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Full text of "ICC IRC (2012): International Residential Code"

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NOTICE OF INCORPORATION 

United States Legal Document 

J^" All citizens and residents are hereby advised that 
this is a legally binding document duly incorporated by 
reference and that failure to comply with such 
requirements as hereby detailed within may subject you 
to criminal or civil penalties under the law. Ignorance of 
the law shall not excuse noncompliance and it is the 
responsibility of the citizens to inform themselves as to 
the laws that are enacted in the United States of America 
and in the states and cities contained therein. "^& 

* * 

ICC IRC (2012), the International Residential 
Code, as mandated by and incorporated by the 
States and Municipalities, including the 
City of San Antonio (Texas) in Ordinance 
2011-12-01-0984 and by the State of Maryland in 
the Code of Maryland Administrative Regulations 
(COMAR) , Section 05.02.01.02. 






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INTERNATIONAL 

RESIDENTIAL 

CODE* 

FOR ONE- AND TWO-FAMILY DWELLIN 



A Member of the International Code Family® 







INTERNATIONAL 

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2012 International Residential Code 



First Printing: May 2011 



® 



ISBN: 978-1-60983-042-7 (soft-cover edition) 
ISBN: 978-1-60983-041-0 (loose-leaf edition) 



COPYRIGHT © 201 1 

by 

INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL, INC. 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This 2012 International Residential Code® is a copyrighted work owned by the International Code 
Council, Inc. Without advance written permission from the copyright owner, no part of this book may be reproduced, distributed 
or transmitted in any form or by any means, including, without limitation, electronic, optical or mechanical means (by way of 
example, and not limitation, photocopying, or recording by or in an information storage retrieval system). For information on 
permission to copy material exceeding fair use, please contact: Publications, 405 1 West Flossmoor Road Country Club Hills IL 
60478-5795. Phone 1-888-ICC-SAFE (422-7233). 

Trademarks: "International Code Council," the "International Code Council" logo and the "International Residential Code" are 
trademarks of the International Code Council, Inc. 



PRINTED IN THE U.S.A. 



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Introduction 



Developmsnt 



Internationally, code officials recognize the need for a modern, up-to-date residential code address- 
ing the design and construction of one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses. The Interna- 
tional Residential Code®, in this 2012 edition, is designed to meet these needs through model code 
regulations that safeguard the public health and safety in all communities, large and small. 

This comprehensive, stand-alone residential code establishes minimum regulations for one- and 
two-family dwellings and townhouses using prescriptive provisions. It is founded on broad-based 
principles that make possible the use of new materials and new building designs. This 2012 edition 
is fully compatible with all of the International Codes® (l-Codes®) published by the International 
Code Council® (ICC)®, including the International Building Code®, International Energy Conservation 
Code®, International Existing Building Code®, International Fire Code®, International Fuel Gas Code®, 
International Green Construction Code™ (to be available March 2012), International Mechanical 
Code®, ICC Performance Code®, International Plumbing Code®, International Private Sewage Dis- 
posal Code®, International Property Maintenance Code®, International Swimming Pool and Spa 
Code™ (to be available March 2012), International Wildland-Urban Interface Code® and Interna- 
tional Zoning Code®. 

The International Residential Code provisions provide many benefits, among which is the model 
code development process that offers an international forum for residential construction profes- 
sionals to discuss prescriptive code requirements. This forum provides an excellent arena to debate 
proposed revisions. This model code also encourages international consistency in the application of 
provisions. 



The first edition of the International Residential Code (2000) was the culmination of an effort initi- 
ated in 1996 by ICC and consisting of representatives from the three statutory members of the 
International Code Council at the time, including: Building Officials and Code Administrators Inter- 
national, Inc. (BOCA), International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO) and Southern Building 
Code Congress International (SBCCI), and representatives from the National Association of Home 
Builders (NAHB). The intent was to draft a stand-alone residential code consistent with and inclusive 
of the scope of the existing model codes. Technical content of the 1998 International One- and Two- 
Family Dwelling Code and the latest model codes promulgated by BOCA, ICBO, SBCCI and ICC was 
used as the basis for the development, followed by public hearings in 1998 and 1999 to consider 
proposed changes. This 2012 edition represents the code as originally issued, with changes 
reflected in the 2009 edition, and further changes developed through the ICC Code Development 
Process through 2010. Residential electrical provisions are based on the 2011 National Electrical 
Code' (NFPA 70). A new edition such as this is promulgated every three years. 

Energy provisions in Chapter 11 are duplicated from the International Energy Conservation 
Code®— Residential Provisions applicable to residential buildings which fall under the scope of this 
code. 

Fuel gas provisions have been included through an agreement with the American Gas Associa- 
tion (AGA). Electrical provisions have been included through an agreement with the National Fire 
Protection Association (NFPA). 

This code is founded on principles intended to establish provisions consistent with the scope of a 
residential code that adequately protects public health, safety and welfare; provisions that do not 
unnecessarily increase construction costs; provisions that do not restrict the use of new materials, 
products or methods of construction; and provisions that do not give preferential treatment to par- 
ticular types or classes of materials, products or methods of construction. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



Adoption 



The International Residential Code is available for adoption and use by jurisdictions internationally. 
Its use within a governmental jurisdiction is intended to be accomplished through adoption by ref- 
erence in accordance with proceedings establishing the jurisdiction's laws. At the time of adoption, 
jurisdictions should insert the appropriate information in provisions requiring specific local informa- 
tion, such as the name of the adopting jurisdiction. These locations are shown in bracketed words in 
small capital letters in the code and in the sample ordinance. The sample adoption ordinance on 
page xvii addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordinance, including the information 
required for insertion into the code text. 



Maintenance 



The International Residential Code is kept up-to-date through the review of proposed changes sub- 
mitted by code enforcing officials, industry representatives, design professionals and other inter- 
ested parties. Proposed changes are carefully considered through an open code development 
process in which all interested and affected parties may participate. 

The contents of this work are subject to change both through the Code Development Cycles and 
the governmental body that enacts the code into law. For more information regarding the code 
development process, contact the Codes and Standards Development Department of the Interna- 
tional Code Council. 

The maintenance process for the fuel gas provisions is based upon the process used to maintain 
the International Fuel Gas Code, in conjunction with the American Gas Association. The mainte- 
nance process for the electrical provisions is undertaken by the National Fire Protection Association. 

While the development procedure of the International Residential Code assures the highest 
degree of care, ICC, the founding members of ICC, its members and those participating in the devel- 
opment of this code do not accept any liability resulting from compliance or noncompliance with 
the provisions because ICC and its founding members do not have the power or authority to police 
or enforce compliance with the contents of this code. Only the governmental body that enacts the 
code into law has such authority. 



Code Development Committee Responsibilities 



In each code development cycle, proposed changes to the code are considered at the Code 
Development Hearings by the applicable International Code Development Committee as follows: 

[RB] = IRC— Building Code Development Committee 

[RE] = Residential Energy Code Development Committee 

[RMP] = IRC— Mechanical/Plumbing Code Development Committee 

The [RE] committee is also responsible for the IECC— Residential Provisions. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



Note that, for the development of the 2015 edition of the l-Codes, there will be two groups of 
code development committees and they will meet in separate years. The groupings are as follows: 



Group A Codes 

(Heard in 2012, Code Change Proposals 

Deadline: January 3, 2012) 


Group B Codes 

(Heard in 2013, Code Change Proposals 
Deadline: January 3, 2013) 


International Building Code 


Administrative Provisions (Chapter 1 all codes except 
the IECC, IRC and ICCPC, administrative updates to cur- 
rently referenced standards, and designated definitions) 


International Fuel Gas Code 


International Energy Conservation Code 


International Mechanical Code 


International Existing Building Code 


International Plumbing Code 


International Fire Code 


International Private Sewage 
Disposal Code 


International Green Construction Code 




ICC Performance Code 




International Property Maintenance Code 




International Residential Code 




International Swimming Pool and Spa Code 




International Wildland-Urban Interface Code 




International Zoning Code 



The International Residential Code is included in the Group B Codes. Therefore, any code change 
proposals to the IRC will be heard in the 2013 code cycle. The deadline for proposed changes to the 
IRC is January 3, 2013. 



Marginal Markings 



Solid vertical lines in the margins within the body of the code indicate a technical change from the 
requirements of the 2009 edition. Deletion indicators in the form of an arrow (■»■) are provided in 
the margin where an entire section, paragraph, exception or table has been deleted or an item in a 
list of items or a table has been deleted. 

A single asterisk [*] placed in the margin indicates that text or a table has been relocated within 
the code. A double asterisk [**] placed in the margin indicates that the text or table immediately 
following it has been relocated there from elsewhere in the code. The following table indicates such 
relocations in the 2012 Edition of the International Residential Code. 



2012 LOCATION 


2009 LOCATION 


R312.2 


R612.2 


R507 


R502.2.2 


R602.3.5 


R602.10.1.2.1 


R602. 10.6.5 


R602.12 


R702.7 


R601.3 



Italicized Terms 



Selected terms set forth in Chapter 2, Definitions, are italicized where they appear in code text. 
Such terms are not italicized where the definition set forth in Chapter 2 does not impart the 
intended meaning in the use of the term. The terms selected have definitions which the user should 
read carefully to facilitate better understanding of the code. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



vi 2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



Effective Use ©f the International Residential Code 



Effective Use of the International Residential Code 

The International Residential Code® (IRC®) was created to serve as a complete, comprehensive code 
regulating the construction of single-family houses, two-family houses (duplexes) and buildings con- 
sisting of three or more townhouse units. All buildings within the scope of the IRC are limited to 
three stories above grade plane. For example, a four-story single-family house would fall within the 
scope of the International Building Code® (IBC®), not the IRC. The benefits of devoting a separate 
code to residential construction include the fact that the user need not navigate through a multi- 
tude of code provisions that do not apply to residential construction in order to locate that which is 
applicable. A separate code also allows for residential and nonresidential code provisions to be dis- 
tinct and tailored to the structures that fall within the appropriate code's scopes. 

The IRC contains coverage for all components of a house or townhouse, including structural com- 
ponents, fireplaces and chimneys, thermal insulation, mechanical systems, fuel gas systems, plumb- 
ing systems and electrical systems. 

The IRC is a prescriptive-oriented (specification) code with some examples of performance code 
language. It has been said that the IRC is the complete cookbook for residential construction. Sec- 
tion R301.1, for example, is written in performance language, but states that the prescriptive 
requirements of the code will achieve such performance. 

It is important to understand that the IRC contains coverage for what is conventional and com- 
mon in residential construction practice. While the IRC will provide all of the needed coverage for 
most residential construction, it might not address construction practices and systems that are 
atypical or rarely encountered in the industry. Sections such as R301.1.3, R301.2.1, R301.2.2, 
R320.1, R322.1, M1301.1, G2401.1 and P2601.1 refer to other codes either as an alternative to the 
provisions of the IRC or where the IRC lacks coverage for a particular type of structure, design, sys- 
tem appliance or method of construction. In other words, the IRC is meant to be all inclusive for 
typical residential construction and it relies on other codes only where alternatives are desired or 
where the code lacks coverage for the uncommon aspect of residential construction. Of course, the 
IRC constantly evolves to address new technologies and construction practices that were once 
uncommon, but now common. 

The IRC is unique in that much of it, including Chapters 3 through 9 and Chapters 34 through 43, 
is presented in an ordered format that is consistent with the normal progression of construction, 
starting with the design phase and continuing through the final trim-out phase. This is consistent 
with the "cookbook" philosophy of the IRC. 

The IRC is divided into eight main parts, specifically, Part l-Administration, Part II — Definitions, 
Part Ill-Building Planning and Construction, Part IV-Energy Conservation, Part V-Mechamcal, 
Part VI— Fuel Gas, Part Vll-Plumbing and Part VIII— Electrical. 

The following provides a brief description of the content of each chapter and appendix of the 
IRC: 

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration. This chapter contains provisions for the application, 
enforcement and administration of subsequent requirements of the code. In addition to establish- 
ing the scope of the code, Chapter 1 identifies which buildings and structures come under its pur- 
view Chapter 1 is largely concerned with maintaining "due process of law" in enforcing the building 
criteria contained in the body of the code. Only through careful observation of the administrative 
provisions can the building official reasonably expect to demonstrate that "equal protection under 
the law" has been provided. 

Chapter 2 Definitions. Terms defined in the code are listed alphabetically in Chapter 2 It is 
important to note that two chapters have their own definitions sections: Chapter 24 for the defined 
terms that are unique to fuel gas and Chapter 35 containing terms that are applicable to electrical 
Chapters 34 through 43. In the case where Chapter 2 and another chapter both define the same 
term differently, the definition found in Chapter 24 and/or 35 is intended to prevail where the term 
is used in Chapter 24 and/or 35 and the definition contained in Chapter 2 is intended to prevail 

201 2 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



where the term is used in all other locations in the code. Except where Chapter 24 or 35 has a defi- 
nition that will prevail therein, the definitions in Chapter 2 are applicable throughout the code. 

Additional definitions regarding skylights that are not listed in Chapter 2 are found in Section 
R308.6.1. 

Where understanding a term's definition is key to or necessary for understanding a particular 
code provision, the term is shown in italics where it appears in the code. This is true only for those 
terms that have a meaning that is unique to the code. In other words, the generally understood 
meaning of a term or phrase might not be sufficient or consistent with the meaning prescribed by 
the code; therefore, it is essential that the code-defined meaning be known. 

Guidance regarding not only tense, gender and plurality of defined terms, but also terms not 
defined in this code, is provided. 

Chapter 3 Building Planning. Chapter 3 provides guidelines for a minimum level of structural 
integrity, life safety, fire safety and liability for inhabitants of dwelling units regulated by this code. 
Chapter 3 is a compilation of the code requirements specific to the building planning sector of the 
design and construction process. This chapter sets forth code requirements dealing with light, venti- 
lation, sanitation, minimum room size, ceiling height and environmental comfort. Chapter 3estab- 
hshes life-safety provisions including limitations on glazing used in hazardous areas, specifications 
on stairways, use of guards at elevated surfaces, window and fall protection, and rules for means of 
egress. Snow, wind and seismic design and flood-resistant construction, as well as live and dead 
loads, are addressed in this chapter. 

Chapter 4 Foundations. Chapter 4 provides the requirements for the design and construction of 
foundation systems for buildings regulated by this code. Provisions for seismic load, flood load and 
frost protection are contained in this chapter. A foundation system consists of two interdependent 
components: the foundation structure itself and the supporting soil. 

The prescriptive provisions of this chapter provide requirements for constructing footings and 
walls for foundations of wood, masonry, concrete and precast concrete. In addition to a founda- 
tion's ability to support the required design loads, this chapter addresses several other factors that 
can affect foundation performance. These include controlling surface water and subsurface drain- 
age, requiring soil tests where conditions warrant and evaluating proximity to slopes and minimum 
depth requirements. The chapter also provides requirements to minimize adverse effects of mois- 
ture, decay and pests in basements and crawl spaces. 

Chapter 5 Floors. Chapter 5 provides the requirements for the design and construction of floor 
systems that will be capable of supporting minimum required design loads. This chapter covers four 
different types: wood floor framing, wood floors on the ground, cold-formed steel floor framing and 
concrete slabs on the ground. Allowable span tables are provided that greatly simplify the determi- 
nation of joist, girder and sheathing sizes for raised floor systems of wood framing and cold-formed 
steel framing. This chapter also contains prescriptive requirements for attaching a deck to the main 
building. 

Chapter 6 Wall Construction. Chapter 6 contains provisions that regulate the design and con- 
struction of walls. The wall construction covered in Chapter 6 consists of five different types- wood 
framed, cold-formed steel framed, masonry, concrete and structural insulated panel (SIP) The pri- 
mary concern of this chapter is the structural integrity of wall construction and transfer of all 
imposed loads to the supporting structure. This chapter provides the requirements for the design 
and construction of wall systems that are capable of supporting the minimum design vertical loads 
(dead, live and snow loads) and lateral loads (wind or seismic loads). This chapter contains the pre- 
scriptive requirements for wall bracing and/or shear walls to resist the imposed lateral loads due to 
wind and seismic. 

Chapter 6 also regulates exterior windows and doors installed in walls. The chapter contains cri- 
teria for the performance of exterior windows and doors and includes provisions for window sill 
height, testing and labeling, vehicular access doors, wind-borne debris protection and anchorage 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 8 



Chapter 7 Wall Covering. Chapter 7 contains provisions for the design and construction of inte- 
rior and exterior wall coverings. This chapter establishes the various types of materials, materials 
standards and methods of application permitted for use as interior coverings, including interior 
plaster, gypsum board, ceramic tile, wood veneer paneling, hardboard paneling, wood shakes and 
wood shingles. Chapter 7 also contains requirements for the use of vapor retarders for moisture 
control in walls. 

Exterior wall coverings provide the weather-resistant exterior envelope that protects the build- 
ing's interior from the elements. Chapter 7 provides the requirements for wind resistance and 
water-resistive barrier for exterior wall coverings. This chapter prescribes the exterior wall cover- 
ings as well as the water-resistive barrier required beneath the exterior materials. Exterior wall cov- 
erings regulated by this section include aluminum, stone and masonry veneer, wood, hardboard, 
particleboard, wood structural panel siding, wood shakes and shingles, exterior plaster, steel, vinyl, 
fiber cement and exterior insulation finish systems. 

Chapter 8 Roof-ceiling Construction. Chapter 8 regulates the design and construction of roof- 
ceiling systems. This chapter contains two roof-ceiling framing systems: wood framing and cold- 
formed steel framing. Allowable span tables are provided to simplify the selection of rafter and ceil- 
ing joist size for wood roof framing and cold-formed steel framing. Chapter 8 also provides require- 
ments for the application of ceiling finishes, the proper ventilation of concealed spaces in roofs 
(e.g., enclosed attics and rafter spaces), unvented attic assemblies and attic access. 

Chapter 3 Roof Assemblies. Chapter 9 regulates the design and construction of roof assem- 
blies. A roof assembly includes the roof deck, vapor retarder, substrate or thermal barrier, insula- 
tion, vapor retarder and roof covering. This chapter provides the requirement for wind resistance of 
roof coverings. 

The types of roof covering materials and installation regulated by Chapter 9 are: asphalt shingles, 
clay and concrete tile, metal roof shingles, mineral-surfaced roll roofing, slate and slate-type shin- 
gles, wood shakes and shingles, built-up roofs, metal roof panels, modified bitumen roofing, ther- 
moset and thermoplastic single-ply roofing, sprayed polyurethane foam roofing, liquid applied 
coatings and photovoltaic modules/shingles. Chapter 9 also provides requirements for roof drain- 
age, flashing, above deck thermal insulation and recovering or replacing an existing roof covering. 

Chapter 10 Chimneys and Fireplaces. Chapter 10 contains requirements for the safe con- 
struction of masonry chimneys and fireplaces and establishes the standards for the use and installa- 
tion of factory-built chimneys, fireplaces and masonry heaters. Chimneys and fireplaces constructed 
of masonry rely on prescriptive requirements for the details of their construction; the factory-built 
type relies on the listing and labeling method of approval. Chapter 10 provides the requirements for 
seismic reinforcing and anchorage of masonry fireplaces and chimneys. 

Chapter 11 Energy Efficiency. The purpose of Chapter 11 is to provide minimum design require- 
ments that will promote efficient utilization of energy in buildings. The requirements are directed 
toward the design of building envelopes with adequate thermal resistance and low air leakage, and 
toward the design and selection of mechanical, water heating, electrical and illumination systems 
that promote effective use of depletable energy resources. The provisions of Chapter 11 are dupli- 
cated from the International Energy Conservation Code— Residential Provisions, as applicable for 
buildings which fall under the scope of the IRC. 

For ease of use and coordination of provisions, the corresponding IECC— Residential Provisions 
section number is indicated following the IRC section number [e.g. N1102.1 (R402.1)]. 

Chapter 12 Mechanical Administration. Chapter 12 establishes the limits of applicability of 
the code and describes how the code is to be applied and enforced. A mechanical code, like any 
other code, is intended to be adopted as a legally enforceable document and it cannot be effective 
without adequate provisions for its administration and enforcement. The provisions of Chapter 12 
establish the authority and duties of the code official appointed by the jurisdiction having authority 
and also establish the rights and privileges of the design professional, contractor and property 
owner. It also relates this chapter to the administrative provisions in Chapter 1. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



Chapter 23 General Mechanical System Requirements. Chapter 13 contains broadly appli- 
cable requirements related to appliance listing and labeling, appliance location and installation, 
appliance and systems access, protection of structural elements and clearances to combustibles, 
among others. 

Chapter 14 Heating and Cooling Equipment. Chapter 14 is a collection of requirements for 
various heating and cooling appliances, dedicated to single topics by section. The common theme is 
that all of these types of appliances use energy in one form or another, and the improper installa- 
tion of such appliances would present a hazard to the occupants of the dwellings, due to either the 
potential for fire or the accidental release of refrigerants. Both situations are undesirable in dwell- 
ings that are covered by this code. 

Chapter 15 Exhaust Systems. Chapter 15 is a compilation of code requirements related to resi- 
dential exhaust systems, including kitchens and bathrooms, clothes dryers and range hoods. The 
code regulates the materials used for constructing and installing such duct systems. Air brought into 
the building for ventilation, combustion or makeup purposes is protected from contamination by 
the provisions found in this chapter. 

Chapter IS Duct Systems. Chapter 16 provides requirements for the installation of ducts for 
supply, return and exhaust air systems. This chapter contains no information on the design of these 
systems from the standpoint of air movement, but is concerned with the structural integrity of the 
systems and the overall impact of the systems on the fire-safety performance of the building. This 
chapter regulates the materials and methods of construction which affect the performance of the 
entire air distribution system. 

Chapter 17 Combustion Air. Complete combustion of solid and liquid fuel is essential for the 
proper operation of appliances, control of harmful emissions and achieving maximum fuel effi- 
ciency. If insufficient quantities of oxygen are supplied, the combustion process will be incomplete, 
creating dangerous byproducts and wasting energy in the form of unburned fuel (hydrocarbons). 
The byproducts of incomplete combustion are poisonous, corrosive and combustible, and can cause 
serious appliance or equipment malfunctions that pose fire or explosion hazards. 

The combustion air provisions in this code from previous editions have been deleted from Chap- 
ter 17 in favor of a single section that directs the user to NFPA 31 for oil-fired appliance combustion 
air requirements and the manufacturer's installation instructions for solid fuel-burning appliances. If 
fuel gas appliances are used, the provisions of Chapter 24 must be followed. 

Chapter 18 Chimneys and Vents. Chapter 18 regulates the design, construction, installation, 
maintenance, repair and approval of chimneys, vents and their connections to fuel-burning appli- 
ances. A properly designed chimney or vent system is needed to conduct the flue gases produced by 
a fuel-burning appliance to the outdoors. The provisions of this chapter are intended to minimize 
the hazards associated with high temperatures and potentially toxic and corrosive combustion 
gases. This chapter addresses factory-built and masonry chimneys, vents and venting systems used 
to vent oil-fired and solid fuel-burning appliances. 

Chapter 19 Special Fuel-burning Equipment. Chapter 19 regulates the installation of fuel- 
burning appliances that are not covered in other chapters, such as ranges and ovens, sauna heaters, 
fuel cell power plants and hydrogen systems. Because the subjects in this chapter do not contain 
the volume of text necessary to warrant individual chapters, they have been combined into a single 
chapter. The only commonality is that the subjects use energy to perform some task or function. 
The intent is to provide a reasonable level of protection for the occupants of the dwelling. 

Chapter 20 Boilers and Water Heaters. Chapter 20 regulates the installation of boilers and 
water heaters. Its purpose is to protect the occupants of the dwelling from the potential hazards 
associated with such appliances. A water heater is any appliance that heats potable water and sup- 
plies it to the plumbing hot water distribution system. A boiler either heats water or generates 
steam for space heating and is generally a closed system. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



Chapter 21 Hydronic Piping. Hydremic piping includes piping, fittings and valves used in building 
space conditioning systems. Applications include hot water, chilled water, steam, steam conden- 
sate, brines and water/antifreeze mixtures. Chapter 21 regulates installation, alteration and repair 
of all hydronic piping systems to insure the reliability, serviceability, energy efficiency and safety of 
such systems. 

Chapter 22 Special Piping and Storage Systems. Chapter 22 regulates the design and instal- 
lation of fuel oil storage and piping systems. The regulations include reference to construction stan- 
dards for above-ground and underground storage tanks, material standards for piping systems 
(both above-ground and underground) and extensive requirements for the proper assembly of sys- 
tem piping and components. The purpose of this chapter is to prevent fires, leaks and spills involv- 
ing fuel oil storage and piping systems, whether inside or outside structures and above or 
underground. 

Chapter 23 Solar Systems. Chapter 23 contains requirements for the construction, alteration 
and repair of all systems and components of solar energy systems used for space heating or cooling, 
and domestic hot water heating or processing. The provisions of this chapter are limited to those 
necessary to achieve installations that are relatively hazard free. 

A solar energy system can be designed to handle 100 percent of the energy load of a building, 
although this is rarely accomplished. Because solar energy is a low-intensity energy source and 
dependent on the weather, it is usually necessary to supplement a solar energy system with tradi- 
tional energy sources. 

As our world strives to find alternate means of producing power for the future, the requirements 
of this chapter will become more and more important over time. 

Chapter 24 Fuel Gas. Chapter 24 regulates the design and installation of fuel gas distribution 
piping and systems, appliances, appliance venting systems and combustion air provisions. The defi- 
nition of "Fuel gas" includes natural, liquefied petroleum and manufactured gases and mixtures of 
these gases. 

The purpose of this chapter is to establish the minimum acceptable level of safety and to protect 
life and property from the potential dangers associated with the storage, distribution and use of 
fuel gases and the byproducts of combustion of such fuels. This code also protects the personnel 
who install, maintain, service and replace the systems and appliances addressed herein. 

Chapter 24 is composed entirely of text extracted from the IFGC; therefore, whether using the 
IFGC or the IRC, the fuel gas provisions will be identical. Note that to avoid the potential for confu- 
sion and conflicting definitions, Chapter 24 has its own definition section. 

Chapter 25 Plumbing Administration. The requirements of Chapter 25 do not supersede the 
administrative provisions of Chapter 1. Rather, the administrative guidelines of Chapter 25 pertain 
to plumbing installations that are best referenced and located within the plumbing chapters. This 
chapter addresses how to apply the plumbing provisions of this code to specific types or phases of 
construction. This chapter also outlines the responsibilities of the applicant, installer and inspector 
with regard to testing plumbing installations. 

Chapter 26 General Plumbing Requirements. The content of Chapter 26 is often referred to 
as "miscellaneous," rather than general plumbing requirements. This is the only chapter of the 
plumbing chapters of the code whose requirements do not interrelate. If a requirement cannot be 
located in another plumbing chapter, it should be located in this chapter. Chapter 26 contains safety 
requirements for the installation of plumbing systems and includes requirements for the identifica- 
tion of pipe, pipe fittings, traps, fixtures, materials and devices used in plumbing systems. If specific 
provisions do not demand that a requirement be located in another chapter, the requirement is 
located in this chapter. 

Chapter 27 Plumbing Fixtures. Chapter 27 requires fixtures to be of the proper type, approved 
for the purpose intended and installed properly to promote usability and safe, sanitary conditions. 
This chapter regulates the quality of fixtures and faucets by requiring those items to comply with 
nationally recognized standards. Because fixtures must be properly installed so that they are usable 
by the occupants of the building, this chapter contains the requirements for the installation of fix- 
tures. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 8 



Chapter 28 Water Heaters. Chapter 28 regulates the design, approval and installation of water 
heaters and related safety devices. The intent is to minimize the hazards associated with the instal- 
lation and operation of water heaters. Although this chapter does not regulate the size of a water 
heater, it does regulate all other aspects of the water heater installation such as temperature and 
pressure relief valves, safety drip pans and connections. Where a water heater also supplies water 
for space heating, this chapter regulates the maximum water temperature supplied to the water 
distribution system. 

Chapter 29 Water Supply and Distribution. This chapter regulates the supply of potable 
water from both public and individual sources to every fixture and outlet so that it remains potable 
and uncontaminated by cross connections. Chapter 29 also regulates the design of the water distri- 
bution system, which will allow fixtures to function properly. Because it is critical that the potable 
water supply system remain free of actual or potential sanitary hazards, this chapter has the 
requirements for providing backflow protection devices. 

Chapter 30 Sanitary Drainage. The purpose of Chapter 30 is to regulate the materials, design 
and installation of sanitary drainage piping systems as well as the connections made to the system. 
The intent is to design and install sanitary drainage systems that will function reliably, are neither 
undersized nor oversized and are constructed from materials, fittings and connections whose qual- 
ity is regulated by this section. This chapter addresses the proper use of fittings for directing the 
flow into and within the sanitary drain piping system. Materials and provisions necessary for servic- 
ing the drainage system are also included in this chapter. 

Chapter 31 Vents. Venting protects the trap seal of each trap. The vents are designed to limit dif- 
ferential pressures at each trap to 1 inch of water column (249 Pa). Because waste flow in the drain- 
age system creates pressure fluctuations that can negatively affect traps, the sanitary drainage 
system must have a properly designed venting system. Chapter 31 covers the requirements for 
vents and venting. All of the provisions set forth in this chapter are intended to limit the pressure 
differentials in the drainage system to a maximum of 1 inch of water column (249 Pa) above or 
below atmospheric pressure (i.e., positive or negative pressures). 

Chapter 32 Traps. Traps prevent sewer gas from escaping from the drainage piping into the 
building. Water seal traps are the simplest and most reliable means of preventing sewer gas from 
entering the interior environment. This chapter lists prohibited trap types as well as specifies the 
minimum trap size for each type of fixture. 

Chapter 33 Storm Drainage. Rainwater infiltration into the ground adjacent to a building can 
cause the interior of foundation walls to become wet. The installation of a subsoil drainage system 
prevents the build-up of rainwater on the exterior of the foundation walls. This chapter provides the 
specifications for subsoil drain piping. Where the discharge of the subsoil drain system is to a sump, 
this chapter also provides coverage for sump construction, pumps and discharge piping. 

Chapter 34 General Requirements. This chapter contains broadly applicable, general and mis- 
cellaneous requirements including scope, listing and labeling, equipment locations and clearances 
for conductor materials and connections and conductor identification. 

Chapter 35 Electrical Definitions. Chapter 35 is the repository of the definitions of terms used 
in the body of Part VIII of the code. To avoid the potential for confusion and conflicting definitions, 
Part VIII, Electrical, has its own definition chapter. 

Codes are technical documents and every word, term and punctuation mark can impact the 
meaning of the code text and the intended results. The code often uses terms that have a unique 
meaning in the code, which can differ substantially from the ordinarily understood meaning of the 
term as used outside of the code. 

The terms defined in Chapter 35 are deemed to be of prime importance in establishing the 
meaning and intent of the electrical code text that uses the terms. The user of the code should be 
familiar with and consult this chapter because the definitions are essential to the correct interpreta- 
tion of the code and because the user may not be aware that a term is defined. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



Chapter 36 Services. This chapter covers the design, sizing and installation of the building's elec- 
trical service equipment and grounding electrode system. It includes an easy-to-use load calculation 
method and service conductor sizing table. The electrical service is generally the first part of the 
electrical system to be designed and installed. 

Chapter 37 Branch Circuit and Feeder Requirements. Chapter 37 addresses the require- 
ments for designing the power distribution system which consists of feeders and branch circuits 
emanating from the service equipment. This chapter dictates the ratings of circuits and the allow- 
able loads, the number and types of branch circuits required, the wire sizing for such branch circuits 
and feeders and the requirements for protection from overcurrent for conductors. A load calcula- 
tion method specific to feeders is also included. This chapter is used to design the electrical system 
on the load side of the service. 

Chapter 38 Wiring Methods. Chapter 38 specifies the allowable wiring methods, such as cable, 
conduit and raceway systems, and provides the installation requirements for the wiring methods. 
This chapter is primarily applicable to the "rough-in" phase of construction. 

Chapter 39 Power and Lighting Distribution. This chapter mostly contains installation 
requirements for the wiring that serves the lighting outlets, receptacle outlets, appliances and 
switches located throughout the building. The required distribution and spacing of receptacle out- 
lets and lighting outlets is prescribed in this chapter, as well as the requirements for ground-fault 
and arc-fault circuit interrupter protection. 

Chapter 40 Devices and Luminaires. This chapter focuses on the devices, including switches 
and receptacles, and lighting fixtures that are typically installed during the final phase of construc- 
tion. 

Chapter 41 Appliance Installation. Chapter 41 addresses the installation of appliances includ- 
ing HVAC appliances, water heaters, fixed space-heating equipment, dishwashers, garbage dispos- 
als, range hoods and suspended paddle fans. 

Chapter 42 Swimming Pools. This chapter covers the electrical installation requirements for 
swimming pools, storable swimming pools, wading pools, decorative pools, fountains, hot tubs, 
spas and hydromassage bathtubs. The allowable wiring methods are specified along with the 
required clearances between electrical system components and pools, spas and tubs. This chapter 
includes the special grounding requirements related to pools, spas and tubs, and also prescribes the 
equipotential bonding requirements that are unique to pools, spas and tubs. 

Chapter 43 Class 2 Remote-control, Signaling and Power-limited Circuits. This chapter 
covers the power supplies, wiring methods and installation requirements for the Class 2 circuits 
found in dwellings. Such circuits include thermostat wiring, alarm systems, security systems, auto- 
mated control systems and doorbell systems. 

Chapter 44 Referenced Standards. The code contains numerous references to standards that 
are used to regulate materials and methods of construction. Chapter 44 contains a comprehensive 
list of all standards that are referenced in the code. The standards are part of the code to the extent 
of the reference to the standard. Compliance with the referenced standard is necessary for compli- 
ance with this code. By providing specifically adopted standards, the construction and installation 
requirements necessary for compliance with the code can be readily determined. The basis for code 
compliance is, therefore, established and available on an equal basis to the code official, contractor, 
designer and owner. 

Chapter 44 is organized in a manner that makes it easy to locate specific standards. It lists all of 
the referenced standards, alphabetically, by acronym of the promulgating agency of the standard. 
Each agency's standards are then listed in either alphabetical or numeric order based upon the stan- 
dard identification. The list also contains the title of the standard; the edition (date) of the standard 
referenced; any addenda included as part of the ICC adoption; and the section or sections of this 
code that reference the standard. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



Appendix A Sizing and Capacities of Gas Piping. This appendix is informative and not part of 
the code. It provides design guidance, useful facts and data and multiple examples of how to apply 
the sizing tables and sizing methodologies of Chapter 24. 

Appendix B Sizing of Venting Systems Serving Appliances Equipped with Draft 
Hoods, Category I Appliances and Appliances Listed for Use with Type B Vents. This 
appendix is informative and not part of the code. It contains multiple examples of how to apply the 
vent and chimney tables and methodologies of Chapter 24. 

Appendix C Exit Terminals of Mechanical Draft and Direct-vent Venting Systems. This 

appendix is informative and not part of the code. It consists of a figure and notes that visually depict 
code requirements from Chapter 24 for vent terminals with respect to the openings found in build- 
ing exterior walls. 

Appendix D Recommended Procedure for Safety Inspection of an Existing Appliance 
Installation. This appendix is informative and not part of the code. It provides recommended pro- 
cedures for testing and inspecting an appliance installation to determine if the installation is operat- 
ing safely and if the appliance is in a safe condition. 

Appendix E Manufactured Housing Used as Dwellings. The criteria for the construction of 
manufactured homes are governed by the National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety 
Act. While this act may seem to cover the bulk of the construction of manufactured housing, it does 
not cover those areas related to the placement of the housing on the property. The provisions of 
Appendix E are not applicable to the design and construction of manufactured homes. Appendix E 
provides a complete set of regulations in conjunction with federal law for the installation of manu- 
factured housing. This appendix also contains provisions for existing manufactured home installa- 
tions. 

Appendix F Radon Control Methods. Radon comes from the natural (radioactive) decay of the 
element radium in soil, rock and water and finds its way into the air. Appendix F contains require- 
ments to mitigate the transfer of radon gases from the soil into the dwelling. The provisions of this 
appendix regulate the design and construction of radon-resistant measures intended to reduce the 
entry of radon gases into the living space of residential buildings. 

Appendix G Swimming Pool, Spas and Hot Tubs. Appendix G provides the regulations for 
swimming pools, hot tubs and spas installed in or on the lot of a one- or two-family dwelling. This 
appendix contains provisions for an effective barrier surrounding the water area and entrapment 
protection for suction outlets to reduce the potential for drowning of young children. 

Appendix H Patio Covers. Appendix H sets forth the regulations and limitations for patio covers. 
The provisions address those uses permitted in patio cover structures, the minimum design loads to 
be assigned for structural purposes, and the effect of the patio cover on egress and emergency 
escape or rescue from sleeping rooms. This appendix also contains the special provisions for alumi- 
num screen enclosures in hurricane-prone regions. 

Appendix I Private Sewage Disposal. Appendix I simply provides the opportunity to utilize the 
International Private Sewage Disposal Code for the design and installation of private sewage dis- 
posal in one- and two-family dwellings. 

Appendix J Existing Buildings and Structures. Appendix J contains the provisions for the 
repair, renovation, alteration and reconstruction of existing buildings and structures that are within 
the scope of this code. To accomplish this objective and to make the rehabilitation process more 
available, this appendix allows for a controlled departure from full code compliance without com- 
promising minimum life safety, fire safety, structural and environmental features of the rehabili- 
tated existing building or structure. 

Appendix K Sound Transmission. Appendix K regulates the sound transmission of wall and 
floor-ceiling assemblies separating dwelling units and townhouse units. Air-borne sound insulation 
is required for walls. Air-borne sound insulation and impact sound insulation are required for floor- 

2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



ceiling assemblies. The provisions in Appendix K set forth a minimum Sound Transmission Class 
(STC) rating for common walls and floor-ceiling assemblies between dwelling units. In addition, a 
minimum Impact Insulation Class (IIC) rating is also established to limit structure-borne sound 
through common floor-ceiling assemblies separating dwelling units. 

Appendix L Permit Fees. Appendix L provides guidance to jurisdictions for setting appropriate 
permit fees. This appendix will aid many jurisdictions to assess permit fees that will assist to fairly 
and properly administer the code. This appendix can be used for informational purposes only or 
may be adopted when specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance. 

Appendix M Home Day Care-R-3 Occupancy. Appendix M provides means of egress and 
smoke detection requirements for a Group R-3 Occupancy that is to be used as a home day care for 
more than five children who receive custodial care for less than 24 hours. This appendix is strictly 
for guidance and/or adoption by those jurisdictions that have Licensed Home Care Provider laws 
and statutes that allow more than five children to be cared for in a person's home. When a jurisdic- 
tion adopts this appendix, the provisions for day care and child care facilities in the IBC should be 
considered also. 

Appendix N Venting Methods. Because venting of sanitary drainage systems is perhaps the 
most difficult concept to understand, and Chapter 31 uses only words to describe venting require- 
ments, illustrations can offer greater insight into what the words mean. Appendix N has a number 
of illustrations for commonly installed sanitary drainage systems in order for the reader to gain a 
better understanding of this code's venting requirements. 

Appendix O Automatic Vehicular Gates. Appendix O provides the requirements for the 
design and construction of automatic vehicular gates. The provisions are for where automatic gates 
are installed for use at a vehicular entrance or exit on the lot of a one- or two-family dwelling. The 
requirements provide protection for individuals from potential entrapment between an automatic 
gate and a stationary object or surface. 

Appendix P Sizing of Water Piping System. Appendix P provides two recognized methods for 
sizing the water service and water distribution piping for a building. The method under Section 
AP103 provides friction loss diagrams that require the user to "plot" points and read values from 
the diagrams in order to perform the required calculations and necessary checks. This method is the 
most accurate of the two presented in this appendix. The method under Section AP201 is known to 
be conservative; however, very few calculations are necessary in order to determine a pipe size that 
satisfies the flow requirements of any application. 

Appendix Q ICC International Residential Code Electrical Provisions/National Elec- 
trical Code Cross Reference. This cross reference allows the code user to trace the code sec- 
tions in Chapters 34 through 43 back to their source: the National Electrical Code. See the 
introduction to Chapter 34 for more information on the relationship between Part VIII of this code 
and the NEC, NFPA70. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



l_C\2ilOL>r\ i lUll 



The International Codes are designed and promulgated to be adopted by reference by legislative action. Jurisdictions wishing to 
adopt the 2012 International Residential Code as an enforceable regulation governing one- and two-family dwellings and town- 
houses should ensure that certain factual information is included in the adopting legislation at the time adoption is being consid- 
ered by the appropriate governmental body. The following sample adoption legislation addresses several key elements, 
including the information required for insertion into the code text. 

AMPLE LEGISLATION FOR ADOPTION Or 
THE INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 

RDIINAlMCE NO. 



A[N] [ORDiNANCE/STATUTE/REGULATION] of the [JURISDICTION] adopting the 2012 edition of the International Residential 
Code, regulating and governing the construction, alteration, movement, enlargement, replacement, repair, equipment, location, 
removal and demolition of detached one- and two-family dwellings and multiple single family dwellings (townhouses) not more 
than threes stories in height with separate means of egress in the [JURISDICTION]; providing for the issuance of permits and col- 
lection of fees therefor; repealing [ORDINANCE/STATUTE/REGULATION] No. of the [JURISDICTION] and all other ordi- 
nances or parts of laws in conflict therewith. 

The [GOVERNING BODY] of the [JURISDICTION] does ordain as follows; 

Section 1. That a certain document, three (3) copies of which are on file in the office of the [TITLE OF JURISDICTION'S KEEPER 
OF RECORDS] of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], being marked and designated as the International Residential Code, 2012 edition, 
including Appendix Chapters [FILL IN THE APPENDIX CHAPTERS BEING ADOPTED] (see International Residential Code Section 
R102.5, 2012 edition), as published by the International Code Council, be and is hereby adopted as the Residential Code of the 
[JURISDICTION], in the State of [STATE NAME] for regulating and governing the construction, alteration, movement, enlargement, 
replacement, repair, equipment, location, removal and demolition of detached one- and two-family dwellings and multiple sin- 
gle-family dwellings (townhouses) not more than threes stories in height with separate means of egress as herein provided; pro- 
viding for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; and each and all of the regulations, provisions, penalties, 
conditions and terms of said Residential Code on file in the office of the [JURISDICTION] are hereby referred to, adopted, and 
made a part hereof, as if fully set out in this ordinance, with the additions, insertions, deletions and changes, if any, prescribed in 
Section 2 of this ordinance. 

Section 2. The following sections are hereby revised: 

Section RIO 1.1. Insert: [NAME OF JURISDICTION] 

Table R301.2 (1) Insert: [APPROPRIATE DESIGN CRITERIA] 

Section P2603.6.1 Insert: [NUMBER OF INCHES IN TWO LOCATIONS] 

Section 3. That [ORDINANCE/STATUTE/REGULATION] No. of [JURISDICTION] entitled [FILL IN HERE THE COMPLETE 

TITLE OF THE LEGISLATION OR LAWS IN EFFECT AT THE PRESENT TIME SO THAT THEY WILL BE REPEALED BY DEFINITE MEN- 
TION] and all other ordinances or parts of laws in conflict herewith are hereby repealed. 

Section 4. That if any section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this legislation is, for any reason, held to be unconstitu- 
tional, such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of this ordinance. The [GOVERNING BODY] hereby 
declares that it would have passed this law, and each section, subsection, clause or phrase thereof, irrespective of the fact that 
any one or more sections, subsections, sentences, clauses and phrases be declared unconstitutional. 

Section 5. That nothing in this legislation or in the Residential Code hereby adopted shall be construed to affect any suit or pro- 
ceeding impending in any court, or any rights acquired, or liability incurred, or any cause or causes of action acquired or exist- 
ing, under any act or ordinance hereby repealed as cited in Section 3 of this law; nor shall any just or legal right or remedy of any 
character be lost, impaired or affected by this legislation. 

Section 6. That the [JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF RECORDS] is hereby ordered and directed to cause this legislation to be pub- 
lished. (An additional provision may be required to direct the number of times the legislation is to be published and to specify 
that it is to be in a newspaper in general circulation. Posting may also be required.) 

Section 7. That this law and the rules, regulations, provisions, requirements, orders and matters established and adopted hereby 
shall take effect and be in full force and effect [TIME PERIOD] from and after the date of its final passage and adoption. 

2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® xvii 



xviii 2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



oLt Ur LfUN @ CM 1 O 



Part I — Administrative 1 

CHAPTER 1 SCOPE AND 

ADMINISTRATION 1 

PART 1— SCOPE AND APPLICATION 1 

Section 

R101 General 1 

R102 Applicability 1 

PART 2— ADMINISTRATION AND 

ENFORCEMENT. 2 

R103 Department of Building Safety 2 

R104 Duties and Powers of the Building Official 2 

R105 Permits 3 

R106 Construction Documents 5 

R107 Temporary Structures and Uses 6 

R108 Fees 6 

R109 Inspections 6 

Rl 10 Certificate of Occupancy 7 

Rl 1 1 Service Utilities 7 

Rl 12 Board of Appeals 8 

Rl 13 Violations 8 

Rl 14 Stop Work Order 9 

Part II — Definitions H 

CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS. 11 

Section 

R201 General 11 

R202 Definitions 11 

Part III — Building Planning and Construction 25 

CHAPTER 3 BUILDING PLANNING 25 

Section 

R301 Design Criteria 25 

R302 Fire-resistant Construction 48 

R303 Light, Ventilation and Heating 53 

R304 Minimum Room Areas 54 

R305 Ceiling Height 54 

R306 Sanitation 54 



R307 Toilet, Bath and Shower Spaces 54 

R308 Glazing 55 

R309 Garages and Carports 58 

R310 Emergency Escape and Rescue Openings 58 

R311 Means of Egress 59 

R312 Guards and Window Fall Protection 62 

R3 1 3 Automatic Fire Sprinkler Systems 62 

R314 Smoke Alarms 63 

R315 Carbon Monoxide Alarms 63 

R316 Foam Plastic 64 

R3 17 Protection of Wood and Wood Based 

Products Against Decay 65 

R318 Protection Against Subterranean Termites 67 

R319 Site Address 68 

R320 Accessibility 68 

R321 Elevators and Platform Lifts 68 

R322 Flood-resistant Construction 68 

R323 Storm Shelters 71 



CHAPTER 4 

Section 

R401 



FOUNDATIONS. 



73 



General 73 

R402 Materials 73 

R403 Footings 74 

R404 Foundation and Retaining Walls 91 

R405 Foundation Drainage 1 09 

R406 Foundation Waterproofing and 

Dampproofing 110 

R407 Columns 1 1 1 

R408 Under-floor Space HI 



CHAPTER 5 

Section 

R501 



FLOORS 



113 



General 1 1 3 

R502 Wood Floor Framing 113 

R503 Floor Sheathing 124 

R504 Pressure Preservatively Treated-wood 

Floors (On Ground) 125 

R505 Steel Floor Framing 126 

R506 Concrete Floors (On Ground) 144 

R507 Decks 146 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 



;® 



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CHAPTER 6 WALL CONSTRUCTION 149 

Section 

R601 General 149 

R602 Wood Wall Framing 149 

R603 Steel Wall Framing 192 

R604 Wood Structural Panels 264 

R605 Particleboard 264 

R606 General Masonry Construction 264 

R607 Unit Masonry 272 

R608 Multiple-wythe Masonry 273 

R609 Grouted Masonry 274 

R610 Glass Unit Masonry 276 

R61 1 Exterior Concrete Wall Construction 277 

R612 Exterior Windows and Doors 347 

R613 Structural Insulated Panel Wall 

Construction 350 

CHAPTER 7 WALL COVERING 359 

Section 

R701 General 359 

R702 Interior Covering 359 

R703 Exterior Covering 363 

CHAPTER 8 ROOF-CEILING 

CONSTRUCTION 377 

Section 

R801 General 377 

R802 Wood Roof Framing 377 

R803 Roof Sheathing 403 

R804 Steel Roof Framing 403 

R805 Ceiling Finishes 436 

R806 Roof Ventilation 436 

R807 Attic Access 437 

CHAPTER 9 ROOF ASSEMBLIES 439 

Section 

R901 General 439 

R902 Roof Classification 439 

R903 Weather Protection 439 

R904 Materials 439 

R905 Requirements for Roof Coverings 440 

R906 Roof Insulation 450 

R907 Reroofing 450 



CHAPTER 10 CHIMNEYS AND FIREPLACES. . . 453 
Section 

R1001 Masonry Fireplaces 453 

R1002 Masonry Heaters 456 

R1003 Masonry Chimneys 457 

R1004 Factory -built Fireplaces 461 

R1005 Factory-built Chimneys 462 

R1006 Exterior Air Supply 462 

Part IV — Energy Conservation 463 

CHAPTER 11 ENERGY EFFICIENCY .......... 463 

Section 

Nl 101 Genera] 463 

Nl 102 Building Thermal Envelope 482 

Nl 103 Systems 485 

Nl 1 04 Electrical Power and Lighting 

Systems (Mandatory) 487 

N 1 105 Simulated Performance Alternative 

(Performance) 487 

Part V — Mechanical 493 

CHAPTER 12 MECHANICAL 

ADMINISTRATION 493 

Section 

M1201 General 493 

Ml 202 Existing Mechanical Systems 493 

CHAPTER 13 GENERAL MECHANICAL 

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS 495 

Section 

M1301 General 495 

M1302 Approval 495 

M1303 Labeling of Appliances 495 

M1304 Type of Fuel 495 

M1305 Appliance Access 495 

Ml 306 Clearances from Combustible Construction . . . 496 

M1307 Appliance Installation 497 

Ml 308 Mechanical Systems Installation 500 



xx 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 3 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 14 HEATING AND COOLING 
EQUIPMENT AND 
APPLIANCES 501 

Section 

M1401 Genera] 501 

M1402 Central Furnaces 501 

M1403 Heat Pump Equipment 501 

Ml 404 Refrigeration Cooling Equipment 501 

M1405 Baseboard Convectors 501 

M1406 Radiant Heating Systems 501 

M1407 Duct Heaters 502 

M1408 Vented Floor Furnaces 502 

M1409 Vented Wall Furnaces 502 

M1410 Vented Room Heaters 503 

M141 1 Heating and Cooling Equipment 503 

M1412 Absorption Cooling Equipment 504 

M1413 Evaporative Cooling Equipment 504 

M1414 Fireplace Stoves 504 

M1415 Masonry Heaters 505 

CHAPTER 15 EXHAUST SYSTEMS 507 

Section 

M1501 General 507 

M1502 Clothes Dryer Exhaust 507 

M1503 Range Hoods 508 

Ml 504 Installation of Microwave Ovens 508 

M1505 Overhead Exhaust Hoods 508 

Ml 506 Exhaust Ducts and Exhaust Openings 508 

M1507 Mechanical Ventilation 508 

CHAPTER 16 DUCT SYSTEMS 511 

Section 

M1601 Duct Construction 511 

M1602 Return Air 513 

CHAPTER 17 COMBUSTION AIM. 515 

Section 

M1701 General 515 

CHAPTER 18 CHIMNEYS AND VENTS 517 

Section 

M1801 General 517 

M1802 Vent Components 517 



Ml 803 Chimney and Vent Connectors 518 

M1804 Vents 519 

Ml 805 Masonry and Factory-built Chimneys 519 

CHAPTER 19 SPECIAL APPLIANCES, 

EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS. .... 521 

Section 

M1901 Ranges and Ovens 521 

M1902 Sauna Heaters 521 

Ml 903 Stationary Fuel Cell Power Plants 521 

M1904 Gaseous Hydrogen Systems 521 

CHAPTER 20 BOILERS AND 

WATER HEATERS 523 

Section 

M2001 Boilers 523 

M2002 Operating and Safety Controls 523 

M2003 Expansion Tanks 523 

M2004 Water Heaters Used for Space Heating 524 

M2005 Water Heaters 524 

M2006 Pool Heaters 524 

CHAPTER 21 HYDRONIC PIPING .525 

Section 

M2101 Hydronic Piping Systems Installation 525 

M2102 Baseboard Convectors 525 

M2103 Floor Heating Systems 525 

M2104 Low Temperature Piping 527 

M2105 Ground Source Heat Pump System 

Loop Piping 527 

CHAPTER 22 SPECIAL PIPING AND 

STORAGE SYSTEMS 529 

Section 

M2201 Oil Tanks 529 

M2202 Oil Piping, Fitting and Connections 529 

M2203 Installation 529 

M2204 Oil Pumps and Valves 530 

CHAPTER 23 SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS ...... 531 

Section 

M2301 Thermal Solar Energy Systems 531 

M2302 Photovoltaic Solar Energy Systems 531 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Part VI— Fuel Gas 533 

CHAPTER 24 FUEL GAS 533 

Section 

G2401 General 533 

G2402 General 533 

G2403 General Definitions 533 

G2404 General 539 

G2405 Structural Safety 540 

G2406 Appliance Location 540 

G2407 Combustion, Ventilation and Dilution Air 540 

G2408 Installation 544 

G2409 Clearance Reduction 545 

G2410 Electrical 548 

G2411 Electrical Bonding 548 

G2412 General 548 

G2413 Pipe Sizing 549 

G2414 Piping Materials 550 

G2415 Piping System Installation 573 

G2416 Piping Bends and Changes in Direction 575 

G2417 Inspection, Testing and Purging 575 

G2418 Piping Support 578 

G2419 Drips and Sloped Piping 578 

G2420 Gas Shutoff Valves 578 

G2421 Flow Controls 579 

G2422 Appliance Connections 580 

G2423 CNG Gas-dispensing Systems 581 

G2424 Piping Support Intervals 581 

G2425 General 581 

G2426 Vents 582 

G2427 Venting of Appliances 583 

G2428 Sizing of Category I Appliance 

Venting Systems 592 

G2429 Direct-vent, Integral Vent, Mechanical Vent 

and Ventilation/Exhaust Hood Venting 596 

G2430 Factory-built Chimneys 596 

G2431 General 596 

G2432 Decorative Appliances for Installation 

in Fireplaces 596 

G2433 Log Lighters 596 

G2434 Vented Gas Fireplaces 

(Decorative Appliances) 605 

G2435 Vented Gas Fireplace Heaters 605 

G2436 Vented Wall Furnaces 605 

G2437 Floor Furnaces 605 



G2438 Clothes Dryers 606 

G2439 Clothes Dryer Exhaust 606 

G2440 Sauna Heaters 607 

G2441 Pool and Spa Heaters 607 

G2442 Forced-air Warm-air Furnaces 607 

G2443 Conversion Burners 608 

G2444 Unit Heaters 608 

G2445 Unvented Room Heaters 608 

G2446 Vented Room Heaters 609 

G2447 Cooking Appliances 609 

G2448 Water Heaters 609 

G2449 Air Conditioning Appliances 609 

G2450 Illuminating Appliances 610 

G2451 Infrared Radiant Heaters 610 

G2452 Boilers 610 

G2453 Chimney Damper Opening Area 610 

G2454 Outdoor Decorative Appliances 610 

Part VII— Plumbing 613 

CHAPTER 25 PLUMBING 

ADMINISTRATION 613 

Section 

P2501 General 613 

P2502 Existing Plumbing Systems 613 

P2503 Inspection and Tests 613 

CHAPTER 26 GENERAL PLUMBING 

REQUIREMENTS 615 

Section 

P2601 General 615 

P2602 Individual Water Supply and 

Sewage Disposal 615 

P2603 Structural and Piping Protection 615 

P2604 Trenching and Backfilling 616 

P2605 Support 616 

P2606 Penetrations 616 

P2607 Waterproofing of Openings 616 

P2608 Workmanship 616 

P2609 Materials Evaluation and Listing 617 

CHAPTER 27 PLUMBING FIXTURES 619 

Section 

P2701 Fixtures, Faucets and Fixture Fittings 619 

P2702 Fixture Accessories 619 

P2703 Tail Pieces 619 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE* 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



P2704 Access to Connections 619 

P2705 Installation 619 

P2706 Waste Receptors 619 

P2707 Directional Fittings 621 

P2708 Showers 621 

P2709 Shower Receptors 621 

P2710 Shower Walls 622 

P271 1 Lavatories 622 

P2712 Water Closets 622 

P2713 Bathtubs 623 

P2714 Sinks 623 

P2715 Laundry Tubs 623 

P2716 Food Waste Grinder 623 

P2717 Dishwashing Machines 623 

P271 8 Clothes Washing Machine 623 

P2719 Floor Drains 623 

P2720 Whirlpool Bathtubs 623 

P2721 Bidet Installations 624 

P2722 Fixture Fitting 624 

P2723 Macerating Toilet Systems 624 

P2724 Speciality Temperature Control Devices 

and Valves 624 

CHAPTER 28 WATER HEATERS 625 

Section 

P2801 General 625 

P2802 Water Heaters Used for Space Heating 625 

P2803 Relief Valves 625 

CHAPTER 29 WATER SUPPLY AND 

DISTRIBUTION 627 

Section 

P2901 General 627 

P2902 Protection of Potable Water Supply 627 

P2903 Water-supply System 629 

P2904 Dwelling Unit Fire Sprinkler Systems 632 

P2905 Materials, loints and Connections 645 

P2906 Changes in Direction 649 

P2907 Support 649 

P2908 Drinking Water Treatment Units 649 

CHAPTER 30 SANITARY DRAINAGE 651 

Section 

P3001 General 651 



P3002 Materials 651 

P3003 Joints and Connections 653 

P3004 Determining Drainage Fixture Units 656 

P3005 Drainage System 656 

P3006 Sizing of Drain Pipe Offsets 659 

P3007 Sumps and Ejectors 659 

P3008 Backwater Valves 660 

P3009 Gray Water Recycling Systems 660 

CHAPTER 31 VENTS 665 

Section 

P3101 Vent Systems 665 

P3102 Vent Stacks and Stack Vents 665 

P3103 Vent Terminals 665 

P3104 Vent Connections and Grades 665 

P3105 Fixture Vents 666 

P3106 Individual Vent 666 

P3107 Common Vent 666 

P3108 Wet Venting 666 

P3109 Waste Stack Vent 667 

P3110 Circuit Venting 667 

P3 1 1 1 Combination Waste and Vent System 667 

P3112 Island Fixture Venting 668 

P31 13 Vent Pipe Sizing 668 

P31 14 Air Admittance Valves 668 

CHAPTER 32 TRAPS 671 

Section 

P320I Fixture Traps 671 

CHAPTER 33 STORM DRAINAGE 673 

Section 

P3301 General 673 

P3302 Subsoil Drains 673 

P3303 Sumps and Pumping Systems 673 

Part VIII— Electrical. 675 

CHAPTER 34 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 675 

Section 

E3401 General 675 

E3402 Building Structure Protection 676 

E3403 Inspection and Approval 676 

E3404 General Equipment Requirements 676 



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E3405 Equipment Location and Clearances 677 

E3406 Electrical Conductors and Connections 678 

E3407 Conductor and Terminal Identification 680 

CHAPTER 35 ELECTRICAL DEFINITIONS 683 

Section 

E3501 General 683 

CHAPTER 36 SERVICES 687 

Section 

E3601 General Services 687 

E3602 Service Size and Rating 687 

E3603 Service, Feeder and Grounding 

Electrode Conductor Sizing 688 

E3604 Overhead Service and Service-entrance 

Conductor Installation 689 

E3605 Service-entrance Conductors 691 

E3606 Service Equipment — General 691 

E3607 System Grounding 692 

E3608 Grounding Electrode System 692 

E3609 Bonding 694 

E3610 Grounding Electrode Conductors 695 

E3611 Grounding Electrode Conductor 

Connection to the Grounding Electrodes .... 695 

CHAPTER 37 BRANCH CIRCUIT AND 

FEEDER REQUIREMENTS 697 

Section 

E3701 General 697 

E3702 Branch Circuit Ratings 697 

E3703 Required Branch Circuits 698 

E3704 Feeder Requirements 699 

E3705 Conductor Sizing and Overcurrent 

Protection 700 

E3706 Panelboards 703 

CHAPTER 38 WIRING METHODS 705 

Section 

E3801 General Requirements 705 

E3802 Above-ground Installation Requirements 705 

E3803 Underground Installation Requirements 706 

CHAPTER 39 POWER AND LIGHTING 

DISTRIBUTION 711 

Section 

E3901 Receptacle Outlets 711 



E3902 Ground-fault and Arc-fault 

Circuit-interrupter Protection 713 

E3903 Lighting Outlets 714 

E3904 General Installation Requirements 715 

E3905 Boxes, Conduit Bodies and Fittings 715 

E3906 Installation of Boxes, Conduit 

Bodies and Fittings 729 

E3907 Cabinets and Panelboards 731 

E3908 Grounding 732 

E3909 Flexible Cords 735 

CHAPTER 40 DEVICES AND LUMINAIRES .... 737 
Section 

E4001 Switches 737 

E4002 Receptacles 738 

E4003 Fixtures 739 

E4004 Luminaire Installation 741 

E4005 Track Lighting 741 

CHAPTER 41 APPLIANCE INSTALLATION .... 743 

Section 

E4101 General 743 

CHAPTER 42 SWIMMING POOLS 747 

Section 

E4201 General 747 

E4202 Wiring Methods for Pools, Spas, Hot Tubs and 

Hydromassage Bathtubs 747 

E4203 Equipment Location and Clearances 749 

E4204 Bonding 750 

E4205 Grounding 753 

E4206 Equipment Installation 754 

E4207 Storable Swimming Pools 756 

E4208 Spas and Hot Tubs 757 

E4209 Hydromassage Bathtubs 757 

CHAPTER 43 CLASS 2 REMOTE-CONTROL, 
SIGNALING AND POWER- 
LIMITED CIRCUITS 759 

Section 

E4301 General 759 

E4302 Power Sources 759 

E4303 Wiring Methods 759 

E4304 Installation Requirements 759 



XXIV 



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Part IX — Referenced Standards 761 

CHAPTER 44 REFERENCED STANDARDS 761 

APPENDIX A SIZING AND CAPACITIES 

OF GAS PIPING 785 

APPENDIX B SIZING OF VENTING SYSTEMS 

SERVING APPLIANCES EQUIPPED 
WITH DRAFT HOODS, CATEGORY I 
APPLIANCES, AND APPLIANCES 
LISTED FOR USE WITH TYPE B 
VENTS 797 

APPENDIX C EXIT TERMINALS OF 

MECHANICAL DRAFT AND 

DIRECT-VENT VENTING 

SYSTEMS .807 

APPENDIX D RECOMMENDED PROCEDURE 
FOR SAFETY INSPECTION OF 
AN EXISTING APPLIANCE 
INSTALLATION ................ 809 

APPENDIX E MANUFACTURED HOUSING 

USED AS DWELLINGS .811 

Section 

AE10I Scope 811 

AE102 Application to Existing Manufactured Homes 

and Building Service Equipment 811 

AE201 Definitions 812 

AE301 Permits 812 

AE302 Application for Permit 812 

AE303 Permits Issuance 813 

AE304 Fees 814 

AE305 Inspections 814 

AE306 Special Inspections 815 

AE307 Utility Service 815 

AE401 Occupancy Classification 815 

AE402 Location on Property 815 

AE501 Design 815 

AE502 Foundation Systems 816 

AE503 Skirting and Perimeter Enclosures 816 

AE504 Structural Additions 816 

AE505 Building Service Equipment 817 

AE506 Exits 817 

AE507 Occupancy, Fire Safety and Energy 

Conservation Standards 817 



AE600 Special Requirements for 

Foundation Systems 817 

AE601 Footings and Foundations 817 

AE602 Pier Construction 817 

AE603 Height of Piers 817 

AE604 Anchorage Installations 818 

AE605 Ties, Materials and Installation 818 

AE606 Referenced Standards 819 

APPENDIX F RADON CONTROL METHODS ... 821 
Section 

AF101 Scope 821 

AF102 Definitions 821 

AF103 Requirements 821 

APPENDIX G SWIMMING POOLS, 

SPAS AND HOT TUBS 829 

Section 

AG101 General 829 

AG102 Definitions 829 

AG103 Swimming Pools 829 

AG104 Spas and Hot Tubs 829 

AG 105 Barrier Requirements 829 

AG 106 Entrapment Protection for Swimming 

Pool and Spa Suction Outlets 830 

AG107 Abbreviations 831 

AG108 Referenced Standards 831 

APPENDIX H PATIO COVERS 833 

Section 

AH101 General 833 

AH102 Definition 833 

AH103 Exterior Walls and Openings 833 

AH104 Height 833 

AH105 Structural Provisions 833 

AH 106 Special Provisions for Aluminum Screen 

Enclosures in Hurricane-prone Regions .... 833 

APPENDIX I PRIVATE SEWAGE DISPOSAL ... 835 

Section 

AI101 General 835 

APPENDIX J EXISTING BUILDINGS 

AND STRUCTURES 837 

Section 

AJ101 Purpose and Intent 837 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS 



AJ102 Compliance 837 

AJ103 Preliminary Meeting 837 

AJ104 Evaluation of an Existing Building 838 

AJ105 Permit 838 

AJ201 Definitions 838 

AJ301 Repairs 838 

AJ401 Renovations 839 

AJ501 Alterations 839 

AJ601 Reconstruction 840 



APPENDIX Q ICC INTERNATIONAL 

RESIDENTIAL CODE ELECTRICAL 
PROVISIONS/NATIONAL 
ELECTRICAL CODE CROSS 
REFERENCE 875 



INDEX... 



891 



APPENDIX K SOUND TRANSMISSION ......... 841 

Section 

AK101 General 841 

AK102 Air-borne Sound 841 

AK103 Structural-borne Sound 841 

AK104 Referenced Standards 841 

APPENDIX L PERMIT FEES .843 

APPENDIX M HOME DAY CARE— R-3 

OCCUPANCY 845 

Section 

AM101 General 845 

AM102 Definition 845 

AM 103 Means of Egress 845 

AM104 Smoke Detection 846 

APPENDIX N VENTING METHODS 847 

APPENDIX O AUTOMATIC VEHICULAR 

GATES 853 

Section 

AO101 General 853 

AO102 Definitions 853 

AO103 Automatic Vehicular Gates 853 

APPENDIX P SIZING OF WATER 

PIPING SYSTEM 855 

Section 

AP101 Genera] 855 

AP102 Information Required 855 

AP103 Selection of Pipe Size 855 

AP201 Selection of Pipe Size 872 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 5 



Part I— Administrative 



CHAPTER 1 

SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



PART 1— SCOPE AND APPLICATION 



SECTION R1 01 
GENERAL 

R101.1 Title. These provisions shall be known as the Resi- 
dential Code for One- and Two-family Dwellings of [NAME 
OF JURISDICTION], and shall be cited as such and will be 
referred to herein as "this code." 

R101.2 Scope. The provisions of the International Residen- 
tial Code for One- and Two-family Dwellings shall apply to 
the construction, alteration, movement, enlargement, 
replacement, repair, equipment, use and occupancy, location, 
removal and demolition of detached one- and two-family 
dwellings and townhouses not more than three stories above 
grade plane in height with a separate means of egress and 
their accessory structures. 

Exceptions: 

1. Live/work units complying with the requirements of 
Section 41 9 of the International Building Code shall 
be permitted to be built as one- and two-family 
dwellings or townhouses. Fire suppression required 
by Section 419.5 of the International Building Code 
when constructed under the International Residen- 
tial Code for One- and Two-family Dwellings shall 
conform to Section P2904. 

2. Owner-occupied lodging houses with five or fewer 
guestrooms shall be permitted to be constructed in 
accordance with the International Residential Code 
for One- and Two-family Dwellings when equipped 
with a fire sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion P2904. 

R101.3 Intent. The purpose of this code is to establish mini- 
mum requirements to safeguard the public safety, health and 
general welfare through affordability, structural strength, 
means of egress facilities, stability, sanitation, light and venti- 
lation, energy conservation and safety to life and property 
from fire and other hazards attributed to the built environ- 
ment and to provide safety to fire fighters and emergency 
responders during emergency operations. 



SECTION R102 
APPLICABILITY 

R102.1 General. Where there is a conflict between a general 
requirement and a specific requirement, the specific require- 
ment shall be applicable. Where, in any specific case, differ- 
ent sections of this code specify different materials, methods 



of construction or other requirements, the most restrictive 
shall govern. 

R102.2 Other laws. The provisions of this code shall not be 
deemed to nullify any provisions of local, state or federal law. 

R102.3 Application of references. References to chapter or 
section numbers, or to provisions not specifically identified 
by number, shall be construed to refer to such chapter, section 
or provision of this code. 

R102.4 Referenced codes and standards. The codes and 
standards referenced in this code shall be considered part of 
the requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of each 
such reference and as further regulated in Sections Rl 02.4.1 
andR102.4.2. 

Exception: Where enforcement of a code provision would 
violate the conditions of the listing of the equipment or 
appliance, the conditions of the listing and manufacturer's 
instructions shall apply. 

R 102.4.1 Differences. Where differences occur between 
provisions of this code and referenced codes and stan- 
dards, the provisions of this code shall apply. 

R102.4.2 Provisions in referenced codes and standards. 
Where the extent of the reference to a referenced code or 
standard includes subject matter that is within the scope of 
this code, the provisions of this code, as applicable, shall 
take precedence over the provisions in the referenced code 
or standard. 

R102.5 Appendices. Provisions in the appendices shall not 
apply unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordi- 
nance. 

R102.6 Partial invalidity. In the event any part or provision 
of this code is held to be illegal or void, this shall not have the 
effect of making void or illegal any of the other parts or pro- 
visions. 

R102.7 Existing structures. The legal occupancy of any 
structure existing on the date of adoption of this code shall be 
permitted to continue without change, except as is specifi- 
cally covered in this code, the International Property Mainte- 
nance Code or the International Fire Code, or as is deemed 
necessary by the building official for the general safety and 
welfare of the occupants and the public. 

R102.7.1 Additions, alterations or repairs. Additions, 
alterations or repairs to any structure shall conform to the 
requirements for a new structure without requiring the 
existing structure to comply with all of the requirements of 
this code, unless otherwise stated. Additions, alterations or 
repairs shall not cause an existing structure to become 
unsafe or adversely affect the performance of the building. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



PART 2— ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT 



SECTION R1 03 

DEPARTMENT OF BUILDING SAFETY 

R103.1 Creation of enforcement agency. The department of 
building safety is hereby created and the official in charge 
thereof shall be known as the building official. 

R103.2 Appointment. The building official shall be 
appointed by the chief appointing authority of the jurisdic- 
tion. 

R103.3 Deputies. In accordance with the prescribed proce- 
dures of this jurisdiction and with the concurrence of the 
appointing authority, the building official shall have the 
authority to appoint a deputy building official, the related 
technical officers, inspectors, plan examiners and other 
employees. Such employees shall have powers as delegated 
by the building official. 



SECTION R104 
DUTIES AND POWERS OF THE BUILDING OFFICIAL 

R104.1 General. The building official is hereby authorized 
and directed to enforce the provisions of this code. The build- 
ing official shall have the authority to render interpretations 
of this code and to adopt policies and procedures in order to 
clarify the application of its provisions. Such interpretations, 
policies and procedures shall be in conformance with the 
intent and purpose of this code. Such policies and procedures 
shall not have the effect of waiving requirements specifically 
provided for in this code. 

R104.2 Applications and permits. The building official 
shall receive applications, review construction documents 
and issue permits for the erection and alteration of buildings 
and structures, inspect the premises for which such permits 
have been issued and enforce compliance with the provisions 
of this code. 

R104.3 Notices and orders. The building official shall issue 
all necessary notices or orders to ensure compliance with this 
code. 

R104.4 Inspections. The building official is authorized to 
make all of the required inspections, or the building official 
shall have the authority to accept reports of inspection by 
approved agencies or individuals. Reports of such inspec- 
tions shall be in writing and be certified by a responsible offi- 
cer of such approved agency or by the responsible individual. 
The building official is authorized to engage such expert 
opinion as deemed necessary to report upon unusual technical 
issues that arise, subject to the approval of the appointing 
authority. 

R104.5 Identification. The building official shall carry 
proper identification when inspecting structures or premises 
in the performance of duties under this code. 

R104.6 Right of entry. Where it is necessary to make an 
inspection to enforce the provisions of this code, or where the 
building official has reasonable cause to believe that there 
exists in a structure or upon a premises a condition which is 



contrary to or in violation of this code which makes the struc- 
ture or premises unsafe, dangerous or hazardous, the building 
official or designee is authorized to enter the structure or 
premises at reasonable times to inspect or to perform the 
duties imposed by this code, provided that if such structure or 
premises be occupied that credentials be presented to the 
occupant and entry requested. If such structure or premises be 
unoccupied, the building official shall first make a reasonable 
effort to locate the owner or other person having charge or 
control of the structure or premises and request entry. If entry 
is refused, the building official shall have recourse to the rem- 
edies provided by law to secure entry. 

R104.7 Department records. The building official shall 
keep official records of applications received, permits and 
certificates issued, fees collected, reports of inspections, and 
notices and orders issued. Such records shall be retained in 
the official records for the period required for the retention of 
public records. 

R104.8 Liability. The building official, member of the board 
of appeals or employee charged with the enforcement of this 
code, while acting for the jurisdiction in good faith and with- 
out malice in the discharge of the duties required by this code 
or other pertinent law or ordinance, shall not thereby be ren- 
dered liable personally and is hereby relieved from personal 
liability for any damage accruing to persons or property as a 
result of any act or by reason of an act or omission in the dis- 
charge of official duties. Any suit instituted against an officer 
or employee because of an act performed by that officer or 
employee in the lawful discharge of duties and under the pro- 
visions of this code shall be defended by legal representative 
of the jurisdiction until the final termination of the proceed- 
ings. The building official or any subordinate shall not be lia- 
ble for cost in any action, suit or proceeding that is instituted 
in pursuance of the provisions of this code. 

R1D4.9 Approved materials and equipment. Materials, 
equipment and devices approved by the building official shall 
be constructed and installed in accordance with such 
approval. 

R104.9.1 Used materials and equipment. Used materi- 
als, equipment and devices shall not be reused unless 
approved by the building official. 

R104.10 Modifications. Wherever there are practical diffi- 
culties involved in carrying out the provisions of this code, 
the building official shall have the authority to grant modifi- 
cations for individual cases, provided the building official 
shall first find that special individual reason makes the strict 
letter of this code impractical and the modification is in com- 
pliance with the intent and purpose of this code and that such 
modification does not lessen health, life and fire safety or 
structural requirements. The details of action granting modifi- 
cations shall be recorded and entered in the files of the 
department of building safety. 

R104.10.1 Flood hazard areas. The building official shall 
not grant modifications to any provision related to flood 
hazard areas as established by Table R30 1.2(1) without 
the granting of a variance to such provisions by the board 
of appeals. 



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SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



R104.ll Alternative materials, design and methods of 

construction and equipment. The provisions of this code 
are not intended to prevent the installation of any material or 
to prohibit any design or method of construction not specifi- 
cally prescribed by this code, provided that any such alterna- 
tive has been approved. An alternative material, design or 
method of construction shall be approved where the building 
official finds that the proposed design is satisfactory and 
complies with the intent of the provisions of this code, and 
that the material, method or work offered is, for the purpose 
intended, at least the equivalent of that prescribed in this 
code. Compliance with the specific performance-based provi- 
sions of the International Codes in lieu of specific require- 
ments of this code shall also be permitted as an alternate. 

R104.ll. 1 Tests. Whenever there is insufficient evidence 
of compliance with the provisions of this code, or evi- 
dence that a material or method does not conform to the 
requirements of this code, or in order to substantiate 
claims for alternative materials or methods, the building 
official shall have the authority to require tests as evidence 
of compliance to be made at no expense to the jurisdiction. 
Test methods shall be as specified in this code or by other 
recognized test standards. In the absence of recognized 
and accepted test methods, the building official shall 
approve the testing procedures. Tests shall be performed 
by an approved agency. Reports of such tests shall be 
retained by the building official for the period required for 
retention of public records. 



SECTION R105 

PERMITS 

R105.1 Required. Any owner or authorized agent who 
intends to construct, enlarge, alter, repair, move, demolish or 
change the occupancy of a building or structure, or to erect, 
install, enlarge, alter, repair, remove, convert or replace any 
electrical, gas, mechanical or plumbing system, the installa- 
tion of which is regulated by this code, or to cause any such 
work to be done, shall first make application to the building 
official and obtain the required permit. 

R105.2 Work exempt from permit. Permits shall not be 
required for the following. Exemption from permit require- 
ments of this code shall not be deemed to grant authorization 
for any work to be done in any manner in violation of the pro- 
visions of this code or any other laws or ordinances of this 
jurisdiction. 

Building: 

1. One-story detached accessory structures used as 
tool and storage sheds, playhouses and similar 
uses, provided the floor area does not exceed 200 
square feet (18.58 m 2 ). 

2. Fences not over 7 feet (2134 mm) high. 

3. Retaining walls that are not over 4 feet (1219 mm) 
in height measured from the bottom of the footing 
to the top of the wall, unless supporting a sur- 
charge. 



4. Water tanks supported directly upon grade if the 
capacity does not exceed 5,000 gallons (18 927 L) 
and the ratio of height to diameter or width does 
not exceed 2 to 1 . 

5. Sidewalks and driveways. 

6. Painting, papering, tiling, carpeting, cabinets, 
counter tops and similar finish work. 

7. Prefabricated swimming pools that are less than 24 
inches (610 mm) deep. 

8. Swings and other playground equipment. 

9. Window awnings supported by an exterior wall 
which do not project more than 54 inches (1372 
mm) from the exterior wall and do not require 
additional support. 

10. Decks not exceeding 200 square feet (18.58 m 2 ) in 
area, that are not more than 30 inches (762 mm) 
above grade at any point, are not attached to a 
dwelling and do not serve the exit door required by 
Section R3 11.4. 

Electrical: 

1. Listed cord-and-plug connected temporary decora- 
tive lighting. 

2. Reinstallation of attachment plug receptacles but not 
the outlets therefor. 

3. Replacement of branch circuit overcurrent devices 
of the required capacity in the same location. 

4. Electrical wiring, devices, appliances, apparatus or 
equipment operating at less than 25 volts and not 
capable of supplying more than 50 watts of energy. 

5. Minor repair work, including the replacement of 
lamps or the connection of approved portable elec- 
trical equipment to approved permanently installed 
receptacles. 

Gas: 

1. Portable heating, cooking or clothes drying appli- 
ances. 

2. Replacement of any minor part that does not alter 
approval of equipment or make such equipment 
unsafe. 

3. Portable-fuel-cell appliances that are not connected 
to a fixed piping system and are not interconnected 
to a power grid. 

Mechanical: 

1 . Portable heating appliances. 

2. Portable ventilation appliances. 

3. Portable cooling units. 

4. Steam, hot- or chilled-water piping within any heat- 
ing or cooling equipment regulated by this code. 

5. Replacement of any minor part that does not alter 
approval of equipment or make such equipment 
unsafe. 

6. Portable evaporative coolers. 



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SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



7. Self-contained refrigeration systems containing 10 
pounds (4.54 kg) or less of refrigerant or that are 
actuated by motors of 1 horsepower (746 W) or less. 

8. Portable-fuel-cell appliances that are not connected 
to a fixed piping system and are not interconnected 
to a power grid. 

The stopping of leaks in drains, water, soil, waste or vent 
pipe; provided, however, that if any concealed trap, drain- 
pipe, water, soil, waste or vent pipe becomes defective and it 
becomes necessary to remove and replace the same with new 
material, such work shall be considered as new work and a 
permit shall be obtained and inspection made as provided in 
this code. 

The clearing of stoppages or the repairing of leaks in pipes, 
valves or fixtures, and the removal and reinstallation of water 
closets, provided such repairs do not involve or require the 
replacement or rearrangement of valves, pipes or fixtures. 

R105.2.1 Emergency repairs. Where equipment replace- 
ments and repairs must be performed in an emergency sit- 
uation, the permit application shall be submitted within the 
next working business day to the building official. 

R105.2.2 Repairs. Application or notice to the building 
official is not required for ordinary repairs to structures, 
replacement of lamps or the connection of approved porta- 
ble electrical equipment to approved permanently installed 
receptacles. Such repairs shall not include the cutting 
away of any wall, partition or portion thereof, the removal 
or cutting of any structural beam or load-bearing support, 
or the removal or change of any required means of egress, 
or rearrangement of parts of a structure affecting the 
egress requirements; nor shall ordinary repairs include 
addition to, alteration of, replacement or relocation of any 
water supply, sewer, drainage, drain leader, gas, soil, 
waste, vent or similar piping, electric wiring or mechanical 
or other work affecting public health or general safety. 

R105.2.3 Public, service agencies. A permit shall not be 
required for the installation, alteration or repair of genera- 
tion, transmission, distribution, metering or other related 
equipment that is under the ownership and control of pub- 
lic service agencies by established right. 

R105.3 Application for permit. To obtain a permit, the 
applicant shall first file an application therefor in writing on a 
form furnished by the department of building safety for that 
purpose. Such application shall: 

1. Identify and describe the work to be covered by the 
permit for which application is made. 

2. Describe the land on which the proposed work is to be 
done by legal description, street address or similar 
description that will readily identify and definitely 
locate the proposed building or work. 

3. Indicate the use and occupancy for which the proposed 
work is intended. 

4. Be accompanied by construction documents and other 
information as required in Section R 106.1 . 

5. State the valuation of the proposed work. 



6. Be signed by the applicant or the applicant's authorized 
agent. 

7. Give such other data and information as required by the 
building official. 

R105.3.1 Action on application. The building official 
shall examine or cause to be examined applications for 
permits and amendments thereto within a reasonable time 
after filing. If the application or the construction docu- 
ments do not conform to the requirements of pertinent 
laws, the building official shall reject such application in 
writing stating the reasons therefor. If the building official 
is satisfied that the proposed work conforms to the require- 
ments of this code and laws and ordinances applicable 
thereto, the building official shall issue a permit therefor as 
soon as practicable. 

R105.3.1.1 Determination of substantially improved 
or substantially damaged existing buildings in flood 
hazard areas. For applications for reconstruction, 
rehabilitation, addition or other improvement of exist- 
ing buildings or structures located in a flood hazard 
area as established by Table R301.2(l), the building 
official shall examine or cause to be examined the con- 
struction documents and shall prepare a finding with 
regard to the value of the proposed work. For buildings 
that have sustained damage of any origin, the value of 
the proposed work shall include the cost to repair the 
building or structure to its predamaged condition. If the 
building official finds that the value of proposed work 
equals or exceeds 50 percent of the market value of the 
building or structure before the damage has occurred or 
the improvement is started, the finding shall be pro- 
vided to the board of appeals for a determination of 
substantial improvement or substantial damage. Appli- 
cations determined by the board of appeals to constitute 
substantial improvement or substantial damage shall 
require all existing portions of the entire building or 
structure to meet the requirements of Section R322. 

R105.3.2 Time limitation of application. An application 
for a permit for any proposed work shall be deemed to 
have been abandoned 180 days after the date of filing 
unless such application has been pursued in good faith or a 
permit has been issued; except that the building official is 
authorized to grant one or more extensions of time for 
additional periods not exceeding 180 days each. The 
extension shall be requested in writing and justifiable 
cause demonstrated. 

R105.4 Validity of permit. The issuance or granting of a 
permit shall not be construed to be a permit for, or an 
approval of, any violation of any of the provisions of this 
code or of any other ordinance of the jurisdiction. Permits 
presuming to give authority to violate or cancel the provi- 
sions of this code or other ordinances of the jurisdiction shall 
not be valid. The issuance of a permit based on construction 
documents and other data shall not prevent the building offi- 
cial from requiring the correction of errors in the construction 
documents and other data. The building official is also autho- 
rized to prevent occupancy or use of a structure where in vio- 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



lation of this code or of any other ordinances of this 
jurisdiction. 

R105.5 Expiration. Every permit issued shall become 
invalid unless the work authorized by such permit is com- 
menced within 1 80 days after its issuance, or if the work 
authorized by such permit is suspended or abandoned for a 
period of 1 80 days after the time the work is commenced. The 
building official is authorized to grant, in writing, one or 
more extensions of time, for periods not more than 180 days 
each. The extension shall be requested in writing and justifi- 
able cause demonstrated. 

R105.6 Suspension or revocation. The building official is 
authorized to suspend or revoke a permit issued under the 
provisions of this code wherever the permit is issued in error 
or on the basis of incorrect, inaccurate or incomplete informa- 
tion, or in violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of 
the provisions of this code. 

R 105.7 Placement of permit. The building permit or copy 
thereof shall be kept on the site of the work until the comple- 
tion of the project. 

R105.8 Responsibility. It shall be the duty of every person 
who performs work for the installation or repair of building, 
structure, electrical, gas, mechanical or plumbing systems, 
for which this code is applicable, to comply with this code. 

R105.9 Preliminary inspection. Before issuing & permit, the 
building official is authorized to examine or cause to be 
examined buildings, structures and sites for which an applica- 
tion has been filed. 



SECTION R1 06 
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS 

R106.1 Submittal documents. Submittal documents consist- 
ing of construction documents, and other data shall be sub- 
mitted in two or more sets with each application for a permit. 
The construction documents shall be prepared by a registered 
design professional where required by the statutes of the 
jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed. Where 
special conditions exist, the building official is authorized to 
require additional construction documents to be prepared by a 
registered design professional. 

Exception: The building official is authorized to waive the 
submission of construction documents and other data not 
required to be prepared by a registered design professional 
if it is found that the nature of the work applied for is such 
that reviewing of construction documents is not necessary 
to obtain compliance with this code. 

R106.1.1 Information on construction documents. Con- 
struction documents shall be drawn upon suitable material. 
Electronic media documents are permitted to be submitted 
when approved by the building official. Construction doc- 
uments shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the loca- 
tion, nature and extent of the work proposed and show in 
detail that it will conform to the provisions of this code 
and relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations, as 
determined by the building official. Where required by the 
building official, all braced wall lines, shall be identified 
on the construction documents and all pertinent informa- 



tion including, but not limited to, bracing methods, loca- 
tion and length of braced wall panels, foundation 
requirements of braced wall panels at top and bottom shall 
be provided. 

R106.1.2 Manufacturer's installation instructions. 

Manufacturer's installation instructions, as required by 
this code, shall be available on the job site at the time of 
inspection. 

R106.1.3 Information for construction in flood hazard 
areas. For buildings and structures located in whole or in 
part in flood hazard areas as established by Table 
R301.2(l), construction documents shall include: 

1. Delineation of flood hazard areas, floodway bound- 
aries and flood zones and the design flood elevation, 
as appropriate; 

2. The elevation of the proposed lowest floor, includ- 
ing basement; in areas of shallow flooding (AO 
Zones), the height of the proposed lowest floor, 
including basement, above the highest adjacent 

grade; 

3. The elevation of the bottom of the lowest horizontal 
structural member in coastal high hazard areas (V 
Zone); and 

4. If design flood elevations are not included on the 
community's Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM), 
the building official and the applicant shall obtain 
and reasonably utilize any design flood elevation 
and floodway data available from other sources. 

R106.2 Site plan or plot plan. The construction documents 
submitted with the application for permit shall be accompa- 
nied by a site plan showing the size and location of new con- 
struction and existing structures on the site and distances 
from lot lines. In the case of demolition, the site plan shall 
show construction to be demolished and the location and size 
of existing structures and construction that are to remain on 
the site or plot. The building official is authorized to waive or 
modify the requirement for a site plan when the application 
for permit is for alteration or repair or when otherwise war- 
ranted. 

R106.3 Examination of documents. The building official 
shall examine or cause to be examined construction docu- 
ments for code compliance. 

R106.3.1 Approval of construction documents. When 
the building official issues a permit, the construction docu- 
ments shall be approved in writing or by a stamp which 
states "REVIEWED FOR CODE COMPLIANCE." One 
set of construction documents so reviewed shall be 
retained by the building official. The other set shall be 
returned to the applicant, shall be kept at the site of work 
and shall be open to inspection by the building official or 
his or her authorized representative. 

R106.3.2 Previous approvals. This code shall not require 
changes in the construction documents, construction or 
designated occupancy of a structure for which a lawful 
permit has been heretofore issued or otherwise lawfully 
authorized, and the construction of which has been pur- 



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sued in good faith within 180 days after the effective date 
of this code and has not been abandoned. 

R106.3.3 Phased approval. The building official is autho- 
rized to issue a permit for the construction of foundations 
or any other part of a building or structure before the con- 
struction documents for the whole building or structure 
have been submitted, provided that adequate information 
and detailed statements have been filed complying with 
pertinent requirements of this code. The holder of such 
permit for the foundation or other parts of a building or 
structure shall proceed at the holder's own risk with the 
building operation and without assurance that a permit for 
the entire structure will be granted. 

R106.4 Amended construction documents. Work shall be 
installed in accordance with the approved construction docu- 
ments, and any changes made during construction that are not 
in compliance with the approved construction documents 
shall be resubmitted for approval as an amended set of con- 
struction documents. 

R106.5 Retention of construction documents. One set of 

approved construction documents shall be retained by the 
building official for a period of not less than 180 days from 
date of completion of the permitted work, or as required by 
state or local laws. 



R108.2 Schedule of permit fees. On buildings, structures, 
electrical, gas, mechanical and plumbing systems or altera- 
tions requiring a permit, a fee for each permit shall be paid as 
required, in accordance with the schedule as established by 
the applicable governing authority. 

R108.3 Building permit valuations. Building permit valua- 
tion shall include total value of the work for which a permit is 
being issued, such as electrical, gas, mechanical, plumbing 
equipment and other permanent systems, including materials 
and labor. 

R108.4 Related fees. The payment of the fee for the con- 
struction, alteration, removal or demolition for work done in 
connection with or concurrently with the work authorized by 
a building permit shall not relieve the applicant or holder of 
the permit from the payment of other fees that are prescribed 
by law. 

R108.5 Refunds. The building official is authorized to estab- 
lish a refund policy. 

R108.6 Work commencing before permit issuance. Any 
person who commences work requiring a permit on a build- 
ing, structure, electrical, gas, mechanical or plumbing system 
before obtaining the necessary permits shall be subject to a 
fee established by the applicable governing authority that 
shall be in addition to the required permit fees. 



SECTION R107 
TEMPORARY STRUCTURES AND USES 

R107.1 General. The building official is authorized to issue a 
permit for temporary structures and temporary uses. Such 
permits shall be limited as to time of service, but shall not be 
permitted for more than 180 days. The building official is 
authorized to grant extensions for demonstrated cause. 

R107.2 Conformance. Temporary structures and uses shall 
conform to the structural strength, fire safety, means of 
egress, light, ventilation and sanitary requirements of this 
code as necessary to ensure the public health, safety and gen- 
eral welfare. 

R107.3 Temporary power. The building official is autho- 
rized to give permission to temporarily supply and use power 
in part of an electric installation before such installation has 
been fully completed and the final certificate of completion 
has been issued. The part covered by the temporary certificate 
shall comply with the requirements specified for temporary 
lighting, heat or power in NFPA 70. 

R107.4 Termination of approval. The building official is 
authorized to terminate such permit for a temporary structure 
or use and to order the temporary structure or use to be dis- 
continued. 



SECTION R1 08 

FEES 

R108.1 Payment of fees. A permit shall not be valid until the 
fees prescribed by law have been paid. Nor shall an amend- 
ment to a permit be released until the additional fee, if any, 
has been paid. 



SECTION R1 09 
INSPECTIONS 

R 109.1 Types of inspections. For onsite construction, from 
time to time the building official, upon notification from the 
permit holder or his agent, shall make or cause to be made 
any necessary inspections and shall either approve that por- 
tion of the construction as completed or shall notify the per- 
mit holder or his or her agent wherein the same fails to 
comply with this code. 

R109.1.1 Foundation inspection. Inspection of the foun- 
dation shall be made after poles or piers are set or trenches 
or basement areas are excavated and any required forms 
erected and any required reinforcing steel is in place and 
supported prior to the placing of concrete. The foundation 
inspection shall include excavations for thickened slabs 
intended for the support of bearing walls, partitions, struc- 
tural supports, or equipment and special requirements for 
wood foundations. 

R109.1.2 Plumbing, mechanical, gas and electrical sys- 
tems inspection. Rough inspection of plumbing, mechani- 
cal, gas and electrical systems shall be made prior to 
covering or concealment, before fixtures or appliances are 
set or installed, and prior to framing inspection. 

Exception: Backfilling of ground-source heat pump 
loop systems tested in accordance with Section 
M2105.1 prior to inspection shall be permitted. 
R109.1.3 Floodplain inspections. For construction in 
flood hazard areas as established by Table R301.2(l), 
upon placement of the lowest floor, including basement, 
and prior to further vertical construction, the building offi- 
cial shall require submission of documentation, prepared 



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and sealed by a registered design professional, of the ele- 
vation of the lowest floor, including basement, required in 
Section R322. 

R109.1.4 Frame and masonry inspection. Inspection of 
framing and masonry construction shall be made after the 
roof, masonry, all framing, firestopping, draftstopping and 
bracing are in place and after the plumbing, mechanical 
and electrical rough inspections are approved. 

R 109.1 .5 Other inspections. In addition to the called 
inspections above, the building official may make or 
require any other inspections to ascertain compliance with 
this code and other laws enforced by the building official. 

R109.1.5.1 Fire-resistance-rated construction 
inspection. Where fire-resistance-rated construction is 
required between dwelling units or due to location on 
property, the building official shall require an inspec- 
tion of such construction after all lathing and/or wall- 
board is in place, but before any plaster is applied, or 
before wallboard joints and fasteners are taped and fin- 
ished. 

R109.1.6 Final inspection. Final inspection shall be made 
after the permitted work is complete and prior to occu- 
pancy. 

R109. 1.6.1 Elevation documentation. If located in a 
flood hazard area, the documentation of elevations 
required in Section R322.1.10 shall be submitted to the 
building official prior to the final inspection. 

R109.2 Inspection agencies. The building official is autho- 
rized to accept reports of approved agencies, provided such 
agencies satisfy the requirements as to qualifications and reli- 
ability. 

R109.3 Inspection requests. It shall be the duty of the permit 
holder or their agent to notify the building official that such 
work is ready for inspection. It shall be the duty of the person 
requesting any inspections required by this code to provide 
access to and means for inspection of such work. 

R109.4 Approval required. Work shall not be done beyond 
the point indicated in each successive inspection without first 
obtaining the approval of the building official. The building 
official upon notification, shall make the requested inspec- 
tions and shall either indicate the portion of the construction 
that is satisfactory as completed, or shall notify the permit 
holder or an agent of the permit holder wherein the same fails 
to comply with this code. Any portions that do not comply 
shall be corrected and such portion shall not be covered or 
concealed until authorized by the building official. 



SECTION R1 10 
CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY 

R110.1 Use and occupancy. No building or structure shall 
be used or occupied, and no change in the existing occupancy 
classification of a building or structure or portion thereof 
shall be made until the building official has issued a certifi- 
cate of occupancy therefor as provided herein. Issuance of a 
certificate of occupancy shall not be construed as an approval 
of a violation of the provisions of this code or of other ordi- 



nances of the jurisdiction. Certificates presuming to give 
authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or 
other ordinances of the jurisdiction shall not be valid. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Certificates of occupancy are not required for work 
exempt from permits under Section R105.2. 

2. Accessory buildings or structures. 

Rl 10.2 Change in use. Changes in the character or use of an 
existing structure shall not be made except as specified in 
Sections 3408 and 3409 of the International Building Code. 

R110.3 Certificate issued. After the building official 
inspects the building or structure and finds no violations of 
the provisions of this code or other laws that are enforced by 
the department of building safety, the building official shall 
issue a certificate of occupancy which shall contain the fol- 
lowing: 

1. The building permit number. 

2. The address of the structure. 

3. The name and address of the owner. 

4. A description of that portion of the structure for which 
the certificate is issued. 

5. A statement that the described portion of the structure 
has been inspected for compliance with the require- 
ments of this code. 

6. The name of the building official. 

7. The edition of the code under which the permit was 
issued. 

8. If an automatic sprinkler system is provided and 
whether the sprinkler system is required. 

9. Any special stipulations and conditions of the building 
permit. 

R110.4 Temporary occupancy. The building official is 
authorized to issue a temporary certificate of occupancy 
before the completion of the entire work covered by the per- 
mit, provided that such portion or portions shall be occupied 
safely. The building official shall set a time period during 
which the temporary certificate of occupancy is valid. 

R110.5 Revocation. The building official shall, in writing, 
suspend or revoke a certificate of occupancy issued under the 
provisions of this code wherever the certificate is issued in 
error, or on the basis of incorrect information supplied, or 
where it is determined that the building or structure or portion 
thereof is in violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of 
the provisions of this code. 



SECTION R1 11 
SERVICE UTILITIES 

Rlll.l Connection of service utilities. No person shall 
make connections from a utility, source of energy, fuel or 
power to any building or system that is regulated by this code 
for which & permit is required, until approved by the building 
official. 



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R111.2 Temporary connection. The building official shall 
have the authority to authorize and approve the temporary 
connection of the building or system to the utility, source of 
energy, fuel or power. 

R111.3 Authority to disconnect service utilities. The build- 
ing official shall have the authority to authorize disconnection 
of utility service to the building, structure or system regulated 
by this code and the referenced codes and standards set forth 
in Section R 102.4 in case of emergency where necessary to 
eliminate an immediate hazard to life or property or when 
such utility connection has been made without the approval 
required by Section Rlll.l or Rill. 2. The building official 
shall notify the serving utility and whenever possible the 
owner and occupant of the building, structure or service sys- 
tem of the decision to disconnect prior to taking such action if 
not notified prior to disconnection. The owner or occupant of 
the building, structure or service system shall be notified in 
writing as soon as practical thereafter. 



SECTION R1 12 
BOARD OF APPEALS 

R112.1 General. In order to hear and decide appeals of 
orders, decisions or determinations made by the building offi- 
cial relative to the application and interpretation of this code, 
there shall be and is hereby created a board of appeals. The 
building official shall be an ex officio member of said board 
but shall have no vote on any matter before the board. The 
board of appeals shall be appointed by the governing body 
and shall hold office at its pleasure. The board shall adopt 
rules of procedure for conducting its business, and shall ren- 
der all decisions and findings in writing to the appellant with 
a duplicate copy to the building official. 

R 112.2 Limitations on authority. An application for appeal 
shall be based on a claim that the true intent of this code or 
the rules legally adopted thereunder have been incorrectly 
interpreted, the provisions of this code do not fully apply, or 
an equally good or better form of construction is proposed. 
The board shall have no authority to waive requirements of 
this code. 

R112.2.1 Determination of substantial improvement in 
flood hazard areas. When the building official provides a 
finding required in Section R105.3.1.1, the board of 
appeals shall determine whether the value of the proposed 
work constitutes a substantial improvement. A substantial 
improvement means any repair, reconstruction, rehabilita- 
tion, addition or improvement of a building or structure, 
the cost of which equals or exceeds 50 percent of the mar- 
ket value of the building or structure before the improve- 
ment or repair is started. If the building or structure has 
sustained substantial damage, all repairs are considered 
substantial improvement regardless of the actual repair 
work performed. The term does not include: 

1 . Improvements of a building or structure required to 
correct existing health, sanitary or safety code viola- 
tions identified by the building official and which 
are the minimum necessary to assure safe living 
conditions; or 



2. Any alteration of an historic building or structure, 
provided that the alteration will not preclude the 
continued designation as an historic building or 
structure. For the purpose of this exclusion, an his- 
toric building is: 

2.1. Listed or preliminarily determined to be eli- 
gible for listing in the National Register of 
Historic Places; or 

2.2. Determined by the Secretary of the U.S. 
Department of Interior as contributing to the 
historical significance of a registered historic 
district or a district preliminarily determined 
to qualify as an historic district; or 

2.3. Designated as historic under a state or local 
historic preservation program that is 
approved by the Department of Interior. 

Rl 12.2.2 Criteria for issuance of a variance for flood 
hazard areas. A variance shall be issued only upon: 

1. A showing of good and sufficient cause that the 
unique characteristics of the size, configuration or 
topography of the site render the elevation standards 
in Section R322 inappropriate. 

2. A determination that failure to grant the variance 
would result in exceptional hardship by rendering 
the lot undevelopable. 

3. A determination that the granting of a variance will 
not result in increased flood heights, additional 
threats to public safety, extraordinary public 
expense, cause fraud on or victimization of the pub- 
lic, or conflict with existing local laws or ordi- 
nances. 

4. A determination that the variance is the minimum 
necessary to afford relief, considering the flood haz- 
ard. 

5. Submission to the applicant of written notice speci- 
fying the difference between the design flood eleva- 
tion and the elevation to which the building is to be 
built, stating that the cost of flood insurance will be 
commensurate with the increased risk resulting from 
the reduced floor elevation, and stating that con- 
struction below the design flood elevation increases 
risks to life and property. 

R112.3 Qualifications. The board of appeals shall consist of 
members who are qualified by experience and training to pass 
on matters pertaining to building construction and are not 
employees of the jurisdiction. 

R112.4 Administration. The building official shall take 
immediate action in accordance with the decision of the 
board. 



SECTION R1 13 
VIOLATIONS 

R113.1 Unlawful acts. It shall be unlawful for any person, 
firm or corporation to erect, construct, alter, extend, repair, 
move, remove, demolish or occupy any building, structure or 



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SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



equipment regulated by this code, or cause same to be done, 
in conflict with or in violation of any of the provisions of this 
code. 

R113.2 Notice of violation. The building official is autho- 
rized to serve a notice of violation or order on the person 
responsible for the erection, construction, alteration, exten- 
sion, repair, moving, removal, demolition or occupancy of a 
building or structure in violation of the provisions of this 
code, or in violation of a detail statement or a plan approved 
thereunder, or in violation of a permit or certificate issued 
under the provisions of this code. Such order shall direct the 
discontinuance of the illegal action or condition and the 
abatement of the violation. 

R113.3 Prosecution of violation. If the notice of violation is 
not complied with in the time prescribed by such notice, the 
building official is authorized to request the legal counsel of 
the jurisdiction to institute the appropriate proceeding at law 
or in equity to restrain, correct or abate such violation, or to 
require the removal or termination of the unlawful occupancy 
of the building or structure in violation of the provisions of 
this code or of the order or direction made pursuant thereto. 

R113.4 Violation penalties. Any person who violates a pro- 
vision of this code or fails to comply with any of the require- 
ments thereof or who erects, constructs, alters or repairs a 
building or structure in violation of the approved construc- 
tion documents or directive of the building official, or of a 
permit or certificate issued under the provisions of this code, 
shall be subject to penalties as prescribed by law. 



SECTION R114 
STOP WORK ORDER 

R114.1 Notice to owner. Upon notice from the building offi- 
cial that work on any building or structure is being prose- 
cuted contrary to the provisions of this code or in an unsafe 
and dangerous manner, such work shall be immediately 
stopped. The stop work order shall be in writing and shall be 
given to the owner of the property involved, or to the owner's 
agent or to the person doing the work and shall state the con- 
ditions under which work will be permitted to resume. 

R 114.2 Unlawful continuance. Any person who shall con- 
tinue any work in or about the structure after having been 
served with a stop work order, except such work as that per- 
son is directed to perform to remove a violation or unsafe 
condition, shall be subject to penalties as prescribed by law. 



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10 2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



Part II — Definitions 



CHAPTER 2 

DEFINITIONS 



SECTION R201 
GENERAL 

R201.1 Scope. Unless otherwise expressly stated, the follow- 
ing words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have 
the meanings indicated in this chapter. 

R201.2 Intel-changeability. Words used in the present tense 
include the future; words in the masculine gender include the 
feminine and neuter; the singular number includes the plural 
and the plural, the singular. 

R201J Terms defined in other codes. Where terms are not 
defined in this code such terms shall have meanings ascribed 
to them as in other code publications of the International 
Code Council. 

R201.4 Terms not defined. Where terms are not defined 
through the methods authorized by this section, such terms 
shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context 
implies. 

SECTION R202 
DEFINITIONS 

ACCESSIBLE. Signifies access that requires the removal of 
an access panel or similar removable obstruction. 

ACCESSIBLE, READILY. Signifies access without the 
necessity for removing a panel or similar obstruction. 

ACCESSORY STRUCTURE. A structure not greater than 
3,000 square feet (279 m 2 ) in floor area, and not over two sto- 
ries in height, the use of which is customarily accessory to 
and incidental to that of the dwelling(s) and which is located 
on the same lot. 

ADDITION. An extension or increase in floor area or height 
of a building or structure. 

ADHERED STONE OR MASONRY VENEER. Stone or 
masonry veneer secured and supported through the adhesion 
of an approved bonding material applied to an approved 
backing. 

AIR ADMITTANCE VALVE. A one-way valve designed 
to allow air into the plumbing drainage system when a nega- 
tive pressure develops in the piping. This device shall close 
by gravity and seal the terminal under conditions of zero dif- 
ferential pressure (no flow conditions) and under positive 
internal pressure. 

AIR BARRIER. See Section Nl 101.9 for definition applica- 
ble in Chapter 1 1 . 

AIR BREAK (DRAINAGE SYSTEM). An arrangement in 
which a discharge pipe from a fixture, appliance or device 



drains indirectly into a receptor below the flood-level rim of 
the receptor, and above the trap seal. 

AIR CIRCULATION, FORCED. A means of providing 
space conditioning utilizing movement of air through ducts or 
plenums by mechanical means. 

AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM. A system that consists 
of heat exchangers, blowers, filters, supply, exhaust and 
return-air systems, and shall include any apparatus installed 
in connection therewith. 

AIR GAP, DRAINAGE SYSTEM. The unobstructed verti- 
cal distance through free atmosphere between the outlet of a 
waste pipe and the flood-level rim of the fixture or receptor 
into which it is discharging. 

AIR GAP, WATER-DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. The 
unobstructed vertical distance through free atmosphere 
between the lowest opening from a water supply discharge to 
the flood-level rim of a plumbing fixture. 

AIR-IMPERMEABLE INSULATION. An insulation hav- 
ing an air permanence equal to or less than 0.02 L/s-m 2 at 75 
Pa pressure differential tested according to ASTM E 2178 or 
E283. 

ALTERATION. Any construction or renovation to an exist- 
ing structure other than repair or addition that requires a per- 
mit. Also, a change in a mechanical system that involves an 
extension, addition or change to the arrangement, type or pur- 
pose of the original installation that requires a permit. 

ANCHORED STONE OR MASONRY VENEER. Stone 
or masonry veneer secured with approved mechanical fasten- 
ers to an approved backing. 

ANCHORS. See "Supports." 

ANT1S1PHON. A term applied to valves or mechanical 
devices that eliminate siphonage. 

APPLIANCE. A device or apparatus that is manufactured 
and designed to utilize energy and for which this code pro- 
vides specific requirements. 

APPROVED. Acceptable to the building official. 

APPROVED AGENCY. An established and recognized 
agency regularly engaged in conducting tests or furnishing 
inspection services, when such agency has been approved by 
the building official. 

ASPECT RATIO. The ratio of longest to shortest perpendic- 
ular dimensions, or for wall sections, the ratio of height to 
length. 

ATTIC. The unfinished space between the ceiling assembly 
of the top story and the roof assembly. 



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11 



DEFINITIONS 



ATTIC, HABITABLE. A finished or unfinished area, not 
considered a story, complying with all of the following 
requirements: 

1. The occupiable floor area is at least 70 square feet (17 
m 2 ), in accordance with Section R304, 

2. The occupiable floor area has a ceiling height in accor- 
dance with Section R305, and 

3. The occupiable space is enclosed by the roof assembly 
above, knee walls (if applicable) on the sides and the 
floor-ceiling assembly below. 

BACKFLOW, DRAINAGE. A reversal of flow in the 
drainage system. 

BACKFLOW PREVENTER. A device or means to prevent 
backflow. 

BACKFLOW PREVENTER, REDUCED-PRESSURE- 
ZONE TYPE. A backflow-prevention device consisting of 
two independently acting check valves, internally force 
loaded to a normally closed position and separated by an 
intermediate chamber (or zone) in which there is an auto- 
matic relief means of venting to atmosphere internally loaded 
to a normally open position between two tightly closing shut- 
off valves and with means for testing for tightness of the 
checks and opening of relief means. 

BACKFLOW, WATER DISTRIBUTION. The flow of 
water or other liquids into the potable water-supply piping 
from any sources other than its intended source. Backsiphon- 
age is one type of backflow. 

BACKPRESSURE. Pressure created by any means in the 
water distribution system, which by being in excess of the 
pressure in the water supply mains causes a potential back- 
flow condition. 

BACKPRESSURE, LOW HEAD. A pressure less than or 
equal to 4.33 psi (29.88 kPa) or the pressure exerted by a 10- 
foot (3048 mm) column of water. 

BACKSIPHONAGE. The flowing back of used or contami- 
nated water from piping into a potable water-supply pipe due 
to a negative pressure in such pipe. 

BACKWATER VALVE. A device installed in a drain or 
pipe to prevent backflow of sewage. 

■ BASEMENT. A story that is not a story above grade plane. 
(see "Story above grade plane"). 

BASEMENT WALL. The opaque portion of a wall that 
encloses one side of a basement and has an average below 
grade wall area that is 50 percent or more of the total opaque 
and non-opaque area of that enclosing side. 

I BASIC WIND SPEED. Three-second gust speed at 33 feet 
(10 058 mm) above the ground in Exposure C (see Section 
R301.2.1) as given in Figure R301.2(4)A. 

BATHROOM GROUP. A group of fixtures, including or 
excluding a bidet, consisting of a water closet, lavatory, and 
bathtub or shower. Such fixtures are located together on the 
same floor level. 

BEND. A drainage fitting, designed to provide a change in 
direction of a drain pipe of less than the angle specified by the 



amount necessary to establish the desired slope of the line 
(see "Elbow" and "Sweep"). 

BOILER. A self-contained appliance from which hot water 
is circulated for heating purposes and then returned to the 
boiler, and which operates at water pressures not exceeding 
160 pounds per square inch gage (psig) (1 102 kPa gauge) and 
at water temperatures not exceeding 250°F (121°C). 

BOND BEAM. A horizontal grouted element within 
masonry in which reinforcement is embedded. 

BRACED WALL LINE. A straight line through the build- 
ing plan that represents the location of the lateral resistance 
provided by the wall bracing. 

BRACED WALL LINE, CONTINUOUSLY 
SHEATHED. A braced wall line with structural sheathing 
applied to all sheathable surfaces including the areas above 
and below openings. 

BRACED WALL PANEL. A full-height section of wall 
constructed to resist in-plane shear loads through interaction 
of framing members, sheathing material and anchors. The 
panel's length meets the requirements of its particular bracing 
method, and contributes toward the total amount of bracing 
required along its braced wall line in accordance with Section 
R602.10.1. 

BRANCH. Any part of the piping system other than a riser, 
main or stack. 

BRANCH, FIXTURE. See "Fixture branch, drainage." 

BRANCH, HORIZONTAL. See "Horizontal branch, drain- 
age." 

BRANCH INTERVAL. A vertical measurement of dis- 
tance, 8 feet (2438 mm) or more in developed length, 
between the connections of horizontal branches to a drainage 
stack. Measurements are taken down the stack from the high- 
est horizontal branch connection. 

BRANCH, MAIN. A water-distribution pipe that extends 
horizontally off a main or riser to convey water to branches or 
fixture groups. 

BRANCH, VENT. A vent connecting two or more individ- 
ual vents with a vent stack or stack vent. 

BTU/H. The listed maximum capacity of an appliance, 
absorption unit or burner expressed in British thermal units 
input per hour. 

BUILDING. Building shall mean any one- and two-family 
dwelling or portion thereof, including townhouses, that is 
used, or designed or intended to be used for human habita- 
tion, for living, sleeping, cooking or eating purposes, or any 
combination thereof, and shall include accessory structures 
thereto. 

BUILDING DRAIN. The lowest piping that collects the dis- 
charge from all other drainage piping inside the house and 
extends 30 inches (762 mm) in developed length of pipe, 
beyond the exterior walls and conveys the drainage to the 
building sewer. 

BUILDING, EXISTING. Existing building is a building 
erected prior to the adoption of this code, or one for which a 
legal building permit has been issued. 



12 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



BUILDING LINE. The line established by law, beyond 
which a building shall not extend, except as specifically pro- 
vided by law. 

BUILDING OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated 
authority charged with the administration and enforcement of 
this code. 

BUILDING SEWER. That part of the drainage system that 
extends from the end of the building drain and conveys its 
discharge to a public sewer, private sewer, individual sew- 
age-disposal system or other point of disposal. 

BUILDING THERMAL ENVELOPE. The basement 
walls, exterior walls, floor, roof and any other building ele- 
ment that enclose conditioned spaces. 

BUILT-UP ROOF COVERING. Two or more layers of felt 
cemented together and surfaced with a cap sheet, mineral 
aggregate, smooth coating or similar surfacing material. 

CAP PLATE. The top plate of the double top plates used in 
structural insulated panel (SIP) construction. The cap plate is 
cut to match the panel thickness such that it overlaps the 
wood structural panel facing on both sides. 

CEILING HEIGHT. The clear vertical distance from the 
finished floor to the finished ceiling. 

CEMENT PLASTER. A mixture of portland or blended 
cement, portland cement or blended cement and hydrated 
lime, masonry cement or plastic cement and aggregate and 
other approved materials as specified in this code. 

CHIMNEY. A primary vertical structure containing one or 
more flues, for the purpose of carrying gaseous products of 
combustion and air from a fuel-burning appliance to the out- 
side atmosphere. 

CHIMNEY CONNECTOR. A pipe that connects a fuel- 
burning appliance to a chimney. 

CHIMNEY TYPES. 

Residential-type appliance. An approved chimney for 
removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning, 
residential-type appliances producing combustion gases 
not in excess of 1,000°F (538°C) under normal operating 
conditions, but capable of producing combustion gases of 
1 ,400°F (760°C) during intermittent forces firing for peri- 
ods up to 1 hour. All temperatures shall be measured at the 
appliance flue outlet. Residential-type appliance chim- 
neys include masonry and factory-built types. 

CIRCUIT VENT. A vent that connects to a horizontal drain- 
age branch and vents two traps to a maximum of eight traps 
or trapped fixtures connected into a battery. 

CLADDING. The exterior materials that cover the surface of 
the building envelope that is directly loaded by the wind. 

CLEANOUT. An accessible opening in the drainage system 
used for the removal of possible obstruction. 

CLOSET. A small room or chamber used for storage. 

COMBINATION WASTE AND VENT SYSTEM. A spe- 
cially designed system of waste piping embodying the hori- 
| zontal wet venting of one or more sinks, lavatories or floor 
drains by means of a common waste and vent pipe adequately 



sized to provide free movement of air above the flow line of 
the drain. 

COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL. Any material not defined 
as noncombustible. 

COMBUSTION AIR. The air provided to fuel-burning 
equipment including air for fuel combustion, draft hood dilu- 
tion and ventilation of the equipment enclosure. 

[CE] COMMERCIAL, BUILDING. See Section Nl 101.9. 

COMMON VENT. A single pipe venting two trap arms 
within the same branch interval, either back-to-back or one 
above the other. 

CONDENSATE. The liquid that separates from a gas due to 
a reduction in temperature, e.g., water that condenses from 
flue gases and water that condenses from air circulating 
through the cooling coil in air conditioning equipment. 

CONDENSING APPLIANCE. An appliance that con- 
denses water generated by the burning of fuels. 

CONDITIONED AIR. Air treated to control its temperature, 
relative humidity or quality. 

CONDITIONED AREA. That area within a building pro- 
vided with heating and/or cooling systems or appliances 
capable of maintaining, through design or heat loss/gain, 
68°F (20°C) during the heating season and/or 80°F (27°C) 
during the cooling season, or has a fixed opening directly 
adjacent to a conditioned area. 

CONDITIONED FLOOR AREA. The horizontal projec- 
tion of the floors associated with the conditioned space. 

CONDITIONED SPACE. For energy purposes, space 
within a building that is provided with heating and/or cooling 
equipment or systems capable of maintaining, through design 
or heat loss/gain, 50°F (10°C) during the heating season and 
85°F (29°C) during the cooling season, or communicates 
directly with a conditioned space. For mechanical purposes, 
an area, room or space being heated or cooled by any equip- 
ment or appliance. 

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. Written, graphic and 
pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing the 
design, location and physical characteristics of the elements 
of a project necessary for obtaining a building permit. Con- 
struction drawings shall be drawn to an appropriate scale. 

CONTAMINATION. An impairment of the quality of the 
potable water that creates an actual hazard to the public 
health through poisoning or through the spread of disease by 
sewage, industrial fluids or waste. 

CONTINUOUS WASTE. A drain from two or more similar 
adjacent fixtures connected to a single trap. 

CONTROL, LIMIT. An automatic control responsive to 
changes in liquid flow or level, pressure, or temperature for 
limiting the operation of an appliance. 

CONTROL, PRIMARY SAFETY. A safety control 
responsive directly to flame properties that senses the pres- 
ence or absence of flame and, in event of ignition failure or 
unintentional flame extinguishment, automatically causes 
shutdown of mechanical equipment. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



13 



DEFINITIONS 



CONVECTOR. A system-incorporating heating element in 
an enclosure in which air enters an opening below the heating 
element, is heated and leaves the enclosure through an open- 
ing located above the heating element. 

CORE. The light-weight middle section of the structural 
insulated panel composed of foam plastic insulation, which 
provides the link between the two facing shells. 

CORROSION RESISTANCE. The ability of a material to 
withstand deterioration of its surface or its properties when 
exposed to its environment. 

COURT. A space, open and unobstructed to the sky, located 
at or above grade level on a lot and bounded on three or more 
sides by walls or a building. 

CRIPPLE WALL. A framed wall extending from the top of 
the foundation to the underside of the floor framing of the 
first story above grade plane. 

CROSS CONNECTION. Any connection between two oth- 
erwise separate piping systems whereby there may be a flow 
from one system to the other. 

CURTAIN WALL. See Section N1101.9 for definition 
applicable in Chapter 1 1 . 

DALLE GLASS. A decorative composite glazing material 
made of individual pieces of glass that are embedded in a cast 
matrix of concrete or epoxy. 

DAMPER, VOLUME. A device that will restrict, retard or 
direct the flow of air in any duct, or the products of combus- 
tion of heat-producing equipment, vent connector, vent or 
chimney. 

DEAD END. A branch leading from a DWV system termi- 
nating at a developed length of 2 feet (610 mm) or more. 
Dead ends shall be prohibited except as an approved part of a 
rough-in for future connection. 

DEAD LOADS. The weight of all materials of construction 
incorporated into the building, including but not limited to 
walls, floors, roofs, ceilings, stairways, built-in partitions, 
finishes, cladding, and other similarly incorporated architec- 
tural and structural items, and fixed service equipment. 

DECORATIVE GLASS. A carved, leaded or Dalle glass or 
glazing materia] whose purpose is decorative or artistic, not 
functional; whose coloring, texture or other design qualities 
or components cannot be removed without destroying the 
glazing material; and whose surface, or assembly into which 
it is incorporated, is divided into segments. 

DEMAND RECIRCULATION WATER SYSTEM. See 
Section Nil 01. 9 for definition applicable in Chapter 11. 

DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. See "Registered design profes- 
sional." 

DEVELOPED LENGTH. The length of a pipeline mea- 
sured along the center line of the pipe and fittings. 

DIAMETER. Unless specifically stated, the term "diameter" 
is the nominal diameter as designated by the approved mate- 
rial standard. 

DIAPHRAGM. A horizontal or nearly horizontal system 
acting to transmit lateral forces to the vertical resisting ele- 



ments. When the term "diaphragm" is used, it includes hori- 
zontal bracing systems. 

DILUTION AIR. Air that enters a draft hood or draft regula- 
tor and mixes with flue gases. 

DIRECT- VENT APPLIANCE. A fuel-burning appliance 
with a sealed combustion system that draws all air for com- 
bustion from the outside atmosphere and discharges all flue 
gases to the outside atmosphere. 

DRAFT. The pressure difference existing between the appli- 
ance or any component part and the atmosphere, that causes a 
continuous flow of air and products of combustion through 
the gas passages of the appliance to the atmosphere. 

Induced draft. The pressure difference created by the 
action of a fan, blower or ejector, that is located between 
the appliance and the chimney or vent termination. 

Natural draft. The pressure difference created by a vent 
or chimney because of its height, and the temperature dif- 
ference between the flue gases and the atmosphere. 

DRAFT HOOD. A device built into an appliance, or a part 
of the vent connector from an appliance, which is designed to 
provide for the ready escape of the flue gases from the appli- 
ance in the event of no draft, backdraft or stoppage beyond 
the draft hood; prevent a backdraft from entering the appli- 
ance; and neutralize the effect of stack action of the chimney 
or gas vent on the operation of the appliance. 

DRAFT REGULATOR. A device that functions to maintain 
a desired draft in the appliance by automatically reducing the 
draft to the desired value. 

DRAFT STOP. A material, device or construction installed 
to restrict the movement of air within open spaces of con- 
cealed areas of building components such as crawl spaces, 
floor-ceiling assemblies, roof-ceiling assemblies and attics. 

DRAIN. Any pipe that carries soil and water-borne wastes in 
a building drainage system. 

DRAINAGE FITTING. A pipe fitting designed to provide 
connections in the drainage system that have provisions for 
establishing the desired slope in the system. These fittings are 
made from a variety of both metals and plastics. The methods 
of coupling provide for required slope in the system (see 
"Durham fitting"). 

DUCT SYSTEM. A continuous passageway for the trans- 
mission of air which, in addition to ducts, includes duct fit- 
tings, dampers, plenums, fans and accessory air-handling 
equipment and appliances. For definition applicable in Chap- 
ter 11, see Section Nl 101.9. 

DURHAM FITTING. A special type of drainage fitting for 
use in the Durham systems installations in which the joints 
are made with recessed and tapered threaded fittings, as 
opposed to bell and spigot lead/oakum or solvent/cemented 
or soldered joints. The tapping is at an angle (not 90 degrees) 
to provide for proper slope in otherwise rigid connections. 

DURHAM SYSTEM. A term used to describe soil or waste 
systems where all piping is of threaded pipe, tube or other 
such rigid construction using recessed drainage fittings to 
correspond to the types of piping. 



14 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



DWELLING. Any building that contains one or two dwell- 
ing units used, intended, or designed to be built, used, rented, 
leased, let or hired out to be occupied, or that are occupied for 
living purposes. 

DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete inde- 
pendent living facilities for one or more persons, including 
permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking 
and sanitation. 

DWV. Abbreviated term for drain, waste and vent piping as 
used in common plumbing practice. 

EFFECTIVE OPENING. The minimum cross-sectional 
area at the point of water-supply discharge, measured or 
expressed in terms of diameter of a circle and if the opening 
is not circular, the diameter of a circle of equivalent cross- 
sectional area. (This is applicable to air gap.) 

ELBOW. A pressure pipe fitting designed to provide an 
exact change in direction of a pipe run. An elbow provides a 
sharp turn in the flow path (see "Bend" and "Sweep"). 

EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. An 
operable exterior window, door or similar device that pro- 
vides for a means of escape and access for rescue in the event 
of an emergency. 

EQUIPMENT. All piping, ducts, vents, control devices and 
other components of systems other than appliances that are 
permanently installed and integrated to provide control of 
environmental conditions for buildings. This definition shall 
also include other systems specifically regulated in this code. 

EQUIVALENT LENGTH. For determining friction losses 
in a piping system, the effect of a particular fitting equal to 
the friction loss through a straight piping length of the same 
nominal diameter. 

ESCARPMENT. With respect to topographic wind effects, a 
cliff or steep slope generally separating two levels or gently 
sloping areas. 

ESSENTIALLY NONTOXIC TRANSFER FLUIDS. Flu- 
ids having a Gosselin rating of 1 , including propylene glycol; 
mineral oil; polydimethy oil oxane; hydrochlorofluorocarbon, 
chlorofluorocarbon and hydrofluorocarbon refrigerants; and 
FDA-approved boiler water additives for steam boilers. 

ESSENTIALLY TOXIC TRANSFER FLUIDS. Soil, 
water or gray water and fluids having a Gosselin rating of 2 
or more including ethylene glycol, hydrocarbon oils, ammo- 
nia refrigerants and hydrazine. 

EVAPORATIVE COOLER. A device used for reducing air 
temperature by the process of evaporating water into an air- 
stream. 

EXCESS AIR. Air that passes through the combustion 
chamber and the appliance flue in excess of that which is the- 
oretically required for complete combustion. 

EXHAUST HOOD, FULL OPENING. An exhaust hood 
with an opening at least equal to the diameter of the connect- 
ing vent. 

EXISTING INSTALLATIONS. Any plumbing system reg- 
ulated by this code that was legally installed prior to the 
effective date of this code, or for which a permit to install has 
been issued. 



EXTERIOR INSULATION AND FINISH SYSTEMS 
(EIFS). EIFS are nonstructural, nonload-bearing exterior 
wall cladding systems that consist of an insulation board 
attached either adhesively or mechanically, or both, to the 
substrate; an integrally reinforced base coat; and a textured 
protective finish coat. 

EXTERIOR INSULATION AND FINISH SYSTEMS 
(EIFS) WITH DRAINAGE. An EIFS that incorporates a 
means of drainage applied over a water-resistive barrier. 

EXTERIOR WALL. An above-grade wall that defines the 
exterior boundaries of a building. Includes between-floor 
spandrels, peripheral edges of floors, roof and basement knee 
walls, dormer walls, gable end walls, walls enclosing a man- 
sard roof and basement walls with an average below-gracfe 
wall area that is less than 50 percent of the total opaque and 
nonopaque area of that enclosing side. 

EXTERIOR WALL COVERING. A material or assembly 
of materials applied on the exterior side of exterior walls for 
the purpose of providing a weather-resistive barrier, insula- 
tion or for aesthetics, including but not limited to, veneers, 
siding, exterior insulation and finish systems, architectural 
trim and embellishments such as cornices, soffits, and fas- 
cias. 

FACING. The wood structural panel facings that form the 
two outmost rigid layers of the structural insulated panel. 

FACTORY-BUILT CHIMNEY. A listed and labeled chim- 
ney composed of factory-made components assembled in the 
field in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and 
the conditions of the listing. 

FENESTRATION. Skylights, roof windows, vertical win- 
dows (whether fixed or moveable); opaque doors; glazed 
doors; glass block; and combination opaque/glazed doors. 
For definition applicable in Chapter 1 1, see Section Nl 101.9 

FIBER-CEMENT SIDING. A manufactured, fiber-rein- 
forcing product made with an inorganic hydraulic or calcium 
silicate binder formed by chemical reaction and reinforced 
with discrete organic or inorganic nonasbestos fibers, or both. 
Additives which enhance manufacturing or product perfor- 
mance are permitted. Fiber-cement siding products have 
either smooth or textured faces and are intended for exterior 
wall and related applications. 

FIREBLOCKING. Building materials or materials 
approved for use as fireblocking, installed to resist the free 
passage of flame to other areas of the building through con- 
cealed spaces. 

FIREPLACE. An assembly consisting of a hearth and fire 
chamber of noncombustible material and provided with a 
chimney, for use with solid fuels. 

Factory-built fireplace. A listed and labeled fireplace 
and chimney system composed of factory-made compo- 
nents, and assembled in the field in accordance with man- 
ufacturer's instructions and the conditions of the listing. 

Masonry chimney. A field-constructed chimney com- 
posed of solid masonry units, bricks, stones or concrete. 

Masonry fireplace. A field-constructed fireplace com- 
posed of solid masonry units, bricks, stones or concrete. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



15 



DEFINITIONS 



FIREPLACE STOVE. A free-standing, chimney-con- 
nected solid-fuel-burning heater designed to be operated with 
the fire chamber doors in either the open or closed position. 

FIREPLACE THROAT. The opening between the top of 
the firebox and the smoke chamber. 

FIRE-RETARDANT-TREATED WOOD. Pressure- 
treated lumber and plywood that exhibit reduced surface 
burning characteristics and resist propagation of fire. 

Other means during manufacture. A process where the 
wood raw material is treated with a fire-retardant formula- 
tion while undergoing creation as a finished product. 

Pressure process. A process for treating wood using an 
initial vacuum followed by the introduction of pressure 
above atmospheric. 

FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE. The distance measured 
from the building face to one of the following: 

1. To the closest interior lot line; or 

2. To the centerline of a street, an alley or public way; or 

3. To an imaginary line between two buildings on the lot. 

The distance shall be measured at a right angle from the 
face of the wall. 

FIXTURE. See "Plumbing fixture." 

FIXTURE BRANCH, DRAINAGE. A drain serving two or 
more fixtures that discharges into another portion of the 
drainage system. 

FIXTURE BRANCH, WATER-SUPPLY. A water-supply 
pipe between the fixture supply and a main water-distribution 
pipe or fixture group main. 

FIXTURE DRAIN. The drain from the trap of a fixture to 
the junction of that drain with any other drain pipe. 

FIXTURE FITTING, 

Supply fitting. A fitting that controls the volume and/or 
directional flow of water and is either attached to or acces- 
sible from a fixture or is used with an open or atmospheric 
discharge. 

Waste fitting. A combination of components that conveys 
the sanitary waste from the outlet of a fixture to the con- 
nection of the sanitary drainage system. 

FIXTURE GROUP, MAIN. The main water-distribution 
pipe (or secondary branch) serving a plumbing fixture group- 
ing such as a bath, kitchen or laundry area to which two or 
more individual fixture branch pipes are connected. 

FIXTURE SUPPLY. The water-supply pipe connecting a 
fixture or fixture fitting to a fixture branch. 

FIXTURE UNIT, DRAINAGE (d.f.u.). A measure of prob- 
able discharge into the drainage system by various types of 
plumbing fixtures, used to size DWV piping systems. The 
drainage fixture-unit value for a particular fixture depends on 
its volume rate of drainage discharge, on the time duration of 
a single drainage operation and on the average time between 
successive operations. 

FIXTURE UNIT, WATER-SUPPLY (w.s.f.u.). A measure 
of the probable hydraulic demand on the water supply by var- 
ious types of plumbing fixtures used to size water-piping sys- 



tems. The water-supply fixture-unit value for a particular 
fixture depends on its volume rate of supply, on the time 
duration of a single supply operation and on the average time 
between successive operations. 

FLAME SPREAD. The propagation of flame over a surface. 

FLAME SPREAD INDEX. A comparative measure, 
expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from visual 
measurements of the spread of flame versus time for a mate- 
rial tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723. 

FLIGHT. A continuous run of rectangular treads or winders 
or combination thereof from one landing to another. 

FLOOD-LEVEL RIM. The edge of the receptor or fixture 
from which water overflows. 

FLOOR DRAIN. A plumbing fixture for recess in the floor 
having a floor-level strainer intended for the purpose of the 
collection and disposal of waste water used in cleaning the 
floor and for the collection and disposal of accidental spillage 
to the floor. 

FLOOR FURNACE. A self-contained furnace suspended 
from the floor of the space being heated, taking air for com- 
bustion from outside such space, and with means for lighting 
the appliance from such space. 

FLOW PRESSURE. The static pressure reading in the 
water-supply pipe near the faucet or water outlet while the 
faucet or water outlet is open and flowing at capacity. 

FLUE. See "Vent." 

FLUE, APPLIANCE. The passages within an appliance 
through which combustion products pass from the combus- 
tion chamber to the flue collar. 

FLUE COLLAR. The portion of a fuel-burning appliance 
designed for the attachment of a draft hood, vent connector or 
venting system. 

FLUE GASES. Products of combustion plus excess air in 
appliance flues or heat exchangers. 

FLUSH VALVE. A device located at the bottom of a flush 
tank that is operated to flush water closets. 

FLUSHOMETER TANK. A device integrated within an air 
accumulator vessel that is designed to discharge a predeter- 
mined quantity of water to fixtures for flushing purposes. 

FLUSHOMETER VALVE. A flushometer valve is a device 
that discharges a predetermined quantity of water to fixtures 
for flushing purposes and is actuated by direct water pressure. 

FOAM BACKER BOARD. Foam plastic used in siding 
applications where the foam plastic is a component of the sid- 
ing. 

FOAM PLASTIC INSULATION. A plastic that is inten- 
tionally expanded by the use of a foaming agent to produce a 
reduced-density plastic containing voids consisting of open 
or closed cells distributed throughout the plastic for thermal 
insulating or acoustic purposes and that has a density less 
than 20 pounds per cubic foot (320 kg/m 3 ) unless it is used as 
interior trim. 

FOAM PLASTIC INTERIOR TRIM. Exposed foam plas- 
tic used as picture molds, chair rails, crown moldings, base- 
boards, handrails, ceiling beams, door trim and window trim 



16 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



and similar decorative or protective materials used in fixed 
applications. 

FUEL-PIPING SYSTEM. All piping, tubing, valves and fit- 
tings used to connect fuel utilization equipment to the point of 
fuel delivery. 

FULLWAY VALVE. A valve that in the full open position 
has an opening cross-sectional area equal to a minimum of 85 
percent of the cross-sectional area of the connecting pipe. 

FURNACE. A vented heating appliance designed or 
arranged to discharge heated air into a conditioned space or 
through a duct or ducts. 

GLAZING AREA. The interior surface area of all glazed 
fenestration, including the area of sash, curbing or other 
framing elements, that enclose conditioned space. Includes 
the area of glazed fenestration assemblies in walls bounding 
conditioned basements. 

GRADE. The finished ground level adjoining the building at 
all exterior walls. 

GRADE FLOOR OPENING. A window or other opening 
located such that the sill height of the opening is not more 
than 44 inches (1118 mm) above or below the finished 
ground level adjacent to the opening. 

GRADE, PIPING. See "Slope." 

GRADE PLANE. A reference plane representing the aver- 
age of the finished ground level adjoining the building at all 
exterior walls. Where the finished ground level slopes away 
from the exterior walls, the reference plane shall be estab- 
lished by the lowest points within the area between the build- 
ing and the lot line or, where the lot line is more than 6 feet 
(1829 mm) from the building between the structure and a 
point 6 feet (1829 mm) from the building. 

■ GRAY WATER. Waste discharged from lavatories, bathtubs, 
showers, clothes washers and laundry trays. 

GRIDDED WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. A water 
distribution system where every water distribution pipe is 
interconnected so as to provide two or more paths to each fix- 
ture supply pipe. 

GROSS AREA OF EXTERIOR WALLS. The normal pro- 
jection of all exterior walls, including the area of all windows 
and doors installed therein. 

GROUND-SOURCE HEAT PUMP LOOP SYSTEM. 
Piping buried in horizontal or vertical excavations or placed 
in a body of water for the purpose of transporting heat trans- 
fer liquid to and from a heat pump. Included in this definition 
are closed loop systems in which the liquid is recirculated and 
open loop systems in which the liquid is drawn from a well or 
other source. 

GUARD. A building component or a system of building 
components located near the open sides of elevated walking 
surfaces that minimizes the possibility of a fall from the 
walking surface to the lower level. 

■ GUESTROOM. Any room or rooms used or intended to be 
used by one or more guests for living or sleeping purposes. 

HABITABLE SPACE. A space in a building for living, 
sleeping, eating or cooking. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, closets, 



halls, storage or utility spaces and similar areas are not con- 
sidered habitable spaces. 

HANDRAIL. A horizontal or sloping rail intended for grasp- 
ing by the hand for guidance or support. 

HANGERS. See "Supports." 

HAZARDOUS LOCATION. Any location considered to be 
a fire hazard for flammable vapors, dust, combustible fibers 
or other highly combustible substances. 

HEAT PUMP. An appliance having heating or heating/cool- 
ing capability and that uses refrigerants to extract heat from 
air, liquid or other sources. 

HEATING DEGREE DAYS (HDD). The sum, on an 
annual basis, of the difference between 65°F (18°C) and the 
mean temperature for each day as determined from "NOAA 
Annual Degree Days to Selected Bases Derived from the 
1960-1990 Normals" or other weather data sources accept- 
able to the code official. 

HEIGHT, BUILDING. The vertical distance from grade 
plane to the average height of the highest roof surface. 

HEIGHT, STORY. The vertical distance from top to top of 
two successive tiers of beams or finished floor surfaces; and, 
for the topmost story, from the top of the floor finish to the 
top of the ceiling joists or, where there is not a ceiling, to the 
top of the roof rafters. 

HIGH-EFFICACY LAMPS. See Section N1101.9 for defi- 
nition applicable in Chapter 1 1 . 

HIGH-TEMPERATURE (H.T.) CHIMNEY. A high tem- 
perature chimney complying with the requirements of UL 
103. A Type H.T. chimney is identifiable by the markings 
"Type H.T." on each chimney pipe section. 

HILL. With respect to topographic wind effects, a land sur- 
face characterized by strong relief in any horizontal direction. 

HORIZONTAL BRANCH, DRAINAGE. A drain pipe 
extending laterally from a soil or waste stack or building 
drain, that receives the discharge from one or more fixture 
drains. 

HORIZONTAL PIPE. Any pipe or fitting that makes an 
angle of less than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) with the horizontal. 

HOT WATER. Water at a temperature greater than or equal 
tollO°F(43°C). 

HURRICANE-PRONE REGIONS. Areas vulnerable to 
hurricanes, defined as the U.S. Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of 
Mexico coasts where the basic wind speed is greater than 90 
miles per hour (40 m/s), and Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, Vir- 
gin Islands, and America Samoa. 

HYDROGEN GENERATING APPLIANCE. A self-con- 
tained package or factory-matched packages of integrated 
systems for generating gaseous hydrogen. Hydrogen generat- 
ing appliances utilize electrolysis, reformation, chemical, or 
other processes to generate hydrogen. 

IGNITION SOURCE. A flame, spark or hot surface capable 
of igniting flammable vapors or fumes. Such sources include 
appliance burners, burner ignitions and electrical switching 
devices. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



17 



DEFINITIONS 



INDIRECT WASTE PIPE. A waste pipe that discharges 
into the drainage system through an air gap into a trap, fixture 
or receptor. 

INDIVIDUAL SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM. A system 
for disposal of sewage by means of a septic tank or mechani- 
cal treatment, designed for use apart from a public sewer to 
serve a single establishment or building. 

INDIVIDUAL VENT. A pipe installed to vent a single-fu- 
ture drain that connects with the vent system above or termi- 
nates independently outside the building. 

INDIVIDUAL WATER SUPPLY. A supply other than an 
approved public water supply that serves one or more fami- 
lies. 

INSULATING CONCRETE EORM (ICF). A concrete 
forming system using stay-in-place forms of rigid foam plas- 
tic insulation, a hybrid of cement and foam insulation, a 
hybrid of cement and wood chips, or other insulating material 
for constructing cast-in-place concrete walls. 

INSULATING SHEATHING. An insulating board having a 
minimum thermal resistance of R-2 of the core material. For 
definition applicable in Chapter 1 1 , see Section Nl 1 01 .9. 

JURISDICTION. The governmental unit that has adopted 
this code under due legislative authority. 

KITCHEN. Kitchen shall mean an area used, or designated 
to be used, for the preparation of food. 

LABEL. An identification applied on a product by the manu- 
facturer which contains the name of the manufacturer, the 
function and performance characteristics of the product or 
material, and the name and identification of an approved 
agency and that indicates that the representative sample of the 
product or material has been tested and evaluated by an 
approved agency. (See also "Manufacturer's designation" 
and "Mark.") 

LABELED. Equipment, materials or products to which have 
been affixed a label, seal, symbol or other identifying mark of 
a nationally recognized testing laboratory, inspection agency 
or other organization concerned with product evaluation that 
maintains periodic inspection of the production of the above- 
labeled items and whose labeling indicates either that the 
equipment, material or product meets identified standards or 
has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose. 

LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUCTION. A type of construc- 
tion whose vertical and horizontal structural elements are pri- 
marily formed by a system of repetitive wood or cold-formed 
steel framing members. 

LISTED. Equipment, materials, products or services 
included in a list published by an organization acceptable to 
the code official and concerned with evaluation of products 
or services that maintains periodic inspection of production 
of listed equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of ser- 
vices and whose listing states either that the equipment, mate- 
rial, product or service meets identified standards or has been 
tested and found suitable for a specified purpose. 

LIVE LOADS. Those loads produced by the use and occu- 
pancy of the building or other structure and do not include 



construction or environmental loads such as wind load, snow 
load, rain load, earthquake load, flood load or dead load. 

LIVING SPACE. Space within a dwelling unit utilized for 
living, sleeping, eating, cooking, bathing, washing and sanita- 
tion purposes. 

LOCAL EXHAUST. An exhaust system that uses one or 
more fans to exhaust air from a specific room or rooms within 
a dwelling. 

LODGING HOUSE. A one-family dwelling where one or 
more occupants are primarily permanent in nature, and rent is 
paid for guestrooms. 

LOT. A portion or parcel of land considered as a unit. 

LOT LINE. A line dividing one lot from another, or from a 
street or any public place. 

MACERATING TOILET SYSTEMS. A system comprised 
of a sump with macerating pump and with connections for a 
water closet and other plumbing fixtures, that is designed to 
accept, grind and pump wastes to an approved point of dis- 
charge. 

MAIN. The principal pipe artery to which branches may be 
connected. 

MAIN SEWER. See "Public sewer." 

MANIFOLD WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS. A 
fabricated piping arrangement in which a large supply main is 
fitted with multiple branches in close proximity in which 
water is distributed separately to fixtures from each branch. 

MANUFACTURED HOME. Manufactured home means a 
structure, transportable in one or more sections, which in the 
traveling mode is 8 body feet (2438 body mm) or more in 
width or 40 body feet (12 192 body mm) or more in length, 
or, when erected on site, is 320 square feet (30 m 2 ) or more, 
and which is built on a permanent chassis and designed to be 
used as a dwelling with or without a permanent foundation 
when connected to the required utilities, and includes the 
plumbing, heating, air-conditioning and electrical systems 
contained therein; except that such term shall include any 
structure that meets all the requirements of this paragraph 
except the size requirements and with respect to which the 
manufacturer voluntarily files a certification required by the 
secretary (HUD) and complies with the standards established 
under this title. For mobile homes built prior to June 15, 
1976, a label certifying compliance to the Standard for 
Mobile Homes, NFPA 501, in effect at the time of manufac- 
ture is required. For the purpose of these provisions, a mobile 
home shall be considered a manufactured home. 

MANUFACTURER'S DESIGNATION. An identification 
applied on a product by the manufacturer indicating that a 
product or material complies with a specified standard or set 
of rules. (See also '"Mark" and "■Label") 

MANUFACTURER'S INSTALLATION INSTRUC- 
TIONS. Printed instructions included with equipment as part 
of the conditions of listing and labeling. 

MARK. An identification applied on a product by the manu- 
facturer indicating the name of the manufacturer and the 
function of a product or material. (See also "Manufacturer's 
designation" and "Label.'") 



18 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



MASONRY CHIMNEY. A field-constructed chimney com- 
posed of solid masonry units, bricks, stones or concrete. 

MASONRY HEATER. A masonry heater is a solid fuel 
burning heating appliance constructed predominantly of con- 
crete or solid masonry having a mass of at least 1,100 pounds 
(500 kg), excluding the chimney and foundation. It is 
designed to absorb and store a substantial portion of heat 
from a fire built in the firebox by routing exhaust gases 
through internal heat exchange channels in which the flow 
path downstream of the firebox includes at least one 180- 
degree (3.14-rad) change in flow direction before entering the 
chimney and which deliver heat by radiation through the 
masonry surface of the heater. 

MASONRY, SOLID. Masonry consisting of solid masonry 
units laid contiguously with the joints between the units filled 
with mortar. 

MASONRY UNIT. Brick, tile, stone, glass block or concrete 
block conforming to the requirements specified in Section 
2103 of the International Building Code. 

Clay. A building unit larger in size than a brick, composed 
of burned clay, shale, fire clay or mixtures thereof. 

Concrete. A building unit or block larger in size than 12 
inches by 4 inches by 4 inches (305 mm by 102 mm by 
102 mm) made of cement and suitable aggregates. 

Glass. Nonload-bearing masonry composed of glass units 
bonded by mortar. 

Hollow. A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in 
any plane parallel to the loadbearing surface is less than 75 
percent of its gross cross-sectional area measured in the 
same plane. 

Solid. A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in 
every plane parallel to the loadbearing surface is 75 per- 
cent or more of its cross- sectional area measured in the 
same plane. 

MASS WALL. Masonry or concrete walls having a mass 
greater than or equal to 30 pounds per square foot (146 kg/m 2 ), 
solid wood walls having a mass greater than or equal to 20 
pounds per square foot (98 kg/m 2 ), and any other walls having 
a heat capacity greater than or equal to 6 Btu/ft 2 • °F [266 J/(m 2 
•K)]. 

MEAN ROOF HEIGHT. The average of the roof eave 
height and the height to the highest point on the roof surface, 
except that eave height shall be used for roof angle of less 
than or equal to 10 degrees (0.18 rad). 

MECHANICAL DRAFT SYSTEM. A venting system 
designed to remove flue or vent gases by mechanical means, 
that consists of an induced draft portion under nonpositive 
static pressure or a forced draft portion under positive static 
pressure. 

Forced-draft venting system. A portion of a venting sys- 
tem using a fan or other mechanical means to cause the 
removal of flue or vent gases under positive static pres- 
sure. 

Induced draft venting system. A portion of a venting 
system using a fan or other mechanical means to cause the 



removal of flue or vent gases under nonpositive static vent 
pressure. 

Power venting system. A portion of a venting system 
using a fan or other mechanical means to cause the 
removal of flue or vent gases under positive static vent 
pressure. 

MECHANICAL EXHAUST SYSTEM. A system for 
removing air from a room or space by mechanical means. 

MECHANICAL SYSTEM. A system specifically addressed 
and regulated in this code and composed of components, 
devices, appliances and equipment. 

METAL ROOF PANEL. An interlocking metal sheet hav- 
ing a minimum installed weather exposure of at least 3 square 
feet (0.28 m 2 ) per sheet. 

METAL ROOF SHINGLE. An interlocking metal sheet 
having an installed weather exposure less than 3 square feet 
(0.28 m 2 ) per sheet. 

MEZZANINE, LOFT. An intermediate level or levels 
between the floor and ceiling of any story with an aggregate 
floor area of not more than one-third of the area of the room 
or space in which the level or levels are located. 

MODIFIED BITUMEN ROOF COVERING. One or more 
layers of polymer modified asphalt sheets. The sheet materi- 
als shall be fully adhered or mechanically attached to the sub- 
strate or held in place with an approved ballast layer. 

MULTIPLE STATION SMOKE ALARM. Two or more 
single station alarm devices that are capable of interconnec- 
tion such that actuation of one causes all integral or separate 
audible alarms to operate. 

NATURAL DRAFT SYSTEM. A venting system designed 
to remove flue or vent gases under nonpositive static vent 
pressure entirely by natural draft. 

NATURALLY DURABLE WOOD. The heartwood of the 
following species with the exception that an occasional piece 
with corner sapwood is permitted if 90 percent or more of the 
width of each side on which it occurs is heartwood. 

Decay resistant. Redwood, cedar, black locust and black 
walnut. 

Termite resistant. Alaska yellow cedar, redwood, Eastern 
red cedar and Western red cedar including all sapwood of 
Western red cedar. 

NONCOMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL. Materials that pass 
the test procedure for defining noncombustibility of elemen- 
tary materials set forth in ASTM E 1 36. 

NONCONDITIONED SPACE. A space that is not a condi- 
tioned space by insulated walls, floors or ceilings. 

NOSING. The leading edge of treads of stairs and of land- 
ings at the top of stairway flights. 

OCCUPIED SPACE. The total area of all buildings or struc- 
tures on any lot or parcel of ground projected on a horizontal 
plane, excluding permitted projections as allowed by this 
code. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 18 



19 



DEFINITIONS 



OFFSET. A combination of fittings that makes two changes 
in direction bringing one section of the pipe out of line but 
into a line parallel with the other section. 

OWNER. Any person, agent, firm or corporation having a 
legal or equitable interest in the property. 

PAN FLASHING. Corrosion-resistant flashing at the base of 
an opening that is integrated into the building exterior wall to 
direct water to the exterior and is premanufactured, fabri- 
cated, formed or applied at the job site. 

PANEL THICKNESS. Thickness of core plus two layers of 
structural wood panel facings. 

PELLET FUEL-BURNING APPLIANCE. A closed com- 
bustion, vented appliance equipped with a fuel feed mecha- 
nism for burning processed pellets of solid fuel of a specified 
size and composition. 

PELLET VENT. A vent listed and labeled for use with a 
listed pellet fuel-burning appliance. 

PERFORMANCE CATEGORY. A designation of wood 
structural panels as related to the panel performance used in 
Chapters 4, 5, 6 and 8. 

PERMIT. An official document or certificate issued by the 
authority having jurisdiction that authorizes performance of a 
specified activity. 

PERSON. An individual, heirs, executors, administrators or 
assigns, and also includes a firm, partnership or corporation, 
its or their successors or assigns, or the agent of any of the 
aforesaid. 

PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES/SHINGLES. A roof cov- 
ering composed of flat-plate photovoltaic modules fabricated 
into shingles. 

PITCH. See "Slope." 

PLATFORM CONSTRUCTION. A method of construc- 
tion by which floor framing bears on load bearing walls that 
are not continuous through the story levels or floor framing. 

PLENUM. A chamber that forms part of an air-circulation 
system other than the occupied space being conditioned. 

PLUMBING. For the purpose of this code, plumbing refers 
to those installations, repairs, maintenance and alterations 
regulated by Chapters 25 through 33. 

PLUMBING APPLIANCE. An energized household appli- 
ance with plumbing connections, such as a dishwasher, food- 
waste grinder, clothes washer or water heater. 

PLUMBING APPURTENANCE. A device or assembly 
that is an adjunct to the basic plumbing system and demands 
no additional water supply nor adds any discharge load to the 
system. It is presumed that it performs some useful function 
in the operation, maintenance, servicing, economy or safety 
of the plumbing system. Examples include filters, relief 
valves and aerators. 

PLUMBING FIXTURE. A receptacle or device that is con- 
nected to a water supply system or discharges to a drainage 
system or both. Such receptacles or devices require a supply 
of water; or discharge liquid waste or liquid-borne solid 



waste; or require a supply of water and discharge waste to a 
drainage system. 

PLUMBING SYSTEM. Includes the water supply and dis- 
tribution pipes, plumbing fixtures, supports and appurte- 
nances; soil, waste and vent pipes; sanitary drains and 
building sewers to an approved point of disposal. 

POLLUTION. An impairment of the quality of the potable 
water to a degree that does not create a hazard to the public 
health but that does adversely and unreasonably affect the 
aesthetic qualities of such potable water for domestic use. 

PORTABLE-FUEL-CELL APPLIANCE. A fuel cell gen- 
erator of electricity, which is not fixed in place. A portable- 
fuel-cell appliance utilizes a cord and plug connection to a 
grid-isolated load and has an integral fuel supply. 

POSITIVE ROOF DRAINAGE. The drainage condition in 
which consideration has been made for all loading deflections 
of the roof deck, and additional slope has been provided to 
ensure drainage of the roof within 48 hours of precipitation. 

POTABLE WATER. Water free from impurities present in 
amounts sufficient to cause disease or harmful physiological 
effects and conforming in bacteriological and chemical qual- 
ity to the requirements of the public health authority having 
jurisdiction. 

PRECAST CONCRETE. A structural concrete element cast 
elsewhere than its final position in the structure. 

PRECAST CONCRETE FOUNDATION WALLS. Preen- 
gineered, precast concrete wall panels that are designed to 
withstand specified stresses and used to build below-grade 
foundations. 

PRESSURE-RELIEF VALVE. A pressure-actuated valve 
held closed by a spring or other means and designed to auto- 
matically relieve pressure at the pressure at which it is set. 

PUBLIC SEWER. A common sewer directly controlled by 
public authority. 

PUBLIC WATER MAIN. A water-supply pipe for public 
use controlled by public authority. 

PUBLIC WAY. Any street, alley or other parcel of land 
open to the outside air leading to a public street, which has 
been deeded, dedicated or otherwise permanently appropri- 
ated to the public for public use and that has a clear width and 
height of not less than 10 feet (3048 mm). 

PURGE. To clear of air, gas or other foreign substances. 

QUICK-CLOSING VALVE. A valve or faucet that closes 
automatically when released manually or controlled by 
mechanical means for fast-action closing. 

i?-VALUE, THERMAL RESISTANCE. The inverse of the 
time rate of heat flow through a building thermal envelope 
element from one of its bounding surfaces to the other for a 
unit temperature difference between the two surfaces, under 
steady state conditions, per unit area (h • ft 2 - °F/Btu). 

RAMP. A walking surface that has a running slope steeper 
than 1 unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope). 

RECEPTOR. A fixture or device that receives the discharge 
from indirect waste pipes. 



20 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 9 



DEFINITIONS 



REFRIGERANT. A substance used to produce refrigeration 
by its expansion or evaporation. 

REFRIGERANT COMPRESSOR. A specific machine, 
with or without accessories, for compressing a given refriger- 
ant vapor. 

REFRIGERATING SYSTEM. A combination of intercon- 
nected parts forming a closed circuit in which refrigerant is 
circulated for the purpose of extracting, then rejecting, heat. 
A direct refrigerating system is one in which the evaporator 
or condenser of the refrigerating system is in direct contact 
with the air or other substances to be cooled or heated. An 
indirect refrigerating system is one in which a secondary 
coolant cooled or heated by the refrigerating system is circu- 
lated to the air or other substance to be cooled or heated. 

REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An individual 
who is registered or licensed to practice their respective 
design profession as defined by the statutory requirements of 
the professional registration laws of the state or jurisdiction 
in which the project is to be constructed. 

RELIEF VALVE, VACUUM. A device to prevent exces- 
sive buildup of vacuum in a pressure vessel. 

REPAIR. The reconstruction or renewal of any part of an 
existing building for the purpose of its maintenance. For defi- 
nition applicable in Chapter 11, see Section Nl 101.9 

REROOFING. The process of recovering or replacing an 
existing roof covering. See "Roof recover." 

RETURN AIR. Air removed from an approved conditioned 
space or location and recirculated or exhausted. 

RIDGE. With respect to topographic wind effects, an elon- 
gated crest of a hill characterized by strong relief in two 
directions. 

RISER. 

1 . The vertical component of a step or stair. 

2, A water pipe that extends vertically one full story or 
more to convey water to branches or to a group of fix- 
tures. 

ROOF ASSEMBLY. A system designed to provide weather 
protection and resistance to design loads. The system consists 
of a roof covering and roof deck or a single component serv- 
ing as both the roof covering and the roof deck. A roof assem- 
bly includes the roof deck, vapor retarder, substrate or 
thermal barrier, insulation, vapor retarder, and roof covering. 

ROOF COVERING. The covering applied to the roof deck 
for weather resistance, fire classification or appearance. 

ROOF COVERING SYSTEM. See "Roof assembly." 

ROOF DECK. The flat or sloped surface not including its 
supporting members or vertical supports. 

ROOF RECOVER. The process of installing an additional 
roof covering over a prepared existing roof covering without 
removing the existing roof covering. 

ROOF REPAIR. Reconstruction or renewal of any part of 
an existing roof for the purposes of its maintenance. 

ROOFTOP STRUCTURE. An enclosed structure on or 
above the roof of any part of a building. 



ROOM HEATER. A freestanding heating appliance 
installed in the space being heated and not connected to ducts. 

ROUGH-IN. The installation of all parts of the plumbing 
system that must be completed prior to the installation of fix- 
tures. This includes DWV, water supply and built-in fixture 
supports. 

RUNNING BOND. The placement of masonry units such 
that head joints in successive courses are horizontally offset 
at least one-quarter the unit length. 

SANITARY SEWER. A sewer that carries sewage and 
excludes storm, surface and groundwater. 

SCUPPER. An opening in a wall or parapet that allows water 
to drain from a roof. 

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY (SDC). A classification 
assigned to a structure based on its occupancy category and 
the severity of the design earthquake ground motion at the 
site. 

SEPTIC TANK. A water-tight receptor that receives the dis- 
charge of a building sanitary drainage system and is con- 
structed so as to separate solids from the liquid, digest 
organic matter through a period of detention, and allow the 
liquids to discharge into the soil outside of the tank through a 
system of open joint or perforated piping or a seepage pit. 

SEWAGE. Any liquid waste containing animal matter, vege- 
table matter or other impurity in suspension or solution. 

SEWAGE PUMP. A permanently installed mechanical 
device for removing sewage or liquid waste from a sump. 

SHALL. The term, when used in the code, is construed as 
mandatory. 

SHEAR WALL. A general term for walls that are designed 
and constructed to resist racking from seismic and wind by 
use of masonry, concrete, cold-formed steel or wood framing 
in accordance with Chapter 6 of this code and the associated 
limitations in Section R301.2 of this code. 

SIDE VENT. A vent connecting to the drain pipe through a 
fitting at an angle less than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) to the hori- 
zontal. 

SINGLE PLY MEMBRANE. A roofing membrane that is 
field applied using one layer of membrane material (either 
homogeneous or composite) rather than multiple layers. 

SINGLE STATION SMOKE ALARM. An assembly 
incorporating the detector, control equipment and alarm 
sounding device in one unit that is operated from a power 
supply either in the unit or obtained at the point of installa- 
tion. 

SKYLIGHT. See Section Nl 101.9 for definition applicable 
in Chapter 11. 

SKYLIGHT AND SLOPED GLAZING. See Section 
R308.6.1. 

SKYLIGHT, UNIT. See Section R308.6.1. 

SLEEPING UNIT. See Section Nl 101.9 for definition 
applicable in Chapter 1 1 . 

SLIP JOINT. A mechanical-type joint used primarily on fix- 
ture traps. The joint tightness is obtained by compressing a 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



21 



DEFINITIONS 



friction-type washer such as rubber, nylon, neoprene, lead or 
special packing material against the pipe by the tightening of 
a (slip) nut. 

SLOPE. The fall (pitch) of a line of pipe in reference to a 
horizontal plane. In drainage, the slope is expressed as the fall 
in units vertical per units horizontal (percent) for a length of 
pipe. 

SMOKE-DEVELOPED INDEX. A comparative measure, 
expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from measure- 
ments of smoke obscuration versus time for a material tested 
in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723. 
SOIL STACK OR PIPE. A pipe that conveys sewage con- 
taining fecal material. 

SOLAR HEAT GAIN COEFFICIENT (SHGC). The solar 
heat gain through a fenestration or glazing assembly relative 
to the incident solar radiation (Btu/h • ft 2 • °F). 
SOLID MASONRY. Load-bearing or nonload-bearing con- 
struction using masonry units where the net cross-sectional 
area of each unit in any plane parallel to the bearing surface is 
not less than 75 percent of its gross cross-sectional area. Solid 
masonry units shall conform to ASTM C 55, C 62, C 73, C 
145 or C 216. 

SPLINE. A strip of wood structural panel cut from the same 
material used for the panel facings, used to connect two struc- 
tural insulated panels. The strip (spline) fits into a groove cut 
into the vertical edges of the two structural insulated panels to 
be joined. Splines are used behind each facing of the struc- 
tural insulated panels being connected as shown in Figure 
R613.8. 

STACK. Any main vertical DWV line, including offsets, that 
extends one or more stories as directly as possible to its vent 
terminal. 

STACK BOND. The placement of masonry units in a bond 
pattern is such that head joints in successive courses are verti- 
cally aligned. For the purpose of this code, requirements for 
stack bond shall apply to all masonry laid in other than run- 
ning bond. 

STACK VENT. The extension of soil or waste stack above 
the highest horizontal drain connected. 
STACK VENTING. A method of venting a fixture or fix- 
tures through the soil or waste stack without individual fix- 
ture vents. 

STAIR. A change in elevation, consisting of one or more ris- 
ers. 

STAIRWAY. One or more flights of stairs, either interior or 
exterior, with the necessary landings and platforms connect- 
ing them to form a continuous and uninterrupted passage 
from one level to another within or attached to a building, 
porch or deck. 

STANDARD TRUSS. Any construction that does not permit 
the roof/ceiling insulation to achieve the required fl-value 
over the exterior walls. 

STATIONARY FUEL CELL POWER PLANT. A self- 
contained package or factory-matched packages which con- 
stitute an automatically-operated assembly of integrated sys- 



tems for generating useful electrical energy and recoverable 
thermal energy that is permanently connected and fixed in 
place. 

STORM SEWER, DRAIN. A pipe used for conveying rain- 
water, surface water, subsurface water and similar liquid 
waste. 

STORY. That portion of a building included between the 
upper surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or 
roof next above. 

STORY ABOVE GRADE PLANE. Any story having its 
finished floor surface entirely above grade plane, or in which 
the finished surface of the floor next above is: 

1 . More than 6 feet (1 829 mm) above grade plane; or 

2. More than 12 feet (3658 mm) above the finished 
ground level at any point. 

STRUCTURAL COMPOSITE LUMBER. Structural 
members manufactured using wood elements bonded 
together with exterior adhesives. 

Examples of structural composite lumber are: 

Laminated veneer lumber (LVL). A composite of wood 
veneer elements with wood fibers primarily oriented along 
the length of the member, where the veneer element thick- 
nesses are 0.25 inches (6.4 mm) or less. 

Parallel strand lumber (PSL). A composite of wood 
strand elements with wood fibers primarily oriented along 
the length of the member, where the least dimension of the 
wood strand elements is 0.25 inch (6.4 mm) or less and 
their average lengths are a minimum of 300 times the least 
dimension of the wood strand elements. 

Laminated strand lumber (LSL). A composite of wood 
strand elements with wood fibers primarily oriented along 
the length of the member, where the least dimension of the 
wood strand elements is 0.10 inch (2.54 mm) or less and 
their average lengths are a minimum of 150 times the least 
dimension of the wood strand elements. 

Oriented strand lumber (OSL). A composite of wood 
strand elements with wood fibers primarily oriented along 
the length of the member, where the least dimension of the 
wood strand elements is 0.10 inch (2.54 mm) or less and 
their average lengths are a minimum of 75 times and less 
than 150 times the least dimension of the wood strand ele- 
ments. 
STRUCTURAL INSULATED PANEL (SIP). A structural 
sandwich panel that consists of a light-weight foam plastic 
core securely laminated between two thin, rigid wood struc- 
tural panel facings. 
STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed. 

SUBSOIL DRAIN. A drain that collects subsurface water or 
seepage water and conveys such water to a place of disposal. 

SUMP. A tank or pit that receives sewage or waste, located 
below the normal grade of the gravity system and that must 
be emptied by mechanical means. 

SUMP PUMP. A pump installed to empty a sump. These 
pumps are used for removing storm water only. The pump is 



22 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 8 



DEFINITIONS 



selected for the specific head and volume of the load and is 
usually operated by level controllers. 

SUNROOM. A one-story structure attached to a dwelling 
with a glazing area in excess of 40 percent of the gross area 
of the structure's exterior walls and roof. For definition appli- 
cable in Chapter 1 1, see Section Nl 101 .9. 

SUPPLY AIR. Air delivered to a conditioned space through 
ducts or plenums from the heat exchanger of a heating, cool- 
ing or ventilating system. 

SUPPORTS. Devices for supporting, hanging and securing 
pipes, fixtures and equipment. 

SWEEP. A drainage fitting designed to provide a change in 
direction of a drain pipe of less than the angle specified by the 
amount necessary to establish the desired slope of the line. 
Sweeps provide a longer turning radius than bends and a less 
turbulent flow pattern (see "Bend" and "Elbow"). 
TEMPERATURE- AND PRESSURE-RELIEF (T AND 
P) VALVE. A combination relief valve designed to function 
as both a temperature-relief and pressure-relief valve. 

TEMPERATURE-RELIEF VALVE. A temperature-actu- 
ated valve designed to discharge automatically at the temper- 
ature at which it is set. 

TERMITE-RESISTANT MATERIAL. Pressure-preserva- 
tive treated wood in accordance with the AWPA standards in 
Section R318.1, naturally durable termite-resistant wood, 
steel, concrete, masonry or other approved material. 

THERMAL ISOLATION. Physical and space conditioning 
separation from conditioned space(s) consisting of existing or 
new walls, doors and/or windows. The conditioned space(s) 
shall be controlled as separate zones for heating and cooling 
or conditioned by separate equipment. For definition applica- 
ble in Chapter 11, see Section Nl 101.9. 
THERMAL RESISTANCE, ff-VALUE. The inverse of the 
time rate of heat flow through a body from one of its bound- 
ing surfaces to the other for a unit temperature difference 
between the two surfaces, under steady state conditions, per 
unit area (h • ft 2 • °F/Btu) (m 2 • K)/W. 

THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE, fZ-FACTOR. The coef- 
ficient of heat transmission (air to air) through a building 
envelope component or assembly, equal to the time rate of 
heat flow per unit area and unit temperature difference 
between the warm side and cold side air films (Btu/h • ft 2 • °F) 
W/(m 2 • K). 

THIRD-PARTY CERTIFICATION AGENCY. An 
approved agency operating a product or material certification 
system that incorporates initial product testing, assessment 
and surveillance of a manufacturer's quality control system. 

THIRD PARTY CERTIFIED. Certification obtained by the 
manufacturer indicating that the function and performance 
characteristics of a product or material have been determined 
by testing and ongoing surveillance by an approved third- 
party certification agency. Assertion of certification is in the 
form of identification in accordance with the requirements of 
the third-party certification agency. 

THIRD-PARTY TESTED. Procedure by which an 
approved testing laboratory provides documentation that a 



product material or system conforms to specified require- I 
ments. 1 

TOWNHOUSE. A single-family dwelling unit constructed 
in a group of three or more attached units in which each unit 
extends from foundation to roof and with a yard or public 
way on at least two sides. 

TRAP. A fitting, either separate or built into a fixture, that 
provides a liquid seal to prevent the emission of sewer gases 
without materially affecting the flow of sewage or waste 
water through it. 

TRAP ARM. That portion of a fixture drain between a trap 
weir and the vent fitting. 

TRAP PRIMER. A device or system of piping to maintain a 
water seal in a trap, typically installed where infrequent use 
of the trap would result in evaporation of the trap seal, such as 
floor drains. 

TRAP SEAL. The trap seal is the maximum vertical depth of 
liquid that a trap will retain, measured between the crown 
weir and the top of the dip of the trap. 

TRIM. Picture molds, chair rails, baseboards, handrails, door 
and window frames, and similar decorative or protective 
materials used in fixed applications. 

TRUSS DESIGN DRAWING. The graphic depiction of an 
individual truss, which describes the design and physical 
characteristics of the truss. 

TYPE L VENT. A listed and labeled vent conforming to UL 
641 for venting oil-burning appliances listed for use with 
Type L vents or with gas appliances listed for use with Type 
B vents. 

Z/-FACTOR, THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE. See Sec- 
tion Nl 101.9 for definition applicable in Chapter 11. 

UNDERLAYMENT. One or more layers of felt, sheathing 
paper, nonbituminous saturated felt, or other approved mate- 
rial over which a roof covering, with a slope of 2 to 12 (17- 
percent slope) or greater, is applied. 

VACUUM BREAKERS. A device which prevents back- 
siphonage of water by admitting atmospheric pressure 
through ports to the discharge side of the device. 
VAPOR PERMEABLE. The property of having a moisture 
vapor permeance rating of 5 perms (2.9 x 10" 10 kg/Pa • s • m 2 ) 
or greater, when tested in accordance with the desiccant 
method using Procedure A of ASTM E 96. A vapor perme- 
able material permits the passage of moisture vapor. 

VAPOR RETARDER CLASS. A measure of the ability of a 
material or assembly to limit the amount of moisture that 
passes through that material or assembly. Vapor retarder class 
shall be defined using the desiccant method with Procedure A 
of ASTM E 96 as follows: 

Class I: 0.1 perm or less 

Class II: 0. 1 < perm < 1 .0 perm 

Class III: 1 .0 < perm < 10 perm 

VENT. A passageway for conveying flue gases from fuel- 
fired appliances, or their vent connectors, to the outside 
atmosphere. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



23 



DEFINITIONS 



VENT COLLAR. See "Flue collar." 

VENT CONNECTOR. That portion of a venting system 
which connects the flue collar or draft hood of an appliance 
to a vent. 

VENT DAMPER DEVICE, AUTOMATIC. A device 
intended for installation in the venting system, in the outlet of 
an individual, automatically operated fuel burning appliance 
and that is designed to open the venting system automatically 
when the appliance is in operation and to close off the vent- 
ing system automatically when the appliance is in a standby 
or shutdown condition. 

VENT GASES. Products of combustion from fuel-burning 
appliances, plus excess air and dilution air, in the venting 
system above the draft hood or draft regulator. 

VENT STACK. A vertical vent pipe installed to provide cir- 
culation of air to and from the drainage system and which 
extends through one or more stories. 

VENT SYSTEM. Piping installed to equalize pneumatic 
pressure in a drainage system to prevent trap seal loss or 
blow-back due to siphonage or back pressure. 

VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of sup- 
plying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such 
air from, any space. For definition applicable in Chapter 11, 
see Section Nil 01.9. 

VENTING. Removal of combustion products to the out- 
doors. 

VENTING SYSTEM. A continuous open passageway from 
the flue collar of an appliance to the outside atmosphere for 
the purpose of removing flue or vent gases. A venting system 
is usually composed of a vent or a chimney and vent connec- 
tor, if used, assembled to form the open passageway. 

VERTICAL PIPE. Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle 
of 45 degrees (0.79 rad) or more with the horizontal. 

VINYL SIDING. A shaped material, made principally from 
rigid polyvinyl chloride (PVC), that is used to cover exterior 
walls of buildings. 

WALL, RETAINING. A wall not laterally supported at the 
top, that resists lateral soil load and other imposed loads. 

WALLS. Walls shall be defined as follows: 

Load-bearing wall. A wall supporting any vertical load in 
addition to its own weight. 

Nonhealing wall. A wall which does not support vertical 
loads other than its own weight. 

WASTE. Liquid-borne waste that is free of fecal matter. 

WASTE PIPE OR STACK. Piping that conveys only liquid 
sewage not containing fecal material. 

WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. Piping which con- 
veys water from the service to the plumbing fixtures, appli- 
ances, appurtenances, equipment, devices or other systems 
served, including fittings and control valves. 

WATER HEATER. Any heating appliance or equipment 
that heats potable water and supplies such water to the pota- 
ble hot water distribution system. 



WATER MAIN. A water supply pipe for public use. 

WATER OUTLET. A valved discharge opening, including 
a hose bibb, through which water is removed from the potable 
water system supplying water to a plumbing fixture or 
plumbing appliance that requires either an air gap or back- 
flow prevention device for protection of the supply system. 

WATER-RESISTIVE BARRIER. A material behind an 
exterior wall covering that is intended to resist liquid water 
that has penetrated behind the exterior covering from further 
intruding into the exterior wall assembly. 

WATER SERVICE PIPE. The outside pipe from the water 
main or other source of potable water supply to the water dis- 
tribution system inside the building, terminating at the service 
valve. 

WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM. The water service pipe, the 
water-distributing pipes and the necessary connecting pipes, 
fittings, control valves and all appurtenances in or adjacent to 
the building or premises. 

WET VENT. A vent that also receives the discharge of 
wastes from other fixtures. 

WHOLE-HOUSE MECHANICAL VENTILATION 
SYSTEM. An exhaust system, supply system, or combina- 
tion thereof that is designed to mechanically exchange indoor 
air for outdoor air when operating continuously or through a 
programmed intermittent schedule to satisfy the whole-house 
ventilation rate. For definition applicable in Chapter 11, see 
Section Nl 101.9. 

WIND-BORNE DEBRIS REGION. Areas within hurri- 
cane-prone regions as designated in accordance with Figure 
R302.1(4)C. 

WINDER. A tread with nonparallel edges. 

WOOD/PLASTIC COMPOSITE. A composite material 
made primarily from wood or cellulose-based materials and 
plastic. 

WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL. A panel manufactured 
from veneers; or wood strands or wafers; bonded together 
with waterproof synthetic resins or other suitable bonding 
systems. Examples of wood structural panels are plywood, 
OSB or composite panels. 

YARD. An open space, other than a court, unobstructed from 
the ground to the sky, except where specifically provided by 
this code, on the lot on which a building is situated. 



24 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



Part III— Building Planning and Construction 

CHAPTER 3 



SECTION R301 
DESIGN CRITERIA 

R301.1 Application. Buildings and structures, and all parts 
thereof, shall be constructed to safely support all loads, 
including dead loads, live loads, roof loads, flood loads, snow 
loads, wind loads and seismic loads as prescribed by this 
code. The construction of buildings and structures in accor- 
dance with the provisions of this code shall result in a system 
that provides a complete load path that meets all requirements 
for the transfer of all loads from their point of origin through 
the load-resisting elements to the foundation. Buildings and 
structures constructed as prescribed by this code are deemed 
to comply with the requirements of this section. 

R301.1.1 Alternative provisions. As an alternative to the 
requirements in Section R301.1 the following standards 
are permitted subject to the limitations of this code and the 
limitations therein. Where engineered design is used in 
conjunction with these standards, the design shall comply 
with the International Building Code. 

1. AF&PA Wood Frame Construction Manual 
(WFCM). 

2. AISI Standard for Cold-Formed Steel Framing- 
Prescriptive Method for One- and Two-Family 
Dwellings (AISI S230). 

3. ICC Standard on the Design and Construction of 
Log Structures (ICC 400). 

R301.1.2 Construction systems. The requirements of this 
code are based on platform and balloon-frame construc- 
tion for light-frame buildings. The requirements for con- 
crete and masonry buildings are based on a balloon 
framing system. Other framing systems must have equiva- 
lent detailing to ensure force transfer, continuity and com- 
patible deformations. 

R301.1.3 Engineered design. When a building of other- 
wise conventional construction contains structural ele- 
ments exceeding the limits of Section R301 or otherwise 
not conforming to this code, these elements shall be 
designed in accordance with accepted engineering prac- 
tice. The extent of such design need only demonstrate 
compliance of nonconventional elements with other appli- 
cable provisions and shall be compatible with the perfor- 
mance of the conventional framed system. Engineered 
design in accordance with the International Building Code 
is permitted for all buildings and structures, and parts 
thereof, included in the scope of this code. 

R301.2 Climatic and geographic design criteria. Buildings 
shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of this 



code as limited by the provisions of this section. Additional 
criteria shall be established by the local jurisdiction and set 
forth in Table R301 .2(1). 

R301.2.1 Wind design criteria. Buildings and portions 
thereof shall be constructed in accordance with the wind 
provisions of this code using the basic wind speed in Table 
R301.2(l) as determined from Figure R301.2(4)A. The 
structural provisions of this code for wind loads are not 
permitted where wind design is required as specified in 
Section R301.2.1.1. Where different construction meth- 
ods and structural materials are used for various portions 
of a building, the applicable requirements of this section 
for each portion shall apply. Where not otherwise speci- 
fied, the wind loads listed in Table R301.2(2) adjusted for 
height and exposure using Table R301.2(3) shall be used 
to determine design load performance requirements for 
wall coverings, curtain walls, roof coverings, exterior win- 
dows, skylights, garage doors and exterior doors. Asphalt 
shingles shall be designed for wind speeds in accordance 
with Section R905.2.4. A continuous load path shall be 
provided to transmit the applicable uplift forces in Section 
R802.1 1.1 from the roof assembly to the foundation. 

R301.2.1.1 Wind limitations and wind design 
required. The wind provisions of this code shall not 
apply to the design of buildings where wind design is 
required in accordance with Figure R301.2(4)B or 
where the basic wind speed from Figure R301.2(4)A 
equals or exceeds 1 10 miles per hour (49 rah). 

Exceptions: 

1. For concrete construction, the wind provisions 
of this code shall apply in accordance with the 
limitations of Sections R404 and R61 1. 

2. For structural insulated panels, the wind provi- 
sions of this code shall apply in accordance 
with the limitations of Section R613. 

In regions where wind design is required in accor- 
dance with Figure R301 .2(4)B or where the basic wind 
speed shown on Figure R301.2(4)A equals or exceeds 
1 1 miles per hour (49 m/s), the design of buildings for 
wind loads shall be in accordance with one or more of 
the following methods: 

1. AF&PA Wood Frame Construction Manual 
(WFCM); or 

2. ICC Standard for Residential Construction in 
High-Wind Regions (ICC 600); or 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



25 



BUILDING PLANNING 



3. ASCE Minimum. Design Loads for Buildings and 
Other Structures (ASCE 7); or 

4. AISI Standard for Cold-Formed Steel Framing — 
Prescriptive Method For One- and Two-Family 
Dwellings (AISI S230); or 

5. International Building Code. 

The elements of design not addressed by the meth- 
ods in Items 1 through 5 shall be in accordance with the 
provisions of this code. When ASCE 7 or the Interna- 
tional Building Code is used for the design of the build- 
ing, the wind speed map and exposure category 
requirements as specified in ASCE 7 and the Interna- 
tional Building Code shall be used. 

R301.2.1.2 Protection of openings. Exterior glazing in 
buildings located in windborne debris regions shall be 
protected from windborne debris. Glazed opening pro- 
tection for windborne debris shall meet the require- 
ments of the Large Missile Test of ASTM E 1996 and 
ASTM E 1886 referenced therein. The applicable wind 
zones for establishing misile types in ASTM E 1 996 are 
shown on Figure R301.2(4)C. Garage door glazed 
opening protection for windborne debris shall meet the 



requirements of an approved impact-resisting standard 
orANSI/DASMA115. 

Exception: Wood structural panels with a minimum 
thickness of 7 / l6 inch (1 1 mm) and a maximum span 
of 8 feet (2438 mm) shall be permitted for opening 
protection in one- and two-story buildings. Panels 
shall be precut and attached to the framing surround- 
ing the opening containing the product with the 
glazed opening. Panels shall be predrilled as 
required for the anchorage method and shall be 
secured with the attachment hardware provided. 
Attachments shall be designed to resist the compo- 
nent and cladding loads determined in accordance 
with either Table R301.2(2) or ASCE 7, with the 
permanent corrosion-resistant attachment hardware 
provided and anchors permanently installed on the 
building. Attachment in accordance with Table 
R301.2.1.2 is permitted for buildings with a mean 
roof height of 33 feet (10 058 mm) or less where 
located in Wind Zones 1 and 2 in accordance with 
Figure R301.2(4)C. 



TABLE R301. 2(1) 
CLIMATIC AND GEOGRAPHIC DESIGN CRITERIA 



GROUND 

SNOW 
LOAD 


WIND DESIGN 


SEISMIC 
DESIGN 

CATEGORY' 


SUBJECT TO DAMAGE FROM 


WINTER 
DESIGN 
TEMP" 


ICE BARRIER 

UNDERLAYMENT 

REQUIRED" 


FLOOD 

HAZARDS 3 


AIR 

FREEZING 

INDEX 1 


MEAN 

ANNUAL 

TEMP 1 


Speed" 
(mph) 


Topographic 

effects" 


Weathering" 


Frost line 
depth" 


Termite 



























For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, I mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Weathering may require a higher strength concrete or grade of masonry than necessary to satisfy the structural requirements of this code. The weathering 
column shall be filled in with the weathering index (i.e., "negligible," "moderate" or "severe") for concrete as determined from the Weathering Probability 
Map [Figure R30 1 .2(3)]. The grade of masonry units shall be determined from ASTM C 34, C 55, C 62, C 73, C 90, C 1 29, C 145, C 21 6 or C 652. 

b. The frost line depth may require deeper footings than indicated in Figure R403. 1 ( I ). The jurisdiction shall fill in the frost line depth column with the minimum 
depth of footing below finish grade. 

c. The jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table to indicate the need for protection depending on whether there has been a history of local subterranean termite 
damage. 

d. The jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with the wind speed from the basic wind speed map [Figure R301.2(4)A]. Wind exposure category shall be 
determined on a site-specific basis in accordance with Section R301 .2. 1 .4. 

e. The outdoor design dry-bulb temperature shall be selected from the columns of 97 7,-percent values for winter from Appendix D of the International Plumbing 
Code. Deviations from the Appendix D temperatures shall be permitted to reflect local climates or local weather experience as determined by the building 
official. 

f. The jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with the seismic design category determined from Section R301.2.2.1. 

g. The jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with (a) the date of the jurisdiction's entry into the National Flood Insurance Program (date of adoption of the 
first code or ordinance for management of flood hazard areas), (b) the date(s) of the Flood Insurance Study and (c) the panel numbers and dates of all currently 
effective FIRMs and FBFMs or other flood hazard map adopted by the authority having jurisdiction, as amended. 

h. In accordance with Sections R905.2.7.1 , R905.4.3.1, R905.5.3.1 , R905.6.3. 1 , R905.7.3. 1 and R905.8.3. 1 , where there has been a history of local damage from 
the effects of ice damming, the jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with "YES." Otherwise, the jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with "NO." 

i. The jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with the 100-year return period air freezing index (BF-days) from Figure R403.3(2) or from the 1 00-year (99 
percent) value on the National Climatic Data Center data table "Air Freezing Index-USA Method (Base 32°F)" at www.ncdc.noaa.gov/fpsf.html. 

j. The jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with the mean annual temperature from the National Climatic Data Center data table "Air Freezing Index- 
USA Method (Base 32°F)" at www.ncdcnoaa.gov/fpsf.html. 

k. In accordance with Section R301. 2.1.5, where there is local historical data documenting structural damage to buildings due to topographic wind speed-up 
effects, the jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with "YES." Otherwise, the jurisdiction shall indicate "NO" in this part of the table. 



26 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE* 



BUILDING PLANNING 



TABLE R301. 2(2) 

COMPONENT AND CLADDING LOADS FOR A BUILDING WITH A MEAN 

ROOF HEIGHT OF 30 FEET LOCATED IN EXPOSURE B (psf) ab cd s 





ZONE 


EFFECTIVE 
WIND 
AREA 

(feet 2 ) 


BASIC WIND SPEED (mph-3-second gust) 


85 


90 


100 


105 


110 


120 


125 


130 


140 


145 


150 


170 


V) 

01 

£ 

<D 

■o 
o 

o 

o 

A 





a. 


1 


10 


10.0 


-13.0 


10.0 


-14.6 


10.0 


-18.0 


10.0 


-19.8 


10.0 


-21.8 


10.5 


-25.9 


11.4 


-28.1 


12.4 


-30.4 


14.3 


-35.3 


1 5.4 


-37.8 


16.5 


-40.5 


21.1 


-52.0 


1 


20 


10.0 


-12.7 


10.0 


-14.2 


10.0 


-17.5 


10.0 


-19.3 


10.0 


-21.2 


10.0 


-25.2 


10.7 


-27.4 


11.6 


-29.6 


13.4 


-34.4 


14.4 


-36.9 


1 5.4 


-39.4 


19.8 


-50.7 


1 


50 


10.0 


-12.2 


10.0 


-13.7 


10.0 


-16.9 


10.0 


-18.7 


10.0 


-20.5 


10.0 


-24.4 


10.0 


-26.4 


10.6 


-28.6 


12.3 


-33.2 


13.1 


-35.6 


14.1 


-38.1 


18.1 


-48.9 


1 


100 


1.0.0 


-11.9 


10.0 


-13.3 


10.0 


-18.5 


10.0 


-18.2 


10.0 


-19.9 


10.0 


-23.7 


10.0 


-25.7 


10.0 


-27.8 


11.4 


-32.3 


12.2 


-34.6 


13.0 


-37.0 


16.7 


-47.6 


2 


10 


10.0 


-21.8 


10.0 


-24.4 


10.0 


-30.2 


10.0 


-33.3 


10.0 


-36.5 


10.5 


-43.5 


11.4 


-47.2 


12.4 


-51.0 


14.3 


-59.2 


15.4 


-63.5 


16.5 


-67.9 


21.1 


-87.2 


2 


20 


10.0 


-19.5 


10.0 


-21.8 


10.0 


-27.0 


10.0 


-29.7 


10.0 


-32.6 


10.0 


-38.8 


10.7 


-42.1 


11.6 


-45.6 


13.4 


-52.9 


14.4 


-56.7 


15.4 


-60.7 


19.8 


-78.0 


2 


50 


10.0 


-16.4 


10.0 


-18.4 


10.0 


-22.7 


10.0 


-25.1 


10.0 


-27.5 


10.0 


-32.7 


10.0 


-35.5 


10.6 


-38.4 


12.3 


-44.5 


13.1 


-47.8 


14.1 


-51.1 


18.1 


-65.7 


2 


100 


10.0 


-14.1 


10.0 


-15.8 


10.0 


-19.5 


10.0 


-21.5 


10.0 


-23.6 


10.0 


-28.1 


10.0 


-30.5 


10.0 


-33.0 


11.4 


-38.2 


12.2 


-41.0 


13.0 


-43.9 


16.7 


-56.4 


3 


10 


10.0 


-32.8 


10.0 


-36.8 


10.0 


-45.4 


10.0 


-50.1 


10.0 


-55.0 


10.5 


-65.4 


11.4 


-71.0 


12.4 


-76.8 


14.3 


-89.0 


15.4 


-95.5 


16.5 


102.2 


21,1 


1 3 1 .3 


3 


20 


10.0 


-27.2 


10.0 


-30.5 


10.0 


-37.6 


10.0 


-41.5 


10.0 


-45.5 


10.0 


-54.2 


10.7 


-58.8 


11.6 


-63.6 


13.4 


-73.8 


14.4 


-79,1 


15.4 


-84.7 


19.8 


108.7 


3 


50 


10.0 


-19.7 


10.0 


-22.1 


10.0 


-27.3 


10.0 


-30.1 


10.0 


-33.1 


10.0 


-39.3 


10.0 


-42.7 


10.6 


-46.2 


12.3 


-53.5 


13.1 


-57,4 


14.1 


-61.5 


18.1 


-78.9 


3 


100 


10.0 


-14.1 


10.0 


-15.8 


10.0 


-19.5 


10.0 


-21.5 


10.0 


-23.6 


10.0 


-28.1 


10.0 


-30.5 


10.0 


-33.0 


11.4 


-38.2 


12.2 


-41.0 


13.0 


-43.9 


16.7 


-56.4 


o 

4) 

o> 

O 

■a 
o 



a 

A 



IT 


] 


10 


10.0 


-11.9 


10.0 


-13.3 


10.4 


-16.5 


11.4 


-18.2 


12.5 


-19.9 


14.9 


-23.7 


16.2 


-25.7 


17.5 


-27.8 


20.3 


-32.3 


21.8 


-34.6 


23.3 


-37.0 


30.0 


-47.6 


1 


20 


10.0 


-11.6 


10.0 


-13.0 


10.0 


-16.0 


10.4 


-17.6 


11.4 


-19.4 


13.6 


-23.0 


14. S 


-25.0 


16.0 


-27.0 


18.5 


-31.4 


19.9 


-33.7 


21.3 


-36.0 


27.3 


-46.3 


1 


50 


10.0 


-11.1 


10.0 


-12.5 


10.0 


-15.4 


10.0 


-17.0 


10.0 


-18.6 


11.9 


-22.2 


12.9 


-24.1 


13.9 


-26.0 


16.1 


-30.2 


17.3 


-32.4 


18.5 


-34.6 


23.8 


-44.5 


1 


100 


10.0 


-10.8 


10.0 


-12.1 


10.0 


-14.9 


10.0 


-16.5 


10.0 


-18.1 


10.5 


-21.5 


11.4 


-23.3 


12.4 


-25.2 


14.3 


-29.3 


15.4 


-31.4 


16.5 


-33.6 


21.1 


-43.2 


2 


10 


10.0 


-25.1 


10.0 


-28.2 


10.4 


-34.8 


11.4 


-38.3 


12.5 


-42.1 


14.9 


-50.1 


16.2 


-54.3 


17.5 


-58.7 


20.3 


-68.1 


21.8 


-73.1 


23.3 


-78.2 


30.0 


100.5 


2 


20 


10.0 


-22.8 


10.0 


-25.6 


10.0 


-3 1 .5 


10.4 


-34,8 


11.4 


-38.2 


13.6 


-45.4 


14.8 


-49.3 


16.0 


-53.3 


18.5 


-61.8 


19.9 


-66.3 


21.3 


-71.0 


27.3 


-91.2 


2 


50 


10.0 


-19.7 


10.0 


-22.1 


10.0 


-27.3 


10.0 


-30. 1 


10.0 


-33.0 


11.9 


-39.3 


12.9 


-42.7 


13.9 


-46.1 


16.1 


-53.5 


17.3 


-57.4 


18.5 


-61.4 


23.8 


-78.9 


3 


20 


10.0 


-22.8 


10.0 


-25.6 


10.0 


-31.5 


10.4 


-34.8 


11.4 


-38.2 


13.6 


-45.4 


14.8 


-49.3 


16.0 


-53.3 


18.5 


-61.8 


19.9 


-66.3 


21.3 


-71.0 


27.3 


-91.2 


3 


50 


10.0 


-19.7 


10.0 


-22.1 


10.0 


-27.3 


10.0 


-30.1 


10.0 


-33.0 


11.9 


-39.3 


12.9 


-42.7 


13.9 


-46.1 


16.1 


-53.5 


17.3 


-57.4 


18.5 


-61.4 


23.8 


-78.9 


3 


100 


10.0 


-17.4 


10.0 


-19.5 


10.0 


-24,1 


10.0 


-26.6 


10.0 


-29.1 


10.5 


-34.7 


11.4 


-37.6 


12.4 


-40.7 


14.3 


-47.2 


15.4 


-50.6 


16.5 


-54.2 


21.1 


-69.6 


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1 


10 


11.9 


-13.0 


13.3 


-14.6 


16.5 


-18.0 


18.2 


-19.8 


19.9 


-21.8 


23.7 


-25.9 


25.7 


-28.1 


27.8 


-30.4 


32.3 


-35.3 


34.6 


-37.8 


37.0 


-40.5 


47.6 


-52.0 


1 


20 


11.6 


-12.3 


13.0 


-13.8 


16.0 


-17.1 


17.6 


-18.8 


19.4 


-20.7 


23.0 


-24.6 


25.0 


-26.7 


27.0 


-28.9 


31.4 


-33.5 


33.7 


-35.9 


36.0 


-38.4 


46.3 


-49.3 


1 


50 


II. 1 


-11.5 


12.5 


-12.8 


15.4 


-15.9 


17.0 


-17.5 


18.6 


-19.2 


22.2 


-22.8 


24.1 


-24.8 


26.0 


-25.8 


30.2 


-31.1 


32.4 


-33.3 


34.6 


-35.7 


44.5 


-45.8 


1 


100 


10.8 


-10.8 


12.1 


-12.1 


14.9 


-14.9 


16.5 


-16.5 


18.1 


-18.1 


21.5 


-21.5 


23.3 


-23.3 


25.2 


-25.2 


29.3 


-29.3 


31.4 


-31.4 


33.6 


-33.6 


43.2 


-43.2 


2 


10 


U.9 


-15.2 


13.3 


-17.0 


16.5 


-21.0 


18.2 


-23.2 


19.9 


-25.5 


23.7 


-30.3 


25.7 


-32.9 


27.8 


-35.6 


32.3 


-41.2 


34.6 


-44.2 


37.0 


-47.3 


47.6 


-60.8 


2 


20 


11.6 


-14.5 


13.0 


-16.3 


16.0 


-20.1 


17.6 


-22.2 


19.4 


-24.3 


23.0 


-29.0 


25.0 


-31.4 


27.0 


-34.0 


31.4 


-39.4 


33.7 


-42.3 


36.0 


-45.3 


46.3 


-58.1 


2 


50 


11.1 


-13.7 


12.5 


-15.3 


15.4 


-18.9 


17.0 


-20.8 


18.6 


-22.9 


22.2 


-27.2 


24.1 


-29.5 


26.0 


-32.0 


30.2 


-37.1 


32.4 


-39.8 


34.6 


-42.5 


44.5 


-54.6 


2 


100 


10.8 


-13.0 


12.1 


-14.6 


14,9 


-18.0 


16.5 


-19.8 


18.1 


-21.8 


21.5 


-25.9 


23.3 


-28.1 


25.2 


-30.4 


29.3 


-35.3 


31.4 


-37.8 


33.6 


-40.5 


43.2 


-52.0 


3 


10 


11.9 


-15.2 


13.3 


-17.0 


16.5 


-2 1 .0 


18.2 


-23.2 


19.9 


-25.5 


23.7 


-30.3 


25.7 


-32.9 


27.8 


-35.6 


32.3 


-41.2 


34.6 


-44.2 


37.0 


-47.3 


47.6 


-60.8 


3 


20 


11.6 


-14.5 


13.0 


-16.3 


16.0 


-20.1 


17.6 


-22.2 


19.4 


-24.3 


23.0 


-29.0 


25.0 


-31.4 


27.0 


-34.0 


31.4 


-39.4 


33.7 


-42.3 


36.0 


-45.3 


46.3 


-58.1 


3 


50 


II. 1 


-13.7 


12.5 


-15.3 


15.4 


-18.9 


17.0 


-20.8 


18.6 


-22.9 


22.2 


-27.2 


24.1 


-29.5 


26.0 


-32.0 


30.2 


-37.1 


32.4 


-39.8 


34.6 


-42.5 


44.5 


-54.5 


3 


100 


10.8 


-13.0 


12.1 


-14.6 


14.9 


-18.0 


16.5 


-19.8 


18.1 


-21.8 


21.5 


-25.9 


23.3 


-28.1 


25.2 


-30.4 


29.3 


-35.3 


31.4 


-37.8 


33.6 


-40.5 


43.2 


-52.0 




4 


10 


13.0 


-14.1 


14.6 


-15.8 


18.0 


-19.5 


19.8 


-21.5 


21.8 


-23.6 


25.9 


-28.1 


28.1 


-30.5 


30.4 


-33.0 


35.3 


-38.2 


37.8 


-41.0 


40.5 


-43.9 


52.0 


-56.4 


4 


20 


12.4 


-13.5 


13.9 


-15.1 


17.2 


-18.7 


18.9 


-20.6 


20.8 


-22.6 


24.7 


-26.9 


26.8 


-29.2 


29.0 


-31.6 


33.7 


-36.7 


36.1 


-39.3 


38.7 


-42.1 


49.6 


-54.1 




4 


50 


11.6 


-12.7 


13.0 


-14.3 


16.1 


-17.6 


17.8 


-19.4 


19.5 


-21.3 


23.2 


-25.4 


25.2 


-27.5 


27.2 


-29.8 


31.6 


-34.6 


33.9 


-37.1 


36.2 


-39.7 


46.6 


-51.0 


4 


100 


11.1 


-12.2 


12.4 


-13.6 


15.3 


-16,8 


16.9 


-18.5 


18.5 


-20.4 


22.0 


-24.2 


23.9 


-26.3 


25.9 


-28.4 


30.0 


-33.0 


32.2 


-35.4 


34.4 


-37.8 


44.2 


-48.6 


5 


10 


13.0 


-17.4 


14.6 


-19.5 


18.0 


-24.1 


19.8 


-26.6 


21.8 


-29.1 


25.9 


-34.7 


28.1 


-37.6 


30.4 


-40.7 


35.3 


-47.2 


37.8 


-50.6 


40.5 


-54.2 


52.0 


-69.6 


5 


20 


12.4 


-16.2 


13.9 


-18.2 


17.2 


-22.5 


18.9 


-24.8 


20.8 


-27.2 


24.7 


-32.4 


26.8 


-35.1 


29.0 


-38.0 


33.7 


-44.0 


36.1 


-47.2 


38.7 


-50.5 


49.6 


-64.9 


5 


50 


11.6 


-14.7 


13.0 


-16.5 


16.1 


-20.3 


17.8 


-22.4 


19.5 


-24.6 


23.2 


-29.3 


25.2 


-31.8 


27.2 


-34.3 


31.6 


-39.8 


33.9 


-42.7 


36.2 


-45.7 


46.6 


-58.7 


5 


100 


11.1 


-13.5 


12.4 


-15.1 


15.3 


-18.7 


16.9 


-20.6 


18.5 


-22.6 


22.0 


-26.9 


23.9 


-29.2 


25.9 1 -3 1.6 


30.0 


-36.7 


32.2 


-39.3 


34.4 


-42.1 


44.2 


-54.1 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 , 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. The effective wind area shall be equal to the span length multiplied by an effective width. This width shall be permitted to be not be less than one-third the 
span length. For cladding fasteners, the effective wind area shall not be greater than the area that is tributary to an individual fastener. 

b. For effective areas between those given above, the load may be interpolated: otherwise, use the load associated with the lower effective area. 

c. Table values shall be adjusted for height and exposure by multiplying by the adjustment coefficient in Table R30I .2(3). 

d. See Figure R301 .2(7) for location of zones. 

e. Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting toward and away from the building surfaces. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 8 



27 



BUILDING PLANNING 



TABLE R301 .2(3) 
HEIGHT AND EXPOSURE ADJUSTMENT COEFFICIENTS FOR TABLE R301.2(2) 



MEAN ROOF HEIGHT 


EXPOSURE 


B 


c 


D 


15 


1.00 


1.21 


1.47 


20 


1.00 


1.29 


1.55 


25 


1.00 


1.35 


1.61 


30 


1.00 


1.40 


1.66 


35 


1.05 


1.45 


1.70 


40 


1.09 


1.49 


1.74 


45 


1.12 


1.53 


1.78 


50 


1.16 


1.56 


1.81 


55 


1.19 


1.59 


1.84 


60 


1.22 


1.62 


1.87 



20 10 




DESIGN TEMPERATURES IN THIS AREA MUST BE BASED ON 
ANALYSIS OF LOCAL CLIMATE AND TOPOGRAPHY 



For SI: °C = [(°F)-32]/1.8. 



FIGURE R301.2(1) 



ISOLINES OF THE 977 2 PERCENT WINTER (DECEMBER, JANUARY AND FEBRUARY) DESIGN TEMPERATURES (°F) 



28 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 




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REFERENCES 

Buikimg Seismic SaFety Council. 2009. NEHRPRe-cemrrciiikd iiiu fegulaliiins for 

Ncv/ Buikiui«s and Oriii.-rSlnn.iurm: ITMA P7.W2009 frliiinn, feici:!? Emergenc)' Managsnienl 
Agency, Washington, DC. 

Huan^ Yin-Nan, Whittaker, AS., and Luco, Nicolas, 200S, Maximum spectraJ demands in rhe near-fault 
re#on,Eartlxju^SprctraVolmne24, bsus], pp. 319-341. 

Lucy, Nicolas, EiJingwood, B.R., Hamburg RO,, Hooper, J.D., Kimball, J.K., and Kiicher, C A, 3)07, 
Risk-Targeted versus CunenlSewraic l^gnAlar« for to Conterminous Uailed Slats, Structural 
Engineers Association of California 2007 Convention Proceedings, pp. 1 63-1 75. 

Petersen, MB, Feinted, AD., Harmsen, S.C, Mueller, CS., Mailer, K.M., Wheeler, R.L., Wesson. R.L, 
Zeng, Yuehua, Boyd, O.S.. Pteridns, D.M., l.uca Nicolas, Field, EH., Wills, C.J., and 
Riikstales. K.S., 2008. IXvunKntatai forthe 2003 Upfeis of (he S 'nited Stales National Seismic 
Ha73iicfM.apK U.lGet)iogiral Survey Oj-»n-FilcRcportaM8-l 128, 61 p, 

Map prepared by U.S. Geological Survey in collaboration with the Federal Emergency Management 
Ags^ (I^MAKure^ Building Sii™^^ 
CommilEee(CR3C). 





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SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES— SITE CLASS D 



32 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 63 



BUILDING PLANNING 



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SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES— SITE CLASS D 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE" 



33 



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37 



BUILDING PLANNING 




FIGURE R301.2(5) 
GROUND SNOW LOADS, P g , FOR THE UNITED STATES (lb/ft 2 ) 

(continued) 



38 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 




For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 



FIGURE R301. 2(5)— continued 
GROUND SNOW LOADS, P g , FOR THE UNITED STATES (lb/ft 2 ) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 8 



39 



BUILDING PLANNING 




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2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 




WALLS 



®L®-|— ®-^. 



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GABLE ROOFS 
0< 10° 




0< 10° 




GABLE ROOFS 
10°<0<45° 



HIP ROOFS 

10° < < 30° 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 degree 
Note: a = 4 feet in all cases. 



= 0.0175 rad. 



FIGURE R301 .2(7) 
COMPONENT AND CLADDING PRESSURE ZONES 



TABLE R301 .2.1.2 

WINDBORNE DEBRIS PROTECTION FASTENING 

SCHEDULE FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANELS"' bcd 





FASTENER SPACING (inches) 8 b 


FASTENER TYPE 


Panel 
span < 
4 feet 


4 feet < 

panel span 

< 6 feet 


6 feet < 

panel span 

< 8 feet 


No. 8 wood screw based 
anchor with 2-inch embedment 
length 


16 


10 


8 


No. 10 wood screw based 
anchor with 2-inch embedment 
length 


16 


12 


9 


7 4 -inch lag screw based anchor 
with 2-inch embedment length 


16 


16 


16 



= 4.448 N, 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound : 
1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. This table is based on 130 mph wind speeds and a 33-foot mean roof 
height. 

b. Fasteners shall be installed at opposing ends of the wood structural panel. 
Fasteners shall be located a minimum of 1 inch from die edge of the panel. 

c. Anchors shall penetrate through the exterior wall covering with an 
embedment length of 2 inches minimum into the building frame. 
Fasteners shall be located a minimum of 2'/ 2 inches from the edge of 
concrete block or concrete. 

d. Where panels are attached to masonry or masonry/stucco, they shall be 
attached using vibration-resistant anchors having a minimum ultimate 
withdrawal capacity of 1500 pounds. 



R301.2.1.3 Wind speed conversion. When referenced 
documents are based on fastest mile wind speeds, the 
three-second gust basic wind speeds, V 3s , of Figure 
R301.2(4) shall be converted to fastest mile wind 
speeds, V fm , using Table R301.2.1.3. 
R301.2.1.4 Exposure category. For each wind direc- 
tion considered, an exposure category that adequately 
reflects the characteristics of ground surface irregulari- 
ties shall be determined for the site at which the build- 
ing or structure is to be constructed. For a site located 
in the transition zone between categories, the category 
resulting in the largest wind forces shall apply. Account 
shall be taken of variations in ground surface roughness 
that arise from natural topography and vegetation as 
well as from constructed features. For a site where mul- 
tiple detached one- and two-family dwellings, town- 
houses or other structures are to be constructed as part 
of a subdivision, master-planned community, or other- 
wise designated as a developed area by the authority 
having jurisdiction, the exposure category for an indi- 
vidual structure shall be based upon the site conditions 
that will exist at the time when all adjacent structures 
on the site have been constructed, provided their con- 
struction is expected to begin within one year of the 
start of construction for the structure for which the 









TABLE R301.2.1.3 
EQUIVALENT BASIC WIND SPEEDS 














3-second gust, V,, 


85 


90 


100 


105 


110 


120 


125 


130 


140 


145 


150 


160 


170 


Fastest mile, V fm 


71 


76 


85 


90 


95 


104 


109 


114 


123 


128 


133 


142 


152 



For SI: 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 
a. Linear interpolation is permitted. 

2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE" 



41 



BUILDING PLANNING 



exposure category is determined. For any given wind 
direction, the exposure in which a specific building or 
other structure is sited shall be assessed as being one of 
the following categories: 

1. Exposure A. Large city centers with at least 50 
percent of the buildings having a height in excess 
of 70 feet (21 336 mm). Use of this exposure cat- 
egory shall be limited to those areas for which 
terrain representative of Exposure A prevails in 
the upwind direction for a distance of at least 0.5 
mile (0.8 km) or 10 times the height of the build- 
ing or other structure, whichever is greater. Possi- 
ble channeling effects or increased velocity 
pressures due to the building or structure being 
located in the wake of adjacent buildings shall be 
taken into account. 

2. Exposure B. Urban and suburban areas, wooded 
areas, or other terrain with numerous closely 
spaced obstructions having the size of single- 
family dwellings or larger. Exposure B shall be 
assumed unless the site meets the definition of 
another type exposure. 

3. Exposure C. Open terrain with scattered obstruc- 
tions, including surface undulations or other 
irregularities, having heights generally less than 
30 feet (9144 mm) extending more than 1,500 
feet (457 m) from the building site in any quad- 
rant. This exposure shall also apply to any build- 
ing located within Exposure B type terrain where 
the building is directly adjacent to open areas of 
Exposure C type terrain in any quadrant for a dis- 
tance of more than 600 feet (183 m). This cate- 
gory includes flat, open country and grasslands. 

4. Exposure D. Flat, unobstructed areas exposed to 
wind flowing over open water for a distance of at 
least 1 mile (1.61 km). Shorelines in Exposure D 
include inland waterways, the Great Lakes, and 
coastal areas of California, Oregon, Washington 
and Alaska. This exposure shall apply only to 
those buildings and other structures exposed to 
the wind coming from over the water. Exposure 
D extends inland from the shoreline a distance of 
1500 feet (457 m) or 10 times the height of the 
building or structure, whichever is greater. 



BASIC WIND SPEED 
FROM FIGURE 
B301.2(4)(mph) 



85 



90 



100 



(10 



120 



130 



TABLE R301. 2.1. 5.1 
BASIC WIND [MODIFICATION FOR TOPOGRAPHIC WIND EFFECT 



R301.2.1.5 Topographic wind effects. In areas desig- 
nated in Table R30 1.2(1) as having local historical data 
documenting structural damage to buildings caused by 
wind speed-up at isolated hills, ridges and escarpments 
that are abrupt changes from the general topography of 
the area, topographic wind effects shall be considered 
in the design of the building in accordance with Section 
R301.2.1.5.1 or in accordance with the provisions of 
ASCE 7. See Figure R301. 2.1.5.1(1) for topographic 
features for wind speed-up effect. 

In these designated areas, topographic wind effects 
shall apply only to buildings sited on the top half of an 
isolated hill, ridge or escarpment where all of the fol- 
lowing conditions exist: 

1 . The average slope of the top half of the hill, ridge 
or escarpment is 10 percent or greater. 

2. The hill, ridge or escarpment is 60 feet (18 288 
mm) or greater in height for Exposure B, 30 feet 
(9144 mm) or greater in height for Exposure C, 
and 15 feet (4572 mm) or greater in height for 
Exposure D. 

3. The hill, ridge or escarpment is isolated or unob- 
structed by other topographic features of similar 
height in the upwind direction for a distance mea- 
sured from its high point of 100 times its height 
or 2 miles, whichever is less. See Figure 
R301.2.1.5.1(3) for upwind obstruction. 

4. The hill, ridge or escarpment protrudes by a fac- 
tor of two or more above the height of other 
upwind topographic features located in any quad- 
rant within a radius of 2 miles measured from its 
high point. 

R301.2.1.5.1 Simplified topographic wind speed- 
up method. As an alternative to the ASCE 7 topo- 
graphic wind provisions, the provisions of Section 
R301. 2.1.5.1 shall be permitted to be used to design 
for wind speed-up effects, where required by Sec- 
tion R301.2.1. 5. 

Structures located on the top half of isolated 
hills, ridges or escarpments meeting the conditions 
of Section R301.2.1.5 shall be designed for an 
increased basic wind speed as determined by Table 
R30 1.2. 1.5.1. On the high side of an escarpment, the 
increased basic wind speed shall extend horizontally 
downwind from the edge of the escarpment 1.5 



0.10 



AVERAGE SLOPE OF THE TOP HALF OF HILL, RIDGE OR ESCARPMENT (percent) 



0.125 



0.15 



0.175 



0.20 



0.23 



100 



100 



110 



120 



140 



150 



For SI: 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 



Required basic wind speed-up, modified for topographic wind speed up (mph) 



0.25 or greater 



100 



100 



120 



130 



140 



N/A 



100 



110 



120 



130 



150 



N/A 



110 



110 
130 



140 



150 



N/A 



110 



120 



130 



140 



N/A 



N/A 



110 



120 



130 



150 



N/A 



N/A 



120 



120 



140 



150 



N/A 



N/A 



42 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 



times the horizontal length of the upwind slope 
(1.5L) or 6 times the height of the escarpment (6H), 
whichever is greater. See Figure R30 1.2. 1.5. 1(2) for 
where wind speed increase is applied. 

R301.2.2 Seismic provisions. The seismic provisions of 
this code shall apply as follows: 

1. Townhouses in Seismic Design Categories C, D , D, 
and D 2 . 



2. Detached one- and two-family dwellings in Seismic 
Design Categories, D , D, and D 2 . 

R301.2.2.1 Determination of seismic design cate- 
gory. Buildings shall be assigned a seismic design cate- 
gory in accordance with Figure R301.2(2). 

R301.2.2.1.1 Alternate determination of seismic 
design category. The seismic design categories and 
corresponding short period design spectral response 




ESCARPMENT 



RIDGE OR HILL 



Note: H/2 determines the measurement point for Lh. L is twice Lh. 



FIGURE R301. 2.1. 5.1(1) 
TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURES FOR WIND SPEED-UP EFFECT 



APPLY INCREASED 
WIND SPEED TO 
TOP HALF OF HILL OR 
RIDGE 



-§Sj 



GREATER OF 1.5L OR 6H 



v % 




HILL OR RIDGE 



ESCARPEMNT 



FIGURE R301. 2.1. 5.1(2) 
ILLUSTRATION OF WHERE ON A TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURE, WIND SPEED INCREASE IS APPLIED 



«- 



CHECK FOR OBSTRUCTION PER R301 .2.1 .5 
IF DISTANCE IS LESS THAN 100 H, OR 2 
MILES 




UPWIND TOPOGRAPHIC 
FEATURE 




ESCARPMENT 



RIDGE OR HILL 



FIGURE R301 .2.1.5.1(3) 
UPWIND OBSTRUCTION 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



43 



BUILDING PLANNING 



accelerations, S DS shown in Figure R30 1.2(2) are 
based on soil Site Class D, as defined in Section 
1613.5.2 of the International Building Code. If soil 
conditions are other than Site Class D, the short 
period design spectral response accelerations, S DS , 
for a site can be determined according to Section 
1613.5 of the International Building Code. The 
value of S DS determined according to Section 1613.5 
of the International Building Code is permitted to be 
used to set the seismic design category according to 
Table R301.2.2. 1.1, and to interpolate between val- 
ues in Tables R602.10.1.2(2), R603.9.2(l) and other 
seismic design requirements of this code. 

TABLE R301 .2.2.1.1 
SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY DETERMINATION 



CALCULATED S DS 


SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY 


S M <0.17g 


A 


0.17g<5 ns <0.33g 


B 


0.33g < S DS < 0.50g 


C 


0.50g<S DJ .<0.67g 


D„ 


0.67g<S as <0.83g 


D, 


0.83g<S m <l.l7g 


D 2 


1.17g<S 0S 


E 



R301.2.2.1.2 Alternative determination of Seis- 
mic Design Category E. Buildings located in Seis- 
mic Design Category E in accordance with Figure 
R301.2(2) are permitted to be reclassified as being 
in Seismic Design Category D, provided one of the 
following is done: 

1. A more detailed evaluation of the seismic 
design category is made in accordance with 
the provisions and maps of the International 
Building Code. Buildings located in Seismic 
Design Category E per Table R301.2.2.1.1, 
but located in Seismic Design Category D per 
the International Building Code, may be 
designed using the Seismic Design Category 
D 2 requirements of this code. 

2. Buildings located in Seismic Design Category 
E that conform to the following additional 
restrictions are permitted to be constructed in 
accordance with the provisions for Seismic 
Design Category D, of this code: 

2. 1 . All exterior shear wall lines or braced 
wall panels are in one plane vertically 
from the foundation to the uppermost 
story. 

2.2. Floors shall not cantilever past the 
exterior walls. 



2.3. The building is within all of the 
requirements of Section R301. 2.2.2.5 
for being considered as regular. 

R301.2.2.2 Seismic Design Category C. Structures 
assigned to Seismic Design Category C shall conform 
to the requirements of this section. 

R301.2.2.2.1 Weights of materials. Average dead 
loads shall not exceed 15 pounds per square foot 
(720 Pa) for the combined roof and ceiling assem- 
blies (on a horizontal projection) or 10 pounds per 
square foot (480 Pa) for floor assemblies, except as 
further limited by Section R301.2.2. Dead loads for 
walls above grade shall not exceed: 

1. Fifteen pounds per square foot (720 Pa) for 
exterior light-frame wood walls. 

2. Fourteen pounds per square foot (670 Pa) for 
exterior light-frame cold-formed steel walls. 

3. Ten pounds per square foot (480 Pa) for inte- 
rior light-frame wood walls. 

4. Five pounds per square foot (240 Pa) for inte- 
rior light-frame cold-formed steel walls. 

5. Eighty pounds per square foot (3830 Pa) for 8- 
inch-thick (203 mm) masonry walls. 

6. Eighty-five pounds per square foot (4070 Pa) 
for 6-inch-thick (152 mm) concrete walls. 

7. Ten pounds per square foot (480 Pa) for SIP 
walls. 

Exceptions: 

1. Roof and ceiling dead loads not exceeding 
25 pounds per square foot (1 190 Pa) shall 
be permitted provided the wall bracing 
amounts in Chapter 6 are increased in 
accordance with Table R301.2.2.2.1. 

2. Light-frame walls with stone or masonry 
veneer shall be permitted in accordance 
with the provisions of Sections R702.1 and 
R703. 

3. Fireplaces and chimneys shall be permitted 
in accordance with Chapter 10. 

TABLE R301 .2.2.2.1 

WALL BRACING ADJUSTMENT FACTORS BY 

ROOF COVERING DEAD LOAD a 



WALL SUPPORTING 


ROOF/CEILING DEAD LOAD 


15 psf or less 


25 psf 


Roof only 


1.0 


1.2 


Roof plus one or two stories 


1.0 


1.1 



For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 
a. Linear interpolation shall be permitted. 



44 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 



R30 1.2.2.2. 2 Stone and masonry veneer. 
Anchored stone and masonry veneer shall comply 
with the requirements of Sections R702.1 and R703. 

R30 1.2.2.2.3 Masonry construction. Masonry con- 
struction shall comply with the requirements of Sec- 
tion R606. 12. 

R301.2.2.2.4 Concrete construction. Detached 
one- and two-family dwellings with exterior above- 
grade concrete walls shall comply with the require- 
ments of Section R611, PCA 100 or shall be 
designed in accordance with ACI 318. Townhouses 
with above-grade exterior concrete walls shall com- 
ply with the requirements of PCA 100 or shall be 
designed in accordance with ACI 318. 

R301.2.2.2.5 Irregular buildings. The seismic pro- 
visions of this code shall not be used for irregular 
structures located in Seismic Design Categories C, 
D , D, and D 2 . Irregular portions of structures shall 
be designed in accordance with accepted engineer- 
ing practice to the extent the irregular features affect 
the performance of the remaining structural system. 
When the forces associated with the irregularity are 
resisted by a structural system designed in accor- 
dance with accepted engineering practice, design of 
the remainder of the building shall be permitted 
using the provisions of this code. A building or por- 
tion of a building shall be considered to be irregular 
when one or more of the following conditions 
occur: 

1. When exterior shear wall lines or braced wall 
panels are not in one plane vertically from the 
foundation to the uppermost story in which 
they are required. 

Exception: For wood light-frame construc- 
tion, floors with cantilevers or setbacks not 
exceeding four times the nominal depth of 
the wood floor joists are permitted to sup- 
port braced wall panels that are out of 
plane with braced wall panels below pro- 
vided that: 

1. Floor joists are nominal 2 inches by 
10 inches (51 mm by 254 mm) or 
larger and spaced not more than 16 
inches (406 mm) on center. 



2. The ratio of the back span to 
cantilever is at least 2 to 1 . 



the 



3. Floor joists at ends of braced wall 
panels are doubled. 

4. For wood-frame construction, a 
continuous rim joist is connected to 
ends of all cantilever joists. When 
spliced, the rim joists shall be spliced 
using a galvanized metal tie not less 
than 0.058 inch (1.5 mm) (16 gage) 



and 1 7 2 inches (38 mm) wide 
fastened with six 16d nails on each 
side of the splice or a block of the 
same size as the rim joist of sufficient 
length to fit securely between the 
joist space at which the splice occurs 
fastened with eight 16d nails on each 
side of the splice; and 

5. Gravity loads carried at the end of 
cantilevered joists are limited to 
uniform wall and roof loads and the 
reactions from headers having a span 
of 8 feet (2438 mm) or less. 

When a section of floor or roof is not laterally 
supported by shear walls or braced wall lines 
on all edges. 

Exception: Portions of floors that do not 
support shear walls or braced wall panels 
above, or roofs, shall be permitted to 
extend no more than 6 feet (1829 mm) 
beyond a shear wall or braced wall line. 

When the end of a braced wall panel occurs 
over an opening in the wall below and ends at 
a horizontal distance greater than 1 foot (305 
mm) from the edge of the opening. This provi- 
sion is applicable to shear walls and braced 
wall panels offset in plane and to braced wall 
panels offset out of plane as permitted by the 
exception to Item 1 above. 

Exception: For wood light-frame wall con- 
struction, one end of a braced wall panel 
shall be permitted to extend more than 1 
foot (305 mm) over an opening not more 
than 8 feet (2438 mm) wide in the wall 
below provided that the opening includes a 
header in accordance with the following: 

1. The building width, loading condition 
and framing member species 
limitations of Table R502.5(l) shall 
apply; and 

2. Not less than one 2 x 12 or two 2 x 
10 for an opening not more than 4 
feet (1219 mm) wide; or 

3. Not less than two 2 x 12 or three 2 x 
10 for an opening not more than 6 
feet (1829 mm) wide; or 

4. Not less than three 2 x 12 or four 2 x 
10 for an opening not more than 8 
feet (2438 mm) wide; and 

5. The entire length of the braced wall 
panel does not occur over an opening 
in the wall below. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



45 



BUILDING PLANNING 



4. When an opening in a floor or roof exceeds 
the lesser of 12 feet (3658 mm) or 50 percent 
of the least floor or roof dimension. 

5. When portions of a floor level are vertically 
offset. 



Exceptions: 
1. Framing 



supported directly by 
continuous foundations at the 
perimeter of the building. 

2. For wood light-frame construction, 
floors shall be permitted to be 
vertically offset when the floor 
framing is lapped or tied together as 
required by Section R502.6.1. 

6. When shear walls and braced wall lines do not 
occur in two perpendicular directions. 

7. When stories above grade plane partially or 
completely braced by wood wall framing in 
accordance with Section R602 or steel wall 
framing in accordance with Section R603 
include masonry or concrete construction. 

Exception: Fireplaces, chimneys and 
masonry veneer as permitted by this code. 
When this irregularity applies, the entire 
story shall be designed in accordance with 
accepted engineering practice. 

R301.2.2.3 Seismic Design Categories D , D t and D 2 . 
Structures assigned to Seismic Design Categories D , 
D, and D 2 shall conform to the requirements for Seis- 
mic Design Category C and the additional requirements 
of this section. 

R301.2.2.3.1 Height limitations. Wood-framed 
buildings shall be limited to three stories above 
grade plane or the limits given in Table 
R602. 10.3(3). Cold-formed, steel-framed buildings 
shall be limited to less than or equal to three stories 
above grade plane in accordance with AISI S230. 
Mezzanines as defined in Section R202 shall not be 
considered as stories. Structural insulated panel 
buildings shall be limited to two stories above grade 
plane. 

R301.2.2.3.2 Stone and masonry veneer. 

Anchored stone and masonry veneer shall comply 
with the requirements of Sections R702.1 and R703. 

R301.2.2.3.3 Masonry construction. Masonry con- 
struction in Seismic Design Categories D and D, 
shall comply with the requirements of Section 
R606.12.1. Masonry construction in Seismic Design 
Category D 2 shall comply with the requirements of 
Section R606. 12.4. 

R301.2.2.3.4 Concrete construction. Buildings 
with exterior above-grade concrete walls shall com- 
ply with PC A 100 or shall be designed in accor- 
dance with ACI 318. 



R301.2.2.3.5 Cold-formed steel framing in Seis- 
mic Design Categories D , D, and D 2 . In Seismic 
Design Categories D , D, and D 2 in addition to the 
requirements of this code, cold-formed steel framing 
shall comply with the requirements of AISI S230. 

R301.2.2.3.6 Masonry chimneys. Masonry chim- 
neys shall be reinforced and anchored to the build- 
ing in accordance with Sections R 1003. 3 and 
R1003.4. 

R301.2.2.3.7 Anchorage of water heaters. Water 
heaters shall be anchored against movement and 
overturning in accordance with Section Ml 307.2. 

R301.2.2.4 Seismic Design Category E. Buildings in 
Seismic Design Category E shall be designed to resist 
seismic loads in accordance with the International 
Building Code, except when the seismic design cate- 
gory is reclassified to a lower seismic design category 
in accordance with Section R301. 2.2.1. Components of 
buildings not required to be designed to resist seismic 
loads shall be constructed in accordance with the provi- 
sions of this code. 

R301.2.3 Snow loads. Wood-framed construction, cold- 
formed, steel-framed construction and masonry and con- 
crete construction, and structural insulated panel construc- 
tion in regions with ground snow loads 70 pounds per 
square foot (3.35 kPa) or less, shall be in accordance with 
Chapters 5, 6 and 8. Buildings in regions with ground 
snow loads greater than 70 pounds per square foot (3.35 
kPa) shall be designed in accordance with accepted engi- 
neering practice. 

R301.2.4 Floodplain construction. Buildings and struc- 
tures constructed in whole or in part in flood hazard areas 
(including A or V Zones) as established in Table 
R301.2(l) shall be designed and constructed in accordance 
with Section R322. Buildings and structures located in 
whole or in part in identified floodways shall be designed 
and constructed in accordance with ASCE 24. 

R301.2.4.1 Alternative provisions. As an alternative 
to the requirements in Section R322.3 for buildings and 
structures located in whole or in part in coastal high- 
hazard areas (V Zones) and coastal A Zones, if delin- 
eated, ASCE 24 is permitted subject to the limitations 
of this code and the limitations therein. 

R301.3 Story height. The wind and seismic provisions of 
this code shall apply to buildings with story heights not 
exceeding the following: 

1. For wood wall framing, the laterally unsupported bear- 
ing wall stud height permitted by Table R602.3(5) plus 
a height of floor framing not to exceed 16 inches (406 
mm). 

Exception: For wood-framed wall buildings with 
bracing in accordance with Tables R602. 10.3(1) and 
R602. 10.3(3), the wall stud clear height used to 
determine the maximum permitted story height may 
be increased to 12 feet (3658 mm) without requiring 
an engineered design for the building wind and seis- 
mic force-resisting systems provided that the length 



46 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 



of bracing required by Table R602. 10.3(1) is 
increased by multiplying by a factor of 1.10 and the 
length of bracing required by Table R602. 10.3(3) is 
increased by multiplying by a factor of 1.20. Wall 
studs are still subject to the requirements of this sec- 
tion. 

2. For steel wall framing, a stud height of 10 feet (3048 
mm), plus a height of floor framing not to exceed 16 
inches (406 mm). 

3. For masonry walls, a maximum bearing wall clear 
height of 1 2 feet (3658 mm) plus a height of floor fram- 
ing not to exceed 16 inches (406 mm). 

Exception: An additional 8 feet (2438 mm) is per- 
mitted for gable end walls. 

4. For insulating concrete form walls, the maximum bear- 
ing wall height per story as permitted by Section R611 
tables plus a height of floor framing not to exceed 16 
inches (406 mm). 

5. For structural insulated panel (SIP) walls, the maxi- 
mum bearing wall height per story as permitted by Sec- 
tion R613 tables shall not exceed 10 feet (3048 mm) 
plus a height of floor framing not to exceed 16 inches 
(406 mm). 

Individual walls or walls studs shall be permitted to 
exceed these limits as permitted by Chapter 6 provisions, pro- 
vided story heights are not exceeded. Floor framing height 
shall be permitted to exceed these limits provided the story 
height does not exceed 1 1 feet 7 inches (3531 mm). An engi- 
neered design shall be provided for the wall or wall framing 
members when they exceed the limits of Chapter 6. Where 
the story height limits of this section are exceeded, the design 
of the building, or the noncompliant portions thereof, to resist 
wind and seismic loads shall be in accordance with the Inter- 
national Building Code. 

R301.4 Dead load. The actual weights of materials and con- 
struction shall be used for determining dead load with consid- 
eration for the dead load of fixed service equipment. 
R301.5 Live load. The minimum uniformly distributed live 
load shall be as provided in Table R301.5. 
R301.6 Moof load. The roof shall be designed for the live 
load indicated in Table R301.6 or the snow load indicated in 
Table R301.2(l), whichever is greater. 

TABLER301.6 

MINIMUM ROOF LIVE LOADS IN POUNDS-FORCE PER SQUARE 

FOOT OF HORIZONTAL PROJECTION 



TABLER301.5 

MINIMUM UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LIVE LOADS 

(in pounds per square foot) 



ROOF SLOPE 


TRIBUTARY LOADED AREA IN 
SQUARE FEET FOR ANY 
STRUCTURAL MEMBER 


to 200 


201 to 600 


Over 600 


Flat or rise less than 4 inches per 
foot (1:3) 


20 


16 


12 


Rise 4 inches per foot (1:3) to 
less than 12 inches per foot (1:1) 


16 


14 


12 


Rise 12 inches per foot (1:1) 
and greater 


12 


12 


12 



USE 


LIVE LOAD 


Uninhabitable attics without storage b 


10 


Uninhabitable attics with limited storage bl 8 


20 


Habitable attics and attics served with fixed stairs 


30 


Balconies (exterior) and decks 6 


40 


Fire escapes 


40 


Guardrails and handrails' 1 


200 h 


Guardrail in-fill components' 


50 h 


Passenger vehicle garages" 


50 a 


Rooms other than sleeping room 


40 


Sleeping rooms 


30 


Stairs 


40' 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 , 1 pound per square foot 
1 inch per foot = 83.3 mm/m. 



= 0.0479 kPa, 



For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 square inch = 645 mm 2 , 
1 pound = 4.45 N. 

a. Elevated garage floors shall be capable of supporting a 2,000-pound load 
applied over a 20-square-inch area. 

b. Uninhabitable attics without storage are those where the maximum clear 
height between joists and rafters is less than 42 inches, or where there are 
not two or more adjacent trusses with web configurations capable of 
accommodating an assumed rectangle 42 inches high by 24 inches in 
width, or greater, within the plane of the trusses. This live load need not be 
assumed to act concurrently with any other live load requirements. 

c. Individual stair treads shall be designed for the uniformly distributed live 
load or a 300-pound concentrated load acting over an area of 4 square 
inches, whichever produces the greater stresses. 

d. A single concentrated load applied in any direction at any point along the 
top. 

e. See Section R502.2.2 for decks attached to exterior walls. 

f. Guard in-fill components (all those except the handrail), balusters and 
panel fillers shall be designed to withstand a horizontally applied normal 
load of 50 pounds on an area equal to 1 square foot. This load need not be 
assumed to act concurrently with any other live load requirement. 

g. Uninhabitable attics with limited storage are those where the maximum 
clear height between joists and rafters is 42 inches or greater, or where 
there are two or more adjacent trusses with web configurations capable of 
accommodating an assumed rectangle 42 inches in height by 24 inches in 
width, or greater, within the plane of the trusses. 

The live load need only be applied to those portions of the joists or trass 
bottom chords where all of the following conditions are met: 

1 . The attic area is accessible from an opening not less than 20 inches in 
width by 30 inches in length that is located where the clear height in 
the attic is a minimum of 30 inches. 

2. The slopes of the joists or truss bottom chords are no greater than 2 
inches vertical to 12 units horizontal. 

3. Required insulation depth is less than the joist or truss bottom chord 
member depth. 

The remaining portions of the joists or truss bottom chords shall be 
designed for a uniformly distributed concurrent live load of not less than 
10 lb/ft 2 , 
h. Glazing used in handrail assemblies and guards shall be designed with a 
safety factor of 4. The safety factor shall be applied to each of the 
concentrated loads applied to the top of the rail, and to the load on the in- 
fill components. These loads shall be determined independent of one 
another, and loads are assumed not to occur with any other live load. 



R301.7 Deflection. The allowable deflection of any struc- 
tural member under the live load listed in Sections R301.5 
and R301.6 or wind loads determined by Section R301.2.1 
shall not exceed the values in Table R301.7. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



47 



BUILDING PLANNING 



TABLER301.7 
ALLOWABLE DEFLECTION OF STRUCTURAL MEMBERS" c 



Section P2904 shall comply 



STRUCTURAL MEMBER 


ALLOWABLE 
DEFLECTION 


Rafters having slopes greater than 3:12 with no 
finished ceiling attached to rafters 


27180 


Interior walls and partitions 


77/180 


Floors/ceilings with plaster or stucco finish 


27360 


All other structural members 


L/240 


Exterior walls — wind loads 3 with plaster or 
stucco finish 


22/360 


Exterior walls with other brittle finishes 


22/240 


Exterior walls with flexible finishes 


22/120" 


Lintels supporting masonry veneer walls' 


27600 



Note: L = span length, H = span height. 

a. The wind load shall be permitted to be taken as 0.7 times the Component 

and Cladding loads for the purpose of the determining deflection limits 

herein. 

b For cantilever members, L shall be taken as twice the length of the 
cantilever. 

c. For aluminum structural members or panels used in roofs or walls of 
sunroom additions or patio covers, not supporting edge of glass or 
sandwich panels, the total load deflection shall not exceed 2760. For 
continuous aluminum structural members supporting edge of glass, the 
total load deflection shall not exceed A/175 for each glass lite or 1/60 for 
the entire length of the member, whichever is more stringent. For 
sandwich panels used in roofs or walls of sunroom additions or patio 
covers, the total load deflection shall not exceed LI 120. 

d. Deflection for exterior walls with interior gypsum board finish shall be 
limited to an allowable deflection of /A/180. 

e. Refer to Section R703.7.2. 

R301.8 Nominal sizes. For the purposes of this code, where 
dimensions of lumber are specified, they shall be deemed to 
be nominal dimensions unless specifically designated as 
actual dimensions. 



SECTION R302 
FSRE-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION 
R302.1 Exterior walls. Construction, projections, openings 
and penetrations of exterior walls of dwellings and accessory 
buildings shall comply with Table R302.1(l); or dwellings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system 



installed in accordance with 
with Table R302. 1(2). 

Exceptions: 

1. Walls, projections, openings or penetrations in walls 
perpendicular to the line used to determine the fire 
separation distance. 

2. Walls of dwellings and accessory structures located 
on the same lot. 

3. Detached tool sheds and storage sheds, playhouses 
and similar structures exempted from permits are 
not required to provide wall protection based on 
location on the lot. Projections beyond the exterior 
wall shall not extend over the lot line. 

4. Detached garages accessory to a dwelling located 
within 2 feet (610 mm) of a lot line are permitted to 
have roof eave projections not exceeding 4 inches 
(102 mm). 

5. Foundation vents installed in compliance with this 
code are permitted. 

R302.2 Townhouses. Each townhouse shall be considered a 
separate building and shall be separated by fire-resistance- 
rated wall assemblies meeting the requirements of Section 
R302.1 for exterior walls. 

Exception: A common 1-hour fire-resistance-rated wall 
assembly tested in accordance with ASTM E 119 or UL 
263 is permitted for townhouses if such walls do not con- 
tain plumbing or mechanical equipment, ducts or vents in 
the cavity of the common wall. The wall shall be rated for 
fire exposure from both sides and shall extend to and be 
tight against exterior walls and the underside of the roof 
sheathing. Electrical installations shall be installed in 
accordance with Chapters 34 through 43. Penetrations of 
electrical outlet boxes shall be in accordance with Section 
R302.4. 

R302.2.1 Continuity. The fire-resistance-rated wall or 
assembly separating townhouses shall be continuous from 
the foundation to the underside of the roof sheathing, deck 
or slab. The fire-resistance rating shall extend the full 
length of the wall or assembly, including wall extensions 



TABLE R302.1(1) 
EXTERIOR WALLS 



EXTERIOR WALL ELEMENT 


MINIMUM 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING 


MINIMUM FIRE 
SEPARATION DISTANCE 


Walls 


Fire-resistance rated 


1 hour— tested in accordance with ASTM E 1 19 
or UL 263 with exposure from both sides 


< 5 feet 


Not fire-resistance rated 


hours 


> 5 feet 


Projections 


Fire-resistance rated 


1 hour on the underside 


> 2 feet to < 5 feet 


Not fire-resistance rated 


hours 


> 5 feet 


Openings in walls 


Not allowed 


N/A 


< 3 feet 


25% maximum of wall area 


hours 


3 feet 


Unlimited 


hours 


5 feet 


Penetrations 


All 


Comply with Section R302.4 


< 5 feet 


None required 


5 feet 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 
N/A = Not Applicable 



48 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE" 1 



BUILDiNG PLANNING 



through and separating attached enclosed accessory struc- 
tures. 

R302.2.2 Parapets. Parapets constructed in accordance 
with Section R302.2.3 shall be constructed for townhouses 
as an extension of exterior walls or common walls in 
accordance with the following: 

1 . Where roof surfaces adjacent to the wall or walls are 
at the same elevation, the parapet shall extend not 
less than 30 inches (762 mm) above the roof sur- 
faces. 

2. Where roof surfaces adjacent to the wall or walls are 
at different elevations and the higher roof is not 
more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the lower roof, 
the parapet shall extend not less than 30 inches (762 
mm) above the lower roof surface. 

Exception: A parapet is not required in the two 
cases above when the roof is covered with a min- 
imum class C roof covering, and the roof decking 
or sheathing is of noncombustible materials or 
approved fire-retardant-treated wood for a dis- 
tance of 4 feet (1219 mm) on each side of the 
wall or walls, or one layer of 5 / 8 -inch (15.9 mm) 
Type X gypsum board is installed directly 
beneath the roof decking or sheathing, supported 
by a minimum of nominal 2-inch (51 mm) led- 
gers attached to the sides of the roof framing 
members, for a minimum distance of 4 feet (1219 
mm) on each side of the wall or walls and there 
are no openings or penetrations in the roof within 
4 feet (1219 mm) of the common walls. 

3. A parapet is not required where roof surfaces adja- 
cent to the wall or walls are at different elevations 
and the higher roof is more than 30 inches (762 mm) 
above the lower roof. The common wall construc- 
tion from the lower roof to the underside of the 
higher roof deck shall have not less than a 1-hour 
fire-resistance rating. The wall shall be rated for 
exposure from both sides. 



R302.2.3 Parapet construction. Parapets shall have the 
same fire-resistance rating as that required for the support- 
ing wall or walls. On any side adjacent to a roof surface, 
the parapet shall have noncombustible faces for the upper- 
most 18 inches (457 mm), to include counterflashing and 
coping materials. Where the roof slopes toward a parapet 
at slopes greater than 2 units vertical in 12 units horizontal 
(16.7-percent slope), the parapet shall extend to the same 
height as any portion of the roof within a distance of 3 feet 
(914 mm), but in no case shall the height be less than 30 
inches (762 mm). 

R302.2.4 Structural independence. Each individual 
townhouse shall be structurally independent. 

Exceptions: 

1. Foundations supporting exterior walls or com- 
mon walls. 

2. Structural roof and wall sheathing from each unit 
may fasten to the common wall framing. 

3. Nonstructural wall and roof coverings. 

4. Flashing at termination of roof covering over 
common wall. 

5. Townhouses separated by a common 1-hour fire- 
resistance-rated wall as provided in Section 
R302.2. 

R302.3 Two-family dwellings. Dwelling units in two-family 
dwellings shall be separated from each other by wall and/or 
floor assemblies having not less than a 1-hour fire-resistance 
rating when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1 19 or UL 
263. Fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling and wall assemblies 
shall extend to and be tight against the exterior wall, and wall 
assemblies shall extend from the foundation to the underside 
of the roof sheathing. 

Exceptions: 

1 . A fire-resistance rating of 7 2 hour shall be permitted 
in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with NFPA 
13. 



TABLE R302. 1(2) 
EXTERIOR WALLS— DWELLINGS WITH FIRE SPRINKLERS 



EXTERIOR WALL ELEMENT 


MINIMUM 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING 


MINIMUM FIRE 
SEPARATION DISTANCE 


Walls 


Fire-resistance rated 


1 hour — tested in accordance with ASTM E 
1 19 or UL 263 with exposure from the outside 


Ofeet 


Not fire-resistance rated 


hours 


3 feet" 


Projections 


Fire- resistance rated 


1 hour on the underside 


2 feet" 


Not fire-resistance rated 


hours 


3 feet 


Openings in walls 


Not allowed 


N/A 


< 3 feet 


Unlimited 


hours 


3 feet" 


Penetrations 


All 


Comply with Section R302.4 


< 3 feet 


None required 


3 feet" 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

N/A = Not Applicable 

a For residential subdivisions where all dwellings are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with Section P2904, the 
fire separation distance for nonrated exterior walls and rated projections shall be permitted to be reduced to feet, and unlimited unprotected openings and 
penetrations shall be permitted, where the adjoining lot provides an open setback yard that is 6 feet or more in width on the opposite side of the property line. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



49 



BUILDING PLANNING 



2. Wall assemblies need not extend through attic 
spaces when the ceiling is protected by not less than 
5 / 8 -inch (15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board and an 
attic draft stop constructed as specified in Section 
R302.12.1 is provided above and along the wall 
assembly separating the dwellings. The structural 
framing supporting the ceiling shall also be pro- 
tected by not less than ' A, -inch (12.7 mm) gypsum 
board or equivalent. 

R302.3.1 Supporting construction. When floor 
assemblies are required to be fire-resistance rated by 
Section R302.3, the supporting construction of such 
assemblies shall have an equal or greater fire-resistance 
rating. 

R302.4 Dwelling unit rated penetrations. Penetrations of 
wall or floor/ceiling assemblies required to be fire-resistance 
rated in accordance with Section R302.2 or R302.3 shall be 
protected in accordance with this section. 

R302.4.1 Through penetrations. Through penetrations of 
fire-resistance-rated wall or floor assemblies shall comply 
with Section R302.4. 1.1 or R302.4.1.2. 

Exception: Where the penetrating items are steel, fer- 
rous or copper pipes, tubes or conduits, the annular 
space shall be protected as follows: 

1 . In concrete or masonry wall or floor assemblies, 
concrete, grout or mortar shall be permitted 
where installed to the full thickness of the wall or 
floor assembly or the thickness required to main- 
tain the fire-resistance rating, provided: 

1.1. The nominal diameter of the penetrating 
item is a maximum of 6 inches (152 mm); 
and 

1 .2. The area of the opening through the wall 
does not exceed 144 square inches (92 
900 mm 2 ). 

2. The material used to fill the annular space shall 
prevent the passage of flame and hot gases suffi- 
cient to ignite cotton waste where subjected to 
ASTM E 119 or UL 263 time temperature fire 
conditions under a minimum positive pressure 
differential of 0.01 inch of water (3 Pa) at the 
location of the penetration for the time period 
equivalent to the fire-resistance rating of the con- 
struction penetrated. 

R302.4.1.1 Fire-resistance-rated assembly. Penetra- 
tions shall be installed as tested in the approved fire- 
resistance-rated assembly. 

R302.4.1.2 Penetration firestop system. Penetrations 
shall be protected by an approved penetration firestop 
system installed as tested in accordance with ASTM E 
814 or UL 1479, with a minimum positive pressure dif- 
ferential of 0.01 inch of water (3 Pa) and shall have an 
F rating of not less than the required fire-resistance rat- 
ing of the wall or floor/ceiling assembly penetrated. 

R302.4.2 Membrane penetrations. Membrane penetra- 
tions shall comply with Section R302.4.1. Where walls are 



required to have a fire-resistance rating, recessed fixtures 
shall be installed so that the required fire-resistance rating 
will not be reduced. 

Exceptions: 

1. Membrane penetrations of maximum 2-hour fire- 
resistance-rated walls and partitions by steel elec- 
trical boxes that do not exceed 16 square inches 
(0.0103 m 2 ) in area provided the aggregate area 
of the openings through the membrane does not 
exceed 100 square inches (0.0645 m 2 ) in any 100 
square feet (9.29 m) 2 of wall area. The annular 
space between the wall membrane and the box 
shall not exceed V 8 inch (3.1 mm). Such boxes 
on opposite sides of the wall shall be separated by 
one of the following: 

1.1. By a horizontal distance of not less than 
24 inches (610 mm) where the wall or 
partition is constructed with individual 
noncommunicating stud cavities; 

1 .2. By a horizontal distance of not less than 
the depth of the wall cavity when the wall 
cavity is filled with cellulose loose-fill, 
rockwool or slag mineral wool insulation; 

1.3. By solid fire blocking in accordance with 
Section R302.U; 

1 .4. By protecting both boxes with listed putty 
pads; or 

1.5. By other listed materials and methods. 

2. Membrane penetrations by listed electrical boxes 
of any materials provided the boxes have been 
tested for use in fire-resistance-rated assemblies 
and are installed in accordance with the instruc- 
tions included in the listing. The annular space 
between the wall membrane and the box shall not 
exceed 7 8 inch (3.1 mm) unless listed otherwise. 
Such boxes on opposite sides of the wall shall be 
separated by one of the following: 

2.1. By the horizontal distance specified in the 
listing of the electrical boxes; 

2.2. By solid fireblocking in accordance with 
Section R302.ll; 

2.3. By protecting both boxes with listed putty 
pads; or 

2.4. By other listed materials and methods. 

3. The annular space created by the penetration of a 
fire sprinkler provided it is covered by a metal 
escutcheon plate. 

R302.5 Dwelling/garage opening/penetration protection. 
Openings and penetrations through the walls or ceilings sepa- 
rating the dwelling from the garage shall be in accordance 
with Sections R302.5.1 through R302.5.3. 

R302.5.1 Opening protection. Openings from a private 
garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes 
shall not be permitted. Other openings between the garage 



50 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 



BUILDING PLANNING 



and residence shall be equipped with solid wood doors not 
less than l'V 8 inches (35 mm) in thickness, solid or honey- 
comb-core steel doors not less than l 3 / 8 inches (35 mm) 
thick, or 20-minute fire-rated doors, equipped with a self- 
closing device. 

R302.5.2 Duct penetration. Ducts in the garage and ducts 
penetrating the walls or ceilings separating the dwelling 
from the garage shall be constructed of a minimum No. 26 
gage (0.48 mm) sheet steel or other approved material and 
shall have no openings into the garage. 

R302.5.3 Other penetrations. Penetrations through the 
separation required in Section R302.6 shall be protected as 
required by Section R302. 1 1 , Item 4. 

R302.6 Dwelling/garage tire separation. The garage shall 
be separated as required by Table R302.6. Openings in 
garage walls shall comply with Section R302.5. This provi- 
sion does not apply to garage walls that are perpendicular to 
the adjacent dwelling unit wall. 

R302.7 Under-stair protection. Enclosed accessible space 
under stairs shall have walls, under-stair surface and any sof- 
fits protected on the enclosed side with V 2 -inch (12.7 mm) 
gypsum board. 

R302.8 Foam plastics. For requirements for foam plastics 
see Section R3 16. 

R302.9 Flame spread index and smoke-developed index 

for wall and ceiling finishes. Flame spread and smoke index 
for wall and ceiling finishes shall be in accordance with Sec- 
tions R302.9.1 through R302.9.4. 

R302.9.1 Flame spread index. Wall and ceiling finishes 
shall have a flame spread index of not greater than 200. 

Exception: Flame spread index requirements for fin- 
ishes shall not apply to trim defined as picture molds, 
chair rails, baseboards and handrails; to doors and win- 
dows or their frames; or to materials that are less than 7 2g 
inch (0.91 mm) in thickness cemented to the surface of 
walls or ceilings if these materials exhibit flame spread 
index values no greater than those of paper of this thick- 
ness cemented to a noncombustible backing. 

R302.9.2 Smoke-developed index. Wall and ceiling fin- 
ishes shall have a smoke-developed index of not greater 
than 450. 

R302.9.3 Testing. Tests shall be made in accordance with 
ASTME84orUL723. 



R302.9.4 Alternative test method. As an alternative to 
having a flame spread index of not greater than 200 and a 
smoke-developed index of not greater than 450 when 
tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723, wall and 
ceiling finishes shall be permitted to be tested in accor- 
dance with NFPA 286. Materials tested in accordance with 
NFPA 286 shall meet the following criteria: 

The interior finish shall comply with the following: 

1. During the 40 kW exposure, flames shall not 
spread to the ceiling. 

2. The flame shall not spread to the outer extremity 
of the sample on any wall or ceiling. 

3. Flashover, as defined in NFPA 286, shall not 
occur. 

4. The peak heat release rate throughout the test 
shall not exceed 800 kW. 

5. The total smoke released throughout the test shall 
not exceed 1 ,000 m 2 . 

R302.10 Flame spread index and smoke-developed index 
for insulation. Flame spread and smoke-developed index for 
insulation shall be in accordance with Sections R302.10.1 
through R302. 10.5. 

R302.10.1 Insulation. Insulation materials, including fac- 
ings, such as vapor retarders and vapor-permeable mem- 
branes installed within floor/ceiling assemblies, roof/ 
ceiling assemblies, wall assemblies, crawl spaces and 
attics shall have a flame spread index not to exceed 25 
with an accompanying smoke-developed index not to 
exceed 450 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or 
UL 723. 

Exceptions: 

1 . When such materials are installed in concealed 
spaces, the flame spread index and smoke-devel- 
oped index limitations do not apply to the fac- 
ings, provided that the facing is installed in 
substantial contact with the unexposed surface of 
the ceiling, floor or wall finish. 

2. Cellulose loose-fill insulation, which is not spray 
applied, complying with the requirements of Sec- 
tion R302.10.3, shall only be required to meet the 
smoke-developed index of not more than 450. 

3. Foam plastic insulation shall comply with Sec- 
tion R3 16. 



TABLE R302.6 
DWELLING/GARAGE SEPARATION 



SEPARATION 


MATERIAL 


From the residence and attics 


Not less than 7 2 -inch gypsum board or equivalent applied to the 
garage side 


From all habitable rooms above the garage 


Not less than 5 / s -inch Type X gypsum board or equivalent 


Structure(s) supporting floor/ceiling assemblies used for separation 
required by this section 


Not less than V 2 -inch gypsum board or equivalent 


Garages located less than 3 feet from a dwelling unit on the same lot 


Not less than 7,-inch gypsum board or equivalent applied to the inte- 
rior side of exterior walls that are within this area 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 
2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



51 



BUILDING PLANNING 



R302.10.2 Loose-till insulation. Loose-fill insulation 
materials that cannot be mounted in the ASTM E 84 or UL 
723 apparatus without a screen or artificial supports shall 
comply with the flame spread and smoke-developed limits 
of Section R302.10.1 when tested in accordance with 
CAN/ULCS102.2. 

Exception: Cellulose loose-fill insulation shall not be 

required to be tested in accordance with CAN/ULC 

S 102.2, provided such insulation complies with the 

requirements of Section R302.10.1 and Section 

R302.10.3. 

R302.10.3 Cellulose loose-fill insulation. Cellulose 

loose-fill insulation shall comply with CPSC 16 CFR, 

Parts 1209 and 1404. Each package of such insulating 

material shall be clearly labeled in accordance with CPSC 

16 CFR. Parts 1209 and 1404. 

R302.10.4 Exposed attic insulation. All exposed insula- 
tion materials installed on attic floors shall have a critical 
radiant flux not less than 0.12 watt per square centimeter. 

R302.10.5 Testing. Tests for critical radiant flux shall be 
made in accordance with ASTM E 970. 

R302.ll Fireblocking. In combustible construction, fire- 
blocking shall be provided to cut off all concealed draft open- 
ings (both vertical and horizontal) and to form an effective 
fire barrier between stories, and between a top story and the 
roof space. 

Fireblocking shall be provided in wood-frame construc- 
tion in the following locations: 

1. In concealed spaces of stud walls and partitions, includ- 
ing furred spaces and parallel rows of studs or stag- 
gered studs, as follows: 

1.1 . Vertically at the ceiling and floor levels. 

1.2. Horizontally at intervals not exceeding 10 feet 
(3048 mm). 

2. At all interconnections between concealed vertical and 
horizontal spaces such as occur at soffits, drop ceilings 
and cove ceilings. 

3. In concealed spaces between stair stringers at the top 
and bottom of the run. Enclosed spaces under stairs 
shall comply with Section R302.7. 

4. At openings around vents, pipes, ducts, cables and 
wires at ceiling and floor level, with an approved mate- 
rial to resist the free passage of flame and products of 
combustion. The material filling this annular space 
shall not be required to meet the ASTM E 136 require- 
ments. 

5. For the fireblocking of chimneys and fireplaces, see 
Section R1003. 19. 

6. Fireblocking of cornices of a two-family dwelling is 
required at the line of dwelling unit separation. 

R302.ll. 1 Fireblocking materials. Except as provided in 
Section R302. 1 1 , Item 4, fireblocking shall consist of the 
following materials. 

1 . Two-inch (51 mm) nominal lumber. 



2. Two thicknesses of 1-inch (25.4 mm) nominal lum- 
ber with broken lap joints. 

3. One thickness of 23 / 32 -inch (18.3 mm) wood struc- 
tural panels with joints backed by 23 / 3 ,-inch (18.3 
mm) wood structural panels. 

4. One thickness of 3 / 4 -inch (19.1 mm) particleboard 
with joints backed by 3 / 4 -inch (19.1 mm) particle- 
board. 

5. One-half-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board. 

6. One-quarter-inch (6.4 mm) cement-based millboard. 

7. Batts or blankets of mineral wool or glass fiber or 
other approved materials installed in such a manner 
as to be securely retained in place. 

8. Cellulose insulation installed as tested for the spe- 
cific application. 

R302.ll. 1.1 Batts or blankets of mineral or glass 
fiber. Batts or blankets of mineral or glass fiber or 
other approved nonrigid materials shall be permitted 
for compliance with the 10-foot (3048 mm) horizontal 
fireblocking in walls constructed using parallel rows of 
studs or staggered studs. 

R302.11.1.2 Unfaced fiberglass. Unfaced fiberglass 
batt insulation used as fireblocking shall fill the entire 
cross section of the wall cavity to a minimum height of 
16 inches (406 mm) measured vertically. When piping, 
conduit or similar obstructions are encountered, the 
insulation shall be packed tightly around the obstruc- 
tion. 

R302.11.1.3 Loose-fill insulation material. Loose-fill 
insulation material shall not be used as a fireblock 
unless specifically tested in the form and manner 
intended for use to demonstrate its ability to remain in 
place and to retard the spread of fire and hot gases. 

R302.11.2 Fireblocking integrity. The integrity of all 

fireblocks shall be maintained. 

R302.12 Draftstopping. In combustible construction where 
there is usable space both above and below the concealed 
space of a floor/ceiling assembly, draftstops shall be installed 
so that the area of the concealed space does not exceed 1 ,000 
square feet (92.9 m 2 ). Draftstopping shall divide the con- 
cealed space into approximately equal areas. Where the 
assembly is enclosed by a floor membrane above and a ceil- 
ing membrane below, draftstopping shall be provided in 
floor/ceiling assemblies under the following circumstances: 

1 . Ceiling is suspended under the floor framing. 

2. Floor framing is constructed of truss-type open-web or 
perforated members. 

R302.12.1 Materials. Draftstopping materials shall not be 
less than '/ 2 -inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board, 3 / 8 -mch (9.5 
mm) wood structural panels or other approved materials 
adequately supported. Draftopping shall be installed paral- 
lel to the floor framing members unless otherwise 
approved by the building official. The integrity of the 
draftstops shall be maintained. 



52 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 



R302.13 Combustible insulation clearance. Combustible 
insulation shall be separated a minimum of 3 inches (76 mm) 
from recessed luminaires, fan motors and other heat-produc- 
ing devices. 

Exception: Where heat-producing devices are listed for 
lesser clearances, combustible insulation complying with 
the listing requirements shall be separated in accordance 
with the conditions stipulated in the listing. 

Recessed luminaires installed in the building thermal 
envelope shall meet the requirements of Section Nl 102.4.4 of 
this code. 



SECTION R303 
LIGHT, VENTILATION AND HEATING 

R303.1 Habitable rooms. All habitable rooms shall have an 
aggregate glazing area of not less than 8 percent of the floor 
area of such rooms. Natural ventilation shall be through win- 
dows, doors, louvers or other approved openings to the out- 
door air. Such openings shall be provided with ready access 
or shall otherwise be readily controllable by the building 
occupants. The minimum openable area to the outdoors shall 
be 4 percent of the floor area being ventilated. 

Exceptions: 

1. The glazed areas need not be openable where the 
opening is not required by Section R310 and a 
whole-house mechanical ventilation system is 
installed in accordance with Section Ml 507. 

2. The glazed areas need not be installed in rooms 
where Exception 1 above is satisfied and artificial 
light is provided capable of producing an average 
illumination of 6 footcandles (65 lux) over the area 
of the room at a height of 30 inches (762 mm) above 
the floor level. 

3. Use of sunroom and patio covers, as defined in Sec- 
tion R202, shall be permitted for natural ventilation 
if in excess of 40 percent of the exterior sunroom 
walls are open, or are enclosed only by insect 
screening. 

R303.2 Adjoining rooms. For the purpose of determining 
light and ventilation requirements, any room shall be consid- 
ered as a portion of an adjoining room when at least one-half 
of the area of the common wall is open and unobstructed and 
provides an opening of not less than one-tenth of the floor 
area of the interior room but not less than 25 square feet (2.3 
m 2 ). 

Exception: Openings required for light and/or ventilation 
shall be permitted to open into a sunroom with thermal 
isolation or a patio cover, provided that there is an open- 
able area between the adjoining room and the sunroom or 
patio cover of not less than one-tenth of the floor area of 
the interior room but not less than 20 square feet (2 m 2 ). 
The minimum openable area to the outdoors shall be based 
upon the total floor area being ventilated. 

R303.3 Bathrooms. Bathrooms, water closet compartments 
and other similar rooms shall be provided with aggregate 



glazing area in windows of not less than 3 square feet (0.3 
m 2 ), one-half of which must be openable. 

Exception: The glazed areas shall not be required where 
artificial light and a local exhaust system are provided. 
The minimum local exhaust rates shall be determined in 
accordance with Section Ml 507. Exhaust air from the 
space shall be exhausted directly to the outdoors. 

R303.4 Mechanical ventilation. Where the air infiltration 
rate of a dwelling unit is less than 5 air changes per hour 
when tested with a blower door at a pressure of 0.2 inch w.c 
(50 Pa) in accordance with Section Nl 102.4.1.2, the dwelling 
unit shall be provided with whole-house mechanical ventila- 
tion in accordance with Section Ml 507.3. 

R303.5 Opening location. Outdoor intake and exhaust open- 
ings shall be located in accordance with Sections R303.5.1 
and R303.5.2. 

R303.5.1 intake openings. Mechanical and gravity out- 
door air intake openings shall be located a minimum of 10 
feet (3048 mm) from any hazardous or noxious contami- 
nant, such as vents, chimneys, plumbing vents, streets, 
alleys, parking lots and loading docks, except as otherwise 
specified in this code. Where a source of contaminant is 
located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of an intake opening, 
such opening shall be located a minimum of 3 feet (914 
mm) below the contaminant source. 

For the purpose of this section, the exhaust from dwell- 
ing unit toilet rooms, bathrooms and kitchens shall not be 
considered as hazardous or noxious. 

R303.5.2 Exhaust openings. Exhaust air shall not be 
directed onto walkways. 

R303.6 Outside opening protection. Air exhaust and intake 
openings that terminate outdoors shall be protected with cor- 
rosion-resistant screens, louvers or grilles having a minimum 
opening size of 7 4 inch (6 mm) and a maximum opening size 
of V 2 inch (13 mm), in any dimension. Openings shall be pro- 
tected against local weather conditions. Outdoor air exhaust 
and intake openings shall meet the provisions for exterior 
wall opening protectives in accordance with this code. 

R303.7 Stairway illumination. All interior and exterior 
stairways shall be provided with a means to illuminate the 
stairs, including the landings and treads. Interior stairways 
shall be provided with an artificial light source located in the 
immediate vicinity of each landing of the stairway. For inte- 
rior stairs the artificial light sources shall be capable of illu- 
minating treads and landings to levels not less than 1 foot- 
candle (11 lux) measured at the center of treads and landings. 
Exterior stairways shall be provided with an artificial light 
source located in the immediate vicinity of the top landing of 
the stairway. Exterior stairways providing access to a base- 
ment from the outside grade level shall be provided with an 
artificial light source located in the immediate vicinity of the 
bottom landing of the stairway. 

Exception: An artificial light source is not required at the 
top and bottom landing, provided an artificial light source 
is located directly over each stairway section. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



53 



BUILDING PLANNING 



R303.7.1 Light activation. Where lighting outlets are 
installed in interior stairways, there shall be a wall switch 
at each floor level to control the lighting outlet where the 
stairway has six or more risers. The illumination of exte- 
rior stairways shall be controlled from inside the dwelling 
unit. 

Exception: Lights that are continuously illuminated or 
automatically controlled. 

R303.8 Required glazed openings. Required glazed open- 
ings shall open directly onto a street or public alley, or a yard 
or court located on the same lot as the building. 

Exceptions: 

1. Required glazed openings may face into a roofed 
porch where the porch abuts a street, yard or court 
and the longer side of the porch is at least 65 percent 
unobstructed and the ceiling height is not less than 7 
feet (21 34 mm). 

2. Eave projections shall not be considered as obstruct- 
ing the clear open space of a yard or court. 

3. Required glazed openings may face into the area 
under a deck, balcony, bay or floor cantilever pro- 
vided a clear vertical space at least 36 inches (914 
mm) in height is provided. 

R303.8.1 Sunroom additions. Required glazed openings 
shall be permitted to open into sunroom additions or patio 
covers that abut a street, yard or court if in excess of 40 
percent of the exterior sunroom walls are open, or are 
enclosed only by insect screening, and the ceiling height 
of the sunroom is not less than 7 feet (2134 mm). 

R303.9 Required heating. When the winter design tempera- 
ture in Table R301 .2(1) is below 60°F (16°C), every dwelling 
unit shall be provided with heating facilities capable of main- 
taining a minimum room temperature of 68°F (20°C) at a 
point 3 feet (914 mm) above the floor and 2 feet (610 mm) 
from exterior walls in all habitable rooms at the design tem- 
perature. The installation of one or more portable space heat- 
ers shall not be used to achieve compliance with this section. 



SECTION R304 
MINIMUM ROOM AREAS 

R304.1 Minimum area. Every dwelling unit shall have at 
least one habitable room that shall have not less than 120 
square feet (11m 2 ) of gross floor area. 

R304.2 Other rooms. Other habitable rooms shall have a 
floor area of not less than 70 square feet (6.5 m 2 ). 

Exception: Kitchens. 

R304.3 Minimum dimensions. Habitable rooms shall not be 
less than 7 feet (2134 mm) in any horizontal dimension. 

Exception: Kitchens. 

R304.4 Height effect on room area. Portions of a room with 
a sloping ceiling measuring less than 5 feet (1524 mm) or a 
furred ceiling measuring less than 7 feet (2134 mm) from the 
finished floor to the finished ceiling shall not be considered 



as contributing to the minimum required habitable area for 
that room. 



SECTION R305 
CEILING HEIGHT 

R305.1 Minimum height. Habitable space, hallways, bath- 
rooms, toilet rooms, laundry rooms and portions of base- 
ments containing these spaces shall have a ceiling height of 
not less than 7 feet (2134 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1 . For rooms with sloped ceilings, at least 50 percent of 
the required floor area of the room must have a ceil- 
ing height of at least 7 feet (2134 mm) and no por- 
tion of the required floor area may have a ceiling 
height of less than 5 feet ( 1 524 mm). 

2. Bathrooms shall have a minimum ceiling height of 6 
feet 8 inches (2032 mm) at the center of the front 
clearance area for fixtures as shown in Figure 
R307.1. The ceiling height above fixtures shall be 
such that the fixture is capable of being used for its 
intended purpose. A shower or tub equipped with a 
showerhead shall have a minimum ceiling height of 
6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm) above a minimum area 30 
inches (762 mm) by 30 inches (762 mm) at the 
showerhead. 

R305.1.1 Basements. Portions of basements that do not 
contain habitable space, hallways, bathrooms, toilet 
rooms and laundry rooms shall have a ceiling height of not 
less than 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm). 

Exception: Beams, girders, ducts or other obstructions 
may project to within 6 feet 4 inches (1931 mm) of the 
finished floor. 



SECTION R306 
SANITATION 

R306.1 Toilet facilities. Every dwelling unit shall be pro- 
vided with a water closet, lavatory, and a bathtub or shower. 

R306.2 Kitchen. Each dwelling unit shall be provided with a 
kitchen area and every kitchen area shall be provided with a 
sink. 

R306.3 Sewage disposal. All plumbing fixtures shall be con- 
nected to a sanitary sewer or to an approved private sewage 
disposal system. 

R306.4 Water supply to fixtures. All plumbing fixtures 
shall be connected to an approved water supply. Kitchen 
sinks, lavatories, bathtubs, showers, bidets, laundry tubs and 
washing machine outlets shall be provided with hot and cold 
water. 



SECTION R307 
TOILET, BATH AND SHOWER SPACES 

R307.1 Space required. Fixtures shall be spaced in accor- 
dance with Figure R307.1, and in accordance with the 
requirements of Section P2705.1. 



54 



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BUILDING PLANNING 



R307.2 Bathtub and shower spaces. Bathtub and shower 
floors and walls above bathtubs with installed shower heads 
and in shower compartments shall be finished with a nonab- 
sorbent surface. Such wall surfaces shall extend to a height of 
not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the floor. 



SECTION R308 
GLAZING 

R308.1 Identification. Except as indicated in Section 
R308.1.1 each pane of glazing installed in hazardous loca- 
tions as defined in Section R308.4 shall be provided with a 
manufacturer's designation specifying who applied the desig- 
nation, designating the type of glass and the safety glazing 
standard with which it complies, which is visible in the final 



installation. The designation shall be acid etched, sand- 
blasted, ceramic-fired, laser etched, embossed, or be of a type 
which once applied cannot be removed without being 
destroyed. A label shall be permitted in lieu of the manufac- 
turer's designation. 

Exceptions: 

1. For other than tempered glass, manufacturer's desig- 
nations are not required provided the building offi- 
cial approves the use of a certificate, affidavit or 
other evidence confirming compliance with this 
code. 

2. Tempered spandrel glass is permitted to be identi- 
fied by the manufacturer with a removable paper 
designation 



WALL\ 



WALL 



15" IN 




WALL 



-^- 




I 
21" IN 
CLEARANCE 

_J 




24 IN. CLEARANCE IN 
FRONT OF OPENING 



SHOWER 



15 IN 



M—~ m 



/WALL 



WATER CLOSET 
OR BIDET 

15 IN 



WALL 



} 



21 IN. 
CLEARANCE 




21 IN 
CLEARANCE 

1 



WALL 



WATER CLOSETS 




WALL 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R307.1 
MINIMUM FIXTURE CLEARANCES 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



55 



BUILDING PLANNING 



R308.1.1 Identification of multiple assemblies. Multi- 
pane assemblies having individual panes not exceeding 
1 square foot (0.09 m 2 ) in exposed area shall have at 
least one pane in the assembly identified in accordance 
with Section R308.1. All other panes in the assembly 
shall be labeled "CPSC 16 CFR 1201" or "ANSI Z97.1" 
as appropriate. 

R308.2 Loovered windows or jalousies. Regular, float, 
wired or patterned glass in jalousies and louvered windows 
shall be no thinner than nominal 3 / 16 inch (5 mm) and no lon- 
ger than 48 inches (1219 mm). Exposed glass edges shall be 
smooth. 

R308.2.1 Wired glass prohibited. Wired glass with wire 
exposed on longitudinal edges shall not be used in jalou- 
sies or louvered windows. 

R308.3 Human impact loads. Individual glazed areas, 
including glass mirrors in hazardous locations such as those 
indicated as defined in Section R308.4, shall pass the test 
requirements of Section R308.3.1. 

Exceptions: 

1. Louvered windows and jalousies shall comply with 
Section R308.2. 

2. Mirrors and other glass panels mounted or hung on a 
surface that provides a continuous backing support. 

3. Glass unit masonry complying with Section R610. 

R308.3.1 Impact test. Where required by other sections 
of the code, glazing shall be tested in accordance with 
CPSC 16 CFR 1201. Glazing shall comply with the test 
criteria for Category II unless otherwise indicated in Table 
R308.3.1(l). 

Exception: Glazing not in doors or enclosures for hot 
tubs, whirlpools, saunas, steam rooms, bathtubs and 
showers shall be permitted to be tested in accordance 
with ANSI Z97.1. Glazing shall comply with the test 
criteria for Class A unless indicated in Table R308.3.1 
(2). 



R308.4 Hazardous locations. The locations specified in Sec- 
tions R308.4.1 through R308.4.7 shall be considered specific 
hazardous locations for the purposes of glazing. 

R308.4.1 Glazing in doors. Glazing in all fixed and oper- 
able panels of swinging, sliding and bifold doors shall be 
considered a hazardous location. 

Exceptions: 

1. Glazed openings of a size through which a 3- 
inch-diameter (76 mm) sphere is unable to pass. 

2. Decorative glazing. 

R308.4.2 Glazing adjacent doors. Glazing in an individ- 
ual fixed or operable panel adjacent to a door where the 
nearest vertical edge of the glazing is within a 24-inch 
(610 mm) arc of either vertical edge of the door in a closed 
position and where the bottom exposed edge of the glazing 
is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) above the floor or walk- 
ing surface shall be considered a hazardous location. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Decorative glazing. 

2. When there is an intervening wall or other perma- 
nent barrier between the door and the glazing. 

3. Glazing in walls on the latch side of and perpen- 
dicular to the plane of the door in a closed posi- 
tion. 

4. Where access through the door is to a closet or 
storage area 3 feet (914 mm) or less in depth. 
Glazing in this application shall comply with sec- 
tion R308.4.3. 

5. Glazing that is adjacent to the fixed panel of patio 
doors. 

R308.4.3 Glazing in windows. Glazing in an individual 
fixed or operable panel that meets all of the following con- 
ditions shall be considered a hazardous location: 

1 . The exposed area of an individual pane is larger than 
9 square feet (0.836 m 2 ); 



TABLE R308.3.1(1) 
MINIMUM CATEGORY CLASSIFICATION OF GLAZING USING CPSC 16 CFR 1201 



EXPOSED SURFACE 

AREA OF ONE SIDE 

OF ONE LITE 


GLAZING IN 

STORM OR 

COMBINATION 

DOORS 
(Category Class) 


GLAZING IN 

DOORS 

(Category Class) 


GLAZED PANELS 
REGULATED BY 

SECTION R308.4.3 
(Category Class) 


GLAZED PANELS 
REGULATED BY 

SECTION R308.4.2 
(Category Class) 


GLAZING IN 

DOORS AND 

ENCLOSURES 

REGULATED BY 

SECTION 308.4.5 

(Category Class) 


SLIDING GLASS 

DOORS PATIO TYPE 

(Category Class) 


9 square feet or less 


I 


I 


NR 


I 


II 


II 


More than 9 square feet 


II 


11 


II 


II 


II 


II 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 . 
NR means "No Requirement." 



TABLE R308.3.1(2) 
MINIMUM CATEGORY CLASSIFICATION OF GLAZING USING ANSI Z97.1 



EXPOSED SURFACE AREA 
OF ONE SIDE OF ONE LITE 


GLAZED PANELS REGULATED BY 
SECTION R308.4.3 
(Category Class) 


GLAZED PANELS REGULATED BY 
SECTION R308.4.2 
(Category Class) 


DOORS AND ENCLOSURES REGULATED 

BY SECTION R308.4.5" 

(Category Class) 


9 square feet or less 


No requirement 


B 


A 


More than 9 square feet 


A 


A 


A 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 . 

a. Use is permitted only by the exception to Section R308.3. 1. 



56 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 



2. The bottom edge of the glazing is less than 1 8 inches 
(457 mm) above the floor; 

3. The top edge of the glazing is more than 36 inches 
(914 mm) above the floor; and 

4. One or more walking surfaces are within 36 inches 
(914 mm), measured horizontally and in a straight 
line, of the glazing. 

Exceptions: 

1. Decorative glazing. 

2. When a horizontal rail is installed on the 
accessible side(s) of the glazing 34 to 38 
inches (864 to 965 mm) above the walking 
surface. The rail shall be capable of with- 
standing a horizontal load of 50 pounds per 
linear foot (730 N/m) without contacting 
the glass and be a minimum of 1 7 2 inches 
(38 mm) in cross sectional height. 

3. Outboard panes in insulating glass units 
and other multiple glazed panels when the 
bottom edge of the glass is 25 feet (7620 
mm) or more above grade, a roof, walking 
surfaces or other horizontal [within 45 
degrees (0.79 rad) of horizontal] surface 
adjacent to the glass exterior. 

R308.4.4 Glazing In guards and railings. Glazing in 
guards and railings, including structural baluster panels 
and nonstructural in-fill panels, regardless of area or 
height above a walking surface shall be considered a haz- 
ardous location. 

R308.4.5 Glazing and wet surfaces. Glazing in walls, 
enclosures or fences containing or facing hot tubs, spas, 
whirlpools, saunas, steam rooms, bathtubs, showers and 
indoor or outdoor swimming pools where the bottom 
exposed edge of the glazing is less than 60 inches (1524 
mm) measured vertically above any standing or walking 
surface shall be considered a hazardous location. This 
shall apply to single glazing and all panes in multiple glaz- 
ing. 

Exception: Glazing that is more than 60 inches (1524 
mm), measured horizontally and in a straight line, from 
the water's edge of a bathtub, hot tub, spa, whirlpool, or 
swimming pool. 

R308.4.6 Glazing adjacent stairs and ramps. Glazing 
where the bottom exposed edge of the glazing is less than 
36 inches (914 mm) above the plane of the adjacent walk- 
ing surface of stairways, landings between flights of stairs 
and ramps shall be considered a hazardous location. 

Exceptions: 

1 . When a rail is installed on the accessible side(s) 
of the glazing 34 to 38 inches (864 to 965 mm) 
above the walking surface. The rail shall be capa- 
ble of withstanding a horizontal load of 50 
pounds per linear foot (730 N/m) without con- 
tacting the glass and be a minimum of lV, inches 
(38 mm) in cross sectional height. 



2. Glazing 36 inches (914 mm) or more measured 
horizontally from the walking surface. 

R308.4.7 Glazing adjacent to the bottom stair landing. 
Glazing adjacent to the landing at the bottom of a stairway 
where the glazing is less than 36 inches (914 mm) above 
the landing and within 60 inches (1524 mm) horizontally 
of the bottom tread shall be considered a hazardous loca- 
tion. 

Exception: The glazing is protected by a guard com- 
plying with Section R312 and the plane of the glass is 
more than 1 8 inches (457 mm) from the guard. 

R308.5 Site built windows. Site built windows shall comply 
with Section 2404 of the International Building Code. 

R308.6 Skylights and sloped glazing. Skylights and sloped 
glazing shall comply with the following sections. 

R308.6.1 Definitions. 

SKYLIGHT, UNIT. A factory assembled, glazed fen- 
estration unit, containing one panel of glazing material, 
that allows for natural daylighting through an opening 
in the roof assembly while preserving the weather- 
resistant barrier of the roof. 

SKYLIGHTS AND SLOPED GLAZING. Glass or 
other transparent or translucent glazing material 
installed at a slope of 15 degrees (0.26 rad) or more 
from vertical. Glazing materials in skylights, including 
unit skylights, tubular daylighting devices, solariums, 
sunrooms, roofs and sloped walls are included in this 
definition. 

TUBULAR DAYLIGHTING DEVICE (TDD). A 
nonoperable fenestration unit primarily designed to 
transmit daylight from a roof surface to an interior ceil- 
ing via a tubular conduit. The basic unit consists of an 
exterior glazed weathering surface, a light-transmitting 
tube with a reflective interior surface, and an interior- 
sealing device such as a translucent ceiling panel. The 
unit may be factory assembled, or field assembled from 
a manufactured kit. 

R308.6.2 Permitted materials. The following types of 
glazing may be used: 

1. Laminated glass with a minimum 0.015-inch (0.38 
mm) polyvinyl butyral interlayer for glass panes 1 6 
square feet (1.5 m 2 ) or less in area located such that 
the highest point of the glass is not more than 1 2 feet 
(3658 mm) above a walking surface or other acces- 
sible area; for higher or larger sizes, the minimum 
interlayer thickness shall be 0.030 inch (0.76 mm). 

2. Fully tempered glass. 

3. Heat- strengthened glass. 

4. Wired glass. 

5. Approved rigid plastics. 

R308.6.3 Screens, general. For fully tempered or heat- 
strengthened glass, a retaining screen meeting the require- 
ments of Section R308.6.7 shall be installed below the 
glass, except for fully tempered glass that meets either 
condition listed in Section R308.6.5. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



57 



BUILDING PLANNING 



R308.6.4 Screens with multiple glazing. When the 
inboard pane is fully tempered, heat-strengthened or wired 
glass, a retaining screen meeting the requirements of Sec- 
tion R308.6.7 shall be installed below the glass, except for 
either condition listed in Section R308.6.5. All other panes 
in the multiple glazing may be of any type listed in Section 
R308.6.2. 

R308.6.5 Screens not required. Screens shall not be 
required when fully tempered glass is used as single glaz- 
ing or the inboard pane in multiple glazing and either of 
the following conditions are met: 

1. Glass area 16 square feet (1.49 m 2 ) or less. Highest 
point of glass not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) 
above a walking surface or other accessible area, 
nominal glass thickness not more than 3 / Kl inch (4.8 
mm), and (for multiple glazing only) the other pane 
or panes fully tempered, laminated or wired glass. 

2. Glass area greater than 16 square feet (1.49 m 2 ). 
Glass sloped 30 degrees (0.52 rad) or less from ver- 
tical, and highest point of glass not more than 10 feet 
(3048 mm) above a walking surface or other acces- 
sible area. 

R308.6.6 Glass in greenhouses. Any glazing material is 
permitted to be installed without screening in the sloped 
areas of greenhouses, provided the greenhouse height at 
the ridge does not exceed 20 feet (6096 mm) above grade. 

R308.6.7 Screen characteristics. The screen and its fas- 
tenings shall be capable of supporting twice the weight of 
the glazing, be firmly and substantially fastened to the 
framing members, and have a mesh opening of no more 
than 1 inch by 1 inch (25 mm by 25 mm). 

R308.6.8 Curbs for skylights. All unit skylights installed 
in a roof with a pitch flatter than three units vertical in 12 
units horizontal (25 -percent slope) shall be mounted on a 
curb extending at least 4 inches (102 mm) above the plane 
of the roof unless otherwise specified in the manufac- 
turer's installation instructions. 

R308.6.9 Testing and labeling. Unit skylights and tubular 
daylighting devices shall be tested by an approved inde- 
pendent laboratory, and bear a label identifying manufac- 
turer, performance grade rating and approved inspection 
agency to indicate compliance with the requirements of 
AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440. 



SECTION R309 
GARAGES AND CARPORTS 

R309.1 Floor surface. Garage floor surfaces shall be of 
approved noncombustible material. 

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other 
vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids 
to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway. 

R309.2 Carports. Carports shall be open on at least two 
sides. Carport floor surfaces shall be of approved noncom- 
bustible material. Carports not open on at least two sides shall 



be considered a garage and shall comply with the provisions 
of this section for garages. 

Exception: Asphalt surfaces shall be permitted at ground 
level in carports. 

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other 
vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids 
to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway. 

R309.3 Flood hazard areas. For buildings located in flood 
hazard areas as established by Table R301.2(l), garage floors 
shall be: 

1. Elevated to or above the design flood elevation as 
determined in Section R322; or 

2. Located below the design flood elevation provided they 
are at or above grade on at least one side, are used 
solely for parking, building access or storage, meet the 
requirements of Section R322 and are otherwise con- 
structed in accordance with this code. 

R309.4 Automatic garage door openers. Automatic garage 
door openers, if provided, shall be listed and labeled in accor- 
dance with UL 325. 

R309.5 Fire sprinklers. Private garages shall be protected by 
fire sprinklers where the garage wall has been designed based 
on Table R302.1(2), Footnote a. Sprinklers in garages shall 
be connected to an automatic sprinkler system that complies 
with Section P2904. Garage sprinklers shall be residential 
sprinklers or quick-response sprinklers, designed to provide a 
density of 0.05 gpm/ft 2 . Garage doors shall not be considered 
obstructions with respect to sprinkler placement. 



SECTION R310 
EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENINGS 

R310.1 Emergency escape and rescue required. Base- 
ments, habitable attics and every sleeping room shall have at 
least one operable emergency escape and rescue opening. 
Where basements contain one or more sleeping rooms, emer- 
gency egress and rescue openings shall be required in each 
sleeping room. Where emergency escape and rescue openings 
are provided they shall have a sill height of not more than 44 
inches (1118 mm) measured from the finished floor to the 
bottom of the clear opening. Where a door opening having a 
threshold below the adjacent ground elevation serves as an 
emergency escape and rescue opening and is provided with a 
bulkhead enclosure, the bulkhead enclosure shall comply 
with Section R310.3. The net clear opening dimensions 
required by this section shall be obtained by the normal oper- 
ation of the emergency escape and rescue opening from the 
inside. Emergency escape and rescue openings with a fin- 
ished sill height below the adjacent ground elevation shall be 
provided with a window well in accordance with Section 
R310.2. Emergency escape and rescue openings shall open 
directly into a public way, or to a yard or court that opens to a 
public way. 

Exception: Basements used only to house mechanical 
equipment and not exceeding total floor area of 200 square 
feet (18.58 m 2 ). 



58 



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BUILDING PLANNING 



R31 0.1.1 Minimum opening area. All emergency escape 
and rescue openings shall have a minimum net clear open- 
ing of 5.7 square feet (0.530 m 2 ). 

Exception: Grade floor openings shall have a mini- 
mum net clear opening of 5 square feet (0.465 m 2 ). 

R310.1.2 Minimum opening height. The minimum net 
clear opening height shall be 24 inches (610 mm). 

R310.1.3 Minimum opening width. The minimum net 
clear opening width shall be 20 inches (508 mm). 

R310.1.4 Operational constraints. Emergency escape 
and rescue openings shall be operational from the inside of 
the room without the use of keys, tools or special knowl- 
edge. 

R310.2 Window wells. The minimum horizontal area of the 
window well shall be 9 square feet (0.9 m 2 ), with a minimum 
horizontal projection and width of 36 inches (914 mm). The 
area of the window well shall allow the emergency escape 
and rescue opening to be fully opened. 

Exception: The ladder or steps required by Section 
R3 10.2.1 shall be permitted to encroach a maximum of 6 
inches (152 mm) into the required dimensions of the win- 
dow well. 

R310.2.1 Ladder and steps. Window wells with a verti- 
cal depth greater than 44 inches (1118 mm) shall be 
equipped with a permanently affixed ladder or steps usable 
with the window in the fully open position. Ladders or 
steps required by this section shall not be required to com- 
ply with Sections R311.7 and R311.8. Ladders or rungs 
shall have an inside width of at least 12 inches (305 mm), 
shall project at least 3 inches (76 mm) from the wall and 
shall be spaced not more than 18 inches (457 mm) on cen- 
ter vertically for the full height of the window well. 

R310.2.2 Drainage. Window wells shall be designed for 
proper drainage by connecting to the building's foundation 
drainage system required by Section R405.1 or by an 
approved alternative method. 

Exception: A drainage system for window wells is not 
required when the foundation is on well-drained soil or 
sand-gravel mixture soils according to the United Soil 
Classification System, Group I Soils, as detailed in 
Table R405.1. 

R310.3 Bulkhead enclosures. Bulkhead enclosures shall 
provide direct access to the basement. The bulkhead enclo- 
sure with the door panels in the fully open position shall pro- 
vide the minimum net clear opening required by Section 
R3 10.1.1. Bulkhead enclosures shall also comply with Sec- 
tion R31 1.7.8.2. 

R310.4 Bars, grilles, covers and screens. Bars, grilles, cov- 
ers, screens or similar devices are permitted to be placed over 
emergency escape and rescue openings, bulkhead enclosures, 
or window wells that serve such openings, provided the mini- 
mum net clear opening size complies with Sections R310.1.1 
to R310.1.3, and such devices shall be releasable or remov- 
able from the inside without the use of a key, tool, special 
knowledge or force greater than that which is required for 
normal operation of the escape and rescue opening. 



R310.5 Emergency escape windows under decks and 
porches. Emergency escape windows are allowed to be 
installed under decks and porches provided the location of the 
deck allows the emergency escape window to be fully opened 
and provides a path not less than 36 inches (914 mm) in 
height to a yard or court. 



SECTION R311 
MEANS OF EGRESS 

R311.1 Means of egress. All dwellings shall be provided 
with a means of egress as provided in this section. The means 
of egress shall provide a continuous and unobstructed path of 
vertical and horizontal egress travel from all portions of the 
dwelling to the exterior of the dwelling at the required egress 
door without requiring travel through a garage. 

R311.2 Egress door. At least one egress door shall be pro- 
vided for each dwelling unit. The egress door shall be side- 
hinged, and shall provide a minimum clear width of 32 inches 
(813 mm) when measured between the face of the door and 
the stop, with the door open 90 degrees (1.57 rad). The mini- 
mum clear height of the door opening shall not be less than 
78 inches (1981 mm) in height measured from the top of the 
threshold to the bottom of the stop. Other doors shall not be 
required to comply with these minimum dimensions. Egress 
doors shall be readily openable from inside the dwelling with- 
out the use of a key or special knowledge or effort. 

R311.3 Floors and landings at exterior doors. There shall 
be a landing or floor on each side of each exterior door. The 
width of each landing shall not be less than the door served. 
Every landing shall have a minimum dimension of 36 inches 
(914 mm) measured in the direction of travel. Exterior land- 
ings shall be permitted to have a slope not to exceed 7 4 unit 
vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent). 

Exception: Exterior balconies less than 60 square feet (5.6 
m 2 ) and only accessible from a door are permitted to have 
a landing less than 36 inches (914 mm) measured in the 
direction of travel. 

R311.3.1 Floor elevations at the required egress doors. 
Landings or finished floors at the required egress door 
shall not be more than l'/ 2 inches (38 mm) lower than the 
top of the threshold. 

Exception: The landing or floor on the exterior side 
shall not be more than 7 3 / 4 inches (196 mm) below the 
top of the threshold provided the door does not swing 
over the landing or floor. 

Where exterior landings or floors serving the required 
egress door are not at grade, they shall be provided with 
access to grade by means of a ramp in accordance with 
Section R311.8 or a stairway in accordance with Section 
R311.7. 

R31 1.3.2 Floor elevations for other exterior doors. 
Doors other than the required egress door shall be pro- 
vided with landings or floors not more than 7 3 / 4 inches 
(196 mm) below the top of the threshold. 

Exception: A landing is not required where a stairway 
of two or fewer risers is located on the exterior side of 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



59 



BUILDING PLANNING 



the door, provided the door does not swing over the 
stairway. 

R311.3.3 Storm and screen doors. Storm and screen 
doors shall be permitted to swing over all exterior stairs 
and landings. 

R311.4 Vertical egress. Egress from habitable levels includ- 
ing habitable attics and basements not provided with an 
egress door in accordance with Section R3 1 1 .2 shall be by a 
ramp in accordance with Section R311.8 or a stairway in 
accordance with Section R31 1.7. 

R311.5 Construction. 

R311.5.1 Attachment. Exterior landings, decks, balco- 
nies, stairs and similar facilities shall be positively 
anchored to the primary structure to resist both vertical 
and lateral forces or shall be designed to be self-support- 
ing. Attachment shall not be accomplished by use of toe- 
nails or nails subject to withdrawal. 

R311.6 Hallways. The minimum width of a hallway shall be 
not less than 3 feet (914 mm). 

R311.7 Stairways. 

R311.7.1 Width. Stairways shall not be less than 36 
inches (914 mm) in clear width at all points above the per- 
mitted handrail height and below the required headroom 
height. Handrails shall not project more than 4.5 inches 
(1 14 mm) on either side of the stairway and the minimum 
clear width of the stairway at and below the handrail 
height, including treads and landings, shall not be less than 
31'/ 2 inches (787 mm) where a handrail is installed on one 
side and 27 inches (698 mm) where handrails are provided 
on both sides. 

Exception: The width of spiral stairways shall be in 
accordance with Section R3 11. 7.9.1. 

R311.7.2 Headroom. The minimum headroom in all parts 
of the stairway shall not be less than 6 feet 8 inches (2032 
mm) measured vertically from the sloped line adjoining 
the tread nosing or from the floor surface of the landing or 
platform on that portion of the stairway. 

Exception: Where the nosings of treads at the side of a 
flight extend under the edge of a floor opening through 
which the stair passes, the floor opening shall be 
allowed to project horizontally into the required head- 
room a maximum of 4 3 / 4 inches (121 mm). 

R311.7.3 Vertical rise. A flight of stairs shall not have a 
vertical rise larger than 12 feet (3658 mm) between floor 
levels or landings. 

R311.7.4 Walkline. The walkline across winder treads 
shall be concentric to the curved direction of travel 
through the turn and located 12 inches (305 mm) from the 
side where the winders are narrower. The 12-inch (305 
mm) dimension shall be measured from the widest point 
of the clear stair width at the walking surface of the 
winder. If winders are adjacent within the flight, the point 
of the widest clear stair width of the adjacent winders shall 
be used. 

R31 1.7.5 Stair treads and risers. Stair treads and risers 
shall meet the requirements of this section. For the pur- 



poses of this section all dimensions and dimensioned sur- 
faces shall be exclusive of carpets, rugs or runners. 

R311.7.5.1 Risers. The maximum riser height shall be 
7 3 / 4 inches (196 mm). The riser shall be measured verti- 
cally between leading edges of the adjacent treads. The 
greatest riser height within any flight of stairs shall not 
exceed the smallest by more than 3 / 8 inch (9.5 mm). 
Risers shall be vertical or sloped from the underside of 
the nosing of the tread above at an angle not more than 
30 degrees (0.51 rad) from the vertical. Open risers are 
permitted provided that the opening between treads 
does not permit the passage of a 4- inch-diameter (102 
mm) sphere. 

Exception: The opening between adjacent treads is 
not limited on stairs with a total rise of 30 inches 
(762 mm) or less. 

R311.7.5.2 Treads. The minimum tread depth shall be 
10 inches (254 mm). The tread depth shall be measured 
horizontally between the vertical planes of the foremost 
projection of adjacent treads and at a right angle to the 
tread's leading edge. The greatest tread depth within 
any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by 
more than 3 / 8 inch (9.5 mm). 

R311.7.5.2.1 Winder treads. Winder treads shall 
have a minimum tread depth of 10 inches (254 mm) 
measured between the vertical planes of the fore- 
most projection of adjacent treads at the intersec- 
tions with the walkline. Winder treads shall have a 
minimum tread depth of 6 inches (152 mm) at any 
point within the clear width of the stair. Within any 
flight of stairs, the largest winder tread depth at the 
walkline shall not exceed the smallest winder tread 
by more than 3 / 8 inch (9.5 mm). Consistently shaped 
winders at the walkline shall be allowed within the 
same flight of stairs as rectangular treads and do not 
have to be within 3 / g inch (9.5 mm) of the rectangu- 
lar tread depth. 

R31 1.7.5.3 Nosings. The radius of curvature at the nos- 
ing shall be no greater than 9 / l6 inch (14 mm). A nosing 
not less than 3 / 4 inch (19 mm) but not more than l'/ 4 
inches (32 mm) shall be provided on stairways with 
solid risers. The greatest nosing projection shall not 
exceed the smallest nosing projection by more than 3 / 8 
inch (9.5 mm) between two stories, including the nos- 
ing at the level of floors and landings. Beveling of nos- 
ings shall not exceed 7 2 inch (12.7 mm). 

Exception: A nosing is not required where the tread 
depth is a minimum of 1 1 inches (279 mm). 

R311.7.5.4 Exterior wood/plastic composite stair 

treads. Wood/plastic composite stair treads shall com- 
ply with the provisions of Section R507.3. 

R311.7.6 Landings for stairways. There shall be a floor | 
or landing at the top and bottom of each stairway. The 
minimum width perpendicular to the direction of travel 
shall be no less than the width of the flight served. Land- 
ings of shapes other than square or rectangular shall be 
permitted provided the depth at the walk line and the total 



60 



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BUILDING PLANNING 



area is not less than that of a quarter circle with a radius 
equal to the required landing width. Where the stairway 
has a straight run, the minimum depth in the direction of 
travel shall be not less than 36 inches (914 mm). 

Exception: A floor or landing is not required at the top 
of an interior flight of stairs, including stairs in an 
enclosed garage, provided a door does not swing over 
the stairs. 

R31 1.7.7 Stairway walking surface. The walking surface 
of treads and landings of stairways shall be sloped no 
steeper than one unit vertical in 48 inches horizontal (2- 
percent slope). 

R311.7.8 Handrails. Handrails shall be provided on at 
least one side of each continuous run of treads or flight 
with four or more risers. 

R31 1.7.8.1 Height. Handrail height, measured verti- 
cally from the sloped plane adjoining the tread nosing, 
or finish surface of ramp slope, shall be not less than 34 
inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 inches (965 
mm). 

Exceptions: 

1 . The use of a volute, turnout or starting easing 
shall be allowed over the lowest tread. 

2. When handrail fittings or bendings are used to 
provide continuous transition between flights, 
transitions at winder treads, the transition from 
handrail to guardrail, or used at the start of a 
flight, the handrail height at the fittings or 
bendings shall be permitted to exceed the 
maximum height. 

R3 11.7.8.2 Continuity. Handrails for stairways shall 
be continuous for the full length of the flight, from a 
point directly above the top riser of the flight to a point 
directly above the lowest riser of the flight. Handrail 
ends shall be returned or shall terminate in newel posts 
or safety terminals. Handrails adjacent to a wall shall 
have a space of not less than 1 V 2 inch (38 mm) between 
the wall and the handrails. 

Exceptions: 

1. Handrails shall be permitted to be interrupted 
by a newel post at the turn. 

2. The use of a volute, turnout, starting easing or 
starting newel shall be allowed over the lowest 
tread. 

R31 1.7.8.3 Grip-size. All required handrails shall be of 
one of the following types or provide equivalent grasp- 
ability. 

1. Type 1. Handrails with a circular cross section 
shall have an outside diameter of at least 1 V 4 
inches (32 mm) and not greater than 2 inches (51 
mm). If the handrail is not circular, it shall have a 
perimeter dimension of at least 4 inches (102 
mm) and not greater than 6'/ 4 inches (160 mm) 
with a maximum cross section of dimension of 
2'/ 4 inches (57 mm). Edges shall have a minimum 
radius of 0.01 inch (0.25 mm). 



2. Type II. Handrails with a perimeter greater than 
6'/ 4 inches (160 mm) shall have a graspable fin- 
ger recess area on both sides of the profile. The 
finger recess shall begin within a distance of 3 / 4 
inch (19 mm) measured vertically from the tallest 
portion of the profile and achieve a depth of at 
least 5 / 16 inch (8 mm) within 7 / 8 inch (22 mm) 
below the widest portion of the profile. This 
required depth shall continue for at least 3 / 8 inch 
(10 mm) to a level that is not less than l 3 / 4 inches 
(45 mm) below the tallest portion of the profile. 
The minimum width of the handrail above the 
recess shall be 1 7 4 inches (32 mm) to a maximum 
of 2 3 / 4 inches (70 mm). Edges shall have a mini- 
mum radius of 0.01 inch (0.25 mm). 

R31 1.7.8.4 Exterior wood/plastic composite hand- 
rails. Wood/plastic composite handrails shall comply 
with the provisions of Section R507.3. 

R31 1.7.9 Illumination. All stairs shall be provided with 
illumination in accordance with Section R303.6. 

R311.7.10 Special stairways. Spiral stairways and bulk- 
head enclosure stairways shall comply with all require- 
ments of Section R3 1 1 .7 except as specified below. 

R311.7.10.1 Spiral stairways. Spiral stairways are 
permitted, provided the minimum clear width at and 
below the handrail shall be 26 inches (660 mm) with 
each tread having a 7'/ 2 -inch (190 mm) minimum tread 
depth at 12 inches (914 mm) from the narrower edge. 
All treads shall be identical, and the rise shall be no 
more than 9'/ 2 inches (241 mm). A minimum headroom 
of 6 feet 6 inches (1982 mm) shall be provided. 

R311.7.10.2 Bulkhead enclosure stairways. Stair- 
ways serving bulkhead enclosures, not part of the 
required building egress, providing access from the out- 
side grade level to the basement shall be exempt from 
the requirements of Sections R311.3 and R311.7 where 
the maximum height from the basement finished floor 
level to grade adjacent to the stairway does not exceed 
8 feet (2438 mm) and the grade level opening to the 
stairway is covered by a bulkhead enclosure with 
hinged doors or other approved means. 

R311.8 Ramps. 

R31 1.8.1 Maximum slope. Ramps shall have a maximum 
slope of 1 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8.3-percent 
slope). 

Exception: Where it is technically infeasible to comply 
because of site constraints, ramps may have a maxi- 
mum slope of one unit vertical in eight horizontal 
(12.5-percent slope). 

R311.8.2 Landings required. A minimum 3-foot-by-3- 
foot (914 mm by 914 mm) landing shall be provided: 

1 . At the top and bottom of ramps. 

2. Where doors open onto ramps. 

3. Where ramps change direction. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 8 



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R311.8.3 Handrails required. Handrails shall be pro- 
vided on at least one side of all ramps exceeding a slope of 
one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8.33-percent 
slope). 

R31 1.8.3.1 Height. Handrail height, measured above 
the finished surface of the ramp slope, shall be not less 
than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 inches 
(965 mm). 

R31 1.8.3.2 Grip size. Handrails on ramps shall comply 
with Section R31 1.7.8.3. 

R3 11.8.3.3 Continuity. Handrails where required on 
ramps shall be continuous for the full length of the 
ramp. Handrail ends shall be returned or shall terminate 
in newel posts or safety terminals. Handrails adjacent 
to a wall shall have a space of not less than 1 V 2 inches 
(38 mm) between the wall and the handrails. 



SECTION R31 2 
GUARDS AND WINDOW FALL PROTECTION 

R312.1 Guards. Guards shall be provided in accordance with 
Sections R312.1.1 through R312.1.4. 

R312.1.1 Where required. Guards shall be located along 
open-sided walking surfaces, including stairs, ramps and 
landings, that are located more than 30 inches (762 mm) 
measured vertically to the floor or grade below at any 
point within 36 inches (914 mm) horizontally to the edge 
of the open side. Insect screening shall not be considered 
as a guard. 

R312.1.2 Height. Required guards at open-sided walking 
surfaces, including stairs, porches, balconies or landings, 
shall be not less than 36 inches (914 mm) high measured 
vertically above the adjacent walking surface, adjacent 
fixed seating or the line connecting the leading edges of 
the treads. 

Exceptions: 

1. Guards on the open sides of stairs shall have a 
height not less than 34 inches (864 mm) mea- 
sured vertically from a line connecting the lead- 
ing edges of the treads. 

2. Where the top of the guard also serves as a hand- 
rail on the open sides of stairs, the top of the 
guard shall not be less than 34 inches (864 mm) 
and not more than 38 inches (965 mm) measured 
vertically from a line connecting the leading 
edges of the treads. 

R312.1.3 Opening limitations. Required guards shall not 
have openings from the walking surface to the required 
guard height which allow passage of a sphere 4 inches 
(102 mm) in diameter. 

Exceptions: 

1 . The triangular openings at the open side of stair, 
formed by the riser, tread and bottom rail of a 
guard, shall not allow passage of a sphere 6 
inches (153 mm) in diameter. 



2. Guards on the open side of stairs shall not have 
openings which allow passage of a sphere 4 3 / 8 
inches (111 mm) in diameter. 

R312.1.4 Exterior woodplastic composite guards. 
Woodplastic composite guards shall comply with the pro- 
visions of Section R317.4. 

R312.2 Window fall protection. Window fall protection 
shall be provided in accordance with Sections R312.2.1 and 
R312.2.2. 

R312.2.1 Window sills. In dwelling units, where the 
opening of an operable window is located more than 72 
inches (1829 mm) above the finished grade or surface 
below, the lowest part of the clear opening of the window 
shall be a minimum of 24 inches (610 mm) above the 
fininshed floor of the room in which the window is 
located. Operable sections of windows shall not permit 
openings that allow passage of a 4-inch-diameter (102 
mm) sphere where such openings are located within 24 
inches (610 mm) of the finished floor. 

Exceptions: 

1. Windows whose openings will not allow a 4- 
inch-diameter (102 mm) sphere to pass through 
the opening when the opening is in its largest 
opened position. 

2. Openings that are provided with window fall pre- 
vention devices that comply with ASTM F 2090. 

3. Windows that are provided with window opening 
control devices that comply with Section 

R312.2.2. 

R312.2.2 Window opening control devices. Window 
opening control devices shall comply with ASTM F 2090. 
The window opening control device, after operation to 
release the control device allowing the window to fully 
open, shall not reduce the minimum net clear opening area 
of the window unit to less than the area required by Sec- 
tion R31 0.1.1. 



SECTION R313 
AUTOMATIC FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 

R313.1 Townhouse automatic fire sprinkler systems. An 
automatic residential fire sprinkler system shall be installed 
in townhouses. 

Exception: An automatic residential fire sprinkler system 
shall not be required when additions or alterations are 
made to existing townhouses that do not have an automatic 
residential fire sprinkler system installed. 

R313.1.1 Design and installation. Automatic residential 
fire sprinkler systems for townhouses shall be designed 
and installed in accordance with Section P2904. 

R313.2 One- and two-family dwellings automatic fire sys- 
tems. An automatic residential fire sprinkler system shall be 
installed in one- and two-family dwellings. 

Exception: An automatic residential fire sprinkler system 
shall not be required for additions or alterations to exist- 



** 



62 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 



ing buildings that are not already provided with an auto- 
matic residential sprinkler system. 

R313.2.1 Design and installation. Automatic residential 
fire sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in 
accordance with Section P2904 or NFPA 13D. 



SECTION R314 
SMOKE ALARMS 

R314.1 Smoke detection and notification. All smoke 
alarms shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 217 
and installed in accordance with the provisions of this code 
and the household fire warning equipment provisions of 

NFPA 72. 

R314.2 Smoke detection systems. Household fire alarm sys- 
tems installed in accordance with NFPA 72 that include 
smoke alarms, or a combination of smoke detector and audi- 
ble notification device installed as required by this section for 
smoke alarms, shall be permitted. The household fire alarm 
system shall provide the same level of smoke detection and 
alarm as required by this section for smoke alarms. Where a 
household fire warning system is installed using a combina- 
tion of smoke detector and audible notification device(s), it 
shall become a permanent fixture of the occupancy and 
owned by the homeowner. The system shall be monitored by 
an approved supervising station and be maintained in accor- 
dance with NFPA 72. 

Exception: Where smoke alarms are provided meeting the 
requirements of Section R314.4. 

R314.3 Location. Smoke alarms shall be installed in the fol- 
lowing locations: 

1 . In each sleeping room. 

2. Outside each separate sleeping area in the immediate 
vicinity of the bedrooms. 

3. On each additional story of the dwelling, including 
basements and habitable attics but not including crawl 
spaces and uninhabitable attics. In dwellings or dwell- 
ing units with split levels and without an intervening 
door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm 
installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent 
lower level provided that the lower level is less than 
one full story below the upper level. 

R314.3.1 Alterations, repairs and additions. When 
alterations, repairs or additions requiring a permit occur, 
or when one or more sleeping rooms are added or created 
in existing dwellings, the individual dwelling unit shall be 
equipped with smoke alarms located as required for new 
dwellings. 

Exceptions: 

1. Work involving the exterior surfaces of dwell- 
ings, such as the replacement of roofing or siding, 
or the addition or replacement of windows or 



doors, or the addition of a porch or deck, are 
exempt from the requirements of this section. 

2. Installation, alteration or repairs of plumbing or 
mechanical systems are exempt from the require- 
ments of this section. 

R314.4 Power source. Smoke alarms shall receive their pri- 
mary power from the building wiring when such wiring is 
served from a commercial source, and when primary power is 
interrupted, shall receive power from a battery. Wiring shall 
be permanent and without a disconnecting switch other than 
those required for overcurrent protection. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Smoke alarms shall be permitted to be battery oper- 
ated when installed in buildings without commercial 
power. 

2. Hard wiring of smoke alarms in existing areas shall 
not be required where the alterations or repairs do 
not result in the removal of interior wall or ceiling 
finishes exposing the structure, unless there is an 
attic, crawl space or basement available which could 
provide access for hard wiring without the removal 
of interior finishes. 

R314.5 Interconnection. Where more than one smoke alarm 
is required to be installed within an individual dwelling unit 
in accordance with Section R314.3, the alarm devices shall be 
interconnected in such a manner that the actuation of one 
alarm will activate all of the alarms in the individual unit. 
Physical interconnection of smoke alarms shall not be 
required where listed wireless alarms are installed and all 
alarms sound upon activation of one alarm. 

Exception: Interconnection of smoke alarms in existing 
areas shall not be required where alterations or repairs do 
not result in removal of interior wall or ceiling finishes 
exposing the structure, unless there is an attic, crawl space 
or basement available which could provide access for 
interconnection without the removal of interior finishes. 



SECTION R315 
CARBON MONOXIDE ALARMS 

R3I5.1 Carbon monoxide alarms. For new construction, an 
approved carbon monoxide alarm shall be installed outside of 
each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the 
bedrooms in dwelling units within which fuel-fired appli- 
ances are installed and in dwelling units that have attached 
garages. 

R315.2 Carbon monoxide detection systems. Carbon mon- 
oxide detection systems that include carbon monoxide detec- 
tors and audible notification appliances, installed and 
maintained in accordance with this section for carbon monox- 
ide alarms and NFPA 720, shall be permitted. The carbon 
monoxide detectors shall be listed as complying with UL 
2075. Where a household carbon monoxide detection system 
is installed, it shall become a permanent fixture of the occu- 



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63 



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pancy, owned by the homeowner and shall be monitored by 
an approved supervising station. 

Exception: Where carbon monoxide alarms are installed 
meeting the requirements of Section R315.1, compliance 
with Section 3 15.2 is not required. 

R315.3 Where required in existing dwellings. Where work 
requiring a permit occurs in existing dwellings that have 
attached garages or in existing dwellings within which fuel- 
fired appliances exist, carbon monoxide alarms shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Section R315.1. 

| R315.4 Alarm requirements. Single-station carbon monox- 
ide alarms shall be listed as complying with UL 2034 and 
shall be installed in accordance with this code and the manu- 
facturer's installation instructions. 



SECTION R316 
FOAM PLASTIC 

R316.1 General. The provisions of this section shall govern 
the materials, design, application, construction and installa- 
tion of foam plastic materials. 

R316.2 Labeling and identification. Packages and contain- 
ers of foam plastic insulation and foam plastic insulation 
components delivered to the job site shall bear the label of an 
approved agency showing the manufacturer's name, the 
product listing, product identification and information suffi- 
cient to determine that the end use will comply with the 
requirements. 

R316.3 Surface burning characteristics. Unless otherwise 
allowed in Section R316.5 or R316.6, all foam plastic or 
foam plastic cores used as a component in manufactured 
assemblies used in building construction shall have a flame 
spread index of not more than 75 and shall have a smoke- 
developed index of not more than 450 when tested in the 
maximum thickness intended for use in accordance with 
ASTM E 84 or UL 723. Loose-fill-type foam plastic insula- 
tion shall be tested as board stock for the flame spread index 
and smoke-developed index. 

Exception: Foam plastic insulation more than 4 inches 
(102 mm) thick shall have a maximum flame spread index 
of 75 and a smoke-developed index of 450 where tested at 
a minimum thickness of 4 inches (102 mm), provided the 
end use is approved in accordance with Section R316.6 
using the thickness and density intended for use. 

R316.4 Thermal barrier. Unless otherwise allowed in Sec- 
tion R316.5 or Section R316.6, foam plastic shall be sepa- 
rated from the interior of a building by an approved thermal 
barrier of minimum 7 2 inch (12.7 mm) gypsum wallboard or 
a material that is tested in accordance with and meets the 
acceptance criteria of both the Temperature Transmission 
Fire Test and the Integrity Fire Test of NFPA 275. 

R316.5 Specific requirements. The following requirements 
shall apply to these uses of foam plastic unless specifically 
approved in accordance with Section R316.6 or by other sec- 
tions of the code or the requirements of Sections R316.2 
through R316.4 have been met. 



R316.5.1 Masonry or concrete construction. The ther- 
mal barrier specified in Section R316.4 is not required in a 
masonry or concrete wall, floor or roof when the foam 
plastic insulation is separated from the interior of the 
building by a minimum 1-inch (25 mm) thickness of 
masonry or concrete. 

R316.5.2 Roofing. The thermal barrier specified in Sec- 
tion R316.4 is not required when the foam plastic in a roof 
assembly or under a roof covering is installed in accor- 
dance with the code and the manufacturer's installation 
instructions and is separated from the interior of the build- 
ing by tongue-and-groove wood planks or wood structural 
panel sheathing in accordance with Section R803, not less 
than 15 / 32 inch (11.9 mm) thick bonded with exterior glue 
and identified as Exposure 1, with edges supported by 
blocking or tongue-and-groove joints or an equivalent 
material. The smoke-developed index for roof applications 
shall not be limited. 

R3 16.5.3 Attics. The thermal barrier specified in Section 
R316.4 is not required where all of the following apply: 

1. Attic access is required by Section R807. 1 . 

2. The space is entered only for purposes of repairs or 
maintenance. 

3. The foam plastic insulation is protected against igni- 
tion using one of the following ignition barrier mate- 
rials: 

3.1. lV 2 -inch-thick (38 mm) mineral fiber insula- 
tion; 

3.2. V 4 -inch-thick (6.4 mm) wood structural pan- 
els; 

3.3. 3 / 8 -inch (9.5 mm) particleboard; 

3.4. 7 4 -inch (6.4 mm) hardboard; 

3.5. 3 / 8 -inch (9.5 mm) gypsum board; or 

3.6. Corrosion-resistant steel having a base metal 
thickness of 0.016 inch (0.406 mm); 

3.7. 1 7,-inch-thick (38 mm) cellulose insulation. 

The above ignition barrier is not required where the 
foam plastic insulation has been tested in accordance with 
Section R3 16.6. 

R316.5.4 Crawl spaces. The thermal barrier specified in 
Section R316.4 is not required where all of the following 
apply: 

1. Crawlspace access is required by Section R408.4 

2. Entry is made only for purposes of repairs or main- 
tenance. 

3. The foam plastic insulation is protected against igni- 
tion using one of the following ignition barrier mate- 
rials: 

3.1. 1 '/-.-inch-thick (38 mm) mineral fiber insula- 
tion; 

3.2. 7 4 -inch-thick (6.4 mm) wood structural pan- 
els; 



64 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 



3.3. 3 / 8 -inch (9.5 mm) particleboard; 

3.4. 7 4 -inch (6.4 mm) hardboard; 

3.5. V 8 -inch (9.5 mm) gypsum board; or 

3.6. Corrosion-resistant steel having a base metal 
thickness of 0.016 inch (0.406 mm). 

The above ignition barrier is not required where the 
foam plastic insulation has been tested in accordance with 
Section R3 16. 6. 

R316.5.5 Foam-filled exterior doors. Foam-filled exte- 
rior doors are exempt from the requirements of Sections 
R3 16.3 and R3 16.4. 

R316.5.6 Foam-filled garage doors. Foam-filled garage 
doors in attached or detached garages are exempt from the 
requirements of Sections R316.3 and R316.4. 

R316.5.7 Foam backer board. The thermal barrier speci- 
fied in Section R316.4 is not required where siding backer 
board foam plastic insulation has a maximum thickness of 
0.5 inch (12.7 mm) and a potential heat of not more than 
2000 Btu per square foot (22 720 kJ/m 2 ) when tested in 
accordance with NFPA 259 provided that: 

1. The foam plastic insulation is separated from the 
interior of the building by not less than 2 inches (51 
mm) of mineral fiber insulation; 

2. The foam plastic insulation is installed over existing 
exterior wall finish in conjunction with re-siding; or 

3. The foam plastic insulation has been tested in accor- 
dance with Section R316.6. 

R316.5.8 Re-siding. The thermal barrier specified in Sec- 
tion R316.4 is not required where the foam plastic insula- 
tion is installed over existing exterior wall finish in 
conjunction with re-siding provided the foam plastic has a 
maximum thickness of 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) and a potential 
heat of not more than 2000 Btu per square foot (22 720 Id/ 
m 2 ) when tested in accordance with NFPA 259. 

R316.5.9 Interior trim. The thermal barrier specified in 
Section R316.4 is not required for exposed foam plastic 
interior trim, provided all of the following are met: 

1. The minimum density is 20 pounds per cubic foot 
(320 kg/m 3 ). 

2. The maximum thickness of the trim is 0.5 inch (12.7 
mm) and the maximum width is 8 inches (204 mm). 

3. The interior trim shall not constitute more than 10 
percent of the aggregate wall and ceiling area of any 
room or space. 

4. The flame spread index does not exceed 75 when 
tested per ASTM E 84 or UL 723. The smoke-devel- 
oped index is not limited. 

R316.5.10 Interior finish. Foam plastics shall be permit- 
ted as interior finish where approved in accordance with 
Section R316.6 Foam plastics that are used as interior fin- 
ish shall also meet the flame spread index and smoke- 
developed index requirements of Sections R302.9.1 and 
R302.9.2. 



R316.5.11 Sill plates and headers. Foam plastic shall be 
permitted to be spray applied to a sill plate and header 
without the thermal barrier specified in Section R316.4 
subject to all of the following: 

1 . The maximum thickness of the foam plastic shall be 
3'/ 4 inches (83 mm). 

2. The density of the foam plastic shall be in the range 
of 0.5 to 2.0 pounds per cubic foot (8 to 32 kg/m 3 ). 

3. The foam plastic shall have a flame spread index of 
25 or less and an accompanying smoke-developed 
index of 450 or less when tested in accordance with 
ASTM E 84 or UL 723. 

R316.5.12 Sheathing. Foam plastic insulation used as 
sheathing shall comply with Section R316.3 and Section 
R316.4. Where the foam plastic sheathing is exposed to 
the attic space at a gable or kneewall, the provisions of 
Section R31 6.5.3 shall apply. 

R316.5.13 Floors. The thermal barrier specified in Sec- 
tion R316.4 is not required to be installed on the walking 
surface of a structural floor system that contains foam 
plastic insulation when the foam plastic is covered by a 
minimum nominal 7 2 -inch-thick (12.7 mm) wood struc- 
tural panel or equivalent. The thermal barrier specified in 
Section R3 1 6.4 is required on the underside of the struc- 
tural floor system that contains foam plastic insulation 
when the underside of the structural floor system is 
exposed to the interior of the building. 

R316.6 Specific approval. Foam plastic not meeting the 
requirements of Sections R316.3 through R316.5 shall be 
specifically approved on the basis of one of the following 
approved tests: NFPA 286 with the acceptance criteria of 
Section R302.9.4, FM4880, UL 1040, or UL 1715, or fire 
tests related to actual end-use configurations. Approval shall 
be based on the actual end use configuration and shall be per- 
formed on the finished foam plastic assembly in the maxi- 
mum thickness intended for use. Assemblies tested shall 
include seams, joints and other typical details used in the 
installation of the assembly and shall be tested in the manner 
intended for use. 

R316.7 Termite damage. The use of foam plastics in areas 
of "very heavy" termite infestation probability shall be in 
accordance with Section R318.4. 



SECTION R317 

PROTECTION OF WOOD AND WOOD BASED 

PRODUCTS AGAINST DECAY 

R317.1 Location required. Protection of wood and wood 
based products from decay shall be provided in the following 
locations by the use of naturally durable wood or wood that is 
preservative-treated in accordance with AWPA Ul for the 
species, product, preservative and end use. Preservatives shall 
be listed in Section 4 of AWPA U 1 . 

1. Wood joists or the bottom of a wood structural floor 
when closer than 18 inches (457 mm) or wood girders 
when closer than 12 inches (305 mm) to the exposed 



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ground in crawl spaces or unexcavated area located 
within the periphery of the building foundation. 

2. All wood framing members that rest on concrete or 
masonry exterior foundation walls and are less than 8 
inches (203 mm) from the exposed ground. 

3. Sills and sleepers on a concrete or masonry slab that is 
in direct contact with the ground unless separated from 
such slab by an impervious moisture barrier. 

4. The ends of wood girders entering exterior masonry or 
concrete walls having clearances of less than V 2 inch 
(12.7 mm) on tops, sides and ends. 

5. Wood siding, sheathing and wall framing on the exte- 
rior of a building having a clearance of less than 6 
inches (152 mm) from the ground or less than 2 inches 
(51 mm) measured vertically from concrete steps, 
porch slabs, patio slabs, and similar horizontal surfaces 
exposed to the weather. 

6. Wood structural members supporting moisture-perme- 
able floors or roofs that are exposed to the weather, 
such as concrete or masonry slabs, unless separated 
from such floors or roofs by an impervious moisture 
barrier. 

7. Wood furring strips or other wood framing members 
attached directly to the interior of exterior masonry 
walls or concrete walls below grade except where an 
approved vapor retarder is applied between the wall 
and the furring strips or framing members. 

R317.1.1 Field treatment. Field-cut ends, notches and 
drilled holes of preservative-treated wood shall be treated 
in the field in accordance with AWPA M4. 

R317.1.2 Ground contact. All wood in contact with the 
ground, embedded in concrete in direct contact with the 
ground or embedded in concrete exposed to the weather 
that supports permanent structures intended for human 
occupancy shall be approved pressure-preservative-treated 
wood suitable for ground contact use, except untreated 
wood may be used where entirely below groundwater 
level or continuously submerged in fresh water. 

R317.1.3 Geographical areas. In geographical areas 
where experience has demonstrated a specific need, 
approved naturally durable or pressure-preservative- 
treated wood shall be used for those portions of wood 
members that form the structural supports of buildings, 
balconies, porches or similar permanent building appurte- 
nances when those members are exposed to the weather 
without adequate protection from a roof, eave, overhang or 
other covering that would prevent moisture or water accu- 
mulation on the surface or at joints between members. 
Depending on local experience, such members may 
include: 

1 . Horizontal members such as girders, joists and deck- 
ing. 

2. Vertical members such as posts, poles and columns. 

3. Both horizontal and vertical members. 



R317.1.4 Wood columns. Wood columns shall be 
approved wood of natural decay resistance or approved 
pressure-preservative-treated wood. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Columns exposed to the weather or in basements 
when supported by concrete piers or metal pedes- 
tals projecting 1 inch (25.4 mm) above a concrete 
floor or 6 inches (152 mm) above exposed earth 
and the earth is covered by an approved impervi- 
ous moisture barrier. 

2. Columns in enclosed crawl spaces or unexca- 
vated areas located within the periphery of the 
building when supported by a concrete pier or 
metal pedestal at a height more than 8 inches 
(203 mm) from exposed earth and the earth is 
covered by an impervious moisture barrier. 

R317.1.5 Exposed glued-laminated timbers. The por- 
tions of glued-laminated timbers that form the structural 
supports of a building or other structure and are exposed to 
weather and not properly protected by a roof, eave or sim- 
ilar covering shall be pressure treated with preservative, or 
be manufactured from naturally durable or preservative- 
treated wood. 

R317.2 Quality mark. Lumber and plywood required to be 
pressure-preservative-treated in accordance with Section 
R318.1 shall bear the quality mark of an approved inspection 
agency that maintains continuing supervision, testing and 
inspection over the quality of the product and that has been 
approved by an accreditation body that complies with the 
requirements of the American Lumber Standard Committee 
treated wood program. 

R31 7.2.1 Required information. The required quality 
mark on each piece of pressure-preservative-treated lum- 
ber or plywood shall contain the following information: 

1. Identification of the treating plant. 

2. Type of preservative. 

3. The minimum preservative retention. 

4. End use for which the product was treated. 

5. Standard to which the product was treated. 

6. Identity of the approved inspection agency. 

7. The designation "Dry," if applicable. 

Exception: Quality marks on lumber less than 1 inch 
(25.4 mm) nominal thickness, or lumber less than nom- 
inal 1 inch by 5 inches (25.4 mm by 127 mm) or 2 
inches by 4 inches (51 mm by 102 mm) or lumber 36 
inches (914 mm) or less in length shall be applied by 
stamping the faces of exterior pieces or by end labeling 
not less than 25 percent of the pieces of a bundled unit. 

R317.3 Fasteners and connectors in contact with preser- 
vative-treated and fire-retardant-treated wood. Fasteners, 
including nuts and washers, and connectors in contact with 
preservative-treated wood and fire-retardant-treated wood 
shall be in accordance with this section. The coating weights 
for zinc-coated fasteners shall be in accordance with ASTM 
A 153. 



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R3 17.3.1 Fasteners for preservative-treated wood. Fas- 
teners, including nuts and washers, for preservative- 
treated wood shall be of hot-dipped, zinc-coated galva- 
nized steel, stainless steel, silicon bronze or copper. Coat- 
ing types and weights for connectors in contact with 
preservative-treated wood shall be in accordance with the 
connector manufacturer's recommendations. In the 
absence of manufacturer's recommendations, a minimum 
of ASTM A 653 type G185 zinc -coated galvanized steel, 
or equivalent, shall be used. 

Exceptions: 

1. One-half-inch-diameter (12.7 mm) or greater 
steel bolts. 

2. Fasteners other than nails and timber rivets shall 
be permitted to be of mechanically deposited 
zinc-coated steel with coating weights in accor- 
dance with ASTM B 695, Class 55 minimum. 

3. Plain carbon steel fasteners in SBX/DOT and 
zinc borate preservative-treated wood in an inte- 
rior, dry environment shall be permitted. 

R317.3.2 Fastenings for wood foundations. Fastenings, 
including nuts and washers, for wood foundations shall be 
as required in AF&PA PWF. 

R317.3.3 Fasteners for fire-retardant-treated wood 
used in exterior applications or wet or damp locations. 

Fasteners, including nuts and washers, for fire-retardant- 
treated wood used in exterior applications or wet or damp 
locations shall be of hot-dipped, zinc-coated galvanized 
steel, stainless steel, silicon bronze or copper. Fasteners 
other than nails and timber rivets shall be permitted to be 
of mechanically deposited zinc-coated steel with coating 
weights in accordance with ASTM B 695, Class 55 mini- 
mum. 

R317.3.4 Fasteners for fire-retardant-treated wood 
used in interior applications. Fasteners, including nuts 
and washers, for fire-retardant-treated wood used in inte- 
rior locations shall be in accordance with the manufac- 
turer's recommendations. In the absence of the 
manufacturer's recommendations, Section R3 17.3.3 shall 
apply. 

R317.4 Wood/plastic composites. Wood/plastic composites 
used in exterior deck boards, stair treads, handrails and 
guardrail systems shall bear a label indicating the required 
performance levels and demonstrating compliance with the 
provisions of ASTM D 7032. 

R317.4.1 Labeling. Deck boards and stair treads shall 
bear a label that indicates compliance to ASTM D 7032 
and includes the allowable load and maximum allowable 
span. Handrails and guardrail systems or their packaging 
shall bear a label that indicates compliance to ASTM D 
7032 and includes the maximum allowable span. 

R317.4.2 Installation. Wood/plastic composites shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 



SECTION R318 

PROTECTION AGAINST SUBTERRANEAN 

TERMITES 

R318.1 Subterranean termite control methods. In areas 
subject to damage from termites as indicated by Table 
R30 1.2(1), methods of protection shall be one of the follow- 
ing methods or a combination of these methods: 

1. Chemical termiticide treatment, as provided in Section 
R318.2. 

2. Termite baiting system installed and maintained 
according to the label. 

3. Pressure-preservative-treated wood in accordance with 
the provisions of Section R317.1 . 

4. Naturally durable termite-resistant wood. 

5. Physical barriers as provided in Section R318.3 and 
used in locations as specified in Section R317.1. 

6. Cold-formed steel framing in accordance with Sections 
R505.2.1andR603.2.1. 

R318.1.1 Quality mark. Lumber and plywood required to 
be pressure-preservative-treated in accordance with Sec- 
tion R318.1 shall bear the quality mark of an approved 
inspection agency which maintains continuing supervi- 
sion, testing and inspection over the quality of the product 
and which has been approved by an accreditation body 
which complies with the requirements of the American 
Lumber Standard Committee treated wood program. 

R318.1.2 Field treatment. Field-cut ends, notches, and 
drilled holes of pressure-preservative-treated wood shall 
be retreated in the field in accordance with AWPA M4. 

R318.2 Chemical termiticide treatment. Chemical termiti- 
cide treatment shall include soil treatment and/or field 
applied wood treatment. The concentration, rate of applica- 
tion and method of treatment of the chemical termiticide shall 
be in strict accordance with the termiticide label. 

R318.3 Barriers. Approved physical barriers, such as metal 
or plastic sheeting or collars specifically designed for termite 
prevention, shall be installed in a manner to prevent termites 
from entering the structure. Shields placed on top of an exte- 
rior foundation wall are permitted to be used only if in combi- 
nation with another method of protection. 

R318.4 Foam plastic protection. In areas where the proba- 
bility of termite infestation is "very heavy" as indicated in 
Figure R301.2(6), extruded and expanded polystyrene, poly- 
isocyanurate and other foam plastics shall not be installed on 
the exterior face or under interior or exterior foundation walls 
or slab foundations located below grade. The clearance 
between foam plastics installed above grade and exposed 
earth shall be at least 6 inches (152 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1. Buildings where the structural members of walls, 
floors, ceilings and roofs are entirely of noncombus- 
tible materials or pressure-preservative-treated 
wood. 



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2. When in addition to the requirements of Section 
R318.1, an approved method of protecting the foam 
plastic and structure from subterranean termite dam- 
age is used. 

3. On the interior side of basement walls. 



SECTION R319 
SITE ADDRESS 

R319.1 Address numbers. Buildings shall have approved 
address numbers, building numbers or approved building 
identification placed in a position that is plainly legible and 
visible from the street or road fronting the property. These 
numbers shall contrast with their background. Address num- 
bers shall be Arabic numbers or alphabetical letters. Numbers 
shall be a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) high with a mini- 
mum stroke width of 7 2 inch (12.7 mm). Where access is by 
means of a private road and the building address cannot be 
viewed from the public way, a monument, pole or other sign 
or means shall be used to identify the structure. 



SECTION R320 
ACCESSIBILITY 

R320.1 Scope. Where there are four or more dwelling units 
or sleeping units in a single structure, the provisions of Chap- 
ter 1 1 of the International Building Code for Group R-3 shall 
apply. 



SECTION R321 
ELEVATORS AND PLATFORM LIFTS 

R321.1 Elevators. Where provided, passenger elevators, lim- 
ited-use/limited-application elevators or private residence 
elevators shall comply with ASME A17.1. 

R321.2 Platform lifts. Where provided, platform lifts shall 
comply with ASME A18.1 . 

R321.3 Accessibility. Elevators or platform lifts that are part 
of an accessible route required by Chapter 1 1 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code, shall comply with ICC Al 17.1. 



SECTION R322 
FLOOD-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION 

R322.1 General. Buildings and structures constructed in 
whole or in part in flood hazard areas (including A or V 
Zones) as established in Table R301.2(l) shall be designed 
and constructed in accordance with the provisions contained 
in this section. Buildings and structures located in whole or in 
part in identified floodways shall be designed and constructed 
in accordance with ASCE 24. 

R322.1.1 Alternative provisions. As an alternative to the 
requirements in Section R322.3 for buildings and struc- 
tures located in whole or in part in coastal high-hazard 
areas (V Zones) and Coastal A Zones, if delineated, ASCE 
24 is permitted subject to the limitations of this code and 
the limitations therein. 



R322.1.2 Structural systems. All structural systems of all 
buildings and structures shall be designed, connected and 
anchored to resist flotation, collapse or permanent lateral 
movement due to structural loads and stresses from flood- 
ing equal to the design flood elevation. 

R322.1.3 Flood-resistant construction. All buildings and 
structures erected in areas prone to flooding shall be con- 
structed by methods and practices that minimize flood 
damage. 

R322.1.4 Establishing the design flood elevation. The 
design flood elevation shall be used to define flood hazard 
areas. At a minimum, the design flood elevation is the 
higher of: 

1. The base flood elevation at the depth of peak eleva- 
tion of flooding (including wave height) which has a 
1 percent (100-year flood) or greater chance of 
being equaled or exceeded in any given year; or 

2. The elevation of the design flood associated with the 
area designated on a flood hazard map adopted by 
the community, or otherwise legally designated. 

R322. 1.4.1 Determination of design flood elevations. 
If design flood elevations are not specified, the building 
official is authorized to require the applicant to: 

1 . Obtain and reasonably use data available from a 
federal, state or other source; or 

2. Determine the design flood elevation in accor- 
dance with accepted hydrologic and hydraulic 
engineering practices used to define special flood 
hazard areas. Determinations shall be undertaken 
by a registered design professional who shall 
document that the technical methods used reflect 
currently accepted engineering practice. Studies, 
analyses and computations shall be submitted in 
sufficient detail to allow thorough review and 
approval. 

R322.1.4.2 Determination of impacts. In riverine 
flood hazard areas where design flood elevations are 
specified but floodways have not been designated, the 
applicant shall demonstrate that the effect of the pro- 
posed buildings and structures on design flood eleva- 
tions, including fill, when combined with all other 
existing and anticipated flood hazard area encroach- 
ments, will not increase the design flood elevation 
more than 1 foot (305 mm) at any point within the juris- 
diction. 

R322.1.5 Lowest floor. The lowest floor shall be the floor 
of the lowest enclosed area, including basement, but 
excluding any unfinished flood-resistant enclosure that is 
useable solely for vehicle parking, building access or lim- 
ited storage provided that such enclosure is not built so as 
to render the building or structure in violation of this sec- 
tion. 

R322.1.6 Protection of mechanical and electrical sys- 
tems. Electrical systems, equipment and components; 
heating, ventilating, air conditioning; plumbing appliances 
and plumbing fixtures; duct systems; and other service 
equipment shall be located at or above the elevation 



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required in Section R322.2 (flood hazard areas including 
A Zones) or R322.3 (coastal high-hazard areas including 
V Zones). If replaced as part of a substantia] improvement, 
electrical systems, equipment and components; heating, 
ventilating, air conditioning and plumbing appliances and 
plumbing fixtures; duct systems; and other service equip- 
ment shall meet the requirements of this section. Systems, 
fixtures, and equipment and components shall not be 
mounted on or penetrate through walls intended to break 
away under flood loads. 

Exception: Locating electrical systems, equipment and 
components; heating, ventilating, air conditioning; 
plumbing appliances and plumbing fixtures; duct sys- 
tems; and other service equipment is permitted below 
the elevation required in Section R322.2 (flood hazard 
areas including A Zones) or R322.3 (coastal high-haz- 
ard areas including V Zones) provided that they are 
designed and installed to prevent water from entering 
or accumulating within the components and to resist 
hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and stresses, 
including the effects of buoyancy, during the occur- 
rence of flooding to the design flood elevation in accor- 
dance with ASCE 24. Electrical wiring systems are 
permitted to be located below the required elevation 
provided they conform to the provisions of the electri- 
cal part of this code for wet locations. 

R322.1.7 Protection of water supply and sanitary sew- 
age systems. New and replacement water supply systems 
shall be designed to minimize or eliminate infiltration of 
flood waters into the systems in accordance with the 
plumbing provisions of this code. New and replacement 
sanitary sewage systems shall be designed to minimize or 
eliminate infiltration of floodwaters into systems and dis- 
charges from systems into floodwaters in accordance with 
the plumbing provisions of this code and Chapter 3 of the 
International Private Sewage Disposal Code. 

R322.1.8 Flood-resistant materials. Building materials 
used below the elevation required in Section R322.2 
(flood hazard areas including A Zones) or R322.3 (coastal 
high-hazard areas including V Zones) shall comply with 
the following: 

1. All wood, including floor sheathing, shall be pres- 
sure-preservative- treated in accordance with AWPA 
Ul for the species, product, preservative and end use 
or be the decay-resistant heartwood of redwood, 
black locust or cedars. Preservatives shall be listed 
in Section 4 of AWPA Ul. 

2. Materials and installation methods used for flooring 
and interior and exterior walls and wall coverings 
shall conform to the provisions of FEMA/FIA-TB-2. 

R322.1.9 Manufactured homes. New or replacement 
manufactured homes shall be elevated in accordance with 
Section R322.2 (flood hazard areas including A Zones) or 
Section R322.3 in coastal high-hazard areas (V Zones). 
The anchor and tie-down requirements of Sections AE604 
and AE605 of Appendix E shall apply. The foundation and 
anchorage of manufactured homes to be located in identi- 



fied floodways shall be designed and constructed in accor- 
dance with ASCE 24. 

R322.1.10 As-built elevation documentation. A regis- 
tered design professional shall prepare and seal documen- 
tation of the elevations specified in Section R322.2 or 
R322.3. 

R322.2 Flood hazard areas (including A Zones). All areas 
that have been determined to be prone to flooding but not 
subject to high-velocity wave action shall be designated as 
flood hazard areas. Flood hazard areas that have been delin- 
eated as subject to wave heights between lV 2 feet (457 mm) 
and 3 feet (914 mm) shall be designated as Coastal A Zones. 
All building and structures constructed in whole or in part in 
flood hazard areas shall be designed and constructed in accor- 
dance with Sections R322.2.1 through R322.2.3. 

R322.2.1 Elevation requirements. 

1. Buildings and structures in flood hazard areas not 
designated as Coastal A Zones shall have the lowest 
floors elevated to or above the design flood eleva- 
tion. 

2. Buildings and structures in flood hazard areas desig- 
nated as Coastal A Zones shall have the lowest 
floors elevated to or above the base flood elevation 
plus 1 foot (305 mm), or to the design flood eleva- 
tion, whichever is higher. 

3. In areas of shallow flooding (AO Zones), buildings 
and structures shall have the lowest floor (including 
basement) elevated at least as high above the highest 
adjacent grade as the depth number specified in feet 
on the FIRM, or at least 2 feet (610 mm) if a depth 
number is not specified. 

4. Basement floors that are below grade on all sides 
shall be elevated to or above the design flood eleva- 
tion. 

Exception: Enclosed areas below the design flood ele- 
vation, including basements whose floors are not below 
grade on all sides, shall meet the requirements of Sec- 
tion R322.2.2. 

R322.2.2 Enclosed area below design flood elevation. 
Enclosed areas, including crawl spaces, that are below the 
design flood elevation shall: 

1. Be used solely for parking of vehicles, building 
access or storage. 

2. Be provided with flood openings that meet the fol- 
lowing criteria: 

2. 1 . There shall be a minimum of two openings 
on different sides of each enclosed area; if a 
building has more than one enclosed area 
below the design flood elevation, each area 
shall have openings on exterior walls. 

2.2. The total net area of all openings shall be at 
least 1 square inch (645 mm 2 ) for each 
square foot (0.093 m 2 ) of enclosed area, or 
the openings shall be designed and the con- 
struction documents shall include a state- 



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ment by a registered design professional that 
the design of the openings will provide for 
equalization of hydrostatic flood forces on 
exterior walls by allowing for the automatic 
entry and exit of floodwaters as specified in 
Section 2.6.2.2 of ASCE 24. 

2.3. The bottom of each opening shall be 1 foot 
(305 mm) or less above the adjacent ground 
level. 

2.4. Openings shall be not less than 3 inches (76 
mm) in any direction in the plane of the wall. 

2.5. Any louvers, screens or other opening covers 
shall allow the automatic flow of floodwa- 
ters into and out of the enclosed area. 

2.6. Openings installed in doors and windows, 
that meet requirements 2.1 through 2.5, are 
acceptable; however, doors and windows 
without installed openings do not meet the 
requirements of this section. 

R322.2.3 Foundation design and construction. Founda- 
tion walls for all buildings and structures erected in flood 
hazard areas shall meet the requirements of Chapter 4. 

Exception: Unless designed in accordance with Sec- 
tion R404: 

1. The unsupported height of 6-inch (152 mm) plain 
masonry walls shall be no more than 3 feet (914 
mm). 

2. The unsupported height of 8-inch (203 mm) plain 
masonry walls shall be no more than 4 feet (1219 
mm). 

3. The unsupported height of 8-inch (203 mm) rein- 
forced masonry walls shall be no more than 8 feet 
(2438 mm). 

For the purpose of this exception, unsup- 
ported height is the distance from the finished 
grade of the under-floor space to the top of the 
wall. 

R322.3 Coastal high-hazard areas (including V Zones). 
Areas that have been determined to be subject to wave 
heights in excess of 3 feet (914 mm) or subject to high- veloc- 
ity wave action or wave-induced erosion shall be designated 
as coastal high-hazard areas. Buildings and structures con- 
structed in whole or in part in coastal high-hazard areas shall 
be designed and constructed in accordance with Sections 
R322.3.1 through R322.3.6. 

R322.3.1 Location and site preparation. 

1 . New buildings and buildings that are determined to 
be substantially improved pursuant to Section 
R 105. 3. 1.1, shall be located landward of the reach of 
mean high tide. 

2. For any alteration of sand dunes and mangrove 
stands the building official shall require submission 
of an engineering analysis which demonstrates that 
the proposed alteration will not increase the poten- 
tial for flood damage. 



R322.3.2 Elevation requirements. 

1. All buildings and structures erected within coastal 
high-hazard areas shall be elevated so that the low- 
est portion of all structural members supporting the 
lowest floor, with the exception of piling, pile caps, 
columns, grade beams and bracing, is: 

1.1. Located at or above the design flood eleva- 
tion, if the lowest horizontal structural mem- 
ber is oriented parallel to the direction of 
wave approach, where parallel shall mean 
less than or equal to 20 degrees (0.35 rad) 
from the direction of approach, or 

1 .2. Located at the base flood elevation plus 1 
foot (305 mm), or the design flood elevation, 
whichever is higher, if the lowest horizontal 
structural member is oriented perpendicular 
to the direction of wave approach, where 
perpendicular shall mean greater than 20 
degrees (0.35 rad) from the direction of 
approach. 

2. Basement floors that are below grade on all sides 
are prohibited. 

3. The use of fill for structural support is prohibited. 

4. Minor grading, and the placement of minor quanti- 
ties of fill, shall be permitted for landscaping and for 
drainage purposes under and around buildings and 
for support of parking slabs, pool decks, patios and 
walkways. 

Exception: Walls and partitions enclosing areas 
below the design flood elevation shall meet the 
requirements of Sections R322.3.4 and R322.3.5. 

R322.3.3 Foundations. Buildings and structures erected 
in coastal high-hazard areas shall be supported on pilings 
or columns and shall be adequately anchored to such pil- 
ings or columns. The space below the elevated building 
shall be either free of obstruction or, if enclosed with 
walls, the walls shall meet the requirements of Section 
R322.3.4. Pilings shall have adequate soil penetrations to 
resist the combined wave and wind loads (lateral and 
uplift). Water-loading values used shall be those associ- 
ated with the design flood. Wind-loading values shall be 
those required by this code. Pile embedment shall include 
consideration of decreased resistance capacity caused by 
scour of soil strata surrounding the piling. Pile systems 
design and installation shall be certified in accordance 
with Section R322.3.6. Spread footing, mat, raft or other 
foundations that support columns shall not be permitted 
where soil investigations that are required in accordance 
with Section R401.4 indicate that soil material under the 
spread footing, mat, raft or other foundation is subject to 
scour or erosion from wave-velocity flow conditions. If 
permitted, spread footing, mat, raft or other foundations 
that support columns shall be designed in accordance with 
ASCE 24. Slabs, pools, pool decks and walkways shall be 
located and constructed to be structurally independent of 
buildings and structures and their foundations to prevent 
transfer of flood loads to the buildings and structures dur- 
ing conditions of flooding, scour or erosion from wave- 



70 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 

I velocity flow conditions, unless the buildings and struc- to other applicable requirements in this code, storm shelters 
tures and their foundation are designed to resist the addi- shall be constructed in accordance with ICC/NSSA-500. 
tional flood load. 

R322.3.4 Walls below design flood elevation. Walls and 
partitions are permitted below the elevated floor, provided 
that such walls and partitions are not part of the structural 
support of the building or structure and: 

1. Electrical, mechanical, and plumbing system com- 
ponents are not to be mounted on or penetrate 
through walls that are designed to break away under 
flood loads; and 

2. Are constructed with insect screening or open lat- 
tice; or 

3. Are designed to break away or collapse without 
causing collapse, displacement or other structural 
damage to the elevated portion of the building or 
supporting foundation system. Such walls, framing 
and connections shall have a design safe loading 
resistance of not less than 10 (479 Pa) and no more 
than 20 pounds per square foot (958 Pa); or 

4. Where wind loading values of this code exceed 20 
pounds per square foot (958 Pa), the construction 
documents shall include documentation prepared 
and sealed by a registered design professional that: 

4.1. The walls and partitions below the design 
flood elevation have been designed to col- 
lapse from a water load less than that which 
would occur during the design flood. 

4.2. The elevated portion of the building and sup- 
porting foundation system have been 
designed to withstand the effects of wind and 
flood loads acting simultaneously on all 
building components (structural and non- 
structural). Water-loading values used shall 
be those associated with the design flood. 
Wind-loading values shall be those required 
by this code. 

R322.3.5 Enclosed areas below design flood elevation. 
Enclosed areas below the design flood elevation shall be 
used solely for parking of vehicles, building access or stor- 
age. 

R322.3.6 Construction documents. The construction 
documents shall include documentation that is prepared 
and sealed by a registered design professional that the 
design and methods of construction to be used meet the 
applicable criteria of this section. 

SECTION R323 
STORM SHELTERS 

R323.1 General. This section applies to the construction of 
storm shelters when constructed as separate detached build- 
ings or when constructed as safe rooms within buildings for 
the purpose of providing safe refuge from storms that pro- 
duce high winds, such as tornados and hurricanes. In addition 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 71 



72 2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



CHAPTER 4 

FOUNDATIONS 



SECTION R401 
GENERAL 

R401.1 Application. The provisions of this chapter shall 
control the design and construction of the foundation and 
foundation spaces for all buildings. In addition to the provi- 
sions of this chapter, the design and construction of founda- 
tions in flood hazard areas as established by Table R301.2(l) 
shall meet the provisions of Section R322. Wood foundations 
shall be designed and installed in accordance with AF&PA 
PWF. 

Exception: The provisions of this chapter shall be permit- 
ted to be used for wood foundations only in the following 
situations: 

1 . In buildings that have no more than two floors and a 
roof. 

2. When interior basement and foundation walls are 
constructed at intervals not exceeding 50 feet (15 
240 mm). 

Wood foundations in Seismic Design Category D , D, or 
D 2 shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering 
practice. 

R401.2 Requirements. Foundation construction shall be 
capable of accommodating all loads according to Section 
R301 and of transmitting the resulting loads to the supporting 
soil. Fill soils that support footings and foundations shall be 
designed, installed and tested in accordance with accepted 
engineering practice. Gravel fill used as footings for wood 
and precast concrete foundations shall comply with Section 
R403. 

R401.3 Drainage. Surface drainage shall be diverted to a 
storm sewer conveyance or other approved point of collec- 
tion that does not create a hazard. Lots shall be graded to 
drain surface water away from foundation walls. The grade 
shall fall a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) within the first 10 
feet (3048 mm). 

Exception: Where lot lines, walls, slopes or other physical 
barriers prohibit 6 inches (152 mm) of fall within 10 feet 
(3048 mm), drains or swales shall be constructed to ensure 
drainage away from the structure. Impervious surfaces 
within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the building foundation shall 
be sloped a minimum of 2 percent away from the building. 

R401.4 Soil tests. Where quantifiable data created by 
accepted soil science methodologies indicate expansive, com- 
pressible, shifting or other questionable soil characteristics 
are likely to be present, the building official shall determine 
whether to require a soil test to determine the soil's character- 
istics at a particular location. This test shall be done by an 
approved agency using an approved method. 

R401.4.1 Geotechnical evaluation. In lieu of a complete 
geotechnical evaluation, the load-bearing values in Table 
R401.4.1 shall be assumed. 



TABLE R401. 4.1 

PRESUMPTIVE LOAD-BEARING VALUES OF 

FOUNDATION MATERIALS 9 



CLASS OF MATERIAL 


LOAD-BEARING 

PRESSURE 

(pounds per square foot) 


Crystalline bedrock 


12,000 


Sedimentary and foliated rock 


4,000 


Sandy gravel and/or gravel (GW and GP) 


3,000 


Sand, silty sand, clayey sand, silty gravel 
and clayey gravel (S W, SP, SM, SC, GM 
and GC) 


2,000 


Clay, sandy clay, silty clay, clayey silt, silt 
and sandy silt (CL, ML, MH and CH) 


1,500" 



For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. When soil tests are required by Section R401..4, the allowable bearing 
capacities of the soil shall be part of the recommendations. 

b. Where the building official determines that in-place soils with an 
allowable bearing capacity of less than 1 ,500 psf are likely to be present at 
the site, the allowable bearing capacity shall be determined by a soils 
investigation. 

R401.4.2 Compressible or shifting soil. Instead of a 
complete geotechnical evaluation, when top or subsoils 
are compressible or shifting, they shall be removed to a 
depth and width sufficient to assure stable moisture con- 
tent in each active zone and shall not be used as fill or sta- 
bilized within each active zone by chemical, dewatering or 
presaturation. 



SECTION R402 
MATERIALS 

R402.1 Wood foundations. Wood foundation systems shall 
be designed and installed in accordance with the provisions 
of this code. 

R402.1.1 Fasteners. Fasteners used below grade to attach 
plywood to the exterior side of exterior basement or crawl- 
space wall studs, or fasteners used in knee wall construc- 
tion, shall be of Type 304 or 316 stainless steel. Fasteners 
used above grade to attach plywood and all lumber-to- 
lumber fasteners except those used in knee wall construc- 
tion shall be of Type 304 or 3 1 6 stainless steel, silicon 
bronze, copper, hot-dipped galvanized (zinc coated) steel 
nails, or hot-tumbled galvanized (zinc coated) steel nails. 
Electro-galvanized steel nails and galvanized (zinc coated) 
steel staples shall not be permitted. 

R402.1.2 Wood treatment. All lumber and plywood shall 
be pressure-preservative treated and dried after treatment 
in accordance with AWPA Ul (Commodity Specification 
A, Use Category 4B and Section 5.2), and shall bear the 
label of an accredited agency. Where lumber and/or ply- 
wood is cut or drilled after treatment, the treated surface 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



73 



FOUNDATIONS 



shall be field treated with copper naphthenate, the concen- 
tration of which shall contain a minimum of 2 percent cop- 
per metal, by repeated brushing, dipping or soaking until 
the wood absorbs no more preservative. 

R402.2 Concrete. Concrete shall have a minimum specified 
compressive strength of/' c , as shown in Table R402.2. Con- 
crete subject to moderate or severe weathering as indicated in 
Table R301.2(l) shall be air entrained as specified in Table 
R402.2. The maximum weight of fly ash, other pozzolans, 
silica fume, slag or blended cements that is included in con- 
crete mixtures for garage floor slabs and for exterior porches, 
carport slabs and steps that will be exposed to deicing chemi- 
cals shall not exceed the percentages of the total weight of 
cementitious materials specified in Section 4.2.3 of ACI 318. 
Materials used to produce concrete and testing thereof shall 
comply with the applicable standards listed in Chapter 3 of 
ACI 318 or ACI 332. 

R402.3 Precast concrete. Precast concrete foundations shall 
be designed in accordance with Section R404.5 and shall be 
installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and 
the manufacturer's installation instructions. 

R402.3.1 Precast concrete foundation materials. Mate- 
rials used to produce precast concrete foundations shall 
meet the following requirements. 

1 . All concrete used in the manufacture of precast con- 
crete foundations shall have a minimum compres- 
sive strength of 5,000 psi (34 470 kPa) at 28 days. 
Concrete exposed to a freezing and thawing envi- 
ronment shall be air entrained with a minimum total 
air content of 5 percent. 

2. Structural reinforcing steel shall meet the require- 
ments of ASTM A 615, A 706 or A 996. The mini- 
mum yield strength of reinforcing steel shall be 
40,000 psi (Grade 40) (276 MPa). Steel reinforce- 
ment for precast concrete foundation walls shall 



have a minimum concrete cover of 3 / 4 inch (19.1 
mm). 

3. Panel-to-panel connections shall be made with 
Grade II steel fasteners. 

4. The use of nonstructural fibers shall conform to 
ASTM C 1116. 

5. Grout used for bedding precast foundations placed 
upon concrete footings shall meet ASTM C 1 107. 



SECTION R403 
FOOTINGS 

R403.1 General. All exterior walls shall be supported on 
continuous solid or fully grouted masonry or concrete foot- 
ings, crushed stone footings, wood foundations, or other 
approved structural systems which shall be of sufficient 
design to accommodate all loads according to Section R301 
and to transmit the resulting loads to the soil within the limi- 
tations as determined from the character of the soil. Footings 
shall be supported on undisturbed natural soils or engineered 
fill. Concrete footing shall be designed and constructed in 
accordance with the provisions of Section R403 or in accor- 
dance with ACI 332. 

R403.1.1 Minimum size. Minimum sizes for concrete and 
masonry footings shall be as set forth in Table R403.1 and 
Figure R403. 1(1). The footing width, W, shall be based on 
the load-bearing value of the soil in accordance with Table 
R401.4.1. Spread footings shall be at least 6 inches (152 
mm) in thickness, T. Footing projections, P, shall be at 
least 2 inches (5 1 mm) and shall not exceed the thickness 
of the footing. The size of footings supporting piers and 
columns shall be based on the tributary load and allowable 
soil pressure in accordance with Table R401.4.1. Footings 
for wood foundations shall be in accordance with the 
details set forth in Section R403.2, and Figures R403.1(2) 
andR403.1(3). 



TABLE R402.2 
MINIMUM SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE 



TYPE OR LOCATION OF CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 


MINIMUM SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH" (f'j 


Weathering Potential" 


Negligible 


Moderate 


Severe 


Basement walls, foundations and other concrete not exposed to the weather 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 c 


Basement slabs and interior slabs on grade, except garage floor slabs 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500 c 


Basement walls, foundation walls, exterior walls and other vertical concrete 
work exposed to the weather 


2,500 


3,000 d 


3,000" 


Porches, carport slabs and steps exposed to the weather, and garage floor 
slabs 


2,500 


3,000 dcr 


3,500 def 



For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Strength at 28 days psi. 

b. See Table R30l.2(l) for weathering potential. 

c. Concrete in these locations that may be subject to freezing and thawing during construction shall be air-entrained concrete in accordance with Footnote d. 

d. Concrete shall be air-entrained. Total air content (percent by volume of concrete) shall be not less than 5 percent or more than 7 percent. 

e. See Section R402.2 for maximum cementitious materials content. 

f. For garage floors with a steel-troweled finish, reduction of the total air content (percent by volume of concrete) to not less than 3 percent is permitted if the 
specified compressive strength of the concrete is increased to not less than 4,000 psi 



74 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



BEARING WALL 



3.5 IN. MIN. 





\4 — W — 1\ 



MONOLITHIC SLAB WITH 
INTEGRAL FOOTING 



INTERIOR 



3.5 IN. MIN. 




GROUND SUPPORT SLAB 
WITH MASONRY WALL 
AND SPREAD FOOTING 




INTERIOR 






^ W ^ 



BASEMENT OR CRAWL SPACE 
WITH MASONRY WALL AND 
SPREAD FOOTING 



&. 



INTERIOR 



-W- 



BASEMENT OR CRAWL SPACE 
WITH CONCRETE WALL AND 
SPREAD FOOTING 



J^L 



INTERIOR 



W 



BASEMENT OR CRAWL SPACE 
WITH FOUNDATION WALL 
BEARING DIRECTLY ON SOIL 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R403.1(1) 
CONCRETE AND MASONRY FOUNDATION DETAILS 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



75 



FOUNDATIONS 



m PRESSURE-PRESERVATIVE TREATED 



FIELD-APPLIED 2 x 6 IN. TOP PLAT 
2 x 6 IN. TOP PLATi 



2 x 6 IN. STUD WALL INSULATED 
AS APPROPRIATE AND WARM SIDE 
VAPOR BARRIER 



1 IN. THICK PRESSURE-PRESERVATIVE 
TREATED LUMBER OR PLYWOOD STRIP 
PROTECTING TOP OF POLYETHYLENE FILM 



MIN. 3.5 IN. CONCRETE SLAB WITH 
VAPOR BARRIER AND OPTIONAL 

1 IN. SCREED BOARD 



IN. 



4 IN. GRAVEL OR CRUSHED 
STONE FILL UNDER FLOOR 
(SEE SECTION R403.2) 




4 FT (MAX. BACKFILL) 



PRESSURE-PRESERVATIVE 
TREATED PLYWOOD 
(SEE TABLE R404.2.3) 



6 MIL POLYETHYLENE FILM 



6 MIL POLYETHYLENE FILM 
ON CRUSHED STONE OR 
GRAVEL BACKFILL 

FINISH GRADE SLOPE V z IN. 
PER FOOT, MIN. 6 FT FROM 
WALL 



PRESSURE-PRESERVATIVE 
TREATED 2 x 6 IN. BOTTOM PLATE 



PRESSURE-PRESERVATIVE 
TREATED 2 x 8 IN. FOOTING PLATE 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254. 



FIGURE R403.1 (2) 
PERMANENT WOOD FOUNDATION BASEMENT WALL SECTION 



76 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



E3 PRESSURE-PRESERVATIVE TREATED 



6 MIL POLYETHYLENE FILM 



6 IN. 



FLOOR JOIST 



FIELD-APPLIED 2 x 6 IN. TOP PLATE 

FLASHING 

2 x 6 IN. TOP PLATE 



6 IN. GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE 
(SEE SECTION R403.2) 




. V/7-T-- ^ FINISH GRADE SLOPE V 2 IN. 

\\V ////\\V //// v^C PER F00T ' MIN - 6 FT FR0M 

///AW '///AW //// y^v WALL 

W.V ////WV ////Y\\V///V\ 

PRESSURE-PRESERVATIVE 
TREATED 2 x 6 IN. STUD WALL 

PRESSURE-PRESERVATIVE 
TREATED PLYWOOD 

(SEE TABLE R404.2.3) 



PRESSURE-PRESERVATIVE 
TREATED 2 x 6 IN. BOTTOM PLATE 

PRESSURE-PRESERVATIVE 
TREATED 2 x 8 IN. FOOTING PLATE 



BELOW FROST LINE 



.(NOMINAL 
DIMENSIONS) 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, I foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 



FIGURE R403.1(3) 
PERMANENT WOOD FOUNDATION CRAWL SPACE SECTION 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



77 



FOUNDATIONS 



R403.1.2 Continuous footing in Seismic Design Catego- 
ries D , D, and D 2 . The braced wall panels at exterior 
walls of buildings located in Seismic Design Categories 
D , Dj and D 2 shall be supported by continuous footings. 
All required interior braced wall panels in buildings with 
plan dimensions greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm) shall 
also be supported by continuous footings. 

TABLE R403.1 

MINIMUM WIDTH OF CONCRETE, 

PRECAST OR MASONRY FOOTINGS (inches) 3 





LOAD-BEARING VALUE OF SOIL (psf) 


1,500 


2,000 


3,000 


> 4,000 


Conventional light-frame construction 




1- story 


12 


12 


12 


12 


2-story 


15 


12 


12 


12 


3-story 


23 


17 


12 


12 


4-inch brick 


veneer over light frame or 8-inch hollow cone 


rete masonry 


1- story 


12 


12 


12 


12 


2-story 


21 


16 


12 


12 


3-story 


32 


24 


16 


12 


8-inch solid or fully grouted masonry 




1- story 


16 


12 


12 


12 


2-story 


29 


21 


14 


12 


3-story 


42 


32 


21 


16 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 
a. Where minimum footing width is 1 2 inches, use of a single wythe of solid 
or fully grouted 12-inch nominal concrete masonry units is permitted. 

R403.1.3 Seismic reinforcing. Concrete footings located 
in Seismic Design Categories D , D, and D 2 , as established 
in Table R301.2(l), shall have minimum reinforcement. 
Bottom reinforcement shall be located a minimum of 3 
inches (76 mm) clear from the bottom of the footing. 

In Seismic Design Categories D , D, and D 2 where a 
construction joint is created between a concrete footing 
and a stem wall, a minimum of one No. 4 bar shall be 



installed at not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) on center. The 
vertical bar shall extend to 3 inches (76 mm) clear of the 
bottom of the footing, have a standard hook and extend a 
minimum of 14 inches (357 mm) into the stem wall. 

In Seismic Design Categories D , Dj and D 2 where a 
grouted masonry stem wall is supported on a concrete 
footing and stem wall, a minimum of one No. 4 bar shall 
be installed at not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) on center. 
The vertical bar shall extend to 3 inches (76 mm) clear of 
the bottom of the footing and have a standard hook. 

In Seismic Design Categories D , D, and D 2 masonry 
stem walls without solid grout and vertical reinforcing are 
not permitted. 

Exception: In detached one- and two-family dwellings 
which are three stories or less in height and constructed 
with stud bearing walls, isolated plain concrete foot- 
ings, supporting columns or pedestals are permitted. 
R403.1.3.1 Foundations with stemwalls. Foundations 
with stem walls shall have installed a minimum of one 
No. 4 bar within 12 inches (305 mm) of the top of the 
wall and one No. 4 bar located 3 inches (76 mm) to 4 
inches (102 mm) from the bottom of the footing. 

R403. 1.3.2 Slabs-on-ground with turned-down foot- 
ings. Slabs on ground with turned down footings shall 
have a minimum of one No. 4 bar at the top and the bot- 
tom of the footing. 

Exception: For slabs-on-ground cast monolithi- 
cally with the footing, locating one No. 5 bar or two 
No. 4 bars in the middle third of the footing depth 
shall be permitted as an alternative to placement at 
the footing top and bottom. 

Where the slab is not cast monolithically with the 
footing, No. 3 or larger vertical dowels with standard 
hooks on each end shall be provided in accordance with 
Figure R403. 1.3.2. Standard hooks shall comply with 
Section R61 1.5.4.5. 




NO. 4 MINIMUM 
HORIZONTAL BAR 
TOP AND BOTTOM 



CONSTRUCTION JOINT 



3'/ 2 IN. MINIMUM 
SLAB THICKNESS 



NO. 3 MINIMUM @ 48 IN. ON 
CENTER VERTICAL DOWELS 



FOOTING 



3 IN. COVER BOTTOM 
AND SIDES 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R403.1 .3.2 
DOWELS FOR SLABS-ON-GROUND WITH TURNED-DOWN FOOTINGS 



78 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



R403.1.4 Minimum depth. All exterior footings shall be 
placed at least 12 inches (305 mm) below the undisturbed 
ground surface. Where applicable, the depth of footings 
shall also conform to Sections R403. 1.4.1 through 

R403. 1.4.2. 

R403.1.4.1 Frost protection. Except where otherwise 
protected from frost, foundation walls, piers and other 
permanent supports of buildings and structures shall be 
protected from frost by one or more of the following 
methods: 

1. Extended below the frost line specified in Table 
R301.2.(l); 

2. Constructing in accordance with Section R403.3; 

3. Constructing in accordance with ASCE 32; or 

4. Erected on solid rock. 

Exceptions: 

1. Protection of freestanding accessory struc- 
tures with an area of 600 square feet (56 m 2 ) 
or less, of light-frame construction, with an 
eave height of 10 feet (3048 mm) or less shall 
not be required. 

2. Protection of freestanding accessory struc- 
tures with an area of 400 square feet (37 m 2 ) 
or less, of other than light-frame construction, 
with an eave height of 10 feet (3048 mm) or 
less shall not be required. 

3. Decks not supported by a dwelling need not be 
provided with footings that extend below the 
frost line. 

Footings shall not bear on frozen soil unless the fro- 
zen condition is permanent. 

R403.1.4.2 Seismic conditions. In Seismic Design 
Categories D,„ D, and D 2 , interior footings supporting 
bearing or bracing walls and cast monolithically with a 
slab on grade shall extend to a depth of not less than 1 2 
inches (305 mm) below the top of the slab. 
R403.1.5 Slope. The top surface of footings shall be level. 
The bottom surface of footings shall not have a slope 
exceeding one unit vertical in 10 units horizontal (10-per- 
cent slope). Footings shall be stepped where it is necessary 
to change the elevation of the top surface of the footings or 
where the slope of the bottom surface of the footings will 
exceed one unit vertical in ten units horizontal (10-percent 
slope). 

R403.1.6 Foundation anchorage. Sill plates and walls 
supported directly on continuous foundations shall be 
anchored to the foundation in accordance with this section. 

Wood sole plates at all exterior walls on monolithic 
slabs, wood sole plates of braced wall panels at building 
interiors on monolithic slabs and all wood sill plates shall 
be anchored to the foundation with anchor bolts spaced a 
maximum of 6 feet (1829 mm) on center. Bolts shall be at 
least V 2 inch (12.7 mm) in diameter and shall extend a 
minimum of 7 inches (178 mm) into concrete or grouted 
cells of concrete masonry units. A nut and washer shall be 



tightened on each anchor bolt. There shall be a minimum 
of two bolts per plate section with one bolt located not 
more than 12 inches (305 mm) or less than seven bolt 
diameters from each end of the plate section. Interior bear- 
ing wall sole plates on monolithic slab foundation that are 
not part of a braced wall panel shall be positively 
anchored with approved fasteners. Sill plates and sole 
plates shall be protected against decay and termites where 
required by Sections R317 and R318. Cold-formed steel 
framing systems shall be fastened to wood sill plates or 
anchored directly to the foundation as required in Section 
R505.3.1orR603.3.1. 

Exceptions: 

1. Foundation anchorage, spaced as required to pro- 
vide equivalent anchorage to 7 2 -inch-diameter 
(12.7 mm) anchor bolts. 

2. Walls 24 inches (610 mm) total length or shorter 
connecting offset braced wall panels shall be 
anchored to the foundation with a minimum of 
one anchor bolt located in the center third of the 
plate section and shall be attached to adjacent 
braced wall panels at corners as shown in item 8 
of Table R602.3Q). 

3. Connection of walls 12 inches (305 mm) total 
length or shorter connecting offset braced wall 
panels to the foundation without anchor bolts 
shall be permitted. The wall shall be attached to 
adjacent braced wall panels at corners as shown 
initem8ofTableR602.3(l). 

R403.1.6.1 Foundation anchorage in Seismic Design 
Categories C, D , D, and D 2 . In addition to the 
requirements of Section R403.1.6, the following 
requirements shall apply to wood light-frame structures 
in Seismic Design Categories D , D, and D 2 and wood 
light-frame townhouses in Seismic Design Category C. 

1. Plate washers conforming to Section R602.11.1 
shall be provided for all anchor bolts over the full 
length of required braced wall lines except where 
approved anchor straps are used. Properly sized 
cut washers shall be permitted for anchor bolts in 
wall lines not containing braced wall panels. 

2. Interior braced wall plates shall have anchor bolts 
spaced at not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) on cen- 
ter and located within 1 2 inches (305 mm) of the 
ends of each plate section when supported on a 
continuous foundation. 

3. Interior bearing wall sole plates shall have anchor 
bolts spaced at not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) 
on center and located within 12 inches (305 mm) 
of the ends of each plate section when supported 
on a continuous foundation. 

4. The maximum anchor bolt spacing shall be 4 feet 
(1219 mm) for buildings over two stories in 
height. 

5. Stepped cripple walls shall conform to Section 
R602.11.2. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



79 



FOUNDATIONS 



6. Where continuous wood foundations in accor- 
dance with Section R404.2 are used, the force 
transfer shall have a capacity equal to or greater 
than the connections required by Section 
R602. 11.1 or the braced wall panel shall be con- 
nected to the wood foundations in accordance 
with the braced wall panel-lo-Hoo\: fastening 
requirements of Table R602.3(l ). 

R403.1.7 Footings on or adjacent to slopes. The place- 
ment of buildings and structures on or adjacent to slopes 
steeper than one unit vertical in three units horizontal 
(33.3-percent slope) shall conform to Sections R403.1 .7.1 
through R403. 1.7.4. 

R403.1.7.1 Building clearances from ascending 
slopes. In general, buildings below slopes shall be set a 
sufficient distance from the slope to provide protection 
from slope drainage, erosion and shallow failures. 
Except as provided in Section R403. 1.7.4 and Figure 
R403. 1.7.1, the following criteria will be assumed to 
provide this protection. Where the existing slope is 
steeper than one unit vertical in one unit horizontal 
(100-percent slope), the toe of the slope shall be 
assumed to be at the intersection of a horizontal plane 
drawn from the top of the foundation and a plane drawn 
tangent to the slope at an angle of 45 degrees (0.79 rad) 
to the horizontal. Where a retaining wall is constructed 
at the toe of the slope, the height of the slope shall be 
measured from the top of the wall to the top of the 
slope. 

R403.1.7.2 Footing setback from descending slope 
surfaces. Footings on or adjacent to slope surfaces 
shall be founded in material with an embedment and 
setback from the slope surface sufficient to provide ver- 
tical and lateral support for the footing without detri- 
mental settlement. Except as provided for in Section 
R403. 1.7.4 and Figure R403. 1.7.1, the following set- 
back is deemed adequate to meet the criteria. Where the 
slope is steeper than one unit vertical in one unit hori- 
zontal (100-percent slope), the required setback shall be 



measured from an imaginary plane 45 degrees (0.79 
rad) to the horizontal, projected upward from the toe of 
the slope. 

R403.1.7.3 Foundation elevation. On graded sites, the 
top of any exterior foundation shall extend above the 
elevation of the street gutter at point of discharge or the 
inlet of an approved drainage device a minimum of 12 
inches (305 mm) plus 2 percent. Alternate elevations 
are permitted subject to the approval of the building 
official, provided it can be demonstrated that required 
drainage to the point of discharge and away from the 
structure is provided at all locations on the site. 

R403.1.7.4 Alternate setback and clearances. Alter- 
nate setbacks and clearances are permitted, subject to 
the approval of the building official. The building offi- 
cial is permitted to require an investigation and recom- 
mendation of a qualified engineer to demonstrate that 
the intent of this section has been satisfied. Such an 
investigation shall include consideration of material, 
height of slope, slope gradient, load intensity and ero- 
sion characteristics of slope material. 

R403.1.8 Foundations on expansive soils. Foundation 
and floor slabs for buildings located on expansive soils 
shall be designed in accordance with Section 1808.6 of the 
International Building Code. 

Exception: Slab-on-ground and other foundation sys- 
tems which have performed adequately in soil condi- 
tions similar to those encountered at the building site 
are permitted subject to the approval of the building 
official. 

R403. 1.8.1 Expansive soils classifications. Soils 
meeting all four of the following provisions shall be 
considered expansive, except that tests to show compli- 
ance with Items 1, 2 and 3 shall not be required if the 
test prescribed in Item 4 is conducted: 

1. Plasticity Index (PI) of 15 or greater, determined 
in accordance with ASTM D 4318. 



/ FACE OF 
* FOOTING 




H/2 BUT NEED NOT EXCEED 15 FT. 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 ram. 



FIGURE R403.1.7.1 
FOUNDATION CLEARANCE FROM SLOPES 



80 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



2. More than 10 percent of the soil particles pass a 
No. 200 sieve (75 urn), determined in accordance 
with ASTM D 422. 

3. More than 10 percent of the soil particles are less 
than 5 micrometers in size, determined in accor- 
dance with ASTM D 422. 

4. Expansion Index greater than 20, determined in 
accordance with ASTM D 4829. 

R403.2 Footings for wood foundations. Footings for wood 
foundations shall be in accordance with Figures R403.1(2) 
and R403.1(3). Gravel shall be washed and well graded. The 
maximum size stone shall not exceed 3 / 4 inch (19.1 mm). 
Gravel shall be free from organic, clayey or silty soils. Sand 
shall be coarse, not smaller than '/ l6 -inch (1.6 mm) grains and 
shall be free from organic, clayey or silty soils. Crushed stone 
shall have a maximum size of 7 2 inch (12.7 mm). 

R403.3 Frost-protected shallow foundations. For buildings 
where the monthly mean temperature of the building is main- 
tained at a minimum of 64°F (18°C), footings are not 
required to extend below the frost line when protected from 
frost by insulation in accordance with Figure R403.3(l) and 
Table R403.3(l). Foundations protected from frost in accor- 
dance with Figure R403.3(l) and Table R403.3(l) shall not 
be used for unheated spaces such as porches, utility rooms, 
garages and carports, and shall not be attached to basements 
or crawl spaces that are not maintained at a minimum 
monthly mean temperature of 64°F (18°C). 

Materials used below grade for the purpose of insulating 
footings against frost shall be labeled as complying with 
ASTM C 578. 

R403.3.1 Foundations adjoining frost-protected shal- 
low foundations. Foundations that adjoin frost- protected 
shallow foundations shall be protected from frost in accor- 
dance with Section R403.1.4. 

R403.3.1.1 Attachment to unheated slab-on-ground 

structure. Vertical wall insulation and horizontal insula- 
tion of frost protected shallow foundations that adjoin a 
slab-on-ground foundation that does not have a monthly 
mean temperature maintained at a minimum of 64°F 
(18°C) shall be in accordance with Figure R403.3(3) and 
Table R403.3(l). Vertical wall insulation shall extend 
between the frost protected shallow foundation and the 
adjoining slab foundation. Required horizontal insula- 
tion shall be continuous under the adjoining slab founda- 
tion and through any foundation walls adjoining the frost 
protected shallow foundation. Where insulation passes 
through a foundation wall, it shall either be of a type 
complying with this section and having bearing capacity 
equal to or greater than the structural loads imposed by 
the building, or the building shall be designed and con- 
structed using beams, lintels, cantilevers or other means 
of transferring building loads such that the structural 
loads of the building do not bear on the insulation. 



R403.3.1.2 Attachment to heated structure. Where a 
frost-protected shallow foundation abuts a structure 
that has a monthly mean temperature maintained at a 
minimum of 64°F (18°C), horizontal insulation and 
vertical wall insulation shall not be required between 
the frost-protected shallow foundation and the adjoin- 
ing structure. Where the frost-protected shallow foun- 
dation abuts the heated structure, the horizontal 
insulation and vertical wall insulation shall extend 
along the adjoining foundation in accordance with Fig- 
ure R403.3(4) a distance of not less than Dimension A 
in Table R403.3(l). 

Exception: Where the frost-protected shallow foun- 
dation abuts the heated structure to form an inside 
corner, vertical insulation extending along the 
adjoining foundation is not required. 

R403.3.2 Protection of horizontal insulation below 
ground. Horizontal insulation placed less than 12 inches 
(305 mm) below the ground surface or that portion of hor- 
izontal insulation extending outward more than 24 inches 
(610 mm) from the foundation edge shall be protected 
against damage by use of a concrete slab or asphalt paving 
on the ground surface directly above the insulation or by 
cementitious board, plywood rated for below-ground use, 
or other approved materials placed below ground, directly 
above the top surface of the insulation. 

R403.3.3 Drainage. Final grade shall be sloped in accor- 
dance with Section R401.3. In other than Group I Soils, as 
detailed in Table R405.1, gravel or crushed stone beneath 
horizontal insulation below ground shall drain to daylight 
or into an approved sewer system. 

R403.3.4 Termite damage. The use of foam plastic in 
areas of "very heavy" termite infestation probability shall 
be in accordance with Section R318.4. 

R403.4 Footings for precast concrete foundations. Foot- 
ings for precast concrete foundations shall comply with Sec- 
tion R403.4. 

R403.4.1 Crushed stone footings. Clean crushed stone 
shall be free from organic, clayey or silty soils. Crushed 
stone shall be angular in nature and meet ASTM C 33, 
with the maximum size stone not to exceed V 2 inch (12.7 
mm) and the minimum stone size not to be smaller than 
V l6 -inch (1.6 mm). Crushed stone footings for precast 
foundations shall be installed in accordance with Figure 
R403.4(l) and Table R403.4. Crushed stone footings shall 
be consolidated using a vibratory plate in a maximum of 
8-inch lifts. Crushed stone footings shall be limited to 
Seismic Design Categories A, B and C. 

R403.4.2 Concrete footings. Concrete footings shall be 
installed in accordance with Section R403.1 and Figure 
R403.4(2). 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



81 



FOUNDATIONS 



INSULATION DETAIL 

FLASHING PER SECTION R703 8 

INSULATION PROTECTION PER SECTION R403.3.1 
SLOPE FINAL GRADE PER SECTION R403 3 2 




|4' J ,>4 v <,* u .>+ L '.>+ u ^ 




SLAB-ON-GROUND FOUNDATION FLOOR 
PER SECTIONS R403.1 AND R506 



/777< 



/TO//// 

/to //A 

/TO//// 
L////NW 
-,\\\V/// 



NOMINAL 4 IN. SCREENED AND 
WASHED GRAVEL OR CRUSHED 
STONE DRAINED PER SECTION 
R403.3.2 



,TOT/AW77/% </7Ts% '//I %TO7// TO 



•,\\v//// 
>/' 



VERTICAL WALL INSUALTION' 
' HORIZONTAL INSULATION' 



HORIZONTAL INSULATION PLAN 





























FOUNATION -— __ 
PERIMETER 

I i 




















4 





1 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. See Table R403.3(l) for required dimensions and /{-values for vertical and horizontal insulation and minimum footing depth. 

FIGURE R403.3(1) 
INSULATION PLACEMENT FOR FROST PROTECTED FOOTINGS IN HEATED BUILDINGS 

TABLE R403.3(1) 
MINIMUM FOOTING DEPTH AND INSULATION REQUIREMENTS FOR FROST-PROTECTED FOOTINGS IN HEATED BUILDINGS 3 



AIR FREEZING 

INDEX 

(°F-days) b 


MINIMUM FOOTING 
DEPTH, D 
(inches) 


VERTICAL 
INSULATION 
R-VALUE " 


HORIZONTAL INSULATION 
R-VALUE ee 


HORIZONTAL INSULATION DIMENSIONS 
PER FIGURE R403.3(1) (inches) 


Along walls 


At corners 


A 


B 


C 


1,500 or less 


12 


4.5 


Not required 


Not required 


Not required 


Not required 


Not required 


2,000 


14 


5.6 


Not required 


Not required 


Not required 


Not required 


Not required 


2,500 


16 


6.7 


1.7 


4.9 


12 


24 


40 


3,000 


16 


7.8 


6.5 


8.6 


12 


24 


40 


3,500 


16 


9.0 


8.0 


11.2 


24 


30 


60 


4,000 


16 


10.1 


10.5 


13.1 


24 


36 


60 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, °C = [(°F) - 32]/1.8. 

a. Insulation requirements are for protection against frost damage in heated buildings. Greater values may be required to meet energy conservation standards. 

b. See Figure R403.3(2) or Table R403.3(2) for Air Freezing Index values. 

c. Insulation materials shall provide the stated minimum fl-values under long-term exposure to moist, below-ground conditions in freezing climates. The 
following ff-values shall be used to determine insulation thicknesses required for this application: Type II expanded polystyrene-2.4/J per inch; Type IV 
extruded polystyrene-4.5K per inch; Type VI extruded polystyrene-4.5# per inch; Type IX expanded polystyrene-3.2ft per inch; Type X extruded polystyrene- 
4.57? per inch. 

d. Vertical insulation shall be expanded polystyrene insulation or extruded polystyrene insulation. 

e. Horizontal insulation shall be extruded polystyrene insulation. 



82 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 8 



FOUNDATIONS 







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11. z 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



83 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R403.3(2) 
AIR-FREEZING INDEX FOR U.S. LOCATIONS BY COUNTY 





AIR-FREEZING INDEX 


STATE 


1 500 or less 


2000 


2500 


3000 


3500 


4000 


Alabama 


All counties 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Alaska 


Ketchikan 
Gateway, 
Prince of Wales- 
Outer Ketchikan 
(CA), Sitka, 
Wrangell- 
Petersburg (CA) 


— 


Aleutians West (CA), 

Haines, Juneau, 

Skagway-Hoonah- 

Angoon (CA), Yakutat 


— 


— 


All counties 
not listed 


Arizona 


All counties 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Arkansas 


All counties 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


California 


All counties 
not listed 


Nevada, Sierra 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Colorado 


All counties 
not listed 


Archuleta, Custer, 
Fremont, Huerfano, 
Las Animas, Ouray, 

Pitkin, San Miguel 


Clear Creek, Conejos, 

Costilla, Dolores, Eagle, 

La Plata, Park, Routt, 

San Juan, Summit 


Alamosa, Grand, 

Jackson, Larimer, 

Moffat, 

Rio Blanco, 

Rio Grande 


Chaffee, Gunnison, 
Lake, Saguache 


Hinsdale, 
Mineral 


Connecticut 


All counties 
not listed 


Hartford, 
Litchfield 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Delaware 


All counties 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


District of 
Columbia 


All counties 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Florida 


All counties 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Georgia 


All counties 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Hawaii 


All counties 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Idaho 


All counties 
not listed 


Adams, Bannock, Blaine, 

Clearwater, Idaho, 

Lincoln, Oneida, Power, 

Valley, Washington 


Bingham, 
Bonneville, Camas, 

Caribou, Elmore, 
Franklin, Jefferson, 

Madison, Teton 


Bear Lake, Butte, 

Custer, Fremont, 

Lemhi 


Clark 


— 


Illinois 


All counties 
not listed 


Boone, Bureau, Cook, 

Dekalb, DuPage, Fulton, 

Grundy, Henderson, 

Henry, Iroquois, 

Jo Daviess, Kane, 

Kankakee, Kendall, 

Knox, La Salle, Lake, 

Lee, Livingston, 

Marshall, Mason, 

McHenry, McLean, 

Mercer, Peoria, Putnam, 

Rock Island, 

Stark, Tazewell, Warren, 

Whiteside, Will, 

Woodford 


Carroll, Ogle, 
Stephenson, 
Winnebago 


— 


— 


— 


Indiana 


All counties 
not listed 


Allen, Benton, Cass, 
Fountain, Fulton, 
Howard, Jasper, 
Kosciusko, La Porte, 
Lake, Marshall, Miami, 
Newton, Porter, Pulaski, 
Starke, Steuben, Tippeca- 
noe, Tipton, Wabash, 
Wan-en, White 


— 


— 


— 


— 



{continued) 



84 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R403.3(2)— continued 
AIR-FREEZING INDEX FOR U.S. LOCATIONS BY COUNTY 



STATE 


AIR-FREEZING INDEX 


1500 or less 


2000 


2500 


3000 


3500 


4000 


Iowa 


Appanoose, 

Davis, 

Fremont, Lee, 

Van Buren 


All counties 
not listed 


Allamakee, Black 
Hawk, Boone, Bremer, 
Buchanan, Buena Vista, 

Butler, Calhoun, 

Cerro Gordo, Cherokee, 

Chickasaw, Clay, 

Clayton, Delaware, 

Dubuque, Fayette, 

Floyd, Franklin, 

Grundy, Hamilton, 

Hancock, Hardin, 

Humboldt, Ida, 

Jackson, Jasper, Jones, 

Linn, Marshall, 

Palo Alto, Plymouth, 

Pocahontas, Poweshiek, 

Sac, Sioux, Story, 

Tama. Webster, 

Winnebago, Woodbury, 

Worth, Wright 


Dickinson, 

Emmet, Howard, 

Kossuth, Lyon, 

Mitchell, 

O'Brien, 

Osceola, 

Winneshiek 


— 


— 


Kansas 


All counties 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Kentucky 


All counties 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Louisiana 


All counties 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Maine 


York 


Knox, Lincoln, 
Sagadahoc 


Androscoggin, 

Cumberland, Hancock, 

Kennebec, Waldo, 

Washington 


Aroostook, 

Franklin, Oxford, 

Penobscot, 

Piscataquis, 

Somerset 


— 


— 


Maryland 


All counties 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Massachusetts 


All counties 
not listed 


Berkshire, Franklin, 
Hampden, 
Worcester 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Michigan 


Berrien, 

Branch, Cass, 

Kalamazoo, 

Macomb, Ottawa, 

St. Clair, 

St. Joseph 


All counties 
not listed 


Alger, Charlevoix, 

Cheboygan, Chippewa, 

Crawford, Delta, 

Emmet, Iosco, 

Kalkaska, Lake, Luce, 

Mackinac, Menominee, 

Missaukee, 

Montmorency, 

Ogemaw, Osceola, 

Otsego, Roscommon, 

Schoolcraft, Wexford 


Baraga, 

Dickinson, Iron, 

Keweenaw, 

Marquette 


Gogebic, 
Houghton, 
Ontonagon 


— 


Minnesota 


— 


— 


Houston, Winona 


All counties 
not listed 


Aitkin, 

Big Stone, 

Carlton, 

Crow Wing, 

Douglas, Itasca, 

Kanabec, Lake, 

Morrison, Pine, 

Pope, Stearns, 

Stevens, Swift, 

Todd, Wadena 


Becker, 

Beltrami, Cass, 

Clay, Clearwater, 

Grant, Hubbard, 

Kittson, 

Koochiching, 

Lake of the Woods, 

Mahnomen, 
Marshall, Norman, 

Otter Tail, 

Pennington, Polk, 

Red Lake, Roseau, 

St. Louis, Traverse, 

Wilkin 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



85 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R403.3{2)— continued 
AIR-FREEZING INDEX FOR U.S. LOCATIONS BY COUNTY 



STATE 


AIR-FREEZING INDEX 


1500 or less 


2000 


2500 


3000 


3500 


4000 


Mississippi 


All counties 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Missouri 


All counties 
not listed 


Atchison, Mercer, 
Nodaway, Putnam 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Montana 


Mineral 


Broadwater, 

Golden Valley, 

Granite, Lake, 

Lincoln, 

Missoula, 

Ravalli, Sanders, 

Sweet Grass 


Big Horn, Carbon, 

Jefferson, 

Judith Basin, 

Lewis and Clark, 

Meagher, 

Musselshell, 

Powder River, 

Powell, Silver Bow, 

Stillwater, 

Wesfland 


Carter, Cascade, 

Deer Lodge, 

Falcon, Fergus, 

Flathead, Gallanting, 

Glacier, Madison, 

Park, Petroleum, 

Ponder, Rosebud, 

Teton, Treasure, 

Yellowstone 


Beaverhead, 

Blaine, 

Chouteau, Custer, 

Dawson, Garfield, 

Liberty, McCone, 

Prairie, Toole, 

Wibaux 


Daniels, Hill, 
Phillips, Richland, 

Roosevelt, 
Sheridan, Valley 


Nebraska 


Adams, Banner, 

Chase, Cheyenne, 

Clay, Deuel, Dundy, 

Fillmore, Franklin, 

Frontier, Furnas, 
Gage, Garden, 

Gosper, Harlan, 
Hayes, Hitchcock, 
Jefferson, Kimball, 

Morrill, Nemaha, 
Nuckolls, Pawnee, 

Perkins, Phelps, 

Red Willow, 

Richardson, Saline, 

Scotts Bluff, Seward, 

Thayer, Webster 


All counties 
not listed 


Boyd, Burt, Cedar, 

Cuming, Dakota, 

Dixon, Dodge, 

Knox, Thurston 


— 


— 


— 


Nevada 


All counties 
not listed 


Elko, Eureka, 

Nye, Washoe, 

White Pine 


— 


— 


— 


— 


New 
Hampshire 


— 


All counties 
not listed 


— 


— 


— 


Carroll, Coos, 
Grafton 


New Jersey 


All counties 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


New Mexico 


All counties 
not listed 


Rio Arriba 


Colfax, Mora, Taos 


— 


— 


— 


New York 


Albany, Bronx, 
Cayuga, Columbia, 
Cortland, Dutchess, 

Genessee, Kings, 
Livingston, Monroe, 
Nassau, New York, 
Niagara, Onondaga, 

Ontario, Orange, 

Orleans, Putnam, 
Queens, Richmond, 
Rockland, Seneca, 

Suffolk, Wayne, 
Westchester, Yates 


All counties 
not listed 


Clinton, Essex, 

Franklin, Hamilton, 

Herkimer, 

Jefferson, Lewis, 

St. Lawrence, 

Warren 


— 


— 


— 


North 
Carolina 


All counties 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 



(continued) 



86 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R403.3(2)— continued 
AIR-FREEZING INDEX FOR U.S. LOCATIONS BY COUNTY 



STATE 


AIR-FREEZING INDEX 


1500 or less 


2000 


2500 


3000 


3500 


4000 


North 
Dakota 


— 


— 


— 


Billings, 
Bowman 


Adams, Dickey, 
Golden Valley, Het- 
tinger, LaMoure, 
Oliver, Ransom, 
Sargent, Sioux, 
Slope, Stark 


All counties 
not listed 


Ohio 


All counties not 
listed 


Ashland, Crawford, 
Defiance, Holmes, 

Huron, Knox, 

Licking, Morrow, 

Paulding, Putnam, 

Richland, Seneca, 

Williams 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Oklahoma 


All counties 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Oregon 


All counties 
not listed 


Baker, Crook, Grant, 
Harney 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Pennsylvania 


All counties 
not listed 


Berks, Blair, 
Bradford, Cambria, 
Cameron, Centre, 
Clarion, Clearfield, 
Clinton, Crawford, 
Elk, Forest, 
Huntingdon, 
Indiana, Jefferson, 
Lackawanna, Lycom- 
ing, McKean, Pike, 

Potter, 

Susquehanna, Tioga, 

Venango, Warren, 

Wayne, Wyoming 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Rhode Island 


All counties 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


South 
Carolina 


All counties 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


South Dakota 


— 


Bennett, Custer, 

Fall River, 

Lawrence, Mellette, 

Shannon, Todd, 

Tripp 


Bon Homme, 

Charles Mix, 

Davison, Douglas, 

Gregory, Jackson, 

Jones, Lyman 


All counties 
not listed 


Beadle, Brookings, 

Brown, Campbell, 

Codington, Corson, 

Day, Deuel, 

Edmunds, Faulk, 

Grant, Hamlin, 

Kingsbury, 

Marshall, 

McPherson, 

Perkins, Roberts, 

Spink, Walworth 


— 


Tennessee 


All counties 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Texas 


All counties 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Utah 


All counties 
not listed 


Box Elder, 
Morgan, Weber 


Garfield, Salt Lake, 
Summit 


Carbon, Daggett, 

Duchesne, Rich, 

Sanpete, Uintah, 

Wasatch 


— 


— 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



87 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R403.3(2)— continued 
AIR-FREEZING INDEX FOR U.S. LOCATIONS BY COUNTY 



STATE 


AIR-FREEZING INDEX 


1500 or less 


2000 


2500 


3000 


3500 


4000 


Vermont 


— 


Bennington, 

Grand Isle, Rutland, 

Windham 


Addison, 

Chittenden, 

Franklin, Orange, 

Washington, 

Windsor 


Caledonia, Essex, 
Lamoille, Orleans 


— 


— 


Virginia 


All counties 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Utah 


All counties 
not listed 


Box Elder, 
Morgan, Weber 


Garfield, Salt Lake, 
Summit 


Carbon, Daggett, 

Duchesne, Rich, 

Sanpete, Uintah, 

Wasatch 


— 


— 


West 
Virginia 


All counties 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Wisconsin 


— 


Kenosha, 

Kewaunee, Racine, 

Sheboygan, 

Walworth 


All counties 
not listed 


Ashland, Barron, 

Burnett, Chippewa, 

Clark, Dunn, 

Eau Claire, 

Florence, Forest, 

Iron, Jackson, 

La Crosse, 

Langlade, 

Marathon, Monroe, 

Pepin, Polk, 

Portage, Price, 

Rust, St. Croix, 

Taylor, 
Trempealeau, 
Vilas, Wood 


Bayfield, Douglas, 

Lincoln, Oneida, 

Sawyer, Washburn 


— 


Wyoming 


Goshen, Platte 


Converse, Crook, 
Laramie, Niobrara 


Campbell, Carbon, 

Hot Springs, 

Johnson, Natrona, 

Sheridan, Uinta, 

Weston 


Albany, Big Horn, 
Park, Washakie 


Fremont, Teton 


Lincoln, 

Sublette, 

Sweetwater 



88 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 8 



FOUNDATIONS 



INSULATION DETAIL 



FLASHING PER SECTION R703.8 
INSULATION PROTECTION PER SECTION R403.3.2 



FINISH GRADE OR CONCRETE ' 
SLAB OF ADJACENT UNHEATED 
SLAB-ON-GROUND STRUCTURE 



BEAM LINTEL OR CANTILEVER 
TO CARRY LOAD OVER 
NONLOAD-BEARING 
INSULATION 

CONCRETE MASONRY OR 
PERMANENT WOOD 
FOUNDATION GRADE BEAM 
OR WALL OF ADJACENT 
UNHEATED STRUCTURE 



FOOTING AS REQUIRED 




FROST-PROTECTED SHALLOW 
FOUNDATION SLAB-ON-GRADE 
FLOOR PER SECTION 403.3 



NOMINAL 4 IN. SCREEN AND 

WASHED GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE 

DRAINED PER SECTION R403.3.3 

VERTICAL WALL INSULATION* 

HORIZONTAL INSULATION* 



HORIZONTAL INSULATION PLAN 



ATTACHED SLAB 
FOUNDATION OF UNHEATED 
SLAB-ON-GROUND 
STRUCTURE PER 
SECTION R403.1 
AND R403.2 



^FOUNDATION PERIMETER 



HEATED BUILDING AREA 



L A 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. See Table R403.3( 1 ) for required dimensions and R- values for vertical and horizontal insulation. 

FIGURE R403.3(3) 
INSULATION PLACEMENT FOR FROST-PROTECTED FOOTINGS ADJACENT TO UNHEATED SLAB-ON-GROUND STRUCTURE 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



89 



FOUNDATIONS 



FOUNDATION OF HEATED 
STRUCTURE PER 
SECTIONS R403.1, 
R403.2, AND R403.3.2 



L FROST-PROTECTION — 
SHALLOW FOUNDATION 






A 
- INSIDE CORNER 



FIGURE R403.3(4) 
INSULATION PLACEMENT FOR FROST-PROTECTED FOOTINGS ADJACENT TO HEATED STRUCTURE 











MINIMUM DEPTH OF 


TABLE R403.4 
CRUSHED STONE FOOTINGS (D), (inches) 














LOAD-BEARING VALUE OF SOIL (psf) 




1500 


2000 


3000 


4000 




MH, CH, 


CL, ML 




SC, GC, SM, GM, SP, SW 


GP, GW 




Wall width (inches) 


Wall width (inches) 


Wall width (Inches 


) 


Wall width 


i (inches 


) 


6 


8 


10 


12 


6 


8 


10 


12 


6 


8 


10 


12 


6 


8 


10 


12 








Conventional light-frame construction 












1 -story 


HOOplf 


6 


4 


4 


4 


6 


4 


4 


4 


6 


4 


4 


4 


6 


4 


4 


4 


2-story 


1 800 plf 


8 


6 


4 


4 


6 


4 


4 


4 


6 


4 


4 


4 


6 


4 


4 


4 


3-story 


2900 plf 


16 


14 


12 


10 


10 


8 


6 


6 


6 


4 


4 


4 


6 




4 


4 


4 










4-inch 


brick veneer over light-frame or 8-inch hollow concrete masonry 












1-story 


1500 plf 


6 


4 


4 


4 


6 


4 


4 


4 


6 


4 


4 


4 


6 


4 


4 


4 


2 -story 


2700 plf 


14 


12 


10 


8 


10 


8 


6 


4 


6 


4 


4 


4 


6 


4 


4 


4 


3-story 


4000 plf 


22 


22 


20 


18 


16 


14 


12 


10 


10 


8 


6 


4 


6 


4 


4 


4 












8-inch solid or fully grouted masonry 












1- story 


2000 plf 


10 


8 


6 


4 


6 


4 


4 


4 


6 


4 


4 


4 


6 


4 


4 


4 


2-story 


3600 plf 


20 


18 


16 


16 


14 


12 


10 


8 


8 


6 


4 


4 


6 


4 


4 


4 


3 -story 


5300 plf 


32 


30 


28 


26 


22 


22 


20 


18 


14 


12 


10 


8 


10 


8 


6 


4 






























/IT Q N 


/ m - 







For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.89 pounds per linear foot, 1 plf = 2.44 N/m, 1 pounds per square foot = 47.9 N/m 



90 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE @ 



FOUNDATIONS 




£1 



u 



PRECAST 

CONCRETE 

WALL 



CRASHED STONE ■ 
FOOTING 



\ 



INTERIOR 



W 




FIGURE R403.4(1) 

BASEMENT OR CRAWL SPACE WITH PRECAST 

FOUNDATION WALL BEARING ON CRUSHED STONE 



FIGURE R403.4(2) 

BASEMENT OR CRAWL SPACE WITH PRECAST 

FOUNDATION WALL ON SPREAD FOOTING 



SECTION R404 
FOUNDATION AND RETAINING WALLS 

R404.1 Concrete and masonry foundation walis. Concrete 
foundation walls shall be selected and constructed in accor- 
dance with the provisions of Section R404.1.2. Masonry 
foundation walls shall be selected and constructed in accor- 
dance with the provisions of Section R404.1.1. 

R404.1.1 Design of masonry foundation walls. Masonry 
foundation walls shall be designed and constructed in 
accordance with the provisions of this section or in accor- 
dance with the provisions of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5 
or NCMA TR68-A. When TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5, 
NCMA TR68-A or the provisions of this section are used 
to design masonry foundation walls, project drawings, typ- 
ical details and specifications are not required to bear the 
seal of the architect or engineer responsible for design, 
unless otherwise required by the state law of the jurisdic- 
tion having authority. 

R404. 1.1.1 Masonry foundation walls. Concrete 
masonry and clay masonry foundation walls shall be 
constructed as set forth in Table R404. 1.1(1), 
R404. 1.1(2), R4G4.1.1(3) or R404. 1.1(4) and shall also 
comply with applicable provisions of Sections R606, 
R607 and R608. In buildings assigned to Seismic 
Design Categories D , D, and D 2 , concrete masonry and 
clay masonry foundation walls shall also comply with 
Section R404. 1.4.1. Rubble stone masonry foundation 
walls shall be constructed in accordance with Sections 



R404.1.8 and R607.2.2. Rubble stone masonry walls 
shall not be used in Seismic Design Categories D , D[ 
and D 2 . 

R404.1.2 Concrete foundation walls. Concrete founda- 
tion walls that support light-frame walls shall be designed 
and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this 
section, ACI 318, ACI 332 or PCA 100. Concrete founda- 
tion walls that support above-grade concrete walls that are 
within the applicability limits of Section R611.2 shall be 
designed and constructed in accordance with the provi- 
sions of this section, ACI 318, ACI 332 or PCA 100. Con- 
crete foundation walls that support above-grade concrete 
walls that are not within the applicability limits of Section 
R611.2 shall be designed and constructed in accordance 
with the provisions of ACI 318, ACI 332 or PCA 100. 
When ACI 318, ACI 332, PCA 100 or the provisions of 
this section are used to design concrete foundation walls, 
project drawings, typical details and specifications are not 
required to bear the seal of the architect or engineer 
responsible for design, unless otherwise required by the 
state law of the jurisdiction having authority. 

R404.1.2.1 Concrete cross-section. Concrete walls 
constructed in accordance with this code shall comply 
with the shapes and minimum concrete cross-sectional 
dimensions required by Table R61 1.3. Other types of 
forming systems resulting in concrete walls not in com- 
pliance with this section and Table R611.3 shall be 
designed in accordance with ACI 318. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE" 3 



91 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R404.1.1(1) 
PLAIN MASONRY FOUNDATION WALLS 



MAXIMUM WALL HEIGHT 
(feet) 


MAXIMUM 

UNBALANCED 

BACKFILL HEIGHT 

(feet) 


PLAIN MASONRY 8 MINIMUM NOMINAL WALL THICKNESS (inches) 


Soil classes" 


GW, GP, SW 
and SP 


GM, GC, SM, 
SM-SC and ML 


SC, MH, ML-CL 
and inorganic CL 


5 


4 
5 


6 solid" or 8 
6 solid" or 8 


6 solid" or 8 
8 


6 solid" or 8 
10 


6 


4 
5 
6 


6 solid" or 8 

6 solid" or 8 

8 


6 solid" or 8 
8 
10 


6 solid" or 8 
10 
12 


7 


4 
5 
6 
7 


6 solid" or 8 
6 solid" or 8 

10 

12 


8 

10 

12 

10 solid" 


8 

10 
10 solid" 
12 solid" 


8 


4 
5 
6 
7 
8 


6 solid" or 8 
6 solid" or 8 

10 

12 
10 solid" 


6 solid" or 8 

10 

12 
12 solid" 
12 solid" 


8 

12 

12 solid" 

Footnote e 

Footnote e 


9 


4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 


6 solid" or 8 

8 

10 

12 

12 solid" 

Footnote e 


6 solid" or 8 

10 

12 

12 solid" 

Footnote e 

Footnote e 


8 

12 

12 solid" 

Footnote e 

Footnote e 

Footnote e 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 Pa. 

a. Mortar shall be Type M or S and masonry shall be laid in running bond. Ungrouted hollow masonry units are permitted except where otherwise indicated. 

b. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R 405.1 . 

c. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height between the exterior finish ground level and the lower of the top of the concrete footing that supports the 
foundation wall or the interior finish ground level. Where an interior concrete slab-on-grade is provided and is in contact with the interior surface of the 
foundation wall, measurement of the unbalanced backfill height from the exterior finish ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab is permitted. 

d. Solid grouted hollow units or solid masonry units. 

e. Wall construction shall be in accordance with either Table R404. 1.1(2), Table R404.1.1(3), Table R404.1.1(4), or a design shall be provided. 



92 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 81 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R404.1. 1(2) 
8-INCH MASONRY FOUNDATION WALLS WITH REINFORCING WHERE d : 



5 INCHES 3 ' 



WALL HEIGHT 


HEIGHT OF 

UNBALANCED 

BACKFILL" 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT AND SPACING (INCHES)"' 


Soil classes and lateral soli !oad d (psf per foot below grade) 


GW, GP, SW and SP soils 
30 


GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML soils 
45 


SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL soils 
60 


6 feet 8 inches 


4 feet (or less) 

5 feet 
6 feet 8 inches 


#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 


#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#5 at 48 


#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#6 at 48 


7 feet 4 inches 


4 feet (or less) 

5 feet 

6 feet 

7 feet 4 inches 


#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#5 at 48 


#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#5 at 48 
#6 at 48 


#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#5 at 48 
#6 at 40 


8 feet 


4 feet (or less) 

5 feet 

6 feet 

7 feet 

8 feet 


#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#5 at 48 
#5 at 48 


#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#5 at 48 
#6 at 48 
#6 at 48 


#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#5 at 48 
#6 at 40 
#6 at 32 


8 feet 8 inches 


4 feet (or less) 

5 feet 

6 feet 

7 feet 

8 feet 8 inches 


#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#5 at 48 
#6 at 48 


#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#5 at 48 
#6 at 48 
#6 at 32 


#4 at 48 
#5 at 48 
#6 at 48 
#6 at 40 
#6 at 24 


9 feet 4 inches 


4 feet (or less) 

5 feet 

6 feet 

7 feet 

8 feet 

9 feet 4 inches 


#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#5 at 48 
#6 at 48 
#6 at 40 


#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#5 at 48 
#6 at 48 
#6 at 40 
#6 at 24 


#4 at 48 
#5 at 48 
#6 at 48 
#6 at 40 
#6 at 24 
#6 at 16 


10 feet 


4 feet (or less) 

5 feet 

6 feet 

7 feet 

8 feet 

9 feet 

10 feet 


#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#5 at 48 
#6 at 48 
#6 at 40 
#6 at 32 


#4 at 48 
#4 at 48 
#5 at 48 
#6 at 48 
#6 at 32 
#6 at 24 
#6 at 16 


#4 at 48 
#5 at 48 
#6 at 48 
#6 at 32 
#6 at 24 
#6 at 16 
#6 at 16 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.157 kPa/mm. 

a. Mortar shall be Type M or S and masonry shall be laid in running bond. 

b. Alternative reinforcing bar sizes and spacings having an equivalent cross-sectional area of reinforcement per lineal foot of wall shall be permitted provided 
the spacing of the reinforcement does not exceed 72 inches. 

c. Vertical reinforcement shall be Grade 60 minimum. The distance, d, from the face of the soil side of the wall to the center of vertical reinforcement shall be at 
least 5 inches. 

d. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System and design lateral soil loads are for moist conditions without hydrostatic pressure. 
Refer to Table R405.1. 

e. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height between the exterior finish ground level and the lower of the top of the concrete footing that supports the 
foundation wall or the interior finish ground level. Where an interior concrete slab-on-grade is provided and is in contact with the interior surface of the 
foundation wall, measurement of the unbalanced backfill height from the exterior finish ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab is permitted. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



93 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R404.1.1(3) 
10-INCH MASONRY FOUNDATION WALLS WITH REINFORCING WHERE d > 6.75 INCHES 3 '' 



WALL HEIGHT 


HEIGHT OF 

UNBALANCED 
BACKFILL 8 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT AND SPACING (INCHES)" c 


Soil classes and later soil load d (psf per foot below grade) 


GW, GP, SW and SP soils 


GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML soils 


SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 


soils 






30 


45 


60 






4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 




6 feet 8 inches 


5 feet 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 






6 feet 8 inches 


#4 at 56 


#5 at 56 


#5 at 56 






4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 






5 feet 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 




7 feet 4 inches 


6 feet 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 


#5 at 56 






7 feet 4 inches 


#4 at 56 


#5 at 56 


#6 at 56 






4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 






5 feet 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 




8 feet 


6 feet 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 


#5 at 56 






7 feet 


#4 at 56 


#5 at 56 


#6 at 56 






8 feet 


#5 at 56 


#6 at 56 


#6 at 48 






4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 






5 feet 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 




8 feet 8 inches 


6 feet 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 


#5 at 56 






7 feet 


#4 at 56 


#5 at 56 


#6 at 56 






8 feet 8 inches 


#5 at 56 


#6 at 48 


#6 at 32 






4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 






5 feet 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 




9 feet 4 inches 


6 feet 


#4 at 56 


#5 at 56 


#5 at 56 




7 feet 


#4 at 56 


#5 at 56 


#6 at 56 






8 feet 


#5 at 56 


#6 at 56 


#6 at 40 






9 feet 4 inches 


#6 at 56 


#6 at 40 


#6 at 24 






4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 






5 feet 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 


#4 at 56 






6 feet 


#4 at 56 


#5 at 56 


#5 at 56 




10 feet 


7 feet 


#5 at 56 


#6 at 56 


#6 at 48 






8 feet 


#5 at 56 


#6 at 48 


#6 at 40 






9 feet 


#6 at 56 


#6 at 40 


#6 at 24 






10 feet 


#6 at 48 


#6 at 32 


#6 at 24 





For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.157 kPa/mm. 

a. Mortar shall be Type M or S and masonry shall be laid in running bond. 

b. Alternative reinforcing bar sizes and spacings having an equivalent cross-sectional area of reinforcement per lineal foot of wall shall be permitted provided 
the spacing of the reinforcement does not exceed 72 inches. 

c. Vertical reinforcement shall be Grade 60 minimum. The distance, d, from the face of the soil side of the wall to the center of vertical reinforcement shall be at 
least 6.75 inches. 

d. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System and design lateral soil loads are for moist conditions without hydrostatic pressure. 
Refer to Table R405. 1. 

e. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height between the exterior finish ground level and the lower of the top of the concrete footing that supports the 
foundation wall or the interior finish ground level. Where an interior concrete slab-on-grade is provided and is in contact with the interior surface of the 
foundation wall, measurement of the unbalanced backfill height from the exterior finish ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab is permitted. 



94 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R404.1. 1(4) 
12-INCH MASONRY FOUNDATION WALLS WITH REINFORCING WHERE d > 8.75 INCHES" 







MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT AND SPACING (INCHES)" 5 


WALL HEIGHT 


UNBALANCED 
BACKFILL 5 


Soil classes and lateral soil load d (psf per foot below grade) 


GW, GP, SW and SP soils 


GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML soils 


SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL soils 






30 


45 


60 




4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


6 feet 8 inches 


5 feet 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 




6 feet 8 inches 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


#5 at 72 




4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


7 feet 4 inches 


5 feet 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 




6 feet 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


#5 at 72 




7 feet 4 inches 


#4 at 72 


#5 at 72 


#6 at 72 




4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 




5 feet 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


8 feet 


6 feet 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


#5 at 72 




7 feet 


#4 at 72 


#5 at 72 


#6 at 72 




8 feet 


#5 at 72 


#6 at 72 


#6 at 64 




4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 




5 feet 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


8 feet 8 inches 


6 feet 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


#5 at 72 




7 feet 


#4 at 72 


#5 at 72 


#6 at 72 




8 feet 8 inches 


#5 at 72 


#7 at 72 


#6 at 48 




4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 




5 feet 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


9 feet 4 inches 


6 feet 


#4 at 72 


#5 at 72 


#5 at 72 




7 feet 


#4 at 72 


#5 at 72 


#6 at 72 




8 feet 


#5 at 72 


#6 at 72 


#6 at 56 




9 feet 4 inches 


#6 at 72 


#6 at 48 


#6 at 40 




4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 




5 feet 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 


#4 at 72 




6 feet 


#4 at 72 


#5 at 72 


#5 at 72 


10 feet 


7 feet 


#4 at 72 


#6 at 72 


#6 at 72 




8 feet 


#5 at 72 


#6 at 72 


#6 at 48 




9 feet 


#6 at 72 


#6 at 56 


#6 at 40 




10 feet 


#6 at 64 


#6 at 40 


#6 at 32 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, I foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.157 kPa/mm. 

a. Mortar shall be Type M or S and masonry shall be laid in running bond. 

b. Alternative reinforcing bar sizes and spacings having an equivalent cross-sectional area of reinforcement per lineal foot of wall shall be permitted provided 
the spacing of the reinforcement does not exceed 72 inches. 

c. Vertical reinforcement shall be Grade 60 minimum. The distance, d, from the face of the soil side of the wall to the center of vertical reinforcement shall be at 
least 8.75 inches. 

d. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System and design lateral soil loads are for moist conditions without hydrostatic pressure 
Refer to Table R405.1. 

e. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height between the exterior finish ground level and the lower of the top of the concrete footing that supports the 
foundation wall or the interior finish ground levels. Where an interior concrete slab-on-grade is provided and in contact with the interior surface of the 
foundation wall, measurement of the unbalanced backfill height is permitted to be measured from the exterior finish ground level to the top of the interior 
concrete slab is permitted. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



95 



FOUNDATIONS 



R404. 1.2.2 Reinforcement for foundation walls. 
Concrete foundation walls shall be laterally supported 
at the top and bottom. Horizontal reinforcement shall 
be provided in accordance with Table R404. 1.2(1). 
Vertical reinforcement shall be provided in accordance 
with Table R404. 1.2(2), R404. 1.2(3), R404. 1.2(4), 
R404. 1.2(5), R404. 1.2(6), R404. 1.2(7) or R404. 1.2(8). 
Vertical reinforcement for flat basement walls retaining 
4 feet (1219 mm) or more of unbalanced backfill is per- 
mitted to be determined in accordance with Table 
R404. 1.2(9). For basement walls supporting above- 
grade concrete walls, vertical reinforcement shall be the 
greater of that required by Tables R404. 1.2(2) through 
R404. 1.2(8) or by Section R611.6 for the above-grade 
wall. In buildings assiged to Seismic Design Category 
D () , D, or D 2 , concrete foundation walls shall also com- 
ply with Section R404. 1.4.2. 

R404.1.2.2.1 Concrete foundation stem walls sup- 
porting above-grade concrete walls. Foundation 
stem walls that support above-grade concrete walls 
shall be designed and constructed in accordance 
with this section. 



1. 



Stem walls not laterally supported at top.Con- 
crete stem walls that are not monolithic with 
slabs-on-ground or are not otherwise laterally 
supported by slabs-on-ground shall comply 
with this section. Where unbalanced backfill 
retained by the stem wall is less than or equal 
to 18 inches (457 mm), the stem wall and 
above-grade wall it supports shall be provided 
with vertical reinforcement in accordance with 
Section R611.6 and Table R611.6(l), 
R61 1.6(2) or R61 1.6(3) for above-grade walls. 
Where unbalanced backfill retained by the 
stem wall is greater than 18 inches (457 mm), 
the stem wall and above-grade wall it supports 
shall be provided with vertical reinforcement 
in accordance with Section R61 1 .6 and Table 
R6 11.6(4). 

Stem walls laterally supported at top.Concrete 
stem walls that are monolithic with slabs-on- 
ground or are otherwise laterally supported by 
slabs-on-ground shall be vertically reinforced 
in accordance with Section R611.6 and Table 
R61 1.6(1), R61 1.6(2) or R61 1.6(3) for above- 
grade walls. Where the unbalanced backfill 
retained by the stem wall is greater than 18 



inches (457 mm), the connection between the 
stem wall and the slab-on-ground, and the por- 
tion of the slab-on-ground providing lateral 
support for the wall shall be designed in accor- 
dance with PC A 100 or in accordance with 
accepted engineering practice. Where the 
unbalanced backfill retained by the stem wall 
is greater than 18 inches (457 mm), the mini- 
mum nominal thickness of the wall shall be 6 
inches (152 mm). 

R404. 1.2.2.2 Concrete foundation stem walls sup- 
porting light-frame above-grade walls. Concrete 
foundation stem walls that support light-frame 
above-grade walls shall be designed and constructed 
in accordance with this section. 

1 . Stem walls not laterally supported at top.Con- 
crete stem walls that are not monolithic with 
slabs-on-ground or are not otherwise laterally 
supported by slabs-on-ground and retain 48 
inches (1219 mm) or less of unbalanced fill, 
measured from the top of the wall, shall be 
constructed in accordance with Section 
R404.1.2. Foundation stem walls that retain 
more than 48 inches (1219 mm) of unbalanced 
fill, measured from the top of the wall, shall be 
designed in accordance with Sections 
R404.1.3andR404.4. 

2. Stem walls laterally supported at top.Concrete 
stem walls that are monolithic with slabs-on- 
ground or are otherwise laterally supported by 
slabs-on-ground shall be constructed in accor- 
dance with Section R404.1.2. Where the 
unbalanced backfill retained by the stem wall 
is greater than 48 inches (1219 mm), the con- 
nection between the stem wall and the slab- 
on-ground, and the portion of the slab-on- 
ground providing lateral support for the wall 
shall be designed in accordance with PC A 100 
or in accordance with accepted engineering 
practice. 

R404.1.2.3 Concrete, materials for concrete, and 

forms. Materials used in concrete, the concrete itself 
and forms shall conform to requirements of this section 
orACI318. 

R404.L 2.3.1 Compressive strength. The minimum 
specified compressive strength of concrete, f' c , shall 
comply with Section R402.2 and shall be not less 



TABLE R404.1. 2(1) 
MINIMUM HORIZONTAL REINFORCEMENT FOR CONCRETE BASEMENT WALLS" ' 



MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTED 

HEIGHT OF BASEMENT WALL 

(feet) 



<8 



LOCATION OF HORIZONTAL REINFORCEMENT 



One No. 4 bar within 12 inches of the top of the wall story and one No. 4 bar near mid-height of the wall story. 



One No. 4 bar within 12 inches of the top of the wall story and one No. 4 bar near third points in the wall story. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Horizontal reinforcement requirements are for reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi and concrete with a minimum concrete 
compressive strength 2,500 psi. 

b. See Section R404.1.2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for foundation walls supporting above-grade concrete walls. 



96 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



than 2,500 psi (17.2 MPa) at 28 days in buildings 
assigned to Seismic Design Category A, B or C and 
3000 psi (20.5 MPa) in buildings assigned to Seis- 
mic Design Category D , D, or D 2 . 

R404.1.2.3.2 Concrete mixing and delivery. Mix- 
ing and delivery of concrete shall comply with 
ASTM C 94 or ASTM C 685. 

R404.1.2.3.3 Maximum aggregate size. The nomi- 
nal maximum size of coarse aggregate shall not 
exceed one-fifth the narrowest distance between 
sides of forms, or three-fourths the clear spacing 
between reinforcing bars or between a bar and the 
side of the form. 

Exception: When approved, these limitations 
shall not apply where removable forms are used 
and workability and methods of consolidation 



permit concrete to be placed without honeycombs 
or voids. 

R404. 1.2.3.4 Proportioning and slump of con- 
crete. Proportions of materials for concrete shall be 
established to provide workability and consistency 
to permit concrete to be worked readily into forms 
and around reinforcement under conditions of place- 
ment to be employed, without segregation or exces- 
sive bleeding. Slump of concrete placed in 
removable forms shall not exceed 6 inches (152 
mm). 

Exception: When approved, the slump is permit- 
ted to exceed 6 inches (152 mm) for concrete 
mixtures that are resistant to segregation, and are 
in accordance with the form manufacturer' s rec- 
ommendations. 



TABLE R404.1. 2(2) 
MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR 6-INCH NOMINAL FLAT CONCRETE BASEMENT WALLS" c ' de ' 9 ' hu 


MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTED 

WALL HEIGHT 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM UNBALANCED 

BACKFILL HEIGHT' 

(feet) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches) 


Soil classes* and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth) 


GW, GP, SW, SP 
30 


GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 
45 


SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 
60 


8 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


6@39 


6@48 


6 


5 @39 


6@48 


6@35 


7 


6@48 


6@34 


6@25 


8 


6@39 


6@25 


6@ 18 


9 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


5 @ 37 


6@48 


6 


5 @ 36 


6@44 


6@32 


7 


6@47 


6@30 


6@22 


8 


6@34 


6@22 


6 @ 16 


9 


6@27 


6@ 17 


DR 


10 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


5 @ 35 


6@48 


6 


6@48 


6 @ 41 


6@30 


7 


6@43 


6@28 


6@20 


8 


6 @ 31 


6@20 


DR 


9 


6@24 


6@ 15 


DR 


10 


6@ 19 


DR 


DR 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.1571 kPa 2 /m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 
NR = Not required. 

a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1. 

b. Table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi 
and vertical reinforcement being located at the centerline of the wall. See Section R404.1 .2.3.7.2. 

c. Vertical reinforcement with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and/or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with 
Section R404.1.2.3.7.6 and Table R404. 1.2(9). 

d. Deflection criterion is L/240, where L is the height of the basement wall in inches. 

e. Interpolation is not permitted. 

f. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling. 

g. NR indicates no vertical wall reinforcement is required, except for 6-inch-nominal walls formed with stay-in-place forming systems in which case vertical 
reinforcement shall be No. 4@48 inches on center. 

h. See Section R404. 1.2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for basement walls supporting above-grade concrete walls. 

i. See Table R61 1 .3 for tolerance from nominal thickness permitted for flat walls. 

j. DR means design is required in accordance with the applicable building code, or where there is no code, in accordance with ACI 318. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



97 



FOUNDATIONS 



Slump of concrete placed in stay-in-place forms 
shall exceed 6 inches (152 mm). Slump of concrete 
shall be determined in accordance with ASTM C 
143. 

R404.1.2.3.5 Consolidation of concrete. Concrete 
shall be consolidated by suitable means during 
placement and shall be worked around embedded 
items and reinforcement and into corners of forms. 
Where stay-in-place forms are used, concrete shall 
be consolidated by internal vibration. 

Exception: When approved for concrete to be 
placed in stay-in-place forms, self-consolidating 
concrete mixtures with slumps equal to or greater 
than 8 inches (203 mm) that are specifically 
designed for placement without internal vibration 
need not be internally vibrated. 

R404.1.2.3.6 Form materials and form ties. Forms 
shall be made of wood, steel, aluminum, plastic, a 
composite of cement and foam insulation, a compos- 



ite of cement and wood chips, or other approved 
material suitable for supporting and containing con- 
crete. Forms shall provide sufficient strength to con- 
tain concrete during the concrete placement 
operation. 

Form ties shall be steel, solid plastic, foam plas- 
tic, a composite of cement and wood chips, a com- 
posite of cement and foam plastic, or other suitable 
material capable of resisting the forces created by 
fluid pressure of fresh concrete. 

R404.1.2.3.6.1 Stay-in-place forms. Stay in 
place concrete forms shall comply with this sec- 
tion. 

1 . Surface burning characteristics. The flame- 
spread index and smoke-developed index 
of forming material, other than foam plas- 
tic, left exposed on the interior shall com- 
ply with Section R302. The surface burning 
characteristics of foam plastic used in insu- 



TABLER404.1.2(3) 
MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR 8-INCH (203 mm) NOMINAL FLAT CONCRETE BASEMENT WALLS"'' 



MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTED 
WALL HEIGHT 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM UNBALANCED 

BACKFILL HEIGHT 9 

(feet) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches) 


Soil classes" and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth) 


GW, GP, SW, SP 
30 


GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 
45 


SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 
60 


8 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6 


NR 


NR 


6@37 


7 


NR 


6@36 


6@35 


8 


6 @ 41 


6@35 


6@26 


9 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6 


NR 


NR 


6 @ 35 


7 


NR 


6@35 


6@32 


8 


6@36 


6@32 


6@23 


9 


6@ 35 


6@25 


6@ 18 


10 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6 


NR 


NR 


6@35 


7 


NR 


6@ 35 


6@29 


8 


6@35 


6@29 


6@21 


9 


6@34 


6@22 


6@ 16 


10 


6@27 


6@ 17 


6@ 13 



psi 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.1571 kPa 2 /m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 
NR = Not required. 

a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405. 1 . 

b. Table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi, concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2 500 ps 
and vertical reinforcement being located at the centerline of the wall. See Section R404.1 .2.3.7.2. 

c. Vertical reinforcement with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and/or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with 
Section R404. 1 .2.3.7.6 and Table R404. 1 .2(9). 

d. NR indicates no vertical reinforcement is required. 

e. Deflection criterion is i/240, where L is the height of the basement wall in inches. 

f. Interpolation is not permitted. 

g. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling, 
h. See Section R404.1.2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for basement walls supporting above-grade concrete walls. 

i. See Table R6 1 1 .3 for tolerance from nominal thickness permitted for flat walls. 



98 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



lating concrete forms shall comply with 
Section R3 16.3. 

2. Interior covering. Stay-in-place forms con- 
structed of rigid foam plastic shall be pro- 
tected on the interior of the building as 
required by Section R316. Where gypsum 
board is used to protect the foam plastic, it 
shall be installed with a mechanical fasten- 
ing system. Use of adhesives in addition to 
mechanical fasteners is permitted. 

3. Exterior wall covering. Stay-in-place forms 
constructed of rigid foam plastics shall be 
protected from sunlight and physical dam- 
age by the application of an approved exte- 
rior wall covering complying with this 
code. Exterior surfaces of other stay-in- 
place forming systems shall be protected in 
accordance with this code. 



Termite hazards. Tn areas where hazard of 
termite damage is very heavy in accordance 
with Figure R301.2(6), foam plastic insula- 
tion shall be permitted below grade on 
foundation walls in accordance with one of 
the following conditions: 

4.1. Where in addition to the 
requirements in Section R318.1, an 
approved method of protecting the 
foam plastic and structure from 
subterranean termite damage is 
provided. 

4.2. The structural members of walls, 
floors, ceilings and roofs are entirely 
of noncombustible materials or 
pressure-preservative-treated wood. 

4.3. On the interior side of basement 
walls. 



TABLE R404.1.2(4) 
MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR 10-INCH NOMINAL FLAT CONCRETE BASEMENT WALLS b ' cd ' e ' ,hJ 


MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTED 

WALL HEIGHT 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM UNBALANCED 

BACKFILL HEIGHT 8 

(feet) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches) 


Soil classes 9 and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth) 


GW, GP, SW, SP 
30 


GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 
45 


SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 
60 


8 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6 


NR 


NR 


NR 


7 


NR 


NR 


NR 


8 


6@48 


6@35 


6@28 


9 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6 


NR 


NR 


NR 


7 


NR 


NR 


6 @ 31 


8 


NR 


6@31 


6@28 


9 


6@37 


6@28 


6@24 


10 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6 


NR 


NR 


NR 


7 


NR 


NR 


6@28 


8 


NR 


6@28 


6 @28 


9 


6@ 33 


6@28 


6 @ 21 


10 


6@28 


6@23 


6@ 17 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.1571 kPa 2 /m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 
NR = Not required. 

a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1. 

b. Table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi 
and vertical reinforcement being located at the centerline of the wall. See Section R404. 1.2.3.7.2. 

c. Vertical reinforcement with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and/or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with 
Section R404. 1 .2.3.7.6 and Table R404. 1 .2(9). 

d. NR indicates no vertical reinforcement is required. 

e. Deflection criterion is L/240, where L is the height of the basement wall in inches. 

f. Interpolation is not permitted. 

g. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling, 
h. See Section R404.1 .2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for basement walls supporting above-grade concrete walls. 

i. See Table R61 1.3 for tolerance from nominal thickness permitted for flat walls. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



99 



FOUNDATIONS 



5. Flat ICF wall system forms shall conform 
to ASTM E 2634. 

R404.1. 2.3.7 Reinforcement. 

R404.1, 2.3.7.1 Steel reinforcement. Steel rein- 
forcement shall comply with the requirements of 
ASTM A 615, A 706, or A 996. ASTM A 996 
bars produced from rail steel shall be Type R. In 
buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category 
A, B or C, the minimum yield strength of rein- 
forcing steel shall be 40,000 psi (Grade 40) (276 
MPa). In buildings assigned to Seismic Design 
Category D , D, or D 2 , reinforcing steel shall 
comply with the requirements of ASTM A 706 
for low-alloy steel with a minimum yield strength 
of 60,000 psi (Grade 60) (414 MPa). 

R404.1.2.3.7.2 Location of reinforcement in 
wall. The center of vertical reinforcement in 
basement walls determined from Tables 
R404. 1.2(2) through R404. 1.2(7) shall be located 
at the centerline of the wall. Vertical reinforce- 
ment in basement walls determined from Table 



R404. 1.2(8) shall be located to provide a maxi- 
mum cover of 1.25 inches (32 mm) measured 
from the inside face of the wall. Regardless of the 
table used to determine vertical wall reinforce- 
ment, the center of the steel shall not vary from 
the specified location by more than the greater of 
10 percent of the wall thickness and V 8 -inch (10 
mm). Horizontal and vertical reinforcement shall 
be located in foundation walls to provide the min- 
imum cover required by Section R404. 1.2.3.7.4. 

R404. 1.2.3.7.3 Wall openings. Vertical wall 
reinforcement required by Section R404. 1.2.2 
that is interrupted by wall openings shall have 
additional vertical reinforcement of the same size 
placed within 12 inches (305 mm) of each side of 
the opening. 

R404.1.2.3.7.4 Support and cover. Reinforce- 
ment shall be secured in the proper location in the 
forms with tie wire or other bar support system to 
prevent displacement during the concrete place- 
ment operation. Steel reinforcement in concrete 



TABLE R404.1. 2(5) 
MINIMUM VERTICAL WALL REINFORCEMENT FOR 6-INCH WAFFLE-GRID BASEMENT WALLS"' ■=■<•■ e - a- h - ' 



MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTED 

WALL HEIGHT 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM UNBALANCED 

BACKFILL HEIGHT 

(feet) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches) 


Soil classes" and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth) 


GW, GP, SW, SP 
30 


GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 
45 


SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 
60 


8 


4 


4@48 


4@46 


6@39 


5 


4@45 


5 @46 


6@47 


6 


5 @45 


6@40 


DR 


7 


6@44 


DR 


DR 


8 


6@32 


DR 


DR 


9 


4 


4@48 


4@46 


4@37 


5 


4@42 


5 @43 


6@44 


6 


5 @ 41 


6@37 


DR 


7 


6@39 


DR 


DR 


>8 


DR' 


DR 


DR 


10 


4 


4@48 


4@46 


4@35 


5 


4@40 


5 @40 


6 @ 41 


6 


5@38 


6@34 


DR 


7 


6@36 


DR 


DR 


>8 


DR 


DR 


DR 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.1571 kPa 2 /m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1. 

b. Table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi 
and vertical reinforcement being located at the centerline of the wall. See Section R404.1. 2.3.7.2. 

c. Maximum spacings shown are the values calculated for the specified bar size. Where the bar used is Grade 60 and the size specified in the table the actual 
spacing in the wall shall not exceed a whole-number multiple of 12 inches (i.e., 12, 24, 36 and 48) that is less than or equal to the tabulated spacing Vertical 
reinforcement with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and/or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Section 
R404.1 .2.3.7.6 and Table R404. 1.2(9). 

d. Deflection criterion is L/240, where L is the height of the basement wall in inches. 

e. Interpolation is not permitted. 

f. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling. 

g. See Section R404.1.2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for basement walls supporting above-grade concrete walls, 
h. See Table R61 1 .3 for thicknesses and dimensions of waffle-grid walls. 

i. DR means design is required in accordance with the applicable building code, or where there is no code, in accordance with ACI 318. 



100 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



cast against the earth shall have a minimum cover 
of 3 inches (75 mm). Minimum cover for rein- 
forcement in concrete cast in removable forms 
that will be exposed to the earth or weather shall 
be 1 V 2 inches (38 mm) for No. 5 bars and smaller, 
and 2 inches (50 mm) for No. 6 bars and larger. 
For concrete cast in removable forms that will not 
be exposed to the earth or weather, and for con- 
crete cast in stay-in-place forms, minimum cover 
shall be 3 / 4 inch (19 mm). The minus tolerance for 
cover shall not exceed the smaller of one-third 
the required cover or 3 / g inch (10 mm). 

R404.1.2.3.7.5 Lap splices. Vertical and hori- 
zontal wall reinforcement shall be the longest 
lengths practical. Where splices are necessary in 
reinforcement, the length of lap splice shall be in 



FOUNDATIONS 



accordance with Table R61 1.5.4.(1) and Figure 
R61 1.5.4(1). The maximum gap between non- 
contact parallel bars at a lap splice shall not 
exceed the smaller of one-fifth the required lap 
length and 6 inches (152 mm). See Figure 
R61 1.5.4(1). 

R404. 1.2.3.7.6 Alternate grade of reinforce- 
ment and spacing. Where tables in Section 
R404.1.2.2 specify vertical wall reinforcement 
based on minimum bar size and maximum spac- 
ing, which are based on Grade 60 (414 MPa) 
steel reinforcement, different size bars and/or 
bars made from a different grade of steel are per- 
mitted provided an equivalent area of steel per 
linear foot of wall is provided. Use of Table 
R404. 1.2(9) is permitted to determine the maxi- 
mum bar spacing for different bar sizes than 



TABLE R404.1 .2(6) 
MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR 8-INCH WAFFLE-GRID BASEMENT WALLS' 3 


c, d, e, f, h, i, 1 


MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTED 

WALL HEIGHT 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM UNBALANCED 

BACKFILL HEIGHT 9 

(feel) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches) 


Soil classes" and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth) 


GW, GP, SW, SP 
30 


GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 
45 


SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 
60 


8 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


5 @48 


5 @46 


6 


5 @48 


5@43 


6@45 


7 


5 @46 


6@43 


6 @ 31 


8 


6@48 


6@32 


6@23 


9 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


5 @47 


5 @46 


6 


5@46 


5@39 


6 @ 41 


7 


5@42 


6 @ 38 


6@28 


8 


6@44 


6@28 


6@20 


9 


6@34 


6 @ 21 


DR 


10 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


5 @46 


5 @44 


6 


5 @46 


5@37 


6@38 


7 


5 @38 


6@35 


6@25 


8 


6@39 


6@25 


DR 


9 


6@ 30 


DR 


DR 


10 


6@24 


DR 


DR 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 ram; 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.1571 kPaVm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 
NR = Not required. 

a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1 . 

b. Table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi 
and vertical reinforcement being located at the centerline of the wall. See Section R404. 1.2.3.7.2. 

c. Maximum spacings shown are the values calculated for the specified bar size. Where the bar used is Grade 60 (420 MPa) and the size specified in the table, the 
actual spacing in the wall shall not exceed a whole-number multiple of 12 inches (i.e., 12, 24, 36 and 48) that is less than or equal to the tabulated spacing. 
Vertical reinforcement with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and/or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with 
Section R404.1. 2.3.7.6 and Table R404. 1.2(9). 

d. NR indicates no vertical reinforcement is required. 

e. Deflection criterion is 1/240, where I is the height of the basement wall in inches. 

f. Interpolation shall not be permitted. 

g. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling. 
h. See Section R404. 1 .2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for basement walls supporting above-grade concrete walls. 

i. See Table R61 1 .3 for thicknesses and dimensions of waffle-grid walls. 

j. DR means design is required in accordance with the applicable building code, or where there is no code, in accordance with ACI 318. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



101 



FOUNDATIONS 



specified in the tables and/or bars made from a 
different grade of steel. Bars shall not be spaced 
less than one-half the wall thickness, or more 
than 48 inches (1219 mm) on center. 

R404.1.2.3.7.7 Standard hooks. Where rein- 
forcement is required by this code to terminate 
with a standard hook, the hook shall comply with 
Section R61 1 .5.4.5 and Figure R61 1 .5.4(3). 

R404.1.2.3.7.8 Construction joint reinforce- 
ment. Construction joints in foundation walls 
shall be made and located to not impair the 
strength of the wall. Construction joints in plain 
concrete walls, including walls required to have 
not less than No. 4 bars at 48 inches (1219 mm) 
on center by Sections R404. 1.2.2 and R404. 1.4.2, 
shall be located at points of lateral support, and a 
minimum of one No. 4 bar shall extend across the 
construction joint at a spacing not to exceed 24 
inches (610 mm) on center. Construction joint 
reinforcement shall have a minimum of 12 inches 



(305 mm) embedment on both sides of the joint. 
Construction joints in reinforced concrete walls 
shall be located in the middle third of the span 
between lateral supports, or located and con- 
structed as required for joints in plain concrete 
walls. 

Exception: Use of vertical wall reinforcement 
required by this code is permitted in lieu of 
construction joint reinforcement provided the 
spacing does not exceed 24 inches (610 mm), 
or the combination of wall reinforcement and 
No.4 bars described above does not exceed 24 
inches (610 mm). 

R404. 1.2.3.8 Exterior wall coverings. Require- 
ments for installation of masonry veneer, stucco and 
other wall coverings on the exterior of concrete 
walls and other construction details not covered in 
this section shall comply with the requirements of 
this code. 



TABLE R404.1. 2(7) 
MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR 6-INCH (152 mm) SCREEN-GRID BASEMENT WALLS bc ' d ' e ' 9 '"' ' 


MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTED 

WALL HEIGHT 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM UNBALANCED 

BACKFILL HEIGHT' 

(feet) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches) 


Soil classes" and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth) 


GW, GP, SW, SP 
30 


GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 
45 


SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 
60 


8 


4 


4@48 


4@48 


5 @43 


5 


4@48 


5 @48 


5@37 


6 


5 @48 


6@45 


6@ 32 


7 


6@48 


DR 


DR 


8 


6@ 36 


DR 


DR 


9 


4 


4@48 


4@48 


4@41 


5 


4@48 


5 @48 


6@48 


6 


5 @ 45 


6@41 


DR 


7 


6@43 


DR 


DR 


>8 


DR 


DR 


DR 


10 


4 


4@48 


4@48 


4@ 39 


5 


4@44 


5 @44 


6@46 


6 


5 @42 


6@38 


DR 


7 


6@40 


DR 


DR 


>8 


DR 


DR 


DR 



For SI: I. foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.1571 kPa 2 /m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1. 

b. Table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi, concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi 
and vertical reinforcement being located at the centerline of the wall. See Section R404. 1 .2.3.7.2. 

c. Maximum spacings shown are the values calculated for the specified bar size. Where the bar used is Grade 60 and the size specified in the table, the actual 
spacing in the wall shall not exceed a whole-number multiple of 12 inches (i.e., 12, 24, 36 and 48) that is less than or equal to the tabulated spacing. Vertical 
reinforcement with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and/or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Section 
R404.1.2.3.7.6 and Table R404.1 .2(9). 

d. Deflection criterion is L/240, where L is the height of the basement wall in inches. 

e. Interpolation is not permitted. 

f. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling. 

g. See Sections R404. 1 .2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for basement walls supporting above-grade concrete walls, 
h. See Table R61 1 .3 for thicknesses and dimensions of screen-grid walls. 

i. DR means design is required in accordance with the applicable building code, or where there is no code, in accordance with ACI 318. 



102 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR 6- 


TABLE R404.1. 2(8) 
8-, 10-INCH AND 12-INCH NOMINAL FLAT BASEMENT WALLS" 


,:. d, e, f, h, i, k 


, 1 


MAXIMUM 
WALL 
HEIGHT 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM 

UNBALANCED 

BACKFILL 

HEIGHT 9 

(feet) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches) 


Soil classes" and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth) 


GW, GP, SW, SP GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 
30 45 


SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 
60 


Minimum nominal wall thickness (inches) 


6 


8 


10 


12 


6 


8 


10 


12 


6 


8 


10 


12 


5 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 1 


NR 


NR 


4 @ 35 


NR' 


NR 


NR 


6 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 @48 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 @ 36 


NR 


NR 


NR 


7 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 @47 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 @42 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6@43 


5 @48 


NR' 


NR 


7 


5 @ 46 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6@42 


5 @46 


NR' 


NR 


6@34 


6@48 


NR 


NR 


8 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


4@ 38 


NR 1 


NR 


NR 


5@43 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6 


4@ 37 


NR 1 


NR 


NR 


5 @37 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6@ 37 


5 @43 


NR' 


NR 


7 


5 @>40 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6 @ 37 


5 @41 


NR' 


NR 


6@ 34 


6@43 


NR 


NR 


8 


6 @43 


5 @47 


NR' 


NR 


6@34 


6 @43 


NR 


NR 


6@27 


6 @32 


6@44 


NR 


9 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


4@ 35 


NR' 


NR 


NR 


5 @40 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6 


4@34 


NR' 


NR 


NR 


6@48 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6@36 


6@39 


NR' 


NR 


7 


5 @ 36 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6@34 


5 @ 37 


NR 


NR 


6@ 33 


6 @ 38 


5 @ 37 


NR' 


8 


6@ 38 


5 @ 41 


NR 1 


NR 


6 @ 33 


6@ 38 


5 @37 


NR' 


6@24 


6@29 


6@39 


4 @ 48 m 


9 


6@34 


6 @46 


NR 


NR 


6@26 


6@30 


6@41 


NR 


6@ 19 


6@23 


6@30 


6@39 


10 


4 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


5 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


4@ 33 


NR 1 


NR 


NR 


5 @ 38 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6 


5 @48 


NR 1 


NR 


NR 


6@45 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6@ 34 


5 @37 


NR 


NR 


7 


6@47 


NR 


NR 


NR 


6@ 34 


6 @48 


NR 


NR 


6@ 30 


6 @ 35 


6@48 


NR' 


8 


6@ 34 


5 @38 


NR 


NR | 6 @ 30 


6@ 34 


6 @47 


NR' 


6@22 


6@26 


6@35 


6 @ 45 m 


9 


6@34 


6 @ 41 


4 @48 


NR 1 


6@23 


6@27 


6 @ 35 


4 @ 48 m 


DR 


6 @22 


6@27 


6@34 


10 


6 @28 


6@33 


6@45 


NR 


DR j 


6 @23 


6@29 


6@ 38 


DR 


6@22 


6@ 22 


6@ 28 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; I pound per square foot per foot = 0.157 1 kPa 2 /m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 
NR = Not required. 

a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1. 

b. Table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi. 

c. Vertical reinforcement with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and/or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with 
Section R404. 1.2.3.7.6 and Table R404. 1.2(9). 

d. NR indicates no vertical wall reinforcement is required, except for 6-inch nominal walls formed with stay-in-place forming systems in which case vertical 
reinforcement shall be #4@48 inches on center. 

e. Allowable deflection criterion is Z./240, where L is the unsupported height of the basement wall in inches. 

f. Interpolation is not permitted. 

g. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling. 

h. Vertical reinforcement shall be located to provide a cover of 1 .25 inches measured from the inside face of the wall. The center of the steel shall not vary from 

the specified location by more than the greater of 10 percent of the wall thickness or 3 / 8 -inch. 
i. Concrete cover for reinforcement measured from the inside face of the wall shall not be less than V 4 -inch. Concrete cover for reinforcement measured from 

the outside face of the wall shall not be less than 1 7 2 inches for No. 5 bars and smaller, and not less than 2 inches for larger bars, 
j. DR means design is required in accordance with the applicable building code, or where there is no code in accordance with AC1 318. 
k. Concrete shall have a specified compressive strength,/,, of not less than 2,500 psi at 28 days, unless a higher strength is required by footnote 1 or m. 
I. The minimum thickness is permitted to be reduced 2 inches, provided the minimum specified compressive strength of concrete,/',,, is 4,000 psi. 
m. A plain concrete wall with a minimum nominal thickness of 12 inches is permitted, provided minimum specified compressive strength of concrete,/ ' r , is 

3,500 psi. 
n. See Table R61 1.3 for tolerance from nominal thickness permitted for flat walls. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



103 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R404.1. 2(9) 
MINIMUM SPACING FOR ALTERNATE BAR SIZE AND/OR ALTERNATE GRADE OF STEEL ab 


c 






BAR SPACING FROM 

APPLICABLE TABLE IN 

SECTION R404.1.2.2 

(inches) 


BAR SIZE FROM APPLICABLE TABLE IN SECTION R404.1.2.2 


#4 


#5 


#6 




Alternate bar size and/or alternate grade of steel desired 


Grade 60 


Grade 40 


Grade 60 


Grade 40 


Grade 60 


Grade 40 


#5 


#6 


#4 


#5 


#6 


#4 


#6 


#4 


#5 


#6 


#4 


#5 


#4 


#5 


#6 


Maximum spacing for alternate bar size and/or alternate grade of steel (inches) 


8 


12 


18 


5 


8 


12 


5 


11 


3 


5 


8 


4 


6 


2 


4 


5 


9 


14 


20 


6 


9 


13 


6 


13 


4 


6 


9 


4 


6 


3 


4 


6 


10 


16 


22 


7 


10 


15 


6 


14 


4 


7 


9 


5 


7 


3 


5 


7 


11 


17 


24 


7 


11 


16 


7 


16 


5 


7 


10 


5 


8 


3 


5 


7 


12 


19 


26 


8 


12 


18 


8 


17 


5 


8 


11 


5 


8 


4 


6 


8 


13 


20 


29 


9 


13 


19 


8 


18 


6 


9 


12 


6 


9 


4 


6 


9 


14 


22 


31 


9 


14 


21 


9 


20 


6 


9 


13 


6 


10 


4 


7 


9 


15 


23 


33 


10 


16 


22 


10 


21 


6 


10 


14 


7 


11 


5 


7 


10 


16 


25 


35 


11 


17 


23 


10 


23 


7 


11 


15 


7 


11 


5 


8 


11 


17 


26 


37 


11 


18 


25 


u 


24 


7 


11 


16 


8 


12 


5 


8 


11 


18 


28 


40 


12 


19 


26 


12 


26 


8 


12 


17 


8 


13 


5 


8 


12 


19 


29 


42 


13 


20 


28 


12 


27 


8 


13 


18 


9 


13 


6 


9 


13 


20 


31 


44 


13 


21 


29 


13 


28 


9 


13 


19 


9 


14 


6 


9 


13 


21 


33 


46 


14 


22 


31 


14 


30 


9 


14 


20 


10 


15 


6 


10 


14 


22 


34 


48 


15 


23 


32 


14 


31 


9 


15 


21 


10 


16 


7 


10 


15 


23 


36 


48 


15 


24 


34 


15 


33 


10 


15 


22 


10 


16 


7 


11 


15 


24 


37 


48 


16 


25 


35 


15 


34 


10 


16 


23 


11 


17 


7 


11 


16 


25 


39 


48 


17 


26 


37 


16 


35 


11 


17 


24 


11 


18 


8 


12 


17 


26 


40 


48 


17 


27 


38 


17 


37 


11 


17 


25 


12 


18 


8 


12 


17 


27 


42 


48 


18 


28 


40 


17 


38 


12 


18 


26 


12 


19 


8 


13 


18 


28 


43 


48 


19 


29 


41 


18 


40 


12 


19 


26 


13 


20 


8 


13 


19 


29 


45 


48 


19 


30 


43 


19 


41 


12 


19 


27 


13 


20 


9 


14 


19 


30 


47 


48 


20 


31 


44 


19 


43 


13 


20 


28 


14 


21 


9 


14 


20 


31 


48 


48 


21 


32 


45 


20 


44 


13 


21 


29 


14 


22 


9 


15 


21 


32 


48 


48 


21 


33 


47 


21 


45 


14 


21 


30 


15 


23 


10 


15 


21 


33 


48 


48 


22 


34 


48 


21 


47 


14 


22 


31 


15 


23 


10 


16 


22 


34 


48 


48 


23 


35 


48 


22 


48 


15 


23 


32 


15 


24 


10 


16 


23 


35 


48 


48 


23 


36 


48 


23 


48 


15 


23 


33 


16 


25 


11 


16 


23 


36 


48 


48 


24 


37 


48 


23 


48 


15 


24 


34 


16 


25 


11 


17 


24 


37 


48 


48 


25 


38 


48 


24 


48 


16 


25 


35 


17 


26 


11 


17 


25 


38 


48 


48 


25 


39 


48 


25 


48 


16 


25 


36 


17 


27 


12 


18 


25 


39 


48 


48 


26 


40 


48 


25 


48 


17 


26 


37 


18 


27 


12 


18 


26 


40 


48 


48 


27 


41 


48 


26 


48 


17 


27 


38 


18 


28 


12 


19 


27 


41 


48 


48 


27 


42 


48 


26 


48 


18 


27 


39 


19 


29 


12 


19 


27 


42 


48 


48 


28 


43 


48 


27 


48 


18 


28 


40 


19 


30 


13 


20 


28 


43 


48 


48 


29 


44 


48 


28 


48 


18 


29 


41 


20 


30 


13 


20 


29 


44 


48 


48 


29 


45 


48 


28 


48 


19 


29 


42 


20 


31 


13 


21 


29 


45 


48 


48 


30 


47 


48 


29 


48 


19 


30 


43 


20 


32 


14 


21 


30 


46 


48 


48 


31 


48 


48 


30 


48 


20 


31 


44 


21 


32 


14 


22 


31 


47 


48 


48 


31 


48 


48 


30 


48 


20 


31 


44 


21 


33 


14 


22 


31 


48 


48 


48 


32 


48 


48 


31 


48 


21 


32 


45 


22 


34 


15 


23 


32 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. This table is for use with tables in Section R404.1 .2.2 that specify the minimum bar size and maximum spacing of vertical wall reinforcement for foundation 
walls and above-grade walls. Reinforcement specified in tables in Sections R404. 1.2.2 is based on Grade 60 steel reinforcement. 

b. Bar spacing shall not exceed 48 inches on center and shall not be less than one-half the nominal wall thickness. 

c. For Grade 50 steel bars (ASTM A 996, Type R), use spacing for Grade 40 bars or interpolate between Grades 40 and 60. 



104 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



R404.1.2.4 Requirements for Seismic Design Cate- 
gory C. Concrete foundation walls supporting above- 
grade concrete walls in townhouses assigned to Seismic 
Design Category C shall comply with ACI 318, ACI 
332 or PCA 100 (see Section R404.1.2). 

R404.1.3 Design required. Concrete or masonry founda- 
tion walls shall be designed in accordance with accepted 
engineering practice when either of the following condi- 
tions exists: 

1. Walls are subject to hydrostatic pressure from 
groundwater. 

2. Walls supporting more than 48 inches (1219 mm) of 
unbalanced backfill that do not have permanent lat- 
eral support at the top or bottom. 

R404.1.4 Seismic Design Category D , Dj or D,. 

R404.1.4.1 Masonry foundation walls. In addition to 
the requirements of Table R404.1.1(l) plain masonry 
foundation walls in buildings assigned to Seismic 
Design Category D , D, or D 2 , as established in Table 
R301.2(l), shall comply with the following. 

1. Wall height shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm). 

2. Unbalanced backfill height shall not exceed 4 
feet (1219 mm). 

3. Minimum nominal thickness for plain masonry 
foundation walls shall be 8 inches (203 mm). 

4. Masonry stem walls shall have a minimum verti- 
cal reinforcement of one No. 3 (No. 10) bar 
located a maximum of 4 feet (1219 mm) on cen- 
ter in grouted cells. Vertical reinforcement shall 
be tied to the horizontal reinforcement in the 
footings. 

Foundation walls in buildings assigned to Seismic 
Design Category D , D, or D 2 , as established in Table 
R301.2(l), supporting more than 4 feet (1219 mm) of 
unbalanced backfill or exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm) in 
height shall be constructed in accordance with Table 
R404.1.1(2), R404. 1.1(3) or R404.1.1(4). Masonry 
foundation walls shall have two No. 4 (No. 13) hori- 
zontal bars located in the upper 1 2 inches (305 mm) of 
the wall. 

R404.1.4.2 Concrete foundation walls. In buildings 
assigned to Seismic Design Category D , D, or D 2 , as 
established in Table R301.2(l), concrete foundation 
walls that support light-frame walls shall comply with 
this section, and concrete foundation walls that support 
above- grade concrete walls shall comply with ACI 318, 
ACI 332 or PCA 100 (see Section R404.1.2). In addi- 
tion to the horizontal reinforcement required by Table 
R404. 1.2(1), plain concrete walls supporting light- 
frame walls shall comply with the following. 

1 . Wall height shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm). 



2. Unbalanced backfill height shall not exceed 4 
feet (1219 mm). 

3. Minimum thickness for plain concrete foundation 
walls shall be 7.5 inches (191 mm) except that 6 
inches (152 mm) is permitted where the maxi- 
mum wall height is 4 feet, 6 inches (1 372 mm). 

Foundation walls less than 7.5 inches (191 mm) in 
thickness, supporting more than 4 feet (1219 mm) of 
unbalanced backfill or exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm) in 
height shall be provided with horizontal reinforcement 
in accordance with Table R404. 1.2(1), and vertical 
reinforcement in accordance with Table R404. 1.2(2), 
R404. 1.2(3), R404. 1.2(4), R404. 1.2(5), R404. 1.2(6), 
R404. 1.2(7) or R404.1.2(8). Where Tables R404. 1.2(2) 
through R404. 1.2(8) permit plain concrete walls, not 
less than No. 4 (No. 1 3) vertical bars at a spacing not 
exceeding 48 inches (1219 mm) shall be provided. 
R404.1.5 Foundation wall thickness based on walls 
supported. The thickness of masonry or concrete founda- 
tion walls shall not be less than that required by Section 
R404. 1.5.1 orR404.1.5.2, respectively. 

R404.1.5J Masonry wall thickness. Masonry founda- 
tion walls shall not be less than the thickness of the wall 
supported, except that masonry foundation walls of at 
least 8-inch (203 mm) nominal thickness shall be per- 
mitted under brick veneered frame walls and under 10- 
inch- wide (254 mm) cavity walls where the total height 
of the wall supported, including gables, is not more 
than 20 feet (6096 mm), provided the requirements of 
Section R404.1 .1 are met. 

R404.1.5.2 Concrete wall thickness. The thickness of 
concrete foundation walls shall be equal to or greater 
than the thickness of the wall in the story above. Con- 
crete foundation walls with corbels, brackets or other 
projections built into the wall for support of masonry 
veneer or other purposes are not within the scope of the 
tables in this section. 

Where a concrete foundation wall is reduced in 
thickness to provide a shelf for the support of masonry 
veneer, the reduced thickness shall be equal to or 
greater than the thickness of the wall in the story above. 
Vertical reinforcement for the foundation wall shall be 
based on Table R404. 1.2(8) and located in the wall as 
required by Section R404.1. 2.3.7.2 where that table is 
used. Vertical reinforcement shall be based on the 
thickness of the thinner portion of the wall. 

Exception: Where the height of the reduced thick- 
ness portion measured to the underside of the floor 
assembly or sill plate above is less than or equal to 
24 inches (610 mm) and the reduction in thickness 
does not exceed 4 inches (102 mm), the vertical 
reinforcement is permitted to be based on the thicker 
portion of the wall. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



105 



FOUNDATIONS 



R404. 1.5.3 Pier and curtain wall foundations. Use of 
pier and curtain wall foundations shall be permitted to 
support light-frame construction not more than two sto- 
ries in height, provided the following requirements are 
met: 

1. All load-bearing walls shall be placed on continu- 
ous concrete footings placed integrally with the 
exterior wall footings. 

2. The minimum actual thickness of a load-bearing 
masonry wall shall be not less than 4 inches (102 



mm) nominal or 3 3 / 8 inches (92 mm) actual thick- 
ness, and shall be bonded integrally with piers 
spaced in accordance with Section R606.9. 

3. Piers shall be constructed in accordance with 
Section R606.6 and Section R606.6.1, and shall 
be bonded into the load-bearing masonry wall in 
accordance with Section R608.1.1 or R608.1.1.2. 

4. The maximum height of a 4-inch (102 mm) load- 
bearing masonry foundation wall supporting 



r _. GALVANIZED OR STAINLESS STEEL STRAPS, 

MIN. 2V, 5 IN. WIDE BY 12 GAGE THICK, 
\ MIN, 2 IN. FROM EDGE OF PIER, TYP. 



PIERS SPACED NOT 
"MORE THAN 6 FT 0.C, 
X TYP. 



MIN. NINE 16D NAILS 
" PER STRAP 




MIN. 8 IN. X 16 IN 
MASONRY PIER, TYP. 



MIN. TWO 9 GAGE BOX TIES 
OR TWO MASONRY HEADERS 
AT 8 IN. O.C. EACH PIER 



STRAPS ANCHORED WITH 90 DEGREE HOOK, MIN. 
TWO STRAPS PER PIER. MIN. 4 IN EMBEDMENT INTO 
FOOTING, MIN. 1.75 IN. HORZ. LEG EXTENSION 



DOUBLE RIM JOISTS 



MIN. 18 GAGE PLATE 
CONNECTORS AT 
MAX. 12 IN O.C (TYP. 




MIN. 4 IN. MASONRY 
CURTAIN WALL 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 degree = 0.0175 rad. 



FIGURE R404.1.5(1) 
FOUNDATION WALL CLAY MASONRY CURTAIN WALL WITH CONCRETE MASONRY PIERS 



106 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



wood-frame walls and floors shall not be more 
than 4 feet (1219 mm). 

5. Anchorage shall be in accordance with Section 
R403.1.6, Figure R404. 1.5(1), or as specified by 
engineered design accepted by the building offi- 
cial. 

6. The unbalanced fill for 4-inch (102 mm) founda- 
tion walls shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm) 
for solid masonry or 12 inches (305 mm) for hol- 
low masonry. 

7. In Seismic Design Categories D , D, and D 2 , pre- 
scriptive reinforcement shall be provided in the 
horizontal and vertical direction. Provide mini- 
mum horizontal joint reinforcement of two No. 9 
gage wires spaced not less than 6 inches (152 
mm) or one 7 4 inch (6.4 mm) diameter wire at 10 
inches (254 mm) on center vertically. Provide 
minimum vertical reinforcement of one No. 4 bar 
at 48 inches (1220 mm) on center horizontally 
grouted in place. 

R404.1.6 Height above finished grade. Concrete and 
masonry foundation walls shall extend above the finished 
grade adjacent to the foundation at all points a minimum 
of 4 inches (102 mm) where masonry veneer is used and a 
minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) elsewhere. 

R404.1.7 Backfill placement. Backfill shall not be placed 
against the wall until the wall has sufficient strength and 
has been anchored to the floor above, or has been suffi- 
ciently braced to prevent damage by the backfill. 

Exception: Bracing is not required for walls supporting 
less than 4 feet (1219 mm) of unbalanced backfill. 

R404.1.8 Rubble stone masonry. Rubble stone masonry 
foundation walls shall have a minimum thickness of 16 
inches (406 mm), shall not support an unbalanced backfill 
exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm) in height, shall not support a 
soil pressure greater than 30 pounds per square foot per 
foot (4.71 kPa/m), and shall not be constructed in Seismic 
Design Categories D , D„ D 2 or townhouses in Seismic 
Design Category C, as established in Figure R301 .2(2). 

R404.1.9 Isolated masonry piers. Isolated masonry piers 
shall be constructed in accordance with this section and 
the general masonry construction requirements of Section 
R606. Hollow masonry piers shall have a minimum nomi- 
nal thickness of 8 inches (203 mm), with a nominal height 
not exceeding four times the nominal thickness and a nom- 
inal length not exceeding three times the nominal thick- 
ness. Where hollow masonry units are solidly filled with 
concrete or grout, piers shall be permitted to have a nomi- 
nal height not exceeding ten times the nominal thickness. 
Footings for isolated masonry piers shall be sized in accor- 
dance with Section R403.1.1. 

R404.1.9.1 Pier cap. Hollow masonry piers shall be 
capped with 4 inches (102 mm) of solid masonry or 
concrete, a masonry cap block, or shall have cavities of 
the top course filled with concrete or grout. Where 
required, termite protection for the pier cap shall be 
provided in accordance with Section R318. 



R404. 1.9.2 Masonry piers supporting floor girders. 
Masonry piers supporting wood girders sized in accor- 
dance with Tables R502.5(l) and R502.5(2) shall be 
permitted in accordance with this section. Piers sup- 
porting girders for interior bearing walls shall have a 
minimum nominal dimension of 12 inches (305 mm) 
and a maximum height of 10 feet (3048 mm) from top 
of footing to bottom of sill plate or girder. Piers sup- 
porting girders for exterior bearing walls shall have a 
minimum nominal dimension of 12 inches (305 mm) 
and a maximum height of 4 feet (1220 mm) from top of 
footing to bottom of sill plate or girder. Girders and sill 
plates shall be anchored to the pier or footing in accor- 
dance with Section R403.1.6 or Figure R404.1.5(l). 
Floor girder bearing shall be in accordance with Sec- 
tion R502.6. 

R404.1.9.3 Masonry piers supporting braced wall 
panels. Masonry piers supporting braced wall panels 
shall be designed in accordance with accepted engi- 
neering practice. 

R404.1.9.4 Seismic design of masonry piers. 
Masonry piers in all dwellings located in Seismic 
Design Category D , D, or D 2 , and townhouses in Seis- 
mic Design Category C, shall be designed in accor- 
dance with accepted engineering practice. 

R404. 1.9.5 Masonry piers in flood hazard areas. 

Masonry piers for dwellings in flood hazard areas shall 
be designed in accordance with Section R322. 

R404.2 Wood foundation walls. Wood foundation walls 
shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of Sec- 
tions R404.2.1 through R404.2.6 and with the details shown 
in Figures R403.i(2) and R403.1(3). 

R404.2.1 Identification. All load-bearing lumber shall be 
identified by the grade mark of a lumber grading or 
inspection agency which has been approved by an accredi- 
tation body that complies with DOC PS 20. In lieu of a 
grade mark, a certificate of inspection issued by a lumber 
grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of 
this section shall be accepted. Wood structural panels shall 
conform to DOC PS 1 or DOC PS 2 and shall be identified 
by a grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an 
approved agency. 

R404.2.2 Stud size. The studs used in foundation walls 
shall be 2-inch by 6-inch (51 mm by 152 mm) members. 
When spaced 16 inches (406 ram) on center, a wood spe- 
cies with an F b value of not less than 1 ,250 pounds per 
square inch (8619 kPa) as listed in AF&PA/NDS shall be 
used. When spaced 12 inches (305 mm) on center, an F b of 
not less than 875 psi (6033 kPa) shall be required. 

R404.2.3 Height of backfill. For wood foundations that 
are not designed and installed in accordance with AF&PA 
PWF, the height of backfill against a foundation wall shall 
not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm). When the height of fill is 
more than 12 inches (305 mm) above the interior grade of 
a crawl space or floor of a basement, the thickness of the 
plywood sheathing shall meet the requirements of Table 
R404.2.3. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE* 



107 



FOUNDATIONS 



R404.2.4 Backfilling. Wood foundation walls shall not be 
backfilled until the basement floor and first floor have 
been constructed or the walls have been braced. For crawl 
space construction, backfill or bracing shall be installed on 
the interior of the walls prior to placing backfill on the 
exterior. 

R404.2.5 Drainage and dampproofing. Wood founda- 
tion basements shall be drained and dampproofed in accor- 
dance with Sections R405 and R406, respectively. 

R404.2.6 Fastening. Wood structural panel foundation 
wall sheathing shall be attached to framing in accordance 
with Table R602.3(l) and Section R402.1.1. 

R404.3 Wood sill plates. Wood sill plates shall be a mini- 
mum of 2-inch by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) nominal lum- 
ber. Sill plate anchorage shall be in accordance with Sections 
R403.1.6 and R602.ll. 

R404.4 Retaining walls. Retaining walls that are not later- 
ally supported at the top and that retain in excess of 24 inches 
(610 mm) of unbalanced fill shall be designed to ensure sta- 
bility against overturning, sliding, excessive foundation pres- 



sure and water uplift. Retaining walls shall be designed for a 
safety factor of 1 .5 against lateral sliding and overturning. 

R404.5 Precast concrete foundation walls. 

R404.5.1 Design. Precast concrete foundation walls shall 
be designed in accordance with accepted engineering prac- 
tice. The design and manufacture of precast concrete foun- 
dation wall panels shall comply with the materials 
requirements of Section R402.3 or ACI 318. The panel 
design drawings shall be prepared by a registered design 
professional where required by the statutes of the jurisdic- 
tion in which the project is to be constructed in accordance 
with Section R 106.1. 

R404.5.2 Precast concrete foundation design drawings. 
Precast concrete foundation wall design drawings shall be 
submitted to the building official and approved prior to 
installation. Drawings shall include, at a minimum, the 
information specified below: 

1 . Design loading as applicable; 

2. Footing design and material; 



TABLE R404.2.3 
PLYWOOD GRADE AND THICKNESS FOR WOOD FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION (30 pcf equivalent-fluid weight soil pressure) 



HEIGHT OF FILL 
(inches) 


STUD SPACING 
(inches) 


FACE GRAIN ACROSS STUDS 


FACE GRAIN PARALLEL TO STUDS 


Grade 8 


Minimum thickness 
(inches) 


Span rating 


Grade" 


Minimum thickness 
(inches)"' 


Span rating 


24 


12 


B 


L 7 

'32 


32/16 


A 


l5 / 

'32 


32/16 


B 


15/ c 

'32 


32/16 


16 


B 


l5 / 
'32 


32/16 


A 


15, c 
'32 


32/16 


B 


'V(4,5ply) 


40/20 


36 


12 


B 


'■V 

'32 


32/16 


A 


15, 
'32 


32/16 


B 


ls / H c (4,5ply) 


32/16 


B 


% (4, 5 ply) 


40/20 


16 


B 


15/ c 

32 


32/16 


A 


19/ 

'32 


40/20 


B 


% 


48/24 


48 


12 


B 


% 


32/16 


A 


L V 


32/16 


B 


"V(4, 5 ply) 


40/20 


16 


B 


% 


40/20 


A 


19/ c 

32 


40/20 


A 


23 / 

32 


48/24 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 ram, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per cubic foot = 0.1572 kN/m 3 . 

a. Plywood shall be of the following minimum grades in accordance with DOC PS 1 or DOC PS 2: 

1. DOC PS 1 Plywood grades marked: 

1.1. Structural I C-D (Exposure 1 ). 

1.2. C-D (Exposure 1). 

2. DOC PS 2 Plywood grades marked: 

2.1. Structural 1 Sheathing (Exposure 1). 

2.2. Sheathing (Exposure 1). 

3. Where a major portion of the wall is exposed above ground and a better appearance is desired, the following plywood grades marked exterior are suitable: 

3.1. Structural I A-C, Structural I B-C or Structural I C-C (Plugged) in accordance with DOC PS 1. 

3.2. A-C Group 1, B-C Group 1, C-C (Plugged) Group 1 or MDO Group 1 in accordance with DOC PS 1 . 

3.3. Single Floor in accordance with DOC PS 1 or DOC PS 2. 

b. Minimum thickness % inch, except crawl space sheathing may be 3 / 8 inch for face grain across studs 16 inches on center and maximum 2-foot depth of 
unequal fill. 

c. For this fill height, thickness and grade combination, panels that are continuous over less than three spans (across less than three stud spacings) require 
blocking 16 inches above the bottom plate. Offset adjacent blocks and fasten through studs with two 16d corrosion-resistant nails at each end. 



108 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



3. Concentrated loads and their points of application; 

4. Soil bearing capacity; 

5. Maximum allowable total uniform load; 

6. Seismic design category; and 

7. Basic wind speed. 

R404.5.3 Identification. Precast concrete foundation wall 
panels shall be identified by a certificate of inspection 
label issued by an approved third party inspection agency. 



SECTION R405 
FOUNDATION DRAINAGE 

R405.1 Concrete or masonry foundations. Drains shall be 
provided around all concrete or masonry foundations that 
retain earth and enclose habitable or usable spaces located 
below grade. Drainage tiles, gravel or crushed stone drains, 
perforated pipe or other approved systems or materials shall 
be installed at or below the area to be protected and shall dis- 
charge by gravity or mechanical means into an approved 
drainage system. Gravel or crushed stone drains shall extend 
at least 1 foot (305 mm) beyond the outside edge of the foot- 
ing and 6 inches (152 mm) above the top of the footing and 
be covered with an approved filter membrane material. The 
top of open joints of drain tiles shall be protected with strips 
of building paper. Perforated drains shall be surrounded with 



an approved filter membrane or the filter membrane shall 
cover the washed gravel or crushed rock covering the drain. 
Drainage tiles or perforated pipe shall be placed on a mini- 
mum of 2 inches (5 1 mm) of washed gravel or crushed rock 
at least one sieve size larger than the tile joint opening or per- 
foration and covered with not less than 6 inches (152 mm) of 
the same material. 

Exception: A drainage system is not required when the 
foundation is installed on well-drained ground or sand- 
gravel mixture soils according to the Unified Soil Classifi- 
cation System, Group 1 Soils, as detailed in Table R405.1. 

R405.1.1 Precast concrete foundation. Precast concrete 
walls that retain earth and enclose habitable or useable 
space located below-grade that rest on crushed stone foot- 
ings shall have a perforated drainage pipe installed below 
the base of the wall on either the interior or exterior side of 
the wall, at least one foot (305 mm) beyond the edge of the 
wall. If the exterior drainage pipe is used, an approved fil- 
ter membrane material shall cover the pipe. The drainage 
system shall discharge into an approved sewer system or 
to daylight. 

R405.2 Wood foundations. Wood foundations enclosing 
habitable or usable spaces located below grade shall be ade- 
quately drained in accordance with Sections R405.2.1 
through R405.2.3. 





TABLE R405.1 
PROPERTIES OF SOILS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THE UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 


SOIL 
GROUP 


UNIFIED SOIL 
CLASSIFICATION 
SYSTEM SYMBOL 


SOIL DESCRIPTION 


DRAINAGE 
CHARACTERISTICS' 


FROST HEAVE 
POTENTIAL 


VOLUME CHANGE 
POTENTIAL 
EXPANSION" 


Group I 


GW 


Well-graded gravels, gravel sand mixtures, little or no 
fines 


Good 


Low 


Low 


GP 


Poorly graded gravels or gravel sand mixtures, little or 
no fines 


Good 


Low 


Low 


sw 


Well-graded sands, gravelly sands, little or no fines 


Good 


Low 


Low 


SP 


Poorly graded sands or gravelly sands, little or no fines 


Good 


Low 


Low 


GM 


Silty gravels, gravel-sand-silt mixtures 


Good 


Medium 


Low 


SM 


Silty sand, sand-silt mixtures 


Good 


Medium 


Low 


Group II 


GC 


Clayey gravels, gravel-sand-clay mixtures 


Medium 


Medium 


Low 


SC 


Clayey sands, sand-clay mixture 


Medium 


Medium 


Low 


ML 


Inorganic silts and very fine sands, rock flour, silty or 
clayey fine sands or clayey silts with slight plasticity 


Medium 


High 


Low 


CL 


Inorganic clays of low to medium plasticity, gravelly 
clays, sandy clays, silty clays, lean clays 


Medium 


Medium 


Medium 
to Low 


Group III 


CH 


Inorganic clays of high plasticity, fat clays 


Poor 


Medium 


High 


MH 


Inorganic silts, micaceous or diatomaceous fine sandy 
or silty soils, elastic silts 


Poor 


High 


High 


Group IV 


OL 


Organic silts and organic silty clays of low plasticity 


Poor 


Medium 


Medium 


OH 


Organic clays of medium to high plasticity, organic 
silts 


Unsatisfactory 


Medium 


High 


Pt 


Peat and other highly organic soils 


Unsatisfactory 


Medium 


High 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. The percolation rate for good drainage is over 4 inches per hour, medium drainage is 2 inches to 4 inches per hour, and poor is less than 2 inches per hour. 

b. Soils with a low potential expansion typically have a plasticity index (PI) of to 15, soils with a medium potential expansion have a PI of 10 to 35 and soils 
with a high potential expansion have a PI greater than 20. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



109 



FOUNDATIONS 



R405.2.1 Base. A porous layer of gravel, crushed stone or 
coarse sand shall be placed to a minimum thickness of 4 
inches (102 mm) under the basement floor. Provision shall 
be made for automatic draining of this layer and the gravel 
or crushed stone wall footings. 

R405.2.2 Vapor retarder. A 6-mil -thick (0.15 mm) poly- 
ethylene vapor retarder shall be applied over the porous 
layer with the basement floor constructed over the poly- 
ethylene. 

R405.2.3 Drainage system. In other than Group I soils, a 
sump shall be provided to drain the porous layer and foot- 
ings. The sump shall be at least 24 inches (610 mm) in 
diameter or 20 inches square (0.0129 m 2 ), shall extend at 
least 24 inches (610 mm) below the bottom of the base- 
merit floor and shall be capable of positive gravity or 
mechanical drainage to remove any accumulated water. 
The drainage system shall discharge into an approved 
sewer system or to daylight. 



SECTION R406 

FOUNDATION WATERPROOFING AND 

DAMPPROOFING 

R406.1 Concrete and masonry foundation dampproofing. 
Except where required by Section R406.2 to be waterproofed, 
foundation walls that retain earth and enclose interior spaces 
and floors below grade shall be dampproofed from the top of 
the footing to the finished grade. Masonry walls shall have 
not less than V 8 inch (9.5 mm) portland cement parging 
applied to the exterior of the wall. The parging shall be damp- 
proofed in accordance with one of the following: 

1 . Bituminous coating. 

2. Three pounds per square yard (1.63 kg/m 2 ) of acrylic 
modified cement. 

3. One-eighth inch (3.2 mm) coat of surface-bonding 
cement complying with ASTM C 887. 

4. Any material permitted for waterproofing in Section 
R406.2. 

5. Other approved methods or materials. 

Exception: Parging of unit masonry walls is not 
required where a material is approved for direct appli- 
cation to the masonry. 

Concrete walls shall be dampproofed by applying any one 
of the above listed dampproofing materials or any one of the 
waterproofing materials listed in Section R406.2 to the exte- 
rior of the wall. 

R406.2 Concrete and masonry foundation waterproofing. 
In areas where a high water table or other severe soil-water 
conditions are known to exist, exterior foundation walls that 
retain earth and enclose interior spaces and floors below 
grade shall be waterproofed from the top of the footing to the 
finished grade. Walls shall be waterproofed in accordance 
with one of the following: 

1. Two-ply hot-mopped felts. 

2. Fifty-five-pound (25 kg) roll roofing. 



3. Six-mil (0.15 mm) polyvinyl chloride. 

4. Six-mil (0.15 mm) polyethylene. 

5. Forty-mil (1 mm) polymer-modified asphalt. 

6. Sixty-mil (1.5 mm) flexible polymer cement. 

7. One-eighth-inch (3 mm) cement-based, fiber-rein- 
forced, waterproof coating. 

8. Sixty-mil (0.22 mm) solvent-free liquid-applied syn- 
thetic rubber. 

Exception: Organic-solvent-based products such as 
hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, ketones and 
esters shall not be used for ICF walls with expanded poly- 
styrene form material. Use of plastic roofing cements, 
acrylic coatings, latex coatings, mortars and pargings to 
seal ICF walls is permitted. Cold- setting asphalt or hot 
asphalt shall conform to type C of ASTM D 449. Hot 
asphalt shall be applied at a temperature of less than 200°F 
(93°C). 

All joints in membrane waterproofing shall be lapped and 
sealed with an adhesive compatible with the membrane. 

R406.3 Dampproofing for wood foundations. Wood foun- 
dations enclosing habitable or usable spaces located below 
grade shall be dampproofed in accordance with Sections 
R406.3.1 through R406.3.4. 

R406.3.1 Panel joint sealed. Plywood panel joints in the 
foundation walls shall be sealed full length with a caulking 
compound capable of producing a moisture-proof seal 
under the conditions of temperature and moisture content 
at which it will be applied and used. 

R406.3.2 Below-grade moisture barrier. A 6-mil-thick 
(0.15 mm) polyethylene film shall be applied over the 
below-grade portion of exterior foundation walls prior to 
backfilling. Joints in the polyethylene film shall be lapped 
6 inches (152 mm) and sealed with adhesive. The top edge 
of the polyethylene film shall be bonded to the sheathing 
to form a seal. Film areas at grade level shall be protected 
from mechanical damage and exposure by a pressure pre- 
servatively treated lumber or plywood strip attached to the 
wall several inches above finish grade level and extending 
approximately 9 inches (229 mm) below grade. The joint 
between the strip and the wall shall be caulked full length 
prior to fastening the strip to the wall. Other coverings 
appropriate to the architectural treatment may also be 
used. The polyethylene film shall extend down to the bot- 
tom of the wood footing plate but shall not overlap or 
extend into the gravel or crushed stone footing. 

R406.3.3 Porous fill. The space between the excavation 
and the foundation wall shall be backfilled with the same 
material used for footings, up to a height of 1 foot (305 
mm) above the footing for well-drained sites, or one-half 
the total back-fill height for poorly drained sites. The 
porous fill shall be covered with strips of 30-pound (13.6 
kg) asphalt paper or 6-mil (0. 15 mm) polyethylene to per- 
mit water seepage while avoiding infiltration of fine soils. 

R406.3.4 Backfill. The remainder of the excavated area 
shall be backfilled with the same type of soil as was 
removed during the excavation. 



110 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



R406.4 Precast concrete foundation system dampproof- 
ing. Except where required by Section R406.2 to be water- 
proofed, precast concrete foundation walls enclosing 
habitable or useable spaces located below grade shall be 
dampproofed in accordance with Section R406.1. 

R406.4.1 Panel joints sealed. Precast concrete foundation 
panel joints shall be sealed full height with a sealant meet- 
ing ASTM C 920, Type S or M, Grade NS, Class 25, Use 
NT, M or A. Joint sealant shall be installed in accordance 
with the manufacturer's installation instructions. 



SECTION R407 
COLUMNS 

R407.1 Wood column protection. Wood columns shall be 
protected against decay as set forth in Section R317. 

R407.2 Steel column protection. All surfaces (inside and 
outside) of steel columns shall be given a shop coat of rust- 
inhibitive paint, except for corrosion-resistant steel and steel 
treated with coatings to provide corrosion resistance. 

R407.3 Structural requirements. The columns shall be 
restrained to prevent lateral displacement at the bottom end. 
Wood columns shall not be less in nominal size than 4 inches 
by 4 inches (102 mm by 102 mm). Steel columns shall not be 
less than 3-inch-diameter (76 mm) Schedule 40 pipe manu- 
factured in accordance with ASTM A 53 Grade B or 
approved equivalent. 

Exception: In Seismic Design Categories A, B and C, col- 
umns no more than 48 inches (1219 mm) in height on a 
pier or footing are exempt from the bottom end lateral dis- 
placement requirement within under-floor areas enclosed 
by a continuous foundation. 



SECTION R408 
UNDER-FLOOR SPACE 

R408.1 Ventilation. The under-floor space between the bot- 
tom of the floor joists and the earth under any building 
(except space occupied by a basement) shall have ventilation 
openings through foundation walls or exterior walls. The 
minimum net area of ventilation openings shall not be less 
than 1 square foot (0.0929 m 2 ) for each 150 square feet (14 
m 2 ) of under-floor space area, unless the ground surface is 
covered by a Class 1 vapor retarder material. When a Class 1 
vapor retarder material is used, the minimum net area of ven- 
tilation openings shall not be less than 1 square foot (0.0929 
m 2 ) for each 1,500 square feet (140 m 2 ) of under-floor space 
area. One such ventilating opening shall be within 3 feet (914 
mm) of each corner of the building. 

R408.2 Openings for under-floor ventilation. The mini- 
mum net area of ventilation openings shall not be less than 1 
square foot (0.0929 m 2 ) for each 150 square feet (14 m 2 ) of 
under-floor area. One ventilation opening shall be within 3 
feet (915 mm) of each corner of the building. Ventilation 



openings shall be covered for their height and width with any 
of the following materials provided that the least dimension 
of the covering shall not exceed 7 4 inch (6.4 mm): 

1. Perforated sheet metal plates not less than 0.070 inch 
(1.8 mm) thick. 

2. Expanded sheet metal plates not less than 0.047 inch 
(1.2 mm) thick. 

3. Cast-iron grill or grating. 

4. Extruded load-bearing brick vents. 

5. Hardware cloth of 0.035 inch (0.89 mm) wire or 
heavier. 

6. Corrosion-resistant wire mesh, with the least dimension 
being V 8 inch (3.2 mm) thick. 

Exception: The total area of ventilation openings shall be 
permitted to be reduced to '/ 1|300 of the under-floor area 
where the ground surface is covered with an approved 
Class I vapor retarder material and the required openings 
are placed to provide cross ventilation of the space. The 
installation of operable louvers shall not be prohibited. 

R408.3 Unvented crawl space. Ventilation openings in 
under-floor spaces specified in Sections R408.1 and R408.2 
shall not be required where: 

1. Exposed earth is covered with a continuous Class I 
vapor retarder. Joints of the vapor retarder shall overlap 
by 6 inches (152 mm) and shall be sealed or taped. The 
edges of the vapor retarder shall extend at least 6 inches 
(152 mm) up the stem wall and shall be attached and 
sealed to the stem wall or insulation; and 

2. One of the following is provided for the under-floor 
space: 

2.1. Continuously operated mechanical exhaust ven- 
tilation at a rate equal to 1 cubic foot per minute 
(0.47 L/s) for each 50 square feet (4.7m 2 ) of 
crawlspace floor area, including an air pathway 
to the common area (such as a duct or transfer 
grille), and perimeter walls insulated in accor- 
dance with Section N 1 103.2. 1 of this code; 

2.2. Conditioned air supply sized to deliver at a rate 
equal to 1 cubic foot per minute (0.47 L/s) for 
each 50 square feet (4.7 m 2 ) of under-floor area, 
including a return air pathway to the common 
area (such as a duct or transfer grille), and 
perimeter walls insulated in accordance with 
Section Nl 102.2 of this code; 

2.3. Plenum in existing structures complying with 
Section M1601.5, if under-floor space is used as 
a plenum. 

R408.4 Access. Access shall be provided to all under-floor 
spaces. Access openings through the floor shall be a mini- 
mum of 18 inches by 24 inches (457 mm by 610 mm). Open- 
ings through a perimeter wall shall be not less than 16 inches 
by 24 inches (407 mm by 610 mm). When any portion of the 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



111 



FOUNDATIONS 



through-wall access is below grade, an areaway not less than 
16 inches by 24 inches (407 mm by 610 mm) shall be pro- 
vided. The bottom of the areaway shall be below the thresh- 
old of the access opening. Through wall access openings shall 
not be located under a door to the residence. See Section 
M1305.1.4 for access requirements where mechanical equip- 
ment is located under floors. 

R408.5 Removal of debris. The under-floor grade shall be 
cleaned of all vegetation and organic material. All wood 
forms used for placing concrete shall be removed before a 
building is occupied or used for any puipose. All construction 
materials shall be removed before a building is occupied or 
used for any purpose. 

R408.6 Finished grade. The finished grade of under-floor 
surface may be located at the bottom of the footings; how- 
ever, where there is evidence that the groundwater table can 
rise to within 6 inches (152 mm) of the finished floor at the 
building perimeter or where there is evidence that the surface 
water does not readily drain from the building site, the grade 
in the under-floor space shall be as high as the outside fin- 
ished grade, unless an approved drainage system is provided. 

R408.7 Flood resistance. For buildings located in flood haz- 
ard areas as established in Table R301.2(l): 

1. Walls enclosing the under-floor space shall be provided 
with flood openings in accordance with Section 
R322.2.2. 

2. The finished ground level of the under-floor space shall 
be equal to or higher than the outside finished ground 
level on at least one side. 

Exception: Under-floor spaces that meet the require- 
ments of FEMA/FIA TB 1 1 - 1 . 



112 2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



CHAPTER 5 
FLOORS 



SECTION R501 
GENERAL 

R501.1 Application. The provisions of this chapter shall 
control the design and construction of the floors for all build- 
ings including the floors of attic spaces used to house 
mechanical or plumbing fixtures and equipment. 

R501.2 Requirements. Floor construction shall be capable 
of accommodating all loads according to Section R301 and of 
transmitting the resulting loads to the supporting structural 
elements. 

R501.3 Fire protection of floors. Floor assemblies, not 
required elsewhere in this code to be fire -resistance rated, 
shall be provided with a V 2 -inch (12.7 mm) gypsum wallboard 
membrane, V s -inch (16 mm) wood structural panel membrane, 
or equivalent on the underside of the floor framing member. 

Exceptions: 

1. Floor assemblies located directly over a space pro- 
tected by an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section P2904, NFPA13D, or other 
approved equivalent sprinkler system. 

2. Floor assemblies located directly over a crawl space 
not intended for storage or fuel -fired appliances. 

3. Portions of floor assemblies can be unprotected 
when complying with the following: 

3.1. The aggregate area of the unprotected por- 
tions shall not exceed 80 square feet per 
story 

3.2. Fire blocking in accordance with Section 
R302.11.1 shall be installed along the perim- 
eter of the unprotected portion to separate 
the unprotected portion from the remainder 
of the floor assembly. 

4. Wood floor assemblies using dimension lumber or 
structural composite lumber equal to or greater than 
2-inch by 10-inch (50.8 mm by 254 mm) nominal 
dimension, or other approved floor assemblies dem- 
onstrating equivalent fire performance. 



SECTION R502 
WOOD FLOOR FRAMING 

R502.1 Identification. Load-bearing dimension lumber for 
joists, beams and girders shall be identified by a grade mark 
of a lumber grading or inspection agency that has been 
approved by an accreditation body that complies with DOC 
PS 20. In lieu of a grade mark, a certificate of inspection 
issued by a lumber grading or inspection agency meeting the 
requirements of this section shall be accepted. 

R502.1.1 Preservative-treated lumber. Preservative 
treated dimension lumber shall also be identified as 
required by Section R317.2. 



R502.1.2 Blocking and subflooring. Blocking shall be a 
minimum of utility grade lumber. Subflooring may be a 
minimum of utility grade lumber or No. 4 common grade 
boards. 

R502.1.3 End-jointed lumber. Approved end-jointed 
lumber identified by a grade mark conforming to Section 
R502.1 may be used interchangeably with solid-sawn 
members of the same species and grade. End-jointed lum- 
ber used in an assembly required elsewhere in this code to 
have a fire-resistance rating shall have the designation 
"Heat Resistant Adhesive" or "HRA" 
mark. 



ncluded in its grade 



R502.1.4 Prefabricated wood I-joists. Structural capaci- 
ties and design provisions for prefabricated wood I-joists 
shall be established and monitored in accordance with 
ASTMD5055. 

R502.1.5 Structural glued laminated timbers. Glued 
laminated timbers shall be manufactured and identified as 
required in ANSI/AITC A190.1 and ASTM D 3737. 

R502.1.6 Structural log members. Stress grading of 
structural log members of nonrectangular shape, as typi- 
cally used in log buildings, shall be in accordance with 
ASTM D 3957. Such structural log members shall be iden- 
tified by the grade mark of an approved lumber grading or 
inspection agency. In lieu of a grade mark on the material, 
a certificate of inspection as to species and grade issued by 
a lumber-grading or inspection agency meeting the 
requirements of this section shall be permitted to be 
accepted. 

R502.1.7 Structural composite lumber. Structural I 
capacities for structural composite lumber shall be estab- 1 
lished and monitored in accordance with ASTM D 5456. j 

R502.2 Design and construction. Floors shall be designed 
and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this 
chapter, Figure R502.2 and Sections R317 and R318 or in 
accordance with AF&PA/NDS. 

R502.2.1 Framing at braced wall lines. A load path for 
lateral forces shall be provided between floor framing and 
braced wall panels located above or below a floor, as 
specified in Section R602.10.8. * 

R502.3 Allowable joist spans. Spans for floor joists shall be 
in accordance with Tables R502.3.1(l) and R502.3.1(2). For 
other grades and species and for other loading conditions, 
refer to the AF&PA Span Tables for Joists and Rafters. 

R502.3.1 Sleeping areas and attic joists. Table 
R502.3.1(l) shall be used to determine the maximum 
allowable span of floor joists that support sleeping areas 
and attics that are accessed by means of a fixed stairway in 
accordance with Section R311.7 provided that the design 
live load does not exceed 30 pounds per square foot (1.44 
kPa) and the design dead load does not exceed 20 pounds 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



113 



FLOORS 



per square foot (0.96 kPa). The allowable span of ceiling 
joists that support attics used for limited storage or no 
storage shall be determined in accordance with Section 
R802.4. 

R502.3.2 Other floor joists. Table R502.3.1(2) shall be 
used to determine the maximum allowable span of floor 
joists that support all other areas of the building, other than 
sleeping rooms and attics, provided that the design live 
load does not exceed 40 pounds per square foot (1 .92 kPa) 



and the design dead load does not exceed 20 pounds per 
square foot (0.96 kPa). 

R502.3.3 Floor cantilevers. Floor cantilever spans shall 
not exceed the nominal depth of the wood floor joist. Floor 
cantilevers constructed in accordance with Table 
R502.3.3(l) shall be permitted when supporting a light- 
frame bearing wall and roof only. Floor cantilevers sup- 
porting an exterior balcony are permitted to be constructed 
in accordance with Table R502.3.3(2) 



bottom wall 

PLATE 



OPTIONAL FINISH - 
FLOOR 



STUDS 



SUBFLOQR OR 
FLOOR SHEATHING- 

' SEE SECTION R503 



JOISTS-SEE TABLES 
RS02.3.1[1)ANDR502.31C2) 



2 IN. CLEARANCE — 
SEE SECTION 
R1001.11 



FIREPLACE 




. HEADER-DOUBLE IF 
/ MORE THAN 4 FT SPAN 



SOLID 

BLOCKING-SEE 
SECTION R502.7 



\ 



SILL PLATE, 



FOUNDATION i 



I 



USE HANGER IF HEADER 
SPANS MORE THAN 
6 FT 

^ 



"0 



LAP JOIST 3 IN. MIN. OR 

SPLICE-SEE SECTION 
RSQ2.6.1 



•£ 



\ 




BAND, RIM OR 
^HEADER JOIST 



' SILL PLATE 



BRIDGING BETWEEN 
JOISTS-SEE SECTION 
R502.7.1 



PROVISION FOR. PIPES 
AND VENTS 



DOUBLE JOISTS UNDER BEARING 
PARTITIONS. IF JOISTS ARE 
SEPARATED FOR PIPES, BLOCK 
4 FT ON CENTER MAXIMUM 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



FIGURE R502.2 
FLOOR CONSTRUCTION 



114 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 8 



FLOORS 



TABLE R502.3.1(1) 
FLOOR JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 
(Residential sleeping areas, live load = 30 psf, L/A = 360) a 



JOIST 
SPACING 
(inches) 






DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x 12 


Maximum floor joist spans 


(ft -in.) 


(ft -in.) 


(ft -in.) 


(ft - in.) 


(ft -in.) 


(ft -in.) 


(ft -in.) 


(ft -in.) 


12 


Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


12-6 


16-6 


21-0 


25-7 


12-6 


16-6 


21-0 


25-7 


Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


12-0 


15-10 


20-3 


24-8 


12-0 


15-7 


19-0 


22-0 


Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


11-10 


15-7 


19-10 


23-0 


11-6 


14-7 


17-9 


20-7 


Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


9-8 


12-4 


15-0 


17-5 


8-8 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 


Hem-fir 


SS 


11-10 


15-7 


19-10 


24-2 


11-10 


15-7 


19-10 


24-2 


Hem-fir 


#1 


11-7 


15-3 


19-5 


23-7 


11-7 


15-2 


18-6 


21-6 


Hem-fir 


#2 


11-0 


14-6 


18-6 


22-6 


11-0 


14-4 


17-6 


20-4 


Hem-fir 


#3 


9-8 


12-4 


15-0 


17-5 


8-8 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 


Southern pine 


SS 


12-3 


16-2 


20-8 


25-1 


12-3 


16-2 


20-8 


25-1 


Southern pine 


#1 


12-0 


15-10 


20-3 


24-8 


12-0 


15-10 


20-3 


24-8 


Southern pine 


#2 


11-10 


15-7 


19-10 


24-2 


11-10 


15-7 


18-7 


21-9 


Southern pine 


#3 


10-5 


13-3 


15-8 


18-8 


9-4 


11-11 


14-0 


16-8 


Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


11-7 


15-3 


19-5 


23-7 


11-7 


15-3 


19-5 


23-7 


Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


11-3 


14-11 


19-0 


23-0 


11-3 


14-7 


17-9 


20-7 


Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


11-3 


14-11 


19-0 


23-0 


11-3 


14-7 


17-9 


20-7 


Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


9-8 


12-4 


15-0 


17-5 


8-8 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 


16 


Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


11-4 


15-0 


19-1 


23-3 


11-4 


15-0 


19-1 


23-0 


Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


10-11 


14-5 


18-5 


21-4 


10-8 


13-6 


16-5 


19-1 


Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


10-9 


14-1 


17-2 


19-11 


9-11 


12-7 


15-5 


17-10 


Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


8-5 


10-8 


13-0 


15-1 


7-6 


9-6 


11-8 


13-6 


Hem-fir 


SS 


10-9 


14-2 


18-0 


21-11 


10-9 


14-2 


18-0 


21-11 


Hem-fir 


#1 


10-6 


13-10 


17-8 


20-9 


10-4 


13-1 


16-0 


18-7 


Hem-fir 


#2 


10-0 


13-2 


16-10 


19-8 


9-10 


12-5 


15-2 


17-7 


Hem-fir 


#3 


8-5 


10-8 


13-0 


15-1 


7-6 


9-6 


11-8 


13-6 


Southern pine 


SS 


11-2 


14-8 


18-9 


22-10 


11-2 


14-8 


18-9 


22-10 


Southern pine 


#1 


10-11 


14-5 


18-5 


22-5 


10-11 


14-5 


17-11 


21-4 


Southern pine 


#2 


10-9 


14-2 


18-0 


21-1 


10-5 


13-6 


16-1 


18-10 


Southern pine 


#3 


9-0 


11-6 


13-7 


16-2 


8-1 


10-3 


12-2 


14-6 


Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


10-6 


13-10 


17-8 


21-6 


10-6 


13-10 


17-8 


21-4 


Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


10-3 


13-6 


17-2 


19-11 


9-11 


12-7 


15-5 


17-10 


Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


10-3 


13-6 


17-2 


19-11 


9-11 


12-7 


15-5 


17-10 


Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


8-5 


10-8 


13-0 


15-1 


7-6 


9-6 


11-8 


13-6 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



115 



FLOORS 



TABLE R502.3.1(1)— continued 
FLOOR JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 
(Residential sleeping areas, live load = 30 psf, L/A = 360) a 



JOIST 
SPACING 
(inches) 






DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


Maximum floor joist spans 


(ft -in.) 


(ft -in.) 


(ft -in.) 


(ft -in.) 


(ft -in.) 


(ft -in.) 


(ft - in.) 


(ft - in.) 


19.2 


Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


10-8 


14-1 


18-0 


21-10 


10-8 


14-1 


18-0 


21-0 


Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


10-4 


13-7 


16-9 


19-6 


9-8 


12-4 


15-0 


17-5 


Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


10-1 


12-10 


15-8 


18-3 


9-1 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 


Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


7-8 


9-9 


11-10 


13-9 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 


Hem-fir 


SS 


10-1 


13-4 


17-0 


20-8 


10-1 


13-4 


17-0 


20-7 


Hem-fir 


#1 


9-10 


13-0 


16-4 


19-0 


9-6 


12-0 


14-8 


17-0 


Hem-fir 


#2 


9-5 


12-5 


15-6 


17-1 


8-11 


11-4 


13-10 


16-1 


Hem-fir 


#3 


7-8 


9-9 


11-10 


13-9 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 


Southern pine 


SS 


10-6 


13-10 


17-8 


21-6 


10-6 


13-10 


17-8 


21-6 


Southern pine 


#1 


10-4 


13-7 


17-4 


21-1 


10-4 


13-7 


16-4 


19-6 


Southern pine 


#2 


10-1 


13-4 


16-5 


19-3 


9-6 


12-4 


14-8 


17-2 


Southern pine 


#3 


8-3 


10-6 


12-5 


14-9 


7-4 


9-5 


11-1 


13-2 


Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


9-10 


13-0 


16-7 


20-2 


9-10 


13-0 


16-7 


19-6 


Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


9-8 


12-9 


15-8 


18-3 


9-1 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 


Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


9-8 


12-9 


15-8 


18-3 


9-1 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 


Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


7-8 


9-9 


11-10 


13-9 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 


24 


Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


9-11 


13-1 


16-8 


20-3 


9-11 


13-1 


16-2 


18-9 


Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


9-7 


12-4 


15-0 


17-5 


8-8 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 


Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


9-1 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 


8-1 


10-3 


12-7 


14-7 


Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 


6-2 


7-9 


9-6 


11-0 


Hem-fir 


SS 


9-4 


12-4 


15-9 


19-2 


9-4 


12-4 


15-9 


18-5 


Hem-fir 


#1 


9-2 


12-0 


14-8 


17-0 


8-6 


10-9 


13-1 


15-2 


Hem-fir 


#2 


8-9 


11-4 


13-10 


16-1 


8-0 


10-2 


12-5 


14-4 


Hem-fir 


#3 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 


6-2 


7-9 


9-6 


11-0 


Southern pine 


SS 


9-9 


12-10 


16-5 


19-11 


9-9 


12-10 


16-5 


19-11 


Southern pine 


#1 


9-7 


12-7 


16-1 


19-6 


9-7 


12-4 


14-7 


17-5 


Southern pine 


#2 


9-4 


12-4 


14-8 


17-2 


8-6 


11-0 


13-1 


15-5 


Southern pine 


#3 


7-4 


9-5 


11-1 


13-2 


6-7 


8-5 


9-11 


11-10 


Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


9-2 


12-1 


15-5 


18-9 


9-2 


12-1 


15-0 


17-5 


Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


8-11 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 


8-1 


10-3 


12-7 


14-7 


Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


8-11 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 


8-1 


10-3 


12-7 


14-7 


Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 


6-2 


7-9 


9-6 


11-0 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 
Note: Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet, 
a. Dead load limits for townhouses in Seismic Design Category C and all structures 
accordance with Section R301 .2.2.2. 1 . 



in Seismic Design Categories D,„ D, and D, shall be determined in 



116 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FLOORS 



TABLE R502.3.1(2) 

FLOOR JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 

(Residential living areas, live load = 40 psf, L/A = 360)" 



JOIST 
SPACING 
(inches) 






DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x6 


2x8 


2x 10 


2x12 


Maximum floor joist spans 


(ft -in.) 


(ft - in.) 


(ft - in.) | (ft - in.) 


(ft -in.) 


(ft - in.) 


(ft -in.) 


(ft - in.) 


12 


Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


1 1-4 


15-0 


19-1 


23-3 


11-4 


15-0 


19-1 


23-3 


Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


10-11 


14-5 


18-5 


22-0 


10-11 


14-2 


17-4 


20-1 


Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


10-9 


14-2 


17-9 


20-7 


10-6 


13-3 


16-3 


18-10 


Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


8-8 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 


7-11 


10-0 


12-3 


14-3 


Hem-fir 


SS 


10-9 


14-2 


18-0 


21-11 


10-9 


14-2 


18-0 


21-11 


Hem-fir 


#1 


10-6 


13-10 


17-8 


21-6 


10-6 


13-10 


16-11 


19-7 


Hem-fir 


#2 


10-0 


13-2 


16-10 


20-4 


10-0 


13-1 


16-0 


18-6 


Hem -fir 


#3 


8-8 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 


7-11 


10-0 


12-3 


14-3 


Southern pine 


SS 


11-2 


14-8 


18-9 


22-10 


11-2 


14-8 


18-9 


22-10 


Southern pine 


#1 


10-11 


14-5 


18-5 


22-5 


10-11 


14-5 


18-5 


22-5 


Southern pine 


#2 


10-9 


14-2 


18-0 


21-9 


10-9 


14-2 


16-11 


19-10 


Southern pine 


#3 


9-4 


11-11 


14-0 


16-8 


8-6 


10-10 


12-10 


15-3 


Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


10-6 


13-10 


17-8 


21-6 


10-6 


13-10 


17-8 


21-6 


Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


10-3 


13-6 


17-3 


20-7 


10-3 


13-3 


16-3 


18-10 


Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


10-3 


13-6 


17-3 


20-7 


10-3 


13-3 


16-3 


18-10 


Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


8-8 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 


7-11 


10-0 


12-3 


14-3 


16 


Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


10-4 


13-7 


17-4 


21-1 


10-4 


13-7 


17-4 


21-0 


Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


9-11 


13-1 


16-5 


19-1 


9-8 


12-4 


15-0 


17-5 


Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


9-9 


12-7 


15-5 


17-10 


9-1 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 


Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


7-6 


9-6 


11-8 


13-6 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 


16 


Hem-fir 


SS 


9-9 


12-10 


16-5 


19-11 


9-9 


12-10 


16-5 


19-11 


Hem-fir 


#1 


9-6 


12-7 


16-0 


18-7 


9-6 


12-0 


14-8 


17-0 


Hem-fir 


#2 


9-1 


12-0 


15-2 


17-7 


8-11 


11-4 


13-10 


16-1 


Hem-fir 


#3 


7-6 


9-6 


11-8 


13-6 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 


Southern pine 


SS 


10-2 


13-4 


17-0 


20-9 


10-2 


13-4 


17-0 


20-9 


Southern pine 


#1 


9-11 


13-1 


16-9 


20-4 


9-11 


13-1 


16-4 


19-6 


Southern pine 


#2 


9-9 


12-10 


16-1 


18-10 


9-6 


12-4 


14-8 


17-2 


Southern pine 


#3 


8-1 


10-3 


12-2 


14-6 


7-4 


9-5 


11-1 


13-2 


Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


9-6 


12-7 


16-0 


19-6 


9-6 


12-7 


16-0 


19-6 


Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


9-4 


12-3 


15-5 


17-10 


9-1 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 


Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


9-4 


12-3 


15-5 


17-10 


9-1 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 


Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


7-6 


9-6 


11-8 


13-6 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



117 



FLOORS 



TABLE R502.3.1 (2)— continued 
FLOOR JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 
(Residential living areas, live load = 40 psf, L/A = 360) b 



JOIST 
SPACING 
(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


Maximum floor joist spans 


(ft - in.) 


(ft - in.) 


(ft -in.) 


(ft -in.) 


(ft -in.) 


(ft -in.) 


(ft -in.) 


(ft - in.) 


19.2 


Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


9-8 


12-10 


16-4 


19-10 


9-8 


12-10 


16-4 


19-2 


Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


9-4 


12-4 


15-0 


17-5 


8-10 


11-3 


13-8 


15-11 


Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


9-1 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 


8-3 


10-6 


12-10 


14-10 


Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 


6-3 


7-11 


9-8 


11-3 


Hem -fir 


SS 


9-2 


12-1 


15-5 


18-9 


9-2 


12-1 


15-5 


18-9 


Hem-fir 


#1 


9-0 


11-10 


14-8 


17-0 


8-8 


10-11 


13-4 


15-6 


Hem-fir 


#2 


8-7 


11-3 


13-10 


16-1 


8-2 


10-4 


12-8 


14-8 


Hem-fir 


#3 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 


6-3 


7-11 


9-8 


11-3 


Southern pine 


SS 


9-6 


12-7 


16-0 


19-6 


9-6 


12-7 


16-0 


19-6 


Southern pine 


#1 


9-4 


12-4 


15-9 


19-2 


9-4 


12-4 


14-11 


17-9 


Southern pine 


#2 


9-2 


12-1 


14-8 


17-2 


8-8 


11-3 


13-5 


15-8 


Southern pine 


#3 


7-4 


9-5 


11-1 


13-2 


6-9 


8-7 


10-1 


12-1 


Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


9-0 


11-10 


15-1 


18-4 


9-0 


11-10 


15-1 


17-9 


Spmce-pine-fir 


# 


8-9 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 


8-3 


10-6 


12-10 


14-10 


Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


8-9 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 


8-3 


10-6 


12-10 


14-10 


Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 


6-3 


7-11 


9-8 


11-3 


24 


Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


9-0 


11-11 


15-2 


18-5 


9-0 


11-11 


14-9 


17-1 


Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


8-8 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 


7-11 


10-0 


12-3 


14-3 


Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


8-1 


10-3 


12-7 


14-7 


7-5 


9-5 


11-6 


13-4 


Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


6-2 


7-9 


9-6 


11-0 


5-7 


7-1 


8-8 


10-1 


Hem-fir 


SS 


8-6 


11-3 


14-4 


17-5 


8-6 


11-3 


14-4 


16-10" 


Hem-fir 


#1 


8-4 


10-9 


13-1 


15-2 


7-9 


9-9 


11-11 


13-10 


Hem-fir 


#2 


7-11 


10-2 


12-5 


14-4 


7-4 


9-3 


11-4 


13-1 


Hem-fir 


#3 


6-2 


7-9 


9-6 


11-0 


5-7 


7-1 


8-8 


10-1 


Southern pine 


SS 


8-10 


11-8 


14-11 


18-1 


8-10 


11-8 


14-11 


18-1 


Southern pine 


#1 


8-8 


11-5 


14-7 


17-5 


8-8 


11-3 


13-4 


15-11 


Southern pine 


#2 


8-6 


11-0 


13-1 


15-5 


7-9 


10-0 


12-0 


14-0 


Southern pine 


#3 


6-7 


8-5 


9-11 


11-10 


6-0 


7-8 


9-1 


10-9 


Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


8-4 


11-0 


14-0 


17-0 


8-4 


11-0 


13-8 


15-11 


Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


8-1 


10-3 


12-7 


14-7 


7-5 


9-5 


11-6 


13-4 


Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


8-1 


10-3 


12-7 


14-7 


7-5 


9-5 


11-6 


13-4 


Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


6-2 


7-9 


9-6 


11-0 


5-7 


7-1 


8-8 


10-1 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 
Note: Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet. 

a. End bearing length shall be increased to 2 inches. 

b. Dead load limits for townhouses in Seismic Design Category C and all structures in Seismic Design Categories D , D„ and D, shall be determined in 
accordance with Section R30 1.2. 2.2.1. 



118 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FLOORS 



TABLE R5Q2.3.3(1) 
CANTILEVER SPANS FOR FLOOR JOISTS SUPPORTING LIGHT-FRAME EXTERIOR BEARING WALL AND ROOF ONLY abc ' , = |h 

(Floor Live Load < 40 psf, Roof Live Load < 20 psf) 



Member & Spacing 


Maximum Cantilever Span (Uplift Force at Backspan Support in Lbs.) de 


Ground Snow Load 


< 20 psf 


30 psf 


50 psf 


70 psf 


Roof Width 


Roof Width 


Roof Width 


Roof Width 


24 ft 


32 ft 


40 ft 


24 ft 


32 ft 


40 ft 


24 ft 


32 ft 


40 ft 


24 ft 


32 ft 


40 ft 


2x8 @ 12" 


20" 
(177) 


15" 

(227) 


— 


18" 

(209) 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 x 10 @ 16" 


29" 

(228) 


21" 

(297) 


16" 
(364) 


26" 
(271) 


18" 

(354) 


— 


20" 
(375) 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2x 10 @ 12" 


36" 
(166) 


26" 

(219) 


20" 
(270) 


34" 
(198) 


22" 
(263) 


16" 

(324) 


26" 

(277) 


— 


— 


19" 
(356) 


— 


— 


2x 12 @ 16" 


— 


32" 
(287) 


25" 
(356) 


36" 
(263) 


29" 
(345) 


21" 
(428) 


29" 
(367) 


20" 
(484) 


— 


23" 
(471) 


— 


— 


2x 12 @ 12" 


— 


42" 
(209) 


31" 
(263) 


— 


37" 
(253) 


27" 
(317) 


36" 
(271) 


27" 
(358) 


17" 
(447) 


31" 
(348) 


19" 
(462) 


— 


2 x 12 @ 8" 


— 


48" 
(136) 


45" 
(169) 


— 


48" 
(164) 


38" 
(206) 


— 


40" 
(233) 


26" 
(294) 


36" 
(230) 


29" 
(304) 


18" 
(379) 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, I pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. Tabulated values are for clear-span roof supported solely by exterior bearing walls. 

b. Spans are based on No. 2 Grade lumber of Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine and spruce-pine-fir for repetitive (three or more) members. 

c. Ratio of backspan to cantilever span shall be at least 3:1. 

d. Connections capable of resisting the indicated uplift force shall be provided at the backspan support. 

e. Uplift force is for a backspan to cantilever span ratio of 3: 1 . Tabulated uplift values are permitted to be reduced by multiplying by a factor equal to 3 divided 
by the actual backspan ratio provided (3/backspan ratio). 

f. See Section R301.2.2.2.5, Item 1, for additional limitations on cantilevered floor joists for detached one- and two-family dwellings in Seismic Design 
Category D (( , D,, or D 2 and townhouses in Seismic Design Category C, D , D, or D 2 . 

g. A full-depth rim joist shall be provided at the unsupported end of the cantilever joists. Solid blocking shall be provided at the supported end. 
h. Linear interpolation shall be permitted for building widths and ground snow loads other than shown. 



TABLE R502.3.3(2) 
CANTILEVER SPANS FOR FLOOR JOISTS SUPPORTING EXTERIOR BALCONY' be 


,f 


Member Size 


Spacing 


Maximum Cantilever Span 
(Uplift Force at Backspan Support in lb) cd 


Ground Snow Load 


< 30 psf 


50 psf 


70 psf 


2x8 


12" 


42" (139) 


39" (156) 


34" (165) 


2x8 


16" 


36" (151) 


34" (171) 


29" (180) 


2x 10 


12" 


61" (164) 


57" (189) 


49" (201) 


2x 10 


16" 


53" (180) 


49" (208) 


42" (220) 


2x 10 


24" 


43" (212) 


40" (241) 


34" (255) 


2x 12 


16" 


72" (228) 


67" (260) 


57" (268) 


2x 12 


24" 


58" (279) 


54" (319) 


47" (330) 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. Spans are based on No. 2 Grade lumber of Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine and spruce-pine-fir for repetitive (three or more) members. 

b. Ratio of backspan to cantilever span shall be at least 2:1. 

c. Connections capable of resisting the indicated uplift force shall be provided at the backspan support. 

d. Uplift force is for a backspan to cantilever span ratio of 2: 1 . Tabulated uplift values are permitted to be reduced by multiplying by a factor equal to 2 divided 
by the actual backspan ratio provided (2/backspan ratio). 

e. A full-depth rim joist shall be provided at the unsupported end of the cantilever joists. Solid blocking shall be provided at the supported end. 

f. Linear interpolation shall be permitted for ground snow loads other than shown. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 



119 



FLOORS 



R502.4 Joists under bearing partitions. Joists under paral- 
lel bearing partitions shall be of adequate size to support the 
load. Double joists, sized to adequately support the load, that 
are separated to permit the installation of piping or vents shall 
be full depth solid blocked with lumber not less than 2 inches 
(51 mm) in nominal thickness spaced not more than 4 feet 
(1219 mm) on center. Bearing partitions perpendicular to 
joists shall not be offset from supporting girders, walls or par- 
titions more than the joist depth unless such joists are of suffi- 
cient size to carry the additional load. 

R502.5 Allowable girder spans. The allowable spans of 
girders fabricated of dimension lumber shall not exceed the 
values set forth in Tables R502.5(1 ) and R502.5(2). 

R502.6 Bearing. The ends of each joist, beam or girder shall 
have not less than 1.5 inches (38 nun) of bearing on wood or 
metal and not less than 3 inches (76 mm) on masonry or con- 
crete except where supported on a 1-inch by 4-inch (25.4 mm 
by 102 mm) ribbon strip and nailed to the adjacent stud or by 
the use of approved joist hangers. The bearing on masonry or 
concrete shall be direct, or a sill plate of 2-inch-minimum (51 
mm) nominal thickness shall be provided under the joist, 
beam or girder. The sill plate shall provide a minimum nomi- 
nal bearing area of 48 square inches (30 865 square mm). 

R502.6.1 Floor systems. Joists framing from opposite 
sides over a bearing support shall lap a minimum of 3 
inches (76 mm) and shall be nailed together with a mini- 
mum three lOd face nails. A wood or metal splice with 
strength equal to or greater than that provided by the 
nailed lap is permitted. 

R502.6.2 Joist framing. Joists framing into the side of a 
wood girder shall be supported by approved framing 
anchors or on ledger strips not less than nominal 2 inches 
by 2 inches (51 mm by 51 mm). 

R502.7 Lateral restraint at supports. Joists shall be sup- 
ported laterally at the ends by full-depth solid blocking not 
less than 2 inches (51 mm) nominal in thickness; or by attach- 
ment to a full-depth header, band or rim joist, or to an adjoin- 
ing stud or shall be otherwise provided with lateral support to 
prevent rotation. 

Exceptions: 

1. Trusses, structural composite lumber, structural 
glued-laminated members and I-joists shall be sup- 
ported laterally as required by the manufacturer's 
recommendations . 

2. In Seismic Design Categories D , D, and D 2 , lateral 
restraint shall also be provided at each intermediate 

support. 

R502.7.1 Bridging. Joists exceeding a nominal 2 inches 
by 12 inches (51 mm by 305 mm) shall be supported later- 
ally by solid blocking, diagonal bridging (wood or metal), 
or a continuous 1 inch by 3 inch (25.4 mm by 76 mm) strip 
nailed across the bottom of joists perpendicular to joists at 
intervals not exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm). 

Exception: Trusses, structural composite lumber, 
structural glued-laminated members and I-joists shall 



be supported laterally as required by the manufacturer's 
recommendations. 

R502.8 Cutting, drilling and notching. Structural floor 
members shall not be cut, bored or notched in excess of the 
limitations specified in this section. See Figure R502.8. 

R502.8.1 Sawn lumber. Notches in solid lumber joists, 
rafters and beams shall not exceed one-sixth of the depth 
of the member, shall not be longer than one-third of the 
depth of the member and shall not be located in the middle 
one-third of the span. Notches at the ends of the member 
shall not exceed one-fourth the depth of the member. The 
tension side of members 4 inches (102 mm) or greater in 
nominal thickness shall not be notched except at the ends 
of the members. The diameter of holes bored or cut into 
members shall not exceed one-third the depth of the mem- 
ber. Holes shall not be closer than 2 inches (51 mm) to the 
top or bottom of the member, or to any other hole located 
in the member. Where the member is also notched, the 
hole shall not be closer than 2 inches (51 mm) to the notch. 

R502.8.2 Engineered wood products. Cuts, notches and 
holes bored in trusses, structural composite lumber, struc- 
tural glue-laminated members or I-joists are prohibited 
except where permitted by the manufacturer's recommen- 
dations or where the effects of such alterations are specifi- 
cally considered in the design of the member by a 
registered design professional. 

R502.9 Fastening. Floor framing shall be nailed in accor- 
dance with Table R602.3(l). Where posts and beam or girder 
construction is used to support floor framing, positive con- 
nections shall be provided to ensure against uplift and lateral 
displacement. 

R502.lt) Framing of openings. Openings in floor framing 
shall be framed with a header and trimmer joists. When the 
header joist span does not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm), the 
header joist may be a single member the same size as the 
floor joist. Single trimmer joists may be used to carry a single 
header joist that is located within 3 feet (914 mm) of the trim- 
mer joist bearing. When the header joist span exceeds 4 feet 
(1219 mm), the trimmer joists and the header joist shall be 
doubled and of sufficient cross section to support the floor 
joists framing into the header. Approved hangers shall be 
used for the header joist to trimmer joist connections when 
the header joist span exceeds 6 feet (1829 mm). Tail joists 
over 12 feet (3658 mm) long shall be supported at the header 
by framing anchors or on ledger strips not less than 2 inches 
by 2 inches (51 mm by 51 mm). 

R502.ll Wood trusses. 

R502.ll. 1 Design. Wood trusses shall be designed in 
accordance with approved engineering practice. The 
design and manufacture of metal plate connected wood 
trusses shall comply with ANSI/TPI 1. The truss design 
drawings shall be prepared by a registered professional 
where required by the statutes of the jurisdiction in which 
the project is to be constructed in accordance with Section 
R106.1. 



120 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FLOORS 



TABLE R502.5(1) 

GIRDER SPANS 3 AND HEADER SPANS 3 FOR EXTERIOR BEARING WALLS 

(Maximum spans for Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine and spruce-pine-fir b and required number of jack studs) 



GIRDERS AND 

HEADERS 
SUPPORTING 


SIZE 


GROUND SNOW LOAD (psf) e 


30 


50 


70 


Building width (feet) 


20 


28 


36 


20 


28 


36 


20 


28 


36 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Roof and ceiling 


2-2x4 


3-6 


1 


3-2 


I 


2-10 


1 


3-2 


1 


2-9 


1 


2-6 


1 


2-10 


1 


2-6 


1 


2-3 


1 


2-2x6 


5-5 


1 


4-8 


1 


4-2 


1 


4-8 


1 


4-1 


1 


3-8 


2 


4-2 


1 


3-8 


2 


3-3 


2 


2-2x8 


6-10 


1 


5-1 1 


2 


5-4 


2 


5-11 


2 


5-2 


2 


4-7 


2 


5-4 


2 


4-7 


2 


4-1 


2 


2-2 x 10 


8-5 


2 


7-3 


2 


6-6 


2 


7-3 


2 


6-3 


2 


5-7 


2 


6-6 


2 


5-7 


2 


5-0 


2 


2-2 x 12 


9-9 


2 


8-5 


2 


7-6 


2 


8-5 


2 


7-3 


2 


6-6 


2 


7-6 


2 


6-6 


2 


5-10 


3 


3-2x8 


8-4 


1 


7-5 


1 


6-8 


1 


7-5 


1 


6-5 


2 


5-9 


2 


6-8 


1 


5-9 


2 


5-2 


2 


3-2 x 10 


10-6 


I 


9-1 


2 


8-2 


2 


9-1 


2 


7-10 


2 


7-0 


2 


8-2 


2 


7-0 


2 


6-4 


2 


3-2 x 12 


12-2 


2 


10-7 


2 


9-5 


2 


10-7 


2 


9-2 


2 


8-2 


2 


9-5 


2 


8-2 


2 


7-4 


2 


4-2x8 


9-2 


1 


8-4 


1 


7-8 


1 


8-4 


1 


7-5 


1 


6-8 


1 


7-8 


1 


6-8 


1 


5-11 


2 


4-2 X 10 


1 1-8 


1 


10-6 


1 


9-5 


2 


10-6 


1 


9-1 


2 


8-2 


2 


9-5 


2 


8-2 


2 


7-3 


2 


4-2 x 12 


14-1 


1 


12-2 


2 


10-11 


2 


12-2 


2 


10-7 


2 


9-5 


2 


10-11 


2 


9-5 


2 


8-5 


2 


Roof, ceiling 
and one center- 
bearing floor 


2-2 x 4 


3-1 


1 


2-9 


1 


2-5 


1 


2-9 


1 


2-5 


1 


2-2 


1 


2-7 


1 


2-3 


1 


2-0 


1 


2-2x6 


4-6 


1 


4-0 


1 


3-7 


2 


4-1 


1 


3-7 


2 


3-3 


2 


3-9 


2 


3-3 


2 


2-11 


2 


2-2x8 


5-9 


2 


5-0 


2 


4-6 


2 


5-2 


2 


4-6 


2 


4-1 


2 


4-9 


2 


4-2 


2 


3-9 


2 


2-2 x 10 


7-0 


2 


6-2 


2 


5-6 


2 


6-4 


2 


5-6 


2 


5-0 


2 


5-9 


2 


5-1 


2 


4-7 


3 


2-2x12 


8-1 


2 


7-1 


2 


6-5 


2 


7-4 


2 


6-5 


2 


5-9 


3 


6-8 


2 


5-10 


3 


5-3 


3 


3-2x8 


7-2 


1 


6-3 


2 


5-8 


2 


6-5 


2 


5-8 


2 


5-1 


2 


5-11 


2 


5-2 


2 


4-8 


2 


3-2 x 10 


8-9 


2 


7-8 


2 


6-11 


2 


7-11 


2 


6-11 


2 


6-3 


2 


7-3 


2 


6-4 


2 


5-8 


2 


3-2 x 12 


10-2 


2 


8-11 


2 


8-0 


2 


9-2 


2 


8-0 


2 


7-3 


2 


8-5 


2 


7-4 


2 


6-7 


2 


4-2x8 


8-1 


1 


7-3 


1 


6-7 


1 


7-5 


1 


6-6 


1 


5-11 


2 


6-10 


1 


6-0 


2 


5-5 


2 


4-2 x 10 


10-1 


1 


8-10 


2 


8-0 


2 


9-1 


2 


8-0 


2 


7-2 


2 


8-4 


2 


7-4 


2 


6-7 


2 


4-2 x 12 


11-9 


2 


10-3 


2 


9-3 


2 


10-7 


2 


9-3 


2 


8-4 


2 


9-8 


2 


8-6 


2 


7-7 


2 


Roof, ceiling 

and one clear 

span floor 


2-2x4 


2-8 


1 


2-4 


1 


2-1 


1 


2-7 


1 


2-3 


1 


2-0 


1 


2-5 


1 


2-1 


1 


1-10 


1 


2-2x6 


3-11 


1 


3-5 


2 


3-0 


2 


3-10 


2 


3-4 


2 


3-0 


2 


3-6 


2 


3-1 


2 


2-9 


2 


2-2x8 


5-0 


2 


4-4 


2 


3-10 


2 


4-10 


2 


4-2 


2 


3-9 


2 


4-6 


2 


3-11 


2 


3-6 


2 


2-2 x 10 


6-1 


2 


5-3 


2 


4-8 


-i 


5-11 


2 


5-1 


2 


4-7 


3 


5-6 


2 


4-9 


2 


4-3 


3 


2-2x12 


7-1 


2 


6-1 


3 


5-5 


3 


6-10 


2 


5-11 


3 


5-4 


3 


6-4 


2 


5-6 


3 


5-0 


3 


3-2x8 


6-3 


2 


5-5 


2 


4-10 


2 


6-1 


2 


5-3 


2 


4-8 


2 


5-7 


2 


4-11 


2 


4-5 


2 


3-2 x 10 


7-7 


2 


6-7 


2 


5-11 


2 


7-5 


2 


6-5 


2 


5-9 


2 


6-10 


2 


6-0 


2 


5-4 


2 


3-2 x 12 


8-10 


2 


7-8 


2 


6-10 


2 


8-7 


2 


7-5 


2 


6-8 


2 


7-11 


2 


6-11 


2 


6-3 


2 


4-2x8 


7-2 


1 


6-3 


2 


5-7 


2 


7-0 


1 


6-1 


2 


5-5 


2 


6-6 


1 


5-8 


2 


5-1 


2 


4-2 x 10 


8-9 


2 


7-7 


2 


6-10 


2 


8-7 


2 


7-5 


2 


6-7 


2 


7-11 


2 


6-11 


2 


6-2 


2 


4-2 x 12 


10-2 


2 


8-10 


2 


7-11 


2 


9-11 


2 


8-7 


2 


7-8 


2 


9-2 


2 


8-0 


2 


7-2 


2 


Roof, ceiling 
and two center- 
bearing floors 


2-2x4 


2-7 


1 


2-3 


1 


2-0 


1 


2-6 


1 


2-2 


1 


1-11 


1 


2-4 


1 


2-0 


1 


1-9 


1 


2-2x6 


3-9 


2 


3-3 


2 


2-11 


2 


3-8 


2 


3-2 


2 


2-10 


2 


3-5 


2 


3-0 


2 


2-8 


2 


2-2x8 


4-9 


2 


4-2 


2 


3-9 


2 


4-7 


2 


4-0 


2 


3-8 


2 


4-4 


2 


3-9 


2 


3-5 


2 


2-2 x 10 


5-9 


2 


5-1 


2 


4-7 


3 


5-8 


2 


4-11 


2 


4-5 


3 


5-3 


2 


4-7 


3 


4-2 


3 


2-2 x 12 


6-8 


2 


5-10 


3 


5-3 


3 


6-6 


2 


5-9 


3 


5-2 


3 


6-1 


3 


5-4 


3 


4-10 


3 


3-2x8 


5-11 


2 


5-2 


2 


4-8 


2 


5-9 


2 


5-1 


2 


4-7 


2 


5-5 


2 


4-9 


2 


4-3 


2 


3-2 x 10 


7-3 


2 


6-4 


2 


5-8 


2 


7-1 


2 


6-2 


2 


5-7 


2 


6-7 


2 


5-9 


2 


5-3 


2 


3-2 x 12 


8-5 


2 


7-4 


2 


6-7 


2 


8-2 


2 


7-2 


2 


6-5 


3 


7-8 


2 


6-9 


2 


6-1 


3 


4-2x8 


6-10 


1 


6-0 


2 


5-5 


2 


6-8 


1 


5-10 


2 


5-3 


2 


6-3 


2 


5-6 


2 


4-11 


2 


4-2 x 10 


8-4 


2 


7-4 


2 


6-7 


2 


8-2 


2 


7-2 


2 


6-5 


2 


7-7 


2 


6-8 


2 


6-0 


2 


4-2 x 12 


9-8 


2 


8-6 


2 


7-8 


2 


9-5 


2 


8-3 


2 


7-5 


2 


8-10 


2 


7-9 


2 


7-0 


2 


Roof, ceiling, 

and two clear 

span floors 


2-2x4 


2-1 


1 


1-8 


1 


1-6 


2 


2-0 


1 


1-8 


1 


1-5 


2 


2-0 


1 


1-8 


1 


1-5 


2 


2-2x6 


3-1 


2 


2-8 


2 


2-4 


2 


3-0 


2 


2-7 


2 


2-3 


2 


2-11 


2 


2-7 


2 


2-3 


2 


2-2x8 


3-10 


2 


3-4 


2 


3-0 


3 


3-10 


2 


3-4 


2 


2-11 


3 


3-9 


2 


3-3 


2 


2-11 


3 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE' 8 



121 



FLOORS 



TABLE R502.5(1)— continued 

GIRDER SPANS 3 AND HEADER SPANS 3 FOR EXTERIOR BEARING WALLS 

(Maximum spans for Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine and spruce-pine-fir b and required number of jack studs) 



GIRDERS AND 

HEADERS 
SUPPORTING 


SIZE 


GROUND SNOW LOAD (psf) e 


30 


50 


70 


Building width" (feet) 


20 


28 


36 


20 


28 


36 


20 


28 


36 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ" 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ" 


Roof, ceiling, 

and two clear 

span floors 


2-2 x 10 


4-9 


2 


4-1 


3 


3-8 


3 


4-8 


2 


4-0 


3 


3-7 


3 


4-7 


3 


4-0 


3 


3-6 


3 


2-2 x 12 


5-6 


3 


4-9 


3 


4-3 


3 


5-5 


3 


4-8 


3 


4-2 


3 


5-4 


3 


4-7 


3 


4-1 


4 


3-2x8 


4-10 


2 


4-2 


2 


3-9 


2 


4-9 


2 


4-1 


2 


3-8 


2 


4-8 


2 


4-1 


2 


3-8 


2 


3-2 x 10 


5-11 


2 


5-1 


2 


4-7 


3 


5-10 


2 


5-0 


2 


4-6 


3 


5-9 


9 


4-11 


2 


4-5 


3 


3-2x12 


6-10 


2 


5-11 


3 


5-4 


3 


6-9 


2 


5-10 


3 


5-3 


3 


6-8 


2 


5-9 


3 


5-2 


3 


4-2x8 


5-7 


2 


4-10 


2 


4-4 


2 


5-6 


2 


4-9 


2 


4-3 


2 


5-5 


2 


4-8 


2 


4-2 


2 


4-2 x 10 


6-10 


2 


5-11 


2 


5-3 


2 


6-9 


2 


5-10 


2 


5-2 


2 


6-7 


2 


5-9 


2 


5-1 


2 


4-2x12 


7-11 


2 


6-10 


2 


6-2 


3 


7-9 


2 


6-9 


2 


6-0 


3 


7-8 


2 


6-8 


2 


5-11 


3 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, I pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. Spans are given in feet and inches. 

b. Tabulated values assume #2 grade lumber. 

c. Building width is measured perpendicular to the ridge. For widths between those shown, spans are permitted to be interpolated. 

d. NI - Number of jack studs required to support each end. Where the number of required jack studs equals one, the header is permitted to be supported by an 
approved framing anchor attached to the full-height wall stud and to the header. 

e. Use 30 psf ground snow load for cases in which ground snow load is less than 30 psf and the roof live load is equal to or less than 20 psf. 

TABLE R502.5(2) 

GIRDER SPANS" AND HEADER SPANS" FOR INTERIOR BEARING WALLS 

(Maximum spans for Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine and spruce-pine-fir b and required number of jack studs) 



HEADERS AND 

GIRDERS 
SUPPORTING 


SIZE 


BUILDING Width (feet) 


20 


28 


36 


Span 


NJ d 


Span 


NJ" 


Span 


NJ d 


One floor only 


2-2x4 


3-1 




2-8 


1 


2-5 


1 


2-2x6 


4-6 




3-11 


I 


3-6 


1 


2-2x8 


5-9 




5-0 


2 


4-5 


2 


2-2x10 


7-0 




6-1 


2 


5-5 


2 


2-2 x 12 


8-1 




7-0 


2 


6-3 


2 


3-2 x 8 


7-2 




6-3 


1 


5-7 


2 


3-2 x 10 


8-9 




7-7 


2 


6-9 


2 


3-2 x 12 


10-2 




8-10 


2 


7-10 


2 


4-2x8 


9-0 




7-8 


1 


6-9 


1 


4-2 x 10 


10-1 




8-9 


1 


7-10 


2 


4-2 x 12 


11-9 




10-2 


2 


9-1 


2 


Two floors 


2-2x4 


2-2 




1-10 


1 


1-7 


1 


2-2x6 


3-2 


2 


2-9 


2 


2-5 


2 


2-2x8 


4-1 


2 


3-6 


2 


3-2 


2 


2-2 x 10 


4-11 


2 


4-3 


2 


3-10 


3 


2-2 x 12 


5-9 


2 


5-0 


3 


4-5 


3 


3-2x8 


5-1 


2 


4-5 


2 


3-11 


2 


r 3-2x10 


6-2 


2 


5-4 


2 


4-10 


2 


3-2 x 12 


7-2 


2 


6-3 


2 


5-7 


3 


4-2x8 


6-1 


1 


5-3 


2 


4-8 


2 


4-2 x 1 


7-2 


2 


6-2 


2 


5-6 


2 


4-2 x 12 


8-4 


2 


7-2 


2 


6-5 


2 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Spans are given in feet and inches. 

b. Tabulated values assume #2 grade lumber. 

c. Building width is measured perpendicular to the ridge. For widths between those shown, spans are permitted to be interpolated. 

d. NJ - Number of jack studs required to support each end. Where the number of required jack studs equals one, the header is permitted to be supported by an 
approved framing anchor attached to the full-height wall stud and to the header. 



122 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FLOORS 



R502.11.2 Bracing. Trusses shall be braced to prevent 
rotation and provide lateral stability in accordance with the 
requirements specified in the construction documents for 
the building and on the individual truss design drawings. 
In the absence of specific bracing requirements, trusses 
shall be braced in accordance with accepted industry prac- 
tices, such as, the SBCA Building Component Safety 
Information (BCSI) Guide to Good Practice for Handling, 
Installing & Bracing of Metal Plate Connected Wood 
Trusses. 



R502.11.3 Alterations to trusses. Truss members and 
components shall not be cut, notched, spliced or otherwise 
altered in any way without the approval of a registered 
design professional. Alterations resulting in the addition 
of load (e.g., HVAC equipment, water heater, etc.), that 
exceed the design load for the truss, shall not be permitted 
without verification that the truss is capable of supporting 
the additional loading. 




T 



D/6 MAX. 



NO NOTCHES J 
PERMITTED 1 



1- 



D/3MAX. 



1 D/6 MAX. 

FOR MEMBERS 
LESS THAN 
4 IN. NOMINAL . 
FLOOR JOIST— CENTER CUTS DIMENSION 



I" 



D/4 MAX. 



1 



IS — f 



I 



D/4 MAX. 



FLOOR JOIST— END CUTS 



D/3 MAX 



2 IN. MIN. FROM TOP 
AND BOTTOM OF JOIST 




PIPE OR CONDUIT 



D (ACTUAL DEPTH) 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R502.8 
CUTTING, NOTCHING AND DRILLING 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE* 8 



123 



FLOORS 



R502.11.4 Truss design drawings. Trass design draw- 
ings, prepared in compliance with Section R502.11.1, 
shall be submitted to the building official and approved 
prior to installation. Truss design drawings shall be pro- 
vided with the shipment of trusses delivered to the job site. 
Truss design drawings shall include, at a minimum, the 
information specified below: 

1. Slope or depth, span and spacing. 

2. Location of all joints. 

3. Required bearing widths. 

4. Design loads as applicable: 

4.1. Top chord live load; 

4.2. Top chord dead load; 

4.3. Bottom chord live load; 

4.4. Bottom chord dead load; 

4.5. Concentrated loads and their points of appli- 
cation; and 

4.6. Controlling wind and earthquake loads. 

5. Adjustments to lumber and joint connector design 
values for conditions of use. 

6. Each reaction force and direction. 

7. Joint connector type and description, e.g., size, 
thickness or gauge, and the dimensioned location of 
each joint connector except where symmetrically 
located relative to the joint interface. 

8. Lumber size, species and grade for each member. 

9. Connection requirements for: 

9.1. Truss-to-girder-truss; 

9.2. Truss ply-to-ply; and 

9.3. Field splices. 

10. Calculated deflection ratio and/or maximum 
description for live and total load. 

1 1 . Maximum axial compression forces in the truss 
members to enable the building designer to design 
the size, connections and anchorage of the perma- 
nent continuous lateral bracing. Forces shall be 
shown on the truss drawing or on supplemental doc- 
uments. 

12. Required permanent truss member bracing location. 

R502.12 Draftstopping required. Draftstopping shall be 
provided in accordance with Section R302.12. 

R502.13 Fireblocking required. Fireblocking shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Section R302.ll. 



SECTION R503 
FLOOR SHEATHING 

R503.1 Lumber sheathing. Maximum allowable spans for 
lumber used as floor sheathing shall conform to Tables 
R503.1, R503.2.1. 1(1) and R503 .2.1.1(2). 



TABLE R503.1 
MINIMUM THICKNESS OF LUMBER FLOOR SHEATHING 



JOIST OR BEAM 
SPACING (inches) 


MINIMUM NET THICKNESS 


Perpendicular to joist 


Diagonal to joist 


24 


"/ l6 


X 


16 


X 


X 


48 a 


l'/,T&G 


N/A 


54" 


60 c 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 
N/A = Not applicable. 

a. For this support spacing, lumber sheathing shall have a minimum F b of 
675 and minimum E of 1 ,100,000 (see AF&PA/NDS). 

b. For this support spacing, lumber sheathing shall have a minimum F,, of 
765 and minimum E of 1 ,400,000 (see AF&PA/NDS) . 

c. For this support spacing, lumber sheathing shall have a minimum F fc of 
855 and minimum E of 1,700,000 (see AF&PA/NDS). 

R503.1.1 End joints. End joints in lumber used as sub- 
flooring shall occur over supports unless end-matched 
lumber is used, in which case each piece shall bear on at 
least two joists. Subflooring may be omitted when joist 
spacing does not exceed 16 inches (406 mm) and a 1-inch 
(25.4 mm) nominal tongue-and-groove wood strip floor- 
ing is applied perpendicular to the joists. 

R503.2 Wood structural panel sheathing. 

R503.2.1 Identification and grade. Wood structural 
panel sheathing used for structural purposes shall conform 
to DOC PS 1, DOC PS 2 or, when manufactured in Can- 
ada, CSA 0437 or CSA 0325. All panels shall be identi- 
fied for grade, bond classification, and Performance 
Category by a grade mark or certificate of inspection 
issued by an approved agency. The Performance Cate- 
gory value shall be used as the "nominal panel thickness" 
or "panel thickness" whenever referenced in this code. 

R503.2.1.1 Subfloor and combined subfloor under- 
layment. Where used as subflooring or combination 
subfloor underlayment, wood structural panels shall be 
of one of the grades specified in Table R503.2.1.1(l). 
When sanded plywood is used as combination subfloor 
underlayment, the grade, bond classification, and Per- 
formance Category shall be as specified in Table 
R503.2. 1.1(2). 

TABLE R503.2.1. 1(2) 

ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR SANDED 

PLYWOOD COMBINATION SUBFLOOR UNDERLAYMENT" 



IDENTIFICATION 


SPACING OF JOISTS (inches) 


16 


20 


24 


Species group b 


— 


— 


— 


1 


% 


X 


X 


2,3 


X 


X 


X 


4 


% 


X 


1 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. Plywood continuous over two or more spans and face grain perpendicular 
to supports. Unsupported edges shall be tongue-and-groove or blocked 
except where nominal V 4 -inch-thick underlayment or 3 A,-inch wood finish 
floor is used. Allowable uniform live load at maximum span based on 
deflection of '/, 60 of span is 100 psf. 

b. Applicable to all grades of sanded exterior-type plywood. 



124 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



R503.2.2 Allowable spans. The maximum allowable span 
for wood structural panels used as subfloor or combination 
subfloor underlayment shall be as set forth in Table 
R503.2. 1.1(1), or APA E30. The maximum span for 
sanded plywood combination subfloor underlayment shall 
be as set forth in Table R503.2.1.1(2). 

R503.2.3 Installation. Wood structural panels used as 
subfloor or combination subfloor underlayment shall be 
attached to wood framing in accordance with Table 
R602.3(l) and shall be attached to cold-formed steel fram- 
ing in accordance with Table R505.3.1(2). 

R503.3 Particleboard. 

R503.3.1 Identification and grade. Particleboard shall 
conform to ANSI A208.1 and shall be so identified by a 
grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an 
approved agency. 



FLOORS 



R503.3.2 Floor underlayment. Particleboard floor under- 
layment shall conform to Type PBU and shall not be less 
than V 4 inch (6.4 mm) in thickness. 

R503.3.3 Installation. Particleboard underlayment shall 
be installed in accordance with the recommendations of 
the manufacturer and attached to framing in accordance 
with Table R602.3(l). 



SECTION R504 

PRESSURE PRESERVATIVELY 

TREATED-WOOD FLOORS (ON GROUND) 

R504.1 General. Pressure preservatively treated-wood base- 
ment floors and floors on ground shall be designed to with- 
stand axial forces and bending moments resulting from lateral 
soil pressures at the base of the exterior walls and floor live 



TABLE R503.2.1. 1(1) 

ALLOWABLE SPANS AND LOADS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANELS FOR ROOF AND 

SUBFLOOR SHEATHING AND COMBINATION SUBFLOOR UNDERLAYMENT" bc 



SPAN RATING 


MINIMUM NOMINAL 

PANEL THICKNESS 

(inch) 


ALLOWABLE LIVE LOAD 
(psf)"' 


MAXIMUM SPAN 
(inches) 


LOAD (pounds per square 
foot, at maximum span) 


MAXIMUM SPAN 
(inches) 


SPAN 
@ 16" o.c. 


SPAN 
@ 24" o.c. 


With edge 
support 11 


Without edge 
support 


Total load 


Live load 


Sheathing 6 






Roof 


Subfloor' 


1 6/0 


\ 


30 


— 


16 


16 


40 


30 





20/0 


% 


50 


— 


20 


20 


40 


30 





24/0 


\ 


100 


30 


24 


20 s 


40 


30 





24/16 


7 / l(i 


100 


40 


24 


24 


50 


40 


16 


32/16 


%> \ 


180 


70 


32 


28 


40 


30 


16 h 


40/20 


19/ 5, 
'32' '8 


305 


130 


40 


32 


40 


30 


20 ". i 


48/24 


%'% 


— 


175 


48 


36 


45 


35 


24 


60/32 


7 / 8 


— 


305 


60 


48 


45 


35 


32 


Underlayment, C-C plugged, single floor" 






Roof 


Combination subfloor 
underlayment 11 


16 o.c. 


19/ 5/ 
'32' '8 


100 


40 


24 


24 


50 


40 


16 ; 


20 o.c. 


'7 V 

'32' '8 


150 


60 


32 


32 


40 


30 


20'- j 


24 o.c. 


%.% 


240 


100 


48 


36 


35 


25 


24 


32 o.c. 


? / S 


— 


185 


48 


40 


50 


40 


32 


48 o.c. 


\% v \\ 


— 


290 


60 


48 


50 


40 


48 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. The allowable total loads were determined using a dead load of 10 psf. If the dead load exceeds 10 psf, then the live load shall be reduced accordingly. 

b. Panels continuous over two or more spans with long dimension (strength axis) perpendicular to supports. Spans shall be limited to values shown because of 
possible effect of concentrated loads. 

c. Applies to panels 24 inches or wider. 

d. Lumber blocking, panel edge clips (one midway between each support, except two equally spaced between supports when span is 48 inches), tongue-and- 
groove panel edges, or other approved type of edge support. 

e. Includes Structural 1 panels in these grades. 

f. Uniform load deflection limitation: '/ lg0 of span under live load plus dead load, 7 240 of span under live load only. 

g. Maximum span 24 inches for ,5 / 32 -and 7,-inch panels. 

h. Maximum span 24 inches where 3 / 4 -inch wood finish flooring is installed at right angles to joists. 

i. Maximum span 24 inches where 1.5 inches of lightweight concrete or approved cellular concrete is placed over the subfloor. 

j. Unsupported edges shall have tongue-and-groove joints or shall be supported with blocking unless minimum nominal 7 4 -inch thick underlayment with end 
and edge joints offset at least 2 inches or 1 .5 inches of lightweight concrete or approved cellular concrete is placed over the subfloor, or %-inch wood finish 
flooring is installed at right angles to the supports. Allowable uniform live load at maximum span, based on deflection of 7 M0 of span, is 100 psf. 

k. Unsupported edges shall have tongue-and-groove joints or shall be supported by blocking unless nominal 7 4 -inch-lhick underlayment with end and edge 
joints offset at least 2 inches or V 4 -inch wood finish flooring is installed at right angles to the supports. Allowable uniform live load at maximum span, based 
on deflection of 7 3S) of span, is 100 psf, except panels with a span rating of 48 on center are limited to 65 psf total uniform load at maximum span. 

1. Allowable live load values at spans of 16" o.c. and 24" o.c taken from reference standard APA E30, APA Engineered Wood Construction Guide. Refer to 
reference standard for allowable spans not listed in the table. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE" 



125 



FLOORS 



and dead loads. Floor framing shall be designed to meet joist 
deflection requirements in accordance with Section R301. 

R504.1.1 Unbalanced soil loads. Unless special provision 
is made to resist sliding caused by unbalanced lateral soil 
loads, wood basement floors shall be limited to applica- 
tions where the differential depth of fill on opposite exte- 
rior foundation walls is 2 feet (610 mm) or less. 

R504.1.2 Construction. Joists in wood basement floors 
shall bear tightly against the narrow face of studs in the 
foundation wall or directly against a band joist that bears 
on the studs. Plywood subfloor shall be continuous over 
lapped joists or over butt joints between in-line joists. Suf- 
ficient blocking shall be provided between joists to trans- 
fer lateral forces at the base of the end walls into the floor 
system. 

R504.1.3 Uplift and buckling. Where required, resistance 
to uplift or restraint against buckling shall be provided by 
interior bearing walls or properly designed stub walls 
anchored in the supporting soil below. 

R504.2 Site preparation. The area within the foundation 
walls shall have all vegetation, topsoil and foreign material 
removed, and any fill material that is added shall be free of 
vegetation and foreign material. The fill shall be compacted 
to assure uniform support of the pressure preservatively 
treated-wood floor sleepers. 

R504.2.1 Base. A minimum 4-inch-thick (102 mm) granu- 
lar base of gravel having a maximum size of % inch (19.1 
mm) or crushed stone having a maximum size of '/, inch 
(12.7 mm) shall be placed over the compacted earth. 

R504.2.2 Moisture barrier. Polyethylene sheeting of 
minimum 6-mil (0.15 mm) thickness shall be placed over 
the granular base. Joints shall be lapped 6 inches (152 
mm) and left unsealed. The polyethylene membrane shall 
be placed over the pressure preservatively treated-wood 
sleepers and shall not extend beneath the footing plates of 
the exterior walls. 

R504.3 Materials. All framing materials, including sleepers, 
joists, blocking and plywood subflooring, shall be pressure- 
preservative treated and dried after treatment in accordance 
with AWPA Ul (Commodity Specification A, Use Category 
4B and Section 5.2), and shall bear the label of an accredited 
agency. 



SECTION R505 
STEEL FLOOR FRAMING 

R505.1 Cold-formed steel floor framing. Elements shall be 
straight and free of any defects that would significantly affect 
structural performance. Cold-formed steel floor framing 
members shall comply with the requirements of this section. 

R50S.1.1 Applicability limits. The provisions of this sec- 
tion shall control the construction of cold-formed steel 
floor framing for buildings not greater than 60 feet (18 288 
mm) in length perpendicular to the joist span, not greater 
than 40 feet (12 192 mm) in width parallel to the joist 
span, and less than or equal to three stories above grade 
plane. Cold-formed steel floor framing constructed in 
accordance with the provisions of this section shall be lim- 
ited to sites subjected to a maximum design wind speed of 
1 10 miles per hour (49 m/s), Exposure B or C, and a max- 
imum ground snow load of 70 pounds per square foot 
(3.35 kPa). 

R505.1.2 In-line framing. When supported by cold- 
formed steel framed walls in accordance with Section 
R603, cold-formed steel floor framing shall be constructed 
with floor joists located in-line with load-bearing studs 
located below the joists in accordance with Figure 
R505.1 .2 and the tolerances specified as follows: 

1. The maximum tolerance shall be 3 / 4 inch (19.1 mm) 
between the centerline of the horizontal framing 
member and the centerline of the vertical framing 
member. 

2. Where the centerline of the horizontal framing 
member and bearing stiffener are located to one side 
of the centerline of the vertical framing member, the 
maximum tolerance shall be V 8 inch (3 mm) between 
the web of the horizontal framing member and the 
edge of the vertical framing member. 

R505.1.3 Floor trusses. Cold-formed steel trusses shall be 
designed, braced and installed in accordance with AISI 
SI 00, Section D4. In the absence of specific bracing 
requirements, trusses shall be braced in accordance with 
accepted industry practices, such as the SBCA Cold- 
Formed Steel Building Component Safety Information 
(CFSBCSI), Guide to Good Practice for Handling, Install- 
ing & Bracing of Cold-Formed Steel Trusses. Truss mem- 
bers shall not be notched, cut or altered in any manner 
without an approved design. 



TABLE R505.2(1) 
COLD-FORMED STEEL JOIST SIZES 



MEMBER DESIGNATION" 


WEB DEPTH 
(inches) 


MINIMUM FLANGE WIDTH 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM FLANGE WIDTH 
(inches) 


MINIMUM LIP SIZE 
(inches) 


550S162-t 


5.5 


1.625 


2 


0.5 


800S162-t 


8 


1.625 


2 


0.5 


I000S162-1 


10 


1.625 





0.5 


1200S162-t 


12 


1.625 


2 


0.5 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 

a. The member designation is defined by the first number representing the member depth in 0.01 inch, the letter "S" representing a stud or joist member, the 

second number representing the flange width in 0.01 inch, and the letter "t" shall be a number representing the minimum base metal thickness in mils [See 

Table R505.2(2)]. 



126 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 89 



FLOORS 



R505.2 Structural framing. Load-bearing cold-formed steel 
floor framing members shall comply with Figure R505.2(l) 
and with the dimensional and minimum thickness require- 
ments specified in Tables R505.2(l) and R505.2(2). Tracks 
shall comply with Figure R505.2(2) and shall have a mini- 
mum flange width of 1 V 4 inches (32 mm). 

TABLE R505.2(2) 
MINIMUM THICKNESS OF COLD-FORMED STEEL MEMBERS 



DESIGNATION THICKNESS 
(mils) 


MINIMUM BASE STEEL THICKNESS 
(inches) 


33 


0.0329 


43 


0.0428 


54 


0.0538 


68 


0.0677 


97 


0.0966 



For SI: inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 

R505.2.1 Material. Load-bearing cold-formed steel fram- 
ing members shall be cold formed to shape from structural 
quality sheet steel complying with the requirements of one 
of the following: 

1. ASTM A 653: Grades 33 and 50 (Class 1 and 3). 

2. ASTM A 792: Grades 33 and 50A. 

3. ASTM A 1003: Structural Grades 33 Type H and 50 
Type H. 



FLANGE 



WEB 



DEPTH OF WEB 
(OUTSIDE TO 
OUTSIDE) 




FIGURE R505.2(1) 
C-SHAPED SECTION 




HORIZONTAL 

FRAMING 

MEMBER 



BEARING STIFFENER 
TRACK 



STUD 



C_STUD 



HORIZONTAL HORIZONTAL 
£ FRAMING C FRAMING 

MEMBER MEMBER 



%" (19 mm) . 

MAX.-W 



M 



h"^ — 



3 A" (19 mm) 
MAX. 



VERTICAL 
<t FRAMING 
MEMBER 



VERTICAL 
<t FRAMING 
MEMBER 




HORIZONTAL 

FRAMING 

MEMBER 



BEARING STIFFENER 
TRACK 



STUD 



C BEARING 
STIFFENER 



HORIZONTAL 

FRAMING 

MEMBER 



JJ 



-7s" (3mm) MAX 
FROM WEB OF 
HORIZONTAL 
FRAMING 
MEMBER TO 
EDGE OF 
VERTICAL 
FRAMING 
MEMBER 



- 3 / 4 " (19 mm) 
MAX. 



VERTICAL 
FRAMING 

MEMBER 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R505.1 .2 
IN-LINE FRAMING 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



127 



FLOORS 



FLANGE 



WEB. 




SIZE OF TRACK 
(INSIDE TO INSIDE) 



FIGURE R505.2(2) 
TRACK SECTION 

R50S.2.2 Identification. Load-bearing cold-formed steel 
framing members shall have a legible label, stencil, stamp 
or embossment with the following information as a mini- 
mum: 

1. Manufacturer's identification. 

2. Minimum base steel thickness in inches (mm). 

3. Minimum coating designation. 

4. Minimum yield strength, in kips per square inch 

(ksi)(MPa). 

R505.2.3 Corrosion protection. Load-bearing cold- 
formed steel framing shall have a metallic coating comply- 
ing with ASTM A 1003 and one of the following: 

1 . A minimum of G 60 in accordance with ASTM A 
653. 

2. A minimum of AZ 50 in accordance with ASTM A 
792. 

R505.2.4 Fastening requirements. Screws for steel-to- 
steel connections shall be installed with a minimum edge 
distance and center-to-center spacing of V 2 inch (12.7 
mm), shall be self-drilling tapping, and shall conform to 
ASTM C 1513. Floor sheathing shall be attached to cold- 
formed steel joists with minimum No. 8 self-drilling tap- 
ping screws that conform to ASTM C 1513. Screws 
attaching floor-sheathing to cold-formed steel joists shall 
have a minimum head diameter of 0.292 inch (7.4 mm) 
with countersunk heads and shall be installed with a mini- 
mum edge distance of 3 / 8 inch (9.5 mm). Gypsum board 
ceilings shall be attached to cold-formed steel joists with 
minimum No. 6 screws conforming to ASTM C 954 or 
ASTM C 1513 with a bugle head style and shall be 



installed in accordance with Section R702. For all connec- 
tions, screws shall extend through the steel a minimum of 
three exposed threads. All fasteners shall have rust inhibi- 
tive coating suitable for the installation in which they are 
being used, or be manufactured from material not suscep- 
tible to corrosion. 

Where No. 8 screws are specified in a steel-to-steel 
connection, the required number of screws in the connec- 
tion is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the 
reduction factors in Table R505.2.4 when larger screws 
are used or when one of the sheets of steel being con- 
nected is thicker than 33 mils (0.84 mm). When applying 
the reduction factor, the resulting number of screws shall 
be rounded up. 

TABLE R505.2.4 
SCREW SUBSTITUTION FACTOR 



SCREW SIZE 


THINNEST CONNECTED STEEL SHEET (mils) 


33 


43 


#8 


1.0 


0.67 


#10 


0.93 


0.62 


#12 


0.86 


0.56 



For SI: I mil = 0.0254 mm. 

R505.2.5 Web holes, web hole reinforcing and web hole 
patching. Web holes, web hole reinforcing, and web hole 
patching shall be in accordance with this section. 

R505.2.5.1 Web holes. Web holes in floor joists shall 
comply with all of the following conditions: 

1. Holes shall conform to Figure R505.2.5.1; 

2. Holes shall be permitted only along the centerline 
of the web of the framing member; 

3. Holes shall have a center-to-center spacing of not 
less than 24 inches (610 mm); 

4. Holes shall have a web hole width not greater 
than 0.5 times the member depth, or 2'/ 2 inches 
(64.5 mm); 

5. Holes shall have a web hole length not exceeding 
4 1 /, inches (114 mm); and 

6. Holes shall have a minimum distance between 
the edge of the bearing surface and the edge of 
the web hole of not less than 10 inches (254 mm). 

Framing members with web holes not conforming 
to the above requirements shall be reinforced in accor- 
dance with Section R505.2.5.2, patched in accordance 
with Section R505.2.5.3 or designed in accordance with 
accepted engineering practices. 

R505.2.5.2 Web hole reinforcing. Reinforcement of 
web holes in floor joists not conforming to the require- 
ments of Section R505.2.5.1 shall be permitted if the 
hole is located fully within the center 40 percent of the 
span and the depth and length of the hole does not 
exceed 65 percent of the flat width of the web. The 
reinforcing shall be a steel plate or C-shape section 
with a hole that does not exceed the web hole size limi- 
tations of Section R505.2.5.1 for the member being 
reinforced. The steel reinforcing shall be the same 



128 



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FLOORS 



thickness as the receiving member and shall extend at 
least 1 inch (25.4 mm) beyond all edges of the hole. 
The steel reinforcing shall be fastened to the web of the 
receiving member with No. 8 screws spaced no more 
than 1 inch (25.4 mm) center-to-center along the edges 
of the patch with minimum edge distance of V 2 inch 
(12.7 mm). 

R505.2.5.3 Hole patching. Patching of web holes in 
floor joists not conforming to the requirements in Sec- 
tion R505.2.5.1 shall be permitted in accordance with 
either of the following methods: 

1 . Framing members shall be replaced or designed 
in accordance with accepted engineering prac- 
tices where web holes exceed the following size 
limits: 

1.1. The depth of the hole, measured across 
the web, exceeds 70 percent of the flat 
width of the web; or 

1.2. The length of the hole measured along the 
web, exceeds 10 inches (254 mm) or the 
depth of the web, whichever is greater. 

2. Web holes not exceeding the dimensional 
requirements in Section R505.2.5.3, Item 1, shall 
be patched with a solid steel plate, stud section, 
or track section in accordance with Figure 
R505.2.5.3. The steel patch shall, as a minimum, 
be of the same thickness as the receiving member 
and shall extend at least 1 inch (25 mm) beyond 
all edges of the hole. The steel patch shall be fas- 
tened to the web of the receiving member with 
No. 8 screws spaced no more than 1 inch (25 
mm) center-to-center along the edges of the patch 
with minimum edge distance of '/, inch (13 mm). 

R505.3 Floor construction. Cold-formed steel floors shall 
be constructed in accordance with this section. 

R505.3.1 Floor to foundation or load-bearing wall con- 
nections. Cold-formed steel framed floors shall be 
anchored to foundations, wood sills or load-bearing walls 



in accordance with Table R505.3.1(l) and Figure 
R505.3.1Q), R505.3.1(2), R505.3.1(3), R505.3.1(4), 
R505.3.K5) or R505.3.1(6). Anchor bolts shall be located 
not more than 1 2 inches (305 mm) from corners or the ter- 
mination of bottom tracks. Continuous cold-formed steel 
joists supported by interior load-bearing walls shall be 
constructed in accordance with Figure R505.3.1(7). 
Lapped cold-formed steel joists shall be constructed in 
accordance with Figure R505.3.1(8). End floor joists con- 
structed on foundation walls parallel to the joist span shall 
be doubled unless a C-shaped bearing stiffener, sized in 
accordance with Section R505.3.4, is installed web-to-web 
with the floor joist beneath each supported wall stud, as 
shown in Figure R505.3.1(9). Fastening of cold-formed 
steel joists to other framing members shall be in accor- 
dance with Section R505.2.4 and Table R505.3.1(2). 



JOIST 




NO. 8 SCREWS 
SPACED AT 1 IN. O.C. 
(TYP.) 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R505.2.5.3 
WEB HOLE PATCH 



10 IN. MIN 




27, IN. MAX 



BEARING CONDITION 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R505.2.5.1 
FLOOR JOIST WEB HOLES 



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129 



FLOORS 



TABLE R505.3.1(1) 
FLOOR TO FOUNDATION OR BEARING WALL CONNECTION REQUIREMENTS 3 b 



FRAMING CONDITION 



Floor joist to wall track of exterior wall per 
Figure R505.3. 1(1) 



Rim track or end joist to load-bearing wall top 
track per Figure R505.3. 1(1) 



Rim track or end joist to wood sill per Figure 
R505.3.1(2) 



Rim track or end joist to foundation per Figure 
R505.3.1(3) 



Cantilevered joist to foundation per Figure 
R505.3.1(4) 



Cantilevered joist to wood sill per 
Figure R505.3. 1(5) 



Cantilevered joist to exterior load-bearing 
wall track per Figure R505.3. 1 (6) 



BASIC WIND SPEED (mph) AND EXPOSURE 



85 mph Exposure C or 
less than 110 mph Exposure B 



2-No. 8 screws 



1-No. 8 screw at 24 inches o.c. 



Steel plate spaced at 4 feet o.c. with 4-No. 8 
screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nails 



/ 2 inch minimum diameter anchor bolt and 
clip angle spaced at 6 feet o.c. with 8-No. 8 
screws 



/ 2 inch minimum diameter anchor bolt and 
clip angle spaced at 6 feet o.c. with 8-No. 8 
screws 



Steel plate spaced at 4 feet o.c. with 4-No. ! 
screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nails 



2-No. 8 screws 



Less than 110 mph Exposure C 



3-No. 8 screws 



1-No. 8 screw at 24 inches o.c 



Steel plate spaced at 2 feet o.c. with 4-No. 8 
screws and 4-1 Od or 6-8d common nails 



A, inch minimum diameter anchor bolt and 
clip angle spaced at 4 feet o.c. with 8-No. 8 
screws 



7 2 inch minimum diameter anchor bolt and 
clip angle spaced at 4 feet o.c. with 8-No. 8 
screws 



Steel plate spaced at 2 feet o.c. with 4-No. 8 
screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nails 



3 -No. 8 screws 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Anchor bolts are to be located not more than 12 inches from corners or the termination of bottom tracks (e.g., at door openings or corners) Bolts extend a 
minimum of 15 inches into masonry or 7 inches into concrete. Anchor bolts connecting cold-formed steel framing to the foundation structure are to be 
installed so that the distance from the center of the bolt hole to the edge of the connected member is not less than one and one-half bolt diameters. 

b. All screw sizes shown are minimum. 



RIM TRACK 

(MIN. 33 MIL THICK) 



WEB STIFFENER 



NO. 8 SCREWS THROUGH 
JOIST FLANGE, CLIP ANGLE 
OR BENT STIFFENER 




TRACK 



FASTEN RIM TRACK TO 
WALL TRACK WITH NO. 
SCREWS AT 24 IN. O.C. 



SHEATHING 



JOIST 



NO. 8 SCREW THROUGH 
EACH FLANGE 



LOAD-BEARING STUD 



For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, I inch = 25.4 i 



FIGURE 505.3.1(1) 
FLOOR TO EXTERIOR LOAD-BEARING WALL STUD CONNECTION 



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TABLE R505.3.1(2) 
FLOOR FASTENING SCHEDULE 3 



DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING ELEMENTS 


NUMBER AND SIZE OF FASTENERS 


SPACING OF FASTENERS 


Floor joist to track of an interior load-bearing wall 
per Figures R505.3.1(7) and R505.3.1(8) 


2 No. 8 screws 


Each joist 


Floor joist to track at end of joist 


2 No. 8 screws 


One per flange or two per bearing stiffener 


Subfloor to floor joists 


No. 8 screws 


6 in. o.c. on edges and 12 in. o.c. at intermediate 
supports 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. All screw sizes shown are minimum. 



SHEATHING 



4-NO. 8 SCREWS 




RIM TRACK 

MIN. 33MILTHICK 



MIN.4-10dOR6-8d 
COMMON NAILS 



ANCHOR BOLT OR OTHER 
CONNECTION AS REQUIRED 



WOOD SILL AS REQUIRED 
FOUNDATION 
SILL SEALER AS REQUIRED 



For SI: I mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.1 (2) 
FLOOR TO WOOD SILL CONNECTION 



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131 



FLOORS 



WEBSTIFFENER 



RIM TRACK 

(MIN. 33 MIL THICK) 



SILL SEALER 
AS REQUIRED 



SHEATHING 




6 IN. * 6 IN * 54 MIL CLIP ANGLE FASTENED TO TRACK 
WITH 8-NO. 8 SCREWS 



FOUNDATION 



For SI: I mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.1(3) 
FLOOR TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION 




WEB STIFFENER CAN BE INSTALLED 
EITHER SIDE OF WEB 



SILL SEALER 

AS REQUIRED 



FLOOR JOIST 



FOUNDATION 



For SI: 1 rail = 0.0254 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.1 (4) 
CANTILEVERED FLOOR TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION 



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BLOCKING EVERY OTHER JOIST 
MIN. 33 MIL TRACK OR C-SHAPE 
MIN. DEPTH = DEPTH OF JOIST - '!, IN 



WEB STIFFENER 



CONNECTION OF BLOCKING 

TO JOIST THROUGH FLANGE 

OF WEB STIFFENER, CLIP ANGLE 

OR BENT WEB OF BLOCKING 

WITH 2 NO. 8 SCREWS (MIN. 

DEPTH OF ANGLE = JOIST DEPTH - 2 IN. 




RIM TRACK 

NO. 8 SCREW AT EACH 
FLANGE (TOP AND BOTTOM) 



• 4 NO. 8 SCREWS 
3 IN. x 3 IN. x 33 MIL STEEL PLATE 
4-1 Od OR 6-8d COMMON NAILS 
WOOD SILL AS REQUIRED 
FOUNDATION 
SILL SEALER AS REQUIRED 



For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.1(5) 
CANTILEVERED FLOOR TO WOOD S!LL CONNECTION 



BLOCKING EVERY OTHER JOIST 
(MIN. 33 MIL TRACK OR C-SHAPE 



WEB STIFFENER 



RIM TRACK 

(MIN. 33 MIL THICK) 



NO. 8 SCREWS THROUGH 
FLANGE, CLIP ANGLE OR 
BENT STIFFENER 



TOP TRACK 



LOAD-BEARING STUD 




CONNECTION OF BLOCKING 
TO JOIST THROUGH EACH 
LEG OF WEB STIFFENER OR 
CLIP ANGLE WITH 2 NO. 8 
SCREWS 



SHEATHING 



JOIST 



NO. 8 SCREW THROUGH 
EACH FLANGE 



For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.1(6) 
CANTILEVERED FLOOR TO EXTERIOR LOAD-BEARING WALL CONNECTION 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



133 



FLOORS 



CONNECTION OF BLOCKING 

TO JOIST THROUGH FLANGE 

OF WEB STIFFENER , CLIP ANGLE 

OR BENT WEB OF BLOCKING 

WITH 2 NO. 8 SCREWS (MIN. DEPTH 

OF ANGLE = JOIST DEPTH - 2 IN.) 

(SEE FIGURE R505.3.1{4) FOR BLOCKING 



BLOCKING EVERY OTHER JOIST 
MIN. 33 MIL TRACK OR C-SHAPE 
MIN. DEPTH = JOIST DEPTH - 2 IN 



WEB STIFFENER 
(EITHER SIDE OF WEB) 




JOIST 



NO. 8 SCREWS THROUGH 
FLANGE. CLIP ANGLE OR 
BENT STEFFENER 



TOP TRACK 



LOAD-BEARING STUD 



SHEATHING 



NO. 8 SCREW THROUGH 
EACH FLANGE 



For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, I inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.1(7) 
CONTINUOUS SPAN JOIST SUPPORTED ON INTERIOR LOAD-BEARING WALL 



134 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FLOORS 



JOIST 



4 NO. 8 SCREWS 
THROUGH BOTH WEBS 
(WEB STIFFENER IS REQUIRED 
ONLY WHEN LOAD-BEARING 
WALL IS LOCATED ABOVE) 



TRACK 



2 NO. 8 SCREWS 
THROUGH FLANGE 
(EACH SIDE) 




LOAD-BEARING STUD 



NO. 8 SCREW AT 
EACH FLANGE 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.1 (8) 
LAPPED JOISTS SUPPORTED ON INTERIOR LOAD-BEARING WALL 



WALL STUDS 




BEARING STIFFENERS TO MATCH 
SPACING OF WALL STUDS ABOVE 



END JOIST 



FIGURE R505.3.1(9) 
BEARING STIFFENERS FOR END JOISTS 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 8 



135 



FLOORS 



R505.3.2 Minimum floor joist sizes. Floor joist size and 
thickness shall be determined in accordance with the limits 
set forth in Table R505. 3.2(1) for single spans, and Tables 
R505.3.2(2) and R505.3.2(3) for multiple spans. When 
continuous joist members are used, the interior bearing 
supports shall be located within 2 feet (610 mm) of mid- 
span of the cold-formed steel joists, and the individual 
spans shall not exceed the spans in Table R505. 3.2(2) or 
R505.3.2(3), as applicable. Floor joists shall have a bear- 
ing support length of not less than 1 V 2 inches (38 mm) for 
exterior wall supports and 3'/ 2 inches (89 mm) for interior 
wall supports. Tracks shall be a minimum of 33 mils (0.84 
mm) thick except when used as part of a floor header or 
trimmer in accordance with Section R505.3.8. Bearing 
stiffeners shall be installed in accordance with Section 
R505.3.4. 

R505.3.3 Joist bracing and blocking. Joist bracing and 
blocking shall be in accordance with this section. 

R505.3.3.1 Joist top flange bracing. The top flanges 
of cold-formed steel joists shall be laterally braced by 
the application of floor sheathing fastened to the joists 
in accordance with Section R505.2.4 and Table 
R505.3.1(2). 



R505.3.3.2 Joist bottom flange bracing/blocking. 
Floor joists with spans that exceed 12 feet (3658 mm) 
shall have the bottom flanges laterally braced in accor- 
dance with one of the following: 

1. Gypsum board installed with minimum No. 6 
screws in accordance with Section R702. 

2. Continuous steel straps installed in accordance 
with Figure R505.3.3.2Q). Steel straps shall be 
spaced at a maximum of 12 feet (3658 mm) on 
center and shall be at least 1 7 2 inches (38 mm) in 
width and 33 mils (0.84 mm) in thickness. Straps 
shall be fastened to the bottom flange of each 
joist with one No. 8 screw, fastened to blocking 
with two No. 8 screws, and fastened at each end 
(of strap) with two No. 8 screws. Blocking in 
accordance with Figure R505.3.3.2(l) or Figure 
R505.3.3.2(2) shall be installed between joists at 
each end of the continuous strapping and at a 
maximum spacing of 12 feet (3658 mm) mea- 
sured along the continuous strapping (perpendic- 
ular to the joist run). Blocking shall also be 
located at the termination of all straps. As an 
alternative to blocking at the ends, anchoring the 
strap to a stable building component with two 
No. 8 screws shall be permitted. 





TABLE R505.3.2(1) 
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR COLD-FORMED STEEL JOISTS— SINGLE SPANS 3 " ■" 33 ksi STEEL 




JOIST 
DESIGNATION 


30 PSF LIVE LOAD 


40 PSF LIVE LOAD 


Spacing (inches) 


Spacing (inches) 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


550S 162-33 


11 '-!" 


10'-7" 


9'-6" 


8'-6" 


10'-7" 


9'-3" 


8'-6" 


7'-6" 


550S 162-43 


12'-8" 


11 '-6" 


10'- 10" 


10'-2" 


11 '-6" 


10'-5" 


9'- 10" 


9'-l" 


550S 162-54 


13'-7" 


12'-4" 


11 '-7" 


10'-9" 


12'-4" 


11 '-2" 


10'-6" 


9'-9" 


550S162-68 


14'-7" 


13'-3" 


12'-6" 


11 '-7" 


13'-3" 


12'-0" 


11 '-4" 


10'-6" 


550S 162-97 


16'-2" 


14'-9" 


13'- 10" 


12'- 10" 


14'-9" 


13'-4" 


12'-7" 


11 '-8" 


800S 162-33 


15'-8" 


13'-11" 


12'-9" 


11 '-5" 


14'-3" 


12'-5" 


ll'-3" 


9'-0" 


800S162-43 


17'- 1" 


15'-6" 


14'-7" 


13'-7" 


15'-6" 


14'- 1" 


13'-3" 


12'-4" 


800S 162-54 


18'~4" 


16'-8" 


15'-8" 


14'-7" 


16'-8" 


15'-2" 


14'-3" 


13'-3" 


800S 162-68 


l9'-9" 


17'- 11" 


16'- 10" 


15'-8" 


17'- 11" 


16'-3" 


15'-4" 


14'-2" 


800S 162-97 


22'-0" 


20'-0" 


16'- 10" 


17'-5" 


20'-0" 


18'-2" 


17'-1" 


15'-10" 


1000S 162-43 


20'-6" 


18'-8" 


17'-6" 


15'-8" 


IS' 8" 


16'- 11" 


15'-6" 


13'-11" 


1000S 162-54 


22'- 1" 


20'-0" 


18'- 10" 


17'-6" 


20'-0" 


18'-2" 


17'-2" 


15' 1 1" 


1000S162-68 


23'-9" 


21 '-7" 


20'-3" 


18'- 10" 


21'-7" 


19'-7" 


18'-5" 


17'-1" 


I000S 162-97 


26'-6" 


24'-1" 


22'-8" 


21/-0" 


24'- 1" 


21'-10" 


20'-7" 


19'-1" 


1200S 162-43 


23'-9" 


20'- 10" 


19' 0" 


16'-8" 


21 '-5" 


18'-6" 


16'-6" 


13'-2" 


1200S1 62-54 


25'-9" 


23'-4" 


22'-0" 


20'- 1" 


23'-4" 


21 '-3" 


20'0" 


17'- 10" 


1200S 162-68 


27'-8" 


25'- 1" 


23'-8" 


21'-11" 


25'- 1" 


22'- 10" 


21'-6" 


21'- r 


1200S162-97 


30'- 11" 


28'- 1" 


26'-5" 


24'-6" 


28'- 1" 


25'-6" 


24'-0" 


22'-3" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. Deflection criteria: L/480 for live loads, Z./240 for total loads. 

b. Floor dead load = 1 psF. 

c. Table provides the maximum clear span in feet and inches. 

d. Bearing stiffeners are to be installed at all support points and concentrated loads. 



136 



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FLOORS 



TABLE R505.3.2(2) 
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR COLD-FORMED STEEL JOISTS— MULTIPLE SPANS* "■ ■=■"■' 



< 33 ksi STEEL 



JOIST 
DESIGNATION 


30 PSF LIVE LOAD 


40 PSF LIVE LOAD 


Spacing (inches) 


Spacing (inches) 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


550S 162-33 


12'-l" 


10'-5" 


9'-6" 


8'-6" 


l0'-9" 


9'-3" 


8'-6" 


7'-6" 


550S 162-43 


l4'-5" 


12'-5" 


11 '-4" 


10'-2" 


12'-9" 


ll'-ll" 


lO'-l" 


9'-0" 


550S 162-54 


l6'-3" 


14'- 1" 


12'- 10" 


11 '-6" 


14'-5" 


12'-6" 


1 1'-5" 


10'-2" 


550S 162-68 


!9'-7" 


17'-9" 


16'-9" 


l5'-6" 


17'-9" 


16'-2" 


l5'-2" 


14'-1" 


550S 162-97 


21 '-9" 


19'-9" 


18'-7" 


l7'-3" 


l9'-9" 


17'-ll" 


16'-l0" 


15'-4" 


800S 162-33 


14'-8" 


ll'-lO" 


10'-4" 


8'-8" 


12'-4" 


9'- II" 


8'-7" 


7'-2" 


800S 162-43 


20'-0" 


17'-4" 


15'-9" 


14'- 1" 


17'-9" 


15'-4" 


l.4'-0" 


1 2'-0" 


800S 162-54 


23'-7" 


20'-5" 


18'-8" 


16'-8" 


21'0" 


18'-2" 


16'-7" 


14'-10" 


800S 162-68 


26'-5" 


23'- 1" 


21'-0" 


18'- 10" 


23'-8" 


20'-6" 


l8'-8" 


16'-9" 


800S 162-97 


29'-6" 


26'- 10" 


25'-3" 


22'-8" 


26'- 10" 


24'-4" 


22'-6" 


20'-2" 


1000S 162-43 


22'-2" 


18'-3" 


16'-0" 


13'-7" 


18'- 11" 


15'-5" 


13'-6" 


1 1 '-5" 


1000S 162-54 


26'-2" 


22'-8" 


20'-8" 


18'-6" 


23'-3" 


20'-2" 


1 8'-5" 


16'-5" 


1000S 162-68 


31 '-5" 


27'-2" 


24'- 10" 


22'-2" 


27'-ll" 


24'-2" 


22'- 1" 


19'-9" 


1000S 162-97 


35'-6" 


32'-3" 


29'- 11" 


26'-9" 


32'-3" 


29'-2" 


26'-7" 


23'-9" 


1200S 162-43 


21'-8" 


17' 6" 


l5'-3" 


12'- 10" 


18'-3" 


14'-8" 


12'-8" 


IO'-6" 


1200S 162-54 


28'-5" 


24'-8" 


22'-6" 


19'-6" 


25'-3" 


21'-11" 


19'-4" 


16'-6" 


1200S 162-68 


33'-7" 


29'-l" 


26'-6" 


23'-9" 


29'- 10" 


25'-10" 


23'-7" 


21'-1" 


1200S 162-97 


41'-5" 


37'-8" 


34'-6" 


30'- 10" 


37'-8" 


33'-6" 


30'-7" 


27'-5" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. Deflection criteria: L/480 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Floor dead load = 10 psf. 

c. Table provides the maximum clear span in feet and inches to either side of the interior support. 

d. Interior bearing supports for multiple span joists consist of structural (bearing) walls or beams. 

e. Bearing stiffeners are to be installed at all support points and concentrated loads. 

f. Interior supports shall be located within 2 feet of mid-span provided that each of the resulting spans does not exceed the appropriate maximum span shown in 
the table above. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE B 



137 



FLOORS 



TABLE R505.3.2{3) 
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR COLD-FORMED STEEL JOISTS— MULTIPLE SPANS* b c de '50 ksi STEEL 



JOIST 
DESIGNATION 


30 PSF LIVE LOAD 


40 PSF LIVE LOAD 


Spacing (inches) 


Spacing (inches) 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


550S 162-33 


13'-ll" 


12'-0" 


11' 0" 


9'-3" 


!2'-3" 


l0'-8" 


9'-7" 


8'-4" 


550S162-43 


16'-3" 


14'- 1" 


12'- 10" 


11 '-6" 


14'-6" 


12'-6" 


11 '-5" 


10'-3" 


550S 162-54 


18'-2" 


16'-6" 


15'-4" 


13'-8" 


16'-6" 


!4'-ll" 


13'-7" 


12'-2" 


550S162-68 


19'-6" 


17'-9" 


16'-8" 


15'-6" 


17'-9" 


16'-1" 


15'-2" 


14'-0" 


550SI 62-97 


21 '-9" 


19'-9" 


18'-6" 


17'-2" 


19'-8" 


17'- 10" 


16'-8" 


15'-8" 


800S 162-33 


15'-6" 


12'-6" 


lO'-lO" 


9'-l" 


13'-0" 


10'-5" 


8'- 11" 


6'-9" 


800S162-43 


22'-0" 


I9'-1" 


l7'-5" 


15'-0" 


19'-7" 


16'- 11" 


14'- 10" 


12'-8" 


800S 162-54 


24'-6" 


22'-4" 


20'-6" 


17'- 11" 


22'-5" 


19'-9" 


17'- 11" 


15'-10" 


800S 162-68 


26'-6" 


24'- 1" 


22'-8" 


21'-0" 


24'- 1" 


21'- 10" 


20'-7" 


l.9'-2" 


800SJ62-97 


29'-9" 


26'-8" 


25'-2" 


23'-5" 


26'-8" 


24'-3" 


22'- 11" 


21 '-4" 


1000S 162-43 


23'-6" 


l9'-2" 


16'-9" 


14'-2" 


19'-11" 


16'-2" 


14'-0" 


1 1'-9" 


1000S 162-54 


28'-2" 


23'- 10" 


21 '-!" 


18'- II" 


24'-8" 


20'-ll" 


18'-9" 


18'-4" 


1000S 162-68 


31'-10" 


28'- 11" 


2T-2" 


25'-3" 


28'- 11" 


26'-3" 


24'-9" 


22'-9" 


1000S 162-97 


35'-4" 


32'- 1" 


30'-3" 


28'- 1" 


32'- 1" 


29'-2" 


27'-6" 


25'-6" 


1200S 162-43 


22'- U" 


18' 5" 


16'-0" 


13'-4" 


19'-2" 


15'-4" 


l3'-2" 


IO'-6" 


1200S 162-54 


32'-8" 


28'- 1" 


24'-9" 


21'-2" 


29'-0" 


23'- 10" 


20'-] 1" 


17'-9" 


1200S 162-68 


37'-l" 


32'-5" 


29'-4" 


25'- 10" 


33'-4" 


28'-6" 


25'-9" 


22'-7" 


1200S 162-97 


41 '-2" 


37'~6" 


35'-3" 


32'-9" 


37'-6" 


34'- 1" 


32'- 1" 


29'-9" 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, I pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. Deflection criteria: Z/480 for live loads, 1/240 for total loads. 

b. Floor dead load = 10 psf. 

c. Table provides the maximum clear span in feet and inches to either side of the interior support. 

d. Interior bearing supports for multiple span joists consist of structural (bearing) walls or beams. 

e. Bearing stiffeners are to be installed at all support points and concentrated loads. 

f. Interior supports shall be located within 2 feet of mid-span provided that each of the resulting spans does not exceed the appropriate maximum span shown in 
the table above. 



138 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FLOORS 



SUBFLOOR 
SHEATHING 



MIN. 33 MIL SOLID BLOCKING 
AT EACH END AND AT 12 IN. O.C. 
(DEPTH OF BLOCKING = JOIST 
DEPTH MINUS 2 IN. 




JOIST 



MIN. 2 IN. X 2 IN. X 33 MIL CLIP ANGLE 
FASTENED WITH 2 NO. 3 SCREWS 
THROUGH EACH LEG (DEPTH OF ANGLE 
= JOIST DEPTH MINUS 2 IN.) 



CONTINUOUS 17 2 IN. X 33 
MIL STEEL STRAP 



2 NO. 8 SCREWS THROUGH 
STRAP TO BLOCKING 



NO. 8 SCREW THROUGH 
STRAP TO JOIST (TYP.) 



For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254, 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.3.2(1) 
JOIST BLOCKING (SOLID) 



NO. 8 SCREW THROUGH 
BRACE AT EACH FLANGE 



JOIST 



JOIST 




MIN. 1 1 / 2 IN. x33 
MIL FLAT STRAP 



For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254, 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.3.2(2) 
JOIST BLOCKING (STRAP) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 8 



139 



FLOORS 



R505.3.3.3 Blocking at interior bearing supports. 
Blocking is not required for continuous back-to-back 
floor joists at bearing supports. Blocking shall be 
installed between every other joist for single continu- 
ous floor joists across bearing supports in accordance 
with Figure R505.3.1(7). Blocking shall consist of C- 
shape or track section with a minimum thickness of 33 
mils (0.84 mm). Blocking shall be fastened to each 
adjacent joist through a 33-mil (0.84 mm) clip angle, 
bent web of blocking or flanges of web stiffeners with 
two No. 8 screws on each side. The minimum depth of 
the blocking shall be equal to the depth of the joist 
minus 2 inches (51 mm). The minimum length of the 
angle shall be equal to the depth of the joist minus 2 
inches (51 mm). 

R505.3.3.4 Blocking at cantilevers. Blocking shall be 
installed between every other joist over cantilever bear- 
ing supports in accordance with Figure R505.3.1(4), 
R505.3.1(5) or R505.3.1(6). Blocking shall consist of 
C-shape or track section with minimum thickness of 33 
mils (0.84 mm). Blocking shall be fastened to each 
adjacent joist through bent web of blocking, 33 mil clip 
angle or flange of web stiffener with two No. 8 screws 
at each end. The depth of the blocking shall be equal to 
the depth of the joist. The minimum length of the angle 
shall be equal to the depth of the joist minus 2 inches 
(51 mm). Blocking shall be fastened through the floor 
sheathing and to the support with three No. 8 screws 
(top and bottom). 

R505.3.4 Bearing stiffeners. Bearing stiffeners shall be 
installed at each joist bearing location in accordance with 
this section, except for joists lapped over an interior sup- 
port not carrying a load-bearing wall above. Floor joists 
supporting jamb studs with multiple members shall have 
two bearing stiffeners in accordance with Figure 
R505.3.4(l). Bearing stiffeners shall be fabricated from a 
C-shaped, track or clip angle member in accordance with 
the one of following: 

1. C-shaped bearing stiffeners: 

1.1. Where the joist is not carrying a load-bearing 
wall above, the bearing stiffener shall be a 
minimum 33 mil (0.84 mm) thickness. 

1.2. Where the joist is carrying a load-bearing 
wall above, the bearing stiffener shall be at 
least the same designation thickness as the 
wall stud above. 

2. Track bearing stiffeners: 

2. 1 . Where the joist is not carrying a load-bearing 
wall above, the bearing stiffener shall be a 
minimum 43 mil (1.09 mm) thickness. 

2.2. Where the joist is carrying a load-bearing 
wall above, the bearing stiffener shall be at 
least one designation thickness greater than 
the wall stud above. 

3. Clip angle bearing stiffeners: Where the clip angle 
bearing stiffener is fastened to both the web of the 



member it is stiffening and an adjacent rim track 
using the fastener pattern shown in Figure 
R505. 3.4(2), the bearing stiffener shall be a mini- 
mum 2 inch by 2 inch (51 mm by 51 mm) angle 
sized in accordance with Tables R505.3.4(l), 
R505.3.4(2), R505.3.4(3), and R505.3.4(4). 

The minimum length of a bearing stiffener shall be the 
depth of member being stiffened minus 3 / g inch (9.5 mm). 
Each bearing stiffener shall be fastened to the web of the 
member it is stiffening as shown in Figure R505.3.4(2). 
Each clip angle bearing stiffener shall also be fastened to 
the web of the adjacent rim track using the fastener pattern 
shown in Figure R505.3.4(2). No. 8 screws shall be used 
for C-shaped and track members of any thickness and for 
clip angle members with a designation thickness less than 
or equal to 54. No. 10 screws shall be used for clip angle 
members with a designation thickness greater than 54. 



JAMB STUDS 




^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



BEARING STIFFENER - 
INSIDE JOIST 



BEARING STIFFENER 
ATTACHED TO BACK 
OF JOIST 




PSlliPj 



FIGURE R505.3.4(1) 
BEARING STIFFENERS UNDER JAMB STUDS 



R505.3.5 Cutting and notching. Flanges and lips of load- 
bearing cold-formed steel floor framing members shall not 
be cut or notched. 

R505.3.6 Floor cantilevers. Floor cantilevers for the top 
floor of a two- or three-story building or the first floor of a 
one-story building shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm). 
Cantilevers, not exceeding 24 inches (610 mm) and sup- 
porting two stories and roof (i.e., first floor of a two-story 
building), shall also be permitted provided that all cantile- 
vered joists are doubled (nested or back-to-back). The 
doubled cantilevered joists shall extend a minimum of 6 
feet (1829 mm) toward the inside and shall be fastened 
with a minimum of two No. 8 screws spaced at 24 inches 
(610 mm) on center through the webs (for back-to-back) 
or flanges (for nested joists). 

R505.3.7 Splicing. Joists and other structural members 
shall not be spliced. Splicing of tracks shall conform to 
Figure R505.3.7. 



140 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FLOORS 



C-SECTION/TRACK 



CLIP ANGLE 



/ 



/ 



\ 



\ 



\ 



MIN. LENGTH = I 
DEPTH OF WEB I 
MINUS 3 /, IN. 



MIN. LENGTH = 
DEPTH OF WEB 
MINUS 3 /, IN. 



1 



\ L (4)-NO. 8 SCREWS 

V EQUALLY SPACED / 



/ 



/" 



/ 



\ 



/ 



\ 




MAX. SPACING 
FROM JOIST 
TOP=7, IN. , 



/ 



MIN. LENGTH 
= DEPTH OF I 
WEB 3 / a IN. 



(3)-NO.8ORNO.10 
SCREWS EQUALLY / 

\ SPACED (IN BOTH LEGS / 
sOFANGLE) y 



I 



BEARING STIFFENER 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.4(2) 
BEARING STIFFENER 



TABLE R505.3.4(1) 

CLIP ANGLE BEARING STIFFENERS 

(20 psf equivalent snow load) 



JOIST DESIGNATION 


MINIMUM THICKNESS (mils) OF 2 INCH x 2 INCH CLIP ANGLE 


Top floor 


Bottom floor in 2 story 
Middle floor in 3 story 


Bottom floor in 3 story 


Joist spacing (inches) 


Joist spacing (inches) 


Joist spacing (inches) 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


800S 162-33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


— 


800S 162-43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


800S 162-54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


— 


800S 162-68 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


68 


54 


97 


97 


— 


800S162-97 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


97 


1000S 162-43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


68 


97 


97 


97 


— 


— 


— 


1000S 162-54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


— 


— 


1000S 162-68 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


68 


97 


97 


97 


— 


— 


— 


1000S 162-97 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


68 


97 


— 


1200S 162-43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


97 


97 


97 


97 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1200S 162-54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


97 


97 


97 


97 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1200S 162-68 


43 


43 


54 


54 


68 


97 


97 


97 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1200S 162-97 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


68 


97 


97 


— 


— 


— 



For SI: 1 mil = 0.254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



141 



FLOORS 



TABLE R505.3.4(2) 

CLIP ANGLE BEARING STIFFENERS 

(30 psf equivalent snow load) 



JOIST DESIGNATION 


MINIMUM THICKNESS (mils) OF 2 INCH x 2 INCH CLIP ANGLE 


Top floor 


Bottom floor in 2 story 
Middle floor in 3 story 


Bottom floor in 3 story 


Joist spacing (inches) 


Joist spacing (inches) 


Joist spacing (inches) 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


800S 162-33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


— 


800S 162-43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


— 


800S 162-54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


— 


— 


800S 162-68 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


68 


97 


68 


97 


97 


— 


800S 162-97 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


68 


97 


1000S 162-43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


— 


— 


— 


1000S 162-54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


— 


— 


— 


1000S162-68 


43 


43 


54 


68 


68 


97 


97 


— 


97 


— 


— 


— 


1000S 162-97 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


68 


54 


97 


— 


— 


1200S 162-43 


54 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 












1200S 162-54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 














1200S 162-68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 












1200S 162-97 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


68 


97 


— 


97 


— 


— 


— 



For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 



TABLE R505.3.4(3) 

CUP ANGLE BEARING STIFFENERS 

(50 psf equivalent snow load) 



JOIST DESIGNATION 


MINIMUM THICKNESS (mils) OF 2 INCH x 2 INCH CLIP ANGLE 


Top floor 


Bottom floor in 2 story 
Middle floor in 3 story 


Bottom floor in 3 story 


Joist spacing (inches) 


Joist spacing (inches) 


Joist spacing (inches) 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


800S 162-33 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


— 


— 


— 


800S 162-43 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


— 


— 


— 


— 


800S 162-54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


— 


— 


— 


— 


800S 162-68 


43 


43 


54 


54 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


— 


— 


— 


800S 162-97 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


68 


97 


— 


1000S 162-43 


97 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1000S 162-54 


97 


97 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1000S 162-68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1000S 162-97 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


68 


97 


97 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1200S 162-43 


97 


97 


97 


97 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1200S 162-54 


— 


97 


97 


97 
















— 


1200S 162-68 


97 


97 


97 


97 
















— 


1200S 162-97 


54 


68 


68 


97 


97 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 



For SI: l mil = 0.0254 mm, l inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 



142 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FLOORS 



TABLE R505.3.4(4) 

CLIP ANGLE BEARING ST1FFENERS 

(70 psf equivalent snow load) 



JOIST DESIGNATION 


MINIMUM THICKNESS (mils) OF 2 INCH x 2 INCH CLIP ANGLE 


Top floor 


Bottom floor in 2 story 
Middle floor in 3 story 


Bottom floor in 3 story 


Joist spacing (inches) 


Joist spacing (inches) 


Joist spacing (inches) 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


800S162-33 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


— 


— 


— 


— 


800S 162-43 


97 


97 


97 


97 


97 


97 


97 












800S162-54 


97 


97 


97 


97 


97 
















800S 162-68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


800S 162-97 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


68 


97 


97 


97 


— 


— 


1000S 162-43 


97 


97 


97 


97 














— 


— 


1000S 162-54 


— 


97 


97 


97 


















1000S 162-68 


97 


97 


— 




















1000S 162-97 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 














1200S 162-43 


97 


97 


97 


97 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1200S 162-54 


























1200S 162-68 


























1200S162-97 


97 


97 


97 





















For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 



C-SHAPE 

INSIDE TRACK 




4 NO. 8 SCREWS 
THROUGH WEB OR 
FLANGES AT EACH 
SIDE OF SPLICE 



TRACK 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.7 
TRACK SPLICE 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



143 



FLOORS 



R505.3.8 Framing of floor openings. Openings in floors 
shall be framed with header and trimmer joists. Header 
joist spans shall not exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) or 8 feet 
(2438 mm) in length in accordance with Figure 
R505.3.8(l) or R505.3.8(2), respectively. Header and 
trimmer joists shall be fabricated from joist and track 
members, having a minimum size and thickness at least 
equivalent to the adjacent floor joists and shall be installed 
in accordance with Figures R505.3.8(l), R505.3.8(2), 
R505.3.8(3), and R505.3.8(4). Each header joist shall be 
connected to trimmer joists with four 2 inch by 2 inch (51 
mm by 51 mm) clip angles. Each clip angle shall be fas- 
tened to both the header and trimmer joists with four No. 8 
screws, evenly spaced, through each leg of the clip angle. 
The clip angles shall have a thickness not less than that of 
the floor joist. Each track section for a built-up header or 
trimmer joist shall extend the full length of the joist (con- 
tinuous). 



SECTION R506 
CONCRETE FLOORS (ON GROUND) 

R506.1 General. Concrete slab-on-ground floors shall be 
designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions 
of this section or ACI 332. Floors shall be a minimum 3.5 
inches (89 mm) thick (for expansive soils, see Section 
R403.1.8). The specified compressive strength of concrete 
shall be as set forth in Section R402.2. 

R506.2 Site preparation. The area within the foundation 
walls shall have all vegetation, top soil and foreign material 
removed. 



R506.2. 1 Fill. Fill material shall be free of vegetation and 
foreign material. The fill shall be compacted to assure uni- 
form support of the slab, and except where approved, the 
fill depths shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm) for clean 
sand or gravel and 8 inches (203 mm) for earth. 

R506.2.2 Base. A 4-inch-thick (102 mm) base course con- 
sisting of clean graded sand, gravel, crushed stone or 
crushed blast-furnace slag passing a 2-inch (51 mm) sieve 
shall be placed on the prepared subgrade when the slab is 
below grade. 

Exception: A base course is not required when the con- 
crete slab is installed on well-drained or sand-gravel 
mixture soils classified as Group I according to the 
United Soil Classification System in accordance with 
Table R405.1. 

R506.2.3 Vapor retarder. A 6-mil (0.006 inch; 1 52 urn) 
polyethylene or approved vapor retarder with joints lapped 
not less than 6 inches (152 mm) shall be placed between 
the concrete floor slab and the base course or the prepared 
subgrade where no base course exists. 

Exception: The vapor retarder may be omitted: 

1. From garages, utility buildings and other unheated 
accessory structures. 

2. For unheated storage rooms having an area of less 
than 70 square feet (6.5 m 2 ) and carports. 

3. From driveways, walks, patios and other flatwork 
not likely to be enclosed and heated at a later date. 

4. Where approved by the building official, based on 
local site conditions. 



JOIST 



CLIPANGLE 



JOIST 




TRIMMER JOIST (TYP.) 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.8{1) 
COLD-FORMED STEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: 6-FOOT FLOOR OPENING 



144 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FLOORS 



JOIST 



CLIP ANGLE 



JOIST 




TRIMMER JOIST (TYP.) 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.8(2) 
COLD-FORMED STEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION— 8-FOOT FLOOR OPENING 



(r^r 



NO. 8 SCREWS AT 24 IN. O.C 
TOP AND BOTTOM (TYP.) 



MINIMUM 2 IN. » 2 IN. CLIPANGLE 
WITH 4 NO. 8 SCREWS 
THROUGH EACH LEG, BOTH 
SIDES OF CONNECTION 



HEADER JOIST- 
C-SHAPE INSIDE A TRACK 




4 NO. 8 SCREWS THROUGH EACH LEG 
OF CLIPANGLE (ONE SIDE OF 
CONNECTION) MINIMUM LENGTH EQUALS 
JOIST WEB DEPTH MINUS 7, IN. 



.TRIMMER JOIST_ 
C-SHAPE INSIDE 
ATRACK(TYP) 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

FIGURE R505.3.8(3) 
COLD-FORMED STEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: FLOOR HEADER TO TRIMMER CONNECTION— 6-FOOT OPENING 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



145 



FLOORS 



R506.2.4 Reinforcement support. Where provided in 
slabs on ground, reinforcement shall be supported to 
remain in place from the center to upper one third of the 
slab for the duration of the concrete placement. 



■ SECTION R507 

DECKS 
R507.1 Decks. Where supported by attachment to an exterior 
wall, decks shall be positively anchored to the primary struc- 
ture and designed for both vertical and lateral loads. Such 
attachment shall not be accomplished by the use of toenails or 
nails subject to withdrawal. Where positive connection to the 
primary building structure cannot be verified during inspec- 
tion, decks shall be self-supporting. For decks with cantile- 
vered framing members, connections to exterior walls or 
other framing members, shall be designed and constructed to 
resist uplift resulting from the full live load specified in Table 
R301 .5 acting on the cantilevered portion of the deck. 
R507.2 Deck ledger connection to band joist. For decks 
supporting a total design load of 50 pounds per square foot 
(2394 Pa) [40 pounds per square foot (1915 Pa) live load plus 
10 pounds per square foot (479 Pa) dead load], the connection 
between a deck ledger of pressure-preservative-treated 
Southern Pine, incised pressure-preservative-treated Hem-Fir 



or approved decay-resistant species, and a 2-inch (51 mm) 
nominal lumber band joist bearing on a sill plate or wall plate 
shall be constructed with 7 2 -inch (12.7 mm) lag screws or 
bolts with washers in accordance with Table R507.2. Lag 
screws, bolts and washers shall be hot-dipped galvanized or 
stainless steel. 

R507.2.1 Placement of lag screws or bolts in deck led- 
gers and band joists. The lag screws or bolts in deck led- 
gers and band joists shall be placed in accordance with 
Table R507.2.1 and Figures R507.2.1(l) and R507.2.1(2). 

R507.2.2 Alternate deck ledger connections. Deck led- 
ger connections not conforming to Table R507.2 shall be 
designed in accordance with accepted engineering prac- 
tice. Girders supporting deck joists shall not be supported 
on deck ledgers or band joists. Deck ledgers shall not be 
supported on stone or masonry veneer. 
R507.2.3 Deck lateral load connection. The lateral load 
connection required by Section R507.1 shall be permitted 
to be in accordance with Figure R507.2.3. Where the lat- 
eral load connection is provided in accordance with Figure 
507.2.3, hold-down tension devices shall be installed in 
not less than two locations per deck, and each device shall 
have an allowable stress design capacity of not less than 
1500 pounds (6672 N). 



NO. 8 SCREWS AT 24 IN. O.C. 
TOP AND BOTTOM (TYP.) 



MINIMUM 2 IN. x 2 IN. CLIP ANGLE 
WITH 4 NO. 8 SCREWS 
THROUGH EACH LEG, BOTH 
SIDES OF CONNECTION 



HEADER JOIST, 
2-C-SHAPE AND A TRACK 





4-NO. 8 SCREWS THROUGH EACH LEG 
OF CLIPANGLE (ONE SIDE OF 
CONNECTION) MINIMUM LENGTH EQUALS 
JOIST WEB DEPTH MINUS \ IN. 



TRIMMER JOIST, - 
2-C-SHAPES AND A TRACK 
2-NO. 8 SCREWS THROUGH 
WEBS AT 24 IN. ON CENTER 
(TYP.) 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

FIGURE R505.3.8(4) 
COLD-FORMED STEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: FLOOR HEADER TO TRIMMER CONNECTION— 8-FOOT OPENING 



146 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FLOORS 



TABLE R507.2 

FASTENER SPACING FOR A SOUTHERN PINE OR HEM-FIR DECK LEDGER AND 

A 2-INCH-NOWNNAL SOLID-SAWN SPRUCE-PINE-FIR BAND JOIST'-'' 9 

(Deck iive load = 40 psf, deck dead load = 10 psf) 



JOIST SPAN 


6' and less 


6Y'to8' 


8Y'to10' 


10'l"to12' 


12'l"to14' 


14'l"to16' 


16'l"to18' 


Connection details 


On-center spacing of fasteners* e 


7 2 inch diameter lag screw with l5 /, 2 inch 
maximum sheathing" 


30 


23 


18 


15 


13 


11 


10 


'/, inch diameter bolt with l5 /, 2 inch maximum 
sheathing 


36 


36 


34 


29 


24 


21 


19 


V, inch diameter bolt with 15 / 17 inch maximum 
sheathing and 7 2 inch stacked washers 11, '' 


36 


36 


29 


24 


21 


18 


16 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. The tip of the lag screw shall fully extend beyond the inside face of the band joist. 

b. The maximum gap between the face of the ledger board and face of the wall sheathing shall be '/, inch. 

c. Ledgers shall be flashed to prevent water from contacting the house band joist. 

d. Lag screws and bolts shall be staggered in accordance with Section R507.2.1. 

e. Deck ledger shall be minimum 2x8 pressure-preservative-treated No. 2 grade lumber, or other approved materials as established by standard engineering 
practice. 

f. When solid-sawn pressure-preservative-treated deck ledgers are attached to a minimum 1 -inch-thick engineered wood product (structural composite lumber, 
laminated veneer lumber or wood structural panel band joist), the ledger attachment shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice. 

g. A minimum 1 x 9'/ 2 Douglas Fir laminated veneer lumber rimboard shall be permitted in lieu of the 2-inch nominal band joist. 

h. Wood structural panel sheathing, gypsum board sheathing or foam sheathing not exceeding 1 inch in thickness shall be permitted. The maximum distance 
between the face of the ledger board and the face of the band joist shall be 1 inch. 



TABLE 507.2.1 
PLACEMENT OF LAG SCREWS AND BOLTS IN DECK LEDGERS AND BAND JOISTS 



MINIMUM END AND EDGE DISTANCES AND SPACING BETWEEN ROWS 




TOP EDGE 


BOTTOM EDGE 


ENDS 


ROW SPACING 


Ledger' 1 


2 inches' 1 


V 4 inch 


2 inches 6 


l 5 / 8 inches' 1 


Band Joist c 


3 / 4 inch 


2 inches 


2 inches b 


1 % inches" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Lag screws or bolts shall be staggered from the top to the bottom along the horizontal run of the deck ledger in accordance with Figure R507.2. 1(1). 

b. Maximum 5 inches. 

c. For engineered rim joists, the manufacturer's recommendations shall govern. 

d. The minimum distance from bottom row of lag screws or bolts to the top edge of the ledger shall be in accordance with Figure R507.2. 1(1). 



5" MAX 



2" MIN 




STAGGER FASTENERS 
IN 2 ROWS 



5.5" MIN. FOR 2X8* 
6.5" MIN. FOR 2X10 
7.5" MIN. FOR 2X12 



3/4" MIN. 



'DISTANCE SHALL BE PERMITTED TO 
BE REDUCED TO 4.5" IF LAG SCREWS 
ARE USED OR BOLT SPACING IS 
REDUCED TO THAT OF LAG SCREWS 
TO ATTACH 2X8 LEDGERS TO 2 X 8 
BAND JOISTS. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R507.2.1(1) 
PLACEMENT OF LAG SCREWS AND BOLTS IN LEDGERS 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



147 



FLOORS 



R507.3 Wood/plastic composites. Wood/plastic composites 
used in exterior deck boards, stair treads, handrails and 
guardrail systems shall bear a label indicating the required 
performance levels and demonstrating compliance with the 
provisions of ASTM D 7032. 



R507.3.1 Installation of wood/plastic composites. 

Wood/plastic composites shall be installed in accordance 
with the manufacturer's instructions. 



EXTERIOR SHEATHING 
EXISTING STUD WALL m 

EXISTING 2x BAND JOIST 
OR ENGINEERED RIM BOARD 



FLOOR FRAMING 



EXISTING 




FOUNDATION WALL 



. >:_** ja **. * 



DECK JOIST 



LAG SCREWS OR BOLTS 



JOIST HANGER 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R507.2.1(2) 
PLACEMENT OF LAG SCREWS AND BOLTS IN BAND JOISTS 



HOLD-DOWN OR SIMILAR 
TENSION DEVICE 



FLOOR SHEATHING NAILING AT-. 
6 IN. MAXIMUM ON CENTER TO 
JOIST WITH HOLD-DOWN f 




FLOOR JOIST 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE 507.2.3 
DECK ATTACHMENT FOR LATERAL LOADS 



148 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



CHAPTER 6 

WAI 9 CHNQTRISCTSHM 



SECTfON R601 
GENERAL 

R601.1 Application. The provisions of this chapter shall 
control the design and construction of all walls and partitions 
for all buildings. 

R601.2 Requirements. Wall construction shall be capable of 
accommodating all loads imposed according to Section R301 
and of transmitting the resulting loads to the supporting struc- 
tural elements. 

R601.2.1 Compressible floor-covering materials. Com- 
pressible floor-covering materials that compress more than 
V 32 inch (0.8 mm) when subjected to 50 pounds (23 kg) 
applied over 1 inch square (645 mm) of material and are 
greater than V s inch (3 mm) in thickness in the uncom- 
pressed state shall not extend beneath walls, partitions or 
columns, which are fastened to the floor. 



SECTION R602 
WOOD WALL FRAMING 

R602.1 Identification. Load-bearing dimension lumber for 
studs, plates and headers shall be identified by a grade mark 
of a lumber grading or inspection agency that has been 
approved by an accreditation body that complies with DOC 
PS 20. In lieu of a grade mark, a certification of inspection 
issued by a lumber grading or inspection agency meeting the 
requirements of this section shall be accepted. 

R602.1.1 End-jointed lumber. Approved end-jointed 
lumber identified by a grade mark conforming to Section 
R602.1 may be used interchangeably with solid-sawn 
members of the same species and grade. End-jointed lum- 
ber used in an assembly required elsewhere in this code to 
have a fire-resistance rating shall have the designation 
"Heat Resistant Adhesive" or "HRA" included in its grade 
mark. 

R602.1.2 Structural glued laminated timbers. Glued 
laminated timbers shall be manufactured and identified as 
required in ANS1/AITC A 190.1 and ASTM D 3737. 

R602.1.3 Structural log members. Stress grading of 
structural log members of nonrectangular shape, as typi- 
cally used in log buildings, shall be in accordance with 
ASTM D 3957. Such structural log members shall be iden- 
tified by the grade mark of an approved lumber grading or 
inspection agency. In lieu of a grade mark on the material, 
a certificate of inspection as to species and grade, issued 
by a lumber-grading or inspection agency meeting the 
requirements of this section, shall be permitted to be 
accepted. 



R602.1.4 Structural composite lumber. Structural 
capacities for structural composite lumber shall be estab- 
lished and monitored in accordance with ASTM D 5456. 

R602.2 Grade. Studs shall be a minimum No. 3, standard or 
stud grade lumber. 

Exception: Bearing studs not supporting floors and non- 
bearing studs may be utility grade lumber, provided the 
studs are spaced in accordance with Table R602.3(5). 

R602.3 Design and construction. Exterior walls of wood- 
frame construction shall be designed and constructed in 
accordance with the provisions of this chapter and Figures 
R602.3(l) and R602.3(2) or in accordance with AF&PA's 
NDS. Components of exterior walls shall be fastened in 
accordance with Tables R602.3(l) through R602.3(4). Wall 
sheathing shall be fastened directly to framing members and, 
when placed on the exterior side of an exterior wall, shall be 
capable of resisting the wind pressures listed in Table 
R301.2(2) adjusted for height and exposure using Table 
R30 1.2(3). Wood structural panel sheathing used for exterior 
walls shall conform to DOC PS 1, DOC PS 2 or, when manu- 
factured in Canada, CSA 0437 or CSA 0325. All panels 
shall be identified for grade, bond classification, and Perfor- 
mance Category by a grade mark or certificate of inspection 
issued by an approved agency and shall conform to the 
requirements of Table R602.3(3). Wall sheathing used only 
for exterior wall covering purposes shall comply with Section 
R703. 

Studs shall be continuous from support at the sole plate to 
a support at the top plate to resist loads perpendicular to the 
wall. The support shall be a foundation or floor, ceiling or 
roof diaphragm or shall be designed in accordance with 
accepted engineering practice. 

Exception: Jack studs, trimmer studs and cripple studs at 
openings in walls that comply with Tables R502.5(l) and 

R502.5(2). 

R602.3.1 Stud size, height and spacing. The size, height 
and spacing of studs shall be in accordance with Table 
R602.3.(5). 

Exceptions: 

1 . Utility grade studs shall not be spaced more than 
16 inches (406 mm) on center, shall not support 
more than a roof and ceiling, and shall not exceed 
8 feet (2438 mm) in height for exterior walls and 
load-bearing walls or 10 feet (3048 mm) for inte- 
rior nonload-bearing walls. 

2. Studs more than 10 feet (3048 mm) in height 
which are in accordance with Table R602.3.1. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 8 



149 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.3(1) 
FASTENER SCHEDULE FOR STRUCTURAL MEMBERS 



ITEM 


DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING ELEMENTS 


NUMBER AND TYPE OF 

FASTENER 3 ' bc 


SPACING OF FASTENERS 


Roof 


1 


Blocking between joists or rafters to top plate, toe nail 


3-8d(2'/ 2 "x 0.113") 


— 


2 


Ceiling joists to plate, toe nail 


3-8d (27," x 0.113") 


— 


3 


Ceiling joists not attached to parallel rafter, laps over parti- 
tions, face nail 


3-10d 


— 


4 


Collar tie to rafter, face nail or 1 7 4 " x 20 gage ridge strap 


3-10d(3"x0.128") 


— 


5 


Rafter or roof truss to plate, toe nail 


3- 1 6d box nails (3 7/ x 0.1 35") 

or 3-10d common nails 

(3" x 0.148") 


2 toe nails on one side and 1 toe nail on 
opposite side of each rafter or truss 1 


6 


Roof rafters to ridge, valley or hip rafters: toe nail face nail 


4-16d(3'/ 2 "x0.135") 
3-16d(37 2 "x 0.135") 


— 


Wall 


7 


Built-up studs-face nail 


10d(3"x0.128") 


24"o.c. 


8 


Abutting studs at intersecting wall corners, face nail 


16d(3'/2"x0.135") 


12"o.c. 


9 


Built-up header, two pieces with 7/ spacer 


16d (37/ x 0.135") 


16" o.c. along each edge 


10 


Continued header, two pieces 


16d (37/ x 0.135") 


16" o.c. along each edge 


11 


Continuous header to stud, toe nail 


4-8d(27/x0.113") 


— 


12 


Double studs, face nail 


10d(3"x0.128") 


24" o.c. 


13 


Double top plates, face nail 


10d(3"x0.128") 


24" o.c. 


14 


Double top plates, minimum 24-inch offset of end joints, 
face nail in lapped area 


8-1 6d (37/ x 0.135") 


— 


15 


Sole plate to joist or blocking, face nail 


16d (37/ x 0.135") 


16" o.c. 


16 


Sole plate to joist or blocking at braced wall panels 


3-16d(37/x 0.135") 


16" o.c. 


17 


Stud to sole plate, toe nail 


3-8d(27/x 0.113") 

or 
2-16d(37/x 0.135") 




18 


Top or sole plate to stud, end nail 


2-16d(37/x 0.135") 


— 


19 


Top plates, laps at corners and intersections, face nail 


2-10d(3"x0.128") 


— 


20 


1 " brace to each stud and plate, face nail 


2-8d(27/x0.113") 
2 staples l 3 / 4 " 


— 


21 


1 " x 6" sheathing to each bearing, face nail 


2-8d (27/ x 0.113") 
2 staples 17/ 


— 


22 


1" x 8 " sheathing to each bearing, face nail 


2-8d (27, "x 0.113") 
3 staples l7 4 " 


— 


23 


Wider than 1 " x 8" sheathing to each bearing, face nail 


3-8d(27/x0.113") 
4 staples l 3 // 


— 


Floor 


24 


Joist to sill or girder, toe nail 


3-8d(27/x 0.113") 


— 


25 


Rim joist to top plate, toe nail (roof applications also) 


8d (27/ x 0.113") 


6" o.c. 


26 


Rim joist or blocking to sill plate, toe nail 


8d(2 1 /2"x0.113") 


6" o.c. 


27 


1 " x 6" subfloor or less to each joist, face nail 


2-8d(27/x0.113") 
2 staples l 3 // 


— 


28 


2 " subfloor to joist or girder, blind and face nail 


2-16d(37/x 0.135") 


— 


29 


2 " planks (plank & beam - floor & roof) 


2-16d (37/ x 0.135") 


at each bearing 


30 


Built-up girders and beams, 2-inch lumber layers 


10d(3"x0.128") 


Nail each layer as follows: 32" o.c. at 
top and bottom and staggered. 
Two nails at ends and at each splice. 


31 


Ledger strip supporting joists or rafters 


3-16d (37/ x 0.135") 


At each joist or rafter 



(continued) 



150 



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TABLE R602.3(1)— continued 
FASTENER SCHEDULE FOR STRUCTURAL MEMBERS 



ITEM 


DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING MATERIALS 


DESCRIPTION OF FASTENER" c > e 


SPACING OF FASTENERS 


Edges 
(inches) 1 


Intermediate supports" 1 ' 
(inches) 


Wood structural panels, subfloor, roof and interior wall sheathing to framing and particleboard wall sheathing to framing 


32 


3, „ _ 1, „ 
'8 '1 


6d common (2" x 0.1 13") nail (subfloor wall}' 
8d common (27 2 " x 0.131") nail (roof) f 


6 


12 s 


33 


%"-l" 


8d common nail (27 2 " x 0. 1 3 1 ") 


6 


12 E 


34 


1'V'-17 4 " 


lOd common (3" x 0.148") nail or 
8d (27 2 " x 0. 1 3 1 ") deformed nail 


6 


12 


Other wall sheathing" 


35 


7," structural cellulosic 
fiberboard sheathing 


7 2 " galvanized roofing nail, 7 / l6 " crown or 1 " crown 
staple 16 ga., l7 4 "long 


3 


6 


36 


25 / 31 " structural cellulosic 
fiberboard sheathing 


1 %" galvanized roofing nail, 7 / ]6 " crown or 1 " crown 
staple 16 ga., l7 2 "long 


3 


6 


37 


7 2 " gypsum sheathing* 1 


17 2 " galvanized roofing nail; staple galvanized, 
1 7 2 " long; 1 7 4 screws, Type W or S 


7 


7 


38 


% " gypsum sheathing d 


l7 4 " galvanized roofing nail; staple galvanized, 
17 8 " long; l 5 / 8 " screws, Type W or S 


7 


7 




Wood structural panels, combination subfloor underlayment to framing 


39 


7 4 " and less 


6d deformed (2" x 0.120") nail or 
8d common (27 2 " x 0.131 ") nail 


6 


12 


40 


V-i" 


8d common (27 2 " x 0.131") nail or 
8d deformed (27 2 " x 0.120") nail 


6 


12 


41 


17 S "-17 4 " 


lOd common (3" x 0.148") nail or 
8d deformed (27," x 0.120") nail 


6 


12 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s; 1 Ksi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. All nails are smooth-common, box or deformed shanks except where otherwise stated. Nails used for framing and sheathing connections shall have minimum 
average bending yield strengths as shown: 80 ksi for shank diameter of 0.192 inch (20d common nail), 90 ksi for shank diameters larger than 142 inch but 
not larger than 0.177 inch, and 100 ksi for shank diameters of 0.142 inch or less. 

b. Staples are 16 gage wire and have a minimum 7 / l6 -inch on diameter crown width. 

c. Nails shall be spaced at not more than 6 inches on center at all supports where spans are 48 inches or greater. 

d. Four-foot by 8-foot or 4-foot by 9-foot panels shall be applied vertically. 

e. Spacing of fasteners not included in this table shall be based on Table R602.3(2). 

f. For regions having basic wind speed of 1 10 mph or greater, 8d deformed (27," x 0.120) nails shall be used for attaching plywood and wood structural panel 
roof sheathing to framing within minimum 48-inch distance from gable end walls, if mean roof height is more than 25 feet, up to 35 feet maximum. 

g. For regions having basic wind speed of 100 mph or less, nails for attaching wood structural panel roof sheathing to gable end wall framing shall be spaced 6 
inches on center. When basic wind speed is greater than 1 00 mph, nails for attaching panel roof sheathing to intermediate supports shall be spaced 6 inches on 
center for minimum 48-inch distance from ridges, eaves and gable end walls; and 4 inches on center to gable end wall framing. 

h. Gypsum sheathing shall conform to ASTM C 1396 and shall be installed in accordance with GA 253. Fiberboard sheathing shall conform to ASTM C 208. 
i. Spacing of fasteners on floor sheathing panel edges applies to panel edges supported by framing members and required blocking and at all floor perimeters 

only. Spacing of fasteners on roof sheathing panel edges applies to panel edges supported by framing members and required blocking. Blocking of roof or 

floor sheathing panel edges perpendicular to the framing members need not be provided except as required by other provisions of this code. Floor perimeter 

shall be supported by framing members or solid blocking, 
j. Where a rafter is fastened to an adjacent parallel ceiling joist in accordance with this schedule, provide two toe nails on one side of the rafter and toe nails from 

the ceiling joist to top plate in accordance with this schedule. The toe nail on the opposite side of the rafter shall not be required. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



151 



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TABLE R602.3(2) 
ALTERNATE ATTACHMENTS TO TABLE R602.3(1) 



NOMINAL MATERIAL THICKNESS 
(inches) 


DESCRIPTION 3 "OF FASTENER AND LENGTH 
(inches) 


SPACING' OF FASTENERS 


Edges 
(inches) 


Intermediate supports 
(inches) 


Wood structural panels subfloor, roof 9 and wall sheathing to framing and particleboard wall sheathing to framing 


Up to 7, 


Staple 15 ga. l 3 / 4 


4 


8 


0.097 - 0.099 Nail 2'/ 4 


3 


6 


Staple 16 ga. l 3 / 4 


3 


6 


19 / 32 and 5 / 8 


0.113 Nail 2 


3 


6 


Staple 15 and 16 ga. 2 


4 


8 


0.097 - 0.099 Nail 2'/ 4 


4 


8 


%and 3 / 4 


Staple 14 ga. 2 


4 


8 


Staple 15 ga. 1% 


3 


6 


0.097 - 0.099 Nail 2'/ 4 


4 


8 


Staple 16 ga. 2 


4 


8 


1 


Staple 14 ga. 2'/ 4 


4 


8 


0.1 13 Nail 27 4 


3 


6 


Staple 15 ga. 27 4 


4 


8 


0.097 -0.099 Nail 27, 


4 


8 


NOMINAL MATERIAL THICKNESS 
(inches) 


DESCRIPTION ab OF FASTENER AND LENGTH 
(inches) 


SPACING" OF FASTENERS 


Edges 
(inches) 


Body of panel" 
(inches) 




Floor underlayment; plywood-hardboard-particleboard' 


Plywood 




'/ 4 and'7, 6 


l7 4 ring or screw shank nail-minimum 
127 2 ga. (0.099") shank diameter 


3 


6 


Staple 18 ga„ 7 / 8 , 3 / 16 crown width 


2 


5 


%> 3 4- '%2. and 7, 


1 7 4 ring or screw shank nail-minimum 
127,ga. (0.099") shank diameter 


6 


8 e 


19 / 32 , 5 / 8 ,%andV 4 


1 7, ring or screw shank nail-minimum 
127 2 ga. (0.099") shank diameter 


6 


8 


Staple 16 ga. 17, 


6 


8 




Hardboard' 


0.200 


1 7 2 long ring-grooved underlayment nail 


6 


6 


4d cement-coated sinker nail 


6 


6 


Staple 18 ga., 7 / 8 long (plastic coated) 


3 


6 




Particleboard 


% 


4d ring-grooved underlayment nail 


3 


6 


Staple 18 ga., 7 / 8 long, 3 / l6 crown 


3 


6 


\ 


6d ring-grooved underlayment nail 


6 


10 


Staple 16 ga., 1 7 s long, V g crown 


3 


6 


V. 


6d ring-grooved underlayment nail 


6 


10 


Staple 16 ga., l 5 / s long, V s crown 


3 


6 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Nail is a general description and may be T-head, modified round head or round head. 

b. Staples shall have a minimum crown width of 7 / 16 -inch on diameter except as noted. 

c. Nails or staples shall be spaced at not more than 6 inches on center at all supports where spans are 48 inches or greater. Nails or staples shall be spaced at not 
more than 1 2 inches on center at intermediate supports for floors. 

d. Fasteners shall be placed in a grid pattern throughout the body of the panel. 

e. For 5-ply panels, intermediate nails shall be spaced not more than 12 inches on center each way. 

f. Hardboard underlayment shall conform to CP A/ANSI Al 35.4 

g. Specified alternate attachments for roof sheathing shall be permitted for windspeeds less than 100 mph. Fasteners attaching wood structural panel roof 
sheathing to gable end wall framing shall be installed using the spacing listed for panel edges. 



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TABLE R602.3(3) 
REQUIREMENTS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL WALL SHEATHING USED TO RESIST WIND PRESSURES" bc 



MINIMUM NAIL 


MINIMUM WOOD 

STRUCTURAL 

PANEL SPAN 

RATING 


MINIMUM 

NOMINAL 

PANEL 

THICKNESS 

(inches) 


MAXIMUM WALL 

STUD SPACING 

(inches) 


PANEL NAIL SPACING 


MAXIMUM WIND SPEED 
(mph) 


Size 


Penetration 

(inches) 


Edges 
(inches o.c.) 


Field 
(inches o.c.) 


Wind exposure category 


B 


C 


D 


6d Common 
(2.0" x 0.1 13") 


1.5 


24/0 


% 


16 


6 


12 


110 


90 


85 


8d Common 
(2.5" x 0.131") 


1.75 


24/16 


\ 


16 


6 


12 


130 


110 


105 


24 


6 


12 


110 


90 


85 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Panel strength axis parallel or perpendicular to supports. Three-ply plywood sheathing with studs spaced more than 16 inches on center shall be applied with 
panel strength axis perpendicular to supports. 

b. Table is based on wind pressures acting toward and away from building surfaces per Section R301 .2. Lateral bracing requirements shall be in accordance with 
Section R602.10. 

c. Wood structural panels with span ratings of WalM6 or Wall-24 shall be permitted as an alternate to panels with a 24/0 span rating. Plywood siding rated 16 
o.c. or 24 o.c. shall be permitted as an alternate to panels with a 24/16 span rating. Wall-16 and Plywood siding 16 o.c. shall be used with studs spaced a 
maximum of 16 inches on center. 



TABLE R602.3(4) 
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR PARTICLEBOARD WALL SHEATHING 3 



THICKNESS 
(inch) 


GRADE 


STUD SPACING 
(inches) 


When siding is nailed to studs 


When siding is nailed to sheathing 


% 


M-l Exterior glue 


16 


— 


'4 


M-2 Exterior glue 


16 


16 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Wall sheathing not exposed to the weather. If the panels are applied horizontally, the end joints of the panel shall be offset so that four panels corners will not 
meet. All panel edges must be supported. Leave a '/ l6 -inch gap between panels and nail no closer than 3 / s inch from panel edges. 



TABLE R602.3(5) 
SIZE, HEIGHT AND SPACING OF WOOD STUDS" 



STUD SIZE 
(inches) 


BEARING WALLS 


NONBEARING WALLS 


Laterally 

unsupported 

stud height 9 

(feet) 


Maximum spacing 

when supporting a 

roof-ceiling 

assembly or a 

habitable attic 

assembly, only 

(inches) 


Maximum spacing 
when supporting one 

floor, plus a roof- 
ceiling assembly or a 
habitable attic 

assembly (inches) 


Maximum spacing 
when supporting two 

floors, plus a roof- 
ceiling assembly or a 
habitable attic 

assembly (inches) 


Maximum spacing 

when supporting 

one floor height" 

(feet) 


Laterally 

unsupported 

stud height* 

(feet) 


Maximum 
spacing 
(inches) 








A 












A. 














































' 














2x3" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


10 


16 


2x4 


10 


24 c 


16 c 


— 


24 


14 


24 


3x4 


10 


24 


24 


16 


24 


14 


24 


2x5 


10 


24 


24 


— 


24 


16 


24 


2x6 


10 


24 


24 


16 


24 


20 


24 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.093 m 2 . 

a. Listed heights are distances between points of lateral support placed perpendicular to the plane of the wall. Increases in unsupported height are permitted 
where justified by analysis. 

b. Shall not be used in exterior walls. 

c. A habitable attic assembly supported by 2 x 4 studs is limited to a roof span of 32 feet. Where the roof span exceeds 32 feet, the wall studs shall be increased 
to 2 x 6 or the studs shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



153 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 




TOP PLATE 



BOTTOM PLATE 



TOP PLATE 



X 
N. 



BAND JOIST 
OR BLOCKING . 

SILL PLATE 



>fc 



'//AWV/7 





RAFTERS AND CEILING 
JOISTS OR APPROVED 
ROOF TRUSS 



SECOND STORY 




FLOOR JOIST- 
SEE DRILLING AND 
NOTCHING PROVISIONS 
SECTION R502.8. 



JOIST IS PERMITTED TO 
BE CUT OR NOTCHED 
BETWEEN THESE LIMITS 



■ SPAN 



O 



"BAND JOIST OR 
BLOCKING 



BOTTOM PLATE 



FOR BLOCKING AND 
BRIDGING—SEE 
SECTION R502.7 



BEARING 
WALL 



, LAP JOIST 3 IN. MIN. 
OR SPLICE— SEE 
SECTION R502.6.1 



JOIST 



CRAWL SPACE OR 

BASEMENT 

FOUNDATION 



'/// \\V '//! AW '/// x\\V/// \\v 



WA 



'SUBFLOOR 



1 TOP PLATE- 
SEE DRILLING AND 
NOTCHING PROVISIONS 
SECTION R602.6.1 



' WALL STUD- 
SEE DRILLING AND 
NOTCHING PROVISIONS 
SECTION R602.6 



, JOIST NAILED TO 
STUD 



1 IN. x 4 INI. RIBBON 
CUT INTO STUD- 
SEE SECTION R502J 



SEE SECTION R602.8 
FOR FIRE BLOCKING 



W^7/ 



WW/// 



PLATFORM FRAMING 



INTERMEDIATE 
BEARING WALL 



MONOLITHIC 

SLAB-ON-GRADE 

FOUNDATION 



BALLOON FRAMING 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



FIGURE R602.3(1) 
TYPICAL WALL, FLOOR AND ROOF FRAMING 



154 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



SINGLE OR DOUBLE 
TOP PLATE 



FIREBLOCK AROUND 
PIPE 



WALL STUDS- 
SEE SECTION R602.3 



BOTTOM, 
PLATE 



SUBFLOOR' 



SILL PLATE' 



¥ 



< I 



Ud 



CUT PLATE TIED WITH 

,16 GAGE STEEL STRAP. 

SEE SECTION R602.6.1. 



/STAGGER JOINTS 24 IN. OR 
USE SPLICE PLATES- 
SEE SECTION R602.3.2 



JACK STUDS OR 
TRIMMERS 



Q 



H M «/ 



' HEADER- 
SEE TABLES R502.5(1) 
AND R502.5(2) 






SOLID BLOCKING 



FLOOR JOISTS 



FOUNDATION 
CRIPPLE WALL- 
SEE SECTION R602.9 



FOUNDATION 
WALL STUDS 



1 IN. BY 4 IN. 
DIAGONAL BRACE 
LET INTO STUDS 



ANCHOR BOLTS EMBEDDED IN 
FOUNDATION 6 FT. OC. MAX. 



CORNER AND PARTITION POSTS 



-4j 



1 



- ftih - -A 



APPLY APPROVED SHEATHING OR BRACE 
EXTERIOR WALLS WITH 1 IN. BY 4 IN. BRACES LET 
INTO STUDS AND PLATES AND EXTENDING FROM 
BOTTOM PLATE TO TOP PLATE, OR OTHER 
APPROVED METAL STRAP DEVICES INSTALLED IN 
ACCORDANCE WITH THE MANUFACTURER'S 
SPECIFICATIONS. SEE SECTION R602.10. 



NOTE: ATHIRD STUD AND/OR PARTITION INTERSECTION 
BACKING STUDS SHALL BE PERMITTED TO BE OMITTED 
THROUGH THE USE OF WOOD BACKUP CLEATS, METAL 
DRYWALL CLIPS OR OTHER APPROVED DEVICES THAT 
WILL SERVE AS ADEQUATE BACKING FOR THE FACING 
MATERIALS. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



FIGURE R602.3(2) 
FRAMING DETAILS 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



155 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.3.1 

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE LENGTH OF WOOD WALL STUDS EXPOSED TO WIND SPEEDS OF 100 MPH OR LESS 

IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES A, B, C, D„, D, and D 2 b ' c 



HEIGHT 
(feet) 


ON-CENTER SPACING (inches) 


24 


16 


12 


8 


Supporting a roof only 


>10 


2x4 


2x4 


2x4 


2x4 


12 


2x6 


2x4 


2x4 


2x4 


14 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


2x4 


16 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


2x4 


18 


NA" 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


20 


NA a 


NA a 


2x6 


2x6 


24 


NA" 


NA" 


NA a 


2x6 


Supporting one floor and a roof 


>10 


2x6 


2x4 


2x4 


2x4 


12 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


2x4 


14 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


16 


NA" 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


18 


NA a 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


20 


NA" 


NA a 


2x6 


2x6 


24 


NA' 


NA a 


NA" 


2x6 


Supporting two floors and a roof 


> 10 


2x6 


2x6 


2x4 


2x4 


12 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


14 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


16 


NA a 


NA a 


2x6 


2x6 


18 


NA- 


NA a 


2x6 


2x6 


20 


NA" 


NA" 


NA" 


2x6 


22 


NA a 


NA a 


NA" 


NA a 


24 


NA a 


NA a 


NA a 


NA a 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa 
1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Design required. 

b. Applicability of this table assumes the following: Snow load not exceeding 25 psf,/ b not less than 
tabular base design value by the repetitive use factor, and by the size factor for all species except 
dimensions for floors and roofs not exceeding 6 feet, maximum span for floors and roof not exceeding 
sheathing. Where the conditions are not within these parameters, design is required. 

c. Utility, standard, stud and No. 3 grade lumber of any species are not permitted. 

(continued) 



1310 psi determined by multiplying the AF&PA NDS 
southern pine, E not less than 1.6 x 10 6 psi, tributary 
12 feet, eaves not over 2 feet in dimension and exterior 



156 



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MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE LENGTH OF WOOD WALL STUDS EXPOSED TO WIND SPEEDS OF 100 MPH OR LESS 
IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES A, B, C, D , D, and D 2 




1 ROOF LOAD 



1 ROOF LOAD 
1 FLOOR LOAD 



1 ROOF LOAD 

2 FLOOR LOADS 



R602.3.2 Top plate. Wood stud walls shall be capped 
with a double top plate installed to provide overlapping at 
corners and intersections with bearing partitions. End 
joints in top plates shall be offset at least 24 inches (610 
mm). Joints in plates need not occur over studs. Plates 
shall be not less than 2-inches (51 mm) nominal thickness 
and have a width at least equal to the width of the studs. 

Exception: A single top plate may be installed in stud 
walls, provided the plate is adequately tied at joints, 
corners and intersecting walls by a minimum 3-inch by 
6-inch by a 0.036-inch-thick (76 mm by 152 mm by 
0.914 mm) galvanized steel plate that is nailed to each 
wall or segment of wall by six 8d nails on each side, 
provided the rafters or joists are centered over the studs 
with a tolerance of no more than 1 inch (25 mm). The 
top plate may be omitted over lintels that are ade- 
quately tied to adjacent wall sections with steel plates 
or equivalent as previously described. 



R602.3.3 Bearing studs. Where joists, trusses or rafters 
are spaced more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center and 
the bearing studs below are spaced 24 inches (610 mm) on 
center, such members shall bear within 5 inches (127 mm) 
of the studs beneath. 

Exceptions: 

1. The top plates are two 2-inch by 6-inch (38 mm 
by 140 mm) or two 3-inch by 4-inch (64 mm by 
89 mm) members. 

2. A third top plate is installed. 

3. Solid blocking equal in size to the studs is 
installed to reinforce the double top plate. 

R602.3.4 Bottom (sole) plate. Studs shall have full bear- 
ing on a nominal 2-by (51 mm) or larger plate or sill hav- 
ing a width at least equal to the width of the studs. 

R602.3.5 Braced wall panel uplift load path. Braced 
wall panels located at exterior walls that support roof raf- 



-** 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



157 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



ters or trusses (including stories below top story) shall 
have the framing members connected in accordance with 
one of the following: 

1. Fastening in accordance with Table R602.3(l) 
where: 

1.1. The basic wind speed does not exceed 90 
mph (40 m/s), the wind exposure category is 
B, the roof pitch is 5:12 or greater, and the 
roof span is 32 feet (9754 mm) or less, or 

1.2. The net uplift value at the top of a wall does 
not exceed 100 plf. The net uplift value shall 
be determined in accordance with Section 
R802. 1 1 and shall be permitted to be reduced 
by 60 plf (86 N/mm) for each full wall 
above. 

2. Where the net uplift value at the top of a wall 
exceeds 100 plf (146 N/mm), installing approved 
uplift framing connectors to provide a continuous 
load path from the top of the wall to the foundation 
or to a point where the uplift force is 100 plf (146 
N/mm) or less. The net uplift value shall be as 
determined in Item 1 .2 above. 

3. Wall sheathing and fasteners designed in accordance 
with accepted engineering practice to resist com- 
bined uplift and shear forces. 

R602.4 Interior load-bearing walls. Interior load-bearing 
walls shall be constructed, framed and fireblocked as speci- 
fied for exterior walls. 

R602.5 Interior nonbearing walls. Interior nonbearing 
walls shall be permitted to be constructed with 2 inch by 3 
inch (51 mm by 76 mm) studs spaced 24 inches (610 mm) on 
center or, when not part of a braced wall line, 2 inch by 4 
inch (51 mm by 102 mm) flat studs spaced at 16 inches (406 
mm) on center. Interior nonbearing walls shall be capped 
with at least a single top plate. Interior nonbearing walls shall 
be fireblocked in accordance with Section R602.8. 

R602.6 Drilling and notching of studs. Drilling and notch- 
ing of studs shall be in accordance with the following: 

1. Notching. Any stud in an exterior wall or bearing parti- 
tion may be cut or notched to a depth not exceeding 25 
percent of its width. Studs in nonbearing partitions may 
be notched to a depth not to exceed 40 percent of a sin- 
gle stud width. 

2. Drilling. Any stud may be bored or drilled, provided 
that the diameter of the resulting hole is no more than 
60 percent of the stud width, the edge of the hole is no 
more than V 8 inch (16 mm) to the edge of the stud, and 
the hole is not located in the same section as a cut or 
notch. Studs located in exterior walls or bearing parti- 
tions drilled over 40 percent and up to 60 percent shall 
also be doubled with no more than two successive dou- 
bted studs bored. See Figures R602.6(l) and R602.6(2). 

Exception: Use of approved stud shoes is permitted 
when they are installed in accordance with the man- 
ufacturer's recommendations. 



R602.6.1 Drilling and notching of top plate. When pip- 
ing or ductwork is placed in or partly in an exterior wall or 
interior load-bearing wall, necessitating cutting, drilling or 
notching of the top plate by more than 50 percent of its 
width, a galvanized metal tie not less than 0.054 inch thick 
(1.37 mm) (16 ga) and l'/ 2 inches (38 mm) wide shall be 
fastened across and to the plate at each side of the opening 
with not less than eight lOd (0.148 inch diameter) having a 
minimum length of l7 2 inches (38 mm) at each side or 
equivalent. The metal tie must extend a minimum of 6 
inches past the opening. See Figure R602.6.1. 

Exception: When the entire side of the wall with the 
notch or cut is covered by wood structural panel sheath- 
ing. 
R602.7 Headers. For header spans see Tables R502.5(l), 
R502.5(2)andR602.7.1. 

R602.7.1 Single member headers. Single headers shall 
be framed with a single flat 2Tnch-nominal (51 mm) 
member or wall plate not less in width than the wall studs 
on the top and bottom of the header in accordance with 
Figures R602.7.1(l) and R602.7.K2). 
R602.7.2 Wood structural panel box headers. Wood 
structural panel box headers shall be constructed in accor- 
dance with Figure R602.7.2 and Table R602.7.2. 
R602.7.3 Nonbearing walls. Load-bearing headers are 
not required in interior or exterior nonbearing walls. A sin- 
gle flat 2-inch by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) member 
may be used as a header in interior or exterior nonbearing 
walls for openings up to 8 feet (2438 mm) in width if the 
vertical distance to the parallel nailing surface above is not 
more than 24 inches (610 mm). For such nonbearing head- 
ers, no cripples or blocking are required above the header. 

R602.8 Fireblocking required. Fireblocking shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Section R302. 1 1 . 
R602.9 Cripple walls. Foundation cripple walls shall be 
framed of studs not smaller than the studding above. When 
exceeding 4 feet (1219 mm) in height, such walls shall be 
framed of studs having the size required for an additional 
story. 

Cripple walls with a stud height less than 14 inches (356 
mm) shall be continuously sheathed on one side with wood 
structural panels fastened to both the top and bottom plates in 
accordance with Table R602.3(l), or the cripple walls shall 
be constructed of solid blocking. 

All cripple walls shall be supported on continuous founda- 
tions. 

R602.10 Wall bracing. Buildings shall be braced in accor- 
dance with this section or, when applicable, Section R602.12. 
Where a building, or portion thereof, does not comply with 
one or more of the bracing requirements in this section, those 
portions shall be designed and constructed in accordance with 
Section R30 1.1. 



158 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TOP PLATES 



BORED HOLE MAX. 
DIAMETER 40 PERCENT 
OF STUD DEPTH 



5 / 8 IN. MIN. TO EDGE 



NOTCH MUST NOT EXCEED 25 
PERCENT OF STUD DEPTH 



BORED HOLES SHALL NOT BE 
LOCATED IN THE SAME CROSS 
SECTION OF CUT OR NOTCH IN 
STUD 




STUD 



IN. MIN. TO EDGE 



IF HOLE IS BETWEEN 40 PERCENT AND 
60 PERCENT OF STUD DEPTH, THEN STUD 
MUST BE DOUBLE AND NO MORE THAN TWO 
SUCCESSIVE STUDS ARE DOUBLED AND SO 
BORED 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

Note: Condition for exterior and bearing walls. 



FIGURE R602.6(1) 
NOTCHING AND BORED HOLE LIMITATIONS FOR EXTERIOR WALLS AND BEARING WALLS 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



159 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TOP PLATES 



BORED HOLE MAX. 
DIAMETER 60 PERCENT 
OF STUD DEPTH 



%IN. MIN. TO EDGE 



NOTCH MUST NOT EXCEED 
40 PERCENT OF STUD DEPTH 



BORED HOLES SHALL NOT BE 
LOCATED IN THE SAME CROSS 
SECTION OF CUT OR NOTCH IN 
STUD 




% IN. MIN. TO EDGE 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R602.6(2) 
NOTCHING AND BORED HOLE LIMITATIONS FOR INTERIOR NONBEARING WALLS 



EXTERIOR OR BEARING WALL* 



NOTCH GREATER THAN 50 
PERCENT OF THE PLATE WIDTH 




GAGE (0.054 IN.) AND 1.5 IN. WIDE 
METAL TIE FASTENED ACROSS AND 
TO THE PLATE AT EACH SIDE OF THE 
NOTCH WITH 8-1 Od NAILS EACH SIDE 



TOP PLATES 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R602.6.1 
TOP PLATE FRAMING TO ACCOMMODATE PIPING 



160 



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WALL CONSTRUCTION 







TABLE R602.7.1 
SPANS FOR MINIMUM No.2 GRADE SINGLE HEADER 8 ' 


>, c, 1 










SINGLE 

HEADERS 

SUPPORTING 


SIZE 


WOOD SPECIES 


GROUND SNOW LOAD (psf) 


<20" 


30 


50 


Building Width (feet)" 


20 


28 


36 


20 


28 


36 


20 


28 


36 






Spruce-Pine-Fir 


4-10 


4-2 


3-8 


4-3 


3-8 


3-3 


3-7 


3-0 


2-8 




2x8 


Hem-Fir 


5-1 


4-4 


3-10 


4-6 


3-10 


3-5 


3-9 


3-2 


2-10 






Douglas-Fir or Southern Pine 


5-3 


4-6 


4-0 


4-7 


3-11 


3-6 


3-10 


3-3 


2-11 




Spruce-Pine-Fir 


6-2 


5-3 


4-8 


5-5 


4-8 


4-2 


4-6 


3-11 


3-1 


Roof and ceiling 


2x10 


Hem-Fir 


6-6 


5-6 


4-11 


5-8 


4-11 


4-4 


4-9 


4-1 


3-7 






Douglas-Fir or Southern Pine 


6-8 


5-8 


5-1 


5-10 


5-0 


4-6 


4-11 


4-2 


3-9 




Spruce-Pine-Fir 


7-6 


6-5 


5-9 


6-7 


5-8 


4-5 


5-4 


3-11 


3-1 




2x12 


Hem-Fir 


7-10 


6-9 


6-0 


6-11 


5-11 


5-3 


5-9 


4-8 


3-8 






Douglas-Fir or Southern Pine 


8-1 


6-11 


6-2 


7-2 


6-1 


5-5 


5-11 


5-1 


4-6 






Spruce-Pine-Fir 


3-10 


3-3 


2-11 


3-9 


3-3 


2-11 


3-5 


2-11 


2-7 




2x8 


Hem-Fir 


4-0 


3-5 


3-1 


3-11 


3-5 


3-0 


3-7 


3-0 


2-8 


Roof, ceiling and 




Douglas-Fir or Southern Pine 


4-1 


3-7 


3-2 


4-1 


3-6 


3-1 


3-8 


3-2 


2-9 




Spruce-Pine-Fir 


4-11 


4-2 


3-8 


4-10 


4-1 


3-6 


4-4 


3-7 


2-10 


one center-bearing 


2x10 


Hem-Fir 


5-1 


4-5 


3-11 


5-0 


4-4 


3-10 


4-6 


3-11 


3-4 


floor 




Douglas-Fir or Southern Pine 


5-3 


4-6 


4-1 


5-2 


4-5 


4-0 


4-8 


4-0 


3-7 




Spruce-Pine-Fir 


5-8 


4-2 


3-4 


5-5 


4-0 


3-6 


4-9 


3-6 


2-10 




2x 12 


Hem-Fir 


5-11 


4-11 


3-11 


5-10 


4-9 


4-2 


5-5 


4-2 


3-4 






Douglas-Fir or Southern Pine 


6-1 


5-3 


4-8 


6-0 


5-2 


4-10 


5-7 


4-10 


4-3 






Spruce-Pine-Fir 


3-5 


2-11 


2-7 


3-4 


2-11 


2-7 


3-3 


2-10 


2-6 




2x8 


Hem-Fir 


3-7 


3-1 


2-9 


3-6 


3-0 


2-8 


3-5 


2-11 


2-7 


Roof, ceiling and 
one clear span floor 




Douglas-Fir or Southern Pine 


3-8 


3-2 


2-10 


3-7 


3-1 


2-9 


3-6 


3-0 


2-9 


2x10 


Spruce-Pine-Fir 
Hem-Fir 


4-4 
4-7 


3-7 
3-11 


2-10 
3-5 


4-3 
4-6 


3-6 
3-10 


2-9 

3-3 


4-2 
4-4 


3-4 
3-9 


2-7 
3-1 




Douglas-Fir or Southern Pine 


4-8 


4-0 


3-7 


4-7 


4-0 


3-6 


4-6 


3-10 


3-5 




Spruce-Pine-Fir 


4-11 


3-7 


2-10 


4-9 


3-6 


2-9 


4-6 


3-4 


2-7 




2x12 


Hem-Fir 


5-6 


4-3 


3-5 


5-6 


4-2 


3-3 


5-4 


3-11 


3-1 






Douglas-Fir or Southern Pine 


5-8 


4-11 


4-4 


5-7 


4-10 


4-3 


5-6 


4-8 


4-2 



For SI: I inch=25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. Spans are given in feet and inches. 

b. Table is based on a maximum roof-ceiling dead load of 15 psf. 

c. The header is permitted to be supported by an approved framing anchor attached to the full-height wall stud and to the header in lieu of the required jack stud. 

d. The 20 psf ground snow load condition shall apply only when the roof pitch is 9:12 or greater. In conditions where the ground snow load is 30 psf or less and 
the roof pitch is less than 9:12, use the 30 psf ground snow load condition. 

e. Building width is measured perpendicular to the ridge. For widths between those shown, spans are permitted to be interpolated. 

f. The header shall bear on a minimum of one jack stud at each end. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 8 



161 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 




TOP PLATE 



CRIPPLE 



JACK STUD 



FIGURE R602.7.1(1) 
SINGLE MEMBER HEADER IN EXTERIOR BEARING WALL 




TOP PLATE 



JACK STUD 



FIGURE R602.7.1(2) 
ALTERNATIVE SINGLE MEMBER HEADER WITHOUT CRIPPLE 



162 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.7.2 
MAXIMUM SPANS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL BOX HEADERS" 



HEADER CONSTRUCTION" 


HEADER DEPTH 
(inches) 


HOUSE DEPTH (feet) 


24 


26 


28 


30 


32 


Wood structural panel-one side 


9 

15 


4 
5 


4 
5 


3 
4 


3 
3 


3 


Wood structural panel-both sides 


9 

15 


7 
8 


5 
8 


5 

7 


4 

7 


3 
6 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Spans are based on single story with clear-span trussed roof or two-story with floor and roof supported by interior-bearing walls. 

b. See Figure R602.7.2 for construction details. 



CRIPPLE 



TOP PLATE 3 



STRENGTH AXIS 




HEADER DEPTH 



STRENGTH AXIS 



WOOD 



STRUCTURAL 
PANEL? 8 



INSULATION AS 
REQUIRED 




9 IN. OR 
15 IN. 



SECTION 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 
NOTES: 

a. The top plate shall be continuous over header. 

b. Jack studs shall be used for spans over 4 feet. 

c. Cripple spacing shall be the same as for studs. 

d. Wood structural panel faces shall be single pieces of l5 / 32 -inch-thick Exposure 1 (exterior glue) or thicker, installed on the interior or exterior or both sides of 
the header. 

e. Wood structural panel faces shall be nailed to framing and cripples with 8d common or galvanized box nails spaced 3 inches on center, staggering alternate 
nails 7, inch. Galvanized nails shall be hot-dipped or tumbled. 

FIGURE R602.7.2 
TYPICAL WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL BOX HEADER CONSTRUCTION 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 8 



163 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R602.10.1 Braced wall lines. For the purpose of deter- 
mining the amount and location of bracing required in 
each story level of a building, braced wall lines shall be 
designated as straight lines in the building plan placed in 
accordance with this section. 

R602.10.1.1 Length of a braced wall line. The length 
of a braced wall line shall be the distance between its 
ends. The end of a braced wall line shall be the inter- 
section with a perpendicular braced wall line, an 
angled braced wall line as permitted in Section 
R602. 10.1.4 or an exterior wall as shown in Figure 
R602.10.1.1. 



R602.10.1.2 Offsets along a braced wall line. All 
exterior walls parallel to a braced wall line shall be off- 
set not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) from the designated 
braced wall line location as shown Figure R602. 10.1.1. 
Interior walls used as bracing shall be offset not more 
than 4 feet (1219 mm) from a braced wall line through 
the interior of the building as shown in Figure 
R602.10.1.1. 

R602.10.1.3 Spacing of braced wall lines. The spac- 
ing between parallel braced wall lines shall be in accor- 
dance with Table R602. 10.1.3. Intermediate braced 



BWL A 



SPACING 

-BETWEEM- 

BWLA-B 



BWL 5 



SPACING 

-BETWEEN- 
BWL8-C 



BWLC 
I 




4'MAX- 



MAX 



T 

2 



'MAX 



TYPICAL BRACED WALL PLAN 






01 









BWL A 



SPACING 

-BETWEEN- 

BWLA-B 



BWLB 



SPACING 

-BETWEEN - 

BWLE-C 



BWL C 



i~\ 



>D Q , 



0=0 



T 

3 



4" MAX— *► 



, NO BRACED WALL LINE; • 

\ ROOF AND FLOOR BEAR 
\ AT SANE ELEVATION 




- NOTE: IN THE ABSENCE OF A 
BRACED WALL LINE, BWL A. B, 
C SHALL END AT EXTERIOR WALL 



_i l 

TYPICAL UPPER FLOOR BRACED WALL PLAN 




For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



FIGURE R602.10.1.1 
BRACED WALL LINES 



TABLER602.10.1.3 
BRACED WALL LINE SPACING 



APPLICATION 


CONDITION 


BUILDING TYPE 


BRACED WALL LINE SPACING CRITERIA 


Maximum Spacing 


Exception to Maximum Spacing 


Wind bracing 


85 mph to < HOmph 


Detached, 
townhouse 


60 feet 


None 


Seismic bracing 


SDC A - C 


Detached 


Use wind bracing 


SDC A - B 


Townhouse 


Use wind bracing 


SDCC 


Townhouse 


35 feet 


Up to 50 feet when length of required bracing per 
Table R602. 10.3(3) is adjusted in accordance with 
Table R602. 10.3(4). 


SDC D , D„ D 2 


Detached, town- 
houses, one- and 
two-story only 


25 feet 


Up to 35 feet to allow for a single room not to exceed 
900 square feet. Spacing of all other braced wall lines 
shall not exceed 25 feet. 


SDCD U ,D„D 2 


Detached, 
townhouse 


25 feet 


Up to 35 feet when length of required bracing per 
Table R602. 10.3(3) is adjusted in accordance with 
Table R602. 10.3(4). 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 , 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 



164 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 6 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



wall lines through the interior of the building shall be 
permitted. 

R602.10.1.4 Angled walls. Any portion of a wall along 
a braced wall line shall be permitted to angle out of 
plane for a maximum diagonal length of 8 feet (2438 
mm). Where the angled wall occurs at a corner, the 
length of the braced wall line shall be measured from 
the projected corner as shown in Figure R602.10.1.4. 
Where the diagonal length is greater than 8 feet (2438 
mm), it shall be considered a separate braced wall line 
and shall be braced in accordance with Section 
R602.10.1. 

R602.10.2 Braced wall panels. Braced wall panels shall 
be full-height sections of wall that shall have no vertical or 
horizontal offsets. Braced wall panels shall be con- 
structed and placed along a braced wall line in accordance 
with this section and the bracing methods specified in Sec- 
tion R602.1 0.4. 

R602.10.2.1 Braced wall panel uplift load path. The 
bracing lengths in Table R602. 10.3(1) apply only when 
uplift loads are resisted in accordance with Section 
R602.3.5. 

R602.10.2.2 Locations of braced wall panels. A 

braced wall panel shall begin within 10 feet (3810 mm) 
from each end of a braced wall line as determined in 
Section R602.10.1.1. The distance between adjacent 
edges of braced wall panels along a braced wall line 
shall be no greater than 20 feet (6096 mm) as shown in 
Figure R602. 10.2.2. 



R602.10.2.2.1 Location of braced wall panels in 
Seismic Design Categories D , D, and I> 2 . Braced 
wall panels shall be located at each end of a braced 
wall line. 

Exception: Braced wall panels constructed of 
Methods WSP or BV-WSP and continuous 
sheathing methods as specified in Section 
R602.10.4 shall be permitted to begin no more 
than 10 feet (3048 mm) from each end of a 
braced wall line provided each end complies with 
one of the following. 

1. A minimum 24-inch- wide (610 mm) panel 
for Methods WSP, BV-WSP, CS-WSP, 
CS-G, and CS-PF, and 32-inch-wide 
(813 mm) panel for Method CS-SFB is 
applied to each side of the building corner 
as shown in Condition 4 of Figure 
R602.10.7. 

2. The end of each braced wall panel closest 
to the end of the braced wall line shall have 
an 1,800 lb (8 kN) hold-down device fas- 
tened to the stud at the edge of the braced 
wall panel closest to the corner and to the 
foundation or framing below as shown in 
Condition 5 of Figure R602.10.7. 

3. For Method BV-WSP, hold-down devices 
shall be provided in accordance with Table 
R602. 10.6.5 at the ends of each braced 
wall panel. 



PROJECTED - 
CORNER. 



a 

UJ 

O 



00 



rf^— 



BRACED WALL LINE 1 



PROJECTED LENGTH OF BRACING - 




NOTE: IF THE DIAGONAL WALL IS GREATER 
THAN 8 FEET LONG, THEN IT MUST BE TREATED 
AS A SEPARATE BRACED WALL LINE. 



For SI: l foot = 304.8 mm. 



FIGURE R602.10.1 .4 

ANGLED WALLS 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



165 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R602. 10.2.3 Minimum number of braced wall pan- 
els. Braced wall lines with a length of 16 feet 
(4877 mm) or less shall have a minimum of two braced 
wall panels of any length or one braced wall panel 
equal to 48 inches (1219 mm) or more. Braced wall 
lines greater than 16 feet (4877 mm) shall have a mini- 
mum of two braced wall panels. 

R602.10.3 Required length of bracing. The required 
length of bracing along each braced wall line shall be 
determined as follows. 

1 . All buildings in Seismic Design Categories A and B 
shall use Table R602.10.3Q) and the applicable 
adjustment factors in Table R602.10.3(2). 

2. Detached buildings in Seismic Design Category C 
shall use Table R602.10.3(l) and the applicable 
adjustment factors in Table R602. 10.3(2). 

3. Townhouses in Seismic Design Category C shall use 
the greater value determined from Table 
R602.10.3(l) or R602.10.3(3) and the applicable 
adjustment factors in Table R602.10.3(2) or 
R602. 10.3(4) respectively. 

4. All buildings in Seismic Design Categories D , D ( 
and D 2 shall use the greater value determined from 



Table R602.10.3(l) or R602.10.3(3) and the appli- 
cable adjustment factors in Table R602. 10.3(2) or 
R602. 10.3(4) respectively. 

Only braced wall panels parallel to the braced wall line 
shall contribute toward the required length of bracing of 
that braced wall line. Braced wall panels along an angled 
wall meeting the minimum length requirements of Tables 
R602.10.5 and R602.10.5.2 shall be permitted to contrib- 
ute its projected length toward the minimum required 
length of bracing for the braced wall line as shown in Fig- 
ure R602.10.1.4. Any braced wall panel on an angled wall 
at the end of a braced wall line shall contribute its pro- 
jected length for only one of the braced wall lines at the 
projected corner. 

Exception: The length of wall bracing for dwellings in 
Seismic Design Categories D , D, and D 2 with stone or 
masonry veneer installed per Section R703.7 and 
exceeding the first-story height shall be in accordance 
with Section R602.10.6.5. 

R602.10.4 Construction methods for braced wall pan- 
els. Intermittent and continuously sheathed braced wall 
panels shall be constructed in accordance with this section 
and the methods listed in Table R602.10.4. 




NOTE: CONTINUOUS 
SHEATHING METHODS 
REQUIRE ALL FRAMED 
PORTIONS OF THE BRACED 
WALL LINE TO BE SHEATHED. 





CL 


, 


















D 






Z 






j> 






lii 
K 
3 


—1 
< 

a 

UJ 

o 
< 


BRmC£[>'.'.'A:: 

PAMEt 


a 

UJ 


PAtffit. 


A 

: : 


CD 

"- 5 
O 
o 












CO 


1 











For SI: 1 foot = 304.! 



FIGURE R602.10.2.2 

LOCATION OF BRACED WALL PANELS 



166 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602. 10.3(1) 
BRACING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON WIND SPEED 



• EXPOSURE CATEGORY B 

• 30 FOOT MEAN ROOF HEIGHT 

• 10 FOOT EAVE-TO-RIDGE HEIGHT 
10 FOOT WALL HEIGHT 

2 BRACED WALL LINES 


MINIMUM TOTAL LENGTH (FEET) OF BRACED WALL PANELS 
REQUIRED ALONG EACH BRACED WALL LINE" 


Basic Wind 
Speed 
(mph) 


Story Location 


Braced Wall 

Line Spacing 

(feet) 


Method LIB" 


Method GB 


Methods 

DWB, WSP, SFB, 

PBS, PCP, HPS, 

CS-SFB C 


Methods 

CS-WSP, CS-G, 

CS-PF 






10 


3.5 


3.5 


2.0 


1.5 




A 


20 


6.0 


6.0 


3.5 


3.0 




a a 






30 
40 


8.5 
11.5 


8.5 
11.5 


5.0 
6.5 


4.5 
5.5 




LJ □ 






50 


14.0 


14.0 


8.0 


7.0 






60 


16.5 


16.5 


9.5 


8.0 




10 


6.5 


6.5 


3.5 


3.0 




A 


20 


11.5 


11.5 


6.5 


5.5 


<85 




A 


k 






30 
40 
50 


16.5 
21.5 
26.5 


16.5 
21.5 
26.5 


9.5 
12.5 
15.0 


8.0 
10.5 
13.0 






60 


31.5 


31.5 


18.0 


15.5 




10 


NP 


9.0 


5.5 


4.5 




A 


20 


NP 


17.0 


10.0 


8.5 










30 
40 


NP 
NP 


24.5 
32.0 


14.0 
18.0 


12.0 
15.5 










50 


NP 


39.0 


22.5 


19.0 






60 


NP 


46.5 


26.5 


22.5 






10 


3.5 


3.5 


2.0 


2.0 




A 


£ 

s^^ 


k 


20 
30 


7.0 
9.5 


7.0 
9.5 


4.0 
5.5 


3.5 
5.0 




A □ 






40 

50 


12.5 
15.5 


12.5 
15.5 


7.5 
9.0 


6.0 

7.5 






60 


18.5 


18.5 


10.5 


9.0 




10 


7.0 


7.0 


4.0 


3.5 




A 


20 


13.0 


13.0 


7.5 


6.5 


<90 


, 


A 


i. 


— 




30 
40 
50 


18.5 
24.0 
29.5 


18.5 
24.0 
29.5 


10.5 
14.0 
17.0 


9.0 
12.0 
14.5 






60 


35.0 


35.0 


20.0 


17.0 




10 


NP 


10.5 


6.0 


5.0 




A 


20 


NP 


19.0 


11.0 


9.5 






~T 


30 


NP 


27.5 


15.5 


13.5 






J 


40 


NP 


35.5 


20.5 


17.5 






L3 


50 


NP 


44.0 


25.0 


21.5 






60 


NP 


52.0 


30.0 


25.5 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 69 



167 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.1 0.3(1)— continued 
BRACING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON WIND SPEED 



EXPOSURE CATEGORY B 

30 FOOT MEAN ROOF HEIGHT 

10 FOOT EAVE-TO-RIDGE HEIGHT 

10 FOOT WALL HEIGHT 

2 BRACED WALL LINES 



MINIMUM TOTAL LENGTH (FEET) OF BRACED WALL PANELS 
REQUIRED ALONG EACH BRACED WALL LINE 3 



Basic Wind 
Speed 

(mph) 



Story Location 



Braced Wall 
Line Spacing 

(feet) 



Method LIB" 



Method GB 



Methods 

DWB, WSP, SFB, 

PBS, PCP, HPS, 

CS-SFB C 



Methods 

CS-WSP, CS-G, 

CS-PF 



E3 





Zx 



Z\ 



< 100 



10 
20 
30 
40 
50 
60 



4.5 

8.5 

12.0 

15.5 

19.0 

22.5 



10 

20 
30 
40 
50 
60 



8.5 

16.0 

23.0 

29.5 

36.5 

43.5 



10 
20 
30 
40 
50 
60 



NP 
NP 
NP 
NP 
NP 
NP 



4.5 
8.5 
12.0 
15.5 
19.0 
22.5 



8.5 

16.0 

23.0 

29.5 

36.5 

43.5 



12.5 
23.5 
34.0 
44.0 
54.0 
64.0 



2.5 
5.0 
7.0 
9.0 
11.0 
13.0 



5.0 
9.0 
13.0 
17.0 
21.0 
25.0 



7.5 

13.5 

19.5 

25.0 

31.0 

36.5 



2.5 
4.0 
6.0 
7.5 
9.5 
11.0 



4.5 

8.0 

11.0 

14.5 

18.0 

21.0 



6.0 
11.5 
16.5 
21.5 
26.5 
31.0 




< 1 10 c 



/\ 


/\ 



z\ 



10 
20 
30 
40 
50 
60 



5.5 

10.0 

14.5 

18.5 

23.0 

27.5 



10 
20 
30 
40 
50 
60 



10.5 
19.0 

27.5 
36.0 
44.0 
52.5 



10 
20 
30 
40 
50 
60 



NP 
NP 
NP 
NP 
NP 
NP 



5.5 

10.0 

14.5 

18.5 

23.0 

27.5 



10.5 
19.0 

27.5 
36.0 
44.0 

52.5 



15.5 
28.5 
41.0 
53.0 
65.5 
77.5 



3.0 

6.0 

8.5 

11.0 

13.0 

15.5 



6.0 
11.0 
16.0 
20.5 
25.5 
30.0 



9.0 
16.5 
23.5 
30.5 
37.5 
44.5 



3.0 
5.0 
7.0 
9.0 
11.5 
13.5 



5.0 
9.5 
13.5 
17.5 

21.5 

25.5 



7.5 

14.0 

20.0 

26.0 

32.0 

37.5 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 305 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Linear interpolation shall be permitted. 

b. Method LIB shall have gypsum board fastened to at least one side with nails or screws 
R702.3.5 for interior gypsum board. Spacing of fasteners at panel edges shall not exceed 

c. Method CS-SFB does not apply where the wind speed is greater than 1 00 mph. 



in accordance withTable R602.3O) for exterior sheathing or Table 
8 inches. 



168 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.1 0.3(2) 
WIND ADJUSTMENT FACTORS TO THE REQUIRED LENGTH OF WALL BRACING 



ADJUSTMENT BASED ON 


STORY/ SUPPORTING 


CONDITION 


ADJUSTMENT FACTOR 3 b 
[multiply length from Table 
R602.1 0.3(1) by this factor] 


APPLICABLE METHODS 






B 


1.00 






One-story structure 


C 

D 


1.20 
1.50 






B 


1.00 


Exposure category 


Two-story structure 


C 
D 


1.30 
1.60 






B 


1.00 




Three-story structure 


C 
D 


1.40 

1.70 








< 5 feet 


0.70 




Roof only 


10 feet 
15 feet 
20 feet 


1.00 
1.30 
1.60 






< 5 feet 


0.85 


Roof eave-to-ridge height 


Roof + 1 floor 


10 feet 
15 feet 
20 feet 


1.00 
1.15 
1.30 


All methods 




< 5 feet 


0.90 




Roof + 2 floors 


10 feet 
15 feet 
20 feet 


1.00 

1.10 

Not permitted 








8 feet 


0.90 






9 feet 


0.95 




Wall height adjustment 


Any story 


10 feet 

1 1 feet 

12 feet 


1.00 
1.05 
1.10 








2 


1.00 


Number of braced wall lines 
(per plan direction) 


Any story 


3 

4 

<5 


1.30 
1.45 
1.60 








Fastened to the end studs of 






Additional 800-pound hold- 
down device 


Top story only 


each braced wall panel and 
to the foundation or framing 
below 


0.80 


DWB, WSP, SFB. 
PBS, PCP, HPS 


Interior gypsum board finish 
(or equivalent) 


Any story 


Omitted from inside face of 
braced wall panels 


1.40 


DWB, WSP, SFB,PBS, 

PCP, HPS, CS-WSP, 

CS-G, CS-SFB 






4 inches o.c. at panel edges, 






Gypsum board fastening 


Any story 


including top and bottom 
plates, and all horizontal 
joints blocked 


0.7 


GB 



For St: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 305 mm, 1 pound = 4.48 N. 

a. Linear interpolation shall be permitted. 

b. The total adjustment factor is the product of all applicable adjustment factors. 

c. The adjustment factor is permitted to be 1.0 when determining bracing amounts for intermediate braced wall lines provided the bracing amounts on adjacent 
braced wall lines are based on a spacing and number that neglects the intermediate braced wall line. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



169 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 









TABLE R602.10.3(3) 
BRACING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY 






SOIL CLASS D b 
WALL HEIGHT = 10 FEET 
1 PSF FLOOR DEAD LOAD 
. 1 5 PSF ROOF/CEILING DEAD LOAD 

BRACED WALL LINE SPACING < 25 FEET 


MINIMUM TOTAL LENGTH (FEET) OF BRACED WALL PANELS 
REQUIRED ALONG EACH BRACED WALL LINE a 


Seismic Design 
Category 


Story Location 


Braced Wall 

Line Length 

(feet) 


Method LIB' 


Method GB 


Methods 

DWB, SFB, 

PBS, PCP, 

HPS, CS-SFB" 


Method 
WSP 


Methods 

CS-WSP, 

CS-G 






10 


2.5 


2.5 


2.5 


1.6 


1.4 




x A 


20 


5.0 


5.0 


5.0 


3.2 


2.7 










30 


7.5 


7.5 


7.5 


4.8 


4.1 




fzi : 










40 


10.0 


10.0 


10.0 


6.4 


5.4 






50 


12.5 


12.5 


12.5 


8.0 


6.8 




10 


NP 


4.5 


4.5 


3.0 


2.6 




. Z\ 


20 


NP 


9.0 


9.0 


6.0 


5.1 


C 

(townhouses only) 




/\ 


\ , 


- 




30 
40 


NP 

NP 


13.5 
18.0 


13.5 
18.0 


9.0 
12.0 


7.7 
10.2 






50 


NP 


22.5 


22.5 


15.0 


12.8 




10 


NP 


6.0 


6.0 


4.5 


3.8 




Z\ 


20 


NP 


12.0 


12.0 


9.0 


7.7 










30 


NP 


18.0 


18.0 


13.5 


11.5 










40 


NP 


24.0 


24.0 


18.0 


15.3 






50 


NP 


30.0 


30.0 


22.5 


19.1 






10 


NP 


2.8 


2.8 


1.8 


1.6 




s\ 


/^ 




20 
30 


NP 

NP 


5.5 
8.3 


5.5 
8.3 


3.6 

5.4 


3.1 
4.6 




& 










40 


NP 


11.0 


11.0 


7.2 


6.1 






50 


NP 


13.8 


13.8 


9.0 


7.7 




10 


NP 


5.3 


5.3 


3.8 


3.2 






20 


NP 


10.5 


10.5 


7.5 


6.4 


D„ 


^ 




30 


NP 


15.8 


15.8 


11.3 


9.6 












40 


NP 


21.0 


21.0 


15.0 


12.8 






50 


NP 


26.3 


26.3 


18.8 


16.0 




10 


NP 


7.3 


7.3 


5.3 


4.5 






20 


NP 


14.5 


14.5 


10.5 


9.0 








30 


NP 


21.8 


21.8 


15.8 


13.4 








40 


NP 


29.0 


29.0 


21.0 


17.9 




50 


NP 


36.3 


36.3 


26.3 


22.3 



(continued) 



170 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.1 0.3(3)— continued 
BRACING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY 



SOIL CLASS D b 

WALL HEIGHT = 10 FEET 

10 PSF FLOOR DEAD LOAD 

1 5 PSF ROOF/CEILING DEAD LOAD 

BRACED WALL LINE SPACING < 25 FEET 


MINIMUM TOTAL LENGTH (FEET) OF BRACED WALL PANELS 
REQUIRED ALONG EACH BRACED WALL LINE" 


Seismic Design 
Category 


Story Location 


Braced Wall 

Line Length 

(feet) 


Method LIB C 


Method GB 


Methods 
DWB, SFB, 
PBS, PCP, 

HPS, CS- 
SFB d 


Method 
WSP 


Methods 

CS-WSP, 

CS-G 


D, 


A z\ 


ft 




10 
20 
30 
40 
50 


NP 

NP 
NP 
NP 
NP 


3.0 
6.0 
9.0 
12.0 
15.0 


3.0 
6.0 
9.0 
12.0 
15.0 


2.0 
4.0 
6.0 
8.0 
10.0 


1.7 
3.4 
5.1 
6.8 
8.5 








— 




f 


j 


A 




10 

20 
30 
40 
50 


NP 
NP 
NP 
NP 
NP 


6.0 
12.0 
18.0 
24.0 
30.0 


6.0 
12.0 
18.0 
24.0 
30.0 


4.5 

9.0 
13.5 
18.0 

22.5 


3.8 
7.7 
11.5 
15.3 
19.1 




/\ 




10 
20 
30 
40 
50 


NP 
NP 
NP 
NP 
NP 


8.5 
17.0 

25.5 
34.0 

42.5 


8.5 
17.0 

25.5 
34.0 

42.5 


6.0 
12.0 
18.0 
24.0 
30.0 


5.1 

10.2 

15.3 

20.4 

25.5 


D 2 


& 


/S 




^ 




10 

20 
30 
40 
50 


NP 
NP 
NP 
NP 
NP 


4.0 
8.0 
12.0 
16.0 
20.0 


4.0 
8.0 
12.0 
16.0 
20.0 


2.5 
5.0 
7.5 
10.0 
12.5 


2.1 
4.3 
6.4 
8.5 
10.6 




A 


\ 


j 


10 
20 
30 
40 
50 


NP 
NP 
NP 
NP 
NP 


7.5 
15.0 
22.5 
30.0 
37.5 


7.5 
15.0 
22.5 
30.0 
37.5 


5.5 
11.0 
16.5 
22.0 

27.5 


4.7 
9.4 
14.0 
18.7 
23.4 




A 


: 


10 
20 
30 
40 
50 


NP 
NP 
NP 
NP 

NP 


NP 
NP 

NP 
NP 
NP 


NP 
NP 

NP 

NP 
NP 


NP 
NP 

NP 
NP 

NP 


NP 
NP 

NP 
NP 
NP 


Cripple wall below 
one- or two-story dwelling 


10 
20 
30 
40 
50 


NP 
NP 
NP 
NP 
NP 


NP 
NP 
NP 
NP 
NP 


NP 
NP 
NP 
NP 
NP 


7.5 

15.0 

22.5 

30.0 

37.5 


6.4 
12.8 
19.1 
25.5 
31.9 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 305 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. Linear interpolation shall be permitted. 

b. Wall bracing lengths are based on a soil site class "D." Interpolation of bracing length between the S Js values associated with the Seismic Design Categories 
shall be permitted when a site-specific S js value is determined in accordance with Section 161 3.3 of the Internationa! Building Code. 

c. Method LIB shall have gypsum board fastened to at least one side with nails or screws per Table R602.3Q) for exterior sheathing or Table R702.3.5 for 
interior gypsum board. Spacing of fasteners at panel edges shall not exceed 8 inches. 

d. Method CS-SFB applies in SDC C only. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 18 



171 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.1 0.3(4) 
SEISMIC ADJUSTMENT FACTORS TO THE REQUIRED LENGTH OF WALL BRACING 



ADJUSTMENT 
BASED ON: 


STORY/SUPPORTING 


CONDITION 


ADJUSTMENT 

FACTOR 3 » 

[Multiply length from 

Table R602. 10.3(1) by 

this factor] 


APPLICABLE 
METHODS 


Story height 
(Section 301.3) 


Any story 


< 10 feet 
> 10 feet and < 12 feet 


1.0 
1.2 


All methods 


Braced wall line spacing, 
townhouses in SDC C 


Any story 


< 35 feet 
> 35 feet and < 50 feet 


1.0 
1.43 


Braced wall line spacing, 
in SDC D , D„ D 2 C 


Any story 


> 25 feet and < 30 feet 

> 30 feet and < 35 feet 


1.2 
1.4 


Wall dead load 


Any story 


> 8 psf and < 1 5 psf 

<8psf 


1.0 
0.85 


Roof/ceiling dead load for 
wall supporting 


Roof only or roof plus one or 
two stories 


<15psf 


1.0 


Roof plus one or two stories 


> 15 psf and < 25 psf 

> 15 psf and < 25 psf 


1.1 

1.2 


Roof only 


Walls with stone or 
masonry veneer, town- 
houses in SDC' U 


6 B 


A 




1.0 


All intermittent and 
continuous methods 


A 

A Lis 

61! 




1.5 


6 


§' 


A 




1.5 


Walls with stone or 
masonry veneer, detached 
one-and two-family 
dwellings in SDC D - D," 


Any story 


See Table R602. 10.6.5 


BV-WSP 


Interior gypsum board 
finish (or equivalent) 


Any story 


Omitted from 
inside face of braced wall panels 


1.5 


DWB, WSP, SFB, 

PBS, PCP, HPS, 

CS-WSP, CS-G, 

CS-SFB 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, I pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. Linear interpolation shall be permitted. 

b. The total length of braci ng required for a given wall line is the product of all applicable adjustment factors. 

c. The length-to- width ratio for the floor/roof diaphragm shall not exceed 3:1. The top plate lap splice nailing shall be a minimum of 1 2- 1 6d nails on each side 
of the splice. 

d. Applies to stone or masonry veneer exceeding the first story height. See Section R602. 10.6.5 for requirements when stone or masonry veneer does not exceed 
the first story height. 

e. The adjustment factor for stone or masonry veneer shall be applied to all exterior braced wall lines and all braced wall lines on the interior of the building, 
backing or perpendicular to and laterally supported veneered walls. 



172 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.10.4 
BRACING METHODS 



METHODS, MATERIAL 



MINIMUM THICKNESS 



FIGURE 



CONNECTION CRITERIA 8 



Fasteners 



Spacing 



LIB 

Let-in-bracing 



1x4 wood or 

approved metal straps 

at 45° to 60° angles for 

maximum 16" 

stud spacing 



■DM 



Wood: 2-8d common nails 

or 

3-8d (27 2 " long x 0.1 13" dia.) nails 



Wood: per stud and 
top and bottom plates 



Metal strap: per manufacturer 



Metal: 
per manufacturer 



DWB 

Diagonal 
wood boards 



3 / 4 "(l" nominal) for 

maximum 24" 

stud spacing 




2-8d (27 2 " long x 0.113" dia.) nails 

or 

2 - l ; 7 4 "long staples 



Per stud 



-3 
o 



pa 



WSP 

Wood 

structural panel 

(See Section R604) 



: 



Exterior sheathing per 
Table R602.3(3) 



6" edges 12" field 



Interior sheathing per 
Table R602.3(l) or R602.3(2) 



Varies by fastener 



BV-WSP* 

Wood Structural 

Panels with Stone 

or Masonry Veneer 

(See Section 

R602. 10.6.5) 



See Figure R602. 10.6.5 



8d common (27," x 0.131) nails 



4" at panel edges 
12" at intermediate 
supports 4" at braced 
wall panel end posts 



SFB 

Structural 
fiberboard sheath- 
ing 



7," or %" for 

maximum 16" 

stud spacing 




17 2 " long x 0.12" dia. (for 7," thick 

sheathing) lV 4 " long x 0.12" dia. 

(for 25 /, 2 " thick sheathing) 

galvanized roofing nails or 8d common 

(27 2 "long x 0.131 "dia.) nails 



3 "edges 6" field 



GB 

Gypsum board 



Nails or screws per Table R602.3(l ) for 
exterior locations 



PBS 

Particleboard 

sheathing 

(See Section R605) 



3 / 8 "or7,"for 

maximum 16" 

stud spacing 




PCP 

Portland 
cement plaster 



HPS 

Hardboard 
panel siding 



ABW 

Alternate 
braced wall 



See Section R703.6 for 

maximum 16" 

stud spacing 



7 / l6 " for maximum 16' 
stud spacing 




i 



Nails or screws per Table R702.3.5 for 
interior locations 



For all braced wall 
panel locations: 7" 
edges (including top 
and bottom plates) 7" 
field 



For 7 8 ", 6d common 
(2" long x 0.1 13 "dia.) nails 

For 7 2 ", 8d common 
(27 2 " long x 0.131" dia.) nails 



l7 2 "long, 1 1 gage, 7 / l6 "dia. head nails 

or 

7 / 8 " long, 1 6 gage staples 



0.092" dia., 0.225" dia. head nails with 

length to accommodate 1 7," 

penetration into studs 



See Section R602. 10.6. 1 



3 " edges 6 " field 



6"o.c. on all framing 
members 



4 " edges 8 " field 



See 
Section R602. 10.6.1 



(continued) 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 



173 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.1 0.4— continued 
BRACING METHODS 



METHODS, MATERIAL 



MINIMUM THICKNESS 



FIGURE 



CONNECTION CRITERIA" 



Fasteners 



Spacing 



XI 
G 



2 



CQ 






00 



o 
U 



PFH 

Portal frame with 
hold-downs 




See Section R602. 10.6.: 



See Section R602.10.6.2 



PFG 

Portal frame at garage 



V 



See Section R602.1 0.6. 3 



See Section R602. 10.6.3 



CS-WSP 

Continuously sheathed 
wood structural panel 



V 




Exterior sheathing per 
Table R602.3(3) 



6 "edges 12" field 



Interior sheathing per 
Table R602.3(l) or R602.3(2) 



Varies by fastener 



CS-G"- C 

Continuously sheathed 

wood structural panel 

adjacent to garage 

openings 



V," 




V 



See Method CS-WSP 



See Method CS-WSP 



CS-PF 

Continuously sheathed 
portal frame 



7 V," 




See Section R602. 10.6.4 



See Section R602.10.6.4 



CS-SFB" 

Continuously sheathed 
structural fiberboard 



V 2 "or 25 / 32 "for 

maximum 16" 

stud spacing 




17 2 " long x 0.12" dia. 
(for V 2 " thick sheathing) 

l 3 / 4 "longx 0.12" dia. 

(for 25 / :!2 " thick sheathing) 

galvanized roofing nails or 

8d common 

(27 2 " long x 0.131" dia.) nails 



3 "edges 6" field 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 305 mm, 1 degree = 0.0175 rad, 1 pound per square foot = 47.8 N/nr, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Adhesive attachment of wall sheathing, including Method GB, shall not be permitted in Seismic Design Categories C, D„, D, and D.,. 

b. Applies to panels next to garage door opening when supporting gable end wall or roof load only. May only be used on one wall of the garage. In Seismic 
Design Categories D,„ D, and D, roof covering dead load may not exceed 3 psf. 

c. Garage openings adjacent to a Method CS-G panel shall be provided with a header in accordance with Table R502.5(1). A full height clear opening shall not 
be permitted adjacent to a Method CS-G panel. 

d. Method CS-SFB does not apply in Seismic Design Categories D„, D, and D 2 and in areas where the wind speed exceeds 100 mph. 

e. Method applies to detached one- and two-family dwellings in Seismic Design Categories D„ through D, only. 



174 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R602.10.4.1 Mixing methods. Mixing of bracing 
methods shall be permitted as follows: 

1. Mixing intermittent bracing and continuous 
sheathing methods from story to story shall be 
permitted. 

2. Mixing intermittent bracing methods from 
braced wall line to braced wall line within a story 
shall be permitted. Within Seismic Design Cate- 
gories A, B and C or in regions where the basic 
wind speed is less than or equal to 100 mph (45 
m/s), mixing of intermittent bracing and continu- 
ous sheathing methods from braced wall line to 
braced wall line within a story shall be permitted. 

3. Mixing intermittent bracing methods along a 
braced wall line shall be permitted in Seismic 
Design Categories A and B, and detached dwell- 
ings in Seismic Design Category C provided the 
length of required bracing in accordance with 
Table R602.10.3(l) or R602. 10.3(3) is the high- 
est value of all intermittent bracing methods 
used. 

4. Mixing of continuous sheathing methods CS- 
WSP, CS-G and CS-PF along a braced wall line 
shall be permitted. 

5. In Seismic Design Categories A and B, and for 
detached one- and two-family dwellings in Seis- 
mic Design Category C, mixing of intermittent 
bracing methods along the interior portion of a 
braced wall line with continuous sheathing meth- 
ods CS-WSP, CS-G and CS-PF along the exterior 
portion of the same braced wall line shall be per- 
mitted. The length of required bracing shall be 
the highest value of all intermittent bracing meth- 
ods used in accordance with Table R602.10.3(l) 
or R602. 10.3(3) as adjusted by Tables 
R602. 10.3(2) and R602. 10.3(4), respectively. 
The requirements of Section R602.10.7 shall 
apply to each end of the continuously sheathed 
portion of the braced wall line. 

R602.10.4.2 Continuous sheathing methods. Contin- 
uous sheathing methods require structural panel sheath- 
ing to be used on all sheathable surfaces on one side of 
a braced wall line including areas above and below 
openings and gable end walls and shall meet the 
requirements of Section R602.10.7. 

R602.10.4.3 Braced wall panel interior finish mate- 
rial. Braced wall panels shall have gypsum wall board 
installed on the side of the wall opposite the bracing 
material. Gypsum wall board shall be not less than 7 2 
inch (12.7 mm) in thickness and be fastened with nails 
or screws in accordance with Table R602.3(l) for exte- 
rior sheathing or Table R702.3.5 for interior gypsum 
wall board. Spacing of fasteners at panel edges for 
gypsum wall board opposite Method LIB bracing shall 
not exceed 8 inches (203 mm). Interior finish material 



shall not be glued in Seismic Design Categories D , D, 
and D 2 . 

Exceptions: 

1. Interior finish material is not required opposite 
wall panels that are braced in accordance with 
Methods GB, BV-WSP, ABW, PFH, PFG and 
CS-PF, unless otherwise required by Section 
R302.6. 

2. An approved interior finish material with an 
in-plane shear resistance equivalent to gypsum 
board shall be permitted to be substituted, 
unless otherwise required by Section R302.6. 

3. Except for Method LIB, gypsum wall board is 
permitted to be omitted provided the required 
length of bracing in Tables R602. 10.3(1) and 
R602. 10.3(3) is multiplied by the appropriate 
adjustment factor in Tables R602. 10.3(2) and 
R602. 10.3(4) respectively, unless otherwise 
required by Section R302.6. 

R602.10.5 Minimum length of a braced wall panel. The 
minimum length of a braced wall panel shall comply with 
Table R602.10.5. For Methods CS-WSP and CS-SFB, the 
minimum panel length shall be based on the adjacent clear 
opening height in accordance with Table R602.10.5 and 
Figure R602.10.5. When a panel has an opening on either 
side of differing heights, the taller opening height shall be 
used to determine the panel length. 

R602. 10.5.1 Contributing length. For purposes of 
computing the required length of bracing in Tables 
R602.10.3(l) and R602.10.3(3), the contributing length 
of each braced wall panel shall be as specified in Table 
R602.10.5. 

R602.10.5.2 Partial credit. For Methods DWB, WSP. 
SFB, PBS, PCP and HPS in Seismic Design Categories 
A, B and C, panels between 36 inches and 48 inches 
(914 mm and 121 9 mm)) in length shall be considered a 
braced wall panel and shall be permitted to partially 
contribute toward the required length of bracing in 
Tables R602.10.3(l) and R602. 10.3(3), and the contrib- 
uting length shall be determined from Table 
R602. 10.5.2. 

R602.10.6 Construction of Methods ABW, PFH, PFG, 
CS-PF and BV-WSP. Methods ABW, PFH, PFG, CS-PF 
and BV-WSP shall be constructed as specified in Sections 
R602. 10.6.1 through R602. 10.6.5. 

R602.10.6.1 Method ABW: Alternate braced wall 
panels. Method ABW braced wall panels shall be con- 
structed in accordance with Figure R602. 10.6.1. The 
hold-down force shall be in accordance with Table 
R602. 10.6.1. 

R602.10.6.2 Method PFH: Portal frame with hold- 
downs. Method PFH braced wall panels shall be con- 
structed in accordance with Figure R602. 10.6.2. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



175 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 





TABLE R602.10.5 
MINIMUM LENGTH OF BRACED WALL PANELS 






METHOD 
(See Table R602.1 0.4) 


MINIMUM LENGTH 8 
(inches) 


CONTRIBUTING LENGTH 
(inches) 


Wall Height 


8 feet 


9 feet 


10 feet 


11 feet 


1 2 feet 


DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP. HPS, BV-WSP 


48 


48 


48 


53 


58 


Actual" 


GB 


48 


48 


48 


53 


58 


Double sided = Actual 
Single sided = 0.5 x Actual 


LIB 


55 


62 


69 


NP 


NP 


Actual" 


ABW 


SDC A, B and C, 
wind speed < 1 10 mph 


28 


32 


34 


38 


42 


48 


SDC D , D, and D 2 , 

wind speed < 110 mph 


32 


32 


34 


NP 


NP 


PFH 


Supporting roof only 


16 


16 


16 


18 c 


20 c 


48 


Supporting one story and roof 


24 


24 


24 


27 c 


29 c 


48 


PFG 


24 


27 


30 


33 d 


36 J 


1.5 x Actual" 


CS-G 


24 


27 


30 


33 


36 


Actual" 


CS-PF 


16 


18 


20 


22 e 


24 e 


Actual" 


CS-WSP, CS-SFB 


Adjacent clear opening height 
(inches) 














<64 


24 


27 


30 


33 


36 


Actual" 


68 


26 


27 


30 


33 


36 


72 


27 


27 


30 


33 


36 


76 


30 


29 


30 


33 


36 


80 


32 


30 


30 


33 


36 


84 


35 


32 


32 


33 


36 


88 


38 


35 


33 


33 


36 


92 


43 


37 


35 


35 


36 


96 


48 


41 


38 


36 


36 


100 


— 


44 


40 


38 


38 


104 


— 


49 


43 


40 


39 


108 


— 


54 


46 


43 


41 


112 


— 


— 


50 


45 


43 


116 


— 


— 


55 


48 


45 


120 


— 


— 


60 


52 


48 


124 


— 


— 


— 


56 


51 


128 


— 


— 


— 


61 


54 


132 


— 


— 


— 


66 


58 


136 


— 


— 


— 


— 


62 


140 


— 


— 


— 


— 


66 


144 


— 


— 


— 


— 


72 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 
NP = Not Permitted. 

a. Linear interpolation shall be permitted. 

b. Use the actual length when it is greater than or equal to the minimum length. 

c. Maximum header height for PFH is 10 feet in accordance with Figure R602.1 0.6.2, but wall height may be increased to 1 2 feet with pony wall. 

d. Maximum opening height for PFG is 10 feet in accordance with Figure R602.10.6.3, but wall height may be increased to 12 feet with pony wall. 

e. Maximum opening height for CS-PF is 10 feet in accordance with Figure R602.1 0.6.4. but wall height may be increased to 12 feet with pony wall. 



176 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



V/V////4 



/ X / / / / ,// 

//\//h / 



■ / / / / //\ y 

:Jy/////k, 



/////////////////////////// 

V// ///////////// /// / //////, 



PANEL 
LENGTH 




PANEL 
LENGTH 

FIGURE R602.10.5 
BRACED WALL PANELS WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHING 



PANEL 
LENGTH 



TABLE R602.1 0.5.2 
PARTIAL CREDIT FOR BRACED WALL PANELS LESS THAN 48 INCHES IN ACTUAL LENGTH 



ACTUAL LENGTH OF BRACED WALL PANEL 
(inches) 


CONTRIBUTING LENGTH OF BRACED WALL PANEL 
(inches) 8 


8-foot Wall Height 


9-foot Wall Height 


48 


48 


48 


42 


36 


36 


36 


27 


N/A 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

N/A = Not Applicable. 

a. Lineai- interpolation shall be permitted. 



TABLE R602.10.6.1 
MINIMUM HOLD-DOWN FORCES FOR METHOD ABW BRACED WALL PANELS 



SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY AND WIND SPEED 


SUPPORTING/STORY 


HOLD DOWN FORCE (pounds) 


Height of Braced Wall Panel 


8 feet 


9 feet 


10 feet 


1 1 feet 


12 feet 


SDC A, B and C 
Wind speed < 1 10 mph 


One story 


1,800 


1,800 


1,800 


2,000 


2.200 


First of two stories 


3,000 


3,000 


3,000 


3,300 


3,600 


SDC D , D, and D, 
Wind speed < 1 10 mph 


One story 


1,800 


1,800 


1,800 


NP 


NP 


First of two stories 


3,000 


3,000 


3,000 


NP 


NP 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, l foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.45 N, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 
NP = Not Permitted. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



177 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



PANEL LENGTH PER 
TABLE RE02.10.5 



M IN. 3(8" WOOD 
STRUCTURAL PANEL 
SHEATHING ON ONE FACE 



MIN. 2X4 FRAMING MIN 
DOUBLE STUDS REQUIRED. 



(2) HOLD-DOWN OR (2) STRAP-TYPE 
ANCHORS PER TABLE RE02.10.&1 (ONI 
OF EACH SHOWN FQRCLARITY). 
STRAP-TYPEANCHORS SHALL BE 
PERMITTED TO BEATTACHED OVER 
THE WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL 



PANEL MUST BEATTACHED 
TO CONCRETE FOOTING OR 
CONCRETE FOUNDATION 
WALL CONTINUOUS OVER 
BRACED WALLLINE 



(2) 1/2" DIAHETERANCHOR 
BOLTS LOCATED BETWEEN 
6" AND 12' OF EACH END OF 
THE SEGMENT 




F OR PANEL SPLICE (IF NEEDED ! 
ADJOINING PANEL EDGES SHALL MEET 
OVER AND BE FASTENED TO COMMON 
FRAMING 



SD COMMON OR GALV. BOX NAILS @ 6" 
O.C. AT PANEL EDGES. FOR SINGLE 
STORY AND © 4" O.C. PANEL EDGES 
FORTHE FIRST OF 2STORIES 

STUDS UNDER HEADER AS REQUIRED 



3D COMMON OR GALV. BOX NAILS © 12" 
O.C. AT INTERIOR SUPPORTS 



MIN. REINFORCING OF FOUNDATION, 
ONE m BAR TOP AND BOTTOM. LAP 
BARS 15' MINIMUM 



MINIMUM FOOTING SIZE UNDER 
OPENING IS 12- X 12" A TURNED-DOWN 
SLAB SHALL BE PERMITTED AT DOOR 
OPENINGS. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R602.10.6.1 
METHOD ABW— ALTERNATE BRACED WALL PANEL 




EXTENT OF HEADER WITH DOUBLE PORTAL FRAMES (TWO BRACED WALL PANELS). 

EXTENT OF HEADER WITH SINGLE PORTAL FRAME 
(ONE BRACED WALL PANEL) 



2< -UNFINISHED WIDTH OF OPENING 
FOR SINGLE OR DOUBLE PORTAL "" 



LLh Ri J j I 



liitliiiiiiii 



FASTEN SHEATHING TO HEADER WITH £3 
COMMON OR GALVANIZED B0XNASL5 IN 3~GRID 
PATTERN AS SHOWN: 



HEADER TO JACK-STUD ST RAP PER TABLE 
RS02.1 0.6.4 ON BOTH SIDES OF OPE NlflG 
OPPOSITE SIDE OF SHEATHING 



MIN. DOUBLE 2X4 FRAMING COVE MED WITH MIN 
3/S"THICKWOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL SHEATHING 
WITH SO COMM ON OR GALVANIZE D BOX NAILS AT 
5" O.C. IH ALL FRAMING pTUOS, BLOCKING, AND 
SILLS)TYP 

MIN. LENGTH OF PAJtELPER TABLE R602.10.5 

MIN. (2)4200 LB STRAP-TYPE HOLD-DOWNS 
(EMBEDDED INTO CONCRETE AND NAILED INTO 
FRAMING) 

MIN. REINFORCING OF FOUNDATION, ONE #4 BAR 
TOP ANO BOTTOM OF FOOTING. LPP BARS 15" 
MINIM 



TENSION STRAP PER 
TABLE R602. 10.6.4 (ON 
OPPOSITE SIDE OF 

SHEATHING) 



IF NEEDED, PANEL 
SPLICE EDGES SHALL 
OCCUR OVER AND BE 
HAILED TO COMMON 
BLOCKING WITHIN 
MIDDLE 24" OF WALL 
MID-HEIGHT. ONE 
ROW OF T O.C. 
NAILING IS REQUIRE D 
IN EACH PANELEDGE, 



TYPICAL PORTAL 
FRAfilE CONSTRUCTION 



- MIN. DOUBLE 2x4 POST 
(KING AND JACK STUD). 
NUMBER OF JACK STUDS 
PERTABLESR502S(1)S 

m 



-MIN:. 1M0LB HOLD-DOWN 
DEVICE (EMBEDDED INTO 
CONCRETE AND NAILED 
INTO FRAMING 




FASTEN TOP 

PLATE TO 

HEADER WITH 

TWO 

ROWS OF 160 

SINKER NAILS AT 

3"0.C.TYP. 



MIN. 3/8" WOOD 
STRUCTURAL 
PANEL 
SHEATHING 



MIN. FOOTING SIZE UNDER OPENING IS 12"X12". A TURNED- 
DOWN SLAB SHALL BE PERMITTED AT DOOR OPENINGS. 

MIN. (1)5/8" DIAMETER ANCHORBOLT INSTALLED PER 
R403 1 .6 - WITH 2" X 2" X 3/1 6" PLATE WASHER 

FRONT ELEVATION 



SECTION 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 i 



FIGURE R602.10.6.2 

METHOD PFH— PORTAL FRAME WITH HOLD-DOWNS 



178 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



** 



R602.10.6.3 Method PFG: Portal frame at garage 
door openings in Seismic Design Categories A, B 
and C. Where supporting a roof or one story and a 
roof, a Method PFG braced wall panel constructed in 
accordance with Figure R602. 10.6.3 shall be permitted 
on either side of garage door openings. 

R602.1 0.6.4 Method CS-PF: Continuously sheathed 
portal frame. Continuously sheathed portal frame 
braced wall panels shall be constructed in accordance 
with Figure R602. 10.6.4 and Table R602.10.6.4. The 
number of continuously sheathed portal frame panels in 
a single braced wall line shall not exceed four. 

R602. 10.6.5 Wall bracing for dwellings with stone 
and masonry veneer in Seismic Design Categories 
D , D, and D 2 . Where stone and masonry veneer are 
installed in accordance with Section R703.7, wall brac- 
ing on exterior braced wall lines and braced wall lines 
on the interior of the building, backing or perpendicular 
to and laterally supporting veneered walls shall comply 
with this section. 

Where dwellings in Seismic Design Categories D , 
D, and D 2 have stone or masonry veneer installed in 
accordance with Section R703.7, and the veneer does 
not exceed the first-story height, wall bracing shall be 
in accordance with Section R602.10.3. 

Where detached one- or two-family dwellings in 
Seismic Design Categories D () , D, and D 2 have stone or 
masonry veneer installed in accordance with Section 



R703.7, and the veneer exceeds the fust-story height, 
wall bracing at exterior braced wall lines and braced 
wall lines on the interior of the building shall be con- 
structed using Method BV-WSP in accordance with 
this section and Figure R602.10.6.5. Cripple walls shall 
not be permitted, and required interior braced wall 
lines shall be supported on continuous foundations. 

Townhouses in Seismic Design Categories D , D, 
and D 2 with stone or masonry veneer exceeding the 
first-story height shall be designed in accordance with 
accepted engineering practice. 

R602.10.6.5.1 Length of bracing. The length of 
bracing along each braced wall line shall be the 
greater of that required by the design wind speed 
and braced wall line spacing in accordance with 
Table R602.10.3(l) as adjusted by the factors in the 
Table R602. 10.3(2) or the Seismic Design Category 
and braced wall line length in accordance with 
Table R602. 10.6.5. Angled walls shall be permitted 
to be counted in accordance with Section 
R602.10.1.4, and braced wall panel location shall be 
in accordance with Section R602. 10.2.2. The seis- 
mic adjustment factors in Table R602. 10.3(4) shall 
not be applied to the length of bracing determined 
using Table R602.10.6.5. In no case shall the mini- 
mum total length of bracing in a braced, wall line, 
after all adjustments have been taken, be less than 48 
inches (1219 mm) total. 




■EXTENT OF HEADER WITH DOUBLE PORTO- FRAMES (TWO BRACED- WALL PANELS)- 



EXTENT OF HEADER WITH SINGLE PORTAL FRAME _ 
CONiE BRACED WALL PANEL) 



T AS F 1 Ml SH E VSI DTH Of OPE N IN 6 _ 
FOR! SINGLE OR DOUBLE PORTAL 



WiltTX-lCWttT'Hf 




FASTEN SHEATHING TO HEADER WITH SD 
COMU DM OR GALVANIZED B0XNAILS IN 3" GRID 
PATTERN AS SHOWN 

HEADER TO JACK-STUDSTRAP PER TABLE 
RGD2.1 0.6 .4 OK BOTH SIO ES Of PE ) Mi G 
OPPOSITE SIDE OF SHEATHING 



MIN. DOUBLE 2" X 4" FRAMING COVERED WTH MM. 
TdrTHICKWOOD STRUCTURAL PANE LSHEATJHtNG 
WITH 8D CO MM ON OR GALVAM iZL B OX NAILS AT 3* 
O.C. IN FRAMING (STUDS AMD SILLS) AS SHOWN, 



M IN. LENGTH OF PANEL PERTABLr H602 10.5 

MIN. P)1/7'0I.AMETEBAJICH0R BOLTS 
INSTALLED PER R403.1 .6 WITH 2" X 2" X 3/1 6" PLATE 
WASHER 



V- 



TENSION ST3A= PER 
TABLE 602.10.6.4 
(OH OPPOSITE SIDE 
OF SHEATHING} 



IF NEEDED, PANEL 
SPLICE EDGES SHALL 
OCCUR OVER AND BE 
NAILED TO COMMON 
BLOCKING WITHIN 24" 
OFTHE WALLMiD- 
H EIGHT. ONE ROW OF 
3" O.C. MAILING IS 
RE QU RED IN EACH 
PANE LEDGE. 

TYPICAL PORTAL 
FRAME COWSTRU CTION - 

-MIN.DOUFJLE2X4POST 
(KING AMD JACK STUD). 
NUI.IBEROFJACK 
STUDS PER TABLES 
R502. 5(1)8 C2> 



-INTERMmTE NT BRACED 
WALLPANELPAHEL 
RE QUIRED ADJACENT 
OPENING FOR SINGLE 
PORTAL FRAME 




. FASTEN TOP 
PLATE TO 
HEADER WITH 
TWO 

ROWS OF 160 
SMK.ER HAILS AT 
3-O.C.TVP. 



Ml 

STRUCTURAL 
PANEL 
SHEATHING 



FRONT ELEVATION 
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, I foot = 304.S mm. 



ANCHOR BOLTS PER 
SECTION R403.1.6 



SECTION 



METHOD PFG- 



FIGURE R602.10.6.3 
-PORTAL FRAME AT GARAGE DOOR OPENINGS !N SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES A, B AND C 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



179 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 




EXTENTOF FEADEP.WITHDQtfflLE PORTAL FRAMES {TWO BRACED WALL PANELS)-. 



EXTENT OF H EAD EP. wl TH: S#iGLE PORTAL FRAME 
SOKE BRACED WALL PANEL) - 



2' -18 FINISHED WIDTH OF OFiEMfs&G 

FOR SINGLE OR DOUBLE PORTAL 
1 J= 



I . 1 s E L 

TLI EADE PRCBIBI §: 



sail 



II 



CTRL SHEATHING TO HEADER WITH £D 
>f^ON OR GALVANIZED :&OX KAILS 1^ 3" GR E 
l.TTERW AS SHOWJI 



HEADER TO JACK-STUD STRAP FER TABLE 
RSB21 0.S.-S ON BOTH SIDES OF OPEM&S© 
OPFOEiTESIBE. OF SHEATHING 



M-IN. . DOiiBLiE 2X-- F RAMI N G COVER:ED W ITK .^@ML 
7/W f THICK WOOD STRUCTURAL PA^EL. 
S-BEATH IMG WITH SO COMMON OR GALVANIZED 
BOX NAILS AT' 3* O.C. I K ALL FR/Ml riG [STUDS. 
BLOCKING, AND SILLS) TYP. 

MN. LENGTH OF PANEL PER TABLE R&JZ 10 .5 

MH. {2} 1 ^DIAMETER ANCHOR BOLTS 
INSTALLED PER R433.1. 8 WITH Zfe2"M3/1& s ' PLATE 
WASHER 



"i"K 



^=Ci 



OVERCOHCRETE OR MASONRY BLOCK FOUNDATION 



TENSION STRAP PER 
TABLE ©02.1O.S.4 
COM OPPOSITE SIDE 
OF SHEATHING} 



GRACED WALL LIME 
CONTIGUOUSLY SHEATHED 
WITH WOOD STRUCTURAL 
PANELS 



IF WEEDED PANEL 
SPUCE EDGES SHALL 
OCCUR AMD BE 
ATTACHED TO 
COMMOft BLOCKING 
WITHIN 24* OF WALL 
MID- HEIGHT ONiE ROW 
OF 3*0.0 NIAILKS \S 
REQUIRED IN EACH 
PANEL EDGE. 



TYPICAL FOR TA-L 
FRAME CONSTRIJC T)OU 



- Mm. DOUBLE 2x4 POST 
(Kim At€) JACK STUD) . 
MUMBEF. OF JACK 
ST15DSPER TABLES 
R502.5[1>&|2i 



ANCHOR BOLTS PER 
SECTION R433. 1.8 




FASTEN TOP PLATE TO 
HEADER WITH TWO 
ROWS OF 160 SICKER 
NAILS AT T O.O. TYP. 



urn. -/lefwooo 

STRUCTURAL PANEL 

SHEATHIKS 




- WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL 
SHEATH IMG TO TOP OF BAMD OR 
RIM JOST 



MAIL SOLE PLATE - 
TO JOIST PER 
TABLE R*aQ2.3(1) 




(2) FR AMMG- ASSHSRS 
APPLIED ACROSS 
SHEATHI-N G JO N T WITH A 
CAPACITY OF ST€l LBS IN 
THE HORiZOMTALAND 
VERTICAL DIRECTIONS 



"- WOOD STRUCTURALFA^ELSHEATHINGOVERAPPROVED EAK;D OR ftlfcl JOIST 

OVERRAIS£DMX>DFLOtm-fRAMIMG ANCHOR OPTION 

[WHEN PORTAL SHEATHING DOES ^OTLAP OVER BAMD OR RIM JOIST) 




NAIL SOLE 
PLATE TO JOIST 
PER TABLE 
R 60.2305 



APPROVED fiA'^D 
OR RIM JOIST 



-5 ? 



V 



WOOD STRUCTURAL 
PAMEL SHEATKH*S 
- COFIT1 H UOUS OVER BAN D 
OR RIM JOIST 



NAIL SOLE PLATE 
TO JOIST PER 
TABLE. ;RSD23£1 ) 




ATTACH SHEATHIMG TO 
BAILOR RIM JOIST WITH 

3D COMWOK HAILS AT.3' 
O.O TOP AMD BOTTOM 



"■— — vVDDD STRUCTURAL PAf-iEi SWEATHIHS OVER APPROVED BAMD OR RIM JOIST 

OVER RAISED VUDOD FLOOR -OVERLAP OPTION 

(WH EN PORTAL SHEAT h*IHG LAPS OVER SAND OR R I M BOARD) 

FRONT ELEVATION 




NAIL SOLE 
PLATE TO JOIST 
PER TABLE 
RSQZ3K1) 



APPROVED EAi-W 
OR RIM JOIST 



SECTION 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



FIGURE R602.10.6.4 
METHOD CS-PF— CONTINUOUSLY SHEATHED PORTAL FRAME PANEL CONSTRUCTION 



180 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.1 0.6.4 

TENSION STRAP CAPACITY REQUIRED FOR RESISTING WIND PRESSURES 

PERPENDICULAR TO METHOD PFH, PFG AND CS-PF BRACED WALL PANELS 



MINIMUM WALL STUD 

FRAMING NOMINAL SIZE AND 

GRADE 


MAXIMUM PONY 
WALL HEIGHT 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM 
TOTAL WALL 
HEIGHT (feet) 


MAXIMUM 

OPENING 

WIDTH 

(feet) 


TENSION STRAP CAPACITY REQUIRED (pounds) 3 ' b 


Basle Wind Speed (mph) 


85 


90 


100 


85 


90 100 


Exposure B 


Exposure C 


2 x 4 No. 2 Grade 





10 


18 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1 ,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1 


10 


9 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,275 


16 


1,000 


1,000 


1,750 


1,800 


2,325 


3,500 


18 


1,000 


1,200 


2,100 


2,175 


2,725 


DR 


2 


10 


9 


1,000 


1,000 


1,025 


1,075 


1,550 


2,500 


16 


1,525 


2,025 


3,125 


3,200 


3,900 


DR 


18 


1,875 


2,400 


3,575 


3,700 


DR 


DR 


2 


12 


9 


1,000 


1,200 


2,075 


2,125 


2,750 


4,000 


16 


2,600 


3,200 


DR 


DR 


DR 


DR 


18 


3,175 


3,850 


DR 


DR 


DR 


DR 


4 


12 


9 


1,775 


2,350 


3,500 


3,550 


DR 


DR 


16 


4,175 


DR 


DR 


DR 


DR 


DR 


2x6 Stud Grade 


2 


12 


9 


1,000 


1,000 


1,325 


1,375 


1,750 


2,550 


16 


1 ,650 


2,050 


2,925 


3,000 


3,550 


DR 


18 


2,025 


2,450 


3,425 


3,500 


4,100 


DR 


4 


12 


9 


1,125 


1,500 


2,225 


2,275 


2,775 


3,800 


16 


2,650 


3,150 


DR 


DR 


DR 


DR 


18 


3,125 


3,675 


DR 


DR 


DR 


DR 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 ram, 1 pound = 4.45 N 

a. DR = design required. 

b. Strap shall be installed in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



181 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.1 0.6.5 
METHOD BV-WSP WALL BRACING REQUIREMENTS 



SEISMIC DESIGN 
CATEGORY 


STORY 




BRACED WALL LINE LENGTH (FEET) 


SINGLE-STORY 

HOLD-DOWN 

FORCE 

(pounds)" 


CUMULATIVE 

HOLD-DOWN 

FORCE 

(pounds)" 




10 


20 


30 


40 


50 




MINIMUM TOTAL LENGTH (FEET) OF BRACED WALL PANELS 
REQUIRED ALONG EACH BRACED WALL LINE 


Do 


ft t 1 


4.0 


7.0 


10.5 


14.0 


17.5 


N/A 


— 


6 E 


) 


4.0 


7.0 


10.5 


14.0 


17.5 


1900 


— 


U i L 




4.5 


9.0 


13.5 


18.0 


22.5 


3500 


5400 


e § E 


. 


6.0 


12.0 


18.0 


24.0 


30.0 


3500 


8900 


D, 


AD □ 

nr □ □ 


4.5 


9.0 


13.5 


18.0 


22.5 


2100 


— 


6r fit 




4.5 


9.0 


13.5 


18.0 


22.5 


3700 


5800 


e§ 


j$ 


6.0 


12.0 


18.0 


24.0 


30.0 


3700 


9500 


D 2 


□ □ L 


\ 


5.5 


11.0 


16.5 


22.0 


27.5 


2300 


- 


n ■ 


■4 


5.5 


11.0 


16.5 


22.0 


27.5 


3900 


6200 


al 




NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


N/A 


N/A 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.479 kPa, 1 pound-force = 4.448 N. 

NP = Not Permitted. 

N/A = Not Applicable. 

a Hold-down force is minimum allowable stress design load for connector providing uplift tie from wall framing at end of braced wall panel at the noted story 

to wall framing at end of braced wall panel at the story below, or to foundation or foundation wall. Use single-story hold-down force where edges of braced 

wall panels do not align; a continuous load path to the foundation shall be maintained. 
b. Where hold-down connectors from stories above align with stories below, use cumulative hold-down force to size middle- and bottom-story hold-down 

connectors. 



182 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



EXTENT OF 

ALIGNED BRACED 

WALL PANELS 

EDGE NAIL 

SHEATHING 

TO BRACED 

WALL PANEL 

END POST, TYP. 

BRACED WALL PANEL 

SINGLE-SOTRY 

HOLD-DOWN 

FORCE 

-TOP STORY 

HOLD DOWNS 

ON SAME POST 

OR STUD TOP 

AND BOTTOM 

CUMULATIVE 

HOLD-DOWN 

FORCE 

-MIDDLE STORY 

BRACED WALL PANEL 

CUMULATIVE 

HOLD-DOWN 

FORCE 

-BOTTOM STORY 

HOLD DOWN 
-SEE NOTE BELOW 




WALL CONSTRUCTION 



EXTENT OF TOP 
STORY BRACED 
WALL PANEL 

EXTENT OF MIDDLE 
STORY BRACED 
WALL PANEL 
EXTENT OF BOTTOM 
STORY BRACED 
WALL PANEL 

GABLE END FRAMING 

BRACED WALL PANEL 

SINGLE-STORY HOLD- 
DOWN FORCE -TOP 
STORY 

BRACED WALL PANEL 



HOLD DOWN 
-SEE NOTE BELOW 

SINGLE-STORY 
HOLD-DOWN FORCE 
-MIDDLE STORY 
BRACED WALL PANEL 



SINGLE-STORY HOLD- 
DOWN FORCE 
-BOTTOM STORY 

CUMULATIVE HOLD- 
DOWN FORCE 
-BOTTOM OF TWO 
STORY 



(a) Braced wall panels stacked (aligned story (b) Braced wall panels mixed stacked and not 
to story) Use cumulative hold-down force. stacked. Use hold-down force as noted. 

Note: Hold downs should be strap ties, tension ties, or other approved hold-down devices and shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 



FIGURE R602.10.6.5 

METHOD BV-WSP— WALL BRACING FOR DWELLINGS WITH STONE AND 

WIASONRY VENEER IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES D„, D, and D 2 



R602.1O.7 Ends of braced wall lines with continuous 
sheathing. Each end of a braced wall line with continu- 
ous sheathing shall have one of the conditions shown in 
Figure R602. 10.7. 

R602.10.8 Braced wall panel connections. Braced wall 
panels shall be connected to floor framing or foundations 
as follows: 

1. Where joists are perpendicular to a braced wall 
panel above or below, a rim joist, band joist or 
blocking shall be provided along the entire length of 
the braced wall panel in accordance with Figure 
R602.10.8(l). Fastening of top and bottom wall 
plates to framing, rim joist, band joist and/or block- 
ing shall be in accordance with Table R602.3(l). 

2. Where joists are parallel to a braced wall panel 
above or below, a rim joist, end joist or other paral- 
lel framing member shall be provided directly above 



and below the braced wall panel in accordance with 
Figure R602. 10.8(2). Where a parallel framing 
member cannot be located directly above and below 
the panel, full-depth blocking at 16-inch (406 mm) 
spacing shall be provided between the parallel fram- 
ing members to each side of the braced wall panel in 
accordance with Figure R602. 10.8(2). Fastening of 
blocking and wall plates shall be in accordance with 
Table R602.3(l) and Figure R602.10.8(2). 

3. Connections of braced wall panels to concrete or 
masonry shall be in accordance with Section 
R403.1.6. 

R602.10.8.1 Braced wall panel connections for Seis- 
mic Design Categories D , D, and D 2 . Braced wall 
panels shall be fastened to required foundations in 
accordance with Section R602.11.1, and top plate lap 
splices shall be face-nailed with at least eight 16d nails 
on each side of the splice. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



183 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 




-BRACED WALL PANEL AT 
END OF BRACED WALL LINE 
END CONDITION 1 



CONTINUOUSLY SHEATHED 




• BRACED WALL PANEL AT 
END OF BRACED WALL LINE 

END CONDITION 2 




-48" MINIMUM BRACED WALL PANEL 
AT END OF BRACED WALL LINE 

END CONDITION 3 



CONTINUOUSLY SHEATHED, 




-FIRST BRACED 
WALL PANEL 
END CONDITION 5 



CONTINUOUSLY SHEATHED 




* SEE REQUIREMENTS 



-FIRST BRACED 
WALL PANEL 



END CONDITION 4 



Distance D: 



REQUIREMENTS 

Return panel: 24" for braced wall lines sheathed with 
wood structural panels 
32" for braced wall lines sheathed with 
structural fiberboard 
24" for braced wall lines sheathed with 
wood structural panels 
32" for braced wall lines sheathed with 
structural fiberboard 



Hold-down 800 lbs capacity fastened to the edge of the 
device: braced wall panel closest to the corner and 

to the foundation or floor framing below 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.45 N. 



FIGURE R602.10.7 
END CONDITIONS FOR BRACED WALL LINES WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHING 



184 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 6 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 




r- CONTINUOUS RIM FULL HEIGHT BLOCKING 

/ OR BAND JOIST CONTINUOUS ALONG LENGTH / 

OF BRACED WALL PANEL / 



PERPENDICULAR FRAMING 



8d @ 6" OO. ALONG 

BRACED WALL PANEL 



-BRACED WALL PANEL 



^3-16d@ 16" O.C. ALONG 

/ BRACED WALL PANEL 




PERPENDICULAR FRAMING 




.CONTINUOUS RIM 

OR BAND JOIST 




8d@ 6" O.C. ALONG 

BRACED WALL PANEL 



-BRACED WALL PANEL 



^-3-ied® 16" O.C. ALONG 
/ BRACED WALL PANEL 



FULL HEIGHT BLOCKING 
CONTINUOUS ALONG LENGTH 
OF BRACED WALL PANEL 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R602. 10.8(1) 
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION WHEN PERPENDICULAR TO FLOOR/CEILING FRAMING 



si 



-CONTINUOUS FBM OR 

END JOIST 




8d@ 6" O.C. ALONG 
BRACED WALL PANEL 



-BRACED WALL PANEL 



,-3-16(1 @ 16" O.C. ALONG 
' BRACED WALL PANEL 




ADDITIONAL FRAMING 
MEMBER DIRECTLY ABOVE 

BRACED WALL PAN EL 



SSL 



-CONTINUOUS RIM 
OR END JOIST 



8d@ 6" O.C. ALONG 

BRACED WALL PANEL 



-« — BRACED WALL PANEL 



- .3-1 8d@ 16" O.C. ALONG 
BRACED WALL PANEL 



sin 



w. 




FULL HEIGHT BLOCKING 
@ 16" O.C. ALONG 
BRACED WALL PANEL 



W 



-TOE NAIL 3-8d 

NAILS AT EACH 

BLOCKING 

MEMBER 



-BRACED WALL PANEL 

-346dATEACH 

BLOCKING MEMBER 



Li 



V_ ADDITIONAL FRAMING 

MEMBER DIRECTLY BELOW 
BRACED WALL PANEL 



\ 



2-16d NAILS 

EACH SIDE 



-FULL HEIGHT 

BLOCKING® 16" O.C. 
ALONG BRACED WALL 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R602.1 0.8(2) 
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION WHEN PARALLEL TO FLOOR/CEILING FRAMING 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



185 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R602.10.8.2 Connections to roof framing. Top plates 
of exterior braced wall panels shall be attached to raf- 
ters or roof trusses above in accordance with Table 
R602.3(l) and this section. Where required by this sec- 
tion, blocking between rafters or roof trusses shall be 
attached to top plates of braced wall panels and to raf- 
ters and roof trusses in accordance with Table 
R602.3(l). A continuous band, rim, or header joist or 
roof trass parallel to the braced wall panels shall be 
permitted to replace the blocking required by this sec- 
tion. Blocking shall not be required over openings in 
continuously-sheathed braced wall lines. In addition to 
the requirements of this section, lateral support shall be 
provided for rafters and ceiling joists in accordance 
with Section R802.8 and for trusses in accordance with 
Section R802.10.3. Roof ventilation shall be provided 
in accordance with Section R806. 1 . 

1. For Seismic Design Categories A, B and C and 
wind speeds less than 100 mph (45 m/s) where the 
distance from the top of the braced wall panel to 
the top of the rafters or roof trusses above is 9'/ 4 
inches (235 mm) or less, blocking between rafters 
or roof trasses shall not be required. Where the 
distance from the top of the braced wall panel to 
the top of the rafters or roof trusses above is 
between 9'/ 4 inches (235 mm) and 15 7 4 inches 
(387 mm), blocking between rafters or roof 
trusses shall be provided above the braced wall 
panel in accordance with Figure R602.10.8.2(l). 

2. For Seismic Design Categories D , D, and D 2 or 
wind speeds of 100 mph (45 m/s) or greater, 
where the distance from the top of the braced 
wall panel to the top of the rafters or roof trusses 
is 15'/ 4 inches (387 mm) or less, blocking 
between rafters or roof trusses shall be provided 
above the braced wall panel in accordance with 
Figure R602. 10.8.2(1). 

3. Where the distance from the top of the braced 
wall panel to the top of rafters or roof trusses 



exceeds 15 V 4 inches (387 mm), the top plates of 
the braced wall panel shall be connected to per- 
pendicular rafters or roof trusses above in accor- 
dance with one or more of the following 
methods: 



3.1. 



3.2. 



3.3. 



3.4. 



Soffit blocking panels constructed in 
accordance with Figure R602.10.8.2(2); 

Vertical blocking panels constructed in 
accordance with Figure R602. 10.8.2(3); 

Full-height engineered blocking panels 
designed in accordance with the AF&PA 
WFCM; or 



Blocking, blocking panels, or other 
methods of lateral load transfer designed 
in accordance with accepted engineering 
practice. 

R602.10.9 Braced wall panel support. Braced wall 
panel support shall be provided as follows: 

1. Cantilevered floor joists complying with Section 
R502.3.3 shall be permitted to support braced wall 
panels. 

2. Elevated post or pier foundations supporting braced 
wall panels shall be designed in accordance with 
accepted engineering practice. 

3. Masonry stem walls with a length of 48 inches 
(1219 mm) or less supporting braced wall panels 
shall be reinforced in accordance with Figure 
R602.10.9. Masonry stem walls with a length 
greater than 48 inches (1219 mm) supporting braced 
wall panels shall be constructed in accordance with 
Section R403.1 Methods ABW and PFH shall not 
be permitted to attach to masonry stem walls. 

4. Concrete stem walls with a length of 48 inches 
(1219 mm) or less, greater than 12 inches (305 mm) 
tall and less than 6 inches (152 mm) thick shall have 
reinforcement sized and located in accordance with 
Figure R602. 10.9. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 




■SOLID BLOCKING BETWEEN 
RAFTERS ATTACHED TO TOP 
PLATES WITH 8d @ 6" OC ALONG 
LENGTH OF BRACED WALL PANEL 



FIGURE R602.1 0.8.2(1) 
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION TO PERPENDICULAR RAFTERS 



186 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



ROOF SHEATHING 

EDGE NAILING PER 
TABLE R602.3(1) 
(TYP) 



2x BLOCKING 



BRACED WALL 
PANEL 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Methods of bracing shall be as described in Section R602.10.4. 




ROOF TRUSSES 
PER R802.10 

NAILING PER 
TABLE R602.3(1) 



PROVIDE VENTING 
PER SECTION R806 
(NOT SHOWN) 



FIGURE R602.1 0.8.2(2) 
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION OPTION TO PERPENDICULAR RAFTERS OR ROOF TRUSSES 




-ROOF SHEATHING 

- EDGE NAILING PER 
TABLE R602.3(1) (TYP) 

- BRACING 
-VENTING 



KING 



ROOF TRUSSES 
PERR802.10 

NAILING PER 
TABLE R602.3(1) 



( O SECTION 



(£ \ ELEVATION 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Methods of bracing shall be as described in Section R602.10.4. 



FIGURE R602.1 0.8.2(3) 
BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION OPTION TO PERPENDICULAR RAFTERS OR ROOF TRUSSES 




2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



187 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



48" OR LESS 



48" OR LESS 




,- BRACED WALL PANEL 

* _ 1/2" ANC HOR BOLTS PER BRACED 
WALL PANEL REQUIREMENTS 

BOND BEAM WITH 1 -#4 BAR 



. #4 BAR MIN.; FIELD BEND 6" 
' EXTENSION INTO BOND BEAM 



BRACED WALL PANEL 



1/2" ANCHOR BOLTS PER 
BRACED WALL PANEL 
REQUIREMENTS 



3" COVER - 

SHORT STEM WALL REINFORCEMENT 




- BRACED WALL PANEL 
-BOND BEAM WITH 1-#4 BAR 



5*8" THREADED RODS MAY BE 
SUBSTITUTED FOR ANCHOR 
BOLTS AND REBAR 



L- MIN. 2" CUT W 



n 



-3" COVER ^- MIN. 2" CUT WASHERS 
OPTIONAL STEM WALL REINFORCEMENT 

NOTE' GROUT BOND BEAMS AND ALL CELLS WHICH CONTAIN 
REBAR. THREADED RODS AND ANCHOR BOLTS 




TYPICAL STEM WALL SECTION 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R602.10.9 
MASONRY STEM WALLS SUPPORTING BRACED WALL PANELS 



R602.10.9.1 Braced wall panel support for Seismic 

Design Category D 2 . In one-story buildings located in 

Seismic Design Category D 2 , braced wall panels shall 

be supported on continuous foundations at intervals not 

exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm). In two-story buildings 

located in Seismic Design Category D 2 , all braced wall 

panels shall be supported on continuous foundations. 

Exception: Two-story buildings shall be permitted 

to have interior braced wall panels supported on 

continuous foundations at intervals not exceeding 50 

feet (15 240 mm) provided that: 

1. The height of cripple walls does not exceed 4 
feet (1219 mm). 

2. First-floor braced wall panels are supported 
on doubled floor joists, continuous blocking or 
floor beams. 



3. The distance between bracing lines does not 
exceed twice the building width measured par- 
allel to the braced wall line. 
R602.10.10 Panel joints. All vertical joints of panel 
sheathing shall occur over, and be fastened to, common 
studs. Horizontal joints in braced wall panels shall occur 
over, and be fastened to, common blocking of a minimum 
1 7 2 inch (38 mm) thickness. 
Exceptions: 

1 . Vertical joints of panel sheathing shall be permit- 
ted to occur over double studs, where adjoining 
panel edges are attached to separate studs with 
the required panel edge fastening schedule, and 
the adjacent studs are attached together with two 
rows of lOd box nails [3 inches by 0.128 inch 
(76.2 mm by 3.25 mm)] at 10 inches o.c. (254 
mm). 



188 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



2. Blocking at horizontal joints shall not be required 
in wall segments that are not counted as braced 
wall panels. 

3. Where the bracing length provided is at least 
twice the minimum length required by Table 
R602. 10.3(1) and Table R602. 10.3(3) blocking at 
horizontal joints shall not be required in braced 
wall panels constructed using Methods WSP, 
SFB, GB.PBSorHPS. 

4. When Method GB panels are installed horizon- 
tally, blocking of horizontal joints is not required. 

R602.10.ll Cripple wall bracing. Cripple walls shall be 
constructed in accordance with Section R602.9 and braced 
in accordance with this section. Cripple walls shall be 
braced with the length and method of bracing used for the 
wall above in accordance with Tables R602. 10.3(1) and 
R602. 10.3(3), and the applicable adjustment factors in 
Table R602.10.3(2) or R602.10.3(4), repspectivley, except 
that the length of cripple wall bracing shall be multiplied 
by a factor of 1.15. The distance between adjacent edges 
of braced wall panels shall be reduced from 20 feet (6096 
mm) to 14 feet (4267 mm). 

R602.1 0.11.1 Cripple wall bracing for Seismic 
Design Categories D and Dj and townhouses in 
Seismic Design Category C. In addition to the require- 
ments in Section R602.10.ll, the distance between 
adjacent edges of braced wall panels for cripple walls 
along a braced wall line shall be 14 feet (4267 mm) 
maximum. 

Where braced wall lines at interior walls are not 
supported on a continuous foundation below, the adja- 
cent parallel cripple walls, where provided, shall be 
braced with Method WSP or Method CS-WSP in 



accordance with Section R602.10.4. The length of brac- 
ing required in accordance with Table R602. 10.3(3) for 
the cripple walls shall be multiplied by 1 .5. Where the 
cripple walls do not have sufficient length to provide 
the required bracing, the spacing of panel edge fasten- 
ers shall be reduced to 4 inches (102 mm) on center and 
the required bracing length adjusted by 0.7. If the 
required length can still not be provided, the cripple 
wall shall be designed in accordance with accepted 
engineering practice. 

R602.10.11.2 Cripple wall bracing for Seismic 

Design Category D 2 . In Seismic Design Category D 2 , 
cripple walls shall be braced in accordance with Tables 
R602.10.3(3) and R602.10.3(4). 

R602.10.11.3 Redesignation of cripple walls. Where 
all cripple wall segments along a braced wall line do 
not exceed 48 inches (1219 mm) in height, the cripple 
walls shall be permitted to be redesignated as a first- 
story wall for purposes of determining wall bracing 
requirements. Where any cripple wall segment in a 
braced wall line exceeds 48 inches (1219 mm) in 
height, the entire cripple wall shall be counted as an 
additional story. If the cripple walls are redesignated, 
the stories above the redesignated story shall be 
counted as the second and third stories, respectively. 
R602.1! Wall anchorage. Braced wall line sills shall be 
anchored to concrete or masonry foundations in accordance 
with Sections R403.1 .6 and R602.1 1.1. 

R602.11.1 Wall anchorage for all buildings in Seismic 
Design Categories D , D, and D 2 and townhouses in 
Seismic Design Category C. Plate washers, a minimum 
of 0.229 inch by 3 inches by 3 inches (5.8 mm by 76 mm 
by 76 mm) in size, shall be provided between the founda- 
tion sill plate and the nut except where approved anchor 



WHERE FOOTING SECTION "A" IS MORE THAN 8 FT 
PROVIDE METAL TIE 16 GA BY 1 .5 BY4 FT MIN. EACH 
SIOEOFSPLICEW/'8-16d COMMON NAILS. 



2x SILL PLATE 




For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

Note: Where footing Section "A" is less than 8 feet long in a 25-foot-long wall, install bracing at cripple stud wall. 

FIGURE R602.11.2 
STEPPED FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



189 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



straps are used. The hole in the plate washer is permitted 
to be diagonally slotted with a width of up to 3 / 16 inch (5 
mm) larger than the bolt diameter and a slot length not to 
exceed 1% inches (44 mm), provided a standard cut 
washer is placed between the plate washer and the nut. 

R602.11.2 Stepped foundations in Seismic Design Cate- 
gories D , D, and D 2 . In all buildings located in Seismic 
Design Categories D , D, or D 2 , where the height of a 
required braced wall line that extends from foundation to 
floor above varies more than 4 feet (1219 mm), the braced 
wall line shall be constructed in accordance with the fol- 
lowing: 

1. Where the lowest floor framing rests directly on a 
sill bolted to a foundation not less than 8 feet (2440 
mm) in length along a line of bracing, the line shall 
be considered as braced. The double plate of the 
cripple stud wall beyond the segment of footing that 
extends to the lowest framed floor shall be spliced 
by extending the upper top plate a minimum of 4 
feet (1219 mm) along the foundation. Anchor bolts 
shall be located a maximum of 1 foot and 3 feet (305 
and 914 mm) from the step in the foundation. See 
Figure R602. 11.2. 

2. Where cripple walls occur between the top of the 
foundation and the lowest floor framing, the bracing 
requirements of Sections R602.10.ll, R602.10.ll. 1 
and R602.10.11.2 shall apply. 

3. Where only the bottom of the foundation is stepped 
and the lowest floor framing rests directly on a sill 
bolted to the foundations, the requirements of Sec- 
tions R403. 1.6 and R602.ll. 1 shall apply. 

R602.12 Simplified wall bracing. Buildings meeting all of 
the conditions listed in items 1-8 shall be permitted to be 
braced in accordance with this section as an alternative to the 
requirements of Section R602. 1 0. The entire building shall 
be braced in accordance with this section; the use of other 



bracing provisions of R602.10, except as specified herein, 
shall not be permitted. 

1. There shall be no more than two stories above the top 
of a concrete or masonry foundation or basement wall. 
Permanent wood foundations shall not be permitted. 

2. Floors shall not cantilever more than 24 inches (607 
mm) beyond the foundation or bearing wall below. 

3. Wall height shall not be greater than 10 feet (2743 
mm). 

4. The building shall have a roof eave-to-ridge height of 
15 feet (4572 mm) or less. 

5. All exterior walls shall have gypsum board with a min- 
7. 



imum thickness of 
interior side 
R702.3.5. 



2 inch (12.7 mm) installed on the 
fastened in accordance with Table 



6. The structure shall be located where the basic wind 
speed is less than or equal to 90 mph (40 m/s), and the 
Exposure Category is A or B. 

7. The structure shall be located in Seismic Design Cate- 
gory A, B or C for detached one- and two-family dwell- 
ings or Seismic Design Category A or B for 
townhouses. 

8. Cripple walls shall not be permitted in two-story build- 
ings. 

R602.12.1 Circumscribed rectangle. The bracing 
required for each building shall be determined by circum- 
scribing a rectangle around the entire building on each 
floor as shown in Figure R602.12.1. The rectangle shall 
surround all enclosed offsets and projections such as sun- 
rooms and attached garages. Open structures, such as car- 
ports and decks, shall be permitted to be excluded. The 
rectangle shall have no side greater than 60 feet (18 288 
mm), and the ratio between the long side and short side 
shall be a maximum of 3: 1 . 



-LONG SIDE- 



, 


t 


f T - 


TYPICAL 
WALL 








/ 


CORNER 








/ 


J 








/ 


LU 




/ 


s. ! 

O 1 

X ! 

w 1 


WALL BETWEEN CORNERS 


~~-^ 

^~^-^^ 


' 


^* 












1 


v— CIRCUMSCRIBING RECTANGLE 




1 




FIRST FLOOR PLAN 



CIRCUMSCRIBING RECTANGLE j 

L 
SECOND FLOOR PLAN 



FIGURE R602.12.1 
RECTANGLE CIRCUMSCRIBING AN ENCLOSED BUILDING 



190 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R602.12.2 Sheathing materials. The following sheathing 
materials installed on the exterior side of exterior walls 
shall be used to construct a bracing unit as defined in Sec- 
tion R602.12.3. Mixing materials is prohibited. 

1. Wood structural panels with a minimum thickness 
of 3 / 8 inch (9.5 mm) fastened in accordance with 
Table R602.3(3). 

2. Structural fiberboard sheathing with a minimum 
thickness of 7 2 inch (12.7 mm) fastened in accor- 
dance with Table R602.3(l ). 

R602.12.3 Bracing unit. A bracing unit shall be a full- 
height sheathed segment of the exterior wall with no open- 
ings or vertical or horizontal offsets and a minimum length 
as specified herein. Interior walls shall not contribute 
toward the amount of required bracing. Mixing of Items 1 
and 2 is prohibited on the same story. 

1. Where all framed portions of all exterior walls are 
sheathed in accordance with Section R602.12.2, 
including wall areas between bracing units, above 
and below openings and on gable end walls, the 
minimum length of a bracing unit shall be 3 feet 
(914 mm). 

2. Where the exterior walls are braced with sheathing 
panels in accordance with Section R602.12.2 and 
areas between bracing units are covered with other 
materials, the minimum length of a bracing unit 
shall be 4 feet (1219 mm). 

R602.12.3.1 Multiple bracing units. Segments of 
wall compliant with Section R602. 1 2.3 and longer than 
the minimum bracing unit length shall be considered as 
multiple bracing units. The number of bracing units 
shall be determined by dividing the wall segment 
length by the minimum bracing unit length. Full-height 
sheathed segments of wall narrower than the minimum 



bracing unit length shall not contribute toward a brac- 
ing unit except as specified in Section R602.12.6. 

R602.12.4 Number of bracing units. Each side of the 
circumscribed rectangle, as shown in Figure R602.12.1, 
shall have, at a minimum, the number of bracing units in 
accordance with Table R602.12.4 placed on the parallel 
exterior walls facing the side of the rectangle. Bracing 
units shall then be placed using the distribution require- 
ments specified in Section R602.12.5. 

R602.12.5 Distribution of bracing units. The placement 
of bracing units on exterior walls shall meet all of the fol- 
lowing requirements as shown in Figure R602.12.5. 

1. A bracing unit shall begin no more than 12 feet 
(3658 mm) from any wall corner. 

2. The distance between adjacent edges of bracing 
units shall be no greater than 20 feet (6096 mm). 

3. Segments of wall greater than 8 feet (2438 mm) in 
length shall have a minimum of one bracing unit. 

R602.12.6 Narrow panels. The bracing methods refer- 
enced in Section R602.10 and specified in Sections 
R602.12.6.1 through R602.12.6.3 shall be permitted when 
using simplified wall bracing. 

R602.12.6.1 Method CS-G. Braced wall panels con- 
structed as Method CS-G in accordance with Tables 
R602.10.4 and R602.10.5 shall be permitted for one- 
story garages when all framed portions of all exterior 
walls are sheathed with wood structural panels. Each 
CS-G panel shall be equivalent to 0.5 of a bracing unit. 
Segments of wall which include a Method CS-G panel 
shall meet the requirements of Section R602. 10.4.2. 

R602. 12.6.2 Method CS-PF. Braced wall panels con- 
structed as Method CS-PF in accordance with Section 
R602. 10.6.4 shall be permitted when all framed por- 



TABLE R602.12.4 

MINIMUM NUMBER OF BRACING UNITS ON EACH SIDE OF THE CIRCUMSCRIBED RECTANGLE 













EAVE-TO-RIDGE HEIGHT 
(feet) 


MINIMUM NUMBER OF BRACING 
UNITS ON EACH LONG SIDE 8 ° 


MINIMUM NUMBER OF BRACING 
UNITS ON EACH SHORT SIDE 8 " 


STORY LEVEL 


Length of short side (feet) 


Length of long side (feet) c 


10 


20 


30 


40 


50 


60 


10 


20 


30 


40 


50 


60 








10 


1 


2 


2 


2 


3 


3 


1 


2 


2 


2 


3 


3 


A 
















/\ 




2 


3 


3 


4 


5 


6 


2 


3 


3 


4 


5 


6 






















15 


1 


2 


3 


3 


4 


4 


1 


2 


3 


3 


4 


4 


/\ 






i i 












/\ 




2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 























For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Interpolation shall not be permitted. 

b. Cripple walls or wood-framed basement walls in a walk-out condition of a one-story structure shall be designed as the first floor of a two-story house. 

c. Actual lengths of the sides of the circumscribed rectangle shall be rounded to the next highest unit of 1 when using this table. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE" 8 



191 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



tions of all exterior walls are sheathed with wood struc- 
tural panels. Each CS-PF panel shall equal 0.5 bracing 
units. A maximum of four CS-PF panels shall be per- 
mitted on all segments of walls parallel to each side of 
the circumscribed rectangle. Segments of wall which 
include a Method CS-PF panel shall meet the require- 
ments of Section R602. 10.4.2. 

R602.12.6.3 Methods PFH and PFG. Braced wall- 
panels constructed as Method PFH and PFG shall be 
permitted when bracing units are constructed using 
wood structural panels. Each PFH panel shall equal 
one bracing unit and each PFG panel shall be equal to 
0.75 bracing units. 

R602.12.7 Lateral support. For bracing units located 
along the eaves, the vertical distance from the outside edge 
of the top wall plate to the roof sheathing above shall not 
exceed 9.25 inches (235 mm) at the location of a bracing 
unit unless lateral support is provided in accordance with 
Section R602. 10.8.2. 

R602.12.8 Stem walls. Masonry stem walls with a height 
and length of 48 inches (1219 mm) or less supporting a 
bracing unit or a Method CS-G, CS-PF or PFG braced 
wall panel shall be constructed in accordance with Figure 
R602.10.9. Concrete stem walls with a length of 48 inches 
(1219 mm) or less, greater than 12 inches (305 mm) tall 
and less than 6 inches (152 mm) thick shall be reinforced 
sized and located in accordance with Figure R602.10.9. 



SECTION R603 
STEEL WALL FRAMING 

R603.1 General. Elements shall be straight and free of any 
defects that would significantly affect structural performance. 
Cold-formed steel wall framing members shall comply with 
the requirements of this section. 

R603.1.1 Applicability limits. The provisions of this sec- 
tion shall control the construction of exterior cold-formed 
steel wall framing and interior load-bearing cold-formed 
steel wall framing for buildings not more than 60 feet (18 
288 mm) long perpendicular to the joist or truss span, not 
more than 40 feet (12 192 mm) wide parallel to the joist or 



truss span, and less than or equal to three stories above 
grade plane. All exterior walls installed in accordance 
with the provisions of this section shall be considered as 
load-bearing walls. Cold-formed steel walls constructed in 
accordance with the provisions of this section shall be lim- 
ited to sites subjected to a maximum design wind speed of 
1 10 miles per hour (49 m/s) Exposure B or C and a maxi- 
mum ground snow load of 70 pounds per square foot (3.35 
kPa). 

R603.1.2 In-line framing. Load-bearing cold-formed 
steel studs constructed in accordance with Section R603 
shall be located in-line with joists, trusses and rafters in 
accordance with Figure R603.1.2 and the tolerances speci- 
fied as follows: 

1. The maximum tolerance shall be 3 / 4 inch (19 mm) 
between the centerline of the horizontal framing 
member and the centerline of the vertical framing 
member. 

2. Where the centerline of the horizontal framing 
member and bearing stiffener are located to one side 
of the centerline of the vertical framing member, the 
maximum tolerance shall be V 8 inch (3 mm) between 
the web of the horizontal framing member and the 
edge of the vertical framing member. 

R603.2 Structural framing. Load-bearing cold-formed steel 
wall framing members shall comply with Figure R603.2(l) 
and with the dimensional and minimum thickness require- 
ments specified in Tables R603.2(l) and R603.2(2). Tracks 
shall comply with Figure R603.2(2) and shall have a mini- 
mum flange width of 1 7 4 inches (32 mm). 

R603.2.1 Material. Load-bearing cold-formed steel fram- 
ing members shall be cold-formed to shape from structural 
quality sheet steel complying with the requirements of one 
of the following: 

1. ASTM A 653: Grades 33 and 50 (Class 1 and 3). 

2. ASTM A 792: Grades 33 and 50A. 

3. ASTM A 1003: Structural Grades 33 Type H, and 
50 Type H. 



WALL- 
CORNER 




BRACING 
UNIT 



MULTIPLE BRACING UNITS - 
EQUAL LENGTH DIVIDED BY A 

BRACING UNITS WITH AREAS BETWEEN 
COVERED WITH OTHER MATERIALS 



20 FT 
MAX 



WALL - 

CORNER 

3 FT. 



12FT_ 
MAX 




-WALL 
CORNER 



BRACING 

UNIT 

MULTIPLE BRACING UNITS- 
EQUAL LENGTH DIVIDED BY 3 



BRACING UNITS WITH ALL FRAMED 
PORTIONS OF WALL SHEATHED 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



FIGURE R602.12.5 
BRACING UNIT DISTRIBUTION 



192 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



HORIZONTAL 

FRAMING 

MEMBER 

'-s^-/— BEARING STIFFENER 
-TRACK 

STUD 




£STUD 



HORIZONTAL HORIZONTAL 
C_ FRAMING C_ FRAMING 



MAX- 



MEMBER 



jWz 



MEMBER 



w 



MAX. 



VERTICAL 
<t FRAMING 
MEMBER 



VERTICAL 
<t FRAMING 

MEMBER 




HORIZONTAL 

FRAMING 

MEMBER 



BEARING STIFFENER 
TRACK 



STUD 



C BEARING 
STIFFENER 



HORIZONTAL 

FRAMING 

MEMBER 



^ 



-V MAX. 
FROM WEB OF 
HORIZONTAL 
FRAMING 
MEMBER TO 
EDGE OF 
VERTICAL 
FRAMING 
MEMBER 



- 3 /4" 

MAX. 



VERTICAL 
FRAMING 
MEMBER 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 ram, 



FIGURE R603.1.2 
IN-LINE FRAMING 



FLANGE 



WEB 



DEPTH OF WEB 
(OUTSIDE TO 
OUTSIDE) 




WEB. 



FLANGE 




SIZE OF TRACK 

(INSIDE TO INSIDE) 



FIGURE R603.2(1) 
C-SHAPED SECTION 



FIGURE R603.2(2) 
TRACK SECTION 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



193 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.2(1) 
LOAD-BEARING COLD-FORMED STEEL STUD SIZES 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION" 


WEB DEPTH 
(inches) 


MINIMUM FLANGE WIDTH 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM FLANGE WIDTH 
(inches) 


MINIMUM LIP SIZE 
(inch) 


350SI62-t 


3.5 


1.625 


2 


0.5 


550S162-t 


5.5 


1.625 


2 


0.5 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm; 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 

a The member designation is defined by the first number representing the member depth in hundredths of an inch "S" representing a stud or joist member, the 

second number representing the flange width in hundredths of an inch, and the letter "t" shall be a number representing the minimum base metal thickness in 

mils [See Table R603.2(2)]. 

TABLE R603.2(2) 
MINIMUM THICKNESS OF COLD-FORMED STEEL MEMBERS 



DESIGNATION THICKNESS 
(mils) 



33 



43 



54 



68 



97 



MINIMUM BASE STEEL THICKNESS 
(inch) 



0.0329 



0.0428 



For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

R603.2.2 Identification. Load-bearing cold-formed steel 
framing members shall have a legible label, stencil, stamp 
or embossment with the following information as a mini- 
mum: 

1. Manufacturer's identification. 

2. Minimum base steel thickness in inches (mm). 

3. Minimum coating designation. 

4. Minimum yield strength, in kips per square inch 
(ksi) (MPa). 

R603.2.3 Corrosion protection. Load-bearing cold- 
formed steel framing shall have a metallic coating comply- 
ing with ASTM A 1003 and one of the following: 

1. A minimum of G 60 in accordance with ASTM A 
653. 

2. A minimum of AZ 50 in accordance with ASTM A 
792. 

R603.2.4 Fastening requirements. Screws for steel-to- 
steel connections shall be installed with a minimum edge 
distance and center-to-center spacing of V 2 inch (12.7 
mm), shall be self-drilling tapping and shall conform to 
ASTM C 1513. Structural sheathing shall be attached to 
cold-formed steel studs with minimum No. 8 self-drilling 
tapping screws that conform to ASTM C 1513. Screws for 
attaching structural sheathing to cold-formed steel wall 
framing shall have a minimum head diameter of 0.292 
inch (7.4 mm) with countersunk heads and shall be 
installed with a minimum edge distance of 3 / 8 inch (9.5 
mm). Gypsum board shall be attached to cold-formed steel 
wall framing with minimum No. 6 screws conforming to 
ASTM C 954 or ASTM C 1513 with a bugle head style 
and shall be installed in accordance with Section R702. 
For all connections, screws shall extend through the steel a 
minimum of three exposed threads. All fasteners shall 
have rust inhibitive coating suitable for the installation in 



0.0538 



0.0677 



0.0966 



which they are being used, or be manufactured from mate- 
rial not susceptible to corrosion. 

Where No. 8 screws are specified in a steel-to-steel 
connection, the required number of screws in the connec- 
tion is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the 
reduction factors in Table R603.2.4, when larger screws 
are used or when one of the sheets of steel being con- 
nected is thicker than 33 mils (0.84 mm). When applying 
the reduction factor, the resulting number of screws shall 
be rounded up. 

TABLE R603.2.4 
SCREW SUBSTITUTION FACTOR 



SCREW SIZE 


THINNEST CONNECTED STEEL SHEET (mils) 


33 


43 


#8 


L.O 


0.67 


#10 


0.93 


0.62 


#12 


0.86 


0.56 



For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 

R603.2.5 Web holes, web hole reinforcing and web hole 
patching. Web holes, web hole reinforcing and web hole 
patching shall be in accordance with this section. 

R603.2.5.1 Web holes. Web holes in wall studs and 
other structural members shall comply with all of the 
following conditions: 

1. Holes shall conform to Figure R603.2.5.1; 

2. Holes shall be permitted only along the centerline 
of the web of the framing member; 

3. Holes shall have a center-to-center spacing of not 
less than 24 inches (610 mm); 

4. Holes shall have a web hole width not greater 
than 0.5 times the member depth, or l'/ 2 inches 
(38 mm); 



194 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



5. Holes shall have a web hole length not exceeding 
4'/ 2 inches (114 mm); and 

6. Holes shall have a minimum distance between 
the edge of the bearing surface and the edge of 
the web hole of not less than 10 inches (254 mm). 

Framing members with web holes not conforming 
to the above requirements shall be reinforced in accor- 
dance with Section R603.2.5.2, patched in accordance 
with Section R603.2.5.3 or designed in accordance with 
accepted engineering practice. 




PENETRATION 
(HOLE, PUNCHOUT) 



1H"MAX. 



STUD & PUNCHOUT 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

FIGURE R603.2.5.1 
WEB HOLES 

R603.2.5.2 Web hole reinforcing. Web holes in gable 
endwall studs not conforming to the requirements of 
Section R603. 2.5.1 shall be permitted to be reinforced 
if the hole is located fully within the center 40 percent 
of the span and the depth and length of the hole does 
not exceed 65 percent of the flat width of the web. The 
reinforcing shall be a steel plate or C-shape section 
with a hole that does not exceed the web hole size limi- 
tations of Section R603.2.5.1 for the member being 
reinforced. The steel reinforcing shall be the same 
thickness as the receiving member and shall extend at 
least 1 inch (25.4 mm) beyond all edges of the hole. 
The steel reinforcing shall be fastened to the web of the 
receiving member with No.8 screws spaced no more 
than 1 inch (25.4 mm) center- to-center along the edges 
of the patch with minimum edge distance of V 2 inch 
(12.7 mm). 

R603.2.5.3 Hole patching. Web holes in wall studs 
and other structural members not conforming to the 
requirements in Section R603.2.5.1 shall be permitted 



to be patched in accordance with either of the following 
methods: 

1. Framing members shall be replaced or designed 
in accordance with accepted engineering practice 
when web holes exceed the following size limits: 



1.1. 



1.2. 



The depth of the hole, measured across 
the web, exceeds 70 percent of the flat 
width of the web; or 



2. 



The length of the hole measured along 
the web exceeds 10 inches (254 mm) or 
the depth of the web, whichever is 
greater. 

Web holes not exceeding the dimensional 
requirements in Section R603.2.5.3, Item 1 shall 
be patched with a solid steel plate, stud section or 
track section in accordance with Figure 
R603.2.5.3. The steel patch shall, as a minimum, 
be the same thickness as the receiving member 
and shall extend at least 1 inch (25.4 mm) beyond 
all edges of the hole. The steel patch shall be fas- 
tened to the web of the receiving member with 
No. 8 screws spaced no more than 1 inch (25.4 
mm) center-to-center along the edges of the patch 
with a minimum edge distance of 7 2 inch (12.7 
mm). 



STUD 




NO. 8 SCREWS 
SPACEOAT1"O.C. 

(TYP) 



SOLID STEEL PLATE, 
C-SHAPE OR TRACK, 
MIN. THICKNESS AS STUD 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

FIGURE R603.2.5.3 
STUD WEB HOLE PATCH 

R603.3 Wall construction. All exterior cold-formed steel 
framed walls and interior load-bearing cold-formed steel 
framed walls shall be constructed in accordance with the pro- 
visions of this section. 

R603.3.1 Wall to foundation or floor connection. Cold- 
formed steel framed walls shall be anchored to founda- 
tions or floors in accordance with Table R603.3.1 and Fig- 
ure R603.3.1(l), R603.3.1(2) orR603.3.1(3). Anchor bolts 
shall be located not more than 12 inches (305 mm) from 
corners or the termination of bottom tracks. Anchor bolts 
shall extend a minimum of 15 inches (381 mm) into 
masonry or 7 inches (178 mm) into concrete. Foundation 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 18 



195 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



anchor straps shall be permitted, in lieu of anchor bolts, if 
spaced as required to provide equivalent anchorage to the 
required anchor bolts and installed in accordance with 
manufacturer's requirements. 

R603.3.1.1 Gable endwalls. Gable endwalls with 
heights greater than 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be 
anchored to foundations or floors in accordance with 
Tables R603.3. 1.1(1) or R603.3. 1.1(2). 

R603.3.2 Minimum stud sizes. Cold-formed steel walls 
shall be constructed in accordance with Figure 
R603.3.1(l), R603.3.1(2) or R603.3.1(3), as applicable. 
Exterior wall stud size and thickness shall be determined 



in accordance with the limits set forth in Tables 
R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(31). Interior load-bearing 
wall stud size and thickness shall be determined in accor- 
dance with the limits set forth in Tables R603. 3.2(2) 
through R603.3.2(31) based upon an 85 miles per hour (38 
m/s) Exposure A/B wind value and the building width, 
stud spacing and snow load, as appropriate. Fastening 
requirements shall be in accordance with Section R603.2.4 
and Table R603.3.2(l). Top and bottom tracks shall have 
the same minimum thickness as the wall studs. 

Exterior wall studs shall be permitted to be reduced to 
the next thinner size, as shown in Tables R603. 3.2(2) 





TABLE R603.3.1 
WALL TO FOUNDATION OR FLOOR CONNECTION REQUIREMENTS 3 b 




FRAMING 
CONDITION 


WIND SPEED (MPH) AND EXPOSURE 


85 B 


90 B 


100 B 
85 C 


110B 
90 C 


100 C 


<110C 


Wall bottom track to 
floor per Figure 
R603. 3.1(1) 


1-No. 8 screw at 
12" o.c. 


1-No. 8 screw at 
12" o.c. 


1-No. 8 screw at 
1 2" o.c. 


1-No. 8 screw at 
12" o.c. 


2-No. 8 screws at 
1 2" o.c. 


2 No. 8 screws at 
12" o.c. 


Wall bottom track to 
foundation per Figure 
R603. 3.1(2)" 


'/," minimum 

diameter anchor 

bolt at 6" o.c. 


'//' minimum 

diameter anchor 

bolt at 6" o.c. 


V 2 " minimum 

diameter anchor 

bolt at 4" o.c. 


7 2 " minimum 

diameter anchor 

bolt at 4" o.c. 


V 2 " minimum 

diameter anchor 

bolt at 4" o.c. 


'/," minimum 

diameter anchor 

bolt at 4" o.c 


Wall bottom track to 
wood sill per Figure 
R603.3.1(3) 


Steel plate spaced 

at 4" o.c, with 4- 

No. 8 screws and 

4-10dor6-8d 

common nails 


Steel plate spaced 

at 4" o.c, with 4- 

No. 8 screws and 

4-10dor6-8d 

common nails 


Steel plate spaced 

at 3" o.c, with 4- 

No. 8 screws and 

4-10dor6-8d 

common nails 


Steel plate spaced 

at 3" o.c, with 4- 

No. 8 screws and 

4-10dor6-8d 

common nails 


Steel plate spaced 

at 2" o.c, with 4- 

No. 8 screws and 

4-10dor6-8d 

common nails 


Steel plate spaced 

at 2" o.c, with 4- 

No. 8 screws and 

4-10dor6-8d 

common nails 


Wind uplift connector 
strength to 16" stud 
spacing 4 ' 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


65 lb per foot of 
wall length 


Wind uplift connector 
strength for 24" stud 
spacing 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


100 lb per foot of 
wall length 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, I mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, I foot = 304.8 mm, I pound = 4.45 N. 

a. Anchor bolts are to be located not more than 12 inches from corners or the termination of bottom tracks (e.g., at door openings or corners). Bolls are to extend 
a minimum of 15 inches into masonry or 7 inches into concrete. 

b. All screw sizes shown are minimum. 

c. NR = uplift connector not required. 

d. Foundation anchor straps are permitted in place of anchor bolts, if spaced as required to provide equivalent anchorage to the required anchor bolts and 
installed in accordance with manufacturer's requirements. 

TABLE R603.3.1. 1(1) 
GABLE ENDWALLTO FLOOR CONNECTION REQUIREMENTS"' bc 



BASIC WIND SPEED 

(mph) 


WALL BOTTOM TRACK TO FLOOR JOIST OR TRACK CONNECTION 


Exposure 


Stud height, h (feet) 


B 


c 


10 < /J< 14 


14<h<18 


18<h<22 


85 


— 


1-No. 8 screw® 12" o.c. 


1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c. 


1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c. 


90 


— 


1 -No. 8 screw @ 1 2" o.c. 


1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c. 


1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c. 


100 


85 


1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c. 


1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c. 


1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c. 


110 


90 


1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c. 


1-No. 8 screw® 12" o.c 


2-No. 8 screws @ 12" o.c. 


— 


100 


1-No. 8 screw @ 12" o.c. 


2-No. 8 screws @ 12" o.c. 


1-No. 8 screw @ 8" o.c. 


— 


110 


2-No. 8 screws @ 12" o.c. 


1-No. 8 screw @ 8" o.c. 


2-No. 8 screws @ 8" o.c. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Refer to Table R603.3. 1 . 1 (2) for gable endwall bottom track to foundation connections. 

b. Where attachment is not given, special design is required. 

c. Stud height, ft, is measured from wall bottom track to wall top track or brace connection height. 



196 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



through R603.3.2(31), but not less than 33 mils (0.84 
mm), where both of the following conditions exist: 

1. Minimum of 7 2 inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board is 
installed and fastened in accordance with Section 
R702 on the interior surface. 

2. Wood structural sheathing panels of minimum 7 / l6 - 
inch-thick (11 mm) oriented strand board or l5 / 32 - 
inch-thick (12 mm) plywood is installed and fas- 
tened in accordance with Section R603.9.1 and 
Table R603.3.2(l) on the outside surface. 

Interior load- bearing walls shall be permitted to be 
reduced to the next thinner size, as shown in Tables 
R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(31), but not less than 33 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



mils (0.84 mm), where a minimum of 7 2 -inch (12.7 
mm) gypsum board is installed and fastened in accor- 
dance with Section R702 on both sides of the wall. The 
tabulated stud thickness for load- bearing walls shall be 
used when the attic load is 10 pounds per square feet 
(480 Pa) or less. A limited attic storage load of 20 
pounds per square feet (960 Pa) shall be permitted pro- 
vided that the next higher snow load column is used to 
select the stud size from Tables R603.3.2(2) through 
R603.3.2(31). 

For two-story buildings, the tabulated stud thickness 
for walls supporting one floor, roof and ceiling shall be 
used when second floor live load is 30 pounds per 



TABLE R603.3.1.1(2) 
GABLE ENDWALL BOTTOM TRACK TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION REQUIREMENTS"' "•' 



BASIC WIND SPEED 
(mph) 


MINIMUM SPACING FOR 7 2 -INCH-DIAMETER ANCHOR BOLTS" 


Exposure 


Stud height, h (feet) 


B 


c 


10 < ft< 14 


14<h<18 


18 <h< 22 


85 


— 


6'- 0" o.c. 


6'- 0" o.c. 


6'- 0" o.c. 


90 


— 


6'- 0" o.c. 


5'- 7" o.c. 


6'- 0" o.c. 


100 


85 


5'- 10" o.c. 


6'- 0" o.c. 


6'- 0" o.c. 


110 


90 


4'- 10" o.c. 


5'- 6" o.c. 


6'- 0" o.c. 


— 


100 


4'- 1" o.c. 


6'-0"o.c. 


6'- 0" o.c. 


— 


110 


5'- 1" o.c. 


6'- 0" o.c. 


5'- 2" o.c. 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Refer to Table R603.3.1 .1 (1) for gable endwall bottom track to floor joist or track connection connections. 

b. Where attachment is not given, special design is required. 

c. Stud height, h, is measured from wall bottom track to wall top track or brace connection height. 

d. Foundation anchor straps are permitted in place of anchor bolts if spaced as required to provide equivalent anchorage to the required anchor bolts and 
installed in accordance with manufacturer's requirements. 



STRUCTURAL STEEL STUD 



FLOOR JOIST- 




NO. 8 SCREWS SPACED 
PER TABLE R603.3.1 



STRUCTURAL STUD 



FIGURE R603.3.1(1) 
WALL TO FLOOR CONNECTION 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



197 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



square feet (1440 Pa). Second floor live loads of 40 psf 
(1920 pounds per square feet) shall be permitted pro- 
vided that the next higher snow load column is used to 
select the stud size from Tables R603.3.2(2) through 
R603. 3.2(21). 

For three-story buildings, the tabulated stud thick- 
ness for walls supporting one or two floors, roof and 



ceiling shall be used when the third floor live load is 30 
pounds per square feet (1440 Pa). Third floor live loads 
of 40 pounds per square feet (1920 Pa) shall be permit- 
ted provided that the next higher snow load column is 
used to select the stud size from Tables R603.3.2(22) 
through R603. 3. 2(31). 



STUD 



TRACK 




NO. 8SCREWTHROUGH 
EACH FLANGE 



4 NO. 8 SCREWS THROUGH 
EACH FLANGE 

STUD BLOCKING INSIDE WALL TRACK 
(MINIMUM THICKNESS OF STUD) 

ANCHOR BOLT OR OTHER CONNECTION 
AS REQUIRED 



FOUNDATION OR SLAB ON GRADE 



SILL SEALER AS REQUIRED 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R603.3. 1(2) 
WALL TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION 




MINIMUM 3"x4"x 33 MIL 
METAL PLATE 

4-1 Od OR 6-8d COMMON NAIL 

NO. 8 SCREWTHROUGH EACH FLANGE 

MINIMUM 4 NO. 8 SCREWS 

ANCHOR BOLT THROUGH WOOD SILL 
OR OTHER CONNECTION AS REQUIRED 



FOUNDATION OR SLAB ON GRADE 



For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, I inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R603.3.1(3) 
WALL TO WOOD SILL CONNECTION 



198 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(1) 
WALL FASTENING SCHEDULE 3 



DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING 
ELEMENT 



Floor joist to track of load-bearing wall 



Wall stud to top or bottom track 



Structural sheathing to wall studs 



Roof framing to wall 



NUMBER AND SIZE OF 
FASTENERS" 



2-No. 8 screws 



2-No. 8 screws 



No. 8 screws'" 



SPACING OF FASTENERS 



Each joist 



Each end of stud, one per flange 



6" o.c. on edges and 12" o.c. at intermediate 
supports 



Approved design or tie down in accordance with Section R802.1 1 . 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. All screw sizes shown are minimum. 

b. Screws for attachment of structural sheathing panels are to be bugle-head, flat-head, or similar head styles with a minimum head diameter of 0.29 inch. 



TABLE R603.3.2(2) 

24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLY abc 

33 KRI RTFFI 


































WIND 
SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


8-foot Studs 


9-foot Studs 


10-foot Studs 


Exp. B 


Exp.C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


90 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


110 mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


— 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


— 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, I foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 1 pound per square foot = 0479 kPa 
1 Ksi = 1 ,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 1 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



199 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(3) 
24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLY abc 

50 KSI STEEL 







1 




MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


WIND SPEED 


STUD 
MEMBER „„„„.„.,- 


8-foot Studs 


9-foot Studs 


10-foot Studs 


Exp. B 


Exp. C 


SIZE 


(inches) 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


90mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


100 mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


1 10 mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


— 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


— 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, I pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



200 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(4) 
























33 KSI STEEL 






WIND SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


8-foot Studs 


9-foot Studs 


10-foot Studs 


Exp. B 


Exp. C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


90 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


100 mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


110 mph 


90 

mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


— 


100 mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


— 


110 mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 Ksi= 1 ,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



201 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(5) 








28-FQQT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLY aBc 






50 KSI STEEL 










WIND SPEED 


MEMBER SIZE 


STUD SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


8-foot Studs 


9-foot Studs 


10-foot Studs 


Exp. B 


Exp. C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


90mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


100 mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


110 mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


— 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


— 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa 
I Ksi = 1 ,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 1 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



202 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(6) 
32-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLY abc 

33 KSI STEEL 










k^W^ 




| 




I 




WIND SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


8-foot Studs 


9-foot Studs 


1 0-foot Studs 


Exp. B 


Exp. C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


90 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


100 mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


110 mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


— 


100 mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


— 


110 mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 8 



203 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(7) 

32-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLY abc 

50 KSI STEEL 



WIND SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(Inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


8-foot Studs 


9-foot Studs 


10-foot Studs 


Exp. B 


Exp. C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


90 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


100 mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


J. 10 mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


— 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


— 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



204 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 8 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2{8) 
36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLY abc 


















33 KSI STEEL 










WIND SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


8-foot Studs 


9-foot Studs 


10-foot Studs 


Exp. B 


Exp. C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


90 

mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


110 
mph 


90 
mph 


350SI62 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


— 


100 mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


— 


1 10 mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, I foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 Ksi= 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



205 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2{9) 
36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLY*'"' 

50 KSI STEEL 







MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


WIND Srteu 


8-foot Studs 


9-foot Studs 


10-foot Studs 


Exp. B 


Exp. C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


90mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


100 mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


llOmph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


— 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


33 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


— 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 




24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, l foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



206 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 8 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(10) 
























33 KSl STEEL 






WIND SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 

(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


8-foot Studs 


9-foot Studs 


10-foot Studs 


Exp. B 


Exp.C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


54 


90 
mph 




350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


68 




550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


54 


100 mph 


85 
mph 


350SI62 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


43 


43 


54 


33 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


54 


110 mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


33 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


54 


— 


100 mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


68 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


54 


— 


110 mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


43 


43 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 Ksi = I ,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 1 2 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



207 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(11) 
40-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLY abc 


















50 KSI STEEL 










WIND SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


8-foot Studs 


9-foot Studs 


1 0-foot Studs 


Exp. B 


Exp. C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


90 mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


54 


550SI62 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


100 mph 


85 mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


110 mph 


90 mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


— 


100 mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


— 


110 mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


55 OS 162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 




24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, I foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 1 mile per hour - 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0479 kPa 
1 Ksi= 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



208 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE* 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLER603.3.2(12) 
24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILING 3 bc 

33 KS! STEEL 







MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 




8-foot Studs 


9-foot Studs 


10-foot Studs 


Exp. B 


Exp. C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


90 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


110 
mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


— 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


— 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, ) foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
I Ksi = 1 ,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



209 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLER603.3.2(13) 
24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR ROOF AND CEILING 3 ' bc 




,_.-- 














50 KSI STEEL 










WIND 
SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


8-foot Studs 


9-foot Studs 


10-foot Studs 


Exp. B 


Exp. C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


90 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


100 mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


110 mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


— 


100 mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


— 


1 10 mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 Ksi = 1 ,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: Z7240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



210 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE @ 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(14) 
28-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILING" "■' 

33 KSI STEEL 



WIND SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 




8-foot Studs 


9-foot Studs 


10-foot Studs 


Exp. B 


Exp. C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


90 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


100 mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


1 1 mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


— 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


— 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, I foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, I mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
lKsi= 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 1 2 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



211 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLER603.3.2(15) 
28-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILING 3 bc 

50 KSS STEEL 







MEMBER SIZE 


STUD SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


WIND 
SPEED 


8-foot Studs 


9-foot Studs 


10-foot Studs 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


Exp. B 


Exp. C 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


90 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


100 mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


110 mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


— 


100 
mph 


350SI62 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


— 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 toot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 Ksi= 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



212 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLER603.3.2(16) 
32-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILING" bc 

33 KSI STEEL 



WIND SPEED 


MEMBER SIZE 


STUD SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 




8-foot Studs 


9-foot Studs 


10-foot Studs 


Exp. B 


Exp. C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


43 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


90 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


43 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


43 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


110 
mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


43 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


— 


100 mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33. 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


— 


1 10 mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 fool = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, I mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
I Ksi = 1 ,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 1 2 psf, 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



213 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLER603.3.2(17) 
32-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILING 3 bc 

50 KSI STEEL 



WIND 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


SPEED 


8-foot Studs 


9-foot Studs 


10-foot Studs 


Exp. B 


Exp. C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550SI62 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


90 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


110 mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


— 


100 mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


— 


110 mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 



For SI: l inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, I mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 Ksi = 1 ,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



214 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(18) 
36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILING abc 

33 KS! STEEL 







MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 




8-foot Studs 


9-foot Studs 


10-foot Studs 


Exp. B 


Exp. C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350SI62 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


90 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


100 mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


68 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


110 mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


43 


43 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


— 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


— 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
I Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 1 2 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



215 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(19) 
36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILING 3 "-' 

50 KSI STEEL 



WIND SPEED 


MEMBER SIZE 


STUD SPACING (inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 




8-foot Studs 


9-foot Studs 


10-foot Studs 


Exp. B 


Exp. C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


90 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


110 
mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


— 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


— 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 loot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, ] mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0479 kPa 
lKsi= 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



216 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(20) 
40-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILING"' ' 

33 KSI STEEL 



WIND SPEED 


MEMBER 

SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


8-foot Studs 


9-foot Studs 


10-foot Studs 


Exp. B 


Exp. C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 raph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


43 


43 


54 


68 


43 


43 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


90mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


43 


43 


54 


68 


43 


43 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


lOOmph 


85 mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


43 


43 


54 


68 


43 


43 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


HOmph 


90mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


43 


43 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


— 


100 mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


— 


110 mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
lKsi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: ZV240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



217 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(21) 
40-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR ROOF AND CEILING 3 ' " c 
















50 KSI STEEL 










WIND SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


8-foot Studs 


9-foot Studs 


10-foot Studs 


Exp. B 


Exp. C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


43 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


90mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


43 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


100 mph 


85 mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


43 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


1 10 mph 


90 mph 


350SI62 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


43 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


— 


100 mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


43 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


43 


43 


43 


— 


110 mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


43 


43 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


43 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 



For SI: l inch = 254 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 Ksi = 1 ,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: t/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



218 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(22) 


_^^_ 




24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILING 3 bc 






33 KSI STEEL 






WIND SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


8-foot Studs 


9-foot Studs 


10-foot Studs 


Exp. B 


Exp. C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


90 mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


100 mph 


85 mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


1 10 mph 


90 mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


— 


100 mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


— 


110 mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, I foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 Ksi= 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Top and middle floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Top floor live load is 30 psf. 
Middle floor live load is 40 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



219 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE RS03.3.2(23) 
24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILING" b ' 

33 KSI STEEL 







MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 




8-foot Studs 


9-foot Studs 


10-foot Studs 


Exp. B 


Exp. C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


90 mph 


— 


350SI62 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


100 mph 


85 mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


110 mph 


90 mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


— 


100 mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


— 


110 mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Top and middle floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Top floor live load is 30 psf. 
Middle floor live load is 40 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



220 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(24) 
28-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILING 3 b ' 

33 KSI STEEL 











MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


WIND &Kttu 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


8-foot Studs 


9-foot Studs 


10-foot Studs 


Exp. B 


Exp. C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


550SI62 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


90mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


100 mph 


85 mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


1 10 mph 


90 mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


— 


100 mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


— 


110 mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 54 


54 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, I mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Top and middle floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Top floor live load is 30 psf. 
Middle floor live load is 40 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 9 



221 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(25) 
28-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILING 3 ' 1 " 

50 KSI STEEL 



WIND SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 




8-foot Studs 


9-foot Studs 


10-foot Studs 


Exp. B 


Exp. C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 mph 


~ 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


90mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


100 mph 


85 mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


110 mph 


90 mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


— 


100 mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


55 OS 162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


— 


1 10 mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0479 kPa 
1 Ksi= 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: Z./240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Top and middle floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Top floor live load is 30 psf. 
Middle floor live load is 40 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



222 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(26) 
32-FQOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILING ' bc 

33 KSI STEEL 



WIND SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


8-foot Studs 


9-foot Studs 


10-foot Studs 


Exp. B 


Exp.C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


90mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


100 mph 


85 mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


110 mph 


90 mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


— 


100 mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


— 


110 mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 Ksi = 1 ,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: 17240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Top and middle floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Top floor live load is 30 psf. 
Middle floor live load is 40 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 1 2 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



223 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(27) 
32-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILING"' bc 
















50 KSI STEEL 






[iJitid 




WIND SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


8-foot Studs 


9-foot Studs 


10-foot Studs 


Exp. B 


Exp. C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


90 mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


100 mph 


85 mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


1 10 mph 


90 mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


— 


100 mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


— 


1 10 mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
I Ksi= 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Top and middle floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Top floor live load is 30 psf. 
Middle floor live load is 40 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 1 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



224 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(28) 
36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILING 8 " c 

33 KSI STEEL 



IBB 



WIND SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 




8-foot Studs 


9-foot Studs 


1 0-foot Studs 


Exp. B 


Exp. C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


97 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


90mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


97 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


100 mph 


85 mph 


350S162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


97 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


110 mph 


90 mph 


350S162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


97 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


— 


100 mph 


350S162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


97 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


— 


110 mph 


350S162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


24 


68 


68 


68 


97 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


97 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 



For SI: l inch = 25.4 mm. 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
I Ksi= 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Top and middle floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Top floor live load is 30 psf. 
Middle floor live load is 40 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



225 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(29) 
36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILING ' bc 

50 KSI STEEL 








I 








WIND SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


8-foot Studs 


9-foot Studs 


10-foot Studs 


Exp. B 


Exp. C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


90 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


110 
mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


— 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


— 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, l foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, I mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 Ksi= 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Top and middle floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Top floor live load is 30 psf. 
Middle floor live load is 40 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 1 2 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



226 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(30) 
40-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILING* bc 

33 KSI STEEL 



WIND 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


SPEED 


8-foot Studs 


9-foot Studs 


1 0-foot Studs 


Exp. B 


Exp. C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


97 


97 


97 


97 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


97 


550S162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


90 

mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


97 


97 


97 


97 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


97 


550S162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


97 


97 


97 


97 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


97 


550S162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


110 
mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


97 


97 


97 


97 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


97 


550S162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


— 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


97 


97 


97 


97 


68 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


97 


550S162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


— 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


24 


97 


97 


97 


97 


68 


68 


97 


97 


97 


97 


97 


97 


550S162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 Ksi= 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Top and middle floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Top floor live load is 30 psf. 
Middle floor live load is 40 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 8 



227 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(31) 
40-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING TWO FLOORS, ROOF AND CEILING 8 ' bc 

50 KSI STEEL 








I 




I 




WIND 
SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


8-foot Studs 


9-foot Studs 


1 0-foot Studs 


Exp. B 


Exp. C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
raph 


— 


350S162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


90 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


110 
mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


— 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


— 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


24 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


68 


97 


550S162 


16 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


68 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 



For SI: l inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Top and middle floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Top floor live load is 30 psf. 
Middle floor live load is 40 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



R603.3.2.1 Gable endwails. The size and thickness of 
gable endwall studs with heights less than or equal to 
10 feet (3048 mm) shall be permitted in accordance 
with the limits set forth in Table R603.3.2.1(l) or 
R603.3.2.1(2). The size and thickness of gable endwall 
studs with heights greater than 10 feet (3048 mm) shall 
be determined in accordance with the limits set forth in 
Table R603.3.2. 1 (3) or R603.3.2. 1(4). 



R603.3.3 Stud bracing. The flanges of cold-formed steel 
studs shall be laterally braced in accordance with one of 
the following: 

1 . Gypsum board on both sides, structural sheathing on 
both sides, or gypsum board on one side and struc- 
tural sheathing on the other side of load-bearing 
walls with gypsum board installed with minimum 
No. 6 screws in accordance with Section R702 and 



228 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



structural sheathing installed in accordance with 
Section R603.9.1 and Table R603.3.2(l). 

Horizontal steel straps fastened in accordance with 
Figure R603.3.3(l) on both sides at mid-height for 
8-foot (2438 mm) walls, and at one-third points for 
9-foot and 10-foot (2743 mm and 3048 mm) walls. 
Horizontal steel straps shall be at least 1.5 inches in 
width and 33 mils in thickness (38 mm by 0.84 mm). 
Straps shall be attached to the flanges of studs with 
one No. 8 screw. In-line blocking shall be installed 



between studs at the termination of all straps and at 
12 foot (3658 mm) intervals along the strap. Straps 
shall be fastened to the blocking with two No. 8 
screws. 

3. Sheathing on one side and strapping on the other 
side fastened in accordance with Figure 
R603.3.3(2). Sheathing shall be installed in accor- 
dance with Item 1 . Steel straps shall be installed in 
accordance with Item 2. 



TABLE R603.3.2.1(1) 
ALL BUILDING WIDTHS GABLE ENDWALLS 8, 9 OR 10 FEET IN HEIGHT" bc 

33 KSI STEEL 



WIND SPEED 


MEMBER SIZE 


STUD SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (Mils) 


Exp. B 


Exp. C 


8-foot Studs 


9-foot Studs 


10-foot Studs 


85 mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


90mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


100 mph 


85 mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


110 mph 


90 mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


— 


100 mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


— 


110 mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, I foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, ] mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Ground snow load is 70 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 1 2 psf. 
Floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Floor live load is 40 psf. 
Attic dead load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



229 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2.1(2) 
ALL BUILDING WIDTHS GABLE ENDWALLS 8, 9 OR 10 FEET IN HEIGHT" bc 

50 KSi STEEL 



WIND SPEED 


MEMBER SIZE 


STUD SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (Mils) 


Exp. B 


Exp. C 


8-foot Studs 


9-foot Studs 


10-foot Studs 


85 mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


90mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


100 mph 


85 mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


1 10 mph 


90 mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


— 


100 mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


— 


110 mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 



For SI: l inch = 25.4 mm, I foot = 304.8 mm, ] mil = 0.0254 mm, I mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
J Ksi= 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Ground snow load is 70 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 1 2 psf. 
Floor dead load is 1 psf. 
Floor live load is 40 psf. 
Attic dead load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



230 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2.1(3) 
ALL BUILDING WIDTHS GABLE ENDWALLS OVER 10 FEET IN HEIGHT 3 ' bl 

33 KSI STEEL 



WIND SPEED 


MEMBER SIZE 


STUD SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


Exp. B 


Exp. C 


Stud Height, h (feet) 


10</j<12 


12</?<14 


14</7<16 


16 < rt<18 


18</)<20 


20<h< 22 


85 mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


43 


54 


97 


~ 


— 


24 


43 


54 


97 


— 


— 


— 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


54 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


68 


97 


90 mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


43 


68 


97 


— 


— 


24 


43 


68 


97 


— 


— 


— 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


54 


54 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


68 


97 


100 mph 


85 mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


54 


97 


— 


— 


— 


24 


54 


97 


— 


— 


— 


— 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


54 


54 


68 


24 


33 


43 


54 


68 


97 


97 


1 10 mph 


90 mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


68 


— 


— 


— 


— 


24 


68 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


550S162 


16 


33 


43 


43 


54 


68 


97 


24 


43 


54 


68 


97 


97 


— 


— 


100 mph 


350S162 


16 


54 


97 


— 


— 


— 


— 


24 


97 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


550S162 


16 


33 


43 


54 


68 


97 


— 


24 


43 


68 


97 


97 


— 


— 


— 


110 mph 


350S162 


16 


68 


97 


— 


— 


— 


— 


24 


97 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


550S162 


16 


43 


54 


68 


97 


97 


— 


| 24 


54 


68 


97 


— 


— 


— 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, I foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa 
1 Ksi = 1 ,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Ground snow load is 70 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 1 2 psf. 
Floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Floor live load is 40 psf. 
Attic dead load is 1 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



231 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLER603.3.2.1(4) 
ALL BUILDING WIDTHS GABLE ENDWALLS OVER 10 FEET IN HEIGHT" bI 

50 KSI STEEL 



WIND SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


Exp. B 


Exp. C 


Stud Height, h (feet) 


10 < /!< 12 


12</J<14 


14 < Aj< 16 


16</)<18 


18</1<20 


20 < h < 22 


85 mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


43 


54 


97 


— 


— 


24 


33 


54 


97 


— 


— 


— 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


54 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


54 


97 


90 mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


43 


68 


97 


— 


— 


24 


43 


68 


97 


— 


— 


— 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


54 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


68 


97 


100 mph 


85 mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


54 


97 


— 


— 


— 


24 


54 


97 


— 


— 


— 


— 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


54 


68 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


97 


97 


110 mph 


90 mph 


350S162 


16 


43 


68 


— 


— 


— 


— 


24 


68 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


550SI62 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


68 


97 


24 


33 


43 


54 


68 


97 


— 


— 


100 mph 


350S162 


16 


54 


97 


— 


— 


— 


— 


24 


97 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


54 


97 


— 


24 


43 


54 


54 


97 


— 


— 


— 


110 mph 


350S162 


16 


54 


97 


— 


— 


— 


— 


24 


97 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


550S162 


16 


33 


43 


54 


68 


97 


— 


24 


43 


54 


68 


97 


— 


— 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mi! = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, I pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 Ksi = 1 ,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Ground snow load is 70 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Floor live load is 40 psf. 
Attic dead load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



232 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



BEND SECTION OR CLIP FLANGE 
TO FORM VERTICAL 




1 1 / 2 "x33MIL 

FLAT STRIP (MINIMUM) 

WALL FRAMING 



TRACK/STUD BLOCKING @ ENDS OF 
STRAP & INTERMITTENTLY EVERY 12' 

2-NO. 8 SCREWS @ STRAP TO BLOCKING 

NO. 8 SCREW 

® EACH STRAP TO STUD 



For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



FIGURE R603.3.3(1) 
STUD BRACING WITH STRAPPING ONLY 



STUD/TRAK BLOCKING 

@ EACH END OF STRAP 

& INTERMITTENTLY EVERY 12' 



WALL SHEATHING 




WALL FRAMING 



1 1 /2"x33MIL 
FLAT STRAP 



BEND SECTION OR CLIP 
FLANGE TO FORM VERTICAL 



2 NO. 8 SCREWS 

STRAP TO BLOCKING 



NO. 8 SCREW 

©EACH STRAP TO STUD 



For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



FIGURE R603.3.3(2) 

STUD BRACING WITH STRAPPING AND SHEATHING MATERIAL 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



233 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R 603.3.4 Cutting and notching. Flanges and lips of cold- 
formed steel studs and headers shall not be cut or notched. 

R6W3.3.5 Splicing. Steel studs and other structural mem- 
bers shall not be spliced. Tracks shall be spliced in accor- 
dance with Figure R603.3.5. 

R603.4 Corner framing. In exterior walls, corner studs and 
the top tracks shall be installed in accordance with Figure 
R603.4. 

R603.5 Exterior wall covering. The method of attachment 
of exterior wall covering materials to cold-formed steel stud 



wall framing shall conform to the manufacturer's installation 
instructions. 

R603.6 Headers. Headers shall be installed above all wall 
openings in exterior walls and interior load-bearing walls. 
Box beam headers and back-to-back headers each shall be 
formed from two equal sized C-shaped members in accor- 
dance with Figures R603.6(l) and R603.6(2), respectively, 
and Tables R603.6(l) through R603.6(24). L-shaped headers 
shall be permitted to be constructed in accordance with AISI 
S230. Alternately, headers shall be permitted to be designed 
and constructed in accordance with AISI S100, Section D4. 



♦-NO. 8 SCREWS 

ON EACH SIDE OF SPLICE 




STUD SECTION INSIDE TRACK 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R603.3.5 
TRACK SPLICE 



4-NO, 8 SCREWS AT LAPPED TRACK 



CUP TRACK FLANGE 
AT LAP JOINT 



TRACK 



2 NO. 8 SCREWS 

24" O.C, CONNECTING 
CORNER STUDS 




r 



L~ -JM 



INTERIOR GYPSUM 
WALL BOARD FINISH 



TRACK 



PLAN 



-NO. 6 SCREWS 




ALTERNATE PLAN 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 i 



FIGURE R603.4 
CORNER FRAMING 



234 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



2 NO.8 SCREWS @ 24" O.C 
ONE PER FLANGE 



C-SHAPES 



2 NO. 8 SCREWS AT 
24" ON CENTER, 
ONE PER FLANGE 



TRACK 




TRACK 



CRIPPLE STUD 



TRACK 



TRACK OR C-SHAPE 
ATTACH WITH NO. 8 SCREWS 
(MINIMUM DEPTH = HEADER 
DEPTH MINUS Vi INCH) 



KING STUD(S) 



JACK STUD(S) 



NO. 8 SCREWS THROUGH 
SHEATHING TO EACH 
JACK AND KING STUD 
AT 12" ON CENTER 

STRUCTURAL SHEATHING 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R603.6(1) 
BOX BEAM HEADER 



2-NO. 8 SCREWS 
AT 24" ON CENTER 
(2 SCREWS THROUGH 
TOP FLANGES AND 
2 SCREWS THROUGH 
BOTTOM FLANGES) 



BACK-TO-BACK 
C-SHAPES 



2-NO. 8 SCREWS 
AT 24" ON CENTER 

CRIPPLE STUD 




TRACK 



STRUCTURAL SHEATHING 



TRACK 



2" x 2" CLIP ANGLE ATTACHED 
WITH NO. 8 SCREWS, 
MINIMUM LENGTH = WEB DEPTH 
MINUS 1 / 2 INCH 



TRACK 



JACK STUDS (AS REQUIRED) 



KING STUDS (AS REQUIRED) 



NO. 8 SCREWS THROUGH 

SHEATHING TO EACH JACK 

& KING STUD AT 12" ON CENTER 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R603.6(2) 
BACK-TO-BACK HEADER 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 8 



235 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(1) 

BOX-BEAM HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting Roof and Ceiling Only 

(33 Ksi steel) 8 b 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(20 psf ) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(30 psf) 


Building width (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-350S 162-33 


3'-3" 


2'-8" 


2'-2" 


— 


— 


2'-8" 


2'-2" 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S162-43 


4'-2" 


3'-9" 


3'-4" 


2'- 11" 


2'-7" 


3'-9" 


3'-4" 


2'- 11" 


2'-7" 


2'-2" 


2-350S162-54 


5'-0" 


4'-6" 


4'-l" 


3'-8" 


3'-4" 


4'-6" 


4'-l" 


3'-8" 


3'-3" 


3'-0" 


2-350S162-68 


5'-7" 


5'-l" 


4'-7" 


4'-3" 


3'- 10" 


5'-l" 


4'-7" 


4'-2" 


3'- 10" 


3'-5" 


2-350S162-97 


7'-l" 


6'-6" 


6'-l" 


5'-8" 


5'-3" 


6'-7" 


6'-l" 


5'-7" 


5'-3" 


4'- 11" 


2-550S162-33 


4'-8" 


4'-0" 


3'-6" 


3'-0" 


2'-6" 


4'-l" 


3'-6" 


3'-0" 


2'-6" 


— 


2-550S162-43 


6'-0" 


5'-4" 


4'- 10" 


4'-4" 


3'- 11" 


5'-5" 


4'- 10" 


4'-4" 


3'- 10" 


3'-5" 


2-550S162-54 


7'-0" 


6'-4" 


5'-9" 


5 '-4" 


4'- 10" 


6'-5" 


5'-9" 


5'-3" 


4'- 10" 


4'-5" 


2-550S 162-68 


8'-0" 


7'-4" 


6'-9" 


6'-3" 


5'- 10" 


7'-5" 


6'-9" 


6'-3" 


5'-9" 


5'-4" 


2-550S 162-97 


9'-ll" 


9'-2" 


8'-6" 


8'-0" 


7'-6" 


9'-3" 


8'-6" 


8'-0" 


7'-5" 


7'-0" 


2-800S 162-33 


4'-5" 


3'-ll" 


3'-5" 


3'-l" 


2'- 10" 


3'- 11" 


3'-6" 


3'-l" 


2'-9" 


2'-3" 


2-800S 162-43 


7'-3" 


6'-7" 


5'- 11" 


5'-4" 


4'-10" 


6'-7" 


5'-ll" 


5'-4" 


4'-9" 


4'-3" 


2-800S 162-54 


8'- 10" 


8'-0" 


7'-4" 


6'-9" 


6'-2" 


8'-l" 


7'-4" 


6'-8" 


6'-l" 


5'-7" 


2-800S 162-68 


J0'-5" 


9'-7" 


8'- 10" 


8'-2" 


7'-7" 


9'-8" 


8'- 10" 


8'-l" 


7'-6" 


7'-0" 


2-800S 162-97 


13'-1" 


12'-l" 


ll'-3" 


10'-7" 


lO'-O" 


12'-2" 


ll'-4" 


10'-6" 


lO'-O" 


9'-4" 


2-1000S 162-43 


7'- 10" 


6'- 10" 


6'-l" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


6'- 11" 


6'-l" 


5'-5" 


4'- 11" 


4'-6" 


2- 1000S 162-54 


lO'-O" 


9'-l" 


8'-3" 


7'-7" 


7'-0" 


9'-2" 


8'-4" 


7'-7" 


6'- 11" 


6'-4" 


2- 1000S 162-68 


ll'-ll" 


10'- 11" 


lO'-l" 


9'-4" 


8'-8" 


ll'-O" 


lO'-l" 


9'-3" 


8'-7" 


8'-0" 


2- 1000S 162-97 


15'-3" 


14'-3" 


13'-5" 


12'-6" 


11 '-10" 


14'-4" 


13'-5" 


12'-6" 


11 '-9" 


ll'-O" 


2-1200S162-54 


ll'-l" 


lO'-O" 


9'-2" 


8'-5" 


7'-9" 


lO'-l" 


9'-2" 


8'-4" 


7'-7" 


7'-0" 


2-1200S 162-68 


13'-3" 


12'-1" 


ll'-2" 


10'-4" 


9'-7" 


12'-3" 


ll'-2" 


10'-3" 


9'-6" 


8'-10" 


2- 1200S 162-97 


16'-8" 


15'-7" 


14'-8" 


13'-11" 


13'-3" 


15'-8" 


14'-8" 


13'- 11" 


13'-2" 


12'-6" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, I toot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 
I Ksi= 1 ,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic dead load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header. 



236 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(2) 

BOX-BEAM HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting Roof and Ceiling Only 

(50 Ksi steel) 3 h 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(20 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(30 psf) 




Building width (feet) 


Building width" (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-350S162-33 


4'-4" 


3'- 11" 


3'-6" 


3'-2" 


2'- 10" 


3'-ll" 


3'-6" 


3'-l" 


2'-9" 


2'-5" 


2-350S 162-43 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


4'-7" 


4'-2" 


3'- 10" 


5'-0" 


4'-7" 


4'-2" 


3'-10" 


3'-6" 


2-350S 162-54 


6'-2" 


5'-10" 


5'-8" 


5'-3" 


4'-10" 


5'-ll" 


5'-8" 


5'-2" 


4'- 10" 


4'-6" 


2-350S 162-68 


6'-7" 


6'-3" 


6'-0" 


5'- 10" 


5'-8" 


6'-4" 


6'-l" 


5'- 10" 


5'-8" 


5'-6" 


2-350S 162-97 


7'-3" 


6'- 11" 


6'-8" 


6'-5" 


6'-3" 


7-0" 


6'-8" 


6'-5" 


6'-3" 


6'-0" 


2-550S 162-33 


6'-2" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


4'-7" 


4'-2" 


5'-7" 


5'-0" 


4'-6" 


4'-l" 


3'-8" 


2-550S 162-43 


7'-9" 


7-2" 


6'-7" 


6'-l" 


5'-8" 


7-3" 


6'-7" 


6'-l" 


5'-7" 


5'-2" 


2-550S 162-54 


8'-9" 


8'-5" 


8'-l" 


7'-9" 


7'-3" 


8'-6" 


8'-l" 


7'-8" 


7'-2" 


6'-8" 


2-550S 162-68 


9'-5" 


9'-0" 


8'-8" 


8'-4" 


8'-l" 


9'-l" 


8'-8" 


8'-4" 


8'-l" 


7'- 10" 


2-550S 162-97 


10'-5" 


lO'-O" 


9'-7" 


9'-3" 


9'-0" 


lO'-O" 


9'-7" 


9'-3" 


8'- 11" 


8'-8" 


2-800S 162-33 


4'-5" 


3'-ll" 


3'-5" 


3'-l" 


2'- 10" 


3'-ll" 


3'-6" 


3'-l" 


2'-9" 


2'-6" 


2-800S 162-43 


9'-l" 


8'-5" 


7'-8" 


6'- 11" 


6'-3" 


8'-6" 


7'-8" 


6'-10" 


6'-2" 


5'-8" 


2-800S 162-54 


10'- 10" 


10'-2" 


9'-7" 


9'-0" 


8'-5" 


10'-2" 


9'-7" 


8'- 11" 


8'-4" 


7'-9" 


2-800S 162-68 


12'-8" 


ll'-lO" 


11 '-2" 


10'-7" 


lO'-l" 


ll'-ll" 


11'- 2" 


10'-7" 


lO'-O" 


9'-6" 


2-800S 162-97 


14'-2" 


13'-6" 


13'-0" 


12'-7" 


1 2'-2" 


13'-8" 


13'-1" 


12'-7" 


12'-2" 


11 '-9" 


2- 1000S 162-43 


7'- 10" 


6'- 10" 


6'-l" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


6'- 11" 


6'-l" 


5'-5" 


4'-11" 


4'-6" 


2-1000S 162-54 


12'-3" 


11 '-5" 


10'-9" 


10'-2" 


9'-6" 


1 1'-6" 


10'-9" 


10'- 1" 


9'-5" 


8'-9" 


2- 1000S 162-68 


14'-5" 


13'-5" 


12'-8" 


12'-0" 


11 '-6" 


13'-6" 


12'-8" 


12'-0" 


ll'-5" 


10'- 10" 


2- 1000S 162-97 


17'-1" 


16'-4" 


15'-8" 


14'-11" 


14'-3" 


16'-5" 


15'-9" 


14'- 10" 


14' 1" 


13'-6" 


2-1200S162-54 


12'- 11" 


11 '-3" 


lO'-O" 


9'-0" 


8'-2" 


11 '-5" 


lO'-O" 


9'-0" 


8'-l" 


7'-4" 


2- 1200S 162-68 


15'-11" 


14'- 10" 


14'-0" 


13'-4" 


12'- 8" 


15'-0" 


14'-0" 


1 3'-3" 


12'-7" 


ll'-ll" 


2-1200S162-97 


19'-11" 


18'-7" 


17'-6" 


16'-8" 


15'- 10" 


18'-9" 


17'-7" 


16'-7" 


15'-9" 


15'-0" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6 895 kPa 
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, U240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic dead load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



237 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(3) 

BOX-BEAM HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting Roof and Ceiling Only 

(33Ksisteel) ab 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(50 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(70 psf) 


Building width' (feet) 




Building width" (feet) 




24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-350S 162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-43 


2'-4" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-54 


3'-l" 


2'-8" 


2'-3" 


— 


— 


2'-l" 


— 


— 


— 


- 


2-350S 162-68 


3'-7" 


3'-2" 


2'-8" 


2'-3" 


— 


2'-6" 


— 


— 


— 





2-350S 162-97 


5'-l" 


4'-7" 


4'-3" 


3'-ll" 


3'-7" 


4'-l" 


3'-8" 


3'-4" 


3'-0" 


2'-8" 


2-550S 162-33 


2'-2" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-43 


3'-8" 


3'-l" 


2'-6" 


— 


— 


2'-3" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-54 


4'-7" 


4'-0" 


3'-6" 


3'-0" 


2'-6" 


3'-3" 


2'-8" 


2'-l" 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-68 


5'-6" 


4'- 11" 


4'-5" 


3'-ll" 


3'-6" 


4'-3" 


3'-8" 


3'-l" 


2'-7" 


2'-l" 


2-550S 162-97 


7'-3" 


6'-7" 


6'-l" 


5'-8" 


5'-3" 


5'-ll" 


5'-4" 


4'-ll" 


4'-6" 


4'-l" 


2-800S162-33 


2'-7" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-43 


4'-6" 


3'-9" 


3'-l" 


2'-5" 


— 


2'- 10" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S162-54 


5'-10" 


5'-l" 


4'-6" 


311" 


3'-4" 


4'-3" 


3'-6" 


2'-9" 


— 


— 


2-800S162-68 


7'-2" 


6'-6" 


5'- 10" 


5'-3" 


4'-8" 


5'-7" 


4'- 10" 


4'-2" 


3'-7" 


2'- 11" 


2-800S 162-97 


9'-7" 


8'-9" 


8'-2" 


7-1" 


7'-0" 


7'- 11" 


7'-2" 


6'-7" 


6'-0" 


5'-7" 


2- 1000S 162-43 


4'-8" 


4'-l" 


3'-6" 


2'-9" 


— 


3'-3" 


2'-2" 


— 


— 


— 


2- 1000S 162-54 


6'-7" 


5'-10" 


5'-l" 


4'-5" 


3'-9" 


4'- 10" 


4'-0" 


3'-2" 


2'-3" 


— 


2-1000S162-68 


8'-3" 


7'-5" 


6'-8" 


6'-0" 


5'-5" 


6'-5" 


5'-7" 


4'-9" 


4'-l" 


3'-5" 


2-1000S162-97 


1 1'-4" 


10'-5" 


9'-8" 


9'-0" 


8'-5" 


9'-5" 


8'-6" 


7'- 10" 


7'-2" 


6'-7" 


2- 1200S 162-54 


7'-3" 


6'-5" 


5'-7" 


4'-10" 


4'-2" 


5'-4" 


4'-4" 


3'-5" 


2'-5" 


— 


2- 1200S 162-68 


9'-2" 


8'-2" 


7'-5" 


6'-8" 


6'-0" 


r-v 


6'-2" 


5'-4" 


4'-6" 


3'-9" 


2-1 200S 162-97 


12'- 10" 


ll'-9" 


lO'-ll" 


10'-2" 


9'-6" 


10'-7" 


9'-8" 


8'-10" 


8'-2" 


7'-6" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 
lKsi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Roof/ceiling dead load is 1 2 psf. 
Attic dead load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header. 



238 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(4) 

BOX-BEAM HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting Roof and Ceiling Only 

(50 Ksi steel) a b 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(50 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(70 psf) 




Building width (f 


eet) 




Building width (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-350S 162-33 


2'-7" 


2'-2" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-43 


3'-8" 


3'-3" 


2'-10" 


2'-6" 


2'-l" 


2'-8" 


2'-3" 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S162-54 


4'-8" 


4'-2" 


3'-9" 


3'-5" 


3'-l" 


3'-7" 


3'-2" 


2'-9" 


2'-5" 


2'-0" 


2-350S 162-68 


5'-7" 


5'-2" 


4'-9" 


4'-4" 


3'- 11" 


4'-7" 


4'-l" 


3'-7" 


3'-2" 


2'- 10" 


2-350S 162-97 


6'-2" 


5'- 11" 


5'-8" 


5'-6" 


5'-4" 


5'-8" 


5'-5" 


5'-3" 


4'- 11" 


4'-7" 


2-550S 162-33 


3'- 11" 


3'-4" 


2'- 10" 


2'-4" 


— 


2'-7" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-43 


5'-4" 


4'- 10" 


4'-4" 


3'- 10" 


3'-5" 


4'-2" 


3'-7" 


3'-l" 


2'-7" 


2'-l" 


2-550S 162-54 


6'- 11" 


6'-3" 


5'-9" 


5'-3" 


4'-9" 


5'-6" 


4'- 11" 


4'-5" 


3'-ll" 


3'-5" 


2-550S 162-68 


8'-0" 


7'-6" 


6'- 11" 


6'-5" 


5'-ll" 


6'-9" 


6'-l" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


4'-7" 


2-550S 162-97 


8'- 11" 


8'-6" 


8'-2" 


7'- 11" 


7'-8" 


8'-l" 


7'-9" 


7'-6" 


7'-l" 


6'-7" 


2-800S 162-33 


2'-8" 


2'-4" 


2'-l" 


I'-ll" 


l'-9" 


2'-0" 


l'-9" 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-43 


5'-10" 


5'-2" 


4'-7" 


4'-2" 


3'- 10" 


4'-5" 


3'- 11" 


3'-6" 


3'-0" 


2'-6" 


2-800S 162-54 


8'-0" 


7'-3" 


6'-8" 


6'-l" 


5'-7" 


6'-5" 


5'-9" 


5'-l" 


4'-7" 


4'-0" 


2-800S 162-68 


9'-9" 


9'-0" 


8'-3" 


7'-8" 


7'-l" 


8'-0" 


7'-3" 


6'-7" 


6'-0" 


5'-6" 


2-800S 162-97 


12'-1" 


ll'-7" 


ll'-2" 


10'-8" 


10'-2" 


ll'-O" 


10'-4" 


9'-9" 


9'-2" 


8'-7" 


2- 1000S 162-43 


4'-8" 


4'-l" 


3'-8" 


3'-4" 


3'-0" 


3'-6" 


3'-l" 


2'-9" 


2'-6" 


2'-3" 


2- 1000S 162-54 


9'-l" 


8'-2" 


7'-3" 


6'-7" 


6'-0" 


7'-0" 


6'-2" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


4'-6" 


2- 1000S 162-68 


ll'-l" 


10'-2" 


9'-5" 


8'-8" 


8'-l" 


9'-l" 


8'-3" 


7'-6" 


6'-10" 


6'-3" 


2- 1000S 162-97 


13'-9" 


12'- 11" 


12'-2" 


11 '-7" 


ll'-l" 


11 '-11" 


ll'-3" 


10'-7" 


9'- 11" 


9'-4" 


2- 1200S 162-54 


7'-8" 


6'-9" 


6'-l" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


5'- 10" 


5'-l" 


4'-7" 


4'4" 


3'-9" 


2- 1200S 162-68 


12'-3" 


1 1'-3" 


10'-4" 


9'-7" 


8'- 11" 


10'- 1" 


9'-l" 


8'-3" 


7'-6" 


6'- 10" 


2- 1200S 162-97 


15'-4" 


14'-5" 


13'-7" 


12'- 11" 


12'-4" 


13'-4" 


12'-6" 


11 '-10" 


ll'-l" 


10'-5" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, I pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic dead load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



239 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(5) 

BOX-BEAM HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting One Floor, Roof and Ceiling 

(33 Ksi steel) 3 ' b 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(20 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(30 psf) 


Building width (feet) 




Building width c (1 


eet) 




24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-350S162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-43 


2'-2" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2'-l" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-54 


2'-ll" 


2'-5" 


— 


— 


— 


2'- 10" 


2'-4" 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-68 


3'-8" 


3'-2" 


2'-9" 


2'-4" 


- 


3'-7" 


3'-l" 


2'-8" 


2'-3" 


— 


2-350S162-97 


4'-ll" 


4'-5" 


4'-2" 


3'-8" 


3'-5" 


4'-10" 


4'-5" 


4'-0" 


3'-8" 


3'-4" 


2-550S 162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-43 


3'-5" 


2'-9" 


2'-l" 


— 


— 


3'-3" 


2'-7" 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-54 


4'-4" 


3'-9" 


3'-2" 


2'-7" 


2'-l" 


4'-3" 


3'-7" 


3'-l" 


2'-6" 


— 


2-550S 162-68 


5'-3" 


4'-8" 


4'-l" 


3'-7" 


3'-2" 


5'-2" 


4'-7" 


4'-0" 


3'-6" 


3'-l" 


2-550S 162-97 


7'-0" 


6'-5" 


5'-10" 


5'-5" 


5'-0" 


6'- 11" 


6'-4" 


5'-9" 


5'-4" 


4'- 11" 


2-800S162-33 


2'-l" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-43 


4'-2" 


3'-4" 


2'-7" 


— 


— 


4'-0" 


3'-3" 


2'-5" 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-54 


5'-6" 


4'-9" 


4'-l" 


3'-5" 


2'-9" 


5'-5" 


4'-8" 


3'-ll" 


3'-3" 


2'-8" 


2-800S 162-68 


6'- 11" 


6'-2" 


5'-5" 


4'- 10" 


4'-3" 


6'-9" 


6'-0" 


5'-4" 


4'-8" 


4'-l" 


2-800S 162-97 


9'-4" 


8'-6" 


7'- 10" 


7'-3" 


6'-8" 


9'-2" 


8'-4" 


7'-8" 


7'-l" 


6'-7" 


2- 1000S 162-43 


4'-4" 


3'-9" 


2'- 11" 


— 


— 


4'-3" 


3'-8" 


2'-9" 


— 


— 


2-1000S162-54 


6'-3" 


5'-5" 


4'-7" 


3'-U" 


3'-2" 


6'-l" 


5'-3" 


4'-6" 


3'-9" 


3'-0" 


2-1000S162-68 


7'- 11" 


7'-0" 


6'-3" 


5'-6" 


4'-10" 


7'-9" 


6'- 10" 


6'-l" 


5'-4" 


4'-9" 


2-1000S162-97 


1 l'-O" 


lO'-l" 


9'-3" 


8'-7" 


8'-0" 


lO'-ll" 


9'-ll" 


9'-2" 


8'-5" 


7'-10" 


2-1200S162-54 


6'-ll" 


5'-11" 


5'-l" 


4'-3" 


3'-5" 


6'-9" 


5'-9" 


4'-l 1" 


4'-l" 


3'-3" 


2- 1200S 162-68 


8'-9" 


7'-9" 


6'- 11" 


6'-l" 


5'-4" 


8'-7" 


7'-7" 


6'-9" 


5'-ll" 


5'-3" 


2- 1200S 162-97 


12'-4" 


11 '-5" 


10' 6" 


9'-8" 


9'-0" 


12'-3" 


ll'-3" 


10'-4" 


9'-6" 


8'-10" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 
1 Ksi = 1 ,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: i/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Attic dead load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header. 



240 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(6) 
BOX-BEAM HEADER SPANS 
Headers Supporting One Floor, Roof and Ceil 
(50 Ksi steel) 3 ' b 



ing 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(20 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(30 psf) 


Building width (feet) 




Building width (i 


eet) 




24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-350S162-33 


2'-4" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2'-3" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-43 


3'-4" 


2'-ll" 


2'-6" 


2'-l" 


— 


3'-3" 


2'- 10" 


2'-5" 


2'-0" 


— 


2-350S 162-54 


4'-4" 


3'- 10" 


3'-5" 


3'-l" 


2'-9" 


4'-3" 


2'-9" 


3'-4" 


3'-0" 


2'-8" 


2-350S 162-68 


5'-0" 


4'-9" 


4'-7" 


4'-2" 


3'-9" 


4'- 11" 


4'-8" 


4'-6" 


4'-l" 


3'-9" 


2-350S162-97 


5'-6" 


5'-3" 


5'-l" 


4'-l 1" 


2'-9" 


5'-5" 


5'-2" 


5'-0" 


4'- 10" 


4'-8" 


2-550S 162-33 


3'-6" 


2'-ll" 


2'-4" 


— 


— 


3'-5" 


2'- 10" 


2'-3" 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-43 


5'-0" 


4'-5" 


3'-ll" 


3'-5" 


3'-0" 


4'- 11" 


4'-4" 


3'- 10" 


3'-4" 


2'- 11" 


2-5 50S 162-54 


6'-6" 


5'-10" 


5'-3" 


4'-9" 


4'-4" 


6'-4" 


5'-9" 


5'-2" 


4'- 8" 


4'-3" 


2-550S 162-68 


7'-2" 


6'- 10" 


6'-5" 


5'-ll" 


5'-6" 


7'-0" 


6'-9" 


6'-4" 


5'10" 


5'-4" 


2-550S 162-97 


7- 11" 


l'-l" 


7'-3" 


7'-0" 


6'- 10" 


7'-9" 


7'-5" 


7'-2" 


6'- 11" 


6'-9" 


2-800S 162-33 


2'-5" 


2'-2" 


l'-l 1" 


l'-9" 


— 


2'-5" 


2'-l" 


l'-lO" 


l'-8" 


— 


2-800S 162-43 


5'-5" 


4'-9" 


4'-3" 


3'-9" 


3'-5" 


5'-3" 


4'-8" 


4'-l" 


3'-9" 


3'-5" 


2-800S 162-54 


7'-6" 


6'-9" 


6'-2" 


5'-7" 


5'-0" 


7'-5" 


6'-8" 


6'-0" 


5'-5" 


4'-ll" 


2-800S 162-68 


9'-3" 


8'-5" 


7'-8" 


7'-l" 


6'-6" 


9'-l" 


8'-3" 


7'-7" 


7'-0" 


6'-5" 


2-800S 162-97 


10'-9" 


10'-3" 


9'- 11" 


9'-7" 


9'-3" 


10'-7" 


lO'-l" 


9'-9" 


9'-5" 


9'-1" 


2- 1000S 162-43 


4'-4" 


3'-9" 


3'-4" 


3'-0" 


2'-9" 


4'-3" 


3'-8" 


3'-3" 


2'- 11" 


2'-8" 


2-1000S162-54 


8'-6" 


7'-6" 


6'-8" 


6'-0" 


5'-5" 


8'-4" 


7'-4" 


6'-6" 


5'- 10" 


5'-4" 


2- 1000S 162-68 


10'-6" 


9'-7" 


8'-9" 


8'-0" 


7'-5" 


10'-4" 


9'-5" 


8'-7" 


7'- 11" 


7'-3" 


2- 1000S 162-97 


12'- 11" 


12'-4" 


11 '-8" 


1 l'-l" 


10'-6" 


12'-9" 


12'-2" 


11 '-6" 


lO'-ll" 


10'-5" 


2- 1200S 162-54 


7'-l" 


6'-2" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


4'-6" 


6'-ll" 


6'-l" 


5'-5" 


4'- 10" 


4'-5" 


2- 1200S 162-68 


U'-7" 


10'-7" 


9'-8" 


8'-ll" 


8'-2" 


ll'-5" 


10'-5" 


9'-6" 


8'-9" 


8'-0" 


2- 1200S 162-97 


14'-9" 


13'-9" 


13'-0" 


12'-4" 


11 '-9" 


14'-7" 


13'-8" 


12'- 10" 


12'-3" 


ll'-8" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 
I Ksi = 1 ,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: ZV360 for live loads. L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 1 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



241 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(7) 

BOX-BEAM HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting One Floor, Roof and Ceiling 

(33 Ksi steel) 3 * 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(50 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(70 psf) 


Building width (feet) 


Building width' (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-350S 162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-43 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S162-54 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S162-68 


2'-8" 


2'-3" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-97 


4' -or 


3'-7" 


3'-3" 


2'- 11" 


2'-7" 


3'-4" 


2'- 11" 


2'-6" 


2'-2" 


— 


2-550S162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-43 


2'-0" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-54 


3'-l" 


2'-6" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-68 


4'-l" 


3'-6" 


2'-ll" 


2'-5" 


— 


3'-l" 


2'-5" 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-97 


5'- 10" 


5'-3" 


4'-10" 


4'-5" 


4'-0" 


4'-ll" 


4'-5" 


3'- 11" 


3'-6" 


3'-2" 


2-800S 162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


-— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-43 


2'-6" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-54 


4'-0" 


3'-3" 


2'-6" 


— 


— 


2'-8" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-68 


5'-5" 


4'-8" 


4'-0" 


3'-4" 


2'-8" 


4'-2" 


3'-4" 


2'-6" 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-97 


7'-9" 


7'-l" 


6'-6" 


5'- 11" 


5'-5" 


6'-7" 


5'- 11" 


5'-4" 


4'- 10" 


4'-4" 


2-1000S162-43 


2'-10" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2- 1000S 162-54 


4'-7" 


3'-8" 


2'-9" 


— 


— 


3'-0" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-1000S162-68 


6'-2" 


5'-4" 


4'-7" 


3'- 10" 


3'-l" 


4'-9" 


3'- 10" 


2'- 11" 


— 


— 


2-1000S162-97 


9'-3" 


8'-5" 


7'-8" 


7'-l" 


6'-6" 


7'-10" 


7-1" 


6'-5" 


5'-9" 


5'-2" 


2- 1200S 162-54 


5'-0" 


4'-0" 


3'-l" 


— 


— 


3'-4" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2- 1200S 162-68 


6'- 10" 


5'-ll" 


5'-0" 


4'-3" 


3'-5" 


5'-3" 


4'-3" 


3'-2" 


— 


— 


2- 1200S 162-97 


10'-5" 


9'-6" 


8'-8" 


8'-0" 


7'-4" 


8'- 10" 


8'-0" 


7'-3" 


6'-6" 


5'- 10" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: Z./360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header. 



242 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(8) 

BOX-BEAM HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting One Floor, Roof and Ceiling 

(50 Ksi steel) 3 ' b 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(50 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(70 psf) 


Building width" (feet) 


Building width' (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-350S 162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-43 


2'-8" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-54 


3'-5" 


3'-0" 


2'-7" 


2'-2" 


- 


2'-8" 


2'-2" 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-68 


4'-6" 


4'-l" 


3'-8" 


3'-3" 


2'- 11" 


3'-9" 


3'-3" 


2'- 10" 


2'-5" 


2'-l" 


2-350S 162-97 


5'-l" 


4'- 10" 


4'-8" 


4'-6" 


4'-5" 


4'-10" 


4'-7" 


4'-4" 


4'-0" 


3'-8" 


2-550S 162-33 


2'-4" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-43 


3'- 10" 


3'-4" 


2'-9" 


2'-3" 


— 


2'-ll" 


2'-3" 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S162-54 


5'-3" 


3'-8" 


4'-l" 


3'-8" 


3'-2" 


4'-3" 


3'-8" 


3'-l" 


2'-7" 


2'-0" 


2-550S 162-68 


6'-5" 


5'- 10" 


5 '-3" 


4'-9" 


4'-4" 


5'-5" 


4'-9" 


4'-3" 


3'-9" 


3'-4" 


2-550S 162-97 


7'-4" 


7'-0" 


6'-9" 


6'-6" 


6'-4" 


6'-ll" 


6'-8" 


6'-3" 


5'- 10" 


5'-5" 


2-800S 162-33 


l'-ll" 


l'-8" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S162-43 


4'-2" 


3'-8" 


3'-4" 


2'-9" 


2'-2" 


3'-5" 


2'-9" 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S162-54 


6'-l" 


5'-5" 


4'- 10" 


4'-3" 


3'-9" 


4'-ll" 


4'-3" 


3'-8" 


3'-0" 


2'-5" 


2-800S 162-68 


7'-8" 


6'- 11" 


6'-3" 


5'-9" 


5'-2" 


6'-5" 


5'-9" 


5'-l" 


4'-6" 


4'-0" 


2-800S 162-97 


9'-ll" 


9'-6" 


9'-2" 


8'- 10" 


8'-3" 


9'-5" 


8'- 10" 


8'-2" 


7'-7" 


7'-0" 


2- 1000S 162-43 


3'-4" 


2'- 11" 


2'-7" 


2'-5" 


2'-2" 


2'-8" 


2'-5" 


2'-2" 


— 


— 


2- 1000S 162-54 


6'-7" 


5'-10" 


5'-3" 


4'-9" 


4'-3" 


5'-4" 


4'-9" 


4'-l" 


3'-5" 


2'-9" 


2- 1000S 162-68 


8'-8" 


7'- 10" 


7'-2" 


6'-6" 


5'-l 1" 


7'-4" 


6'-6" 


5'-9" 


5'-1" 


4'-6" 


2- 1000S 162-97 


11 '-!" 


lO'-ll" 


10'-3" 


9'-7" 


9'-0" 


10'-5" 


9'-7" 


8'- 10" 


8'-2" 


7'- 8" 


2- 1200S 162-54 


5'-6" 


4'-10" 


4'-4" 


3'-ll" 


3'-7" 


4'-5" 


3'-ll" 


3'-6" 


3'-2" 


2'- 11" 


2- 1200S 162-68 


9'-7" 


8'-8" 


7'-ll" 


7'-2" 


6'-6" 


8'-l" 


7'-2" 


6'-4" 


5'-8" 


5'-0" 


2-1 200S 162-97 


12'- 11" 


12'-2" 


ll'-6" 


10'-8" 


lO'-O" 


ll'-8" 


10'-9" 


9'- 11" 


9'-2" 


8'-6" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, I foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6 895 kPa 
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



243 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(9) 

BOX-BEAM HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting Two Floors, Roof and Ceiling 

(33 Ksi steel) 3 ' b 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(20 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(30 psf) 


Building width" (feet) 


Building width (feet) 




24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-350S162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-43 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S1 62-54 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-68 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-97 


3'-l" 


2'-8" 


2'-3" 


— 


— 


3'-l" 


2'-7" 


2'-2" 


— 


— 


2-550S162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-43 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-54 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S162-68 


2'-9" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2'-8" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-97 


4'- 8" 


4'-l" 


3'-7" 


3'-2" 


2'-9" 


4'-7" 


4'-0" 


3'-6" 


3'-l" 


2'-8" 


2-800S 162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-43 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-54 


2'-l" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-68 


3'-8" 


2'-9" 


— 


— 


— 


3'-7" 


2'-8" 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-97 


6'-3" 


5'-6" 


4'- 11" 


4'-4" 


3'-9" 


6'-2" 


5'-5" 


4'- 10" 


4'-3" 


3'-9" 


2- 1000S 162-43 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2- 1000S 162-54 


2'-5" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2'-3" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2- 1000S 162-68 


4'-3" 


3'-2" 


2'-0" 


— 


— 


4'-2" 


3'-l" 


— 


— 


— 


2-1000S1 62-97 


7'-5" 


6'-7" 


5'- 10" 


5'-2" 


4'-7" 


7'-4" 


6'-6" 


5'-9" 


5'-l" 


4'-6" 


2-1200S162-54 


2'-7" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2'-6" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-1200S 162-68 


4'-8" 


3'-6" 


2'-2" 


— 


— 


4'-7" 


3'-5" 


2'-0" 


— 


— 


2-1200S162-97 


8'-5" 


7'-5" 


6'-7" 


5'- 10" 


5'-2" 


8'-3" 


7'-4" 


6'-6" 5'-9" 


5'-l" 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, J foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 
1 Ksi = 1 ,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Second floor live load is 40 psf. 
Third floor live load is 30 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header. 



244 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(10) 

BOX-BEAM HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting Two Floors, Roof and Ceiling 

(50 Ksi steel)" b 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(20 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(30 psf) 


Building width c (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-350S 162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


~ 


— 


2-350S162-43 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-54 


2'-5" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2'-4" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-68 


3'-6" 


3'-0" 


2'-6" 


2'-l" 


— 


3'-5" 


2'- 11" 


2'-6" 


2'-0" 


— 


2-350S 162-97 


4'-9" 


4'-6" 


4'-l" 


3'-8" 


3'-4" 


4'-8" 


4'-5" 


4'-0" 


3'-8" 


3'-4" 


2-550S162-33 


— 


— - 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S162-43 


2'-7" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2'-6" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-54 


3'- 11" 


3'-3" 


2'-8" 


2'-0" 


— 


3'- 10" 


3'-3" 


2'-7" 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-68 


5'-l" 


4'-5" 


3'- 10" 


3'-3" 


2'-9" 


5'-0" 


4'-4" 


3'-9" 


3'-3" 


2'-9" 


2-550S162-97 


6'-10" 


6'-5" 


5'- 10" 


5'-5" 


4'- 11" 


6'-9" 


6'-4" 


5'- 10" 


5'-4" 


4'- 11" 


2-800S 162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-43 


3'-l" 


2'-3" 


— 


— 


— 


3'-0" 


2'-2" 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-54 


4'-7" 


3'- 10" 


3'-l" 


2'-5" 


— 


4'-6" 


3'-9" 


3'-0" 


2'-4" 


— 


2-800S 162-68 


6'-0" 


5'-3" 


4'-7" 


3'- 11" 


3'-4" 


6'-0" 


5'-2" 


4'-6" 


3'-ll" 


3'-3" 


2-800S162-97 


9'-2" 


8'-4" 


7'-8" 


7'-0" 


6'-6" 


9'-l" 


8'-3" 


7'-7" 


7'-0" 


6'-5" 


2- 1000S 162-43 


2'-6" 


2'-2" 


— 


— 


— 


2'-6" 


2'-2" 


— 


— 


— 


2-1000S 162-54 


5'-0" 


4'-4" 


3'-6" 


2'-9" 


— 


4'- 11" 


4'-3" 


3'-5" 


2'-7" 


— 


2-1 0OOS 162-68 


6'- 10" 


6'-0" 


5'-3" 


4'-6" 


3'- 10" 


6'-9" 


5'-ll" 


5'-2" 


4'-5" 


3'-9" 


2- 1000S 162-97 


lO'-O" 


9'-l" 


8'-3" 


7'-8" 


7'-0" 


9'-10" 


9'-0" 


8'-3" 


7'-7" 


7'-0" 


2-1200S162-54 


4'-2" 


3 '-7" 


3'-3" 


2'-ll" 


— 


4'-l" 


3'-7" 


3'-2" 


2'- 10" 


— 


2- 1200S 162-68 


7'-7" 


6'-7" 


5'-9" 


5'-0" 


4'-2" 


7'-6" 


6'-6" 


5'-8" 


4'- 10" 


4'-l" 


2- 1200S 162-97 


11 '-2" 


10'- 1" 


9'-3" 


8'-6" 


7'- 10" 


11 '-0" 


lO'-O" 


9'-2" 


9'-2" 


7'-9" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 
1 Ksi= 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: U360 for live loads, t/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Second floor live load is 40 psf. 
Third floor live load is 30 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



245 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(11) 

BOX-BEAM HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting Two Floors, Roof and Ceiling 

(33 Ksi steel)" b 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(50 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(70 psf) 


Building width' (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-350S 162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-43 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-54 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-68 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-97 


2'- 11" 


2'-5" 


2'-0" 


— 


— 


2'-7" 


2'-2" 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-43 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-54 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-68 


2'-5" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-97 


4'-4" 


3'-10" 


3'-4" 


2'- 10" 


2'-5" 


4'-0" 


3'-6" 


3'-l" 


2'-7" 


2'-2" 


2-800S162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-43 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-54 


— - 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-68 


3'-3" 


2'-3" 


— 


— 


— 


2'-8" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-97 


5'- 11" 


5'-2" 


4'-6" 


4'-0" 


3'-5" 


5'-6" 


4'- 10" 


4'-3" 


3'-8" 


3'-2" 


2- 1000S 162-43 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-1000S 162-54 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-1000S162-68 


3'-9" 


2'-7" 


— 


— 


— 


3'-l" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2- 1000S 162-97 


7'-0" 


6'-2" 


5'-5" 


4'-9" 


4'-2" 


6'-6" 


5'-9" 


5' A" 


4'-5" 


3'-10" 


2- 1200S 162-54 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-1200S162-68 


4'-2" 


2'- 10" 


— 


— 


— 


3'-5" 


2'-0" 


— 


— 


— 


2- 1200S 162-97 


7'-ll" 


7'-0" 


6'-2" 


5'-5" 


4'-8" 


7'-4" 


6'-6" 


5'-9" 


5'-0" 


4'-4" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: t/360 for live loads, i/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Second floor live load is 40 psf. 
Third floor live load is 30 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header. 



246 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(12) 

BOX-BEAM HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting Two Floors, Roof and Ceiling 

(50 Ksi steel) " 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(50 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(70 psf) 




Building width (1 


eet) 




Building width" (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-350S162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-43 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-54 


2'-2" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-68 


3'-3" 


2'-9" 


2'-3" 


— 


— 


2'-ll" 


2'-5" 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-97 


4'-6" 


4'-3" 


3'- 10" 


3'-6" 


3'-2" 


4'-3" 


4'-0" 


3'-7" 


3'-3" 


3'-0" 


2-550S 162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— - 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-43 


2'-3" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-54 


3'-7" 


2'- 11" 


2'-3" 


— 


— 


3'-3" 


2'-7" 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-68 


4'-9" 


2'-l" 


3'-6" 


3'-0" 


2'-5" 


4'-4" 


3'-9" 


3'-2" 


2'-8" 


2'-l" 


2-550S 162-97 


6'-5" 


6'-l" 


5'-7" 


5'-l" 


4'-8" 


6'-3" 


5'- 10" 


5'-4" 


4'- 10" 


4'-5" 


2-800S 162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— - 


— 


2-800S 162-43 


2'-8" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2'-2" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-54 


4'-3" 


3'-5" 


2'-8" 


— 


— 


3'-9" 


3'-0" 


2'-3" 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-68 


5'-8" 


4'- 11" 


4'-2" 


3'-7" 


2'- 11" 


5'-3" 


4'-6" 


3'- 10" 


3'-3" 


2'-7" 


2-800S 162-97 


8'-9" 


8'-0" 


7-3" 


6'-8" 


6'-2" 


8'-4" 


7'-7" 


6'- 11" 


6'-4" 


5'- 10" 


2- 1000S 162-43 


2'-4" 


2'-0" 


— 


— 


— 


2'-2" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2- 1000S 162-54 


4'-8" 


3'-ll" 


3'-l" 


2'-2" 


— 


4'-3" 


3'-5" 


2'-7" 


— 


— 


2- I000S 162-68 


6'-5" 


5'-7" 


4'-9" 


4'-l" 


3'-4" 


5'- 11" 


5'-l" 


4'-5" 


3'-8" 


2'- 11" 


2- 1000S 162-97 


9'-6" 


8'-8" 


7'-ll" 


7'-3" 


6'-8" 


9'-0" 


8'-3" 


7'-6" 


6'- 11" 


6'-4" 


2- 1200S 162-54 


3'- 11" 


3'-5" 


3'-0" 


2'-4" 


— 


3'-7" 


3'-2" 


2'- 10" 


— 


— 


2- 1200S 162-68 


7'-l" 


6'-2" 


5'-3" 


4'-6" 


3'-8" 


6'-6" 


5'-8" 


4'- 10" 


4'-0" 


3'-3" 


2- 1200S 162-97 


10'- 8" 


9'-8" 


8'- 10" 


8'-l" 


7'-5" 


lO'-l" 


9'-2" 


8'-5" 


7-9" 


7'-l" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 
1 Ksi = 1 ,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 1 2 psf. 
Second floor live load is 40 psf. 
Third floor live load is 30 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



247 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(13) 

BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting Roof and Ceiling Only 

(33 Ksi steei) a b 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(20 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(30 psf) 


Building width 1 (feet) 




Building width (f 


eet) 




24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-350S162-33 


2'- 11" 


2'-4" 


— 


— 


— 


2'-5" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-43 


4'-8" 


3'- 10" 


3'-5" 


3'-l" 


2'-9" 


3'- 11" 


3'-5" 


3'-0" 


2'-8" 


2'-4" 


2-350S 162-54 


5'-3" 


4'-9" 


4'-4" 


4'-l" 


3'-8" 


4'- 10" 


4'-4" 


4'-0" 


3'-8" 


3'-4" 


2-350S 162-68 


6' 1" 


5'-7" 


5'-2" 


4'- 10" 


4'-6" 


5'-8" 


5'-3" 


4'- 10" 


4'-6" 


4'-2" 


2-350S 162-97 


7'-3" 


6'- 10" 


6'-5" 


6'-0" 


5'-8" 


6'-ll" 


6'-5" 


6'-0" 


5'-8" 


5'-4" 


2-550S 162-33 


4'-5" 


3'-9" 


3'-l" 


2'-6" 


— 


3'-9" 


3'-2" 


2'-6" 


— 


— 


2-550S 1.62-43 


6'-2" 


5 '-7" 


5'-0" 


4'-7" 


4'-2" 


5'-7" 


5'-0" 


4'-6" 


4'-l" 


3'-8" 


2-550S 162-54 


7'-5" 


6'-9" 


6'-3" 


5'-9" 


5'-4" 


6'- 10" 


6'-3" 


5'-9" 


5'-4" 


4'- 11" 


2-550S 162-68 


6'-7" 


7'- 11" 


7'-4" 


6'- 10" 


6'-5" 


8'-0" 


7'-4" 


6'- 10" 


6'-5" 


6'-0" 


2-550S 162-97 


10'-5" 


9'-8" 


9'-0" 


8'-6" 


8'-0" 


9'-9" 


9'-0" 


8'-6" 


8'-0" 


7'-7" 


2-800S 162-33 


4'-5" 


3'-ll" 


3'-5" 


3'-l" 


2'-4" 


3'- 11" 


3'-6" 


3'-0" 


2'-3" 


— 


2-800S 162-43 


7'-7" 


6'- 10" 


6'-2" 


5'-8" 


5'-2" 


6'- 11" 


6'-2" 


5 '-7" 


5'-l" 


4'-7" 


2-800S 162-54 


9'-3" 


8'-7" 


7'- 11" 


7'-4" 


6'-10" 


8'-8" 


7'-ll" 


7'-4" 


6'-9" 


6'-3" 


2-800S 162-68 


10'-7" 


9'- 10" 


9'-4" 


8'- 10" 


8'-5" 


9'- 11" 


9'-4" 


8'-10" 


8'-4" 


7'- 11" 


2-800S 162-97 


13'-9" 


12'-9" 


12'-0" 


11 '-3" 


10'-8" 


12'- 10" 


12'-0" 


ir-3" 


10'-7" 


lO'-O" 


2-1000S162-43 


7'- 10" 


6'- 10" 


6'-l" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


6'- 11" 


6'-l" 


5'-5" 


4'- 11" 


4'-6" 


2- 1000S 162-54 


10'-5" 


9'-9" 


9'-0" 


8'-4" 


7'-9" 


9'-10" 


9'-0" 


8'-4" 


7'-9" 


7'-2" 


2- 1000S 162-68 


12'-1" 


1 1'-3" 


10'-8" 


lO'-l" 


9'-7" 


ll'-4" 


10'-8" 


10'- 1" 


9'-7" 


9'-l" 


2- 1000S 162-97 


15'-3" 


14'-3" 


1 3' 5" 


12'-9" 


12'-2" 


14'-4" 


13'-5" 


12'-8" 


12'-1" 


11 '-6" 


2- 1200S 162-54 


ll'-6" 


10'-9" 


lO'-O" 


9'-0" 


8'-2" 


10'- 10" 


lO'-O" 


9'-0" 


8'-l" 


7'-4" 


2- 1200S 162-68 


13'-4" 


12'-6" 


ir-9" 


11 '-2" 


10'-8" 


12'-7" 


ll'-lO" 


1 1'-2" 


10'-7" 


10'- 1" 


2- 1200S 162-97 


16'-8" 


15'-7" 


14'-8" 


13'-11" 


13'-3" 


15'-8" 


14'-8" 


13'-11" 


13'-2" 


12'-7" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, I foot = 304.8 mm, I pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 1 2 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by header. 



248 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLER603.6(14) 

BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting Roof and Ceiling Only 

(50Ksisteelf 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(20 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(30 psf) 




Building width (feet) 




Bu 


Iding width (feet) 




24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-350S 162-33 


4'-2" 


3'-8" 


3'-3" 


2'- 10" 


2'-6" 


3'-8" 


3'-3" 


2'- 10" 


2'-5" 


2'-l" 


2-350S162-43 


5 '-5" 


5'-0" 


4'-6" 


4'-2" 


3'- 10" 


5'-0" 


4'-7" 


4'-2" 


3'- 10" 


3'-6" 


2-350S 162-54 


6'-2" 


5'- 10" 


5'-8" 


5'-4" 


5'-0" 


5'-ll" 


5'-8" 


5'-4" 


5'-0" 


4'-8" 


2-350S162-68 


6'-7" 


6'-3" 


6'-0" 


5'- 10" 


5'-8" 


6'-4" 


6'-l" 


5'- 10" 


5'-8" 


5'-6" 


2-350S 162-97 


7'-3" 


6'- 11" 


6'-8" 


6'-5" 


6'-3" 


7'-0" 


6'-8" 


6'-5" 


6'-3" 


6'-0" 


2-550S 162-33 


5'- 10" 


5'-3" 


4'-8" 


4'-3" 


3'-9" 


5'-3" 


4'-9" 


4'-2" 


3'-9" 


3'-3" 


2-550S 162-43 


7 '-9" 


7'-2" 


6'-7" 


6'-l" 


5'-8" 


7'-3" 


6'-7" 


6'-l" 


5'-8" 


5'-3" 


2-550S 162-54 


8'-9" 


8'-5" 


8'-l" 


7'-9" 


7'-5" 


8'-6" 


8'-l" 


7'-9" 


7'-5" 


6'-l 1" 


2-550S 162-68 


9'-5" 


9'-0" 


8'-8" 


8'-4" 


8'-l" 


9'-l" 


8'-8" 


8'-4" 


8'-l" 


7'- 10" 


2-550S 162-97 


10'-5" 


JO'-O" 


9'-7" 


9'-3" 


9'-0" 


lO'-O" 


9'-7" 


9'-3" 


8'-ll" 


8'- 8" 


2-800S 162-33 


4'-5" 


3'- 11" 


3'-5" 


3'-l" 


2'- 10" 


3'- 11" 


3'-6" 


3'-l" 


2'-9" 


2'-6" 


2-800S162-43 


9'-l" 


8'-5" 


7'-8" 


6'- 11" 


6'-3" 


8'-6" 


7'-8" 


6'- 10" 


6'-2" 


5'-8" 


2-800S 162-54 


10'- 10" 


10'-2" 


9'-7" 


9'-l" 


8'-8" 


10'-2" 


9'-7" 


9'-0" 


8'-7" 


8'-l" 


2-800S 162-68 


12'-8" 


11 '-10" 


11 '-2" 


10'-7" 


10'- 1" 


ll'-U" 


11 '-2" 


10'-7" 


lO'-O" 


9'-7" 


2-800S 162-97 


14'-2" 


13'-6" 


13'-0" 


12'-7" 


12'-2" 


13'-8" 


13'-1" 


12'-7" 


12'-2" 


11 '-9" 


2-1000S 162-43 


7- 10" 


6'-10" 


6'-l" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


6'-l 1" 


6'-l" 


5'-5" 


4'-ll" 


4'-6" 


2- 1000S 162-54 


12'-3" 


11 '-5" 


10'-9" 


10'-3" 


9'-9" 


11 '-6" 


10'-9" 


10'-2" 


9'-8" 


8'-ll" 


2- 1000S 162-68 


14'-5" 


13'-5" 


12'-8" 


12'-0" 


11 '-6" 


13'-6" 


12'-8" 


12'-0" 


11 '-5" 


lO'-l 1" 


2- 1000S 162-97 


17'-1" 


16'-4" 


15'-8" 


14'- 11" 


14'-3" 


16'-5" 


15'-9" 


14'- 10" 


14'-1" 


13'-6" 


2- 1200S 162-54 


12'- 11" 


11 '-3" 


lO'-O" 


9'-0" 


8'-2" 


11 '-5" 


lO'-O" 


9'-0" 


8'-l" 


7'-4" 


2- 1200S 162-68 


15'-11" 


14'- 10" 


14'-0" 


13'-4" 


12'-8" 


15'-0" 


14'-0" 


13'-3" 


12'-7" 


12'-0" 


2- 1200S 162-97 


19'-11" 


18'-7" 


17'-6" 


16'-8" 


15'10" 


18'-9" 


17'-7" 


16'-7" 


15'-9" 


15'-0" 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6 895 kPa 
I Ksi= 1,000 psi= 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 8 



249 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLER603.6(15) 

BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting Roof and Ceiling Only 

(33 Ksi steel)"' b 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(50 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(70 psf) 




Building width' (f 


set) 




Building width (feet) 




24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-350S162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-43 


2'-6" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-54 


3'-6" 


3'-l" 


2'-8" 


2'-4" 


2'-0" 


2'-7" 


2'-l" 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-68 


4'-4" 


3' 11" 


3'-7" 


3'-3" 


2'- 11" 


3'-5" 


3'-0" 


2'-8" 


2'-4" 


2'-l" 


2-350S 162-97 


5'-5" 


5'-0" 


4'-8" 


4'-6" 


4'-l" 


4'-6" 


4'-2" 


3'- 10" 


3'-6" 


3'-3" 


2-550S162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 





2-550S162-43 


3'- 10" 


3'-3" 


2'-9" 


2'-2" 


_ 


2'-6" 


— 


— 


— 





2-550S 162-54 


5'-l" 


4'-7" 


4'-l" 


3'-8" 


3'-4" 


3'-ll" 


3'-5" 


2'- 11" 


2'-6" 


2'-0" 


2-550S 162-68 


6'-2" 


5'-8" 


5'-2" 


4'-9" 


4'-5" 


5'-0" 


4'-6" 


4'-)" 


3'-9" 


3'-4" 


2-550S 162-97 


7'-9" 


7'-2" 


6'-8" 


6'-3" 


5'-ll" 


6'-6" 


6'-0" 


5'-7" 


5'-2" 


4'- 10" 


2- 800S 162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-43 


4'- 10" 


4'-l" 


3'-6" 


2'-ll" 


2'-3" 


3'-3" 


2'-5" 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S162-54 


6'-6" 


5'- 10" 


5'-3" 


4'-9" 


4'-4" 


5'-l" 


4'-6" 


3'-ll" 


3'-4" 


2'- 10" 


2-800S 162-68 


8'-l" 


7'-5" 


6'- 10" 


6'-4" 


5'- 11" 


6'-8" 


6'-l" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


4'-7" 


2-800S 162-97 


10'-3" 


9'-7" 


8'-ll" 


8'-5" 


7'- 11" 


8'-8" 


8'-0" 


7-6" 


7-0" 


6'-7" 


2-1000S162-43 


4'-8" 


4'-l" 


3'-8" 


3'-4" 


2'-8" 


3'-6" 


2'- 10" 


— 


— 


— 


2- 1000S 162-54 


7'-5" 


6'-8" 


6'-l" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


5'-10" 


5'-l" 


4'-6" 


3'-ll" 


3'-4" 


2- 1000S 162-68 


9'-4" 


8'-7" 


7'- 11" 


7'-4" 


6'-10" 


7'-8" 


7'-0" 


6'-4" 


5'- 10" 


5'-4" 


2- 1000S 162-97 


11 '-9" 


ll'-O" 


10'-5" 


9'-ll" 


9'-5" 


10'-3" 


9'-7" 


8'- 11" 


8'-4" 


7- 10" 


2-1200S162-54 


7'-8" 


6'-9" 


6'-l" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


5'- 10" 


5'-l" 


4'-7" 


4'-l" 


3'-9" 


2- 1200S 162-68 


10'-4" 


9'-6" 


8'- 10" 


8'-2" 


7'-7" 


8'-7" 


7'-9" 


7-1" 


6'-6" 


6'-0" 


2- 1200S 162-97 


12'- 10" 


12'-1" 


1 1/5" 


10'- 10" 


10'-4" 


11 '-2" 


10'-6" 


9'- 11" 


9'-5" 


9'-0" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, I foot = 304.8 mm, I pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 
1 Ksi= 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: i/360 for live loads, Z/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header. 



250 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 18 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLER603.6(16) 

BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting Roof and Ceiling Only 

(50 Ksi steel) 3 ' " 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(50 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(70 psf) 


Building width (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-350S162-33 


2'-3" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-43 


3'-8" 


3'-3" 


2'- 10" 


2'-6" 


2'-2" 


2'-8" 


2'-3" 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S162-54 


4'-9" 


4'-4" 


4'-0" 


3'-8" 


3'-8" 


3'- 10" 


3'-5" 


3'-l" 


2'-9" 


2'-5" 


2-350S 162-68 


5'-7" 


5'-4" 


5'-2" 


4'-ll" 


4'-7" 


5'-l" 


4'-8" 


4'-3" 


3'-l 1" 


3'-8" 


2-350S 162-97 


6'-2" 


5'- 11" 


5'-8" 


5'-6" 


5'-4" 


5'-8" 


5'-5" 


5'-3" 


5'-0" 


4'- 11" 


2-550S162-33 


3'-6" 


2'-10" 


2'-3" 


— 


— 


2'-0" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-43 


5'-5" 


4'- 10" 


4'-4" 


3'- 11" 


3'-6" 


4'-2" 


3'-8" 


3'-2" 


2'-8" 


2'-3" 


2-550S 162-54 


7'-2" 


6'-6" 


6'-0" 


5'-7" 


5 '-2" 


5'-10" 


5'-3" 


4'- 10" 


4'-5" 


4'-0" 


2-550S162-68 


8'-0" 


7'-8" 


7'-3" 


6'-ll" 


6'-6" 


7'-2" 


6'-7" 


6'-l" 


5'-8" 


5'-4" 


2-550S 162-97 


8'- 11" 


8'-6" 


8'-2" 


7'- 11" 


7'-8" 


8'-l" 


7'-9" 


7'-6" 


7'-2" 


6'- 11" 


2-800S 162-33 


2'-8" 


2'-4" 


2'-1" 


l'-l 1" 


— 


2'-0" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-43 


5'- 10" 


5'-2" 


4'-7" 


4'-2" 


3'- 10" 


4'-5" 


3'- 11" 


3'-6" 


3'-2" 


2'-9" 


2-80OS 162-54 


8'-4" 


7'-8" 


7'-l" 


6'-7" 


6'-l" 


6'- 10" 


6'-3" 


5'-8" 


5'-2" 


4'-9" 


2-800S 162-68 


9'-9" 


9'-2" 


8'-8" 


8'-3" 


7'-10" 


8'-6" 


7'- 11" 


7'-4" 


6'- 10" 


6'-5" 


2-800S 162-97 


12'-1" 


1 1'-7" 


1 1'-2" 


10'-8" 


10'-2" 


11 '-0" 


10'-4" 


9'-9" 


9'-3" 


8'-10" 


2- IOO0S 162-43 


4'-8" 


4'-1" 


2'-8" 


3'-4" 


3'-0" 


3 '-6" 


lO'-l" 


2'-9" 


2'-6" 


2'-3" 


2-1000S 162-54 


9'-3" 


8'-2" 


7'-3" 


6'-7" 


6'-0" 


7'-0" 


6'-2" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


4'-6" 


2-1000S 162-68 


1 l'-l" 


10'-5" 


9'-10" 


9'-4" 


8'- 11" 


9'-8" 


9'-l" 


8'-5" 


7'- 10" 


7 '-4" 


2- 1000S 162-97 


!3'-9" 


12'-U" 


12'-2" 


11 '-7" 


ll'-l" 


ll'-l 1" 


ll'-3" 


10'-7" 


10'- 1" 


9'-7" 


2- 1200S 162-54 


7'-8" 


6'-9" 


6'-l" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


5'- 10" 


5'-l" 


4'-7" 


4'-l" 


3'-9" 


2- 1200S 162-68 


12'-3" 


11 '-6" 


lO'-ll" 


10'-4" 


9'-1 1" 


10'-8" 


]0'-0" 


9'-2" 


8'-4" 


7'-7" 


2-1 200S 162-97 


15'-4" 


14'-5" 


13'-7" 


12'-11" 


12'-4" 


13'-4" 


12'-6" 


11'- 10" 


11 '-3" 


10'-9" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, I foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, 1/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE" 3 



251 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(17) 

BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting One Floor, Roof and Ceiling 

(33 Ksi steel) at 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(20 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(30 psf) 


Building width (feet) 


Building width c (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-350S162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-43 


2'-2" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2'-l" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-54 


3'-3" 


2'-9" 


2'-5" 


2'-0" 


— 


3'-2" 


2'-9" 


2'-4" 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-68 


4'-4" 


3'-8" 


3'-3" 


2'- 11" 


2'-8" 


4'-0" 


3'-7" 


3'-2" 


2'-ll" 


2'-7" 


2-350S 162-97 


5'-2" 


4'-9" 


4'-4" 


4'-l" 


3'-9" 


5'-l" 


4'-8" 


4'-4" 


4'-0" 


3'-9" 


2-550S 162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-43 


3'-6" 


2'- 10" 


2'-3" 


— 


— 


3'-5" 


2'-9" 


2'-2" 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-54 


4'-9" 


4'-2" 


3'-9" 


3'-3" 


2'- 10" 


4'- 8" 


4'-l" 


3'-8" 


3'-2" 


2'-9" 


2-550S162-68 


5'- 10" 


5'-3" 


4'- 10" 


4'-5" 


4'-l" 


5'-9" 


5'-3" 


4'-9" 


4'-4" 


4'-0" 


2-550S 162-97 


7'-4" 


6'-9" 


6'-4" 


5'- 11" 


5'-6" 


7'-3" 


6'-9" 


6'-3" 


5'-10" 


5'-5" 


2-800S162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S162-43 


4'-4" 


3'-8" 


2'-ll" 


2'-3" 


— 


4'-3" 


3'-6" 


2'- 10" 


2'-l" 


— 


2-800S 162-54 


6'-l" 


5'-5" 


4'- 10" 


4'-4" 


3'-10" 


6'-0" 


5'-4" 


4'-9" 


4'-3" 


3'-9" 


2-800S 162-68 


7'-8" 


7'-0" 


6'-5" 


5'-ll" 


5'-5" 


7'-7" 


6'-ll" 


6'-4" 


5'- 10" 


5'-4" 


2-800S 162-97 


9'- 10" 


9'-l" 


8'-5" 


7'- 11" 


7'-5" 


9'-8" 


8'- 11" 


8'-4" 


7'- 10" 


7'-4" 


2- 1000S 162-43 


4'-4" 


3'-9" 


3'-4" 


2'-8" 


— 


4'-3" 


3'-8" 


3'-3" 


2'-6" 


— 


2- I000S 162-54 


6'- 11" 


6'-2" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


4'-5" 


6'- 10" 


6'-l" 


5'-5" 


4'- 10" 


4'-4" 


2- 1000S 162-68 


8'- 10" 


8'-l" 


7'-5" 


6'- 10" 


6'-4" 


8'-8" 


7'- 11" 


7'-3" 


6'-8" 


6'-2" 


2- 1000S 162-97 


11 '-3" 


10'-7" 


9'-ll" 


9'-5" 


8'- 10" 


11 '-2" 


10'-5" 


9'- 10" 


9'-3" 


8'-9" 


2- 1200S 162-54 


7'-l" 


6'-2" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


4'-6" 


6'- 11" 


6'-l" 


5'-5" 


4'-10" 


4'-5" 


2- 1200S 162-68 


9'-10" 


9'-0" 


8'-3" 


7'-7" 


7'-0" 


9'-8" 


8'-10" 


8'-l" 


7'-6" 


6'-ll" 


2-1200S162-97 


12'-4" 


11 '-7" 


10'- 11" 


10'-4" 


9'-10" 


12'-3" 


11 '-5" 


10'-9" 


10'-3" 


9'-9" 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, I pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: 1/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 1 2 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header. 



252 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE' 8 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLER603.6(18) 
BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS 
Headers Supporting One Floor, Roof and Ceil 
(50 Ksi steel) a b 



mg 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(20 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(30 psf) 


Building width (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-350S 162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-43 


3'-4" 


2'-ll" 


2'-6" 


2'-2" 


— 


3'-3" 


2'- 10" 


2'-5" 


2'-l" 


— 


2-350S 162-54 


4'-6" 


4'-l" 


3'-8" 


3'-4" 


3'-0" 


4'-5" 


4'-0" 


3'-7" 


3'-3" 


2'- 11" 


2-350S 162-68 


5'-0" 


4'-9" 


4'-7" 


4'-5" 


4'-3" 


4'-ll" 


4'-8" 


4'-6" 


4'-4" 


4'-2" 


2-350S 162-97 


5'-6" 


5'-3" 


5'-l" 


4'-ll" 


4'-9" 


5'-5" 


5'-2" 


5'-0" 


4'- 10" 


4'-8" 


2-550S 162-33 


3'-l" 


2'-5" 


— 


— 


— 


3'-0" 


2'-3" 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S162-43 


5'-l" 


4'-6" 


4'-0" 


3'-6" 


3'-l" 


4'- 11" 


4'-5" 


3'- 11" 


3'-5" 


3'-0" 


2-550S 162-54 


6'-8" 


6'-2" 


5'-7" 


5'-2" 


4'-9" 


6'-6" 


6'-0" 


5'-6" 


5'-l" 


4'-8" 


2-550S 162-68 


7'-2" 


6'- 10" 


6'-7" 


6'-4" 


6'-1" 


7'-0" 


6'-9" 


6'-6" 


6'-3" 


6'-0" 


2-550S 162-97 


7'-ll" 


7-7" 


7-3" 


7'-0" 


6'-10" 


7'-9" 


7'-5" 


7'-2" 


6'-ll" 


6'-9" 


2-800S 162-33 


2'-5" 


2'-2" 


l'-ll" 


— 


— 


2'-5" 


2'-l" 


I'-IO" 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-43 


5'-5" 


4'-9" 


4'-3" 


3'-9" 


3'-5" 


5'-3" 


4'-8" 


4'-l" 


3'-9" 


3'-5" 


2-800S 162-54 


7'- 11" 


7-2" 


6'-7" 


6'-l" 


5'-7" 


7-9" 


7'-l" 


6'-6" 


6'-0" 


5'-6" 


2-800S 162-68 


9'-5" 


8'-9" 


8'-3" 


7'-9" 


7'-4" 


9'-3" 


8'-8" 


8'-2" 


7'-8" 


7'-3" 


2-800S 162-97 


10'-9" 


10'-3" 


9'-ll" 


9'-7" 


9'-3" 


10'-7" 


lO'-l" 


9'-9" 


9'-5" 


9'-l" 


2- 1000S 162-43 


4'-4" 


3'-9" 


3'-4" 


3'-0" 


2'-9" 


4'-3" 


3'-8" 


3'-3" 


2'-ll" 


2'-8" 


2- 1000S 162-54 


8'-6" 


7'-5" 


6'-8" 


6'-0" 


5'-5" 


8'-4" 


7'-4" 


6'-6" 


5'- 10" 


5'-4" 


2- 1000S 162-68 


10'-8" 


lO'-O" 


9'-5" 


8'-ll" 


8'-4" 


10'-7" 


9'- 10" 


9'-4" 


8'-9" 


8'-3" 


2- 1000S 162-97 


12' 1 1" 


12'-4" 


11 '-8" 


ll'-l" 


10' 6" 


12'-9" 


12'-2" 


11 '-6" 


10'- 11" 


10'-5" 


2- 1200S 162-54 


7'-l" 


6'-2" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


4'-6" 


6'- 11" 


6'-l" 


5'-5" 


4'- 10" 


4'-5" 


2- 1200S 162-68 


11 '-9" 


ll'-O" 


10'-5" 


9'- 10" 


9'-l" 


ll'-8" 


10'- 11" 


10'-3" 


9'-9" 


8'- 11" 


2- 1200S 162-97 


14'-9" 


13'-9" 


13'-0" 


12'-4" 


11 '-9" 


14'-7" 


13'-8" 


12'- 10" 


l2'-3" 


11 '-8" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: 1/360 for live loads, £/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 1 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



253 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLER603.6(19) 

BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting One Floor, Roof and Ceiling 

(33 Ksi steel) - b 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(50 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(70 psf) 




Building width' (f 


eet) 




Building width (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-350S162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-43 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-54 


2'-4" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-68 


3'-3" 


2'- 10" 


2'-6" 


2'-2" 


— 


2'-7" 


2'-2" 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-97 


4'-4" 


4'-0" 


3'-8" 


3'-4" 


3'-l" 


3'-9" 


3'-4" 


3'-l" 


2'-9" 


2'-6" 


2-550S 162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-43 


2'-2" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S162-54 


3'-8" 


3'-2" 


2'-8" 


2'-3" 


— 


2'-10" 


2'-3" 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-68 


4'-9" 


4'-4" 


3'- 11" 


3'-6" 


3'-2" 


4'-0" 


3'-6" 


3'-l" 


2'-9" 


2'-4" 


2-550S162-97 


6'-3" 


5'-9" 


5'-4" 


5'-0" 


4'-8" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


4'-7" 


4'-3" 


3'-ll" 


2-800S162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-43 


2'- 11" 


2'-0" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-54 


4'-9" 


4'-2" 


3'-7" 


3'-l" 


2'-7" 


3'-9" 


3'-l" 


2'-5" 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-68 


6'-4" 


5'-9" 


5'-3" 


4'-9" 


4'-4" 


5'-4" 


4'-9" 


4'-3" 


3'-10" 


3'-4" 


2-800S 162-97 


8'-5" 


7'-9" 


7'-3" 


6'-9" 


6'-4" 


7'-4" 


6'-9" 


6'-3" 


5 '-10" 


5'-5" 


2- 1000S 162-43 


3'-4" 


2'-5" 


— 


— 


— 


— - 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2- 1000S 162-54 


5'-6" 


4'- 10" 


4'-2" 


3'-7" 


3'-0" 


4'-4" 


3'-7" 


2'-ll" 


2'-2" 


— 


2-1 000S 162-68 


7'-4" 


6'-8" 


6'-l" 


5'-7" 


5'-l" 


6'-3" 


5'-7" 


5'-0" 


4'-5" 


4'-0" 


2- 1000S 162-97 


9'- 11" 


8'-3" 


8'-7" 


8'-1" 


7'-7" 


8'-9" 


8'-l" 


7'-6" 


7'-0" 


6'-6" 


2- 1200S 162-54 


5'-6" 


4'- 10" 


4'-4" 


3'- 11" 


3'-5" 


4'-5" 


3'- 11" 


3'-3" 


2'-6" 


— 


2- 1200S 162-68 


8'-2" 


7'-5" 


6'-9" 


6'-3" 


5'-8" 


6'-l 1" 


6'-3" 


5'-7" 


5'-0" 


4'-6" 


2- 1200S 162-97 


10'- 10" 


10'-2" 


9'-8" 


9'-2" 


8'-7" 


9'-9" 


9'-2" 


8'-6" 


7'- 11" 


7'-5" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 
1 Ksi = 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header. 



254 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(20) 

BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting One Floor, Roof and Ceiling 

(50 Ksisteel) ab 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(50 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(70 psf) 


Building width c (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-350S 162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-43 


2'-6" 


2'-0" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-54 


3'-8" 


3'-3" 


2'-l 1" 


2'-7" 


2'-3" 


3'-0" 


2'-7" 


2'-2" 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-68 


4'-7" 


4'-5" 


4'-l" 


3 '-9" 


3'-6" 


4'-2" 


3'-9" 


3'-5" 


3'-l" 


2'- 10" 


2-350S 162-97 


5'-l" 


4'-10" 


4'-8" 


4'-6" 


4'-5" 


4'-10" 


4'-7" 


4'-5" 


4'-3" 


4'-l" 


2-550S162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-43 


3'- 11" 


3'-5" 


2'- 11" 


2'-5" 


— 


3'-0" 


2'-5" 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-54 


5'-7" 


5'-0" 


4'-7" 


4'-2" 


3'-9" 


4'-8" 


4'-2" 


3'-8" 


3'-3" 


2'-1l" 


2-550S 162-68 


6'-7" 


6'-4" 


5'- 11" 


5'-6" 


5'-l" 


6'-0" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


4'-7" 


4'-3" 


2-550S 162-97 


7'-4" 


7'-0" 


6'-9" 


6'-6" 


6'-4" 


6'- 11" 


6'-8" 


6'-5" 


6'-2" 


6'-0" 


2-800S 162-33 


l'-ll" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-43 


4'-2" 


3'-8" 


3'-4" 


3'-0" 


2'-6" 


3'-5" 


3'-0" 


2'-4" 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-54 


6'-7" 


5'-ll" 


5'-5" 


4'-ll" 


4'-6" 


5'-6" 


4'-ll" 


4'-5" 


3'- 11" 


3'-6" 


2-800S 162-68 


8'-3" 


7'-8" 


7'-l" 


6'-8" 


6'-2" 


7'-3" 


6'-7" 


6'-l" 


5'-7" 


5'-2" 


2-800S 162-97 


9'-l 1" 


9'-6" 


9'-2" 


8'- 10" 


8 '-7" 


9'-5" 


9'-0" 


8'-7" 


8'-2" 


7'-9" 


2-1000S162-43 


3'-4" 


2'-1 1" 


2'-7" 


2'-5" 


2'-2" 


2'-8" 


2'-5" 


2'-2" 


l'-ll" 


— 


2- 1000S 162-54 


6'-7" 


5'-10" 


5'-3" 


4'-9" 


4'-4" 


5'-4" 


4'-9" 


4'-3" 


3'- 10" 


3 '-6" 


2- 1000S 162-68 


9'-4" 


8'-9" 


8'-l" 


7'-7" 


7'-l" 


8'-3" 


7'-7" 


6'- 11" 


6'-5" 


5'- 11" 


2-1000S162-97 


11 '-!" 


lO'-ll" 


10'-4" 


9'- 10" 


9'-5" 


10'-5" 


9'- 10" 


9'-3" 


8'-10" 


8'-5" 


2- 1200S 162-54 


5'-6" 


4'- 10" 


4'-4" 


3'-ll" 


3'-7" 


4'-5" 


3'- 11" 


3'-6" 


3'-2" 


2'- 11" 


2- 1200S 162-68 


10'-4" 


9'-8" 


8'-8" 


7'- 11" 


7'-2" 


8'- 11" 


7'- 11" 


T-\" 


6'-5" 


5'- 10" 


2- 1200S 162-97 


12'-11" 


12'-2" 


11 '-6" 


1 l'-O" 


10'-6" 


1 1'-8" 


ll'-O" 


10'-5" 


9'- 10" 


9'-5" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, I pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6 895 kPa 
1 Ksi= 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: 1/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 81 



255 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(21) 

BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting Two Floors, Roof and Ceiling 

(33 Ksi steel) 3 ' b 





GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(20 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(30 psf) 


DESIGNATION 


Building width" (feet) 


Building width (feet) 




24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-350S162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-43 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-54 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-68 


2'-5" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2'-4" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S .162-97 


3'-6" 


3'-2" 


2'- 10" 


2'-6" 


2'-3" 


3'-6" 


3'-l" 


2'-9" 


2'-6" 


2'-3" 


2-550S 162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-43 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S162-54 


2'-6" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2'-5" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-68 


3'-9" 


3'-3" 


2'-9" 


2'-4" 


— 


3'-8" 


3'-2" 


2'-9" 


2'-4" 


— 


2-550S 162-97 


5'-3" 


4'-9" 


4'-4" 


3'-ll" 


3'-8" 


5'-2" 


4'-8" 


4'-3" 


3'-ll" 


3'-7" 


2-800S 162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-43 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-54 


3'-5" 


2'-8" 


— 


— 


— 


3'-4" 


2'-7" 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-68 


5'-l" 


4'-5" 


3'- 11" 


3'-4" 


2'- 11" 


5'-0" 


4'-4" 


3'- 10" 


3'-4" 


2'- 10" 


2-800S 162-97 


7'-0" 


6'-5" 


5'- 11" 


5'-5" 


5'-0" 


7'-0" 


6'-4" 


5'- 10" 


5'-5" 


5'-0" 


2-1000S162-43 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2- 1000S 162-54 


3'- 11" 


3'-l" 


2'-3" 


— 


— 


3'- 10" 


3'-0" 


2'-2" 


— 


— 


2- 1000S 162-68 


5'-10" 


5'-2" 


4'-6" 


4'-0" 


3'-5" 


5'-9" 


5'-l" 


4'-6" 


3'-U" 


3'-4" 


2- 1000S 162-97 


8'-5" 


7'-8" 


7'-l" 


6'-6" 


6'-l" 


8'-4" 


7'-7" 


7'-0" 


6'-6" 


6'-0" 


2- 1200S 162-54 


4'-2" 


3'-6" 


2'-7" 


— 


— 


4'-l" 


3'-5" 


2'-6" 


— 


— 


2- 1200S 162-68 


6'-6" 


5'-9" 


5'-l" 


4'-6" 


3'-l 1" 


6'-6" 


5'-8" 


5'-0" 


4'-5" 


3'-10" 


2- 1200S 162-97 


9'-5" 


8'-8" 


8'-0" 


7'-5" 


6'- 11" 


9'-5" 


8'-7" 


7'- 1.1" 


7'-4" 


6'- 10" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, I foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 
1 Ksi= 1 ,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: Z7360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Second floor live load is 40 psf. 
Third floor live load is 30 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header. 



256 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(22) 

BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting Two Floors, Roof and Ceiling 

(50 Ksi steel) 3 ' b 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(20 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(30 psf) 




Building width (f 


eet) 






Building width" (f 


eet) 




24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-350S 162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-43 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-54 


2'-9" 


2'-3" 


— - 


— 


— 


2'-8" 


2'-3" 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-68 


3'- 11" 


3'-6" 


3'-2" 


2'- 10" 


2'-6" 


3'-ll" 


3'-6" 


3'-l" 


2'-9" 


2'-6" 


2-350S 162-97 


4'-9" 


4'-6" 


4'-4" 


4'-l" 


3'- 10" 


4'-8" 


4'-6" 


4'-4" 


4'-l" 


3'-9" 


2-550S 162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-43 


2'-9" 


2'-0" 


— 


— 


— 


2'-8" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-54 


4'-5" 


3'- 10" 


3'-4" 


2'-ll" 


2'-5" 


4'-4" 


3'-9" 


3'-3" 


2'-10" 


2'-5" 


2-550S 162-68 


5'- 8" 


5'-2" 


4'-8" 


4'-3" 


3'-ll" 


5'-8" 


5'-l" 


4'-8" 


4'-3" 


3'- 10" 


2-550S 162-97 


6'- 10" 


6'-6" 


6'-3" 


6'-0" 


5'-7" 


6'-9" 


6'-5" 


6'-3" 


5'- 11" 


5'-6" 


2-800S 162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-43 


3'-2" 


2'-7" 


— 


— 


— 


3'-l" 


2'-6" 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-54 


5'-2" 


4'-7" 


4'-0" 


3'-6" 


3'-0" 


5'-2" 


4'-6" 


3'-ll" 


3'-5" 


2'- 11" 


2-800S 162-68 


6'- 11" 


6'-3" 


5'-8" 


5'-2" 


4'-9" 


6'- 10" 


6'-2" 


5'-7" 


5'-2" 


4'-8" 


2-800S 162-97 


9'-3" 


8'-8" 


8'-3" 


7'-9" 


7'-4" 


9'-2" 


8'-8" 


8'-2" 


7'-9" 


7'-4" 


2- 1000S 162-43 


2'-6" 


2'-2" 


2'-0" 


— 


— 


2'-6" 


2'-2" 


l'-ll" 


— 


— 


2- 1000S 162-54 


5'-0" 


. 4'-4" 


3'-ll" 


3'-6" 


3'-2" 


4'- 11" 


4'-4" 


3'- 10" 


3'-6" 


3'-2" 


2-1000S162-68 


7'- 10" 


7'-2" 


6'-6" 


5'-ll" 


5'-6" 


7'-9" 


7'-l" 


6'-5" 


5'- 11" 


5'-5" 


2- 1000S 162-97 


10'- 1" 


9'-5" 


8'-ll" 


8'-6" 


8'-0" 


lO'-O" 


9'-5" 


8'- 10" 


8'-5" 


7'- 11" 


2- 1200S 162-54 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2- 1200S 162-68 


7'-4" 


6'-8" 


6'-l" 


5'-6" 


5'-l" 


7'-3" 


6'-7" 


6'-0" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


2- 1200S 162-97 


9'-5" 


8'-8" 


8'-l" 


7'-6" 


7'-l" 


9'-4" 


8'-8" 


8'-0" 


7'-6" 


7'-0" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 ram, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 
lKsi= 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Second floor live load is 40 psf. 
Third floor live load is 30 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



257 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(23) 

BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting Two Floors, Roof and Ceiling 

(33 Ksi steel) 3 ' b 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(50 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(70 psf) 


Building width (feet) 


Building width (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-350S162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-43 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-54 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S162-68 


2'-2" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S162-97 


3 '-3" 


3'-0" 


2'-8" 


2'-4" 


2'-l" 


3'-l" 


2'-9" 


2'-6" 


2'-2" 


— 


2-550S 162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-43 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S162-54 


2'-2" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-68 


3'-6" 


3'-0" 


2'-6" 


2'-l" 


~ 


3'-2" 


2'-9" 


2'-3" 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-97 


5'-0" 


4'-6" 


4'-l" 


3'-9" 


3'-5" 


4'-8" 


4'-3" 


3'-ll" 


3'-7" 


3'-3" 


2-800S 162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-43 


— 


— 


~- 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-54 


3'-0" 


2'-3" 


— 


— 


— 


2'-7" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-68 


4'-9" 


4'-2" 


3'-7" 


3'-l" 


2'-7" 


4'-5" 


3'-10" 


3'-3" 


2'-9" 


2'-3" 


2-800S 162-97 


6'-9" 


6'-l" 


5'-7" 


5'-2" 


4'-9" 


6'-4" 


5'-10" 


5'-4" 


4'-ll" 


4'-7" 


2- 1000S 162-43 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2- 1000S 162-54 


3'-6" 


2'-8" 


— 


— 


— 


3'-l" 


2'-2" 


— 


— 


— 


2-1000S162-68 


5'-6" 


4'- 10" 


4'-2" 


3'-7" 


3'4" 


5'-l" 


4'-6" 


3'-1.0" 


3'-4" 


2'-9" 


2-1000S162-97 


8'-0" 


7'-4" 


6'-9" 


6'-3" 


5'-9" 


7'-7" 


7'-0" 


6'-5" 


5'-ll" 


5'-6" 


2-I200S162-54 


3'-l 1" 


3'-0" 


2'-0" 


— 


— 


3'-5" 


2'-6" 


— 


— 


— 


2- 1200S 162-68 


6'-2" 


5'-5" 


4'-9" 


4'-l" 


3'-6" 


5'-9" 


5'-0" 


4'-4" 


3'-9" 


3'-2" 


2- 1200S 162-97 


9'-l" 


8'-4" 


7'-8" 


7'-l" 


6'-7" 


8'-8" 


7'-U" 


7'-4" 


6'-9" 


6'-3" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, I pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 
lKsi= 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Second floor live load is 40 psf. 
Third floor live load is 30 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header. 



258 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(24) 

BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS 

Headers Supporting Two Floors, Roof and Ceiling 

(50Ksisteel) ab 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(50 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(70 psf) 


Building width°(feet) 


Building width (feet) 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


2-350S 162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-43 


— 


— 


— 


— - 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-54 


2'-6" 


2'-l" 


— 


— 


— 


2'-3" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-68 


3'-9" 


3'-4" 


2'-ll" 


2'-7" 


2'-4" 


3'-6" 


3'-l" 


2'-9" 


2'-5" 


2'-2" 


2- 350S 162-97 


4'-6" 


4'-4" 


4'-2" 


3'-ll" 


3'-8" 


4'-4" 


4'-2" 


4'-0" 


3'-9" 


3'-6" 


2-550S162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-43 


2'-5" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-54 


4'-l" 


3'-7" 


3'-l" 


2'-7" 


2'-2" 


3'- 10" 


3'-3" 


2'- 10" 


2'-4" 


— 


2-550S 162-68 


5'-5" 


4'- 11" 


4'-5" 


4'-0" 


3'-8" 


5'-l" 


4'-7" 


4'-2" 


3'- 10" 


3'-5" 


2-550S 162-97 


6'-5" 


6'-2" 


5'-ll" 


5'-9" 


5'-4" 


6'-3" 


6'-0" 


5'-9" 


5'-6" 


5'-2" 


2-800S 162-33 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-43 


2'- 11" 


2'-2" 


— 


— 


— 


2'-6" 


— n 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-54 


4'- 11" 


4'-3" 


3'-8" 


3'-2" 


2'-8" 


4'-6" 


3'- 11" 


3'-5" 


2'- 11" 


2'-4" 


2-800S 162-68 


6'-7" 


5'-ll" 


5'-4" 


4'-ll" 


4'-6" 


6'-2" 


5'-7" 


5'-l" 


4'-8" 


4'-3" 


2-800S 162-97 


8'-9" 


8'-5" 


7'-ll" 


7'-6" 


7'-0" 


8'-5" 


8'-l" 


7'-9" 


7'-3" 


6'- 10" 


2-1000S162-43 


2'-4" 


2'-l" 


— 


— 


— 


2'-2" 


l'-ll" 


— 


— 


— 


2-1000S 162-54 


4'- 8" 


4'-l" 


3'-8" 


3'-3" 


3'-0" 


4'-4" 


3'-10" 


3 '-5" 


3'-l" 


2'-9" 


2- 1000S 162-68 


7'-6" 


6'-9" 


6'-2" 


5'-8" 


5'-2" 


7'-l" 


6'-5" 


5'- 10" 


5'-4" 


4'- 11" 


2- 1000S 162-97 


9'-9" 


9'-2" 


8'-7" 


8'-2" 


7'-8" 


9'-5" 


8'- 10" 


8'-5" 


7'- 11" 


7'-5" 


2- 1200S 162-54 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2- 1200S 162-68 


7'-0" 


6'-4" 


5'-9" 


5'-3" 


4'-9" 


6'-7" 


6'-0" 


5 '-5" 


5'-0" 


4'-6" 


2- I200S 162-97 


9'-l" 


8'-4" 


7'-9" 


7'-3" 


6'-9" 


8'-8" 


8'-0" 


7'-6" 


7'-0" 


6'-7" 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 
1 Ksi= 1,000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 1 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Second floor live load is 40 psf. 
Third floor live load is 30 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



259 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R603.6.1 Headers in gable endwalls. Box beam and 
back-to-back headers in gable endwalls shall be permitted 
to be constructed in accordance with Section R603.6 or 
with the header directly above the opening in accordance 
with Figures R603.6.1(l) and R603.6.1(2) and the follow- 
ing provisions: 

1. Two 362S162-33 for openings less than or equal to 
4 feet (1219 mm). 

2. Two 600S 162-43 for openings greater than 4 feet 
(1219 mm) but less than or equal to 6 feet (1830 
mm). 

3. Two 800S 162-54 for openings greater than 6 feet 
(1829 mm) but less than or equal to 9 feet (2743 
mm). 

R603.7 Jack and king studs. The number of jack and king 
studs installed on each side of a header shall comply with 
Table R603.7(l ). King, jack and cripple studs shall be of the 
same dimension and thickness as the adjacent wall studs. 



Headers shall be connected to king studs in accordance with 
Table R603.7(2) and the following provisions: 

1 . For box beam headers, one-half of the total number of 
required screws shall be applied to the header and one 
half to the king stud by use of C- shaped or track mem- 
ber in accordance with Figure R603.6(l). The track or 
C-shape sections shall extend the depth of the header 
minus 7 2 inch (12.7 mm) and shall have a minimum 
thickness not less than that of the wall studs. 

2. For back-to-back headers, one-half the total number of 
screws shall be applied to the header and one-half to the 
king stud by use of a minimum 2-inch by 2-inch (51 
mm by 51 mm) clip angle in accordance with Figure 
R603.6(2). The clip angle shall extend the depth of the 
header minus V, inch (12.7 mm) and shall have a mini- 
mum thickness not less than that of the wall studs. Jack 
and king studs shall be interconnected with structural 
sheathing in accordance with Figures R603.6(l) and 
R603.6(2). 



KING STUD(S) 



TRACK OR C-SHAPE 



JACK STUD(S) 




CRIPPLE STUD 
HEAD TRACK 



C-SHAPES 



FIGURE R603.6.1(1) 
BOX BEAM HEADER IN GABLE ENDWALL 



KING STUD(S) 



2 IN. *2IN. CLIP ANGLE 



JACK STUD(S) 




CRIPPLE STUD 
HEAD TRACK 



C-SHAPES 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R603.6.1(2) 
BACK-TO-BACK HEADER IN GABLE ENDWALL 



260 



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TABLE R603.7(1) 
TOTAL NUMBER OF JACK AND KING STUDS REQUIRED AT EACH END OF AN OPENING 



SIZE OF OPENING 
(feet-Inches) 


24-INCH O.C. STUD SPACING 


16-INCH O.C. STUD SPACING 


No. of jack studs 


No. of king studs 


No. of jack studs 


No. of king studs 


Up to 3 '-6" 


I 


1 


1 


1 


> 3'-6" to 5'-0" 


1 


2 


1 


2 


> 5'-0" to 5'-6" 


1 


2 


2 


2 


> 5'-6" to 8'-0" 


1 


2 


2 


2 


> 8'-0" to 10'-6" 


2 


2 


2 


3 


>10'-6"to 12'-0" 


2 


2 


3 


3 


>12'-0"to l.3'-0" 


2 


3 


3 


3 


>13'-0"tol4'-0" 


2 


3 


3 


4 


>14'-0"tol6'-0" 


2 


3 


3 


4 


>16'-0"tol8'-0" 


3 


3 


4 


4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



TABLE R603.7(2) 
HEADER TO KING STUD CONNECTION REQUIREMENTS 3 ' bcd 



HEADER SPAN 
(feet) 


BASIC WIND SPEED (mph), EXPOSURE 


85 B or Seismic Design 
Categories A, B, C, D„, D, and D 2 


85 C or less than 110 B 


Less than 110 C 


<4' 


4-No. 8 screws 


4-No. 8 screws 


6-No. 8 screws 


> 4' to 8' 


4-No. 8 screws 


4-No. 8 screws 


8-No. 8 screws 


> 8' to 12' 


4-No. 8 screws 


6-No. 8 screws 


1 0-No. 8 screws 


> 12' to 16' 


4-No. 8 screws 


8-No. 8 screws 


12-No. 8 screws 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound = 4.448 N. 

a. All screw sizes shown are minimum. 

b. For headers located on the first floor of a two-story building or the first or second floor of a three-story building, the total number of screws is permitted to be 
reduced by 2 screws, but the total number of screws shall be no less than 4. 

c. For roof slopes of 6: 1 2 or greater, the required number of screws may be reduced by half, but the total number of screws shall be no less than four. 

d. Screws can be replaced by an uplift connector which has a capacity of the number of screws multiplied by 164 pounds (e.g., 12-No. 8 screws can be replaced 
by an uplift connector whose capacity exceeds 12 x 164 pounds = 1,968 pounds). 



R603.8 Head and sill track. Head track spans above door 
and window openings and sill track spans beneath window 
openings shall comply with Table R603.8. For openings less 
than 4 feet (1219 mm) in height that have both a head track 
and a sill track, multiplying the spans by 1.75 shall be permit- 
ted in Table R603.8. For openings less than or equal to 6 feet 
(1829 mm) in height that have both a head track and a sill 
track, multiplying the spans in Table R603.8 by 1.50 shall be 
permitted. 

R603.9 Structural sheathing. Structural sheathing shall be 
installed in accordance with Figure R603.9 and this section 
on all sheathable exterior wall surfaces, including areas above 
and below openings. 

R603.9.1 Sheathing materials. Structural sheathing pan- 
els shall consist of minimum 7 / 16 -inch-thick (11 mm) ori- 
ented strand board or 15 / 32 -inch-thick (12 mm) plywood. 

R603.9.2 Determination of minimum length of full 
height sheathing. The minimum length of full height 
sheathing on each braced wall line shall be determined by 
multiplying the length of the braced wall line by the per- 
centage obtained from Table R603.9.2(l) and by the plan 
aspect-ratio adjustment factors obtained from Table 




STRUCTURAL SHEATHING 

PANEL 

FIELD FASTENER 

EDGE FASTENER 



FIGURE R603.9 
STRUCTURAL SHEATHING FASTENING PATTERN 



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WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R603.9.2(2). The minimum length of full height sheathing 
shall not be less than 20 percent of the braced wall line 
length. 

To be considered full height sheathing, structural 
sheathing shall extend from the bottom to the top of the 
wall without interruption by openings. Only sheathed, full 
height wall sections, uninterrupted by openings, which are 
a minimum of 48 inches (1219 mm) wide, shall be counted 
toward meeting the minimum percentages in Table 
R603.9.2(l). In addition, structural sheathing shall comply 
with all of the following requirements: 

1. Be installed with the long dimension parallel to the 
stud framing (i.e., vertical orientation) and shall 



cover the full vertical height of wall from the bottom 
of the bottom track to the top of the top track of each 
story. Installing the long dimension perpendicular to 
the stud framing or using shorter segments shall be 
permitted provided that the horizontal joint is 
blocked as described in Item 2. 

Be blocked when the long dimension is installed 
perpendicular to the stud framing (i.e., horizontal 
orientation). Blocking shall be a minimum of 33 mil 
(0.84 mm) thickness. Each horizontal structural 
sheathing panel shall be fastened with No. 8 screws 
spaced at 6 inches ( 1 52 mm) on center to the block- 
ing at the joint. 







TABLE R603.8 
HEAD AND SILL TRACK SPAN F y = 33 KSi 






BASIC WIND SPEED 

(mph) 


ALLOWABLE HEAD AND SILL TRACK SPAN"" 
(feet-inches) 


EXPOSURE 


TRACK DESIGNATION 


B 


c 


350T1 25-33 


350T1 25-43 


350T1 25-54 


550T1 25-33 


550T1 25-43 


550T1 25-54 


85 


— 


5'-0" 


5'-7" 


6'-2" 


5'-10" 


6'-8" 


7'-0" 


90 


— 


4'-10" 


5'-5" 


6'-0" 


5'-8" 


6'-3" 


6'- 10" 


100 


85 


4'-6" 


5'-l" 


5'-8" 


5'-4" 


5'- 11" 


6'-5" 


110 


90 


4'-2" 


4'-9" 


5'-4" 


5'-l" 


5'-7" 


6'1" 


120 


100 


3'-ll" 


4'-6" 


5'-0" 


4'- 10" 


5'-4" 


5'-10" 


130 


110 


3'-8" 


4'-2" 


4'-9" 


4'-l" 


5'-l" 


5'-7" 


140 


120 


3'-7" 


4'-l" 


4'-7" 


3'-6" 


4'-l 1" 


5'-5" 


150 


130 


3'-5" 


3'- 10" 


4'-4" 


2'- 11" 


4'-7" 


5'-2" 


— 


140 


3'-]" 


3'-6" 


4'-l" 


2'-3" 


4'-0" 


4'- 10" 


— 


150 


2'-9" 


3'-4" 


3'- 10" 


2'-0" 


3'-7" 


4'-7" 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 ram, I foot = 304.8 mm, I mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Deflection limit: L/240. 

b. Head and sill track spans are based on components and cladding wind speeds and 48-inch tributary span. 

c. For openings less than 4 feet in height that have both a head track and sill track, the above spans are permitted to be multiplied by 1 .75. For openings less than 
or equal to 6 feet in height that have both a head track and a sill track, the above spans are permitted to be multiplied by a factor of 1 .5. 



DOUBLE STUDS BACK TO BACK WITH 
OUTSIDE STUD CAPPED WITH TRACK 



NO. 8 SHEATHING ATTACHMENT- 
SCREWS AS REQUIRED BY 
SECTION R603.9.3 



NO. 8 SCREWS ATTACHING - 
TRACK TO STUD AT 8 IN. 
O.C. EACH FLANGE 



PLYWOOD, OSB OR GWB 

SHEATHING PER SHEARWALL 
REQUIREMENTS 



DOUBLE ROW OF NO. 8 SCREWS 
AT 12 IN. O.C. 

HOLDOWN AS REQUIRED BY 
SECTION R603.9.4 




OUTSIDE FACE [> 



INSIDE FACE 
- WALLBOARD BACKING STUDS 



O INSIDE FACE 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R603.9.2 
CORNER STUD HOLD-DOWN DETAIL 



262 



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WALL CONSTRUCTION 



3. Be applied to each end (corners) of each of the exte- 
rior walls with a minimum 48-inch-wide (1219 mm) 
panel. 

R603.9.2.1 Full height sheathing. The minimum per- 
centage of full-height structural sheathing shall be mul- 
tiplied by 1.10 for 9-foot-high (2743 mm) walls and 
multiplied by 1.20 for 10-foot-high (3048 mm) walls. 

R603.9.2.2 Full height sheathing in hip roof homes. 
For hip roofed homes, the minimum percentages of full 
height sheathing in Table R603.9.2(l), based upon 
wind, shall be permitted to be multiplied by a factor of 
0.95 for roof slopes not exceeding 7:12 and a factor of 
0.9 for roof slopes greater than 7:12. 

R603.9.2.3 Full height sheathing in lowest story. In 
the lowest story of a dwelling, multiplying the percent- 
age of full height sheathing required in Table 
R603.9.2(l) by 0.6, shall be permitted provided hold 
down anchors are provided in accordance with Section 
R603.9.4.2, 

R603.9.3 Structural sheathing fastening. All edges and 
interior areas of structural sheathing panels shall be fas- 
tened to framing members and tracks in accordance with 



Figure R603.9 and Table R603.3.2(l). Screws for attach- 
ment of structural sheathing panels shall be bugle-head, 
flat-head, or similar head style with a minimum head 
diameter of 0.29 inch (8 mm). 

For continuously-sheathed braced wall lines using 
wood structural panels installed with No. 8 screws spaced 
4-inches (102 mm) on center at all panel edges and 12 
inches (304.8 mm) on center on intermediate framing 
members, the following shall apply: 

1. Multiplying the percentages of full height sheathing 
in Table R603.9.2(l ) by 0.72 shall be permitted. 

2. For bottom track attached to foundations or framing 
below, the bottom track anchor or screw connection 
spacing in Table R505.3.1(l) and Table R603.3.1 
shall be multiplied by two-thrids. 

R603.9.4 Uplift connection requirements. Uplift con- 
nections shall be provided in accordance with this section. 

R603.9.4.1 Wind speeds greater than 100 mph. 
Where wind speeds are in excess of 100 miles per hour 
(45 m/s), Exposure C, walls shall be provided wind 
direct uplift connections in accordance with AISI S230, 



TABLE R603.9.2(1) 
MINIMUM PERCENTAGE OF FULL HEIGHT STRUCTURAL SHEATHING ON EXTERIOR WALLS 3 ' b 



WALL SUPPORTING 


ROOF SLOPE 


BASIC WIND SPEED AND EXPOSURE 
(mph) 


85 
B 


90 
B 


100 
B 


< 110 

B 


100 c 


<110C 


85 C 


90 C 


Roof and ceiling only (one story or top 
floor of two- or three-story building). 


3:12 


8 


9 


9 


12 


16 


20 


6:12 


12 


13 


15 


20 


26 


35 


9:12 


21 


23 


25 


30 


50 


58 


12:12 


30 


33 


35 


40 


66 


75 


One story, roof and ceiling (first floor 
of a two-story building or second floor 
of a three-story building). 


3:12 


24 


27 


30 


35 


50 


66 


6:12 


25 


28 


30 


40 


58 


74 


9:12 


35 


38 


40 


55 


74 


91 


12:12 


40 


45 


50 


65 


100 


115 


Two story, roof and ceiling (first floor 
of a three-story building). 


3:12 


40 


45 


51 


58 


84 


112 


6:12 


38 


43 


45 


60 


90 


113 


9:12 


49 


53 


55 


80 


98 


124 


12:12 


50 


57 


65 


90 


134 


155 



For SI: 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Linear interpolation is permitted. 

b. For hip-roofed homes the minimum percentage of full height sheathing, based upon wind, is permitted to be multiplied by a factor of 0.95 for roof slopes not 
exceeding 7: 1 2 and a factor of 0.9 for roof slopes greater than 7:12. 

TABLE R603.9.2(2) 
FULL HEIGHT SHEATHING LENGTH ADJUSTMENT FACTORS 



PLAN ASPECT RATIO 


LENGTH ADJUSTMENT FACTORS 


Short wall 


Long wall 


1:1 


1.0 


1.0 


1 .5: 1 


1.5 


0.67 


2:1 


2.0 


0.50 


3:1 


3.0 


0.33 


4:1 


4.0 


0.25 



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263 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



Section E13.3, and AISI S230, Section F7.2, as 
required for 110 miles per hour (49 m/s), Exposure C. 

R603.9.4.2 Hold-down anchor. Where the percentage 
of full height sheathing is adjusted in accordance with 
Section R603.9.2.3, a hold-down anchor, with a 
strength of 4,300 pounds (19 kN), shall be provided at 
each end of each full-height sheathed wall section used 
to meet the minimum percent sheathing requirements 
of Section R603.9.2. Hold-down anchors shall be 
attached to back- to-back studs; structural sheathing 
panels shall have edge fastening to the studs, in accor- 
dance with Section R603.9.3 and AISI S230, Table 
Ell-1. 

A single hold-down anchor, installed in accordance 
with Figure R603.9.2, shall be permitted at the corners 
of buildings. 

R603.9.5 Structural sheathing for stone and masonry 
veneer. In Seismic Design Category C, where stone and 
masonry veneer is installed in accordance with Section 
R703.7, the length of structural sheathing for walls sup- 
porting one story, roof and ceiling shall be the greater of 
the amount required by Section R603.9.2 or 36 percent, 
modified by Section R603.9.2 except Section R603.9.2.2 
shall not be permitted. 



SECTION R604 
WOOD STRUCTURAL PANELS 

R604.1 Identification and grade. Wood structural panels 
shall conform to DOC PS 1, DOC PS 2 or ANSI/APA PRP 
210 or, when manufactured in Canada, CSA 0437 or CSA 
0325. All panels shall be identified by a grade mark or certif- 
icate of inspection issued by an approved agency. 

R604.2 Allowable spans. The maximum allowable spans for 
wood structural panel wall sheathing shall not exceed the val- 
ues set forth in Table R602.3(3). 

R604.3 Installation. Wood structural panel wall sheathing 
shall be attached to framing in accordance with Table 
R602.3(l) or R602.3(3). Wood structural panels marked 
Exposure 1 or Exterior are considered water-repellent sheath- 
ing under the code. 



SECTION R605 
PART1CLEBOARD 

R605.1 Identification and grade. Particleboard shall con- 
form to ANSI A208.1 and shall be so identified by a grade 
mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved 
agency. Particleboard shall comply with the grades specified 
in Table R602.3(4). 



SECTION R606 
GENERAL MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 

R606.1 General. Masonry construction shall be designed and 
constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section, 
| TMS 403 or in accordance with the provisions of TMS 402/ 
ACT 530/ASCE 5. 



R606.1.1 Professional registration not required. When 
the empirical design provisions of Chapter 5 of TMS 402/ 
ACI 530/ASCE 5, the provisions of TMS 403, or the pro- 
visions of this section are used to design masonry, project 
drawings, typical details and specifications are not 
required to bear the seal of the architect or engineer 
responsible for design, unless otherwise required by the 
state law of the jurisdiction having authority. 

R606.2 Thickness of masonry. The nominal thickness of 
masonry walls shall conform to the requirements of Sections 
R606.2.1 through R606.2.4. 

R606.2.1 Minimum thickness. The minimum thickness 
of masonry bearing walls more than one story high shall 
be 8 inches (203 mm). Solid masonry walls of one-story 
dwellings and garages shall not be less than 6 inches (152 
mm) in thickness when not greater than 9 feet (2743 mm) 
in height, provided that when gable construction is used, 
an additional 6 feet (1829 mm) is permitted to the peak of 
the gable. Masonry walls shall be laterally supported in 
either the horizontal or vertical direction at intervals as 
required by Section R606.9. 

R606.2.2 Rubble stone masonry wall. The minimum 
thickness of rough, random or coursed rubble stone 
masonry walls shall be 16 inches (406 mm). 

R606.2.3 Change in thickness. Where walls of masonry 
of hollow units or masonry-bonded hollow walls are 
decreased in thickness, a course of solid masonry shall be 
constructed between the wall below and the thinner wall 
above, or special units or construction shall be used to 
transmit the loads from face shells or wythes above to 
those below. 

R606.2.4 Parapet walls. Unreinforced solid masonry par- 
apet walls shall not be less than 8 inches (203 mm) thick 
and their height shall not exceed four times their thickness. 
Unreinforced hollow unit masonry parapet walls shall be 
not less than 8 inches (203 mm) thick, and their height 
shall not exceed three times their thickness. Masonry para- 
pet walls in areas subject to wind loads of 30 pounds per 
square foot (1 .44 kPa) located in Seismic Design Category 
D , D, or D 2 , or on townhouses in Seismic Design Cate- 
gory C shall be reinforced in accordance with Section 
R606.12. 

R606.3 Corbeled masonry. Corbeled masonry shall be in 
accordance with Sections R606.3.1 through R606.3.3. 

R606.3.1 Units. Solid masonry units or masonry units 
filled with mortar or grout shall be used for corbeling. 

R606.3.2 Corbel projection. The maximum projection of 
one unit shall not exceed one-half the height of the unit or 
one-third the thickness at right angles to the wall. The 
maximum corbeled projection beyond the face of the wall 
shall not exceed: 

1 . One-half of the wall thickness for multiwythe walls 
bonded by mortar or grout and wall ties or masonry 
headers, or 

2. One-half the wythe thickness for single wythe walls, 
masonry-bonded hollow walls, multiwythe walls 
with open collar joints and veneer walls. 



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R606.3.3 Corbeled masonry supporting floor or roof- 
framing members. When corbeled masonry is used to 
support floor or roof-framing members, the top course of 
the corbel shall be a header course or the top course bed 
joint shall have ties to the vertical wall. 

R606.4 Support conditions. Bearing and support conditions 
shall be in accordance with Sections R606.4.1 and R606.4.2. 

R606.4.1 Bearing on support. Each masonry wythe shall 
be supported by at least two-thirds of the wythe thickness. 

R606.4.2 Support at foundation. Cavity wall or masonry 
veneer construction may be supported on an 8-inch (203 
mm) foundation wall, provided the 8-inch (203 mm) wall 
is corbeled to the width of the wall system above with 
masonry constructed of solid masonry units or masonry 
units filled with mortar or grout. The total horizontal pro- 
jection of the corbel shall not exceed 2 inches (51 mm) 
with individual corbels projecting not more than one-third 
the thickness of the unit or one-half the height of the unit. 
The hollow space behind the corbeled masonry shall be 
filled with mortar or grout. 

R606.5 Allowable stresses. Allowable compressive stresses 
in masonry shall not exceed the values prescribed in Table 
R606.5. In determining the stresses in masonry, the effects of 
all loads and conditions of loading and the influence of all 
forces affecting the design and strength of the several parts 
shall be taken into account. 

R606.5.1 Combined units. In walls or other structural 
members composed of different kinds or grades of units, 
materials or mortars, the maximum stress shall not exceed 
the allowable stress for the weakest of the combination of 
units, materials and mortars of which the member is com- 
posed. The net thickness of any facing unit that is used to 
resist stress shall not be less than 1.5 inches (38 mm). 

R606.6 Piers. The unsupported height of masonry piers shall 
not exceed ten times their least dimension. When structural 
clay tile or hollow concrete masonry units are used for iso- 
lated piers to support beams and girders, the cellular spaces 
shall be filled solidly with concrete or Type M or S mortar, 
except that unfilled hollow piers may be used if their unsup- 
ported height is not more than four times their least dimen- 
sion. Where hollow masonry units are solidly filled with 
concrete or Type M, S or N mortar, the allowable compres- 
sive stress shall be permitted to be increased as provided in 
Table R606.5. 

R606.6.1 Pier cap. Hollow piers shall be capped with 4 
inches (102 mm) of solid masonry or concrete, a masonry 
cap block, or shall have cavities of the top course filled 
with concrete or grout. 

R606.7 Chases. Chases and recesses in masonry walls shall 
not be deeper than one-third the wall thickness, and the maxi- 
mum length of a horizontal chase or horizontal projection 
shall not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm), and shall have at least 8 
inches (203 mm) of masonry in back of the chases and 
recesses and between adjacent chases or recesses and the 
jambs of openings. Chases and recesses in masonry walls 
shall be designed and constructed so as not to reduce the 



required strength or required fire resistance of the wall and in 
no case shall a chase or recess be permitted within the 
required area of a pier. Masonry directly above chases or 
recesses wider than 12 inches (305 mm) shall be supported on 
noncombustible lintels. 

TABLE R606.5 

ALLOWABLE COMPRESSIVE STRESSES FOR 

EMPIRICAL DESIGN OF MASONRY 





ALLOWABLE COMPRESSIVE 


CONSTRUCTION; 


STRESSES' GROSS 


COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH 


CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA" 


OF UNIT, GROSS AREA 






Type M or S mortar 


Type N mortar 


Solid masonry of brick and 






other solid units of clay or 






shale; sand-lime or con- 






crete brick: 






8,000 + psi 


350 


300 


4,500 psi 


225 


200 


2,500 psi 


160 


140 


1,500 psi 


115 


100 


Grouted c masonry, of clay 






or shale; sand-lime or con- 






crete: 






4,500 + psi 


225 


200 


2,500 psi 


160 


140 


1,500 psi 


115 


100 


Solid masonry of solid con- 






crete masonry units: 






3,000 + psi 


225 


200 


2,000 psi 


160 


140 


1,200 psi 


115 


100 


Masonry of hollow load- 






bearing units: 






2,000 + psi 


140 


120 


1,500 psi 


115 


100 


1,000 psi 


75 


70 


700 psi 


60 


55 


Hollow walls (cavity or 






masonry bonded 11 ) solid 






units: 






2,500 + psi 


160 


140 


1,500 psi 


115 


100 


Hollow units 


75 


70 


Stone ashlar masonry: 






Granite 


720 


640 


Limestone or marble 


450 


400 


Sandstone or cast stone 


360 


320 


Rubble stone masonry: 






Coarse, rough or random 


120 


100 



For SI: I pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Linear interpolation shall be used for determining allowable stresses for 
masonry units having compressive strengths that are intermediate between 
those given in the table. 

b. Gross cross-sectional area shall be calculated on the actual rather than 
nominal dimensions. 

c. See Section R608. 

d. Where floor and roof loads are carried upon one wythe, the gross cross- 
sectional area is that of the wythe under load; if both wythes are loaded, 
the gross cross-sectional area is that of the wall minus the area of the 
cavity between the wythes. Walls bonded with metal ties shall be 
considered as cavity walls unless the collar joints are filled with mortar or 
grout. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



265 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R606.8 Stack bond. In unreinforced masonry where 
masonry units are laid in stack bond, longitudinal reinforce- 
ment consisting of not less than two continuous wires each 
with a minimum aggregate cross-sectional area of 0.017 
square inch (11 mm 2 ) shall be provided in horizontal bed 
joints spaced not more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center 
vertically. 

R606.9 Lateral support. Masonry walls shall be laterally 
supported in either the horizontal or the vertical direction. 
The maximum spacing between lateral supports shall not 
exceed the distances in Table R606.9. Lateral support shall be 
provided by cross walls, pilasters, buttresses or structural 
frame members when the limiting distance is taken horizon- 
tally, or by floors or roofs when the limiting distance is taken 
vertically. 

TABLE R606.9 
SPACING OF LATERAL SUPPORT FOR MASONRY WALLS 



CONSTRUCTION 


MAXIMUM WALL LENGTH TO THICKNESS 
OR WALL HEIGHT TO THICKNESS"'" 


Bearing walls: 
Solid or solid grouted 
All other 


20 
18 


Nonbearing walls: 
Exterior 
Interior 


18 
36 



For SI: I foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Except for cavity walls and cantilevered walls, the thickness of a wall 
shall be its nominal thickness measured perpendicular to the face of the 
wall. For cavity walls, the thickness shall be determined as the sum of the 
nominal thicknesses of the individual wythes. For cantilever walls, except 
for parapets, the ratio of height to nominal thickness shall not exceed 6 for 
solid masonry, or 4 for hollow masonry. For parapets, see Section 
R606.2.4. 

b. An additional unsupported height of 6 feet is permitted for gable end 
walls. 

R606.9.1 Horizontal lateral support. Lateral support in 
the horizontal direction provided by intersecting masonry 
walls shall be provided by one of the methods in Section 
R606.9.1.1 or Section R606.9. 1.2. 

R606.9.1.1 Bonding pattern. Fifty percent of the units 
at the intersection shall be laid in an overlapping 
masonry bonding pattern, with alternate units having a 
bearing of not less than 3 inches (76 mm) on the unit 
below. 

R606.9.1.2 Metal reinforcement. Interior nonload- 
bearing walls shall be anchored at their intersections, at 
vertical intervals of not more than 16 inches (406 mm) 
with joint reinforcement of at least 9 gage [0.148 inch 
(4mm)], or 7 4 -inch (6 mm) galvanized mesh hardware 
cloth. Intersecting masonry walls, other than interior 
nonloadbearing walls, shall be anchored at vertical 
intervals of not more than 8 inches (203 mm) with joint 
reinforcement of at least 9 gage and shall extend at least 
30 inches (762 mm) in each direction at the intersec- 
tion. Other metal ties, joint reinforcement or anchors, if 
used, shall be spaced to provide equivalent area of 
anchorage to that required by this section. 

R606.9.2 Vertical lateral support. Vertical lateral sup- 
port of masonry walls in Seismic Design Category A, B or 



C shall be provided in accordance with one of the methods 
in Section R606.9.2.1 or Section R606.9.2.2. 

R606.9.2.1 Roof structures. Masonry walls shall be 
anchored to roof structures with metal strap anchors 
spaced in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions, Vj-inch (13 mm) bolts spaced not more than 6 
feet (1829 mm) on center, or other approved anchors. 
Anchors shall be embedded at least 1 6 inches (406 mm) 
into the masonry, or be hooked or welded to bond beam 
reinforcement placed not less than 6 inches (152 mm) 
from the top of the wall. 

R606.9.2.2 Floor diaphragms. Masonry walls shall be 
anchored to floor diaphragm framing by metal strap 
anchors spaced in accordance with the manufacturer's 
instructions, V 2 -inch-diameter (13 mm) bolts spaced at 
intervals not to exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) and installed 
as shown in Figure R606.11(l), or by other approved 
methods. 

R606.10 Lintels. Masonry over openings shall be supported 
by steel lintels, reinforced concrete or masonry lintels or 
masonry arches, designed to support load imposed. 

R606.ll Anchorage. Masonry walls shall be anchored to 
floor and roof systems in accordance with the details shown 
in Figure R606.11(l), R606.11(2) or R606.11(3). Footings 
may be considered as points of lateral support. 

R606.12 Seismic requirements. The seismic requirements 
of this section shall apply to the design of masonry and the 
construction of masonry building elements located in Seismic 
Design Category D , D, or D 2 . Townhouses in Seismic 
Design Category C shall comply with the requirements of 
Section R606.12.2. These requirements shall not apply to 
glass unit masonry conforming to Section R610 or masonry 
veneer conforming to Section R703.7. 

R606.12.1 General. Masonry structures and masonry ele- 
ments shall comply with the requirements of Sections 
R606.12.2 through R606.12.4 based on the seismic design 
category established in Table R301.2(l). Masonry struc- 
tures and masonry elements shall comply with the require- 
ments of Section R606.12 and Figures R606.11(l), 
R606.11(2) and R606.1 1(3) or shall be designed in accor- 
dance with TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5 or TMS 403. 

R606.12.1.1 Floor and roof diaphragm construction. 

Floor and roof diaphragms shall be constructed of 
wood structural panels attached to wood framing in 
accordance with Table R602.3(l) or to cold-formed 
steel floor framing in accordance with Table 
R505.3.1(2) or to cold-formed steel roof framing in 
accordance with Table R804.3. Additionally, sheathing 
panel edges perpendicular to framing members shall be 
backed by blocking, and sheathing shall be connected 
to the blocking with fasteners at the edge spacing. For 
Seismic Design Categories C, D , D, and D 2 , where the 
width-to-thickness dimension of the diaphragm 
exceeds 2-to-l, edge spacing of fasteners shall be 4 
inches (102 mm) on center. 

R606.12.2 Seismic Design Category C. Townhouses 
located in Seismic Design Category C shall comply with 
the requirements of this section. 



266 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



SHEATHING NAILED IN 
ACCORDANCE WITH 
TABLE R602.3(1) 



RAFTER 




BLOCKING 



2 IN. NOMINAL 
PLATE 



SHEATHING NAILED IN 
ACCORDANCE WITH 
TABLE R602.3(1) 



V 2 IN. BOLT AT 8 FT. O.C. 
EMBEDDED 4 IN. MINI. 




EMBEDDED 4 IN. 



,2-8dPER 
SHEATHING 



BOLT EMBEDDED 
4 IN. 



SEE TABLE FOR BOLT 
SIZE AND SPACING 




LEDGER BOLT 
SIZE AND SPACING 



APPROVED METAL CONNECTOR 
'3 IN. NOMINAL LEDGER 



JOIST SPAN 


BOLT SIZE AND SPACING 


ROOF 


FLOOR 


10 FT. 


V 2 AT2FT 6 IN. 
7 / 8 AT3FT 6 IN. 


V 2 AT 2 FT. OIN. 
7 / 8 AT2FT. 9 IN. 


10-15 FT. 


V 2 AT1 FT. 9 IN. 
7 / 8 AT2FT. 6 IN. 


V 2 AT 1 FT. 4 IN. 
7 / 8 AT 2 FT. IN. 


15-20 FT. 


1 / 2 AT1 FT. 3 IN. 
7 / B AT2FT. OIN. 


V 2 AT 1 FT. IN. 
7 / 8 AT 1 FT. 6 IN. 



SHEATHING NAILED IN 
ACCORDANCE WITH 
TABLE R602.3(1) 



JOISTS 

PERPENDICULAR 
TO WALL 



SEE TABLE 
ABOVE FOR BOLT 
AND SIZE 
SPACING 




3-1 6d PER JOIST 
SPACING 



3 IN. NOMINAL 
END JOIST 



'3-16d PER JOIST SPACING 
'3 IN. NOMINAL LEDGER 
'EMBEDDED 4 IN. MIN. 



V 2 IN. BOLT AT 8 FT. O.C 
EMBEDDED AT 4 IN. MIN 




JOISTS 
PARALLEL TO 
WALL 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0.479 kPa. 

Note: Where bolts are located in hollow masonry, the cells in the courses receiving the bolt shall be grouted solid. 

FIGURE R606.11(1) 

ANCHORAGE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY WALLS LOCATED IN SEISMIC 

DESIGN CATEGORY A, B OR C AND WHERE WIND LOADS ARE LESS THAN 30 PSF 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE" 



267 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



ROOF CONNECTORS AT 
48 IN, MAX. O.C. 



#4 BARS AROUND 
OPENINGS 



DETAIL B 



#4 BARS WtTHIN 8 IN. OF ENDS" 
OF WALLS AND AT CORNERS 




#4 BARS AT 10 FT O.C. 



24 IN. OR 

40* 



#4 BARS (MIN.) AT 
DIAPHRAGMS 
CONT. THRU C.J. 



#4 BARS (MIN.) 

WITHIN 8 IN. OF 
ALLCJ.'S 



CONTROL JOINT 
(C.J.) 



#4 BARS AT 10 FT O.C. OR W1.7 
JOINT REINFORCED AT 16 IN. O.C. 



MINIMUM REINFORCEMENT FOR MASONRY WALLS 



ANCHOR BOLTS 



2 IN. PLATE WITH V, IN. 4 BOLTS 
NOT MORE THAN 4 FT O.C. 
EMBEDDED 4 IN. MtN. 






BOND BEAM STEEL 
TWO % IN. BARS 



/ 



i 



LINTEL STEEL- 
SEE SECTION R6G6, 10 



REINFORCEMENT- 
SEE SECTIONS 
R606.12.2.1.3and 
R606.12.2.2.3 



NOT HEADERv 
COURSE 



LAP 40 DIA. 

1 



.DOWEL 




; 3 IN. x 1/4 IN. CLIP 
ANGLE 4 FT O.C. 
ONE %, IN. BOLT 



TWO #4 LATERAL TIES WITHIN 
TOP S IN. OF COLUMN THAT 
ENCLOSE ANCHOR BOLTS AND 

VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT 



VERTICAL COLUM. 

REINFORCEMENT 



REINFORCEMENT SHALL 
HAVE MIN. V 4 (N. 
CLEARANCE - 




12 IN. MAX. 

BEFORE 
GROUTING 




METAL TIES— -"" T7L 

SEE SECTION R608.1.2 *== 



g 



g 



w 

V 



HEADER COURSES- ¥ .-_ 
NOT PERMITTED ^*f/ 



m 



MIN. 3/4 IN. GROUT- 











a 



MAX 



COLUMN TIES 



H 



& 



tZJ 



\L 



-AV- 




WHERE INTERIOR 
STUD PARTITION 
MEETS WALL BOLT 
END STUD WITH V, IN 
if BOLTS 3 FT O.C. 




4— LAP 40 DIA, 



SECTION 1 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

FIGURE R606.1 1(2) 
REQUIREMENTS FOR REINFORCED GROUTED MASONRY CONSTRUCTION IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY C 



268 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



ROOF CONNECTORS 
AT 48 IN. MAX. O.C. 



ROOF 



#4 BARS AROUND 
OPENINGS 



#4 BARS WITHIN 8 IN. OF 
ENDS OF WALLS AND AT 
CORNERS 




#4 BARS AT 48 IN. O.C 



#4 BARS (MIN.) AT 
DIAPHRAGMS 
CONT, THRU C.J. 



#4 BARS (MIN.) 
WITHIN 8 IN. OF 

ALL C.J, 'S 

CONTROL JOINT 
(C.J.) 



#4 BARS AT 48 IN. O.C. 



MINIMUM REINFORCEMENT FOR MASONRY WALLS 



3 IN. x 3 1 / 4 IN. CLIP ANGLE 4 FT. O.C, 
ONE 1 / 2 ([>IN. BOLT 




HEIGHT 
8 FT. MAX. 



6 IN. 



2 



.DOWEL 2 FT. SIN. 
/LONG 




■BOND BEAM TWO V 2 § IN, 
BARS STEEL 



Ve IN. BOLTS NOT MORE 
THAN 4 FT. O.C. IN CELLS 
WITH VERTICAL ROD 
WHERE POSSIBLE 
EMBEDDED 4 IN. MIN. 



, TIE COURSE 

REINFORCEMENTS— 
■SEE SECTIONS R606.1 2.2.2.3, 
R606.12.3.2ANDR606.12.4 



ANCHOR BOLTS 



TWO #4 LATERAL TIES WITHIN 
TOP 5 IN. OF COLUMN WHICH 
ENCLOSE ANCHOR BOLTS 
AND VERTICAL 
REINFORCEMENT 



VERTICAL COLUMN A 
REINFORCEMENT £ 

/ 
/ 
/ 

.LINTEL BAR OR 
BARS— SEE 
SECTION R606.9 




MAX. 



#3 COLUMN 
TIES AT 8 IN. 
MAX. 



SECTION C 



1 M 



3 / B IN. <()DOWELv I 



% IN. (|> ROD 



6 IN. MIN. 

//// 



PP 



6 IN. 

r 



.,0°', 

////WW/// 



\\\ n :.' :• 



Njxy/Awv/// 

14 IN. 



\\V 
//// 

\\\ v 
\\\ x 




/ FOUNDATION 



DETAIL "A" 



INSPECTION OPENING 
NOT REQUIRED IF 
INSPECTED AT THE 
COURSE 



FOUNDATION FOR 
WOOD FLOOR 



FOUNDATION FOR 
CONCRETE FLOOR 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, J foot = 304.8 mm. 

Note: A full bed joint must be provided. All cells containing vertical bars are to be filled to the top of wall and provide inspection opening as shown on detail 

"A." 
Horizontal bars are to be laid as shown on detail "B." Lintel bars are to be laid as shown on Section C. 

FIGURE R606.11(3) 
REQUIREMENTS FOR REINFORCED MASONRY CONSTRUCTION IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY D , D„ OR D 2 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



269 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R606.12.2.1 Minimum length of wall without open- 
ings. Table R606. 12.2.1 shall be used to determine the 
minimum required solid wall length without openings 
at each masonry exterior wall. The provided percentage 
of solid wall length shall include only those wall seg- 
ments that are 3 feet (914 mm) or longer. The maxi- 
mum clear distance between wall segments included in 
determining the solid wall length shall not exceed 1 8 
feet (5486 mm). Shear wall segments required to meet 
the minimum wall length shall be in accordance with 
Section R606.12.2.2.3. 

R606.12.2.2 Design of elements not part of the lat- 
eral force-resisting system. 

R606.12.2.2.1 Load-bearing frames or columns. 
Elements not part of the lateral force-resisting sys- 
tem shall be analyzed to determine their effect on 
the response of the system. The frames or columns 
shall be adequate for vertical load carrying capacity 
and induced moment caused by the design story 
drift. 

R606.12.2.2.2 Masonry partition walls. Masonry 
partition walls, masonry screen walls and other 
masonry elements that are not designed to resist ver- 
tical or lateral loads, other than those induced by 
their own weight, shall be isolated from the structure 
so that vertical and lateral forces are not imparted to 
these elements. Isolation joints and connectors 
between these elements and the structure shall be 
designed to accommodate the design story drift. 

R606. 12.2.2.3 Reinforcement requirements for 
masonry elements. Masonry elements listed in Sec- 
tion R606. 12.2.2.2 shall be reinforced in either the 
horizontal or vertical direction as shown in Figure 
R606.1 1(2) and in accordance with the following: 

I. Horizontal reinforcement. Horizontal joint 
reinforcement shall consist of at least two lon- 
gitudinal W1.7 wires spaced not more than 16 
inches (406 mm) for walls greater than 4 
inches (102 mm) in width and at least one lon- 
gitudinal W1.7 wire spaced not more than 16 
inches (406 mm) for walls not exceeding 4 
inches (102 mm) in width; or at least one No. 
4 bar spaced not more than 48 inches (1219 
mm). Where two longitudinal wires of joint 
reinforcement are used, the space between 
these wires shall be the widest that the mortar 



joint will accommodate. Horizontal reinforce- 
ment shall be provided within 16 inches (406 
mm) of the top and bottom of these masonry 
elements. 

2. Vertical reinforcement. Vertical reinforcement 
shall consist of at least one No. 4 bar spaced 
not more than 48 inches (1219 mm). Vertical 
reinforcement shall be located within 16 
inches (406 mm) of the ends of masonry walls. 

R606.12.2.3 Design of elements part of the lateral 
force-resisting system. 

R606.12.2.3.1 Connections to masonry shear 

walls. Connectors shall be provided to transfer 
forces between masonry walls and horizontal ele- 
ments in accordance with the requirements of Sec- 
tion 1.7.4 of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5. Connec- 
tors shall be designed to transfer horizontal design 
forces acting either perpendicular or parallel to the 
wall, but not less than 200 pounds per linear foot 
(2919 N/m) of wall. The maximum spacing between 
connectors shall be 4 feet (1219 mm). Such anchor- 
age mechanisms shall not induce tension stresses 
perpendicular to grain in ledgers or nailers. 

R606. 12.2.3.2 Connections to masonry columns. 
Connectors shall be provided to transfer forces 
between masonry columns and horizontal elements 
in accordance with the requirements of Section 1.7.4 
of TMS 402/ACI 530/ASCE 5. Where anchor bolts 
are used to connect horizontal elements to the tops 
of columns, the bolts shall be placed within lateral 
ties. Lateral ties shall enclose both the vertical bars 
in the column and the anchor bolts. There shall be a 
minimum of two No. 4 lateral ties provided in the 
top 5 inches (1 27 mm) of the column. 

R606.12.2.3.3 Minimum reinforcement require- 
ments for masonry shear walls. Vertical reinforce- 
ment of at least one No. 4 bar shall be provided at 
corners, within 16 inches (406 mm) of each side of 
openings, within 8 inches (203 mm) of each side of 
movement joints, within 8 inches (203 mm) of the 
ends of walls, and at a maximum spacing of 10 feet 
(3048 mm). 

Horizontal joint reinforcement shall consist of at 
least two wires of W1.7 spaced not more than 16 
inches (406 mm); or bond beam reinforcement of at 
least one No. 4 bar spaced not more than 10 feet 





TABLE R606.1 2.2.1 
MINIMUM SOLID WALL LENGTH ALONG EXTERIOR WALL LINES 




SESIMIC DESIGN 
CATEGORY 


MINIMUM SOLID WALL LENGTH (percent) 3 


One story or 
top story of two story 


Wall supporting light-framed second 
story and roof 


Wall supporting masonry second 
story and roof 


Townhouses in C 


20 


25 


35 


D„ or D, 


25 


NP 


NP 


D 2 


30 


NP 


NP 



NP = Not permitted, except with design in accordance with the International Building Code. 

a. For all walls, the minimum required length of solid walls shall be based on the table percent multiplied by the dimension, parallel to the wall direction under 
consideration, of a rectangle inscribing the overall building plan. 



270 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



(3048 mm) shall be provided. Horizontal reinforce- 
ment shall also be provided at the bottom and top of 
wall openings and shall extend not less than 24 
inches (610 mm) nor less than 40 bar diameters past 
the opening; continuously at structurally connected 
roof and floor levels; and within 16 inches (406 mm) 
of the top of walls. 

R606.12.3 Seismic Design Category D or D r Structures 
in Seismic Design Category D or D, shall comply with 
the requirements of Seismic Design Category C and the 
additional requirements of this section. 

R606.1 2.3.1 Design requirements. Masonry elements 
other than those covered by Section R606. 12.2.2.2 shall 
be designed in accordance with the requirements of 
Chapter 1 and Sections 2.1 and 2.3 of TMS 402, ACI 
530/ASCE 5 and shall meet the minimum reinforce- 
ment requirements contained in Sections R606. 12.3.2 
and R606.12.3.2.1. Otherwise, masonry shall be 
designed in accordance with TMS 403. 

Exception: Masonry walls limited to one story in 
height and 9 feet (2743 mm) between lateral sup- 
ports need not be designed provided they comply 
with the minimum reinforcement requirements of 
Sections R606.12.3.2 and R606.12.3.2.1. 

R606. 12.3.2 Minimum reinforcement requirements 
for masonry walls. Masonry walls other than those 
covered by Section R606. 12.2.2.3 shall be reinforced in 
both the vertical and horizontal direction. The sum of 
the cross-sectional area of horizontal and vertical rein- 
forcement shall be at least 0.002 times the gross cross- 
sectional area of the wall, and the minimum cross-sec- 
tional area in each direction shall be not less than 
0.0007 times the gross cross-sectional area of the wall. 
Reinforcement shall be uniformly distributed. Table 
R606.12.3.2 shows the minimum reinforcing bar sizes 
required for varying thicknesses of masonry walls. The 
maximum spacing of reinforcement shall be 48 inches 
(1219 mm) provided that the walls are solid grouted 
and constructed of hollow open-end units, hollow units 
laid with full head joints or two wythes of solid units. 
The maximum spacing of reinforcement shall be 24 
inches (610 mm) for all other masonry. 

R606. 12.3.2.1 Shear wall reinforcement require- 
ments. The maximum spacing of vertical and hori- 
zontal reinforcement shall be the smaller of one- 



third the length of the shear wall, one-third the 
height of the shear wall, or 48 inches (1219 mm). 
The minimum cross-sectional area of vertical rein- 
forcement shall be one-third of the required shear 
reinforcement. Shear reinforcement shall be 
anchored around vertical reinforcing bars with a 
standard hook. 

R606.12.3.3 Minimum reinforcement for masonry 
columns. Lateral ties in masonry columns shall be 
spaced not more than 8 inches (203 mm) on center and 
shall be at least 3 / 8 -inch (9.5 mm) diameter. Lateral ties 
shall be embedded in grout. 

R606.12.3.4 Material restrictions. Type N mortar or 
masonry cement shall not be used as part of the lateral- 
force-resisting system. 

R606. 12.3.5 Lateral tie anchorage. Standard hooks 
for lateral tie anchorage shall be either a 135-degree 
(2.4 rad) standard hook or a 180-degree (3.2 rad) stan- 
dard hook. 

R606.12.4 Seismic Design Category D,. All structures in 
Seismic Design Category D 2 shall comply with the 
requirements of Seismic Design Category D, and to the 
additional requirements of this section. 

R606.12.4.1 Design of elements not part of the lat- 
eral force-resisting system. Stack bond masonry that 
is not part of the lateral force-resisting system shall 
have a horizontal cross -sectional area of reinforcement 
of at least 0.0015 times the gross cross-sectional area of 
masonry. Table R606. 12.4.1 shows minimum reinforc- 
ing bar sizes for masonry walls. The maximum spacing 
of horizontal reinforcement shall be 24 inches (610 
mm). These elements shall be solidly grouted and shall 
be constructed of hollow open-end units or two wythes 
of solid units. 

TABLE R606.12.4.1 

MINIMUM REINFORCING FOR STACKED BONDED 

MASONRY WALLS IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY D, 



NOMINAL WALL THICKNESS 
(inches) 


MINIMUM BAR SIZE 
SPACED AT 24 INCHES 


6 
8 
10 

12 


#4 
#5 
#5 
#6 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



TABLE R606.1 2.3.2 

MINIMUM DISTRIBUTED WALL REINFORCEMENT FOR BUILDING ASSIGNED TO SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY D or D, 



NOMINAL WALL THICKNESS 
(inches) 


MINIMUM SUM OF THE VERTICAL 

AND HORIZONTAL 

REINFORCEMENT AREAS 3 

(square inches per foot) 


MINIMUM REINFORCEMENT AS 

DISTRIBUTED IN BOTH 

HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL 

DIRECTIONS" 

(square inches per foot) 


MINUMUM BAR SIZE FOR 
REINFORCEMENT SPACED AT 48 INCHES 


6 
8 
10 

12 


0.135 
0.183 
0.231 
0.279 


0.047 
0.064 
0.081 
0.098 


#4 
#5 
#6 
#6 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square inch per foot = 2064 mnr/m. 

a. Based on the minimum reinforcing ratio of 0.002 times the gross cross-sectional area of the wall. 

b. Based on the minimum reinforcing ratio each direction of 0.0007 times the gross cross-sectional area of the wall. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 55 



271 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R606. 12.4.2 Design of elements part of the lateral 
force-resisting system. Stack bond masonry that is part 
of the lateral force-resisting system shall have a hori- 
zontal cross-sectional area of reinforcement of at least 
0.0025 times the gross cross-sectional area of masonry. 
Table R606. 12.4.2 shows minimum reinforcing bar 
sizes for masonry walls. The maximum spacing of hor- 
izontal reinforcement shall be 16 inches (406 mm). 
These elements shall be solidly grouted and shall be 
constructed of hollow open-end units or two wythes of 
solid units. 

TABLE R606.1 2.4.2 

MINIMUM REINFORCING FOR STACKED BONDED 

MASONRY WALLS IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY D, 



TABLE R606.15.1 
MINIMUM CORROSION PROTECTION 



NOMINAL WALL THICKNESS 


MINIMUM BAR SIZE 


(inches) 


SPACED AT 16 INCHES 


6 


#4 


8 


#5 


10 


#5 


12 


#6 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 ram. 

R606.13 Protection for reinforcement. Bars shall be com- 
pletely embedded in mortar or grout. Joint reinforcement 
embedded in horizontal mortar joints shall not have less than 
V g -inch (15.9 mm) mortar coverage from the exposed face. 
All other reinforcement shall have a minimum coverage of 
one bar diameter over all bars, but not less than 3 / 4 inch (19 
mm), except where exposed to weather or soil, in which case 
the minimum coverage shall be 2 inches (51 mm). 

R606.14 Beam supports. Beams, girders or other concen- 
trated loads supported by a wall or column shall have a bear- 
ing of at least 3 inches (76 mm) in length measured parallel to 
the beam upon solid masonry not less than 4 inches (102 mm) 
in thickness, or upon a metal bearing plate of adequate design 
and dimensions to distribute the load safely, or upon a contin- 
uous reinforced masonry member projecting not less than 4 
inches (102 mm) from the face of the wall. 

R606.14.1 Joist bearing. Joists shall have a bearing of not 
less than 17, inches (38 mm), except as provided in Sec- 
tion R606.14, and shall be supported in accordance with 
Figure R606.1 1(1). 

R606.15 Metal accessories. Joint reinforcement, anchors, 
ties and wire fabric shall conform to the following: ASTM A 
82 for wire anchors and ties; ASTM A 36 for plate, headed 
and bent-bar anchors; ASTM A 510 for corrugated sheet 
metal anchors and ties; ASTM A 951 for joint reinforcement; 
ASTM B 227 for copper-clad steel wire ties; or ASTM A 167 
for stainless steel hardware. 

R606.15.1 Corrosion protection. Minimum corrosion 
protection of joint reinforcement, anchor ties and wire fab- 
ric for use in masonry wall construction shall conform to 
Table R606.15.1. 



MASONRY METAL 
ACCESSORY 


STANDARD 


Joint reinforcement, interior walls 


ASTM A 641, Class 1 


Wire ties or anchors in exterior walls 
completely embedded in mortar or grout 


ASTM A 641, Class 3 


Wire ties or anchors in exterior walls not 
completely embedded in mortar or grout 


ASTM A 153, Class B-2 


Joint reinforcement in exterior walls or 
interior walls exposed to moist environ- 
ment 


ASTM A 153, Class B-2 


Sheet metal ties or anchors exposed to 
weather 


ASTM A 153, Class B-2 


Sheet metal ties or anchors completely 
embedded in mortar or grout 


ASTM A 653, Coating 
Designation G60 


Stainless steel hardware for any exposure 


ASTM A 167, Type 304 



SECTION R607 
UNIT MASONRY 

R607. 1 Mortar. Mortar for use in masonry construction shall 
comply with ASTM C 270. The type of mortar shall be in 
accordance with Sections R607.1.1, R607.1.2 and R607.1.3 
and shall meet the proportion specifications of Table R607.1 
or the property specifications of ASTM C 270. 

R607.1.1 Foundation walls. Masonry foundation walls 
constructed as set forth in Tables R404. 1.1(1) through 
R404.1.1(4) and mortar shall be Type M or S. 

R607.1.2 Masonry in Seismic Design Categories A, B 
and C. Mortar for masonry serving as the lateral-force- 
resisting system in Seismic Design Categories A, B and C 
shall be Type M, S or N mortar. 

R607.1.3 Masonry in Seismic Design Categories D„, D, 
and D 2 . Mortar for masonry serving as the lateral-force- 
resisting system in Seismic Design Categories D , D, and 
D 2 shall be Type M or S portland cement-lime or mortar 
cement mortar. 

R607.2 Placing mortar and masonry units. 

R607.2.1 Bed and head joints. Unless otherwise required 
or indicated on the project drawings, head and bed joints 
shall be 3 / g inch (10 mm) thick, except that the thickness of 
the bed joint of the starting course placed over foundations 
shall not be less than 7 4 inch (7 mm) and not more than V 4 
inch (19 mm). 

R607.2.1.1 Mortar joint thickness tolerance. Mortar 
joint thickness for load-bearing masonry shall be within 
the following tolerances from the specified dimensions: 

1. Bed joint: + 7 8 inch (3 mm). 



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WALL CONSTRUCTION 



2. Head joint: - 7 4 inch (7 mm), + V 8 inch (10 mm). 

3. Collar joints: - 7 4 inch (7 mm), + 3 / 8 inch (10 
mm). 

R607.2.2 Masonry unit placement. The mortar shall be 
sufficiently plastic and units shall be placed with sufficient 
pressure to extrude mortal - from the joint and produce a 
tight joint. Deep furrowing of bed joints that produces 
voids shall not be permitted. Any units disturbed to the 
extent that initial bond is broken after initial placement 
shall be removed and relaid in fresh mortar. Surfaces to be 
in contact with mortar shall be clean and free of deleteri- 
ous materials. 

R607.2.2.1 Solid masonry. Solid masonry units shall 
be laid with full head and bed joints and all interior ver- 
tical joints that are designed to receive mortar shall be 
filled. 

R607.2.2.2 Hollow masonry. For hollow masonry 
units, head and bed joints shall be filled solidly with 
mortar for a distance in from the face of the unit not 
less than the thickness of the face shell. 

R607.3 Installation of wall ties. The installation of wall ties 
shall be as follows: 

1. The ends of wall ties shall be embedded in mortar 
joints. Wall ties shall have a minimum of V 8 -inch (15.9 
mm) mortar coverage from the exposed face. 

2. Wall ties shall not be bent after being embedded in 
grout or mortar. 



3. For solid masonry units, solid grouted hollow units, or 
hollow units in anchored masonry veneer, wall ties 
shall be embedded in mortar bed at least 1 V, inches (38 
mm). 

4. For hollow masonry units in other than anchored 
masonry veneer, wall ties shall engage outer face shells 
by at least 7 2 inch (13 mm). 



SECTION R608 
MULT1PLE-WYTHE MASONRY 

R608.1 General. The facing and backing of multiple-wythe 
masonry walls shall be bonded in accordance with Section 
R608.1.1, R608.1.2 or R608.1.3. In cavity walls, neither the 
facing nor the backing shall be less than 3 inches (76 mm) 
nominal in thickness and the cavity shall not be more than 4 
inches (102 mm) nominal in width. The backing shall be at 
least as thick as the facing. 

Exception: Cavities shall be permitted to exceed the 4- 
inch (102 mm) nominal dimension provided tie size and 
tie spacing have been established by calculation. 

R608.1.1 Bonding with masonry headers. Bonding with 
solid or hollow masonry headers shall comply with Sec- 
tions R608. 1.1.1 and R608. 1.1. 2. 

R 608. 1.1.1 Solid units. Where the facing and backing 
(adjacent wythes) of solid masonry construction are 
bonded by means of masonry headers, no less than 4 
percent of the wall surface of each face shall be com- 



TABLE R607.1 
MORTAR PROPORTIONS 8 







PROPORTIONS BY VOLUME (cementitious materials) 




MORTAR 


TYPE 


Portland cement or 
blended cement 


Mortar cement 


Masonry cement 


Hydrated lime c or 
lime putty 


Aggregate ratio 

(measured in damp, 

loose conditions) 


M 


S 


N 


M 


S 


N 


Cement-lime 


M 

S 
N 
O 


1 
1 
1 
1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


over 7 4 to 7 2 
over 7 2 to l'/ 4 
over l7 4 to27. 


Not less than 27 4 and 

not more than 3 times 

the sum of separate 

volumes of lime, if 

used, and cement 


Mortar cement 


M 
M 
S 
S 
N 
O 


1 

% 


1 


1 


1 

1 

1 
1 








— 


— 


Masonry cement 


M 
M 
S 
S 
N 
O 


1 








1 


1 


1 
1 

1 

1 


— 



For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.0283 m 3 , 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 

a. For the purpose of these specifications, the weight of 1 cubic foot of the respective materials shall be considered to be as follows: 

Portland Cement 94 pounds Masonry Cement Weight printed on bag 

Mortar Cemenl Weight printed on bag Hydrated Lime 40 pounds 

Lime Putty (Quicklime) 80 pounds Sand, damp and loose 80 pounds of dry sand 

b. Two air-entraining materials shall not be combined in mortar. 

c. Hydrated lime conforming to the requirements of ASTM C 207. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 8 



273 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



posed of headers extending not less than 3 inches (76 
mm) into the backing. The distance between adjacent 
full-length headers shall not exceed 24 inches (610 
mm) either vertically or horizontally. In walls in which 
a single header does not extend through the wall, head- 
ers from the opposite sides shall overlap at least 3 
inches (76 mm), or headers from opposite sides shall be 
covered with another header course overlapping the 
header below at least 3 inches (76 mm). 

R608. 1.1.2 Hollow units. Where two or more hollow 
units are used to make up the thickness of a wall, the 
stretcher courses shall be bonded at vertical intervals 
not exceeding 34 inches (864 mm) by lapping at least 3 
inches (76 mm) over the unit below, or by lapping at 
vertical intervals not exceeding 17 inches (432 mm) 
with units that are at least 50 percent thicker than the 
units below. 

R608.1.2 Bonding with wall ties or joint reinforcement. 
Bonding with wall ties or joint reinforcement shall comply 
with Sections R608. 1.2.1 through R608.1.2.3. 

R608.1.2.1 Bonding with wall ties. Bonding with wall 
ties, except as required by Section R610, where the fac- 
ing and backing (adjacent wythes) of masonry walls are 
bonded with 3 / ]6 -inch-diameter (5 mm) wall ties embed- 
ded in the horizontal mortar joints, there shall be at 
least one metal tie for each 4.5 square feet (0.418 m 2 ) of 
wall area. Ties in alternate courses shall be staggered. 
The maximum vertical distance between ties shall not 
exceed 24 inches (610 mm), and the maximum hori- 
zontal distance shall not exceed 36 inches (914 mm). 
Rods or ties bent to rectangular shape shall be used 
with hollow masonry units laid with the cells vertical. 
In other walls, the ends of ties shall be bent to 90- 
degree (0.79 rad) angles to provide hooks no less than 2 
inches (51 mm) long. Additional bonding ties shall be 
provided at all openings, spaced not more than 3 feet 
(914 mm) apart around the perimeter and within 12 
inches (305 mm) of the opening. 

R608. 1.2.2 Bonding with adjustable wall ties. Where 
the facing and backing (adjacent wythes) of masonry 
are bonded with adjustable wall ties, there shall be at 
least one tie for each 2.67 square feet (0.248 m 2 ) of wall 
area. Neither the vertical nor the horizontal spacing of 
the adjustable wall ties shall exceed 24 inches (610 
mm). The maximum vertical offset of bed joints from 
one wythe to the other shall be 1.25 inches (32 mm). 
The maximum clearance between connecting parts of 
the ties shall be V 16 inch (2 mm). When pintle legs are 
used, ties shall have at least two 3 / 16 -inch-diameter (5 
mm) legs. 

R608.1.2.3 Bonding with prefabricated joint rein- 
forcement. Where the facing and backing (adjacent 
wythes) of masonry are bonded with prefabricated joint 
reinforcement, there shall be at least one cross wire 
serving as a tie for each 2.67 square feet (0.248 m 2 ) of 
wall area. The vertical spacing of the joint reinforce- 
ment shall not exceed 1 6 inches (406 mm). Cross wires 
on prefabricated joint reinforcement shall not be 



smaller than No. 9 gage. The longitudinal wires shall be 
embedded in the mortar. 

R608.1.3 Bonding with natural or cast stone. Bonding 
with natural and cast stone shall conform to Sections 
R608.1.3.1andR608.1.3.2. 

R608.1.3.1 Ashlar masonry. In ashlar masonry, 
bonder units, uniformly distributed, shall be provided 
to the extent of not less than 10 percent of the wall area. 
Such bonder units shall extend not less than 4 inches 
(102 mm) into the backing wall. 

R608.1.3.2 Rubble stone masonry. Rubble stone 
masonry 24 inches (610 mm) or less in thickness shall 
have bonder units with a maximum spacing of 3 feet 
(914 mm) vertically and 3 feet (914 mm) horizontally, 
and if the masonry is of greater thickness than 24 
inches (610 mm), shall have one bonder unit for each 6 
square feet (0.557 m 2 ) of wall surface on both sides. 

R608.2 Masonry bonding pattern. Masonry laid in running 
and stack bond shall conform to Sections R608.2.1 and 
R608.2.2. 

R608.2. 1 Masonry laid in running bond. In each wythe 
of masonry laid in running bond, head joints in successive 
courses shall be offset by not less than one-fourth the unit 
length, or the masonry walls shall be reinforced longitudi- 
nally as required in Section R608.2.2. 

R608.2.2 Masonry laid in stack bond. Where unit 
masonry is laid with less head joint offset than in Section 
R608.2.1, the minimum area of horizontal reinforcement 
placed in mortar bed joints or in bond beams spaced not 
more than 48 inches (1219 mm) apart, shall be 0.0007 
times the vertical cross-sectional area of the wall. 



SECTION R609 
GROUTED MASONRY 

R609.1 General. Grouted multiple-wythe masonry is a form 
of construction in which the space between the wythes is sol- 
idly filled with grout. It is not necessary for the cores of 
masonry units to be filled with grout. Grouted hollow unit 
masonry is a form of construction in which certain cells of 
hollow units are continuously filled with grout. 

R609.1.1 Grout. Grout shall consist of cementitious mate- 
rial and aggregate in accordance with ASTM C 476 and 
the proportion specifications of Table R609.1.1. Type M 
or Type S mortar to which sufficient water has been added 
to produce pouring consistency can be used as grout. 

R609.1.2 Grouting requirements. Maximum pour 
heights and the minimum dimensions of spaces provided 
for grout placement shall conform to Table R609.1.2. If 
the work is stopped for one hour or longer, the horizontal 
construction joints shall be formed by stopping all tiers at 
the same elevation and with the grout 1 inch (25 mm) 
below the top. 

R609.1.3 Grout space (cleaning). Provision shall be 
made for cleaning grout space. Mortar projections that 
project more than 7 2 inch (13 mm) into grout space and | 



274 



2012 INTERNATSONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



any other foreign matter shall be removed from grout 
space prior to inspection and grouting. 

R609.1.4 Grout placement. Grout shall be a plastic mix 
suitable for pumping without segregation of the constitu- 
ents and shall be mixed thoroughly. Grout shall be placed 
by pumping or by an approved alternate method and shall 
be placed before any initial set occurs and in no case more 
than 1 7 2 hours after water has been added. Grouting shall 
be done in a continuous pour, in lifts not exceeding 5 feet 
(1524 mm). It shall be consolidated by puddling or 
mechanical vibrating during placing and reconsolidated 
after excess moisture has been absorbed but before plastic- 
ity is lost. 

R609.1.4.1 Grout pumped through aluminum pipes. 
Grout shall not be pumped through aluminum pipes. 

R609.1.5 Cleanouts. Where required by the building offi- 
cial, cleanouts shall be provided as specified in this sec- 
tion. The cleanouts shall be sealed before grouting and 
after inspection. 

R609.1.5.1 Grouted multiple-wythe masonry. Clea- 
nouts shall be provided at the bottom course of the 
exterior wythe at each pour of grout where such pour 
exceeds 5 feet (1524 mm) in height. 

R609.1.5.2 Grouted hollow unit masonry. Cleanouts 
shall be provided at the bottom course of each cell to be 
grouted at each pour of grout, where such pour exceeds 
4 feet (1219 mm) in height. 

R609.2 Grouted multiple-wythe masonry. Grouted multi- 
ple-wythe masonry shall conform to all the requirements 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



specified in Section R609.1 and the requirements of this sec- 
tion. 

R609.2.I Bonding of backup wythe. Where all interior 
vertical spaces are filled with grout in multiple-wythe con- 
struction, masonry headers shall not be permitted. Metal 
wall ties shall be used in accordance with Section 
R608.1.2 to prevent spreading of the wythes and to main- 
tain the vertical alignment of the wall. Wall ties shall be 
installed in accordance with Section R608.1.2 when the 
backup wythe in multiple-wythe construction is fully 
grouted. 

R609.2.2 Grout spaces. Fine grout shall be used when 
interior vertical space to receive grout does not exceed 2 
inches (51 mm) in thickness. Interior vertical spaces 
exceeding 2 inches (51 mm) in thickness shall use coarse 
or fine grout. 

R609.2.3 Grout barriers. Vertical grout barriers or dams 
shall be built of solid masonry across the grout space the 
entire height of the wall to control the flow of the grout 
horizontally. Grout barriers shall not be more than 25 feet 
(7620 mm) apart. The grouting of any section of a wall 
between control barriers shall be completed in one day 
with no interruptions greater than one hour. 

R609.3 Reinforced grouted multiple-wythe masonry. 
Reinforced grouted multiple-wythe masonry shall conform to 
all the requirements specified in Sections R609.1 and R609.2 
and the requirements of this section. 

R609.3.1 Construction. The thickness of grout or mortar 
between masonry units and reinforcement shall not be less 



TABLE R609.1.1 
GROUT PROPORTIONS BY VOLUME FOR MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 



TYPE 


PORTLAND CEMENT 

OR BLENDED CEMENT 

SLAG CEMENT 


HYDRATED LIME 
OR LIME PUTTY 


AGGREGATE MEASURED IN A DAMP, LOOSE CONDITION 


Fine 


Coarse 


Fine 


1 


to 1/10 


2'/ 4 to 3 times the sum of the volume 
of the cementitious materials 


— 


Coarse 


1 


to 1/10 


2 ] / 4 to 3 times the sum of the volume 
of the cementitious materials 


1 to 2 times the sum of the vol- 
umes of the cementitious materials 



TABLER609.1.2 
GROUT SPACE DIMENSIONS AND POUR HEIGHTS 



GROUT TYPE 


GROUT POUR MAXIMUM HEIGHT 
(feet) 


MINIMUM WIDTH OF 

GROUT SPACES"" 

(inches) 


MINIMUM GROUT" c SPACE DIMENSIONS FOR 

GROUTING CELLS OF HOLLOW UNITS 

(inches X inches) 


Fine 


I 


0.75 


1.5x2 


5 


2 


2x3 


12 


2.5 


2.5x3 


24 


3 


3x3 


Coarse 


1 


1.5 


1.5x3 


5 


2 


2.5x3 


12 


2.5 


3x3 


24 


3 


3x4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. For grouting between masonry wythes. 

b. Grout space dimension is the clear dimension between any masonry protrusion and shall be increased by the horizontal projection of the diameters of the 
horizontal bars within the cross section of the grout space. 

e. Area of vertical reinforcement shall not exceed 6 percent of the area of the grout space. 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE' 8 



275 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



than V 4 inch (7 mm), except that V 4 -inch (7 mm) bars may 
be laid in horizontal mortar joints at least V 2 inch (13 mm) 
thick, and steel wire reinforcement may be laid in horizon- 
tal mortar joints at least twice the thickness of the wire 
diameter. 

R609.4 Reinforced hollow unit masonry. Reinforced hol- 
low unit masonry shall conform to all the requirements of 
Section R609.1 and the requirements of this section. 

R609.4.1 Construction. Requirements for construction 
shall be as follows: 

1. Reinforced hollow-unit masonry shall be built to 
preserve the unobstructed vertical continuity of the 
cells to be filled. Walls and cross webs forming cells 
to be filled shall be full-bedded in mortar to prevent 
leakage of grout. Head and end joints shall be sol- 
idly filled with mortar for a distance in from the face 
of the wall or unit not less than the thickness of the 
longitudinal face shells. Bond shall be provided by 
lapping units in successive vertical courses. 

2. Cells to be filled shall have vertical alignment suffi- 
cient to maintain a clear, unobstructed continuous 
vertical cell of dimensions prescribed in Table 
R609.1.2. 

3. Vertical reinforcement shall be held in position at 
top and bottom and at intervals not exceeding 200 
diameters of the reinforcement. 

4. Cells containing reinforcement shall be filled solidly 
with grout. Grout shall be poured in lifts of 8-foot 
(2438 mm) maximum height. When a total grout 
pour exceeds 8 feet (2438 mm) in height, the grout 
shall be placed in lifts not exceeding 5 feet (1524 
mm) and special inspection during grouting shall be 
required. 

5. Horizontal steel shall be fully embedded by grout in 
an uninterrupted pour. 



SECTION R610 
GLASS UNIT MASONRY 

R610.1 General. Panels of glass unit masonry located in 
load-bearing and nonload-bearing exterior and interior walls 
shall be constructed in accordance with this section. 

R610.2 Materials. Hollow glass units shall be partially evac- 
uated and have a minimum average glass face thickness of 3 / 16 
inch (5 mm). The surface of units in contact with mortar shall 
be treated with a polyvinyl butyral coating or latex-based 
paint. The use of reclaimed units is prohibited. 

R610.3 Units. Hollow or solid glass block units shall be stan- 
dard or thin units. 

R61 0.3.1 Standard units. The specified thickness of stan- 
dard units shall be at least 3 7 / 8 inches (98 mm). 

R6 10.3.2 Thin units. The specified thickness of thin units 
shall be at least 3'/ g inches (79 mm) for hollow units and at 
least 3 inches (76 mm) for solid units. 

R610.4 Isolated panels. Isolated panels of glass unit 
masonry shall conform to the requirements of this section. 



R610.4.1 Exterior standard-unit panels. The maximum 
area of each individual standard-unit panel shall be 144 
square feet (13.4 m 2 ) when the design wind pressure is 20 
psf (958 Pa). The maximum area of such panels subjected 
to design wind pressures other than 20 psf (958 Pa) shall 
be in accordance with Figure R610.4.1. The maximum 
panel dimension between structural supports shall be 25 
feet (7620 mm) in width or 20 feet (6096 mm) in height. 

R61 0.4.2 Exterior thin-unit panels. The maximum area 
of each individual thin-unit panel shall be 85 square feet 
(7.9 m 2 ). The maximum dimension between structural 
supports shall be 15 feet (4572 mm) in width or 10 feet 
(3048 mm) in height. Thin units shall not be used in appli- 
cations where the design wind pressure as stated in Table 
R301.2(l) exceeds 20 psf (958 Pa). 

R610.4.3 Interior panels. The maximum area of each 
individual standard-unit panel shall be 250 square feet 
(23.2 m 2 ). The maximum area of each thin-unit panel shall 
be 150 square feet (13.9 m 2 ). The maximum dimension 
between structural supports shall be 25 feet (7620 mm) in 
width or 20 feet (6096 mm) in height. 

R610.4.4 Curved panels. The width of curved panels 
shall conform to the requirements of Sections R610.4.1, 
R610.4.2 and R610.4.3, except additional structural sup- 
ports shall be provided at locations where a curved section 
joins a straight section, and at inflection points in multi- 
curved walls. 

R610.5 Panel support. Glass unit masonry panels shall con- 
form to the support requirements of this section. 

R610.5.1 Deflection. The maximum total deflection of 
structural members that support glass unit masonry shall 
not exceed V 600 . 

R610.5.2 Lateral support. Glass unit masonry panels 
shall be laterally supported along the top and sides of the 
panel. Lateral supports for glass unit masonry panels shall 
be designed to resist a minimum of 200 pounds per lineal 
feet (2918 N/m) of panel, or the actual applied loads, 
whichever is greater. Except for single unit panels, lateral 
support shall be provided by panel anchors along the top 
and sides spaced a maximum of 16 inches (406 mm) on 
center or by channel-type restraints. Single unit panels 
shall be supported by channel-type restraints. 

Exceptions: 

1. Lateral support is not required at the top of panels 
that are one unit wide. 

2. Lateral support is not required at the sides of pan- 
els that are one unit high. 

R61 0.5.2.1 Panel anchor restraints. Panel anchors 
shall be spaced a maximum of 16 inches (406 mm) on 
center in both jambs and across the head. Panel anchors 
shall be embedded a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) 
and shall be provided with two fasteners so as to resist 
the loads specified in Section R610.5.2. 

R610.5.2.2 Channel-type restraints. Glass unit 
masonry panels shall be recessed at least 1 inch (25 
mm) within channels and chases. Channel-type 



276 



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WALL CONSTRUCTION 



restraints shall be oversized to accommodate expansion 
material in the opening, packing and sealant between 
the framing restraints, and the glass unit masonry 
perimeter units. 

R610.6 Sills. Before bedding of glass units, the sill area shall 
be covered with a water base asphaltic emulsion coating. The 
coating shall, be a minimum of 7 g inch (3 mm) thick. 

R610.7 Expansion joints. Glass unit masonry panels shall be 
provided with expansion joints along the top and sides at all 
structural supports. Expansion joints shall be a minimum of 
3 / g inch (10 mm) in thickness and shall have sufficient thick- 
ness to accommodate displacements of the supporting struc- 
ture. Expansion joints shall be entirely free of mortar and 
other debris and shall be filled with resilient material. 

R610.8 Mortar. Glass unit masonry shall be laid with Type S 
or N mortar. Mortar shall not be retempered after initial set. 
Mortar unused within 1 V 2 hours after initial mixing shall be 
discarded. 

R610.9 Reinforcement. Glass unit masonry panels shall 
have horizontal joint reinforcement spaced a maximum of 16 
inches (406 mm) on center located in the mortar bed joint. 
Horizontal joint reinforcement shall extend the entire length 
of the panel but shall not extend across expansion joints. Lon- 
gitudinal wires shall be lapped a minimum of 6 inches (152 
mm) at splices. Joint reinforcement shall be placed in the bed 
joint immediately below and above openings in the panel. 
The reinforcement shall have not less than two parallel longi- 



tudinal wires of size W1.7 or greater, and have welded cross 
wires of size W1.7 or greater. 

R610.10 Placement. Glass units shall be placed so head and 
bed joints are filled solidly. Mortar shall not be furrowed. 
Head and bed joints of glass unit masonry shall be V 4 inch 
(6.4 mm) thick, except that vertical joint thickness of radial 
panels shall not be less than V 8 inch (3 mm) or greater than V 8 
inch (16 mm). The bed joint thickness tolerance shall be 
minus 7 16 inch (1.6 mm) and plus 7 8 inch (3 mm). The head 
joint thickness tolerance shall be plus or minus V g inch (3 
mm). 



SECTION R611 

EXTERIOR CONCRETE WALL CONSTRUCTION 

R611.1 General. Exterior concrete walls shall be designed 
and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this sec- 
tion or in accordance with the provisions of PC A 100 or ACI 
318. When PCA 100, ACI 318 or the provisions of this sec- 
tion are used to design concrete walls, project drawings, typi- 
cal details and specifications are not required to bear the seal 
of the architect or engineer responsible for design, unless oth- 
erwise required by the state law of the jurisdiction having 
authority. 

R61 1.1.1 Interior construction. These provisions are 
based on the assumption that interior walls and partitions, 
both load-bearing and nonload-bearing, floors and roof/ 




100 150 200 

MAXIMUM AREA OF PANEL (SQUARE FEET) 



3CS 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 , 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 



FIGURE R610.4.1 
GLASS UNIT MASONRY DESIGN WIND LOAD RESISTANCE 



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277 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



ceiling assemblies are constructed of light-framed con- 
struction complying with the limitations of this code and 
the additional limitations of Section R611.2. Design and 
construction of light-framed assemblies shall be in accor- 
dance with the applicable provisions of this code. Where 
second-story exterior walls are of light-framed construc- 
tion, they shall be designed and constructed as required by 
this code. 

Aspects of concrete construction not specifically 
addressed by this code, including interior concrete walls, 
shall comply with ACI 318. 

R611.1.2 Other concrete walls. Exterior concrete walls 
constructed in accordance with this code shall comply 
with the shapes and minimum concrete cross-sectional 
dimensions of Table R611.3. Other types of forming sys- 
tems resulting in concrete walls not in compliance with 
this section shall be designed in accordance with ACI 318. 

R611.2 Applicability limits. The provisions of this sec- 
tion shall apply to the construction of exterior concrete 
walls for buildings not greater than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in 
plan dimensions, floors with clear spans not greater than 
32 feet (9754 mm) and roofs with clear spans not greater 
than 40 feet (12 192 mm). Buildings shall not exceed 35 
feet (10 668 mm) in mean roof height or two stories in 
height above-grade. Floor/ceiling dead loads shall not 
exceed 10 pounds per square foot (479 Pa), roof/ceiling 
dead loads shall not exceed 15 pounds per square foot (718 
Pa) and attic live loads shall not exceed 20 pounds per 
square foot (958 Pa). Roof overhangs shall not exceed 2 



feet (610 mm) of horizontal projection beyond the exterior 
wall and the dead load of the overhangs shall not exceed 8 
pounds per square foot (383 Pa). 

Walls constructed in accordance with the provisions of 
this section shall be limited to buildings subjected to a maxi- 
mum design wind speed of 130 miles per hour (58 m/s) Expo- 
sure B, 110 miles per hour (49 m/s) Exposure C and 100 
miles per hour (45 m/s) Exposure D. Walls constructed in 
accordance with the provisions of this section shall be limited 
to detached one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses 
assigned to Seismic Design Category A or B, and detached 
one- and two-family dwellings assigned to Seismic Design 
Category C. 

Buildings that are not within the scope of this section shall 
be designed in accordance with PC A 100 or ACI 318. 

R611.3 Concrete wall systems. Concrete walls constructed 
in accordance with these provisions shall comply with the 
shapes and minimum concrete cross-sectional dimensions of 
Table R61 1.3. 

R611.3.1 Flat wall systems. Flat concrete wall systems 
shall comply with Table R61 1.3 and Figure R611.3(l) and 
have a minimum nominal thickness of 4 inches (102 mm). 

R611.3.2 Waffle-grid wall systems. Waffle-grid wall 
systems shall comply with Table R611.3 and Figure 
R61I.3(2). and shall have a minimum nominal thickness 
of 6 inches (152 mm) for the horizontal and vertical con- 
crete members (cores). The core and web dimensions shall 
comply with Table R61 1. 3. The maximum weight of waf- 
fle-grid walls shall comply with Table R61 1 .3. 



TABLE R61 1.3 
DIMENSIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR WALLS"' b 



WALL TYPE 

AND NOMINAL 
THICKNESS 


MAXIMUM 

WALL WEIGHT 

(psf) 


MINIMUM 

WIDTH, W, OF 

VERTICAL CORES 

(inches) 


MINIMUM 
THICKNESS, T, OF 
VERTICAL CORES 

(inches) 


MAXIMUM 

SPACING OF 

VERTICAL CORES 

(inches) 


MAXIMUM 

SPACING OF 

HORIZONTAL 

CORES 

(inches) 


MINIMUM WEB 

THICKNESS 

(inches) 


4" Flat" 


50 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


6" Flat" 


75 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


8" Flat" 


100 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


10" Flat" 


125 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


6" Waffle-grid 


56 


8 C 


5.5 e 


12 


16 


2 


8" Waffle-grid 


76 


8 f 


8 f 


12 


16 


2 


6" Screen-grid 


53 


6.25 s 


6.25 E 


12 


12 


N/A 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per cubic foot = 2402.77 kg/nr\ 1 square inch = 645.16 mm 2 , 1 inch 4 = 42 cm 4 . 

a. Width "W," thickness "T," spacing and web thickness, refer to Figures R61 1.3(2) and R61 1 .3(3). 

b. N/A indicates not applicable. 

c. Wall weight is based on a unit weight of concrete of 1 50 pcf. For flat walls the weight is based on the nominal thickness. The tabulated values do not include 
any allowance for interior and exterior finishes. 

d. Nominal wall thickness. The actual as-built thickness of a flat wall shall not be more than 7,-inch less or more than 7 4 -inch more than the nominal dimension 
indicated. 

e. Vertical core is assumed to be elliptical-shaped. Another shape core is permitted provided the minimum thickness is 5 inches, the moment of inertia, /, about 
the centerline of the wall (ignoring the web) is not less than 65 inch 4 , and the area, A, is not less than 31 .25 in 2 . The width used to calculate A and / shall not 
exceed 8 inches. 

f. Vertical core is assumed to be circular. Another shape core is permitted provided the minimum thickness is 7 inches, the moment of inertia, /, about the 
centerline of the wall (ignoring the web) is not less than 200 in 4 , and the area, A, is not less than 49 square inch. The width used to calculate A and / shall not 
exceed 8 inches. 

g. Vertical core is assumed to be circular. Another shape core is permitted provided the minimum thickness is 5.5 inches, the moment of inertia, /, about the 
centerline of the wall is not less than 76 inch 4 , and the area, A, is not less than 30.25 square inch. The width used to calculate A and / shall not exceed 6.25 
inches. 



278 



2012 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE* 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 




CONCRETE WALL 
THICKNESS 



FORM 
STAY-IN-PLACE 

OR REMOVABLE 



CONCRETE 



VERTICAL WALL 
REINFORCEMENT 
AS REQUIRED 



PLAN VIEW 
SEE TABLE R611 .3 FOR MINIMUM DIMENSIONS 

FIGURE R611.3(1) 
FLAT WALL SYSTEM 



R611.3.3 Screen-grid wall systems. Screen-grid wall sys- 
tems shall comply with Table R611.3 and Figure 
R61 1 .3(3) and shall have a minimum nominal thickness of 
6 inches (152 mm) for the horizontal and vertical concrete 
members (cores). The core dimensions shall comply with 
Table R61 1.3. The maximum weight of screen-grid walls 
shall comply with Table R6 1 1 . 3 . 

R611.4 Stay-in-place forms. Stay-in-place concrete forms 
shall comply with this section. 

R611.4.1 Surface burning characteristics. The flame 
spread index and smoke-developed index of forming 
material, other than foam plastic, left exposed on the inte- 
rior shall comply with Section R302.9. The surface burn- 
ing characteristics of foam plastic used in insulating 
concrete forms shall comply with Section R316.3. 

R61 1.4.2 Interior covering. Stay-in-place forms con- 
structed of rigid foam plastic shall be protected on the 
interior of the building as required by Sections R316.4 and 
R702.3.4. Where gypsum board is used to protect the foam 
plastic, it shall be installed with a mechanical fastening 
system. Use of adhesives is permitted in addition to 
mechanical fasteners. 

R61 1.4.3 Exterior wall covering. Stay-in-place forms 
constructed of rigid foam plastics shall be protected from 
sunlight and physical damage by the application of an 
approved exterior wall covering complying with this code. 
Exterior surfaces of other stay-in-place forming systems 
shall be protected in accordance with this code. 



2 IN. MINIMUM CONCRETE WEB THICKNESS 



FORM- 
STAY-IN-PLACE 
OR REMOVABLE 




HORIZONTAL CONCRETE CORE 
(HIDDEN) AT MAXIMUM, 
16 IN. ON CENTER 



VERTICAL CONCRETE CORE 



VERTICAL WALL 
REINFORCEMENT 
AS REQUIRED 



PLAN VIEW 
SEE TABLE R611.3 FOR MINIMUM DIMENSIONS 



FORM- 

STAY-IN-PLACE 

OR REMOVABLE 




VERTICAL WALL 
REINFORCEMENT 
AS REQUIRED 



HORIZONTAL CONCRETE 
CORE (HIDDEN) AT 
MAXIMUM, 12 IN. 
ON CENTER 

VERTICAL 
CONCRETE CORE 



THICKNESS 
MINIMUM 

PLAN VIEW 

SEE TABLE R611 .3 FOR MINIMUM DIMENSIONS. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R61 1.3(2) 
WAFFLE-GRID WALL SYSTEM 



For SI: l inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R61 1.3(3) 
SCREEN-GRID WALL SYSTEM 



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279 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



Requirements for installation of masonry veneer, 
stucco and other finishes on the exterior of concrete walls 
and other construction details not covered in this section 
shall comply with the requirements of this code. 

R61 1.4.4 Flat ICF wall systems. Flat ICF wall system 
forms shall conform to ASTM E 2634. 

R611.5 Materials. Materials used in the construction of con- 
crete walls shall comply with this section. 

R611.5.1 Concrete and materials for concrete. Materi- 
als used in concrete, and the concrete itself, shall conform 
to requirements of this section, or ACI 318. 

R611.5.1.1 Concrete mixing and delivery. Mixing 
and delivery of concrete shall comply with ASTM C 94 
or ASTM C 685. 

R611.5.1.2 Maximum aggregate size. The nominal 
maximum size of coarse aggregate shall not exceed 
one-fifth the narrowest distance between sides of 
forms, or three-fourths the clear spacing between rein- 
forcing bars or between a bar and the side of the form. 

Exception: When approved, these limitations shall 
not apply where removable forms are used and 
workability and methods of consolidation permit 
concrete to be placed without honeycombs or voids. 

R611.5.1.3 Proportioning and slump of concrete. 

Proportions of materials for concrete shall be estab- 
lished to provide workability and consistency to permit 
concrete to be worked readily into forms and around 
reinforcement under conditions of placement to be 
employed, without segregation or excessive bleeding. 
Slump of concrete placed in removable forms shall not 
exceed 6 inches (152 mm). 

Exception: When approved, the slump is permitted 
to exceed 6 inches (152 mm) for concrete mixtures 
that are resistant to segregation, and are in accor- 
dance with the form manufacturer's recommenda- 
tions. 

Slump of concrete placed in stay-in-place forms 
shall exceed 6 inches (152 mm). Slump of concrete 
shall be determined in accordance with ASTM C 143. 

R6 11.5.1.4 Compressive strength. The minimum 
specified compressive strength of concrete, / ' c , shall 
comply with Section R402.2 and shall be not less than 
2,500 pounds per square inch (17.2 MPa) at 28 days. 

R61 1.5.1.5 Consolidation of concrete. Concrete shall 
be consolidated by suitable means during placement 
and shall be worked around embedded items and rein- 
forcement and into corners of forms. Where stay-in- 
place forms are used, concrete shall be consolidated by 
internal vibration. 

Exception: When approved, self-consolidating con- 
crete mixtures with slumps equal to or greater than 8 
inches (203 mm) that are specifically designed for 
placement without internal vibration need not be 
internally vibrated. 



R61 1.5.2 Steel reinforcement and anchor bolts. 

R611.5.2.1 Steel reinforcement. Steel reinforcement 
shall comply with ASTM A 615, ASTM A 706, or 
ASTM A 996. ASTM A 996 bars produced from rail 
steel shall be Type R. 

R611.5.2.2 Anchor bolts. Anchor bolts for use with 
connection details in accordance with Figures 
R611.9(l) through R611.9(12) shall be bolts with heads 
complying with ASTM A 307 or ASTM F 1554. 
ASTM A 307 bolts shall be Grade A (i.e., with heads). 
ASTM F 1554 bolts shall be Grade 36 minimum. 
Instead of bolts with heads, it is permissible to use rods 
with threads on both ends fabricated from steel comply- 
ing with ASTM A 36. The threaded end of the rod to be 
embedded in the concrete shall be provided with a hex 
or square nut. 

R611.5.2.3 Sheet steel angles and tension tie straps. 
Angles and tension tie straps for use with connection 
details in accordance with Figures R6 11.9(1) through 
R61 1.9(12) shall be fabricated from sheet steel comply- 
ing with ASTM A 653 SS, ASTM A 792 SS, or ASTM 
A 875 SS. The steel shall be minimum Grade 33 unless 
a higher grade is required by the applicable figure. 

R611.5.3 Form materials and form ties. Forms shall be 
made of wood, steel, aluminum, plastic, a composite of 
cement and foam insulation, a composite of cement and 
wood chips, or other approved material suitable for sup- 
porting and containing concrete. Forms shall provide suf- 
ficient strength to contain concrete during the concrete 
placement operation. 

Form ties shall be steel, solid plastic, foam plastic, a