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Full text of "ICC IPC (2012): International Plumbing Code"

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NOTICE OF INCORPORATION 

United States Legal Document 

J^" All citizens and residents are hereby advised that 
this is a legally binding document duly incorporated by 
reference and that failure to comply with such 
requirements as hereby detailed within may subject you 
to criminal or civil penalties under the law. Ignorance of 
the law shall not excuse noncompliance and it is the 
responsibility of the citizens to inform themselves as to 
the laws that are enacted in the United States of America 
and in the states and cities contained therein. "^& 

* * 



ICC IPC (2012), the International Plumbing Code, 
as mandated and incorporated by the States and 
Municipalities including Maryland in the 
Code of Maryland Administrative Regulations (COMAR) 
Section 05.02.01.02. 





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INTERNATIONAL 

PLUMBING 

CODE 6 

A Member of the International Code Family 





ALSO INCLUDES 




INTERNATIONAL 

CODE COUNCIL 8 



INTERNATIONAL 

PLUMBING 

CODE 8 

A Member of the International Code Family® 



Become a Building Safety Professional Member 
and Learn More about the Code Council 
GO TO WWW.ICCSAFE.ORG for All Your Technical and 
Professional Needs Including: 

> Codes, Standards and Guidelines 

> Membership Benefits 

> Education and Certification 

> Communications on Industry News 



2012 International Plumbing Code' 



First Printing: April 201 1 



© 



ISBN: 978-1-60983-053-3 (soft-cover edition) 
ISBN: 978-1-60983-052-6 (loose-leaf edition) 



COPYRIGHT ©2011 

by 

INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL, INC. 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This 2012 International Plumbing Code® is a copyrighted work owned by the International Code 
Council, Inc. Without advance written permission from the copyright owner, no part of this book may be reproduced, distributed 
or transmitted in any form or by any means, including, without limitation, electronic, optical or mechanical means (by way of 
example, and not limitation, photocopying, or recording by or in an information storage retrieval system). For information on 
permission to copy material exceeding fair use, please contact: Publications, 4051 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills IL 
60478-5795. Phone 1-888-ICC-SAFE (422-7233). 

Trademarks: "International Code Council," the "International Code Council" logo and the "International Plumbing Code" are 
trademarks of the International Code Council, Inc. 



PRINTED IN THE U.S.A. 



Introduction 



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Internationally, code officials recognize the need for a modern, up-to-date plumbing code address- 
ing the design and installation of plumbing systems through requirements emphasizing perfor- 
mance. The International Plumbing Code®, in this 2012 edition, is designed to meet these needs 
through model code regulations that safeguard the public health and safety in all communities, 
large and small. 

This comprehensive plumbing code establishes minimum regulations for plumbing systems 
using prescriptive and performance-related provisions. It is founded on broad-based principles that 
make possible the use of new materials and new plumbing designs. This 2012 edition is fully com- 
patible with all of the International Codes® (l-Codes®) published by the International Code Council 
(ICC)®, including the International Building Code®, International Energy Conservation Code , Inter- 
national Existing Building Code®, International Fire Code®, International Fuel Gas Code , Interna- 
tional Green Construction Code™ (to be available March 2012), International Mechanical Code®, ICC 



© 



Performance Code w , International Private Sewage Disposal Code u , International Property Mainte 
nance Code®, International Residential Code®, International Swimming Pool and Spa Code™ (to be 
available March 2012), International Wildland-Urban Interface Code® and International Zoning 

Code®. 

The International Plumbing Code provisions provide many benefits, among which is the model 
code development process that offers an international forum for plumbing professionals to discuss 
performance and prescriptive code requirements. This forum provides an excellent arena to debate 
proposed revisions. This model code also encourages international consistency in the application of 
provisions. 



Development 



Adoption 



The first edition of the International Plumbing Code (1995) was the culmination of an effort initiated 
in 1994 by a development committee appointed by the ICC and consisting of representatives of the 
three statutory members of the International Code Council at that time, including: Building Officials 
and Code Administrators International, Inc. (BOCA), International Conference of Building Officials 
(ICBO) and Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI). The intent was to draft a com- 
prehensive set of regulations for plumbing systems consistent with and inclusive of the scope of the 
existing model codes. Technical content of the latest model codes promulgated by BOCA, ICBO and 
SBCCI was utilized as the basis for the development. This 2012 edition presents the code as origi- 
nally issued, with changes as reflected in the subsequent editions through 2009 and with changes 
approved through the ICC Code Development Process through 2010. A new edition such as this is 
promulgated every three years. 

This code is founded on principles intended to establish provisions consistent with the scope of a 
plumbing code that adequately protects public health, safety and welfare; provisions that do not 
unnecessarily increase construction costs; provisions that do not restrict the use of new materials, 
products or methods of construction; and provisions that do not give preferential treatment to par- 
ticular types or classes of materials, products or methods of construction. 



The International Plumbing Code is available for adoption and use by jurisdictions internationally. Its 
use within a governmental jurisdiction is intended to be accomplished through adoption by refer- 
ence in accordance with proceedings establishing the jurisdiction's laws. At the time of adoption, 
jurisdictions should insert the appropriate information in provisions requiring specific local informa- 
tion, such as the name of the adopting jurisdiction. These locations are shown in bracketed words in 
small capital letters in the code and in the sample ordinance. The sample adoption ordinance on 
page xi addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordinance, including the information 
required for insertion into the code text. 



2012 INTERNATSONAL PLUMBING CODE E 



Maintenance 



The International Plumbing Code is kept up to date through the review of proposed changes submit- 
ted by code enforcing officials, industry representatives, design professionals and other interested 
parties. Proposed changes are carefully considered through an open code development process in 
which all interested and affected parties may participate. 

The contents of this work are subject to change both through the Code Development Cycles and 
the governmental body that enacts the code into law. For more information regarding the code 
development process, contact the Codes and Standards Development Department of the Interna- 
tional Code Council. 

While the development procedure of the International Plumbing Code ensures the highest 
degree of care, ICC and ICC's members and those participating in the development of this code do 
not accept any liability resulting from compliance or noncompliance with the provisions, since ICC 
and its members do not have the power or authority to police or enforce compliance with the con- 
tents of this code. Only the governmental body that enacts the code into law has such authority. 



£@de Development Committee Responsibilities 
(Letter Designations in Front of Section Nymbers) 



In each code development cycle, proposed changes to the code are considered at the Code Devel- 
opment Hearings by the International Plumbing Code Development Committee, whose action con- 
stitutes a recommendation to the voting membership for final action on the proposed change. 
Proposed changes to a code section that has a number beginning with a letter in brackets are con- 
sidered by a different code development committee. For example, proposed changes to code sec- 
tions that have [B] in front of them (e.g. [B] 309.2) are considered by the appropriate International 
Building Code Development Committee (IBC-General) at the code development hearings. 

The content of sections in this code that begin with a letter designation is maintained by another 
code development committee in accordance with the following: 

[A] = Administrative Code Development Committee; 

[B] = International Building Code Development Committee (IBC— Fire Safety, General, Means 

of Egress or Structural); 

[E] = International Energy Conservation Code Development Committee; 

[F] = International Fire Code Development Committee; and 
[M] = International Mechanical Code Development Committee. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



Note that, for the development of the 2015 edition of the l-Codes, there will be two groups of 
code development committees and they will meet in separate years. The groupings are as follows: 



Group A Codes 

(Heard in 2012, Code Change Proposals 

Deadline: January 3, 2012) 


Group B Codes 

(Heard in 2013, Code Change Proposals 

Deadline: January 3, 2013) 


International Building Code 


Administrative Provisions (Chapter 1 all codes except 
IRC and ICC PC, administrative updates to currently ref- 
erenced standards, and designated definitions) 


International Fuel Gas Code 


International Energy Conservation Code 


International Mechanical Code 


International Existing Building Code 


International Plumbing Code 


International Fire Code 


International Private Sewage 
Disposal Code 


International Green Construction Code 




ICC Performance Code 




International Property Maintenance Code 




International Residential Code 




International Swimming Pool and Spa Code 




International Wildland-Urban Interface Code 




International Zoning Code 



Code change proposals submitted for code sections that have a letter designation in front of 
them will be heard by the respective committee responsible for such code sections. Because differ- 
ent committees will meet in different years, it is possible that some proposals for this code will be 
heard by a committee in a different year than the year in which the primary committee for this code 
meets. 

For example, every section of Chapter 1 of this code is designated as the responsibility of the 
Administrative Code Development Committee, and that committee is part of the Group B portion of 
the hearings. This committee will conduct its code development hearings in 2013 to consider all 
code change proposals for Chapter 1 of this code and proposals for Chapter 1 of all l-Codes except 
the International Residential Code and the ICC Performance Code. Therefore, any proposals 
received for Chapter 1 of this code will be deferred for consideration in 2013 by the Administrative 
Code Development Committee. 

Another example is Section 607.5 of this code which is designated as the responsibility of the 
International Energy Conservation Code Development Committee. This committee will conduct its 
code development hearings in 2013 to consider code change proposals in its purview, which 
includes any proposals to Section 607.5. 

In some cases, another committee in Group A will be responsible for a section of this code. For 
example, Section 314.2 has a [M] in front of the numbered section, indicating that this section of 
the code is the responsibility of the International Mechanical Code Development Committee. The 
International Mechanical Code is in Group A; therefore, any code change proposals to this section 
will be due before the Group A deadline of January 3, 2012, and these code change proposals will be 
assigned to the International Mechanical Code Development Committee for consideration. 

It is very important that anyone submitting code change proposals understand which code devel- 
opment committee is responsible for the section of the code that is the subject of the code change 
proposal. For further information on the code development committee responsibilities, please visit 
the ICC web site at www.iccsafe.org/scoping. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



Marginal Markings 



Solid vertical lines in the margins within the body of the code indicate a technical change from the 
requirements of the 2009 edition. Deletion indicators in the form of an arrow ( a* ) are provided in 
the margin where an entire section, paragraph, exception or table has been deleted or an item in a 
list of items or a table has been deleted. 

A single asterisk [*] placed in the margin indicates that text or a table has been relocated within 
the code. A double asterisk [**] placed in the margin indicates that the text or table immediately 
following it has been relocated there from elsewhere in the code. The following table indicates such 
relocations in the 2012 International Plumbing Code. 



2012 LOCATION 


2009 LOCATION 


316.1 through 316.1.6 


105.4 through 105.4.6 


315.1 


305.4 


405.3.3,405.3.4,405.3.5 


310.2,310.4,310.5 


904 


903 


903 


904 


909 


906 


910 


907 


911 


908 


912 


909 


913 


910 


914 


911 


915 


912 


916 


913 


908 


914 


907 


915 


906 


916 



Italicized Terms 



Selected terms set forth in Chapter 2, Definitions, are italicized where they appear in code text. 
Such terms are not italicized where the definition set forth in Chapter 2 does not impart the 
intended meaning in the use of the term. The terms selected have definitions which the user should 
read carefully to facilitate better understanding of the code. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 8 



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The International Plumbing Code (IPC) is a model code that regulates the design and installation of 
plumbing systems including the plumbing fixtures in all types of buildings except for detached one- 
and two-family dwellings and townhouses that are not more than three stories above grade in 
height. The regulations for plumbing systems in one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses are 
covered by Chapters 25 through 33 of the International Residential Code (IRC). The IPC addresses 
general plumbing regulations, fixture requirements, water heater installations and systems for 
water distribution, sanitary drainage, special wastes, venting, storm drainage and medical gases. 
The IPC does not address fuel gas piping systems as those systems are covered by the International 
Fuel Gas Code (IFGC). The IPC also does not regulate swimming pool piping systems, process piping 
systems, or utility-owned piping and systems. The purpose of the IPC is to the establish the mini- 
mum acceptable level of safety to protect life and property from the potential dangers associated 
with supplying potable water to plumbing fixtures and outlets and the conveyance of bacteria-laden 
waste water from fixtures. 

The IPC is primarily a specification-oriented (prescriptive) code with some performance-oriented 
text. For example, Section 405.1 is a performance statement but Chapter 6 contains the prescriptive 
requirements that will cause Section 405.1 to be satisfied. 

Where a building contains plumbing fixtures, those fixtures requiring water must be provided 
with an adequate supply of water for proper operation. The number of required plumbing fixtures 
for a building is specified by this code and is based upon the anticipated maximum number of occu- 
pants for the building and the type of building occupancy. This code provides prescriptive criteria 
for sizing piping systems connected to those fixtures. Through the use of code-approved materials 
and the installation requirements specified in this code, plumbing systems will perform their 
intended function over the life of the building. In summary, the IPC sets forth the minimum require- 
ments for providing safe water to a building as well as a safe manner in which liquid-borne wastes 
are carried away from a building. 



Arrangement and Format of the 2012 IPC 



The format of the IPC allows each chapter to be devoted to a particular subject with the exception 
of Chapter 3 which contains general subject matters that are not extensive enough to warrant their 
own independent chapter. The IPC is divided into thirteen different parts: 



Chapters 


Subjects 


1-2 


Administration and Definitions 


3 


General Regulations 


4 


Fixtures, Faucets and Fixture Fittings 


5 


Water Heaters 


6 


Water Supply and Distribution 


7 


Sanitary Drainage 


8 


Indirect/Special Wastes 


9 


Vents 


10 


Traps, Interceptors and Separators 


11 


Storm Drainage 


12 


Special Piping (Medical Gas) 


13 


Gray Water Recycling Systems 


14 


Referenced Standards 


Appendices A-G 


Appendices 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



The following is a chapter-by-chapter synopsis of the scope and intent of the provisions of the 
International Plumbing Code: 

Chapter I Scope and Administration. This chapter contains provisions for the application, 
enforcement and administration of subsequent requirements of the code. In addition to establish- 
ing the scope of the code, Chapter 1 identifies which buildings and structures come under its pur- 
view. Chapter 1 is largely concerned with maintaining "due process of law" in enforcing the 
requirements contained in the body of this code. Only through careful observation of the adminis- 
trative provisions can the building official reasonably expect to demonstrate that "equal protection 
under the law" has been provided. 

Chapter 2 Definitions. Chapter 2 is the repository of the definitions of terms used in the body of 
the code. Codes are technical documents and every word, term and punctuation mark can impact 
the meaning of the code text and the intended results. The code often uses terms that have a 
unique meaning in the code and the code meaning can differ substantially from the ordinarily 
understood meaning of the term as used outside of the code. 

The terms defined in Chapter 2 are deemed to be of prime importance in establishing the mean- 
ing and intent of the code text that uses the terms. The user of the code should be familiar with and 
consult this chapter because the definitions are essential to the correct interpretation of the code 
and because the user may not be aware that a term is defined. 

Where understanding of a term's definition is especially key to or necessary for understanding of 
a particular code provision, the term is shown in italics wherever it appears in the code. This is true 
only for those terms that have a meaning that is unique to the code. In other words, the generally 
understood meaning of a term or phrase might not be sufficient or consistent with the meaning pre- 
scribed by the code; therefore, it is essential that the code-defined meaning be known. 

Guidance regarding tense, gender and plurality of defined terms as well as guidance regarding 
terms not defined in this code is provided. 

Chapter 3 General Regulations. The content of Chapter 3 is often referred to as "miscella- 
neous," rather than general regulations. This is the only chapter in the code whose requirements do 
not interrelate. If a requirement cannot be located in another chapter, it should be located in this 
chapter. Chapter 3 contains safety requirements for the installation of plumbing and nonplumbing 
requirements for all types of fixtures. This chapter also has requirements for the identification of 
pipe, pipe fittings, traps, fixtures, materials and devices used in plumbing systems. 

The safety requirements of this chapter provide protection for the building's structural mem- 
bers, as well as prevent undue stress and strain on pipes. The building's structural stability is pro- 
tected by the regulations for cutting and notching of structural members. Additional protection for 
the building occupants includes requirements to maintain the plumbing in a safe and sanitary condi- 
tion, as well as privacy for those occupants. 

Chapter 4 Fixtures, Faucets and Fixture Fittings. This chapter regulates the minimum num- 
ber of plumbing fixtures that must be provided for every type of building. This chapter also regu- 
lates the quality of fixtures and faucets by requiring those items to comply with nationally 
recognized standards. Because fixtures must be properly installed so that they are usable by the 
occupants of the building, this chapter contains the requirements for the installation of fixtures. 
Because the requirements for the number of plumbing fixtures affects the design of a building, 
Chapter 29 of the International Building Code (IBC) includes, verbatim, many of the requirements 
listed in Chapter 4 of this code. 

Chapter 5 Water Heaters. Chapter 5 regulates the design, approval and installation of water 
heaters and related safety devices. The intent is to minimize the hazards associated with the instal- 
lation and operation of water heaters. Although this code does not regulate the size of a water 
heater, it does regulate all other aspects of the water heater installation such as temperature and 
pressure relief valves, safety drip pans, installation and connections. Where a water heater also sup- 
plies water for space heating, this chapter regulates the maximum water temperature supplied to 
the water distribution system. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



Chapter 6 Water Supply and Distribution. This chapter regulates the supply of potable water 
from both public and individual sources to every fixture and outlet so that it remains potable and 
uncontaminated. Chapter 6 also regulates the design of the water distribution system, which will 
allow fixtures to function properly and also help prevent backflow conditions. The unique require- 
ments of the water supply for health care facilities are addressed separately. It is critical that the 
potable water supply system remain free of actual or potential sanitary hazards by providing protec- 
tion against backflow. 

Chapter 7 Sanitary Drainage. The purpose of Chapter 7 is to regulate the materials, design and 
installation of sanitary drainage piping systems as well as the connections made to the system. The 
intent is to design and install sanitary drainage systems that will function reliably, that are neither 
undersized nor oversized and that are constructed from materials, fittings and connections as pre- 
scribed herein. This chapter addresses the proper use of fittings for directing the flow into and 
within the sanitary drain piping system. Materials and provisions necessary for servicing the drain- 
age system are also included in this chapter. 

Chapter 8 Indirect/Special Waste. This chapter regulates drainage installations that require 
an indirect connection to the sanitary drainage system. Fixtures and plumbing appliances, such as 
those associated with food preparation or handling, health care facilities and potable liquids, must 
be protected from contamination that can result from connection to the drainage system. An indi- 
rect connection prevents sewage from backing up into a fixture or appliance, thus providing protec- 
tion against potential health hazards. The chapter also regulates special wastes containing 
hazardous chemicals. Special waste must be treated to prevent any damage to the sanitary drainage 
piping and to protect the sewage treatment processes. 

Chapter 3 Vents. Chapter 9 covers the requirements for vents and venting. Knowing why venting 
is required makes it easier to understand the intent of this chapter. Venting protects every trap 
against the loss of its seal. Provisions set forth in this chapter are geared toward limiting the pres- 
sure differentials in the drainage system to a maximum of 1 inch of water column (249 Pa) above or 
below atmospheric pressure (i.e., positive or negative pressures). 

Chapter 10 Traps, Interceptors and Separators. This chapter contains design requirements 
and installation limitations for traps. Prohibited types of traps are specifically identified. Where fix- 
tures do not frequently replenish the water in traps, a method is provided to ensure that the water 
seal of the trap will be maintained. Requirements for the design and location of various types of 
interceptors and separators are provided. Specific venting requirements are given for separators 
and interceptors as those requirements are not addressed in Chapter 9. 

Chapter 11 Storm Drainage. Chapter 11 regulates the removal of storm water typically associ- 
ated with rainfall. The proper installation of a storm drainage system reduces the possibility of 
structural collapse of a flat roof, prevents the leakage of water through the roof, prevents damage 
to the footings and foundation of the building and prevents flooding of the lower levels of the build- 
ing. 

Chapter 12 Special Piping and Storage Systems. This chapter contains the requirements for 
the design, installation, storage, handling and use of nonflammable medical gas systems, including 
inhalation anesthetic and vacuum piping systems, bulk oxygen storage systems and oxygen-fuel gas 
systems used for welding and cutting operations. The intent of these requirements is to minimize 
the potential fire and explosion hazards associated with the gases used in these systems. 

Chapter 13 Gray Water Recycling Systems. This chapter regulates the design and installation 
of gray water collection and disposal systems. The reduction of the use of potable water in buildings 
has led to the use of gray water for flushing of water closets and urinals and subsurface irrigation. 
As such, this chapter provides the overall requirements for these systems. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE' 



® 



Chapter 14 Referenced Standards. The code contains numerous references to standards that 
are used to regulate materials and methods of construction. Chapter 14 contains a comprehensive 
list of all standards that are referenced in the code. The standards are part of the code to the extent 
of the reference to the standard. Compliance with the referenced standard is necessary for compli- 
ance with this code. By providing specifically adopted standards, the construction and installation 
requirements necessary for compliance with the code can be readily determined. The basis for code 
compliance is, therefore, established and available on an equal basis to the code official, contractor, 
designer and owner. 

Chapter 14 is organized in a manner that makes it easy to locate specific standards. It lists all of 
the referenced standards, alphabetically, by acronym of the promulgating agency of the standard. 
Each agency's standards are then listed in either alphabetical or numeric order based upon the stan- 
dard identification. The list also contains the title of the standard; the edition (date) of the standard 
referenced; any addenda included as part of the ICC adoption; and the section or sections of this 
code that reference the standard. 

Appendix A Plumbing Permit Fee Schedule. Appendix A provides a format for a fee schedule. 

Appendix B Rates of Rainfall for Various Cities. Appendix B provides specific rainfall rates 
for major cities in the United States. 

Appendix C Vacuum Drainage System. Appendix C offers basic information on how a vacuum 
drainage system relates to the code, should a vacuum drainage system be used for a building. 

Appendix D Degree Day and Design Temperatures. This appendix provides valuable tem- 
perature information for designers and installers of plumbing systems in areas where freezing tem- 
peratures might exist. 

Appendix E Sizing of Water Piping System. Appendix E provides two recognized methods for 
sizing the water service and water distribution piping for any structure. The method under Section 
E103 provides friction loss diagrams which require the user to "plot" points and read values from 
the diagrams in order to perform the required calculations and necessary checks. This method is the 
most accurate of the two presented in this appendix. The method under Section E201 is known to 
be conservative; however, very few calculations are necessary in order to determine a pipe size that 
satisfies the flow requirements of any application. 

Appendix F Structural Safety. Appendix F is provided so that the user does not have to refer to 
another code book for limitations for cutting, notching and boring of sawn lumber and cold-formed 
steel framing. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



LEGISLATION 



The International Codes are designed and promulgated to be adopted by reference by legislative action. Jurisdictions wishing to 
adopt the 2012 International Plumbing Code as an enforceable regulation governing plumbing systems should ensure that cer- 
tain factual information is included in the adopting legislation at the time adoption is being considered by the appropriate gov- 
ernmental body. The following sample adoption legislation addresses several key elements, including the information required 
for insertion into the code text. 



SAMPLE LEGISLATION FOR ADOPTION OF 
THE INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 
ORDINANCE NO. 



A[N] [ORDINANCE/STATUTE/REGULATION] of the [JURISDICTION] adopting the 2012 edition of the International Plumbing Code, 
regulating and governing the design, construction, quality of materials, erection, installation, alteration, repair, location, reloca- 
tion, replacement, addition to, use or maintenance of plumbing systems in the [JURISDICTION]; providing for the issuance of per- 
mits and collection of fees therefor; repealing [ORDINANCE/STATUTE/REGULATION] No. of the [JURISDICTION] and all 

other ordinances or parts of laws in conflict therewith. 

The [GOVERNING BODY] of the [JURISDICTION] does ordain as follows: 

Section 1. That a certain document, three (3) copies of which are on file in the office of the [TITLE OF JURISDICTION'S KEEPER 
OF RECORDS] of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], being marked and designated as the International Plumbing Code, 2012 edition, 
including Appendix Chapters [FILL IN THE APPENDIX CHAPTERS BEING ADOPTED], as published by the International Code Coun- 
cil, be and is hereby adopted as the Plumbing Code of the [JURISDICTION], in the State of [STATE NAME] regulating and govern- 
ing the design, construction, quality of materials, erection, installation, alteration, repair, location, relocation, replacement, 
addition to, use or maintenance of plumbing systems as herein provided; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of 
fees therefor; and each and all of the regulations, provisions, penalties, conditions and terms of said Plumbing Code on file in the 
office of the [JURISDICTION] are hereby referred to, adopted, and made a part hereof, as if fully set out in this legislation, with the 
additions, insertions, deletions and changes, if any, prescribed in Section 2 of this ordinance. 

Section 2. The following sections are hereby revised; 

Section 101.1. Insert: [NAME OF JURISDICTION] 

Section 106.6.2. Insert: [APPROPRIATE SCHEDULE] 

Section 106.6.3. Insert: [PERCENTAGES IN TWO LOCATIONS] 

Section 108.4. Insert: [OFFENSE, DOLLAR AMOUNT, NUMBER OF DAYS] 

Section 108.5. Insert: [DOLLAR AMOUNT IN TWO LOCATIONS] 

Section 305.6.1. Insert: [NUMBER OF INCHES IN TWO LOCATIONS] 

Section 904.1. Insert: [NUMBER OF INCHES] 

Section 3. That [ORDINANCE/STATUTE/REGULATION] No. of [JURISDICTION] entitled [FILL IN HERE THE COMPLETE 

TITLE OF THE LEGISLATION OR LAWS IN EFFECT AT THE PRESENT TIME SO THAT THEY WILL BE REPEALED BY DEFINITE MEN- 
TION] and all other ordinances or parts of laws in conflict herewith are hereby repealed. 

Section 4. That if any section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this legislation is, for any reason, held to be unconstitu- 
tional, such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of this ordinance. The [GOVERNING BODY] hereby 
declares that it would have passed this law, and each section, subsection, clause or phrase thereof, irrespective of the fact that 
any one or more sections, subsections, sentences, clauses and phrases be declared unconstitutional. 

Section 5. That nothing in this legislation or in the Plumbing Code hereby adopted shall be construed to affect any suit or pro- 
ceeding impending in any court, or any rights acquired, or liability incurred, or any cause or causes of action acquired or exist- 
ing, under any act or ordinance hereby repealed as cited in Section 3 of this law; nor shall any just or legal right or remedy of any 
character be lost, impaired or affected by this legislation. 

2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® x j 



Section 6. That the [JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF RECORDS] is hereby ordered and directed to cause this legislation to be pub- 
lished. (An additional provision may be required to direct the number of times the legislation is to be published and to specify 
that it is to be in a newspaper in general circulation. Posting may also be required.) 

Section 7. That this law and the rules, regulations, provisions, requirements, orders and matters established and adopted hereby 
shall take effect and be in full force and effect [TIME PERIOD] from and after the date of its final passage and adoption. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 15 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 1 SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION ... 1 

PART 1— SCOPE AND APPLICATION 1 

Section 

101 General 1 

102 Applicability 1 

PART 2— ADMINISTRATION AND 

ENFORCEMENT 2 

Section 

103 Department of Plumbing Inspection 2 

104 Duties and Powers of the Code Official 2 

105 Approval 3 

106 Permits 3 

107 Inspections and Testing 5 

108 Violations 6 

109 Means of Appeal 7 

1 10 Temporary Equipment, Systems and Uses 8 

CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS 9 

Section 

201 General 9 

202 General Definitions 9 

CHAPTER 3 GENERAL REGULATIONS 17 

Section 

301 General 17 

302 Exclusion of Materials Detrimental 

to the Sewer System 17 

303 Materials 17 

304 Rodentproofing 17 

305 Protection of Pipes and Plumbing 

System Components 18 

306 Trenching, Excavation and Backfill 18 

307 Structural Safety 19 

308 Piping Support 19 

309 Flood Hazard Resistance 20 

3 1 Washroom and Toilet Room 

Requirements 20 

311 Toilet Facilities for Workers 20 

312 Tests and Inspections 20 

313 Equipment Efficiencies 21 

314 Condensate Disposal 21 

315 Penetrations 22 

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316 Alternative Engineered Design 22 

CHAPTER 4 FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND 

FIXTURE FITTINGS .25 

Section 

401 General 25 

402 Fixture Materials 25 

403 Minimum Plumbing Facilities 25 

404 Accessible Plumbing Facilities 29 

405 Installation of Fixtures 29 

406 Automatic Clothes Washers 30 

407 Bathtubs 30 

408 Bidets 30 

409 Dishwashing Machines 30 

410 Drinking Fountains 31 

411 Emergency Showers and Eyewash 

Stations 31 

412 Floor and Trench Drains 31 

413 Food Waste Grinder Units 31 

414 Garbage Can Washers 31 

415 Laundry Trays 31 

416 Lavatories 31 

417 Showers 32 

418 Sinks 33 

419 Urinals 33 

420 Water Closets 33 

421 Whirlpool Bathtubs 33 

422 Health Care Fixtures and Equipment 34 

423 Specialty Plumbing Fixtures 34 

424 Faucets and Other Fixture Fittings 34 

425 Flushing Devices for Water Closets 

and Urinals 35 

426 Manual Food and Beverage 

Dispensing Equipment 35 

427 Floor Sinks 36 

CHAPTER 5 WATER HEATERS .37 

Section 

501 General 37 

502 Installation 37 

503 Connections 37 

504 Safety Devices 38 

505 Insulation 38 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 6 WATER SUPPLY AND 

DISTRIBUTION 39 

Section 

601 General 39 

602 Water Required 39 

603 Water Service 39 

604 Design of Building Water Distribution 

System 40 

605 Materials, Joints and Connections 41 

606 Installation of the Building Water 

Distribution System 46 

607 Hot Water Supply System 47 

608 Protection of Potable Water Supply 48 

609 Health Care Plumbing 53 

610 Disinfection of Potable Water System 54 

61 1 Drinking Water Treatment Units 54 

612 Solar Systems 54 

613 Temperature Control Devices and Valves 54 

CHAPTER 7 SANITARY DRAINAGE 55 

Section 

701 General 55 

702 Materials 55 

703 Building Sewer 57 

704 Drainage Piping Installation 57 

705 Joints 57 

706 Connections Between Drainage Piping 

and Fittings 60 

707 Prohibited Joints and Connections 61 

708 Cleanouts 61 

709 Fixture Units 62 

710 Drainage System Sizing 62 

711 Offsets in Drainage Piping in Buildings 

of Five Stories or More 64 

712 Sumps and Ejectors 64 

713 Health Care Plumbing 65 

714 Computerized Drainage Design 67 

715 Backwater Valves 67 

CHAPTER 8 INDIRECT/SPECIAL WASTE ..... 69 
Section 

801 General 69 

802 Indirect Wastes 69 

803 Special Wastes 70 

804 Materials, Joints and Connections 70 



CHAPTER 9 VENTS 71 

Section 

901 General 71 

902 Materials 71 

903 Vent Terminals 71 

904 Outdoor Vent Extensions 71 

905 Vent Connections and Grades 72 

906 Vent Pipe Sizing 72 

907 Vents for Stack Offsets 74 

908 Relief Vents— Stacks of More Than 

10 Branch Intervals 74 

909 Fixture Vents 74 

910 Individual Vent 75 

911 Common Vent 75 

912 Wet Venting 75 

913 Waste Stack Vent 75 

914 Circuit Venting 76 

915 Combination Waste and Vent System 76 

916 Island Fixture Venting 77 

917 Single Stack Vent System 77 

918 Air Admittance Valves 78 

919 Engineered Vent Systems 78 

920 Computerized Vent Design 79 

CHAPTER 10 TRAPS, INTERCEPTORS 

AND SEPARATORS. 81 

Section 

1001 General 81 

1002 Trap Requirements 81 

1003 Interceptors and Separators 82 

1004 Materials, Joints and Connections 83 

CHAPTER 11 STORM DRAINAGE 85 

Section 

1101 General 85 

1 102 Materials 85 

1103 Traps 86 

1104 Conductors and Connections 86 

1105 Roof Drains 86 

1 106 Size of Conductors, Leaders and 

Storm Drains 86 

1 107 Siphonic Roof Drainage Systems 94 

1108 Secondary (Emergency) Roof Drains 94 

1109 Combined Sanitary and Storm System 95 

1110 Values for Continuous Flow 95 



XIV 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS 



1111 Controlled Flow Roof Drain Systems 95 

1112 Subsoil Drains 95 

1 1 13 Building Subdrains 95 

1 1 14 Sumps and Pumping Systems 95 

CHAPTER 12 SPECIAL PIPING AND 

STORAGE SYSTEMS 97 

Section 

1201 General 97 

1202 Medical Gases 97 

1203 Oxygen Systems 97 

CHAPTER 13 GRAY WATER 

RECYCLING SYSTEMS 99 

Section 

1301 General 99 

1302 Systems for Flushing 

Water Closets and Urinals 100 

1303 Subsurface Landscape Irrigation Systems 100 

CHAPTER 14 REFERENCED STANDARDS 103 

APPENDIX A PLUMBING PERMIT FEE 

SCHEDULE 113 

Permit Issuance 113 

Unit Fee Schedule 1 13 

Other Inspections and Fees 113 

APPENDIX B RATES OF RAINFALL FOR 

VARIOUS CITIES 115 

APPENDIX C VACUUM DRAINAGE 

SYSTEM 117 

Section 

C101 Vacuum Drainage System 117 

APPENDIX D DEGREE DAY AND DESIGN 

TEMPERATURES 119 

APPENDIX E SIZING OF WATER PIPING 

SYSTEM 125 

Section 

E101 General 125 

E102 Information Required 125 

E103 Selection of Pipe Size 125 

E201 Selection of Pipe Size 142 

E202 Determination of Pipe Volumes 142 



APPENDIX F STRUCTURAL SAFETY. 

Section 

F101 Cutting, Notching and Boring in 

Wood Members 



INDEX . 



147 

147 
149 



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xvi 2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE' 



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CHAPTER 1 

SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



PART 1— SCOPE AND APPLICATION 



SECTION 101 

GENERAL 

[A] 101.1 Title. These regulations shall be known as the 
International Plumbing Code of [NAME OF JURISDICTION] 
hereinafter referred to as "this code." 

[A] 101.2 Scope. The provisions of this code shall apply to 
the erection, installation, alteration, repairs, relocation, 
replacement, addition to, use or maintenance of plumbing 
systems within this jurisdiction. This code shall also regulate 
nonflammable medical gas, inhalation anesthetic, vacuum 
piping, nonmedical oxygen systems and sanitary and conden- 
sate vacuum collection systems. The installation of fuel gas 
distribution piping and equipment, fuel-gas-fired water heat- 
ers and water heater venting systems shall be regulated by the 
International Fuel Gas Code. Provisions in the appendices 
shall not apply unless specifically adopted. 

Exception: Detached one- and two-family dwellings and 
multiple single-family dwellings (townhouses) not more 
than three stories high with separate means of egress and 
their accessory structures shall comply with the Interna- 
tional Residential Code. 

[A] 101.3 Intent. The purpose of this code is to provide min- 
imum standards to safeguard life or limb, health, property and 
public welfare by regulating and controlling the design, con- 
struction, installation, quality of materials, location, operation 
and maintenance or use of plumbing equipment and systems. 

[A] 101.4 Severability. If any section, subsection, sentence, 
clause or phrase of this code is for any reason held to be 
unconstitutional, such decision shall not affect the validity of 
the remaining portions of this code. 



SECTION 102 
APPLICABILITY 

[A] 102.1 General. Where there is a conflict between a gen- 
eral requirement and a specific requirement, the specific 
requirement shall govern. Where, in any specific case, differ- 
ent sections of this code specify different materials, methods 
of construction or other requirements, the most restrictive 
shall govern. 

[A] 102.2 Existing installations. Plumbing systems lawfully 
in existence at the time of the adoption of this code shall be 
permitted to have their use and maintenance continued if the 
use, maintenance or repair is in accordance with the original 
design and no hazard to life, health or property is created by 
such plumbing system. 

[A] 102.3 Maintenance. All plumbing systems, materials 
and appurtenances, both existing and new, and all parts 



thereof, shall be maintained in proper operating condition in 
accordance with the original design in a safe and sanitary 
condition. All devices or safeguards required by this code 
shall be maintained in compliance with the code edition 
under which they were installed. 

The owner or the owner's designated agent shall be 
responsible for maintenance of plumbing systems. To deter- 
mine compliance with this provision, the code official shall 
have the authority to require any plumbing system to be rein- 
spected. 

[A] 102.4 Additions, alterations or repairs. Additions, 
alterations, renovations or repairs to any plumbing system 
shall conform to that required for a new plumbing system 
without requiring the existing plumbing system to comply 
with all the requirements of this code. Additions, alterations 
or repairs shall not cause an existing system to become 
unsafe, insanitary or overloaded. 

Minor additions, alterations, renovations and repairs to 
existing plumbing systems shall meet the provisions for new 
construction, unless such work is done in the same manner 
and arrangement as was in the existing system, is not hazard- 
ous and is approved. 

[A] 102.5 Change in occupancy. It shall be unlawful to 
make any change in the occupancy of any structure that will 
subject the structure to any special provision of this code 
applicable to the new occupancy without approval of the code 
official. The code official shall certify that such structure 
meets the intent of the provisions of law governing building 
construction for the proposed new occupancy and that such 
change of occupancy does not result in any hazard to the pub- 
lic health, safety or welfare. 

[A] 102.6 Historic buildings. The provisions of this code 
relating to the construction, alteration, repair, enlargement, 
restoration, relocation or moving of buildings or structures 
shall not be mandatory for existing buildings or structures 
identified and classified by the state or local jurisdiction as 
historic buildings when such buildings or structures are 
judged by the code official to be safe and in the public inter- 
est of health, safety and welfare regarding any proposed con- 
struction, alteration, repair, enlargement, restoration, 
relocation or moving of buildings. 

[A] 102.7 Moved buildings. Except as determined by Sec- 
tion 102.2, plumbing systems that are a part of buildings or 
structures moved into or within the jurisdiction shall comply 
with the provisions of this code for new installations. 

[A] 102.8 Referenced codes and standards. The codes and 
standards referenced in this code shall be those that are listed 
in Chapter 14 and such codes and standards shall be consid- | 
ered as part of the requirements of this code to the prescribed 
extent of each such reference and as further regulated in Sec- I 
tions 102.8.1 and 102.8.2. " 1 



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SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



[A] 102.8.1 Conflicts. Where conflicts occur between pro- 
visions of this code and the referenced standards, the pro- 
visions of this code shall apply. 

[A] 102.8.2 Provisions in referenced codes and stan- 
dards. Where the extent of the reference to a referenced 
code or standard includes subject matter that is within the 
scope of this code, the provisions of this code, as applica- 
ble, shall take precedence over the provisions in the refer- 
enced code or standard. 

[A] 102.9 Requirements not covered by code. Any require- 
ments necessary for the strength, stability or proper operation 
of an existing or proposed plumbing system, or for the public 
safety, health and general welfare, not specifically covered by 
this code shall be determined by the code official. 

[A] 102.10 Other laws. The provisions of this code shall not 

be deemed to nullify any provisions of local, state or federal 

law. 

[A] 102.11 Application of references. Reference to chapter 

section numbers, or to provisions not specifically identified 

by number, shall be construed to refer to such chapter, section 

or provision of this code. 

PART 2— ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT 



SECTION 103 
DEPARTMENT OF PLUMBING INSPECTION 

[A] 103.1 General. The department of plumbing inspection 
is hereby created and the executive official in charge thereof 
shall be known as the code official. 

[A] 103.2 Appointment. The code official shall be appointed 
by the chief appointing authority of the jurisdiction. 

[A] 103.3 Deputies. In accordance with the prescribed proce- 
dures of this jurisdiction and with the concurrence of the 
appointing authority, the code official shall have the authority 
to appoint a deputy code official, other related technical offi- 
cers, inspectors and other employees. Such employees shall 
have powers as delegated by the code official. 

[A] 103.4 Liability. The code official, member of the board 
of appeals or employee charged with the enforcement of this 
code, while acting for the jurisdiction in good faith and with- 
out malice in the discharge of the duties required by this code 
or other pertinent law or ordinance, shall not thereby be ren- 
dered liable personally, and is hereby relieved from all per- 
sonal liability for any damage accruing to persons or property 
as a result of any act or by reason of an act or omission in the 
discharge of official duties. 

Any suit instituted against any officer or employee 
because of an act performed by that officer or employee in 
the lawful discharge of duties and under the provisions of this 
code shall be defended by the legal representative of the juris- 
diction until the final termination of the proceedings. The 
code official or any subordinate shall not be liable for costs in 
any action, suit or proceeding that is instituted in pursuance 
of the provisions of this code. 



SECTION 104 
DUTIES AND POWERS OF THE CODE OFFICIAL 

[A] 104.1 General. The code official is hereby authorized 
and directed to enforce the provisions of this code. The code 
official shall have the authority to render interpretations of 
this code and to adopt policies and procedures in order to 
clarify the application of its provisions. Such interpretations, 
policies and procedures shall be in compliance with the intent 
and purpose of this code. Such policies and procedures shall 
not have the effect of waiving requirements specifically pro- 
vided for in this code. 

[A] 104.2 Applications and permits. The code official shall 
receive applications, review construction documents and 
issue permits for the installation and alteration of plumbing 
systems, inspect the premises for which such permits have 
been issued, and enforce compliance with the provisions of 
this code. 

[A] 104.3 Inspections. The code official shall make all the 
required inspections, or shall accept reports of inspection by 
approved agencies or individuals. All reports of such inspec- 
tions shall be in writing and be certified by a responsible offi- 
cer of such approved agency or by the responsible individual. 
The code official is authorized to engage such expert opinion 
as deemed necessary to report on unusual technical issues 
that arise, subject to the approval of the appointing authority. 

[A] 104.4 Right of entry. Whenever it is necessary to make 
an inspection to enforce the provisions of this code, or when- 
ever the code official has reasonable cause to believe that 
there exists in any building or upon any premises any condi- 
tions or violations of this code that make the building or 
premises unsafe, insanitary, dangerous or hazardous, the code 
official shall have the authority to enter the building or prem- 
ises at all reasonable times to inspect or to perform the duties 
imposed upon the code official by this code. If such building 
or premises is occupied, the code official shall present cre- 
dentials to the occupant and request entry. If such building or 
premises is unoccupied, the code official shall first make a 
reasonable effort to locate the owner or other person having 
charge or control of the building or premises and request 
entry. If entry is refused, the code official shall have recourse 
to every remedy provided by law to secure entry. 

When the code official shall have first obtained a proper 
inspection warrant or other remedy provided by law to secure 
entry, no owner or occupant or person having charge, care or 
control of any building or premises shall fail or neglect, after 
proper request is made as herein provided, to promptly permit 
entry therein by the code official for the purpose of inspection 
and examination pursuant to this code. 

[A] 104.5 Identification. The code official shall carry proper 
identification when inspecting structures or premises in the 
performance of duties under this code. 

[A] 104.6 Notices and orders. The code official shall issue 
all necessary notices or orders to ensure compliance with this 
code. 

[A] 104.7 Department records. The code official shall keep 
official records of applications received, permits and certifi- 



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SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



cates issued, fees collected, reports of inspections, and 
notices and orders issued. Such records shall be retained in 
the official records for the period required for the retention of 
public records. 



SECTION 105 
APPROVAL 

[A] 105.1 Modifications. Whenever there are practical diffi- 
culties involved in carrying out the provisions of this code, 
the code official shall have the authority to grant modifica- 
tions for individual cases, upon application of the owner or 
owner's representative, provided the code official shall first 
find that special individual reason makes the strict letter of 
this code impractical and the modification conforms to the 
intent and purpose of this code and that such modification 
does not lessen health, life and fire safety requirements. The 
details of action granting modifications shall be recorded and 
entered in the files of the plumbing inspection department. 

[A] 105.2 Alternative materials, methods and equipment. 

The provisions of this code are not intended to prevent the 
installation of any material or to prohibit any method of con- 
struction not specifically prescribed by this code, provided 
that any such alternative has been approved. An alternative 
material or method of construction shall be approved where 
the code official finds that the proposed alternative material, 
method or equipment complies with the intent of the provi- 
sions of this code and is at least the equivalent of that pre- 
scribed in this code. 

[A] 105.2.1 Research reports. Supporting data, where 
necessary to assist in the approval of materials or assem- 
blies not specifically provided for in this code, shall con- 
sist of valid research reports from approved sources. 

[A] 105.3 Required testing. Whenever there is insufficient 
evidence of compliance with the provisions of this code, or 
evidence that a material or method does not conform to the 
requirements of this code, or in order to substantiate claims 
for alternate materials or methods, the code official shall have 
the authority to require tests as evidence of compliance to be 
made at no expense to the jurisdiction. 

[A] 105.3.1 Test methods. Test methods shall be as speci- 
fied in this code or by other recognized test standards. In 
the absence of recognized and accepted test methods, the 
code official shall approve the testing procedures. 

[A] 105.3.2 Testing agency. All tests shall be performed 
by an approved agency. 

[A] 105.3.3 Test reports. Reports of tests shall be retained 
by the code official for the period required for retention of 
public records. 

[A] 105.4 Approved materials and equipment. Materials. 
equipment and devices approved by the code official shall be 
constructed and installed in accordance with such approval. 

[A] 105.4.1 Material and equipment reuse. Materials, 
equipment and devices shall not be reused unless such ele- 
ments have been reconditioned, tested, placed in good and 
proper working condition and approved. 



SECTION 106 
PERMITS 

[A] 106.1 When required. Any owner, authorized agent or 
contractor who desires to construct, enlarge, alter, repair, 
move, demolish or change the occupancy of a building or 
structure, or to erect, install, enlarge, alter, repair, remove, 
convert or replace any plumbing system, the installation of 
which is regulated by this code, or to cause any such work to 
be done, shall first make application to the code official and 
obtain the required permit for the work. 

[A] 106.2 Exempt work. The following work shall be 
exempt from the requirement for a permit: 

1. The stopping of leaks in drains, water, soil, waste or 
vent pipe provided, however, that if any concealed trap, 
drainpipe, water, soil, waste or vent pipe becomes 
defective and it becomes necessary to remove and 
replace the same with new material, such work shall be 
considered as new work and a permit shall be obtained 
and inspection made as provided in this code. 

2. The clearing of stoppages or the repairing of leaks in 
pipes, valves or fixtures, and the removal and reinstal- 
lation of water closets, provided such repairs do not 
involve or require the replacement or rearrangement of 
valves, pipes or fixtures. 

Exemption from the permit requirements of this code shall 
not be deemed to grant authorization for any work to be done 
in violation of the provisions of this code or any other laws or 
ordinances of this jurisdiction. 

[A] 106.3 Application for permit. Each application for a 
permit, with the required fee, shall be filed with the code offi- 
cial on a form furnished for that purpose and shall contain a 
general description of the proposed work and its location. The 
application shall be signed by the owner or an authorized 
agent. The permit application shall indicate the proposed 
occupancy of all parts of the building and of that portion of 
the site or lot, if any, not covered by the building or structure 
and shall contain such other information required by the code 
official. 

[A] 106.3.1 Construction documents. Construction doc- 
uments, engineering calculations, diagrams and other such 
data shall be submitted in two or more sets with each 
application for a permit. The code official shall require 
construction documents, computations and specifications 
to be prepared and designed by a registered design profes- 
sional when required by state law. Construction docu- 
ments shall be drawn to scale and shall be of sufficient 
clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent of the 
work proposed and show in detail that the work conforms 
to the provisions of this code. Construction documents for 
buildings more than two stories in height shall indicate 
where penetrations will be made for pipes, fittings and 
components and shall indicate the materials and methods 
for maintaining required structural safety, fire-resistance 
rating and fireblocking. 

Exception: The code official shall have the authority to 
waive the submission of construction documents, cal- 
culations or other data if the nature of the work applied 



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SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



for is such that reviewing of construction documents is 
not necessary to determine compliance with this code. 
[A] 106.3.2 Preliminary Inspection. Before a permit is 
issued, the code official is authorized to inspect and evalu- 
ate the systems, equipment, buildings, devices, premises 
and spaces or areas to be used. 

[A] 106.3.3 Time limitation of application. An applica- 
tion for a permit for any proposed work shall be deemed to 
have been abandoned 180 days after the date of filing, 
unless such application has been pursued in good faith or a 
permit has been issued; except that the code official shall 
have the authority to grant one or more extensions of time 
for additional periods not exceeding 180 days each. The 
extension shall be requested in writing and justifiable 
cause demonstrated. 

[A ] 1 06.4 By whom application is made. Application for a 
permit shall be made by the person or agent to install all or 
part of any plumbing system. The applicant shall meet all 
qualifications established by statute, or by rules promulgated 
by this code, or by ordinance or by resolution. The full name 
and address of the applicant shall be stated in the application. 

[A] 106.5 Permit issuance. The application, construction 
documents and other data filed by an applicant for permit 
shall be reviewed by the code official. If the code official 
finds that the proposed work conforms to the requirements of 
this code and all laws and ordinances applicable thereto, and 
that the fees specified in Section 106.6 have been paid, a per- 
mit shall be issued to the applicant. 

[A] 106.5.1 Approved construction documents. When 
the code official issues the permit where construction doc- 
uments are required, the construction documents shall be 
endorsed in writing and stamped "APPROVED." Such 
approved construction documents shall not be changed, 
modified or altered without authorization from the code 
official. All work shall be done in accordance with the 
approved construction documents. 

The code official shall have the authority to issue a per- 
mit for the construction of a part of a plumbing system 
before the entire construction documents for the whole 
system have been submitted or approved, provided ade- 
quate information and detailed statements have been filed 
complying with all pertinent requirements of this code. 
The holders of such permit shall proceed at their own risk 
without assurance that the permit for the entire plumbing 
system will be granted. 

[A] 106.5.2 Validity. The issuance of a permit or approval 
of construction documents shall not be construed to be a 
permit for, or an approval of, any violation of any of the 
provisions of this code or any other ordinance of the juris- 
diction. No permit presuming to give authority to violate 
or cancel the provisions of this code shall be valid. 

The issuance of a permit based upon construction docu- 
ments and other data shall not prevent the code official 
from thereafter requiring the correction of errors in said 
construction documents and other data or from preventing 
building operations being carried on thereunder when in 



violation of this code or of other ordinances of this juris- 
diction. 

[A] 106.5.3 Expiration. Every permit issued by the code 
official under the provisions of this code shall expire by 
limitation and become null and void if the work authorized 
by such permit is not commenced within 180 days from 
the date of such permit, or if the work authorized by such 
permit is suspended or abandoned at any time after the 
work is commenced for a period of 1 80 days. Before such 
work can be recommenced, a new permit shall be first 
obtained and the fee therefor shall be one-half the amount 
required for a new permit for such work, provided no 
changes have been made or will be made in the original 
construction documents for such work, and provided fur- 
ther that such suspension or abandonment has not 
exceeded 1 year. 

[Aj 106.5.4 Extensions. Any permittee holding an unex- 
pired permit shall have the right to apply for an extension 
of the time within which the permittee will commence 
work under that permit when work is unable to be com- 
menced within the time required by this section for good 
and satisfactory reasons. The code official shall extend the 
time for action by the permittee for a period not exceeding 
1 80 days if there is reasonable cause. No permit shall be 
extended more than once. The fee for an extension shall be 
one-half the amount required for a new permit for such 
work. 

[A] 106.5.5 Suspension or revocation of permit. The 
code official shall have the authority to suspend or revoke 
a permit issued under the provisions of this code wherever 
the permit is issued in error or on the basis of incorrect, 
inaccurate or incomplete information, or in violation of 
any ordinance or regulation or any of the provisions of this 
code. 

[A] 106.5.6 Retention of construction documents. One 
set of approved construction documents shall be retained 
by the code official for a period of not less than 180 days 
from date of completion of the permitted work, or as 
required by state or local laws. 

One set of approved construction documents shall be 
returned to the applicant, and said set shall be kept on the 
site of the building or work at all times during which the 
work authorized thereby is in progress. 

[A] 106.5.7 Previous approvals. This code shall not 
require changes in the construction documents, construc- 
tion or designated occupancy of a structure for which a 
lawful permit has been heretofore issued or otherwise law- 
fully authorized, and the construction of which has been 
pursued in good faith within 180 days after the effective 
date of this code and has not been abandoned. 

[A] 106.5.8 Posting of permit. The permit or a copy shall 
be kept on the site of the work until the completion of the 
project. 

[A] 106.6 Fees. A permit shall not be issued until the fees 
prescribed in Section 106.6.2 have been paid, and an amend- 
ment to a permit shall not be released until the additional fee, 



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if any, due to an increase of the plumbing systems, has been 
paid. 

[A] 106.6.1 Work commencing before permit issuance. 
Any person who commences any work on a plumbing sys- 
tem before obtaining the necessary permits shall be subject 
to 100 percent of the usual permit fee in addition to the 
required permit fees. 

[A] 106.6.2 Fee schedule. The fees for all plumbing work 
shall be as indicated in the following schedule: 

[JURISDICTION TO INSERT APPROPRIATE SCHEDULE] 
[A] 106.6.3 Fee refunds. The code official shall authorize 
the refunding of fees as follows: 

1 . The full amount of any fee paid hereunder that was 
erroneously paid or collected. 

2. Not more than [SPECIFY PERCENTAGE] percent of the 
permit fee paid when no work has been done under a 
permit issued in accordance with this code. 

3. Not more than [SPECIFY PERCENTAGE] percent of the 
plan review fee paid when an application for a per- 
mit for which a plan review fee has been paid is 
withdrawn or canceled before any plan review effort 
has been expended. 

The code official shall not authorize the refunding of 
any fee paid except upon written application filed by the 
original permittee not later than 180 days after the date of 
fee payment. 



SECTION 107 
INSPECTIONS AND TESTING 

[A] 107.1 General. The code official is authorized to conduct 
such inspections as are deemed necessary to determine com- 
pliance with the provisions of this code. Construction or work 
for which a permit is required shall be subject to inspection 
by the code official, and such construction or work shall 
remain accessible and exposed for inspection purposes until 
approved. Approval as a result of an inspection shall not be 
construed to be an approval of a violation of the provisions of 
this code or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction. Inspec- 
tions presuming to give authority to violate or cancel the pro- 
visions of this code or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction 
shall not be valid. It shall be the duty of the permit applicant 
to cause the work to remain accessible and exposed for 
inspection purposes. Neither the code official nor the jurisdic- 
tion shall be liable for expense entailed in the removal or 
replacement of any material required to allow inspection. 

[A] 107.2 Required inspections and testing. The code offi- 
cial, upon notification from the permit holder or the permit 
holder' s agent, shall make the following inspections and such 
other inspections as necessary, and shall either release that 
portion of the construction or shall notify the permit holder or 
an agent of any violations that must be corrected. The holder 
of the permit shall be responsible for the scheduling of such 
inspections. 

1 . Underground inspection shall be made after trenches or 
ditches are excavated and bedded, piping installed, and 
before any backfill is put in place. 



2. Rough-in inspection shall be made after the roof, fram- 
ing, fireblocking, firestopping, draftstopping and brac- 
ing is in place and all sanitary, storm and water 
distribution piping is roughed-in, and prior to the instal- 
lation of wall or ceiling membranes. 

3. Final inspection shall be made after the building is 
complete, all plumbing fixtures are in place and prop- 
erly connected, and the structure is ready for occu- 
pancy. 

[A] 107.2.1 Other inspections. In addition to the inspec- 
tions specified above, the code official is authorized to 
make or require other inspections of any construction 
work to ascertain compliance with the provisions of this 
code and other laws that are enforced. 

[A] 107.2.2 Inspection requests. It shall be the duty of the 
holder of the permit or their duly authorized agent to 
notify the code official when work is ready for inspection. 
It shall be the duty of the permit holder to provide access 
to and means for inspections of such work that are 
required by this code. 

[A] 107.2.3 Approval required. Work shall not be done 
beyond the point indicated in each successive inspection 
without first obtaining the approval of the code official. 
The code official, upon notification, shall make the 
requested inspections and shall either indicate the portion 
of the construction that is satisfactory as completed, or 
notify the permit holder or his or her agent wherein the 
same fails to comply with this code. Any portions that do 
not comply shall be corrected and such portion shall not be 
covered or concealed until authorized by the code official. 

[A] 107.2.4 Approved agencies. The code official is 
authorized to accept reports of approved inspection agen- 
cies, provided that such agencies satisfy the requirements 
as to qualifications and reliability. 

[A] 107.2.5 Evaluation and follow-up inspection ser- 
vices. Prior to the approval of a closed, prefabricated 
plumbing system and the issuance of a plumbing permit, 
the code official shall require the submittal of an evalua- 
tion report on each prefabricated plumbing system indicat- 
ing the complete details of the plumbing system, including 
a description of the system and its components, the basis 
upon which the plumbing system is being evaluated, test 
results and similar information, and other data as neces- 
sary for the code official to determine conformance to this 
code. 

[A] 107.2.5.1 Evaluation service. The code official 
shall designate the evaluation service of an approved 
agency as the evaluation agency, and review such 
agency's evaluation report for adequacy and confor- 
mance to this code. 

[A] 107.2.5.2 Follow-up inspection. Except where 
ready access is provided to all plumbing systems, ser- 
vice equipment and accessories for complete inspection 
at the site without disassembly or dismantling, the code 
official shall conduct the frequency of in-plant inspec- 
tions necessary to ensure conformance to the approved 
evaluation report or shall designate an independent, 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



approved inspection agency to conduct such inspec- 
tions. The inspection agency shall furnish the code offi- 
cial with the follow-up inspection manual and a report 
of inspections upon request, and the plumbing system 
shall have an identifying label permanently affixed to 
the system indicating that factory inspections have been 
performed. 

[A] 107.2.5.3 Test and inspection records. All 
required test and inspection records shall be available 
to the code official at all times during the fabrication of 
the plumbing system and the erection of the building, 
or such records as the code official designates shall be 
filed. 

[A] 107.3 Special inspections. Special inspections of alter- 
native engineered design plumbing systems shall be con- 
ducted in accordance with Sections 107.3.1 and 107.3.2. 

[A] 107.3.1 Periodic inspection. The registered design 
professional or designated inspector shall periodically 
inspect and observe the alternative engineered design to 
determine that the installation is in accordance with the 
approved construction documents. All discrepancies shall 
be brought to the immediate attention of the plumbing 
contractor for correction. Records shall be kept of all 
inspections. 

[A] 107.3.2 Written report. The registered design profes- 
sional shall submit a final report in writing to the code 
official upon completion of the installation, certifying that 
the alternative engineered design conforms to the 
approved construction documents. A notice of approval 
for the plumbing system shall not be issued until a written 
certification has been submitted. 

[A] 107.4 Testing. Plumbing work and systems shall be 
tested as required in Section 312 and in accordance with Sec- 
tions 107.4.1 through 107.4.3. Tests shall be made by the per- 
mit holder and observed by the code official. 

[A] 107.4.1 New, altered, extended or repaired systems. 
New plumbing systems and parts of existing systems that 
have been altered, extended or repaired shall be tested as 
prescribed herein to disclose leaks and defects, except that 
testing is not required in the following cases: 

1 In any case that does not include addition to, 
replacement, alteration or relocation of any water 
supply, drainage or vent piping. 

2. In any case where plumbing equipment is set up 
temporarily for exhibition purposes. 

[A] 107.4.2 Equipment, material and labor for tests. All 
equipment, material and labor required for testing a 
plumbing system or part thereof shall be furnished by the 
permit holder. 

[A] 107.4.3 Reinspection and testing. Where any work or 
installation does not pass any initial test or inspection, the 
necessary corrections shall be made to comply with this 
code. The work or installation shall then be resubmitted to 
the code official for inspection and testing. 



[A] 107.5 Approval. After the prescribed tests and inspec- 
tions indicate that the work complies in all respects with this 
code, a notice of approval shall be issued by the code official. 

[Aj 107.5.1 Revocation. The code official is authorized 
to, in writing, suspend or revoke a notice of approval 
issued under the provisions of this code wherever the 
notice is issued in error, or on the basis of incorrect infor- 
mation supplied, or where it is determined that the build- 
ing or structure, premise or portion thereof is in violation 
of any ordinance or regulation or any of the provisions of 
this code. 

[A] 107.6 Temporary connection. The code official shall 
have the authority to authorize the temporary connection of 
the building or system to the utility source for the purpose of 
testing plumbing systems or for use under a temporary certif- 
icate of occupancy. 

[A] 107.7 Connection of service utilities. A person shall not 
make connections from a utility, source of energy, fuel, 
power, water system or sewer system to any building or sys- 
tem that is regulated by this code for which a permit is 
required until authorized by the code official. 



SECTION 108 
VIOLATIONS 

[A] 108.1 Unlawful acts. It shall be unlawful for any person, 
firm or corporation to erect, construct, alter, repair, remove, 
demolish or utilize any plumbing system, or cause same to be 
done, in conflict with or in violation of any of the provisions 
of this code. 

[A] 108.2 Notice of violation. The code official shall serve a 
notice of violation or order to the person responsible for the 
erection, installation, alteration, extension, repair, removal or 
demolition of plumbing work in violation of the provisions of 
this code, or in violation of a detail statement or the approved 
construction documents thereunder, or in violation of a per- 
mit or certificate issued under the provisions of this code. 
Such order shall direct the discontinuance of the illegal action 
or condition and the abatement of the violation. 

[A] 108.3 Prosecution of violation. If the notice of violation 
is not complied with promptly, the code official shall request 
the legal counsel of the jurisdiction to institute the appropri- 
ate proceeding at law or in equity to restrain, correct or abate 
such violation, or to require the removal or termination of the 
unlawful occupancy of the structure in violation of the provi- 
sions of this code or of the order or direction made pursuant 
thereto. 

[A] 108.4 Violation penalties. Any person who shall violate 
a provision of this code or shall fail to comply with any of the 
requirements thereof or who shall erect, install, alter or repair 
plumbing work in violation of the approved construction doc- 
uments or directive of the code official, or of a permit or cer- 
tificate issued under the provisions of this code, shall be 
guilty of a [specify OFFENSE], punishable by a fine of not 
more than [AMOUNT] dollars or by imprisonment not exceed- 
ing [number of days], or both such fine and imprisonment. 
Each day that a violation continues after due notice has been 
served shall be deemed a separate offense. 



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[A] 108.5 Stop work orders. Upon notice from the code offi- 
cial, work on any plumbing system that is being done con- 
trary to the provisions of this code or in a dangerous or unsafe 
manner shall immediately cease. Such notice shall be in writ- 
ing and shall be given to the owner of the property, or to the 
owner's agent, or to the person doing the work. The notice 
shall state the conditions under which work is authorized to 
resume. Where an emergency exists, the code official shall 
not be required to give a written notice prior to stopping the 
work. Any person who shall continue any work in or about 
the structure after having been served with a stop work order, 
except such work as that person is directed to perform to 
remove a violation or unsafe condition, shall be liable to a 
fine of not less than [AMOUNT] dollars or more than [AMOUNT] 
dollars. 

[A] 108.6 Abatement of violation. The imposition of the 
penalties herein prescribed shall not preclude the legal officer 
of the jurisdiction from instituting appropriate action to pre- 
vent unlawful construction or to restrain, correct or abate a 
violation, or to prevent illegal occupancy of a building, struc- 
ture or premises, or to stop an illegal act, conduct, business or 
utilization of the plumbing on or about any premises. 

[A] 108.7 Unsafe plumbing. Any plumbing regulated by this 
code that is unsafe or that constitutes a fire or health hazard, 
insanitary condition, or is otherwise dangerous to human life 
is hereby declared unsafe. Any use of plumbing regulated by 
this code constituting a hazard to safety, health or public wel- 
fare by reason of inadequate maintenance, dilapidation, obso- 
lescence, fire hazard, disaster, damage or abandonment is 
hereby declared an unsafe use. Any such unsafe equipment is 
hereby declared to be a public nuisance and shall be abated 
by repair, rehabilitation, demolition or removal. 

[A] 108.7.1 Authority to condemn equipment. When- 
ever the code official determines that any plumbing, or 
portion thereof, regulated by this code has become hazard- 
ous to life, health or property or has become insanitary, the 
code official shall order in writing that such plumbing 
either be removed or restored to a safe or sanitary condi- 
tion. A time limit for compliance with such order shall be 
specified in the written notice. No person shall use or 
maintain defective plumbing after receiving such notice. 

When such plumbing is to be disconnected, written 
notice as prescribed in Section 108.2 shall be given. In 
cases of immediate danger to life or property, such discon- 
nection shall be made immediately without such notice. 

[A] 108.7.2 Authority to disconnect service utilities. 
The code official shall have the authority to authorize dis- 
connection of utility service to the building, structure or 
system regulated by the technical codes in case of an 
emergency, where necessary, to eliminate an immediate 
danger to life or property. Where possible, the owner and 
occupant of the building, structure or service system shall 
be notified of the decision to disconnect utility service 
prior to taking such action. If not notified prior to discon- 
necting, the owner or occupant of the building, structure or 
service systems shall be notified in writing, as soon as 
practical thereafter. 



[A] 108.7.3 Connection after order to disconnect. No 
person shall make connections from any energy, fuel, 
power supply or water distribution system or supply 
energy, fuel or water to any equipment regulated by this 
code that has been disconnected or ordered to be discon- 
nected by the code official or the use of which has been 
ordered to be discontinued by the code official until the 
code official authorizes the reconnection and use of such 
equipment. 

When any plumbing is maintained in violation of this 
code, and in violation of any notice issued pursuant to the 
provisions of this section, the code official shall institute 
any appropriate action to prevent, restrain, correct or abate 
the violation. 



SECTION 109 
MEANS OF APPEAL 

[A] 109.1 Application for appeal. Any person shall have the 
right to appeal a decision of the code official to the board of 
appeals. An application for appeal shall be based on a claim 
that the true intent of this code or the rules legally adopted 
thereunder have been incorrectly interpreted, the provisions 
of this code do not fully apply, or an equally good or better 
form of construction is proposed. The application shall be 
filed on a form obtained from the code official within 20 days 
after the notice was served. 

[A] 109.2 Membership of board. The board of appeals shall 
consist of five members appointed by the chief appointing 
authority as follows: one for 5 years, one for 4 years, one for 
3 years, one for 2 years and one for 1 year. Thereafter, each 
new member shall serve for 5 years or until a successor has 
been appointed. 

[A] 109.2.1 Qualifications. The board of appeals shall 
consist of five individuals, one from each of the following 
professions or disciplines: 

1. Registered design professional who is a registered 
architect; or a builder or superintendent of building 
construction with at least 10 years' experience, 5 
years of which shall have been in responsible charge 
of work. 

2. Registered design professional with structural engi- 
neering or architectural experience. 

3. Registered design professional with mechanical and 
plumbing engineering experience; or a mechanical 
and plumbing contractor with at least 10 years' 
experience, 5 years of which shall have been in 
responsible charge of work. 

4. Registered design professional with electrical engi- 
neering experience; or an electrical contractor with 
at least 10 years' experience, 5 years of which shall 
have been in responsible charge of work. 

5. Registered design professional with fire protection 
engineering experience; or a fire protection contrac- 
tor with at least 10 years' experience, 5 years of 
which shall have been in responsible charge of 
work. 



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SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



[A] 109.2.2 Alternate members. The chief appointing 
authority shall appoint two alternate members who shall 
be called by the board chairman to hear appeals during the 
absence or disqualification of a member. Alternate mem- 
bers shall possess the qualifications required for board 
membership, and shall be appointed for 5 years or until a 
successor has been appointed. 

[A] 109.2.3 Chairman. The board shall annually select 
one of its members to serve as chairman. 

[A] 109.2.4 Disqualification of member. A member shall 
not hear an appeal in which that member has any personal, 
professional or financial interest. 

[A] 109.2.5 Secretary. The chief administrative officer 
shall designate a qualified clerk to serve as secretary to the 
board. The secretary shall file a detailed record of all pro- 
ceedings in the office of the chief administrative officer. 

[A] 109.2.6 Compensation of members. Compensation 
of members shall be determined by law. 

[A] 109.3 Notice of meeting. The board shall meet upon 
notice from the chairman, within 10 days of the filing of an 
appeal or at stated periodic meetings. 

[A] 109.4 Open hearing. All hearings before the board shall 
be open to the public. The appellant, the appellant's represen- 
tative, the code official and any person whose interests are 
affected shall be given an opportunity to be heard. 

[A] 109.4.1 Procedure. The board shall adopt and make 
available to the public through the secretary procedures 
under which a hearing will be conducted. The procedures 
shall not require compliance with strict rules of evidence, 
but shall mandate that only relevant information be 
received. 

[A] 109.5 Postponed hearing. When five members are not 
present to hear an appeal, either the appellant or the appel- 
lant's representative shall have the right to request a post- 
ponement of the hearing. 

[A] 109.6 Board decision. The board shall modify or reverse 
the decision of the code official by a concurring vote of three 
members. 

[A] 109.6.1 Resolution. The decision of the board shall be 
by resolution. Certified copies shall be furnished to the 
appellant and to the code official. 

[A] 109.6.2 Administration. The code official shall take 
immediate action in accordance with the decision of the 
board. 

[A] 109.1 Court review. Any person, whether or not a previ- 
ous party of the appeal, shall have the right to apply to the 
appropriate court for a writ of certiorari to correct errors of 
law. Application for review shall be made in the manner and 
time required by law following the filing of the decision in 
the office of the chief administrative officer. 



SECTION 110 
TEMPORARY EQUIPMENT, SYSTEMS AND USES 

[A] 110.1 General. The code official is authorized to issue a 
permit for temporary equipment, systems and uses. Such per- 
mits shall be limited as to time of service, but shall not be 
permitted for more than 180 days. The code official is autho- 
rized to grant extensions for demonstrated cause. 

[A] 110.2 Conformance. Temporary equipment, systems and 
uses shall conform to the structural strength, fire safety, 
means of egress, accessibility, light, ventilation and sanitary 
requirements of this code as necessary to ensure the public 
health, safety and general welfare. 

[A] 110.3 Temporary utilities. The code official is autho- 
rized to give permission to temporarily supply utilities before 
an installation has been fully completed and the final certifi- 
cate of completion has been issued. The part covered by the 
temporary certificate shall comply with the requirements 
specified for temporary lighting, heat or power in the code, 

[A] 110.4 Termination of approval. The code official is 
authorized to terminate such permit for temporary equipment, 
systems or uses and to order the temporary equipment, sys- 
tems or uses to be discontinued. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 2 



SECTION 201 
GENERAL 

201.1 Scope. Unless otherwise expressly stated, the follow- 
ing words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have 
the meanings shown in this chapter. 

201.2 Interchaiigeability. Words stated in the present tense 
include the future; words stated in the masculine gender 
include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes 
the plural and the plural the singular. 

201.3 Terms defined in other codes. Where terms are not 
defined in this code and are defined in the International 
Building Code, International Fire Code, International Fuel 
Gas Code or the International Mechanical Code, such terms 
shall have the meanings ascribed to them as in those codes. 

201.4 Terms not defined. Where terms are not defined 
through the methods authorized by this section, such terms 
shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context 
implies. 



SECTION 202 
GENERAL DEFINITIONS 

ACCEPTED ENGINEERING PRACTICE. That which 
conforms to accepted principles, tests or standards of nation- 
ally recognized technical or scientific authorities. 

[M] ACCESS (TO). That which enables a fixture, appliance 
or equipment to be reached by ready access or by a means 
that first requires the removal or movement of a panel, door 
or similar obstruction (see "Ready access"). 

ACCESS COVER. A removable plate, usually secured by 
bolts or screws, to permit access to a pipe or pipe fitting for 
the purposes of inspection, repair or cleaning. 

ADAPTER FITTING. An approved connecting device that 
suitably and properly joins or adjusts pipes and fittings which 
do not otherwise fit together. 

AIR ADMITTANCE VALVE. One-way valve designed to 
allow air to enter the plumbing drainage system when nega- 
tive pressures develop in the piping system. The device shall 
close by gravity and seal the vent terminal at zero differential 
pressure (no flow conditions) and under positive internal 
pressures. The purpose of an air admittance valve is to pro- 
vide a method of allowing air to enter the plumbing drainage 
system without the use of a vent extended to open air and to 
prevent sewer gases from escaping into a building. 

AIR BREAK (Drainage System). A piping arrangement in 
which a drain from a fixture, appliance or device discharges 
indirectly into another fixture, receptacle or interceptor at a 
point below the flood level rim and above the trap seal. 

AIR GAP (Drainage System). The unobstructed vertical 
distance through the free atmosphere between the outlet of 



the waste pipe and the flood level rim of the receptacle into 
which the waste pipe is discharging. 

AIR GAP (Water Distribution System). The unobstructed 
vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the 
lowest opening from any pipe or faucet supplying water to a 
tank, plumbing fixture or other device and the flood level rim 
of the receptacle. 

ALTERNATIVE ENGINEERED DESIGN. A plumbing 
system that performs in accordance with the intent of Chap- 
ters 3 through 12 and provides an equivalent level of perfor- 
mance for the protection of public health, safety and welfare. 
The system design is not specifically regulated by Chapters 3 
through 12. 

ANCHORS. See "Supports." 

ANTISIPHON. A term applied to valves or mechanical 
devices that eliminate siphonage. 

APPROVED. Acceptable to the code official or other 
authority having jurisdiction. 

[A] APPROVED AGENCY. An established and recognized 
agency approved by the code official and that is regularly 
engaged in conducting tests or furnishing inspection services. 

AREA DRAIN. A receptacle designed to collect surface or 
storm water from an open area. 

ASPIRATOR. A fitting or device supplied with water or 
other fluid under positive pressure that passes through an 
integral orifice or constriction, causing a vacuum. Aspirators 
are also referred to as suction apparatus, and are similar in 
operation to an ejector. 

BACKFLOW. Pressure created by any means in the water 
distribution system, which by being in excess of the pressure 
in the water supply mains causes a potential backflow condi- 
tion. 

Backpressure, low head. A pressure less than or equal to 
4.33 psi (29.88 kPa) or the pressure exerted by a 10-foot 
(3048 mm) column of water. 

Backsiphonage. The backflow of potentially contami- 
nated water into the potable water system as a result of the 
pressure in the potable water system falling below atmo- 
spheric pressure of the plumbing fixtures, pools, tanks or 
vats connected to the potable water distribution piping. 

Drainage. A reversal of flow in the drainage system. 

Water supply system. The flow of water or other liquids, 
mixtures or substances into the distribution pipes of a 
potable water supply from any source except the intended 
source. 

BACKFLOW CONNECTION. Any arrangement whereby 
backflow is possible. 



BACKFLOW PREVENTER. A device or means to prevent 
backflow. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



BACKWATER VALVE. A device or valve installed in the 
building drain or sewer pipe where a sewer is subject to back- 
flow, and which prevents drainage or waste from backing up 
into a lower level or fixtures and causing a flooding condi- 
tion. 

BASE FLOOD ELEVATION. A reference point, deter- 
mined in accordance with the building code, based on the 
depth or peak elevation of flooding, including wave height, 
which has a 1 percent (100-year flood) or greater chance of 
occurring in any given year. 

BATHROOM GROUP. A group of fixtures consisting of a 
water closet, lavatory, bathtub or shower, including or 
excluding a bidet, an emergency floor drain or both. Such fix- 
tures are located together on the same floor level. 

BEDPAN STEAMER OR BOILER. A fixture utilized for 
scalding bedpans or urinals by direct application of steam or 
boiling water. 

BEDPAN WASHER AND STERILIZER. A fixture 
designed to wash bedpans and to flush the contents into the 
sanitary drainage system. Included are fixtures of this type 
that provide for disinfecting utensils by scalding with steam 
or hot water. 

BEDPAN WASHER HOSE. A device supplied with hot and 
cold water and located adjacent to a water closet or clinical 
sink to be utilized for cleansing bedpans. 

BRANCH. Any part of the piping system except a riser, main 
or stack. 

BRANCH INTERVAL. A vertical measurement of dis- 
tance, 8 feet (2438 mm) or more in developed length, 
between the connections of horizontal branches to a drainage 
stack. Measurements are taken down the stack from the high- 
est horizontal branch connection. 

BRANCH VENT. A vent connecting one or more individual 
vents with a vent stack or stack vent. 

[A] BUILDING. Any structure occupied or intended for sup- 
porting or sheltering any occupancy. 

BUILDING DRAIN. That part of the lowest piping of a 
drainage system that receives the discharge from soil, waste 
and other drainage pipes inside and that extends 30 inches 
(762 mm) in developed length of pipe beyond the exterior 
walls of the building and conveys the drainage to the building 
sewer. 

Combined. A building drain that conveys both sewage 
and storm water or other drainage. 

Sanitary. A building drain that conveys sewage only. 

Storm. A building drain that conveys storm water or other 
drainage, but not sewage. 

BUILDING SEWER. That part of the drainage system that 
extends from the end of the building drain and conveys the 
discharge to a public sewer, private sewer, individual sewage 
disposal system or other point of disposal. 

Combined. A building sewer that conveys both sewage 
and storm water or other drainage. 

Sanitary. A building sewer that conveys sewage only. 



Storm. A building sewer that conveys storm water or 
other drainage, but not sewage. 

BUILDING SUBDRAIN. That portion of a drainage system 
that does not drain by gravity into the building sewer. 

BUILDING TRAP. A device, fitting or assembly of fittings 
installed in the building drain to prevent circulation of air 
between the drainage system of the building and the building 
sewer. 

CIRCUIT VENT. A vent that connects to a horizontal drain- 
age branch and vents two traps to a maximum of eight traps 
or trapped fixtures connected into a battery. 

CISTERN. A small covered tank for storing water for a 
home or farm. Generally, this tank stores rainwater to be uti- 
lized for purposes other than in the potable water supply, and 
such tank is placed underground in most cases. 

CLEANOUT. An access opening in the drainage system uti- 
lized for the removal of obstructions. Types of cleanouts 
include a removable plug or cap, and a removable fixture or 
fixture trap. 

[A] CODE. These regulations, subsequent amendments 
thereto, or any emergency rule or regulation that the adminis- 
trative authority having jurisdiction has lawfully adopted. 

[A] CODE OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated 
authority charged with the administration and enforcement of 
this code, or a duly authorized representative. 

COMBINATION FIXTURE. A fixture combining one sink 
and laundry tray or a two- or three-compartment sink or laun- 
dry tray in one unit. 

COMBINATION WASTE AND VENT SYSTEM. A spe- 
cially designed system of waste piping embodying the hori- 
zontal wet venting of one or more sinks, lavatories, drinking 1 
fountains or floor drains by means of a common waste and j 
vent pipe adequately sized to provide free movement of air 
above the flow line of the drain. 

COMBINED BUILDING DRAIN. See "Building drain, 
combined." 

COMBINED BUILDING SEWER. See "Building sewer, 
combined." 

COMMON VENT. A vent connecting at the junction of two 
fixture drains or to a fixture branch and serving as a vent for 
both fixtures. 

CONCEALED FOULING SURFACE. Any surface of a 
plumbing fixture which is not readily visible and is not 
scoured or cleansed with each fixture operation. 

CONDUCTOR. A pipe inside the building that conveys 
storm water from the roof to a storm or combined building 
drain. 

[A] CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. All of the written, 
graphic and pictorial documents prepared or assembled for 
describing the design, location and physical characteristics of 
the elements of the project necessary for obtaining a building 
permit. The construction drawings shall be drawn to an 
appropriate scale. 



10 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



CONTAMINATION. An impairment of the quality of the 
potable water that creates an actual hazard to the public 
health through poisoning or through the spread of disease by 
sewage, industrial fluids or waste. 

CRITICAL LEVEL (C-L). An elevation (height) reference 
point that determines the minimum height at which a back- 
flow preventer or vacuum breaker is installed above the flood 
level rim of the fixture or receptor served by the device. The 
critical level is the elevation level below which there is a 
potential for backflow to occur. If the critical level marking is 
not indicated on the device, the bottom of the device shall 
constitute the critical level. 

CROSS CONNECTION. Any physical connection or 
arrangement between two otherwise separate piping systems, 
one of which contains potable water and the other either 
water of unknown or questionable safety or steam, gas or 
chemical, whereby there exists the possibility for flow from 
one system to the other, with the direction of flow depending 
on the pressure differential between the two systems (see 
"Backflow"). 

DEAD END. A branch leading from a soil, waste or vent 
pipe; a building drain; or a building sewer, and terminating at 
a developed length of 2 feet (610 mm) or more by means of a 
plug, cap or other closed fitting. 

DEPTH OF TRAP SEAL. The depth of liquid that would 
have to be removed from a full trap before air could pass 
through the trap. 

[B] DESIGN FLOOD ELEVATION. The elevation of the 
"design flood," including wave height, relative to the datum 
specified on the community's legally designated flood hazard 
map. 

DEVELOPED LENGTH. The length of a pipeline mea- 
sured along the centerline of the pipe and fittings. 

DISCHARGE PIPE. A pipe that conveys the discharges 
from plumbing fixtures or appliances. 

DRAIN. Any pipe that carries waste water or water-borne 
wastes in a building drainage system. 

DRAINAGE FITTINGS. Type of fitting or fittings utilized 
in the drainage system. Drainage fittings are similar to cast- 
iron fittings, except that instead of having a bell and spigot, 
drainage fittings are recessed and tapped to eliminate ridges 
on the inside of the installed pipe. 

DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT. 

Drainage (dfu). A measure of the probable discharge into 
the drainage system by various types of plumbing fixtures. 
The drainage fixture-unit value for a particular fixture 
depends on its volume rate of drainage discharge, on the 
time duration of a single drainage operation and on the 
average time between successive operations. 

DRAINAGE SYSTEM. Piping within a public or private 
premise that conveys sewage, rainwater or other liquid wastes 
to a point of disposal. A drainage system does not include the 
mains of a public sewer system or a private or public sewage 
treatment or disposal plant. 



Building gravity. A drainage system that drains by grav- 
ity into the building sewer. 

Sanitary. A drainage system that carries sewage and 
excludes storm, surface and ground water. 

Storm. A drainage system that carries rainwater, surface 
water, subsurface water and similar liquid wastes. 

EFFECTIVE OPENING. The minimum cross-sectional 
area at the point of water supply discharge, measured or 
expressed in terms of the diameter of a circle or, if the open- 
ing is not circular, the diameter of a circle of equivalent cross- 
sectional area. For faucets and similar fittings, the effective 
opening shall be measured at the smallest orifice in the fitting 
body or in the supply piping to the fitting. 

EMERGENCY FLOOR DRAIN. A floor drain that does 
not receive the discharge of any drain or indirect waste pipe, 
and that protects against damage from accidental spills, fix- 
ture overflows and leakage. 

ESSENTIALLY NONTOXIC TRANSFER FLUIDS. Flu- 
ids having a Gosselin rating of 1, including propylene glycol; 
mineral oil; polydimethylsiloxane; hydrochlorofluorocarbon, 
chlorofluorocarbon and carbon refrigerants; and FDA- 
approved boiler water additives for steam boilers. 

ESSENTIALLY TOXIC TRANSFER FLUIDS. Soil, 
waste or gray water and fluids having a Gosselin rating of 2 
or more including ethylene glycol, hydrocarbon oils, ammo- 
nia refrigerants and hydrazine. 

EXISTING INSTALLATIONS. Any plumbing system reg- 
ulated by this code that was legally installed prior to the 
effective date of this code, or for which a permit to install has 
been issued. 

FAUCET. A valve end of a water pipe through which water 
is drawn from or held within the pipe. 

FILL VALVE. A water supply valve, opened or closed by 
means of a float or similar device, utilized to supply water to 
a tank. An antisiphon fill valve contains an antisiphon device 
in the form of an approved air gap or vacuum breaker that is 
an integral part of the fill valve unit and that is positioned on 
the discharge side of the water supply control valve. 

FIXTURE. See "Plumbing fixture." 

FIXTURE BRANCH. A drain serving two or more fixtures 
that discharges to another drain or to a stack. 

FIXTURE DRAIN. The drain from the trap of a fixture to a 
junction with any other drain pipe. 

FIXTURE FITTING. 

Supply fitting. A fitting that controls the volume and/or 
directional flow of water and is either attached to or acces- 
sible from a fixture, or is used with an open or atmospheric 
discharge. 

Waste fitting. A combination of components that conveys 
the sanitary waste from the outlet of a fixture to the con- 
nection to the sanitary drainage system. 

FIXTURE SUPPLY. The water supply pipe connecting a 
fixture to a branch water supply pipe or directly to a main 
water supply pipe. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



11 



DEFINITIONS 



f B] FLOOD HAZARD AREA. The greater of the following 
two areas: 

1 . The area within a flood plain subject to a 1 -percent or 
greater chance of flooding in any given year. 

2. The area designated as a flood hazard area on a com- 
munity's flood hazard map or as otherwise legally des- 
ignated. 

FLOOD LEVEL RIM. The edge of the receptacle from 
which water overflows. 

FLOW CONTROL (Vented). A device installed upstream 
from the interceptor having an orifice that controls the rate of 
flow through the interceptor and an air intake (vent) down- 
stream from the orifice that allows air to be drawn into the 
flow stream. 

FLOW PRESSURE. The pressure in the water supply pipe 
near the faucet or water outlet while the faucet or water outlet 
is wide open and flowing. 

FLUSH TANK. A tank designed with a fill valve and flush 
valve to flush the contents of the bowl or usable portion of the 
fixture. 

FLUSHOMETER TANK. A device integrated within an air 
accumulator vessel that is designed to discharge a predeter- 
mined quantity of water to fixtures for flushing purposes. 

FLUSHOMETER VALVE. A valve attached to a pressur- 
ized water supply pipe and so designed that when activated it 
opens the line for direct flow into the fixture at a rate and 
quantity to operate the fixture properly, and then gradually 
closes to reseal fixture traps and avoid water hammer. 

GRAY WATER. Waste discharged from lavatories, bathtubs, 
showers, clothes washers and laundry trays. 

GREASE INTERCEPTOR. 

Hydromechanical. Plumbing appurtenances that are 
installed in the sanitary drainage system to intercept free- 
floating fats, oils and grease from waste water discharge. 
Continuous separation is accomplished by air entrainment, 
buoyancy and interior baffling. 

Gravity. Plumbing appurtenances of not less than 500 gal- 
lons (1893 L) capacity that are installed in the sanitary 
drainage system to intercept free-floating fats, oils and 
grease from waste water discharge. Separation is accom- 
plished by gravity during a retention time of not less than 
30 minutes. 

GREASE-LADEN WASTE. Effluent discharge that is pro- 
duced from food processing, food preparation or other 
sources where grease, fats and oils enter automatic dishwater 
prerinse stations, sinks or other appurtenances. 

GREASE REMOVAL DEVICE, AUTOMATIC (GRD), 
A plumbing appurtenance that is installed in the sanitary 
drainage system to intercept free-floating fats, oils and grease 
from waste water discharge. Such a device operates on a 
time- or event-controlled basis and has the ability to remove 
free-floating fats, oils and grease automatically without inter- 
vention from the user except for maintenance. 

GRIDDED WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. A water 
distribution system where every water distribution pipe is 



interconnected so as to provide two or more paths to each fix- 
ture supply pipe. 

HANGERS. See "Supports." 

HORIZONTAL BRANCH DRAIN. A drainage branch 
pipe extending laterally from a soil or waste stack or building 
drain, with or without vertical sections or branches, that 
receives the discharge from two or more fixture drains or 
branches and conducts the discharge to the soil or waste stack 
or to the building drain. 

HORIZONTAL PIPE. Any pipe or fitting that makes an 
angle of less than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) with the horizontal. 

HOT WATER. Water at a temperature greater than or equal 
tollO°F(43°C). 

HOUSE TRAP. See "Building trap." 

INDIRECT WASTE PIPE. A waste pipe that does not con- 
nect directly with the drainage system, but that discharges 
into the drainage system through an air break or air gap into 
a trap, fixture, receptor or interceptor. 

INDIVIDUAL SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM. A system 
for disposal of domestic sewage by means of a septic tank, 
cesspool or mechanical treatment, designed for utilization 
apart from a public sewer to serve a single establishment or 
building. 

INDIVIDUAL VENT. A pipe installed to vent a fixture trap 
and that connects with the vent system above the fixture 
served or terminates in the open air. 

INDIVIDUAL WATER SUPPLY. A water supply that 
serves one or more families, and that is not an approved pub- 
lic water supply. 

INTERCEPTOR. A device designed and installed to sepa- 
rate and retain for removal, by automatic or manual means, 
deleterious, hazardous or undesirable matter from normal 
wastes, while permitting normal sewage or wastes to dis- 
charge into the drainage system by gravity. 

JOINT. 

Expansion. A loop, return bend or return offset that pro- 
vides for the expansion and contraction in a piping system 
and is utilized in tall buildings or where there is a rapid 
change of temperature, as in power plants, steam rooms 
and similar occupancies. 

Flexible. Any joint between two pipes that permits one 
pipe to be deflected or moved without movement or 
deflection of the other pipe. 

Mechanical. See "Mechanical joint." 

Slip. A type of joint made by means of a washer or a spe- 
cial type of packing compound in which one pipe is 
slipped into the end of an adjacent pipe. 

LEAD-FREE PIPE AND FITTINGS. Containing not more 
than 8.0-percent lead. 

LEAD-FREE SOLDER AND FLUX. Containing not more 
than 0.2-percent lead. 

LEADER. An exterior drainage pipe for conveying storm 
water from roof or gutter drains to an approved means of dis- 
posal. 



12 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



LOCAL VENT STACK. A vertical pipe to which connec- 
tions are made from the fixture side of traps and through 
which vapor or foul air is removed from the fixture or device 
utilized on bedpan washers. 

MACERATING TOILET SYSTEMS. An assembly con- 
sisting of a water closet and sump with a macerating pump 
that is designed to collect, grind and pump wastes from the 
water closet and up to two other fixtures connected to the 
sump. 

MAIN. The principal pipe artery to which branches are con- 
nected. 

MANIFOLD. See "Plumbing appurtenance." 

MECHANICAL JOINT. A connection between pipes, fit- 
tings, or pipes and fittings that is not screwed, caulked, 
threaded, soldered, solvent cemented, brazed or welded. A 
joint in which compression is applied along the centerline of 
the pieces being joined. In some applications, the joint is part 
of a coupling, fitting or adapter. 

MEDICAL GAS SYSTEM. The complete system to convey 
medical gases for direct patient application from central sup- 
ply systems (bulk tanks, manifolds and medical air compres- 
sors), with pressure and operating controls, alarm warning 
systems, related components and piping networks extending 
to station outlet valves at patient use points. 

MEDICAL VACUUM SYSTEMS. A system consisting of 
central-vacuum-producing equipment with pressure and 
operating controls, shutoff valves, alarm-warning systems, 
gauges and a network of piping extending to and terminating 
with suitable station inlets at locations where patient suction 
may be required. 

NON POTABLE WATER. Water not safe for drinking, per- 
sonal or culinary utilization. 

NUISANCE. Public nuisance as known in common law or in 
equity jurisprudence; whatever is dangerous to human life or 
detrimental to health; whatever structure or premises is not 
sufficiently ventilated, sewered, drained, cleaned or lighted, 
with respect to its intended occupancy; and whatever renders 
the air, or human food, drink or water supply unwholesome. 

[A] OCCUPANCY. The purpose for which a building or 
portion thereof is utilized or occupied. 

OFFSET. A combination of approved bends that makes two 
changes in direction bringing one section of the pipe out of 
line but into a line parallel with the other section. 

OPEN AIR. Outside the structure. 

PLUMBING. The practice, materials and fixtures utilized in 
the installation, maintenance, extension and alteration of all 
piping, fixtures, plumbing appliances and plumbing appurte- 
nances, within or adjacent to any structure, in connection 
with sanitary drainage or storm drainage facilities; venting 
systems; and public or private water supply systems. 

PLUMBING APPLIANCE. Water-connected or drain-con- 
nected devices intended to perforin a special function. These 
devices have their operation or control dependent on one or 
more energized components, such as motors, controls, or 
heating elements. Such devices are manually adjusted or con- 
trolled by the owner or operator, or are operated automati- 



cally through one or more of the following actions: a time 
cycle, a temperature range, a pressure range, a measured vol- 
ume or weight. 

PLUMBING APPURTENANCE. A manufactured device, 
prefabricated assembly or an on-the-job assembly of compo- 
nent parts that is an adjunct to the basic piping system and 
plumbing fixtures. An appurtenance demands no additional 
water supply and does not add any discharge load to a fixture 
or to the drainage system. 

PLUMBING FIXTURE. A receptacle or device that is con- 
nected to a water supply system or discharges to a drainage 
system or both. Such receptacles or devices require a supply 
of water; or discharge liquid waste or liquid-borne solid 
waste; or require a supply of water and discharge waste to a 
drainage system. 

PLUMBING SYSTEM. Includes the water supply and dis- 
tribution pipes; plumbing fixtures and traps; water-treating or 
water-using equipment; soil, waste and vent pipes; and sani- 
tary and storm sewers and building drains; in addition to their 
respective connections, devices and appurtenances within a 
structure or premises. 

POLLUTION. An impairment of the quality of the potable 
water to a degree that does not create a hazard to the public 
health but that does adversely and unreasonably affect the 
aesthetic qualities of such potable water for domestic use. 

POTABLE WATER. Water free from impurities present in 
amounts sufficient to cause disease or harmful physiological 
effects and conforming to the bacteriological and chemical 
quality requirements of the Public Health Service Drinking 
Water Standards or the regulations of the public health 
authority having jurisdiction. 

PRIVATE. In the classification of plumbing fixtures, "pri- 
vate" applies to fixtures in residences and apartments, and to 
fixtures in nonpublic toilet rooms of hotels and motels and 
similar installations in buildings where the plumbing fixtures 
are intended for utilization by a family or an individual. 

PUBLIC OR PUBLIC UTILIZATION. In the classifica- 
tion of plumbing fixtures, "public" applies to fixtures in gen- 
eral toilet rooms of schools, gymnasiums, hotels, airports, bus 
and railroad stations, public buildings, bars, public comfort 
stations, office buildings, stadiums, stores, restaurants and 
other installations where a number of fixtures are installed so 
that their utilization is similarly unrestricted. 

PUBLIC WATER MAIN. A water supply pipe for public 
utilization controlled by public authority. 

QUICK-CLOSING VALVE. A valve or faucet that closes 
automatically when released manually or that is controlled by 
a mechanical means for fast-action closing. 

[M] READY ACCESS. That which enables a fixture, appli- 
ance or equipment to be directly reached without requiring 
the removal or movement of any panel, door or similar 
obstruction and without the use of a portable ladder, step 
stool or similar device. 

REDUCED PRESSURE PRINCIPLE BACKFLOW 
PREVENTER. A backflow prevention device consisting of 
two independently acting check valves, internally force- 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



13 



DEFINITIONS 



loaded to a normally closed position and separated by an 
intermediate chamber (or zone) in which there is an auto- 
matic relief means of venting to the atmosphere, internally 
loaded to a normally open position between two tightly clos- 
ing shutoff valves and with a means for testing for tightness 
of the checks and opening of the relief means. 

[AJ REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An indi- 
vidual who is registered or licensed to practice professional 
architecture or engineering as defined by the statutory 
requirements of the professional registration laws of the state 
or jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed. 

RELIEF VALVE. 

Pressure relief valve. A pressure-actuated valve held 
closed by a spring or other means and designed to relieve 
pressure automatically at the pressure at which such valve 
is set. 

Temperature and pressure relief (T&P) valve. A com- 
bination relief valve designed to function as both a temper- 
ature relief and a pressure relief valve. 

Temperature relief valve. A temperature-actuated valve 
designed to discharge automatically at the temperature at 
which such valve is set. 

RELIEF VENT. A vent whose primary function is to pro- 
vide circulation of air between drainage and vent systems. 

RIM. An unobstructed open edge of a fixture. 

RISER. See "Water pipe, riser." 

ROOF DRAIN. A drain installed to receive water collecting 
on the surface of a roof and to discharge such water into a 
leader or a conductor. 

ROUGH-IN. Parts of the plumbing system that are installed 
prior to the installation of fixtures. This includes drainage, 
water supply, vent piping and the necessary fixture supports 
and any fixtures that are built into the structure. 

SELF-CLOSING FAUCET. A faucet containing a valve 
that automatically closes upon deactivation of the opening 
means. 

SEPARATOR. See "Interceptor." 

SEWAGE. Any liquid waste containing animal or vegetable 
matter in suspension or solution, including liquids containing 
chemicals in solution. 

SEWAGE EJECTORS. A device for lifting sewage by 
entraining the sewage in a high-velocity jet of steam, air or 
water. 

SEWER. 

Building sewer. See "Building sewer." 

Public sewer. A common sewer directly controlled by 
public authority. 

Sanitary sewer. A sewer that carries sewage and excludes 
storm, surface and ground water. 

Storm sewer. A sewer that conveys rainwater, surface 
water, subsurface water and similar liquid wastes. 

SLOPE. The fall (pitch) of a line of pipe in reference to a 
horizontal plane. In drainage, the slope is expressed as the fall 



in units vertical per units horizontal (percent) for a length of 
pipe. 

SOIL PIPE. A pipe that conveys sewage containing fecal 
matter to the building drain or building sewer. 

SPILLPROOF VACUUM BREAKER. An assembly con- 
sisting of one check valve force-loaded closed and an air-inlet 
vent valve force-loaded open to atmosphere, positioned 
downstream of the check valve, and located between and 
including two tightly closing shutoff valves and a test cock. 

STACK. A general term for any vertical line of soil, waste, 
vent or inside conductor piping that extends through at least 
one story with or without offsets. 

STACK VENT. The extension of a soil or waste stack above 
the highest horizontal drain connected to the stack. 

STACK VENTING. A method of venting a fixture or fix- 
tures through the soil or waste stack. 

STERILIZER. 

Boiling type. A boiling-type sterilizer is a fixture of a non- 
pressure type utilized for boiling instruments, utensils or 
other equipment for disinfection. These devices are porta- 
ble or are connected to the plumbing system. 

Instrument. A device for the sterilization of various 
instruments. 

Pressure (autoclave). A pressure vessel fixture designed 
to utilize steam under pressure for sterilizing. 

Pressure instrument washer sterilizer. A pressure 
instrument washer sterilizer is a pressure vessel fixture 
designed to both wash and sterilize instruments during the 
operating cycle of the fixture. 

Utensil. A device for the sterilization of utensils as uti- 
lized in health care services. 

Water. A water sterilizer is a device for sterilizing water 
and storing sterile water. 

STERILIZER VENT. A separate pipe or stack, indirectly 
connected to the building drainage system at the lower termi- 
nal, that receives the vapors from nonpressure sterilizers, or 
the exhaust vapors from pressure sterilizers, and conducts the 
vapors directly to the open air. Also called vapor, steam, 
atmospheric or exhaust vent. 

STORM DRAIN. See "Drainage system, storm." 

[A] STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed or a 
portion thereof. 

SUBSOIL DRAIN. A drain that collects subsurface water or 
seepage water and conveys such water to a place of disposal. 

SUMP. A tank or pit that receives sewage or liquid waste, 
located below the normal grade of the gravity system and that 
must be emptied by mechanical means. 

SUMP PUMP. An automatic water pump powered by an 
electric motor for the removal of drainage, except raw sew- 
age, from a sump, pit or low point. 

SUMP VENT. A vent from pneumatic sewage ejectors, or 
similar equipment, that terminates separately to the open air. 



14 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



SUPPORTS. Devices for supporting and securing pipe, fix- 
tures and equipment. 

SWIMMING POOL. Any structure, basin, chamber or tank 
containing an artificial body of water for swimming, diving 
or recreational bathing having a depth of 2 feet (610 mm) or 
more at any point. 

TEMPERED WATER. Water having a temperature range 
between 85°F (29°C) and 1 10°F (43°C). 

THIRD-PARTY CERTIFICATION AGENCY. An 
approved agency operating a product or material certification 
sytem that incorporates initial product testing, assessment and 
surveillance of a manufacturer's quality control system. 

THIRD-PARTY CERTIFIED. Certification obtained by 
the manufacturer indicating that the function and perfor- 
mance characteristics of a product or material have been 
determined by testing and ongoing surveillance by an 
approved third-party certification agency. Assertion of certi- 
fication is in the form of identification in accordance with the 
requirements of the third-party certification agency. 

THIRD-PARTY TESTED. Procedure by which an 
approved testing laboratory provides documentation that a 
product, material or system conforms to specified require- 
ments. 

TRAP. A fitting or device that provides a liquid seal to pre- 
vent the emission of sewer gases without materially affecting 
the flow of sewage or waste water through the trap. 

TRAP SEAL. The vertical distance between the weir and the 
top of the dip of the trap. 

UNSTABLE GROUND. Earth that does not provide a uni- 
form bearing for the barrel of the sewer pipe between the 
joints at the bottom of the pipe trench. 

VACUUM. Any pressure less than that exerted by the atmo- 
sphere. 

VACUUM BREAKER. A type of backflow preventer 
installed on openings subject to normal atmospheric pressure 
that prevents backflow by admitting atmospheric pressure 
through ports to the discharge side of the device. 

VENT PIPE. See "Vent system." 

VENT STACK. A vertical vent pipe installed primarily for 
the purpose of providing circulation of air to and from any 
part of the drainage system. 

VENT SYSTEM. A pipe or pipes installed to provide a flow 
of air to or from a drainage system, or to provide a circulation 
of air within such system to protect trap seals from siphonage 
and backpressure. 

VERTICAL PIPE. Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle 
of 45 degrees (0.79 rad) or more with the horizontal. 

WALL-HUNG WATER CLOSET. A wall-mounted water 
closet installed in such a way that the fixture does not touch 
the floor. 

WASTE. The discharge from any fixture, appliance, area or 
appurtenance that does not contain fecal matter. 

WASTE PIPE. A pipe that conveys only waste. 



WATER-HAMMER ARRESTOR. A device utilized to 
absorb the pressure surge (water hammer) that occurs when 
water flow is suddenly stopped in a water supply system. 

WATER HEATER. Any heating appliance or equipment 
that heats potable water and supplies such water to the pota- 
ble hot water distribution system. 

WATER MAIN. A water supply pipe or system of pipes, 
installed and maintained by a city, township, county, public 
utility company or other public entity, on public property, in 
the street or in an approved dedicated easement of public or 
community use. 

WATER OUTLET. A discharge opening through which 
water is supplied to a fixture, into the atmosphere (except into 
an open tank that is part of the water supply system), to a 
boiler or heating system, or to any devices or equipment 
requiring water to operate but which are not part of the 
plumbing system. 

WATER PIPE. 

Riser. A water supply pipe that extends one full story or 
more to convey water to branches or to a group of fixtures. 

Water distribution pipe. A pipe within the structure or 
on the premises that conveys water from the water service 
pipe, or from the meter when the meter is at the structure, 
to the points of utilization. 

Water service pipe. The pipe from the water main or 
other source of potable water supply, or from the meter 
when the meter is at the public right of way, to the water 
distribution system of the building served. 

WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM. The water service pipe, water 
distribution pipes, and the necessary connecting pipes, fit- 
tings, control valves and all appurtenances in or adjacent to 
the structure or premises. 

WELL. 

Bored. A well constructed by boring a hole in the ground 
with an auger and installing a casing. 

Drilled. A well constructed by making a hole in the 
ground with a drilling machine of any type and installing 
casing and screen. 

Driven. A well constructed by driving a pipe in the 
ground. The drive pipe is usually fitted with a well point 
and screen. 

Dug. A well constructed by excavating a large-diameter 
shaft and installing a casing. 

WHIRLPOOL BATHTUB. A plumbing appliance consist- 
ing of a bathtub fixture that is equipped and fitted with a cir- 
culating piping system designed to accept, circulate and 
discharge bathtub water upon each use. 

YOKE VENT. A pipe connecting upward from a soil or 
waste stack to a vent stack for the purpose of preventing pres- 
sure changes in the stacks. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



15 



16 2012 SNTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 3 



SECTION 301 
GENERAL 

301.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
general regulations regarding the installation of plumbing not 
specific to other chapters. 

301.2 System installation. Plumbing shall be installed with 
due regard to preservation of the strength of structural mem- 
bers and prevention of damage to walls and other surfaces 
through fixture usage. 

301.3 Connections to drainage system. Plumbing fixtures, 
drains, appurtenances and appliances used to receive or discharge 
liquid wastes or sewage shall be direcdy connected to the sanitary 
drainage system of the building or premises, in accordance with 
the requirements of this code. This section shall not be construed 
to prevent indirect waste systems required by Chapter 8. 

Exception: Bathtubs, showers, lavatories, clothes washers 
and laundry trays shall not be required to discharge to the 
sanitary drainage system where such fixtures discharge to 
an approved gray water system for flushing of water clos- 
ets and urinals or for subsurface landscape irrigation. 

301.4 Connections to water supply. Every plumbing fixture, 
device or appliance requiring or using water for its proper 
operation shall be directly or indirectly connected to the 
water supply system in accordance with the provisions of this 
code. 

301.5 Pipe, tube and fitting sizes. Unless otherwise speci- 
fied, the pipe, tube and fitting sizes specified in this code are 
expressed in nominal or standard sizes as designated in the 
referenced material standards. 

301.6 Prohibited locations. Plumbing systems shall not be 
located in an elevator shaft or in an elevator equipment room. 

Exception: Floor drains, sumps and sump pumps shall be 
permitted at the base of the shaft, provided that they are 
indirectly connected to the plumbing system and comply 
with Section 1003.4. 

301.7 Conflicts. In instances where conflicts occur between 
this code and the manufacturer's installation instructions, the 
more restrictive provisions shall apply. 



SECTION 302 

EXCLUSION OF MATERIALS DETRIMENTAL 

TO THE SEWER SYSTEM 

302. 1 Detrimental or dangerous materials. Ashes, cinders 
or rags; flammable, poisonous or explosive liquids or gases; 
oil, grease or any other insoluble material capable of obstruct- 
ing, damaging or overloading the building drainage or sewer 
system, or capable of interfering with the normal operation of 
the sewage treatment processes, shall not be deposited, by 
any means, into such systems. 



302.2 Industrial wastes. Waste products from manufactur- 
ing or industrial operations shall not be introduced into the 
public sewer until it has been determined by the code official 
or other authority having jurisdiction that the introduction 
thereof will not damage the public sewer system or interfere 
with the functioning of the sewage treatment plant. 



SECTION 303 
MATERIALS 

303.1 Identification. Each length of pipe and each pipe fit- 
ting, trap, fixture, material and device utilized in a plumbing 
system shall bear the identification of the manufacturer and 
any markings required by the applicable referenced stan- 
dards. 

303.2 Installation of materials. All materials used shall be 
installed in strict accordance with the standards under which 
the materials are accepted and approved. In the absence of 
such installation procedures, the manufacturer's instructions 
shall be followed. Where the requirements of referenced stan- 
dards or manufacturer's installation instructions do not con- 
form to minimum provisions of this code, the provisions of 
this code shall apply. 

303.3 Plastic pipe, fittings and components. All plastic 
pipe, fittings and components shall be third-party certified as 
conforming to NSF 14. 

303.4 Third-party certification. All plumbing products and 
materials shall be listed by a third-party certification agency 
as complying with the referenced standards. Products and 
materials shall be identified in accordance with Section 
303.1. 



SECTION 304 
RODENTPROOFING 

304.1 General. Plumbing systems shall be designed and 
installed in accordance with Sections 304.2 through 304.4 to 
prevent rodents from entering structures. 

304.2 Strainer plates. All strainer plates on drain inlets shall 
be designed and installed so that all openings are not greater 
than 7 2 inch (12.7 mm) in least dimension. 

304.3 Meter boxes. Meter boxes shall be constructed in such 
a manner that rodents are prevented from entering a structure 
by way of the water service pipes connecting the meter box 
and the structure. 

304.4 Openings for pipes. In or on structures where open- 
ings have been made in walls, floors or ceilings for the pas- 
sage of pipes, the annular space between the pipe and the 
sides of the opening shall be sealed with caulking materials or 
closed with gasketing systems compatible with the piping 
materials and locations. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



17 



GENERAL REGULATIONS 



SECTION 305 

PROTECTION OF PIPES AND 

PLUMBING SYSTEM COMPONENTS 

305.1 Corrosion. Pipes passing through concrete or cinder 
walls and floors or other corrosive material shall be protected 
against external corrosion by a protective sheathing or wrap- 
ping or other means that will withstand any reaction from the 
lime and acid of concrete, cinder or other corrosive material. 
Sheathing or wrapping shall allow for movement including 
expansion and contraction of piping. The wall thickness of 
the material shall be not less than 0.025 inch (0.64 mm). 

305.2 Stress and strain. Piping in a plumbing system shall 
be installed so as to prevent strains and stresses that exceed 
the structural strength of the pipe. Where necessary, provi- 
sions shall be made to protect piping from damage resulting 
from expansion, contraction and structural settlement. 

1305.3 Pipes through foundation walls. Any pipe that passes 
through a foundation wall shall be provided with a relieving 
arch, or a pipe sleeve pipe shall be built into the foundation 
wall. The sleeve shall be two pipe sizes greater than the pipe 
passing through the wall. 

305.4 Freezing. Water, soil and waste pipes shall not be 
installed outside of a building, in attics or crawl spaces, con- 
cealed in outside walls, or in any other place subjected to 
freezing temperatures unless adequate provision is made to 
protect such pipes from freezing by insulation or heat or both. 
Exterior water supply system piping shall be installed not less 
than 6 inches (152 mm) below the frost line and not less than 
12 inches (305 mm) below grade. 

305.4.1 Sewer depth. Building sewers that connect to pri- 
vate sewage disposal systems shall be installed not less 
than [NUMBER] inches (mm) below finished grade at the 
point of septic tank connection. Building sewers shall be 
installed not less than [NUMBER] inches (mm) below grade. 

305.5 Waterproofing of openings. Joints at the roof and 
around vent pipes, shall be made water-tight by the use of 
lead, copper, galvanized steel, aluminum, plastic or other 
approved flashings or flashing material. Exterior wall open- 
ings shall be made water-tight. 

305.6 Protection against physical damage. In concealed 
locations where piping, other than cast-iron or galvanized 
steel, is installed through holes or notches in studs, joists, raf- 
ters or similar members less than l'/ 2 inches (38 mm) from 
the nearest edge of the member, the pipe shall be protected by 
steel shield plates. Such shield plates shall have a thickness of 
not less than 0.0575 inch (1.463 mm) (No. 16 gage). Such 
plates shall cover the area of the pipe where the member is 
notched or bored, and shall extend not less than 2 inches (51 
mm) above sole plates and below top plates. 

305.7 Protection of components of plumbing system. Com- 
ponents of a plumbing system installed along alleyways, 
driveways, parking garages or other locations exposed to 
damage shall be recessed into the wall or otherwise protected 
in an approved manner. 



SECTION 306 
TRENCHING, EXCAVATION AND BACKFILL 

306.1 Support of piping. Buried piping shall be supported 
throughout its entire length. 

306.2 Trenching and bedding. Where trenches are exca- 
vated such that the bottom of the trench forms the bed for the 
pipe, solid and continuous load-bearing support shall be pro- 
vided between joints. Bell holes, hub holes and coupling 
holes shall be provided at points where the pipe is joined. 
Such pipe shall not be supported on blocks to grade. In 
instances where the materials manufacturer's installation 
instructions are more restrictive than those prescribed by the 
code, the material shall be installed in accordance with the 
more restrictive requirement. 

306.2.1 Overexcavation. Where trenches are excavated 
below the installation level of the pipe such that the bot- 
tom of the trench does not form the bed for the pipe, the 
trench shall be backfilled to the installation level of the 
bottom of the pipe with sand or fine gravel placed in layers 
not greater than 6 inches (152 mm) in depth and such 
backfill shall be compacted after each placement. 

306.2.2 Rock removal. Where rock is encountered in 
trenching, the rock shall be removed to not less than 3 
inches (76 mm) below the installation level of the bottom 
of the pipe, and the trench shall be backfilled to the instal- 
lation level of the bottom of the pipe with sand tamped in 
place so as to provide uniform load-bearing support for the 
pipe between joints. The pipe, including the joints, shall 
not rest on rock at any point. 

306.2.3 Soft load-bearing materials. If soft materials of 
poor load-bearing quality are found at the bottom of the 
trench, stabilization shall be achieved by overexcavating 
not less than two pipe diameters and backfilling to the 
installation level of the bottom of the pipe with fine gravel, 
crushed stone or a concrete foundation. The concrete foun- 
dation shall be bedded with sand tamped into place so as 
to provide uniform load-bearing support for the pipe 
between joints. 

306.3 Backfilling. Backfill shall be free from discarded con- 
struction material and debris. Loose earth free from rocks, 
broken concrete and frozen chunks shall be placed in the 
trench in 6-inch (152 mm) layers and tamped in place until 
the crown of the pipe is covered by 12 inches (305 mm) of 
tamped earth. The backfill under and beside the pipe shall be 
compacted for pipe support. Backfill shall be brought up 
evenly on both sides of the pipe so that the pipe remains 
aligned. In instances where the manufacturer's instructions 
for materials are more restrictive than those prescribed by the 
code, the material shall be installed in accordance with the 
more restrictive requirement. 

306.4 Tunneling. Where pipe is to be installed by tunneling, 
jacking or a combination of both, the pipe shall be protected 
from damage during installation and from subsequent uneven 
loading. Where earth tunnels are used, adequate supporting 
structures shall be provided to prevent future settling or cav- 
ing. 



18 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



GENERAL REGULATIONS 



SECTION 307 
STRUCTURAL SAFETY 

307.1 General. In the process of installing or repairing any 
part of a plumbing and drainage installation, the finished 
floors, walls, ceilings, tile work or any other part of the build- 
ing or premises that must be changed or replaced shall be left 
in a safe structural condition in accordance with the require- 
ments of the International Building Code. 

307.2 Cutting, notching or bored holes. A framing member 
shall not be cut, notched or bored in excess of limitations 
specified in the International Building Code. 

307.3 Penetrations of floor/ceiling assemblies and fire- 
resistance-rated assemblies. Penetrations of floor/ceiling 
assemblies and assemblies required to have a fire-resistance 
rating shall be protected in accordance with the International 
Building Code. 

[B] 307.4 Alterations to trusses. Truss members and compo- 
nents shall not be cut, drilled, notched, spliced or otherwise 
altered in any way without written concurrence and approval 
of a registered design professional. Alterations resulting in 
the addition of loads to any member (e.g., HVAC equipment, 
water heater) shall not be permitted without verification that 
the truss is capable of supporting such additional loading. 

307.5 Trench location. Trenches installed parallel to foot- 
ings shall not extend below the 45-degree (0.79 rad) bearing 
plane of the footing or wall. 

307.6 Piping materials exposed within plenums. All piping 
materials exposed within plenums shall comply with the pro- 
visions of the International Mechanical Code. 



SECTION 308 
PIPING SUPPORT 

308.1 General. All plumbing piping shall be supported in 
accordance with this section. 

308.2 Piping seismic supports. Where earthquake loads are 
applicable in accordance with the building code, plumbing 
piping supports shall be designed and installed for the seismic 
forces in accordance with the International Building Code. 

308.3 Materials. Hangers, anchors and supports shall support 
the piping and the contents of the piping. Hangers and strap- 
ping material shall be of approved material that will not pro- 
mote galvanic action. 

308.4 Structural attachment. Hangers and anchors shall be 
attached to the building construction in an approved manner. 

308.5 Interval of support. Pipe shall be supported in accor- 
dance with Table 308.5. 

Exception: The interval of support for piping systems 
designed to provide for expansion/contraction shall con- 
form to the engineered design in accordance with Section 
105.4. 

308.6 Sway bracing. Rigid support sway bracing shall be 
provided at changes in direction greater than 45 degrees (0.79 
rad) for pipe sizes 4 inches (102 mm) and larger. 



TABLE 308.5 
HANGER SPACING 



PIPING MATERIAL 


MAXIMUM 
HORIZONTAL 
SPACING (feet) 


MAXIMUM 

VERTICAL 

SPACING (feet) 


ABS pipe 


4 


10 b 


Aluminum tubing 


10 


15 


Brass pipe 


10 


10 


Cast-iron pipe 


5" 


15 


Copper or copper-alloy pipe 


12 


10 


Copper or copper-alloy tubing, 
1 V 4 -inch diameter and 
smaller 


6 


10 


Copper or copper-alloy tubing, 
1 7,-inch diameter and 
larger 


10 


10 


Cross-linked polyethylene 
(PEX) pipe 


2.67 
(32 inches) 


10" 


Cross-linked polyethylene/ 
aluminum/cross-linked 
polyethylene (PEX-AL- 
PEX) pipe 


2.67 
(32 inches) 


4 


CPVC pipe or tubing, 1 inch 
and smaller 


3 


10" 


CPVC pipe or tubing, l7 4 
inches and larger 


4 


10" 


Steel pipe 


12 


15 


Lead pipe 


Continuous 


4 


Polyethylene/aluminum/ 
polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) 
pipe 


2.67 
(32 inches) 


4 


Polyethylene of raised 
temperature (PE-RT) pipe 


2.67 
(32 inches) 


10 b 


Polypropylene (PP) pipe or 
tubing 1 inch and smaller 


2.67 
(32 inches) 


10" 


Polypropylene (PP) pipe or 
tubing, 1 V 4 inches and larger 


4 


10 b 


PVC pipe 


4 


10 b 


Stainless steel drainage 
systems 


10 


10 1 ' 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. The maximum horizontal spacing of cast-iron pipe hangers shall be 
increased to 10 feet where 1 0-foot lengths of pipe are installed. 

b. Midstory guide for sizes 2 inches and smaller. 

308.7 Anchorage. Anchorage shall be provided to restrain 
drainage piping from axial movement. 

308.7.1 Location. For pipe sizes greater than 4 inches 
(102 mm), restraints shall be provided for drain pipes at all 
changes in direction and at all changes in diameter greater 
than two pipe sizes. Braces, blocks, rodding and other suit- 
able methods as specified by the coupling manufacturer 
shall be utilized. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



19 



GENERAL REGULATIONS 



308.8 Expansion joint fittings. Expansion joint fittings shall 
be used only where necessary to provide for expansion and 
contraction of the pipes. Expansion joint fittings shall be of 
the typical material suitable for use with the type of piping in 
which such fittings are installed. 

308.9 Parallel water distribution systems. Piping bundles 
for manifold systems shall be supported in accordance with 
Table 308.5. Support at changes in direction shall be in accor- 
dance with the manufacturer's instructions. Where hot water 
piping is bundled with cold or hot water piping, each hot 
water pipe shall be insulated. 



SECTION 309 
FLOOD HAZARD RESISTANCE 

309.1 General. Plumbing systems and equipment in struc- 
tures erected in flood hazard areas shall be constructed in 
accordance with the requirements of this section and the 
International Building Code. 

[B] 309.2 Flood hazard. For structures located in flood haz- 
ard areas, the following systems and equipment shall be 
located and installed as required by Section 1612 of the Inter- 
national Building Code. 

Exception: The following systems are permitted to be 
located below the elevation required by Section 1612 of 
the International Building Code for utilities and attendant 
equipment provided that the systems are designed and 
installed to prevent water from entering or accumulating 
within their components and the systems are constructed 
to resist hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and stresses, 
including the effects of buoyancy, during the occurrence 
of flooding to up to such elevation. 

1 . All water service pipes. 

2. Pump seals in individual water supply systems 
where the pump is located below the design flood 
elevation. 

3. Covers on potable water wells shall be sealed, 
except where the top of the casing well or pipe 
sleeve is elevated to not less than 1 foot (305 mm) 
above the design flood elevation. 

4. All sanitary drainage piping. 

5. All storm drainage piping. 

6. Manhole covers shall be sealed, except where ele- 
vated to or above the design flood elevation. 

7. All other plumbing fixtures, faucets, fixture fittings, 
piping systems and equipment. 

8. Water heaters. 

9. Vents and vent systems. 

[B] 309.3 Flood hazard areas subject to high-velocity 
wave action. Structures located in flood hazard areas subject 
to high-velocity wave action shall meet the requirements of 
Section 309.2. The plumbing systems, pipes and fixtures shall 
not be mounted on or penetrate through walls intended to 
break away under flood loads. 



SECTION 310 
WASHROOM AND TOILET ROOM REQUIREMENTS 

310.1 Light and ventilation. Washrooms and toilet rooms 
shall be illuminated and ventilated in accordance with the 
International Building Code and International Mechanical 
Code. 

310.2 Location of fixtures and compartments. The location 
of plumbing fixtures and the requirements for compartments 
and partitions shall be in accordance with Section 405.3. 

310.3 Interior finish. Interior finish surfaces of toilet rooms 
shall comply with the International Building Code. 



SECTION 311 
TOILET FACILITIES FOR WORKERS 

311.1 General. Toilet facilities shall be provided for con- 
struction workers and such facilities shall be maintained in a 
sanitary condition. Construction worker toilet facilities of the 
nonsewer type shall conform to ANSI Z4.3. 



SECTION 312 
TESTS AND INSPECTIONS 

312.1 Required tests. The permit holder shall make the 
applicable tests prescribed in Sections 312.2 through 312.10 
to determine compliance with the provisions of this code. The 
permit holder shall give reasonable advance notice to the 
code official when the plumbing work is ready for tests. The 
equipment, material, power and labor necessary for the 
inspection and test shall be furnished by the permit holder 
and the permit holder shall be responsible for determining 
that the work will withstand the test pressure prescribed in the 
following tests. All plumbing system piping shall be tested 
with either water or, for piping systems other than plastic, by 
air. After the plumbing fixtures have been set and their traps 
filled with water, the entire drainage system shall be submit- 
ted to final tests. The code official shall require the removal 
of any cleanouts if necessary to ascertain whether the pres- 
sure has reached all parts of the system. 

312.1.1 Test gauges. Gauges used for testing shall be as 
follows: 

1. Tests requiring a pressure of 10 pounds per square 
inch (psi) (69 kPa) or less shall utilize a testing 
gauge having increments of 0.10 psi (0.69 kPa) or 

less. 

2. Tests requiring a pressure of greater than 10 psi (69 
kPa) but less than or equal to 100 psi (689 kPa) shall 
utilize a testing gauge having increments of 1 psi 
(6.9 kPa) or less. 

3. Tests requiring a pressure of greater than 100 psi 
(689 kPa) shall utilize a testing gauge having incre- 
ments of 2 psi (14 kPa) or less. 

312.2 Drainage and vent water test. A water test shall be 
applied to the drainage system either in its entirety or in sec- 
tions. If applied to the entire system, all openings in the pip- 
ing shall be tightly closed, except the highest opening, and 
the system shall be filled with water to the point of overflow. 



* 



* 



20 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



GENERAL REGULATIONS 



If the system is tested in sections, each opening shall be 
tightly plugged except the highest openings of the section 
under test, and each section shall be filled with water, but no 
section shall be tested with less than a 10-foot (3048 ram) 
head of water. In testing successive sections, at least the 
upper 10 feet (3048 mm) of the next preceding section shall 
be tested so that no joint or pipe in the building, except the 
uppermost 10 feet (3048 mm) of the system, shall have been 
submitted to a test of less than a 10-foot (3048 mm) head of 
water. This pressure shall be held for not less than 15 min- 
utes. The system shall then be tight at all points. 

! 312.3 Drainage and vent air test. Plastic piping shall not be 
tested using air. An air test shall be made by forcing air into 
the system until there is a uniform gauge pressure of 5 psi 
(34.5 kPa) or sufficient to balance a 10-inch (254 mm) col- 
umn of mercury. This pressure shall be held for a test period 
of not less thanl5 minutes. Any adjustments to the test pres- 
sure required because of changes in ambient temperatures or 
the seating of gaskets shall be made prior to the beginning of 
the test period. 

312.4 Drainage and vent final test. The final test of the 
completed drainage and vent systems shall be visual and in 
sufficient detail to determine compliance with the provisions 
of this code. Where a smoke test is utilized, it shall be made 
by filling all traps with water and then introducing into the 
entire system a pungent, thick smoke produced by one or 
more smoke machines. When the smoke appears at stack 
openings on the roof, the stack openings shall be closed and a 
pressure equivalent to a 1-inch water column (248.8 Pa) shall 
be held for a test period of not less than 15 minutes. 

312.5 Water supply system test. Upon completion of a sec- 
tion of or the entire water supply system, the system, or por- 
tion completed, shall be tested and proved tight under a water 
pressure not less than the working pressure of the system; or, 
for piping systems other than plastic, by an air test of not less 
than 50 psi (344 kPa). This pressure shall be held for not less 
than 15 minutes. The water utilized for tests shall be obtained 
from a potable source of supply. The required tests shall be 
performed in accordance with this section and Section 107. 

312.6 Gravity sewer test. Gravity sewer tests shall consist of 
plugging the end of the building sewer at the point of connec- 
tion with the public sewer, filling the building sewer with 
water, testing with not less than a 1 0-foot (3048 mm) head of 
water and maintaining such pressure for 15 minutes. 

312.7 Forced sewer test. Forced sewer tests shall consist of 
plugging the end of the building sewer at the point of connec- 
tion with the public sewer and applying a pressure of 5 psi 
(34.5 kPa) greater than the pump rating, and maintaining such 
pressure for 15 minutes. 

312.8 Storm drainage system test. Storm drain systems 
within a building shall be tested by water or air in accordance 
with Section 312.2 or 312.3. 

312.9 Shower liner test. Where shower floors and receptors 
are made water-tight by the application of materials required 
by Section 417.5.2, the completed liner installation shall be 
tested. The pipe from the shower drain shall be plugged water 
tight for the test. The floor and receptor area shall be filled 
with potable water to a depth of not less than 2 inches (51 



mm) measured at the threshold. Where a threshold of at least 
2 inches (5 1 mm) high does not exist, a temporary threshold 
shall be constructed to retain the test water in the lined floor 
or receptor area to a level not less than 2 inches (5 1 mm) deep 
measured at the threshold. The water shall be retained for a 
test period of not less than 15 minutes, and there shall not be 
evidence of leakage. 

312.10 Inspection and testing of backflow prevention 
assemblies. Inspection and testing shall comply with Sec- 
tions 312.10.1 and 312.10.2. 

312.10.1 Inspections. Annual inspections shall be made 
of all backflow prevention assemblies and air gaps to 
determine whether they are operable. 

312.10.2 Testing. Reduced pressure principle, double 
check, pressure vacuum breaker, reduced pressure detector 
fire protection, double check detector fire protection, and 
spill-resistant vacuum breaker backflow preventer assem- 
blies and hose connection backflow preventers shall be 
tested at the time of installation, immediately after repairs 
or relocation and at least annually. The testing procedure 
shall be performed in accordance with one of the follow- 
ing standards: ASSE 5013, ASSE 5015, ASSE 5020, 
ASSE 5047, ASSE 5048, ASSE 5052, ASSE 5056, CSA 
B64.10orCSAB64.10.1. 



SECTION 313 
EQUIPMENT EFFICIENCIES 

313.1 General. Equipment efficiencies shall be in accor- 
dance with the International Energy Conservation Code. 



SECTION 314 
CONDENSATE DISPOSAL 

[M] 314.1 Fuel-burning appliances. Liquid combustion by- 
products of condensing appliances shall be collected and dis- 
charged to an approved plumbing fixture or disposal area in 
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Condensate 
piping shall be of approved corrosion-resistant material and 
shall not be smaller than the drain connection on the appli- 
ance. Such piping shall maintain a horizontal slope in the 
direction of discharge of not less than one-eighth unit vertical 
in 12 units horizontal (1-percent slope). 

[M] 314.2 Evaporators and cooling coils. Condensate drain 
systems shall be provided for equipment and appliances con- 
taining evaporators or cooling coils. Condensate drain sys- 
tems shall be designed, constructed and installed in 
accordance with Sections 314.2.1 through 314.2.4. 

[M] 314.2.1 Condensate disposal. Condensate from all 
cooling coils and evaporators shall be conveyed from the 
drain pan outlet to an approved place of disposal. Such 
piping shall maintain a horizontal slope in the direction of 
discharge of not less than one-eighth unit vertical in 12 
units horizontal (1-percent slope). Condensate shall not 
discharge into a street, alley or other areas so as to cause a 
nuisance. 

[M] 314.2.2 Drain pipe materials and sizes. Components 
of the condensate disposal system shall be cast iron, galva- 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



21 



GENERAL REGULATIONS 



nized steel, copper, cross-linked polyethylene, polybutyl- 
ene, polyethylene, ABS, CPVC or PVC pipe or tubing. All 
components shall be selected for the pressure and tempera- 
ture rating of the installation. Joints and connections shall 
be made in accordance with the applicable provisions of 
Chapter 7 relative to the material type. Condensate waste 
and drain line size shall be not less than 3 / 4 -inch (19 mm) 
internal diameter and shall not decrease in size from the 
drain pan connection to the place of condensate disposal. 
Where the drain pipes from more than one unit are mani- 
folded together for condensate drainage, the pipe or tubing 
shall be sized in accordance with Table 314.2.2. 

[M] TABLE 314.2.2 
CONDENSATE DRAIN SIZING 



EQUIPMENT CAPACITY 


MINIMUM CONDENSATE 
PIPE DIAMETER 


Up to 20 tons of refrigeration 


V 4 inch 


Over 20 tons to 40 tons of refrigeration 


1 inch 


Over 40 tons to 90 tons of refrigeration 


l'/ 4 inch 


Over 90 tons to 125 tons of refrigeration 


1 'A, inch 


Over 125 tons to 250 tons of refrigeration 


2 inch 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 ton of capacity = 3.517 kW. 

[M] 314.2.3 Auxiliary and secondary drain systems. In 

addition to the requirements of Section 314.2.1, where 
damage to any building components could occur as a 
result of overflow from the equipment primary condensate 
removal system, one of the following auxiliary protection 
methods shall be provided for each cooling coil or fuel- 
fired appliance that produces condensate: 

1. An auxiliary drain pan with a separate drain shall be 
provided under the coils on which condensation will 
occur. The auxiliary pan drain shall discharge to a 
conspicuous point of disposal to alert occupants in 
the event of a stoppage of the primary drain. The pan 
shall have a depth of not less than l'/ 2 inches (38 
mm), shall be not less than 3 inches (76 mm) larger 
than the unit or the coil dimensions in width and 
length and shall be constructed of corrosion-resistant 
material. Galvanized sheet metal pans shall have a 
thickness of not less than 0.0236-inch (0.6010 mm) 
(No. 24 gage) galvanized sheet metal. Nonmetallic 
pans shall have a thickness of not less than 0.0625 
inch (1.6 mm). 

2. A separate overflow drain line shall be connected to 
the drain pan provided with the equipment. Such 
overflow drain shall discharge to a conspicuous 
point of disposal to alert occupants in the event of a 
stoppage of the primary drain. The overflow drain 
line shall connect to the drain pan at a higher level 
than the primary drain connection. 

3. An auxiliary drain pan without a separate drain line 
shall be provided under the coils on which conden- 
sate will occur. Such pan shall be equipped with a 
water-level detection device conforming to UL 508 
that will shut off the equipment served prior to over- 
flow of the pan. The auxiliary drain pan shall be 



constructed in accordance with Item 1 of this sec- 
tion. 

4. A water-level detection device conforming to UL 
508 shall be provided that will shut off the equip- 
ment served in the event that the primary drain is 
blocked. The device shall be installed in the primary 
drain line, the overflow drain line, or in the equip- 
ment-supplied drain pan, located at a point higher 
than the primary drain line connection and below the 
overflow rim of such pan. 

Exception: Fuel-fired appliances that automati- 
cally shut down operation in the event of a stop- 
page in the condensate drainage system. 

[M] 314.2.3.1 Water-level monitoring devices. On 
down-flow units and all other coils that do not have a 
secondary drain or provisions to install a secondary or 
auxiliary drain pan, a water-level monitoring device 
shall be installed inside the primary drain pan. This 
device shall shut off the equipment served in the event 
that the primary drain becomes restricted. Devices 
installed in the drain line shall not be permitted. 

[MJ 314.2.3.2 Appliance, equipment and insulation 
in pans. Where appliances, equipment or insulation are 
subject to water damage when auxiliary drain pans fill 
such portions of the appliances, equipment and insula- 
tion shall be installed above the flood level rim of the 
pan. Supports located inside of the pan to support the 
appliance or equipment shall be water resistant and 
approved. 

[M] 314.2.4 Traps. Condensate drains shall be trapped as 
required by the equipment or appliance manufacturer. 



SECTION 315 
PENETRATIONS 

315.1 Sealing of annular spaces. The annular space between 
the outside of a pipe and the inside of a pipe sleeve or 
between the outside of a pipe and an opening in a building 
envelope wall, floor, or ceiling assembly penetrated by a pipe 
shall be sealed in an approved manner with caulking material, 
foam sealant or closed with a gasketing system. The caulking 
material, foam sealant or gasketing system shall be designed 
for the conditions at the penetration location and shall be 
compatible with the pipe, sleeve and building materials in 
contact with the sealing materials. Annular spaces created by 
pipes penetrating fire-resistance-rated assemblies or mem- 
branes of such assemblies shall be sealed or closed in accor- 
dance with Section 713 of the International Building Code. 



SECTION 316 
ALTERNATIVE ENGINEERED DESIGN 

316.1 Alternative engineered design. The design, documen- 
tation, inspection, testing and approval of an alternative engi- 
neered design plumbing system shall comply with Sections 
316.1.1 through 316.1.6. 

316.1.1 Design criteria. An alternative engineered design 
shall conform to the intent of the provisions of this code 



** 



** 



** 



22 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



GENERAL REGULATIONS 



and shall provide an equivalent level of quality, strength, 
effectiveness, fire resistance, durability and safety. Mate- 
rial, equipment or components shall be designed and 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 

** 316.1.2 Submittal. The registered design professional 
shall indicate on the permit application that the plumbing 
system is an alternative engineered design. The permit 
and permanent permit records shall indicate that an alter- 
native engineered design was part of the approved instal- 
lation. 

** 316.1.3 Technical data. The registered design profes- 
sional shall submit sufficient technical data to substantiate 
the proposed alternative engineered design and to prove 
that the performance meets the intent of this code. 

** 316.1.4 Construction documents. The registered design 
professional shall submit to the code official two complete 
sets of signed and sealed construction documents for the 
alternative engineering design shall include floor plans 
and a riser diagram of the work. Where appropriate, the 
construction documents shall indicate the direction of 
flow, all pipe sizes, grade of horizontal piping, loading, 
and location of fixtures and appliances. 

** 316.1.5 Design approval. Where the code official deter- 
mines that the alternative engineered design conforms to 
the intent of this code, the plumbing system shall be 
approved. If the alternative engineered design is not 
approved, the code official shall notify the registered 
design professional in writing, stating the reasons thereof. 

** 316.1.6 Inspection and testing. The alternative engi- 
neered design shall be tested and inspected in accordance 
with the requirements of Sections 107 and 312. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 23 



24 2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 4 

FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



SECTION 401 
GENERAL 

401.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the materials, design 
and installation of plumbing fixtures, faucets and fixture fit- 
tings in accordance with the type of occupancy, and shall pro- 
vide for the minimum number of fixtures for various types of 
occupancies. 

401.2 Prohibited fixtures and connections. Water closets 
having a concealed trap seal or an unventilated space or hav- 
ing walls that are not thoroughly washed at each discharge in 
accordance with ASME A 1 12.19.2/CSA B45.1 shall be pro- 
hibited. Any water closet that permits siphonage of the con- 
tents of the bowl back into the tank shall be prohibited. 
Trough urinals shall be prohibited. 

401.3 Water conservation. The maximum water flow rates 
and flush volume for plumbing fixtures and fixture fittings 
shall comply with Section 604.4. 



SECTION 402 

FIXTURE MATERIALS 

402.1 Quality of fixtures. Plumbing fixtures shall be con- 
structed of approved materials, with smooth, impervious sur- 
faces, free from defects and concealed fouling surfaces, and 
shall conform to standards cited in this code. All porcelain 



enameled surfaces on plumbing fixtures shall be acid resis- 
tant. 

402.2 Materials for specialty fixtures. Materials for spe- 
cialty fixtures not otherwise covered in this code shall be of 
stainless steel, soapstone, chemical stoneware or plastic, or 
shall be lined with lead, copper-base alloy, nickel-copper 
alloy, corrosion-resistant steel or other material especially 
suited to the application for which the fixture is intended. 

402.3 Sheet copper. Sheet copper for general applications 
shall conform to ASTM B 152 and shall not weigh less than 
12 ounces per square foot (3.7 kg/m 2 ). 

402.4 Sheet lead. Sheet lead for pans shall not weigh less 
than 4 pounds per square foot (19.5 kg/m 2 ) coated with an 
asphalt paint or other approved coating. 



SECTION 403 
MINIMUM PLUMBING FACILITIES 

403.1 Minimum number of fixtures. Plumbing fixtures 
shall be provided for the type of occupancy and in the mini- 
mum number shown in Table 403.1. Types of occupancies 
not shown in Table 403.1 shall be considered individually by 
the code official. The number of occupants shall be deter- 
mined by the International Building Code. Occupancy classi- 
fication shall be determined in accordance with the 
International Building Code. 



TABLE 403.1 

MINIMUM NUMBER OF REQUIRED PLUMBING FIXTURES" 

(See Sections 403.2 and 403.3) 



NO. 


CLASSIFICATION 


OCCUPANCY 


DESCRIPTION 


WATER CLOSETS 
(URINALS SEE 
SECTION 419.2) 


LAVATORIES 


BATHTUBS/ 
SHOWERS 


DRINKING 

FOUNTAIN 6 ' 1 

(SEE 

SECTION 

410.1) 


OTHER 


MALE 


FEMALE 


MALE 


FEMALE 


1 


Assembly 


A-l d 


Theaters and other buildings 
for the performing arts and 
motion pictures 


1 per 125 


1 per 65 


I per 200 


— 


l per 500 


1 service 
sink 


A-2 11 


Nightclubs, bars, taverns, 
dance halls and buildings for 
similar purposes 


1 per 40 


1 per 40 


1 per 75 


— 


1 per 500 


1 service 
sink 


Restaurants, banquet halls 
and food courts 


1 per 75 


1 per 75 


1 per 200 


— 


1 per 500 


1 service 
sink 


A-3 1 ' 


Auditoriums without perma- 
nent seating, art galleries, 
exhibition halls, museums, 
lecture halls, libraries, 
arcades and gymnasiums 


1 per 125 


1 per 65 


1 per 200 


— 


1 per 500 


1 service 
sink 


Passenger terminals and 
transportation facilities 


1 per 500 


1 per 500 


1 per 750 


— 


1 per 1 ,000 


1 service 
sink 


Places of worship and other 
religious services. 


1 per 150 


1 per 75 


1 per 200 


— 


1 per 1,000 


1 service 
sink 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBiNG CODE® 



25 



FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



TABLE 403.1 —continued 

MINIMUM NUMBER OF REQUIRED PLUMBING FIXTURES 8 

(See Sections 403.2 and 403.3) 



NO. 


CLASSIFICATION 


OCCUPANCY 


DESCRIPTION 


WATER CLOSETS 

(URINALS SEE SECTION 

419.2) 


LAVATORIES 


BATHTUBS/ 
SHOWERS 


DRINKING 

FOUNTAIN" 

(SEE 

SECTION 

410.1) 


OTHER 


MALE 


FEMALE 


MALE 


FEMALE 


1 

(cont.) 


Assembly 


A-4 


Coliseums, arenas, skat- 
ing rinks, pools and ten- 
nis courts for indoor 
sporting events and 
activities 


1 per 75 
for the 
first 1 ,500 
and 1 per 
120forthe 
remainder 
exceeding 
1,500 


1 per 40 
for the first 
1,520 and 
1 per 60 
for the 
remainder 
exceeding 
1,520 


1 per 
200 


1 per 
150 


— 


1 per 1,000 


1 service 
sink 


A-5 


Stadiums, amusement 
parks, bleachers and 
grandstands for outdoor 
sporting events and 
activities 


1 per 75 
for the 
first 1,500 
and 1 per 
120 for the 
remainder 
exceeding 
1,500 


1 per 40 
for the first 
l,520and 1 
per 60 for 
the remain- 
der exceed- 
ing 1,520 


1 per 
200 


1 per 
150 


— 


1 per 1,000 


1 service 
sink 


2 


Business 


B 


Buildings for the trans- 
action of business, pro- 
fessional services, other 
services involving mer- 
chandise, office build- 
ings, banks, light 
industrial and similar 
uses 


1 per 25 for the first 50 

and 1 per 50 for the 

remainder exceeding 

50 


1 per 40 for the 
first 80 and 1 
per 80 for the 

remainder 
exceeding 80 


— 


1 per 100 


1 service 
sink g 


3 


Educational 


E 


Educational facilities 


1 per 50 


1 per 50 


— 


1 per 100 


1 service 
sink 


4 


Factory and 
industrial 


F-landF-2 


Structures in which 
occupants are engaged 
in work fabricating, 
assembly or processing 
of products or materials 


1 per 100 


1 per 100 


(see Sec- 
tion 411) 


1 per 400 


1 service 
sink 


5 


Institutional 


1-1 


Residential care 


1 per 10 


1 per 10 


1 per 8 


1 per 100 


1 service 
sink 


1-2 


Hospitals, ambulatory 
nursing home care 
recipient 


1 per room 1 


1 per room c 


1 per 1 5 


1 per 100 


1 service 

sink per 

floor 


Employees, other than 
residential care 1 ' 


1 per 25 


1 per 35 


— 


1 per 100 


— 


Visitors, other than resi- 
dential care 


1 per 75 


1 per 100 


— 


1 per 500 


— 


1-3 


Prisons' 1 


1 per cell 


1 per cell 


1 perlS 


1 per 100 


1 service 
sink 


Reformitories, deten- 
tion centers, and correc- 
tional centers 1 ' 


1 per 1 5 


1 per 15 


1 per 15 


1 per 100 


1 service 
sink 


Employees' 1 


1 per 25 


1 per 35 


— 


1 per 100 


— 


1-4 


Adult day care and child 
day care 


1 per 15 


1 per 15 


1 


1 per 100 


1 service 
sink 



{continued) 



26 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



TABLE 403.1 —continued 

MINIMUM NUMBER OF REQUIRED PLUMBING FIXTURES 3 

(See Sections 403.2 and 403.3) 



NO. 


CLASSIFICATIO 

N 


OCCUPANCY 


DESCRIPTION 


WATER CLOSETS 
(URINALS SEE 
SECTION 419.2) 


LAVATORIES 


BATHTUBS/ 
SHOWERS 


DRINKING 

FOUNTAIN 6 ' 

(SEE SECTION 

410.1) 


OTHER 


MALE 


FEMALE 


MALE 


FEMALE 








Retail stores, 


















service stations. 










1 service 
sink g 


6 


Mercantile 


M 


shops, salesrooms. 


1 per 500 


1 per 750 


— 


1 per 1,000 








markets and shop- 
















ping centers 
















R-l 


Hotels, motels, 
boarding houses 
(transient) 


1 per sleeping unit 


1 per sleeping unit 


1 per sleep- 
ing unit 


— 


1 service 
sink 




Dormitories, frater- 


















nities, sororities 










1 service 
sink 






R-2 


and boarding 


1 per 10 


1 per 10 


1 per 8 


1 per 100 








houses (not tran- 
















sient) 
























1 kitchen 


















sink per 


















dwelling 






R-2 


Apartment house 


1 per dwelling unit 


1 per dwelling unit 


1 per 

dwelling 

unit 


— 


unit; 1 auto- 
matic 
clothes 
washer con- 
nection per 


7 


Residential 














20 dwelling 
units 


R-3 


Congregate living 
facilities with 16 or 


1 per 10 


1 per 10 


1 per 8 


1 per 100 


1 service 
sink 








fewer persons 






















1 kitchen 


















sink per 


















dwelling 


















unit; 1 auto- 






R-3 


One- and two-fam- 
ily dwellings 


1 per dwelling unit 


1 per dwelling unit 


dwelling 
unit 




matic 
clothes 
washer con- 
nection per 
dwelling 
unit 


R-4 


Congregate living 
facilities with 16 or 
fewer persons 


1 per 10 


1 per 10 


1 per 8 


1 per 100 


1 service 
sink 








Structures for the 


















storage of goods, 












8 


Storage 


S-l 

S-2 


warehouses, store- 
house and freight 
depots. Low and 
Moderate Hazard. 


1 per 100 


1 per 100 


See 
Section411 


I per 1 ,000 


1 service 
sink 



a. The fixtures shown are based on one fixture being the minimum required for the number of persons indicated or any fraction of the number of persons 
indicated. The number of occupants shall be determined by the International Building Code. 

b. Toilet facilities for employees shall be separate from facilities for inmates or care recipients. 

(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



27 



FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



TABLE 403.1 —continued 

MINIMUM NUMBER OF REQUIRED PLUMBING FIXTURES 8 

(See Sections 403.2 and 403.3) 

A single-occupant toilet room with one water closet and one lavatory serving not more than two adjacent patient sleeping units shall be permitted where such 

room is provided with direct access from each patient sleeping unit and with provisions for privacy. 

The occupant load for seasonal outdoor seating and entertainment areas shall be included when determining the minimum number of facilities required. 

The minimum number of required drinking fountains shall comply with Table 403. 1 and Chapter 1 1 of the International Building Code. 

Drinking fountains are not required for an occupant load of 15 or fewer. 

For business and mercantile occupancies with an occupant load of 15 or fewer, service sinks shall not be required. 



403.1.1 Fixture calculations. To determine the occupant 
load of each sex, the total occupant load shall be divided in 
half. To determine the required number of fixtures, the fix- 
ture ratio or ratios for each fixture type shall be applied to 
the occupant load of each sex in accordance with Table 
403.1. Fractional numbers resulting from applying the fix- 
ture ratios of Table 403.1 shall be rounded up to the next 
whole number. For calculations involving multiple occu- 
pancies, such fractional numbers for each occupancy shall 
first be summed and then rounded up to the next whole 
number. 

Exception: The total occupant load shall not be 
required to be divided in half where approved statistical 
data indicates a distribution of the sexes of other than 
50 percent of each sex. 

403.1.2 Family or assisted-use toilet and bath fixtures. 
Fixtures located within family or assisted-use toilet and 
bathing rooms required by Section 1109.2.1 of the Inter- 
national Building Code are permitted to be included in the 
number of required fixtures for either the male or female 
occupants in assembly and mercantile occupancies. 

403.2 Separate facilities. Where plumbing fixtures are 
required, separate facilities shall be provided for each sex. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Separate facilities shall not be required for dwelling 
units and sleeping units. 

2. Separate facilities shall not be required in structures 
or tenant spaces with a total occupant load, includ- 
ing both employees and customers, of 1 5 or fewer. 

3. Separate facilities shall not be required in mercan- 
tile occupancies in which the maximum occupant 
load is 100 or fewer. 

403.2.1 Family or assisted-use toilet facilities serving as 
separate facilities. Where a building or tenant space 
requires a separate toilet facility for each sex and each toi- 
let facility is required to have only one water closet, two 
family/assisted-use toilet facilities shall be permitted to 
serve as the required separate facilities. Family or assisted- 
use toilet facilities shall not be required to be identified for 
exclusive use by either sex as required by Section 403.4. 

403.3 Required public toilet facilities. Customers, patrons 
and visitors shall be provided with public toilet facilities in 
structures and tenant spaces intended for public utilization. 
The number of plumbing fixtures located within the required 
toilet facilities shall be provided in accordance with Section 
403 for all users. Employees shall be provided with toilet 



facilities in all occupancies. Employee toilet facilities shall be 
either separate or combined employee and public toilet facili- 
ties. 

Exception: Public toilet facilities shall not be required in 
open or enclosed parking garages. Toilet facilities shall 
not be required in parking garages where there are no 
parking attendants. 

403.3.1 Access. The route to the public toilet facilities 
required by Section 403.3 shall not pass through kitchens, 
storage rooms or closets. Access to the required facilities 
shall be from within the building or from the exterior of 
the building. All routes shall comply with the accessibility 
requirements of the International Building Code. The pub- 
lic shall have access to the required toilet facilities at all 
times that the building is occupied. 

[Bj 403.3.2 Toilet room location. Toilet rooms shall not 
open directly into a room used for the preparation of food 
for service to the public. 

403.3.3 Location of toilet facilities in occupancies other 
than malls. In occupancies other than covered and open 
mall buildings, the required public and employee toilet 
facilities shall be located not more than one story above or 
below the space required to be provided with toilet facili- 
ties, and the path of travel to such facilities shall not 
exceed a distance of 500 feet (152 m). 

Exception: The location and maximum travel distances 
to required employee facilities in factory and industrial 
occupancies are permitted to exceed that required by 
this section, provided that the location and maximum 
travel distance are approved. 

403.3.4 Location of toilet facilities in malls. In covered 
and open mall buildings, the required public and employee 
toilet facilities shall be located not more than one story 
above or below the space required to be provided with toi- 
let facilities, and the path of travel to such facilities shall 
not exceed a distance of 300 feet (91 440 mm). In mall 
buildings, the required facilities shall be based on total 
square footage within a covered mall building or within 
the perimeter line of an open mall building, and facilities 
shall be installed in each individual store or in a central 
toilet area located in accordance with this section. The 
maximum travel distance to central toilet facilities in mall 
buildings shall be measured from the main entrance of any 
store or tenant space. In mall buildings, where employees' 
toilet facilities are not provided in the individual store, the 
maximum travel distance shall be measured from the 
employees' work area of the store or tenant space. 



28 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



403.3.5 Pay facilities. Where pay facilities are installed, 
such facilities shall be in excess of the required minimum 
facilities. Required facilities shall be free of charge. 

403.3.6 Door locking. Where a toilet room is provided 
for the use of multiple occupants, the egress door for the 
room shall not be lockable from the inside of the room. 
This section does not apply to family or assisted-use toilet 
rooms. 

403.4 Signage. Required public facilities shall be designated 
by a legible sign for each sex. Signs shall be readily visible 
and located near the entrance to each toilet facility. Signs for 
accessible toilet facilities shall comply with Section 1110 of 
the International Building Code. 

403.4.1 Directional signage. Directional signage indicat- 
ing the route to the public facilities shall be posted in 
accordance with Section 3 1 07 of the International Build- 
ing Code. Such signage shall be located in a corridor or 
aisle, at the entrance to the facilities for customers and vis- 
itors. 

403.5 Drinking fountain location. Drinking fountains shall 
not be required to be located in individual tenant spaces pro- 
vided that public drinking fountains are located within a 
travel distance of 500 feet (152 mm) of the most remote loca- 
tion in the tenant space and not more than one story above or 
below the tenant space. Where the tenant space is in a cov- 
ered or open mall, such distance shall not exceed 300 feet (91 
440 mm). Drinking fountains shall be located on an accessi- 
ble route. 



SECTION 404 
ACCESSIBLE PLUMBING FACILITIES 

404.1 Where required. Accessible plumbing facilities and 
fixtures shall be provided in accordance with the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 



SECTION 405 
INSTALLATION OF FIXTURES 

405.1 Water supply protection. The supply lines and fit- 
tings for every plumbing fixture shall be installed so as to 
prevent backflow. 

405.2 Access for cleaning. Plumbing fixtures shall be 
installed so as to afford easy access for cleaning both the fix- 
ture and the area around the fixture. 

405.3 Setting. Fixtures shall be set level and in proper align- 
ment with reference to adjacent walls. 

405.3.1 Water closets, urinals, lavatories and bidets. A 
water closet, urinal, lavatory or bidet shall not be set closer 
than 15 inches (381 mm) from its center to any side wall, 
partition, vanity or other obstruction, or closer than 30 
inches (762 mm) center to center between adjacent fix- 
tures. There shall be not less than a 21 -inch (533 mm) 
clearance in front of the water closet, urinal, lavatory or 
bidet to any wall, fixture or door. Water closet compart- 
ments shall be not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in width 
and not less than 60 inches (1524 mm) in depth for floor- 



mounted water closets and not less than 30 inches (762 1 
mm) in width and 56 inches (1422 mm) in depth for wall- I 
hung water closets. 1 

405.3.2 Public lavatories. In employee and public toilet 
rooms, the required lavatory shall be located in the same 
room as the required water closet. 

405.3.3 Location of fixtures and piping. Piping, fixtures ** 
or equipment shall not be located in such a manner as to 
interfere with the normal operation of windows, doors or 
other means of egress openings. 

405.3.4 Water closet compartment. Each water closet ** 
utilized by the public or employees shall occupy a separate 
compartment with walls or partitions and a door enclosing 

the fixtures to ensure privacy. 

Exceptions: 

1. Water closet compartments shall not be required 
in a single-occupant toilet room with a lockable 
door. 

2. Toilet rooms located in child day care facilities | 
and containing two or more water closets shall be 
permitted to have one water closet without an 
enclosing compartment. 

3. This provision is not applicable to toilet areas 
located within Group 1-3 housing areas. 

405.3.5 Urinal partitions. Each urinal utilized by the pub- ** 
lie or employees shall occupy a separate area with walls or 
partitions to provide privacy. The walls or partitions shall 
begin at a height not greater than 12 inches (305 mm) from 

and extend not less than 60 inches (1524 mm) above the 
finished floor surface. The walls or partitions shall extend 
from the wall surface at each side of the urinal not less 
than 18 inches (457 mm) or to a point not less than 6 
inches (152 mm) beyond the outermost front lip of the uri- 
nal measured from the finished backwall surface, which- 
ever is greater. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Urinal partitions shall not be required in a single 
occupant or family/assisted-use toilet room with 
a lockable door. 

2. Toilet rooms located in child day care facilities | 
and containing two or more urinals shall be per- 
mitted to have one urinal without partitions. 

405.4 Floor and wall drainage connections. Connections 
between the drain and floor outlet plumbing fixtures shall be 
made with a floor flange or a waste connector and sealing 
gasket. The waste connector and sealing gasket joint shall 
comply with the joint tightness test of ASME Al 12.4.3 and 
shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's 
instructions. The flange shall be attached to the drain and 
anchored to the structure. Connections between the drain and 
wall-hung water closets shall be made with an approved 
extension nipple or horn adaptor. The water closet shall be 
bolted to the hanger with corrosion-resistant bolts or screws. 
Joints shall be sealed with an approved elastomeric gasket, 
flange-to-fixture connection complying with ASME 
Al 12.4.3 or an approved setting compound. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



29 



FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



405.4.1 Floor flanges. Floor flanges for water closets or 
similar fixtures shall not be less than 0.125 inch (3.2 mm) 
thick for brass, 0.25 inch (6.4 mm) thick for plastic, and 
0.25 inch (6.4 mm) thick and not less than a 2-inch (51 
mm) caulking depth for cast-iron or galvanized malleable 
iron. 

Floor flanges of hard lead shall weigh not less than 1 
pound, 9 ounces (0.7 kg) and shall be composed of lead 
alloy with not less than 7.75-percent antimony by weight. 
Closet screws and bolts shall be of brass. Flanges shall be 
secured to the building structure with corrosion-resistant 
screws or bolts. 

405.4.2 Securing floor outlet fixtures. Floor outlet fix- 
tures shall be secured to the floor or floor flanges by 
screws or bolts of corrosion-resistant material. 

405.4.3 Securing wall-hung water closet bowls. Wall- 
hung water closet bowls shall be supported by a concealed 
metal carrier that is attached to the building structural 
members so that strain is not transmitted to the closet con- 
nector or any other part of the plumbing system. The car- 
rier shall conform to ASME A112.6.1M or ASME 
A112.6.2. 

405.5 Water-tight joints. Joints formed where fixtures come 
in contact with walls or floors shall be sealed. 

405.6 Plumbing in mental health centers. In mental health 
centers, pipes or traps shall not be exposed, and fixtures shall 
be bolted through walls. 

405.7 Design of overflows. Where any fixture is provided 
with an overflow, the waste shall be designed and installed so 
that standing water in the fixture will not rise in the overflow 
when the stopper is closed, and no water will remain in the 
overflow when the fixture is empty. 

405.7.1 Connection of overflows. The overflow from any 
fixture shall discharge into the drainage system on the inlet 
or fixture side of the trap. 

Exception: The overflow from a flush tank serving a 
water closet or urinal shall discharge into the fixture 
served. 

405.8 Slip joint connections. Slip joints shall be made with 
an approved elastomeric gasket and shall only be installed on 
the trap outlet, trap inlet and within the trap seal. Fixtures 
with concealed slip-joint connections shall be provided with 
an access panel or utility space not less than 1 2 inches (305 
mm) in its smallest dimension or other approved arrangement 
so as to provide access to the slip joint connections for 
inspection and repair. 

405.9 Design and installation of plumbing fixtures. Inte- 
gral fixture fitting mounting surfaces on manufactured 
plumbing fixtures or plumbing fixtures constructed on site, 
shall meet the design requirements of ASME A112.19.2/CSA 
B45.1 oi-ASMEA112.19.3/CSAB45.4. 



SECTION 406 
AUTOMATIC CLOTHES WASHERS 

406.1 Water connection. The water supply to an automatic 
clothes washer shall be protected against backflow by an air 



gap installed integrally within the machine or with the instal- j 
lation of a backflow preventer in accordance with Section 
608. 

406.2 Waste connection. The waste from an automatic 
clothes washer shall discharge through an air break into a 
standpipe in accordance with Section 802.4 or into a laundry 
sink. The trap and fixture drain for an automatic clothes 
washer standpipe shall be not less than 2 inches (51 mm) in 
diameter. The fixture drain for the standpipe serving an auto- 1 
matic clothes washer shall connect to a 3-inch (76 mm) or I 
larger diameter fixture branch or stack. Automatic clothes | 
washers that discharge by gravity shall be permitted to drain 
to a waste receptor or an approved trench drain. 



SECTION 407 
BATHTUBS 

407.1 Approval. Bathtubs shall conform to ANSI Z124.1.2, 
ASME AU2.19.1/CSA B45.2, ASME A112.19.2/CSA 
B45.1, ASME Al 12.19.3/CSA B45.4 or CSA B45.5. 

407.2 Bathtub waste outlets and overflows. Bathtubs shall 
be equipped with a waste outlet and an overflow outlet. The 
outlets shall be connected to waste tubing or piping not less 
than l'/ 2 inches (38 mm) in diameter. The waste outlet shall 
be equipped with a water-tight stopper. 

407.3 Glazing. Windows and doors within a bathtub enclo- 
sure shall conform to the safety glazing requirements of the 
International Building Code. 

407.4 Bathtub enclosure. Doors within a bathtub enclosure 
shall conform to ASME Al 12.19.15. 



408.1 Approval, 
CSAB45.1. 



SECTION 408 
BIDETS 

Bidets shall conform to ASME Al 12. 19.2/ 



408.2 Water connection. The water supply to a bidet shall be 
protected against backflow by an air gap or backflow pre- 
venter in accordance with Section 608.13.1, 608.13.2, 
608.13.3,608.13.5, 608.13.6 or 608.13.8. 

408.3 Bidet water temperature. The discharge water tem- 
perature from a bidet fitting shall be limited to a maximum 
temperature of 110°F (43°C) by a water temperature limiting 
device conforming to ASSE 1070 or CSA B125.3. § 



SECTION 409 
DISHWASHING MACHINES 

409.1 Approval. Commercial dishwashing machines shall | 
conform to ASSE 1004 and NSF 3. 

409.2 Water connection. The water supply to a dishwashing 
machine shall be protected against backflow by an air gap or 
backflow preventer in accordance with Section 608. 

409.3 Waste connection. The waste connection of a dish- 
washing machine shall comply with Section 802.1.6 or 
802.1.7, as applicable. 



30 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



8 



FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



SECTION 410 

DRINKING FOUNTAINS 

410.1 Approval. Drinking fountains shall conform to ASME 
A112.19.1/CSA B45.2 orASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1 and 
water coolers shall conform to ARI 1010. Drinking fountains 
and water coolers shall conform to NSF 61, Section 9. 

[B] 410.2 Minimum number. Where drinking fountains are 
required, not fewer than two drinking fountains shall be pro- 
vided. One drinking fountain shall comply with the require- 
ments for people who use a wheelchair and one drinking 
fountain shall comply with the requirements for standing per- 
sons. 

Exception: A single drinking fountain that complies with 
the requirements for people who use a wheelchair and 
standing persons shall be permitted to be substituted for 
two separate drinking fountains. 

410.3 Substitution. Where restaurants provide drinking 
water in a container free of charge, drinking fountains shall 
not be required in those restaurants. In other occupancies, 
where drinking fountains are required, water coolers or bot- 
tled water dispensers shall be permitted to be substituted for 
not more than 50 percent of the required number of drinking 
fountains. 

410.4 Prohibited location. Drinking fountains, water coolers 
and bottle water dispensers shall not be installed in public 
restrooms. 



SECTION 411 

EMERGENCY SHOWERS AND EYEWASH 

STATIONS 

411.1 Approval. Emergency showers and eyewash stations 
shall conform to ISEA Z358. 1 . 

411.2 Waste connection. Waste connections shall not be 
required for emergency showers and eyewash stations. 

SECTION 412 
FLOOR AND TRENCH DRAINS 

412.1 Approval. Floor drains shall conform to ASME 
A112.3.1, ASME A112.6.3 or CSA B79. Trench drains shall 
comply with ASME Al 12.6.3. 

412.2 Floor drains. Floor drains shall have removable strain- 
ers. The floor drain shall be constructed so that the drain is 
capable of being cleaned. Access shall be provided to the 
drain inlet. Ready access shall be provided to floor drains. 

Exception: Floor drains serving refrigerated display cases 
shall be provided with access. 

412.3 Size of floor drains. Floor drains shall have a drain 
outlet not less than 2 inches (5 1 mm) in diameter. 

412.4 Public laundries and central washing facilities. In 
public coin-operated laundries and in the central washing 
facilities of multiple-family dwellings, the rooms containing 
automatic clothes washers shall be provided with floor drains 
located to readily drain the entire floor area. Such drains shall 
have a outlet of not less than 3 inches (76 mm) in diameter. 



SECTION 413 
FOOD WASTE GRINDER UNITS 

413.1 Approval. Domestic food waste grinders shall con- 
form to ASSE 1008. Food waste grinders shall not increase 
the drainage fixture unit load on the sanitary drainage system. 

413.2 Domestic food waste grinder waste outlets. Domestic 
food waste grinders shall be connected to a drain of not less 
than l'/ 2 inches (38 mm) in diameter. 

413.3 Commercial food waste grinder waste outlets. Com- 
mercial food waste grinders shall be connected to a drain not 
less than I 1 /, inches (38 mm) in diameter. Commercial food 
waste grinders shall be connected and trapped separately 
from any other fixtures or sink compartments. 

413.4 Water supply required. All food waste grinders shall 
be provided with a supply of cold water. The water supply 
shall be protected against backflow by an air gap or backflow 
preventer in accordance with Section 608. 



SECTION 414 
GARBAGE CAN WASHERS 

414.1 Water connection. The water supply to a garbage can 
washer shall be protected against backflow by an air gap or a 
backflow preventer in accordance with Section 608.13.1, 
608.13.2, 608.13.3,608.13.5, 608.13.6 or 608.13.8. 

414.2 Waste connection. Garbage can washers shall be 
trapped separately. The receptacle receiving the waste from 
the washer shall have a removable basket or strainer to pre- 
vent the discharge of large particles into the drainage system. 



SECTION 415 
LAUNDRY TRAYS 

415.1 Approval. Laundry trays shall conform to ANSI 
Z124.6, ASME A112.19.1/CSA B45.2, ASME A112.19.2/ 
CSA B45.1, ASME Al 12.19.3/CSA B45.4. 

415.2 Waste outlet. Each compartment of a laundry tray 
shall be provided with a waste outlet not less than l'/ 2 inches 
(38 mm) in diameter and a strainer or crossbar to restrict the 
clear opening of the waste outlet. 



SECTION 416 
LAVATORIES 

416.1 Approval. Lavatories shall conform to ANSI Z124.3, 
ASME A112.19.1/CSA B45.2, ASME A112.19.2/CSA 
B45.1, or ASME Al 12.19.3/CSA B45.4. Group wash-up 
equipment shall conform to the requirements of Section 402. 
Every 20 inches (508 mm) of rim space shall be considered as 
one lavatory. 

416.2 Cultured marble lavatories. Cultured marble vanity 
tops with an integral lavatory shall conform to ANSI Z124.3 
orCSAB45.5. 

416.3 Lavatory waste outlets. Lavatories shall have waste 
outlets not less than l'/ 4 inches (32 mm) in diameter. A 



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FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



strainer, pop-up stopper, crossbar or other device shall be 
provided to restrict the clear opening of the waste outlet. 

416.4 Moveable lavatory systems. Moveable lavatory sys- 
tems shall comply with ASME All 2. 19. 12. 

416.5 Tempered water for public hand-washing facilities. 
Tempered water shall be delivered from lavatories and group 
wash fixtures located in public toilet facilities provided for 
customers, patrons and visitors. Tempered water shall be 
delivered through an approved water-temperature limiting 
device that conforms to ASSE 1070 or CSA B125.3. 



SECTION 417 
SHOWERS 

417.1 Approval. Prefabricated showers and shower compart- 
ments shall conform to ANSI Z124.1.2, ASME A112.19.2/ 
CSA B45.1 or CSA B45.5. Shower valves for individual 
showers shall conform to the requirements of Section 424.3. 

417.2 Water supply riser. Water supply risers from the 
shower valve to the shower head outlet, whether exposed or 
concealed, shall be attached to the structure. The attachment 
to the structure shall be made by the use of support devices 
designed for use with the specific piping material or by fit- 
tings anchored with screws. 

417.3 Shower waste outlet. Waste outlets serving showers 
shall be not less than 1 7 2 inches (38 mm) in diameter and, for 
other than waste outlets in bathtubs, shall have removable 
strainers not less than 3 inches (76 mm) in diameter with 
strainer openings not less than V 4 inch (6.4 mm) in least 
dimension. Where each shower space is not provided with an 
individual waste outlet, the waste outlet shall be located and 
the floor pitched so that waste from one shower does not flow 
over the floor area serving another shower. Waste outlets 
shall be fastened to the waste pipe in an approved manner. 

417.4 Shower compartments. Shower compartments shall 
be not less than 900 square inches (0.58 m 2 ) in interior cross- 
sectional area. Shower compartments shall be not less than 30 
inches (762 mm) in least dimension as measured from the fin- 
ished interior dimension of the compartment, exclusive of 
fixture valves, showerheads, soap dishes, and safety grab bars 
or rails. Except as required in Section 404, the minimum 
required area and dimension shall be measured from the fin- 
ished interior dimension at a height equal to the top of the 
threshold and at a point tangent to its centerline and shall be 
continued to a height not less than 70 inches (1778 mm) 
above the shower drain outlet. 

Exception: Shower compartments having not less than 25 
inches (635 mm) in minimum dimension measured from 
the finished interior dimension of the compartment, pro- 
vided that the shower compartment has not less than of 
1,300 square inches (.838 m 2 ) of cross-sectional area. 

417.4.1 Wall area. The wall area above built-in tubs with 
installed shower heads and in shower compartments shall 
be constructed of smooth, noncorrosive and nonabsorbent 
waterproof materials to a height not less than 6 feet (1829 
mm) above the room floor level, and not less than 70 
inches (1778 mm) where measured from the compartment 
floor at the drain. Such walls shall form a water-tight joint 



with each other and with either the tub, receptor or shower 
floor. 

417.4.2 Access. The shower compartment access and 
egress opening shall have a clear and unobstructed fin- 
ished width of not less than 22 inches (559 mm). Shower 
compartments required to be designed in conformance to 
accessibility provisions shall comply with Section 404.1. 

417.5 Shower floors or receptors. Floor surfaces shall be 
constructed of impervious, noncorrosive, nonabsorbent and 
waterproof materials. 

417.5.1 Support. Floors or receptors under shower com- 
partments shall be laid on, and supported by, a smooth and 
structurally sound base. 

417.5.2 Shower lining. Floors under shower compart- 
ments, except where prefabricated receptors have been 
provided, shall be lined and made water tight utilizing 
material complying with Sections 417.5.2.1 through 
417.5.2.6. Such liners shall turn up on all sides not less | 
than 2 inches (51 mm) above the finished threshold level. 
Liners shall be recessed and fastened to an approved back- 
ing so as not to occupy the space required for wall cover- 
ing, and shall not be nailed or perforated at any point less 
than 1 inch (25 mm) above the finished threshold. Liners 
shall be pitched one-fourth unit vertical in 12 units hori- 
zontal (2-percent slope) and shall be sloped toward the fix- 
ture drains and be securely fastened to the waste outlet at 
the seepage entrance, making a water-tight joint between 
the liner and the outlet. The completed liner shall be tested 

in accordance with Section 312.9. 

Exceptions: 

1. Floor surfaces under shower heads provided for 
rinsing laid directly on the ground are not 
required to comply with this section. 

2. Where a sheet-applied, load-bearing, bonded, 
wateiproof membrane is installed as the shower 
lining, the membrane shall not be required to be 
recessed. 

417.5.2.1 PVC sheets. Plasticized polyvinyl chloride 
(PVC) sheets shall meet the requirements of ASTM D j 
4551. Sheets shall be joined by solvent welding in accor- 
dance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. 

417.5.2.2 Chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) sheets. 
Nonplasticized chlorinated polyethylene sheet shall I 
meet the requirements of ASTM D 4068. The liner § 
shall be joined in accordance with the manufacturer's 
installation instructions. 

417.5.2.3 Sheet lead. Sheet lead shall weigh not less 
than 4 pounds per square foot (19.5 kg/m 2 ) and shall be 
coated with an asphalt paint or other approved coating. 
The lead sheet shall be insulated from conducting sub- 
stances other than the connecting drain by 15-pound 
(6.80 kg) asphalt felt or an equivalent. Sheet lead shall 
be joined by burning. 

417.5.2.4 Sheet copper. Sheet copper shall conform to 
ASTM B 152 and shall weigh not less than 12 ounces 
per square foot (3.7 kg/m 2 ). The copper sheet shall be 



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FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



insulated from conducting substances other than the 
connecting drain by 15-pound (6.80 kg) asphalt felt or 
an equivalent. Sheet copper shall be joined by brazing 
or soldering. 

417.5.2.5 Sheet-applied, load-bearing, bonded, 
waterproof membranes. Sheet-applied, load-bearing, 
bonded, waterproof membranes shall meet require- 
ments of ANSI Al 18.10 and shall be applied in accor- 
dance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. 

417.5.2.6 Liquid-type, trowel-applied, load- bearing, 
bonded waterproof materials. Liquid-type, trowel- 
applied, load-bearing, bonded waterproof materials 
shall meet the requirements of ANSI Al 18.10 and shall 
be applied in accordance with the manufacturer's 
instructions. 

417.6 Glazing. Windows and doors within a shower enclo- 
sure shall conform to the safety glazing requirements of the 
International Building Code. 



SECTION 418 
SINKS 

418.1 Approval. Sinks shall conform to ANSI Z124.6, 
ASME A112.19.1/CSA B45.2, ASME A112.19.2/CSA 
B45.1 or ASME A112.19.3/CSAB45.4. 

418.2 Sink waste outlets. Sinks shall be provided with waste 
outlets having a diameter not less than 1 V 2 inches (38 mm). A 
strainer or crossbar shall be provided to restrict the clear 
opening of the waste outlet. 

418.3 Moveable sink systems. Moveable sink systems shall 
comply with ASME Al 12.19.12. 



SECTION 419 
URINALS 

419.1 Approval. Urinals shall conform to ANSI Z124.9, 
ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1, ASME Al 12.19.19 or CSA 
B45.5. Urinals shall conform to the water consumption 
requirements of Section 604.4. Water-supplied urinals shall 
conform to the hydraulic performance requirements of 
ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1 or CSA B45.5. 

419.2 Substitution for water closets. In each bathroom or 
toilet room, urinals shall not be substituted for more than 67 
percent of the required water closets in assembly and educa- 
tional occupancies. Urinals shall not be substituted for more 
than 50 percent of the required water closets in all other occu- 
pancies. 

[B] 419.3 Surrounding material. Wall and floor space to a 
point 2 feet (610 mm) in front of a urinal lip and 4 feet (1219 
mm) above the floor and at least 2 feet (610 mm) to each side 
of the urinal shall be waterproofed with a smooth, readily 
cleanable, nonabsorbent material. 



SECTION 420 
WATER CLOSETS 

420.1 Approval. Water closets shall conform to the water 
consumption requirements of Section 604.4 and shall con- 
form to ANSI Z124.4, ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1, ASME 
A112.19.3/CSA B45.4 or CSA B45.5. Water closets shall 
conform to the hydraulic performance requirements of 
ASME Al 12.19.2/CSA B45.1. Water closet tanks shall con- 
form to ANSI Z124.4, ASME A112.19.2/CSA B45.1, ASME 
A112.19.3/CSA B45.4 or CSA B45.5. Electro-hydraulic 
water closets shall comply with ASME Al 12.19.2/CSA 
B45.1. 

420.2 Water closets for public or employee toilet facilities. 
Water closet bowls for public or employee toilet facilities 
shall be of the elongated type. 

420.3 Water closet seats. Water closets shall be equipped 
with seats of smooth, nonabsorbent material. All seats of 
water closets provided for public or employee toilet facilities 
shall be of the hinged open-front type. Integral water closet 
seats shall be of the same material as the fixture. Water closet 
seats shall be sized for the water closet bowl type. 

420.4 Water closet connections. A 4-inch by 3-inch (102 
mm by 76 mm) closet bend shall be acceptable. Where a 3- 
inch (76 mm) bend is utilized on water closets, a 4-inch by 3- 
inch (102 mm by 76 mm) flange shall be installed to receive 
the fixture horn. 



SECTION 421 
WHIRLPOOL BATHTUBS 

421.1 Approval. Whirlpool bathtubs shall comply with 
ASMEA112.19.7/CSAB45.10. 

421.2 Installation. Whirlpool bathtubs shall be installed and 
tested in accordance with the manufacturer's installation 
instructions. The pump shall be located above the weir of the 
fixture trap. 

421.3 Drain. The pump drain and circulation piping shall be 
sloped to drain the water in the volute and the circulation pip- 
ing when the whirlpool bathtub is empty. 

421.4 Suction fittings. Suction fittings for whirlpool bath- 
tubs shall comply with ASME A112.19.7/CSA B45.10. 

421.5 Access to pump. Access shall be provided to circula- 
tion pumps in accordance with the fixture or pump manufac- 
turer's installation instructions. Where the manufacturer's 
instructions do not specify the location and minimum size of 
field-fabricated access openings, an opening not less than 12- 
inches by 12-inches (305 mm by 305 mm) shall be installed 
to provide access to the circulation pump. Where pumps are 
located more than 2 feet (609 mm) from the access opening, 
an opening not less than 18-inches by 18-inches (457 mm by 
457 mm) shall be installed. A door or panel shall be permitted 
to close the opening. In all cases, the access opening shall be 
unobstructed and of the size necessary to permit the removal 
and replacement of the circulation pump. 



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421.6 Whirlpool enclosure. Doors within a whirlpool enclo- 
sure shall conform to ASME Al 12.19.15. 



SECTION 422 
HEALTH CARE FIXTURES AND EQUIPMENT 

422.1 Scope. This section shall govern those aspects of health 
care plumbing systems that differ from plumbing systems in 
other structures. Health care plumbing systems shall conform 
to the requirements of this section in addition to the other 
requirements of this code. The provisions of this section shall 
apply to the special devices and equipment installed and 
maintained in the following occupancies: nursing homes, 
homes for the aged, orphanages, infirmaries, first aid stations, 
psychiatric facilities, clinics, professional offices of dentists 
and doctors, mortuaries, educational facilities, surgery, den- 
tistry, research and testing laboratories, establishments manu- 
facturing pharmaceutical drugs and medicines, and other 
structures with similar apparatus and equipment classified as 
plumbing. 

422.2 Approval. All special plumbing fixtures, equipment, 
devices and apparatus shall be of an approved type. 

422.3 Protection. All devices, appurtenances, appliances and 
apparatus intended to serve some special function, such as 
sterilization, distillation, processing, cooling, or storage of ice 
or foods, and that connect to either the water supply or drain- 
age system, shall be provided with protection against back- 
flow, flooding, fouling, contamination of the water supply 
system and stoppage of the drain. 

422.4 Materials. Fixtures designed for therapy, special 
cleansing or disposal of waste materials, combinations of 
such purposes, or any other special purpose, shall be of 
smooth, impervious, corrosion-resistant materials and, where 
subjected to temperatures in excess of 180°F (82°C), shall be 
capable of withstanding, without damage, higher tempera- 
tures. 

422.5 Access. Access shall be provided to concealed piping in 
connection with special fixtures where such piping contains 
steam traps, valves, relief valves, check valves, vacuum 
breakers or other similar items that require periodic inspec- 
tion, servicing, maintenance or repair. Access shall be pro- 
vided to concealed piping that requires periodic inspection, 
maintenance or repair. 

422.6 Clinical sink. A clinical sink shall have an integral trap 
in which the upper portion of a visible trap seal provides a 
water surface. The fixture shall be designed so as to permit 
complete removal of the contents by siphonic or blowout 
action and to reseal the trap. A flushing rim shall provide 
water to cleanse the interior surface. The fixture shall have 
the flushing and cleansing characteristics of a water closet. 

422.7 Prohibited usage of clinical sinks and service sinks. 

A clinical sink serving a soiled utility room shall not be con- 
sidered as a substitute for, or be utilized as, a service sink. A 
service sink shall not be utilized for the disposal of urine, 
fecal matter or other human waste. 

422.8 Ice prohibited in soiled utility room. Machines for 
manufacturing ice, or any device for the handling or storage 
of ice, shall not be located in a soiled utility room. 



422.9 Sterilizer equipment requirements. The approval and 
installation of all sterilizers shall conform to the requirements 
of the International Mechanical Code. 

422.9.1 Sterilizer piping. Access for the purposes of 
inspection and maintenance shall be provided to all steril- 
izer piping and devices necessary for the operation of ster- 
ilizers. 

422.9.2 Steam supply. Steam supplies to sterilizers, 
including those connected by pipes from overhead mains 
or branches, shall be drained to prevent any moisture from 
reaching the sterilizer. The condensate drainage from the 
steam supply shall be discharged by gravity. 

422.9.3 Steam condensate return. Steam condensate 
returns from sterilizers shall be a gravity return system. 

422.9.4 Condensers. Pressure sterilizers shall be equipped 
with a means of condensing and cooling the exhaust steam 
vapors. Nonpressure sterilizers shall be equipped with a 
device that will automatically control the vapor, confining 
the vapors within the vessel. 

422.10 Special elevations. Control valves, vacuum outlets 
and devices protruding from a wall of an operating, emer- 
gency, recovery, examining or delivery room, or in a corridor 
or other location where patients are transported on a wheeled 
stretcher, shall be located at an elevation that prevents bump- 
ing the patient or stretcher against the device. 



SECTION 423 
SPECIALTY PLUMBING FIXTURES 

423.1 Water connections. Baptisteries, ornamental and lily 
pools, aquariums, ornamental fountain basins, swimming 
pools, and similar constructions, where provided with water 
supplies, shall be protected against backflow in accordance 
with Section 608. 

423.2 Approval. Specialties requiring water and waste con- 
nections shall be submitted for approval. 



SECTION 424 
FAUCETS AND OTHER FIXTURE FITTINGS 

424.1 Approval. Faucets and fixture fittings shall conform to 
ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1. Faucets and fixture fittings 
that supply drinking water for human ingestion shall conform 
to the requirements of NSF 61, Section 9. Flexible water con- 
nectors exposed to continuous pressure shall conform to the 
requirements of Section 605.6. 

424.1.1 Faucets and supply fittings. Faucets and supply 
fittings shall conform to the water consumption require- 
ments of Section 604.4. 

424.1.2 Waste fittings. Waste fittings shall conform to 
ASME Al 12.18.2/CSA B 125.2, ASTM F 409 or to one of 
the standards listed in Tables 702. 1 and 702.4 for above- 
ground drainage and vent pipe and fittings. 

424.2 Hand showers. Hand-held showers shall conform to 
ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1. Hand-held showers shall 
provide backflow protection in accordance with ASME 



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FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



| A 1 12.18.1/ CSA B 125.1 or shall be protected against back- 
flow by a device complying with ASME Al 12.18.3. 

424.3 Individual shower valves. Individual shower and tub- 
shower combination valves shall be balanced-pressure, ther- 
mostatic or combination balanced-pressure/thermostatic 
valves that conform to the requirements of ASSE 1016 or 
ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1 and shall be installed at the 
point of use. Shower and tub-shower combination valves 
required by this section shall be equipped with a means to 
limit the maximum setting of the valve to 120°F (49°C), 
which shall be field adjusted in accordance with the manufac- 
turer's instructions. In-line thermostatic valves shall not be 
utilized for compliance with this section. 

424.4 Multiple (gang) showers. Multiple (gang) showers 
supplied with a single-tempered water supply pipe shall have 
the water supply for such showers controlled by an approved 
automatic temperature control mixing valve that conforms to 

| ASSE 1069 or CSA B 125.3, or each shower head shall be 
individually controlled by a balanced-pressure, thermostatic 
or combination balanced-pressure/thermostatic valve that 

■ conforms to ASSE1016 or ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1 
and is installed at the point of use. Such valves shall be 
equipped with a means to limit the maximum setting of the 
valve to 120°F (49°C), which shall be field adjusted in accor- 
dance with the manufacturers' instructions. 

424.5 Bathtub and whirlpool bathtub valves. The hot 
water supplied to bathtubs and whirlpool bathtubs shall be 
limited to a maximum temperature of 120°F (49°C) by a 
water-temperature limiting device that conforms to ASSE 
1070 or CSA B 125.3, except where such protection is other- 
wise provided by a combination tub/shower valve in accor- 
dance with Section 424.3. 

424.6 Hose-connected outlets. Faucets and fixture fittings 
with hose connected outlets shall conform to ASME 

| Al 12.18.3 or ASME Al 12.18. 1/CSAB125.1. 

424.7 Temperature-actuated, flow reduction valves for 
individual fixture fittings. Temperature-actuated, flow 
reduction devices, where installed for individual fixture fit- 
tings, shall conform to ASSE 1062. Such valves shall not be 
used alone as a substitute for the balanced pressure, thermo- 
static or combination shower valves required in Section 
424.3. 

424.8 Transfer valves. Deck-mounted bath/shower transfer 
valves containing an integral atmospheric vacuum breaker 
shall conform to the requirements of ASME Al 12.18.7. 

1424.9 Water closet personal hygiene devices. Personal 
hygiene devices integral to water closets or water closet seats 
shall conform to the requirements of ASME Al 12.4.2. 



system shall be provided with a flushometer valve, flushome- 
ter tank or a flush tank designed and installed to supply water 
in quantity and rate of flow to flush the contents of the fix- 
ture, cleanse the fixture and refill the fixture trap. 

425.1.1 Separate for each fixture. A flushing device 
shall not serve more than one fixture. 

425.2 Flushometer valves and tanks. Flushometer valves 
and tanks shall comply with ASSE 1037 or CSA B 125.3. j 
Vacuum breakers on flushometer valves shall conform to the 
performance requirements of ASSE 1001 or CSA B64.1.1. 
Access shall be provided to vacuum breakers. Flushometer 
valves shall be of the water conservation type and shall not be 
used where the water pressure is lower than the minimum 
required for normal operation. When operated, the valve shall 
automatically complete the cycle of operation, opening fully 
and closing positively under the water supply pressure. Each 
flushometer valve shall be provided with a means for regulat- 
ing the flow through the valve. The trap seal to the fixture 
shall be automatically refilled after each flushing cycle. 

425.3 Flush tanks. Flush tanks equipped for manual flushing 
shall be controlled by a device designed to refill the tank after 
each discharge and to shut off completely the water flow to 
the tank when the tank is filled to operational capacity. The 
trap seal to the fixture shall be automatically refilled after 
each flushing. The water supply to flush tanks equipped for 
automatic flushing shall be controlled with a timing device or 
sensor control devices. 

425.3.1 Fill valves. All flush tanks shall be equipped with 
an antisiphon fill valve conforming to ASSE 1002 or CSA 
B 125.3. The fill valve backflow preventer shall be located 
not less than 1 inch (25 mm) above the full opening of the 
overflow pipe. 

425.3.2 Overflows in flush tanks. Flush tanks shall be 
provided with overflows discharging to the water closet or 
urinal connected thereto and shall be sized to prevent 
flooding the tank at the maximum rate at which the tanks 
are supplied with water according to the manufacturer's 
design conditions. The opening of the overflow pipe shall 
be located above the flood level rim of the water closet or 
urinal or above a secondary overflow in the flush tank. 

425.3.3 Sheet copper. Sheet copper utilized for flush tank 
linings shall conform to ASTM B 152 and shall not weigh 
less than 10 ounces per square foot (0.03 kg/m 2 ). 

425.3.4 Access required. All parts in a flush tank shall be 
accessible for repair and replacement. 

425.4 Flush pipes and fittings. Flush pipes and fittings shall 
be of nonferrous material and shall conform to ASME 

A112.19.5/CSAB45.15. | 



SECTION 425 

FLUSHING DEVICES FOR 

WATER CLOSETS AND URINALS 

425.1 Flushing devices required. Each water closet, urinal, 
clinical sink and any plumbing fixture that depends on trap 
siphonage to discharge the fixture contents to the drainage 



SECTION 426 

MANUAL FOOD AND BEVERAGE 

DISPENSING EQUIPMENT 

426.1 Approval. Manual food and beverage dispensing 
equipment shall conform to the requirements of NSF 18. 



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FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



SECTION 427 
FLOOR SINKS 

427.1 Approval. Sanitary floor sinks shall conform to the 
requirements of ASME Al 12.6.7. 



36 2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 5 

WATER HEATERS 



SECTION 501 

GENERAL 

501.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
materials, design and installation of water heaters and the 
related safety devices and appurtenances. 

501.2 Water heater as space heater. Where a combination 
potable water heating and space heating system requires 
water for space heating at temperatures higher than 140°F 
(60°C), a master thermostatic mixing valve complying with 
ASSE 1017 shall be provided to limit the water supplied to 
the potable hot water distribution system to a temperature of 
140°F (60°C) or less. The potability of the water shall be 
maintained throughout the system. 

501.3 Drain valves. Drain valves for emptying shall be 
installed at the bottom of each tank-type water heater and hot 
water storage tank. Drain valves shall conform to ASSE 
1005. 

501.4 Location. Water heaters and storage tanks shall be 
located and connected so as to provide access for observa- 
tion, maintenance, servicing and replacement. 

501.5 Water heater labeling. All water heaters shall be 
third-party certified. 

501.6 Water temperature control in piping from tankless 

heaters. The temperature of water from tankless water heat- 
ers shall be not greater than 1 40°F (60°C) where intended for 
domestic uses. This provision shall not supersede the require- 
ment for protective shower valves in accordance with Section 

424.3. 

501.7 Pressure marking of storage tanks. Storage tanks and 
water heaters installed for domestic hot water shall have the 
maximum allowable working pressure clearly and indelibly 
stamped in the metal or marked on a plate welded thereto or 
otherwise permanently attached. Such markings shall be in an 
accessible position outside of the tank so as to make inspec- 
tion or reinspection readily possible. 

501.8 Temperature controls. Hot water supply systems 
shall be equipped with automatic temperature controls capa- 
ble of adjustments from the lowest to the highest acceptable 
temperature settings for the intended temperature operating 

range. 



SECTION 502 
INSTALLATION 

502.1 General. Water heaters shall be installed in accordance 
with the manufacturer's installation instructions. Oil-fired 
water heaters shall conform to the requirements of this code 
and the International Mechanical Code. Electric water heat- 
ers shall conform to the requirements of this code and provi- 
sions of NFPA 70. Gas-fired water heaters shall conform to 
the requirements of the International Fuel Gas Code. 



502.1.1 Elevation and protection. Elevation of water 
heater ignition sources and mechanical damage protection 
requirements for water heaters shall be in accordance with 
the International Mechanical Code and the International 
Fuel Gas Code. 

502.2 Rooms used as a plenum. Water heaters using solid, 
liquid or gas fuel shall not be installed in a room containing 
air-handling machinery where such room is used as a plenum. 

502.3 Water heaters installed in attics. Attics containing a 
water heater shall be provided with an opening and unob- 
structed passageway large enough to allow removal of the 
water heater. The passageway shall be not less than 30 inches 
(762 mm) in height and 22 inches (559 mm) in width and not 
more than 20 feet (6096 mm) in length when measured along 
the centerline of the passageway from the opening to the 
water heater. The passageway shall have continuous solid 
flooring not less than 24 inches (610 mm) in width. A level 
service space not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in length and 
30 inches (762 mm) in width shall be present at the front or 
service side of the water heater. The clear access opening 
dimensions shall be not less than 20 inches by 30 inches (508 
mm by 762 mm) where such dimensions are large enough to 
allow removal of the water heater. 

502.4 Seismic supports. Where earthquake loads are appli- 
cable in accordance with the International Building Code, 
water heater supports shall be designed and installed for the 
seismic forces in accordance with the International Building 
Code. 

502.5 Clearances for maintenance and replacement. 

Appliances shall be provided with access for inspection, ser- 
vice, repair and replacement without disabling the function of 
a fire-resistance-rated assembly or removing permanent con- 
struction, other appliances or any other piping or ducts not 
connected to the appliance being inspected, serviced, repaired 
or replaced. A level working space not less than 30 inches in 
length and 30 inches in width (762 mm by 762 mm) shall be 
provided in front of the control side to service an appliance. 



SECTION 503 

CONNECTIONS 

503.1 Cold water line valve. The cold water branch line 
from the main water supply line to each hot water storage 
tank or water heater shall be provided with a valve, located 
near the equipment and serving only the hot water storage 
tank or water heater. The valve shall not interfere or cause a 
disruption of the cold water supply to the remainder of the 
cold water system. The valve shall be provided with access 
on the same floor level as the water heater served. 

503.2 Water circulation. The method of connecting a circu- 
lating water heater to the tank shall provide proper circulation 
of water through the water heater. The pipe or tubes required 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 8 



37 



WATER HEATERS 



for the installation of appliances that will draw from the water 
heater or storage tank shall comply with the provisions of this 
code for material and installation. 



SECTION 504 
SAFETY DEVICES 

504.1 Antisiphon devices. An approved means, such as a 
cold water "dip" tube with a hole at the top or a vacuum relief 
valve installed in the cold water supply line above the top of 
the heater or tank, shall be provided to prevent siphoning of 
any storage water heater or tank. 

504.2 Vacuum relief valve. Bottom fed water heaters and 
bottom fed tanks connected to water heaters shall have a vac- 
uum relief valve installed. The vacuum relief valve shall 
comply with ANSI Z2 1.22. 

504.3 Shutdown. A means for disconnecting an electric hot 
water supply system from its energy supply shall be provided 
in accordance with NFPA 70. A separate valve shall be pro- 
vided to shut off the energy fuel supply to all other types of 
hot water supply systems. 

504.4 Relief valve. Storage water heaters operating above 
atmospheric pressure shall be provided with an approved, 
self-closing (levered) pressure relief valve and temperature 
relief valve or combination thereof. The relief valve shall 
conform to ANSI Z21.22. The relief valve shall not be used 
as a means of controlling thermal expansion. 

504.4.1 Installation. Such valves shall be installed in the 
shell of the water heater tank. Temperature relief valves 
shall be so located in the tank as to be actuated by the 
water in the top 6 inches (152 mm) of the tank served. For 
installations with separate storage tanks, the approved, 
self-closing (levered) pressure relief valve and tempera- 
ture relief valve or combination thereof conforming to 
ANSI Z21 .22 valves shall be installed on both the storage 
water heater and storage tank. There shall not be a check 
valve or shutoff valve between a relief valve and the heater 
or tank served. 

504.5 Relief valve approval. Temperature and pressure 
relief valves, or combinations thereof, and energy cutoff 
devices shall bear the label of an approved agency and shall 
have a temperature setting of not more than 21 0°F (99°C) and 
a pressure setting not exceeding the tank or water heater man- 
ufacturer' s rated working pressure or 150 psi (1035 kPa), 
whichever is less. The relieving capacity of each pressure 
relief valve and each temperature relief valve shall equal or 
exceed the heat input to the water heater or storage tank. 

504.6 Requirements for discharge piping. The discharge 
piping serving a pressure relief valve, temperature relief 
valve or combination thereof shall: 

1 . Not be directly connected to the drainage system. 

2. Discharge through an air gap located in the same 
room as the water heater. 

3. Not be smaller than the diameter of the outlet of the 
valve served and shall discharge full size to the air 
gap. 



4 Serve a single relief device and shall not connect to 
piping serving any other relief device or equipment. 

5. Discharge to the floor, to the pan serving the water 
heater or storage tank, to a waste receptor or to the 
outdoors. 

6. Discharge in a manner that does not cause personal 
injury or structural damage. 

7. Discharge to a termination point that is readily 
observable by the building occupants. 

8. Not be trapped. 

9. Be installed so as to flow by gravity. 

10. Not terminate more than 6 inches (152 mm) above the 
floor or waste receptor. 

1 1 . Not have a threaded connection at the end of such pip- 
ing. 

12. Not have valves or tee fittings. 

13. Be constructed of those materials listed in Section 
605.4 or materials tested, rated and approved for such 
use in accordance with ASME Al 12.4.1. 

504.7 Required pan. Where a storage tank-type water heater 
or a hot water storage tank is installed in a location where 
water leakage from the tank will cause damage, the tank shall 
be installed in a galvanized steel pan having a material thick- 
ness of not less than 0.0236 inch (0.6010mm) (No. 24 gage), 
or other pans approved for such use. 

504.7.1 Pan size and drain. The pan shall be not less than 
1 7 2 inches (38 mm) in depth and shall be of sufficient size 
and shape to receive all dripping or condensate from the 
tank or water heater. The pan shall be drained by an indi- 
rect waste pipe having a diameter of not less than 3 / 4 inch 
(19 mm). Piping for safety pan drains shall be of those 
materials listed in Table 605.4. 

504.7.2 Pan drain termination. The pan drain shall 
extend full-size and terminate over a suitably located indi- 
rect waste receptor or floor drain or extend to the exterior 
of the building and terminate not less than 6 inches (152 
mm) and not more than 24 inches (610 mm) above the 
adjacent ground surface. 

SECTION 505 
INSULATION 

[E] 505.1 Unfired vessel insulation. Unfired hot water stor- 
age tanks shall be insulated to R-12.5 (h • ft 2 • °F)/Btu (R-2 2 
m 2 • K/W). 



38 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 6 

WATER SUPPLY AMD DISTRIBUTION 



SECTION 601 
GENERAL 

601.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the materials, design 
and installation of water supply systems, both hot and cold, 
for utilization in connection with human occupancy and habi- 
tation and shall govern the installation of individual water 
supply systems. 

601.2 Solar energy utilization. Solar energy systems used 
for heating potable water or using an independent medium for 
heating potable water shall comply with the applicable 
requirements of this code. The use of solar energy shall not 
compromise the requirements for cross connection or protec- 
tion of the potable water supply system required by this code. 

601.3 Existing piping used for grounding. Existing metallic 
water service piping used for electrical grounding shall not be 
replaced with nonmetallic pipe or tubing until other approved 
means of grounding is provided. 

601.4 Tests. The potable water distribution system shall be 
tested in accordance with Section 312.5. 

SECTION 602 
WATER REQUIRED 

602.1 General. Structures equipped with plumbing fixtures 
and utilized for human occupancy or habitation shall be pro- 
vided with a potable supply of water in the amounts and at the 
pressures specified in this chapter. 

602.2 Potable water required. Only potable water shall be 
supplied to plumbing fixtures that provide water for drinking, 
bathing or culinary purposes, or for the processing of food, 
medical or pharmaceutical products. Unless otherwise pro- 
vided in this code, potable water shall be supplied to all 
plumbing fixtures. 

602.3 Individual water supply. Where a potable public 
water supply is not available, individual sources of potable 
water supply shall be utilized. 

602.3.1 Sources. Dependent on geological and soil condi- 
tions and the amount of rainfall, individual water supplies 
are of the following types: drilled well, driven well, dug 
well, bored well, spring, stream or cistern. Surface bodies 
of water and land cisterns shall not be sources of individ- 
ual water supply unless properly treated by approved 
means to prevent contamination. 

602.3.2 Minimum quantity. The combined capacity of 
the source and storage in an individual water supply sys- 
tem shall supply the fixtures with water at rates and pres- 
sures as required by this chapter. 

602.3.3 Water quality. Water from an individual water 
supply shall be approved as potable by the authority hav- 
ing jurisdiction prior to connection to the plumbing sys- 
tem. 



602.3.4 Disinfection of system. After construction or 
major repair, the individual water supply system shall be 
purged of deleterious matter and disinfected in accordance 
with Section 610. 

602.3.5 Pumps. Pumps shall be rated for the transport of 
potable water. Pumps in an individual water supply system 
shall be constructed and installed so as to prevent contam- 
ination from entering a potable water supply through the 
pump units. Pumps shall be sealed to the well casing or 
covered with a water-tight seal. Pumps shall be designed 
to maintain a prime and installed such that ready access is 
provided to the pump parts of the entire assembly for 
repairs. 

602.3.5.1 Pump enclosure. The pump room or enclo- 
sure around a well pump shall be drained and protected 
from freezing by heating or other approved means. 
Where pumps are installed in basements, such pumps 
shall be mounted on a block or shelf not less than 1 8 
inches (457 mm) above the basement floor. Well pits 
shall be prohibited. 

SECTION 603 
WATER SERVICE 

603.1 Size of water service pipe. The water service pipe 
shall be sized to supply water to the structure in the quantities 
and at the pressures required in this code. The water service 
pipe shall be not less than 3 / 4 inch (19. 1 mm) in diameter. 

603.2 Separation of water service and building sewer. 
Water service pipe and the building sewer shall be separated 
by not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) of undisturbed or com- 
pacted earth. 

Exceptions: 

1. The required separation distance shall not apply 
where the bottom of the water service pipe within 5 
feet (1524 mm) of the sewer is not less than 12 
inches (305 mm) above the top of the highest point 
of the sewer and the pipe materials conform to Table 
702.3. 

2. Water service pipe is permitted to be located in the 
same trench with a building sewer, provided such 
sewer is constructed of materials listed in Table 
702.2. 

3. The required separation distance shall not apply 
where a water service pipe crosses a sewer pipe, pro- 
vided the water service pipe is sleeved to a point not 
less than 5 feet (1524 mm) horizontally from the 
sewer pipe centerline on both sides of such crossing 
with pipe materials listed in Table 605.3, 702.2 or 
702.3. 

603.2.1 Water service near sources of pollution. Potable 
water service pipes shall not be located in, under or above 
cesspools, septic tanks, septic tank drainage fields or seep- 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 8 



39 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



age pits (see Section 605.1 for soil and groundwater condi- 
tions). 

SECTION 604 

DESIGN OF BUILDING WATER DISTRIBUTION 

SYSTEM 

604.1 General. The design of the water distribution system 
shall conform to accepted engineering practice. Methods uti- 
lized to determine pipe sizes shall be approved. 

604.2 System interconnection. At the points of interconnec- 
tion between the hot and cold water supply piping systems 
and the individual fixtures, appliances or devices, provisions 
shall be made to prevent flow between such piping systems. 

604.3 Water distribution system design criteria. The water 
distribution system shall be designed, and pipe sizes shall be 
selected such that under conditions of peak demand, the 
capacities at the fixture supply pipe outlets shall not be less 
than shown in Table 604.3. The minimum flow rate and flow 
pressure provided to fixtures and appliances not listed in 
Table 604.3 shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's 
installation instructions. 

TABLE 604.3 

WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM DESIGN CRITERIA REQUIRED 

CAPACITY AT FIXTURE SUPPLY PIPE OUTLETS 





FIXTURE SUPPLY 
OUTLET SERVING 


FLOW 
RATE a 
(9pm) 


FLOW 

PRESSURE 

(psi) 




Bathtub, balanced-pressure, thermo- 
static or combination balanced-pres- 
sure/thermo-static mixing valve 


4 


20 




Bidet, thermostatic mixing valve 


2 


20 




Combination fixture 


4 


8 




Dishwasher, residential 


2.75 


8 




Drinking fountain 


0.75 


8 




Laundry tray 


4 


8 




Lavatory 


2 


8 




Shower 


3 


8 




Shower, balanced-pressure, thermo- 
static or combination balanced-pres- 
sure/thermo-static mixing valve 


3 


20 




Sillcock, hose bibb 


5 


8 




Sink, residential 


2.5 


8 




Sink, service 


3 


8 




Urinal, valve 


12 


25 


1 


Water closet, blow out, flushometer 
valve 


25 


45 




Water closet, flushometer tank 


1.6 


20 


1 


Water closet, siphonic, flushometer 
valve 


25 


35 




Water closet, tank, close coupled 


3 


20 




Water closet, tank, one piece 


6 


20 



604.4 Maximum flow and water consumption. The maxi- 
mum water consumption flow rates and quantities for all 
plumbing fixtures and fixture fittings shall be in accordance 
with Table 604.4. 

Exceptions: 

1. Blowout design water closets having a water con- 
sumption not greater than 3'/ 2 gallons (13 L) per 
flushing cycle. 

2. Vegetable sprays. 

3. Clinical sinks having a water consumption not 
greater than 4'/ 2 gallons (17 L) per flushing cycle. 

4. Service sinks. 

5. Emergency showers. 

TABLE 604.4 

MAXIMUM FLOW RATES AND CONSUMPTION FOR 

PLUMBING FIXTURES AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



PLUMBING FIXTURE 
OR FIXTURE FITTING 


MAXIMUM FLOW RATE 
OR QUANTITY" 


Lavatory, private 


2.2 gpm at 60 psi 


Lavatory, public (metering) 


0.25 gallon per metering cycle 


Lavatory, public 
(other than metering) 


0.5 gpm at 60 psi 


Shower head" 


2.5 gpm at 80 psi 


Sink faucet 


2.2 gpm at 60 psi 


Urinal 


1 .0 gallon per flushing cycle 


Water closet 


1 .6 gallons per flushing cycle 



For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 
1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m. 

a. For additional requirements for flow rates and quantities, see Section 
604.4. 



For SI: 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 
1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. A hand-held shower spray is a shower head. 

b. Consumption tolerances shall be determined from referenced standards. 

604.5 Size of fixture supply. The minimum size of a fixture 
supply pipe shall be as shown in Table 604.5. The fixture 
supply pipe shall terminate not more than 30 inches (762 
mm) from the point of connection to the fixture. A reduced- 
size flexible water connector installed between the supply 
pipe and the fixture shall be of an approved type. The supply 
pipe shall extend to the floor or wall adjacent to the fixture. 
The minimum size of individual distribution lines utilized in 
gridded or parallel water distribution systems shall be as 
shown in Table 604.5. 

604.6 Variable street pressures. Where street water main 
pressures fluctuate, the building water distribution system 
shall be designed for the minimum pressure available. 

604.7 Inadequate water pressure. Wherever water pressure 
from the street main or other source of supply is insufficient 
to provide flow pressures at fixture outlets as required under 
Table 604.3, a water pressure booster system conforming to 
Section 606.5 shall be installed on the building water supply 
system. 

604.8 Water pressure reducing valve or regulator. Where 
water pressure within a building exceeds 80 psi (552 kPa) 
static, an approved water-pressure reducing valve conform- 
ing to ASSE 1003 or CSA B356 with strainer shall be 



40 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



TABLE 604.5 
MINIMUM SIZES OF FIXTURE WATER SUPPLY PIPES 



FIXTURE 


MINIMUM PIPE SIZE 
(inch) 


Bathtubs 8 (60" x 32" and smaller) 


\ 


Bathtubs 3 (larger than 60" x 32") 


% 


Bidet 


% 


Combination sink and tray 


% 


Dishwasher, domestic" 


% 


Drinking fountain 


% 


Hose bibbs 


% 


Kitchen sink" 


''2 


Laundry, 1 , 2 or 3 compartments 3 


% 


Lavatory 


% 


Shower, single head' 1 


% 


Sinks, flushing rim 


% 


Sinks, service 


% 


Urinal, flush tank 


% 


Urinal, flushometer valve 


% 


Wall hydrant 


% 


Water closet, flush tank 


% 


Water closet, flushometer valve 


1 


Water closet, flushometer tank 


3/ * 


Water closet, one piece" 


% 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 
1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Where the developed length of the distribution line is 60 feet or less, and 
the available pressure at the meter is 35 psi or greater, the minimum size of 
an individual distribution line supplied from a manifold and installed as 
part of a parallel water distribution system shall be one nominal tube size 
smaller than the sizes indicated. 

installed to reduce the pressure in the building water distribu- 
tion piping to not greater than 80 psi (552 kPa) static. 

Exception: Service lines to sill cocks and outside hydrants, 
and main supply risers where pressure from the mains is 
reduced to 80 psi (552 kPa) or less at individual fixtures. 

604.8.1 Valve design. The pressure-reducing valve shall 
be designed to remain open to permit uninterrupted water 
flow in case of valve failure. 

604.8.2 Repair and removal. Water-pressure reducing 
valves, regulators and strainers shall be so constructed and 
installed as to permit repair or removal of parts without 
breaking a pipeline or removing the valve and strainer 
from the pipeline. 

604.9 Water hammer. The flow velocity of the water distri- 
bution system shall be controlled to reduce the possibility of 
water hammer. A water-hammer arrestor shall be installed 
where quick-closing valves are utilized. Water-hammer arres- 
tors shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's 
instructions. Water-hammer arrestors shall conform to ASSE 
1010. 



604.10 Gridded and parallel water distribution system 
manifolds. Hot water and cold water manifolds installed with 
gridded or parallel connected individual distribution lines to 
each fixture or fixture fitting shall be designed in accordance 
with Sections 604.10.1 through 604.10.3. 

604.10.1 Manifold sizing. Hot water and cold water man- 
ifolds shall be sized in accordance with Table 604.10.1. 
The total gallons per minute is the demand of all outlets 
supplied. 

TABLE 604.10.1 
MANIFOLD SIZING 



NOMINAL SIZE 
INTERNAL DIAMETER 

(inches) 


MAXIMUM DEMAND (gpm) 


Velocity at 4 feet 
per second 


Velocity at 8 feet 
per second 


\ 


2 


5 


% 


6 


11 


1 


10 


20 


1V 4 


15 


31 


1'A 


22 


44 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 
1 foot per second = 0.305 m/s. 

604.10.2 Valves. Individual fixture shutoff valves 
installed at the manifold shall be identified as to the fixture 
being supplied. 

604.10.3 Access. Access shall be provided to manifolds 
with integral factory- or field-installed valves. 

604.11 Individual pressure balancing in-line valves for 
individual fixture fittings. Where individual pressure bal- 
ancing in-line valves for individual fixture fittings are 
installed, such valves shall comply with ASSE 1066. Such 
valves shall be installed in an accessible location and shall 
not be utilized alone as a substitute for the balanced pressure, 
thermostatic or combination shower valves required in Sec- 
tion 424.3. 



SECTION 605 
MATERIALS, JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 

605.1 Soil and ground water. The installation of a water ser- 
vice or water distribution pipe shall be prohibited in soil and 
ground water contaminated with solvents, fuels, organic com- 
pounds or other detrimental materials causing permeation, 
corrosion, degradation or structural failure of the piping 
material. Where detrimental conditions are suspected, a 
chemical analysis of the soil and ground water conditions 
shall be required to ascertain the acceptability of the water 
service or water distribution piping material for the specific 
installation. Where detrimental conditions exist, approved 
alternative materials or routing shall be required. 

605.2 Lead content of water supply pipe and fittings. Pipe 
and pipe fittings, including valves and faucets, utilized in the 
water supply system shall have a maximum of 8-percent lead 
content. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



41 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



605.3 Water service pipe. Water service pipe shall conform 
to NSF 61 and shall conform to one of the standards listed in 
Table 605.3. Water service pipe or tubing, installed under- 
ground and outside of the structure, shall have a working 
pressure rating of not less than 160 psi (1100 kPa) at 73.4°F 
(23°C). Where the water pressure exceeds 160 psi (1 100 kPa), 
piping material shall have a working pressure rating not less 
than the highest available pressure. Water service piping 
materials not third-party certified for water distribution shall 
terminate at or before the full open valve located at the 
entrance to the structure. All ductile iron water service piping 
shall be cement mortar lined in accordance with AWWA 
CI 04. 

605.3.1 Dual check-valve-type backflow preventer. 
Dual check-valve backflow preventers installed on the 
water supply system shall comply with ASSE 1024 or 
CSAB64.6. 

605.4 Water distribution pipe. Water distribution pipe shall 
conform to NSF 61 and shall conform to one of the standards 
listed in Table 605.4. Hot water distribution pipe and tubing 
shall have a pressure rating of not less than 100 psi (690 kPa) 
atl80°F(82°C). 

605.5 Fittings. Pipe fittings shall be approved for installation 
with the piping material installed and shall comply with the 
applicable standards listed in Table 605.5. Pipe fittings uti- 
lized in water supply systems shall also comply with NSF 61. 
Ductile and gray iron pipe fittings shall be cement mortar 
lined in accordance with AWWA C104. 



605.5.1 Mechanically formed tee fittings. Mechanically 
extracted outlets shall have a height not less than three 
times the thickness of the branch tube wall. 

605.5.1.1 Full flow assurance. Branch tubes shall not 
restrict the flow in the run tube. A dimple/depth stop 
shall be formed in the branch tube to ensure that pene- 
tration into the collar is of the correct depth. For inspec- 
tion purposes, a second dimple shall be placed V 4 inch 
(6.4 mm) above the first dimple. Dimples shall be 
aligned with the tube run. 

605.5.1.2 Brazed joints. Mechanically formed tee fit- 
tings shall be brazed in accordance with Section 
605.14.1. 

605.6 Flexible water connectors. Flexible water connectors 
exposed to continuous pressure shall conform to ASME 
A112.18.6/CSA B125.6. Access shall be provided to all flexi- j 
ble water connectors. 

605.7 Valves. All valves shall be of an approved type and 
compatible with the type of piping material installed in the 
system. Ball valves, gate valves, globe valves and plug valves 
intended to supply drinking water shall meet the requirements 
of NSF 61. 

605.8 Manufactured pipe nipples. Manufactured pipe nip- 
ples shall conform to one of the standards listed in Table 
605.8. 



TABLE 605.3 
WATER SERVICE PIPE 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipe 


ASTM D 1527; ASTM D 2282 


Asbestos-cement pipe 


ASTM C 296 


Brass pipe 


ASTM B 43 


Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) plastic pipe 


ASTM D 2846; ASTM F 441; ASTM F 442; CSA B137.6 


Copper or copper-alloy pipe 


ASTM B 42; ASTM B 302 


Copper or copper-alloy tubing (Type K, WK, L, WL, M or WM) 


ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; ASTM B 251; ASTM B 447 


Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plastic pipe and tubing 


ASTM F 876; ASTM F 877; AWWA C904; CSA B 137.5 


Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/cross-linked polyethylene 
(PEX-AL-PEX) pipe 


ASTM F 1281 ; ASTM F 2262; CSA B137.10M 


Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/high-density polyethylene 
(PEX-AL-HDPE) 


ASTM F 1986 


Ductile iron water pipe 


AWWA C151/A21.51; AWWA CI 15/A21.15 


Galvanized steel pipe 


ASTM A 53 


Polyethylene (PE) plastic pipe 


ASTM D 2239; ASTM D 3035; AWWA C901 ; CSA Bl 37. 1 


Polyethylene (PE) plastic tubing 


ASTM D 2737; AWWA C901; CSA B 137.1 


Polyethylene/aluminum/polethylene (PE-AL-PE) pipe 


ASTMF 1282; CSA B137.9 


Polyethylene of raised temperature (PERT) plastic tubing 


ASTM F 2769 


Polypropylene (PP) plastic pipe or tubing 


ASTMF 2389; CSA B137.ll 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe 


ASTM D 1785; ASTM D 2241 ; ASTM D 2672; CSA Bl 37.3 


Stainless steel pipe (Type 304/304L) 


ASTM A 312; ASTM A 778 


Stainless steel pipe (Type 316/316L) 


ASTM A 312; ASTM A 778 



42 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



TABLE 605.4 
WATER DISTRIBUTION PIPE 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 




Brass pipe 


ASTM B 43 


Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) plastic pipe and tubing 


ASTM D 2846; ASTM F 441; ASTM F 442; CSA B137.6 


Copper or copper-alloy pipe 


ASTM B 42; ASTM B 302 




Copper or copper-alloy tubing (Type K, WK, L, WL, M or WM) 


ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; ASTM B 251 ; ASTM B 447 




Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plastic tubing 


ASTM F 876; ASTM F 877; CSA B 137.5 





Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/cross-linked polyethylene 
(PEX-AL-PEX) pipe 


ASTM F 1281; ASTM F 2262; CSA Bl 37.10M 


Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/high-density polyethylene 
(PEX-AL-HDPE) 


ASTM F 1986 


Ductile iron pipe 


AWWAC151/A21.51;AWWACU5/A21.15 


Galvanized steel pipe 


ASTM A 53 


Polyethylene/aluminum/polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) composite pipe 


ASTM F 1282 ] 


Polyethylene of raised temperature (PE-RT) plastic tubing 


ASTM F 2769 


Polypropylene (PP) plastic pipe or tubing 


ASTM F 2389; CSAB137.il 


Stainless steel pipe (Type 304/304L) 


ASTM A 312; ASTM A 778 


Stainless steel pipe (Type 316/31 6L) 


ASTM A 3 12; ASTM A 778 



TABLE 605.5 
PIPE FITTINGS 



MATERIAL 



Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic 



Cast-iron 



Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) plastic 



Copper or copper alloy 



Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/high-density polyethylene 
(PEX-AL-HDPE) 



Fittings for cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plastic tubing 



Fittings for polyethylene of raised temperature (PE-RT) plastic tubing 



Gray iron and ductile iron 



STANDARD 



ASTM D 2468 



ASMEB16.4; ASMEB16.12 



ASSE 1061; ASTM D 2846; ASTM F 437; ASTM F 438; 
ASTM F 439; CSA B 137.6 



ASSE 1061; ASME B16.15; ASME B16.U 
ASME B16.23; ASME B16.26; ASME B16.29 



ASME B 16.22; 



ASTM F 1986 



ASSE 1061, ASTM F 877; ASTM F 1807; ASTM F 1960; ASTM F 
2080; ASTM F 2098, ASTM F 2159; ASTM F 2434; ASTM F 
2735; CSA B 137.5 



ASTM F 1807; ASTM F 2098; ASTM F 2159; ASTM F 2735 



Insert fittings for polyethylene/aluminum/polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) and 
cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/cross-linked polyethylene 
(PEX-AL-PEX) 



Malleable iron 



Metal (brass) insert fittings for 
polyethylene/aluminum/polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) and cross-linked 
polyethylene/aluminum/cross-linked polyethylene (PEX-AL-PEX) 



Polyethylene (PE) plastic pipe 



Polypropylene (PP) plastic pipe or tubing 



Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic 



Stainless steel (Type 304/304L) 



Stainless steel (Type 3 16/31 6L) 



Steel 



AWWAC110/A21.10;AWWAC153/A21.53 



ASTM F 1974; ASTM F 1281; ASTM F 1282; CSA B137.9; 
CSAB137.10M 



ASME B 16.3 



ASTM F 1974 



ASTM D 2609; ASTM D 2683; ASTM D 3261 ; 
ASTM F 1055; CSA B 137.1 



ASTM F 2389; CSA B137.il 



ASTM D 2464; ASTM D 2466; ASTM D 2467; CSA B 137.2; 
CSA B 137.3 



ASTM A 312; ASTM A 778 



ASTM A 312; ASTM A 778 



ASME B 16.9; ASMEB16.il; ASME Bl 6.28 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



43 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



TABLE 605.8 
MANUFACTURED PIPE NIPPLES 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Brass-, copper-, chromium-plated 


ASTM B 687 


Steel 


ASTM A 733 



605.9 Prohibited joints and connections. The following 
types of joints and connections shall be prohibited: 

1 . Cement or concrete joints. 

2. Joints made with fittings not approved for the specific 
installation. 

3. Solvent-cement joints between different types of plastic 
pipe. 

4. Saddle-type fittings. 

605.10 ABS plastic. Joints between ABS plastic pipe or fit- 
tings shall comply with Sections 605.10.1 through 605.10.3. 

605.10.1 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints on water 
pipes shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming 
to ASTM D 3139. Mechanical joints shall only be 
installed in underground systems, unless otherwise 
approved. Joints shall be installed only in accordance with 
the manufacturer's instructions. 

605.10.2 Solvent cementing. Joint surfaces shall be clean 
and free from moisture. Solvent cement that conforms to 
ASTM D 2235 shall be applied to all joint surfaces. The 
joint shall be made while the cement is wet. Joints shall be 
made in accordance with ASTM D 2235. Solvent-cement 
joints shall be permitted above or below ground. 

605.10.3 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to 
ASME B 1.20.1. Schedule 80 or heavier pipe shall be per- 
mitted to be threaded with dies specifically designed for 
plastic pipe. Approved thread lubricant or tape shall be 
applied on the male threads only. 

605.11 Asbestos-cement. Joints between asbestos-cement 
pipe or fittings shall be made with a sleeve coupling of the 
same composition as the pipe, sealed with an elastomeric ring 
conforming to ASTM D 1 869. 

605.12 Brass. Joints between brass pipe and fittings shall 
comply with Sections 605.12.1 through 605.12.4. 

605.12.1 Brazed joints. All joint surfaces shall be 
cleaned. An approved flux shall be applied where 
required. The joint shall be brazed with a filler metal con- 
forming to AWS A5. 8. 

605.12.2 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 

605.12.3 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to 
ASME B 1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be 
applied on the male threads only. 

605.12.4 Welded joints. All joint surfaces shall be 
cleaned. The joint shall be welded with an approved filler 
metal. 

605.13 Gray iron and ductile iron joints. Joints for gray 
and ductile iron pipe and fittings shall comply with AWWA 



CI 1 1 and shall be installed in accordance with the manufac- 
turer's instructions. 

605.14 Copper pipe. Joints between copper or copper-alloy 
pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections 605.14.1 through 
605.14.5. 

605.14.1 Brazed joints. All joint surfaces shall be 
cleaned. An approved flux shall be applied where 
required. The joint shall be brazed with a filler metal con- 
forming to AWS A5.8. 

605.14.2 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 

605.14.3 Soldered joints. Solder joints shall be made in 
accordance with the methods of ASTM B 828. Cut tube 
ends shall be reamed to the full inside diameter of the tube 
end. Joint surfaces shall be cleaned. A flux conforming to 
ASTM B 813 shall be applied. The joint shall be soldered 
with a solder conforming to ASTM B 32. The joining of 
water supply piping shall be made with lead-free solder 
and fluxes. "Lead free" shall mean a chemical composi- 
tion equal to or less than 0.2-percent lead. 

605.14.4 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to 
ASME B 1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be 
applied on the male threads only. 

605.14.5 Welded joints. Joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
The joint shall be welded with an approved filler metal. 

605.15 Copper tubing. Joints between copper or copper- 
alloy tubing or fittings shall comply with Sections 605.15.1 
through 605.15.4. 

605.15.1 Brazed joints. Joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
An approved flux shall be applied where required. The 
joint shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to 
AWS A5.8. 

605.15.2 Flared joints. Flared joints for water pipe shall 
be made by a tool designed for that operation. 

605.15.3 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 

605.15.4 Soldered joints. Solder joints shall be made in 
accordance with the methods of ASTM B 828. All cut tube 
ends shall be reamed to the full inside diameter of the tube 
end. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. A flux conforming 
to ASTM B 813 shall be applied. The joint shall be sol- 
dered with a solder conforming to ASTM B 32. The join- 
ing of water supply piping shall be made with lead-free 
solders and fluxes. "Lead free" shall mean a chemical 
composition equal to or less than 0.2-percent lead. 

605.16 CPVC plastic. Joints between CPVC plastic pipe or 
fittings shall comply with Sections 605.16.1 through 
605.16.3. 

605.16.1 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 

605.16.2 Solvent cementing. Joint surfaces shall be clean 
and free from moisture, and an approved primer shall be 



44 



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WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



applied. Solvent cement, orange in color and conforming 
to ASTM F 493, shall be applied to joint surfaces. The 
joint shall be made while the cement is wet, and in accor- 
dance with ASTM D 2846 or ASTM F 493. Solvent- 
cement joints shall be permitted above or below ground. 

Exception: A primer is not required where all of the 
following conditions apply: 

1. The solvent cement used is third-party certified 
as conforming to ASTM F 493. 

2. The solvent cement used is yellow in color. 

3. The solvent cement is used only for joining '/ 2 
inch (12.7 mm) through 2 inch (51 mm) diameter 
CPVC pipe and fittings. 

4. The CPVC pipe and fittings are manufactured in 
accordance with ASTM D 2846. 

605.16.3 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to 
ASME B 1.20.1. Schedule 80 or heavier pipe shall be per- 
mitted to be threaded with dies specifically designed for 
plastic pipe, but the pressure rating of the pipe shall be 
reduced by 50 percent. Thread by socket molded fittings 
shall be permitted. Approved thread lubricant or tape shall 
be applied on the male threads only. 

605.17 Cross-linked polyethylene plastic. Joints between 
cross-linked polyethylene plastic tubing or fittings shall com- 
ply with Sections 605.17.1 and 605.17.2. 

605.17.1 Flared joints. Flared pipe ends shall be made by 
a tool designed for that operation. 

605.17.2 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. Fittings for cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plastic 
tubing shall comply with the applicable standards listed in 
Table 605.5 and shall be installed in accordance with the 
manufacturer's instructions. PEX tubing shall be factory 
marked with the appropriate standards for the fittings that 
the PEX manufacturer specifies for use with the tubing. 

605.18 Steel. Joints between galvanized steel pipe or fittings 
shall comply with Sections 605.18.1 and 605.18.2. 

605.18.1 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to 
ASME B 1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be 
applied on the male threads only. 

605.18.2 Mechanical joints. Joints shall be made with an 
approved elastomeric seal. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 

605.19 Polyethylene plastic. Joints between polyethylene 
plastic pipe and tubing or fittings shall comply with Sections 
605.19.1 through 605.19.4. 

605.19.1 Flared joints. Flared joints shall be permitted 
where so indicated by the pipe manufacturer. Flared joints 
shall be made by a tool designed for that operation. 

605.19.2 Heat-fusion joints. Joint surfaces shall be clean 
and free from moisture. All joint surfaces shall be heated 
to melt temperature and joined. The joint shall be undis- 
turbed until cool. Joints shall be made in accordance with 
ASTM D 2657. 



605.19.3 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 

605.19.4 Installation. Polyethylene pipe shall be cut 
square, with a cutter designed for plastic pipe. Except 
where joined by heat fusion, pipe ends shall be chamfered 
to remove shaip edges. Kinked pipe shall not be installed. 
The minimum pipe bending radius shall not be less than 
30 pipe diameters, or the minimum coil radius, whichever 
is greater. Piping shall not be bent beyond straightening of 
the curvature of the coil. Bends shall not be permitted 
within 10 pipe diameters of any fitting or valve. Stiffener 
inserts installed with compression-type couplings and fit- 
tings shall not extend beyond the clamp or nut of the cou- 
pling or fitting. 

605.20 Polypropylene (PP) plastic. Joints between PP plas- 
tic pipe and fittings shall comply with Section 605.20.1 or 
605.20.2. 

605.20.1 Heat-fusion joints. Heat-fusion joints for poly- 
propylene pipe and tubing joints shall be installed with 
socket-type heat-fused polypropylene fittings, butt-fusion 
polypropylene fittings or electrofusion polypropylene fit- 
tings. Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. 
The joint shall be undisturbed until cool. Joints shall be 
made in accordance with ASTM F 2389. 

605.20.2 Mechanical and compression sleeve joints. 
Mechanical and compression sleeve joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 

605.21 Polyethylene/aluminum/polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) 
and cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/cross-linked 
polyethylene (PEX-AL-PEX). Joints between PE-AL-PE 
and PEX-AL-PEX pipe and fittings shall comply with Sec- 
tion 605.21.1. 

605.21.1 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. Fittings for PE-AL-PE and PEX-AL-PEX as 
described in ASTM F 1974, ASTM F 1281, ASTM F 
1282, CSA B137.9 and CSA B137.10M shall be installed 
in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

605.22 PVC plastic. Joints between PVC plastic pipe or fit- 
tings shall comply with Sections 605.22.1 through 605.22.3. 

605.22.1 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints on water 
pipe shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to 
ASTM D 3139. Mechanical joints shall not be installed in 
above-ground systems unless otherwise approved. Joints 
shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's 
instructions. 

605.22.2 Solvent cementing. Joint surfaces shall be clean 
and free from moisture. A purple primer that conforms to 
ASTM F 656 shall be applied. Solvent cement not purple 
in color and conforming to ASTM D 2564 or CSA B 137.3 
shall be applied to all joint surfaces. The joint shall be 
made while the cement is wet and shall be in accordance 
with ASTM D 2855. Solvent-cement joints shall be per- 
mitted above or below ground. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



45 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



605.22.3 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to 
ASME B 1.20.1. Schedule 80 or heavier pipe shall be per- 
mitted to be threaded with dies specifically designed for 
plastic pipe, but the pressure rating of the pipe shall be 
reduced by 50 percent. Thread by socket molded fittings 
shall be permitted. Approved thread lubricant or tape shall 
be applied on the male threads only. 

605.23 Stainless steel. Joints between stainless steel pipe and 
fittings shall comply with Sections 605.23.1 and 605.23.2. 

605.23.1 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 

605.23.2 Welded joints. All joint surfaces shall be 
cleaned. The joint shall be welded autogenously or with an 
approved filler metal as referenced in ASTM A 312. 

605.24 Joints between different materials. Joints between 
different piping materials shall be made with a mechanical 
joint of the compression or mechanical-sealing type, or as 
permitted in Sections 605.24.1, 605.24.2 and 605.24.3. Con- 
nectors or adapters shall have an elastomeric seal conforming 
to ASTM D 1 869 or ASTM F 477. Joints shall be installed in 
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

605.24.1 Copper or copper-alloy tubing to galvanized 
steel pipe. Joints between copper or copper-alloy tubing 
and galvanized steel pipe shall be made with a brass fitting 
or dielectric fitting or a dielectric union conforming to 
ASSE 1079. The copper tubing shall be soldered to the fit- 
ting in an approved manner, and the fitting shall be 
screwed to the threaded pipe. 

605.24.2 Plastic pipe or tubing to other piping material. 
Joints between different grades of plastic pipe or between 
plastic pipe and other piping material shall be made with 
an approved adapter fitting. 

605.24.3 Stainless steel. Joints between stainless steel and 
different piping materials shall be made with a mechanical 
joint of the compression or mechanical sealing type or a 
dielectric fitting or a dielectric union conforming to ASSE 
1079. 

605.25 Polyethylene of raised temperature plastic. Joints 
between polyethylene of raised temperature plastic tubing 
and fittings shall be in accordance with Sections 605.25. 1 and 
605.25.2. 

605.25.1 Flared joints. Flared pipe ends shall be made by 
a tool designed for that operation. 

605.25.2 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. Fittings for polyethylene of raised temperature plas- 
tic tubing shall comply with the applicable standards listed 
in Table 605.5 and shall be installed in accordance with 
the manufacturer's instructions. Polyethylene of raised 
temperature plastic tubing shall be factory marked with the 
applicable standards for the fittings that the manufacturer 
of the tubing specifies for use with the tubing. 



SECTION 606 

INSTALLATION OF THE BUILDING WATER 

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM 

606.1 Location of full-open valves. Full-open valves shall 
be installed in the following locations: 

1. On the building water service pipe from the public 
water supply near the curb. 

2. On the water distribution supply pipe at the entrance 
into the structure. 

3. On the discharge side of every water meter. 

4. On the base of every water riser pipe in occupancies 
other than multiple-family residential occupancies that 
are two stories or less in height and in one- and two- 
family residential occupancies. 

5. On the top of every water down-feed pipe in occupan- 
cies other than one- and two-family residential occu- 
pancies. 

6. On the entrance to every water supply pipe to a dwell- 
ing unit, except where supplying a single fixture 
equipped with individual stops. 

7. On the water supply pipe to a gravity or pressurized 
water tank. 

8. On the water supply pipe to every water heater. 

606.2 Location of shutoff valves. Shutoff valves shall be 
installed in the following locations: 

1. On the fixture supply to each plumbing fixture other 
than bathtubs and showers in one- and two-family resi- 
dential occupancies, and other than in individual sleep- 
ing units that are provided with unit shutoff valves in 
hotels, motels, boarding houses and similar occupan- 
cies. 

2. On the water supply pipe to each sillcock. 

3. On the water supply pipe to each appliance or mechani- 
cal equipment. 

606.3 Access to valves. Access shall be provided to all full- 
open valves and shutoff valves. 

606.4 Valve identification. Service and hose bibb valves 
shall be identified. All other valves installed in locations that 
are not adjacent to the fixture or appliance shall be identified, 
indicating the fixture or appliance served. 

606.5 Water pressure booster systems. Water pressure 
booster systems shall be provided as required by Sections 
606.5.1 through 606.5. 10. 

606.5.1 Water pressure booster systems required. 
Where the water pressure in the public water main or indi- 
vidual water supply system is insufficient to supply the 
minimum pressures and quantities specified in this code, 
the supply shall be supplemented by an elevated water 
tank, a hydropneumatic pressure booster system or a water 
pressure booster pump installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 606.5.5. 

606.5.2 Support. All water supply tanks shall be sup- 
ported in accordance with the International Building 
Code. 



46 



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606.5.3 Covers. All water supply tanks shall be covered to 
keep out unauthorized persons, dirt and vermin. The cov- 
ers of gravity tanks shall be vented with a return bend vent 
pipe with an area not less than the area of the down-feed 
riser pipe, and the vent shall be screened with a corrosion- 
resistant screen of not less than 16 by 20 mesh per inch 
(630 by 787 mesh per m). 

606.5.4 Overflows for water supply tanks. A gravity or 
suction water supply tank shall be provided with an over- 
flow with a diameter not less than that shown in Table 
606.5.4. The overflow outlet shall discharge at a point not 
less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the roof or roof drain; 
floor or floor drain; or over an open water-supplied fix- 
ture. The overflow outlet shall be covered with a corro- 
sion-resistant screen of not less than 16 by 20 mesh per 
inch (630 by 787 mesh per m) and by V 4 -inch (6.4 mm) 
hardware cloth or shall terminate in a horizontal angle seat 
check valve. Drainage from overflow pipes shall be 
directed so as not to freeze on roof walks. 

TABLE 606.5.4 
SIZES FOR OVERFLOW PIPES FOR WATER SUPPLY TANKS 



TABLE 606.5.7 
SIZE OF DRAIN PIPES FOR WATER TANKS 



MAXIMUM CAPACITY OF WATER 
SUPPLY LINE TO TANK (gpm) 


DIAMETER OF OVERFLOW PIPE 
(inches) 


0-50 


2 


50-150 


2V 2 


150-200 


3 


200-400 


4 


400 - 700 


5 


700-1,000 


6 


Over 1,000 


8 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m. 

606.5.5 Low-pressure cutoff required on booster 
pumps. A low-pressure cutoff shall be installed on all 
booster pumps in a water pressure booster system to pre- 
vent creation of a vacuum or negative pressure on the suc- 
tion side of the pump when a positive pressure of 10 psi 
(68.94 kPa) or less occurs on the suction side of the pump. 

606.5.6 Potable water inlet control and location. Pota- 
ble water inlets to gravity tanks shall be controlled by a fill 
valve or other automatic supply valve installed so as to 
prevent the tank from overflowing. The inlet shall be ter- 
minated so as to provide an air gap not less than 4 inches 
(102 mm) above the overflow. 

606.5.7 Tank drain pipes. A valved pipe shall be pro- 
vided at the lowest point of each tank to permit emptying 
of the tank. The tank drain pipe shall discharge as required 
for overflow pipes and shall not be smaller in size than 
specified in Table 606.5.7. 



TANK CAPACITY (gallons) 


DRAIN PIPE (inches) 


Up to 750 


1 


751 to 1,500 


l'/ 2 


1,501 to 3,000 


2 


3,001 to 5,000 


2V 2 


5,000 to 7,500 


3 


Over 7,500 


4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, I gallon = 3.785 L. 

606.5.8 Prohibited location of potable supply tanks. 

Potable water gravity tanks or manholes of potable water 
pressure tanks shall not be located directly under any soil 
or waste piping or any source of contamination. 

606.5.9 Pressure tanks, vacuum relief. All water pres- 
sure tanks shall be provided with a vacuum relief valve at 
the top of the tank that will operate up to a maximum 
water pressure of 200 psi (1380 kPa) and up to a maxi- 
mum temperature of 200°F (93°C). The size of such vac- 
uum relief valve shall be not less than 7 2 inch (12.7 mm). 

Exception: This section shall not apply to pressurized 
captive air diaphragm/bladder tanks. 

606.5.10 Pressure relief for tanks. Every pressure tank in 
a hydropneumatic pressure booster system shall be pro- 
tected with a pressure relief valve. The pressure relief 
valve shall be set at a maximum pressure equal to the rat- 
ing of the tank. The relief valve shall be installed on the 
supply pipe to the tank or on the tank. The relief valve 
shall discharge by gravity to a safe place of disposal. 

606.6 Water supply system test. Upon completion of a sec- 
tion of or the entire water supply system, the system, or por- 
tion completed, shall be tested in accordance with Section 
312. 

606.7 Labeling of water distribution pipes in bundles. 
Where water distribution piping is bundled at installation, 
each pipe in the bundle shall be indentified using stenciling or 
commercially available pipe labels. The identification shall 
indicate the pipe contents and the direction of flow in the 
pipe. The interval of the identification markings on the pipe 
shall not exceed 25 feet (7620 mm). There shall be not less 
than one identification label on each pipe in each room, space 
or story. 



SECTION 607 
HOT WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM 

607.1 Where required. In residential occupancies, hot water 
shall be supplied to plumbing fixtures and equipment utilized 
for bathing, washing, culinary purposes, cleansing, laundry or 
building maintenance. In nonresidential occupancies, hot 
water shall be supplied for culinary purposes, cleansing, 
laundry or building maintenance purposes. In nonresidential 
occupancies, hot water or tempered water shall be supplied 
for bathing and washing purposes. 

607.1.1 Temperature limiting means. A thermostat con- 
trol for a water heater shall not serve as the temperature 



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47 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



limiting means for the purposes of complying with the 
requirements of this code for maximum allowable hot or 
tempered water delivery temperature at fixtures. 

607.1.2 Tempered water temperature control. Tem- 
pered water shall be supplied through a water temperature 
limiting device that conforms to ASSE 1070 and shall 
limit the tempered water to a maximum of 110°F (43°C). 
This provision shall not supersede the requirement for pro- 
tective shower valves in accordance with Section 424.3. 

607.2 Hot or tempered water supply to fixtures. The devel- 
oped length of hot or tempered water piping, from the source 
of hot water to the fixtures that require hot or tempered water, 
shall not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm). Recirculating system 
piping and heat-traced piping shall be considered to be 
sources of hot or tempered water. 

[E] 607.2.1 Hot water system controls. Automatic circu- 
lating hot water system pumps or heat trace shall be 
arranged to be conveniently turned off, automatically or 
manually, when the hot water system is not in operation. 

607.2.2 Recirculating pump. Where a thermostatic mix- 
ing valve is used in a system with a hot water recirculating 
pump, the hot water or tempered water return line shall be 
routed to the cold water inlet pipe of the water heater and 
the cold water inlet pipe or the hot water return connection 
of the thermostatic mixing valve. 

607.3 Thermal expansion control. A means of controlling 
increased pressure caused by thermal expansion shall be pro- 
vided where required in accordance with Sections 607.3.1 
and 607.3.2. 

607.3.1 Pressure-reducing valve. For water service sys- 
tem sizes up to and including 2 inches (51 mm), a device 
for controlling pressure shall be installed where, because 
of thermal expansion, the pressure on the downstream side 
of a pressure-reducing valve exceeds the pressure-reduc- 
ing valve setting. 

607.3.2 Backflow prevention device or check valve. 
Where a backflow prevention device, check valve or other 
device is installed on a water supply system utilizing stor- 
age water heating equipment such that thermal expansion 
causes an increase in pressure, a device for controlling 
pressure shall be installed. 

607.4 Flow of hot water to fixtures. Fixture fittings, faucets 
and diverters shall be installed and adjusted so that the flow 
of hot water from the fittings corresponds to the left-hand 
side of the fixture fitting. 

Exception: Shower and tub/shower mixing valves con- 
forming to ASSE 1016 or ASME A112.18.1/CSA B125.1, 
where the flow of hot water corresponds to the markings 
on the device. 

[E] 607.5 Pipe insulation. Hot water piping in automatic 
temperature maintenance systems shall be insulated with 1 
inch (25 mm) of insulation having a conductivity not exceed- 
ing 0.27 Btu per inch/h • ft 2 » °F (1.53 W per 25 mm/m 2 • 
K). The first 8 feet (2438 mm) of hot water piping from a hot 
water source that does not have heat traps shall be insulated 
with 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) of material having a conductivity not 



exceeding 0.27 Btu per inch/h • ft 2 » °F (1.53 W per 25 mm/ 
m 2 .K). 



1 



SECTION 608 
PROTECTION OF POTABLE WATER SUPPLY 

608.1 General. A potable water supply system shall be 
designed, installed and maintained in such a manner so as to 
prevent contamination from nonpotable liquids, solids or 
gases being introduced into the potable water supply through 
cross-connections or any other piping connections to the sys- 
tem. Backflow preventer applications shall conform to Table 
608.1, except as specifically stated in Sections 608.2 through 
608.16.10. 

608.2 Plumbing fixtures. The supply lines and fittings for 
plumbing fixtures shall be installed so as to prevent backflow. 
Plumbing fixture fittings shall provide backflow protection in 
accordance with ASME All 2. 18.1/CSAB 125.1. | 

608.3 Devices, appurtenances, appliances and apparatus. 
Devices, appurtenances, appliances and apparatus intended to 
serve some special function, such as sterilization, distillation, 
processing, cooling, or storage of ice or foods, and that con- 
nect to the water supply system, shall be provided with pro- 
tection against backflow and contamination of the water 
supply system. Water pumps, filters, softeners, tanks and 
other appliances and devices that handle or treat potable 
water shall be protected against contamination. 

608.3.1 Special equipment, water supply protection. 

The water supply for hospital fixtures shall be protected 
against backflow with a reduced pressure principle back- 1 
flow prevention assembly, an atmospheric or spill-resis- I 
tant vacuum breaker assembly, or an air gap. Vacuum | 
breakers for bedpan washer hoses shall not be located less 
than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor. Vacuum breakers 
for hose connections in health care or laboratory areas 
shall not be less than 6 feet (1 829 mm) above the floor. 

608.4 Water service piping. Water service piping shall be 
protected in accordance with Sections 603.2 and 603.2.1. 

608.5 Chemicals and other substances. Chemicals and 
other substances that produce either toxic conditions, taste, 
odor or discoloration in a potable water system shall not be 
introduced into, or utilized in, such systems. 

608.6 Cross-connection control. Cross connections shall be 
prohibited, except where approved methods are installed to I 
protect the potable water supply. § 

608.6.1 Private water supplies. Cross connections 
between a private water supply and a potable public sup- 
ply shall be prohibited. 

608.7 Valves and outlets prohibited below grade. Potable 
water outlets and combination stop-and-waste valves shall 
not be installed underground or below grade. Freezeproof 
yard hydrants that drain the riser into the ground are consid- 
ered to be stop-and-waste valves. 

Exception: Freezeproof yard hydrants that drain the riser 
into the ground shall be permitted to be installed, provided 
that the potable water supply to such hydrants is protected 
upstream of the hydrants in accordance with Section 608 



48 



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WATER SUPPLY AMD DISTRIBUTION 



and the hydrants are permanently identified as nonpotable 
outlets by approved signage that reads as follows: "Cau- 
tion, Nonpotable Water. Do Not Drink." 

608.8 Identification of nonpotable water. Where nonpota- 
ble water systems are installed, the piping conveying the non- 
potable water shall be identified either by color marking or 
metal tags in accordance with Sections 608.8.1 through 
608.8.3. All nonpotable water outlets such as hose connec- 
tions, open ended pipes, and faucets shall be identified at the 
point of use for each outlet with the words, "Nonpotable — not 
safe for drinking." The words shall be indelibly printed on a 
tag or sign constructed of corrosion-resistant waterproof 
material or shall be indelibly printed on the fixture. The let- 
ters of the words shall be not less than 0.5 inches (12.7 mm) 
in height and in colors in contrast to the background on which 
they are applied. 

608.8.1 Information. Pipe identification shall include the 
contents of the piping system and an arrow indicating the 
direction of flow. Hazardous piping systems shall also 
contain information addressing the nature of the hazard. 
Pipe identification shall be repeated at intervals not 
exceeding 25 feet (7620 mm) and at each point where the 
piping passes through a wall, floor or roof. Lettering shall 
be readily observable within the room or space where the 
piping is located. 

608.8.2 Color. The color of the pipe identification shall be 
discernable and consistent throughout the building. The 
color purple shall be used to identify reclaimed, rain and 
gray water distribution systems. 

608.8.3 Size. The size of the background color field and 
lettering shall comply with Table 608.8.3. 

TABLE 608.8.3 
SIZE OF PIPE IDENTIFICATION 



PIPE DIAMETER 
(inches) 


LENGTH BACKGROUND 

COLOR FIELD 

(inches) 


SIZE OF LETTERS 
(inches) 


V 4 tol7 4 


8 


0.5 


1 7, to 2 


8 


0.75 


27 2 to 6 


12 


1.25 


8 to 10 


24 


2.5 


over 10 


32 


3.5 



For SI 1 inch =25.4 mm. 

608.9 Reutilization prohibited. Water utilized for the cool- 
ing of equipment or other processes shall not be returned to 
the potable water system. Such water shall be discharged into 
a drainage system through an air gap or shall be utilized for 
nonpotable purposes. 

608.10 Reuse of piping. Piping that has been utilized for any 
purpose other than conveying potable water shall not be uti- 
lized for conveying potable water. 

608.11 Fainting of water tanks. The interior surface of a 
potable water tank shall not be lined, painted or repaired with 
any material that changes the taste, odor, color or potability 
of the water supply when the tank is placed in, or returned to, 
service. 



608.12 Pumps and other appliances. Water pumps, filters, 
softeners, tanks and other devices that handle or treat potable 
water shall be protected against contamination. 

608.13 Backflow protection. Means of protection against 
backflow shall be provided in accordance with Sections 
608.13.1 through 608.13.9. 

608.13.1 Air gap. The minimum required air gap shall be 
measured vertically from the lowest end of a potable water 
outlet to the flood level rim of the fixture or receptacle into 
which such potable water outlet discharges. Air gaps shall 
comply with ASME Al 12.1.2 and air gap fittings shall 
comply with ASME A112.1.3. 

608.13.2 Reduced pressure principle backflow preven- 
tion assemblies Reduced pressure principle backflow pre- 
vention assemblies shall conform to ASSE 1013, AWWA 
C511, CSA B64.4 or CSA B64.4.1. Reduced pressure 
detector assembly backflow preventers shall conform to 
ASSE 1047. These devices shall be permitted to be 
installed where subject to continuous pressure conditions. 
The relief opening shall discharge by air gap and shall be 
prevented from being submerged. 

608.13.3 Backflow preventer with intermediate atmo- 
spheric vent. Backflow preventers with intermediate 
atmospheric vents shall conform to ASSE 1012 or CSA 
B64.3. These devices shall be permitted to be installed 
where subject to continuous pressure conditions. The 
relief opening shall discharge by air gap and shall be pre- 
vented from being submerged. 

608.13.4 Barometric loop. Barometric loops shall pre- 
cede the point of connection and shall extend vertically to 
a height of 35 feet (10 668 mm). A barometric loop shall 
only be utilized as an atmospheric-type or pressure-type 
vacuum breaker. 

608.13.5 Pressure vacuum breaker assemblies. Pressure 
vacuum breaker assemblies shall conform to ASSE 1020 
or CSA B64.1.2. Spill-resistant vacuum breaker assem- 
blies shall comply with ASSE 1056. These assemblies are 
designed for installation under continuous pressure condi- 
tions where the critical level is installed at the required 
height. Pressure vacuum breaker assemblies shall not be 
installed in locations where spillage could cause damage 
to the structure. 

608.13.6 Atmospheric-type vacuum breakers. Pipe- 
applied atmospheric-type vacuum breakers shall conform 
to ASSE 1001 or CSA B64.1.1. Hose connection vacuum 
breakers shall conform to ASSE 101 1 , ASSE 1019, ASSE 
1035, ASSE 1052, CSA B64.2, CSA B64.2.1, CSA 
B64.2.1.1, CSA B64.2.2 or CSA B64.7. These devices 
shall operate under normal atmospheric pressure when the 
critical level is installed at the required height. 

608.13.7 Double check-valve assemblies. Double check- 
valve assemblies shall conform to ASSE 1015, CSA 
B64.5, CSA B64.5.1 or AWWA C510. Double-detector 
check-valve assemblies shall conform to ASSE 1048. 
These devices shall be capable of operating under continu- 
ous pressure conditions. 



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TABLE 608.1 
APPLICATION OF BACKFLOW PREVENTERS 



DEVICE 


DEGREE OF HAZARD 8 


APPLICATION" 


APPLICABLE STANDARDS 


Air gap 


High or low hazard 


Backsiphonage or backpressure 


ASMEA1 12.1.2 


Air gap fittings for use with plumbing 
fixtures, appliances and appurtenances 


High or low hazard 


Backsiphonage or backpressure 


ASMEA1 12.1.3 


Antisiphon-type fill valves for gravity 
water closet flush tanks 


High hazard 


Backsiphonage only 


ASSE 1002, CSA Bl 25.3 


Backflow preventer for carbonated 
beverage machines 


Low hazard 


Backpressure or backsiphonage 
Sizes '/"-%" 


ASSE1022 


Backflow preventer with intermediate 
atmospheric vents 


Low hazard 


Backpressure or backsiphonage 
Sizes 7 4 "-7 4 " 


ASSE 1012, CSAB64.3 


Barometric loop 


High or low hazard 


Backsiphonage only 


(See Section 608.13.4) 


Double check backflow prevention 
assembly and double check fire 
protection backflow prevention assembly 


Low hazard 


Backpressure or backsiphonage 
Sizes 7/-16" 


ASSE 1015, AWWA C510, 
CSAB64.5, CSAB64.5.1 


Double check detector fire protection 
backflow prevention assemblies 


Low hazard 


Backpressure or backsiphonage 
(Fire sprinkler systems) 
Sizes2"-16" 


ASSE 1048 


Dual-check-valve-type backflow preventer 


Low hazard 


Backpressure or backsiphonage 
Sizes '//'-) " 


ASSE 1024, CSA B64.6 


Hose connection backflow preventer 


High or low hazard 


Low head backpressure, rated 
working pressure, 
backpressure 
or backsiphonage Sizes V/'-l" 


ASSE 1052, CSAB64.2.1.1 


Hose connection vacuum breaker 


High or low hazard 


Low head backpressure or 
backsiphonage 
Sizes '//', V 4 ", 1" 


ASSE 1011, CSA B64.2, CSA 

B64.2.1 


Laboratory faucet backflow preventer 


High or low hazard 


Low head backpressure and 
backsiphonage 


ASSE 1035, CSA B64.7 


Pipe-applied atmospheric -type vacuum 
breaker 


High or low hazard 


Backsiphonage only 
Sizes V 4 "-4" 


ASSE 1001, CSA B64. 1.1 


Pressure vacuum breaker assembly 


High or low hazard 


Backsiphonage only 
Sizes V/-2" 


ASSE 1020, CSA B64. 1.2 


Reduced pressure principle backflow 

prevention assembly and reduced pressure 
principle fire protection backflow prevention 
assembly 


High or low hazard 


Backpressure or backsiphonage 
Sizes 3 / 8 "-16" 


ASSE 1013, AWWA C511, 
CSA B64.4, CSA B64.4. 1 


Reduced pressure detector fire protection 
backflow prevention assemblies 


High or low hazard 


Backsiphonage or backpressure 
(Fire sprinkler systems) 


ASSE 1047 


Spill-resistant vacuum breaker assembly 


High or low hazard 


Backsiphonage only 
Sizes V-2" 


ASSE 1056 


Vacuum breaker wall hydrants, 
frost-resistant, automatic draining type 


High or low hazard 


Low head backpressure or 
backsiphonage 
Sizes 3 //', 1" 


ASSE 1019, CSA B64.2.2 

— 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm 

a. Low hazard — See Pollution (Section 202). 
High hazard — See Contamination (Section 202) 

b. See Backpressure (Section 202). 

See Backpressure, low head (Section 202). 
See Backsiphonage (Section 202). 



50 



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608.13.8 Spill-resistant pressure vacuum breaker 
assemblies. Spill-resistant pressure vacuum breaker 
assemblies shall conform to ASSE 1056 or CSA B64.1.3. 
These assemblies are designed for installation under con- 
tinuous-pressure conditions where the critical level is 
installed at the required height. 

608.13.9 Chemical dispenser backflow devices. Back- 
flow devices for chemical dispensers shall comply with 
ASSE 1055 or shall be equipped with an air gap fitting. 

608.14 Location of backflow preventers. Access shall be 
provided to backflow preventers as specified by the manufac- 
turer's instructions. 

608.14.1 Outdoor enclosures for backflow prevention 
devices. Outdoor enclosures for backflow prevention 
devices shall comply with ASSE 1060. 

608.14.2 Protection of backflow preventers. Backflow 
preventers shall not be located in areas subject to freezing 
except where they can be removed by means of unions or 
are protected from freezing by heat, insulation or both. 

608.14.2.1 Relief port piping. The termination of the 
piping from the relief port or air gap fitting of a back- 
flow preventer shall discharge to an approved indirect 
waste receptor or to the outdoors where it will not cause 
damage or create a nuisance. 

608.15 Protection of potable water outlets. All potable 
water openings and outlets shall be protected against back- 
flow in accordance with Section 608.15.1, 608.15.2, 
608.15.3, 608.15.4, 608.15.4.1 or 608.15.4.2. 

608.15.1 Protection by air gap. Openings and outlets 
shall be protected by an air gap between the opening and 
the fixture flood level rim as specified in Table 608.15.1. 
Openings and outlets equipped for hose connection shall 
be protected by means other than an air gap. 

608.15.2 Protection by reduced pressure principle 
backflow prevention assembly. Openings and outlets 
shall be protected by a reduced pressure principle back- 
flow prevention assembly or a reduced pressure principle 
fire protection backflow prevention assembly on potable 
water supplies. 

608.15.3 Protection by a backflow preventer with inter- 
mediate atmospheric vent. Openings and outlets shall be 
protected by a backflow preventer with an intermediate 
atmospheric vent. 

608.15.4 Protection by a vacuum breaker. Openings and 
outlets shall be protected by atmospheric-type or pressure- 
type vacuum breakers. The critical level of the vacuum 
breaker shall be set not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above 
the. flood level rim of the fixture or device. Fill valves shall 
be set in accordance with Section 425.3.1. Vacuum break- 
ers shall not be installed under exhaust hoods or similar 
locations that will contain toxic fumes or vapors. Pipe- 
applied vacuum breakers shall be installed not less than 6 
inches (152 mm) above the. flood level rim of the fixture, 
receptor or device served. 

608.15.4.1 Deck-mounted and integral vacuum 
breakers. Approved deck-mounted or equipment- 



mounted vacuum breakers and faucets with integral 
atmospheric vacuum breakers or spill-resistant vacuum 1 
breaker assemblies shall be installed in accordance with | 
the manufacturer's instructions and the requirements 
for labeling with the critical level not less than 1 inch 
(25 mm) above the flood level rim. 

608.15.4.2 Hose connections. Sillcocks, hose bibbs, 
wall hydrants and other openings with a hose connec- 
tion shall be protected by an atmospheric-type or pres- 
sure-type vacuum breaker or a permanently attached 
hose connection vacuum breaker. 

Exceptions: 

1. This section shall not apply to water heater 
and boiler drain valves that are provided with 
hose connection threads and that are intended 
only for tank or vessel draining. 

2. This section shall not apply to water supply 
valves intended for connection of clothes 
washing machines where backflow preven- 
tion is otherwise provided or is integral with 
the machine. 

608.16 Connections to the potable water system. Connec- 
tions to the potable water system shall conform to Sections 
608.16.1 through 608.16.10. 

608.16.1 Beverage dispensers. The water supply connec- 
tion to beverage dispensers shall be protected against 
backflow by a backflow preventer conforming to ASSE 
1022 or by an air gap. The portion of the backflow pre- 
venter device downstream from the second check valve 
and the piping downstream therefrom shall not be affected 
by carbon dioxide gas. 

608.16.2 Connections to boilers. The potable supply to 
the boiler shall be equipped with a backflow preventer 
with an intermediate atmospheric vent complying with 
ASSE 1012 or CSA B64.3. Where conditioning chemicals 
are introduced into the system, the potable water connec- 
tion shall be protected by an air gap or a reduced pressure 
principle backflow preventer, complying with ASSE 1013, 
CSA B64.4 or AWWA C5 1 1. 

608.16.3 Heat exchangers. Heat exchangers utilizing an 
essentially toxic transfer fluid shall be separated from the 
potable water by double-wall construction. An air gap 
open to the atmosphere shall be provided between the two 
walls. Heat exchangers utilizing an essentially nontoxic 
transfer fluid shall be permitted to be of single-wall con- 
struction. 

608.16.4 Connections to automatic fire sprinkler sys- 
tems and standpipe systems. The potable water supply to 
automatic fire sprinkler and standpipe systems shall be 
protected against backflow by a double check backflow 
prevention assembly, a double check fire protection back- 
flow prevention assembly or a reduced pressure principle 
fire protection backflow prevention assembly. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where systems are installed as a portion of the 
water distribution system in accordance with the 



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requirements of this code and are not provided 
with a fire department connection, isolation of 
the water supply system shall not be required. 

2. Isolation of the water distribution system is not 
required for deluge, preaction or dry pipe sys- 
tems. 

608.16.4.1 Additives or nonpotable source. Where 
systems under continuous pressure contain chemical 
additives or antifreeze, or where systems are connected 
to a nonpotable secondary water supply, the potable 
water supply shall be protected against backflow by a 
reduced pressure principle backflow prevention assem- 
bly or a reduced pressure principle fire protection back- 
flow prevention assembly. Where chemical additives or 
antifreeze are added to only a portion of an automatic 
fire sprinkler or standpipe system, the reduced pressure 
principle backflow prevention assembly or the reduced 
pressure principle fire protection backflow prevention 
assembly shall be permitted to be located so as to iso- 
late that portion of the system. Where systems are not 
under continuous pressure, the potable water supply 
shall be protected against backflow by an air gap or an 
atmospheric vacuum breaker conforming to ASSE 
1001orCSAB64.1.1. 
608.16.5 Connections to lawn irrigation systems. The 
potable water supply to lawn irrigation systems shall be 
protected against backflow by an atmospheric vacuum 
breaker, a pressure vacuum breaker assembly or a reduced 
pressure principle backflow prevention assembly. Valves 
shall not be installed downstream from an atmospheric 
vacuum breaker. Where chemicals are introduced into the 
system, the potable water supply shall be protected against 
backflow by a reduced pressure principle backflow pre- 
vention assembly. 



608.16.6 Connections subject to backpressure. Where a 
potable water connection is made to a nonpotable line, fix- 
ture, tank, vat, pump or other equipment subject to high- 
hazard back-pressure, the potable water connection shall 
be protected by a reduced pressure principle backflow pre- 
vention assembly. 

608.16.7 Chemical dispensers. Where chemical dispens- 
ers connect to the potable water distribution system, the 
water supply system shall be protected against backflow in 
accordance with Section 608.13.1, 608.13.2, 608.13.5, 
608.13.6, 608.13.8 or 608.13.9. 

608.16.8 Portable cleaning equipment. Where the porta- 
ble cleaning equipment connects to the water distribution 
system, the water supply system shall be protected against 
backflow in accordance with Section 608.13.1, 608.13.2, 
608.13.3, 608.13.7 or 608.13.8. 

608.16.9 Dental pump equipment. Where dental pump- 
ing equipment connects to the water distribution system, 
the water supply system shall be protected against back- 
flow in accordance with Section 608.13.1, 608.13.2, 
608.13.5, 608.13.6 or 608.13.8. 

608.16.10 Coffee machines and noncarbonated bever- 
age dispensers. The water supply connection to coffee 
machines and noncarbonated beverage dispensers shall be 
protected against backflow by a backflow preventer con- 
forming to ASSE 1022 or by an air gap. 

608.17 Protection of individual water supplies. An individ- 
ual water supply shall be located and constructed so as to be 
safeguarded against contamination in accordance with Sec- 
tions 608.17.1 through 608.17.8. 

608.17.1 Well locations. A potable ground water source 
or pump suction line shall not be located closer to poten- 
tial sources of contamination than the distances shown in 
Table 608.17.1. In the event the underlying rock structure 



TABLE 608.15.1 
MINIMUM REQUIRED AIR GAPS 



FIXTURE 


MINIMUM AIR GAP 


Away from a wall" (inches) 


Close to a wall (inches) 


Lavatories and other fixtures with effective opening not greater than 7 2 inch 
in diameter 


1 


17, 


Sink, laundry trays, gooseneck back faucets and other fixtures with effective 
openings not greater than 3 / 4 inch in diameter 


17 2 


27 2 


Over-rim bath fillers and other fixtures with effective openings not greater 
than 1 inch in diameter 


2 


3 


Drinking water fountains, single orifice not greater than 7 /, () inch in diameter 
or multiple orifices with a total area of 0.150 square inch (area of circle 
7 / l6 inch in diameter) 


1 


17 2 


Effective openings greater than 1 inch 


Two times the diameter of the 
effective opening 


Three times the diameter of 
the effective opening 



For SI: 1 inch = 25 .4 ram. 

a. Applicable where walls or obstructions are spaced from the nearest inside-edge of the spout opening a distance greater than three times the diameter of the 
effective opening for a single wall, or a distance greater than four times the diameter of the effective opening for two intersecting walls. 



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is limestone or fragmented shale, the local or state health 
department shall be consulted on well site location. The 
distances in Table 608.17.1 constitute minimum separa- 
tion and shall be increased in areas of creviced rock or 
limestone, or where the direction of movement of the 
ground water is from sources of contamination toward the 
well. 

TABLE 608.17.1 

DISTANCE FROM CONTAMINATION TO 

PRIVATE WATER SUPPLIES AND PUMP SUCTION LINES 



SOURCE OF CONTAMINATION 


DISTANCE (feet) 


Barnyard 


100 


Farm silo 


25 


Pasture 


100 


Pumphouse floor drain of cast iron draining 
to ground surface 


2 


Seepage pits 


50 


Septic tank 


25 


Sewer 


10 


Subsurface disposal fields 


50 


Subsurface pits 


50 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

608.17.2 Elevation. Well sites shall be positively drained 
and shall be at higher elevations than potential sources of 
contamination. 

608.17.3 Depth. Private potable well supplies shall not be 
developed from a water table less than 10 feet (3048 mm) 
below the ground surface. 

608.17.4 Water-tight casings. Each well shall be pro- 
vided with a water-tight casing extending to not less than 
10 feet (3048 mm) below the ground surface. Casings 
shall extend not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the 
well platform. Casings shall be large enough to permit 
installation of a separate drop pipe. Casings shall be sealed 
at the bottom in an impermeable stratum or extend several 
feet into the water bearing stratum. 

608.17.5 Drilled or driven well casings. Drilled or driven 
well casings shall be of steel or other approved material. 
Where drilled wells extend into a rock formation, the well 
casing shall extend to and set firmly in the formation. The 
annular space between the earth and the outside of the cas- 
ing shall be filled with cement grout to a depth of not less 
than 10 feet (3048 mm) below the ground surface. In an 
instance of casing to rock installation, the grout shall 
extend to the rock surface. 

608.17.6 Dug or bored well casings. Dug or bored well 
casings shall be of water-tight concrete, tile, or galvanized 
or corrugated metal pipe extending to not less than 10 feet 
(3048 mm) below the ground surface. Where the water 
table is more than 10 feet (3048 mm) below the ground 
surface, the water-tight casing shall extend below the table 
surface. Well casings for dug wells or bored wells con- 
structed with sections of concrete, tile, or galvanized or 
corrugated metal pipe shall be surrounded by 6 inches 
(152 mm) of grout poured into the hole between the out- 



side of the casing and the ground and extending not less 
than 10 feet (3048 mm) below the ground surface. 

608.17.7 Cover. Potable water wells shall be equipped 
with an overlapping water-tight cover at the top of the well 
casing or pipe sleeve such that contaminated water or 
other substances are prevented from entering the well 
through the annular opening at the top of the well casing, 
wall or pipe sleeve. Covers shall extend downward not 
less than 2 inches (5 1 mm) over the outside of the well 
casing or wall. A dug well cover shall be provided with a 
pipe sleeve permitting the withdrawal of the pump suction 
pipe, cylinder or jet body without disturbing the cover. 
Where pump sections or discharge pipes enter or leave a 
well through the side of the casing, the circle of contact 
shall be water tight. 

608.17.8 Drainage. Potable water wells and springs shall 
be constructed such that surface drainage will be diverted 
away from the well or spring. 



SECTION 609 
HEALTH CARE PLUMBING 

609.1 Scope. This section shall govern those aspects of health 
care plumbing systems that differ from plumbing systems in 
other structures. Health care plumbing systems shall conform 
to the requirements of this section in addition to the other 
requirements of this code. The provisions of this section shall 
apply to the special devices and equipment installed and 
maintained in the following occupancies: nursing homes, 
homes for the aged, orphanages, infirmaries, first aid stations, 
psychiatric facilities, clinics, professional offices of dentists 
and doctors, mortuaries, educational facilities, surgery, den- 
tistry, research and testing laboratories, establishments manu- 
facturing pharmaceutical drugs and medicines, and other 
structures with similar apparatus and equipment classified as 
plumbing. 

609.2 Water service. Hospitals shall have two water service 
pipes installed in such a manner so as to minimize the poten- 
tial for an interruption of the supply of water in the event of a 
water main or water service pipe failure. 

609.3 Hot water. Hot water shall be provided to supply all of 
the hospital fixture, kitchen and laundry requirements. Spe- 
cial fixtures and equipment shall have hot water supplied at a 
temperature specified by the manufacturer. The hot water 
system shall be installed in accordance with Section 607. 

609.4 Vacuum breaker installation. Vacuum breakers shall 
be installed not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the flood 
level rim of the fixture or device in accordance with Section 
608. The flood level rim of hose connections shall be the 
maximum height at which any hose is utilized. 

609.5 Prohibited water closet and clinical sink supply. Jet- 
or water-supplied orifices, except those supplied by the flush 
connections, shall not be located in or connected with a water 
closet bowl or clinical sink. This section shall not prohibit an 
approved bidet installation. 

609.6 Clinical, hydrotherapeutic and radiological equip- 
ment. Clinical, hydrotherapeutic, radiological or any equip- 
ment that is supplied with water or that discharges to the 



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waste system shall conform to the requirements of this sec- 
tion and Section 608. 

609.7 Condensate drain trap seal. A water supply shall be 
provided for cleaning, flushing and resealing the condensate 
trap, and the trap shall discharge through an air gap in accor- 
dance with Section 608. 

609.8 Valve leakage diverter. Each water sterilizer filled 
with water through directly connected piping shall be 
equipped with an approved leakage diverter or bleed line on 
the water supply control valve to indicate and conduct any 
leakage of unsterile water away from the sterile zone. 



SECTION 610 
DISINFECTION OF POTABLE WATER SYSTEM 

610.1 General. New or repaired potable water systems shall 
be purged of deleterious matter and disinfected prior to utili- 
zation. The method to be followed shall be that prescribed by 
the health authority or water purveyor having jurisdiction or, 
in the absence of a prescribed method, the procedure 
described in either AWWA C651 or AWWA C652, or as 
described in this section. This requirement shall apply to "on- 
site" or "in-plant" fabrication of a system or to a modular por- 
tion of a system. 

1. The pipe system shall be flushed with clean, potable 
water until dirty water does not appear at the points of 
outlet. 

2. The system or part thereof shall be filled with a water/ 
chlorine solution containing not less than 50 parts per 
million (50 mg/L) of chlorine, and the system or part 
thereof shall be valved off and allowed to stand for 24 
hours; or the system or part thereof shall be filled with a 
water/chlorine solution containing not less than 200 
parts per million (200 mg/L) of chlorine and allowed to 
stand for 3 hours. 

3. Following the required standing time, the system shall 
be flushed with clean potable water until the chlorine is 
purged from the system. 

4. The procedure shall be repeated where shown by a bac- 
teriological examination that contamination remains 
present in the system. 



SECTION 612 
SOLAR SYSTEMS 

612.1 Solar systems. The construction, installation, altera- 
tions and repair of systems, equipment and appliances 
intended to utilize solar energy for space heating or cooling, 
domestic hot water heating, swimming pool heating or pro- 
cess heating shall be in accordance with the International 
Mechanical Code, 



SECTION 613 
TEMPERATURE CONTROL DEVICES AND VALVES 

613.1 Temperature-actuated mixing valves. Temperature- 
actuated mixing valves, which are installed to reduce water 
temperatures to defined limits, shall comply with ASSE 
1017. 



SECTION 611 
DRINKING WATER TREATMENT UNITS 

611.1 Design. Drinking water treatment units shall meet the 
requirements of NSF42, NSF 44, NSF 53, NSF 62 or CSA 
B483.1. 

611.2 Reverse osmosis systems. The discharge from a 
reverse osmosis drinking water treatment unit shall enter the 
drainage system through an air gap or an air gap device that 
meets the requirements of NSF 58 or CSA B483.1. 

611.3 Connection tubing. The tubing to and from drinking 
water treatment units shall be of a size and material as recom- 
mended by the manufacturer. The tubing shall comply with 
NSF 14, NSF 42, NSF 44, NSF 53, NSF 58 or NSF 61. 



54 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 7 

%J& Jf™°4 III | JF""(fc I B a fc^ S IfT 5 i « f %^rfl ILsgi 



SECTION 701 
GENERAL 

701.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
materials, design, construction and installation of sanitary 
drainage systems. 

70 J. 2 Sewer required. Buildings in which plumbing fixtures 
are installed and premises having drainage piping shall be 
connected to a public sewer, where available, or an approved 
private sewage disposal system in accordance with the Inter- 
national Private Sewage Disposal Code. 

701.3 Separate sewer connection. A building having plumb- 
ing fixtures installed and intended for human habitation, 
occupancy or use on premises abutting on a street, alley or 
easement in which there is a public sewer shall have a sepa- 
rate connection with the sewer. Where located on the same 
lot, multiple buildings shall not be prohibited from connect- 
ing to a common building sewer that connects to the public 
sewer. 

701.4 Sewage treatment. Sewage or other waste from a 
plumbing system that is deleterious to surface or subsurface 
waters shall not be discharged into the ground or into any 
waterway unless it has first been rendered innocuous through 
subjection to an approved form of treatment. 

701.5 Damage to drainage system or public sewer. Wastes 
detrimental to the public sewer system or to the functioning 
of the sewage-treatment plant shall be treated and disposed of 
in accordance with Section 1003 as directed by the code offi- 
cial. 

701.6 Tests. The sanitary drainage system shall be tested in 
accordance with Section 312. 

701.7 Connections. Direct connection of a steam exhaust, 
blowoff or drip pipe shall not be made with the building 
drainage system. Waste water where discharged into the 
building drainage system shall be at a temperature not greater 
than 140°F (60°C). Where higher temperatures exist, 
approved cooling methods shall be provided. 

701.8 Engineered systems. Engineered sanitary drainage 
| systems shall conform to the provisions of Sections 3 1 6 and 

714. 

701.9 Drainage piping in food service areas. Exposed soil 
or waste piping shall not be installed above any working, 
storage or eating surfaces in food service establishments. 



SECTION 702 
MATERIALS 

702.1 Above-ground sanitary drainage and vent pipe. 
Above-ground soil, waste and vent pipe shall conform to one 
of the standards listed in Table 702. 1 . 



TABLE 702.1 
ABOVE-GROUND DRAINAGE AND VENT PIPE 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene 
(ABS) plastic pipe in IPS 
diameters, including Schedule 
40, DR 22 (PS 200) and DR 24 
(PS 140); with a solid, cellular 
core or composite wall 


ASTM D 2661 ; ASTM F 628; 
ASTMF1488;CSAB181.1 


Brass pipe 


ASTM B 43 


Cast-iron pipe 


ASTM A 74; ASTM A 888; 
CISPI 301 


Copper or copper-alloy pipe 


ASTM B 42; ASTM B 302 


Copper or copper-alloy tubing 
(Type K, L, M or DWV) 


ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; 
ASTM B 251; ASTM B 306 


Galvanized steel pipe 


ASTM A 53 


Glass pipe 


ASTM C 1053 


Polyolefin pipe 


ASTM F 1412; 
CSAB181.3 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic 
pipe in IPS diameters, indu- 
ing schedule 40, DR 22 (PS 
200), and DR 24 (PS 140); 
with a solid, cellular core or 
composite wall 


ASTM D 2665; ASTM F 891; 
ASTMF1488;CSABI81.2 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 
plastic pipe with a 3.25-inch 
O.D. and a solid, cellular 
core or composite wall 


ASTM D 2949, ASTM F 1488 


Polyvinylidene fluoride 
(PVDF) plastic pipe 


ASTM F 1673; CSAB181.3 


Stainless steel drainage 
systems, Types 304 and 316L 


ASMEA1 12.3.1 



702.2 Underground building sanitary drainage and vent 
pipe. Underground building sanitary drainage and vent pipe 
shall conform to one of the standards listed in Table 702.2. 

702.3 Building sewer pipe. Building sewer pipe shall con- 
form to one of the standards listed in Table 702.3. 

702.4 Fittings. Pipe fittings shall be approved for installation 
with the piping material installed and shall comply with the 
applicable standards listed in Table 702.4. 

702.5 Chemical waste system. A chemical waste system 
shall be completely separated from the sanitary drainage sys- 
tem. The chemical waste shall be treated in accordance with 
Section 803.2 before discharging to the sanitary drainage sys- 
tem. Separate drainage systems for chemical wastes and vent 
pipes shall be of an approved material that is resistant to cor- 



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SANITARY DRAINAGE 



rosion and degradation for the concentrations of chemicals 
involved. 

702.6 Lead bends and traps. Lead bends and traps shall not 
be less than V 8 inch (3.2 mm) wall thickness. 



TABLE 702.2 
UNDERGROUND BUILDING DRAINAGE AND VENT PIPE 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene 
(ABS) plastic pipe in IPS 
diameters, including schedule 
40, DR 22 (PS 200) and DR 
24 (PS 140); with a solid, cel- 
lular core, or composite wall 


ASTM D 2661; ASTM F 628; 
ASTMF1488;CSAB181.1 


Asbestos-cement pipe 


ASTM C 428 


Cast-iron pipe 


ASTM A 74; ASTM A 888; 
CIS PI 301 


Copper or copper-alloy tubing 
(Type K, L, M or DWV) 


ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; 
ASTM B 251; ASTM B 306 


Polyolefin pipe 


ASTM F 1412; 
CSAB181.3 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 

plastic pipe in IPS diameters, 
including schedule 40, DR 22 
(PS 200) and DR 24 (PS 
140); with a solid, cellular 
core, or composite wall 


ASTM D 2665; ASTM F 891; 
ASTM F 1488; CSAB181.2 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 

plastic pipe with a 3.25-inch 
O.D. and a solid, cellular 
core, or composite wall 


ASTM D 2949, ASTM F 1488 


Polyvinylidene fluoride 
(PVDF) plastic pipe 


ASTM F 1673; 
CSAB181.3 


Stainless steel drainage 
systems, Type 3 1 6L 


ASME A 112.3.1 



TABLE 702.3 


BUILDING SEWER PIPE 


MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene 


ASTM D 2661 ; ASTM F 628; 


(ABS) plastic pipe in IPS 


ASTM F 1488; CSA B181.1 


diameters, including sched- 




ule 40, DR 22 (PS 200) and 




DR 24 (PS 140); with a solid, 




cellular core or composite 




wall 




Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene 


ASTM F 1488; ASTM D 2751 


(ABS) plastic pipe in sewer 




and drain diameters, includ- 




ing SDR 42 (PS 20), PS 35, 




SDR 35 (PS 45), PS 50, PS 




100, PS 140, SDR 23.5 (PS 




150) and PS 200; with a solid, 




cellular core or composite 




wall 




Asbestos-cement pipe 


ASTM C 428 


Cast-iron pipe 


ASTM A 74; ASTM A 888; 




CISPI 301 


Concrete pipe 


ASTM C 14; ASTM C 76; 




CSAA257.1M; 




CSA A257.2M 


Copper or copper-alloy tubing 


ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; 


(Type K or L) 


ASTM B 251 


Polyethylene (PE) plastic pipe 


ASTM F 714 


(SDR-PR) 




Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 


ASTM D 2665; ASTM F 891 ; 


plastic pipe in IPS diameters, 


ASTM F 1488 


including schedule 40, DR 22 




(PS 200) and DR 24 (PS 140); 




with a solid, cellular core or 




composite wall 




Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 


ASTM F 891; ASTM F 1488; 


plastic pipe in sewer and 


ASTM D 3034; CSA B182.2; 


drain diameters, including PS 


CSA Bl 82.4 


25, SDR 41 (PS 28), PS 35, 




SDR 35 (PS 46), PS 50, PS 




100, SDR 26 (PS 115), PS 




140 and PS 200; with a solid, 




cellular core or composite 




wall 




Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 


ASTM D 2949, ASTM F 1488 


plastic pipe with a 3.25-inch 




O.D. and a solid, cellular core 




or composite wall. 




Polyvinylidene fluoride 


ASTM F 1673; 


(PVDF) plastic pipe 


CSAB181.3 


Stainless steel drainage 


ASME Al 12.3.1 


systems, Types 304 and 3 16L 




Vitrified clay pipe 


ASTM C 4; ASTM C 700 



56 



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TABLE 702.4 

PIPE FITTINGS 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Acrylonitrile butadiene 

styrene (ABS) plastic pipe in 
IPS diameters 


ASTM D 2661; ASTM F 628; 
CSAB181.1 


Acrylonotrile butadiene 

styrene (ABS) plastic pipe in 
sewer and drain diameters 


ASTM D 2751 


Asbestos cement 


ASTM C 428 


Cast iron 


ASMEB 16.4; ASMEB 16.12; 
ASTM A 74; ASTM A 888; 
CIS PI 301 


Copper or copper alloy 


ASMEB 16.15; ASMEB 16.18; 
ASMEB 16.22; ASMEB 16.23; 
ASME B 16.26; ASME B 16.29 


Glass 


ASTMC 1053 


Gray iron and ductile iron 


AWWAC 110/A21.10 


Malleable iron 


ASMEB 16.3 


Polyolefin 


ASTM F 1412; 
CSAB181.3 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 
plastic in IPS diameters 


ASTM D 2665; ASTM F 1866 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 

plastic pipe in sewer and drain 
diameters 


ASTM D 3034 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 

plastic pipe with a 3.25-inch 
O.D. 


ASTM D 2949 


Polyvinylidene fluoride 
(PVDF) plastic pipe 


ASTM F 1673; 
CSAB181.3 


Stainless steel drainage 

systems, Types 304 and 316L 


ASME A 112.3.1 


Steel 


ASMEB 16.9; ASMEB 16.11; 
ASMEB 16.28 


Vitrified clay 


ASTM C 700 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 inch per foot = 83.3 mm/m. 

SECTION 703 
BUILDING SEWER 

703.1 Building sewer pipe near the water service. Where 
the building sewer is installed within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the 
water service, the installation shall comply with the provi- 
sions of Section 603.2. 

703.2 Drainage pipe in filled ground. Where a building 
sewer or building drain is installed on filled or unstable 
ground, the drainage pipe shall conform to one of the stan- 
dards for ABS plastic pipe, cast-iron pipe, copper or copper- 
alloy tubing, or PVC plastic pipe listed in Table 702.3. 

703.3 Sanitary and storm sewers. Where separate systems 
of sanitary drainage and storm drainage are installed in the 
same property, the sanitary and storm building sewers or 
drains shall be permitted to be laid side by side in one trench. 



703.4 Existing building sewers and drains. Existing build- 
ing sewers and drains shall connect with new building sewer 
and drainage systems only where found by examination and 
test to conform to the new system in quality of material. The 
code official shall notify the owner to make the changes nec- 
essary to conform to this code. 

703.5 Cleanouts on building sewers. Cleanouts on building 
sewers shall be located as set forth in Section 708. 



SECTION 704 
DRAINAGE PIPING INSTALLATION 

704.1 Slope of horizontal drainage piping. Horizontal 
drainage piping shall be installed in uniform alignment at uni- 
form slopes. The slope of a horizontal drainage pipe shall be 
not less than that indicated in Table 704. 1 . 

TABLE 704.1 
SLOPE OF HORIZONTAL DRAINAGE PIPE 



SIZE 
(inches) 


MINIMUM SLOPE 
(inch per foot) 


2'/ 2 or less 


% 


3 to 6 


X 


8 or larger 


v l6 



704.2 Change in size. The size of the drainage piping shall 
not be reduced in size in the direction of the flow. A 4-inch 
by 3-inch (102 mm by 76 mm) water closet connection shall 
not be considered as a reduction in size. 

704.3 Connections to offsets and bases of stacks. Horizon- 
tal branches shall connect to the bases of stacks at a point 
located not less than 10 times the diameter of the drainage 
stack downstream from the stack. Horizontal branches shall 
connect to horizontal stack offsets at a point located not less 
than 1 times the diameter of the drainage stack downstream 
from the upper stack. 

704.4 Future fixtures. Drainage piping for future fixtures 
shall terminate with an approved cap or plug. 



SECTION 705 
JOINTS 

705.1 General. This section contains provisions applicable to 
joints specific to sanitary drainage piping. 

705.2 ABS plastic. Joints between ABS plastic pipe or fit- 
tings shall comply with Sections 705.2.1 through 705.2.3. 

705.2.1 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints on drainage 
pipes shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming 
to ASTM C 1 173, ASTM D 3212 or CSA B602. Mechani- 
cal joints shall be installed only in underground systems 
unless otherwise approved. Joints shall be installed in 
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

705.2.2 Solvent cementing. Joint surfaces shall be clean 
and free from moisture. Solvent cement that conforms to 
ASTM D 2235 or CSA B181.1 shall be applied to all joint 
surfaces. The joint shall be made while the cement is wet. 
Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM D 2235, 



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ASTM D 2661, ASTM F 628 or CSA B181.1. Solvent- 
cement joints shall be permitted above or below ground. 

705.2.3 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to 
ASME Bl .20.1. Schedule 80 or heavier pipe shall be per- 
mitted to be threaded with dies specifically designed for 
plastic pipe. Approved thread lubricant or tape shall be 
applied on the male threads only. 

705.3 Asbestos cement. Joints between asbestos-cement pipe 
or fittings shall be made with a sleeve coupling of the same 
composition as the pipe, sealed with an elastomeric ring con- 
forming to ASTM D 1 869. 

705.4 Brass. Joints between brass pipe or fittings shall com- 
ply with Sections 705.4.1 through 705.4.4. 

705.4.1 Brazed joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
An approved flux shall be applied where required. The 
joint shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to 
AWS A5.8. 

705.4.2 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 

705.4.3 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to 
ASME B 1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be 
applied on the male threads only. 

705.4.4 Welded joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
The joint shall be welded with an approved filler metal. 

705.5 Cast iron. Joints between cast-iron pipe or fittings 
shall comply with Sections 705.5.1 through 705.5.3. 

705.5.1 Caulked joints. Joints for hub and spigot pipe 
shall be firmly packed with oakum or hemp. Molten lead 
shall be poured in one operation to a depth of not less than 
1 inch (25 mm). The lead shall not recede more than 7 g 
inch (3.2 mm) below the rim of the hub and shall be 
caulked tight. Paint, varnish or other coatings shall not be 
permitted on the jointing material until after the joint has 
been tested and approved. Lead shall be run in one pour- 
ing and shall be caulked tight. Acid-resistant rope and 
acid-proof cement shall be permitted. 

705.5.2 Compression gasket joints. Compression gaskets 
for hub and spigot pipe and fittings shall conform to 
ASTM C 564 and shall be tested to ASTM C 1563. Gas- 
kets shall be compressed when the pipe is fully inserted. 

705.5.3 Mechanical joint coupling. Mechanical joint 
couplings for hubless pipe and fittings shall comply with 
CISPI 310, ASTM C 1277 or ASTM C 1540. The elasto- 
meric sealing sleeve shall conform to ASTM C 564 or 
CSA B602 and shall be provided with a center stop. 
Mechanical joint couplings shall be installed in accor- 
dance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. 

705.6 Concrete joints. Joints between concrete pipe and fit- 
tings shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to 
ASTM C 443, ASTM C 1 173, CSA A257.3M or CSA B602. 

705.7 Coextruded composite ABS pipe, joints. Joints 
between coextruded composite pipe with an ABS outer layer 
or ABS fittings shall comply with Sections 705.7.1 and 
705.7.2. 



705.7.1 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints on drainage 
pipe shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to 
ASTM C1173, ASTM D 3212 or CSA B602. Mechanical 
joints shall not be installed in above-ground systems, 
unless otherwise approved. Joints shall be installed in 
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

705.7.2 Solvent cementing. Joint surfaces shall be clean 
and free from moisture. Solvent cement that conforms to 
ASTM D 2235 or CSA B 181.1 shall be applied to all joint 
surfaces. The joint shall be made while the cement is wet. 
Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM D 2235, 
ASTM D 2661, ASTM F 628 or CSA B181.1. Solvent- 
cement joints shall be permitted above or below ground. 

705.8 Coextruded composite PVC pipe. Joints between 
coextruded composite pipe with a PVC outer layer or PVC 
fittings shall comply with Sections 705.8.1 and 705.8.2. 

705.8.1 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints on drainage 
pipe shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to 
ASTM D 3212. Mechanical joints shall not be installed in 
above-ground systems, unless otherwise approved. Joints 
shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's 
instructions. 

705.8.2 Solvent cementing. Joint surfaces shall be clean 
and free from moisture. A purple primer that conforms to 
ASTM F 656 shall be applied. Solvent cement not purple 
in color and conforming to ASTM D 2564, CSA B 137.3, 
CSA B 181. 2 or CSA B 182.1 shall be applied to all joint 
surfaces. The joint shall be made while the cement is wet 
and shall be in accordance with ASTM D 2855. Solvent- 
cement joints shall be permitted above or below ground. 

705.9 Copper pipe. Joints between copper or copper-alloy 
pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections 705.9.1 through 
705.9.5. 

705.9.1 Brazed joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
An approved flux shall be applied where required. The 
joint shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to 
AWS A5.8. 

705.9.2 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 

705.9.3 Soldered joints. Solder joints shall be made in 
accordance with the methods of ASTM B 828. All cut tube 
ends shall be reamed to the full inside diameter of the tube 
end. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. A flux conforming 
to ASTM B 813 shall be applied. The joint shall be sol- 
dered with a solder conforming to ASTM B 32. 

705.9.4 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to 
ASME B 1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be 
applied on the male threads only. 

705.9.5 Welded joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
The joint shall be welded with an approved filler metal. 

705.10 Copper tubing. Joints between copper or copper- 
alloy tubing or fittings shall comply with Sections 705.10.1 
through 705.10.3. 

705.10.1 Brazed joints. All joint surfaces shall be 
cleaned. An approved flux shall be applied where 



58 



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required. The joint shall be brazed with a filler metal con- 
forming to AWS A5.8. 

705.10.2 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 

705.10.3 Soldered joints. Solder joints shall be made in 
accordance with the methods of ASTM B 828. All cut tube 
ends shall be reamed to the full inside diameter of the tube 
end. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. A flux conforming 
to ASTM B 813 shall be applied. The joint shall be sol- 
dered with a solder conforming to ASTM B 32. 

705.11 Borosilicate glass joints. Glass-to-glass connections 
shall be made with a bolted compression-type stainless steel 
(300 series) coupling with contoured acid-resistant elasto- 
meric compression ring and a fluorocarbon polymer inner 
seal ring; or with caulked joints in accordance with Section 
705.11.1. 

705.11.1 Caulked joints. Lead-caulked joints for hub and 
spigot soil pipe shall be firmly packed with oakum or 
hemp and filled with molten lead not less than 1 inch (25 
mm) in depth and not to recede more than 7 8 inch (3.2 
mm) below the rim of the hub. Paint, varnish or other coat- 
ings shall not be permitted on the jointing material until 
after the joint has been tested and approved. Lead shall be 
run in one pouring and shall be caulked tight. Acid-resis- 
tant rope and acidproof cement shall be permitted. 

705.12 Steel. Joints between galvanized steel pipe or fittings 
shall comply with Sections 705.12.1 and 705.12.2. 

705.12.1 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to 
ASME B 1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be 
applied on the male threads only. 

705.12.2 Mechanical joints. Joints shall be made with an 
approved elastomeric seal. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 

705.13 Lead. Joints between lead pipe or fittings shall com- 
ply with Sections 705.13.1 and 705.13.2. 

705.13.1 Burned. Burned joints shall be uniformly fused 
together into one continuous piece. The thickness of the 
joint shall be at least as thick as the lead being joined. The 
filler metal shall be of the same material as the pipe. 

705.13.2 Wiped. Joints shall be fully wiped, with an 
exposed surface on each side of the joint not less than 3 / 4 
inch (19.1 mm). The joint shall be not less than 3 / g inch 
(9.5 mm) thick at the thickest point. 

705.14 PVC plastic. Joints between PVC plastic pipe or fit- 
tings shall comply with Sections 705.14.1 through 705.14.3. 

705.14.1 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints on drain- 
age pipe shall be made with an elastomeric seal conform- 
ing to ASTM C 1173, ASTM D 3212 or CSA B602. 
Mechanical joints shall not be installed in above-ground 
systems, unless otherwise approved. Joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 

705.14.2 Solvent cementing. Joint surfaces shall be clean 
and free from moisture. A purple primer that conforms to 



ASTM F 656 shall be applied. Solvent cement not purple 
in color and conforming to ASTM D 2564, CSA B 137.3, 
CSA B 18 1.2 or CSA B 182.1 shall be applied to all joint 
surfaces. The joint shall be made while the cement is wet 
and shall be in accordance with ASTM D 2855. Solvent- 
cement joints shall be permitted above or below ground. 

705.14.3 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to 
ASME B 1.20.1. Schedule 80 or heavier pipe shall be per- 
mitted to be threaded with dies specifically designed for 
plastic pipe. Approved thread lubricant or tape shall be 
applied on the male threads only. 

705.15 Vitrified clay. Joints between vitrified clay pipe or 
fittings shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to 
ASTM C 425, ASTM C 1 173 or CSA B602. 

705.16 Polyethylene plastic pipe. Joints between polyethyl- 
ene plastic pipe and fittings shall be underground and shall 
comply with Section 705.16.1 or 705.16.2. 

705.16.1 Heat-fusion joints. Joint surfaces shall be clean 
and free from moisture. All joint surfaces shall be cut, 
heated to melting temperature and joined using tools spe- 
cifically designed for the operation. Joints shall be undis- 
turbed until cool. Joints shall be made in accordance with 
ASTM D 2657 and the manufacturer's instructions. 

705.16.2 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints in drain- 
age piping shall be made with an elastomeric seal con- 
forming to ASTM C 1173, ASTM D 3212 or CSA B602. 
Mechanical joints shall be installed in accordance with the 
manufacturer's instructions. 

705.17 Polyolefin plastic. Joints between polyolefin plastic 
pipe and fittings shall comply with Sections 705.17.1 and 
705.17.2. 

705.17.1 Heat-fusion joints. Heat-fusion joints for poly- 
olefin pipe and tubing joints shall be installed with socket- 
type heat-fused polyolefin fittings or electrofusion poly- 
olefin fittings. Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from 
moisture. The joint shall be undisturbed until cool. Joints 
shall be made in accordance with ASTM F 1412 or CSA 
B181.3. 

705.17.2 Mechanical and compression sleeve joints. 
Mechanical and compression sleeve joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 

705.18 Polyvinylidene fluoride plastic. Joints between poly- 
vinylidene plastic pipe and fittings shall comply with Sec- 
tions 705.18.1 and 705.18.2. 

705.18.1 Heat-fusion joints. Heat-fusion joints for poly- 
vinylidene fluoride pipe and tubing joints shall be installed 
with socket-type heat-fused polyvinylidene fluoride fit- 
tings or electrofusion polyvinylidene fittings and cou- 
plings. Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from 
moisture. The joint shall be undisturbed until cool. Joints 
shall be made in accordance with ASTM F 1673. 

705.18.2 Mechanical and compression sleeve joints. 
Mechanical and compression sleeve joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 



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705.19 Joints between different materials. Joints between 
different piping materials shall be made with a mechanical 
joint of the compression or mechanical-sealing type conform- 
ing to ASTM C 1173, ASTM C 1460 or ASTM C 1461. Con- 
nectors and adapters shall be approved for the application and 
such joints shall have an elastomeric seal conforming to 
ASTM C 425, ASTM C 443, ASTM C 564, ASTM C 1440, 
ASTM D 1869, ASTM F 477, CSA A257.3M or CSA B602, 
or as required in Sections 705.19.1 through 705.19.7. Joints 
between glass pipe and other types of materials shall be made 
with adapters having a TFE seal. Joints shall be installed in 
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

705.19.1 Copper or copper-alloy tubing to cast-iron 
hub pipe. Joints between copper or copper-alloy tubing 
and cast-iron hub pipe shall be made with a brass ferrule 
or compression joint. The copper or copper-alloy tubing 
shall be soldered to the ferrule in an approved manner, and 
the ferrule shall be joined to the cast-iron hub by a caulked 
joint or a mechanical compression joint. 

705.19.2 Copper or copper-alloy tubing to galvanized 
steel pipe. Joints between copper or copper-alloy tubing 
and galvanized steel pipe shall be made with a brass con- 
verter fitting or dielectric fitting. The copper tubing shall 
be soldered to the fitting in an approved manner, and the 
fitting shall be screwed to the threaded pipe. 

705.19.3 Cast-iron pipe to galvanized steel or brass 
pipe. Joints between cast-iron and galvanized steel or 
brass pipe shall be made by either caulked or threaded 
joints or with an approved adapter fitting. 

705.19.4 Plastic pipe or tubing to other piping material. 
Joints between different types of plastic pipe or between 
plastic pipe and other piping material shall be made with 
an approved adapter fitting. Joints between plastic pipe 
and cast-iron hub pipe shall be made by a caulked joint or 
a mechanical compression joint. 

705.19.5 Lead pipe to other piping material. Joints 
between lead pipe and other piping material shall be made 
by a wiped joint to a caulking ferrule, soldering nipple, or 
bushing or shall be made with an approved adapter fitting. 

705.19.6 Borosilicate glass to other materials. Joints 
between glass pipe and other types of materials shall be 
made with adapters having a TFE seal and shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 

705.19.7 Stainless steel drainage systems to other mate- 
rials. Joints between stainless steel drainage systems and 
other piping materials shall be made with approved 
mechanical couplings. 

705.20 Drainage slip joints. Slip joints shall comply with 
Section 405.8. 

705.21 Caulking ferrules. Ferrules shall be of red brass and 
shall be in accordance with Table 705.21. 



TABLE 705.21 
CAULKING FERRULE SPECIFICATIONS 



PIPE SIZES 
(inches) 


INSIDE 

DIAMETER 

(inches) 


LENGTH 
(inches) 


MINIMUM WEIGHT 
EACH 


2 


2% 


4V 2 


1 pound 


3 


3V 4 


47, 


1 pound 12 ounces 


4 


4V 4 


4% 


2 pounds 8 ounces 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 ounce = 28.35 g, 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 

705.22 Soldering bushings. Soldering bushings shall be of 
red brass and shall be in accordance with Table 705.22. 

TABLE 705.22 
SOLDERING BUSHING SPECIFICATIONS 



PIPE SIZES 
(inches) 


MINIMUM WEIGHT 
EACH 


1V 4 


6 ounces 


1V 2 


8 ounces 


2 


14 ounces 


27, 


1 pound 6 ounces 


3 


2 pounds 


4 


3 pounds 8 ounces 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 ounce = 28.35 g, I pound = 0.454 kg. 

705.23 Stainless steel drainage systems. O-ring joints for 
stainless steel drainage systems shall be made with an 
approved elastomeric seal. 



SECTION 706 

CONNECTIONS BETWEEN DRAINAGE 

PIPING AND FITTINGS 

706.1 Connections and changes in direction. All connec- 
tions and changes in direction of the sanitary drainage system 
shall be made with approved drainage fittings. Connections 
between drainage piping and fixtures shall conform to Sec- 
tion 405. 

706.2 Obstructions. The fittings shall not have ledges, shoul- 
ders or reductions capable of retarding or obstructing flow in 
the piping. Threaded drainage pipe fittings shall be of the 
recessed drainage type. This section shall not be applicable to 
tubular waste fittings used to convey vertical flow upstream 
of the trap seal liquid level of a fixture trap. 

706.3 Installation of fittings. Fittings shall be installed to 
guide sewage and waste in the direction of flow. Change in 
direction shall be made by fittings installed in accordance 
with Table 706.3. Change in direction by combination fit- 
tings, side inlets or increasers shall be installed in accordance 
with Table 706.3 based on the pattern of flow created by the 
fitting. Double sanitary tee patterns shall not receive the dis- 
charge of back-to-back water closets and fixtures or appli- 
ances with pumping action discharge. 

Exception: Back-to-back water closet connections to dou- 
ble sanitary tees shall be permitted where the horizontal 
developed length between the outlet of the water closet 
and the connection to the double sanitary tee pattern is 18 
inches (457 mm) or greater. 



60 



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TABLE 706.3 
FITTINGS FOR CHANGE IN DIRECTION 



TYPE OF FITTING 
PATTERN 


CHANGE IN DIRECTION 


Horizontal to 
vertical 


Vertical to 
horizontal 


Horizontal to 
horizontal 


Sixteenth bend 


X 


X 


X 


Eighth bend 


X 


X 


X 


Sixth bend 


X 


X 


X 


Quarter bend 


X 


X" 


X" 


Short sweep 


X 


X a.b 


x a 


Long sweep 


X 


X 


x 


Sanitary tee 


X c 


— 


— 


Wye 


X 


X 


X 


Combination wye 
and eighth bend 


X 


X 


X 



Countersunk heads shall be installed where raised heads are a 
trip hazard. Cleanout plugs with borosilicate glass systems 
shall be of borosilicate glass. 

708.3 Where required. Cleanouts shall be located in accor- 
dance with Sections 708.3.1 through 708.3.6. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. The fittings shall only be permitted for a 2-inch or smaller fixture drain. 

b. Three inches or larger. 

c. For a limitation on double sanitary tees, see Section 706.3. 

706.4 Heel- or side-inlet quarter bends. Heel-inlet quarter 
bends shall be an acceptable means of connection, except 
where the quarter bend serves a water closet. A low-heel inlet 
shall not be used as a wet-vented connection. Side-inlet quar- 
ter bends shall be an acceptable means of connection for 
drainage, wet venting and stack venting arrangements. 



SECTION 707 
PROHIBITED JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 

707.1 Prohibited joints. The following types of joints and 
connections shall be prohibited: 

1 . Cement or concrete joints. 

2. Mastic or hot-pour bituminous joints. 

3. Joints made with fittings not approved for the specific 
installation. 

4. Joints between different diameter pipes made with elas- 
tomeric rolling O-rings. 

5. Solvent-cement joints between different types of plastic 
pipe. 

6. Saddle-type fittings. 



SECTION 708 
CLEANOUTS 

708.1 Scope. This section shall govern the size, location, 
installation and maintenance of drainage pipe cleanouts. 

708.2 Cleanout plugs. Cleanout plugs shall be brass or plas- 
tic, or other approved materials. Brass cleanout plugs shall be 
utilized with metallic drain, waste and vent piping only, and 
shall conform to ASTM A 74, ASME Al 12.3.1 or ASME 
A112.36.2M. Cleanouts with plate-style access covers shall 
be fitted with corrosion-resisting fasteners. Plastic cleanout 
plugs shall conform to the requirements of Section 702.4. 
Plugs shall have raised square or countersunk square heads. 



708.3.1 Horizontal drains within buildings. All horizon- 
tal drains shall be provided with cleanouts located not 
more than 100 feet (30 480 mm) apart. 

708.3.2 Building sewers. Building sewers shall be pro- 
vided with cleanouts located not more than 100 feet (30 
480 mm) apart measured from the upstream entrance of 
the cleanout. For building sewers 8 inches (203 mm) and 
larger, manholes shall be provided and located not more 
than 200 feet (60 960 mm) from the junction of the build- 
ing drain and building sewer, at each change in direction 
and at intervals of not more than 400 feet (122 m) apart. 
Manholes and manhole covers shall be of an approved 
type. 

708.3.3 Changes of direction. Cleanouts shall be installed 
at each change of direction greater than 45 degrees (0.79 
rad) in the building sewer, building drain and horizontal 
waste or soil lines. Where more than one change of direc- 
tion occurs in a run of piping, only one cleanout shall be 
required for each 40 feet (12 1 92 mm) of developed length 
of the drainage piping. 

708.3.4 Base of stack. A cleanout shall be provided at the 
base of each waste or soil stack. 

708.3.5 Building drain and building sewer junction. 
There shall be a cleanout near the junction of the building 
drain and the building sewer. The cleanout shall be either 
inside or outside the building wall and shall be brought up 
to the finished ground level or to the basement floor level. 
An approved two-way cleanout is allowed to be used at 
this location to serve as a required cleanout for both the 
building drain and building sewer. The cleanout at the 
junction of the building drain and building sewer shall not 
be required if the cleanout on a 3-inch (76 mm) or larger 
diameter soil stack is located within a developed length of 
10 feet (3048 mm) of the building drain and building 
sewer connection. The minimum size of the cleanout at the 
junction of the building drain and building sewer shall 
comply with Section 708.7. 

708.3.6 Manholes. Manholes serving a building drain 
shall have secured gas-tight covers and shall be located in 
accordance with Section 708.3.2. 

708.4 Concealed piping. Cleanouts on concealed piping or 
piping under a floor slab or in a crawl space of less than 24 
inches (610 mm) in height or a plenum shall be extended 
through and terminate flush with the finished wall, floor or 
ground surface or shall be extended to the outside of the 
building. Cleanout plugs shall not be covered with cement, 
plaster or any other permanent finish material. Where it is 
necessary to conceal a cleanout or to terminate a cleanout in 
an area subject to vehicular traffic, the covering plate, access 
door or cleanout shall be of an approved type designed and 
installed for this purpose. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



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SANITARY DRAINAGE 



708.5 Opening direction. Every cleanout shall be installed to 
open to allow cleaning in the direction of the flow of the 
drainage pipe or at right angles thereto. 

708.6 Prohibited installation. Cleanout openings shall not 
be utilized for the installation of new fixtures, except where 
approved and where another cleanout of equal access and 
capacity is provided. 

708.7 Minimum size. Cleanouts shall be the same nominal 
size as the pipe they serve up to 4 inches (102 mm). For pipes 
larger than 4 inches (102 mm) nominal size, the size of the 
cleanout shall be not less than 4 inches (102 mm). 



Exceptions: 



1. 



"P" trap connections with slip joints or ground joint 
connections, or stack cleanouts that are not more 
than one pipe diameter smaller than the drain served, 
shall be permitted. 

2. Cast-iron cleanout sizing shall be in accordance with 
referenced standards in Table 702.4, ASTM A 74 
for hub and spigot fittings or ASTM A 888 or CISPI 
301 forhubless fittings. 

708.8 Clearances. Cleanouts on 6-inch (153 mm) and 
smaller pipes shall be provided with a clearance of not less 
than 1 8 inches (457 mm) for rodding. Cleanouts on 8-inch 
(203 mm) and larger pipes shall be provided with a clearance 
of not less than 36 inches (914 mm) for rodding. 

708.9 Access. Access shall be provided to all cleanouts. 



SECTION 709 
FIXTURE UNITS 

709.1 Values for fixtures. Drainage fixture unit values as 
given in Table 709.1 designate the relative load weight of dif- 
ferent kinds of fixtures that shall be employed in estimating 
the total load carried by a soil or waste pipe, and shall be used 
in connection with Tables 710.1(1) and 710.1(2) of sizes for 
soil, waste and vent pipes for which the permissible load is 
given in terms of fixture units. 

709.2 Fixtures not listed in Table 709.1. Fixtures not listed 
in Table 709.1 shall have a drainage fixture unit load based 
on the outlet size of the fixture in accordance with Table 
709.2. The minimum trap size for unlisted fixtures shall be 
the size of the drainage outlet but not less than l'/ 4 inches (32 
ram). 

TABLE 709.2 
DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS FOR FIXTURE DRAINS OR TRAPS 



FIXTURE DRAIN OR TRAP SIZE 
(inches) 


DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT 
VALUE 


l'/ 4 


1 


l'/ 2 


2 


2 


3 


2% 


4 


3 


5 


4 


6 



709.3 Values for continuous and semicontinuous flow. 
Drainage fixture unit values for continuous and semicontinu- 
ous flow into a drainage system shall be computed on the 
basis that 1 gpm (0.06 L/s) of flow is equivalent to two fix- 
ture units. 

709.4 Values for indirect waste receptor. The drainage fix- 
ture unit load of an indirect waste receptor receiving the dis- 
charge of indirectly connected fixtures shall be the sum of the 
drainage fixture unit values of the fixtures that discharge to 
the receptor, but not less than the drainage fixture unit value 
given for the indirect waste receptor in Table 709.1 or 709.2. 

709.4.1 Clear-water waste receptors. Where waste 
receptors such as floor drains, floor sinks and hub drains 
receive only clear-water waste from display cases, refrig- 
erated display cases, ice bins, coolers and freezers, such 
receptors shall have a drainage fixture unit value of one- 
half. 



SECTION 710 
DRAINAGE SYSTEM SIZING 

710.1 Maximum fixture unit load. The maximum number 
of drainage fixture units connected to a given size of building 
sewer, building drain or horizontal branch of the building 
drain shall be determined using Table 710.1(1). The maxi- 
mum number of drainage fixture units connected to a given 
size of horizontal branch or vertical soil or waste stack shall 
be determined using Table 7 1 0. 1 (2). 

TABLE 710.1(1) 
BUILDING DRAINS AND SEWERS 



DIAMETER OF 
PIPE (inches) 


MAXIMUM NUMBER OF DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS 

CONNECTED TO ANY PORTION OF THE BUILDING 

DRAIN OR THE BUILDING SEWER, INCLUDING 

BRANCHES OF THE BUILDING DRAIN" 


Slope per foot 


V 16 inch 


' / s inch 


V 4 inch 


7 2 inch 


iv 4 


— 


— 


1 


1 


1V 2 


— 


— 


3 


3 


2 


— 


— 


21 


26 


2% 


— 


— 


24 


31 


3 


— 


36 


42 


50 


4 


— 


180 


216 


250 


5 


— 


390 


480 


575 


6 


— 


700 


840 


1,000 


8 


1,400 


1,600 


1,920 


2,300 


10 


2,500 


2,900 


3,500 


4,200 


12 


3,900 


4,600 


5,600 


6,700 


15 


7,000 


8,300 


10,000 


12,000 



For SJ: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 inch per foot = 83.3 mm/in. 

a. The minimum size of any building drain serving a water closet shall be 3 
inches. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



62 



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SANITARY DRAINAGE 



TABLE 709.1 
DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS FOR FIXTURES AND GROUPS 



FIXTURE TYPE 



Automatic clothes washers, commercial 3,8 



Automatic clothes washers, residential 2 



Bathroom group as defined in Section 202 
(1 .6 gpf water closet)' 



Bathroom group as defined in Section 202 
(water closet flushing greater than 1.6 gpf) f 



Bathtub b (with or without overhead shower or whirpool attachments) 



Bidet 



Combination sink and tray 



Dental lavatory 



Dental unit or cuspidor 



DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT 
VALUE AS LOAD FACTORS 



Dishwashing machine , domestic 



Drinking fountain 



Emergency floor drain 



Floor drains' 1 



Floor sinks 



Kitchen sink, domestic 



Kitchen sink, domestic with food waste grinder and/or dishwasher 



Laundry tray (1 or 2 compartments) 



Lavatory 



Shower (based on the total flow rate through showerheads and body sprays) 



Flow rate: 

5.7 gpm or less 

Greater than 5.7 gpm to 12.3 gpm 
Greater than 12.3 gpm to 25.8 gpm 
Greater than 25.8 gpm to 55.6 gpm 



Service sink 



Sink 



Urinal 



Urinal, 1 gallon per flush or less 



Urinal, nonwater supplied 



Wash sink (circular or multiple) each set of faucets 



Water closet, flushometer tank, public or private 



Water closet, private (1 .6 gpf) 



Water closet, private (flushing greater than 1 .6 gpf) 



Water closet, public (1.6 gpf) 



Water closet, public (flushing greater than 1 .6 gpf) 



Noteh 



4 C 



MINIMUM SIZE OF TRAP 
(inches) 



•'A 



i'/ 4 



17, 



17, 



17 4 



17, 



17, 



IV, 



17, 



17, 



I 7, 



17 2 
2 
3 
4 



17, 



17, 



Noted 



Noted 



Noted 



17, 



Noted 



Noted 



Noted 



Noted 



Noted 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, I gallon = 3.785 L, gpf = gallon per flushing cycle, gpm = gallon per minute. 

a. For traps larger than 3 inches, use Table 709.2. 

b. A showerhead over a bathtub or whirlpool bathtub attachment does not increase the drainage fixture unit value. 

c. See Sections 709.2 through 709.4. 1 for methods of computing unit value of fixtures not listed in this table or for rating of devices with intermittent flows. 

d. Trap size shall be consistent with the fixture outlet size. 

e. For the purpose of computing loads on building drains and sewers, water closets and urinals shall not be rated at a lower drainage fixture unit unless the lower 
values are confirmed by testing. 

f. For fixtures added to a bathroom group, add the dfu value of those additional fixtures to the bathroom group fixture count. | 

g. See Section 406.3 for sizing requirements for fixture drain, branch drain, and drainage stack for an automatic clothes washer standpipe 
h. See Sections 709.4 and 709.4.1 . 



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63 



SANITARY DRAINAGE 



TABLE 710.1(2) 
HORIZONTAL FIXTURE BRANCHES AND STACKS" 



DIAMETER OF 
PIPE (inches) 


MAXIMUM NUMBER OF DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS 
(dfu) 


Total for 

horizontal 

branch 


Stacks" 


Total 

discharge 

into one 

branch 

interval 


Total for stack 

of three 

branch 

Intervals or 

less 


Total for stack 

greater than 

three branch 

intervals 


1V 2 


3 


2 


4 


8 


2 


6 


6 


10 


24 


27 2 


12 


9 


20 


42 


3 


20 


20 


48 


72 


4 


160 


90 


240 


500 


5 


360 


200 


540 


1,100 


6 


620 


350 


960 


1,900 


8 


1,400 


600 


2,200 


3,600 


10 


2,500 


1,000 


3,800 


5,600 


12 


3,900 


1,500 


6,000 


8,400 


15 


7,000 


Notec 


Notec 


Notec 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Does not include branches of the building drain. Refer to Table 710.1(1). 

b. Stacks shall be sized based on the total accumulated connected load at 
each story or branch interval. As the total accumulated connected load 
decreases, stacks are permitted to be reduced in size. Stack diameters shall 
not be reduced to less than one-half of the diameter of the largest stack 
size required. 

c. Sizing load based on design criteria. 

710.1.1 Horizontal stack offsets. Horizontal stack offsets 
shall be sized as required for building drains in accordance 
with Table 710.1(1), except as required by Section 711.3. 

710.1.2 Vertical stack offsets. Vertical stack offsets shall 
be sized as required for straight stacks in accordance with 
Table 710.1(2), except where required to be sized as a 
building drain in accordance with Section 711.1.1. 

710.2 Future fixtures. Where provision is made for the 
future installation of fixtures, those provided for shall be con- 
sidered in determining the required sizes of drain pipes. 



SECTION 711 

OFFSETS IN DRAINAGE PIPING IN 

BUILDINGS OF FIVE STORIES OR MORE 

711.1 Horizontal branch connections above or below ver- 
tical stack offsets. If a horizontal branch connects to the 
stack within 2 feet (610 mm) above or below a vertical stack 
offset, and the offset is located more than four branch inter- 
vals below the top of the stack, the offset shall be vented in 
accordance with Section 906. 

711.1.1 Omission of vents for vertical stack offsets. 
Vents for vertical offsets required by Section 711.1 shall 
not be required where the stack and its offset are sized as a 
building drain [see Table 710.1(1)]. 

711.2 Horizontal stack offsets. A stack with a horizontal 
offset located more than four branch intervals below the top 



of the stack shall be vented in accordance with Section 907 § 
and sized as follows: 

1. The portion of the stack above the offset shall be sized 
as for a vertical stack based on the total number of 
drainage fixture units above the offset. 

2. The offset shall be sized in accordance with Section 
710.1.1. 

3. The portion of the stack below the offset shall be sized 
as for the offset or based on the total number of drain- 
age fixture units on the entire stack, whichever is larger 
[see Table 710.1(2), Column 5], 

711.2.1 Omission of vents for horizontal stack offsets. 
Vents for horizontal stack offsets required by Section 
711.2 shall not be required where the stack and its offset 
are one pipe size larger than required for a building drain 
[see Table 710.1(1)] and the entire stack and offset are not 
less in cross- sectional area than that required for a straight 
stack plus the area of an offset vent as provided for in Sec- 
tion 907. 1 
711.3 Offsets below lowest branch. Where a vertical offset 
occurs in a soil or waste stack below the lowest horizontal 
branch, a change in diameter of the stack because of the off- 
set shall not be required. If a horizontal offset occurs in a soil 
or waste stack below the lowest horizontal branch, the 
required diameter of the offset and the stack below it shall be 
determined as for a building drain in accordance with Table 
710.1(1). 

SECTION 712 
SUMPS AND EJECTORS 

712.1 Building subdrains. Building subdrains that cannot be 
discharged to the sewer by gravity flow shall be discharged 
into a tightly covered and vented sump from which the liquid 
shall be lifted and discharged into the building gravity drain- 
age system by automatic pumping equipment or other 
approved method. In other than existing structures, the sump 
shall not receive drainage from any piping within the building 
capable of being discharged by gravity to the building sewer. 

712.2 Valves required. A check valve and a full open valve 
located on the discharge side of the check valve shall be 
installed in the pump or ejector discharge piping between the 
pump or ejector and the gravity drainage system. Access shall 
be provided to such valves. Such valves shall be located 
above the sump cover required by Section 712.1 or, where the 
discharge pipe from the ejector is below grade, the valves 
shall be accessibly located outside the sump below grade in 
an access pit with a removable access cover. 

712.3 Sump design. The sump pump, pit and discharge pip- 
ing shall conform to the requirements of Sections 712.3.1 
through 7 12.3.5. 

712.3.1 Sump pump. The sump pump capacity and head 
shall be appropriate to anticipated use requirements. 

712.3.2 Sump pit. The sump pit shall be not less than 18 
inches (457 mm) in diameter and not less than 24 inches 
(610 mm) in depth, unless otherwise approved. The pit 
shall be accessible and located such that all drainage flows 



64 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 18 



SANITARY DRAINAGE 



into the pit by gravity. The sump pit shall be constructed 
of tile, concrete, steel, plastic or other approved materials. 
The pit bottom shall be solid and provide permanent sup- 
port for the pump. The sump pit shall be fitted with a gas- 
tight removable cover adequate to support anticipated 
loads in the area of use. The sump pit shall be vented in 
accordance with Chapter 9. 

712.3.3 Discharge pipe and fittings. Discharge pipe and 
fittings serving sump pumps and ejectors shall be con- 
structed of materials in accordance with Sections 
712.3.3.1 and 712.3.3.2 and shall be approved. 

712.3.3.1 Materials. Pipe and fitting materials shall be 
constructed of brass, copper, CPVC, ductile iron, PE, 
or PVC. 

712.3.3.2 Ratings. Pipe and fittings shall be rated for 
the maximum system operating pressure and tempera- 
ture. Pipe fitting materials shall be compatible with the 
pipe material. Where pipe and fittings are buried in the 
earth, they shall be suitable for burial. 

712.3.4 Maximum effluent level. The effluent level con- 
trol shall be adjusted and maintained to at all times prevent 
the effluent in the sump from rising to within 2 inches (5 1 
mm) of the invert of the gravity drain inlet into the sump. 

712.3.5. Pump connection to the drainage system. 
Pumps connected to the drainage system shall connect 
to a building sewer, building drain, soil stack, waste 
stack or horizontal branch drain. Where the discharge 
line connects into horizontal drainage piping, the con- 
nection shall be made through a wye fitting into the top 
of the drainage piping and such wye fitting shall be 
located not less than 10 pipe diameters from the base of 
any soil stack, waste stack or fixture drain. 
712.4 Sewage pumps and sewage ejectors. A sewage pump 
or sewage ejector shall automatically discharge the contents 
of the sump to the building drainage system. 

712.4.1 Macerating toilet systems. Macerating toilet sys- 
tems shall comply with CSA B45.9 or ASME Al 12.3.4 
and shall be installed in accordance with the manufac- 
turer's installation instructions. 

712.4.2 Capacity. A sewage pump or sewage ejector shall 
have the capacity and head for the application require- 
ments. Pumps or ejectors that receive the discharge of 
water closets shall be capable of handling spherical solids 
with a diameter of up to and including 2 inches (51 mm). 
Other pumps or ejectors shall be capable of handling 
spherical solids with a diameter of up to and including 1 
inch (25.4 mm). The capacity of a pump or ejector based 
on the diameter of the discharge pipe shall be not less than 
that indicated in Table 712.4.2. 

Exceptions: 

1. Grinder pumps or grinder ejectors that receive 
the discharge of water closets shall have a dis- 
charge opening of not less than l'/ 4 inches (32 
mm). 



2. Macerating toilet assemblies that serve single 
water closets shall have a discharge opening of 
not less than 3 / 4 inch (19 mm). 

TABLE 712.4.2 
MINIMUM CAPACITY OF SEWAGE PUMP OR SEWAGE EJECTOR 



DIAMETER OF THE DISCHARGE 
PIPE (inches) 


CAPACITY OF PUMP OR EJECTOR 
(gpm) 


2 


21 


27, 


30 


3 


46 

... 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m. 



SECTION 713 
HEALTH CARE PLUMBING 

713.1 Scope. This section shall govern those aspects of health 
care plumbing systems that differ from plumbing systems in 
other structures. Health care plumbing systems shall conform 
to this section in addition to the other requirements of this 
code. The provisions of this section shall apply to the special 
devices and equipment installed and maintained in the fol- 
lowing occupancies: nursing homes; homes for the aged; 
orphanages; infirmaries; first aid stations; psychiatric facili- 
ties; clinics; professional offices of dentists and doctors; mor- 
tuaries; educational facilities; surgery, dentistry, research and 
testing laboratories; establishments manufacturing pharma- 
ceutical drugs and medicines; and other structures with simi- 
lar apparatus and equipment classified as plumbing. 

713.2 Bedpan washers and clinical sinks. Bedpan washers 
and clinical sinks shall connect to the drainage and vent sys- 
tem in accordance with the requirements for a water closet. 
Bedpan washers shall also connect to a local vent. 

713.3 Indirect waste. All sterilizers, steamers and condens- 
ers shall discharge to the drainage through an indirect waste 
pipe by means of an air gap. Where a battery of not more 
than three sterilizers discharges to an individual receptor, the 
distance between the receptor and a sterilizer shall not exceed 
8 feet (2438 mm). The indirect waste pipe on a bedpan 
steamer shall be trapped. 

713.4 Vacuum system station. Ready access shall be pro- 
vided to vacuum system station receptacles. Such receptacles 
shall be built into cabinets or recesses and shall be visible. 

713.5 Bottle system. Vacuum (fluid suction) systems 
intended for collecting, removing and disposing of blood, pus 
or other fluids by the bottle system shall be provided with 
receptacles equipped with an overflow prevention device at 
each vacuum outlet station. 

713.6 Central disposal system equipment. All central vac- 
uum (fluid suction) systems shall provide continuous service. 
Systems equipped with collecting or control tanks shall pro- 
vide for draining and cleaning of the tanks while the system is 
in operation. In hospitals, the system shall be connected to the 
emergency power system. The exhausts from a vacuum pump 
serving a vacuum (fluid suction) system shall discharge sepa- 
rately to open air above the roof. 



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713.7 Central vacuum or disposal systems. Where the 
waste from a central vacuum (fluid suction) system of the 
barometric-lag, collection-tank or bottle-disposal type is con- 
nected to the drainage system, the waste shall be directly con- 
nected to the sanitary drainage system through a trapped 
waste. 

713.7.1 Piping. The piping of a central vacuum (fluid suc- 
tion) system shall be of corrosion-resistant material with a 
smooth interior surface. A branch shall not be less than 7 2 
inch (12.7 mm) nominal pipe size for one outlet and shall 
be sized in accordance with the number of vacuum outlets. 
A main shall not be less than 1-inch (25 mm) nominal pipe 
size. The pipe sizing shall be increased in accordance with 
the manufacturer's instructions as stations are increased. 

713.7.2 Velocity. The velocity of airflow in a central vac- 
uum (fluid suction) system shall be less than 5,000 feet per 
minute (25 m/s). 

713.8 Vent connections prohibited. Connections between 
local vents serving bedpan washers or sterilizer vents serving 
sterilizing apparatus and normal sanitary plumbing systems 
are prohibited. Only one type of apparatus shall be served by 
a local vent. 

713.9 Local vents and stacks for bedpan washers. Bedpan 
washers shall be vented to open air above the roof by means 
of one or more local vents. The local vent for a bedpan 
washer shall not be less than a 2-inch-diameter (51 mm) pipe. 
A local vent serving a single bedpan washer is permitted to 
drain to the fixture served. 

713.9.1 Multiple installations. Where bedpan washers 
are located above each other on more than one floor, a 
local vent stack is permitted to be installed to receive the 
local vent on the various floors. Not more than three bed- 
pan washers shall be connected to a 2-inch (51 mm) local 
vent stack, not more than six to a 3-inch (76 mm) local 
vent stack and not more than 12 to a 4-inch (102 mm) 
local vent stack. In multiple installations, the connections 
between a bedpan washer local vent and a local vent stack 
shall be made with tee or tee-wye sanitary pattern drainage 
fittings installed in an upright position. 

713.9.2 Trap required. The bottom of the local vent 
stack, except where serving only one bedpan washer, shall 
be drained by means of a trapped and vented waste con- 
nection to the sanitary drainage system. The trap and 
waste shall be the same size as the local vent stack. 

713.9.3 Trap seal maintenance. A water supply pipe not 
less than 7 4 inch (6.4 mm) in diameter shall be taken from 
the flush supply of each bedpan washer on the discharge or 
fixture side of the vacuum breaker, shall be trapped to 
form not less than a 3-inch (76 mm) water seal, and shall 
be connected to the local vent stack on each floor. The 
water supply shall be installed so as to provide a supply of 
water to the local vent stack for cleansing and drain trap 
seal maintenance each time a bedpan washer is flushed. 



713.10 Sterilizer vents and stacks. Multiple installations of 
pressure and nonpressure sterilizers shall have the vent con- 
nections to the sterilizer vent stack made by means of 
inverted wye fittings. Access shall be provided to vent con- 
nections for the purpose of inspection and maintenance. 

713.10.1 Drainage. The connection between sterilizer 
vent or exhaust openings and the sterilizer vent stack shall 
be designed and installed to drain to the funnel or basket- 
type waste fitting. In multiple installations, the sterilizer 
vent stack shall be drained separately to the lowest steril- 
izer funnel or basket-type waste fitting or receptor. 

713.11 Sterilizer vent stack sizes. Sterilizer vent stack sizes 
shall comply with Sections 713.11.1 through 713.11.4. 

713.11.1 Bedpan steamers. The minimum size of a steril- 
izer vent serving a bedpan steamer shall be 1 7 2 inches (38 
mm) in diameter. Multiple installations shall be sized in 
accordance with Table 713.11.1. 

TABLE 713.11.1 

STACK SIZES FOR BEDPAN STEAMERS AND BOILING-TYPE 

STERILIZERS (Number of Connections of Various Sizes 

Permitted to Various-sized Sterilizer Vent Stacks) 



STACK SIZE 
(inches) 


CONNECTION SIZE 


IV 




2" 


17/ 


1 


or 





T 


2 


or 


1 


2 b 


1 


and 


1 


y 


4 


or 


2 


3 b 


2 


and 


2 


4 a 


8 


or 


4 


4 b 


4 


and 


4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Total of each size. 

b. Combination of sizes. 

713.11.2 Boiling-type sterilizers. The size of a sterilizer 
vent stack shall be not less than 2 inches (51 mm) in diam- 
eter where serving a utensil sterilizer and not less than 1 7 2 
inches (38 mm) in diameter where serving an instrument 
sterilizer. Combinations of boiling-type sterilizer vent 
connections shall be sized in accordance with Table 
713.11.1. 

713.11.3 Pressure sterilizers. Pressure sterilizer vent 
stacks shall be 27 2 inches (64 mm) minimum. Those serv- 
ing combinations of pressure sterilizer exhaust connec- 
tions shall be sized in accordance with Table 713.11.3. 

713.11.4 Pressure instrument washer sterilizer sizes. 
The diameter of a sterilizer vent stack serving an instru- 
ment washer sterilizer shall be not less than 2 inches (51 
mm). Not more than two sterilizers shall be installed on a 
2-inch (51 mm) stack, and not more than four sterilizers 
shall be installed on a 3-inch (76 mm) stack. 



66 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



TABLE 713.11.3 

STACK SIZES FOR PRESSURE STERILIZERS 

(Number of Connections of Various Sizes 

Permitted To Various-sized Vent Stacks) 



STACK 

SIZE 
(inches) 


CONNECTION SIZE 


3, „ 

'A 


1" 


1V 4 " 


1V 


17/ 


3 or 


2 or 


1 


— 


I7 2 b 


2 and 


1 


— 


— 


T 


6 or 


3 or 


2 or 


1 


2 b 


3 and 


2 


— 


— 


2 h 


2 and 


1 and 


1 


— 


2" 


1 and 


1 and 


— 


1 


3 a 


15 or 


7 or 


5 or 


3 


3 b 


1 and 


1 and 
5 and 


2 and 


2 
1 



For SI: ) inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Total of each size. 

b. Combination of sizes. 



SECTION 714 
COMPUTERIZED DRAINAGE DESIGN 

714.1 Design of drainage system. The sizing, design and 
layout of the drainage system shall be permitted to be 
designed by approved computer design methods. 

714.2 Load on drainage system. The load shall be computed 
from the simultaneous or sequential discharge conditions 
from fixtures, appurtenances and appliances or the peak 
usage design condition. 

714.2.1 Fixture discharge profiles. The discharge pro- 
files for flow rates versus time from fixtures and appli- 
ances shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's 
specifications. 

714.3 Selections of drainage pipe sizes. Pipe shall be sized 
to prevent full-bore flow. 

714.3.1 Selecting pipe wall roughness. Pipe size calcula- 
tions shall be conducted with the pipe wall roughness fac- 
tor (ks), in accordance with the manufacturer's 
specifications and as modified for aging roughness factors 
with deposits and corrosion. 

714.3.2 Slope of horizontal drainage piping. Horizontal 
drainage piping shall be designed and installed at slopes in 
accordance with Table 704. 1 . 



SECTION 715 
BACKWATER VALVES 

715.1 Sewage backflow. Where plumbing fixtures are 
installed on a floor with a finished floor elevation below the 
elevation of the manhole cover of the next upstream manhole 
in the public sewer, such fixtures shall be protected by a 
backwater valve installed in the building drain, or horizontal 
branch serving such fixtures. Plumbing fixtures installed on a 
floor with a finished floor elevation above the elevation of the 
manhole cover of the next upstream manhole in the public 
sewer shall not discharge through a backwater valve. 



SANITARY DRAINAGE 



715.2 Material. All bearing parts of backwater valves shall 
be of corrosion-resistant material. Backwater valves shall 
comply with ASME Al 12. 14.1, CSA B 181.1 or CSA 
B181.2. 

715.3 Seal. Backwater valves shall be so constructed as to 
provide a mechanical seal against backflow. 

715.4 Diameter. Backwater valves, when fully opened, shall 
have a capacity not less than that of the pipes in which they 
are installed. 

715.5 Location. Backwater valves shall be installed so that 
access is provided to the working parts for service and repair. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



67 



68 2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 8 
llMLIIrflZw I/wrCvIAL W#%5> B t 



SECTION 801 
GENERAL 

801.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern matters concerning 
indirect waste piping and special wastes. This chapter shall 
further control matters concerning food-handling establish- 
ments, sterilizers, clear-water wastes, swimming pools, meth- 
ods of providing air breaks or air gaps, and neutralizing 
devices for corrosive wastes. 

801.2 Protection. Devices, appurtenances, appliances and 
apparatus intended to serve some special function, such as 
sterilization, distillation, processing, cooling, or storage of ice 
or foods, and that discharge to the drainage system, shall be 
provided with protection against backflow, flooding, fouling, 
contamination and stoppage of the drain. 



SECTION 802 
INDIRECT WASTES 

802.1 Where required. Food-handling equipment and clear- 
water waste shall discharge through an indirect waste pipe as 
specified in Sections 802.1.1 through 802.1.8. All health-care 
related fixtures, devices and equipment shall discharge to the 
drainage system through an indirect waste pipe by means of 
an air gap in accordance with this chapter and Section 713.3. 
Fixtures not required by this section to be indirectly con- 
nected shall be directly connected to the plumbing system in 
accordance with Chapter 7. 

802.1.1 Food handling. Equipment and fixtures utilized 
for the storage, preparation and handling of food shall dis- 
charge through an indirect waste pipe by means of an air 
gap. 

802.1.2 Floor drains in food storage areas. Floor drains 
located within walk-in refrigerators or freezers in food ser- 
vice and food establishments shall be indirectly connected 
to the sanitary drainage system by means of an air gap. 
Where a floor drain is located within an area subject to 
freezing, the waste line serving the floor drain shall not be 
trapped and shall indirectly discharge into a waste receptor 
located outside of the area subject to freezing. 

Exception: Where protected against backflow by a 
backwater valve, such floor drains shall be indirectly 
connected to the sanitary drainage system by means of 
an air break or an air gap. 

802.1.3 Potable clear-water waste. Where devices and 
equipment, such as sterilizers and relief valves, discharge 
potable water to the building drainage system, the dis- 
charge shall be through an indirect waste pipe by means of 
an air gap. 

802.1.4 Swimming pools. Where waste water from swim- 
ming pools, backwash from filters and water from pool 
deck drains discharge to the building drainage system, the 



discharge shall be through an indirect waste pipe by means 
of an air gap. 

802.1.5 Nonpotable clear- water waste. Where devices 
and equipment such as process tanks, filters, drips and 
boilers discharge nonpotable water to the building drain- 
age system, the discharge shall be through an indirect 
waste pipe by means of an air break or an air gap. 

802.1.6 Domestic dishwashing machines. Domestic 
dishwashing machines shall discharge indirectly through 
an air gap or air break into a standpipe or waste receptor 
in accordance with Section 802.2, or discharge into a wye- 
branch fitting on the tailpiece of the kitchen sink or the 
dishwasher connection of a food waste grinder. The waste 
line of a domestic dishwashing machine discharging into a 
kitchen sink tailpiece or food waste grinder shall connect 
to a deck-mounted air gap or the waste line shall rise and 
be securely fastened to the underside of the sink rim or 
counter. 

802. J. 7 Commercial dishwashing machines. The dis- 
charge from a commercial dishwashing machine shall be 
through an air gap or air break into a standpipe or waste 
receptor in accordance with Section 802.2. 

802.1.8 Food utensils, dishes, pots and pans sinks. Sinks 
used for the washing, rinsing or sanitizing of utensils, 
dishes, pots, pans or service ware used in the preparation, 
serving or eating of food shall discharge indirectly through 
an air gap or an air break to the drainage system. | 

802.2 Installation. Indirect waste piping shall discharge 
through an air gap or air break into a waste receptor. Waste | 
receptors and standpipes shall be trapped and vented and 
shall connect to the building drainage system. All indirect 
waste piping that exceeds 30 inches (762 mm) in developed I 
length measured horizontally, or 54 inches (1372 mm) in total § 
developed length, shall be trapped. 

Exception: Where a waste receptor receives only clear- 1 
water waste and does not directly connect to a sanitary j 
drainage system, the receptor shall not require a trap. | 

802.2.1 Air gap. The air gap between the indirect waste 
pipe and the flood level rim of the waste receptor shall be 
not less than twice the effective opening of the indirect 
waste pipe. 

802.2.2 Air break. An air break shall be provided 
between the indirect waste pipe and the trap seal of the 
waste receptor or standpipe. 

802.3 Waste receptors. Waste receptors shall be of an 
approved type. A removable strainer or basket shall cover the 
waste outlet of waste receptors. Waste receptors shall be 
installed in ventilated spaces. Waste receptors shall not be 
installed in bathrooms, toilet rooms, plenums, crawl spaces, 1 
attics, interstitial spaces above ceilings and below floors or in 1 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



69 



INDIRECT/SPECIAL WASTE 



any inaccessible or unventilated space such as a closet or 
storeroom. Ready access shall be provided to waste receptors. 

802.3.1 Size of receptors. A waste receptor shall be sized 
for the maximum discharge of all indirect waste pipes 
served by the receptor. Receptors shall be installed to pre- 
vent splashing or flooding. 

802.3.2 Open hub waste receptors. Waste receptors shall 
be permitted in the form of a hub or pipe extending not 
less than 1 inch (25.4 mm) above a water-impervious floor 
and are not required to have a strainer. 

802.4 Standpipes. Standpipes shall be individually trapped. 
Standpipes shall extend not less than 18 inches (457 mm) but 
not greater than 42 inches (1066 mm) above the trap weir. 
Access shall be provided to all standpipes and drains for rod- 
ding. 



SECTION 803 
SPECIAL WASTES 

803.1 Waste water temperature. Steam pipes shall not con- 
nect to any part of a drainage or plumbing system and water 
above 140°F (60°C) shall not be discharged into any part of a 
drainage system. Such pipes shall discharge into an indirect 
waste receptor connected to the drainage system. 

803.2 Neutralizing device required for corrosive wastes. 
Corrosive liquids, spent acids or other harmful chemicals that 
destroy or injure a drain, sewer, soil or waste pipe, or create 
noxious or toxic fumes or interfere with sewage treatment 
processes shall not be discharged into the plumbing system 
without being thoroughly diluted, neutralized or treated by 
passing through an approved dilution or neutralizing device. 
Such devices shall be automatically provided with a suffi- 
cient supply of diluting water or neutralizing medium so as to 
make the contents noninjurious before discharge into the 
drainage system. The nature of the corrosive or harmful waste 
and the method of its treatment or dilution shall be approved 
prior to installation. 

803.3 System design. A chemical drainage and vent system 
shall be designed and installed in accordance with this code. 
Chemical drainage and vent systems shall be completely sep- 
arated from the sanitary systems. Chemical waste shall not 
discharge to a sanitary drainage system until such waste has 
been treated in accordance with Section 803.2. 



SECTION 804 
MATERIALS, JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 

804.1 General. The materials and methods utilized for the 
construction and installation of indirect waste pipes and sys- 
tems shall comply with the applicable provisions of Chapter 

7. 



70 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 9 

VENTS 



(Note that Chapter 9 has been reorganized to present the main sections in a more logical order. For clarity of presenta- 
tion, the star and double-star scheme normally used to indicate text that has been relocated was not used for this text 

reorganization.) 



SECTION 901 
GENERAL 

901.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
materials, design, construction and installation of vent sys- 
tems. 

901.2 Trap seal protection. The plumbing system shall be 
provided with a system of vent piping that will permit the 
admission or emission of air so that the seal of any fixture 
trap shall not be subjected to a pneumatic pressure differen- 
tial of more than 1 inch of water column (249 Pa). 

901.2.1 Venting required. Traps and trapped fixtures 
shall be vented in accordance with one of the venting 
methods specified in this chapter. 

901.3 Chemical waste vent systems. The vent system for a 
chemical waste system shall be independent of the sanitary 
vent system and shall terminate separately through the roof to 
the outdoors or to an air admittance valve that complies with 
ASSE 1049. Air admittance valves for chemical waste sys- 
tems shall be constructed of materials approved in accor- 
dance with Section 702.5 and shall be tested for chemical 
resistance in accordance with ASTM F 1412. 

901.4 Use limitations. The plumbing vent system shall not 
be utilized for purposes other than the venting of the plumb- 
ing system. 

901.5 Tests. The vent system shall be tested in accordance 
with Section 312. 

901.6 Engineered systems. Engineered venting systems 
shall conform to the provisions of Section 919. 



SECTION 902 
MATERIALS 

902.1 Vents. The materials and methods utilized for the con- 
struction and installation of venting systems shall comply 
with the applicable provisions of Section 702. 

902.2 Sheet copper. Sheet copper for vent pipe flashings 
shall conform to ASTM B 152 and shall weigh not less than 8 
ounces per square foot (2.5 kg/m 2 ). 

902.3 Sheet lead. Sheet lead for vent pipe flashings shall 
weigh not less than 3 pounds per square foot (15 kg/m 2 ) for 
field-constructed flashings and not less than 2'/ 2 pounds per 
square foot (12 kg/m 2 ) for prefabricated flashings. 



SECTION 903 
VENT TERMINALS 

903.1 Roof extension. Open vent pipes that extend through a 
roof shall be terminated not less than [number] inches (mm) 
above the roof, except that where a roof is to be used for any 
purpose other than weather protection, the vent extensions 
shall terminate not less than 7 feet (2134 mm) above the roof. 

903.2 Frost closure. Where the 97.5-percent value for out- 
side design temperature is 0°F (-18°C) or less, every vent 
extension through a roof or wall shall be not less than 3 
inches (76 mm) in diameter. Any increase in the size of the 
vent shall be made inside the structure at a point not less than 
1 foot (305 mm) below the roof or inside the wall. 

903.3 Flashings. The juncture of each vent pipe with the roof 
line shall be made water-tight by an approved flashing. 

903.4 Prohibited use. A vent terminal shall not be used for 
any purpose other than a vent terminal. 

903.5 Location of vent terminal. An open vent terminal 
from a drainage system shall not be located directly beneath 
any door, openable window, or other air intake opening of the 
building or of an adjacent building, and any such vent termi- 
nal shall not be within 1 feet (3048 mm) horizontally of such 
an opening unless it is 3 feet (914 mm) or more above the top 
of such opening. 

903.6 Extension through the wall. Vent terminals extending 
through the wall shall terminate at a point not less than 10 
feet (3048 mm) from a lot line and not less than 1 feet (3048 
mm) above average ground level. Vent terminals shall not 
terminate under the overhang of a structure with soffit vents. 
Side wall vent terminals shall be protected to prevent birds or 
rodents from entering or blocking the vent opening. 

903.7 Extension outside a structure. In climates where the 
97.5-percent value for outside design temperature is less than 
0°F (-18°C), vent pipes installed on the exterior of the struc- 
ture shall be protected against freezing by insulation, heat or 
both. 

SECTION 904 
OUTDOOR VENT EXTENSIONS 

904.1 Required vent extension. The vent system serving 
each building drain shall have not less than one vent pipe that 
extends to the outdoors. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



71 



VENTS 



904.1.1 Installation. The required vent shall be a dry vent 
that connects to the building drain or an extension of a 
drain that connects to the building drain. Such vent shall 
not be an island fixture vent as allowed by Section 916. 

904.1.2 Size. The required vent shall be sized in accor- 
dance with Section 906.2 based on the required size of the 
building drain. 

904.2 Vent stack required. A vent stack shall be required for 
every drainage stack that has five branch intervals or more. 

Exception: Drainage stacks installed in accordance with 
Section 913. 

904.3 Vent termination. Vent stacks or stack vents shall ter- 
minate outdoors to the open air or to a stack-type air admit- 
tance valve in accordance with Section 918. 

904.4 Vent connection at base. Vent stacks shall connect to 
the base of the drainage stack. The vent stack shall connect at 
or below the lowest horizontal branch. Where the vent stack 
connects to the building drain, the connection shall be located 
downstream of the drainage stack and within a distance of 10 
times the diameter of the drainage stack. 

904.5 Vent headers. Stack vents and vent stacks connected 
into a common vent header at the top of the stacks and 
extending to the open air at one point shall be sized in accor- 

| dance with the requirements of Section 906. 1 . The number of 
fixture units shall be the sum of all fixture units on all stacks 
connected thereto, and the developed length shall be the lon- 
gest vent length from the intersection at the base of the most 
distant stack to the vent terminal in the open air, as a direct 
extension of one stack. 



SECTION 905 
VENT CONNECTIONS AND GRADES 

905.1 Connection. All individual, branch and circuit vents 
shall connect to a vent stack, stack vent, air admittance valve 
or extend to the open air. 

905.2 Grade. All vent and branch vent pipes shall be so 
graded and connected as to drain back to the drainage pipe by 
gravity. 

905.3 Vent connection to drainage system. Every dry vent 
connecting to a horizontal drain shall connect above the cen- 
terline of the horizontal drain pipe. 

905.4 Vertical rise of vent. Every dry vent shall rise verti- 
cally to a point not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the 
flood level rim of the highest trap or trapped fixture being 
vented. 

Exception: Vents for interceptors located outdoors. 

905.5 Height above fixtures. A connection between a vent 
pipe and a vent stack or stack vent shall be made at not less 
than 6 inches (1 52 mm) above the flood level rim of the high- 
est fixture served by the vent. Horizontal vent pipes forming 
branch vents, relief vents or loop vents shall be located not 
less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the flood level rim of the 
highest fixture served. 



905.6 Vent for future fixtures. Where the drainage piping 
has been roughed-in for future fixtures, a rough-in connection 
for a vent shall be installed. The vent size shall be not less 
than one-half the diameter of the rough-in drain to be served. 
The vent rough-in shall connect to the vent system, or shall be 
vented by other means as provided for in this chapter. The 
connection shall be identified to indicate that it is a vent. 



SECTION 906 
VENT PIPE SIZING 

906.1 Size of stack vents and vent stacks. The minimum 
required diameter of stack vents and vent stacks shall be 
determined from the developed length and the total of drain- 
age fixture units connected thereto in accordance with Table 
906.1, but in no case shall the diameter be less than one-half 
the diameter of the drain served or less than 1 V 4 inches (32 
mm). 

906.2 Vents other than stack vents or vent stacks. The 
diameter of individual vents, branch vents, circuit vents and 
relief vents shall be not less than one-half the required diame- 
ter of the drain served. The required size of the drain shall be 
determined in accordance with Table 710.1(2). Vent pipes 
shall not be less than 1 V 4 inches (32 mm) in diameter. Vents 
exceeding 40 feet (12 192 mm) in developed length shall be 
increased by one nominal pipe size for the entire developed 
length of the vent pipe. Relief vents for soil and waste stacks 
in buildings having more than 10 branch intervals shall be 
sized in accordance with Section 908.2. 

906.3 Developed length. The developed length of individual, 
branch, circuit and relief vents shall be measured from the 
farthest point of vent connection to the drainage system to the 
point of connection to the vent stack, stack vent or termina- 
tion outside of the building. 

906.4 Multiple branch vents. Where multiple branch vents 
are connected to a common branch vent, the common branch 
vent shall be sized in accordance with this section based on 
the size of the common horizontal drainage branch that is or 
would be required to serve the total drainage fixture unit 
(dfu) load being vented. 

906.5 Sump vents. Sump vent sizes shall be determined in 
accordance with Sections 906.5.1 and 906.5.2. 

906.5.1 Sewage pumps and sewage ejectors other than 
pneumatic. Drainage piping below sewer level shall be 
vented in the same manner as that of a gravity system. 1 
Building sump vent sizes for sumps with sewage pumps or 
sewage ejectors, other than pneumatic, shall be determined 

in accordance with Table 906.5.1. 

906.5.2 Pneumatic sewage ejectors. The air pressure 
relief pipe from a pneumatic sewage ejector shall be con- 
nected to an independent vent stack terminating as 
required for vent extensions through the roof. The relief 
pipe shall be sized to relieve air pressure inside the ejector 
to atmospheric pressure, but shall not be less than l'/ 4 
inches (32 mm) in size. 



72 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



VENTS 



TABLE 906.1 
SIZE AND DEVELOPED LENGTH OF STACK VENTS AND VENT STACKS 



DIAMETER OF SOIL 

OR WASTE STACK 

(inches) 


TOTAL FIXTURE UNITS 
BEING VENTED (dfu) 


MAXIMUM DEVELOPED LENGTH OF VENT (feet) a 
DIAMETER OF VENT (inches) 


1V 4 


1V, 


2 


2% 


3 


4 


5 


6 


8 


10 


12 


l'/ 4 
1% 
1% 


2 
8 
10 


30 
50 
30 


150 
100 




















2 

2 

27, 


12 
20 

42 


30 
26 


75 
50 
30 


200 
150 
100 


300 
















3 
3 
3 


10 

21 
53 


— 


42 
32 
27 


150 
110 

94 


360 

270 
230 


1,040 
810 
680 














3 

4 
4 


102 
43 
140 


— 


25 


86 

35 

27 


210 
85 
65 


620 
250 
200 


980 
750 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


4 
4 
5 


320 
540 
190 


— 


— 


23 
21 


55 
50 
28 


170 
150 

82 


640 
580 
320 


990 


— 


— 


— 


— 


5 

5 
5 


490 
940 
1,400 


— 


— 


— 


21 
18 
16 


63 

53 
49 


250 
210 
190 


760 
670 
590 


— 


— 


— 


— 


6 
6 
6 


500 
1,100 
2,000 


— 


— 


— 


— 


33 
26 

22 


130 
100 

84 


400 
310 
260 


1,000 

780 
660 


— 


— 


— 


6 
8 
8 


2,900 
1,800 
3,400 


— 


— 


— 


— 


20 


77 
31 

24 


240 
95 
73 


600 
240 
190 


940 

729 


— 


— 


8 
8 
10 


5,600 
7,600 
4,000 












20 
18 


62 
56 
31 


160 
140 
78 


610 
560 
310 


960 


— 


10 
10 
10 


7,200 
11,000 
15,000 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


24 
20 
18 


60 
51 

46 


240 
200 
180 


740 
630 
571 


— 


12 
12 
12 


7,300 
13,000 
20,000 
















31 
24 
20 


120 
94 
79 


380 
300 
250 


940 
720 
610 


12 
15 
15 


26,000 
15,000 
25,000 


— 














18 


72 
40 
31 


230 
130 
96 


500 
310 
240 


15 
15 


38,000 
50,000 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


26 

24 


81 

74 


200 
180 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a.The developed length shall be measured from the vent connection to the open air. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



73 



VENTS 



TABLE 906.5.1 
SIZE AND LENGTH OF SUMP VENTS 



DISCHARGE CAPACITY OF 
PUMP 
(gpm) 


MAXIMUM DEVELOPED LENGTH OF VENT (feet)" 


Diameter of vent (inches) 


IV, 


IV, 


2 


2% 


3 


4 


10 


No limit" 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


20 


270 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


40 


72 


160 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


60 


31 


75 


270 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


80 


16 


41 


150 


380 


No limit 


No limit 


100 


10 c 


25 


97 


250 


No limit 


No limit 


150 


Not permitted 


10 c 


44 


110 


370 


No limit 


200 


Not permitted 


Not permitted 


20 


60 


210 


No limit 


250 


Not permitted 


Not permitted 


10 


36 


132 


No limit 


300 


Not permitted 


Not permitted 


10 c 


22 


88 


380 


400 


Not permitted 


Not permitted 


Not permitted 


10 c 


44 


210 


500 


Not permitted 


Not permitted 


Not permitted 


Not permitted 


24 


130 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m. 

a. Developed length plus an appropriate allowance for entrance losses and friction due to fittings, changes in direction and diameter. Suggested allowances shall 
be obtained from NBS Monograph 3 1 or other approved sources. An allowance of 50 percent of the developed length shall be assumed if a more precise value 
is not available. 

b. Actual values greater than 500 feet. 

c. Less than 10 feet. 



SECTION 907 
VENTS FOR STACK OFFSETS 

907.1 Vent for horizontal offset of drainage stack. Hori- 
zontal offsets of drainage stacks shall be vented where five or 
more branch intervals are located above the offset. The offset 
shall be vented by venting the upper section of the drainage 
stack and the lower section of the drainage stack. 

907.2 Upper section. The upper section of the drainage stack 
shall be vented as a separate stack with a vent stack connec- 
tion installed in accordance with Section 904.4. The offset 
shall be considered the base of the stack. 

907.3 Lower section. The lower section of the drainage stack 
shall be vented by a yoke vent connecting between the offset 
and the next lower horizontal branch. The yoke vent connec- 
tion shall be permitted to be a vertical extension of the drain- 
age stack. The size of the yoke vent and connection shall be a 
minimum of the size required for the vent stack of the drain- 
age stack. 



SECTION 908 

RELIEF VENTS— STACKS OF MORE THAN 10 

BRANCH INTERVALS 

908.1 Where required. Soil and waste stacks in buildings 
having more than 1 branch intervals shall be provided with 
a relief vent at each tenth interval installed, beginning with 
the top floor. 

908.2 Size and connection. The size of the relief vent shall 
be equal to the size of the vent stack to which it connects. The 
lower end of each relief vent shall connect to the soil or waste 
stack through a wye below the horizontal branch serving the 



floor, and the upper end shall connect to the vent stack 
through a wye not less than 3 feet (914 mm) above the floor. 



SECTION 909 
FIXTURE VENTS 

909.1 Distance of trap from vent. Each fixture trap shall 
have a protecting vent located so that the slope and the devel- 
oped length in the fixture drain from the trap weir to the vent 
fitting are within the requirements set forth in Table 909.1 . 

Exception: The developed length of the fixture drain from 
the trap weir to the vent fitting for self-siphoning fixtures, 
such as water closets, shall not be limited. 

TABLE 909.1 
MAXIMUM DISTANCE OF FIXTURE TRAP FROM VENT 



SIZE OF TRAP 
(inches) 


SLOPE 
(inch per foot) 


DISTANCE FROM TRAP 
(feet) 


l'/ 4 


'4 


5 


l'/ 2 


]/ 
M 


6 


2 


'4 


8 


3 


J / 
'8 


12 


4 


)/ 
'8 


16 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 inch per foot = 83.3 mm/m. 

909.2 Venting of fixture drains. The total fall in a fixture 
drain due to pipe slope shall not exceed the diameter of the 
fixture drain, nor shall the vent connection to & fixture drain, 
except for water closets, be below the weir of the trap. 

909.3 Crown vent. A vent shall not be installed within two 
pipe diameters of the trap weir. 



74 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



VENTS 



SECTION 910 
INDIVIDUAL VENT 

910.1 Individual vent permitted. Each trap and trapped fix- 
ture is permitted to be provided with an individual vent. The 
individual vent shall connect to the fixture drain of the trap or 
trapped fixture being vented. 



SECTION 911 
COMMON VENT 

911.1 Individual vent as common vent. An individual vent 
is permitted to vent two traps or trapped fixtures as a common 
vent. The traps or trapped fixtures being common vented 
shall be located on the same floor level. 

911.2 Connection at the same level. Where the fixture 
drains being common vented connect at the same level, the 
vent connection shall be at the interconnection of the fixture 
drains or downstream of the interconnection. 

911.3 Connection at different levels. Where the fixture 
drains connect at different levels, the vent shall connect as a 
vertical extension of the vertical drain. The vertical drain pipe 
connecting the two fixture drains shall be considered the vent 
for the lower fixture drain, and shall be sized in accordance 
with Table 911.3. The upper fixture shall not be a water 
closet. 

TABLE 911.3 
COMMON VENT SIZES 



PIPE SIZE 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM DISCHARGE FROM UPPER 
FIXTURE DRAIN (dfu) 


I7 2 


1 


2 


4 


27 2 to3 


6 



same elevation. Other fixture drains shall connect above or 
at the same elevation as the water closet fixture drains. 
The dry-vent connection to the vertical wet vent shall be 
an individual or common vent serving one or two fixtures. 

912.2 Dry vent connection. The required dry-vent connec- 
tion for wet-vented systems shall comply with Sections 
912.2.1 and 912.2.2. 

912.2.1 Horizontal wet vent. The dry-vent connection for 
a horizontal wet-vent system shall be an individual vent or 
a common vent for any bathroom group fixture, except an 
emergency floor drain. Where the dry-vent connects to a 
water closet fixture drain, the drain shall connect horizon- 
tally to the horizontal wet- vent system. Not more than one 
wet-vented fixture drain shall discharge upstream of the 
dry-vented fixture drain connection. 

912.2.2 Vertical wet vent. The dry-vent connection for a 
vertical wet-vent system shall be an individual vent or 
common vent for the most upstream fixture drain. 

912.3 Size. The dry vent serving the wet vent shall be sized 
based on the largest required diameter of pipe within the wet- 
vent system served by the dry vent. The wet vent shall be of a 
size not less than that specified in Table 91 2.3, based on the 
fixture unit discharge to the wet vent. 

TABLE 912.3 
WET VENT SIZE 



WET VENT PIPE SIZE 
(inches) 


DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT LOAD (dfu) 


i __ 17 2 


l 


2 


4 


27 2 


6 


3 


12 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm. 



SECTION 912 
WET VENTING 

912.1 Horizontal wet vent permitted. Any combination of 
fixtures within two bathroom groups located on the same 
floor level is permitted to be vented by a horizontal wet vent. 
The wet vent shall be considered the vent for the fixtures and 
shall extend from the connection of the dry vent along the 
direction of the flow in the drain pipe to the most downstream 
fixture drain connection to the horizontal branch drain. Each 
wet- vented fixture drain shall connect independently to the 
horizontal wet vent. Only the fixtures within the bathroom 
groups shall connect to the wet-vented horizontal branch 
drain. Any additional fixtures shall discharge downstream of 
the horizontal wet vent. 

912.1.1 Vertical wet vent permitted. Any combination of 
fixtures within two bathroom groups located on the same 
floor level is permitted to be vented by a vertical wet vent. 
The vertical wet vent shall be considered the vent for the 
fixtures and shall extend from the connection of the dry 
vent down to the lowest fixture drain connection. Each 
wet-vented fixture shall connect independently to the ver- 
tical wet vent. Water closet drains shall connect at the 



SECTION 913 
WASTE STACK VENT 

913.1 Waste stack vent permitted. A waste stack shall be 
considered a vent for all of the fixtures discharging to the 
stack where installed in accordance with the requirements of 
this section. 

913.2 Stack installation. The waste stack shall be vertical, 
and both horizontal and vertical offsets shall be prohibited 
between the lowest fixture drain connection and the highest 
fixture drain connection. Fixture drains shall connect sepa- 
rately to the waste stack. The stack shall not receive the dis- 
charge of water closets or urinals. 

913.3 Stack vent. A stack vent shall be provided for the 
waste stack. The size of the stack vent shall be not less than 
the size of the waste stack. Offsets shall be permitted in the 
stack vent, shall be located not less than 6 inches (152 mm) 
above the flood level of the highest fixture and shall be in 
accordance with Section 905.2. The stack vent shall be per- 
mitted to connect with other stack vents and vent stacks in 
accordance with Section 904.5. 

913.4 Waste stack size. The waste stack shall be sized based 
on the total discharge to the stack and the discharge within a 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



75 



VENTS 



branch interval in accordance with Table 913.4. The waste 
stack shall be the same size throughout its length. 

TABLE 913.4 
WASTE STACK VENT SSZE 



STACK SIZE 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM NUMBER OF DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS 
(dfu) 


Total discharge into one 
branch interval 


Total discharge tor 
stack 


1V 2 


1 


2 


2 


2 


4 


2% 


No limit 


8 


3 


No limit 


24 


4 


No limit 


50 


5 


No limit 


75 


6 


No limit 


100 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm. 



SECTION 914 
CIRCUIT VENTING 

914.1 Circuit vent permitted. A maximum of eight fixtures 
connected to a horizontal branch drain shall be permitted to 
be circuit vented. Each fixture drain shall connect horizon- 
tally to the horizontal branch being circuit vented. The hori- 
zontal branch drain shall be classified as a vent from the most 
downstream fixture drain connection to the most upstream 
fixture drain connection to the horizontal branch. 

914.1.1 Multiple circuit-vented branches. Circuit- 
vented horizontal branch drains are permitted to be con- 
nected together. Each group of a maximum of eight fix- 
tures shall be considered a separate circuit vent and shall 
conform to the requirements of this section. 

914.2 Vent connection. The circuit vent connection shall be 
located between the two most upstream fixture drains. The 
vent shall connect to the horizontal branch and shall be 
installed in accordance with Section 905. The circuit vent 
pipe shall not receive the discharge of any soil or waste. 

914.3 Slope and size of horizontal branch. The slope of the 
vent section of the horizontal branch drain shall be not greater 
than one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8.3-percent 
slope). The entire length of the vent section of the horizontal 
branch drain shall be sized for the total drainage discharge to 
the branch. 

914.3.1 Size of multiple circuit vent. Each separate cir- 
cuit-vented horizontal branch that is interconnected shall 
be sized independently in accordance with Section 914.3. 
The downstream circuit-vented horizontal branch shall be 
sized for the total discharge into the branch, including the 
upstream branches and the fixtures within the branch. 

914.4 Relief vent. A relief vent shall be provided for circuit- 
vented horizontal branches receiving the discharge of four or 
more water closets and connecting to a drainage stack that 
receives the discharge of soil or waste from upper horizontal 
branches. 



914.4.1 Connection and installation. The relief vent shall 
connect to the horizontal branch drain between the stack 
and the most downstream jfatfH re drain of the circuit vent. 
The relief vent shall be installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 905. 

914.4.2 Fixture drain or branch. The relief vent is per- 
mitted to be a fixture drain or fixture branch for fixtures 
located within the same branch interval as the circuit- 
vented horizontal branch. The maximum discharge to a 
relief vent shall be four fixture units. 

914.5 Additional fixtures. Fixtures, other than the circuit- 
vented fixtures, are permitted to discharge to the horizontal 
branch drain. Such fixtures shall be located on the same floor 
as the circuit-vented fixtures and shall be either individually 
or common vented. 



SECTION 915 
COMBINATION WASTE AND VENT SYSTEM j 

915.1 Type of fixtures. A combination waste and vent sys- j 
tern shall not serve fixtures other than floor drains, sinks, lav- 
atories and drinking fountains. Combination waste and vent | 
systems shall not receive the discharge from a food waste 
grinder or clinical sink. 

915.2 Installation. The only vertical pipe of a combination 1 
waste and vent system shall be the connection between the 1 
fixture drain and the horizontal combination waste and vent j 
pipe. The vertical distance shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm). 

915.2.1 Slope. The slope of a horizontal combination 1 
waste and vent pipe shall not exceed one-half unit vertical ( 
in 12 units horizontal (4-percent slope) and shall not be 
less than that indicated in Table 704.1 . 

915.2.2 Connection. The combination waste and vent sys- | 
tern shall be provided with a dry vent connected at any 
point within the system or the system shall connect to a 
horizontal drain that is vented in accordance with one of 
the venting methods specified in this chapter. Combina- | 
tion waste and vent systems connecting to building drains [ 
receiving only the discharge from a stack or stacks shall be 
provided with a dry vent. The vent connection to the com- 1 
bination waste and vent pipe shall extend vertically to a | 
point not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the flood 
level rim of the highest fixture being vented before offset- 
ting horizontally. The horizontal length of a combination I 
waste and vent system shall be unlimited. | 

915.2.3 Vent size. The vent shall be sized for the total 
drainage fixture unit load in accordance with Section 
916.2. 

915.2.4 Fixture branch or drain. The fixture branch or 
fixture drain shall connect to the combination waste and j 
vent within a distance specified in Table 909.1. The com- I 
bination waste and vent pipe shall be considered the vent | 
for the fixture. 

915.3 Size. The size of a combination waste and vent pipe shall | 
not be less than that indicated in Table 915.3. 



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2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



VENTS 



TABLE 915.3 
SIZE OF COMBINATION WASTE AND VENT PIPE 



DIAMETER 

PIPE 

(inches) 


MAXIMUM NUMBER OF DRAINAGE 
FIXTURE UNITS (dfu) 


Connecting to a 

horizontal branch 

or stack 


Connecting to a building 

drain or building 

subdrain 


2 


3 


4 


2'/ 2 


6 


26 


3 


12 


31 


4 


20 


50 


5 


160 


250 


6 


360 


575 



be the same size as the drainage stack. A 3-inch (76 mm) stack 
shall serve not more than two water closets. 

TABLE 917.2 
SINGLE STACK SIZE 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm. 



SECTION 916 
ISLAND FIXTURE VENTING 

916.1 Limitation. Island fixture venting shall not be permit- 
ted for fixtures other than sinks and lavatories. Residential 
kitchen sinks with a dishwasher waste connection, a food 
waste grinder, or both, in combination with the kitchen sink 
waste, shall be permitted to be vented in accordance with this 
section. 

916.2 Vent connection. The island fixture vent shall connect 
to the fixture drain as required for an individual or common 
vent. The vent shall rise vertically to above the drainage out- 
let of the fixture being vented before offsetting horizontally 
or vertically downward. The vent or branch vent for multiple 
island fixture vents shall extend to a point not less than 6 
inches (152 mm) above the highest island fixture being 
vented before connecting to the outside vent terminal. 

916.3 Vent installation below the fixture flood level rim. 
The vent located below the flood level rim of the fixture being 
vented shall be installed as required for drainage piping in 
accordance with Chapter 7, except for sizing. The vent shall 
be sized in accordance with Section 906.2. The lowest point 
of the island fixture vent shall connect full size to the drain- 
age system. The connection shall be to a vertical drain pipe or 
to the top half of a horizontal drain pipe. Cleanouts shall be 
provided in the island fixture vent to permit rodding of all 
vent piping located below the flood level rim of the fixtures. 
Rodding in both directions shall be permitted through a clea- 
nout. 



SECTION 917 
SINGLE STACK VENT SYSTEM 

917.1 Where permitted. A drainage stack shall serve as a 
single stack vent system where sized and installed in accor- 
dance with Sections 917.2 through 917.9. The drainage stack 
and branch piping shall be the vents for the drainage system. 
The drainage stack shall have a stack vent. 

917.2 Stack size. Drainage stacks shall be sized in accordance 
with Table 917.2. Stacks shall be uniformly sized based on the 
total connected drainage fixture unit load. The stack vent shall 



STACK SIZE 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM CONNECTED DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS 


Stacks less than 
75 feet in height 


Stacks 75 feet to 

less than 160 feet 

in height 


Stacks 160 feet 

and greater in 

height 


3 


24 


NP 


NP 


4 


225 


24 


NP 


5 


480 


225 


24 


6 


1,015 


480 


225 


8 


2,320 


1,015 


480 


10 


4,500 


2,320 


1,015 


12 


8,100 


4,500 


2,320 


15 


13,600 


8,100 


4,500 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

917.3 Branch size. Horizontal branches connecting to a sin- 
gle stack vent system shall be sized in accordance with Table 
710.1(2). Not more than one water closet shall discharge into 
a 3-inch (76 mm) horizontal branch at a point within a devel- 
oped length of 18 inches (457 mm) measured horizontally 
from the stack. 

Where a water closet is within 1 8 inches (457 mm) mea- 
sured horizontally from the stack and not more than one fix- 
ture with a drain size of not more than 1 V 2 inch (38 mm) 
connects to a 3-inch (76 mm) horizontal branch, the branch 
drain connection to the stack shall be made with a sanitary 
tee. 

917.4 Length of horizontal branches. The length of hori- 
zontal branches shall conform to the requirements of Sections 
917.4.1 through 917.4.3. 

917.4.1 Water closet connection. Water closet connec- 
tions shall be not greater than 4 feet (1219 mm) in devel- 
oped length measured horizontally from the stack. 

Exception: Where the connection is made with a sani- 
tary tee, the maximum developed length shall be 8 feet 
(2438 mm). 

917.4.2 Fixture connections. Fixtures other than water 
closets shall be located not greater than 12 feet (3657 mm) 
in developed length, measured horizontally from the stack. 

917.4.3 Vertical piping in branch. The length of vertical 
piping in a fixture drain connecting to a horizontal branch 
shall not be considered in computing the fixture's distance 
in developed length measured horizontally from the stack. 

917.5 Minimum vertical piping size from fixture. The ver- 
tical portion of piping in a fixture drain to a horizontal branch 
shall be 2 inches (51 mm). The minimum size of the vertical 
portion of piping for a water-supplied urinal or standpipe 
shall be 3 inches (76 mm). The maximum vertical drop shall 
be 4 feet (1219 mm). Fixture drains that are not increased in 
size, or have a vertical drop in excess of 4 feet (1219 mm) 
shall be individually vented. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



77 



VENTS 



917.6 Additional venting required. Additional venting shall 
be provided where more than one water closet discharges to a 
horizontal branch and where the distance from a fixture trap 
to the stack exceeds the limits in Section 917.4. Where addi- 
tional venting is required, the fixture(s) shall be vented by 
individual vents, common vents, wet vents, circuit vents, or a 
combination waste and vent pipe. The dry vent extensions for 
the additional venting shall connect to a branch vent, vent 
stack, stack vent, air admittance valve, or shall terminate out- 
doors. 

917.7 Stack offsets. Where fixture drains are not connected 
below a horizontal offset in a stack, a horizontal offset shall 
not be required to be vented. Where horizontal branches or 
fixture drains are connected below a horizontal offset in a 
stack, the offset shall be vented in accordance with Section 
907. Fixture connections shall not be made to a stack within 2 
feet (610 mm) above or below a horizontal offset. 

917.8 Prohibited lower connections. Stacks greater than 2 
branch intervals in height shall not receive the discharge of 
horizontal branches on the lower two floors. There shall be 
no connections to the stack between the lower two floors and 
a distance of not less than 10 pipe diameters downstream 
from the base of the single stack vented system. 

917.9 Sizing building drains and sewers. The building 
drain and building sewer receiving the discharge of a single 
stack vent system shall be sized in accordance with Table 
710.1(1). 



SECTION 918 
AIR ADMITTANCE VALVES 

918.1 General. Vent systems utilizing air admittance valves 
shall comply with this section. Stack-type air admittance 
valves shall conform to ASSE 1050. Individual and branch- 
type air admittance valves shall conform to ASSE 1051. 

918.2 Installation. The valves shall be installed in accor- 
dance with the requirements of this section and the manufac- 
turer's installation instructions. Air admittance valves shall 
be installed after the DWV testing required by Section 312.2 
or 312.3 has been performed. 

918.3 Where permitted. Individual, branch and circuit vents 
shall be permitted to terminate with a connection to an indi- 
vidual or branch-type air admittance valve in accordance with 
Section 918.3.1. Stack vents and vent stacks shall be permit- 
ted to terminate to stack-type air admittance valves in accor- 
dance with Section 918.3.2. 

918.3.1 Horizontal branches. Individual and branch-type 
air admittance valves shall vent only fixtures that are on 
the same floor level and connect to a horizontal branch 
drain. Where the horizontal branch is located more than 
four branch intervals from the top of the stack, the hori- 
zontal branch shall be provided with a relief vent that shall 
connect to a vent stack or stack vent, or extend outdoors to 
the open air. The relief vent shall connect to the horizon- 
tal branch drain between the stack and the most down- 
stream fixture drain connected to the horizontal branch 
drain. The relief vent shall be sized in accordance with 
Section 906.2 and installed in accordance with Section 



905. The relief vent shall be permitted to serve as the vent 
for other fixtures. 

918.3.2 Stack. Stack-type air admittance valves shall be 
prohibited from serving as the vent terminal for vent stacks 
or stack vents that serve drainage stacks having more than 
six branch intervals. 

918.4 Location. Individual and branch-type air admittance 
valves shall be located a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) 
above the horizontal branch drain or fixture drain being 
vented. Stack-type air admittance valves shall be located not 
less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the flood level rim of the 
highest fixture being vented. The air admittance valve shall 
be located within the maximum developed length permitted 
for the vent. The air admittance valve shall be installed not 
less than 6 inches (152 mm) above insulation materials. 

918.5 Access and ventilation. Access shall be provided to all 
air admittance valves. The valve shall be located within a 
ventilated space that allows air to enter the valve. 

918.6 Size. The air admittance valve shall be rated in accor- 
dance with the standard for the size of the vent to which the 
valve is connected. 

918.7 Vent required. Within each plumbing system, not less 
than one stack vent or vent stack shall extend outdoors to the 
open air. 

918.8 Prohibited installations. Air admittance valves shall 
not be installed in non-neutralized special waste systems as 
described in Chapter 8 except where such valves are in com- 
pliance with ASSE 1049, are constructed of materials 
approved in accordance with Section 702.5 and are tested for 
chemical resistance in accordance with ASTM F 1412. Air 
admittance valves shall not be located in spaces utilized as 
supply or return air plenums. Air admittance valves without 
an engineered design shall not be utilized to vent sumps or 
tanks of any type. 



SECTION 919 
ENGINEERED VENT SYSTEMS 

919.1 General. Engineered vent systems shall comply with 
this section and the design, submittal, approval, inspection 
and testing requirements of Section 105.4. 

919.2 Individual branch fixture and individual fixture 
header vents. The maximum developed length of individual 
fixture vents to vent branches and vent headers shall be deter- 
mined in accordance with Table 919.2 for the minimum pipe 
diameters at the indicated vent airflow rates. 

The individual vent airflow rate shall be determined in 
accordance with the following: 



For SI: Q hb = N nfi Q v (0.4719 L/s) 
where: 



(Equation 9-1) 



N„j, ~ Number of fixtures per header (or vent branch) 

total number of fixtures connected to vent stack. 
Q hb = Vent branch or vent header airflow rate (cfm). 
Q v = Total vent stack airflow rate (cfm). 



78 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 8 



VENTS 



G l/ (gpm)=27.8r s . M (l-r j .)D 8fl 

e,(cfm) = 0.134 G„(gpm) 

where: 

D = Drainage stack diameter (inches). 

Q w = Design discharge load (gpm). 

r = Waste water flow area to total area. 



2--\\ 



27.8 D 



Individual vent airflow rates are obtained by equally dis- 
tributing Q hh into one-half the total number of fixtures on the 
branch or header for more than two fixtures; for an odd num- 
ber of total fixtures, decrease by one; for one fixture, apply 
the full value of Q hb . 

Individual vent developed length shall be increased by 20 
percent of the distance from the vent stack to the fixture vent 
connection on the vent branch or header. 



SECTION 920 

COMPUTERIZED VENT DESIGN 

920.1 Design of vent system. The sizing, design and layout 
of the vent system shall be permitted to be determined by 
approved computer program design methods. 

920.2 System capacity. The vent system shall be based on 
the air capacity requirements of the drainage system under a 
peak load condition. 



TABLE 919.2 

MINIMUM DIAMETER AND MAXIMUM LENGTH OF INDIVIDUAL BRANCH FIXTURE VENTS AND 

INDIVIDUAL FIXTURE HEADER VENTS FOR SMOOTH PIPES 



DIAMETER OF 

VENT PIPE 

(inches) 


INDIVIDUAL VENT AIRFLOW RATE (cubic feet per minute) 


Maximum developed length of vent (feet) 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


% 


95 


25 


13 


8 


5 


4 


3 


2 


1 


1 


] 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


% 


100 


88 


47 


30 


20 


15 


10 


9 


7 


6 


5 


4 


3 


3 


3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


1 


1 


— 


— 


100 


94 


65 


48 


37 


29 


24 


20 


17 


14 


12 


11 


9 


8 


7 


7 


6 


6 


l'/ 4 
















100 


87 


73 


62 


53 


46 


40 


36 


32 


29 


26 


23 


21 


l'/ 2 
























100 


96 


84 


75 


65 


60 


54 


49 


45 


2 








































100 



For SI: i inch = 25.4 mm, 1 cubic foot per minute = 0.4719 L/s, I foot = 304.8 mm. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 8 



79 



80 2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 10 

TRAPS, INTERCEPTORS AND SEPARATORS 



SECTION 1001 
GENERAL 

1001.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the material and 
installation of traps, interceptors and separators. 



SECTION 1002 
TRAP REQUIREMENTS 

1002.1 Fixture traps. Each plumbing fixture shall be sepa- 
rately trapped by a liquid-seal trap, except as otherwise per- 
mitted by this code. The vertical distance from the fixture 
outlet to the trap weir shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm), 
and the horizontal distance shall not exceed 30 inches (610 
mm) measured from the centerline of the fixture outlet to the 
centerline of the inlet of the trap. The height of a clothes 
washer standpipe above a trap shall conform to Section 
802.4. A fixture shall not be double trapped. 

Exceptions: 

1. This section shall not apply to fixtures with integral 
traps. 

2. A combination plumbing fixture is permitted to be 
installed on one trap, provided that one compartment 
is not more than 6 inches (152 mm) deeper than the 
other compartment and the waste outlets are not 
more than 30 inches (762 mm) apart. 

3. A grease interceptor intended to serve as a fixture 
trap in accordance with the manufacturer's installa- 
tion instructions shall be permitted to serve as the 
trap for a single fixture or a combination sink of not 
more than three compartments where the vertical 
distance from the fixture outlet to the inlet of the 
interceptor does not exceed 30 inches (762 mm) and 
the developed length of the waste pipe from the most 
upstream fixture outlet to the inlet of the interceptor 
does not exceed 60 inches (1524 mm). 

4. Where floor drains in multilevel parking structures 
are required to discharge to a combined building 
sewer system, the floor drains shall not be required 
to be individually trapped provided that they are 
connected to a main trap in accordance with Section 
1103.1. 

1002.2 Design of traps. Fixture traps shall be self-scouring. 
Fixture traps shall not have interior partitions, except where 
such traps are integral with the fixture or where such traps are 
constructed of an approved material that is resistant to corro- 
sion and degradation. Slip joints shall be made with an 
approved elastomeric gasket and shall be installed only on 
the trap inlet, trap outlet and within the trap seal. 



1002.3 Prohibited traps. The following types of traps are 
prohibited: 

1. Traps that depend on moving parts to maintain the 
seal. 

2. Bell traps. 

3. Crown-vented traps. 

4. Traps not integral with a fixture and that depend on 
interior partitions for the seal, except those traps con- 
structed of an approved material that is resistant to 
corrosion and degradation. 

5. "S" traps. 

6. Drum traps. 

Exception: Drum traps used as solids interceptors 
and drum traps serving chemical waste systems shall 
not be prohibited. 

1002.4 Trap seals. Each fixture trap shall have a liquid seal 
of not less than 2 inches (5 1 mm) and not more than 4 inches 
(102 mm), or deeper for special designs relating to accessible 
fixtures. Where a trap seal is subject to loss by evaporation, a 
trap seal primer valve shall be installed. Trap seal primer 
valves shall connect to the trap at a point above the level of 
the trap seal. A trap seal primer valve shall conform to ASSE 
1018 or ASSE 1044. 

1002.5 Size of fixture traps. Fixture trap size shall be suffi- 
cient to drain the fixture rapidly and not less than the size 
indicated in Table 709.1. A trap shall not be larger than the 
drainage pipe into which the trap discharges. 

1002.6 Building traps. Building (house) traps shall be pro- 
hibited, except where local conditions necessitate such traps. 
Building traps shall be provided with a cleanout and a relief 
vent or fresh air intake on the inlet side of the trap. The size 
of the relief vent or fresh air intake shall not be less than one- 
half the diameter of the drain to which the relief vent or air 
intake connects. Such relief vent or fresh air intake shall be 
carried above grade and shall be terminated in a screened out- 
let located outside the building. 

1002.7 Trap setting and protection. Traps shall be set level 
with respect to the trap seal and, where necessary, shall be 
protected from freezing. 

1002.8 Recess for trap connection. A recess provided for 
connection of the underground trap, such as one serving a 
bathtub in slab-type construction, shall have sides and a bot- 
tom of corrosion-resistant, insect- and verminproof construc- 
tion. 

1002.9 Acid-resisting traps. Where a vitrified clay or other 
brittleware, acid-resisting trap is installed underground, such 
trap shall be embedded in concrete extending 6 inches (152 
mm) beyond the bottom and sides of the trap. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 18 



81 



TRAPS, INTERCEPTORS AND SEPARATORS 



1002.10 Plumbing in mental health centers. In mental 
health centers, pipes and traps shall not be exposed. 



SECTiON 1003 
INTERCEPTORS AND SEPARATORS 

1003.1 Where required. Interceptors and separators shall be 
provided to prevent the discharge of oil, grease, sand and 
other substances harmful or hazardous to the public sewer, 
the private sewage system or the sewage treatment plant or 

processes. 

1003.2 Approval. The size, type and location of each inter- 
ceptor and of each separator shall be designed and installed in 
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and the 
requirements of this section based on the anticipated condi- 
tions of use. Wastes that do not require treatment or separa- 
tion shall not be discharged into any interceptor or separator. 

1003.3 Grease interceptors. Grease interceptors shall com- 
ply with the requirements of Sections 1003.3.1 through 
1003.3.5. 

1003.3.1 Grease interceptors and automatic grease 
removal devices required. A grease interceptor or auto- 
matic grease removal device shall be required to receive 
the drainage from fixtures and equipment with grease- 
laden waste located in food preparation areas, such as in 
restaurants, hotel kitchens, hospitals, school kitchens, 
bars, factory cafeterias and clubs. Fixtures and equipment 
shall include pot sinks, prerinse sinks; soup kettles or sim- 
ilar devices; wok stations; floor drains or sinks into which 
kettles are drained; automatic hood wash units and dish- 
washers without prerinse sinks. Grease interceptors and 
automatic grease removal devices shall receive waste only 
from fixtures and equipment that allow fats, oils or grease 
to be discharged. Where lack of space or other constraints 
prevent the installation or replacement of a grease inter- 
ceptor, one or more grease interceptors shall be permitted 
to be installed on or above the floor and upstream of an 
existing grease interceptor. 

1003.3.2 Food waste grinders. Where food waste grind- 
ers connect to grease interceptors, a solids interceptor shall 
separate the discharge before connecting to the grease 
interceptor. Solids interceptors and grease interceptors 
shall be sized and rated for the discharge of the food waste 
grinder. Emulsifiers, chemicals, enzymes and bacteria 
shall not discharge into the food waste grinder. 

1003.3.3 Grease interceptors and automatic grease 
removal devices not required. A grease interceptor or an 
automatic grease removal device shall not be required for 
individual dwelling units or any private living quarters. 

E 1003.3.4 Hydromechanical grease interceptors and 
automatic grease removal devices. Hydromechanical 
grease interceptors and automatic grease removal devices 
shall be sized in accordance with ASME Al 1.2.14.3 
Appendix A, ASME 112.14.4, CSA B481.3 or PDI G101. 
| Hydromechanical grease interceptors and automatic 
grease removal devices shall be designed and tested in 
accordance with ASME Al 12.14.3 Appendix A, ASME 
§ 112.14.4, CSA B481.1, PDI G101 or PDI G102. Hydro- 



mechanical grease interceptors and automatic grease 
removal devices shall be installed in accordance with the 
manufacturer's instructions. Where manufacturer's 
instructions are not provided, hydromechanical grease 
interceptors and grease removal devices shall be installed 
in compliance with ASME A112.14.3, ASME 1 12.14.4, 
CSA B481.3 or PDI G101. This section shall not apply to 
gravity grease interceptors. 

1003.3.4.1 Grease interceptor capacity. Grease inter- 
ceptors shall have the grease retention capacity indi- 
cated in Table 1003.3.4.1 for the flow-through rates 
indicated. 

TABLE 1003.3.4.1 
CAPACITY OF GREASE INTERCEPTORS 8 



TOTAL FLOW-THROUGH 
RATING (gpm) 


GREASE RETENTION 
CAPACITY (pounds) 


4 


8 


6 


12 


7 


14 


9 


18 


10 


20 


12 


24 


14 


28 


15 


30 


18 


36 


20 


40 


25 


50 


35 


70 


50 


100 


75 


150 


100 


200 



For SI: 1 gallon per minule = 3.785 L/m, 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 

a. For total flow-through ratings greater than 100 (gpm), double the flow- 
through rating to determine the grease retention capacity (pounds). 

1003.3.4.2 Rate of flow controls. Grease interceptors 
shall be equipped with devices to control the rate of 
water flow so that the water flow does not exceed the 
rated flow. The flow-control device shall be vented and 
terminate not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the 
flood rim level or be installed in accordance with the 
manufacturer's instructions. 

1003.3.5 Automatic grease removal devices. Where 
automatic grease removal devices are installed, such 
devices shall be located downstream of each fixture or 
multiple fixtures in accordance with the manufacturer's 
instructions. The automatic grease removal device shall be 
sized to pretreat the measured or calculated flows for all 
connected fixtures or equipment. Ready access shall be 
provided for inspection and maintenance. 

1003.4 Oil separators required. At repair garages, car- 
washing facilities, at factories where oily and flammable liq- 
uid wastes are produced and in hydraulic elevator pits, sepa- 
rators shall be installed into which all oil-bearing, grease- 
bearing or flammable wastes shall be discharged before emp- 



82 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



TRAPS, INTERCEPTORS AND SEPARATORS 



tying into the building drainage system or other point of dis- 
posal. 

Exception: An oil separator is not required in hydraulic 
elevator pits where an approved alarm system is installed. 

1003.4.1 Separation of liquids. A mixture of treated or 
untreated light and heavy liquids with various specific 
gravities shall be separated in an approved receptacle. 

1003.4.2 Oil separator design. Oil separators shall be 
listed and labeled, or designed in accordance with Sections 
1003.4.2.1 and 1003.4.2.2. 

1003.4.2.1 General design requirements. Oil separa- 
tors shall have a depth of not less than 2 feet (610 mm) 
below the invert of the discharge drain. The outlet 
opening of the separator shall have not less than an 18- 
inch (457 mm) water seal. 

1003.4.2.2 Garages and service stations. Where auto- 
mobiles are serviced, greased, repaired or washed or 
where gasoline is dispensed, oil separators shall have a 
capacity of not less than 6 cubic feet (0.168 m 3 ) for the 
first 100 square feet (9.3 m 2 ) of area to be drained, plus 
1 cubic foot (0.28 m 3 ) for each additional 100 square 
feet (9.3 nr) of area to be drained into the separator. 
Parking garages in which servicing, repairing or wash- 
ing is not conducted, and in which gasoline is not dis- 
pensed, shall not require a separator. Areas of 
commercial garages utilized only for storage of auto- 
mobiles are not required to be drained through a separa- 
tor. 

1003.5 Sand interceptors in commercial establishments. 
Sand and similar interceptors for heavy solids shall be 
designed and located so as to be provided with ready access 
for cleaning, and shall have a water seal of not less than 6 
inches (152 mm). 

1003.6 Laundries. Laundry facilities not installed within an 
individual dwelling unit or intended for individual family use 
shall be equipped with an interceptor with a wire basket or 
similar device, removable for cleaning, that prevents passage 
into the drainage system of solids 7 2 inch (12.7 mm) or larger 
in size, string, rags, buttons or other materials detrimental to 
the public sewage system. 

1003.7 Bottling establishments. Bottling plants shall dis- 
charge process wastes into an interceptor that will provide for 
the separation of broken glass or other solids before discharg- 
ing waste into the drainage system. 

1003.8 Slaughterhouses. Slaughtering room and dressing 
room drains shall be equipped with approved separators. The 
separator shall prevent the discharge into the drainage system 
of feathers, entrails and other materials that cause clogging. 

1003.9 Venting of interceptors and separators. Intercep- 
tors and separators shall be designed so as not to become air 
bound where tight covers are utilized. Each interceptor or 
separator shall be vented where subject to a loss of trap seal. 

1003.10 Access and maintenance of interceptors and sepa- 
rators. Access shall be provided to each interceptor and sepa- 
rator for service and maintenance. Interceptors and separators 
shall be maintained by periodic removal of accumulated 



grease, scum, oil, or other floating substances and solids 
deposited in the interceptor or separator. 



SECTION 1004 
MATERIALS, JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 

1004.1 General. The materials and methods utilized for the 
construction and installation of traps, interceptors and separa- 
tors shall comply with this chapter and the applicable provi- 
sions of Chapters 4 and 7. The fittings shall not have ledges, 
shoulders or reductions capable of retarding or obstructing 
flow of the piping. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



83 



84 2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 11 

STORM DRAINAGE 



SECTION 1101 
GENERAL 

1101.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
materials, design, construction and installation of storm 
drainage. 

1101.2 Where required. AH roofs, paved areas, yards, courts 
and courtyards shall drain into a separate storm sewer system, 
or a combined sewer system, or to an approved place of dis- 
posal. For one- and two-family dwellings, and where 
approved, storm water is permitted to discharge onto flat 
areas, such as streets or lawns, provided that the storm water 
flows away from the building. 

1101.3 Prohibited drainage. Storm water shall not be 
drained into sewers intended for sewage only. 

1101.4 Tests. The conductors and the building storm drain 
shall be tested in accordance with Section 312. 

1101.5 Change in size. The size of a drainage pipe shall not 
be reduced in the direction of flow. 

1101.6 Fittings and connections. All connections and 
changes in direction of the storm drainage system shall be 
made with approved drainage-type fittings in accordance 
with Table 706.3. The fittings shall not obstruct or retard flow 
in the system. 

1101.7 Roof design. Roofs shall be designed for the maxi- 
mum possible depth of water that will pond thereon as deter- 
mined by the relative levels of roof deck and overflow weirs, 
scuppers, edges or serviceable drains in combination with the 
deflected structural elements. In determining the maximum 
possible depth of water, all primary roof drainage means shall 
be assumed to be blocked. 

1101.8 Qeanouts required. Cleanouts shall be installed in 
the storm drainage system and shall comply with the provi- 
sions of this code for sanitary drainage pipe cleanouts. 

Exception: Subsurface drainage system. 

1101.9 Backwater valves. Storm drainage systems shall be 
provided with backwater valves as required for sanitary 
drainage systems in accordance with Section 715. 



SECTION 1102 
MATERIALS 

1102.1 General. The materials and methods utilized for the 
construction and installation of storm drainage systems shall 
comply with this section and the applicable provisions of 
Chapter 7. 

1102.2 Inside storm drainage conductors. Inside storm 
drainage conductors installed above ground shall conform to 
one of the standards listed in Table 702.1. 



1102.3 Underground building storm drain pipe. Under- 
ground building storm drain pipe shall conform to one of the 
standards listed in Table 702.2. 

1102.4 Building storm sewer pipe. Building storm sewer 
pipe shall conform to one of the standards listed in Table 
1102.4. 

TABLE 1102.4 
BUILDING STORM SEWER PIPE 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Acrylonitrile butadiene 
styrene (ABS) plastic pipe 


ASTM D 2661; ASTM D 2751; 
ASTMF 628; CSAB1 81.1; 
CSAB 182.1 


Asbestos-cement pipe 


ASTM C 428 


Cast-iron pipe 


ASTM A 74; ASTM A 888; 
CISPI 301 


Concrete pipe 


ASTM C 14; ASTM C 76; 
CSA A257.1M; CSA A257.2M 


Copper or copper-alloy 
tubing (Type K, L, M or 
DWV) 


ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; 
ASTM B 251; ASTM B 306 


Polyethylene (PE) plastic pipe 


ASTM F 2306/F 2306M 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 
plastic pipe (Type DWV, 
SDR26, SDR35, SDR41, 
PS50orPS100) 


ASTM D 2665; ASTM D 3034; 
ASTMF 891; CSAB 182.4; 
CSAB 181.2; CSA B182.2 


Vitrified clay pipe 


ASTM C 4; ASTM C 700 


Stainless steel drainage 
systems, Type 316L 


ASMEA1 12.3.1 



1102.5 Subsoil drain pipe. Subsoil drains shall be open- 
jointed, horizontally split or perforated pipe conforming to 
one of the standards listed in Table 1 102.5. 

TABLE 1102.5 
SUBSOIL DRAIN PIPE 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Asbestos-cement pipe 


ASTM C 508 


Cast-iron pipe 


ASTM A 74; ASTM A 888; 
CISPI 301 


Polyethylene (PE) plastic pipe 


ASTMF 405; CSAB 182.1; 
CSA B182.6; CSAB 182.8 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 
Plastic pipe (type sewer pipe, 
PS25, PS50orPS100) 


ASTM D 2729; ASTM F 891; 
CSAB 182.2; CSAB 182.4 


Stainless steel drainage systems, 
Type 316L 


ASME A 112.3.1 


Vitrified clay pipe 


ASTM C 4; ASTM C 700 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 05 



85 



STORM DRAINAGE 



1102.6 Roof Drains. Roof drains shall conform to ASME 
A112.6.4or ASME A112.3.1. 

1102.7 Fittings. Pipe fittings shall be approved for installa- 
tion with the piping material installed, and shall conform to 
the respective pipe standards or one of the standards listed in 
Table 1 102.7. The fittings shall not have ledges, shoulders or 
reductions capable of retarding or obstructing flow in the pip- 
ing. Threaded drainage pipe fittings shall be of the recessed 
drainage type. 

TABLE 1102.7 
PIPE FITTING 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Acrylonitrile butadiene 
styrene (ABS) plastic 


ASTM D 2661; ASTM D 3311; 
CSAB181.1 


Cast-iron 


ASME B16.4; ASME B16.12; 
ASTMA888;CISPI301; 
ASTM A 74 


Coextruded composite ABS 
and drain DR-PS in 
PS35,PS50,PS100, PS140, 
PS200 


ASTM D 2751 


Coextruded composite ABS 
DWV Schedule 40 IPS pipe 
(solid or cellular core) 


ASTM D 2661; ASTM D 3311; 
ASTM F 628 


Coextruded composite PVC 
DWV Schedule 40 IPS-DR, 
PS140.PS200 (solid or 
cellular core) 


ASTM D 2665; ASTM D 3311; 
ASTM F 891 


Coextruded composite PVC 
sewer and drain DR-PS in 
PS35,PS50,PS100,PS140, 
PS200 


ASTM D 3034 


Copper or copper alloy 


ASME B16.15; ASME B16.18; 
ASME B16.22; ASME B16.23; 
ASME B 16.26; ASME B 16.29 


Gray iron and ductile iron 


AWWAC110/A21.10 


Malleable iron 


ASME B16.3 


Plastic, general 


ASTM F 409 


Polyethylene (PE) plastic pipe 


ASTM F 2306/F 2306M 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 
plastic 


ASTM D 2665; ASTM D 3311; 
ASTM F 1866 


Steel 


ASME B16.9; ASME B16.ll; 
ASMEB16.28 


Stainless steel drainage 
systems, Type 316L 


ASME A 112.3.1 



SECTION 
1103 TRAPS 

1103.1 Main trap. Leaders and storm drains connected to a 
combined sewer shall be trapped. Individual storm water 
traps shall be installed on the storm water drain branch serv- 
ing each conductor, or a single trap shall be installed in the 
main storm drain just before its connection with the com- 
bined building sewer or the public sewer. 

1103.2 Material. Storm water traps shall be of the same 
material as the piping system to which they are attached. 

1103.3 Size. Traps for individual conductors shall be the 
same size as the horizontal drain to which they are connected. 

1103.4 Cleanout. An accessible cleanout shall be installed on 
the building side of the trap. 



SECTION 1104 
CONDUCTORS AND CONNECTIONS 

1104.1 Prohibited use. Conductor pipes shall not be used as 
soil, waste or vent pipes, and soil, waste or vent pipes shall 
not be used as conductors. 

1104.2 Combining storm with sanitary drainage. The sani- 
tary and storm drainage systems of a structure shall be 
entirely separate except where combined sewer systems are 
utilized. Where a combined sewer is utilized, the building 
storm drain shall be connected in the same horizontal plane 
through a single-wye fitting to the combined sewer not less 
than 10 feet (3048 mm) downstream from any soil stack. 

1104.3 Floor drains. Floor drains shall not be connected to a 
storm drain. 



SECTION 1105 
ROOF DRAINS 

1105.1 General. Roof drains shall be installed in accordance 
with the manufacturer's instructions. The inside opening for 
the roof drain shall not be obstructed by the roofing mem- 
brane material. 

1105.2 Roof drain flashings. The connection between roofs 
and roof drains which pass through the roof and into the inte- 
rior of the building shall be made water-tight by the use of 
approved flashing material. 



SECTION 1106 

SIZE OF CONDUCTORS, LEADERS 

AND STORM DRAINS 

1106.1 General. The size of the vertical conductors and lead- 
ers, building storm drains, building storm sewers, and any 
horizontal branches of such drains or sewers shall be based 
on the 100-year hourly rainfall rate indicated in Figure 1 106.1 
or on other rainfall rates determined from approved local 
weather data. 



86 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



STORM DRAINAGE 




4.28 j* ■ 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

Source: National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington D.C. 

FIGURE 1106.1 

100-YEAR, 1-HOUR RAINFALL (INCHES) EASTERN UNITED STATES 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 8 



87 



STORM DRAINAGE 




2.75 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm. 

Source: National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Washington D.C, 

FIGURE 1106.1— continued 
100-YEAR, 1-HOUR RAINFALL (INCHES) CENTRAL UNITED STATES 



88 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



STORM DRAINAGE 




For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm. 

Source: National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington D.C. 

FIGURE 1106.1— continued 
100-YEAR, 1-HOUR RAINFALL (INCHES) WESTERN UNITED STATES 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



89 



STORM DRAINAGE 



170° 175° 180° 175° 170° 165° 160° 155° 



145° 140° 135° 130 




BAFlROW, 



BARTER 



ALASKA 



1 

li.nl i 



200 

I 



++ 



+-H-4- 



G/TMBELL 



.84 
ATTU 



SHEMYA AFB 

<C 



.9 
■Gk4 
ADAK 
A^ICHITKA 



"ATKA 



170° 175° 180° 175° 170° 



160° 155° 



145° 140° 135° 130 



For SI: i inch = 25.4 mm. 

Source: National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington D.C. 



FIGURE 1106.1— continued 
100-YEAR, 1-HOUR RAINFALL (INCHES) ALASKA 



90 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



STORM DRAINAGE 





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2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



91 



STORM DRAINAGE 



1106.2 Vertical conductors and leaders. Vertical conduc- 
tors and leaders shall be sized for the maximum projected 
roof area, in accordance with Table 1106.2(1) and Table 
1106.2(2). 

1106.3 Building storm drains and sewers. The size of the 
building storm drain, building storm sewer and their horizon- 
tal branches having a slope of one-half unit or less vertical in 
12 units horizontal (4-percent slope) shall be based on the 
maximum projected roof area in accordance with Table 
1106.3. The slope of horizontal branches shall be not less 
than one-eighth unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (1 -percent 
slope) unless otherwise approved. 



1106.4 Vertical walls. In sizing roof drains and storm drain- 
age piping, one-half of the area of any vertical wall that 
diverts rainwater to the roof shall be added to the projected 
roof area for inclusion in calculating the required size of ver- 
tical conductors, leaders and horizontal storm drainage pip- 
ing. 

1106.5 Parapet wall scupper location. Parapet wall roof 
drainage scupper and overflow scupper location shall comply 
with the requirements of Section 1503.4 of the International 
Building Code. 

1106.6 Size of roof gutters. The size of semicircular gutters 
shall be based on the maximum projected roof area in accor- 
dance with Table 1 106.6. 



TABLE 1106.2(1) 
SIZE OF CIRCULAR VERTICAL CONDUCTORS AND LEADERS 



DIAMETER 

OF LEADER 

(inches) 8 


HORIZONTALLY PROJECTED ROOF AREA (square feet) 


Rainfall rate (inches per hour) 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


2 


2,880 


1,440 


960 


720 


575 


480 


410 


360 


320 


290 


260 


240 


3 


8,800 


4,400 


2,930 


2,200 


1,760 


1,470 


1,260 


1,100 


980 


880 


800 


730 


4 


18,400 


9,200 


6,130 


4,600 


3,680 


3,070 


2,630 


2,300 


2,045 


1,840 


1,675 


1,530 


5 


34,600 


17,300 


11,530 


8,650 


6,920 


5,765 


4,945 


4,325 


3,845 


3,460 


3,145 


2,880 


6 


54,000 


27,000 


17,995 


13,500 


10,800 


9,000 


7,715 


6,750 


6,000 


5,400 


4,910 


4,500 


8 


116,000 


58,000 


38,660 


29,000 


23,200 


19,315 


16,570 


14,500 


12,890 


11,600 


10,545 


9,600 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 . 

a. Sizes indicated are the diameter of circular piping. This table is applicable to piping of other shapes, provided the cross-sectional shape fully encloses a circle 

of the diameter indicated in this table. For rectangular- leaders, see Table 1 106.2(2). Interpolation is permitted for pipe sizes that fall between those listed in 

this table. 

TABLE 1106.2(2) 
SIZE OF RECTANGULAR VERTICAL CONDUCTORS AND LEADERS 



DIMENSIONS OF 
COMMON LEADER SIZES 
width x length (inches) ab 


HORIZONTALLY PROJECTED ROOF AREA (square feet) 


Rainfall rate (inches per hour) 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


l 3 / 4 x27 2 


3,410 


1,700 


1,130 


850 


680 


560 


480 


420 


370 


340 


310 


280 


2x3 


5,540 


2,770 


1,840 


1,380 


1,100 


920 


790 


690 


610 


550 


500 


460 


2%x47 4 


12,830 


6,410 


4,270 


3,200 


2,560 


2,130 


1,830 


1,600 


1,420 


1,280 


1,160 


1,060 


3x4 


13,210 


6,600 


4,400 


3,300 


2,640 


2,200 


1,880 


1,650 


1,460 


1,320 


1,200 


1,100 


3V 2 x4 


15,900 


7,950 


5,300 


3,970 


3,180 


2,650 


2,270 


1,980 


1,760 


1,590 


1,440 


1,320 


3'/,x5 


21,310 


10,650 


7,100 


5,320 


4,260 


3,550 


3,040 


2,660 


2,360 


2,130 


1,930 


1,770 


37 4 x 47 4 


21,960 


10,980 


7,320 


5,490 


4,390 


3,660 


3,130 


2,740 


2,440 


2,190 


1,990 


1,830 


3 3 / 4 x57 4 


25,520 


12,760 


8,500 


6,380 


5,100 


4,250 


3,640 


3,190 


2,830 


2,550 


2,320 


2,120 


37, x 6 


27,790 


13,890 


9,260 


6,940 


5,550 


4,630 


3,970 


3,470 


3,080 


2,770 


2,520 


2,310 


4x6 


32,980 


16,490 


10,990 


8,240 


6,590 


5,490 


4,710 


4,120 


3,660 


3,290 


2,990 


2,740 


57 2 x57, 


44,300 


22,150 


14,760 


11,070 


8,860 


7,380 


6,320 


5,530 


4,920 


4,430 


4,020 


3,690 


77 2 x77 2 


100,500 


50,250 


33,500 


25,120 


20,100 


16,750 


14,350 


12,560 


11,160 


10,050 


9,130 


8,370 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 nr. 

a. Sizes indicated are nominal width x length of the opening for rectangular piping. 

b. For shapes not included in this table, Equation 11-1 shall be used to determine the equivalent circular diameter, £>„ of rectangular piping for use in 
interpolation using the data from Table 1106.2(1). 

D e = [width x length]" 2 (Equation 1 1-1) 

where: 

D e = equivalent circular diameter and D r , width and length are in inches. 



92 



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STORM DRAINAGE 



TABLE 1106.3 
SIZE OF HORIZONTAL STORM DRAINGE PIPING 



SIZE OF 

HORIZONTAL 

PIPING 

(inches) 


HORIZONTALLY PROJECTED ROOF AREA (square feet) 


Rainfall rate (inches per hour) 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


V 8 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (1 -percent slope) 


3 


3,288 


1,644 


1,096 


822 


657 


548 


4 


7,520 


3,760 


2,506 


1,800 


1,504 


1,253 


5 


13,360 


6,680 


4,453 


3,340 


2,672 


2,227 


6 


21,400 


10,700 


7,133 


5,350 


4,280 


3,566 


8 


46,000 


23,000 


15,330 


11,500 


9,200 


7,600 


10 


82,800 


41,400 


27,600 


20,700 


16,580 


13,800 


12 


133,200 


66,600 


44,400 


33,300 


26,650 


22,200 


15 


218,000 


109,000 


72,800 


59,500 


47,600 


39,650 


V 4 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) 




3 


4,640 


2,320 


1,546 


1,160 


928 


773 


4 


10,600 


5,300 


3,533 


2,650 


2,120 


1,766 


5 


18,880 


9,440 


6,293 


4,720 


3,776 


3,146 


6 


30,200 


15,100 


10,066 


7,550 


6,040 


5,033 


8 


65,200 


32,600 


21,733 


16,300 


13,040 


10,866 


10 


116,800 


58,400 


38,950 


29,200 


23,350 


19,450 


12 


188,000 


94,000 


62,600 


47,000 


37,600 


31,350 


15 


336,000 


168,000 


112,000 


84,000 


67,250 


56,000 


7 2 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (4-percent slope) 


3 


6,576 


3,288 


2,295 


1,644 


1,310 


1,096 


4 


15,040 


7.520 


5,010 


3,760 


3,010 


2,500 


5 


26,720 


13,360 


8,900 


6,680 


5,320 


4,450 


6 


42,800 


21,400 


13,700 


10,700 


8,580 


7,140 


8 


92,000 


46,000 


30,650 


23,000 


18,400 


15,320 


10 


171,600 


85,800 


55,200 


41,400 


33,150 


27,600 


12 


266,400 


133,200 


88,800 


66,600 


53,200 


44,400 


15 


476,000 


238,000 


158,800 


119,000 


95,300 


79,250 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 . 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



93 



STORM DRAINAGE 



TABLE 1106.6 
SIZE OF SEMICIRCULAR ROOF GUTTERS 



DIAMETER OF 
GUTTERS 

(inches) 




HORIZONTALLY PROJECTED ROOF AREA (squat 


e feet) 




Rainfall rate (inches per hour) 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


V 18 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (0.5-percent slope) 


3 


680 


340 


226 


170 


136 


113 


4 


1,440 


720 


480 


360 


288 


240 


5 


2,500 


1,250 


834 


625 


500 


416 


6 


3,840 


1,920 


1,280 


960 


768 


640 


7 


5,520 


2,760 


1,840 


1,380 


1,100 


918 


8 


7,960 


3,980 


2,655 


1,990 


1,590 


1,325 


10 


14,400 


7,200 


4,800 


3,600 


2,880 


2,400 


V e unit vertical 12 units horizontal (1 -percent slope) 


3 


960 


480 


320 


240 


192 


160 


4 


2,040 


1,020 


681 


510 


408 


340 


5 


3,520 


1,760 


1,172 


880 


704 


587 


6 


5,440 


2,720 


1,815 


1,360 


1,085 


905 


7 


7,800 


3,900 


2,600 


1 ,950 


1,560 


1,300 


8 


11,200 


5,600 


3,740 


2,800 


2,240 


1,870 


10 


20,400 


10,200 


6,800 


5,100 


4,080 


3,400 


V 4 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) 


3 


1,360 


680 


454 


340 


272 


226 


4 


2,880 


1,440 


960 


720 


576 


480 


5 


5,000 


2,500 


1,668 


1.250 


1,000 


834 


6 


7,680 


3,840 


2,560 


1,920 


1,536 


1,280 


7 


11,040 


5,520 


3,860 


2,760 


2,205 


1,840 


8 


15,920 


7,960 


5,310 


3,980 


3,180 


2,655 


10 


28,800 


14,400 


9,600 


7,200 


5,750 


4,800 


V a unit vertical in 1 2 units horizontal (4-percent slope) 


3 


1,920 


960 


640 


480 


384 


320 


4 


4,080 


2,040 


1,360 


1,020 


816 


680 


5 


7,080 


3,540 


2,360 


1,770 


1,415 


1,180 


6 


11,080 


5,540 


3,695 


2,770 


2,220 


1,850 


7 


15,600 


7,800 


5,200 


3,900 


3,120 


2,600 


8 


22,400 


11,200 


7,460 


5,600 


4,480 


3,730 


10 


40,000 


20,000 


13,330 


10,000 


8,000 


6,660 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, J square foot = 0.0929 nr. 



SECTION 1107 
SIPHONIC ROOF DRAINAGE SYSTEMS 

1107.1 General. Siphonic roof drains and drainage systems 
shall be designed in accordance with ASME Al 12.6.9 and 
ASPE 45. 



SECTION 1108 
SECONDARY (EMERGENCY) ROOF DRAINS 

1108.1 Secondary (emergency overflow) drains or scup- 
pers. Where roof drains are required, secondary (emergency 
overflow) roof drains or scuppers shall be provided where the 
roof perimeter construction extends above the roof in such a 
manner that water will be entrapped if the primary drains 
allow buildup for any reason. 



1108.2 Separate systems required. Secondary roof drain 
systems shall have the end point of discharge separate from 
the primary system. Discharge shall be above grade, in a 
location that would normally be observed by the building 
occupants or maintenance personnel. 

1108.3 Sizing of secondary drains. Secondary (emergency) 
roof drain systems shall be sized in accordance with Section 
1 106 based on the rainfall rate for which the primary system 
is sized in Tables 1106.2(1), 1106.2(2), 1106.3 and 1106.6. 
Scuppers shall be sized to prevent the depth of ponding water 
from exceeding that for which the roof was designed as deter- 
mined by Section 1101.7. Scuppers shall have an opening 
dimension of not less than 4 inches (102 mm). The flow 
through the primary system shall not be considered when siz- 
ing the secondary roof drain system. 



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STORM DRAINAGE 



SECTION 1109 
COMBINED SANITARY AND STORM SYSTEM 

1109.1 Size of combined drains and sewers. The size of a 
combination sanitary and storm drain or sewer shall be com- 
puted in accordance with the method in Section 1 106.3. The 
fixture units shall be converted into an equivalent projected 
roof or paved area. Where the total fixture load on the com- 
bined drain is less than or equal to 256 fixture units, the 
equivalent drainage area in horizontal projection shall be 
taken as 4,000 square feet (372 m 2 ). Where the total fixture 
load exceeds 256 fixture units, each additional fixture unit 
shall be considered the equivalent of 15.6 square feet (1.5 m 2 ) 
of drainage area. These values are based on a rainfall rate of 1 
inch (25 mm) per hour. 



SECTION 1110 
VALUES FOR CONTINUOUS FLOW 

1110.1 Equivalent roof area. Where there is a continuous or 
semicontinuous discharge into the building storm drain or 
building storm sewer, such as from a pump, ejector, air condi- 
tioning plant or similar device, each gallon per minute (L/m) 
of such discharge shall be computed as being equivalent to 96 
square feet (9 m 2 ) of roof area, based on a rainfall rate of 1 
inch (25.4 mm) per hour. 



SECTION 1111 
CONTROLLED FLOW ROOF DRAIN SYSTEMS 

1111.1 General. The roof of a structure shall be designed for 
the storage of water where the storm drainage system is engi- 
neered for controlled flow. The controlled flow roof drain 
system shall be an engineered system in accordance with this 
section and the design, submittal, approval, inspection and 
testing requirements of Section 105.4. The controlled flow 
system shall be designed based on the required rainfall rate in 
accordance with Section 1 106.1. 

1111.2 Control devices. The control devices shall be 
installed so that the rate of discharge of water per minute 
shall not exceed the values for continuous flow as indicated 
in Section 1109.1. 

1111.3 Installation. Runoff control shall be by control 
devices. Control devices shall be protected by strainers. 

1111.4 Minimum number of roof drains. Not less than two 
roof drains shall be installed in roof areas 10,000 square feet 
(929 m 2 ) or less and not less than four roof drains shall be 
installed in roofs over 10,000 square feet (929 m 2 ) in area. 



location above ground. The subsoil sump shall not be 
required to have either a gas-tight cover or a vent. The sump 
and pumping system shall comply with Section 1 1 14.1. 



SECTION 1113 
BUILDING SUBDRAINS 

1113.1 Building subdrains. Building subdrains located 
below the public sewer level shall discharge into a sump or 
receiving tank, the contents of which shall be automatically 
lifted and discharged into the drainage system as required for 
building sumps. The sump and pumping equipment shall 
comply with Section 1114.1. 



SECTION 1114 
SUMPS AND PUMPING SYSTEMS 

1114.1 Pumping system. The sump pump, pit and discharge 
piping shall conform to Sections 1 1 14.1. 1 through 1 1 14.1.4. 

1114.1.1 Pump capacity and head. The sump pump shall 
be of a capacity and head appropriate to anticipated use 
requirements. 

1114.1.2 Sump pit. The sump pit shall not be less than 18 
inches (457 mm) in diameter and not less than 24 inches 
(610 mm) in depth, unless otherwise approved. The pit 
shall be accessible and located such that all drainage flows 
into the pit by gravity. The sump pit shall be constructed 
of tile, steel, plastic, cast-iron, concrete or other approved 
material, with a removable cover adequate to support 
anticipated loads in the area of use. The pit floor shall be 
solid and provide permanent support for the pump. 

1114.1.3 Electrical. Electrical service outlets, when 
required, shall meet the requirements of NFPA 70. 

1114.1.4 Piping. Discharge piping shall meet the require- 
ments of Section 1102.2, 1102.3 or 1102.4 and shall 
include a gate valve and a full flow check valve. Pipe and 
fittings shall be the same size as, or larger than, pump dis- 
charge tapping. 

Exception: In one- and two-family dwellings, only a 
check valve shall be required, located on the discharge 
piping from the pump or ejector. 



SECTION 1112 
SUBSOIL DRAINS 

1112.1 Subsoil drains. Subsoil drains shall be open-jointed, 
horizontally split or perforated pipe conforming to one of the 
standards listed in Table 1 102.5. Such drains shall not be less 
than 4 inches (102 mm) in diameter. Where the building is 
subject to backwater, the subsoil drain shall be protected by 
an accessibly located backwater valve. Subsoil drains shall 
discharge to a trapped area drain, sump, dry well or approved 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



95 



96 2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 12 



SECTION 1201 
GENERAL 

1201.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
design and installation of piping and storage systems for non- 
flammable medical gas systems and nonmedical oxygen sys- 
tems. All maintenance and operations of such systems shall 
be in accordance with the International Fire Code. 



SECTION 1202 
MEDICAL GASES 

[F] 1202.1 Nonflammable medical gases. Nonflammable 
medical gas systems, inhalation anesthetic systems and vac- 
uum piping systems shall be designed and installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 99C. 

Exceptions: 

1. This section shall not apply to portable systems or 
cylinder storage. 

2. Vacuum system exhaust terminations shall comply 
with the International Mechanical Code. 



SECTION 1203 
OXYGEN SYSTEMS 

[F] 1 203.1 Design and installation. Nonmedical oxygen sys- 
tems shall be designed and installed in accordance with 
NFPA 50 and NFPA 51. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 97 



98 2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 13 

GRAY WATER RECYCLING SYSTEMS 



SECTION 1301 
GENERAL 

1301.1 Scope. The provisions of Chapter 13 shall govern the 
materials, design, construction and installation of gray water 
systems for flushing of water closets and urinals and for subsur- 
face landscape irrigation. See Figures 1301.1(1) and 
1301.1(2). 

1301.2 Installation. In addition to the provisions of Section 
1301, systems for flushing of water closets and urinals shall 
comply with Section 1302 and systems for subsurface land- 
scape irrigation shall comply with Section 1303. Except as pro- 
vided for in this chapter, all systems shall comply with the 
provisions of the other chapters of this code. 

1301.3 Materials. Above-ground drain, waste and vent piping for 
gray water systems shall conform to one of the standards listed in 
Table 702.1. Gray water underground building drainage and vent 
pipe shall conform to one of the standards listed in Table 702.2. 

1301.4 Tests. Drain, waste and vent piping for gray water sys- 
tems shall be tested in accordance with Section 312. 

1301.5 Inspections. Gray water systems shall be inspected in 
accordance with Section 107. 

1301.6 Potable water connections. Only connections in 
accordance with Section 1302.3 shall be made between a gray 
water recycling system and a potable water system. 

1301.7 Waste water connections. Gray water recycling sys- 
tems shall receive only the waste discharge of bathtubs, show- 
ers, lavatories, clothes washers or laundry trays. 



1301.8 Collection reservoir. Gray water shall be collected in 
an approved reservoir constructed of durable, nonabsorbent 
and corrosion-resistant materials. The reservoir shall be a 
closed and gas-tight vessel. Access openings shall be provided 
to allow inspection and cleaning of the reservoir interior. 

1301.9 Filtration. Gray water entering the reservoir shall 
pass through an approved filter such as a media, sand or dia- 
tomaceous earth filter. 

1301.9.1 Required valve. A full-open valve shall be 
installed downstream of the last fixture connection to the 
gray water discharge pipe before entering the required fil- 
ter. 

1301.10 Overflow. The collection reservoir shall be equipped 
with an overflow pipe having the same or larger diameter as the 
influent pipe for the gray water. The overflow pipe shall be 
trapped and shall be indirectly connected to the sanitary drain- 
age system. 

1301.11 Drain. A drain shall be located at the lowest point of 
the collection reservoir and shall be indirectly connected to the 
sanitary drainage system. The drain shall be the same diameter 
as the overflow pipe required in Section 1301.10. 

1301.12 Vent required. The reservoir shall be provided with 
a vent sized in accordance with Chapter 9 and based on the 
diameter of the reservoir influent pipe. 



GRAY WATER 
INFLUENT 

I — PxH 



FILTER 
SYSTEM 



VENT 



TANK— v 
DRAIN \ 



HXH 



GRAY WATER 
RESERVOIR 



OVERFLOW 



X 



~ XJ T\ 



f 



INDIRECT DISCHARGE 
TO SANITARY 
DRAINAGE 
SYSTEM 



-KHX 






i- CHECK VALVE 




IRRIGATION ZONE 



IRRIGATION ZONE 



N — INDIRECT DISCHARGE 
TO SANITARY DRAINAGE 
SYSTEM 

FIGURE 1301.1(1) 
GRAY WATER RECYCLING SYSTEM FOR SUBSURFACE LANDSCAPE IRRIGATION 



IRRIGATION ZONE 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



99 



GRAY WATER RECYCLING SYSTEMS 



POTABLE 
MAKEUP 
WATER 
SUPPLY 



"X 



BACKFLOW 

PREVENTION 

DEVICE 



VENT 



GRAY WATER 
INFLUENT 



FILTER 
SYSTEM 



TANK-^ 
DRAIN \ 



r4XH 



x 1 



OVERFLOW 



GRAY WATER 
RESERVOIR 



~^7\ 



r 



INDIRECT DISCHARGE 
TO SANITARY 
DRAINAGE 
SYSTEM 



-DxH 



-INDIRECT DISCHARGE 
TO SANITARY DRAINAGE 
SYSTEM 



EFFLUENT TO 
FLUSHING FIXTURES 



DISINFECTION COLORING 

UNIT DYE INJECTION 

UNIT 



FIGURE 1301.1(2) 
GRAY WATER RECYCLING SYSTEM FOR FLUSHING WATER CLOSETS AND URINALS 



SECTION 1302 

SYSTEMS FOR FLUSHING WATER CLOSETS AND 

URINALS 

1302.1 Collection reservoir. The holding capacity of the res- 
ervoir shall be a minimum of twice the volume of water 
required to meet the daily flushing requirements of the fixtures 
supplied with gray water, but not less than 50 gallons (189 L). 
The reservoir shall be sized to limit the retention time of gray 
water to a maximum of 72 hours. 

1302.2 Disinfection. Gray water shall be disinfected by an 
approved method that employs one or more disinfectants 
such as chlorine, iodine or ozone that are recommended for 
use with the pipes, fittings and equipment by the manufac- 
turer of the pipes, fittings and equipment. 

1302.3 Makeup water. Potable water shall be supplied as a 
source of makeup water for the gray water system. The potable 
water supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance 
with Section 608. There shall be a full-open valve located on 
the makeup water supply line to the collection reservoir. 

1302.4 Coloring. The gray water shall be dyed blue or green 
with a food grade vegetable dye before such water is supplied 
to the fixtures. 

1302.5 Materials. Distribution piping shall conform to one of 
the standards listed in Table 605.4. 



1302.6 Identification. Distribution piping and reservoirs shall 
be identified as containing nonpotable water. Piping iden- 
tification shall be in accordance with Section 608.8. 



SECTION 1303 
SUBSURFACE LANDSCAPE IRRIGATION SYSTEMS 

1303.1 Collection reservoir. Reservoirs shall be sized to limit 
the retention time of gray water to a maximum of 24 hours. 

1303.1.1 Identification. The reservoir shall be identified as 
containing nonpotable water. 

1303.2 Valves required. A check valve and a full-open valve 
located on the discharge side of the check valve shall be 
installed on the effluent pipe of the collection reservoir. 

1303.3 Makeup water. Makeup water shall not be required for 
subsurface landscape irrigation systems. Where makeup water 
is provided, the installation shall be in accordance with Section 
1302.3. 

1303.4 Disinfection. Disinfection shall not be required for 
gray water used for subsurface landscape irrigation systems. 

1303.5 Coloring. Gray water used for subsurface landscape irri- 
gation systems shall not be required to be dyed. 

1303.6 Estimating gray water discharge. The system shall 
be sized in accordance with the gallons-per-day-per-occupant 
number based on the type of fixtures connected to the gray 



100 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



GRAY WATER RECYCLING SYSTEMS 



water system. The discharge shall be calculated by the following 
equation: 

C = A x B (Equation 13-1) 

where: 

A = Number of occupants: 

Residential-Number of occupants shall be determined by the 
actual number of occupants, but not less than two occupants for 
one bedroom and one occupant for each additional bedroom. 

Commercial-Number of occupants shall be determined by 
the International Building Code 9 . 

B = Estimated flow demands for each occupant: 

Residential-25 gallons per day (94.6 lpd) per occupant for 
showers, bathtubs and lavatories and 15 gallons per day (56.7 
lpd) per occupant for clothes washers or laundry trays. 

Commercial-Based on type of fixture or water use records 
minus the discharge of fixtures other than those discharging 
gray water. 

C = Estimated gray water discharge based on the total num- 
ber of occupants. 

1303.7 Percolation tests. The permeability of the soil in the 
proposed absorption system shall be determined by percolation 
tests or permeability evaluation. 

1303.7.1 Percolation tests and procedures. At least three 
percolation tests in each system area shall be conducted. The 
holes shall be spaced uniformly in relation to the bottom 
depth of the proposed absorption system. More percolation 
tests shall be made where necessary, depending on system 
design. 

1303.7.1.1 Percolation test hole. The test hole shall be 
dug or bored. The test hole shall have vertical sides and a 
horizontal dimension of 4 inches to 8 inches (102 mm to 
203 mm). The bottom and sides of the hole shall be 
scratched with a sharp-pointed instrument to expose the 
natural soil. All loose material shall be removed from the 
hole and the bottom shall be covered with 2 inches (5 1 
mm) of gravel or coarse sand. 

1303.7.1.2 Test procedure, sandy soils. The hole shall 
be filled with clear water to a minimum of 12 inches 
(305 mm) above the bottom of the hole for tests in 
sandy soils. The time for this amount of water to seep 
away shall be determined, and this procedure shall be 
repeated if the water from the second filling of the hole 
seeps away in 10 minutes or less. The test shall proceed 
as follows: Water shall be added to a point not more than 
6 inches (152 mm) above the gravel or coarse sand. 
Thereupon, from a fixed reference point, water levels 
shall be measured at 10-minute intervals for a period of 1 
hour. Where 6 inches (152 mm) of water seeps away in 
less than 1 minutes, a shorter interval between measure- 
ments shall be used, but in no case shall the water depth 
exceed 6 inches (152 mm). Where 6 inches (152 mm) of 
water seeps away in less than 2 minutes, the test shall be 



stopped and a rate of less than 3 minutes per inch (7.2 s/ 
mm) shall be reported. The final water level drop shall be 
used to calculate the percolation rate. Soils not meeting 
the above requirements shall be tested in accordance 
with Section 1303.7.1.3. 

1303.7.1.3 Test procedure, other soils. The hole shall 
be filled with clear water, and a minimum water depth of 
12 inches (305 mm) shall be maintained above the bot- 
tom of the hole for a 4-hour period by refilling whenever 
necessary or by use of an automatic siphon. Water 
remaining in the hole after 4 hours shall not be removed. 
Thereafter, the soil shall be allowed to swell not less 
than 16 hours or more than 30 hours. Immediately after 
the soil swelling period, the measurements for determin- 
ing the percolation rate shall be made as follows: any soil 
sloughed into the hole shall be removed and the water 
level shall be adjusted to 6 inches (152 mm) above the 
gravel or coarse sand. Thereupon, from a fixed reference 
point, the water level shall be measured at 30-minute 
intervals for a period of 4 hours, unless two successive 
water level drops do not vary by more than 7 16 inch (1.59 
mm). At least three water level drops shall be observed 
and recorded. The hole shall be filled with clear water to 
a point not more than 6 inches (152 mm) above the gravel 
or coarse sand whenever it becomes nearly empty. 
Adjustments of the water level shall not be made during 
the three measurement periods except to the limits of the 
last measured water level drop. When the first 6 inches 
(152 mm) of water seeps away in less than 30 minutes, 
the time interval between measurements shall be 10 min- 
utes and the test run for 1 hour. The water depth shall not 
exceed 5 inches (127 mm) at any time during the measure- 
ment period. The drop that occurs during the final mea- 
surement period shall be used in calculating the 
percolation rate. 

1303.7.1.4 Mechanical test equipment. Mechanical per- 
colation test equipment shall be of an approved type. 

1303.7.2 Permeability evaluation. Soil shall be evaluated 
for estimated percolation based on structure and texture in 
accordance with accepted soil evaluation practices. Borings 
shall be made in accordance with Section 1303.7.1 for eval- 
uating the soil. 

1303.8 Subsurface landscape irrigation site location. The sur- 
face grade of all soil absorption systems shall be located at a 
point lower than the surface grade of any water well or reservoir 
on the same or adjoining lot. Where this is not possible, the site 
shall be located so surface water drainage from the site is not 
directed toward a well or reservoir. The soil absorption system 
shall be located with a minimum horizontal distance between 
various elements as indicated in Table 1303.8. Private sewage 
disposal systems in compacted areas, such as parking lots and 
driveways, are prohibited. Surface water shall be diverted 
away from any soil absorption site on the same or neighboring 
lots. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



101 



GRAY WATER RECYCLING SYSTEMS 



TABLE 1303.8 
LOCATION OF GRAY WATER SYSTEM 



ELEMENT 


MINIMUM HORIZONTAL DISTANCE 


HOLDING TANK 
(feet) 


IRRIGATION DISPOSAL 
FIELD (feet) 


Buildings 


5 


2 


Lot line adjoining 
private property 


5 


5 


Water wells 


50 


100 


Streams and lakes 


50 


50 


Seepage pits 


5 


5 


Septic tanks 





5 


Water service 


5 


5 


Public water main 


10 


10 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

1303.9 Installation. Absorption systems shall be installed in 
accordance with Sections 1303.9.1 through 1303.9.5 to pro- 
vide landscape irrigation without surfacing of gray water. 

1303.9.1 Absorption area. The total absorption area 
required shall be computed from the estimated daily gray 
water discharge and the design-loading rate based on the 
percolation rate for the site. The required absorption area 
equals the estimated gray water discharge divided by the 
design-loading rate from Table 1303.9.1. 

TABLE 1303.9.1 
DESIGN LOADING RATE 



PERCOLATION RATE 
(minutes per inch) 


DESIGN LOADING FACTOR 
(gallons per square foot per day) 


to less than 1 


1.2 


10 to less than 30 


0.8 


30 to less than 45 


0.72 


45 to 60 


0.4 



For SI: 1 minute per inch = min/25.4 mm, 
1 gallon per square foot = 40.7 L/nr. 

1303.9.2 Seepage trench excavations. Seepage trench exca- 
vations shall be not less than 1 foot (304 mm) in width and 
not greater than 5 feet (1524 mm) in width. Trench excava- 
tions shall be spaced not less than 2 feet (610 mm) apart. The 
soil absorption area of a seepage trench shall be computed 
by using the bottom of the trench area (width) multiplied by 
the length of pipe. Individual seepage trenches shall be not 
greater than 100 feet (30 480 mm) in developed length. 

1303.9.3 Seepage bed excavations. Seepage bed excava- 
tions shall be not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) in width and 
have more than one distribution pipe. The absorption area 
of a seepage bed shall be computed by using the bottom of 
the trench area. Distribution piping in a seepage bed shall be 
uniformly spaced not greater than 5 feet (1524 mm) and not 
less than 3 feet (914 mm) apart, and greater than 3 feet (914 
mm) and not less than 1 foot (305 mm) from the sidewall 
or headwall . 



1303.9.4 Excavation and construction. The bottom of a 
trench or bed excavation shall be level. Seepage trenches or 
beds shall not be excavated where the soil is so wet that such 
material rolled between the hands forms a soil wire. All 
smeared or compacted soil surfaces in the sidewalls or bot- 
tom of seepage trench or bed excavations shall be scarified 
to the depth of smearing or compaction and the loose 
material removed. Where rain falls on an open excavation, 
the soil shall be left until sufficiently dry so a soil wire will 
not form when soil from the excavation bottom is rolled 
between the hands. The bottom area shall then be scarified 
and loose material removed. 

1303.9.5 Aggregate and backfill. Not less than 6 inches in 
depth of aggregate ranging in size from V 2 to 2'/ 2 inches (12.7 
mm to 64 mm) shall be laid into the trench below the distri- 
bution piping elevation. The aggregate shall be evenly dis- 
tributed not less than 2 inches (51 mm) in depth over the top 
of the distribution pipe. The aggregate shall be covered with 
approved synthetic materials or 9 inches (229 mm) of 
uncompacted marsh hay or straw. Building paper shall not be 
used to cover the aggregate. Not less than 9 inches (229 mm) 
of soil backfill shall be provided above the covering. 

1303.10 Distribution piping. Distribution piping shall be not 
less than 3 inches (76 mm) in diameter. Materials shall comply 
with Table 1303. 10. The top of the distribution pipe shall be not 
less than 8 inches (203 mm) below the original surface. The 
slope of the distribution pipes shall be not less than 2 inches 
(51 mm) and not greater than 4 inches (102 mm) per 100 feet 
(30 480 mm). 

TABLE 1303.10 
DISTRIBUTION PIPE 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Polyethylene (PE) plastic pipe 


ASTMF405 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe 


ASTM D 2729 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe with a 
3.5 inch O.D. and solid cellular core or 
composite wall. 


ASTM F 1488 



1303.11 Joints. Joints in distribution pipe shall be made in 
accordance with Section 705 of this code. 



102 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 8 



CHAPTER 14 

REFERENCED STANDARDS 



This chapter lists the standards that are referenced in various sections of this document. The standards are listed herein by the 
promulgating agency of the standard, the standard identification, the effective date and title, and the section or sections of this 
document that reference the standard. The application of the referenced standards shall be as specified in Section 102.8. 



American National Standards Institute 
25 West 43rd Street, Fourth Floor 
New York, NY 10036 

Referenced 

in code 

Title section number 

Specifications for Load Bearing, Bonded, Waterproof Membranes for Thin Set 

Ceramic Tile and Dimension Stone Installation 417.5.2.5, 417.5.2.6 

Minimum Requirements for Nonsewered Waste-disposal Systems 311.1 

Relief Valves for Hot Water Supply Systems with Addenda Z21.22a— 2000 (R2003) and 

Z21 .22b— 2001 (R2003) 504.2, 504.4, 504.4.1 

Plastic Bathtub and Shower Units 407.1, 417.1 

Plastic Lavatories 416.1, 416.2, 417.1 

Plastic Water Closet Bowls and Tanks 420.1 

Plastic Sinks 415.1, 418.1 

Plastic Urinal Fixtures 419.1 



Standard 
reference 
number 



Al 18.10—99 

Z4.3— 95 
Z21.22— 99(R2003) 

Zl 24. 1.2— 2005 
Z124.3— 95 
Z 124.4— 96 
Z 124.6— 97 
Z 124.9— 94 



Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute 
4100 North Fairfax Drive, Suite 200 
Arlington, VA 22203 



Standard 
reference 
number 



Title 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



1010—02 



Self-contained, Mechanically Refrigerated Drinking- Water Coolers 410.1 



American Society of Mechanical Engineers 

Three Park Avenue 

New York, NY 10016-5990 



Standard 
reference 
number 



Title 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



A 112. 1.2— 2004 
A112.1.3— 2000 
(Reaffirmed 2005) 

A112.3.1— 2007 



A 11 2.3.4— 2000 
(Reaffirmed 2004) 
A112.4.1— 1993(R2002) 
Al 1 2.4.2— 2003(R2008) 
Al 12.4.3— 1999 
(Reaffirmed 2004) 
Al 1 2.6. 1M— 1997 (R2002) 
Al 12.6.2— 2000 
(Reaffirmed 2004) 
Al 12.6.3— 2001 
(Reaffirmed 2007) 



Air Gaps in Plumbing Systems Table608. 1,608. 13.1 

Air Gap Fittings for Use with Plumbing Fixtures, 

Appliances and Appurtenances Table 608.1, 608.13.1 , 1 102.6 

Stainless Steel Drainage Systems for Sanitary, DWV, Storm and 

Vacuum Applications Above and Below Ground 412.1, Table 702.1, Table 702.2, Table 702.3, 

Table 702.4, 708.2, Table 1 102.4, Table 1 102.5, Table 1 102.7 

Macerating Toilet Systems and Related Components 712.4.1 

Water Heater Relief Valve Drain Tubes 504.6 

Water Closet Personal Hygiene Devices 424.9 

Plastic Fittings for Connecting Water Closets to the Sanitary Drainage System 405.4 

Floor-affixed Supports for Off-the-floor Plumbing Fixtures for Public Use 405.4.3 

Framing-affixed Supports for Off-the-floor Water Closets with Concealed Tanks 405.4.3 

Floor and Trench Drains 412.1 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



103 



REFERENCED STANDARDS 



Al 12.6.4— 2003 (R2008) 
Al 12.6.7— 2001 
(Reaffirmed 2007) 
Al 12.6.9—05 
All 2. 14.1— 2003 
Al 12.14.3— 2000 
Al 12.14.4— 2001 
(Reaffirmed 2007) 
Al 12.18.1— 2005/ 
CSAB 125. 1—2005 
Al 12. 18.2— 2005/ 
CSAB125.1— 2010 
Al 12.18.3 — 2002 
(Reaffirmed 2008) 

Al 12.18.6/ 
CSAB125.6— 2010 
A112.18.7— 1999 
(Reaffirmed 2004) 
A112.I9.1M/ 
CSA B45.2— 2008 
Al 12. 19.2— 2008/ 
CSA B45. 1—08 
A112.19.3M— 2008/ 
CSA B45.4— 08 
Al 12. 19.5/ 
CSA B45. 15— 2009 
A112.19.7M/ 
CSA B45.1 0—2009 
A112.19.9M— 1991 
(R2002) 
Al 12.19.12— 2006 

Al 12.19.15—2005 

Al 12.19. 19— 2006 

A112.36.2M— 1991 

(R2008) 

Bl.20.1— 1983(R2006) 



B 16.3—2006 
B 16.4—2006 
B 16.9—2007 
B 16.11—2005 
B16.12— 1998 
(Reaffirmed 2006) 
B 16. 15— 2006 
B 16.18—2001 
(Reaffirmed 2005) 
B 16. 22— 2001 
(Reaffirmed 2005) 
B 16. 23— 2002 
(Reaffirmed 2006) 
B 16.26—2006 
B 16.28—1994 
B 16.29—2007 



ASME— continued 

Roof, Deck, and Balcony Drains 1 102.6 

Enameled and Epoxy-coated Cast-iron and PVC Plastic Sanitary Floor Sinks 427.1 

Siphonic Roof Drains 1107.1 

Backwater Valves 715.2 

Grease Interceptors 1003.3.4 

Grease Removal Devices 1 003.3.4 

Plumbing Supply Fittings 424.1, 424.2, 424.3, 424.4, 424.6, 607.4, 608.2 

Plumbing Waste Fittings with 2007 and 2008 Supplements 424.1.2 

Performance Requirements for Backflow Protection Devices and Systems 

in Plumbing Fixture Fittings 424.2,424.6 

Flexible Water Connectors 605.6 

Deck mounted Bafh/Sbower Transfer Valves with Integral Backflow Protection 424.8 

Enameled Cast Iron and Enameled Steel Plumbing Fixtures 407.1, 410.1, 415.1, 416.1, 418.1 

Ceramic Plumbing Fixtures 401.2, 405.9, 407.1, 408.1, 410.1, 415.1 , 416.1, 417.1, 418.1, 419.1, 420.1 

Stainless Steel Plumbing Fixtures 405.9, 407.1, 415.1, 416.1, 418.1, 420.1 

Trim for Water-closet Bowls, Tanks and Urinals 425.4 

Hydromassage Bathtub Appliances 421.1,421.4 

Nonvitreous Ceramic Plumbing Fixtures with 2002 Supplement 407.1, 408.1, 410.1, 419.1 

Wall Mounted and Pedestal Mounted, Adjustable, Elevating, Tilting and 

Pivoting Lavatory, Sink and Shampoo Bowl Carrier Systems and Drain Systems 416.4,418.3 

Bathtub/Whirlpool Bathtubs with Pressure Sealed Doors 407.4,421.6 

Vitreous China Nonwater Urinals 419. 1 

Cleanouts 708.2 

Pipe Threads, General Purpose (inch) 605.10.3,605.12.3,605.14.4,605.16.3, 

605.18.1, 605.22.3, 705.2.3, 705.4.3, 
705.9.4,705.12.1,705.14.3 

Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings Classes 150 and 300 Table 605.5, Table 702.4, Table 1 102.7 

Gray Iron Threaded Fittings Classes 125 and 250 Table 605.5, Table 702.4, Table 1 1 02.7 

Factory-made Wrought Steel Buttwelding Fittings Table 605.5, Table 702.4, Table 1 102.7 

Forged Fittings, Socket-welding and Threaded Table 605.5, Table 702.4, Table 1 102.7 

Cast-iron Threaded Drainage Fittings Table 605.5, Table 702.4, Table 1 102.7 

Cast Bronze Threaded Fittings Table 605.5, Table 702.4, Table 1 1 02.7 

Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings Table 605.5, Table 702.4, Table 1 102.7 

Wrought Copper and Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings Table 605.5, Table 702.4, Table 1 1 02.7 

Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Drainage Fittings DWV Table 605.5, Table 702.4, Table 1 102.7 

Cast Copper Alloy Fittings for Flared Copper Tubes Table 605.5, Table 702,4, Table 1 102.7 

Wrought Steel Buttwelding Short Radius Elbows and Returns Table 605.5, Table 702,4, Table 1 102.7 

Wrought Copper and Wrought Copper Alloy Solder Joint Drainage 
Fittings (DWV) Table 605.5, Table 702.4, Table 1102.7 



ASPE 



American Society of Plumbing Engineers 
8614 Catalpa Avenue, Suite 1007 
Chicago, IL 60656-1 116 



Standard 
reference 
number 



Title 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



45—2007 



Siphonic Roof Drainage Systems 1 1 07. 1 



104 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



REFERENCED STANDARDS 



ASSE 



American Society of Sanitary Engineering 
901 Canterbury Road, Suite A 
Westlake, OH 44145 



Standard 
reference 
number 



1001—08 
1002—08 

1003—09 
1004—08 

1005—99 
1008—06 
1010—04 
1011—04 
1012—09 

1013—09 

1015—09 

1016—2010 

1017—2010 

1018—2010 
1019—2010 

1020—04 
1022—03 

1024—04 

1035—08 
1037—90 
1044—2010 

1047—2009 

1048—2009 

1049—2009 

1050—2009 
1051—2009 

1052—04 

1055—2009 

1056—2010 

1060—2006 

1061—2010 

1062—2006 

1066—97 

1069—05 
1070—04 
1079—2005 
5013—2009 

5015—2009 

5020—2009 



Title 



- Referenced 

in code 
section number 

Performance Requirementsfor Atmospheric Type Vacuum Breakers . .425.2, Table 608.1, 608.13.6,608.16.4.1 
Performance Requirements for Antisiphon Fill Valves (Ballcocks) for 

Gravity Water Closet Flush Tanks 425.3. 1,1 able 608.1 

Performance Requirements for Water Pressure Reducing Valves 604.8 

Performance Requirements for Backflow Prevention Requirements for 

Commercial Dishwashing Machines W9A 

Performance Requirements for Water Heater Drain Valves 50l -3 

Performance Requirements for Plumbing Aspects of Food Waste Disposer Units 413.1 

Performance Requirements for Water Hammer Arresters °04.9 

Performance Requirements for Hose Connection Vacuum Breakers Table608. 1,608.13.6 



.Table 608. 1,608. 13.3, 608. 16.2 



,608.16.1,608.16.10 



.1002.4 



Performance Requirements for Backflow Preventers with Intermediate 

Atmospheric Vent 

Performance Requirements for Reduced Pressure Principle Backflow 

Preventers and Reduced Pressure Principle Fire Protection Backflow ,„„,,„,.„,,. 

Preventers Table608.1, 608.13.2, 60s. 16.2 

Performance Requirements for Double Check Backflow Prevention 

Assemblies and Double Check Fire Protection Backflow Prevention Assemblies lable6US.l ,oOS.U./ 

Performance Requirements for Individual Thermostatic, Pressure Balancing 

and Combination Control Valves for Individual Fixture Fittings 424.3, 424.4, 60 I A 

Performance Requirements for Temperature Actuated Mixing Valves for 

Hot Water Distribution Systems 501.2,613.1 

Performance Requirements for Trap Seal Primer Valves; Potable Water Supplied 1002.4 

Performance Requirements for Vacuum Breaker Wall Hydrants, Freeze Resistant, 

Automatic Draining Type Table 608.1, 608.13.6 

Performance Requirements for Pressure Vacuum Breaker Assembly Table 608.1, 608.13.5 

Performance Requirements for Backflow Preventer for Beverage 

Dispensing Equipment Table 608. 

Performance Requirements for Dual Check Valve Type Backflow Preventers 

(for Residential Supply Service or Individual Outlets) 605.3.1, laoieoOS.l 

Performance Requirements for Laboratory Faucet Backflow Preventers Table 608. 1,608. 13. 6 

Performance Requirements for Pressurized Flushing Devices for Plumbing Fixtures 425.2 

Performance Requirements for Trap Seal Primer Devices Drainage Types and 

Electronic Design Types 

Performance Requirements for Reduced Pressure Detector Fire Protection 

Backflow Prevention Assemblies Table 608. 1, 608. 13.2 

Performance Requirements for Double Check Detector Fire Protection 

Backflow Prevention Assemblies Table 608. 1,608. 13.7 

Performance Requirements for Individual and Branch Type Air Admittance Valves for 

Chemical Waste Systems 9<J] .3, 918.8 

Performance Requirements for Stack Air Admittance Valves for Sanitary Drainage Systems 918.1 

Performance Requirements for Individual and Branch Type Air Admittance Valves for 

Sanitary Drainage Systems-fixture and Branch Devices 9i '■ 

Performance Requirements for Hose Connection Backflow Preventers Table 608. 1 , 608. 1 3.6 

Performance Requirements for Chemical Dispensing Systems 608.13.9 

Performance Requirements for Spill Resistant Vacuum Breaker Table 608. 1,608.13.5, 608. 13.8 

Performance Requirements for Outdoor Enclosures for Fluid Conveying Components 608.14.1 

Performance Requirements for Removable and Nonremovable Push Fit Fittings Table 605.5 

Performance Requirements for Temperature Actuated, Flow Reduction Valves to 

Individual Supply Fittings 

Performance Requirements for Individual Pressure Balancing In-line Valves for 

Individual Fixture Fittings 6U4 ' ' l 

Performance Requirements for Automatic Temperature Control Mixing Valves 424.4 

Performance Requirements for Water-temperature Limiting Devices 408.3, 416^5 424 5 607.1.2 

Performance Requirements for Dielectric Pipe Unions 605.24. 1 , 005. Z4.3 

Performance Requirements for Testing Reduced Pressure Principle Backflow 

Prevention Assembly (RPA) and Reduced Pressure Fire Protection Backflow Preventers (RFP) 
Performance Requirements for Testing Double Check Valve Backflow Prevention 

Assemblies (DC) and Double Check Fire Protection Backflow Prevention Assemblies (DCF) 312.10.2 

Performance Requirements for Testing Pressure Vacuum Breaker Assemblies (PVBA) 312.10.2 



312.10.2 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



105 



REFERENCED STANDARDS 



5047—98 

5048—2009 

5052—98 

5056—98 



ASSE — continued 

Performance Requirements for Testing Reduced Pressure Detector Fire Protection 

Backflow Prevention Assemblies (RPDA) 312 10 2 

Performance Requirements for Testing Double Check Valve Detector Assembly (DCDA) .. .312T02 

Performance Requirements for Testing Hose Connection Backflow Preventers ! 3 12. 102 

Performance Requirements for Testing Spill Resistant Vacuum Breaker (SRVB) '. 312.1 0.2 



ASTM 



ASTM International 

1 00 Barr Harbor Drive 

West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959 



Standard 

reference 
number 



A 53/A 53M— 07 
A 74— 09 

A312/A312M— 08a 

A 733—03 
A 778—01 
A 888—09 



B 32—08 
B 42— 02e01 
B 43—98(2004) 
B 75—02 

B 88—03 

B 152/B I52M— 06a 
B 251— 02e01 



B 302—07 

B 306— 09 

B 447—07 

B 687— 99(2005)e01 

B 813—00(2009) 

B 828—02 

C 4— 04e01 

C 14—07 

C 76— 08a 

C 296—00(2004) 

C 425—04 

C 428—05(2006) 

C 443— 05a 
C 508—00(2004) 
C 564—08 
C 700— 07a 



C 1053—00(2005) 



Title 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-dipped, Zinc -coated ~ " — ~ 

Welded and Seamless Table 605.3, Table 605.4, Table 702.1 

Specification for Cast-iron Soil Pipe and Fittings Table 702.1, Table 702.2, Table 702.3, 

Table 702.4, 708.2, 708.7, Table 1 102.4, 

.,. . Table 1 102.5, Table 1 1.02.7 

Specification for Seamless, Welded, And Heavily Cold Worked Austenitic 

Stainless Steel Pipes Table 605.3, Table 605.4, 

Table 605.5, 605.23.2 
Specification for Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel and Austenitic 

Stainless Steel Pipe Nipples Table605 8 

Specification for Welded Unannealed Austenitic Stainless Steel 

Tubular Products Table 605.3, Table 605.4, Table 605.5 

Specification for Hubless Cast-iron Soil Pipe and Fittings for Sanitary 

and Storm Drain, Waste, and Vent Piping Application Table 702.1, Table 702.2, Table 702.3, 

Table 702.4. 708.7. Table 1 102.4, 
.. Table 11 02.5, Table 1102.7 

Specification for Solder Metal 605.14.3,605.15.4,705.9.3,705.10.3 

Specification for Seamless Copper Pipe, Standard Sizes Table 605.3, Table 605.4, Table 702.1 

Specification for Seamless Red Brass Pipe, Standard Sizes Table 605.3^ Table 605 A Table 702' 1 

Specification for Seamless Copper Tube Table 605.3,Table 605.4, Table 702.1, 

Table 702.2, Table 702.3, Table 1 102.4 

Specification for Seamless Copper Water Tube Table 605.3, Table 605.4, Table 702. 1 , 

Table 702.2, Table 702.3, Table 1 102.4 

Specification for Copper Sheet, Strip Plate and Rolled Bar 402.3, , 417.5.2.4, 425.3.3. 902.2 

Specification for General Requirements for Wrought Seamless Copper 

and Copper-alloy Tube Table 605.3. Table 605.4, Table 702.1. 

c . c . . Table 702.2, Table 702.3, Table 1102.4 

Specification for Threadless Copper Pipe, Standard Sizes Table 605.3, Table 605 4 Table 70? 1 

Specification for Copper Drainage Tube (DWV) Table 702.1. Table 7022 Table 1 102 4 

Specification for Welded Copper Tube Table 605 3< Tab]e m 4 

Specification for Brass, Copper and Chromium-plated Pipe Nipples Table 605 8 

Specification for Liquid and Paste Fluxes for Soldering of Copper and ' 

Copper Alloy Tube 605.14.3,605.15.4,705.9.3 705 10 3 

Practice for Making Capillary Joints by Soldering of Copper and 

Copper Alloy Tube and Fittings 605.14.3, 605.15.4, 705 9 3 705 10 3 

Specification for Clay Drain Tile and Perforated Clay Drain Tile .... Table 702.3, Table 1 102.4, Table 1 102 5 
Specification for Nonreinforced Concrete Sewer, Storm Drain and Culvert Pipe . . . .Table 702.3' Table 1 1 02 4 

Specification for Reinforced Concrete Culvert, Storm Drain and Sewer Pipe Table 702 3' Table 1 102 4 

Specification for Asbestos-cement Pressure Pipe ' Table 605 3 

Specification for Compression Joints for Vitrified Clay Pipe and Fittings ........ .105 15 105 \9 

Specification for Asbestos-cement Nonpressure Sewer Pipe Table 702/2, Table 702.3 

c .,. t . , T . c „ Table 702.4,' Table 1102.4 

Specification for Joints for Concrete Pipe and Manholes, Using Rubber Gaskets 705 6 705 1 9 

Specification for Asbestos-cement Underdrain Pipe Xable 1 102 5 

Specification for Rubber Gaskets for Cast-iron Soil Pipe and Fittings 705 5 2 705 5 3 705 19 

Specification for Vitrified Clay Pipe, Extra Strength, Standard Strength, and ' ? 

Perforated Table ?Q2 3> Tab]e m4> 

c - f - t - t - n .,. ,-,, „. Table 1102.4, Table 1102.5 

ijpeciticatton ior Borosilicate Glass Pipe and Fittings for Drain, Waste and Vent 

(DWV) Applications ' Table 702.1, Table 702.4 



106 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



REFERENCED STANDARDS 



ASTM— continued 

C 1 173 — 08 Specification for Flexible Transition Couplings for Underground Piping System 705.2.1, 705.6, 

705.7.1,705.14.1. 
705.15, 705.16.2,705.19 

C 1277 — 08 Specification for Shielded Coupling Joining Hubless Cast-iron Soil Pipe and Fittings 705.5.3 

C 1440 — 08 Specification for Thermoplastic Elastomeric (TPE) Gasket Materials for Drain, 

Waste, and Vent (DWV). Sewer, Sanitary and Storm Plumbing Systems 705.19 

C 1460 — 08 Specification for Shielded Transition Couplings for Use with Dissimilar DWV 

Pipe and Fittings Above Ground 705.19 

C 1461 — 08 Specification for Mechanical Couplings Using Thermoplastic Elastomeric (TPE) 

Gaskets for Joining Drain, Waste and Vent (DWV) Sewer, Sanitary and Storm Plumbing 

Systems for Above and Below Ground Use 705. 19 

C 1540 — 08 Specification for Heavy Duty Shielded Couplings Joining Hubless Cast-iron Soil Pipe and Fittings .... 705.5.3 

C 1563 — 08 Standard Test Method for Gaskets for Use in Connection with Hub and Spigot 

Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings for Sanitary Drain, Waste, Vent and Storm Piping Applications .... 705.5.2 

D 1527—99(2005) Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40 and 80 Table 605.3 

D 1785—06 Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40, 80 and 120 Table605.3 

D 1869— 95(2005)el Specification for Rubber Rings for Asbestos-cement Pipe 605.11,605.24,705.3,705.19 

D 2235 — 04 Specification for Solvent Cement for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) 

Plastic Pipe and Fittings 605.10.2, 705.2.2. 705.2.2, 705.7.2 

D 2239—03 Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe (SIDR-PR) Based on 

Controlled Inside Diameter Table 605.3 

D 2241—05 Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pressure-rated Pipe (SDR-Series) Table 605.3 

D 2282— 99e0 1(2005) Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR) Table 605.3 

D 2464 — 06 Specification for Threaded Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, 

Schedule 80 Table 605.5 

D 2466—06 Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 40 Table 605.5 

D 2467—06 Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80 Table 605.5 

D 2468 — 96a Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe Fittings, 

Schedule 40 Table605.5 

D 2564— 04e0 1 Specification for Solvent Cements for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) 

Plastic Piping Systems 605.22.2,705.8.2,705.14.2 

D 2609—02(2008) Specification for Plastic Insert Fittings for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe Table 605.5 

D 2657 — 07 Practice for Heat Fusion-joining of Polyolefin Pipe and Fitting Waste, 

and Vent Pipe and Fittings 605.19.2,705.16.1 

D 266 1 — 08 Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Schedule 40 

Plastic Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe and Fittings Table 702.1, Table 702.2, Table 702.3, 

Table 702.4, 705.2.2, 705.7.2. 
Table 11 02.4, Table 1102.7 
D 2665—09 Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Drain, Waste, 

and Vent Pipe and Fittings Table 702.1, Table 702.2, 

Table 702.3, Table 702.4, 
Table 1102.4, Table 1102.7 

D 2672— 96a(2003) Specification for Joints for IPS PVC Pipe Using Solvent Cement Table 605.3 

D 2683 — 04 Standard Specification for Socket-type Polyethylene fittings for Outside 

Diameter-controlled Polyethylene Pipe and Tubing Table 605.5 

D 2729—03 Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Sewer Pipe and Fittings Table 1 102.5 , Table 1 303. 10 

D 2737—03 Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Tubing Table 605.3 

D 2751 — 05 Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Sewer Pipe 

and Fittings Table 702.3, Table 702.4, Table 1 102.4, Table 1 102.7 

D 2846/D 2846M— 09 Specification for Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Hot and 

Cold Water Distribution Systems Table 605.3, Table 605.4, Table 605.5. 605.16.2 

D 2855 — 96(2002) Standard Practice for Making Solvent-cemented Joints with 

Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pipe and Fittings 605.22.2,705.8.2,705.14.2 

D 2949—0 1 a(2008) Specification for 3.25-in Outside Diameter Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) 

Plastic Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe and Fittings Table 702. 1 , Table 702.2, Table 702.3. 

Table 702.4, Table 1102.7 
D 3034—08 Specification for Type PSM Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) 

Sewer Pipe and Fittings Table 702.3, Table 702.4, Table 1 102.4, Table 1 102.7 

D 3035—08 Standard Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe (DR-PR) Based on 

Controlled Outside Diameter Table605.3 

D 3139—98(2005) Specification for Joints for Plastic Pressure Pipes Using Flexible Elastomeric Seals 605.10.1,605.22.1 

D 3212 — 07 Specification for Joints for Drain and Sewer Plastic Pipes Using 

Flexible Elastomeric Seals 705.2.1,705.7.1.705.8.1.705.14.1,705.16.2 

D 3261 — 03 Specification for Butt Heat Fusion Polyethylene (PE) Plastic fittings 

for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe and Tubing Table 605.5 

D 33 1 1—08 Specification for Drain, Waste and Vent (DWV) Plastic Fittings Patterns Table 1 1 02.7 

D 4068 — 01 Specification for Chlorinated Polyethlene (CPE) Sheeting for Concealed 

Water-containment Membrane 417.5 .2.2 

2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 107 



REFERENCED STANDARDS 



D 4551—96(2008) el 

F 405— 05 

F 409—02 (2008) 

F 437—06 

F 438—04 

F 439—06 

F 44 1/F 44 1M— 02(2008) 

F 442/F 442M— 99(2005) el 

F 477—08 
F 493—04 

F 628—08 

F 656— 08 

F 714— 08 
F 876— 08b 
F 877—07 

F 891—07 

F 1055—98(2006) 

F 1281—07 

F 1282—06 

F 1412—09 

F 1488—03 
F 1673—04 

F 1807—08 

F 1866—07 

F 1960—09 

F 1974—08 

F 1986—01(2006) 

F 2080—08 

F 2098—08 

F 2159— 05 

F 2262—05 

F 2306/F 2306M— 08 

F2389— 07el 

F 2434—08 



ASTM — co nti n ued 

Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Flexible Concealed 

Water-containment Membrane 417 .5 .2.1 

Specification for Corrugated Polyethylene (PE) Pipe and Fittings Table 1102.5, Table 1303.10 

Specification for Thermoplastic Accessible and Replaceable Plastic Tube 

and Tubular Fittings 424.1.2, Table 1102.7 

Specification for Threaded Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, 

Schedule 80 Table605.5 

Specification for Socket-type Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, 

Schedule 40 Table 605.5 

Standard Specification for Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, 

Schedule 80 Table605.5 

Specification for Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe, 

Schedules 40 and 80 Table 605.3, Table 605.4 

Specification for Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) 

Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR) Table 605.3, Table 605.4 

Specification for Elastomeric Seals (Gaskets) for Joining Plastic Pipe 605.24,705.19 

Specification for Solvent Cements for Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) 

Plastic Pipe and Fittings 605.16.2 

Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Schedule 40 Plastic 

Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe with a Cellular Core Table 702.1, Table 702.2, Table 702.3, 

Table 702.4, 705.2.2, 705.7.2, Table 1 102.4, Table 1 102.7 
Specification for Primers for Use in Solvent Cement Joints of 

Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe and Fittings 605.22.2,705.8.2,705.14.2 

Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR) Based on Outside Diameter Table 702.3 

Specification for Cross-linked Polyethylene (PEX) Tubing Table 605.3, Table 605.4 

Specification for Cross-linked Polyethylene (PEX) Plastic Hot and 

Cold Water Distribution Systems Table 605.3, Table 605.4, Table 605.5 

Specification for Coextruded Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe 

with a Cellular Core Table 702.1 Table 702.2, Table 702.3, 

Table 1102.4, Table 1102.5, Table 1102.7 
Standard Specification for Electrofusion Type Polyethylene Fittings for 

Outside Diameter Controlled Polyethylene Pipe and Tubing Table 605.5 

Specification for Cross-linked Polyethylene/ Aluminum/ Cross-linked Polyethylene 

(PEX-AL-PEX) Pressure Pipe Table 605.3, Table 605.4, Table 605.5, 605.21.1 

Specification for Polyethylene/Aluminum/Polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) 

Composite Pressure Pipe Table 605.3, Table 605.4, Table 605.5, 605.21.1 

Specification for Polyolefin Pipe and Fittings for Corrosive Waste Drainage Table 702.1, Table 702.2, 

Table 702.4, 705.17.1 

Specification for Coextruded Composite Pipe Table 702.1, Table 702.2, Table 702.3, Table 1303.10 

Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Corrosive Waste Drainage Systems . . .Table 702.1, Table 702.2, Table 702.3, 

Table 702.4, 705.18.1 
Specification for Metal Insert Fittings Utilizing a Copper Crimp Ring for 

SDR9 Cross-linked Polyethylene (PEX) Tubing Table605.5 

Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Schedule 40 Drainage and 

DWV Fabricated Fittings Table 702.4, Table 1102.7 

Specification for Cold Expansion Fittings with PEX Reinforcing Rings for use with Cross-linked 

Polyethylene (PEX) Tubing Table605.5 

Specification for Metal Insert Fittings for Polyethylene/ Aluminum/Polyethylene and 

Cross-linked Polyethylene/ Aluminum/Cross-linked Polyethylene Composite 

Pressure Pipe Table 605.5, 605.21.1 

Specification for Multilayer Pipe, Type 2, Compression Fittings and Compression 

Joints for Hot and Cold Drinking Water Systems Table 605.3, Table 605.4, Table 605.5 

Specifications for Cold-expansion Fittings with Metal Compression-sleeves for 

Cross-linked Polyethylene (PEX) Pipe Table605.5 

Standard specification for Stainless Steel Clamps for Securing SDR9 Cross-linked Polyethylene 

(PEX) Tubing to Metal Insert Fittings Table605.5 

Specification for Plastic Insert Fittings Utilizing a Copper Crimp Ring for SDR9 Cross-linked 

Polyethylene (PEX) Tubing Table605.5 

Specification for Cross-linked Polyethylene/ Aluminum/Cross-linked Polyethylene Tubing 

OD Controlled SDR9 Table 605.3, Table 605.4 

1 2" to 60" Annular Corrugated Profile-wall Polyethylene (PE) Pipe and Fittings for 

Gravity Flow Storm Sewer and Subsurface Drainage Applications Table 1 102.4, Table 1 102.7 

Specification for Pressure-rated Polypropylene (PP) Piping Systems Table 605.3, Table 605.4, 

Table 605.5, 605 .20.1 
Standard Specification for Metal Insert Fittings Utilizing a 

Copper Crimp Ring for SDR9 Cross-linked Polyethylene (PEX) Tubing and SDR9 

Cross-linked Polyethylene/ Aluminum/ Cross-linked Polyethylene (PEX AL-PEX) Tubing Table 605.5 



108 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



REFERENCED STANDARDS 



F 2735—09 
F 2769—09 



ASTM— continued 

Standard Specification for SDR9 Cross-linked Polyethylene (PEX) and 

Raised Temperature (PE-RT) Tubing Table 605.5 

Polyethylene or Raised Temperature (PE-RT) Plastic Hot and Cold Water Tubing 

and Distribution Systems Table 605.3, Table 605.4 



AWS 



American Welding Society 
550 N.W. LeJeune Road 
Miami, FL 33 1 26 



Standard 
reference 
number 



Title 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



A5.8— 04 



Specifications for Filler Metals for Brazing and Braze Welding 



605.12.1,605.14.1, 

605.15.1, 705.4.1, 705.9.1, 705.10.1 



AWWA 



C 104— 98 
C110/A21.10— 03 

CI 11— 00 

C115/A21.15— 99 

C151/A21.51— 02 

C153— 00/A21.53— 00 

C510— 00 

C511— 00 

C651— 99 

C652— 02 

C901— 08 

C904— 08 



American Water Works Association 
6666 West Quincy Avenue 
Denver, CO 80235 



Standard 




Referenced 


reference 




in code 


number 


Title 


section number 



Standard for Cement-mortar Lining for Ductile-iron Pipe and Fittings for Water 605.3, 605.5 

Standard for Ductile-iron and Gray-iron Fittings, 3 Inches through 48 Inches, 

for Water Table 605.5, Table 702.4, Table 1102.7 

Standard for Rubber-gasket Joints for Ductile-iron Pressure Pipe and Fittings 605.13 

Standard for Flanged Ductile-iron Pipe with Ductile-iron or Gray-iron 

Threaded Flanges Table 605.3, Table 605.4 

Standard for Ductile-iron Pipe, Centrifugally Cast for Water Table 605.3, Table 605.4 

Standard for Ductile-iron Compact Fittings for Water Service Table 605.5 

Double Check Valve Backflow Prevention Assembly Table 608. 1, 608.1 3.7 

Reduced-pressure Principle Backflow Prevention Assembly Table 608.1, 608.13.2, 608.16.2 

Disinfecting Water Mains 610.1 

Disinfection of Water-storage Facilities 610.1 

Polyethylene (PE) Pressure Pipe and Tubing '/, inch (13 mm) 

Through 3 inch (76 mm) for Water Service Table 605.3 

Cross-linked Polyethylene (PEX) Pressure Pipe '/ 2 inch (13 mm) 

Through 3 inch (76 mm) for Water Service Table 605.3 



CISPT 



301— 04a 



310—04 



Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute 
5959 Shallowford Road, Suite419 
Chattanooga, TN 37421 



Standard 




Referenced 


reference 




in code 


number 


Title 


section number 



Specification for Hubless Cast-iron Soil Pipe and Fittings for Sanitary 

and Storm Drain, Waste and Vent Piping Applications Table 702. 1 , Table 702.2, Table 702.3, 

Table 702.4, 708.7, Table 1 102.4, 
Table 11 02.5, Table 1102.7 
Specification for Coupling for Use in Connection with Hubless Cast-iron 

Soil Pipe and Fittings for Sanitary and Storm Drain, Waste and Vent Piping Applications 705.5.3 






Canadian Standards Association 

5060 Spectrum Way 

Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L4W 5N6 



Standard 
reference 
number 



Title 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



A257.1M- 

A257.2M- 



-92 
-92 



Circular Concrete Culvert, Storm Drain, Sewer Pipe and Fittings 

Reinforced Circular Concrete Culvert, Storm Drain, Sewer Pipe and Fittings 



.Table 702.3, Table 11 02.4 
.Table 702.3, Table 1102.4 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



109 



REFERENCED STANDARDS 



A257.3M— 92 

ASMEA1 12.18.1/ 
CSAB125.1— 05 
ASMEA112.18.2/ 
CSAB125.2— 05 
ASMEA112.9.2/B45.1- 
ASMEA112.19.1/ 
CSAB45.2— 08 
ASME AU2.19.3/ 
CSA B45.4— 08 
ASME Al 12.19.5/ 
CSA B45. 15 — 09 
ASME All 2. 19.7/ 
CSAB45.10— 09 
B45.5— 02(R2008) 
B45.9— 99(R2008) 
B 64.1. 1—01 
B64. 1.2—07 
B 64.1.3— 07 
B 64.2— 01 
B 64.2.1— 07 
B64.2. 1.1—07 
B64.2.2— 01 
B64.3— 01 

B64.4— 01 
B64.4. 1—07 
B64.5— 07 
B64.5.1— 07 
B64.6— 07 
B64.7— 07 
B64.10— 07 
B64.10— 01 

B79— 08 
B125.3— 2005 
B137.1— 05 
B137.2— 05 

Bl 37.3—05 

B137.5— 05 

B 137.6— 05 
B137.9— 02 
B137.10M— 02 

B137.ll— 05 
B181.1— 06 



B 181.2—06 

B 181. 3— 02 
B182.1— 06 
B 182.2— 06 
B 182.4—02 
Bl 82.4— 06 
B182.6— 06 
B 182.8— 06 
8356—00(2005) 
B483.1— 07 
B481.3 



CSA — continued 

Joints for Circular Concrete Sewer and Culvert Pipe, Manhole Sections and 

Fittings Using Rubber Gaskets 705.6,705.19 

Plumbing Supply Fittings 424.1, 424.2, 424.3, 424.4, 424.6, 607.4, 608.2 

Plumbing Waste Fittings 424.1.2 

Ceramic Plumbing Fixtures 401.2,405.9,407.1,408.1,410.1,415.1,416.1,417.1,418.1,419.1,420.1 

Enameled Cast-iron and Enameled Steel Plumbing Fixtures 407.1, 410.1, 415.1, 416.1, 418.1 

Stainless-steel Plumbing Fixtures 405.9,407.1,415.1,416.1,418.1,420.1 

Trim for Water Closet Bowls and Tanks 425.4 

Hydromassage Bathtub Appliances 421.1, 421.4 

Plastic Plumbing Fixtures 407.1, 416.2, 417.1, 419.1, 420.1 

Macerating Systems and Related Components 712.4.1 

Vacuum Breakers, Atmospheric Type (AVB) 425.2, Table 608.1, 608.13.6, 608.16.4.1 

Pressure Vacuum Breakers, (PVB) Table608. 1,608.13.5 

Spill Resistant Pressure Vacuum Breaks (SRPVB) 608.13.8 

Vacuum Breakers, Hose Connection Type (HCVB) Table608. 1,608.13.6 

Vacuum Breakers, Hose Connection (HCVB) with Manual Draining Feature Table 608. 1,608. 13.6 

Hose Connection Dual Check Vacuum Breakers, (HCDVB) Table 608. 1,608.13.6 

Vacuum Breakers, Hose Connection Type (HCVB) with Automatic Draining Feature . . . Table 608. 1,608. 13. 6 
Backflow Preventers, Dual Check Valve Type with Atmospheric Port 

(DCAP) Table 608. 1,608. 13.3, 608.1 6.2 

Backflow Preventers, Reduced Pressure Principle Type (RP) Table 608.1, 608.13.2, 608.16.2 

Reduced Pressure Principle for Fire Sprinklers (RPF) Table608.1,608.13.2 

Double Check Backflow Preventers (DCVA) Table 608. 1,608. 13.7 

Double Check Valve Backflow Preventer for Fire Systems (DCVAF) Table 608. 1 608.13.7 

Dual Check Backflow Preventers Valve (DuC) 605.3.1, Table 608.1 

Laboratory Faucet Vacuum Breakers (LFVB) Table 608. 1,608.13.6 

Manual for the Selection and Installation of Backflow Prevention Devices 3 12.10.2 

Manual for the Selection, Installation, Maintenance and Field Testing of Backflow 

Prevention Devices 312.10.2 

Commercial and Residential Drains, and Cleanouts 412.1 

Plumbing Fittings 408.3, 416.5, 424.4, 424.5, 425.2, 425.3.1, Table 608.1 

Polyethylene (PE) Pipe, Tubing and Fittings for Cold Water Pressure Services Table 605.3 , Table 605.5 

Polyvinylchloride PVC Injection-moulded Gasketed Fittings for Pressure 

Applications Table 605.5 

Rigid Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pipe for Pressure Applications Table 605.3, Table 605.4, 

Table 605.5, 605.22.2, 705.8.2, 705.14.2 

Cross-linked Polyethylene (PEX) Tubing Systems for Pressure Applications Table 605.3, 

Table 605.4, Table 605.5 

CPVC Pipe, Tubing and Fittings for Hot and Cold Water Distribution Systems Table 605.3, Table 605.4 

Polyethylene/ Aluminum/Polyethylene Composite Pressure Pipe Systems . . .Table 605.3, Table 605.5, 605.21.1 
Cross-linked Polyethylene/ Aluminum/Polyethylene Composite 

Pressure Pipe Systems Table 605.3, Table 605.4, Table 605.5, 605.21.1 

Polypropylene (PP-R) Pipe and Fittings for Pressure Applications Table 605.3, Table 605.4, Table 605.5 

Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene ABS Drain, Waste and Vent Pipe and 

Pipe Fittings Table 702.1, Table 702,2, Table 702.3. Table 702.4, 

705.2.2, 705.7.2, 715.2, Table 1 102.4, Table 1 102.7 
Polyvinylchloride PVC and chlorinated polyvinylchloride (CPVC) 

Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe and Pipe Fittings Table 702.1 Table 702.2, 705.8.2, 705.14.2, 715.2 

Polyolefin Laboratory Drainage Systems Table 702.1, Table 702.2, Table 702.3, Table 702.4, 705.17.1 

Plastic Drain and Sewer Pipe and Pipe Fittings 705.8.2, 705.14.2, Table 1 102.4 

PSM Type Polyvinylchloride PVC Sewer Pipe and Fittings Table 702.3, Table 1 102.4, Table 1 102.5 

Profile PVC Sewer Pipe and Fittings Table 702.3, Table 1 102.4, Table 1 102.5 

Profile Polyvinylchloride PVC Sewer Pipe and Fittings Table 702.3, Table 1 102.4, Table 1 102.5 

Profile Polyethylene Sewer Pipe and Table 1 102.5 

Profile Polyethylene (PE) Storm Sewer and Drainage Pipe and Fittings Table 1 102.5 

Water Pressure Reducing Valves for Domestic Water Systems 604.8 

Drinking Water Treatment Units 61 1.1, 61 1.2 

Sizing, Selection, Location and Installation of Grease Interceptors 1003.3.4 



110 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



B481.1— 07 
B602— 02 



REFERENCED STANDARDS 



CSA — continued 

Testing and Rating of Grease interceptors Using Lard 

Mechanical Couplings for Drain, Waste and Vent Pipe and Sewer Pipe 



1003.3.4 

. . 705.2.1, 705.5.3, 705.6, 705.7.1, 
705.14.1,705.15,705.16.2,705.19 



Standard 
reference 
number 



IBC— 12 



IECC— 12 
IFC— 12 
IFGC— 12 
IMC— 12 
IPSDC— 12 
IRC— 12 



International Code Council, Inc. 
500 New lersey Ave, NW 
6th Floor 

Washington, DC 20001 _____ 

~~ Referenced 

in code 
■__■__]__. section number 

"international Building Code® 7 .201.3, 307.1, 307.2, 307.3, 308.2, 309.1, 309.2, 310. l7 

310.3, 315.1, 403.1, Table 403.1, 403.4, 404.1, 407.3, 417.6, 

502.4, 606.5.2, 1 106.5 

International Energy Conservation Code® 313.1 

International Fire Code® 201 - 3 > 1201 - 1 

International Fuel Gas Code® 101.2,201.3,502.1 

International Mechanical Code® 201.3, 307.6, 310.1,422.9, 502.1, 612.1, 1202.1 

International Private Sewage Disposal Code® 701 .2 

International Residential Code® ■ ■ ■ • t01-2 



ISEA 



Standard 
reference 
number 



Z358.1— 98 



International Safety Equipment Association 
1901 N. Moore Street, Suite 808 
Arlington, VA 22209 



Title 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



Emergency Eyewash and Shower Equipment 411.1 



NFPA 



Standard 
reference 
number 



50—01 
51—07 
70—11 
99C— 05 



National Fire Protection Association 
1 Batterymarch Park 
Quincy, MA 02169-7471 



Title 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



Bulk Oxygen Systems at Consumer Sites 1203.1 

Design and Installation of Oxygen-fuel Gas Systems for Welding, Cutting and Allied Processes 1203. 1 

National Electric Code 502.1,504.3, 1114.1.3 

Gas and Vacuum Systems 



.1202.1 



NSF 



Standard 
reference 
number 



3—2008 
14— 2008e 
18—2007 
42— 2007ae 
44—2007 
53— 2007a 
58—2007 
61—2008 
62—2007 



NSF International 
789 Dixboro Road 

Ann Arbor. M I 48 1 05 

Referenced 

in code 
j- t | e section number 

Commercial Warewashing Equipment 409. 1 

Plastic Piping System Components and Related Materials 303.3, 61 1 .3 

Manual Food and Beverage Dispensing Equipment 426.1 

Drinking Water Treatment Units-Aesthetic Effects 61 1.1.611.3 

Residential Cation Exchange Water Softeners 611.1,611.3 

Drinking Water Treatment Units-Health Effects 611.1,611.3 

Reverse Osmosis Drinking Water Treatment Systems 61 1 .2,611 .3 

Drinking Water System Components-Health Effects 410.1,424.1,605.3,605.4,605.5,605.7,611.3 

Drinking Water Distillation Systems 611.1 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



111 



REFERENCED STANDARDS 



PDI 



Standard 
reference 
number 



G1 01(2003) 
G102 



Plumbing and Drainage Institute 
800 Turnpike Street, Suite 300 
North Andover, MA 0J 845 



Title 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



Testing and Rating Procedure for Grease Interceptors with Appendix of Sizing and Installation Data . . 1 003.3.4 
Testing and Certification for Grease Interceptors with Fog Sensing and Alarm Devices 1003.3.4 



UL 



Standard 
reference 
number 



Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. 
333 Pfingsten Road 
Northbrook, IL 60062-2096 



Title 



508—99 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



Industrial Cont rol Equipment - with revision through April 2010 



.314.2.3 



112 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX A 

PLUMBING PERMIT FEE SCHEDULE 

The provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance. 

Permit Issuance 

1. For issuing each permit $ 

2. For issuing each supplemental permit 

Unit Fee Schedule 

1 . For each plumbing fixture or trap or set of fixtures on one trap (including water, drainage piping 

and backflow protection thereof) 

2. For each building sewer and each trailer park sewer 

3. Rainwater systems — per drain (inside building) 

4. For each cesspool (where permitted) 

5. For each private sewage disposal system 

6. For each water heater and/or vent 

7. For each industrial waste pretreatment interceptor including its trap and vent, excepting 

kitchen-type grease interceptors functioning as fixture traps 

8. For installation, alteration or repair of water-piping and/or water-treating equipment, each 

9. For repair or alteration of drainage or vent piping, each fixture 

10. For each lawn sprinkler system on any one meter including backflow protection devices therefor 

11. For atmospheric-type vacuum breakers not included in Item 2: 

1 to 5 

over 5, each 

12. For each backflow protective device other than atmospheric-type vacuum breakers: 

2 inches (51 mm) and smaller 

Over 2 inches (5 1 mm) 

Other Inspections and Fees 

1. Inspections outside of normal business hours (minimum charge two hours) per hour 

2. Reinspection fee assessed under provisions of Section 107.4.3 each 

3. Inspections for which no fee is specifically indicated (minimum charge one-half hour) per hour 

4. Additional plan review required by changes, additions or revisions to approved 

plans (minimum charge one-half hour) per hour 

2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 113 



114 2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX B 

RATES OF RAINFALL FOR VARIOUS CITIES 



This appendix is informative and is not part of the code. 

Rainfall rates, in inches per hour, are based on a storm of 1-hour duration and a 100-year return period. The rainfall rates shown 
in the appendix are derived from Figure 1 106.1. 



Alabama: 

Birmingham 3.8 

Huntsville 3.6 

Mobile 4.6 

Montgomery 4.2 

Alaska: 

Fairbanks 1.0 

Juneau 0.6 

Arizona: 

Flagstaff 2.4 

Nogales 3.1 

Phoenix 2.5 

Yuma 1.6 

Arkansas: 

Fort Smith 3.6 

Little Rock 3.7 

Texarkana 3.8 

California: 

Barstow 1.4 

Crescent City 1.5 

Fresno 1.1 

Los Angeles 2.1 

Needles 1.6 

Placerville 1.5 

San Fernando 2.3 

San Francisco 1.5 

Yreka 1.4 

Colorado: 

Craig 1.5 

Denver 2.4 

Durango 1.8 

Grand Junction 1.7 

Lamar 3.0 

Pueblo 2.5 

Connecticut: 

Hartford 2.7 

New Haven 2.8 

Putnam 2.6 

Delaware: 

Georgetown 3.0 

Wilmington 3.1 

District of Columbia: 

Washington 3.2 



Florida: 

Jacksonville 4.3 

Key West 4.3 

Miami 4.7 

Pensacola 4.6 

Tampa 4.5 

Georgia: 

Atlanta 3.7 

Dalton 3.4 

Macon 3.9 

Savannah 4.3 

Thomasville 4.3 

Hawaii: 

Hilo 6.2 

Honolulu 3.0 

Wailuku 3.0 

Idaho: 

Boise 0.9 

Lewiston 1.1 

Pocatello 1.2 

Illinois: 

Cairo 3.3 

Chicago 3.0 

Peoria 3.3 

Rockford 3.2 

Springfield 3.3 

Indiana: 

Evansville 3.2 

Fort Wayne 2.9 

Indianapolis 3.1 

Iowa: 

Davenport 3.3 

Des Moines 3.4 

Dubuque 3.3 

Sioux City 3.6 

Kansas: 

Atwood 3.3 

Dodge City 3.3 

Topeka 3.7 

Wichita 3.7 

Kentucky: 

Ashland 3.0 

Lexington 3.1 



Louisville 3.2 

Middlesboro 3.2 

Paducah 3.3 

Louisiana: 

Alexandria 4.2 

Lake Providence 4.0 

New Orleans 4.8 

Shreveport 3.9 

Maine: 

Bangor 2.2 

Houlton 2.1 

Portland 2.4 

Maryland: 

Baltimore 3.2 

Hagerstown 2.8 

Oakland 2.7 

Salisbury 3.1 

Massachusetts: 

Boston 2.5 

Pittsfield 2.8 

Worcester 2.7 

Michigan: 

Alpena 2.5 

Detroit 2.7 

Grand Rapids 2.6 

Lansing 2.8 

Marquette 2.4 

Sault Ste. Marie 2.2 

Minnesota: 

Duluth 2.8 

Grand Marais 2.3 

Minneapolis 3.1 

Moorhead 3.2 

Worthington 3.5 

Mississippi: 

Biloxi 4.7 

Columbus 3.9 

Corinth 3.6 

Natchez 4.4 

Vicksburg 4.1 

Missouri: 

Columbia 3.2 

Kansas City 3.6 



Springfield 3.4 

St. Louis 3.2 

Montana: 

Ekalaka 2.5 

Havre 1.6 

Helena 1.5 

Kalispell 1.2 

Missoula 1.3 

Nebraska: 

North Platte 3.3 

Omaha 3.8 

Scottsbluff 3.1 

Valentine 3.2 

Nevada: 

Elko 1.0 

Ely 1.1 

Las Vegas 1 .4 

Reno 1.1 

New Hampshire: 

Berlin 2.5 

Concord 2.5 

Keene 2.4 

New Jersey: 

Atlantic City 2.9 

Newark 3.1 

Trenton 3.1 

New Mexico: 

Albuquerque 2.0 

Hobbs 3.0 

Raton 2,5 

Roswell 2.6 

Silver City 1.9 

New York: 

Albany 2.5 

Binghamton 2.3 

Buffalo 2.3 

Kingston 2.7 

New York 3.0 

Rochester 2.2 

North Carolina: 

Asheville 4.1 

Charlotte 3.7 

Greensboro 3.4 

Wilmington 4.2 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



115 



APPENDIX B 



North Dakota: 

Bismarck 2.8 

Devils Lake 2.9 

Fargo 3.1 

Williston 2.6 

Ohio: 

Cincinnati 2.9 

Cleveland 2.6 

Columbus 2.8 

Toledo 2.8 

Oklahoma: 

Altus 3.7 

Boise City 3.3 

Durant 3.8 

Oklahoma City 3.8 

Oregon: 

Baker 0.9 

Coos Bay 1.5 

Eugene 1.3 

Portland 1.2 

Pennsylvania: 

Erie 2.6 

Harrisburg 2.8 

Philadelphia 3.1 

Pittsburgh 2.6 

Scranton 2.7 

Rhode Island: 

Block Island 2.75 

Providence 2.6 

South Carolina: 

Charleston 4.3 

Columbia 4.0 

Greenville 4. 1 

South Dakota: 

Buffalo 2.8 

Huron 3.3 

Pierre 3.1 

Rapid City 2.9 

Yankton 3.6 

Tennessee: 

Chattanooga 3.5 

Knoxville 3.2 

Memphis 3.7 

Nashville 3.3 

Texas: 

Abilene 3.6 

Amarillo 3.5 

Brownsville 4.5 



Dallas 4.0 

Del Rio 4.0 

El Paso 2.3 

Houston 4.6 

Lubbock 3.3 

Odessa 3.2 

Pecos 3.0 

San Antonio 4.2 

Utah: 

BrighamCity 1.2 

Roosevelt 1.3 

Salt Lake City 1.3 

St. George 1 .7 

Vermont: 

Barre 2.3 

Bratteboro 2.7 

Burlington 2.1 

Rutland 2.5 

Virginia: 

Bristol 2.7 

Charlottesville 2.8 

Lynchburg 3.2 

Norfolk 3.4 

Richmond 3.3 

Washington: 

Omak 1.1 

Port Angeles 1.1 

Seattle 1.4 

Spokane 1.0 

Yakima 1.1 

West Virginia: 

Charleston 2.8 

Morgantown 2.7 

Wisconsin: 

Ashland 2.5 

Eau Claire 2,9 

Green Bay 2.6 

La Crosse 3.1 

Madison 3.0 

Milwaukee 3.0 

Wyoming: 

Cheyenne 2.2 

Fort Bridger 1.3 

Lander 1.5 

New Castle 2.5 

Sheridan 1.7 

Yellowstone Park 1.4 



116 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX C 

VACUUM DRAINAGE SYSTEM 

The provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance. 

SECTION C101 

VACUUM DRAINAGE SYSTEM 

C101.1 Scope. This appendix provides general guidelines for 
the requirements for vacuum drainage systems. 

CIO 1.2 General requirements. 

C101.2.1 System design. Vacuum drainage systems shall 
be designed in accordance with manufacturer's recom- 
mendations. The system layout, including piping layout, 
tank assemblies, vacuum pump assembly and other com- 
ponents/designs necessary for proper function of the sys- 
tem shall be per manufacturer's recommendations. Plans, 
specifications and other data for such systems shall be sub- 
mitted to the local administrative authority for review and 
approval prior to installation. 

C101.2.2 Fixtures. Gravity-type fixtures used in vacuum 
drainage systems shall comply with Chapter 4 of this code. 

C101.2.3 Drainage fixture units. Fixture units for gravity 
drainage systems which discharge into or receive dis- 
charge from vacuum drainage systems shall be based on 
values in Chapter 7 of this code. 

C101.2.4 Water supply fixture units. Water supply fix- 
ture units shall be based on values in Chapter 6 of this 
code with the addition that the fixture unit of a vacuum- 
type water closet shall be "1." 

C101.2.5 Traps and cleanouts. Gravity-type fixtures 
shall be provided with traps and cleanouts in accordance 
with Chapters 7 and 10 of this code. 

C 101.2.6 Materials. Vacuum drainage pipe, fitting and 

valve materials shall be as recommended by the vacuum 

drainage system manufacturer and as permitted by this 

code. 
C101.3 Testing and demonstrations. After completion of 
the entire system installation, the system shall be subjected to 
a vacuum test of 19 inches (483 mm) of mercury and shall be 
operated to function as required by the administrative author- 
ity and the manufacturer. Recorded proof of all tests shall be 
submitted to the administrative authority. 

C101.4 Written instructions. Written instructions for the 
operations, maintenance, safety and emergency procedures 
shall be provided by the building owner as verified by the 
administrative authority. 



2012 iNTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 117 



118 2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX D 

DEGREE DAY AND DESIGN TEMPERATURE' 



DEGREE 



This appendix is informative and is not part of the code. 

TABLE D101 
DAY AND DESIGN TEMPERATURES 3 FOR CITIES IN THE UNITED STATES 









DESIGN TEMPERATURES 




STATE 


STATION" 


HEATING 

DEGREE DAYS 

(yearly total) 


Winter 


Summer 


DEGREES NORTH 
LATITUDE 


97V 2 % 


Dry bulb 27 2 % 


Wet bulb 27 2 % 




Birmingham 


2,551 


21 


94 


77 


33°30' 




Huntsville 


3,070 


16 


96 


77 


34°40' 


AL 


Mobile 


1,560 


29 


93 


79 


30°40' 




Montgomery 


2,291 


25 


95 


79 


32°20' 




Anchorage 


10,864 


-18 


68 


59 


61°10' 




Fairbanks 


14.279 


-47 


78 


62 


64°50' 


AK 


Juneau 


9,075 


1 


70 


59 


58°20' 




Nome 


14,171 


-27 


62 


56 


64°30' 




Flagstaff 


7,152 


4 


82 


60 


35° 10' 




Phoenix 


1,765 


34 


107 


75 


33°30' 


AZ 


Tuscon 


1,800 


32 


102 


71 


33° 10' 




Yuma 


974 


39 


109 


78 


32°40' 




Fort Smith 


3,292 


17 


98 


79 


35°20' 


AR 


Little Rock 


3,219 


20 


96 


79 


34°40' 




Texarkana 


2,533 


23 


96 


79 


33°30' 




Fresno 


2,611 


30 


100 


71 


36°50' 




Long Beach 


1,803 


43 


80 


69 


33°50' 




Los Angeles 


2,061 


43 


80 


69 


34°00' 




Los Angeles' 1 


1,349 


40 


89 


71 


34°00' 


CA 


Oakland 


2,870 


36 


80 


64 


37°40' 




Sacramento 


2,502 


32 


98 


71 


38°30' 




San Diego 


1,458 


44 


80 


70 


32°40' 




San Francisco 


3,015 


38 


77 


64 


37°40' 




San Francisco 11 


3,001 


40 


71 


62 


37°50' 




Alamosa 


8.529 


-16 


82 


61 


37°30' 




Colorado Springs 


6,423 


2 


88 


62 


38°50' 


CO 


Denver 


6,283 


1 


91 


63 


39°50' 




Grand Junction 


5,641 


7 


94 


63 


39°10' 




Pueblo 


5,462 





95 


66 


38°20' 




Bridgeport 


5,617 


9 


84 


74 


41°10' 


CT 


Hartford 


6,235 


7 


88 


75 


4I°50' 




New Haven 


5,897 


7 


84 


75 


4P20' 


DE 


Wilmington 


4,930 


14 


89 


76 


39°40' 


DC 


Washington 


4,224 


17 


91 


77 


38°50' 




Daytona 


879 


35 


90 


79 


29° 10' 




Fort Myers 


442 


44 


92 


79 


26°40' 




Jacksonville 


1,239 


32 


94 


79 


30°30' 




Key West 


108 


57 


90 


79 


24°30' 




Miami 


214 


47 


90 


79 


25°50' 


FL 


Orlando 


766 


38 


93 


78 


28°30' 




Pensacola 


1,463 


29 


93 


79 


30°30' 




Tallahassee 


1,485 


30 


92 


78 


30°20' 




Tampa 


683 


40 


91 


79 


28°00' 




West Palm Beach 


253 


45 


91 


79 


j 26°40' 








(continued, 









2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



119 



APPENDIX D 



TABLE D1 01 —continued 
DEGREE DAY AND DESIGN TEMPERATURES 3 FOR CITIES IN THE UNITED STATES 



STATE 


STATION" 


HEATING 

DEGREE DAYS 

(yearly total) 


DESIGN TEMPERATURES 


DEGREES NORTH 
LATITUDE 


Winter 


Summer 


97V 2 % 


Dry bulb 2V 2 % 


Wet bulb 27 2 % 


GA 


Athens 

Atlanta 

Augusta 

Columbus 

Macon 

Rome 

Savannah 


2,929 
2,961 
2,397 
2,383 
2,136 
3,326 
1,819 


22 
22 
23 
24 
25 
22 
27 


92 
92 
95 
93 
93 
93 
93 


77 
76 
79 
78 
78 
78 
79 


34°00' 
33°40' 
33°20' 
32°30' 
32°40' 
34°20' 
32°10' 


HI 


Hilo 
Honolulu 







62 
63 


83 
86 


74 
75 


19=40' 
21°20' 


ID 


Boise 

Lewiston 

Pocatello 


5,809 
5,542 
7,033 


10 
6 
-1 


94 
93 
91 


66 
66 
63 


43°30' 
46°20' 
43°00' 


IL 


Chicago (Midway) 

Chicago (O'Hare) 

Chicago' 1 

Moiine 

Peoria 

Rockford 

Springfield 


6,155 
6,639 
5,882 
6,408 
6,025 
6,830 
5,429 




-4 
2 
-4 
-4 
-4 
2 


91 

89 
91 
91 
89 
89 
92 


75 
76 
77 
77 
76 
76 
77 


41°50' 
42°00' 
41°50' 
41°30' 
40°40' 
42° 10' 
39°50' 


IN 


Evansville 
Fort Wayne 
Indianapolis 
South Bend 


4,435 
6,205 
5,699 
6,439 


9 

1 

2 
1 


93 
89 
90 
89 


78 
75 
76 
75 


38°00' 
41°00' 
39°40' 
41°40' 


IA 


Burlington 
Des Moines 
Dubuque 
Sioux City 
Waterloo 


6,114 
6,588 
7,376 
6,95 1 

7,320 


-3 
-5 
-7 
-7 
-10 


91 
91 
88 
92 
89 


77 
77 
75 
77 
77 


40°50' 
4P30' 
42°20' 
42°20' 
42°30' 


KS 


Dodge City 
Goodland 
Topeka 
Wichita 


4,986 
6,141 
5,182 
4,620 


5 


4 
7 


97 
96 
96 
98 


73 
70 
78 
76 


37°50' 
39°20' 
39°00' 
37°40' 


KY 


Covington 
Lexington 
Louisville 


5,265 
4,683 
4,660 


6 
8 
10 


90 
91 
93 


75 
76 
77 


39°00' 
38°00' 
38°10' 


LA 


Alexandria 
Baton Rouge 
Lake Charles 
New Orleans 
Shreveport 


1,921 
1,560 
1,459 
1,385 
2,184 


27 
29 
31 
33 
25 


94 
93 
93 
92 
96 


79 
80 
79 
80 
79 


31°20' 
30°30' 
30° 10' 
30°00' 
32°30' 


ME 


Caribou 
Portland 


9,767 
7,511 


-13 
-1 


81 
84 


69 

72 


46°50' 

43°40' 


MD 


Baltimore 
Baltimore' 1 
Frederick 


4,654 
4,111 
5,087 


13 

17 
12 


91 

89 
91 


77 
78 
77 


39° 10' 
39°20' 
39°20' 



(continued) 



120 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX D 



DEGREE DAY AND DESIGN 



TABLE D101 — continued 
TEMPERATURES" FOR CITIES IN THE UNITED STATES 



STATE 


STATION" 




DESIGN TEMPERATURES 


DEGREES NORTH 
LATITUDE 


HEATING 

DEGREE DAYS 

(yearly total) 


Winter 


Summer 


97V 2 % 


Dry bulb 2V 2 % 


Wet bulb 2 1 / 2 % 


MA 


Boston 

Pittsfield 

Worcester 


5,634 
7,578 
6,969 


9 

-3 

4 


88 
84 
84 


74 
72 
72 


42°20' 
42°30' 
42°20' 


MI 


Alpena 

Detroit (City) 

3scanaba d 

Flint 

Grand Rapids 

Lansing 

Marquette' 5 

Muskegon 

Sault Ste. Marie 


8,506 
6,232 
8,481 
7,377 
6,894 
6,909 
8,393 
6,696 
9,048 


-6 
6 

-7 
1 
5 
1 

-8 
6 
-8 


85 
88 
83 
87 
88 
87 
81 
84 
81 


72 
74 
71 
74 
74 
74 
70 
73 
70 


45°00' 

42°20' 
45°40' 
43°00' 
42°50' 
42°50' 
46°30' 
43°10' 
46°30' 


MN 


Duluth 

Minneapolis 

Rochester 


10,000 

8,382 
8,295 


-16 

-12 
-12 


82 
89 
87 


70 

5 
75 


46°50' 
44°50' 
44°00' 


MS 


Jackson 

Meridian 

Vicksburg" 


2,239 
2,289 
2,041 


25 
23 
26 


95 
95 
95 


78 
79 
80 


32°20' 
32°20' 
32°20' 


MO 


Columbia 
Kansas City 
St. Joseph 
St. Louis 
St. Louis" 
Springfield 


5,046 
4,711 
5,484 
4,900 
4,484 
4,900 


4 
6 
2 
6 
8 
9 


94 
96 
93 
94 
94 
93 


77 
77 
79 
77 
77 
77 


39°00' 
39° 10' 
39°50' 
38°50' 
38°40' 
37° 10' 


MT 


Billings 
Great Falls 
Helena 
Missoula 


7,049 
7,750 
8,129 
8,125 


-10 
-15 
-16 
-6 


91 

88 
88 
88 


66 
62 
62 
63 


45°50' 
47°30' 
46°40' 
46°50' 


NE 


Grand Island 

Lincoln 11 

Norfolk 

North Platte 

Omaha 

Scottsbluff 


6,530 
5,864 
6,979 
6,684 
6,612 
6,673 


-3 
-2 
-4 
-4 
-3 
-3 


94 
95 
93 
94 
91 
92 


74 
77 
77 
72 
77 
68 


41°00' 
40°50' 
42°00' 
41°10' 
41°20' 
41°50' 


NV 


Elko 

Ely 

Las Vegas 

Reno 

Winnemucca 


7,433 
7,733 
2,709 
6,332 
6,761 


-2 
-4 
28 
10 
3 


92 
87 
106 
92 
94 


62 
59 
70 
62 
62 


40°50' 
39° 10' 
36° 10' 
39°30' 
40°50' 


NH 


Concord 


7,383 


-3 


87 


73 


43°10' 


N.I 


Atlantic City 

Newark 

Trenton" 


4,812 
4,589 
4,980 


13 
14 
14 


89 
91 
88 


77 
76 
76 


39°30' 
40°40' 
40°10' 


NM 


Albuquerque 
Raton 
Roswell 
Silver City 


4,348 
6,228 
3,793 
3,705 


16 
1 

18 
10 


94 
89 
98 
94 


65 
64 
70 
64 


35°00' 
36°50' 
33°20' 
32°40' 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



121 



APPENDIX D 



TABLE D101— continued 
DEGREE DAY AND DESIGN TEMPERATURES" FOR CITIES I 



I THE UNITED STATES 



STATE 


STATION" 


HEATING 
DEGREE DAYS 

(yearly total) 


DESIGN TEMPERATURES 




Winter 


Summer 




97'/ 2 % 


Dry bulb 2'/ 2 % 


Wet bulb 2V 2 % 


LATITUDE 


NY 


Albany 

Albany" 

Binghamton 

Buffalo 

NY (Central Park)" 

NY (Kennedy) 

NY(LaGuardia) 

Rochester 

Schenectady" 

Syracuse 


6,875 
6,201 
7,286 
7,062 
4,871 
5,219 
4,811 
6,748 
6,650 
6,756 


-1 
1 
1 

6 

15 

15 

15 

5 

1 

2 


88 
88 
83 
85 
89 
87 
89 
88 
87 
87 


74 
74 
72 
73 
75 
75 
75 
73 
74 
73 


42°50' 
42°50' 
42° 10' 
43°00' 
40°50' 
40°40' 
40°50' 
43°10' 
42°50' 
43° 10' 


NC 


Charlotte 
Greensboro 
Raleigh 
Winston-Salem 


3,181 
3,805 
3,393 
3,595 


22 
18 
20 
20 


93 
91 
92 
91 


76 
76 

77 
75 


35° 10' 
36° 10' 
35°50' 
36°10' 


ND 


Bismarck 
Devils Lake" 
Fargo 
Williston 


8,851 
9,901 
9,226 

9,243 


-19 

-21 
-18 
-21 


91 
88 
89 
88 


71 
71 
74 
70 


46°50' 
48° 10' 
46°50' 
48° 10' 


OH 


Akron- Can ton 

Cincinnati" 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Dayton 

Mansfield 

Sandusky" 

Toledo 

Youngstown 


6,037 
4,410 
6,351 
5,660 
5,622 
6,403 
5.796 
6,494 
6,417 


6 
6 

5 
5 
4 
5 
6 
1 
4 


86 
90 
88 
90 
89 
87 
91 
88 
86 


73 
75 
74 
75 
75 
74 
74 
75 
73 


4F00' 
39° 10' 
41°20' 
40°00' 
39°50' 
40°50' 
41°30' 
41°40' 
41°20' 


OK 


Oklahoma City 
Tulsa 


3,725 
3,860 


13 
13 


97 
98 


77 
78 


35°20' 
36°10' 


OR 


Eugene 

Medford 

Portland 

Portland" 

Salem 


4,726 
5,008 
4,635 
4,109 

4,754 


22 
23 
23 
24 
23 


89 
94 
85 
86 
88 


67 
68 
67 
67 
68 


44°10' 
42°20' 
45°40' 
45°30' 
45°00' 


PA 


Allentown 

Erie 

Harrisburg 

Philadelphia 

Pittsburgh 

Pittsburgh" 

Reading" 

Scranton 

Williamsport 


5,810 
6,451 
5,251 
5,144 
5,987 
5,053 
4,945 
6,254 
5,934 


9 

9 
11 
14 

5 
7 
13 
5 
7 


88 
85 
91 
90 
86 
88 
89 
87 
89 


75 
74 
76 
76 
73 
73 
75 
73 
74 


40°40' 
42° 10' 
40° 10' 
39°50' 
40°30' 
40°30' 
40°20' 
41°20' 
41° 10' 


RI 


Providence 


5,954 


9 


86 


74 


41°40' 


SC 


Charleston 
Charleston" 
Columbia j 


2,033 
1,794 
2,484 


27 
28 
24 


91 

92 
95 


80 
80 
78 


32°50' 
32°50' 
34°00' 



(continued) 



122 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX D 



TABLE D1 01— continued 
DEGREE DAY AND DESIGN TEMPERATURES FOR CITIES IN THE UNITED STATES 



a. All data were extracted from the 1 985 ASHRAE Handbook, Fundamentals Volume. 

b. Design data developed from airport temperature observations unless noted. 

c. Latitude is given to the nearest 10 minutes. For example, the latitude for Miami, Florida, is given as 25°50'. or 25 degrees 50 minutes. 

d. Design data developed from office locations within an urban area, not from airport temperature observations. 



STATE 


STATION" 


HEATING 

DEGREE DAYS 

(yearly total) 


DESIGN TEMPERATURES 


DEGREES NORTH 
LATITUDE 


Winter 


Summer 


977 2 % 


Dry bulb 2V 2 % 


Wet bulb 27 2 % 




Huron 


8,223 


-14 


93 


75 


44°30' 


SD 


Rapid City 


7,345 


-7 


92 


69 


44°00' 




Sioux Falls 


7,839 


-11 


91 


75 


43°40' 




Bristol 


4,143 


14 


89 


75 


36°30' 




Chattanooga 


3,254 


18 


93 


77 


35°00' 


TN 


Knoxville 


3,494 


19 


92 


76 


35°50' 




Memphis 


3,232 


18 


95 


79 


35°00' 




Nashville 


3,578 


14 


94 


77 


36° 10' 




Abilene 


2,624 


20 


99 


74 


32°30' 




Austin 


1,711 


28 


98 


77 


30°20' 




Dallas 


2,363 


22 


100 


78 


32°50' 




El Paso 


2,700 


24 


98 


68 


31°50' 




Houston 


1,396 


32 


94 


79 


29°40' 


TX 


Midland 


2,591 


21 


98 


72 


32°00' 




San Angelo 


2,255 


22 


99 


74 


31°20' 




San Antonio 


1,546 


30 


97 


76 


29°30' 




Waco 


2,030 


26 


99 


78 


31°40' 




Wichita Falls 


2,832 


18 


101 


76 


34°00' 


UT 


Salt Lake City 


6,052 


8 


95 


65 


40°50' 


VT 


Burlington 


8,269 


-7 


85 


72 


44°30' 




Lynchburg 


4.166 


16 


90 


76 


37°20' 




Norfolk 


3,421 


22 


91 


78 


36°50' 


VA 


Richmond 


3,865 


17 


92 


78 


37°30' 




Roanoke 


4,150 


16 


91 


74 


37°20' 




Olympia 


5,236 


22 


83 


66 


47°00' 




Seattle-Tacoma 


5,145 


26 


80 


64 


47°30' 


WA 


Seattle" 


4,424 


27 


82 


67 


47°40' 




Spokane 


6,655 


2 


90 


64 


47°40' 




Charleston 


4,476 


11 


90 


75 


38°20' 




Elkins 


5,675 


6 


84 


72 


38°50' 


wv 


Huntington 


4,446 


10 


91 


77 


38°20' 




Parkersburg' 1 


4,754 


11 


90 


76 


39°20' 




Green Bay 


8,029 


-9 


85 


74 


44°30' 




La Crosse 


7,589 


-9 


88 


75 


43°50' 


WI 


Madison 


7,863 


-7 


88 


75 


43°10' 




Milwaukee 


7,635 


-4 


87 


74 


43°00' 




Casper 


7,410 


-5 


90 


61 


42°50' 




Cheyenne 


7.381 


-1 


86 


62 


41°10' 


WY 


Lander 


7,870 


-11 


88 


63 


42°50' 




Sheridan 


7,680 


-8 


91 


65 


, 44°50' 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



123 



124 

2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX E 

SIZING OF WATER PIPING SYSTEM 

The provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance. 



SECTION E1 01 

GENERAL 

E101.1 Scope. 

E101.1.1 This appendix outlines two procedures for sizing 
a water piping system (see Sections E103.3 and E201.1). 
The design procedures are based on the minimum static 
pressure available from the supply source, the head 
changes in the system caused by friction and elevation, 
and the rates of flow necessary for operation of various 
fixtures. 

E101.1.2 Because of the variable conditions encountered 
in hydraulic design, it is impractical to specify definite and 
detailed rules for sizing of the water piping system. 
Accordingly, other sizing or design methods conforming 
to good engineering practice standards are acceptable 
alternatives to those presented herein. 



SECTION E102 

INFORMATION REQUIRED 

E102.1 Preliminary. Obtain the necessary information 
regarding the minimum daily static service pressure in the 
area where the building is to be located. If the building supply 
is to be metered, obtain information regarding friction loss 
relative to the rate of flow for meters in the range of sizes 
likely to be used. Friction loss data can be obtained from most 
manufacturers of water meters. 

E102.2 Demand load. 

El 02.2.1 Estimate the supply demand of the building main 
and the principal branches and risers of the system by 
totaling the corresponding demand from the applicable 
part of Table El 03.3(3). 

E102.2.2 Estimate continuous supply demands in gallons 
per minute (L/m) for lawn sprinklers, air conditioners, etc., 
and add the sum to the total demand for fixtures. The 
result is the estimated supply demand for the building sup- 
ply. 



SECTION E1 03 
SELECTION OF PIPE SIZE 

E103.1 General. Decide from Table 604.3 what is the desir- 
able minimum residual pressure that should be maintained at 
the highest fixture in the supply system. If the highest group 
of fixtures contains flushometer valves, the pressure for the 
group should be not less than 15 pounds per square inch (psi) 
(103.4 kPa) flowing. For flush tank supplies, the available 
pressure should be not less than 8 psi (55.2 kPa) flowing. 



except blowout action fixtures must be not less than 25 psi 
(172.4 kPa) flowing. 

E103.2 Pipe sizing. 

E103.2.1 Pipe sizes can be selected according to the fol- 
lowing procedure or by other design methods conforming 
to acceptable engineering practice and approved by the 
administrative authority. The sizes selected must not be 
less than the minimum required by this code. 

El 03.2.2 Water pipe sizing procedures are based on a sys- 
tem of pressure requirements and losses, the sum of which 
must not exceed the minimum pressure available at the 
supply source. These pressures are as follows: 

1. Pressure required at fixture to produce required 
flow. See Sections 604.3 and 604.5. 

2. Static pressure loss or gain (due to head) is com- 
puted at 0.433 psi per foot (9.8 kPa/m) of elevation 
change. 

Example: Assume that the highest fixture supply 
outlet is 20 feet (6096 mm) above or below the 
supply source. This produces a static pressure 
differential of 20 feet by 0.433 psi/foot (2096 mm 
by 9.8 kPa/m) and an 8.66 psi (59.8 kPa) loss. 

3. Loss through water meter. The friction or pressure 
loss can be obtained from meter manufacturers. 

4. Loss through taps in water main. 

5. Losses through special devices such as filters, soft- 
eners, backflow prevention devices and pressure 
regulators. These values must be obtained from the 
manufacturers. 

6. Loss through valves and fittings. Losses for these 
items are calculated by converting to equivalent 
length of piping and adding to the total pipe length. 

7. Loss due to pipe friction can be calculated when the 
pipe size, the pipe length and the flow through the 
pipe are known. With these three items, the friction 
loss can be determined. For piping flow charts not 
included, use manufacturers' tables and velocity rec- 
ommendations. 

Note: For the purposes of all examples, the follow- 
ing metric conversions are applicable: 

1 cubic foot per minute = 0.4719 L/s 

1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 

1 degree = 0.0175 rad 

1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa 

1 inch = 25.4 mm 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



125 



APPENDIX E 



1 foot = 304.8 mm 

1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m 

E103.3 Segmented loss method. The size of water service 
mains, branch mains and risers by the segmented loss 
method, must be determined according to water supply 
demand [gpm (L/m)], available water pressure [psi (kPa)] and 
friction loss caused by the water meter and developed length 
of pipe [feet (m)], including equivalent length of fittings. This 
design procedure is based on the following parameters: 

• Calculates the friction loss through each length of the 
pipe. 

• Based on a system of pressure losses, the sum of which 
must not exceed the minimum pressure available at the 
street main or other source of supply. 

• Pipe sizing based on estimated peak demand, total 
pressure losses caused by difference in elevation, 
equipment, developed length and pressure required at 
most remote fixture, loss through taps in water main, 
losses through fittings, filters, backflow prevention 
devices, valves and pipe friction. 

Because of the variable conditions encountered in hydraulic 
design, it is impractical to specify definite and detailed rales 
for sizing of the water piping system. Current sizing methods 
do not address the differences in the probability of use and 
flow characteristics of fixtures between types of occupancies. 
Creating an exact model of predicting the demand for a build- 
ing is impossible and final studies assessing the impact of 
water conservation on demand are not yet complete. The fol- 
lowing steps are necessary for the segmented loss method. 

1 . Preliminary. Obtain the necessary information regard- 
ing the minimum daily static service pressure in the 
area where the building is to be located. If the building 
supply is to be metered, obtain information regarding 
friction loss relative to the rate of flow for meters in the 
range of sizes to be used. Friction loss data can be 
obtained from manufacturers of water meters. It is 
essential that enough pressure be available to overcome 
all system losses caused by friction and elevation so 
that plumbing fixtures operate properly. Section 604.6 
requires the water distribution system to be designed 
for the minimum pressure available taking into consid- 
eration pressure fluctuations. The lowest pressure must 
be selected to guarantee a continuous, adequate supply 
of water. The lowest pressure in the public main usu- 
ally occurs in the summer because of lawn sprinkling 
and supplying water for air-conditioning cooling tow- 
ers. Future demands placed on the public main as a 
result of large growth or expansion should also be con- 
sidered. The available pressure will decrease as addi- 
tional loads are placed on the public system. 

2. Demand load. Estimate the supply demand of the 
building main and the principal branches and risers of 
the system by totaling the corresponding demand from 
the applicable part of Table E103.3(3). When estimat- 
ing peak demand sizing methods typically use water 
supply fixture units (w.s.f.u.) [see Table E103.3C2)]. 
This numerical factor measures the load-producing 
effect of a single plumbing fixture of a given kind. The 



use of such fixture units can be applied to a single basic 
probability curve (or table), found in the various sizing 
methods [Table E103.3(3)]. The fixture units are then 
converted into gallons per minute (L/m) flow rate for 
estimating demand. 

2.1. Estimate continuous supply demand in gallons 
per minute (L/m) for lawn sprinklers, air condi- 
tioners, etc., and add the sum to the total 
demand for fixtures. The result is the estimated 
supply demand for the building supply. Fixture 
units cannot be applied to constant use fixtures 
such as hose bibbs, lawn sprinklers and air con- 
ditioners. These types of fixtures must be 
assigned the gallon per minute (L/m) value. 

3. Selection of pipe size. This water pipe sizing procedure 
is based on a system of pressure requirements and 
losses, the sum of which must not exceed the minimum 
pressure available at the supply source. These pressures 
are as follows: 

3.1. Pressure required at the fixture to produce 
required flow. See Section 604.3 and Section 
604.5. 

3.2. Static pressure loss or gain (because of head) is 
computed at 0.433 psi per foot (9.8 kPa/m) of 
elevation change. 

3.3. Loss through a water meter. The friction or 
pressure loss can be obtained from the manu- 
facturer. 

3.4. Loss through taps in water main [see Table 
El 03.3(4)]. 

3.5. Losses through special devices such as filters, 
softeners, backflow prevention devices and 
pressure regulators. These values must be 
obtained from the manufacturers. 

3.6. Loss through valves and fittings [see Tables 
E103.3(5) and El 03.3(6)]. Losses for these 
items are calculated by converting to equivalent 
length of piping and adding to the total pipe 
length. 

3.7. Loss caused by pipe friction can be calculated 
when the pipe size, the pipe length and the flow 
through the pipe are known. With these three 
items, the friction loss can be determined using 
Figures E103.3(2) through El 03.3(7). When 
using charts, use pipe inside diameters. For pip- 
ing flow charts not included, use manufactur- 
ers' tables and velocity recommendations. 
Before attempting to size any water supply sys- 
tem, it is necessary to gather preliminary infor- 
mation which includes available pressure, 
piping material, select design velocity, eleva- 
tion differences and developed length to most 
remote fixture. The water supply system is 
divided into sections at major changes in eleva- 
tion or where branches lead to fixture groups. 
The peak demand must be determined in each 
part of the hot and cold water supply system 



126 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE" 3 



APPENDIX E 



which includes the corresponding water supply 
fixture unit and conversion to gallons per min- 
ute (L/m) flow rate to be expected through each 
section. Sizing methods require the determina- 
tion of the "most hydraulically remote" fixture 
to compute the pressure loss caused by pipe and 
fittings. The hydraulically remote fixture repre- 
sents the most downstream fixture along the 
circuit of piping requiring the most available 
pressure to operate properly. Consideration 
must be given to all pressure demands and 
losses, such as friction caused by pipe, fittings 
and equipment, elevation and the residual pres- 
sure required by Table 604.3. The two most 
common and frequent complaints about the 
water supply system operation are lack of ade- 
quate pressure and noise. 
Problem: What size Type L copper water pipe, service and 
distribution will be required to serve a two-story factory 
building having on each floor, back-to-back, two toilet rooms 
each equipped with hot and cold water? The highest fixture is 
21 feet (6401 mm) above the street main, which is tapped 
with a 2-inch (51 mm) corporation cock at which point the 
minimum pressure is 55 psi (379.2 kPa). In the building base- 
ment, a 2-inch (51 mm) meter with a maximum pressure drop 
of 11 psi (75.8 kPa) and 3-inch (76 mm) reduced pressure 
principle backflow preventer with a maximum pressure drop 
of 9 psi (621 kPa) are to be installed. The system is shown by 
Figure E103.3(l). To be determined are the pipe sizes for the 
service main and the cold and hot water distribution pipes. 

Solution: A tabular arrangement such as shown in Table 
El 03.3(1) should first be constructed. The steps to be fol- 
lowed are indicated by the tabular arrangement itself as 
they are in sequence, columns 1 through 10 and lines A 
through L. 

Step 1 

Columns 1 and 2: Divide the system into sections break- 
ing at major changes in elevation or where branches lead 
to fixture groups. After point B [see Figure E103.3(l)], 
separate consideration will be given to the hot and cold 
water piping. Enter the sections to be considered in the 
service and cold water piping in Column 1 of the tabular 
arrangement. Column 1 of Table E103.3(l) provides a 
line-by-line recommended tabular arrangement for use in 
solving pipe sizing. 

The objective in designing the water supply system is to 
ensure an adequate water supply and pressure to all fix- 
tures and equipment. Column 2 provides the pounds per 
square inch (psi) to be considered separately from the min- 
imum pressure available at the main. Losses to take into 
consideration are the following: the differences in eleva- 
tions between the water supply source and the highest 
water supply outlet, meter pressure losses, the tap in main 
loss, special fixture devices such as water softeners and 
backflow prevention devices and the pressure required at 
the most remote fixture outlet. The difference in elevation 
can result in an increase or decrease in available pressure 
at the main. Where the water supply outlet is located 
above the source, this results in a loss in the available pres- 



sure and is subtracted from the pressure at the water 
source. Where the highest water supply outlet is located 
below the water supply source, there will be an increase in 
pressure that is added to the available pressure of the water 
source. 

Column 3: According to Table E103.3(3), determine the 
gpm (L/m) of flow to be expected in each section of the 
system. These flows range from 28.6 to 108 gpm. Load 
values for fixtures must be determined as water supply fix- 
ture units and then converted to a gallon-per-minute (gpm) 
rating to determine peak demand. When calculating peak 
demands, the water supply fixture units are added and then 
converted to the gallon-per-minute rating. For continuous 
flow fixtures such as hose bibbs and lawn sprinkler sys- 
tems, add the gallon-per-minute demand to the intermit- 
tent demand of fixtures. For example, a total of 120 water 
supply fixture units is converted to a demand of 48 gallons 
per minute. Two hose bibbs x 5 gpm demand = 10 gpm. 
Total gpm rating = 48.0 gpm + 10 gpm = 58.0 gpm 
demand. 

Step 2 

Line A: Enter the minimum pressure available at the main 
source of supply in Column 2. This is 55 psi (379.2 kPa). 
The local water authorities generally keep records of pres- 
sures at different times of day and year. The available 
pressure can also be checked from nearby buildings or 
from fire department hydrant checks. 
Line B: Determine from Table 604.3 the highest pressure 
required for the fixtures on the system, which is 15 psi 
(103.4 kPa), to operate a flushometer valve. The most 
remote fixture outlet is necessary to compute the pressure 
loss caused by pipe and fittings, and represents the most 
downstream fixture along the circuit of piping requiring 
the available pressure to operate properly as indicated by 
Table 604.3. 

Line C: Determine the pressure loss for the meter size 
given or assumed. The total water flow from the main 
through the service as determined in Step 1 will serve to 
aid in the meter selected. There are three common types of 
water meters; the pressure losses are determined by the 
American Water Works Association Standards for dis- 
placement type, compound type and turbine type. The 
maximum pressure loss of such devices takes into consid- 
eration the meter size, safe operating capacity (gpm) and 
maximum rates for continuous operations (gpm). Typi- 
cally, equipment imparts greater pressure losses than pip- 
ing. 

Line D: Select from Table E103.3(4) and enter the pres- 
sure loss for the tap size given or assumed. The loss of 
pressure through taps and tees in pounds per square inch 
(psi) are based on the total gallon-per-minute flow rate and 
size of the tap. 

Line E: Determine the difference in elevation between the 
main and source of supply and the highest fixture on the 
system. Multiply this figure, expressed in feet, by 0.43 psi 
(2.9 kPa). Enter the resulting psi loss on Line E. The dif- 
ference in elevation between the water supply source and 
the highest water supply outlet has a significant impact on 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



127 



APPENDIX E 



the sizing of the water supply system. The difference in 
elevation usually results in a loss in the available pressure 
because the water supply outlet is generally located above 
the water supply source. The loss is caused by the pressure 
required to lift the water to the outlet. The pressure loss is 
subtracted from the pressure at the water source. Where 
the highest water supply outlet is located below the water 
source, there will be an increase in pressure which is 
added to the available pressure of the water source. 

Lines F, G and H: The pressure losses through filters, 
backflow prevention devices or other special fixtures must 
be obtained from the manufacturer or estimated and 
entered on these lines. Equipment such as backflow pre- 
vention devices, check valves, water softeners, instanta- 
neous or tankless water heaters, filters and strainers can 
impart a much greater pressure loss than the piping. The 
pressure losses can range from 8 psi to 30 psi. 

Step 3 

Line I: The sum of the pressure requirements and losses 
that affect the overall system (Lines B through H) is 
entered on this line. Summarizing the steps, all of the sys- 
tem losses are subtracted from the minimum water pres- 
sure. The remainder is the pressure available for friction, 
defined as the energy available to push the water through 
the pipes to each fixture. This force can be used as an aver- 
age pressure loss, as long as the pressure available for fric- 
tion is not exceeded. Saving a certain amount for available 
water supply pressures as an area incurs growth, or 
because of aging of the pipe or equipment added to the 
system is recommended. 

Step 4 

Line J: Subtract Line I from Line A. This gives the pres- 
sure that remains available from overcoming friction 
losses in the system. This figure is a guide to the pipe size 
that is chosen for each section, incorporating the total fric- 
tion Josses to the most remote outlet (measured length is 
called developed length). 

Exception: When the main is above the highest fixture, 
the resulting psi must be considered a pressure gain 
(static head gain) and omitted from the sums of Lines B 
through H and added to Line J. 

The maximum friction head loss that can be tolerated in 
the system during peak demand is the difference between 
the static pressure at the highest and most remote outlet at 
no-flow conditions and the minimum flow pressure 
required at that outlet. If the losses are within the required 
limits, then every run of pipe will also be within the 
required friction head loss. Static pressure loss is the most 
remote outlet in feet x 0.433 = loss in psi caused by eleva- 
tion differences. 

Step 5 

Column 4: Enter the length of each section from the main 
to the most remote outlet (at Point E). Divide the water 
supply system into sections breaking at major changes in 
elevation or where branches lead to fixture groups. 



Step 6 

E103.3.3. Selection of pipe size, Step 6 Column 5: When 
selecting a trial pipe size, the length from the water service 
or meter to the most remote fixture outlet must be mea- 
sured to determine the developed length. However, in sys- 
tems having a flushometer valve or temperature controlled 
shower at the top most floors the developed length would 
be from the water meter to the most remote flushometer 1 
valve on the system. A rule of thumb is that size will 
become progressively smaller as the system extends far- 
ther from the main source of supply. Trial pipe size may 
be arrived at by the following formula: 

Line J: (Pressure available to overcome pipe friction) x 
100/equivalent length of run total developed length to 
most remote fixture x percentage factor of 1 .5 (note: a per- 
centage factor is used only as an estimate for friction 
losses imposed for fittings for initial trial pipe size) = psi 
(average pressure drops per 100 feet of pipe). 

For trial pipe size see Figure E 103.3(3) (Type L copper) 
based on 2.77 psi and a 108 gpm = 27, inches. To deter- 
mine the equivalent length of run to the most remote out- 
let, the developed length is determined and added to the 
friction losses for fittings and valves. The developed 
lengths of the designated pipe sections are as follows: 



A-B 
B-C 
CD 
D-E 



54 ft 
8 ft 
13 ft 
150 ft 



Total developed length = 225 ft 

The equivalent length of the friction loss in fittings and 
valves must be added to the developed length (most 
remote outlet). Where the size of fittings and valves is not 
known, the added friction loss should be approximated. A 
general rule that has been used is to add 50 percent of the 
developed length to allow for fittings and valves. For 
example, the equivalent length of run equals the developed 
length of run (225 ft x 1.5 = 338 ft). The total equivalent 
length of run for determining a trial pipe size is 338 feet. 

Example: 9.36 (pressure available to overcome pipe 
friction) x 100/ 338 (equivalent length of run = 225 x 
1.5) = 2.77 psi (average pressure drop per 100 feet of 
pipe). 

Step 7 

Column 6: Select from Table E103.3(6) the equivalent 
lengths for the trial pipe size of fittings and valves on each 
pipe section. Enter the sum for each section in Column 6. 
(The number of fittings to be used in this example must be 
an estimate.) The equivalent length of piping is the devel- 
oped length plus the equivalent lengths of pipe corre- 
sponding to friction head losses for fittings and valves. 
Where the size of fittings and valves is not known, the 
added friction head losses must be approximated. An esti- 
mate for this example is found in Table E. 1 . 



128 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



APPENDIX E 



TABLE E.1 



COLD WATER 
PIPE SECTION 


FITTINGS/VALVES 


PRESSURE LOSS 

EXPRESSED AS 

EQUIVALENT LENGTH 

OF TUBE (feet) 


HOT WATER 
PIPE SECTION 


FITTINGS/ 
VALVES 


PRESSURE LOSS 

EXPRESSED AS 

EQUIVALENT OF TUBE 

(feet) 


A-B 


3-27," Gate valves 


3 


A-B 


3-27 2 " Gate valves 


3 


1-27," Side branch tee 


12 




l-27 2 " Side branch tee 


12 


B-C 


1-27," Straight run tee 


0.5 


B-C 


1-2" Straight run tee 


7 








l-2"90-degreeell 


0.5 


C-F 


1 -27," Side branch tee 


12 


C-F 


1-1 7/' Side branch tee 


7 


CD 


l-27 2 "90-degreeell 


7 


C-D 


l-7 2 "90-degreeell 


4 


D-E 


l-27 2 " Side branch tee 


12 


D-E 


1-1 7 2 " Side branch tee 


7 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, i inch = 25.4 mm. 

Step 8 

Column 7: Add the figures from Column 4 and Column 6, 
and enter in Column 7. Express the sum in hundreds of 

feet. 

Step 9 

Column 8: Select from Figure E103.3(3) the friction loss 
per 100 feet (30 480 mm) of pipe for the gallon-per-min- 
ute flow in a section (Column 3) and trial pipe size (Col- 
umn 5). Maximum friction head loss per 100 feet is 
determined on the basis of total pressure available for fric- 
tion head loss and the longest equivalent length of ran. 
The selection is based on the gallon-per- minute demand, 
the uniform friction head loss, and the maximum design 
velocity. Where the size indicated by hydraulic table indi- 
cates a velocity in excess of the selected velocity, a size 
must be selected which produces the required velocity. 

Step 10 

Column 9: Multiply the figures in Columns 7 and 8 for 
each section and enter in Column 9. 

Total friction loss is determined by multiplying the friction 
loss per 100 feet (30 480 mm) for each pipe section in the 
total developed length by the pressure loss in fittings 
expressed as equivalent length in feet. Note: Section C-F 
should be considered in the total pipe friction losses only 
if greater loss occurs in Section C-F than in pipe section 
D-E. Section C-F is not considered in the total developed 
length. Total friction loss in equivalent length is deter- 
mined in Table E.2. 



Step 11 

Line K: Enter the sum of the values in Column 9. The 
value is the total friction loss in equivalent length for each 
designated pipe section. 

Step 12 

Line L: Subtract Line J from Line K and enter in Column 
10. 

The result should always be a positive or plus figure. If it 
is not, repeat the operation using Columns 5, 6, 8 and 9 
until a balance or near balance is obtained. If the differ- 
ence between Lines J and K is a high positive number, it is 
an indication that the pipe sizes are too large and should be 
reduced, thus saving materials. In such a case, the opera- 
tions using Columns 5, 6, 8 and 9 should again be 
repeated. 

The total friction losses are determined and subtracted 
from the pressure available to overcome pipe friction for 
trial pipe size. This number is critical as it provides a guide 
to whether the pipe size selected is too large and the pro- 
cess should be repeated to obtain an economically 
designed system. 

Answer: The final figures entered in Column 5 become 
the design pipe size for the respective sections. Repeating 
this operation a second time using the same sketch but 
considering the demand for hot water, it is possible to size 
the hot water distribution piping. This has been worked up 
as a part of the overall problem in the tabular arrangement 
used for sizing the service and water distribution piping. 
Note that consideration must be given to the pressure 
losses from the street main to the water heater (Section A- 
B) in determining the hot water pipe sizes. 



TABLE E.2 



PIPE SECTIONS 


FRICTION LOSS EQUIVALENT LENGTH (feet) 


Cold Water 


Hot Water 


A-B 


0.69x3.2 = 2.21 


0.69 x 3.2 = 2.21 


B-C 


0.085x3.1 =0.26 


0.16x1.4 = 0.22 


C-D 


0.20x1.9 = 0.38 


0.17x3.2 = 0.54 


D-E 


1.62x1.9 = 3.08 


1.57x3.2 = 5.02 


Total pipe friction losses 
(Line K) 


5.93 


7.99 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, I gpm = 3.785 L/m. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



129 



APPENDIX E 



A 

O — 
MAIN 



HOT WATER 

COLD WATER 

M = METER 

BFP = BACKFLOW PREVENTER 



S 



■■ 90 DEGREE ELBOW 
P = "T- 
M = VALVE 



FLOOR 2 




288 fu, 108 gpm 



~\ 



54 FT. 



132 fu, 
77 gpm 



FLOO R 1 

264 fu, _ 
104.5 gpm 



mm 



MO — MOM— i- 
M BFP 



150 FT. 



-132 fu, 77 gpm 



D' 

^ — 12 fu, 



h 



.- B' 



28.6 gpm 



-132 fu, 77 gpm 



v - 12 fu, 28.6 gpm 
-24 fu, 38 gpm 



WATER HEATER 



"^sr 



-I 

E' 






For SI: foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gpm = 3.785 L/m. 



FIGURE E103.3(1) 
EXAMPLE-SIZING 



130 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 8 



APPENDIX E 



COLUMN 



Line 



G 
H 

I 



K 

L 



K 
L 



TABLE E103.3(1) 
RECOMMENDED TABULAR ARRANGEMENT FOR USE IN SOLVING PIPE SIZING PROBLEMS 



Description 



A 


Service 




and cold 


B 


water dis 


c 


tribution 


D 


piping 3 


E 





Lb per 

square 

inch 

(psi) 



Gal. per 

min 
through 
section 



Minimum pressure available at main . . 55.00 
Highest pressure required at a fixture 

(Table 604.3) 15.00 

Meter loss 2" meter 1 1.00 

Tap in main loss 2" tap (Table E103A). . 1.61 

Static head loss 21 x 43 psi 9.03 

Special fixture loss backflow 

preventer 9.00 

Special fixture loss — Filter 0.00 

Special fixture loss — Other 0.00 

Total overall losses and requirements 

(Sum of Lines B through H) 45.64 

Pressure available to overcome 
pipe friction 
(Line A minus Lines B to H) 9.36 



Length 

of 

section 

(feet) 



DESIGNATION 

Pipe section (from diagram) 

Cold water 

Distribution piping 



FU . 

AB . 
BC . 
CD . 
CF b . 
DE b . 



264 

288 
264 
132 

132 
132 



Total pipe friction losses (cold) 
Difference (Line J minus Line K) 



Pipe section (from diagram) 

Diagram 

Hot water 

Distribution 

Piping 



A'B' 
B'C 
CD'. 
C'F' b . 

D'E' b . 



288 
. 24 
. 12 
. 12 
. 12 



Total pipe friction losses (hot) 
Difference (Line J minus Line K) 



108.0 
104.5 
77.0 
77.0 
77.0 



108.0 
38.0 
28.6 
28.6 
28.6 



54 
8 

13 
150 
150 



54 

8 

13 

150 

150 



Trial 

pipe 

size 

(inches) 



Equivalent 
length of 
fittings 

and valves 
(feet) 



Total 
equivalent 

length 
col. 4 and 

col. 6 
(100 feet) 



8 



Friction 

loss per 

100 feet 

of trial 

size 

pipe 

(psi) 



2% 
2% 
2% 
27, 
2% 



2% 

2 

l'/ 2 
l7 2 
17, 



15.00 
0.5 
7.00 
12.00 
12.00 



12.00 
7.5 
4.0 
7.00 
7.00 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 psi = 6.895 kPa, I gpm = 3.785 L/m. 

a. To be considered as pressure gain for fixtures below main (to consider separately, omit from "I" and add to "J"). 

b. To consider separately, in K use C-F only if greater loss than above. 



0.69 
0.85 
0.20 
1.62 
1.62 



0.69 
0.16 

0.17 
1.57 
1.57 



Friction 

loss in 

equivalent 

length col. 

8 x col. 7 

(psi) 



10 



Excess 
pressure 

over 

friction 

losses 

(psi) 



3.2 
3.1 
1. 9 
1.9 



3.3 
1.4 
3.2 
3.2 
3.2 



2.21 
0.26 
0.38 
3.08 
3.08 



5.93 



2.21 
0.22 
0.54 
5.02 
5.02 



7.99 



3.43 



1.37 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



131 



APPENDIX E 



TABLE E1 03.3(2) 
LOAD VALUES ASSIGNED TO FIXTURES" 



FIXTURE 


OCCUPANCY 


TYPE OF SUPPLY 
CONTROL 


LOAD VALUES, IN WATER SUPPLY FIXTURE UNITS (wsfu) 


Cold 


Hot 


Total 


Bathroom group 


3 rivate 


Flush tank 


2.7 


1.5 


3.6 


Bathroom group 


Private 


Flushometer valve 


6.0 


3.0 


8.0 


Bathtub 


Private 


Faucet 


1.0 


1.0 


1.4 


Bathtub 


Public 


Faucet 


3.0 


3.0 


4.0 


Bidet 


Private 


Faucet 


1.5 


1.5 


2.0 


Combination fixture 


Private 


Faucet 


2.25 


2.25 


3.0 


Dishwashing machine 


Private 


Automatic 


— 


1.4 


1.4 


Drinking fountain 


Offices, etc. 


V valve 


0.25 


— 


0.25 


Kitchen sink 


Private 


Faucet 


1.0 


1.0 


1.4 


Kitchen sink 


Hotel, restaurant 


Faucet 


3.0 


3.0 


4.0 


Laundry trays (1 to 3) 


Private 


Faucet 


1.0 


1.0 


1.4 


Lavatory 


Private 


Faucet 


0.5 


0.5 


0.7 


Lavatory 


Public 


Faucet 


1.5 


1.5 


2.0 


Service sink 


Offices, etc. 


Faucet 


2.25 


2.25 


3.0 


Shower head 


Public 


Mixing valve 


3.0 


3.0 


4.0 


Shower head 


Private 


Mixing valve 


1.0 


1.0 


1.4 


Urinal 


Public 


1 " flushometer 
valve 


10.0 


— 


10.0 


Urinal 


Public 


3 / 4 " flushometer 
valve 


5.0 


— 


5.0 


Urinal 


Public 


Flush tank 


3.0 


— 


3.0 


Washing machine (8 lb) 


Private 


Automatic 


1.0 


1.0 


1.4 


Washing machine (8 lb) 


Public 


Automatic 


2.25 


2.25 


3.0 


Washing machine (15 lb) 


Public 


Automatic 


3.0 


3.0 


4.0 


Water closet 


Private 


Flushometer valve 


6.0 


— 


6.0 


Water closet 


Private 


Flush tank 


2.2 


— 


2.2 


Water closet 


Public 


Flushometer valve 


10.0 


— 


10.0 


Water closet 


Public 


Flush tank 


5.0 


— 


5.0 n 


Water closet 


Public or private 


Flushometer tank 


2.0 


— 


2.0 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 

a For fixtures not listed , loads should be assumed by comparing the fixture to one listed using water in similar quantities and at similar rates. The assigned oads 

for fixtures with both hot and cold water supplies are given for separate hot and cold water loads and for total load. The separate hot and cold water loads 

being three-fourths of the total load for the fixture in each case. 



132 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX E 



TABLE E103.3(3) 
TABLE FOR ESTIMATING DEMAND 



SUPPLY SYSTEMS PREDOMINANTLY FOR FLUSH TANKS 


SUPPLY SYSTEMS PREDOMINANTLY FOR FLUSHOMETER VALVES 


Load 


Demand 


Load 


Demand 


(Water supply fixture 
units) 


(Gallons per minute) 


(Cubic feet per 
minute) 


(Water supply fixture units) 


(Gallons per minute) 


(Cubic feet per minute) 


I 


3.0 


0.04104 


— 


— 


— 


2 


5.0 


0.0684 


— 


— 


— 


3 


6.5 


0.86892 


— 


— 


— 


4 


8.0 


1.06944 


— 


— 


— 


5 


9.4 


1 .256592 


5 


15.0 


2.0052 


6 


10.7 


1 .430376 


6 


17.4 


2.326032 


7 


11.8 


1.577424 


7 


19.8 


2.646364 


8 


12.8 


1.711104 


8 


22.2 


2.967696 


9 


13.7 


1.831416 


9 


24.6 


3.288528 


10 


14.6 


1.951728 


10 


27.0 


3.60936 


11 


15.4 


2.058672 


11 


27.8 


3.716304 


12 


16.0 


2.13888 


12 


28.6 


3.823248 


13 


16.5 


2.20572 


13 


29.4 


3.930192 


14 


17.0 


2.27256 


14 


30.2 


4.037136 


15 


17.5 


2.3394 


15 


31.0 


4.14408 


16 


18.0 


2.90624 


16 


31.8 


4.241024 


17 


18.4 


2.459712 


17 


32.6 


4.357968 


18 


18.8 


2.513184 


18 


33.4 


4.464912 


19 


19.2 


2.566656 


19 


34.2 


4.571856 


20 


19.6 


2.620128 


20 


35.0 


4.6788 


25 


21.5 


2.87412 


25 


38.0 


5.07984 


30 


23.3 


3.114744 


30 


42.0 


5.61356 


35 


24.9 


3.328632 


35 


44.0 


5.88192 


40 


26.3 


3.515784 


40 


46.0 


6.14928 


45 


27.7 


3.702936 


45 


48.0 


6.41664 


50 


29.1 


3.890088 


50 


50.0 


6.684 


60 


32.0 


4.27776 


60 


54.0 


7.21872 


70 


35.0 


4.6788 


70 


58.0 


7.75344 


80 


38.0 


5.07984 


80 


61.2 


8.181216 


90 


41.0 


5.48088 


90 


64.3 


8.595624 


100 


43.5 


5.81508 


100 


67.5 


9.0234 


120 


48.0 


6.41664 


120 


73.0 


9.75864 


140 


52.5 


7.0182 


140 


77.0 


10.29336 


160 


57.0 


7.61976 


160 


81.0 


10.82808 


180 


61.0 


8.15448 


180 


85.5 


11.42964 


200 


65.0 


8.6892 


200 


90.0 


12.0312 


225 


70.0 


9.3576 


225 


95.5 


12.76644 


250 


75.0 


10.026 


250 


101.0 


13.50168 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



133 



APPENDIX E 



TABLE E103.3(3)-continued 
TABLE FOR ESTIMATING DEMAND 



SUPPLY SYSTEMS PREDOMINANTLY FOR FLUSH TANKS 


SUPPLY SYSTEMS PREDOMINANTLY FOR FLUSHOMETER VALVES 


Load 


Demand 


Load 


Demand 


(Water supply fixture 
units) 


(Gallons per minute) 


(Cubic feet per minute) 


(Water supply fixture 
units) 


(Gallons per minute) 


(Cubic feet per minute) 


275 


80.0 


10.6944 


275 


104.5 


13.96956 


300 


85.0 


11.3628 


300 


108.0 


14.43744 


400 


105.0 


14.0364 


400 


127.0 


16.97736 


500 


124.0 


16.57632 


500 


143.0 


19.11624 


750 


170.0 


22.7256 


750 


177.0 


23.66136 


1,000 


208.0 


27.80544 


1,000 


208.0 


27.80544 


1,250 


239.0 


31.94952 


1,250 


239.0 


31.94952 


1,500 


269.0 


35.95992 


1,500 


269.0 


35.95992 


1,750 


297.0 


39.70296 


1,750 


297.0 


39.70296 


2,000 


325.0 


43.446 


2,000 


325.0 


43.446 


2,500 


380.0 


50.7984 


2,500 


380.0 


50.7984 


3,000 


433.0 


57.88344 


3,000 


433.0 


57.88344 


4,000 


525.0 


70.182 


4,000 


525.0 


70.182 


5,000 


593.0 


79.27224 


5,000 


593.0 


79.27224 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 cubic foot per minute = 0.28 m 3 per minute. 



TABLE E1 03.3(4) 
LOSS OF PRESSURE THROUGH TAPS AND TEES IN POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH (psi) 



GALLONS PER MINUTE 


SIZE OF TAP OR TEE (inches) 




3 I 


1 


1V 4 


IV, 


2 


3 


10 


1.35 


0.64 


0.18 


0.08 


— 


— 


— 


20 


5.38 


2.54 


0.77 


0.31 


0.14 


— 


— 


30 


12.10 


5.72 


1.62 


0.69 


0.33 


0.10 


— 


40 


— 


10.20 


3.07 


1.23 


0.58 


0.18 


— 


50 


— 


15.90 


4.49 


1.92 


0.91 


0.28 


— 


60 


— 


— 


6.46 


2.76 


1.31 


0.40 


— 


70 


— 


— 


8.79 


3.76 


1.78 


0.55 


0.10 


80 


— 


— 


11.50 


4.90 


2.32 


0.72 


0.13 


90 


— 


— 


14.50 


6.21 


2.94 


0.91 


0.16 


100 


— 


— 


17.94 


7.67 


3.63 


1.12 


0.21 


120 


— 


— 


25.80 


11.00 


5.23 


1.61 


0.30 


140 


— 


— 


35.20 


15.00 


7.12 


2.20 


0.41 


150 


— 


— 


— 


17.20 


8.16 


2.52 


0.47 


160 


— 


— 


— 


19.60 


9.30 


2.92 


0.54 


180 


— 


— 


— 


24.80 


11.80 


3.62 


0.68 


200 


— 


— 


— 


30.70 


14.50 


4.48 


0.84 


225 


— 


— 


— 


38.80 


18.40 


5.60 


1.06 


250 


— 


— 


— 


47.90 


22.70 


7.00 


1.31 


275 


— 


— 


— 


— 


27.40 


7.70 


1.59 


300 


— 


— 


— 


— 


32.60 


10.10 


1.88 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kpa, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m. 



134 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX E 



TABLE E1 03.3(5) 
ALLOWANCE IN EQUIVALENT LENGTHS OF PIPE FOR FRICTION LOSS IN VALVES AND THREADED FITTINGS (feet) 



FITTING OR VALVE 


PIPE SIZE (inches) 


v, 


% 


1 


1V 4 


IV, 


2 


2% 


3 


45-degree elbow 


1.2 


1.5 


1.8 


2.4 


3.0 


4.0 


5.0 


6.0 


90-degree elbow 


2.0 


2.5 


3.0 


4.0 


5.0 


7.0 


8.0 


10.0 


Tee, run 


0.6 


0.8 


0.9 


1.2 


1.5 


2.0 


2.5 


3.0 


Tee, branch 


3.0 


4.0 


5.0 


6.0 


7.0 


10.0 


12.0 


15.0 


Gate valve 


0.4 


0.5 


0.6 


0.8 


1.0 


1.3 


1.6 


2.0 


Balancing valve 


0.8 


1.1 


1.5 


1.9 


2.2 


3.0 


3.7 


4.5 


Plug-type cock 


0.8 


1.1 


1.5 


1.9 


2.2 


3.0 


3.7 


4.5 


Check valve, swing 


5.6 


8.4 


11.2 


14.0 


16.8 


22.4 


28.0 


33.6 


Globe valve 


15.0 


20.0 


25.0 


35.0 


45.0 


55.0 


65.0 


80.0 


Angle valve 


8.0 


12.0 


15.0 


18.0 


22.0 


28.0 


34.0 


40.0 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 degree = 0.0175 rad. 

TABLE E1 03.3(6) 
PRESSURE LOSS IN FITTINGS AND VALVES EXPRESSED AS EQUIVALENT LENGTH OF TUBE 3 (feet) 



NOMINAL OR 

STANDARD SIZE 

(inches) 


FITTINGS 


Coupling 


VALVES 


Standard Ell 


90-Degree Tee 


Ball 


Gate 


Butterfly 


Check 


90 Degree 


45 Degree 


Side Branch 


Straight Run 


% 


0.5 


— 


1.5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1.5 


% 


1 


0.5 


2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


\ 


1.5 


0.5 


2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2.5 


% 


2 


0.5 


3 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3 


1 


2.5 


1 


4.5 


— 


— 


0.5 


— 


— 


4.5 


iv 4 


3 


1 


5.5 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


— 


— 


5.5 


iv 2 


4 


1.5 


7 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


— 


— 


6.5 


2 


5.5 


2 


9 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


7.5 


9 


2% 


7 


2.5 


12 


0.5 


0.5 


— 


1 


10 


11.5 


3 


9 


3.5 


15 


1 


1 


— 


1.5 


15.5 


14.5 


3V 2 


9 


3.5 


14 


1 


1 


— 


2 


— 


12.5 


4 


12.5 


5 


21 


1 


1 


— 


2 


16 


18.5 


5 


16 


6 


27 


1.5 


1.5 


— 


3 


11.5 


23.5 


6 


19 


7 


34 


2 


2 


— 


3.5 


13.5 


26.5 


8 


29 


11 


50 


3 


3 


— 


5 


12.5 


39 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, I degree = 0.01745 rad. 

a. Allowances are for streamlined soldered fittings and recessed threaded fittings. For threaded fittings, double the allowances shown in the table. The equivalent 
lengths presented above are based on a C factor of 1 50 in the Hazen-Williams friction loss formula. The lengths shown are rounded to the nearest half-foot. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



135 



APPENDIX E 



9000 

r 

5000 L 
4000 
3000 '— 



EEEEiEEEE 1 

■rtrnr 
T~rTTnn 

TTinn 
-t-t-i- 1-iit- 



2000 I 



1000 



400 
300 ?- 



=> 




z 




2 


200 


LU 




CL 




cfl 




z 




o 


100 


_l 




< 




a 




LU 




h- 




< 




DC 


50 


o 


40 


U_ 




CT 


30 



20 



10 L-^-- 



3 9000 

1 

1 

-| 5000 

-| 4000 

-I 3000 



2000 



1000 




PRESSURE DROP PER 100 FEET OF TUBE, POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH 

Note: Fluid velocities in excess of 5 to 8 feet/second are not usually recommended. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gpm = 3.785 L/m, 1 psi = 6.895 kPa.l foot per second = 0.305 m/s. 

a. This chart applies to smooth new copper tubing with recessed (streamline) soldered joints and to the actual sizes of types indicated on the diagram. 

FIGURE E1 03.3(2) 
FRICTION LOSS IN SMOOTH PIPE" (TYPE K, ASTM B 88 COPPER TUBING) 



136 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX E 



9000 r- — 

5000 I 

4000 
3000 

2000 



1000 



1- 


t- 


z 




2 


^1 


tr 


L_ 


CL 




<n 

2 


400 \-^ 


o 




_J 
_J 


300 P-V 


< 


| \ 


a 




UJ 


L 


£ 


200 | j> 


a: 


\r 


g 


| 


o 


1 


-J 




Li- 




ar 


100 \*sC. 


LU 

h- 


c: 


< 




g 


f-^ 




so t: 




40 X"— 




30 \y 



20 



10 




PRESSURE DROP PER 100 FEET OF TUBE; POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH 

Note: Fluid velocities in excess of 5 to 8 feet/second are not usually recommended. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 ram, I gpm = 3.785 L/m, 1 psi = 6.895 kPa, 1 foot per second = 0.305 m/s. 

a. This chart applies to smooth new copper tubing with recessed (streamline) soldered joints and to the actual sizes of types indicated on the diagram. 

FIGURE E1 03.3(3) 
FRICTION LOSS IN SMOOTH PIPE 8 (TYPE L, ASTM B 88 COPPER TUBING) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



137 



APPENDIX E 



< 



in 

5 



LU 
5 



q_l_l4Un 

-f-l-f 



- 1 !- 1-^FfflT 
TOTl 
irsr 

TFITIT 



q^^FFH^Poooo 

-T-rTTnrn 



-t- — i — t — s— i — i -i— i -■ t 

-r-rTTnrH 
T __ yTTnT|i5000 

i-TTTnrh 4000 
-r-^-t^ti^H 3000 

1 'MINI 

_._ . — | _p. -| 2000 

i 1 1 1 1 j 
, i i i i i i i 

=F = =FTf Fffl d1000 

T TTTI TP 
^_ TnT|H40 o 

Hi-H.300 

200 




PRESSURE DROP PER 100 FEET OF TUBE, POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH 

Note: Fluid velocities in excess of 5 to 8 feel/second are not usually recommended. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gpm = 3.785 L/m, 1 psi = 6.895 kPa, 1 foot per second = 0.305 m/s. 

a. This chart applies to smooth new copper tubing with recessed (streamline) soldered joints and to the actual sizes of types indicated on the diagram. 

FIGURE E1 03.3(4) 
FRICTION LOSS IN SMOOTH PIPE 3 (TYPE M, ASTM B 88 COPPER TUBING) 



138 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX E 



FRICTION LOSS POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH HEAD PER 100 FEET LENGTH 



0000 




FRICTION LOSS POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH HEAD PER 100 FEET LENGTH 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, I gpm = 3.785 L/m, 1 psi = 6.895 kPa, 1 foot per second = 0.305 m/s. 
a. This chart applies to smooth new steel (fairly smooth) pipe and to actual diameters of standard-weight pipe. 

FIGURE E103.3(5) 
FRICTION LOSS !N FAIRLY SMOOTH PIPE* 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 8 



139 



APPENDIX E 



a. 



< 



FRICTION LOSS POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH HEAD PER 100 FEET LENGTH 




FRICTION LOSS POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH HEAD PER 100 FEET LENGTH 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gpm = 3.785 L/m, ] psi = 6.895 kPa, 1 foot per second = 0.305 m/s. 

a. This chart applies to fairly rough pipe and to actual diameters which in general will be less than the actual diameters of the new pipe of the same kind. 

FIGURE E103.3(6) 
FRICTION LOSS IN FAIRLY ROUGH PIPE" 



140 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX E 



FRICTION LOSS POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH HEAD PER 100 FEET LENGTH 



10000 
9000 
8000 
7000 
6000 

5000 

4000 

3000 

2000 



1000 
900 
BOO 
700 
600 

500 
400 
300 



200 



CO 




z 




o 


100 




90 


< 

CD 


80 

70 
60 


:£ 


50 



40 



30 



20 




en 



< 

C3 



FRICTION LOSS POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH HEAD PER 100 FEET LENGTH 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, I gpm = 3.785 L/m, 1 psi = 6.895 kPa, 1 foot per second = 0.305 m/s. 
a. This chart applies to very rough pipe and existing pipe and to their actual diameters. 



FIGURE E103.3(7) 
FRICTION LOSS IN FAIRLY ROUGH PIPE" 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



141 



APPENDIX E 



SECTION E201 
SELECTION OF PIPE SIZE 

E201.1 Size of water-service mains, branch mains and ris- 
ers. The minimum size water service pipe shall be 3 / 4 inch 
(19.1 mm). The size of water service mains, branch mains 
and risers shall be determined according to water supply 
demand [gpm (L/m)], available water pressure [psi (kPa)] and 
friction loss due to the water meter and developed length of 
pipe [feet (m)], including equivalent length of fittings. The 
size of each water distribution system shall be determined 
according to the procedure outlined in this section or by other 
design methods conforming to acceptable engineering prac- 
tice and approved by the code official: 

1. Supply load in the building water-distribution system 
shall be determined by total load on the pipe being 
sized, in terms of water-supply fixture units (w.s.f.u.), 
as shown in Table E103.3(2). For fixtures not listed, 
choose a w.s.f.u. value of a fixture with similar flow 
characteristics. 

2. Obtain the minimum daily static service pressure [psi 
(kPa)] available (as determined by the local water 
authority) at the water meter or other source of supply 
at the installation location. Adjust this minimum daily 
static pressure [psi (kPa)] for the following conditions: 

2.1. Determine the difference in elevation between 
the source of supply and the highest water sup- 
ply outlet. Where the highest water supply out- 
let is located above the source of supply, deduct 
0.5 psi (3.4 kPa) for each foot (0.3 m) of differ- 
ence in elevation. Where the highest water sup- 
ply outlet is located below the source of supply, 
add 0.5 psi (3.4 kPa) for each foot (0.3 m) of 
difference in elevation. 



2.2. 



2.3. 



Where a water pressure reducing valve is 
installed in the water distribution system, the 
minimum daily static water pressure available 
is 80 percent of the minimum daily static water 
pressure at the source of supply or the set pres- 
sure downstream of the pressure reducing 
valve, whichever is smaller. 

Deduct all pressure losses due to special equip- 
ment such as a backflow preventer, water filter 
and water softener. Pressure loss data for each 
piece of equipment shall be obtained through 
the manufacturer of such devices. 

2.4. Deduct the pressure in excess of 8 psi (55 kPa) 
due to installation of the special plumbing fix- 
ture, such as temperature controlled shower and 
flushometer tank water closet. Using the result- 
ing minimum available pressure, find the corre- 
sponding pressure range in Table E201.1. 

3. The maximum developed length for water piping is the 
actual length of pipe between the source of supply and 
the most remote fixture, including either hot (through 
the water heater) or cold water branches multiplied by a 
factor of 1,2 to compensate for pressure loss through 
fittings. Select the appropriate column in Table E201.1 



equal to or greater than the calculated maximum devel- 
oped length. 

4. To determine the size of water service pipe, meter and 
main distribution pipe to the building using the appro- 
priate table, follow down the selected "maximum 
developed length" column to a fixture unit equal to, or 
greater than the total installation demand calculated by 
using the "combined" water supply fixture unit column 
of Table El 03. 3 (2). Read the water service pipe and 
meter sizes in the first left-hand column and the main 
distribution pipe to the building in the second left-hand 
column on the same row. 

5. To determine the size of each water distribution pipe, 
start at the most remote outlet on each branch (either 
hot or cold branch) and, working back toward the main 
distribution pipe to the building, add up the water sup- 
ply fixture unit demand passing through each segment 
of the distribution system using the related hot or cold 
column of Table E103.3(2). Knowing demand, the size 
of each segment shall be read from the second left-hand 
column of the same table and maximum developed 
length column selected in Steps 1 and 2, under the same 
or next smaller size meter row. In no case does the size 
of any branch or main need to be larger that the size of 
the main distribution pipe to the building established in 
Step 4. 



SECTION E202 
DETERMINATION OF PIPE VOLUMES 

E202.1 Determining volume of piping systems. Where 
required for engineering design purposes, Table E202.1 shall 
be used to determine the approximate internal volume of 
water distribution piping. 



142 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX E 



TABLE E201.1 

MINIMUM SIZE OF WATER METERS, MAINS AND DISTRIBUTION PIPING 

BASED ON WATER SUPPLY FIXTURE UNIT VALUES (w.s.f.u.) 



METER AND SERVICE 

PIPE 

(inches) 


DISTRIBUTION PIPE 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM DEVELOPMENT LENGTH (feet) 


Pressure Range 30 to 39 psi 


40 


60 


80 


100 


150 


200 


250 


300 


400 


500 


% 


%' 


2.5 


2 


1.5 


1. 5 


1 


1 


0.5 


0.5 








% 


% 


9.5 


7.5 


6 


5.5 


4 


3.5 


3 


2.5 


2 


1.5 


% 


1 


32 


25 


20 


16.5 


11 


9 


7.8 


6.5 


5.5 


4.5 


1 


1 


32 


32 


27 


21 


13.5 


10 


8 


7 


5.5 


5 


% 


iv 4 


32 


32 


32 


32 


30 


24 


20 


17 


13 


10.5 


1 


l'/ 4 


80 


80 


70 


61 


45 


34 


27 


22 


16 


12 


17 2 


i l / 4 


80 


80 


80 


75 


54 


40 


31 


25 


17.5 


13 


1 


iv 2 


87 


87 


87 


87 


84 


73 


64 


56 


45 


36 


iv 2 


17 2 


151 


151 


151 


151 


117 


92 


79 


69 


54 


43 


2 


17 2 


151 


151 


151 


151 


128 


99 


83 


72 


56 


45 


1 


2 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


86 


1'A 


2 


275 


275 


275 


275 


258 


223 


196 


174 


144 


122 


2 


2 


365 


365 


365 


365 


318 


266 


229 


201 


160 


134 


2 


2V 2 


533 J 533 


533 


533 


533 


495 


448 


409 


353 


311 



METER AND SERVICE 
PIPE (inches) 


DISTRIBUTION PIPE 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM DEVELOPMENT LENGTH (feet) 


Pressure Range 40 to 49 psi 


40 


60 


80 


100 


150 


200 


250 


300 


400 


500 


% 


V 


3 


2.5 


2 


1.5 


1.5 


1 


1 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


% 


% 


9.5 


9.5 


8.5 


7 


5.5 


4.5 


3.5 


3 


2.5 


2 


% 


1 


32 


32 


32 


26 


18 


13.5 


10.5 


9 


7.5 


6 


1 


1 


32 


32 


32 


32 


21 


15 


11.5 


9.5 


7.5 


6.5 


% 


i'/ 4 


32 


32 


32 


32 


32 


32 


32 


27 


21 


16.5 


1 


iv 4 


80 


80 


80 


80 


65 


52 


42 


35 


26 


20 


1V 2 


iv 4 


80 


80 


80 


80 


75 


59 


48 


39 


28 


21 


1 


1V 2 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


78 


65 


55 


l'/ 2 


l'/ 2 


151 


151 


151 


151 


151 


130 


109 


93 


75 


63 


2 


17 2 


151 


151 


151 


151 


151 


139 


115 


98 


77 


64 


1 


2 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


1V 2 


2 


275 


275 


275 


275 


275 


275 


264 


238 


198 


169 


2 


2 


365 


365 


365 


365 


365 


349 


304 


270 


220 


185 


2 


27, 


533 


533 


533 


533 


533 


533 


533 


528 


456 


403 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 8 



143 



APPENDIX E 



TABLE E201.1— continued 

MINIMUM SIZE OF WATER METERS, MAINS AND DISTRIBUTION PIPING 

BASED ON WATER SUPPLY FIXTURE UNIT VALUES (w.s.f.u.) 



METER AND SERVICE 
PIPE (inches) 


DISTRIBUTION PIPE 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM DEVELOPMENT LENGTH (feet) 






Pressure Range 50 to 60 psi 


40 


60 


80 


100 


150 ! 200 


250 1 300 


400 


500 


X 


7 2 - 


3 


3 


2.5 


2 


1.5 


1 


1 


1 


0.5 


0.5 


X 


X 


9.5 


9.5 


9.5 


8.5 


6.5 


5 


4.5 


4 


3 


2.5 


X 


1 


32 


32 


32 


32 


25 


18.5 


14.5 


12 


9.5 


8 


1 


l 


32 


32 


32 


32 


30 


22 


16.5 


13 


10 


8 


X 


1V 4 


32 


32 


32 


32 


32 


32 


32 


32 


29 


24 


1 


iv 4 


80 


80 


80 


80 


80 


68 


57 


48 


35 


28 


IV, 


i'/ 4 


80 


80 


80 


80 


80 


75 


63 


53 


39 


29 


i 


l'/ 2 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


82 


70 


1V 2 


l'/ 2 


151 


151 


151 


151 


151 


151 


139 


120 


94 


79 


2 


17, 


151 


151 


151 


151 


151 


151 


146 


126 


97 


81 


1 


2 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


l7 2 


2 


275 


275 


275 


275 


275 


275 


275 


275 


247 


213 


2 


2 


365 


365 


365 


365 


365 


365 


365 


329 


272 


232 


2 



2'/, 


533 


533 


533 


533 


533 


533 


533 


533 


533 


486 



METER AND SERVICE 
PIPE (inches) 


DISTRIBUTION PIPE 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM DEVELOPMENT LENGTH (feet) 


Pressure Range Over 60 


40 


60 


80 


100 


150 


200 


250 


300 


400 


500 


X 


'/,; 


3 


3 


3 


2.5 


2 


1.5 


1.5 


1 


1 


0.5 


X 


X 


9.5 


9.5 


9.5 


9.5 


7.5 


6 


5 


4.5 


3.5 


3 


X 


i 


32 


32 


32 


32 


32 


24 


19.5 


15.5 


11.5 


9.5 


1 


i 


32 


32 


32 


32 


32 


28 


28 


17 


12 


9.5 


X 


iv 4 


32 


32 


32 


32 


32 


32 


32 


32 


32 


30 


1 


i'/ 4 


80 


80 


80 


80 


80 


80 


69 


60 


46 


36 


17, 


i'/ 4 


80 


80 


80 


80 


80 


80 


76 


65 


50 


38 


1 


iv 2 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


84 


IV, 


iv 2 


151 


151 


151 


151 


151 


151 


151 


144 


114 


94 


2 


1V 2 


151 


151 


151 


151 


151 


151 


151 


151 


118 


97 


1 


2 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


\% 


2 


275 


275 


275 


275 


275 


275 


275 


275 


275 


252 


2 


2 


365 


368 


368 


368 


368 


368 


368 


368 


318 


273 


2 


27 2 


533 


533 


533 


533 


533 


533 


533 


533 


533 


533 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Minimum size for building supply is 3 / 4 -inch pipe. 



144 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX E 



TABLE E202.1 
INTERNAL VOLUME OF VARIOUS WATER DISTRIBUTION TUBING 



OUNCES OF WATER PER FOOT OF TUBE 


Size Nominal, 
Inch 


Copper Type M 


Copper Type L 


Copper Type K 


CPVCCTSSDR11 


CPVC SCH 40 


Composite 
ASTMF1281 


PEX CTS SDR 9 


% 


1.06 


0.97 


0.84 


N/A 


1.17 


0.63 


0.64 


% 


1.69 


1.55 


1.45 


1.25 


1.89 


1.31 


1.18 


% 


3.43 


3.22 


2.90 


2.67 


3.38 


3.39 


2.35 


l 


5.81 


5.49 


5.17 


4.43 


5.53 


5.56 


3.91 


l'/ 4 


8.70 


8.36 


8.09 


6.61 


9.66 


8.49 


5.81 


l>/ 2 


12.18 


11.83 


11.45 


9.22 


13.20 


13.88 


8.09 


2 


21.08 


20.58 


20.04 


15.79 


21.88 


21.48 


13.86 



For SI: 1 ounce = 0.030 liter. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



145 



146 2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX F 

STRllPTIlRiki ^JkFFTY 
b I a t&& "S^? B %tv 8 a a ft ism ^$ at sk 9 ha B i 

The provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance. 

SECTION F101 from another hole or less than 10 inches (254 mm) from the 

CUTTING, NOTCHING AND bearing end. 

BORING IN WOOD MEMBERS 

[B] F101.1 Joist notching. Notches on the ends of joists shall 
not exceed one-fourth the joist depth. Holes bored in joists 
shall not be within 2 inches (5 1 mm) of the top or bottom of 
the joist, and the diameter of any such hole shall not exceed 
one-third the depth of the joist. Notches in the top or bottom 
of joists shall not exceed one sixth the depth and shall not be 
located in the middle third of the span. 

[B] F101.2 Stud cutting and notching. In exterior walls and 
bearing partitions, any wood stud is permitted to be cut or 
notched to a depth not exceeding 25 percent of its width. Cut- 
ting or notching of studs to a depth not greater than 40 per- 
cent of the width of the stud is permitted in nonbearing 
partitions supporting no loads other than the weight of the 
partition. 

[B] F101.3 Bored holes. A hole not greater in diameter than 
40 percent of the stud width is permitted to be bored in any 
wood stud. Bored holes not greater than 60 percent of the 
width of the stud are permitted in nonbearing partitions or in 
any wall where each bored stud is doubled, provided not 
more than two such successive doubled studs are so bored. In 
no case shall the edge of the bored hole be nearer than 0.625 
inch (15.9 mm) to the edge of the stud. Bored holes shall not 
be located at the same section of stud as a cut or notch. 

[B] F101.4 Cutting, notching and boring holes in struc- 
tural steel framing. The cutting, notching and boring of 
holes in structural steel framing members shall be as pre- 
scribed by the registered design professional. 

[B] F101.5 Cutting, notching and boring holes in cold- 
formed steel framing. Flanges and lips of load-bearing cold- 
formed steel framing members shall not be cut or notched. 
Holes in webs of load-bearing cold-formed steel framing 
members shall be permitted along the centerline of the web of 
the framing member and shall not exceed the dimensional 
limitations, penetration spacing or minimum hole edge dis- 
tance as prescribed by the registered design professional. Cut- 
ting, notching and boring holes of steel floor/roof decking 
shall be as prescribed by the registered design professional. 

[B] F101.6 Cutting, notching and boring holes in non- 
structural cold-formed steel wall framing. Flanges and lips 
of nonstructural cold-formed steel wall studs shall not be cut 
or notched. Holes in webs of nonstructural cold-formed steel 
wall studs shall be permitted along the centerline of the web 
of the framing member, shall not exceed 1 7 2 inches (38 mm) 
in width or 4 inches (102 mm) in length, and the holes shall 
not be spaced less than 24 inches (610 mm) center to center 

2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 147 



148 2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



INDEX 



ABS PIPE 

Where permitted Table 308.5, 314.2.2, 

Table 605.3, Table 605.5, 605.10, 

Table 702.1 , Table 702.2, Table 702.3, 

Table 702.4, 703.2, 705.2, 705.7 

ACCESS TO 

Appliances 502.5 

Backflow preventers 608.14 

Cleanouts 708.2, 708.4, 708.9, 1301.8 

Fixtures 405.2 

Flexible water connectors 605.6 

Floor drain 412.2 

Flush tank components 425.3.4 

Interceptors and separators 1003.10 

Manifolds 604.10.3 

Piping 422.5, 422.9.1 

Pumps 602.3.5 

Reservoirs 1301.8 

Shower compartment 417.4.2 

Slip joints 405.8 

Standpipes 802.4 

Vacuum breakers 425.2 

Valves 503.1, 606.3, 712.2, 715.5, 918.5 

Water heaters 502.3 

Water receptors 802.3 

Whirlpool pump 421 .5 

ACCESSIBLE PLUMBING FACILITIES 404 

ADMINISTRATION 

Applicability 102 

Approval 105, 106.5.7, 107.5 

Inspections 1 07 

Intent 101.3, 109.1 

Maintenance 102.3 

Means of appeal 109 

Scope 101.2 

Validity 106.5.2 

Violations 108 

A!R ADMITTANCE VALVES 

Definition 202 

Where permitted 91 8 

AIR BREAK 

Definition 202 

Method of providing 802.1 .5, 802.1 .6, 

802.1.7,802.1.8,802.2 
Required 802.2.2 

AIR GAP 
Annual inspection of 312.10.1 



Clothes washer 406.1 

Definition 202 

Dishwasher 409.2 

Method of providing 608.15.1,802.2.1 

Required 608.15.1,802.1,802.1.1,802.1.2 

802.1 .3, 802.1 .4, 802.1 .5, 802.1 .6, 802.1 .7 

AIR TEST 312.3, 312.5 

ALTERNATE ENGINEERED DESIGN 315 

ALTERATIONS AND REPAIRS 102.4 

ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS AND 
EQUIPMENT 105.2 

APPROVED 
Definition 202 

ASBESTOS-CEMENT PIPE 
Where permitted Table 702.2, Table 702.3 

ATMOSPHERIC VACUUM BREAKER . . . Table 608.1 , 

608.13.6,608.15.4, 
608.15.4.1,608.16.5 

AUTOMATIC CLOTHES WASHER 406 

B 

BACKFILLING 306.3 

BACKFLOW PREVENTER 

Definition 202 

Required 608.1 

Standards Table 608.1 

BACKFLOW PROTECTION 608.1 

BACKWATER VALVES 

Where required 715 

BALL COCK (see FILL VALVE) 

BAROMETRIC LOOP 608.1 3.4 

BATHTUBS 407 

BEDPAN STEAMERS 202 

BEDPAN WASHERS 202 

BIDETS 408 

BOOSTER SYSTEM 606.5 

BOTTLING ESTABLISHMENT 1003.7 

BRASS PIPE 

Where permitted Table 605.3, Table 605.4, 

Table 605.8, Table 702.1 
BUILDING DRAIN 

Branches of Table 710.1 (2) 

Definition 202 

Material Table 702.1 , Table 702.2 

Sizing Table 710.1(1) 

BUILDING DRAINAGE SYSTEMS 
Below sewer level 71 2.1 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



149 



INDEX 



BUILDING SEWER 

Definition 202 

Material Table 702.3 

Sizing Table 710.1(1) 

BUILDING SYSTEMS 
Connection to public sewer 701 .2 

BUILDING TRAPS 1002.6 

c 

CAST-IRON PIPE 

Materials Table 702.1, Table 702.2, 

Table 702.3, Table 702.4 

CAULKING FERRULES 705.19.5, 705.21 

CHANGE IN DIRECTION OF DRAINAGE 

PIPING Table 706.3 

CHEMICAL WASTE 

Exclusion from the sewer 803.3 

Neutralizing 803.2 

Requirements 702.5 

System venting 901 .3 

CHLORINATED POLYVINYL/PIPE OR TUBING 

Where permitted Table 605.3, Table 605.4 

CIRCUIT VENT 91 1 

CLAY PIPE Table 702.3 

CLEANOUTS 

Base of stack 708.3.4 

Building drain 708.3.1 , 708.3.5 

Change of direction 708.3.3 

Clearances 708.8 

Definition 202 

Direction of flow 708.5 

Horizontal drains 708.3.1 

Location of 708.3 

Manholes 708.3.6 

Plugs, materials for 708.2 

Prohibited installation of 708.6 

Sewers 708.3.2 

Size 708.7, 708.8 

CLEARANCES 502.5 

CLEAR WATER WASTE 802.2 

CODE OFFICIAL 

Application for permit 1 06.3 

Appointment 103.2 

Definition 202 

Department records 1 04.7 

Duties and powers 1 04 

General 1 04.1 

Identification 104.5 

Inspections 1 07 

COMBINATION WASTE AND VENT SYSTEM ... 912 
COMBINED DRAIN 202 



COMMON VENT 202,911 

COMPARTMENTS 405.3.4 

CONCRETE PIPE 

Where permitted Table 702.3 

CONDUCTOR 202 

CONFLICTS 301 .7 

CONNECTION TO PLUMBING SYSTEM 
REQUIRED 701.2 

CONNECTIONS TO SUMPS AND EJECTORS 

Below sewer level 712.1 

CONSERVATION 

Fixtures 604.4 

Flow rates Table 604.3 

Insulation 505, 607.5 

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS 106.3.1 

CONTROLLED FLOW STORM DRAINAGE .... 1110 
COPPER OR COPPER-ALLOY PIPE OR TUBING 

Where permitted Table 605.3, Table 605.4 

CROSS CONNECTIONS 608 

CUTTING OR NOTCHING, STRUCTURAL 
MEMBERS 307.2, Appendix F 



DESIGN PROFESSIONAL 105.4.2, 105.4.3, 

105.4.4, 105.4.5, 107.2.2, 109.2.1 

DETRIMENTAL WASTES 302 

DISHWASHING MACHINE 409 

DISINFECTION OF POTABLE WATER SYSTEM . 610 

DISTANCE OF TRAP FROM VENT Table 909.1 

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM (See WATER) 
DRAIN 

Roof 1 1 05 

Storm 1 1 06 

DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS 

Definition, fixture unit 202 

Values for continuous flow 709.3 

Values for fixtures Table 709.1 

DRAINAGE SYSTEM 
Connection to sewer or private 

disposal system 701 .2 

Determining load and size 710.1 

Fixture units Table 709.1 

Indirect waste 802 

Joints 705 

Materials 702 

Material detrimental to 302 

Obstructions 706.2 

Offset sizing 711 

Provisions for future fixtures 710.2 

Sizing Table 710.1(1), Table 710.1(2) 

Slope of piping Table 704.1 



150 



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INDEX 



Sumps and ejectors 712 

Testing 312 

DRINKING FOUNTAINS Table 403.1, 403.5, 410 

E 

EJECTORS 712 

EJECTOR CONNECTION 712.3.5 

ELEVATOR SHAFT 301.6 

EMPLOYEE FACILITIES 403.3 

ENGINEERED DESIGN 315 

EXCAVATION 306 

EXISTING BUILDING PLUMBING SYSTEMS . . .102.2 

F 

FACILITIES 403 

FAMILY AND ASSISTED USE 403.1.2, 403.2.1 

FAUCETS 424 

FEES 106.6 

FERRULES 705.19.1, 705.21 

FILL VALVE 425.3.1 

FITTINGS 

Drainage system 706 

Material standards 605.5, Table 605.5, 

702.4, Table 702.4 

FIXTURE CALCULATIONS 403.1.1 

FIXTURE FITTINGS 424 

FIXTURE LOCATION 405.3.1 

FIXTURE TRAPS 1002 

Acid-resisting 1002.9 

Building 1002.6 

Design of 1002.2 

For each fixture 1002.1 

Prohibited 1002.3 

Seals 1002.4 

Setting and protection 1002.7 

Size 1002.5 

FIXTURE UNITS 

Definition 202 

Values for continuous flow 709.3 

Values for fixtures 709.1, Table 709.1 

FIXTURES (See PLUMBING FIXTURES) 

FLOOD LEVEL RIM 202 

FLOOD-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION 

Design flood elevation 202 

Flood hazard area 202 

Flood hazard resistance 309 

FLOOR DRAINS 412, Table 709.1 

FLOOR DRAINS, EMERGENCY 202 

FLOOR FLANGES 405.4.1 , 405.4.2 



FLOW RATES 604.3, Table 604.3 

Table 604.4, 604.10 
FLUSHING DEVICES 

Flush tanks 425.2, 425.3, 604.3, 604.5 

Flushometer tanks 425.2, 604.3, 604.5 

Flushometer valves 425.2, 604.3 

Required 425 

FOOD HANDLING DRAINAGE 802.1 .1 , 802.1 .8 

FOOD WASTE GRINDER 413 

FREEZING, PROTECTION OF 

BACKFLOW DEVICES 608.14.2 

FREEZING, PROTECTION OF PIPES 305.6 

FROST CLOSURE 903.2 

FUTURE FIXTURES 704.4 



GALVANIZED STEEL PIPE Table 605.3, 

Table 605.4, 605.18 

GARBAGE CAN WASHERS 414 

GARBAGE DISPOSALS 413 

GENERAL REGULATIONS 301 

Conflicts 301.7 

Connection to plumbing system 301 .3 

Connection to public water and sewer . . 301 .3, 301 .4 

Elevator machinery rooms 301.6 

Health and safety . . 108.7, 108.7.1, 108.7.2, 108.7.3 

Materials detrimental 302, 302.1 , 302.2 

Piping measurements 301 .5 

Protection of pipes 305 

Rodentproofing 304, 304.1 , 304.2, 304.3, 304.4 

Sleeves 305.4 

Strains and stresses in pipe 305.3 

Toilet facilities for workers 311 

Trenching, excavation and backfill 306 

Washroom requirements 310 

GRAY WATER 

Coloring 1302.4 

Disinfection 1302.2 

Filtration 1301.9 

Recycling systems Chapter 13 

Volume estimating 1303.6 

GREASE INTERCEPTORS 202, 1003 

Approval 1003.3.4 

Capacity Table 1003.3.4.1, 

1003.4.2.1, 1003.4.2.2 

In commercial buildings 1003.5 

Not required 1003.3.3 

Required 1003.1 

GUTTERS 1106.6, Table 1106.6 



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151 



INDEX 



H 

HANGERS AND SUPPORTS 

Attachment to buildings 308.4 

Definitions 202 

Material 308.3 

Seismic 308.2 

Spacing Table 308.5 

HEALTH AND SAFETY 101 .3 

HEALTH CARE PLUMBING 422, 609, 713 

HEAT EXCHANGER PROTECTION 608.16.3 

HORIZONTAL 
Slope for drainage pipe 704.1 

HOSPITAL PLUMBING FIXTURES 422 

Clinical sinks 422.6 

Height of special controls 422.10 

Sterilizer equipment 422.9 

HOT WATER 

Circulating system 607.5 

Definition 202 

Flow of hot water to fixtures 607.4 

Heaters and tanks Chapter 5 

Recirculating pump 607.2.3 

Supply system 607 

HOUSE TRAP 1002.6 

I 

INDIRECT WASTE 802 

Air gap or break 802.2.1 , 802.2.2 

Food handling establishment 802.1.1 

Receptors 802.3 

Special wastes 803 

Waste water temperature 803.1 

Where required 802.1 

INDIVIDUAL VENT 910 

INSPECTION 107.1 

Final 107.1 

Reinspection 107.4.3 

Required 107.2 

Rough-in 1 07.2 

Scheduling of 107.2 

Testing 107.4 

INSPECTOR (See CODE OFFICIAL) 

INSULATION 505, 607.2.1 

INTERCEPTORS AND SEPARATORS 1003 

Access to 1 003.1 

Approval of 1003.2, 1003.4 

Bottling establishments 1003.7 

Capacity of grease interceptors. . . . Table 1003.3.4.1 

Definition 202 

Laundries 1003.6 



Not required 1003.3.3 

Oil and flammable liquids separators 1003.4 

Rate of flow control for grease 

interceptors 1003.3.4.2 

Required 1 003.1 

Slaughterhouses 1003.8 

Venting 905.4, 1003.9 

IRRIGATION, LAWN 608.16.5 

ISLAND FIXTURE VENT 913 



JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 605, 705 

ABS plastic pipe 605.10, 705.2 

Asbestos-cement pipe 605.11, 705.3 

Between different materials . . .605.23, 705.4, 705.19 

Brass pipe 605.12, 705.4 

Brazed joints 605.12.1,605.14.1, 

605.15.1,705.9.1,705.10.1 

Cast-iron pipe 705.5 

Caulked joint 705.5.1 , 705.1 1.1 

Concrete pipe 705.6 

Copper or copper-alloy pipe 605.14, 705.9 

Copper or copper-alloy tubing 605.15,705.10 

CPVC plastic pipe 605.16 

Expansion joints 308.8 

Galvanized steel pipe 605.18 

Mechanical joints 605, 705 

Polyethylene plastic pipe or tubing 605.19 

Polyethylene of raised temperature 605.25 

Polypropylene plastic pipe or tubing 605.19 

Prohibited 605.9, 707 

PVC plastic pipe 605.22, 705.14 

Slip joints 405.8, 1002.2 

Soldered joints 605.14.3, 605.15.4, 

705.9.3,705.10.3 

Solvent cementing 605, 705 

Stainless steel 605.23 

Threaded 605.10.3,605.12.3,605.14.4, 

605.16.3, 605.18.1, 605.22.3, 705.2.3, 
705.9.4,705.12.1,705.14.3 

Vitrified clay pipe 705.15 

Welded 605.12.4, 605.14.5, 705.4.4, 705.9.5 



K 



KITCHEN 



418 



LABELING 606.7 

LAUNDRIES 1 003.6 

LAUNDRY TRAY 415 



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2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



INDEX 



LAVATORIES 416 

LEAD PIPE 202 

LEADERS 1 106 

LIGHT AND VENTILATION REQUIREMENT. . . .310.1 

LOADING, FIXTURE UNIT VALVE Table 709 

LOCATION 

Fixtures 405.3.1 

Gray water system Table 1303.8 

M 

MANHOLES 708.3.6 

MANIFOLDS 604.10 

MATERIAL 
Above-ground drainage and vent pipe . . Table 702.1 

Alternative 105.2 

Approval 107.2.3 

Building sewer pipe 702.3 

Building storm sewer pipe 1 102.4 

Chemical waste system 702.5 

Fittings Table 605.5, Table 702.4, 

Table 11 02.7 

Identification 303.1 

Joints 605, 705 

Roof drains 1 105 

Sewer pipe 702.3 

Standards Chapter 13 

Storm drainage pipe Table 1 102.4 

Subsoil drain pipe 1102.5 

Underground building drainage and vent pipe . .702.2 

Vent pipe 702.1 , 702.2 

Water distribution pipe Table 605.4 

Water service pipe Table 605.3 

MATERIAL, FIXTURES 

Quality 402.1 

Special use 402.2 

MATERIAL, SPECIAL 

Caulking ferrules 705.21 

Cleanout plugs 708.2 

Sheet copper 402.3 

Sheet lead 402.4 

Soldering bushings 705.19.5 

MECHANICAL JOINTS 605, 705 

N 

NONPOTABLE WATER 608.1, 608.8 

o 

OFFSETS 

Definitions 202 

Drainage 711 



Venting 915.1 

OPENINGS 

Through walls or roofs 305.5, 305.7 

OVERFLOW 407.2 

P 

PARKING GARAGE 403.3, 1002.1 

PARTITIONS 405.3.5 

PERMIT 

Application for 1 06.3 

Conditions of 106.5 

Fees 106.6 

Suspension of 106.5.5 

PENETRATIONS 315 

PIPING 

Construction documents 105.4.4 

Drainage, horizontal slope Table 704.1 

Drainage piping installation 704 

Drainage piping offset, size 711 

Joints 605, 705 

PIPING PROTECTION 

Backfilling 306.3 

Breakage 305.2 

Corrosion 305.1 

Footings 305.5 

Freezing 305.6 

Penetration 305.5 

Tunneling 306.4 

PLUMBING FACILITIES 403 

PLUMBING FIXTURES 

Accessible 404 

Automatic clothes washers 406 

Bidet 408 

Clearances 405.3 

Definition 202 

Dishwashing machine 409 

Drainage fixture unit values Table 709.1 

Drinking fountain 410 

Emergency showers 411 

Eyewash stations 411 

Floor sinks 427 

Floor and trench drains 412 

Food waste grinders 413 

Future fixtures 704.4 

Garbage can washer 414 

Garbage disposal 413 

Hospital 422 

Installation 405 

Joints at wall or floor 405.5 

Kitchen sink 41 8 

Laundry tray 415 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



153 



INDEX 



Lavatories 416 

Minimum facilities Table 403.1 

Materials 402.1 

Ornamental pools 423.1 

Quality 402.1 

Separate facilities 403.2 

Setting 405.3 

Showers 417 

Sinks 418 

Slop sinks 418 

Urinals 419 

Water closets 420 

Water coolers 410 

Water supply protection 608 

PLUMBING INSPECTOR (See CODE OFFICIAL) 

PNEUMATIC EJECTORS 712 

POLYETHYLENE PIPE OR TUBING 

Cross-linked Table 605.3, Table 605.4 

PE-AL-PE Table 605.3, Table 605.4 

PEX-AL-PEX Table 605.3, Table 605.4 

Raised Temperature (RT) Table 605.3, 

Table 605.4 
POLYPROPYLENE PIPE OR TUBING 

Where permitted Table 605.3, Table 605.4 

POTABLE WATER, PROTECTION OF 608 

PRESSURE OF WATER DISTRIBUTION 604.6 

PROHIBITED 

Joints and connection 605.9, 707 

Traps 1002.3 

PROTECTION OF POTABLE WATER 608 

PUMPING EQUIPMENT 712 

PVC PIPE Table 605.3, Table 605.4, 

Table 702.1 , Table 702.2, Table 702.3 

Q 

QUALITY OF WATER 

General 608.1 

R 

RAINWATER DRAINAGE Chapter 1 1 

REDUCED PRESSURE PRINCIPLE 
BACKFLOW PREVENTER 

Definition 202 

Periodic inspections 312.10 

Standard Table 608.1 

Where required 608.15.2, 608.16.1, 608.16.2, 

608.16.4, 608.16.4.1, 608.16.5, 608.16.6 

RELIEF VALVES 504.4, 504.5, 504.6 

Definition 202 



RELIEF VENT 906.2, 908, 914.4 

Definition 202 

ROOF DRAINS 1 102.6, 1 105 

Definition 202 

ROUGH-IN INSPECTION 107.2 



SANITARY SEWER (See BUILDING SEWER) 

SANITARY TEES 706.3 

SCREWED JOINTS (See JOINTS AND CONNEC- 
TIONS) 

SEPARATE FACILITIES 403.2 

SERVICE SINKS Table 403.1, 418 

SEWER (See BUILDING SEWER) 

SHEET COPPER 402.3 

SHEET LEAD 402.4 

SHOWER LINER 312.9, 417.5.2 

SHOWERS Table 403.1 , 41 7 

SILL COCK 424, 608.15.4.2 

SINGLE STACK VENT SYSTEM 917 

SINKS 418 

SIPHONIC ROOF DRAINAGE SYSTEMS 1 107 

SIZING 

Drainage system 710 

Fixture drain 709 

Fixture water supply 604.5 

Vent system 906 

Water distribution system 604 

Water service 603.1 

SLAUGHTERHOUSES 1003.8 

SLEEVES 305.4 

SLIP JOINTS (See JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS) 

SOLDERING BUSHINGS 705.19 

SOLVENT CEMENTING 
(See JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS) 

SPECIAL PLUMBING FIXTURES 423 

SPECIAL WASTES 803 

STAINLESS STEEL PIPE. . . Table 605.3, Table 605.4 
STANDARDS 

Material Chapter 14 

STANDPIPE DRAIN 802.4 

STEEL PIPE (See also MATERIAL) 

Where permitted Table 605.4, Table 702.1, 

Table 702.2, Table 702.3, 
Table 11 02.4, Table 1102.5 

STERILIZER PIPE 422.9 

STORM DRAINS 

Building size 1106.1 

Building subdrains 1112.1 

Building subsoil drains 1111.1 



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INDEX 



Conductors and connections 1 104 

Definition 202 

General 1101 

Prohibited drainage 1 1 01 .3 

Roof drains 1102.6, 1105 

Secondary roof drains 1 1 07 

Sizing of conductors, leaders and storm drains . 1 106 

Sizing of roof gutters 1106.6 

Sizing of vertical conductors and leaders 1106.2 

Traps 1103 

Values for continuous flow 1 109 

Where required 1101.2 

STRAPS (See HANGERS AND SUPPORTS) 

STRUCTURAL SAFETY 307, Appendix F 

SUBDRAIN BUILDING 1 1 12.1 

SUBSOIL DRAIN PIPE 1111.1 

SUMP VENT 906.5.1 

SUMP PUMP DISCHARGE PIPE 712.3.3 

SUMPS 1113 

SUPPORTS (See also PIPING PROTECTION) ... 308 
SWIMMING POOL 

Definition 202 

SWIMMING POOL DRAINAGE 802.1.4 

T 

TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE RELIEF 

VALVE 504 

TEMPERATURE OF WASTE WATER 803.1 

TEMPERED WATER 607.1 .1 

TEST 

Drainage and vent air test 312.3 

Drainage and vent final test 312.4 

Drainage and vent water test 312.2 

Forced sewer test 312.7 

Gravity sewer test 312.6 

Percolation test 1303.7 

Required tests 312.1 

Shower liner 312.19 

Test gauges 312.1.1 

Test of backflow prevention devices 312.10 

Test of conductors 312.8 

THERMAL EXPANSION CONTROL 607.3 

THREADED JOINTS 
(See JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS) 

TOILET FACILITIES FOR WORKERS 311 

TOILET ROOM DOOR LOCKING 403.3.6 

TOILETS (See WATER CLOSETS) 

TRAP PRIMER 1002.4 

TRAPS 
Acid-resisting 1002.9 



Building 1002.6 

Design 1002.2 

Prohibited types 1002.3 

Seal 1002.4 

Separate for each fixture 1002.1 

Size Table 709.1, Table 709.2 

TRENCH DRAINS 412 

TRENCHING, EXCAVATION AND BACKFILI 306 

TUNNELING 306.4 

u 

UNDERGROUND DRAINAGE AND VENT PIPE 702.2 

URINAL PARTITIONS 405.3.5 

URINALS 419 

V 

VACUUM BREAKERS Table 608.1, 608.13.5, 

608.13.6,608.13.8,608.15.4 

VALVES 

Air admittance 202, 91 8 

Backwater 715 

Definition 202 

Pressure reducing 604.8 

Relief 202, 504.4 

Stop and waste 608.7 

Temperature-actuated flow reduction valves . . 424.6 
Transfer valves 424.8 

VENT 

Individual 910 

Sizing 906 

VENT RELIEF SIZE 908 

VENT STACK 
Definition 202, 904.2 

VENTS AND VENTING 

Branch vents 906.4 

Circuit 914 

Combination waste 915 

Common 911 

Definition 202 

Distance from trap Table 909.1 

Engineered systems 919 

Island fixture 916 

Required vent 904.1 

Single stack 917 

Vent stack 904.2 

Vent terminal 903 

Waste stack 913 

Wet vent 912 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



155 



INDEX 



w 

WALL-HUNG WATER CLOSETS 420 

WASHING MACHINES 406 

WASTE 

Indirect 802 

Special 803 

WASTE STACK 913 

WASTE WATER TEMPERATURE 803.1 

WATER 

Cooler 410 

Cross connection 608.6 

Distribution system design 604 

Distribution piping material Table 605.4 

Excessive pressure 604.8 

Hammer 604.9 

Pressure booster 606.5 

Service 603 

Service piping material Table 605.3 

WATER CLOSETS 420 

WATER CLOSET COMPARTMENTS 405.3.4 

WATER CLOSET PERSONAL 

HYGIENE DEVICE 424.9 

WATER CONSERVATION 

Fixtures 604.4 

Flow rates Table 604.4 

WATER HEATER PAN 504.7 

WATER HEATERS Chapter 5 

WET VENT 912 

WIPED JOINTS 705.13.2 

WORKERS' TOILET FACILITIES 311 



156 



2012 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 1 



:®