shall be provided to the following equipment: 

1 . Pressurization equipment, mechanical equipment 
and lighting. 

2. Elevator operating equipment. 

3. Fire alarm and smoke detection systems. 

604.2.18 Elevators. In buildings and structures where 
standby power is required or furnished to operate an eleva- 
tor, the operation shall be in accordance with Sections 
604.2.18.1 through 604.2.18.4. 

604.2.18.1 Manual transfer. Standby power shall be 
manually transferable to all elevators in each bank. 

604.2.18.2 One elevator. Where only one elevator is 
installed, the elevator shall automatically transfer to 
standby power within 60 seconds after failure of nor- 
mal power. 

604.2.18.3 Two or more elevators. Where two or 
more elevators are controlled by a common operating 
system, all elevators shall automatically transfer to 
standby power within 60 seconds after failure of nor- 
mal power where the standby power source is of suffi- 
cient capacity to operate all elevators at the same time. 
Where the standby power source is not of sufficient 
capacity to operate all elevators at the same time, all 
elevators shall transfer to standby power in sequence, 
return to the designated landing and disconnect from 
the standby power source. After all elevators have been 
returned to the designated level, at least one elevator 
shall remain operable from the standby power source. 

604.2.18.4 Machine room ventilation. Where standby 
power is connected to elevators, the machine room ven- 
tilation or air conditioning shall be connected to the 
standby power source. 

604.3 Maintenance. Emergency and standby power systems 
shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 1 10 and NFPA 
111 such that the system is capable of supplying service 
within the time specified for the type and duration required. 

604.3.1 Schedule. Inspection, testing and maintenance of 
emergency and standby power systems shall be in accor- 
dance with an approved schedule established upon com- 
pletion and approval of the system installation. 

604.3.2 Written record. Written records of the inspec- 
tion, testing and maintenance of emergency and standby 
power systems shall include the date of service, name of 
the servicing technician, a summary of conditions noted 
and a detailed description of any conditions requiring cor- 
rection and what corrective action was taken. Such records 
shall be kept on the premises served by the emergency or 
standby power system and be available for inspection by 
the fire code official. 

604.3.3 Switch maintenance. Emergency and standby 
power system transfer switches shall be included in the 
inspection, testing and maintenance schedule required by 
Section 604.3.1. Transfer switches shall be maintained 



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BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



free from accumulated dust and dirt. Inspection shall 
include examination of the transfer switch contacts for evi- 
dence of deterioration. When evidence of contact deterio- 
ration is detected, the contacts shall be replaced in 
accordance with the transfer switch manufacturer's 
instructions. 

604.4 Operational inspection and testing. Emergency 
power systems, including all appurtenant components shall 
be inspected and tested under load in accordance with NFPA 
HOandNFPA 111. 

Exception: Where the emergency power system is used 
for standby power or peak load shaving, such use shall be 
recorded and shall be allowed to be substituted for sched- 
uled testing of the generator set, provided that appropriate 
records are maintained. 

604.4.1 Transfer switch test. The test of the transfer 
switch shall consist of electrically operating the transfer 
switch from the normal position to the alternate position 
and then return to the normal position. 

604.5 Emergency lighting equipment. Emergency lighting 
shall be inspected and tested in accordance with Sections 
604.5.1 through 604.5.2.1. 

604.5.1 Activation test. An activation test of the emer- 
gency lighting equipment shall be completed monthly. 
The activation test shall ensure the emergency lighting 
activates automatically upon normal electrical disconnect 
and stays sufficiently illuminated for a minimum of 30 
seconds. 

604.5.1.1 Activation test record. Records shall be 
maintained on the premises for a minimum of three 
years and submitted to the fire code official upon 
request. The record shall include the location of the 
emergency lighting tested, whether the unit passed or 
failed, the date of the test, and the person completing 
the test. 

604.5.2 Power test. For battery-powered emergency light- 
ing, a power test of the emergency lighting equipment 
shall be completed annually. The power test shall operate 
the emergency lighting for a minimum of 90 minutes and 
shall remain sufficiently illuminated for the duration of the 
test. 

604.5.2.1 Power test record. Records shall be main- 
tained on the premises for a minimum of three years 
and submitted to the fire code official upon request. 
The record shall include the location of the emergency 
lighting tested, whether the unit passed or failed, the 
date of the test, and the person completing the test. 

604.6 Supervision of maintenance and testing. Routine 
maintenance, inspection and operational testing shall be over- 
seen by a properly instructed individual. 



SECTION 605 
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT, WIRING AND HAZARDS 

605.1 Abatement of electrical hazards. Identified electrical 
hazards shall be abated. Identified hazardous electrical condi- 
tions in permanent wiring shall be brought to the attention of 



the responsible code official. Electrical wiring, devices, 
appliances and other equipment that is modified or damaged 
and constitutes an electrical shock or fire hazard shall not be 

used. 

605.2 Illumination. Illumination shall be provided for ser- 
vice equipment areas, motor control centers and electrical 
panelboards. 

605.3 Working space and clearance. A working space of 
not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in width, 36 inches (914 
mm) in depth and 78 inches (1981 mm) in height shall be pro- 
vided in front of electrical service equipment. Where the elec- 
trical service equipment is wider than 30 inches (762 mm), 
the working space shall not be less than the width of the 
equipment. No storage of any materials shall be located 
within the designated working space. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where other dimensions are required or allowed by 
NFPA 70. 

2. Access openings into attics or under-floor areas 
which provide a minimum clear opening of 22 
inches (559 mm) by 30 inches (762 mm). 

605.3.1 Labeling. Doors into electrical control panel 
rooms shall be marked with a plainly visible and legible 
sign stating ELECTRICAL ROOM or similar approved 
wording. The disconnecting means for each service, feeder 
or branch circuit originating on a switchboard or panel- 
board shall be legibly and durably marked to indicate its 
purpose unless such purpose is clearly evident. 

605.4 Multiplug adapters. Multiplug adapters, such as cube 
adapters, unfused plug strips or any other device not comply- 
ing with NFPA 70 shall be prohibited. 

605.4.1 Power tap design. Relocatable power taps shall 
be of the polarized or grounded type, equipped with over- 
current protection, and shall be listed in accordance with 
UL1363. 

605.4.2 Power supply. Relocatable power taps shall be 
directly connected to a permanently installed receptacle. 

605.4.3 Installation. Relocatable power tap cords shall 
not extend through walls, ceilings, floors, under doors or 
floor coverings, or be subject to environmental or physical 
damage. 

605.5 Extension cords. Extension cords and flexible cords 
shall not be a substitute for permanent wiring. Extension 
cords and flexible cords shall not be affixed to structures, 
extended through walls, ceilings or floors, or under doors or 
floor coverings, nor shall such cords be subject to environ- 
mental damage or physical impact. Extension cords shall be 
used only with portable appliances. 

605.5.1 Power supply. Extension cords shall be plugged 
directly into an approved receptacle, power tap or multi- 
plug adapter and, except for approved multiplug extension 
cords, shall serve only one portable appliance. 

605.5.2 Ampacity. The ampacity of the extension cords 
shall not be less than the rated capacity of the portable 
appliance supplied by the cord. 



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605.5.3 Maintenance. Extension cords shall be main- 
tamed in good condition without splices, deterioration or 
damage. 

605.5.4 Grounding. Extension cords shall be grounded 
when serving grounded portable appliances. 

605.6 Unapproved conditions. Open junction boxes and 
open-wiring splices shall be prohibited. Approved covers 
shall be provided for all switch and electrical outlet boxes. 

605.7 Appliances. Electrical appliances and fixtures shall be 
tested and listed in published reports of inspected electrical 
equipment by an approved agency and installed and main- 
tained in accordance with all instructions included as part of 
such listing. 

605.8 Electrical motors. Electrical motors shall be main- 
tamed free from excessive accumulations of oil, dirt, waste 
and debris. 

605.9 Temporary wiring. Temporary wiring for electrical 
power and lighting installations is allowed for a period not to 
exceed 90 days. Temporary wiring methods shall meet the 
applicable provisions of NFPA 70. 

Exception: Temporary wiring for electrical power and 
lighting installations is allowed during periods of con- 
struction, remodeling, repair or demolition of buildings, 
structures, equipment or similar activities. 

605.9.1 Attachment to structures. Temporary wiring 
attached to a structure shall be attached in an approved 
manner. 

605.10 Portable, electric space heaters. Where not prohib- 
ited by other sections of this code, portable, electric space 
heaters shall be permitted to be used in all occupancies other 
than Group 1-2 and in accordance with Sections 605 10 1 
through 605.10.4. 

Exception: The use of portable, electric space heaters in 
which the heating element cannot exceed a temperature of 
212°F (100°C) shall be permitted in nonsleeping staff and 
employee areas in Group 1-2 occupancies. 

605.10.1 Listed and labeled. Only listed and labeled por- 
table, electric space heaters shall be used. 

605.10.2 Power supply. Portable, electric space heaters 
shall be plugged directly into an approved receptacle. 

605.10.3 Extension cords. Portable, electric space heaters 
shall not be plugged into extension cords. 

605.10.4 Prohibited areas. Portable, electric space heat- 
ers shall not be operated within 3 feet (914 mm) of any 
combustible materials. Portable, electric space heaters 
shall be operated only in locations for which they are 
listed. 

605.11 Solar photovoltaic power systems. Solar photovol- 
taic power systems shall be installed in accordance with Sec- 
tions 605.11.1 through 605.11.4, the International Building 
Code and NFPA 70. 

Exception: Detached, nonhabitable Group U structures 
including, but not limited to, parking shade structures, car- 
ports, solar trellises and similar structures shall not be sub- 
ject to the requirements of this section. 

2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



605.11.1 Marking. Marking is required on interior and 
exterior direct-current (DC) conduit, enclosures, race- 
ways, cable assemblies, junction boxes, combiner boxes 
and disconnects. 

605.11.1.1 Materials. The materials used for marking 
shall be reflective, weather resistant and suitable for the 
environment. Marking as required in Sections 

605. 1 1 . 1 .2 through 605. 1 1 . 1 .4 shall have all letters cap- 
italized with a minimum height of 7 8 inch (9.5 mm) 
white on red background. 

605.11.1.2 Marking content. The marking shall con- 
tain the words "WARNING: PHOTOVOLTAIC 
POWER SOURCE." 

605.11.1.3 Main service disconnect. The marking 
shall be placed adjacent to the main service disconnect 
in a location clearly visible from the location where the 
disconnect is operated. 

605.11.1.4 Location of marking. Marking shall be 
placed on interior and exterior DC conduit, raceways, 
enclosures and cable assemblies every 10 feet (3048 
mm), within 1 foot (305 mm) of turns or bends and 
within 1 foot (305 mm) above and below penetrations 
of roof/ceiling assemblies, walls or barriers. 

605.11.2 Locations of DC conductors. Conduit, wiring 
systems, and raceways for photovoltaic circuits shall be 
located as close as possible to the ridge or hip or valley 
and from the hip or valley as directly as possible to an out- 
side wall to reduce trip hazards and maximize ventilation 
opportunities. Conduit runs between sub arrays and to DC 
combiner boxes shall be installed in a manner that mini- 
mizes the total amount of conduit on the roof by taking the 
shortest path from the array to the DC combiner box. The 
DC combiner boxes shall be located such that conduit runs 
are minimized in the pathways between arrays. DC wiring 
shall be installed in metallic conduit or raceways when 
located within enclosed spaces in a building. Conduit shall 
run along the bottom of load bearing members. 

605.11.3 Access and pathways. Roof access, pathways, 
and spacing requirements shall be provided in accordance 
with Sections 605.11.3.1 through 605.11.3.3.3. 

Exceptions: 

1. Residential structures shall be designed so that 
each photovoltaic array is no greater than 150 
feet (45 720 mm) by 150 feet (45 720 mm) in 
either axis. 

2. Panels/modules shall be permitted to be located 
up to the roof ridge where an alternative ventila- 
tion method approved by the fire chief has been 
provided or where the fire chief has determined 
vertical ventilation techniques will not be 
employed. 

605.11.3.1 Roof access points. Roof access points 
shall be located in areas that do not require the place- 
ment of ground ladders over openings such as windows 
or doors, and located at strong points of building con- 
struction in locations where the access point does not 



77 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



conflict with overhead obstructions such as tree limbs, 
wires, or signs. 

605.11.3.2 Residential systems for one- and two- 
family dwellings. Access to residential systems for 
one- and two-family dwellings shall be provided in 
accordance with Sections 605.11.3.2.1 through 
605.11.3.2.4. 

605.11.3.2.1 Residential buildings with hip roof 
layouts. Panels/modules installed on residential 
buildings with hip roof layouts shall be located in a 
manner that provides a 3-foot-wide (914 mm) clear 
access pathway from the eave to the ridge on each 
roof slope where panels/modules are located. The 
access pathway shall be located at a structurally 
strong location on the building capable of support- 
ing the live load of fire fighters accessing the roof. 

Exception: These requirements shall not apply 
to roofs with slopes of two units vertical in 12 
units horizontal (2:12) or less. 

605.11.3.2.2 Residential buildings with a single 
ridge. Panels/modules installed on residential build- 
ings with a single ridge shall be located in a manner 
that provides two, 3-foot-wide (914 mm) access 
pathways from the eave to the ridge on each roof 
slope where panels/modules are located. 

Exception: This requirement shall not apply to 
roofs with slopes of two units vertical in 12 units 
horizontal (2:12) or less. 

605.11.3.2.3 Residential buildings with roof hips 
and valleys. Panels/modules installed on residential 
buildings with roof hips and valleys shall be located 
no closer than 18 inches (457 mm) to a hip or a val- 
ley where panels/modules are to be placed on both 
sides of a hip or valley. Where panels are to be 
located on only one side of a hip or valley that is of 
equal length, the panels shall be permitted to be 
placed directly adjacent to the hip or valley. 

Exception: These requirements shall not apply 
to roofs with slopes of two units vertical in 12 
units horizontal (2: 12) or less. 

605.11.3.2.4 Residential building smoke ventila- 
tion. Panels/modules installed on residential build- 
ings shall be located no higher than 3 feet (914 mm) 
below the ridge in order to allow for fire department 
smoke ventilation operations. 

605.11.3.3 Other than residential buildings. Access 
to systems for occupancies other than one- and two- 
family dwellings shall be provided in accordance with 
Sections 605.11.3.3.1 through 605.11.3.3.3. 

Exception: Where it is determined by the fire code 
official that the roof configuration is similar to that 
of a one- or two-family dwelling, the residential 
access and ventilation requirements in Sections 
605.1 1.3.2.1 through 605.11.3.2.4 shall be permitted 
to be used. 



78 



605.11.3.3.1 Access. There shall be a minimum 6- 
foot-wide (1829 mm) clear perimeter around the 
edges of the roof. 

Exception: Where either axis of the building is 
250 feet (76 200 mm) or less, there shall be a 
minimum 4-foot-wide (1290 mm) clear perimeter 
around the edges of the roof. 

605.11.3.3.2 Pathways. The solar installation shall 
be designed to provide designated pathways. The 
pathways shall meet the following requirements: 

1. The pathway shall be over areas capable of 
supporting the live load of fire fighters 
accessing the roof. 

2. The centerline axis pathways shall be pro- 
vided in both axes of the roof. Centerline axis 
pathways shall run where the roof structure is 
capable of supporting the live load of fire 
fighters accessing the roof. 

3. Shall be a straight line not less than 4 feet 
(1290 mm) clear to skylights or ventilation 
hatches. 

4. Shall be a straight line not less than 4 feet 
(1290 mm) clear to roof standpipes. 

5. Shall provide not less than 4 feet (1290 mm) 
clear around roof access hatch with at least 
one not less than 4 feet (1290 mm) clear path- 
way to parapet or roof edge. 

605.11.3.3.3 Smoke ventilation. The solar installa- 
tion shall be designed to meet the following require- 
ments: 

1. Arrays shall be no greater than 150 feet (45 
720 mm) by 150 feet (45 720 mm) in distance 
in either axis in order to create opportunities 
for fire department smoke ventilation opera- 
tions. 

2. Smoke ventilation options between array sec- 
tions shall be one of the following: 

2.1. A pathway 8 feet (2438 mm) or greater 
in width. 

2.2. A 4-foot (1290 mm) or greater in 
width pathway and bordering roof 
skylights or smoke and heat vents. 

2.3. A 4-foot (1290 mm) or greater in width 
pathway and bordering 4-foot by 8-foot 
(1290 mm by 2438 mm) "venting 
cutouts" every 20 feet (6096 mm) on 
alternating sides of the pathway. 

605.11.4 Ground-mounted photovoltaic arrays. 
Ground-mounted photovoltaic arrays shall comply with 
Sections 605.11 through 605.11.2 and this section. Set- 
back requirements shall not apply to ground-mounted, 
free-standing photovoltaic arrays. A clear, brush-free area 
of 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be required for ground- 
mounted photovoltaic arrays. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



SECTION 606 
MECHANICAL REFRIGERATION 

[M] 606.1 Scope. Refrigeration systems shall be installed in 
accordance with the International Mechanical Code. 

[M] 606.2 Refrigerants. The use and purity of new, recov- 
ered and reclaimed refrigerants shall be in accordance with 
the International Mechanical Code. 

[M] 606.3 Refrigerant classification. Refrigerants shall be 
classified in accordance with the International Mechanical 
Code. 

[M] 606.4 Change in refrigerant type. A change in the type 
of refrigerant in a refrigeration system shall be in accordance 
with the International Mechanical Code. 

606.5 Access. Refrigeration systems having a refrigerant cir- 
cuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group Al 
or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refrigerant shall be 
accessible to the fire department at all times as required by 
the fire code official. 

606.6 Testing of equipment. Refrigeration equipment and 
systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 
pounds (100 kg) of Group Al or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any 
other group refrigerant shall be subject to periodic testing in 
accordance with Section 606.6. 1 . A written record of required 
testing shall be maintained on the premises. Tests of emer- 
gency devices or systems required by this chapter shall be 
conducted by persons trained and qualified in refrigeration 
systems. 

606.6.1 Periodic testing. The following emergency 
devices or systems shall be periodically tested in accor- 
dance with the manufacturer's instructions and as required 
by the fire code official. 

1. Treatment and flaring systems. 

2. Valves and appurtenances necessary to the operation 
of emergency refrigeration control boxes. 

3. Fans and associated equipment intended to operate 
emergency ventilation systems. 

4. Detection and alarm systems. 

606.7 Emergency signs. Refrigeration units or systems hav- 
ing a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 pounds 
(100 kg) of Group Al or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other 
group refrigerant shall be provided with approved emergency 
signs, charts and labels in accordance with NFPA 704. Haz- 
ard signs shall be in accordance with the International 
Mechanical Code for the classification of refrigerants listed 
therein. 

606.8 Refrigerant detector. Machinery rooms shall contain 
a refrigerant detector with an audible and visual alarm. The 
detector, or a sampling tube that draws air to the detector, 
shall be located in an area where refrigerant from a leak will 
concentrate. The alarm shall be actuated at a value not greater 
than the corresponding TLV-TWA values shown in the Inter- 
national Mechanical Code for the refrigerant classification. 
Detectors and alarms shall be placed in approved locations. 
The detector shall transmit a signal to an approved location. 



606.9 Remote controls. Where flammable refrigerants are | 
used and compliance with Section 1 1 06 of the International I 
Mechanical Code is required, remote control of the mechani- | 
cal equipment and appliances located in the machinery room 
as required by Sections 606.9.1 and 606.9.2 shall be provided j 
at an approved location immediately outside the machinery 
room and adjacent to its principal entrance. 

606.9.1 Refrigeration system emergency shutoff. A 
clearly identified switch of the break-glass type or with an 
approved tamper-resistant cover shall provide off-only 
control of refrigerant compressors, refrigerant pumps and 
normally closed automatic refrigerant valves located in the 
machinery room. Additionally, this equipment shall be 
automatically shut off whenever the refrigerant vapor con- 
centration in the machinery room exceeds the vapor detec- 
tor' s upper detection limit or 25 percent of the LEL, 

whichever is lower. 

4 

606.9.2 Ventilation system. A clearly identified switch of 

the break-glass type shall provide on-only control of the 
machinery room ventilation fans. 

606.10 Emergency pressure control system. Refrigeration 
systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of flamma- 
ble, toxic or highly toxic refrigerant or ammonia shall be pro- 
vided with an emergency pressure control system in 
accordance with Sections 606.10.1 and 606.10.2. 

606.10.1 Automatic crossover valves. Each high- and 
intermediate-pressure zone in a refrigeration system shall 
be provided with a single automatic valve providing a 
crossover connection to a lower pressure zone. Automatic 
crossover valves shall comply with Sections 606.10.1.1 
through 606.10.1.3. 

606.10.1.1 Overpressure limit set point. Automatic 
crossover valves shall be arranged to automatically 
relieve excess system pressure to a lower pressure zone 
if the pressure in a high- or intermediate-pressure zone 
rises to within 90 percent of the set point for emergency 
pressure relief devices. 

606.10.1.2 Manual operation. When required by the 
fire code official, automatic crossover valves shall be 
capable of manual operation. 

606.10.1.3 System design pressure. Refrigeration sys- 
tem zones that are connected to a higher pressure zone 
by an automatic crossover valve shall be designed to 
safely contain the maximum pressure that can be 
achieved by interconnection of the two zones. 

606.10.2 Automatic emergency stop. An automatic 
emergency stop feature shall be provided in accordance 
with Sections 606.10.2.1 and 606.10.2.2. 

606.10.2.1 Operation of an automatic crossover 
valve. Operation of an automatic crossover valve shall 
cause all compressors on the affected system to imme- 
diately stop. Dedicated pressure-sensing devices 
located immediately adjacent to crossover valves shall 
be permitted as a means for determining operation of a 
valve. To ensure that the automatic crossover valve sys- 
tem provides a redundant means of stopping compres- 
sors in an overpressure condition, high-pressure cutout 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



79 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



sensors associated with compressors shall not be used 
as a basis for determining operation of a crossover 
valve. 

606.10.2.2 Overpressure in low-pressure zone. The 

lowest pressure zone in a refrigeration system shall be 
provided with a dedicated means of determining a rise 
in system pressure to within 90 percent of the set point 
for emergency pressure relief devices. Activation of the 
overpressure sensing device shall cause all compressors 
on the affected system to immediately stop. 

606.11 Storage, use and handling. Flammable and combus- 
tible materials shall not be stored in machinery rooms for 
refrigeration systems having a refrigerant circuit containing 
more than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group Al or 30 pounds 
(14 kg) of any other group refrigerant. Storage, use or han- 
dling of extra refrigerant or refrigerant oils shall be as 
required by Chapters 50, 53, 55 and 57. 

Exception: This provision shall not apply to spare parts, 
tools and incidental materials necessary for the safe and 
proper operation and maintenance of the system. 

606.12 Termination of relief devices. Pressure relief 
devices, fusible plugs and purge systems for refrigeration sys- 
tems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of flammable, 
toxic or highly toxic refrigerants shall be provided with an 
approved discharge system as required by Sections 606.12.1, 
606.12.2 and 606.12.3. Discharge piping and devices con- 
nected to the discharge side of a fusible plug or rupture mem- 
ber shall have provisions to prevent plugging the pipe in the 
event of the fusible plug or rupture member functions. 

606.12.1 Flammable refrigerants. Systems containing 
flammable refrigerants having a density equal to or greater 
than the density of air shall discharge vapor to the atmo- 
sphere only through an approved treatment system in 
accordance with Section 606.12.4 or a flaring system in 
accordance with Section 606.12.5. Systems containing 
flammable refrigerants having a density less than the den- 
sity of air shall be permitted to discharge vapor to the 
atmosphere provided that the point of discharge is located 
outside of the structure at not less than 15 feet (4572 mm) 
above the adjoining grade level and not less than 20 feet 
(6096 mm) from any window, ventilation opening or exit. 

606.12.2 Toxic and highly toxic refrigerants. Systems 
containing toxic or highly toxic refrigerants shall dis- 
charge vapor to the atmosphere only through an approved 
treatment system in accordance with Section 606.12.4 or a 
flaring system in accordance with Section 606.12.5. 

606.12.3 Ammonia refrigerant. Systems containing 
ammonia refrigerant shall discharge vapor to the atmo- 
sphere through an approved treatment system in accor- 
dance with Section 606.12.4, a flaring system in 
accordance with Section 606.12.5, or through an approved 
ammonia diffusion system in accordance with Section 
606. 1 2.6, or by other approved means. 

Exceptions: 

1. Ammonia/water absorption systems containing 
less than 22 pounds (10 kg) of ammonia and for 



which the ammonia circuit is located entirely out- 
doors. 

2. When the fire code official determines, on review 
of an engineering analysis prepared in accor- 
dance with Section 104.7.2, that a fire, health or 
environmental hazard would not result from dis- 
charging ammonia directly to the atmosphere. 

606.12.4 Treatment systems. Treatment systems shall be 
designed to reduce the allowable discharge concentration 
of the refrigerant gas to not more than 50 percent of the 
IDLH at the point of exhaust. Treatment systems shall be 
in accordance with Chapter 60. 

606.12.5 Flaring systems. Flaring systems for incinera- 
tion of flammable refrigerants shall be designed to inciner- 
ate the entire discharge. The products of refrigerant 
incineration shall not pose health or environmental haz- 
ards. Incineration shall be automatic upon initiation of dis- 
charge, shall be designed to prevent blowback and shall 
not expose structures or materials to threat of fire. Standby 
fuel, such as LP gas, and standby power shall have the 
capacity to operate for one and one-half the required time 
for complete incineration of refrigerant in the system. 

606.12.6 Ammonia diffusion systems. Ammonia diffu- 
sion systems shall include a tank containing 1 gallon of 
water for each pound of ammonia (4 L of water for each 1 
kg of ammonia) that will be released in 1 hour from the 
largest relief device connected to the discharge pipe. The 
water shall be prevented from freezing. The discharge pipe 
from the pressure relief device shall distribute ammonia in 
the bottom of the tank, but no lower than 33 feet (10 058 
mm) below the maximum liquid level. The tank shall con- 
tain the volume of water and ammonia without overflow- 
ing. 

606.13 Discharge location for refrigeration machinery 
room ventilation. Exhaust from mechanical ventilation sys- 
tems serving refrigeration machinery rooms containing flam- 
mable, toxic or highly toxic refrigerants, other than ammonia, 
capable of exceeding 25 percent of the LFL or 50 percent of 
the IDLH shall be equipped with approved treatment systems 
to reduce the discharge concentrations to those values or 
lower. 

606.14 Notification of refrigerant discharges. The fire code 
official shall be notified immediately when a discharge 
becomes reportable under state, federal or local regulations in 
accordance with Section 5003.3. 1 . 

606.15 Records. A written record shall be kept of refrigerant 
quantities brought into and removed from the premises. Such 
records shall be available to the/iVe code official. 

606.16 Electrical equipment. Where refrigerants of Groups 
A2, A3, B2 and B3, as defined in the International Mechani- 
cal Code, are used, refrigeration machinery rooms shall con- 
form to the Class I, Division 2 hazardous location 
classification requirements of NFPA 70. 

Exception: Ammonia machinery rooms that are provided 
with ventilation in accordance with Section 1 106.3 of the 
International Mechanical Code. 



80 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



SECTION 607 
ELEVATOR OPERATION, 

MAINTENANCE AND FIRE SERVICE KEYS 

607.1 Emergency operation. Existing elevators with a travel 
distance of 25 feet (7620 mm) or more shall comply with the 
requirements in Chapter 11. New elevators shall be provided 
with Phase I emergency recall operation and Phase II emer- 
gency in-car operation in accordance with ASME A 17.1. 

[B] 607.2 Emergency signs. An approved pictorial sign of a 
standardized design shall be posted adjacent to each elevator 
call station on all floors instructing occupants to use the exit 
stairways and not to use the elevators in case of fire. The sign 
shall read: IN FIRE EMERGENCY, DO NOT USE ELEVA- 
TOR. USE EXIT STAIRS. 

Exceptions: 

1. The emergency sign shall not be required for eleva- 
tors that are part of an accessible means of egress 
complying with Section 1007.4. 

2. The emergency sign shall not be required for eleva- 
tors that are used for occupant self-evacuation in 
accordance with Section 3008 of the International 
Building Code. 

607.3 Fire service access elevator lobbies. Where fire ser- 
vice access elevators are required by Section 3007 of the 
International Building Code, fire service access elevator lob- 
bies shall be maintained free of storage and furniture. 

607.4 Elevator key location. Keys for the elevator car doors 
and fire-fighter service keys shall be kept in an approved 
location for immediate use by the fire department. 

607.5 Standardized fire service elevator keys. Buildings 
with elevators equipped with Phase I emergency recall, Phase 
II emergency in-car operation, or a fire service access eleva- 
tor shall be equipped to operate with a standardized fire ser- 
vice elevator key approved by the fire code official. 

Exception: The owner shall be permitted to place the 
building's nonstandardized fire service elevator keys in a 
key box installed in accordance with Section 506. 1 .2. 

607.5.1 Requirements for standardized fire service ele- 
vator keys. Standardized fire service elevator keys shall 
comply with all of the following: 

1 . All fire service elevator keys within the jurisdiction 
shall be uniform and specific for the jurisdiction. 
Keys shall be cut to a uniform key code. 

2. Fire service elevator keys shall be of a patent-pro- 
tected design to prevent unauthorized duplication. 

3. Fire service elevator keys shall be factory restricted 
by the manufacturer to prevent the unauthorized dis- 
tribution of key blanks. No uncut key blanks shall be 
permitted to leave the factory. 

4. Fire service elevator keys subject to these rules shall 
be engraved with the words "DO NOT DUPLI- 
CATE." 



607.5.2 Access to standardized fire service keys. Access 
to standardized fire service elevator keys shall be 
restricted to the following: 

1. Elevator owners or their authorized agents. 

2. Elevator contractors. 

3. Elevator inspectors of the jurisdiction. 

4. Fire code officials of the jurisdiction. 

5. The fire department and other emergency response 
agencies designated by the fire code official. 

607.5.3 Duplication or distribution of keys. No person 
shall duplicate a standardized fire service elevator key or 
issue, give, or sell a duplicated key unless in accordance 
with this code. 

607.5.4 Responsibility to provide keys. The building 
owner shall provide up to three standardized fire service 
elevator keys where required by the fire code official, 
upon installation of a standardized fire service key switch 
or switches in the building. 



SECTION 608 
STATIONARY STORAGE BATTERY SYSTEMS 

608.1 Scope. Stationary storage battery systems having an 
electrolyte capacity of more than 50 gallons (189 L) for 
flooded lead-acid, nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd) and valve-regu- 
lated lead-acid (VRLA), or more than 1 ,000 pounds (454 kg) 
for lithium-ion and lithium metal polymer, used for facility 
standby power, emergency power or uninterruptible power 
supplies shall comply with this section and Table 608.1. 

608.2 Safety caps. Safety caps for stationary storage battery 
systems shall comply with Sections 608.2.1 and 608.2.2. 

608.2.1 Nonrecombinant batteries. Vented lead-acid, 
nickel-cadmium or other types of nonrecombinant batter- 
ies shall be provided with safety venting caps. 

608.2.2 Recombinant batteries. VRLA batteries shall be 
equipped with self-resealing flame-arresting safety vents. 

608.3 Thermal runaway. VRLA and lithium metal polymer 
battery systems shall be provided with a listed device or other 
approved method to preclude, detect and control thermal run- 
away. 

608.4 Room design and construction. Enclosure of station- 
ary battery systems shall comply with the International 
Building Code. Battery systems shall be allowed to be in the 
same room with the equipment they support. 

608.4.1 Separate rooms. When stationary batteries are 
installed in a separate equipment room accessible only to 
authorized personnel, they shall be permitted to be 
installed on an open rack for ease of maintenance. 

608.4.2 Occupied work centers. When a system of 
VRLA, lithium-ion, or other type of sealed, nonventing 
batteries is situated in an occupied work center, it shall be 
allowed to be housed in a noncombustible cabinet or other 
enclosure to prevent access by unauthorized personnel. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



81 



BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



TABLE 608.1 
BATTERY REQUIREMENTS 



REQUIREMENT 


NONRECOMBINANT BATTERIES 


RECOMBINANT BATTERIES 


OTHER BATTERIES 


Vented (Flooded) Lead 
Acid Batteries 


Vented (Flooded) 
Nickel-Cadmium 
(Ni-Cd) Batteries 


Valve Regulated Lead- 
Acid (VRLA) Cells 


Lithium-Ion Cells 


Lithium Metal Cells 


Safety caps 


Venting caps 
(608.2.1) 


Venting caps 
(608.2.1) 


Self-resealing flame- 
arresting caps 
(608.2.2) 


No caps 


No caps 


Thermal runaway 
management 


Not required 


Not required 


Required 
(608.3) 


Not required 


Required 
(608.3) 


Spill control 


Required 
(608.5) 


Required 
(608.5) 


Not required 


Not required 


Not required 


Neutralization 


Required 
(608.5.1) 


Required 
(608.5.1) 


Required 
(608.5.2) 


Not required 


Not required 


Ventilation 


Required 
(608.6.1; 608.6.2) 


Required 
(608.6.1; 608.6.2) 


Required 
(608.6.1; 608.6.2) 


Not required 


Not required 


Signage 


Required 

(608.7) 


Required 
(608.7) 


Required 
(608.7) 


Required 
(608.7) 


Required 

(608.7) 


Seismic protection 


Required 

(608.8) 


Required 
(608.8) 


Required 
(608.8) 


Required 
(608.8) 


Required 

(608.8) 


Smoke detection 


Required 
(608.9) 


Required 
(608.9) 


Required 
(608.9) 


Required 
(608.9) 


Required 
(608.9) 



608.4.3 Cabinets. When stationary batteries are contained 
in cabinets in occupied work centers, the cabinet enclo- 
sures shall be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the 
equipment that they support. 

608.5 Spill control and neutralization. An approved 
method and materials for the control and neutralization of a 
spill of electrolyte shall be provided in areas containing lead- 
acid, nickel-cadmium or other types of batteries with free- 
flowing liquid electrolyte. For purposes of this paragraph, a 
"spill" is defined as any unintentional release of electrolyte. 

Exception: VRLA, lithium-ion, lithium metal polymer or 
other types of sealed batteries with immobilized electro- 
lyte shall not require spill control. 

608.5.1 Nonrecombinant battery neutralization. For 
battery systems containing lead acid, nickel cadmium or 
other types of batteries with free-flowing electrolyte, the 
method and materials shall be capable of neutralizing a 
spill of the total capacity from the largest cell or block to a 
pH between 5.0 and 9.0. 

608.5.2 Recombinant battery neutralization. For VRLA 
or other types of batteries with immobilized electrolyte, 
the method and material shall be capable of neutralizing a 
spill of 3.0 percent of the capacity of the largest cell or 
block in the room to a pH between 5.0 and 9.0. 

Exception: Lithium-ion and lithium metal polymer 
batteries shall not require neutralization. 

608.6 Ventilation. Ventilation of stationary storage battery 
systems shall comply with Sections 608.6.1 and 608.6.2. 



608.6.1 Room ventilation. Ventilation shall be provided 
in accordance with the International Mechanical Code and 
the following: 

1. For flooded lead-acid, flooded Ni-Cd and VRLA 
batteries, the ventilation system shall be designed to 
limit the maximum concentration of hydrogen to 1 .0 
percent of the total volume of the room; or 

2. Continuous ventilation shall be provided at a rate of 
not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot 
(1 ft 3 /min/ft 2 ) [0.0051 m 3 /s • m 2 ] of floor area of the 
room. 

Exception: Lithium-ion and lithium metal poly- 
mer batteries shall not require additional ventila- 
tion beyond that which would normally be 
required for human occupancy of the space in 
accordance with the International Mechanical 
Code. 

608.6.2 Cabinet ventilation. When VRLA batteries are 
installed inside a cabinet, the cabinet shall be approved for 
use in occupied spaces and shall be mechanically or natu- 
rally vented by one of the following methods: 

1. The cabinet ventilation shall limit the maximum 
concentration of hydrogen to 1 percent of the total 
volume of the cabinet during the worst-case event of 
simultaneous "boost" charging of all the batteries in 
the cabinet; or 

2. When calculations are not available to substantiate 
the ventilation rate, continuous ventilation shall be 
provided at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per 



82 



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BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 



minute per square foot [1 ftVmin/ft 2 or 0.0051 m 3 /(s • 
m )] of floor area covered by the cabinet. The room 
in which the cabinet is installed shall also be venti- 
lated as required in Section 608.6.1. 

608.6.3 Supervision. Mechanical ventilation systems 
where required by Sections 608.6.1 and 608.6.2 shall be 
supervised by an approved central, proprietary or remote 
station service or shall initiate an audible and visual signal 
at a constantly attended on-site location. ' 

608.7 Signage. Signs shall comply with Sections 608 7 1 and 
608.7.2. 

608.7.1 Equipment room and building signage. Doors 
into electrical equipment rooms or buildings containing 
stationary battery systems shall be provided with approved 
signs. The signs shall state that: 

1 . The room contains energized battery systems. 

The room contains energized electrical circuits. 

The battery electrolyte solutions, where present, are 
corrosive liquids. 

608.7.2 Cabinet signage. Cabinets shall have exterior 
labels that identify the manufacturer and model number of 
the system and electrical rating (voltage and current) of the 
contained battery system. There shall be signs within the 
cabinet that indicate the relevant electrical, chemical and 
fire hazards. 



2. 
3. 



608.8 Seismic protection. The battery systems shall be seis- 
mically braced in accordance with the International Building 
Code. * 

608.9 Smoke detection. An approved automatic smoke 
detection system shall be installed in accordance with Section 
907.2 in rooms containing stationary battery systems. 

SECTION 609 
COMMERCIAL KITCHEN HOODS 
[M] 609.1 General. Commercial kitchen exhaust hoods shall 
comply with the requirements of the International Mechani- 
cal Code. 

[M] 609.2 Where required. A Type I hood shall be installed 
at or above all commercial cooking appliances and domestic 
cooking appliances used for commercial purposes that pro- 
duce grease vapors. 

609.3 Operations and maintenance. Commercial cooking 
systems shall be operated and maintained in accordance with 
Sections 609.3.1 through 609.3.4. 

609.3.1 Ventilation system. The ventilation system in 
connection with hoods shall be operated at the required 
rate of air movement, and classified grease filters shall be 
in place when equipment under a kitchen grease hood is 
used. 

609.3.2 Grease extractors. Where grease extractors are 
installed, they shall be operated when the commercial-type 
cooking equipment is used. 



609.3.3 Cleaning. Hoods, grease-removal devices fans 
ducts and other appurtenances shall be cleaned at intervals 
as required by Sections 609.3.3.1 through 609.3.3.3. 

609.3.3.1 Inspection. Hoods, grease-removal devices, 
fans, ducts and other appurtenances shall be inspected 
at intervals specified in Table 609.3.3.1 or as approved 
by the /ire code official, inspections shall be completed 
by qualified individuals. 

TABLE 609.3.3.1 
COMMERCIAL COOKING SYSTEM INSPECTION FREQUENCY 



TYPE OF COOKING OPERATIONS 



FREQUENCY OF 
INSPECTION 



High-volume cooking operations such as 24- 
hour cooking, charbroiling or wok cooking 



Low-volume cooking operations such as 
places of religious worship, seasonal busi- 
nesses and senior centers 



Cooking operations utilizing solid fuel-burn- 
ing cooking appliances 



3 months 



1 2 months 



1 month 



All other cooking operations 



6 months 



609.3.3.2 Grease accumulation. If during the inspec- 
tion it is found that hoods, grease-removal devices, 
fans, ducts or other appurtenances have an accumula- 
tion of grease, such components shall be cleaned. 

609.3.3.3 Records. Records for inspections shall state 
the individual and company performing the inspection, 
a description of the inspection and when the inspection 
took place. Records for cleanings shall state the indi- 
vidual and company performing the cleaning and when 
the cleaning took place. Such records shall be com- 
pleted after each inspection or cleaning, maintained on 
the premises for a minimum of three years and be cop- 
ied to the fire code official upon request. 

609.3.4 Extinguishing system service. Automatic fire- 
extinguishing systems protecting commercial cooking sys- 
tems shall be serviced as required in Section 904.1 1.6. 

SECTION 610 

COMMERCIAL KITCHEN COOKING 

OIL STORAGE 

610.1 General. Storage of cooking oil (grease) in commer- 
cial cooking operations shall comply with Chapter 57. Sys- 
tems used to store cooking oils in larger than 60-gallon (227 
L) above-ground tanks shall also comply with Sections 610.2 
through 610.5. For purposes of this section, cooking oil shall 
be classified as a Class IIIB liquid unless otherwise deter- 
mined by testing. 

610.2 Storage tanks. Cooking oil storage tanks shall be 
listed in accordance with UL 142 or UL 80, and shall be 
installed in accordance with Section 5704 and the tank manu- 
facturer's instructions. 



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610.3 Other storage components. Cooking oil storage sys- 
tem'components including, but not limited to, piping, connec- 
tions fittings, valves, tubing and other related components 
used 'for the transfer of cooking oil from the cooking appli- 
ance to the storage tank, and from the storage tank to the dis- 
charge point, shall be installed in accordance with Section 
5703.6. 

610.4 Tank venting. Normal and emergency venting for 
cookin" oil storage tanks shall terminate outside the building 
as specified in Sections 5704.2.7.3 and 5704.2.7.4. 

610 5 Electrical equipment. Electrical equipment used for 
the operation and heating of the cooking oil storage system 
shall be listed and comply with NFPA 70. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 
84 



CHAPTER 7 

FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



SECTION 701 
GENERAL 

701.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall specify the 
requirements for and the maintenance of fire-resistance-rated 
construction. New buildings shall comply with the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

701.2 Unsafe conditions. Where any components in this 
chapter are not maintained and do not function as intended or 
do not have the fire resistance required by the code under 
which the building was constructed, remodeled or altered, 
such component(s) or portion thereof shall be deemed an 
unsafe condition, in accordance with Section 110.1.1. Com- 
ponents or portions thereof determined to be unsafe shall be 
repaired or replaced to conform to that code under which the 
building was constructed, remodeled, altered or this chapter, 
as deemed appropriate by the fire code official. 

Where the extent of the conditions of components is such 
that any building, structure or portion thereof presents an 
imminent danger to the occupants of the building, structure or 
portion thereof, the fire code official shall act in accordance 
with Section 110.2. 



SECTION 702 
DEFINITIONS 

702.1 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chap- 
ter 2: 

DRAFTSTOP. 

FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEM. 
FIREBLOCKING. 



SECTION 703 
FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 

703.1 Maintenance. The required fire-resistance rating of 
fire-resistance-rated construction (including walls, firestops, 
shaft enclosures, partitions, smoke barriers, floors, fire-resis- 
tive coatings and sprayed fire-resistant materials applied to 
structural members and fire-resistant joint systems) shall be 
maintained. Such elements shall be visually inspected by the 
owner annually and properly repaired, restored or replaced 
when damaged, altered, breached or penetrated. Where con- 
cealed, such elements shall not be required to be visually 
inspected by the owner unless the concealed space is accessi- 
ble by the removal or movement of a panel, access door, ceil- 
ing tile or similar movable entry to the space. Openings made 
therein for the passage of pipes, electrical conduit, wires, 
ducts, air transfer openings and holes made for any reason 
shall be protected with approved methods capable of resisting 
the passage of smoke and fire. Openings through fire-resis- 
tance-rated assemblies shall be protected by self- or auto- 



matic-closing doors of approved construction meeting the 
fire protection requirements for the assembly. 

703.1.1 Fireblocking and draftstopping. Required fire- 
blocking and draftstopping in combustible concealed 
spaces shall be maintained to provide continuity and integ- 
rity of the construction. 

703.1.2 Smoke barriers and smoke partitions. Required 
smoke barriers and smoke partitions shall be maintained 
to prevent the passage of smoke. All openings protected 
with approved smoke barrier doors or smoke dampers 
shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 105. 

703.1.3 Fire walls, fire barriers and fire partitions. 

Required fire walls, fire barriers and fire partitions shall 
be maintained to prevent the passage of fire. All openings 
protected with approved doors or fire dampers shall be 
maintained in accordance with NFPA 80. 

703.2 Opening protectives. Opening protectives shall be 
maintained in an operative condition in accordance with 
NFPA 80. Where allowed by the fire code official, the appli- 
cation of field-applied labels associated with the maintenance 
of opening protectives shall follow the requirements of the 
approved third-party certification organization accredited for 
listing the opening protective. Fire doors and smoke barrier 
doors shall not be blocked or obstructed, or otherwise made 
inoperable. Fusible links shall be replaced promptly when- 
ever fused or damaged. Fire door assemblies shall not be 
modified. 

703.2.1 Signs. Where required by the fire code official, a 
sign shall be permanently displayed on or near each fire 
door in letters not less than 1 inch (25 mm) high to read as 
follows: 

1 . For doors designed to be kept normally open: FIRE 
DOOR— DO NOT BLOCK. 

2. For doors designed to be kept normally closed: 
FIRE DOOR— KEEP CLOSED. 

703.2.2 Hold-open devices and closers. Hold-open 
devices and automatic door closers, where provided, shall 
be maintained. During the period that such device is out of 
service for repairs, the door it operates shall remain in the 
closed position. 

703.2.3 Door operation. Swinging fire doors shall close 
from the full-open position and latch automatically. The 
door closer shall exert enough force to close and latch the 
door from any partially open position. 

703.3 Ceilings. The hanging and displaying of salable goods 
and other decorative materials from acoustical ceiling sys- 
tems that are part of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or 
roof/ceiling assembly, shall be prohibited. 

703.4 Testing. Horizontal and vertical sliding and rolling fire 
doors shall be inspected and tested annually to confirm 



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proper operation and full closure. A written record shall be 
maintained and be available to the fire code official. 



SECTION 704 
FLOOR OPENINGS AND SHAFTS 

704.1 Enclosure. Interior vertical shafts including, but not 
limited to, stairways, elevator hoistways, service and utility 
shafts, that connect two or more stories of a building shall be 
enclosed or protected as required in Chapter 1 1 . New floor 
openings in existing buildings shall comply with the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

704.2 Opening protectives. When openings are required to 
be protected, opening protectives shall be maintained self- 
closing or automatic-closing by smoke detection. Existing 
fusible-link-type automatic door-closing devices are permit- 
ted if the fusible link rating does not exceed 135°F (57°C). 



86 2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



CHAPTER 8 

INTERIOR FINISH, DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND FURNISHINGS 



SECTION 801 
GENERAL 

801.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern inte- 
rior finish, interior trim, furniture, furnishings, decorative 
materials and decorative vegetation in buildings. Existing 
buildings shall comply with Sections 803 through 808. New 
buildings shall comply with Sections 804 through 808, and 
Section 803 of the International Building Code. 



SECTION 802 
DEFINITIONS 

802.1 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chap- 
ter 2: 

FLAME SPREAD. 

FLAME SPREAD INDEX. 

INTERIOR FLOOR-WALL BASE. 

SITE-FABRICATED STRETCH SYSTEM. 

SMOKE-DEVELOPED INDEX. 



SECTION 803 

INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH 

AND TRIM IN EXISTING BUILDINGS 

803.1 General. The provisions of this section shall limit the 
allowable fire performance and smoke development of inte- 
rior wall and ceiling finishes and interior wall and ceiling 
trim in existing buildings based on location and occupancy 
classification. Interior wall and ceiling finishes shall be clas- 
sified in accordance with Section 803 of the International 
Building Code. Such materials shall be grouped in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 84, as indicated in Section 803.1.1, or in 
accordance with NFPA 286, as indicated in Section 803.1 .2. 

Exceptions: 

1. Materials having a thickness less than 0.036 inch 
(0.9 mm) applied directly to the surface of walls and 
ceilings. 

2. Exposed portions of structural members complying 
with the requirements of buildings of Type IV con- 
struction in accordance with the International Build- 
ing Code shall not be subject to interior finish 
requirements. 

803.1.1 Classification in accordance with ASTM E 84. 
Interior finish materials shall be grouped in the following 
classes in accordance with their flame spread and smoke- 
developed index when tested in accordance with ASTM E 
84. 

Class A: flame spread index 0-25; smoke-developed 
index 0-450. 



Class B: flame spread index 26-75; smoke-developed 
index 0-450. 

Class C: flame spread index 76-200; smoke-developed 
index 0-450. 

803.1.2 Classification in accordance with NFPA 286. 
Interior wall or ceiling finishes shall be allowed to be 
tested in accordance with NFPA 286. Finishes tested in 
accordance with NFPA 286 shall comply with Section 
803.1.2.1. Interior wall and ceiling finish materials tested 
in accordance with NFPA 286 and meeting the acceptance 
criteria of Section 803.1.2.1 shall be allowed to be used 
where a Class A classification in accordance with ASTM 
E 84 is required. 

803.1.2.1 Acceptance criteria for NFPA 286. The 
interior finish shall comply with the following: 

1. During the 40 kW exposure, flames shall not 
spread to the ceiling. 

2. The flame shall not spread to the outer extremity 
of the sample on any wall or ceiling. 

3. Flashover, as defined in NFPA 286, shall not 
occur. 

4. The peak heat release rate throughout the test 
shall not exceed 800 kW. 

5. The total smoke released throughout the test shall 
not exceed 1,000 m 2 . 

803.2 Stability. Interior finish materials regulated by this 
chapter shall be applied or otherwise fastened in such a man- 
ner that such materials will not readily become detached 
where subjected to room temperatures of 200°F (93°C) for 
not less than 30 minutes. 

803.3 Interior finish requirements based on occupancy. 
Interior wall and ceiling finish shall have a flame spread 
index not greater than that specified in Table 803.3 for the 
group and location designated. 

803.4 Fire-retardant coatings. The required flame spread or 
smoke-developed index of surfaces in existing buildings shall 
be allowed to be achieved by application of approved fire- 
retardant coatings, paints or solutions to surfaces having a 
flame spread index exceeding that allowed. Such applications 
shall comply with NFPA 703 and the required fire-retardant 
properties shall be maintained or renewed in accordance with 
the manufacturer's instructions. 

803.5 Textiles. Where used as interior wall or ceiling finish 
materials, textiles, including materials having woven or non- 
woven, napped, tufted, looped or similar surface, shall com- 
ply with the requirements of this section. 

803.5.1 Textile wall or ceiling coverings. Textile wall or 
ceiling coverings shall comply with one of the following: 

1. The wall or ceiling covering shall have a Class A 
flame spread index in accordance with ASTM E 84 



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or UL 723, and be protected by automatic sprinklers 
installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 
903.3.1.2; 

2. The wall covering shall meet the criteria of Section 
803.5.1.1 or 803.5.1.2 when tested in the manner 
intended for use in accordance with NFPA 265 
using the product-mounting system, including adhe- 
sive, of actual use; or 

3. The wall or ceiling covering shall meet the criteria 
of Section 803.1.2.1 when tested in accordance with 
NFPA 286 using the product-mounting system, 
including adhesive, of actual use. 

803.5.1.1 Method A test protocol. During the Method 
A protocol, flame shall not spread to the ceiling during 
the 40-kW exposure. During the 150-kW exposure, the 



textile wall covering shall comply with all of the fol- 
lowing: 

1. Flame shall not spread to the outer extremity of 
the sample on the 8-foot by 12-foot (203 mm by 
305 mm) wall. 

2. The specimen shall not burn to the outer extrem- 
ity of the 2-foot-wide (610 mm) samples 
mounted in the corner of the room. 

3. Burning droplets deemed capable of igniting tex- 
tile wall coverings or that burn for 30 seconds or 
more shall not form. 

4. Flashover, as defined in NFPA 265, shall not 
occur. 

5. The maximum net instantaneous peak heat 
release rate, determined by subtracting the burner 





TABLE 803.3 
INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH REQUIREMENTS BY OCCUPANCY" 




GROUP 


SPRINKLERED 1 


NONSPRINKLERED 


Interior exit stairways 
and interior exit ramps 
and exit passageways 8 ' b 


Corridors and 

enclosure for exit 

access stairways and 

exit access ramps 


Rooms and 
enclosed spaces" 


Interior exit stairways 
and interior exit ramps 
and exit passageways' b 


Corridors and 

enclosure for exit 

access stairways and 

exit access ramps 


Rooms and 
enclosed 
spaces' 


A-1&A-2 


B 


B 


C 


A 


A d 


B e 


A-3 f , A-4, A-5 


B 


B 


C 


A 


A d 


C 


B, E,M, R-l,R-4 


B 


C 


C 


A 


B 


C 


F 


C 


C 


c 


B 


C 


C 


H 


B 


B 


C E 


A 


A 


B 


1-1 


B 


C 


c 


A 


B 


B 


1-2 


B 


B 


B hl 


A 


A 


B 


13 


A 


A 


C 


A 


A 


B 


1-4 


B 


B 


B M 


A 


A 


B 


R-2 


C 


C 


c 


B 


B 


C 


R-3 


c 


C 


c 


C 


C 


C 


S 


c 


C 


c 


B 


B 


C 


u 


No Restrictions 


No Restrictions 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 . 

a. Class C interior finish materials shall be allowed for wainscoting or paneling of not more than 1,000 square feet of applied surface area in the grade lobby 
where applied directly to a noncombustible base or over furring strips applied to a noncombustible base and fireblocked as required by Section 803.1 1 of the 
International Building Code. 

b. In exit enclosures of buildings less than three stories in height of other than Group 1-3, Class B interior finish for nonsprinklered buildings and Class C for 
sprinklered buildings shall be permitted. 

c. Requirements for rooms and enclosed spaces shall be based upon spaces enclosed by partitions. Where a fire-resistance rating is required for structural 
elements, the enclosing partitions shall extend from the floor to the ceiling. Partitions that do not comply with this shall be considered as enclosing spaces and 
the rooms or spaces on both sides shall be considered as one. In determining the applicable requirements for rooms and enclosed spaces, the specific 
occupancy thereof shall be the governing factor regardless of the group classification of the building or structure. 

d. Lobby areas in Group A- 1 , A-2 and A-3 occupancies shall not be less than Class B materials. 

e. Class C interior finish materials shall be allowed in Group A occupancies with an occupant load of 300 persons or less. 

f. In places of religious worship, wood used for ornamental purposes, trusses, paneling or chancel furnishing shall be allowed. 

g. Class B material is required where the building exceeds two stories. 

h. Class C interior finish materials shall be allowed in administrative spaces, 
i. Class C interior finish materials shall be allowed in rooms with a capacity of four persons or less. 

j. Class B materials shall be allowed as wainscoting extending not more than 48 inches above the finished floor in corridors, 
k. Finish materials as provided for in other sections of this code. 

1. Applies when the vertical exits, exit passageways, corridors or rooms and spaces are protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with Section 903.3. 1 . 1 or 903.3. 1 .2. 



88 



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J 



output from the maximum heat release rate does 
not exceed 300 kW. 

803.5.1.2 Method B test protocol. During the Method 
B protocol, the textile wall covering or expanded vinyl 
wall covering shall comply with the following: 

1. During the 40-kW exposure, flames shall not 
spread to the ceiling. 

2. The flame shall not spread to the outer extremi- 
ties of the samples on the 8-foot by 12-foot (203 
by 305 mm) walls. 

3. Flashover, as defined in NFPA 265, shall not 
occur. 

4. For newly introduced wall and ceiling coverings, 
the total smoke released throughout the test shall 
not exceed 1,000 m 2 . 

803.5.2 Newly introduced textile wall and ceiling cover- 
ings. Newly introduced textile wall and ceiling coverings 
shall comply with one of the following: 

1. The wall or ceiling covering shall have a Class A 
flame spread index in accordance with ASTM E 84 
or UL 723, and be protected by automatic sprinklers 
installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 
903.3.1.2. Test specimen preparation and mounting 
shall be in accordance with ASTM E 2404. 

2. The wall covering shall meet the criteria of Section 
803.5. 1 .2 when tested in the manner intended for use 
in accordance with NFPA 265 using the product- 
mounting system (including adhesive) of actual use. 

3. The wall or ceiling covering shall meet the criteria 
of Section 803.1.2.1 when tested in accordance with 
NFPA 286 using the product-mounting system 
(including adhesive) of actual use. 

803.6 Expanded vinyl wall or ceiling coverings. Expanded 
vinyl wall or ceiling coverings shall comply with one of the 
following: 

1. The wall or ceiling covering shall have a Class A flame 
spread index in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 
723, and be protected by automatic sprinklers installed 
in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. Test 
specimen preparation and mounting shall be in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 2404. 

2. The wall covering shall meet the criteria of Section 
803.5.1.2 when tested in the manner intended for use in 
accordance with NFPA 265 using the product- mount- 
ing system (including adhesive) of actual use. 

3. The wall or ceiling covering shall meet the criteria of 
Section 803.1.2.1 when tested in accordance with 
NFPA 286 using the product-mounting system (includ- 
ing adhesive) of actual use. 

803.7 Foam plastic materials. Foam plastic materials shall 
not be used as interior wall and ceiling finish unless specifi- 
cally allowed by Section 803.7.1 or 803.7.2. Foam plastic 
materials shall not be used as interior trim unless specificallv 
allowed by Section 803.7.3. 



803.7.1 Combustibility characteristics. Foam plastic 
materials shall be allowed on the basis of fire tests that 
substantiate their combustibility characteristics for the use 
intended under actual fire conditions, as indicated in Sec- 
tion 2603.10 of the International Building Code. This sec- 
tion shall apply both to exposed foam plastics and to foam 
plastics used in conjunction with a textile or vinyl facing 
or cover. ' c 

803.7.2 Thermal barrier. Foam plastic material shall be 
allowed if it is separated from the interior of the building 
by a thermal barrier in accordance with Section 2603.4 of 
the International Building Code. 

803.7.3 Trim. Foam plastic shall be allowed for trim in 
accordance with Section 804.2. 

803.8 High-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropyl- 
ene (PP). Where high-density polyethylene or polypropylene I 
is used as an interior finish it shall comply with Section 
803.1.2. 

803.9 Site-fabricated stretch systems. Where used as newly 
installed interior wall or interior ceiling finish materials, site- 
fabricated stretch systems containing all three components 1 
described m the definition in Section 802 shall be tested in 
the manner intended for use, and shall comply with the 
requirements of Section 803.1.1 or 803.1.2. If the materials 
are tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723, speci- 
men preparation and mounting shall be in accordance with 
ASTM E 2573. 



SECTION 804 
INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING TRIM 
AND INTERIOR FLOOR FINISH IN 
NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS 
804.1 Interior trim. Material, other than foam plastic, used 
as interior trim in new and existing buildings shall have mini- 
mum Class C flame spread and smoke-developed indices, 
when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723 as 
described in Section 803.1.1. Combustible trim, excluding 
handrails and guardrails, shall not exceed 10 percent of the 
specific wall or ceiling areas to which it is attached. 

804.1.1 Alternative testing. When the interior trim mate- 
rial has been tested as an interior finish in accordance with 
NFPA 286 and complies with the acceptance criteria in 
Section 803.1.2.1, it shall not be required to be tested for 
flame spread index and smoke-developed index in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 84. 

804.2 Foam plastic. Foam plastic used as interior trim shall 
comply with Sections 804.2.1 through 804.2.4. 

804.2.1 Density. The minimum density of the interior trim 
shall be 20 pounds per cubic foot (320 kg/m 3 ). 

804.2.2 Thickness. The maximum thickness of the inte- 
rior trim shall be 7 2 inch (12.7 mm) and the maximum 
width shall be 8 inches (203 mm). 

804.2.3 Area limitation. The interior trim shall not consti- 
tute more than 10 percent of the specific wall or ceiling 
area to which it is attached. 



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804.2.4 Flame spread. The flame spread index shall not 
exceed 75 where tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or 
UL 723. The smoke-developed index shall not be limited. 
Exception: When the interior trim material has been 
tested as an interior finish in accordance with NFPA 
286 and complies with the acceptance criteria in Sec- 
tion 803.1.2.1, it shall not be required to be tested for 
flame spread index in accordance with ASTM E 84 or 
UL723. 
804.3 New interior floor finish. New interior floor finish 
and' floor covering materials in new and existing buildings 
shall comply with Sections 804.3.1 through 804.3.3.2. 

Exception: Floor finishes and coverings of a traditional 
type, such as wood, vinyl, linoleum or terrazzo, and resil- 
ient floor covering materials that are not comprised of 
fibers. 

804.3.1 Classification. Interior floor finish and floor cov- 
ering materials required by Section 804.3.3.2 to be of 
Class I or II materials shall be classified in accordance 
with NFPA 253. The classification referred to herein cor- 
responds to the classifications determined by NFPA 253 as 
follows: Class I, 0.45 watts/cm 2 or greater; Class II, 0.22 
watts/cm 2 or greater. 

804.3.2 Testing and identification. Interior floor finish 
and' floor covering materials shall be tested by an 
approved agency in accordance with NFPA 253 and iden- 
tified by a hang tag or other suitable method so as to iden- 
tify the manufacturer or supplier and style, and shall 
indicate the interior floor finish or floor covering classifi- 
cation according to Section 804.3.1. Carpet-type floor 
coverings shall be tested as proposed for use, including 
underlayment. Test reports confirming the information 
provided in the manufacturer's product identification shall 
be furnished to the fire code official upon request. 
804.3.3 Interior floor finish requirements. New interior 
floor coverings materials shall comply with Sections 
804.3.3.1 and 804.3.3.2, and interior floor finish materials 
shall comply with Section 804.3.1. 

804.3.3.1 Pill test. In all occupancies, new floor cover- 
ing materials shall comply with the requirements of the 
DOC FF-1 "pill test" (CPSC 16 CFR Part 1630) or of 
ASTM D 2859. 

804.3.3.2 Minimum critical radiant flux. In all occu- 
pancies, new interior floor finish and floor covering 
materials in enclosures for stairways and ramps, exit 
passageways, corridors and rooms or spaces not sepa- 
rated from corridors by full-height partitions extending 
from the floor to the underside of the ceiling shall with- 
stand a minimum critical radiant flux. The minimum 
critical radiant flux shall not be less than Class I in 
Groups 1-1, 1-2 and 1-3 and not less than Class II in 
Groups A, B, E, H, 1-4, M, R-l, R-2 and S. 

Exception: Where a building is equipped through- 
out with an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, Class II 



materials shall be permitted in any area where Class 

I materials are required and materials complying 

with DOC FF-1 "pill test" (CPSC 16 CFR Part 

1630) or with ASTM D 2859 shall be permitted in 

any area where Class II materials are required. 

804 4 Interior floor-wall base. Interior floor-wall base that 

is 6 inches (152 mm) or less in height shall be tested in 

accordance with NFPA 253 and shall not be less than Class 

II Where a Class I floor finish is required, the floor-wall 

base shall be Class I. The classification referred to herein 

corresponds to the classifications determined by NFPA 253 

as follows: Class I, 0.45 watt/cm 2 or greater; Class II, 0.22 

watts/cm 2 or greater. 

Exception: Interior trim materials that comply with Sec- 
tion 804.1. 



SECTION 805 
UPHOLSTERED FURNITURE AND MATTRESSES IN 

NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS 
805 1 Group 1-1, board and care facilities. The require- 
ments in Sections 805.1.1 through 805.1.2 shall apply to 
board and care facilities classified in Group 1-1 . 

805.1.1 Upholstered furniture. Newly introduced uphol- 
stered furniture shall meet the requirements of Sections 
805.1.1.1 through 805.1.1.3. 

805.1.1.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced 
upholstered furniture shall be shown to resist ignition 
by cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accor- 
dance with one of the following: 

1. Mocked-up composites of the upholstered furni- 
ture shall have a char length not exceeding 1.5 
inches (38 mm) when tested in accordance with 
NFPA 261. 

2. The components of the upholstered furniture 
shall meet the requirements for Class I when 
tested in accordance with NFPA 260. 

805.1.1.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced uphol- 
stered furniture shall have limited rates of heat release 
when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1537 or Cali- 
fornia Technical Bulletin 133, as follows: 

1 . The peak rate of heat release for the single uphol- 
stered furniture item shall not exceed 80 kW. 

Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or 
spaces protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. The total energy released by the single uphol- 
stered furniture item during the first 10 minutes 
of the test shall not exceed 25 megajoules (MJ). 

Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or 
spaces protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 



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805.1.1.3 Identification. Upholstered furniture shall 
bear the label of an approved agency, confirming com- 
pliance with the requirements of Sections 805.1.1.1 and 
805.1.1.2. 

805.1.2 Mattresses. Newly introduced mattresses shall 
meet the requirements of Sections 805.1.2.1 through 
805.1.2.3. 

805.1.2.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced 
mattresses shall be shown to resist ignition by ciga- 
rettes as determined by tests conducted in accordance 
with DOC 16 CFR Part 1632 and shall have a char 
length not exceeding 2 inches (51 mm). 

805.1.2.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced mat- 
tresses shall have limited rates of heat release when 
tested in accordance with ASTM E 1590 or California 
Technical Bulletin 129, as follows: 

1 . The peak rate of heat release for the single mat- 
tress shall not exceed 100 kW. 

Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces 
protected by an approved automatic sprinkler 
system installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

2. The total energy released by the single mattress 
during the first 10 minutes of the test shall not 
exceed 25 MJ. 

Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces 
protected by an approved automatic sprinkler 
system installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

805.1.2.3 Identification. Mattresses shall bear the label 
of an approved agency, confirming compliance with 
the requirements of Sections 805.2.2.1 and 805.2.2.2. 

805.2 Group 1-2, nursing homes and hospitals. The 
requirements in Sections 805.2.1 through 805.2.2 shall apply 
to nursing homes and hospitals classified in Group 1-2. 

805.2.1 Upholstered furniture. Newly introduced uphol- 
stered furniture shall meet the requirements of Sections 
805.2.1.1 through 805.2.1.3. 

805.2.1.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced 
upholstered furniture shall be shown to resist ignition 
by cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accor- 
dance with one of the following: (a) mocked-up com- 
posites of the upholstered furniture shall have a char 
length not exceeding 1.5 inches (38 mm) when tested in 
accordance with NFPA 261 or (b) the components of 
the upholstered furniture shall meet the requirements 
for Class I when tested in accordance with NFPA 260. 

Exception: Upholstered furniture belonging to the 
patients in sleeping rooms of nursing homes (Group 
1-2), provided that a smoke detector is installed in 
such rooms. Battery-powered, single-station smoke 
alarms shall be allowed. 

805.2.1.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced uphol- 
stered furniture shall have limited rates of heat release 



when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1537 or Cali- 
fornia Technical Bulletin 133, as follows: 

1 . The peak rate of heat release for the single uphol- 
stered furniture item shall not exceed 80 kW. 

Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or 
spaces protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. The total energy released by the single uphol- 
stered furniture item during the first 10 minutes 
of the test shall not exceed 25 MJ. 

Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or 
spaces protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 

805.2.1.3 Identification. Upholstered furniture shall 
bear the label of an approved agency, confirming com- 
pliance with the requirements of Sections 805.2. 1.1 and 
805.2.1.2. 

805.2.2 Mattresses. Newly introduced mattresses shall 
meet the requirements of Sections 805.2.2.1 through 
805.2.2.3. 

805.2.2.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced 
mattresses shall be shown to resist ignition by ciga- 
rettes as determined by tests conducted in accordance 
with DOC 16 CFR Part 1632 and shall have a char 
length not exceeding 2 inches (51 mm). 

805.2.2.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced mat- 
tresses shall have limited rates of heat release when 
tested in accordance with ASTM E 1590 or California 
Technical Bulletin 129, as follows: 

1. The peak rate of heat release for the single mat- 
tress shall not exceed 100 kW. 

Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces 
protected by an approved automatic sprinkler 
system installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

2. The total energy released by the single mattress 
during the first 10 minutes of the test shall not 
exceed 25 MJ. 

Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces 
protected by an approved automatic sprinkler 
system installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

805.2.2.3 Identification. Mattresses shall bear the label 
of an approved agency, confirming compliance with 
the requirements of Sections 805.2.2.1 and 805.2.2.2. 

805.3 Group 1-3, detention and correction facilities. The 
requirements in Sections 805.3.1 through 805.3.2 shall apply 
to detention and correction facilities classified in Group 1-3. 

805.3.1 Upholstered furniture. Newly introduced uphol- 
stered furniture shall meet the requirements of Sections 
805.3.1.1 through 805.3.1.3 



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805.3.1.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced 
upholstered furniture shall be shown to resist ignition 
by cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accor- 
dance with one of the following: 

1. Mocked-up composites of the upholstered furni- 
ture shall have a char length not exceeding 1.5 
inches (38 mm) when tested in accordance with 
NFPA261. 

2. The components of the upholstered furniture 
shall meet the requirements for Class I when 
tested in accordance with NFPA 260. 

805.3.1.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced uphol- 
stered furniture shall have limited rates of heat release 
when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1 537, as fol- 
lows: 

1 . The peak rate of heat release for the single uphol- 
stered furniture item shall not exceed 80 kW. 

2. The total energy released by the single uphol- 
stered furniture item during the first 10 minutes 
of the test shall not exceed 25 MJ. 

805.3.1.3 Identification. Upholstered furniture shall 
bear the label of an approved agency, confirming com- 
pliance with the requirements of Sections 805.3.1.1 and 
805.3.1.2. 

805.3.2 Mattresses. Newly introduced mattresses shall 
meet the requirements of Sections 805.3.2.1 through 
805.3.2.3. 

805.3.2.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced 
mattresses shall be shown to resist ignition by ciga- 
rettes as determined by tests conducted in accordance 
with DOC 16 CFR Part 1632 and shall have a char 
length not exceeding 2 inches (5 1 mm). 

805.3.2.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced mat- 
tresses shall have limited rates of heat release when 
tested in accordance with ASTM E 1590 or California 
Technical Bulletin 129, as follows: 

1 . The peak rate of heat release for the single mat- 
tress shall not exceed 100 kW. 

2. The total energy released by the single mattress 
during the first 10 minutes of the test shall not 
exceed 25 MJ. 

805.3.2.3 Identification. Mattresses shall bear the label 
of an approved agency, confirming compliance with 
the requirements of Sections 805.3.2.1 and 805.3.2.2. 

805.4 Group R-2 college and university dormitories. The 

requirements of Sections 805.4.1 through 805.4.2.3 shall 
apply to college and university dormitories classified in 
Group R-2, including decks, porches and balconies. 

805.4.1 Upholstered furniture. Newly introduced uphol- 
stered furniture shall meet the requirements of Sections 
805.4.1.1 through 805.4.1.3 

805.4.1.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced 
upholstered furniture shall be shown to resist ignition 



by cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accor- 
dance with one of the following: 

1 . Mocked-up composites of the upholstered furni- 
ture shall have a char length not exceeding l'/ 2 
inches (38 mm) when tested in accordance with 
NFPA 261. 

2. The components of the upholstered furniture 
shall meet the requirements for Class I when 
tested in accordance with NFPA 260. 

805.4.1.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced uphol- 
stered furniture shall have limited rates of heat release 
when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1 537 or Cali- 
fornia Technical Bulletin 133, as follows: 

1. The peak rate of heat release for the single uphol- 
stered furniture item shall not exceed 80 kW. 

Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or 
spaces protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. The total energy released by the single uphol- 
stered furniture item during the first 10 minutes 
of the test shall not exceed 25 MJ. 

Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or 
spaces protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 

805.4.1.3 Identification. Upholstered furniture shall 
bear the label of an approved agency, confirming com- 
pliance with the requirements of Sections 805.4.1.1 and 
805.4.1.2. 

805.4.2 Mattresses. Newly introduced mattresses shall 
meet the requirements of Sections 805.4.2.1 through 
805.4.2.3. 

805.4.2.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced 
mattresses shall be shown to resist ignition by ciga- 
rettes as determined by tests conducted in accordance 
with DOC 16 CFR Part 1632 and shall have a char 
length not exceeding 2 inches (51 mm). 

805.4.2.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced mat- 
tresses shall have limited rates of heat release when 
tested in accordance with ASTM E 1590 or California 
Technical Bulletin 129, as follows: 

1. The peak rate of heat release for the single mat- 
tress shall not exceed 100 kW. 

Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces 
protected by an approved automatic sprinkler 
system installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

2. The total energy released by the single mattress 
during the first 1 minutes of the test shall not 
exceed 25 MJ. 

Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces 
protected by an approved automatic sprinkler 



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system installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

805.4.2.3 Identification. Mattresses shall bear the label 
of an approved agency, confirming compliance with 
the requirements of Sections 805.4.2.1 and 805.4.2.2. 



SECTION 806 

DECORATIVE VEGETATION IN NEW AND EXISTING 

BUILDINGS 

806.1 Natural cut trees. Natural cut trees, where allowed by 
this section, shall have the trunk bottoms cut off at least 0.5 
inch (12.7 mm) above the original cut and shall be placed in a 
support device complying with Section 806.1.2. 

806.1.1 Restricted occupancies. Natural cut trees shall be 
prohibited in Group A, E, 1-1, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, M, R-l, R-2 
and R-4 occupancies. 

Exceptions: 

1. Trees located in areas protected by an approved 
automatic sprinkler system installed in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 shall 
not be prohibited in Groups A, E, M, R-l and 
R-2. 

2. Trees shall be allowed within dwelling units in 
Group R-2 occupancies. 

806.1.2 Support devices. The support device that holds 
the tree in an upright position shall be of a type that is sta- 
ble and that meets all of the following criteria: 

1. The device shall hold the tree securely and be of 
adequate size to avoid tipping over of the tree. 

2. The device shall be capable of containing a mini- 
mum two-day supply of water. 

3. The water level, when full, shall cover the tree stem 
at least 2 inches (51 mm). The water level shall be 
maintained above the fresh cut and checked at least 
once daily. 

806.1.3 Dryness. The tree shall be removed from the 
building whenever the needles or leaves fall off readily 
when a tree branch is shaken or if the needles are brittle 
and break when bent between the thumb and index finger. 
The tree shall be checked daily for dryness. 

806.2 Artificial vegetation. Artificial decorative vegetation 
shall meet the flame propagation performance criteria of 
NFPA 701. Meeting the flame propagation performance cri- 
teria of NFPA 701 shall be documented and certified by the 
manufacturer in an approved manner. Alternatively, the arti- 
ficial decorative vegetation item shall be tested in accordance 
with NFPA 289, using the 20 kW ignition source, and shall 
have a maximum heat release rate of 100 kW. 

806.3 Obstruction of means of egress. The required width 
of any portion of a means of egress shall not be obstructed by 
decorative vegetation. 

806.4 Open flame. Candles and open flames shall not be 
used on or near decorative vegetation. Natural cut trees shall 



be kept a distance from heat vents and any open flame or 
heat-producing devices at least equal to the height of the tree. 

806.5 Electrical fixtures and wiring. The use of unlisted 
electrical wiring and lighting on natural cut trees and artificial 
decorative vegetation shall be prohibited. The use of electri- 
cal wiring and lighting on artificial trees constructed entirely 
of metal shall be prohibited. 



SECTION 807 

DECORATIVE MATERIALS OTHER THAN 

DECORATIVE VEGETATION IN NEW AND EXISTING 

BUILDINGS 

807.1 General requirements. In occupancies in Groups A, 
E, I and R-l, and dormitories in Group R-2, curtains, draper- 
ies, hangings and other decorative materials suspended from 
walls or ceilings shall meet the flame propagation perfor- 
mance criteria of NFPA 701 in accordance with Section 

807.2 or be noncombustible. 

Exceptions: 

1. Curtains, draperies, hangings and other decorative 
materials suspended from walls of sleeping units 
and dwelling units in dormitories in Group R-2 pro- 
tected by an approved automatic sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1 and 
such materials are limited to not more than 50 per- 
cent of the aggregate area of walls. 

2. Decorative materials, including, but not limited to, 
photographs and paintings in dormitories in Group 
R-2 where such materials are of limited quantities 
such that a hazard of fire development or spread is 
not present. 

In Groups 1-1 and 1-2, combustible decorative materials 
shall meet the flame propagation criteria of NFPA 701 unless 
the decorative materials, including, but not limited to, photo- 
graphs and paintings, are of such limited quantities that a haz- 
ard of fire development or spread is not present. In Group 1-3, 
combustible decorative materials are prohibited. 

Fixed or movable walls and partitions, paneling, wall pads 
and crash pads, applied structurally or for decoration, acousti- 
cal correction, surface insulation or other purposes, shall be 
considered interior finish if they cover 1 percent or more of 
the wall or of the ceiling area, and shall not be considered 
decorative materials or furnishings. 

In Group B and M occupancies, fabric partitions sus- 
pended from the ceiling and not supported by the floor shall 
meet the flame propagation performance criteria in accor- 
dance with Section 807.2 and NFPA 701 or shall be noncom- 
bustible. 

807.1.1 Noncombustible materials. The permissible 
amount of noncombustible decorative material shall not be 
limited. 

807.1.2 Combustible decorative materials. The permis- 
sible amount of decorative materials meeting the flame 
propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701 shall not 



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exceed 10 percent of the specific wall or ceiling area to 
which it is attached. 

Exceptions: 

1. In auditoriums in Group A, the permissible 
amount of decorative material meeting the flame 
propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701 
shall not exceed 75 percent of the aggregate wall 
area where the building is equipped throughout 
with an approved automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, and where the 
material is installed in accordance with Section 
803.1 1 of the International Building Code. 

2. The amount of fabric partitions suspended from 
the ceiling and not supported by the floor in 
Group B and M occupancies shall not be limited. 

807.2 Acceptance criteria and reports. Where required to 
be flame resistant, decorative materials shall be tested by an 
approved agency and meet the flame propagation perfor- 
mance criteria of NFPA 701, or such materials shall be non- 
combustible. Reports of test results shall be prepared in 
accordance with NFPA 701 and furnished to the fire code 
official upon request. 

807.3 Pyroxylin plastic. Imitation leather or other material 
consisting of or coated with a pyroxylin or similarly hazard- 
ous base shall not be used in Group A occupancies. 

807.4 Occupancy-based requirements. In occupancies in 
Group A, E and 1-4 day care facilities, decorative materials 
other than decorative vegetation shall comply with Sections 
807.4.1 through 807.4.4.2. 

807.4.1 General. All of the following requirements shall 
apply to all Group A and E occupancies and Group 1-4 day 
care facilities regulated by Sections 807.4.2 through 
807.4.4: 

1. Explosive or highly flammable materials. Furnish- 
ings or decorative materials of an explosive or 
highly flammable character shall not be used. 

2. Fire-retardant coatings. Fire-retardant coatings in 
existing buildings shall be maintained so as to retain 
the effectiveness of the treatment under service con- 
ditions encountered in actual use. 

3. Obstructions. Furnishings or other objects shall not 
be placed to obstruct exits, access thereto, egress 
therefrom or visibility thereof. 

807.4.2 Group A. The requirements in Sections 807.4.2.1 
through 807.4.2.3 shall apply to occupancies in Group A. 

807.4.2.1 Foam plastics. Exposed foam plastic materi- 
als and unprotected materials containing foam plastic 
used for decorative purposes or stage scenery or exhibit 
booths shall have a maximum heat release rate of 100 
kW when tested in accordance with UL 1975, or when 



tested in accordance with NFPA 289 using the 20 kW 
ignition source. 

Exceptions: 

1. Individual foam plastic items or items contain- 
ing foam plastic where the foam plastic does 
not exceed 1 pound (0.45 kg) in weight. 

2. Cellular or foam plastic shall be allowed for 
trim in accordance with Section 804.2. 

807.4.2.2 Motion picture screens. The screens upon 
which motion pictures are projected in new and exist- 
ing buildings of Group A shall either meet the flame 
propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701 or shall 
comply with the requirements for a Class B interior fin- 
ish in accordance with Section 803 of the International 
Building Code. 

807.4.2.3 Wood use in Group A-3 places of religious 
worship. In places of religious worship, wood used for 
ornamental purposes, trusses, paneling or chancel fur- 
nishing shall be allowed. 

807.4.3 Group E. The requirements in Sections 807.4.3.1 
and 807.4.3.2 shall apply to occupancies in Group E. 

807.4.3.1 Storage in corridors and lobbies. Clothing 
and personal effects shall not be stored in corridors and 
lobbies. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Corridors protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. Corridors protected by an approved smoke 
detection system installed in accordance with 
Section 907. 

3. Storage in metal lockers, provided the mini- 
mum required egress width is maintained. 

807.4.3.2 Artwork. Artwork and teaching materials 
shall be limited on the walls of corridors to not more 
than 20 percent of the wall area. 

807.4.4 Group 1-4, day care facilities. The requirements 
in Sections 807.4.4.1 and 807.4.4.2 shall apply to day care 
facilities classified in Group 1-4. 

807.4.4.1 Storage in corridors and lobbies. Clothing 
and personal effects shall not be stored in corridors and 
lobbies. 

Exceptions: 

1. Corridors protected by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. Corridors protected by an approved smoke 
detection system installed in accordance with 
Section 907. 



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I 



3. Storage in metal lockers, provided the mini- 
mum required egress width is maintained. 
807 .4 4.2 Artwork. Artwork and teaching materials 
shall be limited on walls of corridors to not more than 
20 percent of the wall area. 

SECTION 808 
FURNISHINGS OTHER THAN UPHOLSTERED 
FURNITURE AND MATTRESSES OR DECORATIVE 
MATERIALS IN NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS 
808.1 Wastebaskets and linen containers in Group 1-1 1-2 
and 1-3 occupancies. Wastebaskets, linen containers 'and 
other waste containers, including their lids, located in Group 
1-1, 1-2 and 1-3 occupancies shall be constructed of noncom- 
bustible materials or of materials that meet a peak rate of heat 
release not exceeding 300 kW/m 2 when tested in accordance 
with ASTM E 1354 at an incident heat flux of 50 kW/m 2 in 
the horizontal orientation. Metal wastebaskets and other 
metal waste containers with a capacity of 20 gallons (75 7 L) 
or more shall be listed in accordance with UL 1315 and shall 
be provided with a noncombustible lid. Portable containers 
exceeding 32 gallons (121 L) shall be stored m an area classi- 
fied as a waste and linen collection room and constructed in 
accordance with Table 509 of the International Building 

808.2 Waste containers with a capacity of 20 gallons or 
more in Group R-2 college and university dormitories. 
Waste containers, including their lids, located in Group R-2 
co ege and university dormitories, and with a capacity of 20 
gallons (75.7 L) or more, shall be constructed of noncombus- 
tible materials or of materials that meet a peak rate of heat 

re fif S A e o n ^^ Ceeding 30 ° kW/m2 when tested in accordance 
with ASTM E 1354 at an incident heat flux of 50 kW/m 2 in 
the horizontal orientation. Metal wastebaskets and other 
metal waste containers with a capacity of 20 gallons (75.7 L) 
or more shall be listed in accordance with UL 13 15 and shall 
be provided with a noncombustible lid. Portable containers 
exceeding 32 gallons (121 L) shall be stored in an area classi- 
fied as a waste and linen collection room constructed in 

Code Wlth TaWe 5 ° 9 ° f thC Intemational Building 

808 3 Signs. Foam plastic signs that are not affixed to interior 
building surfaces shall have a maximum heat release rate of 
150 kW when tested in accordance with UL 1975 or when 
tested m accordance with NFPA 289 using the 20-kW igni- 
tion source. 



Exception: Where the aggregate area of foam plastic signs 
is less than 10 percent of the floor area or wall area of the 
room or space in which the signs are located, whichever is 
less, subject to the approval of Has fire code official. 
808.4 Combustible lockers. Where lockers constructed of 
combustible materials are used, the lockers shall be consid- 
ered interior finish and shall comply with Section 803. 

Exception: Lockers constructed entirely of wood and non- 
combustible materials shall be permitted to be used wher- 
ever interior finish materials are required to meet a Class 
C classification in accordance with Section 803.1.1. 

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CHAPTER 9 

■ rid rnU 1 ICvf I Ivli w I O 1 &IVIO 



SECTION 901 
GENERAL 

901.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall specify 
where fire protection systems are required and shall apply to 
the design, installation, inspection, operation, testing and 
maintenance of all fire protection systems. 

901.2 Construction documents. The fire code official shall 
have the authority to require construction documents and cal- 
culations for all fire protection systems and to require permits 
be issued for the installation, rehabilitation or modification of 
any fire protection system. Construction documents for fire 
protection systems shall be submitted for review and approval 
prior to system installation. 

901.2.1 Statement of compliance. Before requesting final 
approval of the installation, where required by the fire code 
official, the installing contractor shall furnish a written 
statement to the fire code official that the subject fire pro- 
tection system has been installed in accordance with 
approved plans and has been tested in accordance with the 
manufacturer's specifications and the appropriate installa- 
tion standard. Any deviations from the design standards 
shall be noted and copies of the approvals for such devia- 
tions shall be attached to the written statement. 

901.3 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
tions 105.6 and 105.7. 

901.4 Installation. Fire protection systems shall be maintained 
in accordance with the original installation standards for that 
system. Required systems shall be extended, altered or aug- 
mented as necessary to maintain and continue protection 
whenever the building is altered, remodeled or added to. Alter- 
ations to fire protection systems shall be done in accordance 
with applicable standards. 

901.4.1 Required fire protection systems. Fire protection 
systems required by this code or the International Building 
Code shall be installed, repaired, operated, tested and main- 
tained in accordance with this code. 

901.4.2 Nonrequired fire protection systems. Any fire 
protection system or portion thereof not required by this 
code or the International Building Code shall be allowed to 
be furnished for partial or complete protection provided 
such installed system meets the applicable requirements of 
this code and the International Building Code. 

901.4.3 Fire areas. Where buildings, or portions thereof, 
are divided into fire areas so as not to exceed the limits 
established for requiring afire protection system in accor- 
dance with this chapter, such fire areas shall be separated 
by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 
of the International Building Code or horizontal assemblies 
constructed in accordance with Section 711 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code, or both, having a fire-resistance rating 
of not less than that determined in accordance with Section 
707.3.9 of the International Building Code. 



901.4.4 Additional fire protection systems. In occupan- 
cies of a hazardous nature, where special hazards exist in 
addition to the normal hazards of the occupancy, or where 
the fire code official determines that access for fire appara- 
tus is unduly difficult, the fire code official shall have the 
authority to require additional safeguards. Such safeguards 
include, but shall not be limited to, the following: automatic 
fire detection systems, fire alarm systems, automatic fire- 
extinguishing systems, standpipe systems, or portable or 
fixed extinguishers. Fire protection equipment required 
under this section shall be installed in accordance with this 
code and the applicable referenced standards. 

901.4.5 Appearance of equipment. Any device that has 
the physical appearance of life safety or fire protection 
equipment but that does not perform that life safety or fire 
protection function shall be prohibited. 

901.4.6 Pump and riser room size. Fire pump and auto- 
matic sprinkler system riser rooms shall be designed with 
adequate space for all equipment necessary for the installa- 
tion, as defined by the manufacturer, with sufficient work- 
ing space around the stationary equipment. Clearances 
around equipment to elements of permanent construction, 
including other installed equipment and appliances, shall be 
sufficient to allow inspection, service, repair or replacement 
without removing such elements of permanent construction 
or disabling the function of a required fire-resistance-rated 
assembly. Fire pump and automatic sprinkler system riser 
rooms shall be provided with a door(s) and an unobstructed 
passageway large enough to allow removal of the largest 
piece of equipment. 

901.5 Installation acceptance testing. Fire detection and 
alarm systems, fire-extinguishing systems, fire hydrant sys- 
tems, fire standpipe systems, fire pump systems, private fire 
service mains and all other fire protection systems and appurte- 
nances thereto shall be subject to acceptance tests as contained 
in the installation standards and as approved by the fire code 
official. The fire code official shall be notified before any 
required acceptance testing. 

901.5.1 Occupancy. It shall be unlawful to occupy any por- 
tion of a building or structure until the required fire detec- 
tion, alarm and suppression systems have been tested and 
approved. 

901.6 Inspection, testing and maintenance. Fire detection, 
alarm, and extinguishing systems, mechanical smoke exhaust 
systems, and smoke and heat vents shall be maintained in an 
operative condition at all times, and shall be replaced or 
repaired where defective. Nonrequired fire protection systems 
and equipment shall be inspected, tested and maintained or 
removed. 

901.6.1 Standards. Fire protection systems shall be 
inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the ref- 
erenced standards listed in Table 901 .6. 1 . 



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TABLE 901 .6.1 
FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM MAINTENANCE STANDARDS 



SYSTEM 


STANDARD 


Portable fire extinguishers 


NFPA 10 


Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system 


NFPA 12 


Halon 1301 fire-extinguishing systems 


NFPA 12A 


Dry-chemical extinguishing systems 


NFPA 17 


Wet-chemical extinguishing systems 


NFPA 17A 


Water-based fire protection systems 


NFPA 25 


Fire alarm systems 


NFPA 72 


Mechanical smoke exhaust systems 


NFPA 204 


Smoke and heat vents 


NFPA 204 


Water-mist systems 


NFPA 750 


Clean-agent extinguishing systems 


NFPA 2001 



901.6.2 Records. Records of all system inspections, tests 
and maintenance required by the referenced standards 
shall be maintained on the premises for a minimum of 
three years and shall be copied to the fire code official 
upon request. 

901.6.2.1 Records information. Initial records shall 
include the name of the installation contractor, type of 
components installed, manufacturer of the components, 
location and number of components installed per floor. 
Records shall also include the manufacturers' operation 
and maintenance instruction manuals. Such records 
shall be maintained on the premises. 

901.7 Systems out of service. Where a required fire protec- 
tion system is out of service, the fire department and the fire 
code official shall be notified immediately and, where 
required by the fire code official, the building shall either be 
evacuated or an approved fire watch shall be provided for all 
occupants left unprotected by the shutdown until the fire pro- 
tection system has been returned to service. 

Where utilized, fire watches shall be provided with at least 
one approved means for notification of the fire department 
and their only duty shall be to perform constant patrols of the 
protected premises and keep watch for fires. 

901.7.1 Impairment coordinator. The building owner 
shall assign an impairment coordinator to comply with the 
requirements of this section. In the absence of a specific 
designee, the owner shall be considered the impairment 
coordinator. 

901.7.2 Tag required. A tag shall be used to indicate that 
a system, or portion thereof, has been removed from ser- 
vice. 

901.7.3 Placement of tag. The tag shall be posted at each 
fire department connection, system control valve, fire 
alarm control unit, fire alarm annunciator and fire com- 
mand center, indicating which system, or part thereof, has 
been removed from service. The fire code official shall 
specify where the tag is to be placed. 

901.7.4 Preplanned impairment programs. Preplanned 
impairments shall be authorized by the impairment coordi- 
nator. Before authorization is given, a designated individ- 



ual shall be responsible for verifying that all of the 
following procedures have been implemented: 

1 . The extent and expected duration of the impairment 
have been determined. 

2. The areas or buildings involved have been inspected 
and the increased risks determined. 

3. Recommendations have been submitted to manage- 
ment or building owner/manager. 

4. The fire department has been notified. 

5. The insurance carrier, the alarm company, building 
owner/manager, and other authorities having juris- 
diction have been notified. 

6. The supervisors in the areas to be affected have been 
notified. 

7. A tag impairment system has been implemented. 

8. Necessary tools and materials have been assembled 
on the impairment site. 

901.7.5 Emergency impairments. When unplanned 
impairments occur, appropriate emergency action shall be 
taken to minimize potential injury and damage. The 
impairment coordinator shall implement the steps outlined 
in Section 901.7.4. 

901.7.6 Restoring systems to service. When impaired 
equipment is restored to normal working order, the impair- 
ment coordinator shall verify that all of the following pro- 
cedures have been implemented: 

1. Necessary inspections and tests have been con- 
ducted to verify that affected systems are opera- 
tional. 

2. Supervisors have been advised that protection is 
restored. 

3. The fire department has been advised that protection 
is restored. 

4. The building owner/manager, insurance carrier, 
alarm company and other involved parties have been 
advised that protection is restored. 

5. The impairment tag has been removed. 

901.8 Removal of or tampering with equipment, it shall be 
unlawful for any person to remove, tamper with or otherwise 
disturb any fire hydrant, fire detection and alarm system, fire 
suppression system, or other fire appliance required by this 
code except for the purpose of extinguishing fire, training 
purposes, recharging or making necessary repairs, or when 
approved by the fire code official. 

901.8.1 Removal of or tampering with appurtenances. 
Locks, gates, doors, barricades, chains, enclosures, signs, 
tags or seals which have been installed by or at the direc- 
tion of the fire code official shall not be removed, 
unlocked, destroyed, tampered with or otherwise vandal- 
ized in any manner. 

901.9 Termination of monitoring service. For fire alarm 
systems required to be monitored by this code, notice shall be 
made to the fire code official whenever alarm monitoring ser- 
vices are terminated. Notice shall be made in writing, to the 



98 



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fire code official by the monitoring service provider being 
terminated. 

901.10 Recall of fire protection components. Any fire pro- 
tection system component regulated by this code that is the 
subject of a voluntary or mandatory recall under federal law 
shall be replaced with approved, listed components in com- 
pliance with the referenced standards of this code. The fire 
code official shall be notified in writing by the building 
owner when the recalled component parts have been 
replaced. 



SECTION 902 
DEFINITIONS 

902.1 Definitions. The following terms are defined in Chap- 
ter 2: 

ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. 

ALARM SIGNAL. 

ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. 

ANNUNCIATOR. 

AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. 

AUTOMATIC. 

AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. 

AUTOMATIC SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM. 

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. 

AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL. 

CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. 

CLEAN AGENT. 

CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. 

DELUGE SYSTEM. 

DETECTOR, HEAT. 

DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. 

ELEVATOR GROUP. 

EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. 

EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM 
COMMUNICATIONS. 

FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. 

FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. 

FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. 

FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. 

[B] FIRE AREA. 

FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. 

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. 

FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS. 

FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO). 

FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. 

HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. 



IMPAIRMENT COORDINATOR. 

INITIATING DEVICE. 

MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX. 

MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. 

MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. 

NOTIFICATION ZONE. 

NUISANCE ALARM. 

RECORD DRAWINGS. 

SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. 

SLEEPING UNIT. 

SMOKE ALARM. 

SMOKE DETECTOR. 

STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF. 

Class I system. 

Class II system. 

Class III system. 
STANDPIPE, TYPES OF. 

Automatic dry. 

Automatic wet. 

Manual dry. 

Manual wet. 

Semiautomatic dry. 
SUPERVISING STATION. 
SUPERVISORY SERVICE. 
SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. 

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. 
TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF. 
TRANSIENT AIRCRAFT. 
TROUBLE SIGNAL. 

VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. 
WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. 
WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM. 
ZONE. 
ZONE, NOTIFICATION. 



SECTION 903 
AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 

903.1 General. Automatic sprinkler systems shall comply 
with this section. 

903.1.1 Alternative protection. Alternative automatic 
fire-extinguishing systems complying with Section 904 
shall be permitted in lieu of automatic sprinkler protection 
where recognized by the applicable standard and approved 
by the fire code official. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



903.2 Where required. Approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems in new buildings and structures shall be provided in the 
locations described in Sections 903.2.1 through 903.2.12. 

Exception: Spaces or areas in telecommunications build- 
ings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, 
associated electrical power distribution equipment, batter- 
ies and standby engines, provided those spaces or areas are 
equipped throughout with an automatic smoke detection 
system in accordance with Section 907.2 and are separated 
from the remainder of the building by not less than 1 -hour 
fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 
of the International Building Code or not less than 2-hour 
horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 711 of the International Building Code, or both. 

903.2.1 Group A. An automatic sprinkler system shall be 
provided throughout buildings and portions thereof used 
as Group A occupancies as provided in this section. For 
Group A-l, A-2, A- 3 and A-4 occupancies, the automatic- 
sprinkler system shall be provided throughout the floor 
area where the Group A-l, A-2, A-3 or A-4 occupancy is 
located, and in all floors from the Group A occupancy to, 
and including, the nearest level of exit discharge serving 
the Group A occupancy. For Group A-5 occupancies, the 
automatic sprinkler system, shall be provided in the spaces 
indicated in Section 903.2. 1 .5. 

903.2.1.1 Group A-l. An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be provided for Group A-l occupancies where 
one of the following conditions exists: 

1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 
m 2 ). 

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or 
more. 

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a 
level of exit discharge serving such occupancies. 

4. The fire area contains a multitheater complex. 

903.2.1.2 Group A-2. An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be provided for Group A-2 occupancies where 
one of the following conditions exists: 

1. The fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m 2 ). 

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 100 or 
more. 

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a 
level of exit discharge serving such occupancies. 

903.2.1.3 Group A-3. An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be provided for Group A-3 occupancies where 
one of the following conditions exists: 

1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 
m 2 ). 

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or 
more. 

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a 
level of exit discharge serving such occupancies. 



903.2.1.4 Group A-4. An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be provided for Group A-4 occupancies where 
one of the following conditions exists: 

1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 
m 2 ). 

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or 
more. 

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a 
level of exit discharge serving such occupancies. 

903.2.1.5 Group A-5. An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be provided for Group A-5 occupancies in the fol- 
lowing areas: concession stands, retail areas, press 
boxes and other accessory use areas in excess of 1,000 
square feet (93 m 2 ). 

903.2.2 Ambulatory care facilities. An automatic sprin- 
kler system shall be installed throughout the entire floor 
containing an ambulatory care facility where either of the 
following conditions exist at any time: 

1. Four or more care recipients are incapable of self- 
preservation, whether rendered incapable by staff or 
staff has accepted responsibility for care recipients 
already incapable. 

2. One or more care recipients that are incapable of 
self-preservation are located at other than the level 
of exit discharge serving such a facility. 

In buildings where ambulatory care is provided on lev- 
els other than the level of exit discharge, an automatic 
sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire 
floor where such care is provided as well as all floors 
below, and all floors between the level of ambulatory care 
and the nearest level of exit discharge, including the level 
of exit discharge. 

903.2.3 Group E. An automatic sprinkler system shall be 
provided for Group E occupancies as follows: 

1. Throughout all Group E fire areas greater than 
12,000 square feet (1115 m 2 ) in area. 

2. Throughout every portion of educational buildings 
below the lowest level of exit discharge serving that 
portion of the building. 

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system is not 
required in any area below the lowest level of exit 
discharge serving that area where every class- 
room throughout the building has at least one 
exterior exit door at ground level. 

903.2.4 Group F-l. An automatic sprinkler system shall 
be provided throughout all buildings containing a Group 
F-l occupancy where one of the following conditions 
exists: 

1. A Group F-l fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet 
(1115 m 2 ). 

2. A Group F-l fire area is located more than three sto- 
ries above grade plane. 



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3. The combined area of all Group F-l fire areas on all 
floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24 000 
square feet (2230 m 2 ). 

4. A Group F-l occupancy used for the manufacture of 
upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 2 500 
square feet (232 m 2 ). 

903.2.4.1 Woodworking operations. An automatic- 
sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all Group 
F-l occupancy fire areas that contain woodworking 
operations in excess of 2,500 square feet in area (232 
m ) which generate finely divided combustible waste or 
which use finely divided combustible materials. 
903.2.5 Group H. Automatic sprinkler systems shall be 
provided m high-hazard occupancies as required in Sec- 
tions 903.2.5.1 through 903.2.5.3. 

903.2.5.1 General. An automatic sprinkler system shall 
be installed in Group H occupancies. 

903.2.5.2 Group H-5 occupancies. An automatic 
sprinkler system shall be installed throughout buildings 
containing Group H-5 occupancies. The design of the 
sprinkler system shall not be less than that required 
under the International Building Code for the occu- 
pancy hazard classifications in accordance with Table 

Where the design area of the sprinkler system con- 
sists of a corridor protected by one row of sprinklers 
the maximum number of sprinklers required to be cal- 
culated is 13. 

TABLE 903.2.5.2 
GROUP H-5 SPRINK LERDESIGN CRITERIA 



LOCATION 



Fabrication areas 



Service corridors 



Storage rooms without dispensing 



Storage rooms with dispensing 



Corridors 



OCCUPANCY HAZARD 
CLASSIFICATION 



Ordinary Ha zard Group 2 
Ordinary Hazard Group 2 



Ordinary Hazard Group 2 



Extra Hazard Group 2 



Ordinary Hazard Group 2 



903.2.5.3 Pyroxylin plastics. An automatic sprinkler 
system shall be provided in buildings, or portions 
thereof, where cellulose nitrate film or pyroxylin plas- 
tics are manufactured, stored or handled in quantities 
exceeding 1 00 pounds (45 kg). 

903.2.6 Group I. An automatic sprinkler system shall be 
provided throughout buildings with a Group I fire area. 
Exceptions: 

1 . An automatic sprinkler system installed in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.2 shall be permitted 
in Group I- 1 facilities. 

2. An automatic sprinkler system installed in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.3 shall be allowed in 
Group 1-1 facilities when in compliance with all 
of the following: 

2.1. A hydraulic design information sign is 
located on the system riser; 

2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE 8 



2.2. Exception 1 of Section 903.4 is not 
applied; and 

2.3. Systems shall be maintained in accor- 
dance with the requirements of Section 
903.3.1.2. 

3. An automatic sprinkler system is not required 
where day care facilities are at the level of exit 
discharge and where every room where care is 
provided has at least one exterior exit door. 

4. In buildings where Group 1-4 day care is pro- 
vided on levels other than the level of exit dis- 
charge, an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 shall be 
installed on the entire floor where care is pro- 
vided and all floors between the level of care and 
the level of exit discharge, all floors below the 
level of exit discharge, other than areas classified 
as an open parking garage. 

903.2.7 Group M. An automatic sprinkler system shall be 
provided throughout buildings containing a Group M 
occupancy where one of the following conditions exists: 

1. A Group Mfire area exceeds 12,000 square feet 
(1 115 m ). 

2. A Group Mfire area is located more than three sto- 
ries above grade plane. 

3. The combined area of all Group Mfire areas on all 
floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24 000 
square feet (2230 m 2 ). 

4. A Group M occupancy used for the display and sale 1 
of upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 5 000 I 
square feet (464 m 2 ). 1 

903.2.7.1 High-piled storage. An automatic sprinkler 
system shall be provided as required in Chapter 32 in all 
buildings of Group M where storage of merchandise is 
in high-piled or rack storage arrays. 

903.2.8 Group R. An automatic sprinkler system installed 
in accordance with Section 903.3 shall be provided 
throughout all buildings with a Group Rfire area. 

903.2.8.1 Group R-3 or R-4 congregate residences. 
An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.3 shall be permitted in Group R-3 
or R-4 congregate living facilities with 16 or fewer res- 
idents. 

903.2.8.2 Care facilities. An automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3 shall 
be permitted in care facilities with 5 or fewer individu- 
als in a single-family dwelling. 

903.2.9 Group S-l. An automatic sprinkler system shall 
be provided throughout all buildings containing a Group 
S-l occupancy where one of the following conditions 
exists: 

1. A Group S-l fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet 
(1115 m ). 

2. A Group S-l fire area is located more than three sto- 
ries above grade plane. 



101 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



3 The combined area of all Group S-l fire areas on all 
floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 
square feet (2230 m 2 ). 

4 A Group S-l fire area used for the storage of com- 
mercial trucks or buses where the fire area exceeds 
5,000 square feet (464 m 2 ). 

15 A Group S-l occupancy used for the storage of 
upholstered furniture or mattresses exceeds 2,500 
square feet (232 m 2 ). 
903 2 9 1 Repair garages. An automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem 'shall be provided throughout all buildings used as 
repair garages in accordance with Section 406.8 of the 
International Building Code, as shown: 

1 Buildings having two or more stories above grade 
plane, including basements, with afire area con- 
taining a repair garage exceeding 10,000 square 
feet (929 m 2 ). 

2 Buildings no more than one story above grade 
plane, with a fire area containing a repair garage 
exceeding 12,000 square feet (1 1 15 m 2 ). 

3. Buildings with repair garages servicing vehicles 

parked in basements. 
4 A Group S-l fire area used for the repair of com- 
' mercial trucks or buses where^ the fire area 
exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m 2 ). 
903 2 9.2 Bulk storage of tires. Buildings and struc- 
ture's where the area for the storage of tires exceeds 
20 000 cubic feet (566 m 3 ) shall be equipped through- 
out with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1. 
903 2 10 Group S-2 enclosed parking garages. An auto- 
matic' sprinkler system shall be provided throughout build- 
ings classified as enclosed parking garages in accordance 
with Section 406.6 of the International Building Code as 
follows: 

1 Where the fire area of the enclosed parking garage 

exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m 2 ); or 
2. Where the enclosed parking garage is located 
beneath other groups. 

Exception: Enclosed parking garages located 
beneath Group R-3 occupancies. 
903 2 10.1 Commercial parking garages. An auto- 
matic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout 
buildings used for storage of commercial trucks or 
buses where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet 
(464 m 2 ). 
903.2.11 Specific buildings areas and hazards. In all 
| occupancies other than Group U, an automatic sprinkler 
system shall be installed for building design or hazards in 
the locations set forth in Sections 903.2.11.1 through 
903.2.11.6. 
m 903.2.11.1 Stories without openings. An automatic 

sprinkler svstem shall be installed throughout all sto- 
ries, including basements, of all buildings where the 



floor area exceeds 1,500 square feet (139.4 m 2 ) and 
where there is not provided at least one of the following 
types of exterior wall openings: 

1. Openings below grade that lead directly to 
ground level by an exterior stairway complying 
with Section 1009 or an outside ramp complying 
with Section 1010. Openings shall be located in 
each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction 
thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least 
one side. The required openings shall be distrib- 
uted such that the lineal distance between adja- 
cent openings does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 
mm). 
2 Openings entirely above the adjoining ground 
level totaling at least 20 square feet (1.86 m ) in 
each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction 
thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least 
one side. The required openings shall be distrib- 
uted such that the lineal distance between adja- 
cent openings does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 
mm) The height of the bottom of the clear open- I 
ing shall not exceed 44 inches (1118 mm) mea- I 
sured from the floor. I 

903.2.11.1.1 Opening dimensions and access. 
Openings shall have a minimum dimension of not 
less than 30 inches (762 mm). Such openings shall 
be accessible to the fire department from the exterior 
and shall not be obstructed in a manner that fire 
fighting or rescue cannot be accomplished from the 
exterior. 

903.2.11.1.2 Openings on one side only. Where 
openings in a story are provided on only one side 
and the opposite wall of such story is more than 75 
feet (22 860 mm) from such openings, the story shall 
be equipped throughout with an approved automatic 
sprinkler system or openings as specified above 
shall be provided on at least two sides of the story. 
903 2.11.1.3 Basements. Where any portion of a 
basement is located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) 
from openings required by Section 903.2.11.1, or 
where walls, partitions or other obstructions are 
installed that restrict the application of water from 
hose streams, the basement shall be equipped 
throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler 
system. 

903 2 11 2 Rubbish and linen chutes. An automatic 
sprinkler system shall be installed at the top of rubbish 
and linen chutes and in their terminal rooms. Chutes 
shall have additional sprinkler heads installed at alter- 
nate floors and at the lowest intake. Where a rubbish 
chute extends through a building more than one floor 
below the lowest intake, the extension shall have sprin- 
klers installed that are recessed from the drop area of 
the chute and protected from freezing in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1. Such sprinklers shall be 
installed at alternate floors beginning with the second 
level below the last intake and ending with the floor 



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above the discharge, 
ble for servicing. 



Chute sprinklers shall be accessi- 



903.2.11.3 Buildings 55 feet or more in height. An 

automatic sprinkler system shall be installed through- 
out buildings with a floor level having an occupant 
load of 30 or more that is located 55 feet (16 764 mm) 
or more above the lowest level of fire department vehi- 
cle access. 

Exceptions: 

1. Airport control towers. 

2. Open parking structures. 

3. Occupancies in Group F-2. 

903.2.11.4 Ducts conveying hazardous exhausts. 
Where required by the International Mechanical Code, 
automatic sprinklers shall be provided in ducts convey- 
ing hazardous exhaust, flammable or combustible 
materials. 

Exception: Ducts where the largest cross-sectional 
diameter of the duct is less than 10 inches (254 mm). 

903.2.11.5 Commercial cooking operations. An auto- 
matic sprinkler system shall be installed in a commer- 
cial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system where an 
automatic sprinkler system is used to comply with Sec- 
tion 904. 

903.2.11.6 Other required suppression systems. In 
addition to the requirements of Section 903.2, the pro- 
visions indicated in Table 903.2.11.6 also require the 
installation of a fire suppression system for certain 
buildings and areas. 

903.2.12 During construction. Automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems required during construction, alteration and demoli- 
tion operations shall be provided in accordance with 
Section 3313. 

903.3 Installation requirements. Automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sec- 
tions 903.3.1 through 903.3.7. 

903.3.1 Standards. Sprinkler systems shall be designed 
and installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 
903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3 and other chapters of this code, as 
applicable. 

903.3.1.1 NFPA 13 sprinkler systems. Where the pro- 
visions of this code require that a building or portion 
thereof be equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with this section, sprin- 
klers shall be installed throughout in accordance with 
NFPA 13 except as provided in Section 903.3.1.1.1. 

903.3.1.1.1 Exempt locations. Automatic sprinklers 
shall not be required in the following rooms or areas 
where such rooms or areas are protected with an 
approved automatic fire detection system in accor- 
dance with Section 907.2 that will respond to visible 
or invisible particles of combustion. Sprinklers shall 
not be omitted from any room merely because it is 



damp, of fire-resistance rated construction or con- 
tains electrical equipment. 

1. Any room where the application of water, or 
flame and water, constitutes a serious life or 
fire hazard. 

2. Any room or space where sprinklers are con- 
sidered undesirable because of the nature of 
the contents, when approved by the fire code 
official. 

3. Generator and transformer rooms separated 
from the remainder of the building by walls 
and floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assemblies 
having afire-resistance rating of not less than 
2 hours. 

4. Rooms or areas that are of noncombustible 
construction with wholly noncombustible con- 
tents. 

5. Fire service access elevator machine rooms 
and machinery spaces. 

6. Machine rooms and machinery spaces associ- 
ated with occupant evacuation elevators 
designed in accordance with Section 3008 of 
the International Building Code. 

TABLE 903.2.11.6 
ADDITIONAL REQUIRED FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS 



SECTION 


SUBJECT 


914.2.1 


Covered and open mall buildings 


914.3.1 


High rise buildings 


914.4.1 


Atriums 


914.5.1 


Underground structures 


914.6.1 


Stages 


914.7.1 


Special amusement buildings 


914.8.2,914.8.5 


Aircraft hangars 


914.9 


Flammable finishes 


914.10 


Drying rooms 


914.11.1 


Ambulatory care facilities 


1028.6.2.3 


Smoke-protected assembly seating 


1103.4.1 


Pyroxylin plastic storage in existing buildings 


1103.4.2 


Existing Group 1-2 occupancies 


2108.2 


Dry cleaning plants 


2108.3 


Dry cleaning machines 


2309.3.2.6.2 


Hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing area canopies 


2404.2 


Spray finishing in Group A, E, I or R 


2404.4 


Spray booths and spray rooms 


2405.2 


Dip-tank rooms in Group A, I or R 


2405.4.1 


Dip tanks 


2405.9.4 


Hardening and tempering tanks 



(continued) 



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103 



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TABLE 903.2.11.6— continued 
ADDITIONAL REQUIRED FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS 



SECTION 


SUBJECT 


2703.10 


HPM facilities 


2703.10.1.1 


HPM work station exhaust 


2703.10.2 


HPM gas cabinets and exhausted enclosures 


2703.10.3 


HPM exit access corridor 


2703.10.4 


HPM exhaust ducts 


2703.10.4.1 


HPM noncombustible ducts 


2703.10.4.2 


HPM combustible ducts 


2807.3 


Lumber production conveyor enclosures 


2808.7 


Recycling facility conveyor enclosures 


3006.1 


Class A and B ovens 


3006.2 


Class C and D ovens 


Table 3206.2 


Storage fire protection 


3206.4 


Storage 


5003.8.4.1 


Gas rooms 


5003.8.5.3 


Exhausted enclosures 


5004.5 


Indoor storage of hazardous materials 


5005.1.8 


Indoor dispensing of hazardous materials 


5104.4.1 


Aerosol warehouses 


5106.3.2 


Aerosol display and merchandising areas 


5204.5 


Storage of more than 1,000 cubic feet of loose 
combustible fibers 


5306.2.1 


Exterior medical gas storage room 


5306.2.2 


Interior medical gas storage room 


5306.2.3 


Medical gas storage cabinet 


5606.5.2.1 


Storage of smokeless propellant 


5606.5.2.3 


Storage of small arms primers 


5704.3.7.5.1 


Flammable and combustible liquid storage rooms 


5704.3.8.4 


Flammable and combustible liquid storage 
warehouses 


5705.3.7.3 


Flammable and combustible liquid Group H-2 or 
H-3 areas 


6004.1.2 


Gas cabinets for highly toxic and toxic gas 


6004.1.3 


Exhausted enclosures for highly toxic and toxic gas 


6004.2.2.6 


Gas rooms for highly toxic and toxic gas 


6004.3.3 


Outdoor storage for highly toxic and toxic gas 


6504.1.1 


Pyroxylin plastic storage cabinets 


6504.1.3 


Pyroxylin plastic storage vaults 


6504.2 


Pyroxylin plastic storage and manufacturing 



For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.023 ml 

903.3.1.2 NFPA 13R sprinkler systems. Automatic 
sprinkler systems in Group R occupancies up to and 
including four stories in height shall be permitted to be 
installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 1 3R. 



903.3.1 .2.1 Balconies and decks. Sprinkler protec- 
tion shall be provided for exterior balconies, decks 
and ground floor patios of dwelling units where the 
building is of Type V construction, provided there is 
a roof or deck above. Sidewall sprinklers that are 
used to protect such areas shall be permitted to be 
located such that their deflectors are within 1 inch 
(25 mm) to 6 inches (152 mm) below the structural 
members and a maximum distance of 14 inches (356 
mm) below the deck of the exterior balconies and 
decks that are constructed of open wood joist con- 
struction. 

903.3.1.3 NFPA 13D sprinkler systems. Automatic 
sprinkler systems installed in one and two-family 
dwellings, Group R-3 and R-4 congregate living facili- 
ties and townhouses shall be permitted to be installed 
throughout in accordance with NFPA 13D. 

903.3.2 Quick-response and residential sprinklers. 

Where automatic sprinkler systems are required by this 
code, quick-response or residential automatic sprinklers 
shall be installed in the following areas in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1 and their listings: 

1 . Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment 
containing care recipient sleeping units in Group 1-2 
in accordance with the International Building Code. 

2. Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment 
containing treatment rooms in ambulatory care facil- 
ities. 



3. Dwelling units and sleeping units in Group I- 
occupancies. 



andR 



4. Light-hazard occupancies as defined in NFPA 13. 

903.3.3 Obstructed locations. Automatic sprinklers shall 
be installed with due regard to obstructions that will delay 
activation or obstruct the water distribution pattern. Auto- 
matic sprinklers shall be installed in or under covered 
kiosks, displays, booths, concession stands or equipment 
that exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm) in width. Not less than a 3- 
foot (914 mm) clearance shall be maintained between 
automatic sprinklers and the top of piles of combustible 
fibers. 

Exception: Kitchen equipment under exhaust hoods 
protected with a fire-extinguishing system in accor- 
dance with Section 904. 

903.3.4 Actuation. Automatic sprinkler systems shall be 
automatically actuated unless specifically provided for in 
this code. 

903.3.5 Water supplies. Water supplies for automatic 
sprinkler systems shall comply with this section and the 
standards referenced in Section 903.3.1. The potable water 
supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance 
with the requirements of this section and the International 
Plumbing Code. 

903.3.5.1 Domestic services. Where the domestic ser- 
vice provides the water supply for the automatic sprin- 
kler system, the supply shall be in accordance with this 
section. 



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903.3.5.1.1 Limited area sprinkler systems. Lim- 
ited area sprinkler systems serving fewer than 20 
sprinklers on any single connection are permitted to 
be connected to the domestic service where a wet 
automatic standpipe is not available. Limited area 
sprinkler systems connected to domestic water sup- 
plies shall comply with each of the following 
requirements: 

1. Valves shall not be installed between the 
domestic water riser control valve and the 
sprinklers. 

Exception: An approved indicating control 
valve supervised in the open position in 
accordance with Section 903.4. 

2. The domestic service shall be capable of sup- 
plying the simultaneous domestic demand and 
the sprinkler demand required to be hydrauli- 
cally calculated by NFPA 13, NFPA 1.3D or 
NFPA 13R. 

903.3.5.1.2 Residential combination services. A 
single combination water supply shall be allowed 
provided that the domestic demand is added to the 
sprinkler demand as required by NFPA 13R. 

903.3.5.2 Secondary water supply. An automatic sec- 
ondary on-site water supply having a capacity not less 
than the hydraulically calculated sprinkler demand, 
including the hose stream requirement, shall be pro- 
vided for high-rise buildings in Seismic Design Cate- 
gory C, D, E or F as determined by the International 
Building Code. An additional fire pump shall not be 
required for the secondary water supply unless needed 
to provide the minimum design intake pressure at the 
suction side of the fire pump supplying the automatic 
sprinkler system. The secondary water supply shall 
have a duration of not less than 30 minutes as deter- 
mined by the occupancy hazard classification in accor- 
dance with NFPA 13. 

Exception: Existing buildings. 

903.3.6 Hose threads. Fire hose threads and fittings used 
in connection with automatic sprinkler systems shall be as 
prescribed by the fire code official. 

903.3.7 Fire department connections. The location of 
fire department connections shall be approved by the fire 
code official. 

903.4 Sprinkler system supervision and alarms. All valves 
controlling the water supply for automatic sprinkler systems, 
pumps, tanks, water levels and temperatures, critical air pres- 
sures and water-flow switches on all sprinkler systems shall 
be electrically supervised by a listed fire alarm control unit. 

Exceptions: 

1. Automatic sprinkler systems protecting one- and 
two-family dwellings. 

2. Limited area systems serving fewer than 20 sprin- 
klers. 

3. Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance 
with NFPA 13R where a common supply main is 



used to supply both domestic water and the auto- 
matic sprinkler system., and a separate shutoff valve 
for the automatic sprinkler system is not provided. 

4. Jockey pump control valves that are sealed or locked 
in the open position. 

5. Control valves to commercial kitchen hoods, paint 
spray booths or dip tanks that are sealed or locked in 
the open position. 

6. Valves controlling the fuel supply to fire pump 
engines that are sealed or locked in the open posi- 
tion. 

7. Trim valves to pressure switches in dry, preaction 
and deluge sprinkler systems that are sealed or 
locked in the open position. 

903.4.1 Monitoring. Alarm, supervisory and trouble sig- 
nals shall be distinctly different and shall be automatically 
transmitted to an approved supervising station or, when 
approved by the fire code official, shall sound an audible 
signal at a constantly attended location. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes 
provided by the municipality or public utility are 
not required to be monitored. 

2. Backflow prevention device test valves located in 
limited area sprinkler system supply piping shall 
be locked in the open position. In occupancies 
required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, 
the backflow preventer valves shall be electri- 
cally supervised by a tamper switch installed in 
accordance with NFPA 72 and separately annun- 
ciated. 

903.4.2 Alarms. An approved audible device, located on I 
the exterior of the building in an approved location, shall | 
be connected to each automatic sprinkler system. Such I 
sprinkler water-flow alarm devices shall be activated by 
water flow equivalent to the flow of a single sprinkler of 
the smallest orifice size installed in the system. Where a | 
fire alarm system is installed, actuation of the automatic 
sprinkler system shall actuate the building fire alarm sys- 
tem. 

903.4.3 Floor control valves. Approved supervised indi- 
cating control valves shall be provided at the point of con- 
nection to the riser on each floor in high-rise buildings. 

903.5 Testing and maintenance. Sprinkler systems shall be 
tested and maintained in accordance with Section 901. 

903.6 Where required in existing buildings and struc- 
tures. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in 1 
existing buildings and structures where required in Chapter 1 
11. I 



SECTION 904 

ALTERNATIVE AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING 

SYSTEMS 

904.1 General. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems, other 
than automatic sprinkler systems, shall be designed, installed, 



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inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the provi- 
sions of this section and the applicable referenced standards. 

904.1.1 Certification of service personnel for fire-extin- 
guishing equipment. Service personnel providing or con- 
ducting maintenance on automatic fire-extinguishing 
systems, other than automatic sprinkle?- systems, shall pos- 
sess a valid certificate issued by an approved governmental 
agency, or other approved organization for the type of sys- 
tem and work performed. 

904.2 Where required. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems 
installed as an alternative to the required automatic sprinkler 
systems of Section 903 shall be approved by the fire code offi- 
cial. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall not be consid- 
ered alternatives for the purposes of exceptions or reductions 
allowed by other requirements of this code. 

904.2.1 Commercial hood and duct systems. Each 
required commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system 
required by Section 609 to have a Type I hood shall be pro- 
tected with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing sys- 
tem installed in accordance with this code. 

904.3 Installation. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall 
be installed in accordance with this section. 

904.3.1 Electrical wiring. Electrical wiring shall be in 
accordance with NFPA 70. 

904.3.2 Actuation. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems 
shall be automatically actuated and provided with a manual 
means of actuation in accordance with Section 904.11.1. 
Where more than one hazard could be simultaneously 
involved in fire due to their proximity, all hazards shall be 
protected by a single system designed to protect all hazards 
that could become involved. 

Exception: Multiple systems shall be permitted to be 
installed if they are designed to operate simultaneously. 

904.3.3 System interlocking. Automatic equipment inter- 
locks with fuel shutoffs, ventilation controls, door closers, 
window shutters, conveyor openings, smoke and heat vents, 
and other features necessary for proper operation of the fire- 
extinguishing system shall be provided as required by the 
design and installation standard utilized for the hazard. 

904.3.4 Alarms and warning signs. Where alarms are 
required to indicate the operation of automatic fire-extin- 
guishing systems, distinctive audible, visible alarms and 
warning signs shall be provided to warn of pending agent 
discharge. Where exposure to automatic-extinguishing 
agents poses a hazard to persons and a delay is required to 
ensure the evacuation of occupants before agent discharge, 
a separate warning signal shall be provided to alert occu- 
pants once agent discharge has begun. Audible signals shall 
be in accordance with Section 907.5.2. 

904.3.5 Monitoring. Where a building fire alarm system is 
installed, automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be 
monitored by the building fire alarm system in accordance 
with NFPA 72. 

904.4 Inspection and testing. Automatic fire-extinguishing 
systems shall be inspected and tested in accordance with the 
provisions of this section prior to acceptance. 



904.4.1 Inspection. Prior to conducting final acceptance 
tests, the following items shall be inspected: 

1. Hazard specification for consistency with design haz- 
ard. 

2. Type, location and spacing of automatic- and manual- 
initiating devices. 

3. Size, placement and position of nozzles or discharge 
orifices. 

4. Location and identification of audible and visible 
alarm devices. 

5. Identification of devices with proper designations. 

6. Operating instructions. 

904.4.2 Alarm testing. Notification appliances, connec- 
tions to fire alarm systems, and connections to approved 
supervising stations shall be tested in accordance with this 
section and Section 907 to verify proper operation. 

904.4.2.1 Audible and visible signals. The audibility 
and visibility of notification appliances signaling agent 
discharge or system operation, where required, shall be 
verified. 

904.4.3 Monitor testing. Connections to protected prem- 
ises and supervising station fire alarm systems shall be 
tested to verify proper identification and retransmission of 
alarms from automatic fire-extinguishing systems. 

904.5 Wet-chemical systems. Wet-chemical extinguishing 
systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected 
and tested in accordance with NFPA 1 7A and their listing. 

904.5.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and tested 
for proper operation at six-month intervals. Tests shall 
include a check of the detection system, alarms and releas- 
ing devices, including manual stations and other associated 
equipment. Extinguishing system units shall be weighed 
and the required amount of agent verified. Stored pressure- 
type units shall be checked for the required pressure. The 
cartridge of cartridge-operated units shall be weighed and 
replaced at intervals indicated by the manufacturer. 

904.5.2 Fusible link maintenance. Fixed temperature- 
sensing elements shall be maintained to ensure proper oper- 
ation of the system. 

904.6 Dry -chemical systems. Dry-chemical extinguishing sys- 
tems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and 
tested in accordance with NFPA 17 and their listing. 

904.6.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and tested 
for proper operation at six-month intervals. Tests shall 
include a check of the detection system, alarms and releas- 
ing devices, including manual stations and other associated 
equipment. Extinguishing system units shall be weighed, 
and the required amount of agent verified. Stored pressure- 
type units shall be checked for the required pressure. The 
cartridge of cartridge-operated units shall be weighed and 
replaced at intervals indicated by the manufacturer. 

904.6.2 Fusible link maintenance. Fixed temperature- 
sensing elements shall be maintained to ensure proper oper- 
ation of the system. 



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904.7 Foam systems. Foam-extinguishing systems shall be 
installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in 
accordance with NFPA 1 1 and NFPA 16 and their listing. 

904.7.1 System test. Foam-extinguishing systems shall be 
inspected and tested at intervals in accordance with NFPA 
25. 

904.8 Carbon dioxide systems. Carbon dioxide extinguish- 
ing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically 
inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 12 and their 
listing. 

904.8.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and tested 
for proper operation at 1 2-month intervals. 

904.8.2 High-pressure cylinders. High-pressure cylin- 
ders shall be weighed and the date of the last hydrostatic 
test shall be verified at six-month intervals. Where a con- 
tainer shows a loss in original content of more than 10 per- 
cent, the cyli nder shall be refilled or replaced. 

904.8.3 Low-pressure containers. The liquid-level 
gauges of low-pressure containers shall be observed at 
one-week intervals. Where a container shows a content 
loss of more than 10 percent, the container shall be refilled 
to maintain the minimum gas requirements. 

904.8.4 System hoses. System hoses shall be examined at 
12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be 
replaced or tested. At five-year intervals, all hoses shall be 
tested. 

904.8.4.1 Test procedure. Hoses shall be tested at not 
less than 2,500 pounds per square inch (psi) (17 238 
kPa) for high-pressure systems and at not less than 900 
psi (6206 kPa) for low-pressure systems. 

904.8.5 Auxiliary equipment. Auxiliary and supplemen- 
tary components, such as switches, door and window 
releases, interconnected valves, damper releases and sup- 
plementary alarms, shall be manually operated at 12- 
month intervals to ensure that such components are in 
proper operating condition. 

904.9 Halon systems. Halogenated extinguishing systems 
shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and 
tested in accordance with NFPA 12A and their listing. 

904.9.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and tested 
for proper operation at 12-month intervals. 

904.9.2 Containers. The extinguishing agent quantity and 
pressure of containers shall be checked at six-month inter- 
vals. Where a container shows a loss in original weight of 
more than 5 percent or a loss in original pressure (adjusted 
for temperature) of more than 10 percent, the container 
shall be refilled or replaced. The weight and pressure of 
the container shall be recorded on a tag attached to the 
container. 

904.9.3 System hoses. System hoses shall be examined at 
12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be 
replaced or tested. At five-year intervals, all hoses shall be 
tested. 

904.9.3.1 Test procedure. For Halon 1301 systems, 
hoses shall be tested at not less than 1,500 psi (10 343 
kPa) for 600 psi (4137 kPa) charging pressure systems 



and not less than 900 psi (6206 kPa) for 360 psi (2482 
kPa) charging pressure systems. For Halon 1211 hand- 
hose line systems, hoses shall be tested at 2,500 psi (17 
238 kPa) for high-pressure systems and 900 psi (6206 
kPa) for low-pressure systems. 

904.9.4 Auxiliary equipment. Auxiliary and supplemen- 
tary components, such as switches, door and window 
releases, interconnected valves, damper releases and sup- 
plementary alarms, shall be manually operated at 12- 
month intervals to ensure such components are in proper 
operating condition. 

904.10 Clean-agent systems. Clean-agent fire-extinguishing 
systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected 
and tested in accordance with NFPA 2001 and their listing. 

904.10.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and 
tested for proper operation at 12-month intervals. 

904.10.2 Containers. The extinguishing agent quantity 
and pressure of the containers shall be checked at six- 
month intervals. Where a container shows a loss in origi- 
nal weight of more than 5 percent or a loss in original 
pressure, adjusted for temperature, of more than 10 per- 
cent, the container shall be refilled or replaced. The weight 
and pressure of the container shall be recorded on a tag 
attached to the container. 

904.10.3 System hoses. System hoses shall be examined 
at 12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be 
replaced or tested. All hoses shall be tested at five-year 
intervals. 

904.11 Commercial cooking systems. The automatic fire- 
extinguishing system for commercial cooking systems shall 
be of a type recognized for protection of commercial cooking 
equipment and exhaust systems of the type and arrangement 
protected. Preengineered automatic dry- and wet-chemical 
extinguishing systems shall be tested in accordance with UL 
300 and listed and labeled for the intended application. Other 
types of automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be listed 
and labeled for specific use as protection for commercial 
cooking operations. The system shall be installed in accor- 
dance with this code, its listing and the manufacturer's instal- 
lation instructions. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems of 
the following types shall be installed in accordance with the 
referenced standard indicated, as follows: 

1. Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems, NFPA 12. 

2. Automatic sprinkler systems, NFPA 13. 

3. Foam-water sprinkler system or foam-water spray sys- 
tems, NFPA 16. 

4. Dry-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17. 

5. Wet-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17A. 
Exception: Factory-built commercial cooking recirculat- 
ing systems that are tested in accordance with UL 710B 
and listed, labeled and installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 304.1 of the International Mechanical Code. 

904.11.1 Manual system operation. A manual actuation 
device shall be located at or near a means of egress from 
the cooking area a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) and a 
maximum of 20 feet (6096 mm) from the kitchen exhaust 



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system. The manual actuation device shall be installed not 
more than 48 inches (1200 mm) nor less than 42 inches 
(1067 mm) above the floor and shall clearly identify the 
hazard protected. The manual actuation shall require a 
maximum force of 40 pounds (178 N) and a maximum 
movement of 14 inches (356 mm) to actuate the fire sup- 
pression system. 

Exception: Automatic sprinkler systems shall not be 
required to be equipped with manual actuation means. 

904.11.2 System interconnection. The actuation of the 
fire extinguishing system shall automatically shut down 
the fuel or electrical power supply to the cooking equip- 
ment. The fuel and electrical supply reset shall be manual. 

904.11.3 Carbon dioxide systems. When carbon dioxide 
systems are used, there shall be a nozzle at the top of the 
ventilating duct. Additional nozzles that are symmetrically 
arranged to give uniform distribution shall be installed 
within vertical ducts exceeding 20 feet (6096 mm) and 
horizontal ducts exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm). Dampers 
shall be installed at either the top or the bottom of the duct 
and shall be arranged to operate automatically upon acti- 
vation of the fire-extinguishing system. When the damper 
is installed at the top of the duct, the top nozzle shall be 
immediately below the damper. Automatic carbon dioxide 
fire-extinguishing systems shall be sufficiently sized to 
protect all hazards venting through a common duct simul- 
taneously. 

904.11.3.1 Ventilation system. Commercial-type 
cooking equipment protected by an automatic carbon 
dioxide extinguishing system shall be arranged to shut 
off the ventilation system upon activation. 

904.11.4 Special provisions for automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems. Automatic sprinkler systems protecting commercial - 
type cooking equipment shall be supplied from a separate, 
readily accessible, indicating-type control valve that is 
identified. 

904.11.4.1 Listed sprinklers. Sprinklers used for the 
protection of fryers shall be tested in accordance with 
UL 199E, listed for that application and installed in 
accordance with their listing. 

904.11.5 Portable fire extinguishers for commercial 
cooking equipment. Portable fire extinguishers shall be 
provided within a 30-foot (9144 mm) travel distance of 
commercial-type cooking equipment. Cooking equipment 
involving solid fuels or vegetable or animal oils and fats 
shall be protected by a Class K rated portable extinguisher 
in accordance with Section 904.11.5.1 or 904.11.5.2, as 
applicable. 

904.11.5.1 Portable fire extinguishers for solid fuel 
cooking appliances. All solid fuel cooking appliances, 
whether or not under a hood, with fireboxes 5 cubic 
feet (0.14 m 3 ) or less in volume shall have a minimum 
2.5-gallon (9 L) or two 1.5-gallon (6 L) Class K wet- 
chemical portable fire extinguishers located in accor- 
dance with Section 904.1 1.5. 

904.11.5.2 Class K portable fire extinguishers for 
deep fat fryers. When hazard areas include deep fat 



fryers, listed Class K portable fire extinguishers shall 
be provided as follows: 

1 . For up to four fryers having a maximum cooking 
medium capacity of 80 pounds (36.3 kg) each: 
one Class K portable fire extinguisher of a mini- 
mum 1.5-gallon ( 6 L) capacity. 

2. For every additional group of four fryers having a 
maximum cooking medium capacity of 80 
pounds (36.3 kg) each: one additional Class K 
portable fire extinguisher of a minimum 1 .5-gal- 
lon (6 L) capacity shall be provided. 

3. For individual fryers exceeding 6 square feet 
(0.55 nr) in surface area: Class K portable fire 
extinguishers shall be installed in accordance 
with the extinguisher manufacturer's recommen- 
dations. 

904.11.6 Operations and maintenance. Automatic fire- 
extinguishing systems protecting commercial cooking sys- 
tems shall be maintained in accordance with Sections 
904.11.6.1 through 904.1 1.6.3. 

904.11.6.1 Existing automatic fire-extinguishing sys- 
tems. Where changes in the cooking media, positioning 
of cooking equipment or replacement of cooking equip- 
ment occur in existing commercial cooking systems, 
the automatic fire-extinguishing system shall be 
required to comply with the applicable provisions of 
Sections 904.11 through 904.11.4. 

904.11.6.2 Extinguishing system service. Automatic 
fire-extinguishing systems shall be serviced at least 
every six months and after activation of the system. 
Inspection shall be by qualified individuals, and a cer- 
tificate of inspection shall be forwarded to the fire code 
official upon completion. 

904.11.6.3 Fusible link and sprinkler head replace- 
ment. Fusible links and automatic sprinkler heads shall 
be replaced at least annually, and other protection 
devices shall be serviced or replaced in accordance 
with the manufacturer's instructions. 

Exception: Frangible bulbs are not required to be 
replaced annually. 



SECTION 905 

STANDPIPE SYSTEMS 

905.1 General. Standpipe systems shall be provided in new 
buildings and structures in accordance with this section. Fire 
hose threads used in connection with standpipe systems shall 
be approved and shall be compatible with fire department 
hose threads. The location of fire department hose connec- 
tions shall be approved. In buildings used for high-piled com- 
bustible storage, fire protection shall be in accordance with 
Chapter 32. 

905.2 Installation standard. Standpipe systems shall be 
installed in accordance with this section and NFPA 14. 

905.3 Required Installations. Standpipe systems shall be 
installed where required by Sections 905.3.1 through 905.3.8. 



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| Standpipe systems are allowed to be combined with auto- 
mafic sprinkler systems. 

Exception: Standpipe systems are not required in Group 
R-3 occupancies. 

905.3.1 Height. Class III standpipe systems shall be 
installed throughout buildings where the floor level of the 
highest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) 
above the lowest level of the fire department vehicle 
access, or where the floor level of the lowest story is 
located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the highest 
level of fire department vehicle access. 

Exceptions: 

1. Class I standpipes are allowed in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 
903.3.1.2. 

2. Class I manual standpipes are allowed in open 
parking garages where the highest floor is located 
not more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) above the 
lowest level of fire department vehicle access. 

3. Class I manual dry standpipes are allowed in 
open parking garages that are subject to freezing 
temperatures, provided that the hose connections 
are located as required for Class II standpipes in 
accordance with Section 905.5. 

4. Class I standpipes are allowed in basements 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system. 

5. In determining the lowest level of fire department 
vehicle access, it shall not be required to con- 
sider: 

5.1. Recessed loading docks for four vehicles 
or less, and 

5.2. Conditions where topography makes 
access from the fire department vehicle to 
the building impractical or impossible. 

905.3.2 Group A. Class I automatic wet standpipes shall 
be provided in nonsprinklered Group A buildings having 
an occupant load exceeding 1,000 persons. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Open-air-seating spaces without enclosed spaces. 

2. Class 1 automatic dry and semiautomatic dry 
standpipes or manual wet standpipes are allowed 
in buildings that are not high-rise buildings. 

905.3.3 Covered and open mall buildings. Covered mall 
and open mall buildings shall be equipped throughout with 
a standpipe system where required by Section 905.3.1. 
Mall buildings not required to be equipped with a stand- 
pipe system by Section 905.3.1 shall be equipped with 
Class I hose connections connected to the automatic sprin- 
kler system sized to deliver water at 250 gallons per min- 
ute (946.4 L/min) at the most hydraulically remote hose 
connection while concurrently supplying the automatic 
sprinkler system demand. The standpipe system shall be 
designed not to exceed a 50 pounds per square inch (psi) 



(345 kPa) residual pressure loss with a flow of 250 gallons 
per minute (946.4 L/min) from the fire department con- 
nection to the hydraulically most remote hose connection. 
Hose connections shall be provided at each of the follow- 
ing locations: 

1 . Within the mall at the entrance to each exit passage- 
way or corridor. 

2. At each floor-level landing within enclosed stair- 
ways opening directly on the mall. 

3. At exterior public entrances to the mall of a covered 
mall building 

4. At public entrances at the perimeter line of an open 
mall building. 

5. At other locations as necessary so that the distance 
to reach all portions of a tenant space does not 
exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a hose connec- 
tion. 

905.3.4 Stages. Stages greater than 1 ,000 square feet (93 
m 2 ) in area shall be equipped with a Class III wet stand- 
pipe system with l'/,-inch and 2'/,-inch (38 mm and 64 
mm) hose connections on each side of the stage. 

Exception: Where the building or area is equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system, a 1 V 2 
inch (38 mm) hose connection shall be installed in 
accordance with NFPA 13 or in accordance with NFPA 
14 for Class II or III standpipes. 

905.3.4.1 Hose and cabinet. The l'/ 2 -inch (38 mm) 
hose connections shall be equipped with sufficient 
lengths of 1 V 2 -inch (38 mm) hose to provide fire pro- 
tection for the stage area. Hose connections shall be 
equipped with an approved adjustable fog nozzle and 
be mounted in a cabinet or on a rack. 

905.3.5 Underground buildings. Underground buildings 
shall be equipped throughout with a Class I automatic wet 
or manual wet standpipe system. 

905.3.6 Helistops and heliports. Buildings with a rooftop 
helistop or heliport shall be equipped with a Class I or III 
standpipe system extended to the roof level on which the 
helistop or heliport is located in accordance with Section 
2007.5. 

905.3.7 Marinas and boatyards. Standpipes in marinas 
and boatyards shall comply with Chapter 36. 

905.3.8 Rooftop gardens and landscaped roof's. Build- 
ings or structures that have rooftop gardens or landscaped 
roofs and that are equipped with a standpipe system shall 
have the standpipe system extended to the roof level on 
which the rooftop garden or landscaped roof is located. 

905.4 Location of Class I standpipe hose connections. 

Class I standpipe hose connections shall be provided in all of 
the following locations: 

1. In every required stairway, a hose connection shall be 
provided for each floor level above or below grade. 
Hose connections shall be located at an intermediate 
floor level landing between floors, unless otherwise 
approved by the fire code official. 



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2. On each side of the wall adjacent to the exit opening of 
a horizontal exit. 

Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to a horizon- 
tal exit axe reachable from exit stairway hose con- 
nections by a 30-foot (9144 mm) hose stream from a 
nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose, a 
hose connection shall not be required at the horizon- 
tal exit. 

3. In every exit passageway, at the entrance from the exit 
passageway to other areas of a building. 

Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to an exit 
passageway are reachable from exit stairway hose 
connections by a 30-foot (9144 mm) hose stream 
from a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of 
hose, a hose connection shall not be required at the 
entrance from the exit passageway to other areas of 
the building. 

4. In covered mall buildings, adjacent to each exterior 
public entrance to the mall and adjacent to each 
entrance from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the 
mall. In open mall buildings, adjacent to each public 
entrance to the mall at the perimeter line and adjacent 
to each entrance from an exit passageway or exit corri- 
dor to the mall. 

5. Where the roof has a slope less than four units vertical 
in 12 units horizontal (33.3-percent slope), a hose con- 

| nection shall be located to serve the roof or at the high- 

est landing of a stairway with stair access to the roof 
| provided in accordance with Section 1009.16. 

6. Where the most remote portion of a nonsprinklered 
floor or story is more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) from a 
hose connection or the most remote portion of a sprin- 
klered floor or story is more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) 
from a hose connection, the fire code official is autho- 
rized to require that additional hose connections be pro- 
vided in approved locations. 

905.4.1 Protection. Risers and laterals of Class I stand- 
pipe systems not located within an enclosed stairway or 
pressurized enclosure shall be protected by a degree of fire 
resistance equal to that required for vertical enclosures in 
the building in which they are located. 

Exception: In buildings equipped throughout with an 
approved automatic sprinkler system, laterals that are 
not located within an enclosed stairway or pressurized 
enclosure are not required to be enclosed within fire- 
resistance-rated construction. 

905.4.2 Interconnection. In buildings where more than 
one standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be inter- 
connected in accordance with NFPA 14. 

905.5 Location of Class II standpipe hose connections. 

Class II standpipe hose connections shall be accessible and 
shall be located so that all portions of the building are within 
30 feet (9144 mm) of a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 
mm) of hose. 

905.5.1 Groups A-l and A-2. In Group A-l and A-2 
occupancies with occupant loads of more than 1,000, hose 



connections shall be located on each side of any stage, on 
each side of the rear of the auditorium, on each side of the 
balcony, and on each tier of dressing rooms. 

905.5.2 Protection. Fire-resistance-rated protection of ris- 
ers and laterals of Class II standpipe systems is not 
required. 

905.5.3 Class II system 1-inch hose. A minimum l-inch 
(25 mm) hose shall be allowed to be used for hose stations 
in light-hazard occupancies where investigated and listed 
for this service and where approved by the fire code offi- 
cial. 

905.6 Location of Class III standpipe hose connections. 
Class III standpipe systems shall have hose connections 
located as required for Class I standpipes in Section 905.4 
and shall have Class II hose connections as required in Sec- 
tion 905.5. 

905.6.1 Protection. Risers and laterals of Class III stand- 
pipe systems shall be protected as required for Class I sys- 
tems in accordance with Section 905.4. 1 . 

905.6.2 Interconnection. In buildings where more than 
one Class III standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be 
interconnected in accordance with NFPA 14. 

905.7 Cabinets. Cabinets containing fire-fighting equipment, 
such as standpipes, fire hose, fire extinguishers or fire depart- 
ment valves, shall not be blocked from use or obscured from 
view. 

905.7.1 Cabinet equipment identification. Cabinets shall 
be identified in an approved manner by a permanently 
attached sign with letters not less than 2 inches (51 mm) 
high in a color that contrasts with the background color, 
indicating the equipment contained therein. 

Exceptions: 

1. Doors not large enough to accommodate a writ- 
ten sign shall be marked with a permanently 
attached pictogram of the equipment contained 
therein. 

2. Doors that have either an approved visual identi- 
fication clear glass panel or a complete glass door 
panel are not required to be marked. 

905.7.2 Locking cabinet doors. Cabinets shall be 
unlocked. 

Exceptions: 

1. Visual identification panels of glass or other 
approved transparent frangible material that is 
easily broken and allows access. 

2. Approved locking arrangements. 

3. Group 1-3 occupancies. 

905.8 Dry standpipes. Dry standpipes shall not be installed. 

Exception: Where subject to freezing and in accordance 
with NFPA 14. 

905.9 Valve supervision. Valves controlling water supplies 
shall be supervised in the open position so that a change in 
the normal position of the valve will generate a supervisory 
signal at the supervising station required by Section 903.4. 



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Where a fire alarm system is provided, a signal shall also be 
transmitted to the control unit. 

Exceptions: 

1. Valves to underground key or hub valves in road- 
way boxes provided by the municipality or public 
utility do not require supervision. 

2. Valves locked in the normal position and inspected 
as provided in this code in buildings not equipped 
with a fire alarm system. 

905.10 During construction. Standpipe systems required 
during construction and demolition operations shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Section 331 3. 

905.11 Existing buildings. Where required in Chapter 11, 
existing structures shall be equipped with standpipes installed 
in accordance with Section 905. 

SECTION 906 
PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 

906.1 Where required. Portable fire extinguishers shall be 
installed in the following locations. 

1. In new and existing Group A, B, E, F, H, I, M, R-l, 
R-2, R-4 and S occupancies. 

Exception: In Group R-2 occupancies, portable fire 
extinguishers shall be required only in locations 
specified in Items 2 through 6 where each dwelling 
unit is provided with a portable fire extinguisher 
having a minimum rating of 1-A:10-B:C. 

2. Within 30 feet (9144 mm) of commercial cooking 
equipment. 

3. In areas where flammable or combustible liquids are 
stored, used or dispensed. 

4. On each floor of structures under construction, except 
Group R-3 occupancies, in accordance with Section 
3315.1. 

5. Where required by the sections indicated in Table 
906.1. 

6. Special -hazard areas, including but not limited to labo- 
ratories, computer rooms and generator rooms, where 
required by the fire code official. 

TABLE 906.1 
ADDITIONAL REQUIRED PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 



TABLE 906.1— continued 
ADDITIONAL REQUIRED PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 



SECTION 


SUBJECT 


303.5 


Asphalt kettles 


307.5 


Open burning 


308.1.3 


Open flames — torches 


309.4 


Powered industrial trucks 


2005.2 


Aircraft towing vehicles 


2005.3 


Aircraft welding apparatus 


2005.4 


Aircraft fuel-servicing tank vehicles 


2005.5 


Aircraft hydrant fuel-servicing vehicles 


2005.6 


Aircraft fuel-dispensing stations 



IFC SECTION 


SUBJECT 


2007.7 


Heliports and helistops 


2108.4 


Dry cleaning plants 


2305.5 


Motor fuel-dispensing facilities 


2310.6.4 


Marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities 


2311.6 


Repair garages 


2404.4.1 


Spray-finishing operations 


2405.4.2 


Dip-tank operations 


2406.4.2 


Powder-coating areas 


2804.2 


Lumberyards/woodworking facilities 


2808.8 


Recycling facilities 


2809.5 


Exterior lumber storage 


2903.5 


Organic-coating areas 


3006.3 


Industrial ovens 


3104.12 


Tents and membrane structures 


3206.1 


Rack storage 


3315.1 


Buildings under construction or demolition 


3317.3 


Roofing operations 


3408.2 


Tire rebuilding/storage 


3504.2.6 


Welding and other hot work 


3604.4 


Marinas 


5203.6 


Combustible fibers 


5703.2.1 


Flammable and combustible liquids, general 


5704.3.3.1 


Indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids 


5704.3.7.5.2 


Liquid storage rooms for flammable and combustible 
liquids 


5705.4.9 


Solvent distillation units 


5706.2.7 


Farms and construction sites — flammable and com- 
bustible liquids storage 


5706.4.10.1 


Bulk plants and terminals for flammable and com- 
bustible liquids 


5706.5.4.5 


Commercial, industrial, governmental or manufac- 
turing establishments — fuel dispensing 


5706.6.4 


Tank vehicles for flammable and combustible liquids 


5906.5.7 


Flammable solids 


6108.2 


LP-gas 



(continued) 



906.2 General requirements. Portable fire extinguishers 
shall be selected, installed and maintained in accordance with 
this section and NFPA 10. 

Exceptions: 

1 . The travel distance to reach an extinguisher shall not 
apply to the spectator seating portions of Group A-5 
occupancies. 

2. Thirty-day inspections shall not be required and 
maintenance shall be allowed to be once every three 
years for dry-chemical or halogenated agent portable 
fire extinguishers that are supervised by a listed and 



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approved electronic monitoring device, provided 
that all of the following conditions are met: 

2.1. Electronic monitoring shall confirm that 
extinguishers are properly positioned, prop- 
erly charged and unobstructed. 

2.2. Loss of power or circuit continuity to the 
electronic monitoring device shall initiate a 
trouble signal. 

2.3. The extinguishers shall be installed inside of 
a building or cabinet in a noncorrosive envi- 
ronment. 

2.4. Electronic monitoring devices and supervi- 
sory circuits shall be tested every three years 
when extinguisher maintenance is per- 
formed. 

2.5. A written log of required hydrostatic test 
dates for extinguishers shall be maintained 
by the owner to verify that hydrostatic tests 
are conducted at the frequency required by 
NFPA 10. 

3. In Group 1-3, portable fire extinguishers shall be 
permitted to be located at staff locations. 

906.2.1 Certification of service personnel for portable 

fire extinguishers. Service personnel providing or con- 
ducting maintenance on portable fire extinguishers shall 
possess a valid certificate issued by an approved govern- 
mental agency, or other approved organization for the type 
of work performed. 

906.3 Size and distribution. The size and distribution of por- 
table fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Sections 
906.3.1 through 906.3.4. 

906.3.1 Class A fire hazards. Portable fire extinguishers 
for occupancies that involve primarily Class A fire haz- 
ards, the minimum sizes and distribution shall comply 
with Table 906.3(1). 

TABLE 906.3(1) 
FIRE EXTINGUISHERS FOR CLASS A FIRE HAZARDS 





LIGHT 

(Low) 

HAZARD 

OCCUPANCY 


ORDIMARY 

(Moderate) 

HAZARD 

OCCUPANCY 


EXTRA 

(High) 

HAZARD 

OCCUPANCY 


Minimum rated 
single extinguisher 


2-A c 


2-A 


4-A a 


Maximum floor area 
per unit of A 


3,000 
square feet 


1,500 
square feet 


1,000 
square feet 


Maximum floor area 
for extinguisher b 


1 1,250 
square feet 


11,250 
square feet 


11,250 
square feet 


Maximum travel 
distance to extinguisher 


75 feet 


75 feet 


75 feet 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 rrr, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

a. Two 2'/ 2 -gallon water-type extinguishers shall be deemed the equivalent 
of one 4-A rated extinguisher. 

b. Annex E.3.3 of NFPA 10 provides more details concerning application of 
the maximum floor area criteria. 

c. Two water-type extinguishers each with a 1-A rating shall be deemed the 
equivalent of one 2-A rated extinguisher for Light (Low) Hazard 
Occupancies. 



906.3.2 Class B fire hazards. Portable fire extinguishers 
for occupancies involving flammable or combustible liq- 
uids with depths of less than or equal to 0.25-inch (6.35 
mm) shall be selected and placed in accordance with Table 
906.3(2). 

Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving 
flammable or combustible liquids with a depth of greater 
than 0.25-inch (6.35 mm) shall be selected and placed in 
accordance with NFPA 10. 

TABLE 906.3(2) 

FLAMMABLE OR COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS WITH 

DEPTHS OF LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 0.25-INCH 3 



TYPE OF HAZARD 


BASIC MINIMUM 

EXTINGUISHER 

RATING 


MAXIMUM TRAVEL 

DISTANCE TO 

EXTINGUISHERS 

(feet) 


Light (Low) 


5-B 

10-B 


30 
50 


Ordinary (Moderate) 


10-B 
20-B 


30 
50 


Extra (High) 


40-B 
80-B 


30 
50 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. For requirements on water-soluble flammable liquids and alternative 
sizing criteria, see Section 5.5 of NFPA 10. 

906.3.3 Class C fire hazards. Portable fire extinguishers 
for Class C fire hazards shall be selected and placed on the 
basis of the anticipated Class A or B hazard. 

906.3.4 Class D fire hazards. Portable fire extinguishers 
for occupancies involving combustible metals shall be 
selected and placed in accordance with NFPA 10. 

906.4 Cooking grease fires. Fire extinguishers provided for 
the protection of cooking grease fires shall be of an approved 
type compatible with the automatic fire-extinguishing system 
agent and in accordance with Section 904. 1 1 .5. 

906.5 Conspicuous location. Portable fire extinguishers 
shall be located in conspicuous locations where they will be 
readily accessible and immediately available for use. These 
locations shall be along normal paths of travel, unless the fire 
code official determines that the hazard posed indicates the 
need for placement away from normal paths of travel. 

906.6 Unobstructed and unobscured. Portable fire extin- 
guishers shall not be obstructed or obscured from view. In 
rooms or areas in which visual obstruction cannot be com- 
pletely avoided, means shall be provided to indicate the loca- 
tions of extinguishers. 

906.7 Hangers and brackets. Hand-held portable fire extin- 
guishers, not housed in cabinets, shall be installed on the 
hangers or brackets supplied. Hangers or brackets shall be 
securely anchored to the mounting surface in accordance with 
the manufacturer's installation instructions. 

906.8 Cabinets. Cabinets used to house portable fire extin- 
guishers shall not be locked. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where portable fire extinguishers subject to mali- 
cious use or damage are provided with a means of 
ready access. 



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2. In Group 1-3 occupancies and in mental health areas 
in Group 1-2 occupancies, access to portable fire 
extinguishers shall be permitted to be locked or to be 
located in staff locations provided the staff has keys. 

906.9 Extinguisher installation. The installation of portable 
fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Sections 
906.9.1 through 906.9.3. 

906.9.1 Extinguishers weighing 40 pounds or less. Por- 
table fire extinguishers having a gross weight not exceed- 
ing 40 pounds ( 1 8 kg) shall be installed so that their tops 
are not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor. 

906.9.2 Extinguishers weighing more than 40 pounds. 
Hand-held portable fire extinguishers having a gross 
weight exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so 
that their tops are not more than 3.5 feet (1067 mm) above 
the floor. 

906.9.3 Floor clearance. The clearance between the floor 
and the bottom of installed hand-held portable fire extin- 
guishers shall not be less than 4 inches (102 mm). 

906.10 Wheeled units. Wheeled fire extinguishers shall be 
conspicuously located in a designated location. 



SECTION 907 
FIRE ALARM AND DETECTION SYSTEMS 

907.1 General. This section covers the application, installa- 
tion, performance and maintenance of fire alarm systems and 
their components in new and existing buildings and struc- 
tures. The requirements of Section 907.2 are applicable to 
new buildings and structures. The requirements of Section 
907.9 are applicable to existing buildings and structures. 

907.1.1 Construction documents. Construction docu- 
ments for fire alarm systems shall be of sufficient clarity to 
indicate the location, nature and extent of the work pro- 
posed and show in detail that it will conform to the provi- 
sions of this code, the International Building Code, and 
relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations, as deter- 
mined by the fire code official. 

907.1.2 Fire alarm shop drawings. Shop drawings for 
fire alarm systems shall be submitted for review and 
approval prior to system installation, and shall include, but 
not be limited to, all of the following: 

1. A floor plan that indicates the use of all rooms. 

2. Locations of alarm-initiating devices. 

3. Locations of alarm notification appliances, includ- 
ing candela ratings for visible alarm notification 
appliances. 

4. Location of fire alarm control unit, transponders 
and notification power supplies. 

5. Annunciators. 

6. Power connection. 

7. Battery calculations. 



8. Conductor type and sizes. 

9. Voltage drop calculations. 

10. Manufacturers' data sheets indicating model num- 
bers and listing information for equipment, 
devices and materials. 

1 1. Details of ceiling height and construction. 

12. The interface of fire safety control functions. 

13. Classification of the supervising station. 

907.1.3 Equipment. Systems and components shall be 
listed and approved for the purpose for which they are 
installed. 

907.2 Where required — new buildings and structures. An 
approved fire alarm system installed in accordance with the 
provisions of this code and NFPA 72 shall be provided in 
new buildings and structures in accordance with Sections 
907.2.1 through 907.2.23 and provide occupant notification 
in accordance with Section 907.5, unless other requirements 
are provided by another section of this code. 

A minimum of one manual fire alarm box shall be pro- 
vided in an approved location to initiate a fire alarm signal 
for fire alarm systems employing automatic fire detectors or 
water-flow detection devices. Where other sections of this 
code allow elimination of fire alarm boxes due to sprinklers, a 
single fire alarm box shall be installed. 

Exceptions: 

1. The manual fire alarm box is not required for fire 
alarm systems dedicated to elevator recall control 
and supervisory service. 

2. The manual fire alarm box is not required for Group 
R-2 occupancies unless required by the fire code 
official to provide a means for fire watch personnel 
to initiate an alarm during a sprinkler system impair- 
ment event. Where provided, the manual fire alarm 
box shall not be located in an area that is accessible 
to the public. 

907.2.1 Group A. A manual fire alarm system that acti- 
vates the occupant notification system in accordance with 
Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group A occupancies 
where the occupant load due to the assembly occupancy is 
300 or more. Group A occupancies not separated from 
one another in accordance with Section 707.3.9 of the 
International Building Code shall be considered as a sin- 
gle occupancy for the purposes of applying this section. 
Portions of Group E occupancies occupied for assembly 
purposes shall be provided with a fire alarm system as 
required for the Group E occupancy. 

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
where the building is equipped throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appli- 
ances will activate throughout the notification zones 
upon sprinkler water flow. 



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907.2.1.1 System initiation in Group A occupancies 
with an occupant load of 1,000 or more. Activation 
of the fire alarm in Group A occupancies with an occu- 
pant load of 1,000 or more shall initiate a signal using 
an emergency voice/alarm communications system in 
accordance with Section 907.5.2.2. 

Exception: Where approved, the prerecorded 
announcement is allowed to be manually deacti- 
vated for a period of time, not to exceed 3 minutes, 
for the sole purpose of allowing a live voice 
announcement from an approved, constantly 
attended location. 

907.2.1.2 Emergency voice/alarm communication 
system captions. Stadiums, arenas and grandstands 
required to caption audible public announcements shall 
be in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.4. 

907.2.2 Group B. A manual fire alarm system shall be 
installed in Group B occupancies where one of the follow- 
ing conditions exists: 

1 . The combined Group B occupant load of all floors 
is 500 or more. 

2. The Group B occupant load is more than 100 per- 
sons above or below the lowest level of exit dis- 
charge. 

3. The/i><? area contains an ambulatory care facility. 

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
where the building is equipped throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appli- 
ances will activate throughout the notification zones 
upon sprinkler water flow. 

907.2.2.1 Ambulatory care facilities. Fire areas con- 
taining ambulatory care facilities shall be provided with 
an electronically supervised automatic smoke detection 
system installed within the ambulatory care facility and 
in public use areas outside of tenant spaces, including 
public corridors and elevator lobbies. 

Exception: Buildings equipped throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1 provided the occupant notification 
appliances will activate throughout the notification 
zones upon sprinkler water flow. 

907.2.3 Group E. A manual fire alarm system that initi- 
ates the occupant notification signal utilizing an emer- 
gency voice/alarm communication system meeting the 
requirements of Section 907.5.2.2 and installed in accor- 
dance with Section 907.6 shall be installed in Group E 
occupancies. When automatic sprinkler systems or smoke 
detectors are installed, such systems or detectors shall be 
connected to the building fire alarm system. 

Exceptions: 

1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in 
Group E occupancies with an occupant load of 
30 or less. 



2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required in 
Group E occupancies where all of the following 
apply: 

2.1. Interior corridors are protected by smoke 
detectors. 

2.2. Auditoriums, cafeterias, gymnasiums and 
similar areas are protected by heat detec- 
tors or other approved detection devices. 

2.3. Shops and laboratories involving dusts or 
vapors are protected by heat detectors or 
other approved detection devices. 

3. Manual fire alarm boxes shall not be required in 
Group E occupancies where the building is 
equipped throughout with an approved automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1, the emergency voice/alarm 1 
communication system will activate on sprinkler | 
water flow and manual activation is provided 
from a normally occupied location. 

907.2.4 Group F. A manual fire alarm system that acti- 
vates the occupant notification system in accordance with 
Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group F occupancies 
where both of the following conditions exist: 

1. The Group F occupancy is two or more stories in 
height; and 

2. The Group F occupancy has a combined occupant 
load of 500 or more above or below the lowest level 
of exit discharge. 

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
where the building is equipped throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appli- 
ances will activate throughout the notification zones 
upon sprinkler water flow. 

907.2.5 Group H. A manual fire alarm system that acti- 
vates the occupant notification system in accordance with | 
Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group H-5 occupancies 
and in occupancies used for the manufacture of organic 
coatings. An automatic smoke detection system shall be 
installed for highly toxic gases, organic peroxides and oxi- 
dizers in accordance with Chapters 60, 62 and 63, respec- 
tively. 

907.2.6 Group I. A manual fire alarm system that acti- 
vates the occupant notification system in accordance with j 
Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group I occupancies. 
An automatic smoke detection system that activates the 
occupant notification system in accordance with Section j 
907.5 shall be provided in accordance with Sections 
907.2.6. 1,907.2.6.2 and 907.2.6.3.3. 

Exceptions: 

1. Manual fire alarm boxes in sleeping units of j 
Group 1-1 and 1-2 occupancies shall not be 
required at exits if located at all care providers' | 
control stations or other constantly attended staff 



114 



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locations, provided such stations are visible and 
continuously accessible and that travel distances 
required in Section 907.4.2.1 are not exceeded. 

2. Occupant notification systems are not required to 
be activated where private mode signaling 
installed in accordance with NFPA 72 is 
approved by the fire code official. 

907.2.6.1 Group 1-1. An automatic smoke detection 
system shall be installed in corridors, waiting areas 
open to corridors and habitable spaces other than 
sleeping units and kitchens. The system shall be acti- 
vated in accordance with Section 907.5. 

Exceptions: 

1. Smoke detection in habitable spaces is not 
required where the facility is equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. Smoke detection is not required for exterior 
balconies. 

907.2.6.1.1 Smoke alarms. Single- and multiple- 
station smoke alarms shall be installed in accor- 
dance with Section 907.2.1 1 . 

907.2.6.2 Group 1-2. An automatic smoke detection 
system shall be installed in corridors in nursing homes, 
long-term care facilities, detoxification facilities and 
spaces permitted to be open to the corridors by Section 
407.2 of the International Building Code. The system 
shall be activated in accordance with Section 907.5. 
Hospitals shall be equipped with smoke detection as 
required in Section 407 of the International Building 
Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Corridor smoke detection is not required in 
smoke compartments that contain sleeping 
units where such units are provided with 
smoke detectors that comply with UL 268. 
Such detectors shall provide a visual display 
on the corridor side of each sleeping unit and 
shall provide an audible and visual alarm at 
the care provider station attending each unit. 

2. Corridor smoke detection is not required in 
smoke compartments that contain sleeping 
units where sleeping unit doors are equipped 
with automatic door-closing devices with inte- 
gral smoke detectors on the unit sides installed 
in accordance with their listing, provided that 
the integral detectors perform the required 
alerting function. 

907.2.6.3 Group 1-3 occupancies. Group 1-3 occupan- 
cies shall be equipped with a manual fire alarm system 
and automatic smoke detection system installed for 
alerting staff. 

907.2.6.3.1 System initiation. Actuation of an auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing system, automatic sprinkler 
system, a manual fire alarm box or a fire detector 



shall initiate an approved fire alarm signal which 
automatically notifies staff. 

907.2.6.3.2 Manual fire alarm boxes. Manual fire 
alarm boxes are not required to be located in accor- 
dance with Section 907.4.2 where the fire alarm 
boxes are provided at staff-attended locations hav- 
ing direct supervision over areas where manual fire 
alarm boxes have been omitted. 

907.2.6.3.2.1 Manual fire alarms boxes in 
detainee areas. Manual fire alarm boxes are 
allowed to be locked in areas occupied by detain- 
ees, provided that staff members are present 
within the subject area and have keys readily 
available to operate the manual fire alarm boxes. 

907.2.6.3.3 Automatic smoke detection system. 
An automatic smoke detection system shall be 
installed throughout resident housing areas, includ- 
ing sleeping units and contiguous day rooms, group 
activity spaces and other common spaces normally 
accessible to residents. 

Exceptions: 

1. Other approved smoke detection arrange- 
ments providing equivalent protection, 
including, but not limited to, placing detec- 
tors in exhaust ducts from cells or behind 
protective guards listed for the purpose, are 
allowed when necessary to prevent damage 
or tampering. 

2. Sleeping units in Use Conditions 2 and 3 as 
described in Section 308 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

3. Smoke detectors are not required in sleep- 
ing units with four or fewer occupants in 
smoke compartments that are equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

907.2.7 Group M. A manual fire alarm system that acti- 
vates the occupant notification system in accordance with 
Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group M occupancies 
where one of the following conditions exists: 

1 . The combined Group M occupant load of all floors 
is 500 or more persons. 

2. The Group M occupant load is more than 100 per- 
sons above or below the lowest level of exit dis- 
charge. 

Exceptions: 

1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in 
covered or open mall buildings complying with 
Section 402 of the International Building Code. 

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where 
the building is equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notifica- 



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tion appliances will automatically activate 
throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler 
water flow. 

907.2.7.1 Occupant notification. During times that the 
building is occupied, the initiation of a signal from a 
manual fire alarm box or from a water flow switch shall 
not be required to activate the alarm notification appli- 
ances when an alarm signal is activated at a constantly 
attended location from which evacuation instructions 
shall be initiated over an emergency voice/alarm com- 
munication system installed in accordance with Section 
907.5.2.2. 

907.2.8 Group R-l. Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms 
shall be installed in Group R-l occupancies as required in 
Sections 907.2.8. 1 through 907.2.8.3. 

907.2.8.1 Manual fire alarm system. A manual fire 
alarm system that activates the occupant notification 
system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be 
installed in Group R-l occupancies. 

Exceptions: 

1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in 
buildings not more than two stories in height 
where all individual sleeping units and contig- 
uous attic and crawl spaces to those units are 
separated from each other and public or com- 
mon areas by at least 1 -hour fire partitions and 
each individual sleeping unit has an exit 
directly to a public way, egress court or yard. 

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
throughout the building when the following 
conditions are met: 

2.1. The building is equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2; 

2.2. The notification appliances will 
activate upon sprinkler water flow; and 

2.3. At least one manual fire alarm box is 
installed at an approved location. 

907.2.8.2 Automatic smoke detection system. An 
automatic smoke detection system that activates the 
occupant notification system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 907.5 shall be installed throughout all interior cor- 
ridors serving sleeping units. 

Exception: An automatic smoke detection system is 
not required in buildings that do not have interior 
corridors serving sleeping units and where each 
sleeping unit has a means of egress door opening 
directly to an exit or to an exterior exit access that 
leads directly to an exit. 

907.2.8.3 Smoke alarms. Single- and multiple-station 
smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 907.2.1 1. 



907.2.9 Group R-2. Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms 
shall be installed in Group R-2 occupancies as required in 
Sections 907.2.9.1 and 907.2.9.3. 

907.2.9.1 Manual fire alarm system. A manual fire 
alarm system that activates the occupant notification 
system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be 
installed in Group R-2 occupancies where; 

1 . Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located three 
or more stories above the lowest level of exit dis- 
charge; 

2. Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located 
more than one story below the highest level of 
exit discharge of exits serving the dwelling unit 
or sleeping unit; or 

3. The building contains more than 16 dwelling 
units or sleeping units. 

Exceptions: 

1. A fire alarm system is not required in build- 
ings not more than two stories in height where 
all dwelling units or sleeping units and contig- 
uous attic and crawl spaces are separated from 
each other and public or common areas by at 
least 1 -hour fire partitions and each dwelling 
unit or sleeping unit has an exit directly to a 
public way, egress court or yard. 

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
where the building is equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 
903.3.1.2 and the occupant notification appli- 
ances will automatically activate throughout 
the notification zones upon a sprinkler water 
flow. 

3. A fire alarm system is not required in build- 
ings that do not have interior corridors serving 
dwelling units and are protected by an 
approved automatic sprinkler system, installed 
in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 
903.3.1.2, provided that dwelling units either 
have a means of egress door opening directly 
to an exterior exit access that leads directly to 
the exits or are served by open-ended corri- 
dors designed in accordance with Section 
1026.6, Exception 4. 

907.2.9.2 Smoke alarms. Single- and multiple-station 
smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 907.2.11. 

907.2.9.3 Group R-2 college and university build- 
ings. An automatic smoke detection system that acti- 
vates the occupant notification system in accordance 
with Section 907.5 shall be installed in Group R-2 col- 
lege and university buildings in the following locations: 

1. Common spaces outside of dwelling units and 
sleeping units. 

2. Laundry rooms, mechanical equipment rooms, 
and storage rooms. 



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3. All interior corridors serving sleeping units or 
dwelling units. 

Required smoke alarms in dwelling units and sleep- 
ing units in Group R-2 college and university buildings 
shall be interconnected with the fire alarm system in 
accordance with NFPA 72. 

Exception: An automatic smoke detection system is 

not required in buildings that do not have interior 

corridors serving sleeping units or dwelling units 

and where each sleeping unit or dwelling unit either 

has a means of egress door opening directly to an 

exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit or a 

means of egress door opening directly to an exit. 

907.2.10 Group R-4. Fire alarm systems and smoke 

alarms shall be installed in Group R-4 occupancies as 

required in Sections 907.2.10.1 through 907.2.10.3. 

907.2.10.1 Manual fire alarm system. A manual fire 
alarm system that activates the occupant notification 
system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be 
installed in Group R-4 occupancies. 

Exceptions: 

1 . A manual fire alarm system is not required in 
buildings not more than two stories in height 
where all individual sleeping units and contig- 
uous attic and crawl spaces to those units are 
separated from each other and public or com- 
mon areas by at least 1-hour fire partitions and 
each individual sleeping unit has an exit 
directly to a public way, egress court or yard. 

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
throughout the building when the following 
conditions are met: 

2. 1 . The building is equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3. 1.2; 

2.2. The notification appliances will acti- 
vate upon sprinkler water flow; and 

2.3. At least one manual fire alarm box is 
installed at an approved location. 

3. Manual fire alarm boxes in resident or patient 
sleeping areas shall not be required at exits 
where located at all nurses' control stations or 
other constantly attended staff locations, pro- 
vided such stations are visible and continu- 
ously accessible and that travel distances 
required in Section 907.4.2.1 are not 
exceeded. 

907.2.10.2 Automatic smoke detection system. An 
automatic smoke detection system that activates the 
occupant notification system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 907.5 shall be installed in corridors, waiting areas 



open to corridors and habitable spaces other than 
sleeping units and kitchens. 

Exceptions: 

1. Smoke detection in habitable spaces is not 
required where the facility is equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 . 

2. An automatic smoke detection system is not 
required in buildings that do not have interior 
corridors serving sleeping units and where 
each sleeping unit has a means of egress door 
opening directly to an exit or to an exterior exit 
access that leads directly to an exit. 

907.2.10.3 Smoke alarms. Single- and multiple-station 
smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 907.2.11. 

907.2.11 Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms. 
Listed single- and multiple-station smoke alarms comply- 
ing with UL 21 7 shall be installed in accordance with Sec- 
tions 907.2. 1 1 . 1 through 907.2. 1 1 .4 and NFPA 72. 

907.2.11.1 Group R-l. Single- or multiple-station 
smoke alarms shall be installed in all of the following 
locations in Group R-l: 

1. In sleeping areas. 

2. In every room in the path of the means of egress 
from the sleeping area to the door leading from 
the sleeping unit. 

3. In each story within the sleeping unit, including 
basements. For sleeping units with split levels 
and without an intervening door between the 
adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the 
upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower 
level provided that the lower level is less than one 
full story below the upper level. 

907.2.11.2 Groups R-2, R-3, R-4 and 1-1. Single or 
multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed and 
maintained in Groups R-2, R-3, R-4 and 1-1 regardless 
of occupant load at all of the following locations: 

1. On the ceiling or wall outside of each separate 
sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of bed- 
rooms. 

2. In each room used for sleeping purposes. 

Exception: Single- or multiple-station smoke 
alarms in Group 1-1 shall not be required 
where smoke detectors are provided in the 
sleeping rooms as part of an automatic smoke 
detection system. 

3. In each story within a dwelling unit, including 
basements but not including crawl spaces and 
uninhabitable attics. In dwellings or dwelling 
units with split levels and without an intervening 
door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm 
installed on the upper level shall suffice for the 



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adjacent lower level provided that the lower level 
is less than one full story below the upper level. 

907.2.11.3 Interconnection. Where more than one 
smoke alarm is required to be installed within an indi- 
vidual dwelling unit or sleeping unit in Group R or 1-1 
occupancies, the smoke alarms shall be interconnected 
in such a manner that the activation of one alarm will 
activate all of the alarms in the individual unit. Physi- 
cal interconnection of smoke alarms shall not be 
required where listed wireless alarms are installed and 
all alarms sound upon activation of one alarm. The 
alarm shall be clearly audible in all bedrooms over 
background noise levels with all intervening doors 
closed. 

907.2.11.4 Power source. In new construction, 
required smoke alarms shall receive their primary 
power from the building wiring where such wiring is 
served from a commercial source and shall be equipped 
with a battery backup. Smoke alarms with integral 
strobes that are not equipped with battery back-up shall 
be connected to an emergency electrical system. Smoke 
alarms shall emit a signal when the batteries are low. 
Wiring shall be permanent and without a disconnecting 
switch other than as required for overcurrent protection. 

Exception: Smoke alarms are not required to be 
equipped with battery backup where they are con- 
nected to an emergency electrical system. 

907.2.12 Special amusement buildings. An automatic 
smoke detection system shall be provided in special 
amusement buildings in accordance with Sections 
907.2.12.1 through 907.2.12.3. 

907.2.12.1 Alarm. Activation of any single smoke 
detector, the automatic sprinkler system or any other 
automatic fire detection device shall immediately acti- 
vate an audible and visible alarm at the building at a 
constantly attended location from which emergency 
action can be initiated, including the capability of man- 
ual initiation of requirements in Section 907.2.12.2. 

907.2.12.2 System response. The activation of two or 
more smoke detectors, a single smoke detector 
equipped with an alarm verification feature, the auto- 
matic sprinkler system or other approved fire detection 
device shall automatically: 

1. Cause illumination of the means of egress with 
light of not less than 1 footcandle (11 lux) at the 
walking surface level; 

2. Stop any conflicting or confusing sounds and 
visual distractions; 

3. Activate an approved directional exit marking 
that will become apparent in an emergency; and 

4. Activate a prerecorded message, audible through- 
out the special amusement building, instructing 
patrons to proceed to the nearest exit. Alarm sig- 
nals used in conjunction with the prerecorded 
message shall produce a sound which is distinc- 



tive from other sounds used during normal opera- 
tion. 

907.2.12.3 Emergency voice/alarm communication 
system. An emergency voice/alarm communication 
system, which is also allowed to serve as a public 
address system, shall be installed in accordance with 
Section 907.5.2.2 and be audible throughout the entire 
special amusement building. 

907.2.13 High-rise buildings. High-rise buildings shall § 
be provided with an automatic smoke detection system in 
accordance with Section 907.2.13.1, a fire department 
communication system in accordance with Section 
907.2.13.2 and an emergency voice/alarm communication 
system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Airport traffic control towers in accordance with 
Section 907.2.22 and Section 412 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

2. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 
406.5 of the International Building Code. 

3. Buildings with an occupancy in Group A-5 in 
accordance with Section 303.1 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

4. Low-hazard special occupancies in accordance 
with Section 503.1.1 of the International Build- 
ing Code. 

5. Buildings with an occupancy in Group H-l, H-2 
or H-3 in accordance with Section 415 of the 
International Building Code. 

6. In Group 1-1 and 1-2 occupancies, the alarm shall 
sound at a constantly attended location and occu- 1 
pant notification shall be broadcast by the emer- | 
gency voice/alarm communication system. 

907.2.13.1 Automatic smoke detection. Automatic 
smoke detection in high-rise buildings shall be in 
accordance with Sections 907.2.13.1.1 and 
907.2.13.1.2. 

907.2.13.1.1 Area smoke detection. Area smoke 
detectors shall be provided in accordance with this 
section. Smoke detectors shall be connected to an 
automatic fire alarm system. The activation of any 
detector required by this section shall activate the j 
emergency voice/alarm communication system in 
accordance with Section 907.5.2.2. In addition to 1 
smoke detectors required by Sections 907.2.1 | 
through 907.2.10, smoke detectors shall be located § 
as follows: 

1. In each mechanical equipment, electrical, 
transformer, telephone equipment or similar 
room which is not provided with sprinkler 
protection. 

2. In each elevator machine room and in elevator 
lobbies. 



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[M] 907.2.13.1.2 Duct smoke detection. Duct 
smoke detectors complying with Section 907.3.1 
shall be located as follows: 

1. In the main return air and exhaust air plenum 
of each air-conditioning system having a 
capacity greater than 2,000 cubic feet per min- 
ute (cfm) (0.94 m7s). Such detectors shall be 
located in a serviceable area downstream of 
the last duct inlet. 

2. At each connection to a vertical duct or riser 
serving two or more stories from a return air 
duct or plenum of an air-conditioning system. 
In Group R-l and R-2 occupancies, a smoke 
detector is allowed to be used in each return 
air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 
mVs) and serving not more than 10 air-inlet 
openings. 

907.2.13.2 Fire department communication system. 

Where a wired communication system is approved in 
lieu of an emergency responder radio coverage system 
in accordance with Section 510, the wired fire depart- 
ment communication system shall be designed and 
installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and shall operate 
between afire command center complying with Section 
508, elevators, elevator lobbies, emergency and 
standby power rooms, fire pump rooms, areas of refuge 
and inside enclosed exit stairways. The fire department 
communication device shall be provided at each floor 
level within the enclosed exit stairway. 

907.2.14 Atriums connecting more than two stories. A 
fire alarm system shall be installed in occupancies with an 
atrium that connects more than two stories, with smoke 
detection installed throughout the atrium. The system shall 
be activated in accordance with Section 907.5. Such occu- 
pancies in Group A, E or M shall be provided with an 
emergency voice/alarm communication system complying 
with the requirements of Section 907.5.2.2. 

907.2.15 High-piled combustible storage areas. An 
automatic smoke detection system shall be installed 
throughout high-piled combustible storage areas where 
required by Section 3206.5. 

907.2.16 Aerosol storage uses. Aerosol storage rooms 
and general-purpose warehouses containing aerosols shall 
be provided with an approved manual fire alarm system 
where required by this code. 

907.2.17 Lumber, wood structural panel and veneer 
mills. Lumber, wood structural panel and veneer mills 
shall be provided with a manual fire alarm system. 

907.2.18 Underground buildings with smoke control 
systems. Where a smoke control system is installed in an 
underground building in accordance with the International 
Building Code, automatic smoke detectors shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Section 907.2.1 8.1. 



907.2.18.1 Smoke detectors. A minimum of one 
smoke detector listed for the intended purpose shall be 
installed in the following areas: 

1. Mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, 
telephone equipment, elevator machine or similar 
rooms. 

2. Elevator lobbies. 

3. The main return and exhaust air plenum of each 
air-conditioning system serving more than one 
story and located in a serviceable area down- 
stream of the last duct inlet. 

4. Each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving 
two or more floors from return air ducts or ple- 
nums of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning 
systems, except that in Group R occupancies, a 
listed smoke detector is allowed to be used in 
each return air riser carrying not more than 5,000 
cfm (2.4 mVs) and serving not more than 10 air 
inlet openings. 

907.2.18.2 Alarm required. Activation of the smoke 
control system shall activate an audible alarm at a con- 
stantly attended location. 

907.2.19 Deep underground buildings. Where the lowest 
level of a structure is more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) 
below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit dis- 
charge, the structure shall be equipped throughout with a 
manual fire alarm system, including an emergency voice/ 
alarm communication system installed in accordance with 
Section 907.5.2.2. 

907.2.20 Covered and open mall buildings. Where the 
total floor area exceeds 50,000 square feet (4645 m 2 ) 
within either a covered mall building or within the perime- 
ter line of an open mall building, an emergency voice/ 
alarm communication system shall be provided. Emer- 
gency voice/alarm communication systems serving a mall, 
required or otherwise, shall be accessible to the fire 
department. The system shall be provided in accordance 
with Section 907.5.2.2. 

907.2.21 Residential aircraft hangars. A minimum of 
one single-station smoke alarm shall be installed within a 
residential aircraft hangar as defined in Chapter 2 of the 
International Building Code and shall be interconnected 
into the residential smoke alarm or other sounding device 
to provide an alarm that will be audible in all sleeping 
areas of the dwelling. 

907.2.22 Airport traffic control towers. An automatic 
smoke detection system that activates the occupant notifi- 
cation system in accordance with Section 907.5 shall be 
provided in airport control towers in all occupiable and 
equipment spaces. 

Exception: Audible appliances shall not be installed 
within the control tower cab. 



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907.2.23 Battery rooms. An automatic smoke detection 
system shall be installed in areas containing stationary 
storage battery systems with a liquid capacity of more than 
50 gallons (189 L). 
907.3 Fire safety functions. Automatic fire detectors utilized 
for the purpose of performing fire safety functions shall be 
connected to the building's fire alarm control unit where a 
fire alarm system is required by Section 907.2. Detectors 
shall, upon actuation, perform the intended function and acti- 
vate the alarm notification appliances or activate a visible and 
audible supervisory signal at a constantly attended location. 
In buildings not equipped with a fire alarm system, the auto- 
matic fire detector shall be powered by normal electrical ser- 
vice and, upon actuation, perform the intended function. The 
detectors shall be located in accordance with NFPA 72. 
907.3.1 Duct smoke detectors. Smoke detectors installed 
in ducts shall be listed for the air velocity, temperature and 
humidity present in the duct. Duct smoke detectors shall 
be connected to the building's fire alarm control unit when 
a fire alarm system is required by Section 907.2. Activa- 
tion of a duct smoke detector shall initiate a visible and 
audible supervisory signal at a constantly attended loca- 
tion and shall perform the intended fire safety function in 
accordance with this code and the International Mechani- 
cal Code. Duct smoke detectors shall not be used as a sub- 
stitute for required open area detection. 

Exceptions: 

1. The supervisory signal at a constantly attended 
location is not required where duct smoke detec- 
tors activate the building's alarm notification 
appliances. 

2. In occupancies not required to be equipped with a 
fire alarm system, actuation of a smoke detector 
shall activate a visible and an audible signal in an 
approved location. Smoke detector trouble condi- 
tions shall activate a visible or audible signal in 
an approved location and shall be identified as air 
duct detector trouble. 

907.3.2 Delayed egress locks. Where delayed egress 
locks are installed on means of egress doors in accordance 
with Section 1008.1.9.7, an automatic smoke or heat 
detection system shall be installed as required by that sec- 
tion. 

907.3.3 Elevator emergency operation. Automatic fire 
detectors installed for elevator emergency operation shall 
be installed in accordance with the provisions of ASME 
A17.1andNFPA72. 

907.3.4 Wiring. The wiring to the auxiliary devices and 
equipment used to accomplish the above fire safety func- 
tions shall be monitored for integrity in accordance with 
NFPA 72. 

907.4 Initiating devices. Where manual or automatic alarm 
initiation is required as part of a fire alarm system, the initiat- 
ing devices shall be installed in accordance with Sections 
907.4.1 through 907.4.3.1. 



907.4.1 Protection of fire alarm control unit. In areas 
that are not continuously occupied, a single smoke detec- 
tor shall be provided at the location of each fire alarm con- 
trol unit, notification appliance circuit power extenders 
and supervising station transmitting equipment. 

Exception: Where ambient conditions prohibit instal- 
lation of smoke detector, a heat detector shall be per- 
mitted. 

907.4.2 Manual fire alarm boxes. Where a manual fire 
alarm system is required by another section of this code, it 
shall be activated by fire alarm boxes installed in accor- 
dance with Sections 907.4.2.1 through 907.4.2.5. 

907.4.2.1 Location. Manual fire alarm boxes shall be 
located not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the 
entrance to each exit. Additional manual fire alarm 
boxes shall be located so that travel distance to the 
nearest box does not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). 

907.4.2.2 Height. The height of the manual fire alarm 
boxes shall be a minimum of 42 inches (1067 mm) and 
a maximum of 48 inches (1372 mm) measured verti- 
cally, from the floor level to the activating handle or 
lever of the box. 

907.4.2.3 Color. Manual fire alarm boxes shall be red 
in color. 

907.4.2.4 Signs. Where fire alarm systems are not mon- 
itored by a supervising station, an approved permanent 
sign shall be installed adjacent to each manual fire 
alarm box that reads: WHEN ALARM SOUNDS- 
CALL FIRE DEPARTMENT. 

Exception: Where the manufacturer has perma- 
nently provided this information on the manual fire 
alarm box. 

907.4.2.5 Protective covers. The fire code official is 
authorized to require the installation of listed manual 
fire alarm box protective covers to prevent malicious 
false alarms or to provide the manual fire alarm box 
with protection from physical damage. The protective 
cover shall be transparent or red in color with a trans- 
parent face to permit visibility of the manual fire alarm 
box. Each cover shall include proper operating instruc- 
tions. A protective cover that emits a local alarm signal 
shall not be installed unless approved. Protective cov- 
ers shall not project more than that permitted by Sec- 
tion 1003.3.3. 

907.4.2.6 Unobstructed and unobscured. Manual 
fire alarm boxes shall be accessible, unobstructed, 
unobscured and visible at all times. 
907.4.3 Automatic smoke detection. Where an automatic 
smoke detection system is required it shall utilize smoke 
detectors unless ambient conditions prohibit such an 
installation. In spaces where smoke detectors cannot be 
utilized due to ambient conditions, approved automatic 
heat detectors shall be permitted. 

907.4.3.1 Automatic sprinkler system. For conditions 
other than specific fire safety functions noted in Section 



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907.3, in areas where ambient conditions prohibit the 
installation of smoke detectors, an automatic sprinkler 
system installed in such areas in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and that is connected to the 
fire alarm system shall be approved as automatic heat 
detection. 

907.5 Occupant notification systems. A fire alarm system 
shall annunciate at the fire alarm control unit and shall initiate 
occupant notification upon activation, in accordance with 
Sections 907.5.1 through 907.5.2.3.4. Where a fire alarm sys- 
tem is required by another section of this code, it shall be 
activated by: 

1. Automatic fire detectors. 

2. Automatic sprinkler system waterflow devices. 

3. Manual fire alarm boxes. 

4. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems. 

Exception: Where notification systems are allowed 
elsewhere in Section 907 to annunciate at a constantly 
attended location. 

907.5.1 Presignal feature. A presignal feature shall not be 
installed unless approved by the fire code official and the 
fire department. Where a presignal feature is provided, a 
signal shall be annunciated at a constantly attended loca- 
tion approved by the fire department, in order that occu- 
pant notification can be activated in the event of fire or 
other emergency. 

907.5.2 Alarm notification appliances. Alarm notifica- 
tion appliances shall be provided and shall be listed for 
their purpose. 

907.5.2. 1 Audible alarms. Audible alarm notification 
appliances shall be provided and emit a distinctive 
sound that is not to be used for any purpose other than 
that of a fire alarm. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Visible alarm notification appliances shall be 
allowed in lieu of audible alarm notification 
appliances in critical care areas of Group 1-2 
occupancies. 

2. Where provided, audible notification appli- 
ances located in each occupant evacuation ele- 
vator lobby in accordance with Section 
3008.10.1 of the International Building Code 
shall be connected to a separate notification 
zone for manual paging only. 

907.5.2.1.1 Average sound pressure. The audible 
alarm notification appliances shall provide a sound 
pressure level of 15 decibels (dBA) above the aver- 
age ambient sound level or 5 dBA above the maxi- 
mum sound level having a duration of at least 60 
seconds, whichever is greater, in every occupiable 
space within the building. 

907.5.2.1.2 Maximum sound pressure. The maxi- 
mum sound pressure level for audible alarm notifi- 



cation appliances shall be 1 1 dBA at the minimum 
hearing distance from the audible appliance. Where 
the average ambient noise is greater than 95 dBA, 
visible alarm notification appliances shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with NFPA 72 and audible 
alarm notification appliances shall not be required. 

907.5.2.2 Emergency voice/alarm communication 
systems. Emergency voice/alarm communication sys- 
tems required by this code shall be designed and 
installed in accordance with NFPA 72. The operation of 
any automatic fire detector, sprinkler waterflow device 
or manual fire alarm box shall automatically sound an 
alert tone followed by voice instructions giving 
approved information and directions for a general or 
staged evacuation in accordance with the building's fire 
safety and evacuation plans required by Section 404. In 
high-rise buildings, the system shall operate on a mini- 
mum of the alarming floor, the floor above and the 
floor below. Speakers shall be provided throughout the 
building by paging zones. At a minimum, paging zones 
shall be provided as follows: 

1. Elevator groups. 

2. Exit stainvays. 

3. Each floor. 

4. Areas of refuge as defined in Chapter 2. 

Exception: In Group 1-1 and 1-2 occupancies, the 
alarm shall sound in a constantly attended area and a 
general occupant notification shall be broadcast over 
the overhead page. 

907.5.2.2.1 Manual override. A manual override 
for emergency voice communication shall be pro- 
vided on a selective and all-call basis for all paging 
zones. 

907.5.2.2.2 Live voice messages. The emergency 
voice/alarm communication system shall also have 
the capability to broadcast live voice messages by 
paging zones on a selective and all-call basis. 

907.5.2.2.3 Alternate uses. The emergency voice/ 
alarm communication system shall be allowed to be 
used for other announcements, provided the manual 
fire alarm use takes precedence over any other use. 

907.5.2.2.4 Emergency voice/alarm communica- 
tion captions. Where stadiums, arenas and grand- 
stands are required to caption audible public 
announcements in accordance with Section 
1 108.2.7.3 of the International Building Code, the 
emergency/voice alarm communication system shall 
also be captioned. Prerecorded or live emergency 
captions shall be from an approved location con- 
stantly attended by personnel trained to respond to 
an emergency. 

907.5.2.2.5 Emergency power. Emergency voice/ 
alarm communications systems shall be provided 
with an approved emergency power source. 



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907.5.2.3 Visible alarms. Visible alarm notification 
appliances shall be provided in accordance with Sec- 
tions 907.5.2.3.1 through 907.5.2.3.4. 

Exceptions: 

1. Visible alarm notification appliances are not 
required in alterations, except where an exist- 
ing fire alarm system is upgraded or replaced, 
or a new fire alarm system is installed. 

2. Visible alarm notification appliances shall not 
be required in exits as defined in Chapter 2. 

3. Visible alarm notification appliances shall not 
be required in elevator cars. 

907.5.2.3.1 Public and common areas. Visible 
alarm notification appliances shall be provided in 
public areas and common areas. 

907.5.2.3.2 Employee work areas. Where 
employee work areas have audible alarm coverage, 
the notification appliance circuits serving the 
employee work areas shall be initially designed with 
a minimum of 20-percent spare capacity to account 
for the potential of adding visible notification appli- 
ances in the future to accommodate hearing 
impaired employee(s). 

907.5.2.3.3 Groups I-! and R-l. Group 1-1 and R-l 
dwelling units or sleeping units in accordance with 
Table 907.5.2.3.3 shall be provided with a visible 
alarm notification appliance, activated by both the 
in-room smoke alarm and the building fire alarm 
system. 

TABLE 907.5.2.3.3 
VISIBLE ALARMS 



NUMBER OF SLEEPING UNITS 


SLEEPING ACCOMMODATIONS 
WITH VISIBLE ALARMS 


6 to 25 


2 


26 to 50 


4 


51 to 75 


7 


76 to 100 


9 


101 to 150 


12 


151 to 200 


14 


201 to 300 


17 


301 to 400 


20 


401 to 500 


22 


501 to 1,000 


5% of total 


1,001 and over 


50 plus 3 for each 100 over 1,000 



907.5.2.3.4 Group R-2. In Group R-2 occupancies 
required by Section 907 to have a fire alarm system, 
all dwelling units and sleeping units shall be pro- 
vided with the capability to support visible alarm 
notification appliances in accordance with Chapter 
10 of ICC A117.1. Such capability shall be permit- 
ted to include the potential for future interconnec- 
tion of the building fire alarm system with the unit 
smoke alarms, replacement of audible appliances 
with combination audible/visible appliances, or 



future extension of the existing wiring from the unit I 
smoke alarm locations to required locations for visi- 
ble appliances. \ 
907.6 Installation. A fire alarm system shall be installed in 
accordance with Sections 907.6.1 through 907.6.5.2 and 
NFPA 72. 

907.6.1 Wiring. Wiring shall comply with the require- 
ments of NFPA 70 and NFPA 72. Wireless protection sys- 
tems utilizing radio-frequency transmitting devices shall 
comply with the special requirements for supervision of 
low-power wireless systems in NFPA 72. 

907.6.2 Power supply. The primary and secondary power 
supply for the fire alarm system shall be provided in 
accordance with NFPA 72. 

Exception: Backup power for single-station and multi- 
ple-station smoke alarms as required in Section 
907.2.11.4. 

907.6.3 Zones. Each floor shall be zoned separately and a 
zone shall not exceed 22,500 square feet (2090 m 2 ). The 
length of any zone shall not exceed 300 feet (91 440 mm) 
in any direction. 

Exception: Automatic sprinkler system, zones shall not 
exceed the area permitted by NFPA 13. 

907.6.3.1 Zoning indicator panel. A zoning indicator 
panel and the associated controls shall be provided in 
an approved location. The visual zone indication shall 
lock in until the system is reset and shall not be can- 
celed by the operation of an audible alarm-silencing 
switch. 

907.6.3.2 High-rise buildings. In high-rise buildings, a 
separate zone by floor shall be provided for each of the 
following types of alarm-initiating devices where pro- 
vided: 

1 . Smoke detectors. 

2. Sprinkler water-flow devices. 

3. Manual fire alarm boxes. 

4. Other approved types of automatic fire detection- 
devices or suppression systems. 

907.6.4 Access. Access shall be provided to each fire 
alarm device and notification appliance for periodic 
inspection, maintenance and testing. 

907.6.5 Monitoring. Fire alarm systems required by this 
chapter or by the International Building Code shall be 
monitored by an approved supervising station in accor- 
dance with NFPA 72. 

Exception: Monitoring by a supervising station is not 
required for: 

1. Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms 
required by Section 907.2.1 1. 

2. Smoke detectors in Group 1-3 occupancies. 

3. Automatic sprinkler systems in one- and two- 
family dwellings. 

907.6.5.1 Automatic telephone-dialing devices. Auto 
matic telephone-dialing devices used to transmit an 



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FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



emergency alarm shall not be connected to any fire 
department telephone number unless approved by the 
fire chief. 

907.6.5.2 Termination of monitoring service. Termi- 
nation of fire alarm monitoring services shall be in 
accordance with Section 901.9. 

907.7 Acceptance tests and completion. Upon completion 
of the installation, the fire alarm system and all fire alarm 
components shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 72. 

907.7.1 Single- and multiple-station alarm devices. 

When the installation of the alarm devices is complete, 
each device and interconnecting wiring for multiple-sta- 
tion alarm devices shall be tested in accordance with the 
smoke alarm provisions of NFPA 72. 

907.7.2 Record of completion. A record of completion in 
accordance with NFPA 72 verifying that the system has 
been installed and tested in accordance with the approved 
plans and specifications shall be provided. 

907.7.3 Instructions. Operating, testing and maintenance 
instructions and record drawings ("as builts") and equip- 
ment specifications shall be provided at an approved loca- 
tion. 

907.8 inspection, testing and maintenance. The mainte- 
nance and testing schedules and procedures for fire alarm and 
fire detection systems shall be in accordance with Sections 
907.8.1 through 907.8.5 and NFPA 72. 

907.8.1 Maintenance required. Whenever required for 
compliance with the provisions of this code, devices, 
equipment, systems, conditions, arrangements, levels of 
protection or other features shall thereafter be continu- 
ously maintained in accordance with applicable NFPA 
requirements or as directed by the fire code official. 

907.8.2 Testing. Testing shall be performed in accordance 
with the schedules in NFPA 72 or more frequently where 
required by the fire code official. 

Exception: Devices or equipment that are inaccessible 
for safety considerations shall be tested during sched- 
uled shutdowns where approved by the fire code offi- 
cial, but not less than every 18 months. 

907.8.3 Smoke detector sensitivity. Smoke detector sen- 
sitivity shall be checked within one year after installation 
and every alternate year thereafter. After the second cali- 
bration test, where sensitivity tests indicate that the detec- 
tor has remained within its listed and marked sensitivity 
range (or 4-percent obscuration light grey smoke, if not 
marked), the length of time between calibration tests shall 
be permitted to be extended to a maximum of five years. 
Where the frequency is extended, records of detector- 
caused nuisance alarms and subsequent trends of these 
alarms shall be maintained. In zones or areas where nui- 
sance alarms show any increase over the previous year, 
calibration tests shall be performed. 

907.8.4 Method. To verify that each smoke detector is 
within its listed and marked sensitivity range, it shall be 
tested using one of the following methods: 

1 . A calibrated test method; 



2. The manufacturer's calibrated sensitivity test instru- 
ment; 

3. Listed control equipment arranged for the purpose; 

4. A smoke detector/control unit arrangement whereby 
the detector causes a signal at the control unit where 
the detector's sensitivity is outside its acceptable 
sensitivity range; or 

5. Another calibrated sensitivity test method accept- 
able to the fire code official. 

Detectors found to have a sensitivity outside the listed 
and marked sensitivity range shall be cleaned and recali- 
brated or replaced. 

Exceptions: 

1. Detectors listed as field adjustable shall be per- 
mitted to be either adjusted within the listed and 
marked sensitivity range and cleaned and recali- 
brated or they shall be replaced. 

2. This requirement shall not apply to single-station 
smoke alarms. 

907.8.4.1 Testing device. Smoke detector sensitivity 
shall not be tested or measured using a device that 
administers an unmeasured concentration of smoke or 
other aerosol into the detector. 

907.8.5 Maintenance, inspection and testing. The build- 
ing owner shall be responsible to maintain the fire and life 
safety systems in an operable condition at all times. Ser- 
vice personnel shall meet the qualification requirements of 
NFPA 72 for maintaining, inspecting and testing such sys- 
tems. A written record shall be maintained and shall be 
made available to the fire code official. 

907.9 Where required in existing buildings and struc- 
tures. An approved fire alarm system shall be provided in 
existing buildings and structures where required in Chapter 



SECTION 908 
EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEMS 

908.1 Group H occupancies. Emergency alarms for the 
detection and notification of an emergency condition in 
Group H occupancies shall be provided as required in Chap- 
ter 50. 

908.2 Group H-5 occupancy. Emergency alarms for notifi- 
cation of an emergency condition in an HPM facility shall be 
provided as required in Section 2703.12. A continuous gas 
detection system shall be provided for HPM gases in accor- 
dance with Section 2703 .13. 

908.3 Highly toxic and toxic materials. Where required by 
Section 6004.2.2.10, a gas detection system shall be provided 
for indoor storage and use of highly toxic and toxic com- 
pressed gases. 

908.4 Ozone gas-generator rooms. A gas detection system 
shall be provided in ozone gas-generator rooms in accordance 
with Section 6005.3.2. 



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908.5 Repair garages. A flammable-gas detection system 
shall be provided in repair garages for vehicles fueled by non- 
odorized gases in accordance with Section 2311.7.2. 

908.6 Refrigeration systems. Refrigeration system machin- 
ery rooms shall be provided with a refrigerant detector in 
accordance with Section 606.8. 

908.7 Carbon monoxide alarms. Group I or R occupancies 
located in a building containing a fuel-burning appliance or in 
a building which has an attached garage shall be equipped 
with single-station carbon monoxide alarms. The carbon 
monoxide alarms shall be listed as complying with UL 2034 
and be installed and maintained in accordance with NFPA 
720 and the manufacturer's instructions. An open parking 
garage, as defined in Chapter 2 of the International Building 
Code, or an enclosed parking garage ventilated in accordance 
with Section 404 of the International Mechanical Code shall 
not be considered an attached garage. 

Exception: Sleeping units or dwelling units which do not 
themselves contain a fuel-burning appliance or have an 
attached garage, but which are located in a building with a 
fuel-burning appliance or an attached garage, need not be 
equipped with single-station carbon monoxide alarms pro- 
vided that: 

1. The sleeping unit or dwelling unit is located more 
than one story above or below any story which con- 
tains a fuel-burning appliance or an attached garage; 

2. The sleeping unit or dwelling unit is not connected 
by duct work or ventilation shafts to any room con- 
taining a fuel-burning appliance or to an attached 
garage; and 

3. The building is equipped with a common area car- 
bon monoxide alarm system. 

908.7.1 Carbon monoxide detection systems. Carbon 
monoxide detection systems, which include carbon mon- 
oxide detectors and audible notification appliances, 
installed and maintained in accordance with this section 
for carbon monoxide alarms and NFPA 720 shall be per- 
mitted. The carbon monoxide detectors shall be listed as 
complying with UL 2075. 



SECTION 909 
SMOKE CONTROL SYSTEMS 

909.1 Scope and purpose. This section applies to mechani- 
cal or passive smoke control systems when they are required 
for new buildings or portions thereof by provisions of the 
International Building Code or this code. The purpose of this 
section is to establish minimum requirements for the design, 
installation and acceptance testing of smoke control systems 
that are intended to provide a tenable environment for the 
evacuation or relocation of occupants. These provisions are 
not intended for the preservation of contents, the timely resto- 
ration of operations, or for assistance in fire suppression or 
overhaul activities. Smoke control systems regulated by this 
section serve a different purpose than the smoke- and heat- 
venting provisions found in Section 910. Mechanical smoke 
control systems shall not be considered exhaust systems 
under Chapter 5 of the International Mechanical Code. 



909.2 General design requirements. Buildings, structures, 
or parts thereof required by the International Building Code 
or this code to have a smoke control system or systems shall 
have such systems designed in accordance with the applica- 
ble requirements of Section 909 and the generally accepted 
and well-established principles of engineering relevant to the 
design. The construction documents shall include sufficient 
information and detail to describe adequately the elements of 
the design necessary for the proper implementation of the 
smoke control systems. These documents shall be accompa- 
nied with sufficient information and analysis to demonstrate 
compliance with these provisions. 

909.3 Special inspection and test requirements. In addition 
to the ordinary inspection and test requirements which build- 
ings, structures and parts thereof are required to undergo, 
smoke control systems subject to the provisions of Section 
909 shall undergo special inspections and tests sufficient to 
verify the proper commissioning of the smoke control design 
in its final installed condition. The design submission accom- 
panying the construction documents shall clearly detail pro- 
cedures and methods to be used and the items subject to such 
inspections and tests. Such commissioning shall be in accor- 
dance with generally accepted engineering practice and, 
where possible, based on published standards for the particu- 
lar testing involved. The special inspections and tests 
required by this section shall be conducted under the same 
terms as in Section 1704 of the International Building Code. 

909.4 Analysis. A rational analysis supporting the types of 
smoke control systems to be employed, the methods of their 
operations, the systems supporting them, and the methods of 
construction to be utilized shall accompany the construction 
documents submission and include, but not be limited to, the 
items indicated in Sections 909.4.1 through 909.4.6. 

909.4.1 Stack effect. The system shall be designed such 
that the maximum probable normal or reverse stack effect 
will not adversely interfere with the system's capabilities. 
In determining the maximum probable stack effect, alti- 
tude, elevation, weather history and interior temperatures 
shall be used. 

909.4.2 Temperature effect of fire. Buoyancy and expan- 
sion caused by the design fire in accordance with Section 
909.9 shall be analyzed. The system shall be designed 
such that these effects do not adversely interfere with the 
system's capabilities. 

909.4.3 Wind effect. The design shall consider the 
adverse effects of wind. Such consideration shall be con- 
sistent with the wind-loading provisions of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

909.4.4 Systems. The design shall consider the effects of 
the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) sys- 
tems on both smoke and fire transport. The analysis shall 
include all permutations of systems status. The design 
shall consider the effects of the fire on the heating, venti- 
lating and air-conditioning systems. 

909.4.5 Climate. The design shall consider the effects of 
low temperatures on systems, property and occupants. Air 
inlets and exhausts shall be located so as to prevent snow 
or ice blockage. 



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909.4.6 Duration of operation. All portions of active or 
passive smoke control systems shall be capable of contin- 
ued operation after detection of the fire event for a period 
of not less than either 20 minutes or 1.5 times the calcu- 
lated egress time, whichever is less. 

909.5 Smoke barrier construction. Smoke barriers shall 
comply with the International Building Code. Smoke barriers 
shall be constructed and sealed to limit leakage areas exclu- 
sive of protected openings. The maximum allowable leakage 
area shall be the aggregate area calculated using the follow- 
ing leakage area ratios: 

1. Walls: A/A n . =0.00100 

1 2. Interior exit stair-ways and ramps and exit passageways- 
A/A w = 0.00035 

| 3. Enclosed exit access stairways and ramps and all other 
shafts: A/A, =0.00150 



4. Floors and roofs: AIA F = 0.00050 

where: 

A = Total leakage area, square feet (m 2 ). 

A F = Unit floor or roof area of barrier, square feet (m 2 ). 

A w = Unit wall area of barrier, square feet (m 2 ). 

The leakage area ratios shown do not include openings due 
to doors, operable windows or similar gaps. These shall be 
included in calculating the total leakage area. 

909.5.1 Leakage area. Total leakage area of the barrier is 
the product of the smoke barrier gross area multiplied by 
the allowable leakage area ratio, plus the area of other 
openings such as gaps and operable windows. Compliance 
shall be determined by achieving the minimum air pres- 
sure difference across the barrier with the system in the 
smoke control mode for mechanical smoke control sys- 
tems. Passive smoke control systems tested using other 
approved means, such as door fan testing, shall be as 
approved by they're code official. 

909.5.2 Opening protection. Openings in smoke barriers 
shall be protected by automatic-closing devices actuated 
by the required controls for the mechanical smoke control 
system. Door openings shall be protected by fire door 
assemblies complying with Section 716.5.3 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Passive smoke control systems with automatic- 
closing devices actuated by spot-type smoke 
detectors listed for releasing service installed in 
accordance with Section 907.10. 

2. Fixed openings between smoke zones that are 
protected utilizing the airflow method. 

3. In Group 1-2, where such doors are installed 
across corridors, a pair of opposite-swinging 
doors without a center mullion shall be installed 
having vision panels with fire protection-rated 
glazing materials in fire protection-rated frames, 
the area of which shall not exceed that tested. The 
doors shall be close-fitting within operational tol- 
erances and shall not have undercuts, louvers or 

2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



grilles. The doors shall have head and jamb stops, 
astragals or rabbets at meeting edges and shall be 
automatic -closing by smoke detection in accor- 
dance with Section 716.5.9.3 of the International 
Building Code. Positive-latching devices are not 
required. 

4. Group 1-3. 

5. Openings between smoke zones with clear ceil- 
ing heights of 14 feet (4267 mm) or greater and 
bank-down capacity of greater than 20 minutes as 
determined by the design fire size. 

909.5.2.1 Ducts and air transfer openings. Ducts and 
air transfer openings are required to be protected with a 
minimum Class II, 250°F (121°C) smoke damper com- 
plying with Section 717 of the International Building 
Code. 

909.6 Pressurization method. The primary mechanical 
means of controlling smoke shall be by pressure differences 
across smoke barriers. Maintenance of a tenable environment 
is not required in the smoke-control zone of fire origin. 

909.6.1 Minimum pressure difference. The minimum 
pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be 0.05- 
inch water gage (0.0124 kPa) in fully sprinklered build- 
ings. 

In buildings allowed to be other than fully sprinklered, 
the smoke control system shall be designed to achieve 
pressure differences at least two times the maximum cal- 
culated pressure difference produced by the design fire. 

909.6.2 Maximum pressure difference. The maximum 
air pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be 
determined by required door-opening or closing forces. 
The actual force required to open exit doors when the sys- 
tem is in the smoke control mode shall be in accordance 
with Section 1008.1.3. Opening and closing forces for 
other doors shall be determined by standard engineering 
methods for the resolution of forces and reactions. The 
calculated force to set a side-hinged, swinging door in 
motion shall be determined by: 

F = F dc + K(WAAP)/2(W - d) (Equation 9-1) 

where: 

A = Door area, square feet (m 2 ). 

d = Distance from door handle to latch edge of door feet 
(m). 

F = Total door opening force, pounds (N). 

F dc - Force required to overcome closing device pounds 

(N). 

K = Coefficient 5.2 (1.0). 

W = Door width, feet (m). 

AP = Design pressure difference, inches of water (Pa). 
909.7 Airflow design method. When approved by the fire 
code official, smoke migration through openings fixed in a 
permanently open position, which are located between 
smoke-control zones by the use of the airflow method, shall 
be permitted. The design airflow shall be in accordance with 



125 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



this section. Airflow shall be directed to limit smoke migra- 
tion from the fire zone. The geometry of openings shall be 
considered to prevent flow reversal from turbulent effects. 

909.7.1 Velocity. The minimum average velocity through 

a fixed opening shall not be less than: 

v= 217.2 [h(T f - TJ/(T f + 460)] 1 ' 2 (Equation 9-2) 

For SI: v= 119.9 [/>(7} - T () )/7/ 2 

where: 

h = Height of opening, feet (m). 
T f - Temperature of smoke, °F (K). 
T = Temperature of ambient air, °F (K). 
v - Air velocity, feet per minute (m/minute). 
909.7.2 Prohibited conditions. This method shall not be 
employed where either the quantity of air or the velocity 
of the airflow will adversely affect other portions of the 
smoke control system, unduly intensify the fire, disrupt 
plume dynamics or interfere with exiting. In no case shall 
airflow toward the fire exceed 200 feet per minute (1.02 
m/s). Where the formula in Section 909.7.1 requires air- 
flows to exceed this limit, the airflow method shall not be 
used. 
909.8 Exhaust method. When approved by the fire code offi- 
cial, mechanical smoke control for large enclosed volumes, 
such as in atriums or malls, shall be permitted to utilize the 
exhaust method. Smoke control systems using the exhaust 
method shall be designed in accordance with NFPA 92B. 
909.8.1 Smoke layer. The height of the lowest horizontal 
surface of the smoke layer interface shall be maintained at 
least 6 feet (1829 mm) above any walking surface that 
forms a portion of a required egress system within the 
smoke zone. 
909.9 Design fire. The design fire shall be based on a rational 
analysis performed by the registered design professional and 
approved by the fire code official. The design fire shall be 
based on the analysis in accordance with Section 909.4 and 
this section. 

909.9.1 Factors considered. The engineering analysis 
shall include the characteristics of the fuel, fuel load, 
effects included by the fire, and whether the fire is likely 
to be steady or unsteady. 

909.9.2 Separation distance. Determination of the design 
fire shall include consideration of the type of fuel, fuel 
spacing and configuration. 

909.9.3 Heat-release assumptions. The analysis shall 
make use of best available data from approved sources and 
shall not be based on excessively stringent limitations of 
combustible material. 

909.9.4 Sprinkler effectiveness assumptions. A docu- 
mented engineering analysis shall be provided for condi- 
tions that assume fire growth is halted at the time of 
sprinkler activation. 

909.10 Equipment. Equipment including, but not limited to, 
fans, ducts, automatic dampers and balance dampers shall be 
suitable for their intended use, suitable for the probable expo- 



126 



sure temperatures that the rational analysis indicates, and as 

approved by they're code official. 

909.10.1 Exhaust fans. Components of exhaust fans shall 
be rated and certified by the manufacturer for the probable 
temperature rise to which the components will be exposed. 
This temperature rise shall be computed by: 
T, = (QJmc) + (T a ) (Equation 9-3) 

where: 

c = Specific heat of smoke at smokelayer temperature, 

Btu/lb°F • (kJ/kg • K). 
m = Exhaust rate, pounds per second (kg/s). 
Q = Convective heat output of fire, Btu/s (kW). 



T a = Ambient temperature, °F (K). 
T s = Smoke temperature, °F (K). 

Exception: Reduced T s as calculated based on the 

assurance of adequate dilution air. 
909.10.2 Ducts. Duct materials and joints shall be capable 
of withstanding the probable temperatures and pressures to 
which they are exposed as determined in accordance with 
Section 909.10.1. Ducts shall be constructed and sup- 
ported in accordance with the International Mechanical 
Code. Ducts shall be leak tested to 1 .5 times the maximum 
design pressure in accordance with nationally accepted 
practices. Measured leakage shall not exceed 5 percent of 
design flow. Results of such testing shall be a part of the 
documentation procedure. Ducts shall be supported 
directly from fire-resistance-rated structural elements of 
the building by substantial, noncombustible supports. 

Exception: Flexible connections (for the purpose of 
vibration isolation) complying with the International 
Mechanical Code and which are constructed of 
approved fire-resistance-rated materials. 

909.10.3 Equipment, inlets and outlets. Equipment shall 
be located so as to not expose uninvolved portions of the 
building to an additional fire hazard. Outside air inlets 
shall be located so as to minimize the potential for intro- 
ducing smoke or flame into the building. Exhaust outlets 
shall be so located as to minimize reintroduction of smoke 
into the building and to limit exposure of the building or 
adjacent buildings to an additional fire hazard. 

909.10.4 Automatic dampers. Automatic dampers, 
regardless of the purpose for which they are installed 
within the smoke control system, shall be listed and con- 
form to the requirements of approved recognized stan- 
dards. 

909.10.5 Fans. In addition to other requirements, belt- 
driven fans shall have 1.5 times the number of belts 
required for the design duty with the minimum number of 
belts being two. Fans shall be selected for stable perfor- 
mance based on normal temperature and, where applica- 
ble, elevated temperature. Calculations and manufac- 
turer's fan curves shall be part of the documentation pro- 
cedures. Fans shall be supported and restrained by non- 
combustible devices in accordance with the structural 

2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



design requirements of Chapter 16 of the International 
Building Code. 

Motors driving fans shall not be operated beyond their 
nameplate horsepower (kilowatts) as determined from 
measurement of actual current draw and shall have a mini- 
mum service factor of 1.15. 

909.11 Power systems. The smoke control system shall be 
supplied with two sources of power. Primary power shall be 
from the normal building power systems. Secondary power 
shall be from an approved standby source complying with 
Section 604 and NFPA 70. The standby power source and its 
transfer switches shall be in a room separate from the normal 
power transformers and switch gears and ventilated directly 
to and from the exterior. The room shall be enclosed with not 
less than l-hour/;Ve barriers constructed in accordance with 
Section 707 of the International Building Code or horizontal 
assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 71 1 of the 
International Building Code, or both. The transfer to full 
standby power shall be automatic and within 60 seconds of 
failure of the primary power. 

909.11.1 Power sources and power surges. Elements of 
| the smoke control system relying on volatile memories or 
the like shall be supplied with uninterruptable power 
sources of sufficient duration to span 15-minute primary 
| power interruption. Elements of the smoke control system 
susceptible to power surges shall be suitably protected by 
conditioners, suppressors or other approved means. 

909.12 Detection and control systems. Fire detection sys- 
tems providing control input or output signals to mechanical 
smoke control systems or elements thereof shall comply with 
the requirements of Section 907. Such systems shall be 
equipped with a control unit complying with UL 864 and 
listed as smoke control equipment. 

Control systems for mechanical smoke control systems 
shall include provisions for verification. Verification shall 
include positive confirmation of actuation, testing, manual 
override, the presence of power downstream of all discon- 
nects and, through a preprogrammed weekly test sequence, 
report abnormal conditions audibly, visually and by printed 
report. 

909.12.1 Wiring. In addition to meeting requirements of 
NFPA 70, all wiring, regardless of voltage, shall be fully 
enclosed within continuous raceways. 

909.12.2 Activation. Smoke control systems shall be acti- 
vated in accordance with this section. 

909.12.2.1 Pressurization, airflow or exhaust 
method. Mechanical smoke control systems using the 
pressurization, airflow or exhaust method shall have 
completely automatic control. 

909.12.2.2 Passive method. Passive smoke control 
systems actuated by approved spot-type detectors listed 
for releasing service shall be permitted. 

909.12.3 Automatic control. Where completely auto- 
matic control is required or used, the automatic-control 
sequences shall be initiated from an appropriately zoned 
automatic sprinkler system complying with Section 
903.3.1.1, manual controls that are readily accessible to 



the fire department, and any smoke detectors required by 
the engineering analysis. 

909.13 Control air tubing. Control air tubing shall be of suf- 
ficient size to meet the required response times. Tubing shall 
be flushed clean and dry prior to final connections and shall 
be adequately supported and protected from damage. Tubing 
passing through concrete or masonry shall be sleeved and 
protected from abrasion and electrolytic action. 

909.13.1 Materials. Control air tubing shall be hard 
drawn copper, Type L, ACR in accordance with ASTM B 
42, ASTM B 43, ASTM B 68, ASTM B 88, ASTM B 251 
and ASTM B 280. Fittings shall be wrought copper or 
brass, solder type, in accordance with ASME B 16.18 or 
ASME B 16.22. Changes in direction shall be made with 
appropriate tool bends. Brass compression-type fittings 
shall be used at final connection to devices; other joints 
shall be brazed using a BCuP5 brazing alloy with solidus 
above 1,100°F (593°C) and liquidus below 1,500°F 
(816°C). Brazing flux shall be used on copper-to-brass 
joints only. 

Exception: Nonmetallic tubing used within control 
panels and at the final connection to devices, provided 
all of the following conditions are met: 

1. Tubing shall comply with the requirements of 
Section 602.2.1.3 of the International Mechani- 
cal Code. 

2. Tubing and the connected device shall be com- 
pletely enclosed within a galvanized or paint- 
grade steel enclosure having a minimum thick- 
ness of 0.0296 inch (0.7534 mm) (No.22 gage). 
Entry to the enclosure shall be by copper tubing 
with a protective grommet of neoprene or teflon 
or by suitable brass compression to male-barbed 
adapter. 

3. Tubing shall be identified by appropriately docu- 
mented coding. 

4. Tubing shall be neatly tied and supported within 
enclosure. Tubing bridging cabinet and door or 
moveable device shall be of sufficient length to 
avoid tension and excessive stress. Tubing shall 
be protected against abrasion. Tubing serving 
devices on doors shall be fastened along hinges. 

909.13.2 Isolation from other functions. Control tubing 
serving other than smoke control functions shall be iso- 
lated by automatic isolation valves or shall be an indepen- 
dent system. 

909.13.3 Testing. Control air tubing shall be tested at 
three times the operating pressure for not less than 30 min- 
utes without any noticeable loss in gauge pressure prior to 
final connection to devices. 

909.14 Marking and identification. The detection and con- 
trol systems shall be clearly marked at all junctions, accesses 
and terminations. 

909.15 Control diagrams. Identical control diagrams show- 
ing all devices in the system and identifying their location 
and function shall be maintained current and kept on file with 



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the fire code official, the fire department and in the fire com- 
mand center in a format and manner approved by the fire 
chief. 

909.16 Fire-fighter's smoke control panel. A fire-fighter's 
smoke control panel for fire department emergency response 
purposes only shall be provided and shall include manual 
control or override of automatic control for mechanical 
smoke control systems. The panel shall be located in a fire 
command center complying with Section 508 in high-rise 
buildings or buildings with smoke-protected assembly seat- 
ing. In all other buildings, the fire-fighter's smoke control 
panel shall be installed in an approved location adjacent to 
the fire alarm control panel. The fire-fighter's smoke control 
panel shall comply with Sections 909.16.1 through 909.16.3. 

909.16.1 Smoke control systems. Fans within the build- 
ing shall be shown on the fire-fighter's control panel. A 
clear indication of the direction of airflow and the relation- 
ship of components shall be displayed. Status indicators 
shall be provided for all smoke control equipment, annun- 
ciated by fan and zone and by pilot-lamp-type indicators 
as follows: 

1. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in 
their normal status — WHITE. 

2. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in 
their off or closed status — RED. 

3. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in 
their on or open status — GREEN. 

4. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in a 
fault status— YELLOW/AMBER. 

909.16.2 Smoke control panel. The fire-fighter's control 
panel shall provide control capability over the complete 
smoke-control system equipment within the building as 
follows: 

1. ON-AUTO-OFF control over each individual piece 
of operating smoke control equipment that can also 
be controlled from other sources within the building. 
This includes stairway pressurization fans; smoke 
exhaust fans; supply, return and exhaust fans; eleva- 
tor shaft fans; and other operating equipment used or 
intended for smoke control purposes. 

2. OPEN-AUTO-CLOSE control over individual 
dampers relating to smoke control and that are also 
controlled from other sources within the building. 

3. ON-OFF or OPEN-CLOSE control over smoke con- 
trol and other critical equipment associated with a 
fire or smoke emergency and that can only be con- 
trolled from the fire-fighter's control panel. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Complex systems, where approved, where 
the controls and indicators are combined to 
control and indicate all elements of a single 
smoke zone as a unit. 

2. Complex systems, where approved, where 
the control is accomplished by computer 
interface using approved, plain English 
commands. 



909.16.3 Control action and priorities. The fire-fighter's 
control panel actions shall be as follows: 

1. ON-OFF and OPEN-CLOSE control actions shall 
have the highest priority of any control point within 
the building. Once issued from the fire-fighter's 
control panel, no automatic or manual control from 
any other control point within the building shall con- 
tradict the control action. Where automatic means 
are provided to interrupt normal, nonemergency 
equipment operation or produce a specific result to 
safeguard the building or equipment (i.e., duct freez- 
estats, duct smoke detectors, high-temperature cut- 
outs, temperature-actuated linkage and similar 
devices), such means shall be capable of being over- 
ridden by the fire-fighter's control panel. The last 
control action as indicated by each fire-fighter's 
control panel switch position shall prevail. In no 
case shall control actions require the smoke control 
system to assume more than one configuration at 
any one time. 

Exception: Power disconnects required by 
NFPA 70. 

2. Only the AUTO position of each three-position fire- 
fighter' s control panel switch shall allow automatic 
or manual control action from other control points 
within the building. The AUTO position shall be the 
NORMAL, nonemergency, building control posi- 
tion. Where a fire-fighter's control panel is in the 
AUTO position, the actual status of the device (on, 
off, open, closed) shall continue to be indicated by 
the status indicator described above. When directed 
by an automatic signal to assume an emergency con- 
dition, the NORMAL position shall become the 
emergency condition for that device or group of 
devices within the zone. In no case shall control 
actions require the smoke control system to assume 
more than one configuration at any one time. 

909.17 System response time. Smoke-control system activa- 
tion shall be initiated immediately after receipt of an appro- 
priate automatic or manual activation command. Smoke 
control systems shall activate individual components (such as 
dampers and fans) in the sequence necessary to prevent phys- 
ical damage to the fans, dampers, ducts and other equipment. 
For purposes of smoke control, the fire-fighter's control panel 
response time shall be the same for automatic or manual 
smoke control action initiated from any other building control 
point. The total response time, including that necessary for 
detection, shutdown of operating equipment and smoke con- 
trol system startup, shall allow for full operational mode to be 
achieved before the conditions in the space exceed the design 
smoke condition. The system response time for each compo- 
nent and their sequential relationships shall be detailed in the 
required rational analysis and verification of their installed 
condition reported in the required final report. 

909.18 Acceptance testing. Devices, equipment, compo- 
nents and sequences shall be individually tested. These tests, 
in addition to those required by other provisions of this code, 
shall consist of determination of function, sequence and, 
where applicable, capacity of their installed condition. 



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909.18.1 Detection devices. Smoke or fire detectors that 
are a part of a smoke control system shall be tested in 
accordance with Chapter 9 in their installed condition. 
When applicable, this testing shall include verification of 
airflow in both minimum and maximum conditions. 

909.18.2 Ducts. Ducts that are part of a smoke control sys- 
tem shall be traversed using generally accepted practices 
to determine actual air quantities. 

909.18.3 Dampers. Dampers shall be tested for function 
in their installed condition. 

909.18.4 Inlets and outlets. Inlets and outlets shall be 
read using generally accepted practices to determine air 
quantities. 

909.18.5 Fans. Fans shall be examined for correct rota- 
tion. Measurements of voltage, amperage, revolutions per 
minute and belt tension shall be made. 

909.18.6 Smoke barriers. Measurements using inclined 
manometers or other approved calibrated measuring 
devices shall be made of the pressure differences across 
smoke barriers. Such measurements shall be conducted 
for each possible smoke control condition. 

909.18.7 Controls. Each smoke zone equipped with an 
automatic-initiation device shall be put into operation by 
the actuation of one such device. Each additional device 
within the zone shall be verified to cause the same 
sequence without requiring the operation of fan motors in 
order to prevent damage. Control sequences shall be veri- 
fied throughout the system, including verification of over- 
ride from the fire-fighter's control panel and simulation of 
standby power conditions. 

909.18.8 Special inspections for smoke control. Smoke 
control systems shall be tested by a special inspector. 

909.18.8.1 Scope of testing. Special inspections shall 
be conducted in accordance with the following: 

1. During erection of ductwork and prior to conceal- 
ment for the purposes of leakage testing and 
recording of device location. 

2. Prior to occupancy and after sufficient comple- 
tion for the purposes of pressure-difference test- 
ing, flow measurements, and detection and 
control verification. 

909.18.8.2 Qualifications. Special inspection agencies 
for smoke control shall have expertise in fire protection 
engineering, mechanical engineering and certification 
as air balancers. 

909.18.8.3 Reports. A complete report of testing shall 
be prepared by the special inspector or special inspec- 
tion agency. The report shall include identification of 
all devices by manufacturer, nameplate data, design 
values, measured values and identification tag or mark. 
The report shall be reviewed by the responsible regis- 
tered design professional and, when satisfied that the 
design intent has been achieved, the responsible regis- 
tered design professional shall seal, sign and date the 
report. 



909.18.8.3.1 Report filing. A copy of the final 
report shall be filed with the fire code official and an 
identical copy shall be maintained in an approved 
location at the building. 

909.18.9 Identification and documentation. Charts, 
drawings and other documents identifying and locating 
each component of the smoke control system, and describ- 
ing their proper function and maintenance requirements, 
shall be maintained on file at the building as an attachment 
to the report required by Section 909.1 8.8.3. Devices shall 
have an approved identifying tag or mark on them consis- 
tent with the other required documentation and shall be 
dated indicating the last time they were successfully tested 
and by whom. 

909.19 System acceptance. Buildings, or portions thereof, 
required by this code to comply with this section shall not be 
issued a certificate of occupancy until such time that the fire 
code official determines that the provisions of this section 
have been fully complied with and that the fire department 
has received satisfactory instruction on the operation, both 
automatic and manual, of the system and a written mainte- 
nance program complying with the requirements of Section 
909.20.1 has been submitted and approved by the fire code 
official. 

Exception: In buildings of phased construction, a tempo- 
rary certificate of occupancy, as approved by the. fire code 
official, shall be allowed, provided that those portions of 
the building to be occupied meet the requirements of this 
section and that the remainder does not pose a significant 
hazard to the safety of the proposed occupants or adjacent 
buildings. 

909.20 Maintenance. Smoke control systems shall be main- 
tained to ensure to a reasonable degree that the system is 
capable of controlling smoke for the duration required. The 
system shall be maintained in accordance with the manufac- 
turer's instructions and Sections 909.20.1 through 909.20.5. 

909.20.1 Schedule. A routine maintenance and opera- 
tional testing program shall be initiated immediately after 
the smoke control system has passed the acceptance tests. 
A written schedule for routine maintenance and opera- 
tional testing shall be established. 

909.20.2 Written record. A written record of smoke con- 
trol system testing and maintenance shall be maintained on 
the premises. The written record shall include the date of 
the maintenance, identification of the servicing personnel 
and notification of any unsatisfactory condition and the 
corrective action taken, including parts replaced. 

909.20.3 Testing. Operational testing of the smoke control 
system shall include all equipment such as initiating 
devices, fans, dampers, controls, doors and windows. 

909.20.4 Dedicated smoke control systems. Dedicated 
smoke control systems shall be operated for each control 
sequence semiannually. The system shall also be tested 
under standby power conditions. 

909.20.5 Nondedicated smoke control systems. Non- 
dedicated smoke control systems shall be operated for 



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each control sequence annually. The system shall also be 
tested under standby power conditions. 



SECTION 910 
SMOKE AND HEAT REMOVAL 

910.1 General. Where required by this code or otherwise 
installed, smoke and heat vents or mechanical smoke exhaust 
systems and draft curtains shall conform to the requirements 
of this section. 

Exceptions: 

1. Frozen food warehouses used solely for storage of 
Class I and II commodities where protected by an 
approved automatic sprinkler system. 

2. Where areas of buildings are equipped with early 
suppression fast-response (ESFR) sprinklers, auto- 
matic smoke and heat vents shall not be required 
within these areas. 

910.2 Where required. Smoke and heat vents shall be 
1 installed in the roofs of buildings or portions thereof occupied 

for the uses set forth in Sections 910.2.1 and 910.2.2. 

Exception: In occupied portions of a building where the 
upper surface of the story is not a roof assembly, mechani- 
cal smoke exhaust in accordance with Section 910.4 shall 
be an acceptable alternative. 

910.2.1 Group F-l or S-l. Buildings and portions thereof 
used as a Group F-l or S-l occupancy having more than 
50,000 square feet (4645 m 2 ) of undivided area. 

Exception: Group S-l aircraft repair hangars. 

910.2.2 High-piled combustible storage. Buildings and 
portions thereof containing high-piled combustible stock 
or rack storage in any occupancy group when required by 
Section 3206.7. 

910.3 Design and installation. The design and installation of 
smoke and heat vents and draft curtains shall be as specified 
in Sections 910.3.1 through 910.3.5.2 and Table 910.3. 

910.3.4 Vent locations. Smoke and heat vents shall be 
located 20 feet (6096 mm) or more from adjacent lot lines 
and fire walls and 10 feet (3048 mm) or more from fire 
barriers. Vents shall be uniformly located within the roof 
in the areas of the building where the vents are required to 
be installed by Section 910.2, with consideration given to 
roof pitch, draft curtain location, sprinkler location and 
structural members. 

910.3.5 Draft curtains. Where required by Table 910.3, 
draft curtains shall be installed on the underside of the roof 
in accordance with this section. 

Exception: Where areas of buildings are equipped with 
ESFR sprinklers, draft curtains shall not be provided 
within these areas. Draft curtains shall only be provided 
at the separation between the ESFR sprinklers and the 
non-ESFR sprinklers. 

910.3.5.1 Construction. Draft curtains shall be con- 
structed of sheet metal, lath and plaster, gypsum board 
or other approved materials that provide equivalent 



performance to resist the passage of smoke. Joints and 
connections shall be smoke tight. 

910.3.5.2 Location and depth. The location and mini- 
mum depth of draft curtains shall be in accordance with 
Table 910.3. 

910.4 Mechanical smoke exhaust. Where approved by the 
fire code official, engineered mechanical smoke exhaust shall 
be an acceptable alternative to smoke and heat vents. 

910.4.1 Location. Exhaust fans shall be uniformly spaced 
within each draft-curtained area and the maximum dis- 
tance between fans shall not be greater than 100 feet (30 
480 mm). 

910.4.2 Size. Fans shall have a maximum individual 
capacity of 30,000 cfm (14.2 mVs). The aggregate capac- 
ity of smoke exhaust fans shall be determined by the equa- 
tion: 



C = Ax300 
where: 



(Equation 9-4) 



C = Capacity of mechanical ventilation required, in 
cubic feet per minute (m 3 /s). 

A - Area of roof vents provided in square feet (m 2 ) in 
accordance with Table 910.3. 

910.4.3 Operation. Mechanical smoke exhaust fans shall 
be automatically activated by the automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem or by heat detectors having operating characteristics 
equivalent to those described in Section 910.3.2. Individ- 
ual manual controls for each fan unit shall also be pro- 
vided. 

910.4.4 Wiring and control. Wiring for operation and 
control of smoke exhaust fans shall be connected ahead of 
the main disconnect and protected against exposure to 
temperatures in excess of 1,000°F (538°C) for a period of 
not less than 15 minutes. Controls shall be located so as to 
be immediately accessible to the fire service from the exte- 
rior of the building and protected against interior fire 
exposure by not less than 1 -hour fire barriers constructed 
in accordance with Section 707 of the International Build- 
ing Code or horizontal assemblies constructed in accor- 
dance with Section 711 of the International Building 
Code, or both. 

910.4.5 Supply air. Supply air for exhaust fans shall be 
provided at or near the floor level and shall be sized to 
provide a minimum of 50 percent of required exhaust. 
Openings for supply air shall be uniformly distributed 
around the periphery of the area served. 

910.4.6 Interlocks. On combination comfort air-handling/ 
smoke removal systems or independent comfort air-han- 
dling systems, fans shall be controlled to shut down in 
accordance with the approved smoke control sequence. 

910.5 Maintenance. Smoke and heat vents and mechanical 
smoke exhaust systems shall be maintained in an operative con- 
dition in accordance with NFPA 204. Fusible links shall be 
promptly replaced whenever fused, damaged or painted. 
Smoke and heat vents and mechanical smoke exhaust systems 
shall not be modified. 



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SECTION 911 
EXPLOSION CONTROL 

911.1 General. Explosion control shall be provided in the 
following locations: 

1. Where a structure, room or space is occupied for pur- 
poses involving explosion hazards as identified in 
Table 91 1.1. 

2. Where quantities of hazardous materials specified in 
Table 911.1 exceed the maximum allowable quantities 
in Table 5003.1.1(1). 

Such areas shall be provided with explosion (deflagration) 
venting, explosion (deflagration) prevention systems, or bar- 
ricades in accordance with this section and NFPA 69, or 
NFPA 495 as applicable. Deflagration venting shall not be 
utilized as a means to protect buildings from detonation haz- 
ards. 

911.2 Required deflagration venting. Areas that are 
required to be provided with deflagration venting shall com- 
ply with the following: 

1. Walls, ceilings and roofs exposing surrounding areas 
shall be designed to resist a minimum internal pressure 
of 100 pounds per square foot (psf) (4788 Pa). The 



minimum internal design pressure shall not be less than 
five times the maximum internal relief pressure speci- 
fied in Section 91 1 .2, Item 5. 

2. Deflagration venting shall be provided only in exterior 
walls and roofs. 

Exception: Where sufficient exterior wall and roof 
venting cannot be provided because of inadequate 
exterior wall or roof area, deflagration venting shall 
be allowed by specially designed shafts vented to 
the exterior of the building. 

3. Deflagration venting shall be designed to prevent unac- 
ceptable structural damage. Where relieving a deflagra- 
tion, vent closures shall not produce projectiles of 
sufficient velocity and mass to cause life threatening 
injuries to the occupants or other persons on the prop- 
erty or adjacent public ways. 

4. The aggregate clear area of vents and venting devices 
shall be governed by the pressure resistance of the con- 
struction assemblies specified in Item 1 of this section 
and the maximum internal pressure allowed by Item 5 
of this section. 



OCCUPANCY GROUP 
AND COMMODITY 
CLASSIFICATION 



TABLE 910.3 
REQUIREMENTS FOR DRAFT CURTAINS AND SMOKE AND HEAT VENTS" 



Group F-l and S- 



High-piled storage 

(see Section 910.2.2) 

Class I-IV Commodities 

(Option 1) 



High-piled storage 

(see Section 910.2.2) 

Class 1-IV Commodities 

(Option 2) 



DESIGNATED 

STORAGE 
HEIGHT (feet) 



<20 



MINIMUM DRAFT 

CURTAIN DEPTH 

(feet) 



0.2 x H d but > 4 



> 20 < 40 



<20 



High-piled storage 
(see Section 910.2.2) 
High-hazard Commodi- 
ties (Option 1) 



High-piled storage 
(see Section 910.2.2) 
High-hazard Commodi- 
ties (Option 2) 



> 20 < 40 



<20 



> 20 < 30 



<20 



>20<30 



For SI: I foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 . 



MAXIMUM AREA 

FORMED BY DRAFT 

CURTAINS 

(square feet) 



50,000 



10,000 



;,ooo 



3,000 



3,000 



6,000 



6,000 



4,000 



2,000 



VENT-AREA- 
TO FLOOR- 
AREA RATIO' 



1:100 



1:100 



1:75 



1:75 



1:50 



1:50 



1:40 



1:50 



1:30 



MAXIMUM SPACING 

OF VENT CENTERS 

(feet) 



1 20 



100 



100 



100 



100 



100 



90 



100 



75 



MAXIMUM DISTANCE 

FROM VENTS TO WALL 

OR DRAFT CURTAIN" 

(feet) 



60 



60 



55 



55 



50 



50 



45 



50 



40 



s:::s:ss= ir indicated shau be m accordance with a — *■ f - «^ -^ ^ - — 
srsc^^^ - _ di „ specified m thls column as 

w ^::t:^7::z:zs ^:tz: ° floor m rat, ° shan be caicuiated based ° n a mi — ^ -*■ *■>* °< « ** «**» ■>■ 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



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5. Vents shall be designed to withstand loads in accor- 
dance with the International Building Code. Vents shall 
consist of any one or any combination of the following 
to relieve at a maximum internal pressure of 20 pounds 
per square foot (958 Pa), but not less than the loads 
required by the International Building Code: 

5.1. Exterior walls designed to release outward. 

5.2. Hatch covers. 

5.3. Outward swinging doors. 

5.4. Roofs designed to uplift. 

5.5. Venting devices listed for the purpose. 

6. Vents designed to release from the exterior walls or 
roofs of the building when venting a deflagration shall 
discharge directly to the exterior of the building where 
an unoccupied space not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) 



in width is provided between the exterior walls of the 
building and the lot line. 

Exception: Vents complying with Item 7 of this 

section. 

7. Vents designed to remain attached to the building when 
venting a deflagration shall be so located that the dis- 
charge opening shall not be less than 10 feet (3048 mm) 
vertically from window openings and exits in the build- 
ing and 20 feet (6096 mm) horizontally from exits in 
the building, from window openings and exits in adja- 
cent buildings on the same lot, and from the lot line. 

8. Discharge from vents shall not be into the interior of 
the building. 

911.3 Explosion prevention systems. Explosion prevention 
systems shall be of an approved type and installed in accor- 
dance with the provisions of this code and NFPA 69. 



TABLE 911.1 
EXPLOSION CONTROL REQUIREMENTS 



MATERIAL 



Combustible dusts" 



Cryogenic fluids 



Explosives 



Flammable gas 



Flammable liquids 



Organic peroxides 



Oxidizer liquids and solids 



Pyrophoric 



Unstable (reactive) 



Water-reactive liquids and solids 



Acetylene generator rooms 



Grain processing 



Liquefied petroleum gas distribution facilities 



Where explosion hazards exist" 



CLASS 



EXPLOSION CONTROL METHODS 



Barricade 
construction 



Hazard Category 



Flammable 



Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 
Division 1.4 
Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 



Gaseous 
Liquefied 



Not required 



Not required 



Required 
Required 
Not required 
Not required 
Required 
Required 



Not required 
Not required 



IA b 



Unclassified 

detonable 

I 



Not required 
Not required 



Gases 



3 detonable 
3 nondetonable 



3 
2 e 



Required 
Required 



Required 



Not required 



Required 

Required 

Not required 



Not required 
Not required 



Special Uses 



Detonation 
Deflagration 



Not required 



Not required 



Not required 



Required 
Not required 



Explosion (deflagration) venting or 
explosion (deflagration) prevention systems 



Required 



Required 



Not required 
Not required 
Required 
Required 
Not required 
Not required 



Required 
Required 



Required 
Required 



Not permitted 
Not permitted 



Not permitted 



Required 



Not permitted 

Not permitted 

Required 



Required 
Required 



Required 



Required 



Required 



Not permitted 
Required 



a. Combustible dusts that are generated during manufacturing or processing. See definition of Combustible Dust in Chapter 22. 

b. Storage or use. 

ll7::i:ZZZL, g and use of hazardous materials when an explosive environment can occur because of the characteristics or nature of the 

hazardous materials or as a result of the dispensing or use process, 
e. A method of explosion control shall be provided when Class 2 water-reactive materials can form potentially explosive mixtures. 



132 



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911.4 Barricades. Barricades shall be designed and installed 
in accordance with NFPA 495. 



SECTION 912 
FiRE DEPARTMENT CONNECTIONS 

912.1 Installation. Fire department connections shall be 
installed in accordance with the NFPA standard applicable to 
the system design and shall comply with Sections 912.2 
through 912.6. 

912.2 Location. With respect to hydrants, driveways, build- 
ings and landscaping, fire department connections shall be so 
located that fire apparatus and hose connected to supply the 
system will not obstruct access to the buildings for other fire 
apparatus. The location of fire department connections shall 
be approved by the fire chief. 

912.2.1 Visible location. Fire department connections 
shall be located on the street side of buildings, fully visible 
and recognizable from the street or nearest point of fire 
department vehicle access or as otherwise approved by the 
fire chief. 

912.2.2 Existing buildings. On existing buildings, wher- 
ever the fire department connection is not visible to 
approaching fire apparatus, the fire department connection 
shall be indicated by an approved sign mounted on the 
street front or on the side of the building. Such sign shall 
have the letters "FDC" at least 6 inches (152 mm) high 
and words in letters at least 2 inches (5 1 mm) high or an 
arrow to indicate the location. All such signs shall be sub- 
ject to the approval of the fire code official. 

912.3 Access. Immediate access to fire department connec- 
tions shall be maintained at all times and without obstruction 
by fences, bushes, trees, walls or any other fixed or moveable 
object. Access to fire department connections shall be 
approved by the fire chief. 

Exception: Fences, where provided with an access gate 
equipped with a sign complying with the legend require- 
ments of Section 912.4 and a means of emergency opera- 
tion. The gate and the means of emergency operation shall 
be approved by the fire chief and maintained operational 
at all times. 

912.3.1 Locking fire department connection caps. The 

fire code official is authorized to require locking caps on 
fire department connections for water-based fire protec- 
tion systems where the responding fire department carries 
appropriate key wrenches for removal. 

912.3.2 Clear space around connections. A working 
space of not less than 36 inches (762 mm) in width, 36 
inches (914 mm) in depth and 78 inches (1981 mm) in 
height shall be provided and maintained in front of and to 
the sides of wall-mounted fire department connections and 
around the circumference of free-standing fire department 
connections, except as otherwise required or approved by 
the fire chief. 

912.3.3 Physical protection. Where fire department con- 
nections are subject to impact by a motor vehicle, vehicle 



impact protection shall be provided in accordance with 
Section 312. 

912.4 Signs. A metal sign with raised letters at least 1 inch 
(25 mm) in size shall be mounted on all fire department con- 
nections serving automatic sprinklers, standpipes or fire 
pump connections. Such signs shall read: AUTOMATIC 
SPRINKLERS or STANDPIPES or TEST CONNECTION 
or a combination thereof as applicable. Where the fire depart- 
ment connection does not serve the entire building, a sign 
shall be provided indicating the portions of the building 
served. 

912.5 Backflow protection. The potable water supply to 
automatic sprinkler and standpipe systems shall be protected 
against backflow as required by the International Plumbing 
Code. 

912.6 Inspection, testing and maintenance. All fire depart- 
ment connections shall be periodically inspected, tested and 
maintained in accordance with NFPA 25. 



SECTION 913 
FIRE PUMPS 

913.1 General. Where provided, fire pumps shall be installed 
in accordance with this section and NFPA 20. 

913.2 Protection against interruption of service. The fire 
pump, driver, and controller shall be protected in accordance 
with NFPA 20 against possible interruption of service 
through damage caused by explosion, fire, flood, earthquake, 
rodents, insects, windstorm, freezing, vandalism and other 
adverse conditions. 

913.2.1 Protection of fire pump rooms. Rooms where 
fire pumps are located shall be separated from all other 
areas of the building in accordance with Section 913.2. 1 of 
the International Building Code. 

913.3 Temperature of pump room. Suitable means shall be 
provided for maintaining the temperature of a pump room or 
pump house, where required, above 40°F (5°C). 

913.3.1 Engine manufacturer's recommendation. Tem- 
perature of the pump room, pump house or area where 
engines are installed shall never be less than the minimum 
recommended by the engine manufacturer. The engine 
manufacturer's recommendations for oil heaters shall be 
followed. 

913.4 Valve supervision. Where provided, the fire pump 
suction, discharge and bypass valves, and the isolation valves 
on the backflow prevention device or assembly shall be 
supervised open by one of the following methods. 

1 . Central-station, proprietary or remote-station signaling 
service. 

2. Local signaling service that will cause the sounding of 
an audible signal at a constantly attended location. 

3. Locking valves open. 

4. Sealing of valves and approved weekly recorded 
inspection where valves are located within fenced 
enclosures under the control of the owner. 



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913.4.1 Test outlet valve supervision. Fire pump test out- 
let valves shall be supervised in the closed position. 

913.5 Testing and maintenance. Fire pumps shall be 
inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the 
requirements of this section and NFPA 25. 

913.5.1 Acceptance test. Acceptance testing shall be done 
in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 20. 

913.5.2 Generator sets. Engine generator sets supplying 
emergency or standby power to fire pump assemblies shall 
be periodically tested in accordance with NFPA 1 10. 

913.5.3 Transfer switches. Automatic transfer switches 
shall be periodically tested in accordance with NFPA 110. 

913.5.4 Pump room environmental conditions. Tests of 
pump room environmental conditions, including heating, 
ventilation and illumination shall be made to ensure proper 
manual or automatic operation of the associated equip- 
ment. 



SECTION 914 

FIRE PROTECTION BASED ON SPECIAL DETAILED 

REQUIREMENTS OF USE AND OCCUPANCY 

914.1 General. This section shall specify where fire protec- 
tion systems are required based on the detailed requirements 
of use and occupancy of the International Building Code. 

| 914.2 Covered and open mall buildings. Covered and open 
mall buildings shall comply with Sections 914.2.1 through 
914.2.4. 

| 914.2.1 Automatic sprinkler system. Covered and open 
mall buildings and buildings connected shall be equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1, which shall comply with the 
all of the following: 

1. The automatic sprinkler system shall be complete 
and operative throughout occupied space in the mall 
building prior to occupancy of any of the tenant 
spaces. Unoccupied tenant spaces shall be similarly 
protected unless provided with approved alternative 
protection. 

2. Sprinkler protection for the mall of a covered mall 
building shall be independent from that provided for 
tenant spaces or anchor buildings. 

3. Sprinkler protection for the tenant spaces of an open 
mall building shall be independent from that pro- 
vided for anchor buildings. 

4. Sprinkler protection shall be provided beneath exte- 
rior circulation balconies located adjacent to an 
open mall. 

5. Where tenant spaces are supplied by the same sys- 
tem, they shall be independently controlled. 

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be 
required in spaces or areas of open parking garages sep- 
arated from the covered or open mall in accordance 
with Section 402.4.2.3 of the International Building 



Code and constructed in accordance with Section 406.5 j 

of the International Building Code. 1 

914.2.2 Standpipe system. The covered and open mall j 
building shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe 
system as required by Section 905.3.3. | 

914.2.3 Emergency voice/alarm communication sys- 
tem. Where the total floor area exceeds 50,000 square feet 
(4645 m 2 ) within either a covered mall building or within 
the perimeter line of an open mall building, an emergency 
voice/alarm communication system shall be provided. 
Emergency voice/alarm communication systems serving a 
mall, required or otherwise, shall be accessible to the fire 
department. The system shall be provided in accordance 
with Section 907.5.2.2. 

914.2.4 Fire department access to equipment. Rooms or 
areas containing controls for air-conditioning systems, 
automatic fire-extinguishing systems, automatic sprinkler | 
systems or other detection, suppression or control elements 
shall be identified for use by the fire department. 

914.3 High-rise buildings. High-rise buildings shall comply 
with Sections 914.3.1 through 914.3.5. 

914.3.1 Automatic sprinkler system. Buildings and 
structures shall be equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and 
a secondary water supply where required by Section 
903.3.5.2. 

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be 
required in spaces or areas of: 

1 . Open parking garages in accordance with Section 
406.5 of the International Building Code. 

1. Telecommunications equipment buildings used 
exclusively for telecommunications equipment, 
associated electrical power distribution equip- 
ment, batteries and standby engines, provided 
that those spaces or areas are equipped through- 
out with an automatic fire detection system in 
accordance with Section 907.2 and are separated 
from the remainder of the building by not less 
than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accor- 
dance with Section 707 of the International 
Building Code or not less than 2-hour horizontal 
assemblies constructed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 711 of the International Building Code, or 
both. 

914.3.1.1 Number of sprinkler risers and system 
design. Each sprinkler system zone in buildings that 
are more than 420 feet (128 m) in height shall be sup- 
plied by a minimum of two risers. Each riser shall sup- 
ply sprinklers on alternate floors. If more than two 
risers are provided for a zone, sprinklers on adjacent 
floors shall not be supplied from the same riser. 

914.3.1.1.1 Riser location. Sprinkler risers shall be 
placed in interior exit stairways and ramps that are | 
remotely located in accordance with Section 1015.2. 

914.3.1.2 Water supply to required fire pumps. 
Required fire pumps shall be supplied by connections 



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to a minimum of two water mains located in different 
streets. Separate supply piping shall be provided 
between each connection to the water main and the 
pumps. Each connection and the supply piping between 
the connection and the pumps shall be sized to supply 
the flow and pressure required for the pumps to oper- 
ate. 

Exception: Two connections to the same main shall 
be permitted provided the main is valved such that 
an interruption can be isolated so that the water sup- 
ply will continue without interruption through at 
least one of the connections. 

914.3.2 Fire alarm system. A fire alarm system shall be 
provided in accordance with Section 907.2.13. 

914.3.3 Automatic smoke detection. Smoke detection 
shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.13.1. 

914.3.4 Emergency voice/alarm communication sys- 
tem. An emergency voice/alarm communication system 
shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.6.2.2. 

914.3.5 Emergency responder radio coverage. Emer- 
gency responder radio coverage shall be provided in 
accordance with Section 510. 

914.3.6 Fire command. A fire command center comply- 
ing with Section 508 shall be provided in a location 
approved by the fire department. 

914.4 Atriums. Atriums shall comply with Sections 914 4 1 
and 914.4.2. 

914.4.1 Automatic sprinkler system. An approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the 
entire building. 

Exceptions: 

1. That area of a building adjacent to or above the 
atrium need not be sprinklered, provided that por- 
tion of the building is separated from the atrium 
portion by not less than a 2-hour fire barrier con- 
structed in accordance with Section 707 of the 
International Building Code or horizontal assem- 
blies constructed in accordance with Section 711 
of the International Building Code, or both. 

2. Where the ceiling of the atrium is more than 55 
feet (16 764 mm) above the floor, sprinkler pro- 
tection at the ceiling of the atrium is not required. 

914.4.2 Fire alarm system. A fire alarm system shall be 
provided where required by Section 907.2.14. 

914.5 Underground buildings. Underground buildings shall 
comply with Sections 914.5. 1 through 914.5.5. 

914.5.1 Automatic sprinkler system. The highest level of 
exit discharge serving the underground portions of the 
building and all levels below shall be equipped with an 
automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. Water-flow switches and control valves 
shall be supervised in accordance with Section 903.4. 

914.5.2 Smoke control system. A smoke control system 
is required to control the migration of products of combus- 
tion in accordance with Section 909 and provisions of this 



section. Smoke control shall restrict movement of smoke 
to the general area of fire origin and maintain means of 
egress in a usable condition. 

914.5.3 Compartment smoke control system. Where 
compartmentation is required by Section 405.4 of the 
International Building Code, each compartment shall have 
an independent smoke-control system. The system shall be 
automatically activated and capable of manual operation 
in accordance with Section 907.2. 18. 

914.5.4 Fire alarm system. A fire alarm system shall be 
provided where required by Sections 907.2.18 and 
907.2.19. 

914.5.5 Standpipe system. The underground building 
shall be provided throughout with a standpipe system in 
accordance with Section 905. 

914.6 Stages. Stages shall comply with Sections 914.6.1 and 
914.6.2. 

914.6.1 Automatic sprinkler system. Stages shall be 
equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 1 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1. Sprinklers shall be installed 
under the roof and gridiron and under all catwalks and gal- 
leries over the stage. Sprinklers shall be installed in dress- 
ing rooms, performer lounges, shops and storerooms 
accessory to such stages. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Sprinklers are not required under stage areas less 
than 4 feet (1219 mm) in clear height utilized 
exclusively for storage of tables and chairs, pro- 
vided the concealed space is separated from the 
adjacent spaces by not less than %-inch (15.9 
mm) Type X gypsum board. 

2. Sprinklers are not required for stages 1,000 
square feet (93 m 2 ) or less in area and 50 feet (15 
240 mm) or less in height where curtains, scenery 
or other combustible hangings are not retractable 
vertically. Combustible hangings shall be limited 
to a single main curtain, borders, legs and a single 
backdrop. 

3. Sprinklers are not required within portable 
orchestra enclosures on stages. 

914.6.2 Standpipe system. Standpipe systems shall be 
provided in accordance with Section 905. 

914.7 Special amusement buildings. Special amusement 
buildings shall comply with Sections 914.7.1 and 914.7.2. 

914.7.1 Automatic sprinkler system. Special amusement 
buildings shall be equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 
Where the special amusement building is temporary, the 
sprinkler water supply shall be of an approved temporary 
means. 

Exception: Automatic sprinklers are not required 
where the total floor area of a temporary special amuse- 
ment building is less than 1 ,000 square feet (93 m 2 ) and 
the travel distance from any point to an exit is less than 
50 feet (15 240 mm). 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



135 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



914.7.2 Automatic smoke detection. Special amusement 
buildings shall be equipped with an automatic smoke 
detection system in accordance with Section 907.2.12. 
914.8 Aircraft-related occupancies. Aircraft-related occu- 
pancies shall comply with Sections 914.8.1 through 914.8.5. 

914.8.1 Automatic smoke detection systems. Airport 
traffic control towers shall be provided with an automatic 
smoke detection system installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 907.2.22. 

914.8.2 Fire suppression. Aircraft hangars shall be pro- 
vided with a fire suppression system designed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 409, based upon the classification for 
the hangar given in Table 914.8.2. 

Exception: When a fixed base operator has separate 
repair facilities on site, Group II hangars operated by a 
fixed base operator used for storage of transient aircraft 
only shall have a fire suppression system, but the sys- 
tem shall be exempt from foam requirements. 
914.8.2.1 Hazardous operations. Any Group III air- 
craft hangar according to Table 914.8.2 that contains 
hazardous operations including, but not limited to, the 
following shall be provided with a Group I or II fire 
suppression system in accordance with NFPA 409 as 
applicable: 

1. Doping. 

2. Hot work including, but not limited to, welding, 
torch cutting and torch soldering. 

3. Fuel transfer. 

4. Fuel tank repair or maintenance not including 
defueled tanks in accordance with NFPA 409, 
inerted tanks or tanks that have never been 
fueled. 

5. Spray finishing operations. 

6. Total fuel capacity of all aircraft within the 
unsprinklered single fire area in excess of 1,600 
gallons (6057 L). 



7. Total fuel capacity of all aircraft within the maxi- 
mum single fire area in excess of 7,500 gallons 
(28 390 L) for a hangar equipped throughout with 
an automatic sprinkler system installed in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1. 
914.8.2.2 Separation of maximum single fire areas. 
Maximum single fire areas established in accordance 
with hangar classification and construction type in 
Table 914.8.2 shall be separated by 2-hour fire walls 
constructed in accordance with Section 706 of the 
International Building Code. In determining the maxi- 
mum single fire area as set forth in Table 914.8.2, 
ancillary uses which are separated from aircraft servic- 
ing areas by a minimum of a 1 -hour fire barrier con- 
structed in accordance with Section 707 of the 
International Building Code shall not be included in the 
area. 

914.8.3 Finishing. The process of "doping," involving the 
use of a volatile flammable solvent, or of painting shall be 
carried on in a separate detached building equipped with 
automatic fire-extinguishing equipment in accordance 
with Section 903. 

914.8.4 Residential aircraft hangar smoke alarms. 
Smoke alarms shall be provided within residential aircraft 
hangars in accordance with Section 907.2.21. 

914.8.5 Aircraft paint hangar fire suppression. Aircraft 
paint hangars shall be provided with fire suppression as 
required by NFPA 409. 

914.9 Fire protection. An automatic sprinkler system or fire- 
extinguishing system shall be provided in all spray, dip and 
immersing spaces and storage rooms, and shall be installed in 
accordance with Chapter 9. 

914.10 Drying rooms. Drying rooms designed for high-haz- 
ard materials and processes, including special occupancies as 
provided for in Chapter 4 of the International Building Code, 
shall be protected by an approved automatic fire-extinguish- 
ing system complying with the provisions of Chapter 9. 



TABLE 914.8.2 



MAXIMUM 

SINGLE FIRE AREA 

(square feet) 


INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 




-1 


1A 


IB 


IIA 


IIB 


IIIA 


IIIB 


IV 


VA 


VB 


> 40,001 


Group I 


Group I 


Group I 


Group I 


Group I 


Group I 


Group I 


Group I 


Group I 


40,000 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


30,000 


Group III 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


20,000 


Group III 


Group III 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


15,000 


Group 111 


Group III 


Group III 


Group II 


Group III 


Group II 


Group III 


Group II 


Group II 


12,000 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group 11 


Group II 


8,000 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group II 


5,000 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 nrr, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. . 

a. Aircraft hangars with a door height greater than 28 feet shall be provided with fire suppression for a Group I hangar regardless of maximum tire area. 

b Groups shall be as classified in accordance with NFPA 409. 

c. Membrane structures complying with Section 3 102 of the International Building Code shall be classified as a Group IV hangar. 



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914.11 Ambulatory care facilities. Occupancies classified 

ol/n I 1 ? 017 un re faCilitkS Sha11 COm P 1 y with Sec tions 
yi4.1 1.1 through 914.11.3. 

914.11 1 Automatic sprinkler systems. An automatic 
sprinkler system shall be provided for ambulatory care 
facilities in accordance with Section 903.2.2. 

914.11.2 Manual fire alarm systems. A manual fire 
alarm system shall be provided for ambulatory care facili- 
ties in accordance with Section 907.2.2. 

914.11.3 Fire alarm systems. An automatic smoke detec- 
tion system shall be provided for ambulatory care facilities 
m accordance with Section 907.2.2. 1 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 

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2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE 8 
138 



CHAPTER 10 



SECTION 1001 
ADMINISTRATION 

1001.1 General. Buildings or portions thereof shall be pro- 
vided with a means of egress system as required by this chap- 
ter. The provisions of this chapter shall control the design, 
construction and arrangement of means of egress components 
required to provide an approved means of egress from struc- 
tures and portions thereof. Sections 1003 through 1029 shall 
apply to new construction. Section 1030 shall apply to exist- 
ing buildings. 

Exception: Detached one- and two-family dwellings and 
multiple single-family dwellings (townhouses) not more 
than three stories above grade plane in height with a sepa- 
rate means of egress and their accessory structures shall 
comply with the International Residential Code. 

1001.2 Minimum requirements. It shall be unlawful to alter 
a building or structure in a manner that will reduce the num- 
ber of exits or the capacity of the means of egress to less than 
required by this code. 



SECTION 1002 
DEFINITIONS 

[B] 1002.1 Definitions. The following terms are defined in 
Chapter 2: 

[B] ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS. 

[B] AISLE. 

[B] AISLE ACCESSWAY. 

[B] ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE. 

[B] AREA OF REFUGE. 

[B] BLEACHERS. 

[B] COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL. 

[B] CORRIDOR. 

[B] DOOR, BALANCED. 

[B] EGRESS COURT. 

[B] EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE 
OPENING. 

[B] EXIT. 

[B] EXIT ACCESS. 

[B] EXIT ACCESS DOORWAY. 

[B] EXIT ACCESS RAMP. 

[B] EXIT ACCESS STAIRWAY. 

[B] EXIT DISCHARGE. 

[B] EXIT DISCHARGE, LEVEL OF. 

[B] EXIT, HORIZONTAL. 

[B] EXIT PASSAGEWAY. 



[B] FIRE EXIT HARDWARE. 

[B] FIXED SEATING. 

[B] FLIGHT. 

[B] FLOOR AREA, GROSS. 

[B] FLOOR AREA, NET. 

[B] FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING. 

[B] GRANDSTAND. 

[B] GUARD. 

[B] HANDRAIL. 

[B] INTERIOR EXIT RAMP. 

[B] INTERIOR EXIT STAIRWAY. 

[B] MEANS OF EGRESS. 

[B] MERCHANDISE PAD. 

[B] NOSING. 

[B] OCCUPANT LOAD. 

[B] PANIC HARDWARE. 

[B] PHOTOLUMINESCENT. 

[B] PUBLIC WAY. 

[B] RAMP. 

[B] SCISSOR STAIR. 

[B] SELF-LUMINOUS. 

[B] SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY SEATING. 

[B] STAIR. 

[B] STAIRWAY. 

[B] STAIRWAY, EXTERIOR. 

[B] STAIRWAY, INTERIOR. 

[B] STAIRWAY, SPIRAL. 

[B] WINDER. 

SECTION 1003 
GENERAL MEANS OF EGRESS 

[B] 1003.1 Applicability. The general requirements specified 
in Sections 1003 through 1013 shall apply to all three ele- 
ments of the means of egress system, in addition to those spe- 
cific requirements for the exit access, the exit and the exit 
discharge detailed elsewhere in this chapter. 

[B] 1003.2 Ceiling height. The means of egress shall have a 
ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches (2286 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1. Sloped ceilings in accordance with Section 1208.2 
of the International Building Code. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



139 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



2. Ceilings of dwelling units and sleeping units within 
residential occupancies in accordance with Section 
1208.2 of the International Building Code. 

3. Allowable projections in accordance with Section 
1003.3. 

4. Stair headroom in accordance with Section 1009.5. 

5. Door height in accordance with Section 1008. 1 . 1 . 

6. Ramp headroom in accordance with Section 
1010.6.2. 

7. The clear height of floor levels in vehicular and 
pedestrian traffic areas in parking garages in accor- 
dance with Section 406.4.1 of the International 
Building Code. 

8. Areas above and below mezzanine floors in accor- 
dance with Section 505.2 of the International Build- 
ing Code. 

[B] 1003.3 Protruding objects. Protruding objects shall 
comply with the requirements of Sections 1003.3.1 through 
1003.3.4. 

[B] 1003.3.1 Headroom. Protruding objects are permitted 
to extend below the minimum ceiling height required by 
Section 1003.2 provided a minimum headroom of 80 
inches (2032 mm) shall be provided for any walking sur- 
face, including walks, corridors, aisles and passageways. 
Not more than 50 percent of the ceiling area of a means of 
egress shall be reduced in height by protruding objects. 

Exception: Door closers and stops shall not reduce 
headroom to less than 78 inches (1981 mm). 

A barrier shall be provided where the vertical clearance 
is less than 80 inches (2032 mm) high. The leading edge of 
such a barrier shall be located 27 inches (686 mm) maxi- 
mum above the floor. 

[B] 1003.3.2 Post-mounted objects. A free-standing 
object mounted on a post or pylon shall not overhang that 
post or pylon more than 4 inches (102 mm) where the low- 
est point of the leading edge is more than 27 inches (686 
mm) and less than 80 inches (2032 mm) above the walk- 
ing surface. Where a sign or other obstruction is mounted 
between posts or pylons and the clear distance between the 
posts or pylons is greater than 12 inches (305 mm), the 
lowest edge of such sign or obstruction shall be 27 inches 
(686 mm) maximum or 80 inches (2032 mm) minimum 
above the finished floor or ground. 

Exception: These requirements shall not apply to slop- 
ing portions of handrails between the top and bottom 
riser of stairs and above the ramp run. 

[B] 1003.3.3 Horizontal projections. Structural elements, 
fixtures or furnishings shall not project horizontally from 
either side more than 4 inches (102 mm) over any walking 
surface between the heights of 27 inches (686 mm) and 80 
inches (2032 mm) above the walking surface. 

Exception: Handrails are permitted to protrude 4'/ 2 
inches (1 14 mm) from the wall. 

[B] 1003.3.4 Clear width. Protruding objects shall not 
reduce the minimum clear width of accessible routes. 



[B] 1003.4 Floor surface. Walking surfaces of the means of 
egress shall have a slip-resistant surface and be securely 
attached. 

[B] 1003.5 Elevation change. Where changes in elevation of 
less than 12 inches (305 mm) exist in the means of egress, 
sloped surfaces shall be used. Where the slope is greater than 
one unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope), 
ramps complying with Section 1010 shall be used. Where the 
difference in elevation is 6 inches (152 mm) or less, the ramp 
shall be equipped with either handrails or floor finish materi- 
als that contrast with adjacent floor finish materials. 

Exceptions: 

1. A single step with a maximum riser height of 7 
inches (178 mm) is permitted for buildings with 
occupancies in Groups F, H, R-2, R-3, S and U at 
exterior doors not required to be accessible by 
Chapter 1 1 of the International Building Code. 

2. A stair with a single riser or with two risers and a 
tread is permitted at locations not required to be 
accessible by Chapter 1 1 of the International Build- 
ing Code, provided that the risers and treads comply 
with Section 1009.7, the minimum depth of the tread 
is 13 inches (330 mm) and at least one handrail 
complying with Section 1012 is provided within 30 
inches (762 mm) of the centerline of the normal path 
of egress travel on the stair. 

3. A step is permitted in aisles serving seating that has 
a difference in elevation less than 12 inches (305 
mm) at locations not required to be accessible by 
Chapter 1 1 of the International Building Code, pro- 
vided that the risers and treads comply with Section 
1028.11 and the aisle is provided with a handrail 
complying with Section 1028.13. 

Throughout a story in a Group 1-2 occupancy, any change 
in elevation in portions of the means of egress that serve non- 
ambulatory persons shall be by means of a ramp or sloped 
walkway. 

[B] 1003.6 Means of egress continuity. The path of egress 
travel along a means of egress shall not be interrupted by any 
building element other than a means of egress component as 
specified in this chapter. Obstructions shall not be placed in 
the required width of a means of egress except projections 
permitted by this chapter. The required capacity of a means of 
egress system shall not be diminished along the path of 
egress travel. 

[B] 1003.7 Elevators, escalators and moving walks. Eleva- 
tors, escalators and moving walks shall not be used as a com- 
ponent of a required means of egress from any other part of 
the building. 

Exception: Elevators used as an accessible means of 
egress in accordance with Section 1007.4. 



SECTION 1004 
OCCUPANT LOAD 

[B] 1004.1 Design occupant load. In determining means of I 
egress requirements, the number of occupants for whom | 



140 



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** 



means of egress facilities shall be provided shall be 
detemined in accordance with this section. 

[B] 1004.1.1 Cumulative occupant loads. Where the 
path of egress travel includes intervening rooms, areas or 
spaces, cumulative occupant loads shall be determined in 
accordance with this section. 

[B] 1004.1.1.1 Intervening spaces. Where occupants 
egress from one room, area or space through another, 
the design occupant load shall be based on the cumula- 
tive occupant loads of all rooms, areas or spaces to that 
point along the path of egress travel. 

[B] 1004.1.1.2 Adjacent levels. The occupant load of a 
mezzanine or story with egress through a room, area or 
space on an adjacent level shall be added to the occu- 
pant load of that room, area or space. 

[B] 1004.1.2 Areas without fixed seating. The number of 
occupants shall be computed at the rate of one occupant 
per unit of area as prescribed in Table 1004.1.2. For areas 
without fixed seating, the occupant load shall not be less 
than that number determined by dividing the floor area 
under consideration by the occupant load factor assigned 
to the function of the space as set forth in Table 1004.1.2. 
Where an intended function is not listed in Table 1004.1.2, 
the fire code official shall establish a function based on a 
listed function that most nearly resembles the intended 
function. 

Exception: Where approved by the fire code official, 
the actual number of occupants for whom each occu- 
pied space, floor or building is designed, although less 
than those determined by calculation, shall be permitted 
to be used in the determination of the design occupant 
load. 

[B] 1004.2 Increased occupant load. The occupant load 
permitted in any building, or portion thereof, is permitted to 
be increased from that number established for the occupan- 
cies in Table 1004. 1 .2, provided that all other requirements of 
the code are also met based on such modified number and the 
occupant load does not exceed one occupant per 7 square feet 
(0.65 m 2 ) of occupiable floor space. Where required by the 
fire code official, an approved aisle, seating or fixed equip- 
ment diagram substantiating any increase in occupant load 
shall be submitted. Where required by the fire code official, 
such diagram shall be posted. 

[B] 1004.3 Posting of occupant load. Every room or space 
that is an assembly occupancy shall have the occupant load 
of the room or space posted in a conspicuous place, near the 
main exit or exit access doorway from the room or space. 
Posted signs shall be of an approved legible permanent 
design and shall be maintained by the owner or authorized 
agent. 

[B] 1004.4 Fixed seating. For areas having fixed seats and 
aisles, the occupant load shall be determined by the number 
of fixed seats installed therein. The occupant load for areas in 
which fixed seating is not installed, such as waiting spaces, 
shall be determined in accordance with Section 1004.1.2 and 
added to the number of fixed seats. 



TABLE 1004.1.2 
MAXIMUM FLOOR AREA ALLOWANCES PER OCCUPANT 



FUNCTION OF SPACE 


OCCUPANT LOAD 
FACTOR" 


Accessory storage areas, mechanical 
equipment room 


300 gross 


Agricultural building 


300 gross 


Aircraft hangars 


500 gross 


Airport terminal 
Baggage claim 
Baggage handling 
Concourse 
Waiting areas 


20 gross 
300 gross 
1 00 gross 

15 gross 


Assembly 
Gaming floors (keno, slots, etc.) 
Exhibit gallery and museum 


11 gross 
30 net 


Assembly with fixed seats 


See Section 1004.4 


Assembly without fixed seats 
Concentrated (chairs only - not fixed) 
Standing space 
Unconcentrated (tables and chairs) 


7 net 
5 net 
15 net 


Bowling centers, allow 5 persons for each 
lane including 1 5 feet of runway, and for 
additional areas 


7 net 


Business areas 


100 gross 


Courtrooms - other than fixed seating areas 


40 net 


Day care 


35 net 


Dormitories 


50 gross 


Educational 
Classroom area 

Shops and other vocational room 
areas 


20 net 
50 net 


Exercise rooms 


50 gross 


Group H-5 Fabrication and manufacturing 
areas 


200 gross 


Industrial areas 


100 gross 


Institutional areas 

Inpatient treatment areas 
Outpatient areas 
Sleeping areas 


240 gross 
100 gross 
120 gross 


Kitchens, commercial 


200 gross 


Library 
Reading rooms 
Stack area 


50 net 
1 00 gross 


Locker rooms 


50 gross 


Mall buildings - covered and open 


See Section 402.8.2 of 

the International 

Building Code 


Mercantile 

Areas on other floors 
Basement and grade floor areas 
Storage, stock, shipping areas 


60 gross 
30 gross 
300 gross 


Parking garages 


200 gross 


Residential 


200 gross 


Skating rinks, swimming pools 
Rink and pool 
Decks 


50 gross 
15 gross 


Stages and platforms 


15 net 


Warehouses 


500 gross 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 rn 2 . 

a. Floor area in square feet per occupant. 



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The occupant load of wheelchair spaces and the associated 
companion seat shall be based on one occupant for each 
wheelchair space and one occupant for the associated com- 
panion seat provided in accordance with Section 1108.2.3 of 
the International Building Code. 

For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms, the 
occupant load shall not be less than the number of seats based 
on one person for each 18 inches (457 mm) of seating length. 

The occupant load of seating booths shall be based on one 
person for each 24 inches (610 mm) of booth seat length mea- 
sured at the backrest of the seating booth. 

[B] 1004.5 Outdoor areas. Yards, patios, courts and similar 
outdoor areas accessible to and usable by the building occu- 
pants shall be provided with means of egress as required by 
this chapter. The occupant load of such outdoor areas shall be 
assigned by the fire code official in accordance with the antic- 
ipated use. Where outdoor areas are to be used by persons in 
addition to the occupants of the building, and the path of 
egress travel from the outdoor areas passes through the build- 
ing, means of egress requirements for the building shall be 
based on the sum of the occupant loads of the building plus 
the outdoor areas. 

Exceptions: 

1. Outdoor areas used exclusively for service of the 
building need only have one means of egress. 

2. Both outdoor areas associated with Group R-3 and 
individual dwelling units of Group R-2. 

[B] 1004.6 Multiple occupancies. Where a building contains 
two or more occupancies, the means of egress requirements 
shall apply to each portion of the building based on the occu- 
pancy of that space. Where two or more occupancies utilize 
portions of the same means of egress system, those egress 
components shall meet the more stringent requirements of all 
occupancies that are served. 



SECTION 1005 
MEANS OF EGRESS SIZING 

[B] 1005.1 General. All portions of the means of egress sys- 
tem shall be sized in accordance with this section. 

Exception: Means of egress complying with Section 
1028. 

[B] 1005.2 Minimum width based on component. The min- 
imum width, in inches (mm), of any means of egress compo- 
nent shall not be less than that specified for such component 
elsewhere in this code or the International Building Code. 

[B] 1005.3 Required capacity based on occupant load. The 
required capacity, in inches (mm), of the means of egress for 
any room, area, space or story shall not be less than that 
determined in accordance with Sections 1005.3.1 and 
1005.3.2. 

[B] 1005.3.1 Stairways. The capacity, in inches (mm), of 
means of egress stair-ways shall be calculated by multiply- 
ing the occupant load served by such stairway by a means 
of egress capacity factor of 0.3 inch (7.6 mm) per occu- 
pant. Where stairways serve more than one story, only the 



occupant load of each story considered individually shall 
be used in calculating the required capacity of the stair- 
ways serving that story. 

Exception: For other than Group H and 1-2 occupan- 
cies, the capacity, in inches (mm), of means of egress 
stairways shall be calculated multiplying the occupant 
load served by such stairway by a means of egress 
capacity factor of 0.2 inch ( 5.1 mm) per occupant in 
buildings equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and an emergency voice/alarm 
communication system in accordance with Section 
907.5.2.2. 
[B] 1005.3.2 Other egress components. The capacity, in 
inches (mm), of means of egress components other than 
stairways shall be calculated by multiplying the occupant 
load served by such component by a means of egress 
capacity factor of 0.2 inch (5.1 mm) per occupant. 

Exception: For other than Group H and 1-2 occupan- 
cies, the capacity, in inches (mm), of means of egress 
components other than stairways shall be calculated 
multiplying the occupant load served by such compo- 
nent by a means of egress capacity factor of 0.15 inch 
(3.8 mm) per occupant in buildings equipped through- 
out with an automatic sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and an 
emergency voice/alarm communication system in 
accordance with Section 907.5.2,2. 

[B] 1005.4 Continuity. The capacity of the means of egress 
required from any story of a building shall not be reduced 
along the path of egress travel until arrival at the public way. 

[BJ 1005.5. Distribution of egress capacity. Where more 
than one exit, or access to more than one exit, is required, the 
means of egress shall be configured such that the loss of any 
one exit, or access to one exit, shall not reduce the available 
capacity to less than 50 percent of the required capacity. 

[B] 1005.6 Egress convergence. Where the means of egress 
from stories above and below converge at an intermediate 
level, the capacity of the means of egress from the point of 
convergence shall not be less than the sum of the required 
capacities for the two adjacent stories. 

[B] 1005.7 Encroachment. Encroachments into the required 
means of egress width shall be in accordance with the provi- 
sions of this section. 

[B] 1005.7.1 Doors. Doors, when fully opened, shall not 
reduce the required width by more than 7 inches (178 
mm). Doors in any position shall not reduce the required 
width by more than one-half. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Surface-mounted latch release hardware shall be 
exempt from inclusion in the 7-inch maximum 
(178 mm) encroachment where: 

1.1. The hardware is mounted to the side of 
the door facing away from the adjacent 
wall where the door is in the open posi- 
tion; and 



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1 .2. The hardware is mounted not less than 34 
inches (865 mm) nor more than 48 inches 
(1219 mm) above the finished floor. 

2. The restrictions on door swing shall not apply to 
doors within individual dwelling units and sleep- 
ing units of Group R-2 occupancies and dwelling 
units of Group R-3 occupancies. 

[BJ 1005.7.2 Other projections. Handrail projections 
shall be in accordance with the provisions of Section 
1012.8. Other nonstructural projections such as trim and 
similar decorative features shall be permitted to project 
into the required width a maximum of 1 V 2 inches (38 mm) 
on each side. 

[B] 1005.7.3 Protruding objects. Protruding objects 
shall comply with the applicable requirements of Section 
1003.3. 



SECTION 1006 
MEANS OF EGRESS ILLUMINATION 

[B] 1006.1 Illumination required. The means of egress, 
including the exit discharge, shall be illuminated at all times 
the building space served by the means of egress is occupied. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Occupancies in Group U. 

2. Aisle accessways in Group A. 

3. Dwelling units and sleeping units in Groups R-l R-2 
and R-3. 

4. Sleeping units of Group I occupancies. 

[B] 1006.2 Illumination level. The means of egress illumina- 
tion level shall not be less than 1 footcandle (11 lux) at the 
walking surface. 

Exception: For auditoriums, theaters, concert or opera 
halls and similar assembly occupancies, the illumination at 
the walking surface is permitted to be reduced during per- 
formances to not less than 0.2 footcandle (2.15 lux), pro- 
vided that the required illumination is automatically 
restored upon activation of a premises' fire alarm system 
where such system is provided. 

IB] 1006.3 Emergency power for illumination. The power 
supply for means of egress illumination shall normally be 
provided by the premises' electrical supply. 

In the event of power supply failure, an emergency electri- 
cal system shall automatically illuminate all of the following 
areas: 

1. Aisles and unenclosed egress stairways in rooms and 
spaces that require two or more means of egress. 

2. Corridors, interior exit stairways and ramps and exit 
passageways in buildings required to have two or more 
exits. 

3. Exterior egress components at other than their levels of 
exit discharge until exit discharge is accomplished for 
buildings required to have two or more exits. 



4. Interior exit discharge elements, as permitted in Section 
1027.1, in buildings required to have two or more exits. 

5. Exterior landings as required by Section 1008.1.6 for 
exit discharge doorways in buildings required to have 
two or more exits. 

The emergency power system shall provide power for a 
duration of not less than 90 minutes and shall consist of stor- 
age batteries, unit equipment or an on-site generator. The 
installation of the emergency power system shall be in accor- 
dance with Section 604. 

[BJ 1006.3.1 Illumination level under emergency 
power. Emergency lighting facilities shall be arranged to 
provide initial illumination that is at least an average of 1 
footcandle (11 lux) and a minimum at any point of 0.1 
footcandle (1 lux) measured along the path of egress at 
floor level. Illumination levels shall be permitted to 
decline to 0.6 footcandle (6 lux) average and a minimum 
at any point of 0.06 footcandle (0.6 lux) at the end of the 
emergency lighting time duration. A maximum-to-mini- 
mum illumination uniformity ratio of 40 to 1 shall not be 
exceeded. 



SECTION 1007 
ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS 

[B] 1007.1 Accessible means of egress required. Accessible 
means of egress shall comply with this section. Accessible 
spaces shall be provided with not less than one accessible 
means of egress. Where more than one means of egress are 
required by Section 1015.1 or 1021.1 from any accessible 
space, each accessible portion of the space shall be served by 
not less than two accessible means of egress. 

Exceptions: 

1. Accessible means of egress are not required in alter- 
ations to existing buildings. 

2. One accessible means of egress is required from an 
accessible mezzanine level in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1007.3, 1007.4 or 1007.5. 

3. In assembly areas with sloped or stepped aisles, one 
accessible means of egress is permitted where the 
common path of travel is accessible and meets the 
requirements in Section 1028.8. 

[B] 1007.2 Continuity and components. Each required 
accessible means of egress shall be continuous to a public 
way and shall consist of one or more of the following compo- 
nents: 

1. Accessible routes complying with Section 1 1 04 of the 
International Building Code. 

2. Interior exit stairways complying with Sections 
1007.3 and 1022. 

3. Interior exit access stairways complying with Sec- 
tions 1007.3 and 1009.3. 

4. Exterior exit stairways complying with Sections 
1007.3 and 1026 and serving levels other than the 
level of exit discharge. 



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5. Elevators complying with Section 1007.4. 

6. Platform lifts complying with Section 1007.5. 

7. Horizontal exits complying with Section 1025. 

8. Ramps complying with Section 1010. 

9. Areas of refuge complying with Section 1007.6. 

10. Exterior area for assisted rescue complying with Sec- 
tion 1007.7. 
[B] 1007.2.1 Elevators required. In buildings where a 
required accessible floor is four or more stories above or 
below a level of exit discharge, at least one required acces- 
sible means of egress shall be an elevator complying with 
Section 1007.4. 
Exceptions: 

1. In buildings equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the elevator 
shall not be required on floors provided with a 
horizontal exit and located at or above the levels 
of exit discharge . 

2. In buildings equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the elevator 
shall not be required on floors provided with a 
ramp conforming to the provisions of Section 
1010. 

[B] 1007.3 Stairways. In order to be considered part of an 
accessible means of egress, a stairway between stories shall 
have a clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) minimum 
between handrails, and shall either incorporate an area of ref- 
uge within an enlarged floor-level landing or shall be 
accessed from either an area of refuge complying with Sec- 
tion 1007.6 or a horizontal exit. Exit access stairways that 
connect levels in the same story are not permitted as part an 
accessible means of egress. 
Exceptions: 

1. The clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) between 
handrails is not required in buildings equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 
903.3.1.2. 

2. Areas of refuge are not required at stairways in 
buildings equipped throughout by an automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

3. The clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) between 
handrails is not required for stairways accessed 
from a horizontal exit. 

4. Areas of refuge are not required at stairways serving 
open parking garages. 

5. Areas of refuge are not required for smoke protected 
seating areas complying with Section 1028.6.2. 

6. The areas of refuge are not required in Group R-2 
occupancies. 



[B] 1007.4 Elevators. In order to be considered part of an 
accessible means of egress, an elevator shall comply with the 
emergency operation and signaling device requirements of 
Section 2.27 of ASME A17.1. Standby power shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Section 604.2.5 of this code and 
Section 3003 of the International Building Code. The eleva- 
tor shall be accessed from either an area of refuge complying 
with Section 1007.6 or a horizontal exit. 

Exceptions: 

1. Elevators are not required to be accessed from an 
area of refuge or horizontal exit in open parking 
garages. 

2. Elevators are not required to be accessed from an 
area of refuge or horizontal exit in buildings and 
facilities equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler svstem installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

3. Elevators not required to be located in a shaft in 
accordance with Section 712 of the International 
Building Code are not required to be accessed from 
an area of refuge or horizontal exit. 

4. Elevators are not required to be accessed from an 
area of refuge or horizontal exit for smoke-protected 
seating areas complying with Section 1028.6.2. 

[B] 1007.5 Platform lifts. Platform (wheelchair) lifts shall 
not serve as part of an accessible means of egress, except 
where allowed as part of a required accessible route in Sec- 
tion 1109.7, Items 1 through 9, of the International Building 
Code. Standby power shall be provided in accordance with 
Section 604.2.6 for platform lifts permitted to serve as part of 
a means of egress. 

[B] 1007.5.1 Openness. Platform lifts on an accessible 
means of egress shall not be installed in a fully enclosed 
hoistway. 
[B] 1007.6 Areas of refuge. Every required area of refuge 
shall be accessible from the space it serves by an accessible 
means of egress. The maximum travel distance from any 
accessible space to an area of refuge shall not exceed the 
travel distance permitted for the occupancy in accordance 
with Section 1016.1 . Every required area of refuge shall have 
direct access to a stairway complying with Section 1007.3 or 
an elevator complying with Section 1007.4. Where an eleva- 
tor lobby is used as an area of refuge, the shaft and lobby 
shall comply with Section 1022.10 for smokeproof enclo- 
sures except where the elevators are in an area of refuge 
formed by a horizontal exit or smoke barrier. 

[B] 1007.6.1 Size. Each area of refuge shall be sized to 
accommodate one wheelchair space of 30 inches by 48 
inches (762 mm by 1219 mm) for each 200 occupants or 
portion thereof, based on the occupant load of the area of 
refuge and areas served by the area of refuge. Such wheel- 
chair spaces shall not reduce the required means of egress 
width. Access to any of the required wheelchair spaces in 
an area of refuge shall not be obstructed by more than one 
adjoining wheelchair space. 



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[B] 1007.6.2 Separation. Each area of refuge shall be 
separated from the remainder of the story by a smoke bar- 
rier complying with Section 709 of the International 
Building Code or a horizontal exit complying with Section 
1025. Each area of refuge shall be designed to minimize 
the intrusion of smoke. 

Exception: Areas of refuge located within an enclosure 
for exit access stairways or interior exit stairways. 

[B] 1007.6.3 Two-way communication. Areas of refuge 
shall be provided with a two-way communication system 
complying with Sections 1007.8. 1 and 1007.8.2. 

[B] 1007.7 Exterior area for assisted rescue. Exterior areas 
for assisted rescue shall be accessed by an accessible route 
from the area served. Exterior areas for assisted rescue shall 
be permitted in accordance with Section 1007.7.1 or 
1007.7.2. 

[B] 1007.7.1 Level of exit discharge. Where the exit dis- 
charge does not include an accessible route from an exit 
located on a level of exit discharge to a public way, an 
exterior area of assisted rescue shall be provided on the 
exterior landing in accordance with Sections 1007.7.3 
through 1007.7.6. 

[B] 1007.7.2 Outdoor facilities. Where exit access from 
the area serving outdoor facilities is essentially open to the 
outside, an exterior area of assisted rescue is permitted as 
an alternative to an area of refuge. Every required exterior 
area of assisted recue shall have direct access to an interior 
stairway, exterior stairway, or elevator serving as an 
accessible means of egress component. The exterior area 
of assisted rescue shall comply with Sections 1007.7.3 
through 1007.7.6, and shall be provided with a two-way 
communication system complying with Sections 1007.8.1 
and 1007.8.2. 

[B] 1007.7.3 Size. Each exterior area for assisted rescue 
shall be sized to accommodate wheelchair spaces in accor- 
dance with Section 1007.6.1. 

[B] 1007.7.4 Separation. Exterior walls separating the 
exterior area of assisted rescue from the interior of the 
building shall have a minimum fire-resistance rating of 1 
hour, rated for exposure to fire from the inside. The fire- 
resistance-rated exterior wall construction shall extend 
horizontally 10 feet (3048 mm) beyond the landing on 
either side of the landing or equivalent fire-resistance- 
rated construction is permitted to extend out perpendicular 
to the exterior wall 4 feet (1219 mm) minimum on the side 
of the landing. The fire-resistance-rated construction shall 
extend vertically from the ground to a point 10 feet (3048 
mm) above the floor level of the area for assisted rescue or 
to the roof line, whichever is lower. Openings within such 
fire-resistance-rated exterior walls shall be protected in 
accordance with Section 716 of the International Building 
Code. 

[B] 1007.7.5 Openness. The exterior area for assisted res- 
cue shall be open to the outside air. The sides other than 
the separation walls shall be at least 50 percent open, and 



the open area shall be distributed so as to minimize the 
accumulation of smoke or toxic gases. 

[B] 1007.7.6 Stairway. Stairways that are part of the 
means of egress for the exterior area for assisted rescue 
shall provide a clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) 
between handrails. 

Exception: The clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) 
between handrails is not required at stairways serving 
buildings equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

[B] 1007.8 Two-way communication. A two-way communi- 
cation system shall be provided at the elevator landing on 
each accessible floor that is one or more stories above or 
below the story of exit discharge complying with Sections 
1007.8.1 and 1007.8.2. 

Exceptions: 

1. Two-way communication systems are not required 
at the elevator landing where the two-way commu- 
nication system is provided within areas of refuge in 
accordance with Section 1007.6.3. 

2. Two-way communication systems are not required 
on floors provided with ramps conforming to the 
provisions of Section 1010. 

[B] 1007.8.1 System requirements. Two-way communi- 
cation systems shall provide communication between each 
required location and the fire command center or a central 
control point location approved by the fire department. 
Where the central control point is not constantly attended, 
a two-way communication system shall have a timed auto- 
matic telephone dial-out capability to a monitoring loca- 
tion or 9-1-1. The two-way communication system shall 
include both audible and visible signals. 

1007.8.2 Directions. Directions for the use of die two-way 
communication system, instructions for summoning assis- 
tance via the two-way communication system and written 
identification of the location shall be posted adjacent to the 
two-way communication system. 

[B] 1007.9 Signage. Signage indicating special accessibility 
provisions shall be provided as shown: 

1. Each door providing access to an area of refuge from 
an adjacent floor area shall be identified by a sign stat- 
ing: AREA OF REFUGE. 

2. Each door providing access to an exterior area for 
assisted rescue shall be identified by a sign stating: 
EXTERIOR AREA FOR ASSISTED RESCUE. 

Signage shall comply with the ICC A 117.1 requirements 
for visual characters and include the International Symbol of 
Accessibility. Where exit sign illumination is required by 
Section 1011.3, the signs shall be illuminated. Additionally, 
raised character and Braille signage complying with ICC 
A 1 17.1 shall be located at each door to an area of refuge and 
exterior area for assisted rescue in accordance with Section 
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[B] 1007.10 Directional signage. Direction signage indicat- 
ing the location of the other means of egress and which are 
accessible means of egress shall be provided at the following: 

1. At exits serving a required accessible space but not pro- 
viding an approved accessible means of egress. 

2. At elevator landings. 

3. Within areas of refuge. 

[B] 1007.11 Instructions. In areas of refuge and exterior 
areas for assisted rescue, instructions on the use of the area 
under emergency conditions shall be posted. The instructions 
shall include all of the following: 

1. Persons able to use the exit stairway do so as soon as 
possible, unless they are assisting others. 

2. Information on planned availability of assistance in the 
use of stairs or supervised operation of elevators and 
how to summon such assistance. 

3. Directions for use of the two-way communications sys- 
tem where provided. 



SECTION 1008 
DOORS, GATES AND TURNSTILES 

[B] 1008.1 Doors. Means of egress doors shall meet the 
requirements of this section. Doors serving a means of egress 
system shall meet the requirements of this section and Sec- 
tion 1020.2. Doors provided for egress purposes in numbers 
greater than required by this code shall meet the requirements 
of this section. 

Means of egress doors shall be readily distinguishable 
from the adjacent construction and finishes such that the 
doors are easily recognizable as doors. Mirrors or similar 
reflecting materials shall not be used on means of egress 
doors. Means of egress doors shall not be concealed by cur- 
tains, drapes, decorations or similar materials. 

[B] 1008.1.1 Size of doors. The minimum width of each 
door opening shall be sufficient for the occupant load 
thereof and shall provide a clear width of 32 inches (813 
mm). Clear openings of doorways with swinging doors 
shall be measured between the face of the door and the 
stop, with the door open 90 degrees (1.57 rad). Where this 
section requires a minimum clear width of 32 inches (813 
mm) and a door opening includes two door leaves without 
a mullion, one leaf shall provide a clear opening width of 
32 inches (813 mm). The maximum width of a swinging 
door leaf shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) nominal. Means of 
egress doors in a Group 1-2 occupancy used for the move- 
ment of beds shall provide a clear width not less than 41'/ 2 
inches (1054 mm). The height of door openings shall not 
be less than 80 inches (2032 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1. The minimum and maximum width shall not 
apply to door openings that are not part of the 
required means of egress in Group R-2 and R-3 
occupancies. 



2. Door openings to resident sleeping units in Group 
1-3 occupancies shall have a clear width of not 
less than 28 inches (711 mm). 

3. Door openings to storage closets less than 10 
square feet (0.93 m 2 ) in area shall not be limited 
by the minimum width. 

4. Width of door leaves in revolving doors that 
comply with Section 1008.1.4.1 shall not be lim- 
ited. 

5. Door openings within a dwelling unit or sleeping 
unit shall not be less than 78 inches (1981 mm) in 
height. 

6. Exterior door openings in dwelling units and 
sleeping units, other than the required exit door, 
shall not be less than 76 inches (1930 mm) in 
height. 

7. In other than Group R-l occupancies, the mini- 
mum widths shall not apply to interior egress 
doors within a dwelling unit or sleeping unit that 
is not required to be an Accessible unit, Type A 
unit or Type B unit. 

8. Door openings required to be accessible within 
Type B units shall have a minimum clear width 
of 31.75 inches (806 mm). 

[B] 1008.1.1.1 Projections into clear width. There 
shall not be projections into the required clear width 
lower than 34 inches (864 mm) above the floor or 
ground. Projections into the clear opening width 
between 34 inches (864 mm) and 80 inches (2032 mm) 
above the floor or ground shall not exceed 4 inches 
(102 mm). 

Exception: Door closers and door stops shall be 
permitted to be 78 inches (1980 mm) minimum 
above the floor. 
[B] 1008.1.2 Door swing. Egress doors shall be of the piv- 
oted or side-hinged swinging type. 

Exceptions: 

1. Private garages, office areas, factory and storage 
areas with an occupant load of 10 or less. 

2. Group 1-3 occupancies used as a place of deten- 
tion. 

3. Critical or intensive care patient rooms within 
suites of health care facilities. 

4. Doors within or serving a single dwelling unit in 
Groups R-2 and R-3. 

5. In other than Group H occupancies, revolving 
doors complying with Section 1008.1.4.1. 

6. In other than Group H occupancies, horizontal 
sliding doors complying with Section 1008.1.4.3 
are permitted in a means of egress. 

1. Power-operated doors in accordance with Section 
1008.1.4.2. 



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8. Doors serving a bathroom within an individual 
sleeping unit in Group R-l . 

9. In other than Group H occupancies, manually 
operated horizontal sliding doors are permitted in 
a means of egress from spaces with an occupant 
load of 10 or less. 

Doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel 
where serving a room or area containing an occupant load 
of 50 or more persons or a Group H occupancy. 

[B] 1008.1.3 Door opening force. The force for pushing 
or pulling open interior swinging egress doors, other than 
fire doors, shall not exceed 5 pounds (22 N). For other 
swinging doors, as well as sliding and folding doors, the 
door latch shall release when subjected to a 15-pound (67 
N) force. The door shall be set in motion when subjected 
to a 30-pound (133 N) force. The door shall swing to a 
full-open position when subjected to a 15-pound (67 N) 
force. 

[B] 1008.1.3.1 Location of applied forces. Forces 
shall be applied to the latch side of the door. 
[Bj 1008.1.4 Special doors. Special doors and security 
grilles shall comply with the requirements of Sections 
1008.1.4.1 through 1008.1.4.4. 

[B] 1008.1.4.1 Revolving doors. Revolving doors shall 
comply with the following: 

1. Each revolving door shall be capable of collaps- 
ing into a bookfold position with parallel egress 
paths providing an aggregate width of 36 inches 
(914 mm). 

2. A revolving door shall not be located within 10 
feet (3048 mm) of the foot of or top of stairs or 
escalators. A dispersal area shall be provided 
between the stairs or escalators and the revolving 
doors. 

3. The revolutions per minute (rpm) for a revolving 
door shall not exceed those shown in Table 
1008.1.4.1. 

4. Each revolving door shall have a side-hinged 
swinging door which complies with Section 
1008.1 in the same wall and within 10 feet (3048 
mm) of the revolving door. 

5. Revolving doors shall not be part of an accessible 
route required by Section 1007 and Chapter 1 1 of 
the International Building Code. 

[B] 1008.1.4.1.1 Egress component. A revolving 
door used as a component of a means of egress shall 
comply with Section 1008.1.4.1 and the following 
three conditions: 

1. Revolving doors shall not be given credit for 
more than 50 percent of the required egress 
capacity. 

2. Each revolving door shall be credited with no 
more than a 50-person capacity. 

3. Each revolving door shall be capable of being 
collapsed when a force of not more than 130 



TABLE 1008.1.4.1 
REVOLVING DOOR SPEEDS 



INSIDE DIAMETER 
(feet-inches) 


POWER-DRIVEN-TYPE 
SPEED CONTROL (rpm) 


MANUAL-TYPE SPEED 
CONTROL (rpm) 


6-6 


11 


12 


7-0 


10 


11 


7-6 


9 


11 


8-0 


9 


10 


8-6 


8 


9 


9-0 


8 


9 


9-6 


7 


8 


10-0 


7 


8 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.! 



pounds (578 N) is applied within 3 inches (76 
mm) of the outer edge of a wing. 

[B] 1008.1.4.1.2 Other than egress component. A 
revolving door used as other than a component of a 
means of egress shall comply with Section 
1008.1.4.1. The collapsing force of a revolving door 
not used as a component of a means of egress shall 
not be more than 1 80 pounds (801 N). 

Exception: A collapsing force in excess of 180 
pounds (801 N) is permitted if the collapsing 
force is reduced to not more than 130 pounds 
(578 N) when at least one of the following condi- 
tions is satisfied: 

1. There is a power failure or power is 
removed to the device holding the door 
wings in position. 

2. There is an actuation of the automatic 
sprinkler system where such system is pro- 
vided. 

3. There is an actuation of a smoke detection 
system which is installed in accordance 
with Section 907 to provide coverage in 
areas within the building which are within 
75 feet (22 860 mm) of the revolving doors. 

4. There is an actuation of a manual control 
switch, in an approved location and clearly 
defined, which reduces the holding force to 
below the 130-pound (578 N) force level. 

[B] 1008.1.4.2 Power-operated doors. Where means 
of egress doors are operated by power, such as doors 
with a photoelectric-actuated mechanism to open the 
door upon the approach of a person, or doors with 
power-assisted manual operation, the design shall be 
such that in the event of power failure, the door is capa- 
ble of being opened manually to permit means of egress 
travel or closed where necessary to safeguard means of 
egress. The forces required to open these doors manu- 
ally shall not exceed those specified in Section 
1008.1.3, except that the force to set the door in motion 
shall not exceed 50 pounds (220 N). The door shall be 
capable of swinging from any position to the full width 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FfRE CODE" 5 



147 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



of the opening in which such door is installed when a 
force is applied to the door on the side from which 
egress is made. Full-power-operated doors shall com- 
ply with BHMA A156.10. Power-assisted and low- 
energy doors shall comply with BHMA A156.19. 

Exceptions: 

1. Occupancies in Group 1-3. 

2. Horizontal sliding doors complying with Sec- 
tion 1008.1.4.3. 

3. For a biparting door in the emergency break- 
out mode, a door leaf located within a multi- 
ple-leaf opening shall be exempt from the 
minimum 32-inch (813 mm) single-leaf 
requirement of Section 1008.1.1, provided a 
minimum 32-inch (813 mm) clear opening is 
provided when the two biparting leaves meet- 
ing in the center are broken out. 

[B] 1008.1.4.3 Horizontal sliding doors. In other than 
Group H occupancies, horizontal sliding doors permit- 
ted to be a component of a means of egress in accor- 
dance with Exception 6 to Section 1008.1.2 shall 
comply with all of the following criteria: 

1. The doors shall be power operated and shall be 
capable of being operated manually in the event 
of power failure. 

2. The doors shall be openable by a simple method 
from both sides without special knowledge or 
effort. 

3. The force required to operate the door shall not 
exceed 30 pounds (133 N) to set the door in 
motion and 15 pounds (67 N) to close the door or 
open it to the minimum required width. 

4. The door shall be openable with a force not to 
exceed 15 pounds (67 N) when a force of 250 
pounds (1100 N) is applied perpendicular to the 
door adjacent to the operating device. 

5. The door assembly shall comply with the applica- 
ble fire protection rating and, where rated, shall 
be self-closing or automatic closing by smoke 
detection in accordance with Section 716.5.9.3 of 
the International Building Code, shall be 
installed in accordance with NFPA 80 and shall 
comply with Section 716 of the International 
Building Code. 

6. The door assembly shall have an integrated 
standby power supply. 

7. The door assembly power supply shall be electri- 
cally supervised. 

8. The door shall open to the minimum required 
width within 10 seconds after activation of the 
operating device. 

[B] 1008.1.4.4 Security grilles. In Groups B, F, M and 
S, horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles are per- 
mitted at the main exit and shall be openable from the 
inside without the use of a key or special knowledge or 



effort during periods that the space is occupied. The 
grilles shall remain secured in the full-open position 
during the period of occupancy by the general public. 
Where two or more means of egress are required, not 
more than one-half of the exits or exit access doorways 
shall be equipped with horizontal sliding or vertical 
security grilles. 
[B] 1008.1.5 Floor elevation. There shall be a floor or 
landing on each side of a door. Such floor or landing shall 
be at the same elevation on each side of the door. Landings 
shall be level except for exterior landings, which are per- 
mitted to have a slope not to exceed 0.25 unit vertical in 12 
units horizontal (2-percent slope). 

Exceptions: 

1. Doors serving individual dwelling units in 
Groups R-2 and R-3 where the following apply: 

1 . 1 . A door is permitted to open at the top step 
of an interior flight of stairs, provided the 
door does not swing over the top step. 

1.2. Screen doors and storm doors are permit- 
ted to swing over stairs or landings. 

2. Exterior doors as provided for in Section 1003.5, 
Exception 1, and Section 1020.2, which are not 
on an accessible route. 

3. In Group R-3 occupancies not required to be 
Accessible units, Type A units or Type B units, 
the landing at an exterior doorway shall not be 
more than 7 3 / 4 inches (197 mm) below the top of 
the threshold, provided the door, other than an 
exterior storm or screen door, does not swing 
over the landing. 

4. Variations in elevation due to differences in fin- 
ish materials, but not more than 7 2 inch (12.7 
mm). 

5. Exterior decks, patios or balconies that are part of 
Type B dwelling units, have impervious surfaces 
and that are not more than 4 inches (102 mm) 
below the finished floor level of the adjacent inte- 
rior space of the dwelling unit. 

[B] 1008.1.6 Landings at doors. Landings shall have a 
width not less than the width of the stairway or the door, 
whichever is greater. Doors in the fully open position shall 
not reduce a required dimension by more than 7 inches 
(178 mm). When a landing serves an occupant load of 50 
or more, doors in any position shall not reduce the landing 
to less than one-half its required width. Landings shall 
have a length measured in the direction of travel of not 
less than 44 inches (1118 mm). 

Exception: Landing length in the direction of travel in 
Groups R-3 and U and within individual units of Group 
R-2 need not exceed 36 inches (914 mm). 
[B] 1008.1.7 Thresholds. Thresholds at doorways shall 
not exceed 3 / 4 inch (19.1 mm) in height above the finished 
floor or landing for sliding doors serving dwelling units or 
7 2 inch (12.7 mm) above the finished floor or landing for 
other doors. Raised thresholds and floor level changes 



148 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



greater than / 4 inch (6.4 mm) at doorways shall be beveled 
with a slope not greater than one unit vertical in two units 
horizontal (50-percent slope). 

Exception: In occupancy Group R-2 or R-3, threshold 
heights for sliding and side-hinged exterior doors shall 
be permitted to be up to Tl A inches (197 mm) in height 
if all of the following apply: 

1. The door is not part of the required means of 
egress. 

2. The door is not part of an accessible route as 
required by Chapter 11 of the International 
Building Code. 

3. The door is not part of an Accessible unit, Type 
A unit or Type B unit. 

[B] 1008.1.8 Door arrangement. Space between two 
doors in a series shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) minimum 
plus the width of a door swinging into the space. Doors in 
a series shall swing either in the same direction or away 
from the space between the doors. 

Exceptions: 

1. The minimum distance between horizontal slid- 
ing power-operated doors in a series shall be 48 
inches (1219 mm). 

2. Storm and screen doors serving individual dwell- 
ing units in Groups R-2 and R-3 need not be 
spaced 48 inches (1219 mm) from the other door. 

3. Doors within individual dwelling units in Groups 
R-2 and R-3 other than within Type A dwelling 
units. 

[B] 1008. J. 9 Door operations. Except as specifically per- 
mitted by this section egress doors shall be readily open- 
able from the egress side without the use of a key or 
special knowledge or effort. 

[Bj 1008.1.9.1 Hardware. Doorhandles, pulls, latches, 
locks and other operating devices on doors required to 
be accessible by Chapter 1 1 of the International Build- 
ing Code shall not require tight grasping, tight pinching 
or twisting of the wrist to operate. 

[B] 1008.1.9.2 Hardware height. Door handles, pulls, 
latches, locks and other operating devices shall be 
installed 34 inches (864 mm) minimum and 48 inches 
(1219 mm) maximum above the finished floor. Locks 
used only for security purposes and not used for normal 
operation are permitted at any height. 

Exception: Access doors or gates in barrier walls 
and fences protecting pools, spas and hot tubs shall 
be permitted to have operable parts of the release of 
latch on self-latching devices at 54 inches (1370 
mm) maximum above the finished floor or ground, 
provided the self-latching devices are not also self- 
locking devices operated by means of a key, elec- 
tronic opener or integral combination lock. 



[B] 1008.1.9.3 Locks and latches. Locks and latches 
shall be permitted to prevent operation of doors where 
any of the following exists: 

1 . Places of detention or restraint. 

2. In buildings in occupancy Group A having an 
occupant load of 300 or less, Groups B, F, M and 
S, and in places of religious worship, the main 
exterior door or doors are permitted to be 
equipped with key-operated locking devices from 
the egress side provided: 

2. 1 . The locking device is readily distinguish- 
able as locked; 

2.2. A readily visible durable sign is posted 
on the egress side on or adjacent to the 
door stating: THIS DOOR TO REMAIN 
UNLOCKED WHEN BUILDING IS 
OCCUPIED. The sign shall be in letters 
1-inch (25 mm) high on a contrasting 
background; and 

2.3. The use of the key-operated locking 
device is revokable by the /(re code offi- 
cial for due cause. 

3. Where egress doors are used in pairs, approved 
automatic flush bolts shall be permitted to be 
used, provided that the door leaf having the auto- 
matic flush bolts has no doorknob or surface- 
mounted hardware. 

4. Doors from individual dwelling or sleeping units 
of Group R occupancies having an occupant load 
of 10 or less are permitted to be equipped with a 
night latch, dead bolt or security chain, provided 
such devices are openable from the inside with- 
out the use of a key or tool. 

5. Fire doors after the minimum elevated tempera- 
ture has disabled the unlatching mechanism in 
accordance with listed fire door test procedures. 

[B] 1008.1.9.4 Bolt locks. Manually operated flush 
bolts or surface bolts are not permitted. 

Exceptions: 

1. On doors not required for egress in individual 
dwelling units or sleeping units. 

2. Where a pair of doors serves a storage or 
equipment room, manually operated edge- or 
surface-mounted bolts are permitted on the 
inactive leaf. 

3. Where a pair of doors serves an occupant load 
of less than 50 persons in a Group B, F or S 
occupancy, manually operated edge- or sur- 
face-mounted bolts are permitted on the inac- 
tive leaf. The inactive leaf shall contain no 
doorknobs, panic bars or similar operating 
hardware. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE 6 



149 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



4. Where a pair of doors serves a Group B, F or S 
occupancy, manually operated edge- or sur- 
face-mounted bolts are permitted on the inac- 
tive leaf provided such inactive leaf is not 
needed to meet egress width requirements and 
the building is equipped throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. The inactive leaf shall con- 
tain no doorknobs, panic bars or similar oper- 
ating hardware. 

5. Where a pair of doors serves patient care 
rooms in Group 1-2 occupancies, self-latching 
edge- or surface-mounted bolts are permitted 
on the inactive leaf provided that the inactive 
leaf is not needed to meet egress width 
requirements and the inactive leaf contains no 
doorknobs, panic bars or similar operating 
hardware. 

[B] 1008.1.9.5 Unlatching. The unlatching of any door 
or leaf shall not require more than one operation. 

Exceptions: 

1. Places of detention or restraint. 

2. Where manually operated bolt locks are per- 
mitted by Section 1008.1.9.4. 

3. Doors with automatic flush bolts as permitted 
by Section 1008.1.9.3, Exception 3. 

4. Doors from individual dwelling units and 
sleeping units of Group R occupancies as per- 
mitted by Section 1008.1.9.3, Exception 4. 

[B] 1008.1.9.5.1 Closet and bathroom doors in 
Group R-4 occupancies. In Group R-4 occupan- 
cies, closet doors that latch in the closed position 
shall be openable from inside the closet, and bath- 
room doors that latch in the closed position shall be 
capable of being unlocked from the ingress side. 

[B] 1008.1.9.6 Special locking arrangements in 
Group 1-2. Approved special egress locks shall be per- 
mitted in a Group 1-2 occupancy where the clinical 
needs of persons receiving care require such locking. 
Special egress locks shall be permitted in such occu- 
pancies where the building is equipped throughout with 
an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1 or an approved automatic smoke or heat 
detection system installed in accordance with Section 
907, provided that the doors are installed and operate in 
accordance with Items 1 through 7 below. 

1 . The doors unlock upon actuation of the automatic 
sprinkler system or automatic fire detection sys- 
tem. 

2. The doors unlock upon loss of power controlling 
the lock or lock mechanism. 

3. The door locks shall have the capability of being 
unlocked by a signal from the fire command cen- 
ter, a nursing station or other approved location. 



I 



4. A building occupant shall not be required to pass 
through more than one door equipped with a spe- 
cial egress lock before entering an exit. 

5. The procedures for the operation(s) of the 
unlocking system shall be described and 
approved as part of the emergency planning and 
preparedness required by Chapter 4. 

6. All clinical staff shall have the keys, codes or 
other means necessary to operate the locking 
devices. 

7. Emergency lighting shall be provided at the door. 
Exception: Items 1 through 4 shall not apply to 
doors to areas where persons, which because of clin- 
ical needs, require restraint or containment as part of 
the function of a psychiatric treatment area. 

[B] 1008.1.9.7 Delayed egress locks. Approved, listed, 
delayed egress locks shall be permitted to be installed 
on doors serving any occupancy except Group A, E and 
H occupancies in buildings that are equipped through- 
out with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or an approved automatic smoke 
or heat detection system installed in accordance with 
Section 907, provided that the doors unlock in accor- 
dance with Items 1 through 6 below. A building occu- 
pant shall not be required to pass through more than 
one door equipped with a delayed egress lock before 
entering an exit. 

1 . The doors unlock upon actuation of the automatic 
sprinkler system or automatic fire detection sys- 
tem. 

2. The doors unlock upon loss of power controlling 
the lock or lock mechanism. 

3. The door locks shall have the capability of being 
unlocked by a signal from the fire command cen- 
ter. 

4. The initiation of an irreversible process which 
will release the latch in not more than 15 seconds 
when a force of not more than 15 pounds (67 N) 
is applied for 1 second to the release device. Initi- 
ation of the irreversible process shall activate an 
audible signal in the vicinity of the door. Once 
the door lock has been released by the application 
of force to the releasing device, relocking shall be 
by manual means only. 

Exception: Where approved, a delay of not 
more than 30 seconds is permitted. 

5. A sign shall be provided on the door located 
above and within 12 inches (305 mm) of the 
release device reading: PUSH UNTIL ALARM 
SOUNDS. DOOR CAN BE OPENED IN 15 [30] 
SECONDS. 

6. Emergency lighting shall be provided at the door. 

[B] 1008.1.9.8 Access-controlled egress doors. The *■ 
entrance doors in a means of egress in buildings with an 
occupancy in Groups A, B, E, 1-2, M, R-l or R-2, and 
entrance doors to tenant spaces in occupancies in 



150 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



Groups A, B, E, 1-2, M, R-l or R-2, are permitted to be 
equipped with an approved entrance and egress access 
control system, listed in accordance with UL 294, 
which shall be installed in accordance with all of the 
following criteria: 

1. A sensor shall be provided on the egress side 
arranged to detect an occupant approaching the 
doors. The doors shall be arranged to unlock by a 
signal from or loss of power to the sensor. 

2. Loss of power to that part of the access control 
system which locks the doors shall automatically 
unlock the doors. 

3. The doors shall be arranged to unlock from a 
manual unlocking device located 40 inches to 48 
inches (1016 mm to 1219 mm) vertically above 
the floor and within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the 
secured doors. Ready access shall be provided to 
the manual unlocking device and the device shall 
be clearly identified by a sign that reads "PUSH 
TO EXIT." When operated, the manual unlock- 
ing device shall result in direct interruption of 
power to the lock — independent of the access 
control system electronics — and the doors shall 
remain unlocked for a minimum of 30 seconds. 

4. Activation of the building fire alarm system, if 
provided, shall automatically unlock the doors, 
and the doors shall remain unlocked until the fire 
alarm system has been reset. 

5. Activation of the building automatic sprinkler or 
fire detection system, if provided, shall automati- 
cally unlock the doors. The doors shall remain 
unlocked until the fire alarm system has been 
reset. 

6. Entrance doors in buildings with an occupancy in 
Group A, B, E or M shall not be secured from the 
egress side during periods that the building is 
open to the general public. 

[B] 1008.1.9.9 Electromagnetically locked egress 
doors. Doors in the means of egress in buildings with 
an occupancy in Group A, B, E, M, R-l or R-2, and 
doors to tenant spaces in Group A, B, E, M, R-l or R-2, 
shall be permitted to be electromagnetically locked if 
equipped with listed hardware that incorporates a built- 
in switch and meet the requirements below: 

1 . The listed hardware that is affixed to the door leaf 
has an obvious method of operation that is readily 
operated under all lighting conditions. 

2. The listed hardware is capable of being operated 
with one hand. 

3. Operation of the listed hardware directly inter- 
rupts the power to the electromagnetic lock and 
unlocks the door immediately. 

4. Loss of power to the listed hardware automati- 
cally unlocks the door. 

5. Where panic or fire exit hardware is required by 
Section 1008.1.10, operation of the listed panic 



or fire exit hardware also releases the electro- 
magnetic lock. 

[B] 1008.1.9.10 Locking arrangements in correc- 
tional facilities. In occupancies in Groups A-2, A-3, 
A-4, B, E, F, 1-2, 1-3, M and S within correctional and 
detention facilities, doors in means of egress serving 
rooms or spaces occupied by persons whose move- 
ments are controlled for security reasons shall be per- 
mitted to be locked when equipped with egress control 
devices which shall unlock manually and by at least 
one of the following means: 

1. Activation of an automatic sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 ; 

2. Activation of an approved manual alarm box; or 

3. A signal from a constantly attended location. 

[B] 1008.1.9.11 Stairway doors. Interior stairway 
means of egress doors shall be openable from both 
sides without the use of a key or special knowledge or 
effort. 

Exceptions: 

1. Stairway discharge doors shall be openable 
from the egress side and shall only be locked 
from the opposite side. 

2. This section shall not apply to doors arranged 
in accordance with Section 403.5.3 of the 
International Building Code. 

3. In stair-ways serving not more than four sto- 
ries, doors are permitted to be locked from the 
side opposite the egress side, provided they 
are openable from the egress side and capable 
of being unlocked simultaneously without 
unlatching upon a signal from the fire com- 
mand center, if present, or a signal by emer- 
gency personnel from a single location inside 
the main entrance to the building. 

4. Stairway exit doors shall be openable from the 
egress side and shall only be locked from the 
opposite side in Group B, F, M and S occu- 
pancies where the only interior access to the 
tenant space is from a single exit stair where 
permitted in Section 1021 .2. 

5. Stairway exit doors shall be openable from the 
egress side and shall only be locked from the 
opposite side in Group R-2 occupancies where 
the only interior access to the dwelling unit is 
from a single exit stair where permitted in 
Section 1021.2. 

[B] 1008.1.10 Panic and fire exit hardware. Doors serv- 
ing a Group H occupancy and doors serving rooms or 
spaces with an occupant load of 50 or more in a Group A 
or E occupancy shall not be provided with a latch or lock 
unless it is panic hardware or fire exit hardware. 

Exception: A main exit of a Group A occupancy in 
compliance with Section 1008.1.9.3, Item 2. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



151 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



Electrical rooms with equipment rated 1,200 amperes 
or more and over 6 feet (1829 mm) wide that contain over- 
current devices, switching devices or control devices with 
exit or exit access doors shall be equipped with panic hard- 
ware or fire exit hardware. The doors shall swing in the 
direction of egress travel. 

[B] 1008.1.10.1 Installation. Where panic or fire exit 
hardware is installed, it shall comply with the follow- 
ing: 

1 . Panic hardware shall be listed in accordance with 
UL305; 

2. Fire exit hardware shall be listed in accordance 
with UL 10C and UL 305; 

3. The actuating portion of the releasing device 
shall extend at least one-half of the door leaf 
width; and 

4. The maximum unlatching force shall not exceed 
15 pounds (67 N). 

[B] 1008.1.10.2 Balanced doors. If balanced doors are 
used and panic hardware is required, the panic hard- 
ware shall be the push-pad type and the pad shall not 
extend more than one-half the width of the door mea- 
sured from the latch side. 

[B] 1008.2 Gates. Gates serving the means of egress system 
shall comply with the requirements of this section. Gates used 
as a component in a means of egress shall conform to the 
applicable requirements for doors. 

Exception: Horizontal sliding or swinging gates exceed- 
ing the 4-foot (1219 mm) maximum leaf width limitation 
are permitted in fences and walls surrounding a stadium. 

[B] 1008.2.1 Stadiums. Panic hardware is not required on 
gates surrounding stadiums where such gates are under 
constant immediate supervision while the public is pres- 
ent, and where safe dispersal areas based on 3 square feet 
(0.28 m 2 ) per occupant are located between the fence and 
enclosed space. Such required safe dispersal areas shall 
not be located less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the 
enclosed space. See Section 1027.5 for means of egress 
from safe dispersal areas. 

[B] 1008.3 Turnstiles. Turnstiles or similar devices that 
restrict travel to one direction shall not be placed so as to 
obstruct any required means of egress. 

Exception: Each turnstile or similar device shall be cred- 
ited with no more than a 50-person capacity where all of 
the following provisions are met: 

1. Each device shall turn free in the direction of egress 
travel when primary power is lost, and upon the 
manual release by an employee in the area. 

2. Such devices are not given credit for more than 50 
percent of the required egress capacity. 

3. Each device is not more than 39 inches (991 mm) 
high. 

4. Each device has at least 16'/, inches (419 mm) clear 
width at and below a height of 39 inches (991 mm) 



and at least 22 inches (559 mm) clear width at 
heights above 39 inches (991 mm). 

Where located as part of an accessible route, turnstiles 
shall have at least 36 inches (914 mm) clear at and below a 
height of 34 inches (864 mm), at least 32 inches (813 mm) 
clear width between 34 inches (864 mm) and 80 inches (2032 
mm) and shall consist of a mechanism other than a revolving 
device. 

[B] 1008.3.1 High turnstile. Turnstiles more than 39 
inches (991 mm) high shall meet the requirements for 
revolving doors. 

[B] 1008.3.2 Additional door. Where serving an occu- 
pant load greater than 300, each turnstile that is not porta- 
ble shall have a side-hinged swinging door which 
conforms to Section 1008.1 within 50 feet (15 240 mm). 



SECTION 1009 
STAIRWAYS 

[B] 1009.1 General. Stairways serving occupied portions of 
a building shall comply with the requirements of this section. 

[B] 1009.2 Interior exit stairways. Interior exit stair- 
ways shall lead directly to the exterior of the building or shall 
be extended to the exterior of the building with an exit pas- 
sageway conforming to the requirements of Section 1023, 
except as permitted in Section 1027.1. 

[B] 1009.2.1 Where required. Interior exit stairways 
shall be included, as necessary, to meet one or more means 
of egress design requirements, such as required number of 
exits or exit access travel distance. 

[B] 1009.2.2 Enclosure. All interior exit stairways shall 
be enclosed in accordance with the provisions of Section 
1022. 

[B] 1009.3 Exit access stairways. Floor openings between 
stories created by exit access stairways shall be enclosed. 

Exceptions: 

1. In other than Group 1-2 and 1-3 occupancies, exit 
access stairways that serve, or atmospherically 
communicate between, only two stories, are not 
required to be enclosed. 

2. Exit access stairways serving and contained within 
a single residential dwelling unit or sleeping unit in 
Group R-l, R-2 or R-3 occupancies are not 
required to be enclosed. 

3. In buildings with only Group B or M occupancies, 
exit access stairway openings are not required to 
be enclosed provided that the building is equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the area of the 
floor opening between stories does not exceed 
twice the horizontal projected area of the exit 
access stairway, and the opening is protected by a 
draft curtain and closely spaced sprinklers in 
accordance with NFPA 13. 

4. In other than Group B and M occupancies, exit 
access stairway openings are not required to be 



152 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



enclosed provided that the building is equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the floor open- 
ing does not connect more than four stories, the 
area of the floor opening between stories does not 
exceed twice the horizontal projected area of the 
exit access stairway, and the opening is protected 
by a draft curtain and closely spaced sprinklers in 
accordance with NFPA 13. 

5. Exit access stairways within an atrium complying 
with the provisions of Section 404 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code are not required to be 
enclosed. 

6. Exit access stairways and ramps in open parking 
garages that serve only the parking garage are not 
required to be enclosed. 

7. Stairways serving outdoor facilities where all por- 
tions of the means of egress are essentially open to 
the outside are not required to be enclosed. 

8. Exit access stairways serving stages, platforms and 
technical production areas in accordance with Sec- 
tions 410.6.2 and 410.6.3 of the International 
Building Code are not required to be enclosed. 

9. Stairways are permitted to be open between the 
balcony, gallery or press box and the main assem- 
bly floor in occupancies such as theaters, places of 
religious worship, auditoriums and sports facili- 
ties. 

10. In Group 1-3 occupancies, exit access stairways 
constructed in accordance with Section 408.5 of 
the International Building Code are not required to 
be enclosed. 

[B] 1009.3.1 Construction. Where required, enclosures 
for exit access stairways shall be constructed in accor- 
dance with this section. Exit access stairway enclosures 
shall be constructed as fire barriers in accordance with 
Section 707 of the International Building Code or horizon- 
tal assemblies in accordance with Section 71 1 of the Inter- 
national Building Code, or both. 

[B] 1009.3.1.1 Materials. Exit access stairway enclo- 
sures shall be of materials permitted by the building 
type of construction. 

[B] 1009.3.1.2 Fire-resistance rating. Exit access 
stairway enclosures shall have a fire-resistance rating 
of not less than 2 hours where connecting four stories 
or more, and not less than 1 hour where connecting less 
than four stories. The number of stories connected by 
the exit access stairway enclosures shall include any 
basements, but not any mezzanines. Exit access stair- 
way enclosures shall have a fire-resistance rating not 
less than the floor assembly penetrated, but need not 
exceed 2 hours. 

[B] 1009.3.1.3 Continuity. Exit access stairway enclo- 
sures shall have continuity in accordance with Section 
707.5 of the International Building Code for fire barri- 



ers or Section 71 1.4 of the International Building Code 
for horizontal assemblies as applicable. 

[B] 1009.3.1.4 Openings. Openings in an exit access 
stairway enclosure shall be protected in accordance 
with Section 716 of the International Building Code as 
required for fire barriers. Doors shall be self- or auto- 
matic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with 
Section 716.5.9.3 of the International Building Code. 

[B] 1009.3.1.4.1 Prohibited openings. Openings 
other than those necessary for the purpose of the exit 
access stairway enclosure shall not be permitted in 
exit access stairway enclosures. 

[BJ 1009.3.1.5 Penetrations. Penetrations in an exit 
access stairway enclosure shall be protected in accor- 
dance with Section 714 of the International Building 
Code as required foxfire barriers. 

[B] 1009.3.1.5.1 Prohibited penetrations. Penetra- 
tions other than those necessary for the purpose of 
the exit access stairway enclosure shall not be per- 
mitted in exit access stairway enclosures. 

[B] 1009.3.1.6 Joints. Joints in an exit access stairway 
enclosure shall comply with Section 715 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

[B] 1009.3.1.7 Ducts and air transfer openings. Pene- 
trations of an exit access stairway enclosure by ducts 
and air transfer openings shall comply with Section 717 
of the International Building Code. 

[B] 1009.3.1.8 Exterior walls. Where exterior walls 
serve as a part of an exit access stairway enclosure, 
such walls shall comply with the requirements of Sec- 
tion 705 of the International Building Code for exterior 
walls and the fire-resistance-rated enclosure require- 
ments shall not apply. 

[B] 1009.4 Width. The width of stairways shall be deter- 
mined as specified in Section 1005.1, but such width shall not 
be less than 44 inches (1118 mm). See Section 1007.3 for 
accessible means of egress stairways. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Stab-ways serving an occupant load of less than 50 
shall have a width of not less than 36 inches (914 
mm). 

2. Spiral stairways as provided for in Section 1009.12. 

3. Aisle stairs complying with Section 1028. 

4. Where an incline platform lift or stairway chairlift is 
installed on stairways serving occupancies in Group 
R-3, or within dwelling units in occupancies in 
Group R-2, a clear passage width not less than 20 
inches (508 mm) shall be provided. If the seat and 
platform can be folded when not in use, the distance 
shall be measured from the folded position. 

[B] 1009.5 Headroom. Stairways shall have a minimum 
headroom clearance of 80 inches (2032 mm) measured verti- 
cally from a line connecting the edge of the nosings. Such 



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headroom shall be continuous above the stairway to the point 
where the line intersects the landing below, one tread depth 
beyond the bottom riser. The minimum clearance shall be 
maintained the full width of the stairway and landing. 

Exceptions: 

1. Spiral stairways complying with Section 1009.12 
are permitted a 78-inch (1981 mm) headroom clear- 
ance. 

2. In Group R-3 occupancies; within dwelling units in 
Group R-2 occupancies; and in Group U occupan- 
cies that are accessory to a Group R-3 occupancy or 
accessory to individual dwelling units in Group R-2 
occupancies; where the nosings of treads at the side 
of a flight extend under the edge of a floor opening 
through which the stair passes, the floor opening 
shall be allowed to project horizontally into the 
required headroom a maximum of 4% inches (121 
mm). 

[B] 1009.6 Walkline. The walkline across winder treads shall 
be concentric to the direction of travel through the turn and 
located 12 inches (305 mm) from the side where the winders 
are narrower. The 12-inch (305 mm) dimension shall be mea- 
sured from the widest point of the clear stair width at the 
walking surface of the winder. If winders are adjacent within 
the flight, the point of the widest clear stair width of the adja- 
cent winders shall be used. 

[B] 1009.7 Stair treads and risers. Stair treads and risers 
shall comply with Sections 1009.7.1 through 1009.7.5.3. 
[B] 1009.7.1 Dimension reference surfaces. For the pur- 
pose of this section, all dimensions are exclusive of car- 
pets, rugs or runners. 

[B] 1009.7.2 Riser height and tread depth. Stair riser 
heights shall be 7 inches (178 mm) maximum and 4 inches 
(102 mm) minimum. The riser height shall be measured 
vertically between the nosings of adjacent treads. Rectan- 
gular tread depths shall be 1 1 inches (279 mm) minimum 
measured horizontally between the vertical planes of the 
foremost projection of adjacent treads and at a right angle 
to the tread's nosing. Winder treads shall have a minimum 
tread depth of 1 1 inches (279 mm) between the vertical 
planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads at the 
intersections with the walkline and a minimum tread depth 
of 10 inches (254 mm) within the clear width of the stair. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Alternating tread devices in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1009.13. 

2. Ship ladders in accordance with Section 1009.14. 

3. Spiral stairways in accordance with Section 
1009.12. 

4. Aisle stairs in assembly seating areas where the 
stair pitch or slope is set, for sightline reasons, by 
the slope of the adjacent seating area in accor- 
dance with Section 1028.11.2. 

5. In Group R-3 occupancies; within dwelling units 
in Group R-2 occupancies; and in Group U occu- 
pancies that are accessory to a Group R-3 occu- 



pancy or accessory to individual dwelling units in 
Group R-2 occupancies; the maximum riser 
height shall be 7 3 / 4 inches (197 mm); the mini- 
mum tread depth shall be 10 inches (254 mm); 
the minimum winder tread depth at the walkline 
shall be 10 inches (254 mm); and the minimum 
winder tread depth shall be 6 inches (152 mm). A 
nosing projection not less than 3 / 4 inch (19.1 mm) 
but not more than l'/ 4 inches (32 mm) shall be 
provided on stairways with solid risers where the 
tread depth is less than 1 1 inches (279 mm). 

6. See Section 3404.1 of the International Building 
Code for the replacement of existing stairways. 

7. In Group 1-3 facilities, stairways providing 
access to guard towers, observation stations and 
control rooms, not more than 250 square feet (23 
m 2 ) in area, shall be permitted to have a maxi- 
mum riser height of 8 inches (203 mm) and a 
minimum tread depth of 9 inches (229 mm). 

[B] 1009.7.3 Winder treads. Winder treads are not per- 
mitted in means of egress stairways except within a dwell- 
ing unit. 

Exceptions: 

1. Curved stairways in accordance with Section 
1009.11. 

2. Spiral stairways in accordance with Section 
1009.12. 

[B] 1009.7.4 Dimensional uniformity. Stair treads and 
risers shall be of uniform size and shape. The tolerance 
between the largest and smallest riser height or between 
the largest and smallest tread depth shall not exceed 3 / s 
inch (9.5 mm) in any flight of stairs. The greatest winder 
tread depth at the walkline within any flight of stairs shall 
not exceed the smallest by more than 3 / 8 inch (9.5 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1. Nonuniform riser dimensions of aisle stairs com- 
plying with Section 1028.1 1.2. 

2. Consistently shaped winders, complying with 
Section 1009.7, differing from rectangular treads 
in the same stair-way flight. 

Where the bottom or top riser adjoins a sloping public 
way, walkway or driveway having an established grade 
and serving as a landing, the bottom or top riser is permit- 
ted to be reduced along the slope to less than 4 inches (102 
mm) in height, with the variation in height of the bottom 
or top riser not to exceed one unit vertical in 1 2 units hori- 
zontal (8-percent slope) of stairway width. The nosings or 
leading edges of treads at such nonuniform height risers 
shall have a distinctive marking stripe, different from any 
other nosing marking provided on the stair flight. The dis- 
tinctive marking stripe shall be visible in descent of the 
stair and shall have a slip-resistant surface. Marking 
stripes shall have a width of at least 1 inch (25 mm) but 
not more than 2 inches (5 1 mm). 

[B] 1009.7.5 Nosing and riser profile. The radius of 
curvature at the leading edge of the tread shall be not 



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greater than 7 I6 inch (14.3 mm). Beveling of nosings 
shall not exceed 7 16 inch (14.3 mm). Risers shall be 
solid and vertical or sloped under the tread above from 
the underside of the nosing above at an angle not more 
than 30 degrees (0.52 rad) from the vertical. 

IB] 1009.7.5.1 Nosing projection size. The leading 
edge (nosings) of treads shall project not more than 1 V 4 
inches (32 mm) beyond the tread below. 

[B] 1009.7.5.2 Nosing projection uniformity. All nos- 
ing projections of the leading edges shall be of uniform 
size, including the projections of the nosings leading 
edge of the floor at the top of a flight. 

[B] 1009.7.5.3 Solid risers. Risers shall be solid. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Solid risers are not required for stairways that 
are not required to comply with Section 
1007.3, provided that the opening between 
treads does not permit the passage of a sphere 
with a diameter of 4 inches (102 mm). 

2. Solid risers are not required for occupancies in 
Group 1-3 or in Group F, H and S occupancies 
other than areas accessible to the public. There 
are no restrictions on the size of the opening in 
the riser. 

3. Solid risers are not required for spiral stair- 
ways constructed in accordance with Section 
1009.12. 

4. Solid risers are not required for alternating 
tread devices constructed in accordance with 
Section 1009.13. 

[B] 1009.8 Stairway landings. There shall be a floor or land- 
ing at the top and bottom of each stairway. The width of land- 
ings shall not be less than the width of stairways they serve. 
Every landing shall have a minimum width measured perpen- 
dicular to the direction of travel equal to the width of the 
stairway. Where the stairway has a straight run the depth 
need not exceed 48 inches (1219 mm). Doors opening onto a 
landing shall not reduce the landing to less than one-half the 
required width. When fully open, the door shall not project 
more than 7 inches (178 mm) into a landing. When wheel- 
chair spaces are required on the stairway landing in accor- 
dance with Section 1007.6.1, the wheelchair space shall not 
be located in the required width of the landing and doors shall 
not swing over the wheelchair spaces. 

Exception: Aisle stairs complying with Section 1028. 

[B] 1009.9 Stairway construction. All stairways shall be 
built of materials consistent with the types permitted for the 
type of construction of the building, except that wood hand- 
rails shall be permitted for all types of construction. 

[B] 1009.9.1 Stairway walking surface. The walking sur- 
face of treads and landings of a stairway shall not be 
sloped steeper than one unit vertical in 48 units horizontal 
(2-percent slope) in any direction. Stairway treads and 



landings shall have a solid surface. Finish floor surfaces 
shall be securely attached. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Openings in stair walking surfaces shall be a size 
that does not permit the passage of '^-inch-diam- 
eter (12.7 mm) sphere. Elongated openings shall 
be placed so that the long dimension is perpen- 
dicular to the direction of travel. 

2. In Group F, H and S occupancies, other than 
areas of parking structures accessible to the pub- 
lic, openings in treads and landings shall not be 
prohibited provided a sphere with a diameter of 
l'/ s inches (29 mm) cannot pass through the 
opening. 

[B] 1009.9.2 Outdoor conditions. Outdoor stairways and 
outdoor approaches to stairways shall be designed so that 
water will not accumulate on walking surfaces. 

[B] 1009.9.3 Enclosures under interior stairways. The § 
walls and soffits within enclosed usable spaces under 
enclosed and unenclosed stairways shall be protected by 
1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction or the fire-resis- 
tance rating of the stairway enclosure, whichever is 
greater. Access to the enclosed space shall not be directly 
from within the stair enclosure. 

Exception: Spaces under stairways serving and con- 
tained within a single residential dwelling unit in Group 
R-2 or R-3 shall be permitted to be protected on the 
enclosed side with V 2 -inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board. 
[B] 1009.9.4 Enclosure under exterior stairways. There 1 
shall be no enclosed usable space under exterior exit stair- 
ways unless the space is completely enclosed in 1-hour 
fire-resistance-rated construction. The open space under 
exterior stairways shall not be used for any purpose. 

[B] 1009.10 Vertical rise. K flight of stairs shall not have a 
vertical rise greater than 12 feet (3658 mm) between floor 
levels or landings. 

Exceptions: 

1. Aisle stairs complying with Section 1028. 

2. Alternating tread devices used as a means of egress 
shall not have a rise greater than 20 feet (6096 mm) 
between floor levels or landings. 

3. Spiral stair-ways used as a means of egress from 
technical production areas. 

[B] 1009.11 Curved stairways. Curved stairways with 
winder treads shall have treads and risers in accordance with 
Section 1009.7 and the smallest radius shall not be less than 
twice the required width of the stairway. 

Exception: The radius restriction shall not apply to curved 
stairways for occupancies in Group R-3 and within indi- 
vidual dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2. 

[B] 1009.12 Spiral stairways. Spiral stairways are permitted 
to be used as a component in the means of egress only within 



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dwelling units or from a space not more than 250 square feet 
(23 m 2 ) in area and serving not more than five occupants, or 
from technical production areas in accordance with Section 
410.6 of the International Building Code. 

A spiral stairway shall have a 7'/ 2 -inch (191 mm) mini- 
mum clear tread depth at a point 12 inches (305 mm) from the 
narrow edge. The risers shall be sufficient to provide a head- 
room of 78 inches (1981 mm) minimum, but riser height shall 
not be more than 9'/ 2 inches (241 mm). The minimum stair- 
way clear width at and below the handrail shall be 26 inches 
(660 mm). 

[B] 1009.13 Alternating tread devices. Alternating tread 
devices are limited to an element of a means of egress in 
buildings of Groups F, H and S from a mezzanine not more 
than 250 square feet (23 m 2 ) in area and which serves not 
more than five occupants; in buildings of Group 1-3 from a 
guard tower, observation station or control room not more 
than 250 square feet (23 m 2 ) in area and for access to unoccu- 
pied roofs. 

[B] 1009.13.1 Handrails of alternating tread devices. 
Handrails shall be provided on both sides of alternating 
tread devices and shall comply with Section 1012. 
[B] 1009.13.2 Treads of alternating tread devices. 
Alternating tread devices shall have a minimum tread 
depth of 5 inches (127 mm), a minimum projected tread 
depth of 87 2 inches (216 mm), a minimum tread width of 7 
inches (178 mm) and a maximum riser height of 9'/ 2 
inches (241 mm). The tread depth shall be measured hori- 
zontally between the vertical planes of the foremost pro- 
jections of adjacent treads. The riser height shall be 
measured vertically between the leading edges of adjacent 
treads. The riser height and tread depth provided shall 
result in an angle of ascent from the horizontal of between 
50 and 70 degrees (0.87 and 1 .22 rad). The initial tread of 
the device shall begin at the same elevation as the plat- 
form, landing or floor surface. 

Exception: Alternating tread devices used as an ele- 
ment of a means of egress in buildings from a mezza- 
nine area not more than 250 square feet (23 m 2 ) in area 
which serves not more than five occupants shall have a 
minimum tread depth of 3 inches (76 mm) with a mini- 
mum projected tread depth of 10'/ 2 inches (267 mm). 
The rise to the next alternating tread surface shall not 
exceed 8 inches (203 mm). 
[B] 1009.14 Ship ladders. Ship ladders are permitted to be 
used in Group 1-3 as a component of a means of egress to and 
from control rooms or elevated facility observation stations 
not more than 250 square feet (23 m 2 ) with not more than 
three occupants and for access to unoccupied roofs. 

Ship ladders shall have a minimum tread depth of 5 inches 
(127 mm). The tread shall be projected such that the total of 
the tread depth plus the nosing projection is no less than 8'/ 2 
inches (216 mm). The maximum riser height shall be 9'/ 2 
inches (241 mm). 

Handrails shall be provided on both sides of ship ladders. 
The minimum clear width at and below the handrails shall be 
20 inches (508 mm). 



[B] 1009.15 Handrails. Stairways shall have handrails on 
each side and shall comply with Section 1012. Where glass is 
used to provide the handrail, the handrail shall also comply 
with Section 2407 of the International Building Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Handrails for aisle stairs provided in accordance 
with Section 1028.13. 

2. Stairways within dwelling units and spiral stairways 
are permitted to have a handrail on one side only. 

3. Decks, patios and walkways that have a single 
change in elevation where the landing depth on each 
side of the change of elevation is greater than what 
is required for a landing do not require handrails. 

4. In Group R-3 occupancies, a change in elevation 
consisting of a single riser at an entrance or egress 
door does not require handrails. 

5. Changes in room elevations of three or fewer risers 
within dwelling units and sleeping units in Groups 
R-2 and R-3 do not require handrails. 

[B] 1009.16 Stairway to roof. In buildings four or more sto- 
ries above grade plane, one stairway shall extend to the roof 
surface, unless the roof has a slope steeper than four units 
vertical in 12 units horizontal (33-percent slope). In buildings 
without an occupied roof, access to the roof from the top 
story shall be permitted to be by an alternating tread device. 
[B] 1009.16.1 Roof access. Where a stairway is provided 
to a roof, access to the roof shall be provided through a 
penthouse complying with Section 1509.2 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

Exception: In buildings without an occupied roof, 
access to the roof shall be permitted to be a roof hatch 
or trap door not less than 16 square feet (1.5 m 2 ) in area 
and having a minimum dimension of 2 feet (610 mm). 
[B] 1009.16.2 Protection at roof hatch openings. Where 
the roof hatch opening providing the required access is 
located within 10 feet (3049 mm) of the roof edge, such 
roof access or roof edge shall be protected by guards 
installed in accordance with the provisions of Section 
1013. 
[B] 1009.17 Stairway to elevator equipment. Roofs and 
penthouses containing elevator equipment that must be 
accessed for maintenance are required to be accessed by a 
stairway. 



SECTION 1010 
RAMPS 
[B] 1010.1 Scope. The provisions of this section shall apply 
to ramps used as a component of a means of egress. 

Exceptions: 

1. Other than ramps that are part of the accessible 
routes providing access in accordance with Sections 
1108.2 through 1108.2.4 and 1108.2.6 of the Inter- 
national Building Code, ramped aisles within 



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assembly rooms or spaces shall conform with the 
provisions in Section 1028.1 1. 

2. Curb ramps shall comply with ICC Al 17.1 . 

3. Vehicle ramps in parking garages for pedestrian exit 
access shall not be required to comply with Sections 
1010.4 through 1010.10 when they are not an acces- 
sible route serving accessible parking spaces, other 
required accessible elements or part of an accessible 
means of egress. 

[B] 1010.2 Enclosure. All interior exit ramps shall be 
enclosed in accordance with the applicable provisions of Sec- 
tion 1 022. Exit access ramps shall be enclosed in accordance 
with the provisions of Section 1009.3 for enclosure of stair- 
ways. 

[B] 1010.3 Slope. Ramps used as part of a means of egress 
shall have a running slope not steeper than one unit vertical in 
12 units horizontal (8-percent slope). The slope of other 
pedestrian ramps shall not be steeper than one unit vertical in 
eight units horizontal (12.5-percent slope). 

Exception: Aisle ramp slope in a room or space used for 
assembly purposes shall comply with Section 1028.1 1. 

[B] 1010.4 Cross slope. The slope measured perpendicular to 
the direction of travel of a ramp shall not be steeper than one 
unit vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-percent slope). 

[B] 1010.5 Vertical rise. The rise for any ramp run shall be 
30 inches (762 mm) maximum. 

[B] 1010.6 Minimum dimensions. The minimum dimen- 
sions of means of egress ramps shall comply with Sections 
1010.6.1 through 1010.6.3. 

[B] 1010.6.1 Width. The minimum width of a means of 
egress ramp shall not be less than that required for corri- 
dors by Section 1018.2. The clear width of a ramp 
between handrails, if provided, or other permissible pro- 
jections shall be 36 inches (914 mm) minimum. 

[B] 1010.6.2 Headroom. The minimum headroom in all 
parts of the means of egress ramp shall not be less than 80 
inches (2032 mm). 

[B] 1010.6.3 Restrictions. Means of egress ramps shall 
not reduce in width in the direction of egress travel. Pro- 
jections into the required ramp and landing width are pro- 
hibited. Doors opening onto a landing shall not reduce the 
clear width to less than 42 inches (1067 mm). 

[B] 1010.7 Landings. Ramps shall have landings at the bot- 
tom and top of each ramp, points of turning, entrance, exits 
and at doors. Landings shall comply with Sections 1010.7.1 
through 1010.7.5. 

[B] 1010.7.1 Slope. Landings shall have a slope not 
steeper than one unit vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-per- 
cent slope) in any direction. Changes in level are not per- 
mitted. 

[B] 1010.7.2 Width. The landing shall be at least as wide 
as the widest ramp run adjoining the landing. 



[B] 1010.7.3 Length. The landing length shall be 60 
inches ( 1 525 mm) minimum. 

Exceptions: 

1. In Group R-2 and R-3 individual dwelling and 
sleeping units that are not required to be Accessi- 
ble units, Type A units or Type B units in accor- 
dance with Section 1107, landings are permitted 
to be 36 inches (914 mm) minimum. 

2. Where the ramp is not a pail of an accessible 
route, the length of the landing shall not be 
required to be more than 48 inches (1219 mm) in 
the direction of travel. 

[B] 1010.7.4 Change in direction. Where changes in 
direction of travel occur at landings provided between 
ramp runs, the landing shall be 60 inches by 60 inches 
(1524 mm by 1524 mm) minimum. 

Exception: In Group R-2 and R-3 individual dwelling 
or sleeping units that are not required to be Accessible 
units, Type A units or Type B units in accordance with 
Section 1107 of the International Building Code, land- 
ings are permitted to be 36 inches by 36 inches (914 
mm by 914 mm) minimum. 

[B] 1010.7.5 Doorways. Where doorways are located 
adjacent to a ramp landing, maneuvering clearances 
required by ICC A 117.1 are permitted to overlap the 
required landing area. 

[B] 1010.8 Ramp construction. All ramps shall be built of 
materials consistent with the types permitted for the type of 
construction of the building, except that wood handrails shall 
be permitted for all types of construction. 

[B] 1010.8.1 Ramp surface. The surface of ramps shall 
be of slip-resistant materials that are securely attached. 

[B] 1010.8.2 Outdoor conditions. Outdoor ramps and 
outdoor approaches to ramps shall be designed so that 
water will not accumulate on walking surfaces. 

[B] 1010.9 Handrails. Ramps with a rise greater than 6 
inches (152 mm) shall have handrails on both sides. Hand- 
rails shall comply with Section 1012. 

Exception: Handrails for ramped aisles provided in 
accordance with Section 1028.13. 

[B] 1010.10 Edge protection. Edge protection complying 
with Section 1010.10.1 or 1010.10.2 shall be provided on 
each side of ramp runs and at each side of ramp landings. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Edge protection is not required on ramps that are not 
required to have handrails, provided they have 
flared sides that comply with the ICC A117.1 curb 
ramp provisions. 

2. Edge protection is not required on the sides of ramp 
landings serving an adjoining ramp run or stairway. 

3. Edge protection is not required on the sides of ramp 
landings having a vertical drop off of not more than 



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7 2 inch (12.7 mm) within 10 inches (254 mm) hori- 
zontally of the required landing area. 

4. In assembly spaces with fixed seating, edge protec- 
tion is not required on the sides of ramps where the 
ramps provide access to the adjacent seating and 
aisle accessways. 

[B] 1010.10.1 Curb, rail, wall or barrier. A curb, rail, 
wall or barrier shall be provided to serve as edge protec- 
tion. A curb must be a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) in 
height. Barriers must be constructed so that the barrier pre- 
vents the passage of a 4-inch-diameter (102 mm) sphere, 
where any portion of the sphere is within 4 inches (102 
mm) of the floor or ground surface. 

[B] 1010.10.2 Extended floor or ground surface. The 
floor or ground surface of the ramp run or landing shall 
extend 12 inches (305 mm) minimum beyond the inside 
face of a handrail complying with Section 1012. 

[B] 1010.11 Guards. Guards shall be provided where 
required by Section 1013 and shall be constructed in accor- 
dance with Section 1013. 



SECTION 1011 
EXIT SIGNS 

[B] 1011.1 Where required. Exits and exit access doors shall 
be marked by an approved exit sign readily visible from any 
direction of egress travel. The path of egress travel to exits 
and within exits shall be marked by readily visible exit signs 
to clearly indicate the direction of egress travel in cases 
where the exit or the path of egress travel is not immediately 
visible to the occupants. Intervening means of egress doors 
within exits shall be marked by exit signs. Exit sign placement 
shall be such that no point in an exit access corridor or exit 
passageway is more than 100 feet (30 480 mm) or the listed 
viewing distance for the sign, whichever is less, from the 
nearest visible exit sign. 

Exceptions: 

1. Exit signs are not required in rooms or areas that 
require only one exit or exit access. 

2. Main exterior exit doors or gates that are obviously 
and clearly identifiable as exits need not have exit 

| signs where approved by the fire code official. 

3. Exit signs are not required in occupancies in Group 
U and individual sleeping units or dwelling units in 
Group R-l.R-2 or R-3. 

4. Exit signs are not required in dayrooms, sleeping 
rooms or dormitories in occupancies in Group 1-3. 

5. In occupancies in Groups A-4 and A-5, exit signs are 
not required on the seating side of vomitories or 
openings into seating areas where exit signs are pro- 
vided in the concourse that are readily apparent from 
the vomitories. Egress lighting is provided to iden- 
tify each vomitory or opening within the seating 
area in an emergency. 

I[B] 1011.2 Floor-level exit signs in Group R-l. Where exit 
signs are required in Group R-l occupancies by Section 



101 1.1, additional low-level exit signs shall be provided in all 
areas serving guestrooms in Group R-l occupancies and shall 
comply with Section 1011.5. 

The bottom of the sign shall be not less than 10 inches 
(254 mm) nor more than 12 inches (305 mm) above the floor 
level. The sign shall be flush mounted to the door or wall. 
Where mounted on the wall, the edge of the sign shall be 
within 4 inches (102 mm) of the door frame on the latch side. 

[B] 1011.3 Illumination. Exit signs shall be internally or 
externally illuminated. 

Exception: Tactile signs required by Section 1011.4 need 
not be provided with illumination. 

[B] 1011.4 Raised character and Braille exit signs. A sign 
stating EXIT in raised characters and Braille and complying 
with ICC All 7.1 shall be provided adjacent to each door to 
an area of refuge, an exterior area for assisted rescue, an exit 
stairway, an exit ramp, an exit passageway and the exit dis- 
charge. 

[B] 1011.5 Internally illuminated exit signs. Electrically 
powered, self-luminous and photoluminescent exit signs shall 
be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 924 and shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions 
and Chapter 27 of the International Building Code. Exit signs 
shall be illuminated at all times. 

[B] 1011.6 Externally illuminated exit signs. Externally 
illuminated exit signs shall comply with Sections 1011.6.1 
through 1011.6.3. 

[B] 1011.6.1 Graphics. Every exit sign and directional 
exit sign shall have plainly legible letters not less than 6 
inches (152 mm) high with the principal strokes of the let- 
ters not less than 3 / 4 inch (19.1 mm) wide. The word 
"EXIT" shall have letters having a width not less than 2 
inches (51 mm) wide, except the letter "I," and the mini- 
mum spacing between letters shall not be less than 3 / g inch 
(9.5 mm). Signs larger than the minimum established in 
this section shall have letter widths, strokes and spacing in 
proportion to their height. 

The word "EXIT" shall be in high contrast with the 
background and shall be clearly discernible when the 
means of exit sign illumination is or is not energized. If a 
chevron directional indicator is provided as part of the exit 
sign, the construction shall be such that the direction of the 
chevron directional indicator cannot be readily changed. 

[B] 1011.6.2 Exit sign illumination. The face of an exit 
sign illuminated from an external source shall have an 
intensity of not less than 5 footcandles (54 lux). 

[B] 1011.6.3 Power source. Exit signs shall be illumi- 
nated at all times. To ensure continued illumination for a 
duration of not less than 90 minutes in case of primary 
power loss, the sign illumination means shall be connected 
to an emergency power system provided from storage bat- 
teries, unit equipment or an on-site generator. The installa- 
tion of the emergency power system shall be in accordance 
with Section 604. 

Exception: Approved exit sign illumination means that 
provide continuous illumination independent of exter- 



158 



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MEANS OF EGRESS 



I 



nal power sources for a duration of not less than 90 
minutes, in case of primary power loss, are not required 
to be connected to an emergency electrical system. 



SECTION 1012 
HANDRAILS 
[B] 1012.1 Where required. Handrails for stairways and 
ramps shall be adequate in strength and attachment in accor- 
dance with Section 1607.8 of the International Building 
Code. Handrails required for stairways by Section 1009.15 
shall comply with Sections 1012.2 through 1012.9. Handrails 
required for ramps by Section 1010.9 shall comply with Sec- 
tions 1012.2 through 1012.8. 

[B] 1012.2 Height. Handrail height, measured above stair 
tread nosings, or finish surface of ramp slope, shall be uni- 
form, not less than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 
inches (965 mm). Handrail height of alternating tread 
devices and ship ladders, measured above tread nosings, shall 
be uniform, not less than 30 inches (762 mm) and not more 
than 34 inches (864 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1. When handrail fittings or bendings are used to pro- 
vide continuous transition between flights, the fit- 
tings or bendings shall be permitted to exceed the 
maximum height. 

2. In Group R-3 occupancies; within dwelling units in 
Group R-2 occupancies; and in Group U occupan- 
cies that are associated with a Group R-3 occupancy 
or associated with individual dwelling units in 
Group R-2 occupancies; when handrail fittings or 
bendings are used to provide continuous transition 
between flights, transition at winder treads, transi- 
tion from handrail to guard, or when used at the 
start of a flight, the handrail height at the fittings or 
bendings shall be permitted to exceed the maximum 
height. 

[B] 1012.3 Handrail graspability. All required handrails 
shall comply with Section 1012.3.1 or shall provide equiva- 
lent graspability. 

Exception: In Group R-3 occupancies; within dwelling 
units in Group R-2 occupancies; and in Group U occupan- 
cies that are accessory to a Group R-3 occupancy or acces- 
sory to individual dwelling units in Group R-2 
occupancies; handrails shall be Type I in accordance with 
Section 1012.3.1, Type II in accordance with Section 
1012.3.2 or shall provide equivalent graspability. 

[B] 1012.3.1 Type I. Handrails with a circular cross sec- 
tion shall have an outside diameter of at least 1 7 4 inches 
(32 mm) and not greater than 2 inches (51 mm). Where the 
handrail is not circular, it shall have a perimeter dimension 
of at least 4 inches (102 mm) and not greater than 6V 4 
inches (160 mm) with a maximum cross-sectional dimen- 
sion of 2'/ 4 inches (57 mm) and minimum cross-sectional 
dimension of 1 inch (25 mm). Edges shall have a minimum 
radius of 0.01 inch (0.25 mm). 



[B] 1012.3.2 Type II. Handrails with a perimeter greater 
than 6'/ 4 inches (160 mm) shall provide a graspable finger 
recess area on both sides of the profile. The finger recess 
shall begin within a distance of 3 / 4 inch (19 mm) measured 
vertically from the tallest portion of the profile and 
achieve a depth of at least V 16 inch (8 mm) within 7 8 inch 
(22 mm) below the widest portion of the profile. This 
required depth shall continue for at least 3 / g inch (10 mm) 
to a level that is not less than 17 4 inches (45 mm) below 
the tallest portion of the profile. The minimum width of 
the handrail above the recess shall be 1 7 4 inches (32 mm) 
to a maximum of 2 3 / 4 inches (70 mm). Edges shall have a 
minimum radius of 0.01 inch (0.25 mm). 

[B] 1012.4 Continuity. Handrail gripping surfaces shall be 
continuous, without interruption by newel posts or other 
obstructions. 

Exceptions: 

1. Handrails within dwelling units are permitted to be 
interrupted by a newel post at a turn or landing. 

2. Within a dwelling unit, the use of a volute, turnout, 
starting easing or starting newel is allowed over the 
lowest tread. 

3. Handrail brackets or balusters attached to the bot- 
tom surface of the handrail that do not project hori- 
zontally beyond the sides of the handrail within 17 2 
inches (38 mm) of the bottom of the handrail shall 
not be considered obstructions. For each 7 2 inch 
(12.7 mm) of additional handrail perimeter dimen- 
sion above 4 inches (102 mm), the vertical clearance 
dimension of l7 2 inches (38 mm) shall be permitted 
to be reduced by 7 8 inch (3 mm). 

4. Where handrails are provided along walking sur- 
faces with slopes not steeper than 1:20, the bottoms 
of the handrail gripping surfaces shall be permitted 
to be obstructed along their entire length where they 
are integral to crash rails or bumper guards. 

[B] 1012.5 Fittings. Handrails shall not rotate within their 
fittings. 

[B] 1012.6 Handrail extensions. Handrails shall return to a 
wall, guard or the walking surface or shall be continuous to 
the handrail of an adjacent stair flight or ramp run. Where 
handrails are not continuous between flights, the handrails 
shall extend horizontally at least 12 inches (305 mm) beyond 
the top riser and continue to slope for the depth of one tread 
beyond the bottom riser. At ramps where handrails are not 
continuous between runs, the handrails shall extend horizon- 
tally above the landing 12 inches (305 mm) minimum beyond 
the top and bottom of ramp runs. The extensions of handrails 
shall be in the same direction of the stair flights at stairways 
and the ramp runs at ramps. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Handrails within a dwelling unit that is not required 
to be accessible need extend only from the top riser 
to the bottom riser. 

2. Aisle handrails in rooms or spaces used for assem- 
bly purposes in accordance with Section 1028.13. 



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MEANS OF EGRESS 



3. Handrails for alternating tread devices and ship lad- 
ders are permitted to terminate at a location verti- 
cally above the top and bottom risers. Handrails for 
alternating tread devices and ship ladders are not 
required to be continuous between flights or to 
extend beyond the top or bottom risers. 

[B] 1012.7 Clearance. Clear space between a handrail and a 
wall or other surface shall be a minimum of l'/ 2 inches (38 
mm). A handrail and a wall or other surface adjacent to the 
handrail shall be free of any sharp or abrasive elements. 

[B] 1012.8 Projections. On ramps, the clear width between 
handrails shall be 36 inches (914 mm) minimum. Projections 
into the required width of stairways and ramps at each side 
shall not exceed 4'/ 2 inches (114 mm) at or below the hand- 
rail height. Projections into the required width shall not be 
limited above the minimum headroom height required in Sec- 
tion 1009.5. Projections due to intermediate handrails shall 
not constitute a reduction in the egress width. 

[B] 1012.9 Intermediate handrails. Stairways shall have 
intermediate handrails located in such a manner that all por- 
tions of the stairway width required for egress capacity are 
within 30 inches (762 mm) of a handrail. On monumental 
stairs, handrails shall be located along the most direct path of 
egress travel. 



SECTION 1013 
GUARDS 

[B] 1013.1 General. Guards shall comply with the provi- 
sions of Sections 1013.2 through 1013.7. Operable windows 
with sills located more than 72 inches (1.83 m) above fin- 
ished grade or other surface below shall comply with Section 
1013.8. 

[B] 1013.2 Where required. Guards shall be located along 
open-sided walking surfaces, including mezzanines, equip- 
ment platforms, stairs, ramps and landings that are located 
more than 30 inches (762 mm) measured vertically to the 
floor or grade below at any point within 36 inches (914 mm) 
horizontally to the edge of the open side. Guards shall be ade- 
quate in strength and attachment in accordance with Section 
1607.8 of the International Building Code. 

Exception: Guards are not required for the following 
locations: 

1 . On the loading side of loading docks or piers. 

2. On the audience side of stages and raised platforms, 
including steps leading up to the stage and raised 
platforms. 

3. On raised stage and platform floor areas, such as 
runways, ramps and side stages used for entertain- 
ment or presentations. 

4. At vertical openings in the performance area of 
stages and platforms. 

5. At elevated walking surfaces appurtenant to stages 
and platforms for access to and utilization of special 
lighting or equipment. 



6. Along vehicle service pits not accessible to the pub- 
lic. 

7. In assembly seating where guards in accordance 
with Section 1028.14 are permitted and provided. 

[B] 1013.2.1 Glazing. Where glass is used to provide a 
guard or as a portion of the guard system, the guard shall 
also comply with Section 2407 of the International Build- 
ing Code. Where the glazing provided does not meet the 
strength and attachment requirements of Section 1607.8 of 
the International Building Code, complying guards shall 
also be located along glazed sides of open-sided walking 
surfaces. 
[B] 1013.3 Height. Required guards shall not be less than 42 
inches (1067 mm) high, measured vertically as follows: 

1 . From the adjacent walking surfaces; 

2. On stairs, from the line connecting the leading edges 
of the tread nosings; and 

3. On ramps, from the ramp surface at the guard. 
Exceptions: 

1. For occupancies in Group R-3 not more than three 
stories above grade in height and within individual 
dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2 not 
more than three stories above grade in height with 
separate means of egress, required guards shall not 
be less than 36 inches (914 mm) in height measured 
vertically above the adjacent walking surfaces or 
adjacent fixed seating. 

2. For occupancies in Group R-3, and within individual 
dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2, guards 
on the open sides of stairs shall have a height not 
less than 34 inches (864 mm) measured vertically 
from a line connecting the leading edges of the 
treads. 

3. For occupancies in Group R-3, and within individual 
dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2, where 
the top of the guard also serves as a handrail on the 
open sides of stairs, the top of the guard shall not be 
less than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 
inches (965 mm) measured vertically from a line 
connecting the leading edges of the treads. 

4. The guard height in assembly seating areas shall 
comply with Section 1028.14. 

5. Along alternating tread devices and ship ladders, 
guards whose top rail also serves as a handrail, shall 
have height not less than 30 inches (762 mm) and 
not more than 34 inches (864 mm), measured verti- 
cally from the leading edge of the device tread nos- 
ing. 

[B] 1013.4 Opening limitations. Required guards shall not 
have openings which allow passage of a sphere 4 inches (102 
mm) in diameter from the walking surface to the required 
guard height. 

Exceptions: 

1. From a height of 36 inches (914 mm) to 42 inches 
(1067 mm), guards shall not have openings which 



1 



160 



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allow passage of a sphere 4 3 / 8 inches (111 mm) in 
diameter. 

2. The triangular openings at the open sides of a stair, 
formed by the riser, tread and bottom rail shall not 
allow passage of a sphere 6 inches (152 mm) in 
diameter. 

3. At elevated walking surfaces for access to and use of 
electrical, mechanical or plumbing systems or 
equipment, guards shall not have openings which 
allow passage of a sphere 21 inches (533 mm) in 
diameter. 

4. In areas that are not open to the public within occu- 
pancies in Group 1-3, F, H or S, and for alternating 
tread devices and ship ladders, guards shall not have 
openings which allow passage of a sphere 21 inches 
(533 mm) in diameter. 

5. In assembly seating areas, guards at the end of aisles 
where they terminate at a fascia of boxes, balconies 
and galleries shall not have openings which allow 
passage of a sphere 4 inches in diameter (102 mm) 
up to a height of 26 inches (660 mm). From a height 
of 26 inches (660 mm) to 42 inches (1067 mm) 
above the adjacent walking surfaces, guards shall 
not have openings which allow passage of a sphere 8 
inches (203 mm) in diameter. 

6. Within individual dwelling units and sleeping units 
in Group R-2 and R-3 occupancies, guards on the 
open sides of stairs shall not have openings which 
allow passage of a sphere 4 3 / 8 (111 mm) inches in 
diameter. 

[B] 1013.5 Screen porches. Porches and decks which are 
enclosed with insect screening shall be provided with guards 
where the walking surface is located more than 30 inches 
(762 mm) above the floor or grade below. 

[B] 1013.6 Mechanical equipment. Guards shall be pro- 
vided where appliances, equipment, fans, roof hatch openings 
or other components that require service are located within 10 
feet (3048 mm) of a roof edge or open side of a walking sur- 
face and such edge or open side is located more than 30 
inches (762 mm) above the floor, roof or grade below. The 
guard shall be constructed so as to prevent the passage of a 
sphere 21 inches (533 mm) in diameter. The guard shall 
extend not less than 30 inches (762 mm) beyond each end of 
such appliance, equipment, fan or component. 

[B] 1013.7 Roof access. Guards shall be provided where the 
roof hatch opening is located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of a 
roof edge or open side of a walking surface and such edge or 
open side is located more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the 
floor, roof or grade below. The guard shall be constructed so 
as to prevent the passage of a sphere 21 inches (533 mm) in 
diameter. 

[B] 1013.8 Window sills. In Occupancy Groups R-2 and R-3, 
one- and two-family and multiple-family dwellings, where 
the opening of the sill portion of an operable window is 
located more than 72 inches (1829 mm) above the finished 



grade or other surface below, the lowest part of the clear 
opening of the window shall be at a height not less than 36 
inches (915 mm) above the finished floor surface of the room 
in which the window is located. Operable sections of win- 
dows shall not permit openings that allow passage of a 4- 
inch-diameter (102 mm) sphere where such openings are 
located within 36 inches (915 mm) of the finished floor. 

Exceptions: 

1. Operable windows where the sill portion of the 
opening is located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) 
above the finished grade or other surface below and 
that are provided with window fall prevention 
devices that comply with ASTM F 2006. 

2. Windows whose openings will not allow a 4-inch- 
diameter (102 mm) sphere to pass through the open- 
ing when the opening is in its largest opened posi- 
tion. 

3. Openings that are provided with window fall pre- 
vention devices that comply with ASTM F 2090. 

4. Windows that are provided with window opening 
control devices that comply with Section 1013.8.1. 

1013.8.1 Window opening control devices. Window 
opening control devices shall comply with ASTM F 
2090. The window opening control device, after opera- 
tion to release the control device allowing the window 
to fully open, shall not reduce the minimum net clear 
opening area of the window unit to less than the area 
required by Section 1029.2. 



SECTION 1014 
EXIT ACCESS 

[B] 1014.1 General. The exit access shall comply with the 
applicable provisions of Sections 1003 through 1013. Exit 
access arrangement shall comply with Sections 1014 through 
1019. 

[B] 1014.2 Egress through intervening spaces. Egress 
through intervening spaces shall comply with this section. 

1. Egress from a room or space shall not pass through 
adjoining or intervening rooms or areas, except where 
such adjoining rooms or areas and the area served are 
accessory to one or the other, are not a Group H occu- 
pancy and provide a discernible path of egress travel to 
an exit. 

Exception: Means of egress are not prohibited 
through adjoining or intervening rooms or spaces in 
a Group H, S or F occupancy when the adjoining or 
intervening rooms or spaces are the same or a lesser 
hazard occupancy group. 

2. An exit access shall not pass through a room that can be 
locked to prevent egress. 

3. Means of egress from dwelling units or sleeping areas 
shall not lead through other sleeping areas, toilet rooms 
or bathrooms. 



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4. Egress shall not pass through kitchens, storage rooms, 
closets or spaces used for similar purposes. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Means of egress are not prohibited through a 
kitchen area serving adjoining rooms consti- 
tuting part of the same dwelling unit or sleep- 
ing unit. 

2. Means of egress are not prohibited through 
stockrooms in Group M occupancies when all 
of the following are met: 

2. 1 . The stock is of the same hazard class- 
ification as that found in the main 
retail area; 

2.2. Not more than 50 percent of the exit 
access is through the stockroom; 

2.3. The stockroom is not subject to 
locking from the egress side; and 

2.4. There is a demarcated, minimum 44- 
inch-wide (1118 mm) aisle defined by 
full- or partial-height fixed walls or 
similar construction that will maintain 
the required width and lead directly 
from the retail area to the exit without 
obstructions. 

[B] 1014.2.1 Multiple tenants. Where more than one ten- 
ant occupies any one floor of a building or structure, each 
tenant space, dwelling unit and sleeping unit shall be pro- 
vided with access to the required exits without passing 
through adjacent tenant spaces, dwelling units and sleep- 
ing units. 

Exception: The means of egress from a smaller tenant 
space shall not be prohibited from passing through a 



larger adjoining tenant space where such rooms or 

spaces of the smaller tenant occupy less than 10 percent 

of the area of the larger tenant space through which 

they pass; are the same or similar occupancy group; a 

discernable path of egress travel to an exit is provided; 

and the means of egress into the adjoining space is not 

subject to locking from the egress side. A required 

means of egress serving the larger tenant space shall 

not pass through the smaller tenant space or spaces. 

[B] 1014.3 Common path of egress travel. The common 

path of egress travel shall not exceed the common path of 

egress travel distances in Table 1014.3. 

SECTION 1015 
EXIT AND EXIT ACCESS DOORWAYS 

[B] 1015.1 Exits or exit access doorways from spaces. Two 

exits or exit access doorways from any space shall be pro- 
vided where one of the following conditions exists: 

1. The occupant load of the space exceeds one of the val- 
ues in Table 1015.1. 

Exceptions: 

1 . In Group R-2 and R-3 occupancies, one means 
of egress is permitted within and from individ- 
ual dwelling units with a maximum occupant 
load of 20 where the dwelling unit is equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system 
in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 
903.3.1.2. 

2. Care suites in Group 1-2 occupancies comply- 
ing with Section 407.4.3 of the International 
Building Code. 

2. The common path of egress travel exceeds one of 
the limitations of Section 1014.3. 



[B] TABLE 1014.3 
COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL 



OCCUPANCY 


WITHOUT SPRINKLER SYSTEM (feet) 


WITH SPRINKLER SYSTEM 
(feet) 


Occupant Load 


<30 


>30 


B, S d 


100 


75 


100" 


U 


100 


75 


75" 


F 


75 


75 


100 a 


H-l,H-2,H-3 


Not Permitted 


Not Permitted 


25 a 


R-2 


75 


75 


125 b 


R-3 e 


75 


75 


125 b 


1-3 


100 


100 


100" 


All others' 1 


75 


75 


75" 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

b. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1 .2. See Section 903 for occupancies where 
automatic sprinkler systems are permitted in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2. 

c. For a room or space used for assembly purposes having fixed seating, see Section 1028.8. 

d. The length of a common path of egress travel in a Group S-2 open parking garage shall not be more than 1 00 feet (30 480 mm). 

e. The length of a common path of egress travel in a Group R-3 occupancy located in a mixed occupancy building. 

f. For the distance limitation in Group 1-2, see Section 407.4 of the International Building Code. 



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3. Where required by Section 1015.3, 1015.4, 1015 5 
or 1015.6. 

Where a building contains mixed occupancies, each indi- 
vidual occupancy shall comply with the applicable require- 
ments for that occupancy. Where applicable, cumulative 
occupant loads from adjacent occupancies shall be consid- 
ered in accordance with the provisions of Section 1004.1. 

[B] TABLE 1015.1 
SPACES WITH ONE EXIT OR EXIT ACCESS DOORWAY 





OCCUPANCY 


MAXIMUM OCCUPANT LOAD 


I 


A, B, E, F, M, U 


49 




H-1,H-2,H-3 


3 


i 


H-4, H-5, 1-1,1-2, 1-3, 1-4. R 


10 




S 


29 



[B] 1015.1.1 Three or more exits or exit access door- 
ways. Three exits or exit access doorways shall be pro- 
vided from any space with an occupant load of 501 to 
1,000. Four exits or exit access doorways shall be provided 
from any space with an occupant load greater than 1,000. 

[B] 1015.2 Exit or exit access doorway arrangement. 

Required exits shall be located in a manner that makes their 
availability obvious. Exits shall be unobstructed at all times. 
Exit and exit access doorways shall be arranged in accor- 
dance with Sections 1015.2.1 and 1015.2.2. 

[B] 1015.2.1 Two exits or exit access doorways. Where 
two exits or exit access doorways are required from any 
portion of the exit access, the exit doors or exit access 
doorways shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less 
than one-half of the length of the maximum overall diago- 
nal dimension of the building or area to be served mea- 
sured in a straight line between exit doors or exit access 
doorways. Interlocking or scissor stairs shall be counted 
as one exit stairway. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Where interior exit stairways are interconnected 
by a 1-hour fire-resistance-rated corridor con- 
forming to the requirements of Section 1018, the 
required exit separation shall be measured along 
the shortest direct line of travel within the corri- 
dor. 

2. Where a building is equipped throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the separation dis- 
tance of the exit doors or exit access doorways 
shall not be less than one-third of the length of 
the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the 
area served. 

[B] 1015.2.2 Three or more exits or exit access door- 
ways. Where access to three or more exits is required, at 
least two exit doors or exit access doorways shall be 
arranged in accordance with the provisions of Section 
1015.2.1. 



[B] 1015.3 Boiler, incinerator and furnace rooms. Two exit 
access doorways are required in boiler, incinerator and fur- 
nace rooms where the area is over 500 square feet (46 m 2 ) and 
any fuel-fired equipment exceeds 400,000 British thermal 
units (Btu) (422 000 KJ) input capacity. Where two exit 
access doorways are required, one is permitted to be a fixed 
ladder or an alternating tread device. Exit access doorways 
shall be separated by a horizontal distance equal to one-half 
the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the 
room. 

[B] 1015.4 Refrigeration machinery rooms. Machinery 
rooms larger than 1,000 square feet (93 m 2 ) shall have not 
less than two exits or exit access doorways. Where two exit 
access doorways are required, one such doorway is permitted 
to be served by a fixed ladder or an alternating tread device. 
Exit access doorways shall be separated by a horizontal dis- 
tance equal to one-half the maximum horizontal dimension of 
room. 

All portions of machinery rooms shall be within 150 feet 
(45 720 mm) of an exit or exit access doorway. An increase in 
travel distance is permitted in accordance with Section 
1016.1. 

Doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel, regard- 
less of the occupant load served. Doors shall be tight fitting 
and self-closing. 

[B] 1015.5 Refrigerated rooms or spaces. Rooms or spaces 
having a floor area larger than 1 ,000 square feet (93 m 2 ), con- 
taining a refrigerant evaporator and maintained at a tempera- 
ture below 68°F (20°C), shall have access to not less than two 
exits or exit access doorways. 

Travel distance shall be determined as specified in Section 
1016.1, but all portions of a refrigerated room or space shall 
be within 1 50 feet (45 720 mm) of an exit or exit access door- 
way where such rooms are not protected by an approved 
automatic sprinkler system. Egress is allowed through 
adjoining refrigerated rooms or spaces. 

Exception: Where using refrigerants in quantities limited 
to the amounts based on the volume set forth in the Inter- 
national Mechanical Code. 

[B] 1015.6 Day care means of egress. Day care facilities, 
rooms or spaces where care is provided for more than 10 chil- 
dren that are 2'/ 2 years of age or less, shall have access to not 
less than two exits or exit access doorways. 

SECTION 1016 
EXIT ACCESS TRAVEL DISTANCE 

[B] 1016.1 General. Travel distance within the exit access 
portion of the means of egress system shall be in accordance 
with this section. 

[B] 1016.2 Limitations. Exit access travel distance shall not 
exceed the values given in Table 1016.2. 



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[B] TABLE 1016.2 
EXIT ACCESS TRAVEL DISTANCE 3 



OCCUPANCY 


WITHOUT 

SPRINKLER SYSTEM 

(feet) 


WITH 

SPRINKLER SYSTEM 

(feet) 


A,E,F-1,M,R, S-l 


200 


250" 


l-l 


Not Permitted 


250° 


B 


200 


300 c 


F-2, S-2, U 


300 


400 c 


HI 


Not Permitted 


75 c 


H-2 


Not Permitted 


100 c 


H-3 


Not Permitted 


150 c 


H-4 


Not Permitted 


175 c 


H-5 


Not Permitted 


200 c 


1-2, 1-3, 1-4 


Not Permitted 


200 c 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. See the following sections for modifications to exit access travel distance 
requirements: 

Section 402.8 of the International Building Code: For the distance 

limitation in malls. 
Section 404.9 of the International Building Code: For the distance 

limitation through an atrium space. 
Section 407.4 of the International Building Code: For the distance 

limitation in Group 1-2. 
Sections 408.6.1 and 408.8.1 of the International Building Code: For 

the distance limitations in Group 1-3. 
Section 411.4 of the International Building Code: For the distance 

limitation in special amusement buildings. 
Section 1015.4: For the distance limitation in refrigeration machinery 

rooms. 
Section 101.5.5: For the distance limitation in refrigerated rooms and 

spaces. 
Section 1021 .2: For buildings with one exit. 
Section 1028.7: For increased limitation in assembly seating. 
Section 1028.7: For increased limitation for assembly open-air 

seating. 
Section 3103.4 of the International Building Code: For temporary 

structures. 
Section 3104.9 of the International Building Code: For pedestrian 

walkways. 

b. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. See Section 903 for 
occupancies where automatic sprinkler systems are permitted in 
accordance with Section 903.3. 1 .2. 

c. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1 . 1 . 

[B] 1016.2.1 Exterior egress balcony increase. Exit 
access travel distances specified in Table 1016.2 shall be 
increased up to an additional 100 feet (30 480 mm) pro- 
vided the last portion of the exit access leading to the exit 
occurs on an exterior egress balcony constructed in accor- 
dance with Section 1019. The length of such balcony shall 
not be less than the amount of the increase taken. 

[B] 1016.3 Measurement. Exit access travel distance shall 
be measured from the most remote point within a story along 
the natural and unobstructed path of horizontal and verti- 
cal egress travel to the entrance to an exit. 

Exceptions: 

1 . In open parking garages, exit access travel distance 
is permitted to be measured to the closest riser of an 



exit access stairway or the closest slope of an exit 
access ramp. 

2. In outdoor facilities with open exit access compo- 
nents, exit access travel distance is permitted to be 
measured to the closest riser of an exit access stair- 
way or the closest slope of an exit access ramp. 

[B] 1016.3.1 Exit access stairways and ramps. Travel 
distance on exit access stab-ways or ramps shall be 
included in the exit access travel distance measurement. 
The measurement along stairways shall be made on a 
plane parallel and tangent to the stair tread nosings in the 
center of the stair and landings. The measurement along 
ramps shall be made on the walking surface in the center 
of the ramp and landings. 



SECTION 1017 
AISLES 

[B] 1017.1 General. Aisles and aisle accessways serving as a 
portion of the exit access in the means of egress system shall 
comply with the requirements of this section. Aisles or aisle 
accessways shall be provided from all occupied portions of 
the exit access which contain seats, tables, furnishings, dis- 
plays and similar fixtures or equipment. The required width 
of aisles shall be unobstructed. 



Exception: 

1005.7. 



Encroachments complying with Section 



[B] 1017.2 Aisles in assembly spaces. Aisles and aisle 
accessways serving a room or space used for assembly pur- 
poses shall comply with Section 1028. 

[B] 1017.3 Aisles in Groups B and M. In Group B and M 
occupancies, the minimum clear aisle width shall be deter- 
mined by Section 1005.1 for the occupant load served, but 
shall not be less than 36 inches (914 mm). 

Exception: Nonpublic aisles serving less than 50 people 
and not required to be accessible by Chapter 1 1 of the 
International Building Code need not exceed 28 inches 
(711 mm) in width. 

[B] 1017.4 Aisle accessways in Group M. An aisle access- 
way shall be provided on at least one side of each element 
within the merchandise pad. The minimum clear width for an 
aisle accessway not required to be accessible shall be 30 
inches (762 mm). The required clear width of the aisle 
accessway shall be measured perpendicular to the elements 
and merchandise within the merchandise pad. The 30-inch 
(762 mm) minimum clear width shall be maintained to pro- 
vide a path to an adjacent aisle or aisle accessway. The com- 
mon path of egress travel shall not exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) 
from any point in the merchandise pad. 

Exception: For areas serving not more than 50 occupants, 
the common path of egress travel shall not exceed 75 feet 
(22 860 mm). 

[B] 1017.5 Aisles in other than assembly spaces and 
Groups B and M. In other than rooms or spaces used for 
assembly purposes and Group B and M occupancies, the min- 
imum clear aisle width shall be determined by Section 1005.1 



184 



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for the occupant load served, but shall not be less than 36 
inches (914 mm). 



SECTION 1018 
CORRIDORS 

[BJ 1018.1 Construction. Corridors shall be fire-resistance 
rated in accordance with Table 1018.1. The corridor walls 
required to be fire-resistance rated shall comply with Section 
708 of the International Building Code for fire partitions . 

Exceptions: 

1. Afire-resistance rating is not required for corridors 
in an occupancy in Group E where each room that is 
used for instruction has at least one door opening 
directly to the exterior and rooms for assembly pur- 
poses have at least one-half of the required means of 
egress doors opening directly to the exterior. Exte- 
rior doors specified in this exception are required to 
be at ground level. 

2. Afire-resistance rating is not required for corridors 
contained within a dwelling or sleeping unit in an 
occupancy in Group R. 

3. A fire- resistance rating is not required for corridors 
in open parking garages. 

4. Afire-resistance rating is not required for corridors 
in an occupancy in Group B which is a space requir- 



ing only a single means of egress complying with 
Section 1015.1. 

5. Corridors adjacent to the exterior walls of buildings 
shall be permitted to have unprotected openings on 
unrated exterior walls where unrated walls are per- 
mitted by Table 602 of the International Building 
Code and unprotected openings are permitted by 
Table 705.8 of the International Building Code. 

[B] 1018.2 Width. The minimum width of corridors speci- 
fied in Table 101 8.2 shall be as determined in Section 1005.1. 

[B] 1018.3 Obstruction. The required width of corridors 
shall be unobstructed. 



Exception: 
1005.7. 



Encroachments complying with Section 



[B] 1018.4 Dead ends. Where more than one exit or exit 
access doorway is required, the exit access shall be arranged 
such that there are no dead ends in corridors more than 20 
feet (6096 mm) in length. 

Exceptions: 

1. In occupancies in Group 1-3 of Occupancy Condi- 
tion 2, 3 or 4 (see Section 308.5), the dead end in a 
corridor shall not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm). 

2. In occupancies in Groups B, E, F, 1-1, M, R-l, R-2, 
R-4, S and U, where the building is equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in 



OCCUPANCY 



H-l,H-2,H-3 



H-4, H-5 



A, B, E, F, M, S, U 



R 



I-2 a , 1-4 



1-1,1-3 



[B] TABLE 1018.1 
CORRIDOR FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING 



OCCUPANT LOAD SERVED BY CORRIDOR 



All 



Greater than 30 



Greater than 30 



Greater than 10 



AH 



All 



REQUIRED FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 



Without sprinkler system 



Not Permitted 



Not Permitted 



Not Permitted 



Not Permitted 



Not Permitted 



With sprinkler system" 



a. For requirements for occupancies in Group 1-2, see Sections 407.2 and 407.3 of the International Building Code. 

b. For a reduction in the fire-resistance rating for occupancies in Group 1-3, see Section 408.8 of the International Building Code. 

c. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1 . 1 or 903.3. 1.2 where allowed 



0.5 



[B] TABLE 1018.2 
MINIMUM CORRIDOR WIDTH 



OCCUPANCY 



Any facilities not listed below 



Access to and utilization of mechanical, plumbing or electricalsystems or equipment 



With a required occupancy capacity less than 50 



Within a dwelling unit 



In Group E with a corridor having a required capacity of 100 or more 



In corridors and areas serving gurney traffic in occupancies where patients receive outpa- 
ttent medical care, which causes the patient to be incapable of self-preservation 



Group 1-2 in areas where required for bed movement 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



WIDTH (minimum) 



44 inches 



24 inches 



36 inches 



36 inches 



72 inches 



72 inches 



96 inches 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



165 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



accordance with Section 903.3.1 .1, the length of the 
dead-end corridors shall not exceed 50 feet (15 240 
mm). 
3. A dead-end corridor shall not be limited in length 
where the length of the dead-end corridor is less 
than 2.5 times the least width of the dead-end corri- 
dor. 
[B] 1018.5 Air movement in corridors. Corridors shall not 
serve as supply, return, exhaust, relief or ventilation air ducts. 

Exceptions: 

1. Use of a corridor as a source of makeup air for 
exhaust systems in rooms that open directly onto 
such corridors, including toilet rooms, bathrooms, 
dressing rooms, smoking lounges and janitor clos- 
ets, shall be permitted, provided that each such cor- 
ridor is directly supplied with outdoor air at a rate 
greater than the rate of makeup air taken from the 
corridor. 

2. Where located within a dwelling unit, the use of cor- 
ridors for conveying return air shall not be prohib- 
ited. 

3. Where located within tenant spaces of 1,000 square 
feet (93 m 2 ) or less in area, utilization of corridors 
for conveying return air is permitted. 

4. Incidental air movement from pressurized rooms 
within health care facilities, provided that the corri- 
dor is not the primary source of supply or return to 
the room. 

[B] 1018.5.1 Corridor ceiling. Use of the space between 
the corridor ceiling and the floor or roof structure above 
as a return air plenum is permitted for one or more of the 
following conditions: 

1 . The corridor is not required to be of fire-resistance- 
rated construction; 

2. The corridor is separated from the plenum by fire- 
resistance-rated construction; 

3. The air-handling system serving the corridor is shut 
down upon activation of the air-handling unit smoke 
detectors required by the International Mechanical 
Code; 

4. The air-handling system serving the corridor is shut 
down upon detection of sprinkler waterflow where 
the building is equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system; or 

5. The space between the corridor ceiling and the floor 
or roof structure above the corridor is used as a 
component of an approved engineered smoke con- 
trol system. 

[B] 1018.6 Corridor continuity. Fire-resistance-rated corri- 
dors shall be continuous from the point of entry to an exit, 
and shall not be interrupted by intervening rooms. Where the 
path of egress travel within a fire-resistance-rated corridor to 
the exit includes travel along unenclosed exit access stair- 
ways or ramps, the fire resistance-rating shall be continuous 
for the length of the stairway or ramp and for the length of 



I 



the connecting corridor on the adjacent floor leading to the 

exit. 

Exception: Foyers, lobbies or reception rooms con- 
structed as required for corridors shall not be construed as 
intervening rooms. 

SECTION 1019 
EGRESS BALCONIES 

[B] 1019.1 General. Balconies used for egress purposes shall 
conform to the same requirements as corridors for width, 
headroom, dead ends and projections. 
[B] 1019.2 Wall separation. Exterior egress balconies shall 
be separated from the interior of the building by walls and 
opening protectives as required for corridors. 

Exception: Separation is not required where the exterior 
egress balcony is served by at least two stairs and a dead- 
end travel condition does not require travel past an unpro- 
tected opening to reach a stair. 
[B] 1019.3 Openness. The long side of an egress balcony 
shall be at least 50 percent open, and the open area above the 
guards shall be so distributed as to minimize the accumula- 
tion of smoke or toxic gases. 

[B] 1019.4 Location. Exterior egress balconies shall have a 
minimum fire separation distance of 10 feet (3048 mm) mea- 
sured from the exterior edge of the egress balcony to adjacent 
lot lines and from other buildings on the same lot unless the 
adjacent building exterior walls and openings are protected in 
accordance with Section 705 of the International Building 
Code based on fire separation distance. 



SECTION 1020 
EXITS 

[B] 1020.1 General. Exits shall comply with Sections 1020 
through 1026 and the applicable requirements of Sections 
1003 through 1013. An exit shall not be used for any purpose 
that interferes with its function as a means of egress. Once a 
given level of exit protection is achieved, such level of pro- 
tection shall not be reduced until arrival at the exit discharge. 
[B] 1020.2 Exterior exit doors. Buildings or structures used 
for human occupancy shall have at least one exterior door 
that meets the requirements of Section 1008.1.1. 

[B] 1020.2.1 Detailed requirements. Exterior exit doors 

shall comply with the applicable requirements of Section 

1008.1. 

[B] 1020.2.2 Arrangement. Exterior exit doors shall lead 

directly to the exit discharge or the public way. 

SECTION 1021 
NUMBER OF EXITS AND EXIT CONFIGURATION 

[B] 1021.1 General. Each story and occupied roof shall have 
the minimum number of exits, or access to exits, as specified 
in this section. The required number of exits, or exit access 
stairways or ramps providing access to exits, from any story 
shall be maintained until arrival at grade or a public way. 



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Exits or access to exits from any story shall be configured in 
accordance with this section. Each story above the second 
story of a building shall have a minimum of one interior or 
exterior exit stairway, or interior or exterior exit ramp. At 
each story above the second story that requires a minimum of 
three or more exits, or access to exits, a minimum of 50 per- 
cent of the required exits shall be interior or exterior exit 
stab-ways, or interior or exterior exit ramps. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Interior exit stairways and interior exit ramps are not 
required in open parking garages where the means of 
egress serves only the open parking garage. 

2. Interior exit stairways and interior exit ramps are not 
required in outdoor facilities where all portions of 
the means of egress are essentially open to the out- 
side. 

[B] 1021.2 Exits from stories. Two exits, or exit access stair- 
ways or ramps providing access to exits, from any story or 
occupied roof shall be provided where one of the following 
conditions exists: 

1. The occupant load or number of dwelling units exceeds 
one of the values in Table 1021.2(1) or 1021 .2(2). 

2. The exit access travel distance exceeds that specified in 
Table 1021.2(1) or 1021.2(2) as determined in accor- 
dance with the provisions of Section 1016.1. 



3. Helistop landing areas located on buildings or struc- 
tures shall be provided with two exits, or exit access 
stairways or ramps providing access to exits. 

Exceptions: 

1. Rooms, areas and spaces complying with Section 
1015.1 with exits that discharge directly to the exte- 
rior at the level of exit discharge are permitted to 
have one exit. 

2. Group R-3 occupancy buildings shall be permitted 
to have one exit. 

3. Parking garages where vehicles are mechanically 
parked shall be permitted to have one exit . 

4. Air traffic control towers shall be provided with the 
minimum number of exits specified in Section 412.3 
of the International Building Code. 

5. Individual dwelling units in compliance with Sec- 
tion 1021.2.3. 

6. Group R-3 and R-4 congregate residences shall be 
permitted to have one exit. 

7. Exits serving specific spaces or areas need not be 
accessed by the remainder of the story when all of 
the following are met: 

7.1. The number of exits from the entire story 
complies with Section 1021.2.4; 



[B] TABLE 1021.2(1) 
STORIES WITH ONE EXIT OR ACCESS TO ONE EXIT FOR R-2 OCCUPANCIES 



STORY 


OCCUPANCY 


MAXIMUM NUMBER OF DWELLING UNITS 


MAXIMUM EXIT ACCESS TRAVEL DISTANCE 


Basement, first, second or third story 


R-2 a - b 


4 dwelling units 


125 feet 


Fourth story and above 


NP 


NA 


NA 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 
NP - Not Permitted. 
NA - Not Applicable. 

a. Buildings classified as Group R-2 equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and provided 
with emergency escape and rescue openings in accordance with Section 1029. 

b. This table is used for R-2 occupancies consisting of dwelling units. For R-2 occupancies consisting of sleeping units, use Table 1021.2(2). 



[B] TABLE 1021.2(2) 
STORIES WITH ONE EXIT OR ACCESS TO ONE EXIT FOR OTHER OCCUPANCIES 



STORY 


OCCUPANCY 


MAXIMUM OCCUPANTS PER STORY 


MAXIMUM EXIT ACCESS TRAVEL DISTANCE 


First story or basement 


A, B", E, F", M, U, S b 


49 occupants 


75 feet 


H-2, H-3 


3 occupants 


25 feet 


H-4,H-5,I,R-l,R-2 ac ,R-4 


10 occupants 


75 feet 


S 


29 occupants 


100 feet 


Second story 


B, F, M, S 


29 occupants 


75 feet 


Third story and above 


NP 


NA 


NA 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 
NP - Not Permitted. 
NA - Not Applicable. 

a. Buildings classified as Group R-2 equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1 .2 and provided 
with emergency escape and rescue openings in accordance with Section 1029. 

b. Group B, F and S occupancies in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 shall have a 
maximum travel distance of 100 feet. 

c. This table is used for R-2 occupancies consisting of sleeping units. For R-2 occupancies consisting of dwelling units, use Table 1021.2(1). 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



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MEANS OF EGRESS 



7.2. The access to exits from each individual 
space in the story complies with Section 
1015.1; and 

7.3. All spaces within each portion of a story 
shall have access to the minimum number of 
approved independent exits based on the 
occupant load of that portion of the story, 
but not less than two exits. 

[B] 1021.2.1 Mixed occupancies. Where one exit, or exit 
access stairway or ramp providing access to exits at other 
stories, is permitted to serve individual stories, mixed 
occupancies shall be permitted to be served by single exits 
provided each individual occupancy complies with the 
applicable requirements of Table 1021.2(1) or Table 
1021.2(2) for that occupancy. Where applicable, cumula- 
tive occupant loads from adjacent occupancies shall be 
considered in accordance with the provisions of Section 
1004.1. 

In each story of a mixed occupancy building, the maxi- 
mum number of occupants served by a single exit shall be 
such that the sum of the ratios of the calculated number of 
occupants of the space divided by the allowable number of 
occupants for each occupancy does not exceed one. 

[B] 1021.2.2 Basements. A basement provided with one 
exit shall not be located more than one story below grade 
plane. 

[B] 1021.2.3 Single-story or multiple-story dwelling 
units. Individual single-story or multiple-story dwelling 
units shall be permitted to have a single exit within and 
from the dwelling unit provided that all of the following 
criteria are met: 

1 . The dwelling unit complies with Section 1015.1 as a 
space with one means of egress; and 

2. Either the exit from the dwelling unit discharges 
directly to the exterior at the level of exit discharge, 
or the exit access outside the dwelling unit's 
entrance door provides access to not less than two 
approved independent exits. 

[B] 1021.2.4 Three or more exits. Three exits, or exit 
access stairways or ramps providing access to exits at 
other stories, shall be provided from any story or occupied 
roof with an occupant load from 501 to and including 
1,000. Four exits, or exit access stairways or ramps pro- 
viding access to exits at other stories, shall be provided 
from any story or occupied roof with an occupant load 
greater than 1 ,000. 

[B] 1021.2.5 Additional exits. In buildings over 420 feet 
(128 m) in height, additional exits shall be provided in 
accordance with Section 403.5.2 of the International 
Building Code. 

[B] 1021.3 Exit configuration. Exits, or exit access stair- 
ways or ramps providing access to exits at other stories, shall 
be arranged in accordance with the provisions of Sections 
1015.2 through 1015.2.2. Exits shall be continuous from the 
point of entry into the exit to the exit discharge. 



[B] 1021.3.1 Access to exits at adjacent levels. Access to 
exits at other levels shall be by stairways or ramps. Where 
access to exits occurs from adjacent building levels, the 
horizontal and vertical exit access travel distance to the 
closest exit shall not exceed that specified in Section 
1016.1. Access to exits at other levels shall be from an 
adjacent story. 

Exception: Landing platforms or roof areas for heli- 
stops that are less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) long, or 
less than 2,000 square feet (186 m 2 ) in area, shall be 
permitted to access the second exit by a fire escape, 
alternating tread device or ladder leading to the story 
or level below. 

[B] 1021.4 Vehicular ramps. Vehicular ramps shall not be 
considered as an exit access ramp unless pedestrian facilities 
are provided. 

SECTION 1022 
INTERIOR EXIT STAIRWAYS AND RAMPS 

[B] 1022.1 General. Interior exit stairways and interior exit 
ramps serving as an exit component in a means of egress sys- 
tem shall comply with the requirements of this section. Inte- 
rior exit stairways and ramps shall lead directly to the 
exterior of the building or shall be extended to the exterior of 
the building with an exit passageway conforming to the 
requirements of Section 1023, except as permitted in Section 
1027.1. An interior exit stairway or ramp shall not be used for 
any purpose other than as a means of egress. 

[B] 1022.2 Construction. Enclosures for interior exit stair- 
ways and ramps shall be constructed as fire barriers in accor- 
dance with Section 707 of the International Building Code or 
horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 
711 of the International Building Code, or both. Interior exit 
stairway and ramp enclosures shall have a fire-resistance 
rating of not less than 2 hours where connecting four stories 
or more and not less than 1 hour where connecting less than 
four stories. The number of stories connected by the interior 
exit stairways or ramps shall include any basements, but not 
any mezzanines. Interior exit stairways and ramps shall have 
& fire-resistance rating not less than the floor assembly pene- 
trated, but need not exceed 2 hours. 

Exception: Interior exit stairways and ramps in Group 1-3 
occupancies in accordance with the provisions of Section 
408.3.8 of the International Building Code. 

[B] 1022.3 Termination. Interior exit stairways and ramps 
shall terminate at an exit discharge or a public way. 

Exception: Interior exit stairways and ramps shall be per- 
mitted to terminate at an exit passageway complying with 
Section 1023, provided the exit passageway terminates at 
an exit discharge or a public way. 

[B] 1022.3.1 Extension. Where interior exit stairways 
and ramps are extended to an exit discharge or a public 
way by an exit passageway, the interior exit stairway and 
ramp shall be separated from the exit passageway by afire 
barrier constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the 
International Building Code or a horizontal assembly con- 
structed in accordance with Section 711 of the Interna- 



168 



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MEANS OF EGRESS 



tional Building Code, or both. The fire-resistance rating 
shall be at least equal to that required for the interior 
exit stairway and ramp. A fire door assembly complying 
with Section 716.5 of the International Building Code 
shall be installed in the fire barrier to provide a means of 
egress from the interior exit stairway and ramp to the exit 
passageway. Openings in the fire barrier other than the 
fire door assembly are prohibited. Penetrations of the fire 
barrier are prohibited. 

Exception: Penetrations of the fire barrier in accor- 
dance with Section 1022.5 shall be permitted. 

[B] 1022.4 Openings. Interior exit stairway and ramp open- 
ing protectives shall be in accordance with the requirements 
of Section 7 1 6 of the International Building Code. 

Openings in interior exit stairways and ramps other than 
unprotected exterior openings shall be limited to those neces- 
sary for exit access to the enclosure from normally occupied 
spaces and for egress from the enclosure. 

Elevators shall not open into interior exit stairways and 
ramps. 

[B] 1022.5 Penetrations. Penetrations into and openings 
through interior exit stairways and ramps are prohibited 
except for required exit doors, equipment and ductwork nec- 
essary for independent ventilation or pressurization, sprinkler 
piping, standpipes, electrical raceway for fire department 
communication systems and electrical raceway serving the 
interior exit stairway and ramp and terminating at a steel box 
not exceeding 16 square inches (0.010 m 2 ). Such penetrations 
shall be protected in accordance with Section 714 of the 
International Building Code. There shall be no penetrations 
or communicating openings, whether protected or not, 
between adjacent interior exit stairways and ramps. 

Exception: Membrane penetrations shall be permitted on 
the outside of the interior exit stairway and ramp. Such 
penetrations shall be protected in accordance with Section 
714.3.2 of the International Building Code. 

[B] 1022.6 Ventilation. Equipment and ductwork for interior 
exit stairway and ramp ventilation as permitted by Section 
1022.5 shall comply with one of the following items: 

1. Such equipment and ductwork shall be located exterior 
to the building and shall be directly connected to the 
interior exit stairway and ramp by ductwork enclosed 
in construction as required for shafts. 

2. Where such equipment and ductwork is located within 
the interior exit stairway and ramp, the intake air shall 
be taken directly from the outdoors and the exhaust air 
shall be discharged directly to the outdoors, or such air 
shall be conveyed through ducts enclosed in construc- 
tion as required for shafts. 

3. Where located within the building, such equipment and 
ductwork shall be separated from the remainder of the 
building, including other mechanical equipment, with 
construction as required for shafts. 

In each case, openings into the fire-resistance-rated con- 
struction shall be limited to those needed for maintenance and 
operation and shall be protected by opening protectives in 



accordance with Section 716 of the International Building 
Code for shaft enclosures. 

The interior exit stairway and ramp ventilation systems 
shall be independent of other building ventilation systems. 

[B] 1022.7 Interior exit stairway and ramp exterior walls. 

Exterior walls of the interior exit stairway and ramp shall 
comply with the requirements of Section 705 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code for exterior walls. Where nonrated walls 
or unprotected openings enclose the exterior of the stairway 
and the walls or openings are exposed by other parts of the 
building at an angle of less than 180 degrees (3.14 rad), the 
building exterior walls within 10 feet (3048 mm) horizontally 
of a nonrated wall or unprotected opening shall have afire- 
resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. Openings within 
such exterior walls shall be protected by opening protectives 
having a fire protection rating of not less than V 4 hour. This 
construction shall extend vertically from the ground to a point 
10 feet (3048 mm) above the topmost landing of the stairway 
or to the roof line, whichever is lower. 

[B] 1022.8 Discharge identification. An interior exit stair- 
way and ramp shall not continue below its level of exit dis- 
charge unless an approved barrier is provided at the level of 
exit discharge to prevent persons from unintentionally con- 
tinuing into levels below. Directional exit signs shall be pro- 
vided as specified in Section 1011. 

[B] 1022.9 Stairway identification signs. A sign shall be 
provided at each floor landing in an interior exit stairway and 
ramp connecting more than three stories designating the floor 
level, the terminus of the top and bottom of the interior 
exit stairway and ramp and the identification of the stair or 
ramp. The signage shall also state the story of, and the direc- 
tion to, the exit discharge and the availability of roof access 
from the interior exit stairway and ramp for the fire depart- 
ment. The sign shall be located 5 feet (1524 mm) above the 
floor landing in a position that is readily visible when the 
doors are in the open and closed positions. In addition to the 
stairway identification sign, a floor-level sign in raised char- 
acters and Braille complying with ICC Al 1 7.1 shall be 
located at each floor-level landing adjacent to the door lead- 
ing from the interior exit stairway and ramp into the corridor 
to identify the floor level. 

[B] 1022.9.1 Signage requirements. Stairway identifica- 
tion signs shall comply with all of the following require- 
ments: 

1 . The signs shall be a minimum size of 1 8 inches (457 
mm) by 12 inches (305 mm). 

2. The letters designating the identification of the inte- 
rior exit stairway and ramp shall be a minimum of 
l'/ 2 inches (38 mm) in height. 

3. The number designating the floor level shall be a 
minimum of 5 inches (127 mm) in height and 
located in the center of the sign. 

4. All other lettering and numbers shall be a minimum 
of 1 inch (25 mm) in height. 

5. Characters and their background shall have a non- 
glare finish. Characters shall contrast with their 



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background, with either light characters on a dark 
background or dark characters on a light back- 
ground. 

6. When signs required by Section 1022.9 are installed 
in the interior exit stairways and ramps of buildings 
subject to Section 1024, the signs shall be made of 
the same materials as required by Section 1024.4. 

[B] 1022.10 Smokeproof enclosures and pressurized stair- 
ways and ramps. Where required by Section 403.5.4 or 
405.7.2 of the International Building Code, interior 
exit stairways and ramps shall be smokeproof enclosures or 
pressurized stairways or ramps in accordance with Section 
909.20 of the International Building Code. 

[B] 1022.10.1 Termination and extension. A smokeproof 
enclosure or pressurized stairway shall terminate at an exit 
discharge or a public way. The smokeproof enclosure or 
pressurized stairway shall be permitted to be extended by 
an exit passageway in accordance with Section 1022.3. 
The exit passageway shall be without openings other than 
the fire door assembly required by Section 1022.3.1 and 
those necessary for egress from the exit passageway. The 
exit passageway shall be separated from the remainder of 
the building by 2 -hour fire barriers constructed in accor- 
dance with Section 707 of the International Building Code 
or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with 
Section 71 1 of the International Building Code, or both. 

Exceptions: 

1. Openings in the exit passageway serving a 
smokeproof enclosure are permitted where the 
exit passageway is protected and pressurized in 
the same manner as the smokeproof enclosure, 
and openings are protected as required for access 
from other floors. 

2. Openings in the exit passageway serving a pres- 
surized stairway are permitted where the exit pas- 
sageway is protected and pressurized in the same 
manner as the pressurized stairway. 

3. The fire barrier separating the smokeproof enclo- 
sure or pressurized stair-way from the exit pas- 
sageway is not required, provided the exit 
passageway is protected and pressurized in the 
same manner as the smokeproof enclosure or 
pressurized stair-way. 

4. A smokeproof enclosure or pressurized stairway 
shall be permitted to egress through areas on the 
level of exit discharge or vestibules as permitted 
by Section 1027. 

[B] 1022.10.2 Enclosure access. Access to the stairway 
within a smokeproof enclosure shall be by way of a vesti- 
bule or an open exterior balcony. 

Exception: Access is not required by way of a vesti- 
bule or exterior balcony for stairways using the pres- 
surization alternative complying with Section 909.20.5 
of the International Building Code. 



SECTION 1023 
EXIT PASSAGEWAYS 

[B] 1023.1 Exit passageway. Exit passageways serving as an 
exit component in a means of egress system shall comply 
with the requirements of this section. An exit passageway 
shall not be used for any purpose other than as a means of 
egress. 

[B] 1023.2 Width. The minimum width of exit passageways j 
shall be determined as specified in Section 1005.1 but such 
width shall not be less than 44 inches (1118 mm), except that 
exit passageways serving an occupant load of less than 50 
shall not be less than 36 inches (914 mm) in width. The 
required width of exit passageways shall be unobstructed. 

Exception: Encroachments complying with Section 
1005.7. 

[B] 1023.3 Construction. Exit passageway enclosures shall 
have walls, floors and ceilings of not less than a 1-hour fire- 
resistance rating, and not less than that required for any con- 
necting interior exit stairway or ramp. Exit passageways shall 
be constructed as fire barriers in accordance with Section 
707 of the International Building Code or horizontal assem- 
blies constructed in accordance with Section 71 1 of the Inter- 
national Building Code, or both. 

[B] 1023.4 Termination. Exit passageways on the level of 
exit discharge shall terminate at an exit discharge. Exit pas- 
sageways on other levels shall terminate at an exit. 

[B] 1023.5 Openings and penetrations. Exit passageway 
opening protectives shall be in accordance with the require- 
ments of Section 716 of the International Building Code. 

Except as permitted in Section 402.8.7 of the International 
Building Code, openings in exit passageways other than exte- 
rior openings shall be limited to those necessary for exit 
access to the exit passageway from normally occupied spaces 
and for egress from the exit passageway . 

Where an interior exit stairway or ramp is extended to an 
exit discharge or & public way by an exit passageway, the exit 
passageway shall also comply with Section 1022.3.1. 

Elevators shall not open into an exit passageway. 

[B] 1023.6 Penetrations. Penetrations into and openings 
through an exit passageway are prohibited except for required 
exit doors, equipment and ductwork necessary for indepen- 
dent pressurization, sprinkler piping, standpipes, electrical 
raceway for fire department communication and electrical 
raceway serving the exit passageway and terminating at a 
steel box not exceeding 16 square inches (0.010 m 2 ). Such 
penetrations shall be protected in accordance with Section 
714 of the International Building Code. There shall be no 
penetrations or communicating openings, whether protected 
or not, between adjacent exit passageways. 

Exception: Membrane penetrations shall be permitted on 
the outside of the exit passageway. Such penetrations shall 
be protected in accordance with Section 714.3.2 of the 
International Building Code. 



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SECTION 1024 
LUMINOUS EGRESS PATH MARKINGS 
[B] 1024.1 General. Approved luminous egress path mark- 
ings delineating the exit path shall be provided in high-rise 
buildings of Group A, B, E, I, M, and R-l occupancies in 
accordance with Sections 1024.1 through 1024.5. 

Exception: Luminous egress path markings shall not be 
required on the level of exit discharge in lobbies that serve 
as part of the exit path in accordance with Section 1027.1, 
Exception 1. 

IB] 1024.2 Markings within exit components. Egress path 
markings shall be provided in interior exit stairways, interior 
exit ramps and exit passageways, in accordance with Sections 
1024.2.1 through 1024.2.6. 

[B] 1024.2.1 Steps. A solid and continuous stripe shall be 
applied to the horizontal leading edge of each step and 
shall extend for the full length of the step. Outlining 
stripes shall have a minimum horizontal width of 1 inch 
(25 mm) and a maximum width of 2 inches (51 mm). The 
leading edge of the stripe shall be placed at a maximum of 
7 2 inch (13 mm) from the leading edge of the step and the 
stripe shall not overlap the leading edge of the step by not 
more than 7 2 inch (13 mm) down the vertical face of the 
step. 

Exception: The minimum width of 1 inch (25 mm) 
shall not apply to outlining stripes listed in accordance 
with UL 1994. 

[B] 1024.2.2 Landings. The leading edge of landings shall 
be marked with a stripe consistent with the dimensional 
requirements for steps. 

[B] 1024.2.3 Handrails. All handrails and handrail 
extensions shall be marked with a solid and continuous 
stripe having a minimum width of 1 inch (25 mm). The 
stripe shall be placed on the top surface of the handrail for 
the entire length of the handrail, including extensions and 
newel post caps. Where handrails or handrail extensions 
bend or turn corners, the stripe shall not have a gap of 
more than 4 inches (102 mm). 

Exception: The minimum width of 1 inch (25 mm) 
shall not apply to outlining stripes listed in accordance 
with UL 1994. 

[B] 1024.2.4 Perimeter demarcation lines. Stair landings 
and other floor areas within interior exit stairways, inte- 
rior exit ramps and exit passageways, with the exception 
of the sides of steps, shall be provided with solid and con- 
tinuous demarcation lines on the floor or on the walls or a 
combination of both. The stripes shall be 1 to 2 inches (25 
mm to 51 mm) wide with interruptions not exceeding 4 
inches (102 mm). 

Exception: The minimum width of 1 inch (25 mm) 
shall not apply to outlining stripes listed in accordance 
withUL 1994. 

[BJ 1024.2.4.1 Floor-mounted demarcation lines. 
Perimeter demarcation lines shall be placed within 4 
inches (102 mm) of the wall and shall extend to within 
2 inches (51 mm) of the markings on the leading edge 



of landings. The demarcation lines shall continue 
across the floor in front of all doors. 

Exception: Demarcation lines shall not extend in 
front of exit discharge doors that lead out of an exit 
and through which occupants must travel to com- 
plete the exit path. 

[B] 1024.2.4.2 Wall-mounted demarcation lines. 
Perimeter demarcation lines shall be placed on the wall 
with the bottom edge of the stripe no more than 4 
inches (102 mm) above the finished floor. At the top or 
bottom of the stairs, demarcation lines shall drop verti- 
cally to the floor within 2 inches (5 1 mm) of the step or 
landing edge. Demarcation lines on walls shall transi- 
tion vertically to the floor and then extend across the 
floor where a line on the floor is the only practical 
method of outlining the path. Where the wall line is 
broken by a door, demarcation lines on walls shall con- 
tinue across the face of the door or transition to the 
floor and extend across the floor in front of such door. 

Exception: Demarcation lines shall not extend in 
front of exit discharge doors that lead out of an exit 
and through which occupants must travel to com- 
plete the exit path. 

[B] 1024.2.4.3 Transition. Where a wall-mounted 
demarcation line transitions to a floor-mounted demar- 
cation line, or vice-versa, the wall-mounted demarca- 
tion line shall drop vertically to the floor to meet a 
complimentary extension of the floor-mounted demar- 
cation line, thus forming a continuous marking. 
[B] 1024.2.5 Obstacles. Obstacles at or below 6 feet 6 
inches (1981 mm) in height and projecting more than 4 
inches (102 mm) into the egress path shall be outlined 
with markings no less than 1 inch (25 mm) in width com- 
prised of a pattern of alternating equal bands, of lumines- 
cent luminous material and black, with the alternating 
bands no more than 2 inches (51 mm) thick and angled at 
45 degrees. Obstacles shall include, but are not limited to, 
standpipes, hose cabinets, wall projections, and restricted 
height areas. However, such markings shall not conceal 
any required information or indicators including but not 
limited to instructions to occupants for the use of stand- 
pipes. 

[B] 1024.2.6 Doors within the exit path. Doors through 
which occupants must pass in order to complete the exit 
path shall be provided with markings complying with Sec- 
tions 1024.2.6.1 through 1024.2.6.3. 

[B] 1024.2.6.1 Emergency exit symbol. The doors 
shall be identified by a low-location luminous emer- 
gency exit symbol complying with NFPA 170. The exit 
symbol shall be a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) in 
height and shall be mounted on the door, centered hori- 
zontally, with the top of the symbol no higher than 1 8 
inches (457 mm) above the finished floor. 

[B] 1024.2.6.2 Door hardware markings. Door hard- 
ware shall be marked with no less than 16 square inches 
(406 mm 2 ) of luminous material. This marking shall be 



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located behind, immediately adjacent to, or on the door 
handle or escutcheon. Where a panic bar is installed, 
such material shall be no less than 1 inch (25 mm) wide 
for the entire length of the actuating bar or touchpad. 
[B] 1024.2.6.3 Door frame markings. The top and 
sides of the door frame shall be marked with a solid and 
continuous 1-inch- to 2-inch-wide (25 mm to 51 mm) 
stripe. Where the door molding does not provide suffi- 
cient flat surface on which to locate the stripe, the stripe 
shall be permitted to be located on the wall surrounding 
the frame. 
[B] 1024.3 Uniformity. Placement and dimensions of mark- 
ings shall be consistent and uniform throughout the same 
enclosure. 

[B] 1024.4 Self-luminous and photoluminescent. Luminous 
egress path markings shall be permitted to be made of any 
material, including paint, provided that an electrical charge is 
not required to maintain the required luminance. Such materi- 
als shall include, but not be limited to, self-luminous materi- 
als and photoluminescent materials. Materials shall comply 
with either: 

1. UL 1994; or 

2. ASTM E 2072, except that the charging source shall be 
1 footcandle (11 lux) of fluorescent illumination for 60 
minutes, and the minimum luminance shall be 30 mili- 
candelas per square meter at 10 minutes and 5 milican- 
delas per square meter after 90 minutes. 

[B] 1024.5 Illumination. Where photoluminescent exit path 
markings are installed, they shall be provided with the mini- 
mum means of egress illumination required by Section 1006 
for at least 60 minutes prior to periods when the building is 
occupied. 

SECTION 1025 
HORIZONTAL EXITS 
[B] 1025.1 Horizontal exits. Horizontal exits serving as an 
exit in a means of egress system shall comply with the 
requirements of this section. A horizontal exit shall not serve 
as the only exit from a portion of a building, and where two or 
more exits are required, not more than one-half of the total 
number of exits or total exit width shall be horizontal exits. 

Exceptions: 

1. Horizontal exits are permitted to comprise two- 
thirds of the required exits from any building or 
floor area for occupancies in Group 1-2. 

2. Horizontal exits are permitted to comprise 100 percent 
of the exits required for occupancies in Group 1-3. At 
least 6 square feet (0.6 m 2 ) of accessible space per 
occupant shall be provided on each side of the horizon- 
tal exit for the total number of people in adjoining 
compartments. 

[B] 1025.2 Separation. The separation between buildings or 
refuge areas connected by a horizontal exit shall be provided 
by a fire wall complying with Section 706 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code; or it shall be provided by afire barrier 
complying with Section 707 of the International Building 



Code or a horizontal assembly complying with Section 711 of 
the International Building Code, or both. The minimum fire- 
resistance rating of the separation shall be 2 hours. Opening 
protectives in horizontal exits shall also comply with Section 
716 of the International Building Code. Duct and air transfer 
openings in afire wall or fire barrier that serves as a horizon- 
tal exit shall also comply with Section 717 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. The horizontal exit separation shall 
extend vertically through all levels of the building unless 
floor assemblies have afire-resistance rating of not less than 
2 hours with no unprotected openings. 

Exception: A fire-resistance rating is not required at hor- 
izontal exits between a building area and an above-grade 
pedestrian walkway constructed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 3104 of the International Building Code, provided 
that the distance between connected buildings is more than 
20 feet (6096 mm). 

Horizontal exits constructed as fire barriers shall be con- 
tinuous from exterior wall to exterior wall so as to divide 
completely the floor served by the horizontal exit. 
[B] 1025.3 Opening protectives. Fire doors in horizontal 
exits shall be self-closing or automatic-closing when acti- 
vated by a smoke detector in accordance with Section 
716.5.9.3 of the International Building Code. Doors, where 
located in a cross-corridor condition, shall be automatic-clos- 
ing by activation of a smoke detector installed in accordance 
with Section 71 6.5.9.3 of the International Building Code. 
[B] 1025.4 Capacity of refuge area. The refuge area of a 
horizontal exit shall be a space occupied by the same tenant 
or a public area and each such refuge area shall be adequate 
to accommodate the original occupant load of the refuge area 
plus the occupant load anticipated from the adjoining com- 
partment. The anticipated occupant load from the adjoining 
compartment shall be based on the capacity of the horizontal 
exit doors entering the refuge area. The capacity of the refuge 
area shall be computed based on a net floor area allowance of 
3 square feet (0.2787 m 2 ) for each occupant to be accommo- 
dated therein. 

Exception: The net floor area allowable per occupant 
shall be as follows for the indicated occupancies: 

1 . Six square feet (0.6 m 2 ) per occupant for occupan- 
cies in Group 1-3. 

2. Fifteen square feet (1.4 m 2 ) per occupant for ambu- 
latory occupancies in Group 1-2. 

3. Thirty square feet (2.8 nr) per occupant for nonam- 
bulatory occupancies in Group 1-2. 

The refuge area into which a horizontal exit leads shall be 
provided with exits adequate to meet the occupant require- 
ments of this chapter, but not including the added occupant 
load imposed by persons entering it through horizontal exits 
from other areas. At least one refuge area exit shall lead 1 
directly to the exterior or to an interior exit stairway or ramp. § 
Exception: The adjoining compartment shall not be 
required to have a stairway or door leading directly out- 
side, provided the refuge area into which a horizontal exit 
leads has stairways or doors leading directly outside and 
are so arranged that egress shall not require the occupants 



172 



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to return through the compartment from which egress orig- 
inates. 



SECTION 1026 
EXTERIOR EXIT STAIRWAYS AND RAMPS 

[B] 1026.1 Exterior exit stairways and ramps. Exterior exit 
stairways and ramps serving as an element of a required 
means of egress shall comply with this section. 

[B] 1026.2 Use in a means of egress. Exterior exit stairways 
shall not be used as an element of a required means of egress 
for Group 1-2 occupancies. For occupancies in other than 
Group 1-2, exterior exit stairways and ramps shall be permit- 
ted as an element of a required means of egress for buildings 
not exceeding six stories above grade plane or which are not 
high-rise buildings. 

[B] 1026.3 Open side. Exterior exit stairways and ramps 
serving as an element of a required means of egress shall be 
open on at least one side. An open side shall have a minimum 
of 35 square feet (3.3 m 2 ) of aggregate open area adjacent to 
each floor level and the level of each intermediate landing. 
The required open area shall be located not less than 42 
inches (1067 mm) above the adjacent floor or landing level. 

[B] 1026.4 Side yards. The open areas adjoining exterior exit 
stairways or ramps shall be either yards, courts or public 
ways; the remaining sides are permitted to be enclosed by the 
exterior walls of the building. 

[B ] 1026.5 Location. Exterior exit stairways and ramps shall 
have a minimum fire separation distance of 10 feet (3048 
mm) measured from the exterior edge of the stairway or 
ramp, including landings, to adjacent lot lines and from other 
buildings on the same lot unless the adjacent building exterior 
walls and openings are protected in accordance with Section 
705 of the International Building Code based on fire separa- 
tion distance. 

[B] 1026.6 Exterior stairway and ramp protection. Exte- 
rior exit stairways and ramps shall be separated from the 
interior of the building as required in Section 1022.7. Open- 
ings shall be limited to those necessary for egress from nor- 
mally occupied spaces. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Separation from the interior of the building is not 
required for occupancies, other than those in Group 
R-l or R-2, in buildings that are no more than two 
stories above grade plane where a level of exit dis- 
charge serving such occupancies is the first story 
above grade plane. 

2. Separation from the interior of the building is not 
required where the exterior stairway or ramp is 
served by an exterior ramp or balcony that connects 
two remote exterior stairways or other approved 
exits with a perimeter that is not less than 50 percent 
open. To be considered open, the opening shall be a 
minimum of 50 percent of the height of the enclos- 
ing wall, with the top of the openings no less than 7 
feet (2134 mm) above the top of the balcony. 



3. Separation from the interior of the building is not 
required for an exterior stairway or ramp located in 
a building or structure that is permitted to have 
unenclosed exit access stairways in accordance with 
Section 1009.3. 

4. Separation from the interior of the building is not 
required for exterior stairways or ramps connected 
to open-ended corridors, provided that Items 4.1 
through 4.5 are met: 

4.1. The building, including corridors, stairways 
or ramps, shall be equipped throughout with 
an automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

4.2. The open-ended corridors comply with Sec- 
tion 1018. 

4.3. The open-ended corridors are connected on 
each end to an exterior exit ramp or stairway 
complying with Section 1026. 

4.4. The exterior walls and openings adjacent to 
the exterior exit stairway or ramp comply 
with Section 1022.7. 

4.5. At any location in an open-ended corridor 
where a change of direction exceeding 45 
degrees (0.79 rad) occurs, a clear opening of 
not less than 35 square feet (3.3 m 2 ) or an 
exterior stairway or ramp shall be provided. 
Where clear openings are provided, they 
shall be located so as to minimize the accu- 
mulation of smoke or toxic eases. 



SECTION 1027 
EXIT DISCHARGE 

[B] 1027.1 General. Exits shall discharge directly to the exte- 
rior of the building. The exit discharge shall be at grade or 
shall provide direct access to grade. The exit discharge shall 
not reenter a building. The combined use of Exceptions 1 and 
2 shall not exceed 50 percent of the number and capacity of 
the required exits. 

Exceptions: 

1 . A maximum of 50 percent of the number and capac- 
ity of interior exit stairways and ramps is permitted 
to egress through areas on the level of exit discharge 
provided all of the following are met: 

1.1. Such enclosures egress to a free and unob- 
structed path of travel to an exterior exit door 
and such exit is readily visible and identifi- 
able from the point of termination of the 
enclosure. 

1.2. The entire area of the level of exit discharge 
is separated from areas below by construc- 
tion conforming to the fire-resistance rating 
for the enclosure. 

1.3. The egress path from the interior exit stair- 
way and ramp on the level of exit discharge 



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is protected throughout by an approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system. All portions of the 
level of exit discharge with access to the 
egress path shall either be protected through- 
out with an automatic sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1 .2, or separated from the 
egress path in accordance with the require- 
ments for the enclosure of interior exit stair- 
ways or ramps. 

2. A maximum of 50 percent of the number and capac- 
ity of the interior exit stairways and ramps is permit- 
ted to egress through a vestibule provided all of the 
following are met: 

2.1. The entire area of the vestibule is separated 
from areas below by construction conform- 
ing to {he fire-resistance rating for the enclo- 
sure. 

2.2. The depth from the exterior of the building is 
not greater than 10 feet (3048 mm) and the 
length is not greater than 30 feet (9144 mm). 

2.3. The area is separated from the remainder of 
the level of exit discharge by construction 
providing protection at least the equivalent 
of approved wired glass in steel frames. 

2.4. The area is used only for means of egress 
and exits directly to the outside. 

3. Horizontal exits complying with Section 1025 shall 
not be required to discharge directly to the exterior 
of the building. 

[B] 1027.2 Exit discharge capacity. The capacity of the exit 
discharge shall be not less than the required discharge capac- 
ity of the exits being served. 

[B] 1027.3 Exit discharge components. Exit discharge com- 
ponents shall be sufficiently open to the exterior so as to min- 
imize the accumulation of smoke and toxic gases. 

[B] 1027.4 Egress courts. Egress courts serving as a portion 
of the exit discharge in the means of egress system shall 
comply with the requirements of Section 1027. 

[B] 1027.4.1 Width. The minimum width of egress courts 
shall be determined as specified in Section 1005.1, but 
such width shall not be less than 44 inches (1118 mm), 
except as specified herein. Egress courts serving Group 
R-3 and U occupancies shall not be less than 36 inches 
(914 mm) in width. The required width of egress courts 
shall be unobstructed to a height of 7 feet (2134 mm). 

Exception: Encroachments complying with Section 
1005.7. 

Where an egress court exceeds the minimum required 
width and the width of such egress court is then reduced 
along the path of exit travel, the reduction in width shall be 
gradual. The transition in width shall be affected by a 
guard not less than 36 inches (914 mm) in height and shall 
not create an angle of more than 30 degrees (0.52 rad) with 
respect to the axis of the egress court along the path of 



egress travel. In no case shall the width of the egress court 
be less than the required minimum. 

1027.4.2 Construction and openings. Where an egress 
court serving a building or portion thereof is less than 1 
feet (3048 mm) in width, the egress court walls shall have 
not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction for a 
distance of 10 feet (3048 mm) above the floor of the court. 
Openings within such walls shall be protected by opening 
protectives having a fire protection rating of not less than 
3 / 4 hour. 

Exceptions: 

1. Egress courts serving an occupant load of less 
than 10. 

2. Egress courts serving Group R-3. 

[B] 1027.5 Access to a public way. The exit discharge shall 
provide a direct and unobstructed access to a public way. 

Exception: Where access to a public way cannot be pro- 
vided, a safe dispersal area shall be provided where all of 
the following are met: 

1 . The area shall be of a size to accommodate at least 5 
square feet (0.46 m 2 ) for each person. 

2. The area shall be located on the same lot at least 50 
feet (15 240 mm) away from the building requiring 

egress. 

3. The area shall be permanently maintained and iden- 
tified as a safe dispersal area. 

4. The area shall be provided with a safe and unob- 
structed path of travel from the building. 



SECTION 1028 
ASSEMBLY 

[B] 1028.1 General. A room or space used for assembly pur- 
poses which contains seats, tables, displays, equipment or 
other material shall comply with this section. 

[B] 1028.1.1 Bleachers. Bleachers, grandstands and fold- 
ing and telescopic seating, that are not building elements, 
shall comply with ICC 300. 

[B] 1028.1.1.1 Spaces under grandstands and 
bleachers. When spaces under grandstands or bleach- 
ers are used for purposes other than ticket booths less 
than 100 square feet (9.29 m 2 ) and toilet rooms, such 
spaces shall be separated by fire barriers complying 
with Section 707 of the International Building Code 
and horizontal assemblies complying with Section 71 1 
of the International Building Code with not less than 1- 
hour fire-resistance-rated construction. 

[B] 1028.2 Assembly main exit. In a building, room or space 
used for assembly purposes that has an occupant load of 
greater than 300 and is provided with a main exit, the main 
exit shall be of sufficient width to accommodate not less than 
one-half of the occupant load, but such width shall not be less 
than the total required width of all means of egress leading to 
the exit. Where the building is classified as a Group A occu- 
pancy, the main exit shall front on at least one street or an 
unoccupied space of not less than 1 feet (3048 mm) in width 



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that adjoins a street or public way. In a building, room or 
space used for assembly purposes where there is no well- 
defined main exit or where multiple main exits are provided, 
exits shall be permitted to be distributed around the perimeter 
of the building provided that the total width of egress is not 
less than 100 percent of the required width. 

[B] 1028.3 Assembly other exits. In addition to having 
access to a main exit, each level in a building used for assem- 
bly purposes having an occupant load greater than 300 and 
provided with a main exit, shall be provided with additional 
means of egress that shall provide an egress capacity for at 
least one-half of the total occupant load served by that level 
and shall comply with Section 1015.2. In a building used for 
assembly purposes where there is no well-defined main exit 
or where multiple main exits are provided, exits for each level 
shall be permitted to be distributed around the perimeter of 
the building, provided that the total width of egress is not less 
than 100 percent of the required width. 

[B] 1028.4 Foyers and lobbies. In Group A-l occupancies, 
where persons are admitted to the building at times when 
seats are not available, such persons shall be allowed to wait 
in a lobby or similar space, provided such lobby or similar 
space shall not encroach upon the required clear width of the 
means of egress. Such foyer, if not directly connected to a 
public street by all the main entrances or exits, shall have a 
straight and unobstructed corridor or path of travel to every 
such main entrance or exit. 

[B] 1028.5 Interior balcony and gallery means of egress. 
For balconies, galleries or press boxes having a seating 
capacity of 50 or more located in a building, room or space 
used for assembly purposes, at least two means of egress shall 
be provided, with one from each side of every balcony, gal- 
lery or press box and at least one leading directly to an exit. 

[B] 1028.6 Width of means of egress for assembly. The 
clear width of aisles and other means of egress shall comply 
with Section 1028.6.1 where smoke-protected seating is not 
provided and with Section 1028.6.2 or 1028.6.3 where 
smoke-protected seating is provided. The clear width shall be 
measured to walls, edges of seating and tread edges except 
for permitted projections. 

[B] 1028.6.1 Without smoke protection. The clear width 
of the means of egress shall provide sufficient capacity in 
accordance with all of the following, as applicable: 

1. At least 0.3 inch (7.6 mm) of width for each occu- 
pant served shall be provided on stairs having riser 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



heights 7 inches (178 mm) or less and tread depths 
11 inches (279 mm) or greater, measured horizon- 
tally between tread nosings. 

2. At least 0.005 inch (0.127 mm) of additional stair 
width for each occupant shall be provided for each 
0.10 inch (2.5 mm) of riser height above 7 inches 
(178 mm). 

3. Where egress requires stair descent, at least 0.075 
inch (1.9 mm) of additional width for each occupant 
shall be provided on those portions of stair width 
having no handrail within a horizontal distance of 
30 inches (762 mm). 

4. Ramped means of egress, where slopes are steeper 
than one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-per- 
cent slope), shall have at least 0.22 inch (5.6 mm) of 
clear width for each occupant served. Level or 
ramped means of egress, where slopes are not 
steeper than one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal 
(8-percent slope), shall have at least 0.20 inch (5.1 
mm) of clear width for each occupant served. 

[B] 1028.6.2 Smoke-protected seating. The clear width 
of the means of egress for smoke-protected assembly seat- 
ing shall not be less than the occupant load served by the 
egress element multiplied by the appropriate factor in 
Table 1028.6.2. The total number of seats specified shall 
be those within the space exposed to the same smoke-pro- 
tected environment. Interpolation is permitted between the 
specific values shown. A life safety evaluation, complying 
with NFPA 101, shall be done for a facility utilizing the 
reduced width requirements of Table 1028.6.2 for smoke- 
protected assembly seating. 

Exception: For an outdoor smoke-protected assembly 
seating with an occupant load not greater than 1 8,000, 
the clear width shall be determined using the factors in 
Section 1028.6.3. 

|B] 1028.6.2.1 Smoke control. Means of egress serv- 
ing a smoke-protected assembly seating area shall be 
provided with a smoke control system complying with 
Section 909 or natural ventilation designed to maintain 
the smoke level at least 6 feet (1829 mm) above the 
floor of the means of egress. 

[B] 1028.6.2.2 Roof height. A smoke-protected assem- 
bly seating area with a roof shall have the lowest por- 



[B] TABLE 1028.6.2 
WIDTH OF AISLES FOR SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY 



TOTAL NUMBER OF SEATS IN THE 
SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY SEATING 


INCHES OF CLEAR WIDTH PER SEAT SERVED 


Stairs and aisle steps 

with handrails within 30 

inches 


Stairs and aisle steps 

without handrails within 

30 inches 


Passageways, doorways 

and ramps not steeper 

than 1 in 10 in slope 


Ramps steeper than 1 in 
10 in slope 


Equal to or less than 5,000 


0.200 


0.250 


0.150 


0.165 


10,000 


0.130 


0.163 


0.100 


0.110 


15,000 


0.096 


0.120 


0.070 


0.077 


20,000 


0.076 


0.095 


0.056 


0.062 


Equal to or greater than 25,000 


0.060 


0.075 


0.044 


0.048 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



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175 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



tion of the roof deck not less than 15 feet (4572 mm) 
above the highest aisle or aisle accessway. 

Exception: A roof canopy in an outdoor stadium 
shall be permitted to be less than 15 feet (4572 mm) 
above the highest aisle or aisle accessway provided 
that there are no objects less than 80 inches (2032 
mm) above the highest aisle or aisle accessway. 

[B] 1028.6.2.3 Automatic sprinklers. Enclosed areas 
with walls and ceilings in buildings or structures con- 
taining smoke-protected assembly seating shall be pro- 
tected with an approved automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

Exceptions: 

1 . The floor area used for contests, performances 
or entertainment provided the roof construc- 
tion is more than 50 feet (15 240 mm) above 
the floor level and the use is restricted to low 
fire hazard uses. 

2. Press boxes and storage facilities less than 
1 ,000 square feet (93 m 2 ) in area. 

3. Outdoor seating facilities where seating and 
the means of egress in the seating area are 
essentially open to the outside. 

[B] 1028.6.3 Width of means of egress for outdoor 
smoke-protected assembly seating. The clear width in 
inches (mm) of aisles and other means of egress shall be 
not less than the total occupant load served by the egress 
element multiplied by 0.08 (2.0 mm) where egress is by 
aisles and stairs and multiplied by 0.06 (1.52 mm) where 
egress is by ramps, corridors, tunnels or vomitories. 

Exception: The clear width in inches (mm) of aisles 
and other means of egress shall be permitted to comply 
with Section 1028.6.2 for the number of seats in the 
outdoor smoke-protected assembly seating where Sec- 
tion 1028.6.2 permits less width. 

fBI 1028.7 Travel distance. Exits and aisles shall be so 
located that the travel distance to an exit door shall not be 
greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm) measured along the line of 
travel in nonsprinklered buildings. Travel distance shall not 
be more than 250 feet (76 200 mm) in sprinklered buildings. 
Where aisles are provided for seating, the distance shall be 
measured along the aisles and aisle accessway without travel 
over or on the seats. 

Exceptions: 

1. Smoke-protected assembly seating: The travel dis- 
tance from each seat to the nearest entrance to a 
vomitory or concourse shall not exceed 200 feet 
(60 960 mm). The travel distance from the entrance 
to the vomitory or concourse to a stair, ramp or 
walk on the exterior of the building shall not 
exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). 

2. Open-air seating: The travel distance from each seat 
to the building exterior shall not exceed 400 feet 
(122 m). The travel distance shall not be limited in 
facilities of Type I or II construction. 



[B] 1028.8 Common path of egress travel. The common 
path of egress travel shall not exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) from 
any seat to a point where an occupant has a choice of two 
paths of egress travel to two exits. 

Exceptions: 

1. For areas serving less than 50 occupants, the com- 
mon path of egress travel shall not exceed 75 feet 
(22 860 mm). 

2. For smoke-protected assembly seating, the common 
path of egress travel shall not exceed 50 feet (15 240 
mm). 

[B] 1028.8.1 Path through adjacent row. Where one of 
the two paths of travel is across the aisle through a row of 
seats to another aisle, there shall be not more than 24 seats 
between the two aisles, and the minimum clear width 
between rows for the row between the two aisles shall be 
12 inches (305 mm) plus 0.6 inch (15.2 mm) for each 
additional seat above seven in the row between aisles. 

Exception: For smoke-protected assembly seating 
there shall not be more than 40 seats between the two 
aisles and the minimum clear width shall be 12 inches 
(305 mm) plus 0.3 inch (7.6 mm) for each additional 
seat. 

[B] 1028.9 Assembly aisles are required. Every occupied 
portion of any building, room or space used for assembly pur- 
poses that contains seats, tables, displays, similar fixtures or 
equipment shall be provided with aisles leading to exits or 
exit access doorways in accordance with this section. Aisle 
accessways for tables and seating shall comply with Section 
1028.10.1. 

[B] 1028.9.1 Minimum aisle width. The minimum clear 
width for aisles shall be as shown: 

1. Forty-eight inches (1219 mm) for aisle stairs having 
seating on each side. 

Exception: Thirty-six inches (914 mm) where 
the aisle serves less than 50 seats. 

2. Thirty-six inches (914 mm) for aisle stairs having 
seating on only one side. 

Exception: Twenty-three inches (584 mm) 
between an aisle stair handrail and seating where 
an aisle does not serve more than five rows on 
one side. 

3. Twenty-three inches (584 mm) between an aisle 
stair handrail or guard and seating where the aisle is 
subdivided by a handrail. 

4. Forty-two inches (1067 mm) for level or ramped 
aisles having seating on both sides. 

Exceptions: 

1. Thirty-six inches (914 mm) where the aisle 
serves less than 50 seats. 

2. Thirty inches (762 mm) where the aisle 
does not serve more than 14 seats. 



176 



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5. Thirty-six inches (914 mm) for level or ramped 
aisles having seating on only one side. 

Exception: Thirty inches (762 mm) where the 
> aisle does not serve more than 14 seats. 

[B] 1028.9.2 Aisle width. The aisle width shall provide 
sufficient egress capacity for the number of persons 
accommodated by the catchment area served by the aisle. 
The catchment area served by an aisle is that portion of the 
total space that is served by that section of the aisle. In 
establishing catchment areas, the assumption shall be 
made that there is a balanced use of all means of egress, 
with the number of persons in proportion to egress capac- 
ity. 

[B] 1028.9.3 Converging aisles. Where aisles converge to 
form a single path of egress travel, the required egress 
capacity of that path shall not be less than the combined 
required capacity of the converging aisles. 
[B] 1.028.9.4 Uniform width. Those portions of aisles, 
where egress is possible in either of two directions, shall 
be uniform in required width. 

[B] 1028.9.5 Assembly aisle termination. Each end of an 
aisle shall terminate at cross aisle, foyer, doorway, vomi- 
tory or concourse having access to an exit. 
Exceptions: 

1. Dead-end aisles shall not be greater than 20 feet 
(6096 mm) in length. 

2. Dead-end aisles longer than 20 feet (6096 mm) 
are permitted where seats beyond the 20-foot 
(6096 mm) dead-end aisle are no more than 24 
seats from another aisle, measured along a row of 
seats having a minimum clear width of 12 inches 
(305 mm) plus 0.6 inch (15.2 mm) for each addi- 
tional seat above seven in the row. 

3. For smoke-protected assembly seating, the dead- 
end aisle length of vertical aisles shall not exceed 
a distance of 21 rows. 

4. For smoke-protected assembly seating, a longer 
dead-end aisle is permitted where seats beyond 
the 21 -row dead-end aisle are not more than 40 
seats from another aisle, measured along a row of 
seats having an aisle accessway with a minimum 
clear width of 12 inches (305 mm) plus 0.3 inch 
(7.6 mm) for each additional seat above seven in 
the row. 

[B] 1028.9.6 Assembly aisle obstructions. There shall be 
no obstructions in the required width of aisles except for 
handrails as provided in Section 1028.13. 

[B] 1028.10 Aisle accessways. Aisle accessways for seating 
at tables shall comply with Section 1028.10.1. Aisle access- 
ways for seating in rows shall comply with Section 
1028.10.2. 

[B] 1028.10.1 Seating at tables. Where seating is located 
at a table or counter and is adjacent to an aisle or aisle 



accessway, the measurement of required clear width of the 
aisle or aisle accessway shall be made to a line 19 inches 
(483 mm) away from and parallel to the edge of the table 
or counter. The 19-inch (483 mm) distance shall be mea- 
sured perpendicular to the side of the table or counter. In 
the case of other side boundaries for aisle or aisle access- 
ways, the clear width shall be measured to walls, edges of 
seating and tread edges, except that handrail projections 
are permitted. 

Exception: Where tables or counters are served by 
fixed seats, the width of the aisle accessway shall be 
measured from the back of the seat. 

IB] 1028.10.1.1 Aisle accessway width for seating at I** 
tables. Aisle accessways serving arrangements of seat- 
ing at tables or counters shall have sufficient clear 
width to conform to the capacity requirements of Sec- 
tion 1005.1 but shall not have less than a minimum of 
12 inches (305 mm) of width plus V 2 inch (12.7 mm) of 
width for each additional 1 foot (305 mm), or fraction 
thereof, beyond 12 feet (3658 mm) of aisle accessway 
length measured from the center of the seat farthest 
from an aisle. 

Exception: Portions of an aisle accessway having a 
length not exceeding 6 feet (1829 mm) and used by 
a total of not more than four persons. 

[B] 1028.10.1.2 Seating at table aisle accessway ■** 

length. The length of travel along the aisle accessway 
shall not exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) from any seat to the 
point where a person has a choice of two or more paths 
of egress travel to separate exits. 

[B] 1028.10.2 Clear width of aisle accessways serving 
seating in rows. Where seating rows have 14 or fewer 
seats, the minimum clear aisle accessway width shall not 
be less than 12 inches (305 mm) measured as the clear 
horizontal distance from the back of the row ahead and the 
nearest projection of the row behind. Where chairs have 
automatic or self-rising seats, the measurement shall be 
made with seats in the raised position. Where any chair in 
the row does not have an automatic or self-rising seat, the 
measurements shall be made with the seat in the down 
position. For seats with folding tablet arms, row spacing 
shall be determined with the tablet arm in the used posi- 
tion. 

Exception: For seats with folding tablet arms, row 
spacing is permitted to be determined with the tablet 
arm in the stored position where the tablet arm when 
raised manually to vertical position in one motion auto- 
matically returns to the stored position by force of grav- 
ity. 

[B] 1028.10.2.1 Dual access. For rows of seating 
served by aisles or doorways at both ends, there shall 
not be more than 100 seats per row. The minimum clear 
width of 1 2 inches (305 mm) between rows shall be 
increased by 0.3 inch (7.6 mm) for every additional seat 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



177 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



beyond 14 seats, but the minimum clear width is not 
required to exceed 22 inches (559 mm). 

Exception: For smoke-protected assembly seating, 
the row length limits for a 12-inch-wide (305 mm) 
aisle accessway, beyond which the aisle accessway 
minimum clear width shall be increased, are in 
Table 1028.10.2.1. 

[B] TABLE 1028.10.2.1 
SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY AISLE ACCESSWAYS 



TOTAL NUMBER OF 

SEATS IN THE 
SMOKE-PROTECTED 
ASSEMBLY SEATING 


MAXIMUM NUMBER OF SEATS PER ROW 

PERMITTED TO HAVE A MINIMUM 12-INCH 

CLEAR WIDTH AISLE ACCESSWAY 


Aisle or doorway at 
both ends of row 


Aisle or doorway at 
one end of row only 


Less than 4,000 


14 


7 


4,000 


15 


7 


7,000 


16 


8 


10,000 


17 


8 


13,000 


18 


9 


16,000 


19 


9 


19,000 


20 


1 10 


22,000 and greater 


21 


11 



For SI: 1 inch = 25 .4 ram. 

[B] 1028.10.2.2 Single access. For rows of seating 
served by an aisle or doorway at only one end of the 
row, the minimum clear width of 12 inches (305 mm) 
between rows shall be increased by 0.6 inch (15.2 mm) 
for every additional seat beyond seven seats, but the 
minimum clear width is not required to exceed 22 
inches (559 mm). 

Exception: For smoke -protected assembly seating, 
the row length limits for a 12-inch wide (305 mm) 
aisle accessway, beyond which the aisle accessway 
minimum clear width shall be increased, are in 
Table 1028.10.2.1. 
[B] 1028.11 Assembly aisle walking surfaces. Aisles with a 
slope not exceeding one unit vertical in eight units horizontal 
(12.5-percent slope) shall consist of a ramp having a slip- 
resistant walking surface. Aisles with a slope exceeding one 
unit vertical in eight units horizontal (12.5-percent slope) 
shall consist of a series of risers and treads that extends across 
the full width of aisles and complies with Sections 1028.11.1 
through 1028.11.3. 

[B] 1028.11.1 Treads. Tread depths shall be a minimum 
of 11 inches (279 mm) and shall have dimensional unifor- 
mity. 

Exception: The tolerance between adjacent treads shall 

not exceed 7 I6 inch (4.8 mm). 

[B] 1028.11.2 Risers. Where the gradient of aisle stairs is 

to be the same as the gradient of adjoining seating areas, 

the riser height shall not be less than 4 inches (102 mm) 



nor more than 8 inches (203 mm) and shall be uniform 
within each flight. 
Exceptions: 

1 . Riser height nonuniformity shall be limited to the 
extent necessitated by changes in the gradient of 
the adjoining seating area to maintain adequate 
sightlines. Where nonuniformities exceed 3 / 16 
inch (4.8 mm) between adjacent risers, the exact 
location of such nonuniformities shall be indi- 
cated with a distinctive marking stripe on each 
tread at the nosing or leading edge adjacent to the 
nonuniform risers. Such stripe shall be a mini- 
mum of 1 inch (25 mm), and a maximum of 2 
inches (51 mm), wide. The edge marking stripe 
shall be distinctively different from the contrast- 
ing marking stripe. 

2. Riser heights not exceeding 9 inches (229 mm) 
shall be permitted where they are necessitated by 
the slope of the adjacent seating areas to maintain 
sightlines. 

[B] 1028.11.3 Tread contrasting marking stripe. A con- 
trasting marking stripe shall be provided on each tread at 
the nosing or leading edge such that the location of each 
tread is readily apparent when viewed in descent. Such 
stripe shall be a minimum of 1 inch (25 mm), and a maxi- 
mum of 2 inches (51 mm), wide. 

Exception: The contrasting marking stripe is permitted 
to be omitted where tread surfaces are such that the 
location of each tread is readily apparent when viewed 
in descent. 
[B] 1028.12 Seat stability. In a building, room or space used 
for assembly purposes, the seats shall be securely fastened to 
the floor. 
Exceptions: 

1. In a building, room or space used for assembly pur- 
poses or portions thereof without ramped or tiered 
floors for seating and with 200 or fewer seats, the 
seats shall not be required to be fastened to the floor. 

2. In a building, room or space used for assembly pur- 
poses or portions thereof without ramped or tiered 
floors for seating, the seats shall not be required to 
be fastened to the floor. 

3. In a building, room or space used for assembly pur- 
poses or portions thereof without ramped or tiered 
floors for seating and with greater than 200 seats, the 
seats shall be fastened together in groups of not less 
than three or the seats shall be securely fastened to 
the floor. 

4. In a building, room or space used for assembly pur- 
poses where flexibility of the seating arrangement is 
an integral part of the design and function of the 
space and seating is on tiered levels, a maximum of 
200 seats shall not be required to be fastened to the 



178 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



floor. Plans showing seating, tiers and aisles shall be 
submitted for approval. 

5. Groups of seats within a building, room or space 
used for assembly purposes separated from other 
seating by railings, guards, partial height walls or 
similar barriers with level floors and having no more 
than 14 seats per group shall not be required to be 
fastened to the floor. 

6. Seats intended for musicians or other performers 
and separated by railings, guards, partial height 
walls or similar barriers shall not be required to be 
fastened to the floor. 

[B] 1028.13 Handrails. Ramped aisles having a slope 
exceeding one unit vertical in 15 units horizontal (6.7-percent 
slope) and aisle stairs shall be provided with handrails in 
compliance with Section 1012 located either at one or both 
sides of the aisle or within the aisle width. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Handrails are not required for ramped aisles having 
a gradient no greater than one unit vertical in eight 
units horizontal (12.5-percent slope) and seating on 
both sides. 

2. Handrails are not required if, at the side of the aisle, 
there is a guard that complies with the graspability 
requirements of handrails. 

3. Handrail extensions are not required at the top and 
bottom of aisle stair and aisle ramp runs to permit 
crossovers within the aisles. 

[B] 1028.13.1 Discontinuous handrails. Where there is 
seating on both sides of the aisle, the handrails shall be 
discontinuous with gaps or breaks at intervals not exceed- 
ing five rows to facilitate access to seating and to permit 
crossing from one side of the aisle to the other. These gaps 
or breaks shall have a clear width of at least 22 inches (559 
mm) and not greater than 36 inches (914 mm), measured 
horizontally, and the handrail shall have rounded termina- 
tions or bends. 

[B] 1028.13.2 Intermediate handrails. Where handrails 
are provided in the middle of aisle stairs, there shall be an 
additional intermediate handrail located approximately 12 
inches (305 mm) below the main handrail, 

[B] 1028.14 Assembly guards. Guards adjacent to seating in 
a building, room or space used for assembly purposes shall 
comply with Sections 1028.14.1 through 1028.14.3. 

[B] 1028.14.1 Cross aisles. Cross aisles located more than 
30 inches (762 mm) above the floor or grade below shall 
have guards in accordance with Section 1013. 

Where an elevation change of 30 inches (762 mm) or 
less occurs between a cross aisle and the adjacent floor or 
grade below, guards not less than 26 inches (660 mm) 
above the aisle floor shall be provided. 

Exception: Where the backs of seats on the front of the 
cross aisle project 24 inches (610 mm) or more above 
the adjacent floor of the aisle, a guard need not be pro- 
vided. 



[B] 1028.14.2 Sighiline-constrained guard heights. 
Unless subject to the requirements of Section 1028.14.3, a 
fascia or railing system in accordance with the guard 
requirements of Section 1013 and having a minimum 
height of 26 inches (660 mm) shall be provided where the 
floor or footboard elevation is more than 30 inches (762 
mm) above the floor or grade below and the fascia or rail- 
ing would otherwise interfere with the sightlines of imme- 
diately adjacent seating. At bleachers, a guard must be 
provided where required by ICC 300. 

Exception: The height of the guard in front of seating 
shall be measured from the adjacent walking surface. 

[B] 1028.14.3 Guards at the end of aisles. A fascia or 
railing system complying with the guard requirements of 
Section 1013 shall be provided for the full width of the 
aisle where the foot of the aisle is more than 30 inches 
(762 mm) above the floor or grade below. The fascia or 
railing shall be a minimum of 36 inches (914 mm) high 
and shall provide a minimum 42 inches (1067 mm) mea- 
sured diagonally between the top of the rail and the nosing 
of the nearest tread. 



SECTION 1029 
EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE 

[B] 1029.1 General. In addition to the means of egress 
required by this chapter, provisions shall be made for emer- 
gency escape and rescue openings in Group R-2 occupancies 
in accordance with Tables 1021.2(1) and 1021.2(2) and 
Group R-3 occupancies. Basements and sleeping rooms 
below the fourth story above grade plane shall have at least 
one exterior emergency escape and rescue opening in accor- 
dance with this section. Where basements contain one or 
more sleeping rooms, emergency escape and rescue openings I 
shall be required in each sleeping room, but shall not be 
required in adjoining areas of the basement. Such openings 
shall open directly into & public way or to a yard or court that 
opens to a. public way. 

Exceptions: 

1. Basements with a ceiling height of less than 80 
inches (2032 mm) shall not be required to have 
emergency escape and rescue openings. I 

2. Emergency escape and rescue openings are not 
required from basements or sleeping rooms that 
have an exit door or exit access door that opens 
directly into a public way or to a yard, court or exte- 
rior exit balcony that opens to a public way. 

3. Basements without habitable spaces and having no 
more than 200 square feet (18.6 m 2 ) in floor area 
shall not be required to have emergency escape and 1 
rescure openings. 1 

[B] 1029.2 Minimum size. Emergency escape and rescue 
openings shall have a minimum net clear opening of 5.7 
square feet (0.53 nr). 

Exception: The minimum net clear opening for grade- 
floor emergency escape and rescue openings shall be 5 
square feet (0.46 m 2 ). 



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MEANS OF EGRESS 



[B] 1029.2.1 Minimum dimensions. The minimum net 
clear opening height dimension shall be 24 inches (610 
mm). The minimum net clear opening width dimension 
shall be 20 inches (508 mm). The net clear opening dimen- 
sions shall be the result of normal operation of the open- 
ing. 

[B] 1029.3 Maximum height from floor. Emergency escape 
and rescue openings shall have the bottom of the clear open- 
ing not greater than 44 inches (1118 mm) measured from the 
floor. 

[Bj 1029.4 Operational constraints. Emergency escape and 
rescue openings shall be operational from the inside of the 
room without the use of keys or tools. Bars, grilles, grates or 
similar devices are permitted to be placed over emergency 
escape and rescue openings provided the minimum net clear 
opening size complies with Section 1029.2 and such devices 
shall be releasable or removable from the inside without the 
use of a key, tool or force greater than that which is required 
for normal operation of the escape and rescue opening. 
Where such bars, grilles, grates or similar devices are 
installed in existing buildings, smoke alarms shall be installed 
in accordance with Section 907.2.11 regardless of the valua- 
tion of the alteration. 

[B] 1029.5 Window wells. An emergency escape and rescue 
opening with a finished sill height below the adjacent ground 
level shall be provided with a window well in accordance 
with Sections 1029.5.1 and 1029.5.2. 

[B] 1029.5.1 Minimum size. The minimum horizontal 
area of the window well shall be 9 square feet (0.84 m 2 ), 
with a minimum dimension of 36 inches (914 mm). The 
area of the window well shall allow the emergency escape 
and rescue opening to be fully opened. 

[B] 1029.5.2 Ladders or steps. Window wells with a ver- 
tical depth of more than 44 inches (1118 mm) shall be 
equipped with an approved permanently affixed ladder or 
steps. Ladders or rungs shall have an inside width of at 
least 12 inches (305 mm), shall project at least 3 inches 
(76 mm) from the wall and shall be spaced not more than 
18 inches (457 mm) on center (ox.) vertically for the full 
height of the window well. The ladder or steps shall not 
encroach into the required dimensions of the window well 
by more than 6 inches (152 mm). The ladder or steps shall 
not be obstructed by the emergency escape and rescue 
opening. Ladders or steps required by this section are 
exempt from the stairway requirements of Section 1009. 



SECTION 1030 
MAINTENANCE OF THE MEANS OF EGRESS 

1030.1 General. The means of egress for buildings or por- 
tions thereof shall be maintained in accordance with this sec- 
tion. 

1030.2 Reliability. Required exit accesses, exits and exit dis- 
charges shall be continuously maintained free from obstruc- 
tions or impediments to full instant use in the case of fire or 
other emergency when the building area served by the means 
of egress is occupied. An exit or exit passageway shall not be 
used for any purpose that interferes with a means of egress. 



1030.2.1 Security devices and egress locks. Security 
devices affecting means of egress shall be subject to 
approval of the fire code official. Special locking arrange- 
ments including, but not limited to access-controlled 
egress doors, security grills, locks and latches, and delayed 
egress locks shall be installed and maintained as required 
by this chapter. 

1030.3 Obstructions. A means of egress shall be free from 
obstructions that would prevent its use, including the accu- 
mulation of snow and ice. 

[B] 1030.4 Exit signs. Exit signs shall be installed and main- 
tained in accordance with Section 1011. Decorations, furnish- 
ings, equipment or adjacent signage that impairs the visibility 
of exit signs, creates confusion or prevents identification of 
the exit shall not be allowed. 

1030.5 Nonexit identification. Where a door is adjacent to, 
constructed similar to and can be confused with a means of 
egress door, that door shall be identified with an approved 
sign that identifies the room name or use of the room. 

1030.6 Finishes, furnishings and decorations. Means of 
egress doors shall be maintained in such a manner as to be 
distinguishable from the adjacent construction and finishes 
such that the doors are easily recognizable as doors. Furnish- 
ings, decorations or other objects shall not be placed so as to 
obstruct exits, access thereto, egress therefrom, or visibility 
thereof. Hangings and draperies shall not be placed over exit 
doors or otherwise be located to conceal or obstruct an exit. 
Mirrors shall not be placed on exit doors. Mirrors shall not be 
placed in or adjacent to any exit in such a manner as to con- 
fuse the direction of exit. 

1030.7 Emergency escape and rescue openings. Required 
emergency escape and rescue openings shall be maintained 
in accordance with the code in effect at the time of construc- 
tion, and the following: Required emergency escape and res- 
cue openings shall be operational from the inside of the room 
without the use of keys or tools. Bars, grilles, grates or similar 
devices are allowed to be placed over emergency escape and 
rescue openings provided the minimum net clear opening 
size complies with the code that was in effect at the time of 
construction and such devices shall be releasable or remov- 
able from the inside without the use of a key, tool or force 
greater than that which is required for normal operation of the 
emergency escape and rescue opening. 

1030.8 Testing and maintenance. All two-way communica- 
tion systems for areas of refuge shall be inspected and tested 
on a yearly basis to verify that all components are opera- 
tional. When required, the tests shall be conducted in the 
presence of the fire code official. 

1030.9 Floor identification signs. The floor identification 
signs required by Sections 1022.9 and 1104.23 shall be main- 
tained in an approved manner. 



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CHAPTER 11 

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR EXISTING BUILDINGS 



SECTION 1101 
GENERAL 

1101.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall apply to 
existing buildings constructed prior to the adoption of this 
code. 

1101.2 Intent. The intent of this chapter is to provide a min- 
imum degree of fire and life safety to persons occupying 

! existing buildings by providing minimum construction 
requirements where such existing buildings do not comply 
with the minimum requirements of the International Building 
Code. 

1101.3 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Sec- 
| tions 105.6 and 105.7 and the International Building Code. 

1101.4 Owner notification. When a building is found to be 
| in noncompliance with this chapter, the fire code official shall 

duly notify the owner of the building. Upon receipt of such 
notice, the owner shall, subject to the following time limits, 
take necessary actions to comply with the provisions of this 
chapter. 

1101.4,1 Construction documents. Construction docu- 
§ merits necessary to comply with this chapter shall be com- 
I pleted and submitted within a time schedule approved by 

the fire code official. 

! 1101.4.2 Completion of work. Work necessary to comply 
with this chapter shall be completed within a time sched- 
ule approved by the fire code official. 

1101.4.3 Extension of time. The fire code official is 
authorized to grant necessary extensions of time when it 
can be shown that the specified time periods are not physi- 



cally practical or pose an undue hardship. The granting of 
an extension of time for compliance shall be based on the 
showing of good cause and subject to the filing of an 
acceptable systematic plan of correction with the fire code 
official. 



SECTION 1102 
DEFINITION 

1102.1 Definition. The following term is defined in Chapter 2: 

EXISTING. 



SECTION 1103 

FIRE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS 

FOR EXISTING BUILDINGS 

1103.1 Required construction. Existing buildings shall 
comply with not less than the minimum provisions specified 
in Table 1 103.1 and as further enumerated in Sections 1 103.2 
through 1103.9. 

The provisions of this chapter shall not be construed to 
allow the elimination of fire protection systems or a reduction 
in the level of fire safety provided in buildings constructed in 
accordance with previously adopted codes. 

Exception: Group U occupancies. 

1103.2 Emergency responder radio coverage in existing 
buildings. Existing buildings that do not have approved radio 
coverage for emergency responders within the building based 
upon the existing coverage levels of the public safety com- 



** 



TABLE 1103.1 
OCCUPANCY AND USE REQUIREMENTS 8 



SECTION 


USE 


OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 


High rise 


Atrium or 

covered 

mall 


Under- 
ground 
building 


A 


B 


E 


F 


H-1 


H-2 


H-3 


H-4 


H-5 


1-1 


I-2 


I-3 


I-4 


M 


R-1 


R-2 


Ft-3 


R-4 


S 


1103.2 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


1103.3 


R 


— 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


1103.4.1 


R 


— 


R 




















R 


R 


R 


R 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1103.4.2 


R 


— 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


— 


— 


— 


— 


R 


R 


R 


— 


R 


R 


1103.4.3 


R 


— 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


— 


— 


— 


— 


R 


R 


R 


— 


R 


R 


1103.4.4 


— 


R 


— 








































1103.4.5 














































1103.4.6 


— 


— 


— 


R 


— 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


— 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 
R 


1103.4.7 


— 


— 


— 


R 


— 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


— 


R 


R 


R 


R 



(continued) 



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181 



CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR EXISTING BUILDINGS 











TABLE 1103.1 

OCCUPANCY AND USE REQUIREMENTS 3 


— continued 




















SECTION 


USE 


OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 














High rise 


Atrium or 

covered 

mall 


Under- 
ground 
building 


A 


B 


E 


F 


H-1 


H-2 


H-3 


H-4 


H-5 


1-1 


I-2 


I-3 


I-4 


M 


R-1 


R-2 


R-3 


R-4 


S 


1103.5.1 


— 


— 


— 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


1103.5.2 


— 


— 


— 








































1103.6.1 


R 


— 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


— 


R 


R 


1103.6.2 


R 


— 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


— 


R 


R 




1103.7.1 
















































1103.7.2 










































— 


— 




1103.7.3 


— 


— 


— 










































1103.7.4 


— 














































1103.7.5 
















































1103.7.6 
















































1103.7.7 


— 








































R 


— 




1103.8 


— 
































— 


R 


R 


R 


R 


I 


1 103.9 


R 
























R 


R 


R 


R 


— 


R 


R 


R 


R 


— 




1104.4 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 


R 



a. Existing buildings shall comply with the sections identified as "Required" (R) based on occupancy classification or use, or both, whichever is applicable. 
R = The building is required to comply. 



munication systems of the jurisdiction at the exterior of the 
building, shall be equipped with such coverage according to 
one of the following: 

1. Whenever an existing wired communication system can- 
not be repaired or is being replaced, or where not 
approved in accordance with Section 510.1, Exception 1. 

2. Within a time frame established by the adopting author- 
ity. 

Exception: Where it is determined by the fire code official 
that the radio coverage system is not needed. 

1103.3 Elevator operation. Existing elevators with a travel 
distance of 25 feet (7620 mm) or more above or below the 
main floor or other level of a building and intended to serve 
the needs of emergency personnel for fire-fighting or rescue 
purposes shall be provided with emergency operation in 
accordance with ASME A17.3. 

1103.4 Vertical openings, interior vertical shafts, including 
but not limited to stairways, elevator hoistways, service and 
utility shafts, that connect two or more stories of a building, 
shall be enclosed or protected as specified in Sections 
1103.4.1 through 1103.4.7. 

1103.4.1 Group I occupancies. In Group I occupancies, 
interior vertical openings connecting two or more stories 



shall be protected with 1-hour fire-resistance-rated con- 
struction. 

1103.4.2 Three to five stories. In other than Group I 
occupancies, interior vertical openings connecting three to 
five stories shall be protected by either 1-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction or an automatic sprinkler system 
shall be installed throughout the building in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, 

Exceptions: 

1. Vertical opening protection is not required for 
Group R-3 occupancies. 

2. Vertical opening protection is not required for 
open parking garages and ramps. 

3. Vertical opening protection for escalators shall be 
in accordance with Section 1103.4.5, 1103.4.6 or 
1103.4.7. 

1103.4.3 More than five stories. In other than Group I 
occupancies, interior vertical openings connecting more 
than five stories shall be protected by 1-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction. 

Exceptions: 

1. Vertical opening protection is not required for 
Group R-3 occupancies. 



182 



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CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR EXISTING BUILDINGS 



2. Vertical opening protection is not required for 
open parking garages and ramps. 

3. Vertical opening protection for escalators shall be 
in accordance with Section 1103.4.5, 1 103.4 6 or 
1103.4.7. 

1103.4.4 Atriums and covered malls. In other than 
Group I occupancies, interior vertical openings in a cov- 
ered mall building or a building with an atrium shall be 
protected by either 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construc- 
tion or an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed 
throughout the building in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

Exceptions: 

1. Vertical opening protection is not required for 
Group R-3 occupancies. 

2. Vertical opening protection is not required for 
open parking garages and ramps. 

1103.4.5 Escalators in Group B and M occupancies. 
Escalators creating vertical openings connecting any num- 
ber of stories shall be protected by either 1-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction or an automatic sprinkler system 
in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 installed throughout 
the building, with a draft curtain and closely spaced sprin- 
klers around the escalator opening. 

1103.4.6 Escalators connecting four or fewer stories. In 
other than Group B and M occupancies, escalators creat- 
ing vertical openings connecting four or fewer stories shall 
be protected by either 1-hour fire-resistance-rated con- 
struction or an automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 shall be installed 
throughout the building, and a draft curtain with closely 
spaced sprinklers shall be installed around the escalator 
opening. 

1103.4.7 Escalators connecting more than four stories. 

In other than Group B and M occupancies, escalators cre- 
ating vertical openings connecting five or more stories 
shall be protected by 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construc- 
tion. 

1103.5 Sprinkler systems. An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be provided in existing buildings in accordance with 
Sections 1103.5.1 and 1103.5.2. 

1103.5.1 Pyroxylin plastics. An automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be provided throughout existing buildings where 
cellulose nitrate film or pyroxylin plastics are manufac- 
tured, stored or handled in quantities exceeding 100 
pounds (45 kg). Vaults located within buildings for the 
storage of raw pyroxylin shall be protected with an 
approved automatic sprinkler system capable of discharg- 
ing 1.66 gallons per minute per square foot (68 L/min/m 2 ) 
over the area of the vault. 

1103.5.2 Group 1-2. An automatic sprinkler system shall 
be provided throughout existing Group 1-2 fire areas. The 
sprinkler system shall be provided throughout the floor 
where the Group 1-2 occupancy is located, and in all floors 
between the Group 1-2 occupancy and the level of exit dis- 
charge. 



1103.6 Standpipes. Existing structures shall be equipped 
with standpipes installed in accordance with Section 905 
where required in Sections 1103.6.1 and 1103.6.2. The fire 
code official is authorized to approve the installation of man- 
ual standpipe systems to achieve compliance with this section 
where the responding fire department is capable of providing 
the required hose flow at the highest standpipe outlet. 

1103.6.1 Existing multiple-story buildings. Existing 
buildings with occupied floors located more than 50 feet 
(15 240 mm) above the lowest level of fire department 
access or more than 50 feet (15 240 mm) below the high- 
est level of fire department access shall be equipped with 
standpipes. 

1103.6.2 Existing helistops and heliports. Existing 
buildings with a rooftop helistop or heliport located more 
than 30 feet (9144 mm) above the lowest level of fire 
department access to the roof level on which the helistop 
or heliport is located shall be equipped with standpipes in 
accordance with Section 2007.5. 

1103.7 Fire alarm systems. An approved fire alarm system 
shall be installed in existing buildings and structures in accor- 
dance with Sections 1103.7.1 through 1103.7.7 and provide 
occupant notification in accordance with Section 907.6 unless 
other requirements are provided by other sections of this 
code. 

Exception: Occupancies with an existing, previously 
approved fire alarm system. 

1103.7.1 Group E. A fire alarm system shall be installed 
in existing Group E occupancies in accordance with Sec- 
tion 907.2.3. 

Exceptions: 

1 . A manual fire alarm system is not required in a 
building with a maximum area of 1,000 square 
feet (93 m 2 ) that contains a single classroom and 
is located no closer than 50 feet (15 240 mm) 
from another building. 

2. A manual fire alarm system is not required in 
Group E occupancies with an occupant load less 
than 50. 

1103.7.2 Group 1-1. An automatic fire alarm system shall 
be installed in existing Group 1-1 residential care/assisted 
living facilities in accordance with Section 907.2.6.1. 

Exceptions: 

1. Manual fire alarm boxes in resident or patient 
sleeping areas shall not be required at exits if 
located at all nurses' control stations or other 
constantly attended staff locations, provided such 
stations are visible and continuously accessible 
and that travel distances required in Section 
907.5.2 are not exceeded. 

2. Where each sleeping room has a means of egress 
door opening directly to an exterior egress bal- 
cony that leads directly to the exits in accordance 
with Section 1019, and the building is not more 
than three stories in height. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



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CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR EXISTING BUILDINGS 



1103.7.3 Group 1-2. An automatic fire alarm system shall 
be installed in existing Group 1-2 occupancies in accor- 
dance with Section 907.2.6.2. 

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes in resident or 
patient sleeping areas shall not be required at exits if 
located at all nurses' control stations or other constantly 
attended staff locations, provided such stations are visi- 
ble and continuously accessible and that travel dis- 
tances required in Section 907.5.2.1 are not exceeded. 

1103.7.4 Group 1-3. An automatic and manual fire alarm 
system shall be installed in existing Group 1-3 occupancies 
in accordance with Section 907.2.6.3. 

1103.7.5 Group R-l. A fire alarm system and smoke 
alarms shall be installed in existing Group R-l occupan- 
cies in accordance with Sections 1103.7.5.1 through 
1103.7.5.2.1. 

1103.7.5.1 Group R-l hotel and motel manual fire 
alarm system. A manual fire alarm system that acti- 
vates the occupant notification system in accordance 
with Section 907.6 shall be installed in existing Group 
R-l hotels and motels more than three stories or with 
more than 20 sleeping units. 
Exceptions: 

1 . Buildings less than two stories in height where 
all sleeping units, attics and crawl spaces are 
separated by 1 -hour fire-resistance-rated con- 
struction and each sleeping unit has direct 
access to a public way, egress court or yard. 

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
throughout the building when the following 
conditions are met: 

2.1. The building is equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2; 

2.2. The notification appliances will acti- 
vate upon sprinkler water flow; and 

2.3. At least one manual fire alarm box is 
installed at an approved location. 

1103.7.5.1.1 Group R-l hotel and motel auto- 
matic smoke detection system. An automatic 
smoke detection system that activates the occupant 
notification system in accordance with Section 
907.6 shall be installed in existing Group R-l hotels 
and motels throughout all interior corridors serving 
sleeping rooms not equipped with an approved, 
supervised sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 903. 

Exception: An automatic smoke detection sys- 
tem is not required in buildings that do not have 
interior corridors serving sleeping units and 
where each sleeping unit has a means of egress 
door opening directly to an exit or to an exterior 
exit access that leads directly to an exit. 



1103.7.5.2 Group R-l boarding and rooming houses 
manual fire alarm system. A manual fire alarm sys- 
tem that activates the occupant notification system in 
accordance with Section 907.6 shall be installed in 
existing Group R-l boarding and rooming houses. 
Exception: Buildings less than two stories in height 
where all sleeping units, attics and crawl spaces are 
separated by 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construc- 
tion and each sleeping unit has direct access to a 
public way, egress court or yard. 1 

1103.7.5.2.1 Group R-l boarding and rooming 
houses automatic smoke detection system. An 
automatic smoke detection system that activates the 
occupant notification system in accordance with 
Section 907.6 shall be installed in existing Group 
R-l boarding and rooming houses throughout all 
interior corridors serving sleeping units not 
equipped with an approved, supervised sprinkler 
system installed in accordance with Section 903. 
Exception: Buildings equipped with single-sta- 
tion smoke alarms meeting or exceeding the 
requirements of Section 907.2. 1 1 . 1 and where the 
fire alarm system includes at least one manual 
fire alarm box per floor arranged to initiate the 
alarm. 
1103.7.6 Group R-2. A manual fire alarm system that § 
activates the occupant notification system in accordance 
with Section 907.6 shall be installed in existing Group R-2 
occupancies more than three stories in height or with more 
than 16 dwelling or sleeping units. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where each living unit is separated from other 
contiguous living units by fire barriers having a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than 0.75 hour, 
and where each living unit has either its own 
independent exit or its own independent stairway 
or ramp discharging at grade. 

2. A separate fire alarm system is not required in 
buildings that are equipped throughout with an 
approved supervised automatic sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 
903.3.1.2 and having a local alarm to notify all 
occupants. 

3. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings 
that do not have interior corridors serving dwell- 
ing units and are protected by an approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3. 1.2, provided that 
dwelling units either have a means of egress door 
opening directly to an exterior exit access that 
leads directly to the exits or are served by open- 
ended corridors designed in accordance with 
Section 1026.6, Exception 4. 

1103.7.7 Group R-4. A manual fire alarm system that | 
activates the occupant notification system in accordance 
with Section 907.6 shall be installed in existing Group R-4 



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residential care/assisted living facilities in accordance with 
Section 907.2.10.1. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where there are interconnected smoke alarms 
meeting the requirements of Section 907.2. 1 1 and 
there is at least one manual fire alarm box per 
floor arranged to continuously sound the smoke 
alarms. 

2. Other manually activated, continuously sound- 
ing alarms approved by the fire code official. 

1103.8 Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms. Single- 
and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in exist- 
| ing Group I- 1 and R occupancies in accordance with Sections 
1103.8.1 through 1103.8.3. 

1103.8.1 Where required. Existing Group 1-1 and R 

occupancies shall be provided with single-station smoke 
alarms in accordance with Section 907.2. 11, except as pro- 
vided in Sections 1103.8.2 and 1103.8.3. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where the code that was in effect at the time of 
construction required smoke alarms and smoke 
alarms complying with those requirements are 
already provided. 

2. Where smoke alarms have been installed in occu- 
pancies and dwellings that were not required to 
have them at the time of construction, additional 
smoke alarms shall not be required provided that 
the existing smoke alarms comply with require- 
ments that were in effect at the time of installa- 
tion. 

3. Where smoke detectors connected to a fire alarm 
system have been installed as a substitute for 
smoke alarms. 

1103.8.2 Interconnection. Where more than one smoke 
alarm is required to be installed within an individual 
dwelling or sleeping unit, the smoke alarms shall be inter- 
connected in such a manner that the activation of one 
alarm will activate all of the alarms in the individual unit. 
Physical interconnection of smoke alarms shall not be 
required where listed wireless alarms are installed and all 
alarms sound upon activation of one alarm. The alarm 
shall be clearly audible in all bedrooms over background 
noise levels with all intervening doors closed. 

Exceptions: 

1. Interconnection is not required in buildings that 
are not undergoing alterations, repairs or con- 
struction of any kind. 

2. Smoke alarms in existing areas are not required 
to be interconnected where alterations or repairs 
do not result in the removal of interior wall or 
ceiling finishes exposing the structure, unless 
there is an attic, crawl space or basement avail- 



able which could provide access for interconnec- 
tion without the removal of interior finishes. 

1103.8.3 Power source. Single-station smoke alarms shall 
receive their primary power from the building wiring pro- 
vided that such wiring is served from a commercial source 
and shall be equipped with a battery backup. Smoke 
alarms with integral strobes that are not equipped with bat- 
tery backup shall be connected to an emergency electrical 
system. Smoke alarms shall emit a signal when the batter- 
ies are low. Wiring shall be permanent and without a dis- 
connecting switch other than as required for overcurrent 
protection. 

Exceptions: 

1. Smoke alarms are permitted to be solely battery 
operated in existing buildings where no construc- 
tion is taking place. 

2. Smoke alarms are permitted to be solely battery 
operated in buildings that are not served from a 
commercial power source. 

3. Smoke alarms are permitted to be solely battery 
operated in existing areas of buildings undergo- 
ing alterations or repairs that do not result in the 
removal of interior walls or ceiling finishes 
exposing the structure, unless there is an attic, 
crawl space or basement available which could 
provide access for building wiring without the 
removal of interior finishes. 

1103.9 Carbon monoxide alarms. Existing Group I or R 
occupancies located in a building containing a fuel-burning 
appliance or a building which has an attached garage shall be 
equipped with single-station carbon monoxide alarms. The 
carbon monoxide alarms shall be listed as complying with 
UL 2034, and be installed and maintained in accordance with 
NFPA 720 and the manufacturer's instructions. An open 
parking garage, as defined in the International Building 
Code, or an enclosed parking garage ventilated in accordance 
with Section 404 of the International Mechanical Code shall 
not be deemed to be an attached garage. 

Exception: Sleeping units or dwelling units which do not 
themselves contain a fuel-burning appliance or have an 
attached garage, but which are located in a building with a 
fuel-burning appliance or an attached garage, need not be 
equipped with single- station carbon monoxide alarms pro- 
vided that: 

1 . The sleeping unit or dwelling unit is located more 
than one story above or below any story that con- 
tains a fuel-burning appliance or an attached garage; 

2. The sleeping unit or dwelling unit is not connected 
by duct work or ventilation shafts to any room con- 
taining a fuel-burning appliance or to an attached 
garage; and 

3. The building is provided with a common area car- 
bon monoxide alarm system. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



185 



CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR EXISTING BUILDINGS 



SECTION 1104 
MEANS OF EGRESS FOR EXISTING BUILDINGS 

1104.1 General. Means of egress in existing buildings shall 
comply with the minimum egress requirements when speci- 
fied in Table 1 103.1 as further enumerated in Sections 1 104.2 
through 1104.23, and the building code that applied at the 
time of construction. Where the provisions of this chapter 
conflict with the building code that applied at the time of con- 
struction, the most restrictive provision shall apply. Existing 
buildings that were not required to comply with a building 
code at the time of construction shall comply with the mini- 
mum egress requirements when specified in Table 1103.1 as 
further enumerated in Sections 1 104.2 through 1 104.24. 

1104.2 Elevators, escalators and moving walks. Elevators, 
escalators and moving walks shall not be used as a compo- 
nent of a required means of egress. 

Exceptions: 

1. Elevators used as an accessible means of egress 
where allowed by Section 1007.4. 

2. Previously approved escalators and moving walks in 
existing buildings. 

1104.3 Exit sign illumination. Exit signs shall be internally 
or externally illuminated. The face of an exit sign illuminated 
from an external source shall have an intensity of not less 
than 5 footcandles (54 lux). Internally illuminated signs shall 
provide equivalent luminance and be listed for the purpose. 

Exception: Approved self-luminous signs that provide 
evenly illuminated letters shall have a minimum lumi- 
nance of 0.06 foot-lamberts (0.21 cd/m 2 ). 

1104.4 Power source. Where emergency illumination is 
required in Section 1104.5, exit signs shall be visible under 
emergency illumination conditions. 

Exception: Approved signs that provide continuous illu- 
mination independent of external power sources are not 
required to be connected to an emergency electrical sys- 
tem. 

1104.5 Illumination emergency power. The power supply 
for means of egress illumination shall normally be provided 
by the premises' electrical supply. In the event of power sup- 
ply failure, illumination shall be automatically provided from 
an emergency system for the following occupancies where 
such occupancies require two or more means of egress: 

1. Group A having 50 or more occupants. 

Exception: Assembly occupancies used exclu- 
sively as a place of worship and having an occupant 
load of less than 300. 

2. Group B buildings three or more stories in height, 
buildings with 1 00 or more occupants above or below a 
level of exit discharge serving the occupants or build- 
ings with 1,000 or more total occupants. 

3. Group E in interior stairs, corridors, windowless areas 
with student occupancy, shops and laboratories. 

4. Group F having more than 100 occupants. 

Exception: Buildings used only during daylight 
hours which are provided with windows for natural 



light in accordance with the International Building 
Code. 

5. Group I. 

6. Group M. 

Exception: Buildings less than 3,000 square feet 
(279 m 2 ) in gross sales area on one story only, 
excluding mezzanines. 

7. Group R-l. 

Exception: Where each sleeping unit has direct 
access to the outside of the building at grade. 

8. Group R-2. 

Exception: Where each dwelling unit or sleeping 
unit has direct access to the outside of the building at 
grade. 

9. Group R-4. 

Exception: Where each sleeping unit has direct 
access to the outside of the building at ground level. 

1104.5.1 Emergency power duration and installation. 
In other than Group 1-2, the emergency power system shall 
provide power for not less than 60 minutes and consist of 
storage batteries, unit equipment or an on-site generator. 
In Group 1-2, the emergency power system shall provide 
power for not less than 90 minutes and consist of storage 
batteries, unit equipment or an on-site generator. The 
installation of the emergency power system shall be in 
accordance with Section 604. 

1104.6 Guards. Guards complying with this section shall be 
provided at the open sides of means of egress that are more 
than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor or grade below. 

1 104.6.1 Height of guards. Guards shall form a protective 
barrier not less than 42 inches (1067 mm) high. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Existing guards on the open side of stairs shall be 
not less than 30 inches (760 mm) high. 

2. Existing guards within dwelling units shall be not 
less than 36 inches (910 mm) high. 

3. Existing guards in assembly seating areas. 

1104.6.2 Opening limitations. Open guards shall have 
balusters or ornamental patterns such that a 6-inch-diame- 
ter (152 mm) sphere cannot pass through any opening up 
to a height of 34 inches (864 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1. At elevated walking surfaces for access to, and 
use of, electrical, mechanical or plumbing sys- 
tems or equipment, guards shall have balusters or 
be of solid materials such that a sphere with a 
diameter of 21 inches (533 mm) cannot pass 
through any opening. 

2. In occupancies in Group 1-3, F, H or S, the clear 
distance between intermediate rails measured at 
right angles to the rails shall not exceed 21 inches 
(533 mm). 

3. Approved existing open guards. 



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1104.7 Size of doors. The minimum width of each door 
opening shall be sufficient for the occupant load thereof and 
shall provide a clear width of not less than 28 inches (711 
mm). Where this section requires a minimum clear width of 
28 inches (7 1 1 mm) and a door opening includes two door 
leaves without a mullion, one leaf shall provide a clear open- 
ing width of 28 inches (711 mm). The maximum width of a 
swinging door leaf shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) nominal. 
Means of egress doors in an occupancy in Group 1-2 used for 
the movement of beds shall provide a clear width not less 
than 41.5 inches (1054 mm). The height of doors shall not be 
less than 80 inches (2032 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1 . The minimum and maximum width shall not apply 
to door openings that are not part of the required 
means of egress in occupancies in Groups R-2 and 
R-3. 

2. Door openings to storage closets less than 10 square 
feet (0.93 m 2 ) in area shall not be limited by the min- 
imum width. 

3. Width of door leafs in revolving doors that comply 
with Section 1008.1.4.1 shall not be limited. 

4. Door openings within a dwelling unit shall not be 
less than 78 inches (1981 mm) in height. 

5. Exterior door openings in dwelling units, other than 
the required exit door, shall not be less than 76 
inches (1930 mm) in height. 

6. Exit access doors serving a room not larger than 70 
square feet (6.5 m 2 ) shall be not less than 24 inches 
(610 mm) in door width. 

1104.8 Opening force for doors. The opening force for inte- 
rior side-swinging doors without closers shall not exceed a 5- 
pound (22 N) force. For other side-swinging, sliding and 
folding doors, the door latch shall release when subjected to a 
force of not more than 15 pounds (66 N). The door shall be 
set in motion when subjected to a force not exceeding 30 
pounds (1 33 N). The door shall swing to a full-open position 
when subjected to a force of not more than 50 pounds (222 
N). Forces shall be applied to the latch side. 

1104.9 Revolving doors. Revolving doors shall comply with 
the following: 

1. A revolving door shall not be located within 10 feet 
(3048 mm) of the foot or top of stairs or escalators. A 
dispersal area shall be provided between the stairs or 
escalators and the revolving doors. 

2. The revolutions per minute for a revolving door shall 
not exceed those shown in Table 1 104.9. 

3. Each revolving door shall have a conforming side- 
hinged swinging door in the same wall as the revolving 
door and within 1 feet (3048 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1. A revolving door is permitted to be used with- 
out an adjacent swinging door for street-floor 
elevator lobbies provided a stairway, escalator 
or door from other parts of the building does 



not discharge through the lobby and the lobby 
does not have any occupancy or use other than 
as a means of travel between elevators and a 
street. 

2. Existing revolving doors where the number of 
revolving doors does not exceed the number 
of swinging doors within 20 feet (6096 mm). 

TABLE 1104.9 
REVOLVING DOOR SPEEDS 



INSIDE DIAMETER 
(feet-inches) 


POWER-DRIVEN-TYPE 

SPEED CONTROL 

(rpm) 


MANUAL-TYPE 

SPEED CONTROL 

(rpm) 


6-6 


11 


12 


7-0 


10 


11 


7-6 


9 


11 


8-0 


9 


10 


8-6 


8 


9 


9-0 


8 


9 


9-6 


7 


8 


10-0 


7 


8 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

1104.9.1 Egress component. A revolving door used as a 
component of a means of egress shall comply with Section 
1 104.9 and all of the following conditions: 

1 . Revolving doors shall not be given credit for more 
than 50 percent of the required egress capacity. 

2. Each revolving door shall be credited with not more 
than a 50-person capacity. 

3. Revolving doors shall be capable of being collapsed 
when a force of not more than 130 pounds (578 N) is 
applied within 3 inches (76 mm) of the outer edge of 
a wing. 

1104.10 Stair dimensions for existing stairs. Existing stairs 
in buildings shall be permitted to remain if the rise does not 
exceed 8'/ 4 inches (210 mm) and the run is not less than 9 
inches (229 mm). Existing stairs can be rebuilt. 

Exception: Other stairs approved by the fire code official. 

1104.10.1 Dimensions for replacement stairs. The 
replacement of an existing stairway in a structure shall not 
be required to comply with the new stairway requirements 
of Section 1009 where the existing space and construction 
will not allow a reduction in pitch or slope. 

1104.11 Winders. Existing winders shall be allowed to 
remain in use if they have a minimum tread depth of 6 inches 
(152 mm) and a minimum tread depth of 9 inches (229 mm) 
at a point 12 inches (305 mm) from the narrowest edge. 

1104.12 Circular stairways. Existing circular stairs shall be 
allowed to continue in use provided the minimum depth of 
tread is 10 inches (254 mm) and the smallest radius shall not 
be less than twice the width of the stairway. 

1104.13 Stairway handrails. Stairways shall have handrails 
on at least one side. Handrails shall be located so that all por- 



2012 INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE® 



187 



CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR EXISTING BUILDINGS 



tions of the stairway width required for egress capacity are 
within 44 inches (1118 mm) of a handrail. 

Exception: Aisle stairs provided with a center handrail are 
not required to have additional handrails. 

1104.13.1 Height. Handrail height, measured above stair 
tread nosings, shall be uniform, not less than 30 inches 
(762 mm) and not more than 42 inches (1067 mm). 

1104.14 Slope of ramps. Ramp runs utilized as part of a 
means of egress shall have a running slope not steeper than 
one unit vertical in 10 units horizontal (10-percent slope). 
The slope of other ramps shall not be steeper than one unit 
vertical in eight units horizontal (12.5-percent slope). 

1104.15 Width of ramps. Existing ramps are permitted to 
have a minimum width of 30 inches (762 mm) but not less 
than the width required for the number of occupants served as 
determined by Section 1005.1. 

1104.16 Fire escape stairs. Fire escape stairs shall comply 
with Sections 1 104.16.1 through 1 104.16.7. 

1104.16.1 Existing means of egress. Fire escape stairs 
shall be permitted in existing buildings but shall not con- 
stitute more than 50 percent of the required exit capacity. 

1104.16.2 Protection of openings. Openings within 10 
feet (3048 mm) of fire escape stairs shall be protected by 
opening protectives having a minimum 3 / 4 -hour fire pro- 
tection rating. 

Exception: In buildings equipped throughout with an 
approved automatic sprinkler system, opening protec- 
tion is not required. 

1104.16.3 Dimensions. Fire escape stairs shall meet the 
minimum width, capacity, riser height and tread depth as 
specified in Section 1 104.10. 

1104.16.4 Access. Access to a fire escape stair from a cor- 
ridor shall not be through an intervening room. Access to 
a fire escape stair shall be from a door or window meeting 
the criteria of Section 1005.1. Access to a fire escape stair 
shall be directly to a balcony, landing or platform. These 
shall be no higher than the floor or window sill level and 
no lower than 8 inches (203 mm) below the floor level or 
18 inches (457 mm) below the window sill. 

1104.16.5 Materials and strength. Components of fire 
escape stairs shall be constructed of noncombustible mate- 
rials. Fire escape stairs and balconies shall support the 
dead load plus a live load of not less than 100 pounds per 
square foot (4.78 kN/m 2 ). Fire escape stairs and balconies 
shall be provided with a top and intermediate handrail on 
each side. 

1104.16.5.1 Examination. Fire escape stairs and bal- 
conies shall be examined for structural adequacy and 
safety in accordance with Section 1104.16.5 by a regis- 
tered design professional or others acceptable to the /ire 
code official every five years, or as required by the fire 
code official. An inspection report shall be submitted to 
the fire code official after such examination. 

1104.16.6 Termination. The lowest balcony shall not be 
more than 1 8 feet (5486 mm) from the ground. Fire escape 



stairs shall extend to the ground or be provided with coun- 
terbalanced stairs reaching the ground. 

Exception: For fire escape stairs serving 10 or fewer 

occupants, an approved fire escape ladder is allowed to 

serve as the termination. 

1104.16.7 Maintenance. Fire escapes shall be kept clear 

and unobstructed at all times and shall be maintained in 

good working order. 

1104.17 Corridors. Corridors serving an occupant load 
greater than 30 and the openings therein shall provide an 
effective barrier to resist the movement of smoke. Transoms, 
louvers, doors and other openings shall be kept closed or self- 
closing. 

Exceptions: 

1. Corridors in occupancies other than in Group H, 
which are equipped throughout with an approved 
automatic sprinkler system. 

2. Patient room doors in corridors in occupancies in 
Group 1-2 where smoke barriers are provided in 
accordance with the International Building Code. 

3. Corridors in occupancies in Group E where each 
room utilized for instruction or assembly has at least 
one-half of the required means of egress doors open- 
ing directly to the exterior of the building at ground 

level. 

4. Corridors that are in accordance with the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

1104.17.1 Corridor openings. Openings in corri dor walls 
shall comply with the requirements of the International 
Building Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where 20-minute fire door assemblies are 
required, solid wood doors at least 1 .75 inches 
(44 mm) thick or insulated steel doors are 
allowed. 

2. Openings protected with fixed wire glass set in 
steel frames. 

3. Openings covered with 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) gyp- 
sum wallboard or 0.75-inch (19.1 mm) plywood 
on the room side. 

4. Opening protection is not required when the 
building is equipped throughout with an 
approved automatic sprinkler system. 

1104.17.2 Dead ends. Where more than one exit or exit 
access doorway is required, the exit access shall be 
arranged such that dead ends do not exceed the limits 
specified in Table 1 104. 17.2. 

Exception: A dead-end passageway or corridor shall 
not be limited in length where the length of the dead- 
end passageway or corridor is less than 2.5 times the 
least width of the dead-end passageway or corridor. 

1104.18 Exit access travel distance. Exits shall be located so 
that the maximum length of exit access travel, measured from 
the most remote point to an approved exit along the natural 



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CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR EXISTING BUILDINGS 



and unobstructed path of egress travel, does not exceed the 
distances given in Table 1 104. 17.2. 

1104.19 Common path of egress travel. The common path 
of egress travel shall not exceed the distances given in Table 

1104.20 Stairway discharge identification. An interior exit 
stairway or ramp which continues below its level of exit dis- 
charge shall be arranged and marked to make the direction of 
egress to a public way readily identifiable. 

Exception: Stairs that continue one-half story beyond 
their levels of exit discharge need not be provided with 
barriers where the exit discharge is obvious. 

1104 .21 Exterior stairway protection. Exterior exit stairs 
shall be separated from the interior of the building as required 



in Section 1026.6. Openings shall be limited to those neces- 
sary for egress from normally occupied spaces. 
Exceptions: 

1. Separation from the interior of the building is not 
required for buildings that are two stories or less 
above grade where the level of exit discharge serv- 
ing such occupancies is the first story above grade. 

2. Separation from the interior of the building is not 
required where the exterior stairway is served by an 
exterior balcony that connects two remote exterior 
stairways or other approved exits, with a perimeter 
that is not less than 50 percent open. To be consid- 
ered open, the opening shall be a minimum of 50 
percent of the height of the enclosing wall, with the 



OCCUPANCY 



__.. TABLE 1104.17.2 
JgMMOjij^TH^PE^ DISTANCE LI MITS (by occupancy) 
_CO_MMON PATH LIMIT | BIa^In^St^ 



Group A 



Group B f 



Group E 



Group F-l.S-1 



Group F-2, S-2 d 



Group H-l 



Group H-2 



Group H-3 
Group H-4 



Group H-5 



Group I-i 



Group 1-2 (Health care) 



Group 1-3 
(Detention and correctional— Use 
Conditions II, III, IV, V) 

Group 1-4 (Day care centers) 



Group M (Covered or open mall) 



Group M (Mercantile) 



Group R-l (Hotels) 



Group R-2 (Apartments) 



Group R-3 (One- and two-family) 



Group R-4 (Residential 
care/assisted living) 



Group U f 



Unsprinklered 
(feet) 



20/75" 



75 



75 



75 



75 



25 



50 



50 



75 



75 



75 



NR e 



100 



NR 



75 



75 



75 



75 



NR 



NR 



75 



Sprinklered 
(feet) 



20/75" 



100 



75 



Unsprinklered 
(feet) 



20 b 



50 



20 



100 



100 



25 



100 



100 



75 



75 



75 



50 



Sprinklered 
(feet) 



20" 



50 



50 



50 



20 



20 



50 



50 




~20~ 



20 



20 



NR e 



100 



20 



NR 



NR 



NR 



100 



100 



75 



125 



NR 



NR 



20 



50 



50 



50 



NR 



NR 



20 



50 



50 
50 



NR 



NR 



100 



20 



50 



50 



50 



50 



NR 



NR 



50 



TRAVEL DISTANCE LIMIT 



Unsprinklered 

(feet) 



200 



200 



200 



200 



300 



75 



75 



100 



150 



150 



200 



150 



150 c 



200 



200 



200 



200 



200 



NR 



NR