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Full text of "IS SP 7: National Building Code"

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Disclosure to Promote the Right To Information 

Whereas the Parliament of India has set out to provide a practical regime of right to 
information for citizens to secure access to information under the control of public authorities, 
in order to promote transparency and accountability in the working of every public authority, 
and whereas the attached publication of the Bureau of Indian Standards is of particular interest 
to the public, particularly disadvantaged communities and those engaged in the pursuit of 
education and knowledge, the attached public safety standard is made available to promote the 
timely dissemination of this information in an accurate manner to the public. 



Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathan 
'The Right to Information, The Right to Live" 



Jawaharlal Nehru 
"Step Out From the Old to the New' 



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National Building Code of India 2005, Bureau of Indian 
Standards . 



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Satyanarayan Gangaram Pitroda 
Invent a New India Using Knowledge 



Bhartrhari — Nitisatakam 
"Knowledge is such a treasure which cannot be stolen" 






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National] iujMngj 
Code of India 20JSS 






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BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS 



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NATIONAL BUILDING CODE 
OF INDIA 2005 



NATIONAL 

BUILDING 

CODE OF INDIA 

2005 



BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS 



SP 7 : 2005 



FIRST PUBLISHED 1970 
FIRST REVISION 1983 
SECOND REVISION 2005 

© BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS 

ICS 0.120; 91.040.01 

ISBN 81-7061-026-5 



PRICE Rs. 7 550.00 



PUBLISHED BY BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS, MANAK BHAVAN, 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR 
MARG, NEW DELHI 110 002, PRINTED AT SUNSHINE PROCESS, C- 105/5, NARAINA INDUSTRIAL 
AREA, PHASE I, NEW DELHI 1 10 028 (INDIA). 

(iv) 



FOREWORD 

Construction programmes are interwoven in a large measure in all sectors of development, be it housing, transport, 
industry, irrigation, power, agriculture, education or health. Construction, both public and private, accounts for 
about fifty percent of the total outlay in any Five Year Plan. Half of the total money spent on construction 
activities is spent on buildings for residential, industrial, commercial, administrative, education, medical, municipal 
and entertainment uses. It is estimated that about half of the total outlay on buildings would be on housing. It is 
imperative that for such a large national investment, optimum returns are assured and wastage in construction is 
avoided. 

Soon after the Third Plan, the Planning Commission decided that the whole gamut of operations involved in 
construction, such as, administrative, organizational, financial and technical aspects, be studied in depth. For this 
study, a Panel of Experts was appointed in 1965 by the Planning Commission and its recommendations are found 
in the 'Report on Economies in Construction Costs' published in 1968. 

One of the facets of building construction, namely, controlling and regulating buildings through municipal byelaws 
and departmental handbooks received the attention of the Panel and a study of these regulatory practices revealed 
that some of the prevailing methods of construction were outmoded; some designs were overburdened with 
safety factors and there were other design criteria which, in the light of newer techniques and methodologies, 
could be rationalized; and building byelaws and regulations of municipal bodies which largely regulate the 
building activity in the country wherever they exist, were outdated. They did not cater to the use of new building 
materials and the latest developments in building designs and construction techniques. It also became clear that 
these codes and byelaws lacked uniformity and they were more often than not 'specification oriented' and not 
'performance oriented*. 

These studies resulted in a recommendation that a National Building Code be prepared to unify the building 
regulations throughout the country for use by government departments, municipal bodies and other construction 
agencies. The then Indian Standards Institution (now Bureau of Indian Standards) was entrusted by the Planning 
Commission with the preparation of the National Building Code. For fulfilling this task a Guiding Committee for 
the preparation of the Code was set up by the Civil Engineering Division Council of the Indian Standards Institution 
in 1967. This Committee, in turn, set up 18 specialist panels to prepare the various parts of the Code. The 
Guiding Committee and its panels were constituted with architects, planners, materials experts, structural, 
construction, electrical illumination, air conditioning, acoustics and public health engineers and town planners. 
These experts were drawn from the Central and State Governments, local bodies, professional institutions and 
private agencies. The first version of the Code was published in 1970. 

After the National Building Code of India was published in 1970, a vigorous implementation drive was launched 
by the Indian Standards Institution to propagate the contents and use of the Code among all concerned in the field 
of planning, designing and construction activities. For this, State-wise Implementation Conferences were organized 
with the participation of the leading engineers, architects, town planners, administrators, building material 
manufacturers, building and plumbing services installation agencies, contractors, etc. 

These Conferences were useful in getting across the contents of the Code to the interests concerned. These 
Conferences had also helped in the establishment of Action Committees to look into tfie actual implementation 
work carried out by the construction departments, local bodies and other agencies in different States. The main 
actions taken by the Action Committees were to revise and modernize their existing regulatory media, such as, 
specifications, handbooks, manuals, etc, as well as building byelaws of local bodies like municipalities at city 
and town levels, zilla parishads, panchayats and development authorities, so as to bring them in line with the 
provisions contained in the National Building Code of India. In this process, the Indian Standards Institution 
rendered considerable support in redrafting process. 

Since the publication in 1970 version of the National Building Code of India, a large number of comments and 
useful suggestions for modifications and additions to different parts and sections of the Code were received as a 
result of use of the Code by all concerned, and revision work of building byelaws of some States. Based on the 
comments and suggestion received the National Building Code of India 1970 was revised in 1983. 



(v) 



Some of the important changes in 1983 version included : addition of development control rules, requirements 
for greenbelts and landscaping including norms for plantation of shrubs and trees, special requirements for low 
income housing; fire safety regulations for high rise buildings; revision of structural design section based on new 
and revised codes, such as Concrete Codes (plain and reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete), Earthquake 
Code, Masonry Code; addition of outside design conditions for important cities in the country, requirements 
relating to noise and vibration, air filter, automatic control, energy conservation for air conditioning; and guidance 
on the design of water supply system for multi-storeyed buildings. 

The National Building Code of India is a single document in which, like a network, the information contained in 
various Indian Standards is woven into a pattern of continuity and cogency with the interdependent requirements 
of Sections carefully analyzed and fitted in to make the whole document a cogent continuous volume. A continuous 
thread of 'preplanning' is woven which, in itself, contributes considerably to the economies in construction 
particularly in building and plumbing services. 

The Code contains regulations which can be immediately adopted or enacted for use by various departments, 
municipal administrations and public bodies. It lays down a set of minimum provisions designed to protect the 
safety of the public with regard to structural sufficiency, fire hazards and health aspects of buildings; so long as 
these basic requirements are met, the choice of materials and methods of design and construction is left to the 
ingenuity of the building professionals. The Code also covers aspects of administrative regulations, development 
control rules and general building requirements; fire protection requirements; stipulations regarding materials 
and structural design; rules for design of electrical installations, lighting, air conditioning and lifts; regulation for 
ventilation, acoustics and plumbing services, such as, water supply, drainage, sanitation and gas supply; measures 
to ensure safety of workers and public during construction; and rules for erection of signs and outdoor display 
structures. 

Some other important points covered by the Code include 'industrialized systems of building' and 'architectural 
control' . The increase in population in the years to come will have a serious impact on the housing problem. It 
has been estimated that the urban population of India will continue to increase with such pace as to maintain the 
pressure on demand of accommodation for them. Speed of construction is thus of an utmost importance and 
special consideration has to be given to industrialized systems of building. With increased building activity, it is 
also essential that there should be some architectural control in the development of our cities and towns if 
creation of ugliness and slum-like conditions in our urban areas is to be avoided. 

Since the publication of 1983 version of National Building Code of India, the construction industry has gone 
through major technological advancement. In the last two decades, substantial expertise has been gained in the 
areas of building planning, designing and construction. Also, lot of developments have taken places in the techno- 
legal regime and techno-financial regime, apart from the enormous experience gained in dealing with natural 
calamities like super cyclones and earthquakes faced by the country. Further, since the last revision in 1983 
based on the changes effected in the Steel Code, Masonry Code and Loading Code as also in order to update the 
fire protection requirements, three amendments were brought out to the 1983 version of the Code. Considering 
these, it was decided to take up a comprehensive revision of the National Building Code of India. 

The changes incorporated in the present Code, which is second revision of the Code, have been specified in the 
Foreword to each Part/Section of the Code. Some of the important changes are: 

a) A new Part 'Integrated Approach — Prerequisite for Applying the Provisions of the Code' emphasizing 
on multi-disciplinary team approach for successfully accomplishing building/development project, has 
been incorporated. 

b) New chapters on significant areas like structural design using bamboo, mixed/composite construction 
and landscaping have been added. 

c) Number of provisions relating to reform in administration of the Code as also assigning duties and 
responsibilities to all concerned professionals, have been incorporated/modified. Also detailed provisions/ 
performance to ensure structural sufficiency of buildings, have been prescribed so as to facilitate 
implementation of the related requirements to help safely face the challenges during natural disasters 
like earthquake. 

d) Planning norms and requirements for hilly areas and rural habitat planning, apart from detailed planning 
norms for large number of amenities have been incorporated. 

e) Fire safety aspects have been distinctly categorized into fire prevention, life safety and fire protection 

(vi) 



giving detailed treatment to each based on current international developments and latest practices followed 
in the country. 

f) Aspects like energy conservation and sustainable development have been consistently dealt with in 
various parts and sections through appropriate design, usage and practices with regard to building 
materials, construction technologies and building and plumbing services. Renewable resources like 
bamboo and practices like rain water harvesting have been given their due place. 

g) The latest revised earthquake code, IS 1893 (Part 1) : 2002 'Criteria for earthquake resistant design of 
structures: Part 1 General provisions and buildings', has been incorporated, due implementation of the 
provisions of which in applicable seismic zone of the country, needs to be duly adhered to by the 
Authorities. 

The Code now published is the third version representing the present state of knowledge on various aspects of 
building construction. The process of preparation of the 2005 version of the Code had thrown up a number of 
problems; some of them were answered fully and some partially. Therefore, a continuous programme will go on 
by which additional knowledge that is gained through technological evolution, users' views over a period of time 
pinpointing areas of clarification and coverage and results of research in the field, would be incorporated in to 
the Code from time to time to make it a living document. It is, therefore, proposed to bring out changes to the 
Code periodically. 

The provisions of this Code are intended to serve as a model for adoption by Public Works Departments and 
other government construction departments, local bodies and other construction agencies. Existing PWD codes, 
municipal byelaws and other regulatory media could either be replaced by the National Building Code of India 
or suitably modified to cater to local requirements in accordance with the provisions of the Code. Any difficulties 
encountered in adoption of the Code could be brought to the notice of the Sectional Committee for corrective 
action. 



(vii) 



National Building Code Sectional Committee, CED 46 



Chairman 
Dr H. C. Visvesvaraya 

'Chandrika\ at 15th Cross, 63-64 East Park Road 
Malleswaram, Bangalore 560 003 

Vice-chairman 

SHRI V. SURESH 

P-233/3, Officers Enclave, 
Air Force Station, Rajokari, New Delhi 1 10 038 



Organization 
Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation, Ahmedabad 

Bangalore Mahanagara Palike, Bangalore 

Builders Association of India, Mumbai 

Building Materials and Technology Promotion Council, New Delhi 
Bureau of Energy Efficiency (Ministry of Power), New Delhi 
Central Building Research Institute (CSIR), Roorkee 

Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organisation 
(Ministry of Urban Development and Poverty Alleviation), 
New Delhi 

Central Public Works Department (Central Designs Organization), 
New Delhi 

Central Public Works Department (Electrical Department), 
New Delhi 

Centre for Disaster Mitigation and Management, Anna University, 
Chennai 

Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority, Chennai 

Construction Industry Development Council, New Delhi 

Council of Architecture, New Delhi 

Delhi Development Authority, New Delhi 

Delhi Fire Service, Government of National Capital Territory 
of Delhi, Delhi 

Department of Science and Technology (Ministry of Science 
and Technology), New Delhi 

Directorate General of Employment and Training, New Delhi 

Engineer-in-Chief s Branch, Army Headquarters, New Delhi 

Forest Research Institute (Indian Council for Forestry Research 
and Education), Dehra Dun 

Housing and Urban Development Corporation Ltd, New Delhi 
Indian Geotechnical Society, New Delhi 



Representative(s) 

Shri Vatsal S. Patel 

Shri Jagdish A. Patel {Alternate) 

Shri M. R. Sreenivasa Murthy 

Shri R. Ramegowda {Alternate I) 
Shri N. Krishna {Alternate II) 

Shri B. G. Ahuja 

Shri T. N. Gupta & Shri D. B. N. Rao 

Representative 

Shri V. K. Mathur 

Shri B. S. Gupta {Alternate) 

Shri B. B. Uppal 

Shri V. K. Chaurasia {Alternate) 

Chief Engineer (Designs) 

Superintending Engineer (S & S) {Alternate) 

Chief Engineer (Electrical) I 

Director 

Member Secretary 

Shri N. V. Rakhunath {Alternate) 

Shri P. R. Swarup 

Shri Anil Chadha {Alternate) 

Shri Premendra Raj Mehta 

Shri Sudhir Vohra {Alternate) 

Engineer Member 

Chief Engineer (HQ) {Alternate) 

Shri R. C. Sharma 
Shri V. Rao Alyagari s-- 

Shri Ashwani Kumar 

Brig S. K. Sharma 

Shri D. K. Dinker {Alternate) 

Director General 

Director {Alternate) 

Chairman & Managing Director 
Shri R. K. Safaya {Alternate) 

Shri D. B. Mahajan 

Dr M. D. Desai {Alternate) 



(viii) 



Organization 

Indian Institute of Technology (Centre for Energy Studies), 

New Delhi 
Indian Roads Congress, New Delhi 

Institute of Town Planners, India, New Delhi 
Institution of Fire Engineers (India), New Delhi 

Ministry of Home Affairs, New Delhi 

Ministry of Home Affairs (Disaster Management Division), 

New Delhi 
Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources, New Delhi 
Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, New Delhi 

Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, Mumbai 

National Buildings Construction Corporation, New Delhi 

National Council for Cement and Building Materials, Ballabgarh 

National Design and Research Forum, The Institution of Engineers 

(India), Bangalore 
National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (CSIR), 

Nagpur 
North Eastern Council, Shillong 
Public Works Department (Roads and Buildings), Gandhinagar 

Research, Designs and Standards Organization (Ministry of Railways), 

Lucknow 
School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi 
Structural Engineering Research Centre (CSIR), Chennai 

Suri and Suri Consulting Acoustical Engineers, New Delhi 
The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi 

The Indian Institute of Architects, New Delhi 

The Institution of Engineers (India), Kolkata 

The Institution of Surveyors, New Delhi 

Town and Country Planning Organization, New Delhi 

U.P. Housing and Development Board, Lucknow 
Unitech Ltd, Gurgaon 

In personal capacity (5, Sunder Nagar, New Delhi 110 003) 
BIS Directorate General 



Representative(s) 
Prof N. K. Bansal 

Chief Engineer (Design), CPWD 

Superintending Engineer (Design), CPWD (Alternate) 

dr s. k. kulshrestha 

President 

General Secretary (Alternate) 

Fire Advisor 

Shri M. P. Sajnani 

Shri S. K. Swami (Alternate) 

Dr T. C. Tripathi 

Shri S. B. Basu 

Shri P. Halder (Alternate) 

Director (Engg Services & Projects) 
City Engineer (Alternate) 

Shri B. Prasad 

Shri N. P. Agarwal (Alternate) 

Shri Shiban Raina 

Dr Anil Kumar (Alternate) 

Prof R. Narayana Iyengar 
Shri B. Suresh (Alternate) 

Dr Arindam Ghosh 

Dr V. P. Deshpande (Alternate) 

Shri P. K. Deb 

Shri V. P. Jamdar 

Shri M. S. Jallundhwala (Alternate) 

Shri R. K. Gupta 

Shri J. P. Das (Alternate) 

Director 

Shri C. V. Vaidyanathan 
Shri K. Mani (Alternate) 

Shri Gautam Suri 

Ms Mili Majumdar 

Ms Vidisha Salunke-Palsule (Alternate) 

Shri Balbir Verma 

Shri Abhijit Ray (Alternate) 

Prof G. P. Lal 

Shri O. P. Goel (Alternate) 

Shri K. S. Kharb 

Shri R. K. Bhalla (Alternate) 

Shri K. T. Gurumukhi 

Shri J. B. Kshirsagar (Alternate) 

Shri Hari Gopal 

Shri Sushil Sharma 

Shri Shahid Mahmood (Alternate) 

Dr J. R. Bhalla 

Shri S. K. Jain, Director & Head (Civil Engineering) 
[Representing Director General (Ex-officio Member)] 



Member Secretary 

Shri Sanjay Pant 

Joint Director (Civil Engineering) 



(ix) 



Special Panel for Guiding and Co-ordinating the 
Revision of National Building Code of India, CED 46:SP 



Organization 

In personal capacity (P-233/3, Officers Enclave, Air Force Station, 
Rajokari, New Delhi 110 038) 

Building Materials and Technology Promotion Council, New Delhi 

Central Building Research Institute (CSIR), Roorkee 

Central Public Works Department, New Delhi 

Council of Architecture, New Delhi 

Engineer-in-Chief s Branch, Army Headquarters, New Delhi 

The Institution of Engineers (India), Kolkata 

Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi 



Rep resenta tive( s ) 
Shri V. Suresh (Convener) 

Shri T, N. Gupta 

Shri V. K. Mathur 

Shri H. S. Dogra 

Shri Premendra Raj Mehta 

Lt-Gen Hari Uniyal 

Prof G. P. Lal 

Shri O. P. Goel (Alternate) 

Shri Sanjay Pant 



Ad-hoc Group for Part of NBC, CED 46: AG 



Organization 

In personal capacity ('Chandrika', at 15th Cross, 63-64, East Park Road, 
Malleswaram, Bangalore 560 003) 

Council of Architecture, New Delhi 

In personal capacity (P-233/3, Officers Enclave, Air Force Station, 
Rajokari, New Delhi 110 038) 

In personal capacity (A-39/B, DDA Flats, Munirka, New Delhi 110 067) 

In personal capacity (EA-345, Maya Enclave, New Delhi 110 064) 



Representative(s) 
Dr H. C. Visvesvaraya (Convener) 

Shri Premendra Raj Mehta 
Shri V. Suresh 

Shri P. B. Vuay 

Shri J. N. Bhavani Prasad 



Panel for Administration, Development Control Rules and 
General Building Requirements, CED 46:P1 



Organization 

In personal capacity (P-233/3, Officers Enclave, Air Force Station, 
Rajokari, New Delhi 110 038) 

Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation, Ahmedabad 

Building Materials and Technology Promotion Council, New Delhi 

Central Building Research Institute (CSIR), Roorkee 

Central Public Works Department, New Delhi 

Consulting Engineers Association of India, New Delhi 

Council of Architecture, New Delhi 

Delhi Development Authority, New Delhi 

Housing and Urban Development Corporation Ltd, New Delhi 
Indian Association of Structural Engineers, New Delhi 
Institute of Town Planners (India), New Delhi 
Municipal Corporation of Delhi, Delhi 

Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, Mumbai 

National Council for Cement and Building Materials, Ballabgarh 



Representative(s) 
Shri V. Suresh (Convener) 

Representative 

Shri T. N. Gupta 

Shri Rajesh Malik (Alternate) 

Shri V. K. Mathur 

Shri N. K. Shangari (Alternate) 

Shri R. S. Kaushal 

Shri Sanjib Sengupta (Alternate) 

Shri S. C. Mehrotra 

Shri N. F. Patel (Alternate) 

Shri Premendra Raj MjSHta 

Shri Sudhjr Vohra (Alternate) 

Shri R. C. Kinger 

Shri A. K. Gupta (Alternate) 

Shri K. C. Batra 

Shri Mahendra Raj 

Dr S. K. Kulshrestha 

Engineer-in-Chief 

Shri M. M. Das (Alternate) 

Chief Engineer (Development Plan) 

Deputy Chief Engineer (Development Plan)-I (Alternate) 

Dr Anil Kumar 



(x) 



Organization 
National Real Estate Development Council, New Delhi 
School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi 
The Indian Institute of Architects, Mumbai 

The Institution of Engineers (India), Kolkata 

Town and Country Planning Organization, New Delhi 



Representative(s) 

Brig R. R. Singh (Retd) 

Prof Subir Saha 

Shri Balbir Verma 

Shri Abhijit Ray {Alternate) 

Shri A. D. Shirode 

Shri P. B. Vuay {Alternate) 

Shri J. B. Kshirsagar 

Shri R. Srinivas {Alternate) 



Panel for Fire Protection, CED 46:P2 



Organization 
In personal capacity {29/25, Old Rajendra Nagar, New Delhi 110 060) 
Central Building Research Institute (CSIR), Roorkee 

Central Public Works Department, New Delhi 

Deolalikar Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi 

Directorate of Town and Country Planning, Government of Tamil Nadu, 
Chennai 

Engineer-in-Chief s Branch, Army Headquarters, New Delhi 
Institution of Fire Engineers (India), New Delhi 
Lloyd Insulations (India) Ltd, New Delhi 
Ministry of Home Affairs, New Delhi 

Delhi Fire Service, Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi, 

Delhi 
Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (Mumbai Fire Brigade), 

Mumbai 
National Council for Cement and Building Materials, Ballabgarh 
National Fire Service College (Ministry of Home Affairs), Nagpur 

Oil Industry Safety Directorate, New Delhi 

Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Jorhat 
Spectral Services Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi 
Tariff Advisory Committee, Mumbai 

The Institution of Engineers (India), Kolkata 

In personal capacity {P-233/3, Officers Enclave, Air Force Station, 
Rajokari, New Delhi 110 038) 



Representative(s) 
Shri S. K. Dheri {Convener) 

Dr T. P. Sharma 

Dr Gopal Krishna {Alternate) 

Shri Arvind Kansal 

Shri R. S. Kaushal {Alternate) 

Shri S. G. Deolalikar 

Shri S. Dhanasekaran 

Shri R. Rajagopalan {Alternate) 

Shri R. A. Dubey 

Shri Ajay Shankar {Alternate) 

Shri U. S. Chhillar 

Shri S. P. Batra {Alternate) 

Shri Sanjeev Angra 

Shri K. K. Mitra {Alternate) 

Shri Om Prakash 

Shri D. K. Shammi {Alternate) 

Shri R. C. Sharma 

Shri G. C. Misra {Alternate) 

Shri A. D. Jhandwal 

Shri V. H. Naik {Alternate) 

Dr Anil Kumar 

Dr K. C. Wadhwa 

Shri Shamim {Alternate) 

Shri D. Jagannath 

Shri S. K. Aggarwal {Alternate) 

Representative 

Shri Sandeep Goel 

Shri Z. U. Islam 

Shri D. N. Saha {Alternate) 

Prof M. P. Chowdiah 

Shri K. B. Rajoria {Alternate) 

Shri V. Suresh 



Panel for Building Materials, CED 46:P3 



Organization 
Building Materials and Technology Promotion Councils, New Delhi 
Central Building Research Institute (CSIR), Roorkee 

Central Public Works Department, New Delhi 



Representative(s) 

Shri T. N. Gupta {Convener) 

Dr C. L. Verma 

Shri L. K. Agarwal {Alternate) 

Shri H. K. L. Mehta 

Shri R. C. Gupta {Alternate) 



(xi) 



Organization 
Council of Architecture, New Delhi 

Department of Science and Technology (Ministry of Science and 
Technology), New Delhi 

Engineer-in-Chief s Branch, Army Headquarters, New Delhi 

Housing and Urban Development Corporation Ltd, New Delhi 

Indian Plywood Industries Research and Training Institute, 
Bangalore 

National Council for Cement and Building Materials, Ballabgarh 
The Institution of Engineers (India), Kolkata 



Representative(s) 

Shri Anurag Roy 

Shri Atul Gupta (Alternate) 

Shri Soumitra Biswas 

Shri G. Srikanth (Alternate) 

Shri A. K. Singh 

Shri P. K. Gupta (Alternate) 

Chairman and Managing Director 
Shri S. K. Taneja (Alternate) 

Shri K. Shyamasundar 

Shri M. Pawan Kumar (Alternate) 

Shri Shiban Raina 

Dr K. Mohan (Alternate) 

Shri G. L. Rao 

Shri R. S. Goel (Alternate) 



Panel for Loads, Forces and Effects, CED 46:P4 



Organization 
National Council for Cement and Building Materials, Ballabgarh 
Building Materials and Technology Promotion Council, New Delhi 

Central Building Research Institute, Roorkee 

Central Public Works Department, New Delhi 

Centre for Disaster Mitigation and Management, Anna University, 
Chennai 

Mahendra Raj Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi 
Structural Engineering Research Centre (CSIR), Chennai 

The Institution of Engineers (India), Kolkata 

In personal capacity (Professor of Bridge Engineering, Railway Chair, 
Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, 
Roorkee 247 667) 

In personal capacity (Emeritus Scientist, Structural Engineering 
Research Centre, Madras CSIR Campus, Taramani, 
Chennai 600 113) 

In personal capacity (P-233/3, Officers Enclave, Air Force Station, 
Rajokari, New Delhi 110 038) 



Representative(s) 
Dr Anil Kumar (Convener) 

Shri T. N. Gupta 

Shri I. S. Sidhu (Alternate) 

Shri B. S. Gupta 

Shri A. K. MrrTAL (Alternate) 

Shri N. M. D. Jain 

Shri Abhay Sinha (Alternate) 

Dr R. K. Bhandari 

Shri Mahendra Raj 

Shri J. Ghose (Alternate) 

Shri C. V. Vaidyanathan 
Shri K. Mani (Alternate) 

Shri P. P. Dharwadkar 

Dr Prem Krishna 



Dr T. V. S. R. Appa Rao 



Shri V. Suresh 



Panel for Soils and Foundations, CED 46:P5 



Organization 



Centre for Disaster Mitigation and Management, Anna University, 
Chennai 

Central Building Research Institute (CSIR), Roorkee 
Afcons Infrastructure Limited, Mumbai 
Central Public Works Department, New Delhi 
Delhi Development Authority, New Delhi 



Representative(s) 
Dr R. K. Bhandari (Convener before 19 September 2003) 

Shri Chandra Prakash (Convener since 19 September 2003) 
Dr Surendra Kumar (Alternate) 

Shri S. B. Joshi 

Shri D. G. Bhagwat (Alternate) 

Shri Bhagwan Singh 

Shri R. K. Singhal (Alternate) 

Shri S. P. Rustogi 

Shri J. M. Joshi (Alternate) 



(xii) 



Organization 
Engineer-in-Chief s Branch, Army Headquarters, New Delhi 

Indian Geotechnical Society, New Delhi 

National Council for Cement and Building Materials, Ballabgarh 

The Institution of Engineers (India), Kolkata 



Representative(s) 

Col R. N. Malhotra 

Col N. B. Saxena (Alternate) 

Maj Gen S. N. Mukerjee 

Shri Sanjay Gupta (Alternate) 

Dr Anil Kumar 

Shri H. K. Julka (Alternate) 

Prof Janardan Jha 



Panel for Timber, CED 46:P6 



Organization 



In personal capacity (Pratap Nursery Lane, Near Gurdwara, 
Panditwari, Dehra Dun 248007) 

Bamboo Society of India, Bangalore 

Building Materials and Technology Promotion Council, New Delhi 

Central Building Research Institute (CSIR), Roorkee 

Central Public Works Department, New Delhi 

Engineer-in-Chief's Branch, Army Headquarters, New Delhi 

Forest Research Institute (Indian Council for Forestry Research 
and Education), Dehra Dun 

Housing and Urban Development Corporation Ltd, New Delhi 

Indian Plywood Industries Research and Training Institute, 
Bangalore 

North Eastern Council, Shillong 

The Institution of Engineers (India), Kolkata 

In personal capacity [No. 179 (710), 24th B-Cross, 3rd Block, 
Jayanagar, Bangalore 560 Oil] 

In personal capacity (103/H, Vasant Vihar, P. 0. New Forest, 
Dehra Dun 248 006) 



Representative(s) 
Shri K. S. Pruthi (Convener) 

Shri A. C. Lakshmanan 

Dr K. A. Kushalappa (Alternate) 

Shri T. N. Gupta 

Shri Rajesh Malik (Alternate) 

Shri S. K. Mittal 

Shri B. S. Rawat (Alternate) 

Shrimati P. Verma 

Shri G. C. Khattar (Alternate) 

Shri A. K. Singh 

Shri P. K. Gupta (Alternate) 

Shri B. K. Bhatia 

Chairman and Managing Director 
Shri S. K. Taneja (Alternate) 

Shri K. Shyamasundar 

Shri H. Guruva Reddy (Alternate) 

Shri P. K. Deb 

Shri Krishna Kumar 

Dr H. N. Jagadeesh 

Shri S. S, Rajput 



Panel for Masonry, CED 46:P7 



Organization 



Delhi Tourism and Transportation Development Corporation, 
New Delhi 

Building Materials and Technology Promotion Council, New Delhi 
Central Building Research Institute (CSIR), Roorkee 
Central Public Works Department, New Delhi 

Delhi Development Authority, New Delhi 
Engineer-in-Chief's Branch, Army Headquarters, New Delhi 
Indian Institute of Science (Centre for Astra), Bangalore 



Representative(s) 
Shri Jose Kurian (Convener) 

Shri T. N. Gupta 

Shri Pankaj Gupta (Alternate) 

Shri A. K. Mittal 

Shri Shailesh Kumar (Alternate) 

Dr A. K. Mittal 

Shri Neeraj Mishra (Alternate I) 
Shri A. K. Jha (Alternate II) 

Shri S. P. Rustogi 

Shri J. M. Joshi (Alternate) 

Shri D. R. Kurdiya 

Shri Subodh Kumar (Alternate) 

Dr B. V. Venkatarama Reddy 

Dr K. S. Nanjunda Rao (Alternate) 



(xiii) 



Organization 
Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 

Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 

Public Works Department, Government of Maharashtra, Mumbai 

Structural Engineering Research Centre (CSIR), Chennai 

The Institution of Engineers (India), Kolkata 



Representative(s) 

Dr Durgesh C. Rai 

Dr C. V. R. Murty {Alternate I) 
Dr Sudhir K. Jain {Alternate II) 

Dr S. N. Sinha 

Shri P. K. Ninave 

Shri R. Jayaraman 

Shri A. Chellappan {Alternate) 

Shri S. L. Garg 



Panel for Plain, Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete, CED 46:P8 



Organization 

In personal capacity {35, Park Avenue, Annamma, Naicker Street, 
Kuniamuthur, Coimbatore 641 008) 

Central Building Research Institute (CSIR), Roorkee 



Central Public Works Department, New Delhi 

Delhi Tourism and Transportation Development Corporation, 
New Delhi 

Gammon India Ltd, Mumbai 

Hindustan Prefab Limited, New Delhi 

Larsen and Toubro Ltd, ECC Construction Group, Chennai 

Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, New Delhi 

National Council for Cement and Building Materials, Ballabgarh 

Research, Designs and Standards Organization (Ministry of Railways), 

Lucknow 

Structural Engineering Research Centre (CSIR), Chennai 

Tandon Consultants, New Delhi 

The Institution of Engineers (India), Kolkata 



Representative(s) 
Dr C. Rajkumar {Convener) 

Dr B. S. Gupta 

Dr B. K. Rao {Alternate I) 

Dr Awadesh Kumar {Alternate II) 

Shri N. M. D. Jain 

Shri Abhay Sinha {Alternate) 

Shri Jose Kurian 

Shri S. A. Reddi 

Shri Hazari Lal 

Shri M. Kundu {Alternate) 

Shri K. P. Raghavan 

Shri S. Kanappan {Alternate) 

Shri T. B. Banerjee 

Shri Satish Kumar {Alternate) 

Dr Anil Kumar 

Shri H. K. Julka {Alternate) 

Shri R. K. Gupta 

Shri J. P. Das {Alternate I) 
Shri A. K. Gupta {Alternate H) 

Dr N. Lakshmanan 

Shri H. G. Sreenath {Alternate) 

Shri Mahesh Tandon 

Shri S. S. Chakrabarty 



Organization 

MECON Ltd, Ranchi 

Central Public Works Department, New Delhi 



Panel for Steel, CED 46:P9 

Representa tive(s) 
Shri A. Basu {Convener) 

Chief Engineer 



Engineer-in-Chief s Branch, Army Headquarters, New Delhi 

Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai 

Institute for Steel Development and Growth, Kolkata 

Kalpataru Power Transmission Ltd, Gandhinagar 
M. N. Dastur and Co Ltd, Kolkota 



Suprintending Engineer (P & A) {Alternate) 

Shri D. K. Dinker 

Col V. K. Tyagi {Alternate) 

Dr V. Kalyanaraman 

Dr T. K. Bandyopadhyay 

Shri Ardit Guha {Alternate I) 
Shri P. L. Rao {Alternate II) 

Shri M. C. Mehta 

Shri B. K. Satish {Alternate) 

Shri Satyaki Sen 

Shri Tapan Kumar Bhaumik {Alternate) 



(xiv) 



Organization 

Research, Designs and Standards Organization (Ministry of Railways), 
Lucknow 

SPECO Engineering Pvt Ltd, New Delhi 

Structural Engineering Research Centre (CSIR), Chennai 

The Institute of Engineers (India), Kolkata 



Representative(s) 

Shri R. K. Gupta 

Shri D. K. Singh (Alternate) 

Shri Onkar Singh 

Dr S. Seetharaman 

Shri S. Arul Jayachandran {Alternate) 

Shri R. P. Gupta 



Panel for Prefabrication and Systems Buildings, CED46:P10 



Organization 
Larsen and Toubro Ltd, Chennai 

B. G. Shrike Construction Technology Pvt Ltd, Pune 

Central Building Research Institute (CSIR), Roorkee 

Central Public Works Department, New Delhi 

Engineer-in-Chief's Branch, Army Headquarters, New Delhi 

Hindustan Prefab Limited, New Delhi 

Institute for Steel Development and Growth, Kolkata 

Lloyd Insulations (India) Ltd, New Delhi 

National Council for Cement and Building Materials, Ballabgarh 

Shirish Patel and Associates Consultants Pvt Ltd, Mumbai 

Structural Engineering Research Centre (CSIR), Chennai 

System Building Technologists, New Delhi 
The Indian Institute of Architects, Mumbai 
The Institution of Engineers (India), Kolkata 



Representative(s) 

Shri A. Ramakrishna (Convener) 

Shri K. V. Rangaswami (Alternate) 

Shri G. R. Bharitkar 

Shri R. P. Jakhalekar (Alternate) 

Shri B. N. Hira 

Shri D. K. Gautam (Alternate) 

Chief Engineer (NDZ-III) 

Shri A. K. Garg (Alternate) 

Col R. N. Malhotra 

Shri P. K. Gupta (Alternate) 

Shri Hazari Lal 

Shri M. Kundu (Alternate) 

Dr T. K. Bandyopadhyay 

Shri Alok Baishya (Alternate) 

Shri Mohit Khanna 

Shri K. K. Mitra (Alternate) 

Shri H. K, Julka 

Shri Satish Sharma (Alternate) 

Shri Shirish B. Patel 

Shri P. H. Srinivasachar (Alternate) 

Shri H. G, Sreenath 

Shri R. Jayaraman (Alternate) 

Shri G. B. Singh 

Shri S. R. Sikka 

Dr R. K. Bhandari 

Shri P. B. Vuay (Alternate) 



Panel for Constructional Practices and Safety, CED 46:P11 



Organization 

In personal capacity (103, Charak Sadan, Vikaspuri, 
New Delhi 110 018) 

Adlakha and Associates, New Delhi 

Builders Association of India, Mumbai 

Central Building Research Institute (CSIR), Roorkee 

Central Public Works Department, New Delhi 
Construction Industries Development Council, New Delhi 

Director General of Factory Advice Service and Labour Institute 
(Ministry of Labour), Mumbai 



Representative(s) 
Shri P. Krishnan (Convener) 

Shri Pramod Adlakha 

Shri Raj Pal Arora 

Shri N. K. Shangari 

Shri B. S. Gupta (Alternate) 

Shri R. P. Bhardwaj 

Shri P. R. Swarup 

Shri Sunil Mahajan (Alternate) 

Shri S. K. Dutta 

Shri I. Roychowdhuri (Alternate) 



(XV) 



Organization 
Engineer-in-Chief s Branch, Army Headquarters, New Delhi 

Engineers India Limited, New Delhi 

Gammon India Ltd, Mumbai 

Indian Plywood Industries Research and Training Institute, 
Bangalore 

Larsen and Toubro Ltd, Chennai 

National Building Construction Corporation, New Delhi 

School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi 
The Indian Institute of Architects, Mumbai 

The Institution of Engineers (India), Kolkata 



Representative(s) 

Shri Dinesh Sikand 

Shri A. K. Singh {Alternate) 

Shri M. P. Jain 

Shri A. K. Tandon {Alternate) 

Shri K. N. Chatterjee 

Shri S. C. Sarin {Alternate) 

Shri H. Guruva Reddy 

Shri M. Pa van Kumar {Alternate) 

Shri R. P. Sakunia 

Shri B. Prasad 

Shri N. P. Agarwal {Alternate) 

Dr V. Thiruvengadam 

Shri Kailash Chandra Jaitia 
Shri C. M. Sapra {Alternate) 

Shri H. P. Jamdar 

Shri K. B. Rajoria {Alternate) 



Panel for Lighting and Ventilation, CED 46:P12 

Organization 
Central Building Research Institute (CSIR), Roorkee 



All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, Kolkata 
Bureau of Energy Efficiency (Ministry of Power), New Delhi 
Central Public Works Department, New Delhi 

Council of Architecture, New Delhi 

Director General Factory Advice Service and Labour Institute 
(Ministry of Labour), Mumbai 

Engineer-in-Chief s Branch, Army Headquarters, New Delhi 

Indian Society for Lighting Engineers, New Delhi 
Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources, New Delhi 
Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, Mumbai 

National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), New Delhi 
Philips India Ltd, Mumbai 

School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi 
The Indian Institute of Architects, Mumbai 
The Institution of Engineers (India), Kolkata 



Representative(s) 

Shri V. K. Mathur {Convener) 
Dr Ishwar Chand {Alternate I) 
Shri Shree Kumar {Alternate II) 

Dr Gautam Banerjee 

Representative 

Chief Engineer (E) II 

Superintending Engineer (E) P {Alternate) 

Prof Vinod Kumar Gupta 

Shri S. K. Dutta 

Shri I. Roychowdhuri {Alternate) 

Shri S. K. Maheshwari 

Shri A. C. Verma {Alternate) 

Shri P. K. Bandyopadhyay 

Shri Bibek Bandyopadhyay 

Shri P. G. Chavan 

Shri R. K. Rahate {Alternate) 

Dr H. C. Kandpal 

Shrimati Sudeshna Mukhopadhyay 
Shri S. P. Tambe {Alternate) 

Prof Arvind Kishan 

Prof Ashok B. Lall 

Prof C S. Jha 



Panel for Electrical Installations, CED 46:P13 



Organization 
In personal capacity {EA 345, Maya Enclave, New Delhi 1 10 064) 
Bureau of Energy Efficiency (Ministry of Power), New Delhi 
Central Electricity Authority, New Delhi 

Chief Electrical Inspectorate, Tamil Nadu 



Representative(s) 

Shri J. N. Bhavani Prasad {Convener) 

Representative 

Chief Engineer (DP & D) 
Director (UT) {Alternate) 

Shri S. Subramanian 

Shri M. Kamal Batcha {Alternate) 



(xvi) 



Organization 
Engineer-in-Chief s Branch, Army Headquarters, New Delhi 

Engineers India Ltd, New Delhi 

Fairwood Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi 
Siemens Ltd, Chennai 

The Institution of Engineers (India), Kolkata 



Representative(s) 

Shri Ajay Shankar 

Shri Shiv Om Prakash {Alternate) 

Shri A. Ananthanarayan 
Shri N. Sethi {Alternate) • 

Smt Shruti Goel 

Shri Hemant Tungare 

Shri Ajit Deshpande {Alternate) 

Prof Samiran Choudhary 

Lt Gen S. K. Jain {Alternate) 



Panel for Air Conditioning and Heating, CED 46:P14 



Organization 
Spectral Services Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi 

Airtron Consultants, Bangalore 

Air Treatment Engineering Pvt Ltd, Chennai 

Blue Star Limited, Mumbai 

Bureau of Energy Efficiency (Ministry of Power), New Delhi 

Central Building Research Institute (CSIR), Roorkee 

Central Public Works Department, New Delhi 

Engineer-in-Chief s Branch, Army Headquarters, New Delhi 

Hi-Tech Consultant, New Delhi 

Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 

Indian Society for Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning 
Engineers, New Delhi 

Sterling India Consulting Engineers, New Delhi 

Suvidha Engineers India Ltd, Noida 

The Institution of Engineer (India), Kolkata 

Voltas Limited, New Delhi 

In personal capacity (K-43, Kailash Colony, New Delhi 110 048) 



Representative(s) 

Dr Prem C. Jain {Convener) 

Shri Ashish Rakheja {Alternate) 

Shri R. V. Simha 

Shri K. P. S. Ramesh 

Shri Jitendra Moreshwar Bhambure 

Representative 

Dr Ishwar Chand 

Shri B. M Suman {Alternate) 

Shri S. R. Subramanian 

Shri S. P. Baranwal {Alternate) 

Shri Narendra Kumar 

Shri R. A. Dubey {Alternate) 

Shri N. S. Hukmani 

Dr R. S. Agarwal 

Shri N. S. Hukmani 

Shri G. C. Modgil 

Shri Alok C, Tandon 

Shri Pradeep Chaturvedi 

Shri S. M. Kulkarni 

Shri Atul Malik {Alternate) 

Shri M. M. Pande 



Panel for Acoustics, Sound Insulation and Noise Control, CED 46:P15 



Organization 
Suri and Suri Consulting Acoustical Engineers, New Delhi 
All India Radio, New Delhi 

Central Building Research Institute (CSIR), Roorkee 

Central Public Works Department, New Delhi 

Engineer-in-Chief s Branch, Army Headquarters, New Delhi 

Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 
Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai 

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 



Representati ve ( s ) 
Shri Gautam Suri {Convener) 

Shri Deepak Mehrotra 

Shri S. Muthuswamy (Alternate) 

Shri R. K. Srivastava 

Shri R. L. Dhabal {Alternate) 

Shri K. A. Ananthanarayanan 
Shri N. Nagarajan {Alternate) 

Brig S. K. Sharma 

Shrimati Anuradha Bhasin (Alternate) 

Prof M. L. Munjal 

Prof S. Naryanan 

Dr A. Ramachandraiah (Alternate) 

Dr A. R. Mohanty 



( xvii ) 



Organization 
Lloyd Insulations (India) Pvt Ltd, New Delhi 

National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), New Delhi 

School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi 
The Indian Institute of Architects, Mumbai 
The Institution of Engineers (India), Kolkata 



Representative(s) 

Shri N. Srinivas 

Shri B. S. Jamwal (Alternate) 

Dr V. Mohanan 

Dr Omkar Sharma (Alternate) 

Prof (Dr) Shovan K. Saha 

Shri Indranath Basu 

Shri K. V. Chaubal 

Shri P. K. Adlakha (Alternate) 



Panel for Installation of Lifts and Escalators, CED 46:P16 



Organization 
KONE Elevators India Ltd 

Central Public Works Department, New Delhi 

Chief Electrical Inspectorate, Government of Delhi, New Delhi 

Chief Electrical Inspectorate, Govt of Tamil Nadu, Chennai 

Delhi Development Authority, New Delhi 

ECE Industries Ltd, Ghaziabad 

Engineer-in-Chief's Branch, Army Headquarters, New Delhi 

Otis Elevator Company (India) Ltd, New Delhi 

Public Works Department, Government of Maharashtra, Mumbai 

Schindler India Pvt Ltd, Mumbai 

The Institution of Engineers (India), Kolkata 

In personal capacity [4, Vidharbha Samrat Co-operative Housing 
Society, 93 C, V. P. Road, Vile Parle (West), Mumbai 400 056] 



Representative(s) 

Shri A. Sankarakrishnan (Convener) 
Shri L. N. Venkatraman (Alternate I) 
Shri S. Emanuel Rajasekaran (Alternate II) 

Shri J. K. Chaudhury 

Shri A. S. Luthra (Alternate) 

Shri K. L. Grover 

Shri A. K. Aggarwal (Alternate) 

Shri S. Subramanian 

Shri M. Kamal Batcha (Alternate) 

Shri S. K. Sinha 

Shri N. K. Gupta (Alternate) 

Shri P. K. Banka 

Shri Jagat Mohan (Alternate) 

Shri Rama Nath 

Shri M. L. Bansal (Alternate) 

Shri V. S. Mohan 

Shri S. P. Rao (Alternalte I) 

Shri Anurag Manglk (Alternate II) 

Shri A. M. Thatte 

Shri S. D. Mahajan (Alternate) 

Shri Ronnie Dante 

Shri T. A. K. Mathews (Alternate) 

Shri Jagman Singh 

Dr R. K. Dave (Alternate) 

Shri A. S. Herwadkar 



Panel for Plumbing Services, CED 46:P17 



Organization 
Deolalikar Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi 
Birhan Mumbai Licenced Plumbers Association, Mumbai 

Central Building Research Institute (CSIR), Roorkee 

Central Ground Water Board, New Delhi 
Central Pollution Control Board, New Delhi 
Central Public Works Department, New Delhi 
Delhi Development Authority, New Delhi 



Representative(s) 
Shri S. G. Deolalikar (Convener) 

President ^ 

Shri H. Gfl Gandhi (Alternate) 

Shri Suresh Kumar Sharma 
Shri Ajay Singh (Alternate I) 
Shri R. S. Chimote (Alternate II) 

Dr Saleem Romani 

Shri S. K. Sharma (Alternate) 

Dr A. B. Akolkar 

Dr M. Sundarevadival (Alternate) 

Shri H. S. Dogra 

Shri A. K. Sinha (Alternate) 

Shri S. P. Rustogi 

Shri G. K. Sethi (Alternate) 



( xviii ) 



Organization 
Delhi Jal Board, New Delhi 
Engineer- in-Chief s Branch, Army Headquarters, New Delhi 

Indian Plumbing Association, New Delhi 

Indraprastha Gas Ltd, New Delhi 

Municipal Corporation of Delhi, Delhi 

Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, Mumbai 

National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (CSIR), 
Nagpur 

Spectral Services Consultants Pvt Ltd, New Delhi 

The Indian Institute of Architects, Mumbai 

The Institution of Engineers (India), Kolkata 

In personal capacity (B/58A, Gangotri Enclave, Alaknanda, 
New Delhi 110 019) 

In personal capacity (Principal Advisor, School of Environment 
Management, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, 
Keshmere Gate, Delhi 110 006) 

In personal capacity (610, Technology Apartments, 24, Patparganj, 
Delhi 110 092) 



Representative(s) 

Shri Subhash Chander 

Shri Jitendra Singh 

Shri Surya Prakash {Alternate) 

Shri Sudhakaran Nair 

Shri P. Ramachandran (Alternate) 

Shri Peeyush Tripathi 

Shri C. S. Sagar (Alternate) 

Engineer-in-Chief 

Shri M. M. Das (Alternate) 

Shri T. V. Shah 

Shri V. R. Pedhnekar (Alternate) 

Dr Apurba Gupta 

Shri P. S. Kelkar (Alternate) 

Shri Sandeep Goel 

Shri Uday Pande 

Shri P. C. Tyagi 

Shri J. D' Cruz 

Dr D. K. Chadha 



Shri Subir Paul 



Panel for Landscaping, Signs and Outdoor 

Organization 
In personal capacity (5, Sunder Nagar, New Delhi 110003) 
Central Public Works Department, New Delhi 

Council of Architecture, New Delhi 
Delhi Urban Arts Commission, New Delhi 

Housing and Urban Development Corporation, New Delhi 
Institute of Town Planners, India, New Delhi 
Municipal Corporation of Delhi, Delhi 

Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, Mumbai 

National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad 

Selvel Publicity and Consultants Pvt Ltd, Mumbai 

Shaheer Associates, New Delhi 

Town and Country Planning Organization, New Delhi 

The Indian Institute of Architects, Mumbai 

The Institution of Engineers (India), Kolkata 

In personal capacity (D-198, Defence Colony, New Delhi 110024) 



Display Structures, CED 46:P18 

Representative(s) 
Dr J, R. Bhalla (Convener) 

Shri Arvind Kansal 

Shri A. N. Devikar (Alternate) 

Kumari Vinita C. K. Vijayan 

Shri H. K. Yadav 

Shri Dina Nath (Alternate) 

Shri R. K. Safaya 

Dr S. K. Kulshrestha 

Shri S. S. Hadke 

Shri S. Ramesh (Alternate) 

Shri M. S. Ghag 

Shri R. K. Rahate (Alternate) 

Shri Anando Dutta 

Shri J. G. Sevak (Alternate) 

Shri K. S. Nicholson 

Prof M. Shaheer 

Shri J. B. Kshirsagar 

Shri Y. Ramesh (Alternate) 

Shri Mahesh Paliwal 

Prof Jitendra Singh 

Shri Ravindra Bhan 



Member Secretary 

Shri Sanjay Pant 

Joint Director (Civil Engineering) 

Joint Member Secretary 

Shri S. K. Verma 

Deputy Director (Civil Engineering) 



(xix) 



Important Explanatory Note for Users of Code 

In this Code, where reference is made to 'accepted standards' in relation to 
material specification, testing or other related information or where reference 
is made to 'good practice' in relation to design, constructional procedures or 
other related information, the Indian Standards listed at the end of the 
concerned Parts/Sections may be used to the interpretation of these terms. 

At the time of publication, the editions indicated in the above Indian Standards 
were valid. All standards are subject to revision and parties to agreements 
based on the Parts/Sections are encouraged to investigate the possibility of 
applying the most recent editions of the standards. 

In the list of standards given at the end of each Part/Section, the number 
appearing in the first column indicates the number of the reference in that 
Part/Section. For example: 

a) accepted standard [3(1)] refers to the standard given at serial number 

1 of the list of standards given at the end of Part 3, that is IS 8888 
(Part 1) : 1993 'Guide for requirements of low income housing: 
Part 1 Urban area (first revision)' . 

b) good practice [6-5 A(22)] refers to the standard given at serial number 
22 of the list of standards given at the end of sub-section 5 A of Part 6, 
that is IS 4926 : 2003 'Code of practice for ready-mixed concrete 
(second revision) 9 . 

c) accepted standard 7(9) refers to the standard given at serial number 9 
of the list of standards given at the end of Part 7, that is IS 2925 : 1984 
'Specification for industrial safety helmets (second revision)'. 

d) accepted standard [8-5(4)] refers to the standard given at serial number 

2 of the list of standards given at the end of Section 5 of Part 8, that 
is IS 14665 (Part 3/Sec 1 and 2) : 2000 'Electric traction lifts: Part 3 
Safety rules, Section 1 Passenger and goods lifts, Section 2 Service 
lifts'. 

e) good practice [9-2(3)] refers to the standard given at serial number 3 
of the list of standards given at the end of Section % of Part 9, that 
is IS 8198 (Part 5) : 1984 'Code of practice for steel cylinders for 
compressed gases: Part 5 Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) (first 
revision)'. / 



(xxi) 



INFORMATION FOR THE USERS 

For the convenience of the users, this publication is also available in the following five groups of the National 
Building Code of India 2005 each incorporating the related Parts/Sections dealing with particular area of building 
activity: 



Group 1 



For Development, Building 
Planning and Related 
Aspects 



Group 2 



For Structural Design and 
Related Aspects 



PartO: 

Part 2. 
Part 4 
Part 5 
Part 10 



PartO: 



Part 6: 



Group 3 For Construction Related 
Aspects including Safety 

Group 4 For Aspects Relating to 
Building Services 



PartO: 

Part 7: 
PartO: 

Part 8: 



Group 5 For Aspects Relating to 
Plumbing Services 
including Solid Waste 
Management 



PartO: 
Part 9: 



Integrated Approach — Prerequisite for Applying 

Provisions of the Code 

Administration Part 3: Development Control Rules 

Fire and Life Safety and General Building Requirements 

Building Materials 

Landscaping, Signs and Outdoor Display Structures 

Section 1 Landscape Planning and Design 

Section 2 Signs and Outdoor Display Structures 

Integrated Approach — Prerequisite for Applying 

Provisions of the Code 

Structural Design 

Section 1 Loads, Forces and Effects 

Section 2 Soils and Foundations 

Section 3 Timber and Bamboo 

3A Timber 

3B Bamboo 
Section 4 Masonry 
Section 5 Concrete 

5 A Plain and Reinforced Concrete 

5B Prestressed Concrete 
Section 6 Steel 
Section 7 Prefabrication, Systems Building and 

Mixed/Composite Construction 

7A Prefabricated Concrete 

7B Systems Building and Mixed/ 

Composite Construction 

Integrated Approach — Prerequisite for Applying 
Provisions of the Code 
Constructional Practices and Safety 

Integrated Approach — Prerequisite for Applying 

Provisions of the Code 

Building Services 

Section 1 Lighting and Ventilation 

Section 2 Electrical and Allied Installations 

Section 3 Air conditioning, Heating and Mechanical 

Ventilation 
Section 4 Acoustics, Sound Insulation and Noise 

Control 
Section 5 Installation of Lifts and Escalators 

Integrated Approach — Prerequisite for Applying 
Provisions of the Code 
Plumbing Services 

Section 1 Water Supply, Drainage and Sanitation 
(including Solid Waste Management) 

Section 2 Gas Supply 



The information contained in different groups will essentially serve the concerned professionals dealing in the 
respective areas. 



( xxii ) 



CONTENTS 

Total Pages 

Part Integrated Approach — Prerequisite for Applying Provisions of the Code ... 12 

Part 1 Definitions ••• 16 

Part 2 Administration * * • 24 

Part 3 Development Control Rules and General Building Requirements ... 64 

Part 4 Fire and Life Safety • • • 88 

Part 5 Building Materials • • • 40 

Part 6 Structural Design 

Section 1 Loads, Forces and Effects ... 104 

Section 2 Soils and Foundations • • • 48 

Section 3 Timber and Bamboo 

3A Timber ... 50 

3B Bamboo ... 24 

Section 4 Masonry • • * 44 

Section 5 Concrete 

5 A Plain and Reinforced Concrete ... 90 

5B Prestressed Concrete ... 6 

Section 6 Steel ... 8 

Section 7 Prefabrication, Systems Building and Mixed/Composite 
Construction 

7 A Prefabricated Concrete ... 22 

7B Systems Building and Mixed/Composite Construction ... 12 

Part 7 Constructional Practices and Safety ... 70 

Part 8 Building Services 

Section 1 Lighting and Ventilation ... 48 

Section 2 Electrical and Allied Installations ... 68 

Section 3 Air Conditioning, Heating and Mechanical Ventilation ... 48 

Section 4 Acoustics, Sound Insulation and Noise Control ... 44 

Section 5 Installation of Lifts and Escalators ... 42 

Part 9 Plumbing Services 

Section 1 Water Supply, Drainage and Sanitation (including Solid ... 90 

Waste Management) 

Section 2 Gas Supply - • • 14 

Part 10 Landscaping, Signs and Outdoor Display Structures 

Section 1 Landscape Planning and Design ... 30 

Section 2 Signs and Outdoor Display Structures ... 24 



( xxiii ) 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 

PART INTEGRATED APPROACH — PREREQUISITE FOR 
APPLYING PROVISIONS OF THE CODE 



BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS 



CONTENTS 



FOREWORD 

1 SCOPE 

2 TERMINOLOGY 

3 GENERAL 

4 TEAM APPROACH 

5 PLANNING, DESIGNING AND DEVELOPMENT 

6 CONSTRUCTION/EXECUTION (ACTUALIZATION) 

7 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE 

ANNEX A BRIEF DETAILS OF THE COVERAGE OF VARIOUS PROVISIONS 
UNDER DIFFERENT OTHER PARTS/SECTIONS OF THIS CODE 



5 
5 
5 
5 
6 
7 
8 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



National Building Code Sectional Committee, CED 46 



FOREWORD 

In order to provide safe and healthy habitat, careful consideration needs to be paid to the building construction 
activity. Building planning, designing and construction activities have developed over the centuries. Large number 
of ancient monuments and historical buildings all over the world bear testimony to the growth of civilization 
from the prehistoric era with the extensive use of manual labour and simple systems as appropriate to those ages 
to the present day mechanized and electronically controlled operations for designing and constructing buildings 
and for operating and maintaining systems and services. In those days those buildings were conceptualized and 
built by master builders with high levels of artisan skills. Technological and socio-economic developments in 
recent times have led to remarkable increase in demand for more and more sophistication in buildings resulting 
in ever increasing complexities. These perforce demand high levels of inputs from professionals of different 
disciplines such as architecture, civil engineering, structural engineering, functional and life safety services 
including special aspects relating to utilities, landscaping, etc in conceptualization, spatial planning, design and 
construction of buildings of various material and technology streams, with due regard to various services including 
operation, maintenance, repairs and rehabilitation aspects throughout the service life of the building. 

This Code, besides prescribing the various provisions, also allows freedom of action to adopt appropriate practices 
and provides for building planning, designing and construction for absorbing traditional practices as well as 
latest developments in knowledge in the various disciplines as relevant to a building including computer aided 
and/or other modern sensors aided activities in the various stages of conceptualization, planning, designing, 
constructing, maintaining and repairing the buildings. India being a large country with substantial variations 
from region to region, this Code has endeavoured to meet the requirements of different regions of the country, 
both urban and rural, by taking into consideration factors, such as, climatic and environmental conditions, 
geographical terrain, proneness to natural disasters, ecologically appropriate practices, use of eco-friendly materials, 
reduction of pollution, protection and improvement of local environment and also socio-economic considerations, 
towards the creation of sustainable human settlements. 

This Part of the Code dealing with 'integrated approach' is being included for the first time. It gives an overall 
direction for practical applications of the provisions of different specialized aspects of spatial planning, designing 
and construction of buildings, creation of services, and proposes an integrated approach for utilizing appropriate 
knowledge and experience of qualified professionals right from the conceptualization through construction and 
completion stages of a building project and indeed during the entire life cycle. The 'integrated approach' should 
not only take care of functional, aesthetic and safety aspects, but also the operational and maintenance requirements. 
Also, cost optimization has to be achieved through proper selection of materials, techniques, equipment 
installations, etc. Further, value engineering and appropriate management techniques should be applied to achieve 
the aim set forth for the purpose of construction of a building fully meeting the specified and implied needs of 
spatial functions, safety and durability aspects, life and health safety, comfort, services, etc in the building. 

The aim of the 'integrated approach 7 is to get the maximum benefit from the building apd its services in terms of 
quality, timely completion and cost-effectiveness. In the team approach which is an essential pre-requisite for 
integrated approach, the aim clearly is to maximize the efficiency of the total system through appropriate 
optimization of each of its sub- systems. In other words, in the team, the inputs from each of the professional 
disciplines have to be so optimized that the total system's efficiency becomes the maximum. It may be re- 
emphasized that maximizing the efficiencies of each sub-system may not necessarily assure the maximization of 
the efficiency of the total system. It need hardly to be stated that specified or implied safety will always get 
precedence over functional efficiency and economy. Further, progressive approach such as that relating to the 
concept of intelligent buildings would be best taken care of by the 'integrated approach' as laid down in this Part. 

Quality systems approach and certification thereunder covering the various dimensions brought out above may 
go a long way in achieving the above goal of real integrated approach. 



PART INTEGRATED APPROACH 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 

PART INTEGRATED APPROACH — PREREQUISITE FOR 
APPLYING PROVISIONS OF THE CODE 



1 SCOPE 

This Part covers guidelines to be followed for judicious 
implementation of the provisions of various Parts/ 
Sections of the Code. 

2 TERMINOLOGY 

2.0 For the purpose of this Part, the following 
definitions and those given in Part 1 'Definitions' shall 
apply. 

2.1 Authority Having Jurisdiction — The Authority 
which has been created by a statute and which, for the 
purpose of administering the Code/Part, may authorize 
a committee or an official or an agency to act on its 
behalf; hereinafter called the 'Authority'. 

2.2 Building — Any structure for whatsoever purpose 
and of whatsoever materials constructed and every part 
thereof whether used as human habitation or not and 
includes foundation, plinth, walls, floors, roofs, 
chimneys, plumbing and building services, fixed 
platforms, VERANDAH, balcony, cornice or projection, 
part of a building or anything affixed thereto or any 
wall enclosing or intended to enclose any land or space 
and signs and outdoor display structures. Tents/ 
SHAMIANAHS/PANDALS, tarpaulin shelters, etc, 
erected for temporary and ceremonial occasions shall 
not be considered as building. 

2.3 Owner — Person or body having a legal interest 
in land and/or building thereon. This includes free 
holders, leaseholders or those holding a sub-lease 
which both bestows a legal right to occupation and 
gives rise to liabilities in respect of safety or building 
condition. 

In case of lease or sub-lease holders, as far as ownership 
with respect to the structure is concerned, the structure 
of a flat or structure on a plot belongs to the allottee/ 
lessee till the allotment/lease subsists. 

NOTE — For the purpose of the Code, the word 'owner' will 
also cover the generally understood terms like 'client', 'user', 
etc. 

3 GENERAL 

3.1 Buildings, shall be classified as Residential, 
Educational, Institutional, Assembly, Business, 
Mercantile, Industrial, Storage and Hazardous in 
groups and sub-division as classified in Part 4 Tire 
and Life Safety'. 

For further sub-classification of buildings and various 
related provisions thereof with respect to administration; 



development control rules and general building 
requirements; building materials; fire and life safety; 
structural design; constructional practices and safety; 
building and plumbing services; and landscaping, signs 
and outdoor display structures, other parts/sections of 
the Code may be referred to. 

3.2 The scope of various Parts/Sections of the Code 
which cover detailed provisions on different aspects 
of development of land/building construction activity, 
are given in Annex A, with a view to providing an 
overview for the users of the Code. 

4 TEAM APPROACH 

A land development/building project comprises the 
following major stages: 

a) Location/siting, 

b) Conceptualization and planning, 

c) Designing and detailing, 

d) Construction/execution, and 

e) Maintenance and repair. 

Each stage necessarily requires professionals of many 
disciplines who should work together as a well 
coordinated team to achieve the desired product 
delivery with quality, in an effective manner. 

Appropriate multi-disciplinary teams need to be 
constituted to successfully meet the requirements of 
different stages. Each team may comprise need based 
professionals out of the following depending upon the 
nature, magnitude and complexity of the project: 

a) Architect, 

b) Civil engineer, 

c) Structural engineer, 

d) Electrical engineer, 

e) Plumbing engineer, 

f) Fire protection engineer, 

g) HVAC engineer, 

h) Environment specialist, 

j) Town planner, 

k) Urban designer, 

m) Landscape architect, 

n) Security system specialist, 

p) Interior designer, 

q) Quantity surveyor, 

r) Project/construction manager, and 

s) Other subject specialist(s). 



PART INTEGRATED APPROACH 



4.1 Design Team 

In building projects various aspects like form; space 
planning; aesthetics; fire and life safety; structural 
adequacy; plumbing services; lighting and natural 
ventilation; electrical and allied installations; air 
conditioning, heating and mechanical ventilation; 
acoustics, sound insulation and noise control; 
installation of lifts and escalators; building automation; 
data and voice communication; other utility services 
installations; landscape planning and design; urban 
planning; etc need to be kept in view right at the 
concept stage. The project requiring such multi- 
disciplinary inputs need a co-ordinated approach 
among the professionals for proper integration of 
various design inputs. For this, and to take care of the 
complexities of multi-disciplinary requirements, a 
design team of professionals from required disciplines 
shall be constituted at the appropriate stage. Here, it is 
desirable that the multi-disciplinary integration is 
initiated right from the concept stage. The team shall 
finalize the plan. The composition of the team shall 
depend on the nature and magnitude of the project. 
Design is an evolutionary and participatory process, 
where participation of owner constitutes a very 
important input at all stages, and the same shall be 
ensured by the design team. 

To ensure proper implementation of the design, the 
design team, may be associated during the construction/ 
execution stage. 

4.2 Project Management and Construction 
Management Teams 

The objective of project management or construction 
management is primarily to achieve accomplishment 
of project in accordance with the designs and 
specifications in a stipulated time and cost framework, 
with a degree of assurance prior to commencement and 
satisfaction on accomplishment. 

For large projects, separate teams of experienced 
professionals from the required disciplines may 
be constituted for project management and for 
construction management depending upon the 
complexities of the project. However, for smaller 
projects these teams may be combined. The teams shall 
be responsible for day-to-day execution, supervision, 
quality control, etc and shall ensure inter-disciplinary 
co-ordination during the construction stage. The team 
shall be responsible to achieve satisfactory completion 
of the project with regard to cost, time and quality. 
Some members of the design team may also be 
included in the project management team and/or 
associated actively during the project execution stage. 
It is important that leaders and members of project 
management/construction management teams, 



depending on the size and complexity of the project, 
are carefully selected considering their qualification, 
experience and expertise in these fields. 

4.3 Operation and Maintenance Team 

Operation, maintenance and repairs also require a 
multi-disciplinary approach to ensure that all the 
requirements of the users are satisfactorily. met. During 
maintenance and repairs, the jobs requiring inter- 
disciplinary co-ordination have to be executed in such 
a manner as not only to cause least inconvenience to 
the user but also to ensure that there is no mismatch or 
damage to the structure, finishings, fittings and fixtures. 
For carrying out routine maintenance/repair jobs, 
utilization of the services of trained technicians 
preferably having multi-disciplinary skills should be 
encouraged. 

Special repairs, rehabilitation and retrofitting are 
specialized jobs which demand knowledge of the 
existing structure/installations. Association of 
concerned specialists may be helpful for these works. 

The Operation and Maintenance Team may also be 
known as Asset Management or Estate Management 
Team. 

5 PLAN^mVG,DESIGMNGA]^roDEVELOPMENT 

5.1 The main functions of design team (see 4.1) 
constituted for the planning, designing and development, 
are as under: 

a) Formalization of design brief in consultation 
with the owner. 

b) Site investigation/survey. 

c) Preparation of alternative concept designs. 

d) Selection of a concept in consultation with 
and with the consent of owner. 

e) Sizing the system. 

f) Development of design, covering : 

1) Integration of architecture, structure and 
services, 

2) Synthesis of requirements of each 
discipline, and 

3) Interaction with each other and with the 
owner. 

g) Preparation of preliminary designs and 
drawings and obtaining owner's approval. 

h) Preparation of preliminary cost estimates for 

approval of owner, 
j) Preparation of work-breakdown structure and 

programme for pre-construction activities, 
k) Assisting client to obtain approvals of the 

Authority, 
m) Preparation of detailed specification and 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



construction working drawings with integration 

of engineering inputs of all concerned 

disciplines, 
n) Preparation of detailed design of each 

discipline for various services, 
p) Peer review/proof checking of the drawings/ 

designs in case of important projects, 

depending upon their complexity and 

sensitivity. 

q) Preparation of detailed cost estimate, 
r) Obtaining final approval of client. 
s) Preparation of bill of quantities, specifications 
and tender documents. 

5.2 The following considerations, as may be 
applicable to the project, may be considered during 
planning, notwithstanding other relevant aspects 
specifically prescribed in concerned parts/sections of 
this Code; these considerations in general are with the 
objective of addressing to the important issues like 
environmental protection, energy conservation, 
cultural issues, creating barrier free built-environment, 
safety aspects, etc, all of these leading towards 
sustainable development, and have to be applied with 
due regard to the specific requirements of size and type 
of project: 

a) Geoclimatic, geological and topographical 
features. 

b) Varied sociological pattern of living in the 
country. 

c) Effective land use to cater to the needs of the 
society in a most convenient manner. 

d) Modular planning and standardization to 
take care of future planning giving due 
consideration to the specified planning 
controls. 

e) Emphasis on daylight utilization, natural 
ventilation, shielding, and window area 
and its disposition; daylighting to be 
supplemented with an integrated design of 
artificial lighting. 

f) Optimum utilization of renewable energy 
sources duly integrated in the overall energy 
system design; with consideration of active 
and passive aspects in building design 
including thermal performance of building 
envelope. 

g) Rain water harvesting, and use of appropriate 
building materials considering aspects 
like energy consumption in production, 
transportation and utilization, recyclability, 
etc for promoting sustainable development. 

h) Requisite mandatory provisions for 
handicapped persons. 



j) Acoustical controls for buildings and the 

surroundings, 
k) Promotion of artwork in buildings, specially 

buildings of importance, 
m) Due cognizance of recommendations of the 

Archeological Survey of India with regard to 

national monuments and construction in 

archeologically important sites, 
n) Due cognizance of relevant provisions of 

applicable coastal zone regulation act. 
p) Conservation of heritage structures and areas, 
q) Environmental and social impact analysis. 
r) Design of services with emphasis on aspects 

of energy efficiency, environment friendliness 

and maintainability. 
s) Integrated waste management, 
t) Voice and data communication, automation 

of building services, and intelligent building; 

use of security and surveillance system in 

important and sensitive buildings, such as, 

access control for the people as well as for 

vehicle, 
u) Interlinking of fire alarm system, fire 

protection system, security system, ventilation, 

electrical systems, etc. 
v) Analysis of emergency power, standby power 

requirement and captive power systems, 
w) Cost optimization through techniques like 

value engineering. 

y) Adoption of innovative technologies giving 
due consideration to constructability and 
quality aspects. 

z) Instrumentation of buildings and monitoring 
and use of information so generated to effect 
improvements in planning and design of 
future building projects. 

6 CONSTRUCTION/EXECUTION 
(ACTUALIZATION) 

6.1 The main functions of the teams (see 4.2) 
constituted for Project Management/Construction 
Management may be, to : 

a) specify criteria for selection of constructors; 

b) specify quality control, quality audit system 
and safety system; 

c) short-list constructors; 

d) have pre-bid meetings with the intending 
constructors; 

e) receive and evaluate tenders; 

f) select constructors; 

g) execution and supervision; 

h) monitor quality, time and cost control; 



PART INTEGRATED APPROACH 



j) prepare/certify the completion (as-built) 
drawings; and 

k) ensure availability of operation manuals for 
field use. 

6.2 Apart from the specific provisions laid down in 
the concerned Parts/Sections of the Code, the following 
considerations, as may be applicable to the project 
concerned, shall be given due attention: 

a) Adopting scientific principles of construction 
management, quality management, cost and 
time control. 

b) Engagement of executing and supervising 
agencies, which meet the specified norms of 
skills, specialization, experience, resource- 
fulness, etc for the work. 

c) Ensuring inter-disciplinary co-ordination 
during construction. 

d) Contract management and techno-legal 
aspects. 

e) Completion, commissioning and trial run of 
installations/equipments and their operation 
and maintenance through the suppliers/other 
teams, where necessary. 

f) Make available shop drawings as well as as- 
built drawings for the building and services. 

g) Arrange all maintenance and operation 
manual from the concerned suppliers/ 
manufacturers. 

6.3 The team of professionals (see 4.2) shall work 
and monitor the project activities for successful 
construction/execution of the project with regard to 
cost, time, quality and safety. 

7 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE 

7.1 The team of professionals (see 4.3) shall set up a 



system of periodic maintenance and upkeep of 
constructed buildings. 

7.2 The operation and maintenance team shall be 
responsible for preparation/application of operation 
and maintenance manual, and draw maintenance 
schedule/frequencies and guidelines for maintenance 
personnel. Apart from the specific provisions laid down 
in concerned Parts/Sections of the Code, the following, 
as may be applicable to the project concerned shall 
additionally be taken into account: 

a) Periodic validation of buildings by competent 
professionals through inspection of the 
buildings in respect of structural safety and 
safety of electrical and other installations and 
ensuring that all fire safety equipments/ 
systems are in proper working condition. 

b) Preparation of preventive maintenance 
schedules for all installations in the building 
and strictly following the same; the record of 
the preventive maintenance to be properly 
kept. 

c) Ensuring inter-disciplinary co-ordination 
during maintenance and repairs; deployment 
of trained personnel with multi-disciplinary 
skills to be encouraged. 

d) Condition survey of structures and 
installations, identification of distress of 
various elements and initiating plans for 
rehabilitation/retrofitting well in time. 

7.3 The proposals for rehabilitation/retrofitting should 
be prepared after detailed investigations through visual 
inspection, maintenance records and testing as required 
and got executed through specialized agencies 
under the guidance and supervision of competent 
professionals. 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



ANNEX A 

(Clause 3.2) 

BRIEF DETAILS OF THE COVERAGE OF VARIOUS PROVISIONS UNDER 
DIFFERENT OTHER PARTS/SECTIONS OF THIS CODE 



A-l PART 1 DEFINITIONS 

It lists the terms appearing in all the Parts/Sections of 
the Code. However, some common definitions are 
reproduced in this Part also. 

A-2 PART 2 ADMINISTRATION 

It covers the administrative aspects of the Code, such 
as applicability of the Code, organization of building 
department for enforcement of the Code, procedure 
for obtaining development and building permits, and 
responsibility of the owner and all professionals 
involved in the planning, design and construction of 
the building. 

A-3 PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES 
AND GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS 

It covers the development control rules and general 
building requirements for proper planning and design 
at the layout and building level to ensure health safety, 
public safety and desired quality of life. 

A-4 PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 

It covers the requirements for fire prevention, life 
safety in relation to fire, and fire protection of 
buildings. The Code specifies planning and 
construction features and fire protection features for 
all occupancies that are necessary to minimize danger 
to life and property. 

A-5 PART 5 BUILDING MATERIALS 

It covers the requirements of building materials and 
components, and criteria for accepting new or 
alternative building materials and components. 

A-6 PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN 

This Part through its seven sections provides for 
structural adequacy of buildings to deal with both 
internal and external environment, and provide 
guidance to engineers/structural engineers for varied 
usage of material/technology types for building 
design. 

A-6.1 Section 1 Loads, Forces and Effects 

it covers basic design loads to be assumed in the design 
of buildings. The live loads, wind loads, seismic loads, 
snow loads and other loads, which are specified therein, 
are minimum working loads which should be taken 
into consideration for purposes of design. 



A-6.2 Section 2 Soils and Foundations 

It covers structural design (principles) of all building 
foundations, such as, raft, pile and other foundation 
systems to ensure safety and serviceability without 
exceeding the permissible stresses of the materials of 
foundations and the bearing capacity of the supporting 
soil. 

A-6.3 Section 3 Timber and Bamboo 

A-6.3.1 Section 3A Timber 

It covers the use of structural timber in structures or 
elements of structures connected together by fasteners/ 
fastening techniques. 

A-6.3.2 Section 3B Bamboo 

It covers the use of bamboo for constructional purposes 
in structures or elements of the structure, ensuring 
quality and effectiveness of design and construction 
using bamboo. It covers minimum strength data, 
dimensional and grading requirements, seasoning, 
preservative treatment, design and jointing techniques 
with bamboo which would facilitate scientific 
application and long-term performance of structures. 
It also covers guidelines so as to ensure proper 
procurement, storage, precautions and design 
limitations on bamboo. 

A-6.4 Section 4 Masonry 

It covers the structural design aspects of unreinforced 
load bearing and non-load bearing walls, constructed 
using various bricks, stones and blocks permitted in 
accordance with this Section. This, however, also 
covers provisions for design of reinforced brick and 
reinforced brick concrete floors and roofs. It also 
covers guidelines regarding earthquake resistance of 
low strength masonry buildings. 

A-6.5 Section 5 Concrete 

A-6.5.1 Section 5A Plain and Reinforced Concrete 

It covers the general structural use of plain and 
reinforced concrete. 

A-6.5.2 Section 5B Prestressed Concrete 

It covers the general structural use of prestressed 
concrete. It covers both work carried out on site and 
the manufacture of precast prestressed concrete 
units. 



PART INTEGRATED APPROACH 



A-6.6 Section 6 Steel 

It covers the use of structural steel in general building 
construction including the use of hot rolled steel 
sections and steel tubes. 

A-6.7 Section 7 Prefabrication, Systems Building 
and Mixed/Composite Construction 

A-6.7.1 Section 7 A Prefabricated Concrete 

It covers recommendations regarding modular 
planning, component sizes, prefabrication systems, 
design considerations, joints and manufacture, storage, 
transport and erection of prefabricated concrete 
elements for use in buildings and such related 
requirements for prefabricated concrete. 

A-6.7.2 Section 7B Systems Building and Mixed/ 
Composite Construction 

It covers recommendations regarding modular 
planning, component sizes, joints, manufacture, 
storage, transport and erection of prefabricated 
elements for use in buildings and such related 
requirements for mixed/composite construction. 

A-7 PART 7 CONSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES 
AND SAFETY 

It covers the constructional planning, management and 
practices in buildings; storage, stacking and handling 
of materials and safety of personnel during construction 
operations for all elements of a building and demolition 
of buildings. It also covers guidelines relating to 
maintenance management, repairs, retrofitting and 
strengthening of buildings. The objective can be best 
achieved through proper coordination and working by 
the project management and construction management 
teams. 

A-8 PART 8 BUILDING SERVICES 

This Part through its five elaborate sections on utilities 
provides detailed guidance to concerned professionals/ 
utility engineers for meeting necessary functional 
requirements in buildings. 

A-8.1 Section 1 Lighting and Ventilation 

It covers requirements and methods for lighting and 
ventilation of buildings. 

A-8.2 Section 2 Electrical and Allied Installations 

It covers the essential requirements for electrical and 
allied installations in buildings to ensure efficient use 
of electricity including safety from fire and shock. This 
Section also includes general requirements relating to 
lightning protection of buildings. 



A-8.3 Section 3 Air Conditioning, Heating and 
Mechanical Ventilation 

This Section covers the design, construction and 
installation of air conditioning and heating systems and 
equipment installed in buildings for the purpose 
of providing and maintaining conditions of air 
temperature, humidity, purity and distribution suitable 
for the use and occupancy of the space. 

A-8.4 Section 4 Acoustics, Sound Insulation and 
Noise Control 

It covers requirements and guidelines regarding 
planning against noise, acceptable noise levels and the 
requirements for sound insulation in buildings with 
different occupancies. 

A-8.5 Section 5 Installation of Lifts and 
Escalators 

It covers the essential requirements for the installation, 
operation, maintenance and also inspection of lifts 
(passenger lifts, goods lifts, hospital lifts, service lifts 
and dumb-waiter) and escalators so as to ensure safe 
and satisfactory performance. 

A-9 PART 9 PLUMBING SERVICES 

This Part through its two sections gives detailed 
guidance to concerned professionals/plumbing 
engineers with regard to plumbing and other related 
requirements in buildings. 

A-9.1 Section 1 Water Supply, Drainage and 
Sanitation (Including Solid Waste Management) 

It covers the basic requirements of water supply for 
residential, business and other types of buildings, 
including traffic terminal stations. This Section also 
deals with general requirements of plumbing connected 
to public water supply and design of water supply 
systems. 

It also covers the design, layout, construction and 
maintenance of drains for foul water, surface water 
and sub-soil water and sewage; together with all 
ancillary works, such as connections, manholes and 
inspection chambers used within the building and from 
building to the connection to a public sewer, private 
sewer, individual sewage-disposal system, cess-pool, 
soakaway or to other approved point of disposal/ 
treatment work. It also includes the provisions on solid 
waste management. 

A-9.2 Section 2 Gas Supply 

It covers the requirements regarding the safety of persons 
and property for all piping uses and for all types of gases 
used for fuel or lighting purposes in buildings. 



10 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



A-10 PART 10 LANDSCAPING, SIGNS AND A-10.2 Section 2 Signs and Outdoor Display 

OUTDOOR DISPLAY STRUCTURES Structures 

A-10.1 Section 1 Landscape Planning and Design It covers the requirements with regard to public safety, 

It covers requirements of landscape planning and struct » ral safety and fire safety of all signs and outdoor 

design with the view to promoting quality of outdoor dls P la y structures including the overall aesthetical 

built environment and protection of land and its as P ects of imposition of signs and outdoor display 

resources structures in the outdoor built environment. 



PART INTEGRATED APPROACH 11 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 

PART 1 DEFINITIONS 



BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS 



National Building Code Sectional Committee, CED 46 



FOREWORD 

Each Part or Section of the National Building Code gives the definitions of the special terms used in it. These 
definitions may be found in the clause Terminology' normally placed immediately after the 'Scope' in each 
Part/Section. However, users may find this part very convenient for reference as it gives the alphabetically 
arranged list of terms defined in all the parts along with the location of the definition. 



PART 1 DEFINITIONS 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



PART 1 DEFINITIONS 



1 SCOPE 

This Part lists the terms appearing in all the Parts/ 
Sections of the National Building Code of India. The 
terms have been arranged in their alphabetical order. 
The Part(s)/Section(s) in which these terms are 
appearing, have been indicated against the terms. 

However, some common definitions are reproduced 
in this part also; the definitions being placed 
immediately below the term concerned. 



Abandoned Sign — Part 10/Section 2 
Access — Part 3 
Access Panel — Part 9/Section 1 
Accessory — Part 8/Section 2 
Accessory Use — Part 2, Part 3 

Any use of the premises subordinate to the principal 
use and customarily incidental to the principal use. 

Advertising Sign — Part 10/Section 2 
Air Change per Hour — Part 8/Section 1 
Air Conditioning — Part 8/Section 3 
Air Gap — Part 9/Section 1 
Air-Break — Part 9/Section 1 
Alteration — Part 2, Part 3 

A change from one occupancy to another, or a 
structural change, such as an addition to the area or 
height, or the removal of part of a building, or any 
change to the structure, such as the construction of, 
cutting into or removal of any wall, partition, column, 
beam, joist, floor or other support, or a change to or 
closing of any required means of ingress or egress or a 
change to the fixtures or equipment. 

Alternating Current Variable Voltage (ACW) Control 

— Part 8/Section 5 

Alternating Current Variable Voltage Variable 

Frequency (ACVWF) Control — Part 8/Section 5 

Altitude (6) — Part 8/Section 1 

Ambient Noise — Part 8/Section 4 

Anatomical Purpose Definitions for Engineers — 

Part 6/Section 3B 

Apparatus — Part 8/Section 2 

Appliance — Part 8/Section 2 

Appliance Valve — Part 9/Section 2 

Approved — Part 2, Part 3, Part 10/Section 2 

Approved by the Authority having jurisdiction. 

Area of Special Control — Part 10/Section 2 



Atmospheric Pressure — Part 8/Section 3 
Audible Frequency Range — Part 8/Section 4 
Authority Having Jurisdiction — Part 2, Part 3, 
Part 6/Section 7B, Part 9/Section 1, Part 9/Section 2, 
Part 10/Section 2 

The Authority which has been created by a statute and 
which, for the purpose of administering the Code/Part, 
may authorize a committee or an official or an agency 
to act on its behalf; hereinafter called the 'Authority'. 

Automatic Fire Detection and Alarm System — Part 4 

Automatic Operation — Part 8/Section 5 

Automatic Sprinkler System — Part 4 

Available Head — Part 9/Section 1 

Avenue — Part 10/Section 1 

A-Weighted Sound Pressure Level, L A — Part 8/ 

Section 4 

A-Weighted Sound Pressure, p A — Part 8/Section 4 

Axial Flow Fan — Part 8/Section 1 

Azimuth (())) — Part 8/Section 1 

B 

Back Fill — Part 6/Section 2 

Back Siphonage — Part 9/Section 1 

Back to Back Cluster — Part 3 

Back Up — Part 9/Section 1 

Backflow Prevention Device — Part 9/Section 1 

Backflow — Part 9/Section 1 

Background Noise — Part 8/Section 4 

Balcony — Part 3 

Baluster — Part 8/Section 5 

Balustrade — Part 8/Section 5 

Bamboo — Part 6/Section 3B 

Bamboo Borer (Bamboo GHOON)— Part 6/Section 3B 

Bamboo Clump — Part 6/Section 3B 

Bamboo Culm — Part 6/Section 3B 

Bamboo Mat Board — Part 6/Section 3B 

Banner — Part 10/Section 2 

Banner Sign — Part 10/Section 2 

Barrel — Part 9/Section 1 

Base — Part 9/Section 1 

Basement or Cellar — Part 3 

Basic Module — Part 6/Section 7A, Part 6/Section 7B 

Basic or Ultimate Stress — Part 6/Section 3, 

Part 6/Section 3B 

Batter Pile (Raker Pile) — Part 6/Section 2 

Battery of Fixtures — Part 9/Section 1 



PART 1 DEFINITIONS 



Beam — Part 6/Section 3B 

Beam, Built-Up-Laminated — Part 6/Section 3 

Beam, Glued-Laminated — Part 6/Section 3 

Bearing Capacity, Safe — Part 6/Section 2 

Bearing Capacity, Ultimate — Part 6/Section 2 

Bearing Pile — Part 6/Section 2 

Bearing Pressure, Allowable (Gross or Net) — Part 6/ 

Section 2 

Bearing Pressure, Allowable — Part 6/Section 2 

Bearing Pressure, Safe — Part 6/Section 2 

Bed Block — Part 6/Section 4 

Bedding — Part 9/Section 1 

Benching — Part 9/Section 1 

Bond — Part 6/Section 4 

Bored Cast in-situ Pile — Part 6/Section 2 

Bored Compaction Pile — Part 6/Section 2 

Bored Pile — Part 6/Section 2 

Bottom Car Clearance — Part 8/Section 5 

Bottom Car Runby — Part 8/Section 5 

Bottom Coutnerweight Runby — Part 8/Section 5 

Boucherie Process — Part 6/Section 3B 

Branch — Part 9/Section 1 

Branch Soil Pipe (BSP) — Part 9/Section 1 

Branch Soil Waste Pipe (BSWP) — Part 9/Section 1 

Branch Ventilating Pipe (BVP) — Part 9/Section 1 

Branch Waste Pipe (BWP) — Part 9/Section 1 

Break-in — Part 8/Section 4 

Breaking Strength — Part 6/Section 3B 

Break-out — Part 8/Section 4 

Brightness Ratio or Contrast — Part 8/Section 1 

Broad Band Noise — Part 8/Section 4 

Buffer — Part 10/Section 1, Part 8/Section 5 

Building (House) Drain — Part 9/Section 1 

Building (House) Drain-Combined — Part 9/Section 1 

Building (House) Drain-Sanitary — Part 9/Section 1 

Building (House) Drain-Storm — Part 9/Section 1 

Building (House) Sewer — Part 9/Section 1 

Building (House) Sub-Drain — Part 9/Section 1 

Building (House) Trap — Part 9/Section 1 

Building — Part 2, Part 3, Part 4 

Any structure for whatsoever purpose and of 
whatsoever materials constructed and every part 
thereof whether used as human habitation or not and 
includes foundation, plinth, walls, floors, roofs, 
chimneys, plumbing and building services, fixed 
platforms, verandah, balcony, cornice or projection, 
part of a building or anything affixed thereto or any 
wall enclosing or intended to enclose any land or space 
and signs and outdoor display structures. Tents/ 



SHAMIANAHS, tarpaulin shelters, etc, erected for 
temporary and ceremonial occasions with the 
permission of the Authority shall not be considered as 
building. 

Building, Height of— Part 2, Part 3, Part 4 

The vertical distance measured, in the case of flat roofs 
from the average level of the ground around and 
contiguous to the building or as decided by the 
Authority to the terrace of last livable floor of the 
building adjacent to the external walls; and in the case 
of pitched roofs, up to the point where the external 
surface of the outer wall intersects the finished surface 
of the sloping roof, and in the case of gables facing the 
road, the mid-point between the eaves level and the 
ridge. Architectural features serving no other function 
except that of decoration shall be excluded for the 
purpose of measuring heights. 

Building Line — Part 2, Part 3, Part 10/Section 2 

The line up to which the plinth of a building adjoining 
a street or an extension of a street or on a future street 
may lawfully extend. It includes the lines prescribed, 
if any, in any scheme. The building line may change 
from time-to-time as decided by the Authority. 

Buildings Related Illnesses (BRI) — Part 8/Section 3 
Bunched — Part 8/Section 2 



Cabin — Part 3 

Cable — Part 8/Section 2 

Cable Armoured — Part 8/Section 2 

Cable, Crossed Linked Insulated — Part 8/Section 2 

Cable, Flexible — Part 8/Section 2 

Cable, Lead-Covered — Part 8/Section 2 

Cable, Metal-Sheathed — Part 8/Section 2 

Cable, PVC-Insulated — Part 8/Section 2 

Cable, PVC-Sheathed — Part 8/Section 2 

Cable, Tough Rubber-Sheathed (Cable, TRS) — Part 8/ 

Section 2 

Cable, Weatherproof— Part 8/Section 2 

Cable, XLPE — Part 8/Section 2 

Call Indicator — Part 8/Section 5 

Candela (cd) — Part 8/Section 1 

Canopy — Part 3 

Canopy Sign — Part 10/Section 2 

Car Bodywork — Part 8/Section 5 

Car Door Electric Contact — Part 8/Section 5 

Car Platform — Part 8/Section 5 

Car Switch Operation — Part 8/Section 5 

Carframe — Part 8/Section 5 

Carpet Area — Part 3 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



Ceiling Rose — Part 8/Section 2 

Cell — Part 6/Section 3B 

Cellular Concrete — Part 6/Section 7B, Part 6/ 

Section 7A 

Cellulose — Part 6/Section 3B 

Central Field — Part 8/Section 1 

Centre Internode — Part 6/Section 3B 

Centrifugal Fan — Part 8/Section 1 

Cesspool — Part 9/Section 1 

Chair — Part 9/Section 1 

Channel — Part 9/Section 1 

Characteristic Load — Part 6/Section 3B 

Characteristic Strength — Part 6/Section 3B 

Check — Part 6/Section 3 

CHHAJJA — Part 3 

Chimney — Part 3 

Chowk or Courtyard — Part 3 

Chowk, Inner — Part 3 

Chowk, Outer — Part 3 

Chute — Part 9/Section 1 

Circuit — Part 8/Section 2 

Circuit Breaker — Part 8/Section 2 

Circuit Final, Sub — Part 8/Section 2 

Cistern — Part 9/Section 1 

Clay — Part 6/Section 2 

Clay, Firm — Part 6/Section 2 

Clay, Soft — Part 6/Section 2 

Clay, Stiff— Part 6/Section 2 

Cleaning Eye — Part 9/Section 1 

Clear Design Sky — Part 8/Section 1 

Clear Waste Water — Part 9/Section 1 

Clearance — Part 8/Section 5 

Cleat — Part 8/Section 2 

Cleavability — Part 6/Section 3B 

Cleavage — Part 6/Section 3B 

Climber (Creeper/Vine) — Part 10/Section 1 

Closed Clusters — Part 3 

Closed Sign — Part 10/Section 2 

Cluster — Part 3 

Cluster Court Town House — Part 3 

Cluster Plot — Part 3 

Collapse — Part 6/Section 3B 

Collection Chamber — Part 9/Section 1 

Column — Part 6/Section 3B 

Column, Pier and Buttress — Part 6/Section 4 

Columnar — Part 10/Section 1 

Combination Sign — Part 10/Section 2 

Combustible Material — Part 4, Part 10/Section 2 



The material which either burns itself or adds heat to a 
fire, when tested for non-combustibility in accordance 
with accepted standard [4(1)]. 

Common Rafter — Part 6/Section 3B 
Communication Pipe — Part 9/Section 1 
Components — Part 6/Section 7A, Part 6/Section 7B 
Composite Members — Part 6/Section 7A, Part 6/ 
Section 7B 

Compression Wood — Part 6/Section 3 

Conductor of a Cable or Core — Part 8/Section 2 

Conductor, Aerial — Part 8/Section 2 

Conductor, Bare — Part 8/Section 2 

Conductor, Earthed — Part 8/Section 2 

Conductor, Insulated — Part 8/Section 2 

Connection — Part 9/Section 1 

Connector — Part 8/Section 2 

Connector Box or Joint Box — Part 8/Section 2 

Connector for Portable Appliances — Part 8/Section 2 

Conservation (Preservation) — Part 10/Section 1 

Consumer — Part 9/Section 1 

Consumer's Pipe — Part 9/Section 1 

Consumer's Terminals — Part 8/Section 2 

Contaminants — Part 8/Section 1 

Contour — Part 10/Section 1 

Contour Interval — Part 10/Section 1 

Contour Line — Part 10/Section 1 

Control — Part 8/Section 5 

Conventional Symbols — Part 8/Section 2 

Conversion — Part 2 

Cooking Alcove — Part 3 

Cord, Flexible — Part 8/Section 2 

Core of a Cable — Part 8/Section 2 

Counterweight — Part 8/Section 5 

Cover — Part 9/Section 1 

Covered Area — Part 3, Part 4 

Ground area covered by the building immediately 
above the plinth level. The area covered by the 
following in the open spaces is excluded from covered 
area: 

a) garden, rockery, well and well structures, 
plant nursery, waterpool, swimming pool (if 
uncovered), platform round a tree, tank, 
fountain, bench, CHABUTARA with open top 
and unenclosed on sides by walls and the 
like; 

b) drainage culvert, conduit, catch-pit, gully pit, 
chamber, gutter and the like; 

c) compound wall, gate, unstoreyed porch and 
portico, slide, swing, uncovered staircases, 



PART 1 DEFINITIONS 



ramp areas covered by CHHAJJA and the like; 
and 
d) watchman's booth, pumphouse, garbage 
shaft, electric cabin or sub-stations, and such 
other utility structures meant for the services 
of the building under consideration. 

NOTE — For the purpose of this part, covered area 
equals the plot area minus the area due for open spaces 
in the plot. 

Crookedness — Part 6/Section 3B 

Cross Wall — Part 6/Section 3B 

Cross-Connection — Part 9/Section 1 

Cross-Sectional Area of Masonry Unit — Part 6/ 

Section 4 

Cross-Talk — Part 8/Section 4 

Crown of Trap — Part 9/Section 1 

'Cul-de-Sac' Cluster — Part 3 

Curtain Wall — Part 6/Section 4 

Curvature — Part 6/Section 3B 

Customer's/Consumer's Connection — Part 9/ 

Section 2 

Cut-off Level — Part 6/Section 2 

Cut-out — Part 8/Section 2 

D 

Damp Situation — Part 8/Section 2 

Daylight Area — Part 8/Section 1 

Daylight Factor — Part 8/Section 1 

Daylight Penetration — Part 8/Section 1 

Dead — Part 8/Section 2 

Dead Knot — Part 6/Section 3 

Decay or Rot — Part 6/Section 3 

Decayed Knot — Part 6/Section 3 

Decibels — Part 8/Section 4 

Deciduous Tree — Part 10/Section 1 

Deep Manhole — Part 9/Section 1 

Definitions of Defects in Bamboo — Part 6/Section 3B 

Definitions of Defects in Timber — Part 6/Section 3 

Deflector Shieve — Part 8/Section 5 

Delamination — Part 6/Section 3B 

Density — Part 3 

Depth of Manhole — Part 9/Section 1 

Detached Building — Part 3 

Development — Part 2, Part 3 

'Development' with grammatical variations means the 
carrying out of building, engineering, mining or other 
operations in, or over, or under land or water, or in 
the use of any building or land, and includes 
redevelopment and layout and subdivision of any land; 
and 'to develop' shall be construed accordingly. 



Dewpoint Temperature — Part 8/Section 3 

Diameter — Part 9/Section 1 

The nominal internal diameter of pipes and fittings. 

Diameter of Knot — Part 6/Section 3 

Diaphragm, Structural — Part 6/Section 3B 

Dilution Ventilation — Part 8/Section 1 

Direct Earthing System — Part 8/Section 2 

Direct Solar Illuminance — Part 8/Section 1 

Direct Tap — Part 9/Section 1 

Direction Sign — Part 10/Section 2 

Discolouration — Part 6/Section 3, Part 6/Section 3B 

Discrimination (Over-Current Discrimination) — 
Part 8/Section 2 

Distance Area of Resistance Area (for Earth Electrode 

only) — Part 8/Section 2 

Distribution Board — Part 8/Section 2 

Door — Part 8/Section 5 

Door Closer — Part 8/Section 5 

Door Operator — Part 8/Section 5 

Door, Centre Opening Sliding — Part 8/Section 5 

Door, Mid-Bar Collapsible — Part 8/Section 5 

Door, Single Slide — Part 8/Section 5 

Door, Swing — Part 8/Section 5 

Door, Two Speed Siding — Part 8/Section 5 

Door, Vertical Bi-parting — Part 8/Section 5 

Door, Vertical Lifting — Part 8/Section 5 

Double Button (Continuous Pressure) Operation — 
Part 8/Section 5 
Downcomer — Part 4 
Downtake Tap — Part 9/Section 1 
Drain — Part 2, Part 3, Part 9/Section 1 

A conduit, channel or pipe for the carriage of storm 
water, sewage, waste water or other water-borne wastes 
in a building drainage system. 

Drain Ventilating Pipe (DVP) — Part 9/Section 1 
Drainage — Part 2, Part 9/Section 1 

The removal of any liquid by a system constructed for 
the purpose. 

Drainage Work — Part 9/Section 1 

Driven Cast in-situ Pile — Part 6/Section 2 

Driven Precast Pile — Part 6/Section 2 

Drop Connection — Part 9/Section 1 

Drop Manhole — Part 9/Section 1 

Dry Bulb Temperature — Part 8/Section 1 

Dry Riser — Part 4 

Dry-Bulb Temperature — Part 8/Section 3 

Drying Degrades in Round Bamboo — Part 6/ 

Section 3B 



8 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



Duct System — Part 8/Section 3 
Duration of Load — Part 6/Section 3 
Dwelling Unit/Tenement — Part 3 

E 

Earth — Part 8/Section 2 

Earth Continuity Conductor — Part 8/Section 2 

Earth Electrode — Part 8/Section 2 

Earth Fault — Part 8/Section 2 

Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker System — Part 8/ 

Section 2 

Earthing Lead — Part 8/Section 2 

Edge Distance — Part 6/Section 3 

Effective Height — Part 6/Section 4 

Effective Length — Part 6/Section 4 

Effective Opening — Part 9/Section 1 

Effective Temperature (ET) — Part 8/Section 1 

Effective Thickness — Part 6/Section 4 

Efficiency of a Pile Group — Part 6/Section 2 

Egress — Part 10/Section 1 

Electric Sign — Part 10/Section 2 

Electrical and Mechanical Interlock — Part 8/Section 5 

Electro- Mechanical Lock — Part 8/Section 5 

Electronic Devices — Part 8/Section 5 

Elevation — Part 10/Section 1 

Emergency Lighting — Part 4 

Emergency Lighting System — Part 4 

Emergency Stop Push or Switch — Part 8/Section 5 

Enclosed Distribution Board — Part 8/Section 2 

End Distance — Part 6/Section 3, Part 6/Section 3B 

End Splitting — Part 6/Section 3B 

Enthalphy — Part 8/Section 3 

Equivalent Continuous A — Weighted Sound Pressure 

Level, L Ae T — Part 8/Section 4 

Equivalent Sound Absorption Area of a Room, A — 

Part 8/Section 4 

Escalator — Part 8/Section 5 

Escalator Installation — Part 8/Section 5 

Escalator Machine — Part 8/Section 5 

Escape Lighting — Part 4 

Evaporative Air Cooling — Part 8/Section 3 

Evergreen — Part 10/Section 1 

Exhaust of Air — Part 8/Section 1 

Exit — Part 3 

Exotic — Part 10/Section 1 

Exposed Metal — Part 8/Section 2 

Exterior Sign — Part 10/Section 2 

External Faces of Cluster — Part 3 

External Reflected Component (ERC) — Part 8/Section 1 



Facade Level — Part 8/Section 4 

Factor of Safety (with Respect to Bearing Capacity) — 

Part 6/Section 2 

Factor of Safety — Part 6/Section 2 

Feed Cistern — Part 9/Section 1 

Fencing — Part 10/Section 1 

Finger Joint — Part 6/Section 3 

Finished Grade — Part 10/Section 1 

Fire Damper — Part 8/Section 3 

Fire Door — Part 4 

Fire Exit — Part 4 

Fire Lift — Part 4 

Fire Load — Part 4 

Fire Load Density — Part 4 

Fire Resistance Rating — Part 4 

Fire Resistance, Criteria of — Part 4 

Fire Resisting Wall — Part 4 

Fire Separating Wall — Part 4 

*Fire Separation — Part 3, Part 4 

The distance in metres measured from the external wall 
of the building concerned to the external wall of any 
other building on the site, or from other site, or from 
the opposite side of street or other public space to the 
building for the purpose of preventing the spread of 
fire. 

Fire Separation Wall — Part 8/Section 3 

Fire Stop — Part 4 

Fire Survival Cable — Part 8/Section 2 

Fire Tower — Part 4 

Fitting, Lighting — Part 8/Section 2 

Fittings — Part 9/Section 1 

Fittings shall mean coupling, flange, branch, bend, tees, 
elbows, unions, waste with plug, P or S trap with vent, 
stop ferrule, stop tap, bib tap, pillar tap, globe tap, ball 
valve, cistern storage tank, baths, water-closets, boiler, 
geyser, pumping set with motor and accessories, meter, 
hydrant, valve and any other article used in connection 
with water supply, drainage and sanitation. 

Fixture Unit — Part 9/Section 1 
Fixture Unit Drainage — Part 9/Section 1 
Flame Retardant Cable — Part 8/Section 2 
Flameproof Enclosure — Part 8/Section 2 
Flatten Bamboo — Part 6/Section 3B 
Float Operated Valve — Part 9/Section 1 
Floor — Part 3 



* Definitions are different. 



PART 1 DEFINITIONS 



The lower surface in a storey on which one normally 
walks in a building. The general term 'floor' unless 
specifically mentioned otherwise shall not refer to a 
'mezzanine floor'. 

Floor Area Ratio (FAR) — Part 3, Part 4 

The quotient obtained by dividing the total covered 
area (plinth area) on all floors by the area of the plot: 



FAR = 



Tot al covered area of all floors 
Plot area 



Floor Levelling Switch — Part 8/Section 5 

Floor Selector — Part 8/Section 5 

Floor Stopping Switch — Part 8/Section 5 

Flushing Cistern — Part 9/Section 1 

Foliage — Part 10/Section 1 

Footing — Part 6/Section 2 

Formation — Part 9/Section 1 

Foundation — Part 6/Section 2 

Foundation, Raft — Part 6/Section 2 

Free-Field Level — Part 8/Section 4 

Freestanding Sign — Part 10/Section 2 

French Drain or Rubble Drain — Part 9/Section 1 

Frequency — Part 8/Section 4 

Fresh Air or Outside Air — Part 8/Section 1 

Frost Line — Part 9/Section 1 

Full Culm — Part 6/Section 3B 

Fuse — Part 8/Section 2 

Fuse-Element — Part 8/Section 2 

G 

Gallery — Part 3 

Garage, Private — Part 3 

Garage, Public — Part 3 

Gas Fitter — Part 9/Section 2 

Geared Machine — Part 8/Section 5 

Gearless Machine — Part 8/Section 5 

General — Part 6/Section 2, Part 10/Section 2 

General Ventilation — Part 8/Section 1 

General Washing Place — Part 9/Section 1 

Geyser — Part 9/Section 1 

Glare — Part 8/Section 1 

Global Warming Potential (GWP) — Part 8/Section 3 

Globe Temperature — Part 8/Section 1 

Goods Lift — Part 8/Section 5 

Grade — Part 10/Section 1 

Gradient — Part 10/Section 1 

Grading — Part 10/Section 1 

Grasses — Part 10/Section 1 

Gravel — Part 6/Section 2 



Ground Sign — Part 10/Section 2 

Groundcover — Part 10/Section 1 

Group Automatic Operation — Part 8/Section 5 

Group Housing — Part 3 

Group Open Space — Part 3 

Grout — Part 6/Section 4 

Guide Rails — Part 8/Section 5 

Guide Rails Fixing — Part 8/Section 5 

Guide Rails Shoe — Part 8/Section 5 

Gully Chamber — Part 9/Section 1 

Gully Trap — Part 9/Section 1 

H 

Habitable Room — Part 3 

Hard Landscape — Part 10/Section 1 

Hardy Plant — Part 10/Section 1 

Harmonics — Part 8/Section 2 

Haunching — Part 9/Section 1 

Hedge — Part 10/Section 1 

Heel Rest Bend or Duck-Foot Bend — Part 9/Section 1 

Hemi Cellulose — Part 6/Section 3B 

Herb — Part 10/Section 1 

High Altitudes — Part 9/Section 1 

High Rise Building — Part 4 

Highway Authority — Part 9/Section 1 

Hollow Unit — Part 6/Section 4 

Horizontal Exit — Part 4 

Horizontal Pipe — Part 9/Section 1 

Hospital Lift — Part 8/Section 5 

Hot Water Tank — Part 9/Section 1 

Humidification — Part 8/Section 1 

Humidity, Absolute — Part 8/Section 1 

Humidity, Relative — Part 8/Section 1 

Hydronic Systems — Part 8/Section 3 

I 

Identification Sign — Part 10/Section 2 

Illuminance — Part 8/Section 1 

Illuminated Sign — r Part 10/Section 2 

Impact Sound Pressure Level, L. — Part 8/Section 4 

Increments — Part 6/Section 7 A, Part 6/Section 7B 

Independent Cluster — Part 3 

Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) — Part 8/Section 3 

Indoor Ambient Noise — Part 8/Section 4 

Inflammable — Part 8/Section 2 

Informational Sign — Part 10/Section 2 

Ingress — Part 10/Section 1 

Inlet Hopper — Part 9/Section 1 

Inner Diameter — Part 6/Section 3B 



10 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



Insertion Loss (L^) — Part 8/Section 4 
Inside Location — Part 6/Section 3, Part 6/Section 3B 
Inspection Chamber — Part 9/Section 1 
Installation (Electrical), of Buildings — Part 8/ 
Section 2 

Insulated — Part 8/Section 2 

Insulation (Electrical) — Part 8/Section 2 

Insulation, Basic — Part 8/Section 2 

Insulation, Double — Part 8/Section 2 

Insulation, Reinforced — Part 8/Section 2 

Insulation, Supplementary — Part 8/Section 2 

Interceptor — Part 9/Section 1 

Interceptor Manhole or Interceptor Chamber — Part 9/ 

Section 1 

Interlocking Cluster — Part 3 

Internal Faces of Cluster — Part 3 

Internal Reflected Component (IRC) — Part 8/ 

Section 1 

Invert — Part 9/Section 1, Part 10/Section 1 

J 

Joint — Part 6/Section 3B, Part 6/Section 4 
Joist — Part 6/Section 3B 
Junction Pipe — Part 9/Section 1 

K 

Kerb — Part 10/Section 1 
Kerb-Stone — Part 10/Section 1 
Knot — Part 6/Section 3 
Knot Hole — Part 6/Section 3 



Lagging — Part 9/Section 1 

Laminated Veneer Lumber — Part 6/Section 3 

Landing — Part 8/Section 5 

Landing Call Push — Part 8/Section 5 

Landing Door — Part 8/Section 5 

Landing Zone — Part 8/Section 5 

Lateral Support — Part 6/Section 4 

Leaf— Part 6/Section 4 

Ledge or TAND — Part 3 

Length oflnternode — Part 6/Section 3B 

Levelling Device, Lift Car — Part 8/Section 5 

Levelling Device, One-Way Automatic — Part 8/ 

Section 5 

Levelling Device, Two-Way Automatic Non-Maintaining 

— Part 8/Section 5 

Levelling Device, Two-Way Automatic Maintaining — 

Part 8/Section 5 

Levelling Devices — Part 8/Section 5 



Levelling Zone — Part 8/Section 5 
Licensed Plumber — Part 9/Section 1 
Lift — Part 3, Part 8/Section 5 

An appliance designed to transport persons or materials 
between two or more levels in a vertical or substantially 
vertical direction by means of a guided car platform. 

Lift Car — Part 8/Section 5 

Lift Landing — Part 8/Section 5 

Lift Machine — Part 8/Section 5 

Lift Pit — Part 8/Section 5 

Lift Well — Part 8/Section 5 

Lift Well Enclosure — Part 8/Section 5 

Lifting Beam — Part 8/Section 5 

Light Output Ratio (r\) — Part 8/Section 1 

Lighting — Part 8/Section 1 

Lignin — Part 6/Section 3B 

Linked Switch — Part 8/Section 2 

Live Knot — Part 6/Section 3 

Live or Alive — Part 8/Section 2 

Load Bearing Wall — Part 6/Section 4 

Loaded Edge Distance — Part 6/Section 3 

Loaded End or Compression End Distance — Part 6/ 

Section 3B 

Local Exhaust Ventilation — Part 8/Section 1 

Location — Part 6/Section 3 

Locations, Industrial — Part 8/Section 2 

Locations, Non-Industrial — Part 8/Section 2 

Loft — Part 3 

Loose Grain (Loosened Grain) — Part 6/Section 3 

Loose Knot — Part 6/Section 3 

Lumen (lm) — Part 8/Section 1 

Luminance (At a Point of a Surface in a Given 

Direction) (Brightness) — Part 8/Section 1 

Luminous Flux (<()) — Part 8/Section 1 

M 

Main Soil Pipe (MSP) — Part 9/Section 1 
Main Soil Waste Pipe (MSWP) — Part 9/Section 1 
Main Ventilating Pipe (MVP) — Part 9/Section 1 
Main Waste Pipe (MWP) — Part 9/Section 1 
Maintenance Factor (d) — Part 8/Section 1 
Make-up Air — Part 8/Section 1 
Make-up Ground — Part 6/Section 2 
Manhole — Part 9/Section 1 
Manhole Chamber — Part 9/Section 1 
Mansard — Part 10/Section 2 
Marquee Sign — Part 10/Section 2 
Masonry — Part 6/Section 4 



PART 1 DEFINITIONS 



11 



Masonry Unit — Part 6/Section 4 

Matchet — Part 6/Section 3B 

Mats — Part 6/Section 3B 

Means of Egress — Part 4 

Mechanical Ventilation — Part 8/Section 1 

Meridian — Part 8/Section 1 

Mezzanine Floor — Part 3 

Miniature Circuit Breaker — Part 8/Section 2 

Modular Co-ordination — Part 6/Section 7 A, Part 6/ 

Section 7B 

Modular Grid — Part 6/Section 7 A, Part 6/Section 7B 
Module — Part 6/Section 7 A, Part 6/Section 7B 
Mortise and Tenon — Part 6/Section 3B 
Mould — Part 6/Section 3 
Mound — Part 10/Section 1 

Multimodule — Part 6/Section 7A, Part 6/Section 7B 
Multiple Earthed Neutral System — Part 8/Section 2 
Multi-Under-Reamed Pile — Part 6/Section 2 

N 

Native — Part 10/Section 1 

Natural Grade — Part 10/Section 1 

Natural Ventilation — Part 8/Section 1 

Negative Skin Friction — Part 6/Section 2 

Net Section — Part 6/Section 3B 

Neutral Conductor — Part 8/Section 2 

Node — Part 6/Section 3B 

Noise — Part 8/Section 4 

Noise Exposure Forecast (NEF) — Part 8/Section 4 

Noise Rating (NR) — Part 8/Section 4 

Noise Reduction Co-efficient (NRC) — Part 8/ 

Section 4 

Non-Selective Collective Automatic Operation — 
Part 8/Section 5 

Non-Service Laterine — Part 9/Section 1 
Normalized Impact Sound Pressure Level L — Part 8/ 
Section 4 
North and South Points — Part 8/Section 1 

O 

Occupancy or Use Group — Part 2, Part 3, Part 4 

The principal occupancy for which a building or a 
part of a building is used or intended to be used; for 
the purposes of classification of a building according 
to occupancy, an occupancy shall be deemed to 
include the subsidiary occupancies which are 
contingent upon it. 

Occupier — Part 2 

Octave Band — Part 8/Section 4 



^Offset — Part 6/Section 2, Part 9/Section 1 

Oil Buffer — Part 8/Section 5 

Oil Buffer Stroke — Part 8/Section 5 

Open Clusters — Part 3 

Open Sign — Part 10/Section 2 

Open Space — Part 3 

Open Space, Front — Part 3 

Open Space , Rear — Part 3 

Open Space, Side — Part 3 

Operating Device — Part 8/Section 5 

Operation — Part 8/Section 5 

Operational Construction/Installation — Part 2 

Orientation of Buildings — Part 8/Section 1 

Outdoor Furniture — Part 10/Section 1 

Outer Diameter — Part 6/Section 3B 

Outside Location — Part 6/Section 3A, Part 6/ 
Section 3B 

Over Speed Governor — Part 8/Section 5 

Overhead Beams — Part 8/Section 5 

Owner — Part 2, Part 3, Part 10/Section 2 

Person or body having a legal interest in land and/or 
building thereon. This includes free holders, 
leaseholders or those holding a sub-lease which both 
bestows a legal right to occupation and gives rise to 
liabilities in respect of safety or building condition. 

In case of lease or sub-lease holders, as far as ownership 
with respect to the structure is concerned, the structure 
of a flat or structure on a plot belongs to the allottee/ 
lessee till the allotment/lease subsists. 

Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) — Part 8/Section 3 



Panel Wall — Part 6/Section 4 

Parapet — Part 3, Part 10/Section 2 

Parking Space — Part 3 

Partition — Part 3 

Partition Wall — Part 6/Section 4 

Passenger Lift — Part 8/Section 5 

Peat — Part 6/Section 2 

Percentile Level, L AN T — Part 8/Section 4 

Period of Supply — Part 9/Section 1 

Peripheral Field — Part 8/Section 1 

Permanent Load — Part 6/Section 2 

Permissible Stress — Part 6/Section 3, Part 6/ 

Section 3B 

Permit — Part 2 

Pile Foundation — Part 6/Section 2 



* Definitions are different. 



12 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



Pilot — Part 9/Section 2 
Pink Noise — Part 8/Section 4 
Pipe System — Part 9/Section 1 
Pipe Work — Part 9/Section 1 
Pitch Pocket — Part 6/Section 3 
Plenum — Part 8/Section 3 
Plinth — Part 3 

The portion of a structure between the surface of 
the surrounding ground and surface of the floor, 
immediately above the ground. 

Plinth Area — Part 3, Part 4 

The built up covered area measured at the floor level 
of the basement or of any storey. 

Plug — Part 8/Section 2 

Plumbing System — Part 9/Section 1 

Plumbing — Part 9/Section 1 

Point (in Wiring) — Part 8/Section 2 

Porch — Part 3 

Portable Sign — Part 10/Section 2 

Position and/or Direction Indicator — Part 8/Section 5 

Positive Ventilation — Part 8/Section 1, Part 8/ 

Section 3 

Potable Water — Part 9/Section 1 

Prefabricate — Part 6/Section 7 A, Part 6/Section 7B 

Prefabricated Building — Part 6/Section 7A, Part 6/ 

Section 7B 

Premises — Part 9/Section 1 

Pressure Regulator — Part 9/Section 2 

Pressurization — Part 4 

Pressurization Level — Part 4 

Principal Rafter — Part 6/Section 3B 

Projecting Sign — Part 10/Section 2 

Propeller Fan — Part 8/Section 1 

Psychrometric Chart — Part 8/Section 3 

Psychrometry — Part 8/Section 3 

Puff Ventilation — Part 9/Section 1 

Pure Tone — Part 8/Section 4 

Purge — Part 9/Section 2 

Purlins — Part 6/Section 3B 



Qualified Installing Agency — Part 9/Section 2 

R 

Rated Load (Escalator) — Part 8/Section 5 
Rated Load — Part 8/Section 5 
Rated Speed (Escalator) — Part 8/Section 5 
Rated Speed — Part 8/Section 5 



Rating Level L Ar , 7. — Part 8/Section 4 

Recirculated Air — Part 8/Section 3 

Reflected Glare — Part 8/Section 1 

Reflection Factor (Reflectance) — Part 8/Section 1 

Refrigerant — Part 8/Section 3 

Registered Architect, Engineer, Structural Engineer, 

Supervisor, Town Planner — Part 2 

Regulatory Sign — Part 10/Section 2 

Relative Humidity — Part 8/Section 3 

Residual Current Circuit Breaker — Part 8/Section 2 

Residual Head — Part 9/Section 1 

Retiring Cam — Part 8/Section 5 

Return Air — Part 8/Section 3 

Reveal — Part 8/Section 1 

Reverberation Time, T — Part 8/Section 4 

Rheostatic Control — Part 8/Section 5 

Riser — Part 9/Section 2 

Road — Part 2, Part 3 

Road Line — Part 2, Part 3 

Roof Battens — Part 6/Section 3B 

Roof Exits — Part 4 

Roof Sign — Part 10/Section 2 

Roof Skeleton — Part 6/Section 3B 

Room Height — Part 2, Part 3 

The vertical distance measured from the finished floor 
surface to the finished ceiling surface. Where a finished 
ceiling is not provided, the underside of the joists or 
beams or tie beams shall determine the upper point of 
measurement for determining the head room. 

Room Index (fc. ) — Part 8/Section 1 
Roping Multiple — Part 8/Section 5 
Row Housing/Row Type Building — Part 3 



Saddle — Part 9/Section 1 

Safety Gear — Part 8/Section 5 

Sanctioned Plan — Part 2 

Sand — Part 6/Section 2 

Sand, Coarse — Part 6/Secjion 2 

Sand, Fine — Part 6/Section 2 

Sand, Medium — Part 6/Section 2 

Sandwich Panels — Part 6/Section 7A, Part 6/ 

Section 7B 

Sandwich, Structural — Part 6/Section 3 
Sanitary Appliances — Part 9/Section 1 
Sap Stain — Part 6/Section 3 
Sapwood — Part 6/Section 3 
Scaffold — Part 6/Section 3B 
Screen — Part 10/Section 1 



PART 1 DEFINITIONS 



13 



Sediment — Part 10/Section 1 

Selective Collective Automatic Operation — Part 8/ 

Section 5 

Self Compacting Concrete — Part 6/Section 7 A, Part 6/ 
Section 7B 

Semi-Detached Building — Part 3 

Service — Part 8/Section 2 

Service Laterine — Part 9/Section 1 

Service Lift {Dumb-Waiter) — Part 8/Section 5 

* Service Pipe — Part 9/Section 1, Part 9/Section 2 

Service Road — Part 2, Part 3 

Service Shut-Off Valve (Isolation Valve) — Part 9/ 

Section 2 

Set-back Line — Part 2, Part 3 

A line usually parallel to the plot boundaries and laid 
down in each case by the Authority, beyond which 
nothing can be constructed towards the site boundaries. 

Sewer — Part 9/Section 1 

Shade Factor — Part 8/Section 3 

Shake — Part 6/Section 3 

Shallow Foundation — Part 6/Section 2 

Shear Connectors — Part 6/Section 7 A, Part 6/ 
Section 7B 

Shear Wall — Part 6/Section 4 

Sheave — Part 8/Section 5 

Shrub — Part 10/Section 1 

Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) — Part 8/Section 3 

Sign — Part 10/Section 2 

Sign Area — Part 10/Section 2 

Sign Copy — Part 10/Section 2 

Sign Face — Part 10/Section 2 

Sign Structure — Part 10/Section 2 

Signal Operation — Part 8/Section 5 

Signs — Part 10/Section 2 

Silt — Part 6/Section 2 

Single Automatic Operation — Part 8/Section 5 

Single-Speed Alternating Current Control — Part 8/ 

Section 5 

Site (Plot) — Part 2, Part 3, Part 4 

A parcel (piece) of land enclosed by definite boundaries. 

Site, Corner — Part 3 

Site, Depth of— Part 3 

Site, Double Frontage — Part 3 

Site, Interior or Tandem — Part 3 

Sky Component (SC) — Part 8/Section 1 

Sky Sign — Part 10/Section 2 

Slack Rope Switch — Part 8/Section 5 



* Definitions are different. 



Slenderness Ratio — Part 6/Section 4 

Sliver — Part 6/Section 3B 

Slop Hopper (Slop Sink) — Part 9/Section 1 

Slope of Grain — Part 6/Section 3 

Smoke Damper — Part 8/Section 3 

Soakaway — Part 9/Section 1 

Socket-Outlet — Part 8/Section 2 

Soffit (Crown) — Part 9/Section 1 

Soft Landscape — Part 10/Section 1 

Soft Rock — Part 6/Section 2 

Soil Appliances — Part 9/Section 1 

Soil Pipe — Part 9/Section 1 

Soil Waste — Part 9/Section 1 

Soil, Black Cotton — Part 6/Section 2 

Soil, Coarse Grained — Part 6/Section 2 

Soil, Find Grained — Part 6/Section 2 

Solar Load — Part 8/Section 1 

Solid-State d.c. Variable Voltage Control — Part 8/ 

Section 5 

Sound — Part 8/Section 4 

Sound Exposure Level, L^ — Part 8/Section 4 

Sound Knot — Part 6/Section 3 

Sound Power — Part 8/Section 4 

Sound Power Level (L w ) — Part 8/Section 4 

Sound Pressure Level, L — Part 8/Section 4 

p 

Sound Pressure, p — Part 8/Section 4 

Sound Receiver — Part 8/Section 4 

Sound Reduction Index, R — Part 8/Section 4 

Sound Source — Part 8/Section 4 

Spaced Column — Part 6/Section 3 

Spectrum — Part 8/Section 4 

Speech Interference Level (SIL) — Part 8/Section 4 

Split — Part 6/Section 3 

Splits — Part 6/Section 3B 

Spot Elevation — Part 10/Section 1 

Spray-Head System — Part 8/Section 1 

Spread Foundation — Part 6/Section 2 

Spring Buffer — Part 8/Section 5 

Spring Buffer Load Rating — Part 8/Section 5 

Spring Buffer Stroke — Part 8/Section 5 

Stack Effect — Part 8/Section 1 

Stack Pressure — Part 4 

Staircover (or Mumty) — Part 3 

Standardized Impact Sound Pressure Level, L nT — 

Part 8/Section 4 

Standardized Level Difference, D aT — Part 8/Section 4 

Static Pressure — Part 8/Section 3 

Stop Tap — Part 9/Section 1 



14 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



Stop-Cock — Part 9/Section 1 
Storage Tank — Part 9/Section 1 
Store v — Part 3 

The portion of a building included between the surface 
of any floor and the surface of the floor next above it, 
or if there be no floor above it, then the space between 
any floor and the ceiling next above it. 

Storey, Topmost — Part 3 
Street — Part 2, Part 3 

Any means of access, namely, highway, street, lane, 
pathway, alley, stairway, passageway, carriageway, 
footway, square, place or bridge, whether a 
thoroughfare or not, over which the public have a right 
of passage or access or have passed and had access 
uninterruptedly for a specified period, whether existing 
or proposed in any scheme and includes all bunds, 
channels, ditches, storm-water drains, culverts, 
sidewalks, traffic islands, roadside trees and hedges, 
retaining walls, fences, barriers and railings within the 
street lines. 

Street Furniture — Part 10/Section 1 
Street Level or Grade — Part 2, Part 3 

The officially established elevation or grade of the 
centre line of the street upon which a plot fronts and if 
there is no officially established grade, the existing 
grade of the street at its mid-point. 

Street Line — Part 2, Part 3, Part 10/Section 2 

The line defining the side limits of a street. 

Structural Element — Part 6/Section 3 

Structural Grades — Part 6/Section 3 

Structural Purpose Definitions — Part 6/Section 3, 

Part 6/Section 3B 

Structural Timber — Part 6/Section 3 

Structure Borne Noise — Part 8/Section 4 

Structure, Permanent — Part 6/Section 3 

Structure, Temporary — Part 6/Section 3 

Sub-Soil Water — Part 9/Section 1 

Sub-Soil Water Drain — Part 9/Section 1 

Sub-Zero Temperature Regions — Part 9/Section 1 

Supply Air — Part 8/Section 3 

Supply and Return Air Grilles and Diffusers — Part 8/ 

Section 3 

Supply Pipe — Part 9/Section 1 

Supports — Part 9/Section 1 

Surface Cracking — Part 6/Section 3B 

Surface Water — Part 9/Section 1 

Surface Water Drain — Part 9/Section 1 

Suspension Ropes — Part 8/Section 5 



Swale — Part 10/Section 1 

Switch — Part 8/Section 2 

Switch Disconnector Fuse — Part 8/Section 2 

Switch Disconnectors — Part 8/Section 2 

Switchboard — Part 8/Section 2 

Switchgear — Part 8/Section 2 

System — Part 6/Section 7 A, Part 6/Section 7B, 

Systems of Drainage — Part 9/Section 1 

T 

Taper — Part 6/Section 3B 

Temporary Sign — Part 10/Section 2 

Terminal Slow Down Switch — Part 8/Section 5 

Terminal Stopping Device Final — Part 8/Section 5 

Terminal Stopping Switch Normal — Part 8/Section 5 

Termites — Part 6/Section 3 

Thermal Energy Storage — Part 8/Section 3 

Thermal Transmittance — Part 8/Section 3 

Third Octave Band — Part 8/Section 4 

Threshold Limit Value (TLV) — Part 8/Section 1 

Threshold of Hearing — Part 8/Section 4 

Tight Knot — Part 6/Section 3 

Tissue — Part 6/Section 3B 

To Abut — Part 3 

To Erect — Part 2, Part 3 

Top Car Clearance — Part 8/Section 5 

Top Counterweight Clearance — Part 8/Section 5 

Topsoil — Part 10/Section 1 

Tot Lot — Part 10/Section 1 

Total Headroom — Part 8/Section 5 

Total Settlement — Part 6/Section 2 

Tower-like Structures — Part 3 

Trade Effluent — Part 9/Section 1 

Transient Sound — Part 8/Section 4 

Transplanting — Part 10/Section 1 

Trap — Part 9/Section 1 

Travel — Part 8/Section 5 

Travel Distance — Part 4 

Tree — Part 10/Section 1 

Tree Grate — Part 10/Section 1 

Tree/Plant Guard — Part 10/Section 1 

Tropical Summer Index (TSI) — Part 8/Section 1 

Two-Speed Alternating Current Control — Part 8/ 

Section 5 

Types of Walls — Part 6/Section 4 

U 
Ultimate Load Capacity — Part 6/Section 2 
Under-Reamed Pile — Part 6/Section 2 



PART 1 DEFINITIONS 



15 



Unit — Part 6/Section 7 A, Part 6/Section 7B 

Unloaded End Distance — Part 6/Section 3B 

Unsafe Building — Part 2 

Usable Wall Space — Part 8/Section 2 

Utilization Factor (Coefficient of Utilizaiton) (|l) — 

Part 8/Section 1 



Variable Voltage Motor Control (Generator Field 

Control) — Part 8/Section 5 

Velocity, Capture — Part 8/Section 1 

Vent Pipe — Part 9/Section 2 

Vent StackNent Pipe — Part 9/Section 1 

Vent System — Part 9/Section 1 

Ventilation — Part 4, Part 8/Section 1 

Venting Fire — Part 4 

Verandah — Part 3 

Verandah Sign — Part 10/Section 2 

Vertical Pipe — Part 9/Section 1 

Vibration Isolation — Part 8/Section 4 

Visual Field — Part 8/Section 1 

Voltage Extra Low — Part 8/Section 2 

Voltage Extra High — Part 8/Section 2 

Voltage, High — Part 8/Section 2 

Voltage, Low — Part 8/Section 2 

Voltage, Medium — Part 8/Section 2 

Volume to Plot Area Ratio (VPR) — Part 3, Part 4 

The ratio of volume of building measured in cubic 
metres to the area of the plot measured in square metres 
and expressed in metres. 

W 

Wall Sign — Part 10/Section 2 
Wall Thickness — Part 6/Section 3B 
Wane — Part 6/Section 3 
Warning Pipe — Part 9/Section 1 



Warp — Part 6/Section 3 

Wash-Out Valve — Part 9/Section 1 

Waste Appliance — Part 9/Section 1 

Waste Pipe — Part 9/Section 1 

Waste-Water (Sullage) — Part 9/Section 1 

Water Conditioning — Part 8/Section 3 

Water Hardness — Part 8/Section 3 

Water Main (Street Main) — Part 9/Section 1 

Water Outlet — Part 9/Section 1 

Water Seal — Part 9/Section 1 

Water Supply System — Part 9/Section 1 

Water-Closet (WC) — Part 3 

Waterworks — Part 9/Section 1 

Wavelength — Part 8/Section 4 

Weatherproof— Part 8/Section 2 

Weighted Level Difference, D w — Part 8/Section 4 

Weighted Normalized Impact Sound Pressure Level, 

L nw — Part 8/Section 4 

Weighted Sound Reduction Index, R w — Part 8/ 
Section 4 

Weighted Standardized Impact Sound Pressure Level, 
i nT , w — Part 8/Section 4 

Weighted Standardized Level Difference, D n Tw — 
Part 8/Section 4 

* Wet Bulb Temperature — Part 8/Section 1, Part 8/ 

Section 3 

Wet Location — Part 6/Section 3, Part 6/Section 3B 

Wet Riser — Part 4 

White Noise — Part 8/Section 4 

Window — Part 3 

Window Sign — Part 10/Section 2 

Working Plane — Part 8/Section 1 

Worm Holes — Part 6/Section 3 

Wrinkled and Deformed Surface — Part 6/Section 3B 



* Definitions are different. 



16 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 

PART 2 ADMINISTRATION 



BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS 



FOREWORD 



CO NTE NTS 



SECTION 1 GENERAL 

1 SCOPE 

2 TERMINOLOGY 

3 APPLICABILITY OF THE CODE 

4 INTERPRETATION 

5 ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS, METHODS OF DESIGN AND 
CONSTRUCTION, AND TESTS 

SECTION 2 ORGANIZATION AND ENFORCEMENT 

6 DEPARTMENT OF BUILDINGS 

7 POWER AND DUTIES OF TEAM OF BUILDING OFFICIALS 

8 BOARD OF APPEALS 

9 VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES 
10 POWER TO MAKE RULES 



5 
5 
6 

7 
7 



9 
9 
9 



SECTION 3 PERMIT AND INSPECTION 

1 1 DEVELOPMENT/BUILDING PERMIT 

12 APPLICATION FOR DEVELOPMENT/BUILDING PERMIT 

13 RESPONSIBILITIES AND DUTIES OF THE OWNER 

14 INSPECTION, OCCUPANCY PERMIT AND POST- OCCUPANCY 
INSPECTION 

15 UNSAFE BUILDING 

16 DEMOLITION OF BUILDING 

17 VALIDITY 

18 ARCHITECTURAL CONTROL 

ANNEX A GUIDE FOR THE QUALIFICATIONS AND COMPETENCE OF 
PROFESSIONALS 

ANNEX B FORM FOR FIRST APPLICATION TO DEVELOP, ERECT, 

RE-ERECT OR TO MAKE ALTERATION IN ANY PLACE IN A 
BUILDING 

ANNEX C FORM FOR CERTIFICATE FOR STRUCTURAL DESIGN 
SUFFICIENCY 

ANNEX D FORM FOR SUPERVISION 

ANNEX E FORM FOR SANCTION OR REFUSAL OF DEVELOPMENT/ 
BUILDING PERMIT 

ANNEX F FORM FOR NOTICE FOR COMMENCEMENT 

ANNEX G FORM FOR CERTIFICATE FOR EXECUTION OF WORK AS 
PER STRUCTURAL SAFETY REQUIREMENTS 

ANNEX H FORM FOR COMPLETION CERTIFICATE 

ANNEX J FORM FOR OCCUPANCY PERMIT 



9 

10 
15 
15 

16 
16 

17 
17 

18 
20 

21 

21 

22 

22 
23 

23 
24 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



National Building Code Sectional Committee, CED 46 



FOREWORD 

A need for codifying and unifying administrative provisions in different development control rules and building 
byelaws had been felt, particularly in regard to the applicability of the Code, desirable qualifications for the enforcing 
Authority and the representative of the owner and responsibilities and duties of the Authority and the owner. 

It is expected that the town and country planning department will co-ordinate the administrative provisions of 
this Part and the same given in the State Town and Country Planning Acts. 

This Part recommends the setting up of a 'Board of Appeal'. The 'Board of Appeal' gives the owner/architect/ 
engineer an opportunity to defend the schemes which are based on conventional or new methods of design and 
construction or using new materials, which have been otherwise rejected by the Authority. 

This Part also emphasizes the need for setting up an Arts Commission for metropolitan areas to safeguard existing 
aesthetics in the event of new schemes proposed for buildings of public importance or buildings coming up in an 
important area near historic/monumental buildings. The Commission can assist the civic authorities in reviewing 
plans for development from the stand point of assuring good taste and regard for often threatened natural beauties. 
The Commission can serve as a means whereby by the government and public bodies and individuals could get 
advice on artistic questions in connection with building schemes. 

The first version of this Part was brought out in 1970, which was subsequently revised in 1983. As a result of 
implementing 1970 version of this Part in rewriting building byelaws and development control rules of some 
municipal corporations and municipalities, some useful suggestions were emerged. These were incorporated in 
the first revision to the extent possible. The significant changes in 1983 version of this Part included the new 
administrative provisions related to development control rules, additional information to be furnished/indicated 
in the building plan for multi-storeyed and special buildings and modified provisions regarding submission of 
building plans by Government Departments to the Authority. 

In this second revision, number of modifications have been incorporated based on the experience gained over the 
years specially in view of different techno-administrative and techno-legal regime encountered in various situations 
faced. Specially the provisions of this Part have been thoroughly reviewed in the context of the natural calamities 
faced by the country, such as the devastating earthquake in Gujarat in the year 2001, and provisions have been 
accordingly modified to further ensure structural adequacy of the buildings. In this context, structural design of 
buildings in accordance with the provisions of the Code and construction and supervision thereof by competent 
professionals to ensure structural safety have been given due importance in this revision. Other significant 
modifications incorporated include: 

a) Modifications in the definitions of certain terms; 

b) Inclusion of the concept of team of building officials; 

c) Inclusion of provision of single window approach for permit for all services; 

d) Inclusion of provisions regarding computerization of approval processes for building permits; 

e) Inclusion of provision to certify safety of buildings against natural disaster by engineer/structural engineer 
and owner; 

f) Inclusion of provision of two stage permit for high rise residential buildings and special buildings; 

g) Provisions regarding inspection of completed and occupied building by the Authority from safety point 
of view have been made comprehensive; 

h) Inclusion of provision empowering engineers/architects for sanctioning plans of residential buildings 

up to 500 m 2 ; 
j) Provisions for architectural control to effectively take care of the urban aesthetics, have been modified; 

and 
k) Inclusion of landscape architect and urban designer among the registered professionals for the concerned 

applicable works. 

PART 2 ADMINISTRATION 3 



The Sectional Committee responsible for revision of the Code has examined the use of the words 'surveyor/ 
building surveyor/supervisor', etc under various building bye-laws with varying qualifications in different states 
It has been decided not to use the generic word 'surveyor' or such other words. The Sectional Committee has, on 
the other hand recommended association of various professionals for various job responsibilities depending 
upon their qualifications/competence. 

Also, it is noted that the words 'licencing/licensed, etc' are in use by local bodies in different states. The Sectional 
Committee, however, decided for use of words 'registration/registered, etc' for the same, which may now be 
adopted uniformly. The registration requirements of professionals are given in Annex A. 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



PART 2 ADMINISTRATION 



SECTION 1 GENERAL 



1 SCOPE 



This Part covers the administrative aspects of the Code, 
such as applicability of the Code, organization of 
building department for enforcement of the Code, 
procedure for obtaining development and building 
permits, and responsibility of the owner. 

NOTE — This Code is called the National Building Code of 
India, hereinafter referred to as 'the Code' . 

2 TERMINOLOGY 

2.0 For the purpose of this part, the following 
definitions shall apply. 

2.1 Accessory Use — Any use of the premises 
subordinate to the principal use and customarily 
incidental to the principal use. 

2.2 Alteration — A change from one type of 
occupancy to another, or a structural change, such as 
an addition to the area or height, or the removal of part 
of a building, or any change to the structure, such as 
the construction of, cutting into or removal of any wall, 
partition, column, beam, joist, floor or other support, 
or a change to or closing of any required means of 
ingress or egress or a change to the fixtures or 
equipment. 

2.3 Approved — Approved by the Authority having 
jurisdiction. 

2.4 Authority Having Jurisdiction — The Authority 
which has been created by a statute and which, for the 
purpose of administering the Code/Part, may authorize 
a committee or an official or an agency to act on its 
behalf; hereinafter called the 'Authority'. 

2.5 Building — Any structure for whatsoever purpose 
and of whatsoever materials constructed and every part 
thereof whether used as human habitation or not and 
includes foundation, plinth, walls, floors, roofs, 
chimneys, plumbing and building services, fixed 
platforms, verandah, balcony, cornice or projection, part 
of a building or anything affixed thereto or any wall 
enclosing or intended to enclose any land or space 
and signs and outdoor display structures. Tents/ 
SHAMIANAHS, tarpaulin shelters, etc, erected for 
temporary and ceremonial occasions with the permission 
of the Authority shall not be considered as building. 

2.6 Building, Height of — The vertical distance 
measured, in the case of flat roofs from the average 
level of the ground around and contiguous to the 
building or as decided by the Authority to the terrace 



of last livable floor of the building adjacent to the 
external walls; and in the case of pitched roofs, up to 
the point where the external surface of the outer wall 
intersects the finished surface of the sloping roof, and 
in the case of gables facing the road, the midpoint 
between the eaves level and the ridge. Architectural 
features serving no other function except that of 
decoration shall be excluded for the purpose of 
measuring heights. 

2.7 Building Line — The line up to which the plinth 
of a building adjoining a street or an extension of a 
street or on a future street may lawfully extend. It 
includes the lines prescribed, if any, in any scheme. 
The building line may change from time-to-time as 
decided by the Authority. 

2.8 Conversion — The change of occupancy or 
premises to any occupancy or use requiring additional 
occupancy permit. 

2.9 Development — 'Development' with grammatical 
variations means the carrying out of building, 
engineering, mining or other operations in, or over, or 
under land or water, or in the use of any building or 
land, and includes redevelopment and layout and 
subdivision of any land; and 'to develop' shall be 
construed accordingly. 

2.10 Drain — A conduit or channel for the carriage 
of storm water, sewage, waste water or other water- 
borne wastes in a building drainage system. 

2.11 Drainage — The removal of any liquid by a 
system constructed for the purpose. 

2.12 Occupancy or Use Group — The principal 
occupancy for which a building or a part of a building 
is used or intended to be used; for the purposes of 
classification of a building according to occupancy, 
an occupancy shall be deemed to include the subsidiary 
occupancies which are contingent upon it. 

2.13 Occupier — Occupier includes any person for 
the time being, paying or liable to pay rent or any 
portion of rent of the building in respect of which the 
ward is used, or compensation or premium on account 
of the occupation of such building and also a rent-free 
tenant, but does not include a lodger, and the words 
'occupy' and 'occupation' do not refer to the lodger. 

An owner living in or otherwise using his own building 
shall be deemed to be the occupier thereof. 

2.14 Operational Construction/Installation — A 

construction/installation put up by Government 
Departments for operational purposes (see 12.1.1.1). 



PART 2 ADMINISTRATION 



2.15 Owner — Person or body having a legal interest 
in land and/or building thereon. This includes free 
holders, leaseholders or those holding a sub-lease 
which both bestows a legal right to occupation and 
gives rise to liabilities in respect of safety or building 
condition. 

In case of lease or sub-lease holders, as far as ownership 
with respect to the structure is concerned, the structure 
of a flat or structure on a plot belongs to the allottee/ 
lessee till the allotment/lease subsists. 

2.16 Permit — A permission or authorization in 
writing by the Authority to carry out work regulated 
by the Code. 

2.17 Registered Architect, Engineer, Structural 
Engineer, Supervisor, Town Planner, Landscape 
Architect, Urban Designer — A qualified architect, 
engineer, structural engineer, supervisor, town 
planner, landscape architect or urban designer who 
has been registered by the Authority or by the body 
governing such profession and constituted under a 
statute, as may be applicable. The registration 
requirements of these professionals shall be as given 
in Annex A. 

NOTES 

1 Unless specified otherwise, the word 'engineer* shall mean 
'civil engineer' or 'architectural engineer'. 

2 The word 'licencing/licensed, etc' if used by the Authority 
in the above context shall be deemed to mean 'registration/ 
registered', etc. 

2.18 Road — See 2.25. 

2.19 Road Line — See 2.27. 

2.20 Room Height — The vertical distance measured 
from the finished floor surface to the finished ceiling 
surface. Where a finished ceiling is not provided, the 
underside of the joists or beams or tie beams shall 
determine the upper point of measurement for 
determining the head room. 

2.21 Sanctioned Plan — The set of plans and 
specifications submitted in connection with a building 
or development and duly approved and sanctioned by 
the Authority. 

2.22 Service Road — A road/lane provided at the rear 
or side of a plot for service purposes. 

2.23 Set-back Line — A line usually parallel to the 
plot boundaries and laid down in each case by the 
Authority, beyond which nothing can be constructed 
towards the site boundaries. 

2.24 Site (Plot) — A parcel (piece) of land enclosed 
by definite boundaries. 

2.25 Street — Any means of access, namely, highway, 
street,' lane, pathway, alley, stairway, passageway, 



carriageway, footway, square, place or bridge, whether 
a thoroughfare or not, over which the public have a 
right of passage or access or have passed and had access 
uninterruptedly for a specified period, whether existing 
or proposed in any scheme and includes all bunds, 
channels, ditches, storm-water drains, culverts, 
sidewalks, traffic islands, roadside trees and hedges, 
retaining walls, fences, barriers and railings within the 
street lines. 

2.26 Street Level or Grade — The officially 
established elevation or grade of the centre line of the 
street upon which a plot fronts and if there is no 
officially established grade, the existing grade of the 
street at its mid-point. 

2.27 Street Line — The line defining the side limits 
of a street. 

2.28 To Erect — To erect a building means: 

a) to erect a new building on any site whether 
previously built upon or not; 

b) to re-erect any building of which portions 
above the plinth level have been pulled down, 
burnt or destroyed. 

2.29 Unsafe Building — Buildings which are 
structurally and constructionally unsafe or insanitary 
or not provided with adequate means of egress or 
which constitute a fire hazard or are otherwise 
dangerous to human life or which in relation to 
existing use constitute a hazard to safety or health or 
public welfare, by reason of inadequate maintenance, 
dilapidation or abandonment. 

3 APPLICABILITY OF THE CODE 

3.1 All Parts of the Code and their sections shall apply 
to all buildings described in 3.2 to 3.8, as may be 

applicable. 

3.2 Where a building is erected, the Code applies to 
the design and construction of the building. 

3.3 Where the whole or any part of the building is 
removed, the Code applies to all parts of the building 
whether removed or not. 

3.4 Where the whole or any part of the building is 
demolished, the Code applies to any remaining part 
and to the work involved in demolition. 

3.5 Where a building is altered {see 12.4 and 12.4.1), 
the Code applies to the whole building whether existing 
or new except that the Code applies only to part if that 
part is completely self-contained with respect to 
facilities and safety measures required by the Code. 

3.6 Where the occupancy of a building is changed, 
the Code applies to all parts of the building affected 
by the change. 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



3.7 Where development of land is undertaken the Code 
applies to the entire development of land. 

3.8 Existing Buildings/Development 

Nothing in the Code shall require the removal, 
alteration or abandonment, nor prevent continuance 
of the use or occupancy of an existing building/ 
development, unless in the opinion of the Authority, 
such building/development constitutes a hazard to the 
safety of the adjacent property or the occupants of the 
building itself. 

4 INTERPRETATION 

4*1 The heading which appears at the beginning of a 
clause or sub-clause of the Code shall be deemed to be 
a part of such clause or sub-clause respectively. 

4.2 The use of present tense includes the future tense, 
the masculine gender includes the feminine and the 
neuter, the singular number includes the plural and the 
plural includes the singular. The word 'person' includes 
a corporation as well as an individual; writing includes 
printing and typing and 'signature* includes thumb 
impression made by a person who cannot write if his 
name is written near to such thumb impression. 

5 ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS, METHODS OF 
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION, AND TESTS 

5.1 The provisions of the Code are not intended to 
prevent the use of any material or method of design or 
construction not specifically prescribed by the Code, 
provided any such alternative has been approved, 

5.2 The Authority may approve any such alternative 
provided it is found that the proposed alternative is 
satisfactory and conforms to the provisions of relevant 
parts regarding material, design and construction and 
that material, method, or work offered is, for the purpose 
intended, at least equivalent to that prescribed in the 
Code in quality, strength, compatibility, effectiveness, 
fire and water resistance, durability and safety. 

5.3 Tests 

Whenever there is insufficient evidence of compliance 
with the provisions of the Code or evidence that any 
material or method of design or construction does not 
conform to the requirements of the Code or in order to 
substantiate claims for alternative materials, design or 
methods of construction not specifically prescribed in 
the Code, the Authority may require tests sufficiently 
in advance as proof of compliance. These tests shall 
be made by an approved agency at the expense of the 
owner. 

5.3.1 Test methods shall be specified by the Code for 
the materials or design or construction in question. If 



there are no appropriate test methods specified in the 
Code, the Authority shall determine the test procedure. 
For methods of test for building materials, reference 
may be made to Part 5 Building Materials. 

5.3.2 Copies of the results of all such tests shall be 
retained by the Authority for a period of not less than 
two years after the acceptance of the alternative material. 

SECTION 2 ORGANIZATION AND 
ENFORCEMENT 

6 DEPARTMENT OF BUILDINGS 

6.1 The department of buildings shall be created by 
the Authority and a team of building officials shall be 
appointed to carry out work of such department. 

6.2 Appointment of Team of Building Officials 

The team of building officials shall be appointed by 
the Authority. The team shall comprise officials drawn 
from concerned disciplines such as engineer, architect, 
town planner, landscape architect and urban designer 
as may be decided by the Authority. For scrutiny of 
layout plans of plots of one hectare and above in metro 
cities and two hectares and above in other places, town 
planner, shall be part of the team of building officials. 
For plots of five hectares and above, landscape architect 
shall also be part of the team. An urban designer shall 
also be required to be the part of team of building 
officials for examining proposals on integrated urban 
design and development for residential/business/ 
institutional and assembly building. 

NOTE — Metro cities are cities with population more than 
1 000 000. 

6.3 Organization 

In the department of buildings, such number of officers, 
technical assistants, inspectors and other employees 
shall be appointed to assist the team of building officials 
as shall be necessary for the administration of the Code 
and as authorized by the Authority. 

6.4 Delegation of Powers 

The Authority may designate one of the building 
officials who shall exercise all the powers of the team 
of building officials. The work of the team of building 
officials may be outsourced to competent professional/ 
agency/group as may be deemed necessary. 

6.5 Qualification of Building Officials 

The qualification of building officials scrutinizing the 
plans and carrying out inspection of buildings shall 
not in any case be less than those prescribed in 
Annex A. 

6.5.1 In small local bodies having insufficient 
resources to appoint such officials with the above 



PART 2 ADMINISTRATION 



qualifications, two or three such bodies contiguously 
located could join together and share the services of 
one team of building officials. 

6.6 Qualifications of Assistant 

No person shall be appointed as Assistant unless he 
has got the qualifications prescribed in Annex A for a 
registered Supervisor. 

6.7 Restriction on Employees 

No official or employee connected with the department 
of buildings except one whose only connection is that 
of a member of the Board of Appeals, established 
under 8 shall be engaged directly or indirectly in a work 
connected with the furnishing of labour, materials 
or appliances for the construction, alteration or 
maintenance of a building, or the preparation of plans 
or of specifications thereof unless he is the owner of 
building; nor shall such official or employee engage 
in any work which conflicts with his official duties or 
with the interests of the Department. 

6.8 Records 

Proper records of all applications received, permits and 
orders issued, inspections made shall be kept and copies 
of all papers and documents connected with the 
administration of its duties shall be retained and all 
such records shall be open to public inspection at all 
appropriate times. 

7 POWER AND DUTIES OF TEAM OF BUILDING 
OFFICIALS 

7.0 The team of building officials shall enforce all the 
provisions of the Code and shall act on any question 
relative to the mode or manner of construction and the 
materials to be used in the erection, addition, alteration, 
repair, removal, demolition, installation of service 
equipment and the location, use, occupancy and 
maintenance of all buildings except as may otherwise 
be specifically provided. 

7.1 Application and Permits 

The team of building officials shall receive all 
applications and issue permits (see 12.10) for the 
erection and alteration of buildings and examine the 
premises for which such permits have been issued and 
enforce compliance with the Code. 

7.2 Building Notices and Orders 

The team of building officials shall issue all necessary 
notices or orders to remove illegal or unsafe conditions, 
to require the necessary safeguards during construction, 
to require adequate exit facilities in existing buildings 
and to ensure compliance with all the requirements of 
safety, health and general welfare of the public as 
included in the Code. 



7.3 Right of Entry 

Upon presentation of proper credentials and with 
advance notice, the team of building officials or its 
duly authorized representative may enter at any 
reasonable time any building or premises to perform 
any duty imposed upon him by the Code. 

7.4 Inspection 

The team of building officials shall make all the 
required inspections or it may accept reports of 
inspections of authoritative and recognized services 
or individuals; and all reports of inspections shall be 
in writing and certified by a responsible officer of such 
authoritative service or by the responsible individual 
or engage any such expert opinion as he may deem 
necessary to report upon unusual technical issues that 
may arise, subject to the approval of the Authority. 

7.5 Construction Not According to Plan 

Should the team of building officials determine at any 
stage that the construction is not proceeding according 
to the sanctioned plan or is in violation of any of the 
provisions of the Code, or any other applicable Code 
Regulation, Act or Byelaw, it shall notify the owner, 
and all further construction shall be stayed until 
correction has been effected and approved. 

7.5.1 Should the owner fail to comply with the 
requirements at any stage of construction, the Authority 
shall issue a notice to the owner asking explanation 
for non-compliance. If the owner fails to comply within 
14 days from the date of receiving the notice, the 
Authority shall be empowered to cancel the building 
permit issued and shall cause notice of such 
cancellation to be securely pasted upon the said 
construction, if the owner is not traceable at his address 
given in the notice. Pasting of such a notice shall be 
considered sufficient notification of cancellation to the 
owner thereof. No further work shall be undertaken or 
permitted upon such construction until a valid building 
permit thereafter has been issued. If the owner, in 
violation of the notice for cancellation, continues the 
construction, the Authority may take all necessary 
means to stop such work and further appropriate actions 
including demolitions. The owner shall, however, have 
right to appeal against cancellation of permit, to the 
board of appeal, within a stipulated period, as may be 
decided by the Authority. 

7.6 Modification 

Wherever practical difficulties are involved in carrying 
out any provision of the Code, the team of building 
officials may vary or modify such provisions upon 
application of the owner or his representative provided 
the spirit and intent of the Code shall be observed and 
public welfare and safety be assured. The application 



8 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



for modification and the final decision of the team of 
building officials shall be in writing and shall be 
officially recorded with the application for the permit 
in the permanent records of the Department of Building 
Inspection. 

7.7 Occupancy Violations 

Wherever any building is being used contrary to 
provisions of the Code, the team of building officials 
may order such use discontinued and the building or 
portion thereof, vacated by the notice served on any 
person, causing such use to be discontinued. Such 
person shall discontinue the use within 10 days after 
receipt of such notice or make the building or portion 
thereof, comply with the requirements of the Code. 

8 BOARD OF APPEALS 

In order to determine the suitability of alternative 
materials or methods of design or construction and to 
provide for reasonable interpretation of the provisions 
of the Code or in the matter of dispute relating to an 
ongoing construction vis-a-vis the sanctioned plan, a 
Board of Appeals consisting of members who are 
qualified by experience and training and to pass 
judgement upon matters pertaining to building 
construction, shall be appointed by the Authority. A 
representative of the team of building officials shall 
be an ex-officio member and shall act as secretary to 
the Board. The Board shall adopt reasonable rules and 
regulations for conducting its investigations and shall 
render all decisions and findings in writing to the team 
of building officials with a duplicate copy to the 
appellant and may recommend such modifications as 
are necessary. 

9 VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES 
9.1 Offences and Penalties 

9.1.1 Any person who contravenes any of the 
provisions of the Code or any requirements of 
obligations imposed on him by virtue of the Code, or 
who interferes with or obstructs any person in the 
discharge of his duties, shall be guilty of an offence 
and the Authority shall levy suitable penalty or take 
other actions as per the Code (see also 7.5 and 15). 

NOTE — The penalty may be in the form of collection of 

arrears of tax. 

9.1.2 The buildings/developments violating any 
applicable statutory rules shall be demolished/brought 
within the limits as prescribed in such rules at the 
expense of the owner. The buildings coming up in the 
vicinity of an aerodrome in violation of the height 
restriction laid down by the Directorate General of Civil 
Aviation shall be accordingly demolished/brought 
within the limits prescribed by DGCA rules. 



9.1.3 The registered architect, engineer, structural 
engineer, supervisor, town planner, landscape architect, 
urban designer and utility service engineer (see 
Annex A) responsible for the services rendered for 
supervision of the construction/development and for the 
completion certificate; in the event of violation of the 
provisions of the Code, shall be liable to penalties as 
prescribed by the Authority including cancellation of 
registration done by it or make such recommendation 
to the statutory body governing such profession. 

9.2 Further Obligation of Offender 

The conviction of any person for an offence under the 
provision of 9.1 shall not relieve him from the duty of 
carrying out the requirements or obligations imposed 
on him by virtue of the provisions of the Code; and if 
such requirements or obligations are not complied with 
in accordance with an order made under provisions 
of 9.1, the Authority under the provisions of the Code 
may, if necessary and advisable, enter upon the 
premises in respect of which a conviction has been 
made and carry out at the expense of the convicted 
person, the requirements or obligations referred to in 
the said order and the expense, if not paid on demand, 
may be recovered with cost in a court. 

9.3 Conviction No Bar to Further Prosecution 

The conviction of any person under the provisions of 
this part for failing to comply with any of the said 
requirements or obligations shall not operate as a bar 
to further prosecution under this part for any 
subsequent failure on the part of such person to comply. 

10 POWER TO MAKE RULES 

The Authority may make rules for carrying out the 
provisions and intentions of the Code provided that 
any rule shall not be in direct/indirect conflict or 
nullify/dilute any of the provisions of the Code. 

SECTION 3 PERMIT AND INSPECTION 

11 DEVELOPMENT/BUHJ)ING PERMIT 

11.1 Permit Required 

No person shall carry out any development, erect, re- 
erect or make alterations or demolish any building or 
cause the same to be done without first obtaining a 
separate permit for each such development/building 
from the Authority. No permits shall, however, be 
required for works referred to in 12.1.1.1 and 12.4.1. 

11.1.1 The development/building permit shall take 
into cognizance the provisions under the relevant Town 
Planning Act/Development Act/Municipal Act/any 
other applicable statutes for layout, building plans, 
water supply, sewerage, drainage, electrification, etc, 
as provided in the said Act/statute. Also, if so directed 



PART 2 ADMINISTRATION 



by the Authority, the permit shall take care of the need 
for landscape development plan incorporating rain- 
water harvesting proposals in the layout and building 
plans. 

11.1.2 Specific approvals shall be obtained from 
Civil Aviation Authorities, Fire Services Department 
(in case the building proposed is 15 m and above), 
Pollution Control Board, designated authorities under 
Factories Act/Cinema Regulation Act, Urban Arts 
Commission, designated Coastal Regulation Zone 
Authority, Archeological Survey of India, Heritage 
Committee and any such other authority as may be 
applicable. 

11.1.3 In order to facilitate clearance from above 
bodies with the concept of single window clearance 
approach and thereby final approval by the Authority 
within the stipulated time frame, the Authority may 
constitute a Development/Building Permit Approval 
Committee consisting of representative of the team of 
building officials, representatives of all bodies/ 
organizations from whom clearance for development/ 
building permit clearance is required. 

Recommendations from such Committee shall be 
summarily utilized by the team of building officials 
in sanctioning process. The Committee may meet 
once in 15/30 days depending upon the work load. 
The first response/invalid notice/non-compliance 
intimation shall be issued by the Authority to the 
owner within 30 days of submission of the plans to 
the Authority. 

11.1.4 The Authority shall permit a registered 
architect/engineer to approve the building proposals 
including plans, and certify completion of building for 
issue of related regulatory building permits and 
occupancy certificate for residential buildings designed 
by self or otherwise, on plot size up to 500 m 2 . The 
responsibility of compliance with respect to provisions 
of Code shall rest with the registered architect/engineer. 
However, the plans shall be required to be submitted 
to the Authority for information and record. 

NOTE — Where the experience clearly shows that satisfactory 
building permit activities are being carried out through the 
above empowerment of professionals, the Authority may 
extend such provision for larger areas and other building 
occupancies. 

11.2 Pre-Code Development/Building Permit 

If any development/building, permit for which had 
been issued before the commencement of the Code, is 
not wholly completed within a period of three years 
from the date of such permit, the said permission shall 
be deemed to have lapsed and fresh permit shall be 
necessary to proceed further with the work in 
accordance with the provisions of the Code. 



12 APPLICATION FOR DEVELOPMENT/ 
BUILDING PERMIT 

12,1 Notice 

Every owner who intends to develop, erect, re-erect or 
make alterations in any place in a building shall give 
notice in writing to the Authority of his said intention 
in the prescribed form (see Annex B) and such notice 
shall be accompanied by plans and statements in 
triplicate as required under 12.2 and 12.3 except for 
special buildings (high rise, non-residential) where 
additional copies may be submitted as desired by the 
Authority. The Authority shall permit submission of 
plans/documents in electronic form in addition to hard 
copy. The Authority should also progressively 
computerize the approval process. 

12.1.1 Regarding submission of plans by Government 
Departments, the procedure shall be as given 
in 12.1.1.1 and 12.1.1.2 

12.1.1.1 The operational construction/installation of 
the Government, whether temporary or permanent, 
which is essential for the operation, maintenance, 
development or execution of any of the following 
services may be exempted from the point of view of 
the byelaws: 

a) Railways; 

b) National highways; 

c) National waterways; 

d) Major ports; 

e) Airways and aerodromes; 

f) Posts and telegraphs, telephones, wireless, 
broadcasting, and other like forms of 
communications ; 

g) Regional grid for electricity; 
h) Defence; and 

j) Any other service which the Central/State 
Government may, if it is of opinion that the 
operation, maintenance, development of 
execution of such service is essential to the 
life of the community, by notification, declare 
to be a service for the purpose of this clause. 

In case of construction/installation where no approvals 
are required, the concerned agencies which are 
exempted from seeking approval shall submit the 
drawings/plans/details for information and records of 
the Authority before construction/installation. 

12.1.1.2 However, the following construction of the 
Government departments do not come under the 
purview of operational construction for the purpose of 
exemption under 12.1.1.1: 

a) New residential building (other than gate 
lodges, quarters for limited essential operational 



10 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



b) 



staff and the like), roads and drains in railway 
colonies, hospitals, clubs, institutes and 
schools, in the case of railways; and 
A new building, new construction or new 
installation or any extension thereof in the 
case of any other services. 



12.2 Information Accompanying Notice 

The notice shall be accompanied by the key plan, site 
plan, building plan, services plans, specifications 
structural sufficiency certificate and certificate of 
supervision as prescribed in 12.2.2 to 12.2.8. 

12.2.1 Sizes of Drawing Sheets and Recommended 
Notation for Colouring Plans 

12.2.1.1 The size of drawing sheets shall be any of 
those specified in Table 1. 

Table 1 Drawing Sheet Sizes 

(Clause 12.2.1.1) 



SI No. 


Designation 


Trimmed Size 

mm 


(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


i) 


AO 


841 x 1 189 


ii) 


Al 


594 x 841 


iii) 


A2 


420 x 594 


iv) 


A3 


297 x 420 


v) 


A4 


210 x 297 


vi) 


A5 


148 x 210 



12.2.1.2 The plans shall be coloured as specified in 
Table 2. 

12.2.2 Key Plan 

A key plan drawn to a scale of not less than 1 in 10 000 
shall be submitted along with the application for a 
development/building permit showing the boundary 
locations of the site with respect to neighbourhood 
landmarks. The minimum dimension of the key plan 
shall be not less than 75 mm. 

12.2.3 Site Plan 

The site plan sent with an application for permit shall 
be drawn to a scale of not less than 1 in 500 for a site 
up to one hectare and not less than 1 in 1 000 for a site 
more than one hectare and shall show: 

a) the boundaries of the site and of any contiguous 
land belonging to the owner thereof; 

b) the position of the site in relation to 
neighbouring street; 

c) the name of the streets in which the building 
is proposed to be situated, if any; 

d) all existing buildings standing on, over or 
under the site including service lines; 

e) the position of the building and of all other 
buildings (if any) which the applicant intends 
to erect upon his contiguous land referred to 
in (a) in relation to: 



Table 2 Colouring of Plans 

(Clause 12.2.1.2) 



SI 


Item 




Site Plan 

_-* — 






Building Plan 




No. 




• — ' 




~-» 


s~ 




^ 






White Plan 


Blue Print 


Ammonia Print 


White Plan 


Blue Print 


Ammonia Print 


(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


(7)- 


(8) 


i) 


Plot lines 


Thick black 


Thick black 


Thick black 


Thick black 


Thick black 


Thick black 


ii) 


Existing street 


Green 


Green 


Green 


— 


— 


— 


iii) 


Future street, if any 


Green dotted 


Green dotted 


Green dotted 


— 


— 


— 


iv) 


Permissible building 


Thick dotted 


Thick dotted 


Thick dotted 


— 


— 


— 




lines 


black 


black 


black 








v) 


Open spaces 


No colour 


No colour 


No colour 


No colour 


No colour 


No colour 


vi) 


Existing work 


Black (outline) 


White 


Blue 


Black 


White 


Blue 


vii) 


Work proposed to be 
demolished 


Yellow hatched 


Yellow hatched 


Yellow hatched 


Yellow hatched 


Yellow hatched 


Yellow hatched 


viii) Proposed work 


Red rilled in 


Red 


Red 


Red 


Red 


Red 




(see Note 1) 














ix) 


Drainage and sewerage 
work 


Red dotted 


Red dotted 


Red dotted 


Red dotted 


Red dotted 


Red dotted 


x) 


Water supply work 


Black dotted 


Black dotted 


Black dotted 


Black dotted 


Black dotted 


Black dotted 






thin 


thin 


thin 


thin 


thin 


-thin 



NOTES 

1 For entirely new construction this need not be done; for extension of an existing work this shall apply. 

2 For land development, subdivision, layout, suitable colouring notations shall be used which shall be indexed. 



PART 2 ADMINISTRATION 



11 



1) the boundaries of the site and in case 
where the site has been partitioned, the 
boundaries of the portion owned by the 
applicant and also of the portions owned 
by others; 

2) all adjacent street, buildings (with 
number of storeys and height) and 
premises within a distance of 12 m of the 
site and of the contiguous land (if any) 
referred to in (a); and 

3) if there is no street within a distance of 
12 m of the site, the nearest existing 
street; 

f) the means of access from the street to the 
building, and to all other buildings (if any) 
which the applicant intends to erect upon his 
contiguous land referred to in (a); 

g) space to be left about the building to secure a 
free circulation of air, admission of light and 
access for scavenging purposes; 

h) the width of the street (if any) in front and of 

the street (if any) at the side or near the 

buildings; 
j ) the direction of north point relative to the plan 

of the buildings; 
k) any physical features, such as wells, drains, 

etc; and 
m) such other particulars as may be prescribed 

by the Authority. 

12.2.4 Sub -Division/Layout Plan 

In the case of development work, the notice shall be 
accompanied by the sub-division/layout plan which 
shall be drawn on a scale of not less than 1 : 500 
containing the following: 

a) Scale used and north point; 

b) The location of all proposed and existing 
roads with their existing/proposed/prescribed 
widths within the land; 

c) Dimensions of plot along with building lines 
showing the setbacks with dimensions within 
each plot; 

d) The location of drains, sewers, public facilities 
and services, and electrical lines, etc; 

e) Table indicating size, area and use of all the 
plots in the sub-division/layout plan; 

f) A statement indicating the total area of the 
site, area utilized under roads, open spaces 
for parks, playgrounds, recreation spaces for 
parks, playgrounds, recreation spaces and 
development plan reservations, schools, 
shopping and other public places alongwith 
their percentage with reference to the total 



area of the site proposed to be subdivided; 
and 
g) In case of plots which are subdivided in built- 
up areas in addition to the above, the means 
of access to the sub-division from existing 
streets. 

12.2.5 Building Plan and Details 

The plan of the buildings and elevations and sections 
accompanying the notice shall be drawn to a scale of 
1 : 100. The plans and details shall: 

a) include floor plans of all floors together with 
the covered area clearly indicating the size 
and spacings of all framing members and sizes 
of rooms and the position of staircases, ramps 
and liftwells; 

b) show the use or occupancy of all parts of the 
buildings; 

c) show exact location of essential services, for 
example, WC, sink, bath and the like; 

d) include at least one elevation from the front 
showing height of building and rooms and 
also the height of parapet; 

e) include at least one section through the 
staircase; 

f) include the structural arrangements with 
appropriate sections showing type/ 
arrangement of footings, foundations, 
basement walls; structural load bearing walls, 
columns and beams, and shear walls; and 
arrangement/spacing of framing members, 
floor slabs and roof slabs with the material 
used for the same; 

g) show all street elevations; 

h) give dimensions of the projected portions 
beyond the permissible building line; 

j) include terrace plan indicating the drainage 
and the slope of the roof; and 

k) give indications of the north point relative to 
the plan. 

NOTE — The requirement of 1 : 100 is permitted to 
be flexible for specific details needed for further 
illustration; andJlso for drawings for these in electronic 
form. 

12.2.5.1 Building plan for multi-stor eyed/ special 
buildings 

For all multi-storeyed buildings which are 15 m or more 
in height and for special buildings like educational, 
assembly, institutional, industrial, storage and 
hazardous and mixed occupancies with any of the 
aforesaid occupancies having covered area more than 
500 m 2 , the building sanction shall be done in two 
stages. 



12 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



Stage 1: First stage for planning clearance 

The following additional information shall be 
furnished/indicated in the building plan in addition to 
the items given in 12.2.5 as applicable: 

a) Access to fire appliances/vehicles with details 
of vehicular turning circle and clear motorable 
accessway around the building; 

b) Size (width) of main and alternative staircases 
along with balcony approach, corridor, 
ventilated lobby approach; 

c) Location and details of lift enclosures; 

d) Location and size of fire lift; 

e) Smoke stop lobby/door, where provided; 

f) Refuse chutes, refuse chamber, service duct, 
etc; 

g) Vehicular parking spaces; 
h) Refuse area, if any; 

j) Details of building services — Air-conditioning 

system with position of fire dampers, 

mechanical ventilation system, electrical 

services, boilers, gas pipes, etc; 
k) Details of exits including provision of ramps, 

etc, for hospitals and special risks; 
m) Location of generator, transformer and 

switchgear room; 
n) Smoke exhauster system, if any; 
p) Details of fire alarm system network; 
q) Location of centralized control, connecting 

all fire alarm systems, built-in-fire protection 

arrangements and public address system, 

etc; 
r) Location and dimensions of static water 

storage tank and pump room along with fire 

service inlets for mobile pump and water 

storage tank; 
s) Location and details of fixed fire protection 

installations, such as, sprinklers, wet risers, 

hose-reels, drenchers, etc; and 
t) Location and details of first-aid fire fighting 

equipments/installations. 

Stage 2: Second stage for building permit clearance 

After obtaining the sanction for planning (Stage 1) 
from the Authority, a complete set of structural plans, 
sections, details and design calculations duly signed 
by engineer/structural engineer {see Annex A) along 
with the complete set of details duly approved in 
Stage 1 shall be submitted. The building plans/details 
shall be deemed sanctioned for the commencement of 
construction only after obtaining the permit for Stage 2 
from the Authority. 



12.2.6 Services Plans 

The services plans shall include all details of building 
and plumbing services, and also plans, elevations and 
sections of private water supply, sewage disposal system 
and rainwater harvesting system, if any {see Part 8 
'Building Services' and Part 9 'Plumbing Services'). 

12.2.7 Specifications 

Specifications, both general and detailed, giving type 
and grade of materials to be used, duly signed by the 
registered architect, engineer, structural engineer or 
supervisor shall accompany the notice {see Annex B). 

12.2.8 Structural Sufficiency Certificate 

The plans shall be accompanied by structural 
sufficiency certificate in the prescribed form {see 
Annex C) signed by the engineer/structural engineer 
{see Annex A) and the owner jointly to the effect that 
the building is safe against various loads, forces and 
effects including due to natural disasters, such as, 
earthquake, landslides, cyclones, floods, etc as per 
Part 6 'Structural Design' and other relevant Codes. 
The engineer/structural engineer shall also have the 
details to substantiate his design. 

12.2.9 Supervision 

The notice shall be further accompanied by a certificate 
in the prescribed form {see Annex D) by the registered 
architect/engineer/structural engineer/supervisor/town 
planner {see Annex A) undertaking the supervision 
{see 9.3). 

12.3 Preparation and Signing of Plans 

The registered architect/engineer/supervisor/town 
planner/landscape architect/urban designer/utility 
service engineer shall prepare and duly sign the plans 
as per their competence {see Annex A) and shall 
indicate his/her name, address, qualification and 
registration number as allotted by the Authority or the 
body governing such profession. The structural plans 
and details shall also be prepared and duly signed by 
the competent professionals like registered engineer/ 
structural engineer {see Annex A). The plans shall also 
be duly signed by the own^r indicating his address. 
The type and volume of buildings/development work 
to be undertaken by the registered professionals may 
generally be as in Annex A. 

12.4 Notice for Alteration only 

When the notice is only for an alteration of the building 
{see 3.5), only such plans and statements, as may be 
necessary, shall accompany the notice. 

12.4.1 No notice and building permit is necessary for 
the following alterations, and the like which do not 
otherwise violate any provisions regarding general 



PART 2 ADMINISTRATION 



13 



building requirements, structural stability and fire and 
health safety requirements of the Code: 

a) Opening and closing of a window or door or 
ventilator; 

b) Providing intercommunication doors; 

c) Providing partitions; 

d) Providing false ceiling; 

e) Gardening; 

f) White washing; 

g) Painting; 

h) Re-tiling and re-roofing; 

j) Plastering and patch work; 

k) Re-flooring; and 

m) Construction of sunshades on one's own land. 

12.5 Fees 

No notice as referred to in 12.1 shall be deemed valid 
unless and until the person giving notice has paid the 
fees to the Authority and an attested copy of the receipt 
of such payment is attached with the notice. 

NOTE — The fees may be charged as a consolidated fee. In 
the event of a building/development permit is not issued, the 
fees so paid shall not be returned to the owner, but he shall be 
allowed to re-submit it without any fees after complying with 
all the objections raised by the Authority within a period of 
one year from the date of rejection after which fresh fees shall 
have to be paid. 

12.6 Duration of Sanction 

The sanction once accorded shall remain valid up to 
three years. The permit shall be got revalidated before 
the expiration of this period. Revalidation shall be 
subject to the rules then in force. 

12.7 Deviations During Construction 

If during the construction of a building any departure 
(excepting for items as given in 12.4.1) from the 
sanctioned plan is intended to be made {see 7.5), 
sanction of the Authority shall be obtained before the 
change is made. The revised plan showing the 
deviations shall be submitted and the procedure laid 
down for the original plan heretofore shall apply to all 
such amended plans except that the time limit specified 
in 12.10.2 shall be three weeks in such cases. 

12.8 Revocation of Permit 

The Authority may revoke any permit issued under 
the provisions of the Code, wherever there has been 
any false statement, misrepresentation of any material 
fact in the application on which the permit was 
based or violation of building permit or in case of 
noncompliance thereof, and shall state the reasons for 
revoking the permit. 



12.9 Qualifications of Architects/Engineers/ 
Structural Engineers/Landscape Architect/Urban 
Designer/Supervisors/Town Planners/Services 
Personnel 

Architects, engineers, structural engineers, landscape 
architect, urban designer, supervisors and town 
planners wherever referred in the Code, shall be 
registered by the Authority or the body governing such 
profession constituted under a statute, as competent to 
do the work for which they are employed. A guide for 
the equivalent technical qualifications and professional 
experience required for such registration with the 
Authority is given in Annex A. In case of building and 
plumbing services, qualifications for engineers for 
utility services shall be as given in A-2.8. 

12.9.1 In case the registered professional associated 
with the preparation and signing of plans or for 
supervision, is being changed during any stage of 
building/land development process, the professional 
shall intimate the Authority in writing about the further 
non-association with the project. 

12.10 Grant of Permit or Refusal 

The Authority may either sanction or refuse the plans 
and specifications or may sanction them with such 
modifications or directions as it may deem necessary 
and thereupon shall communicate its decision to the 
person giving the notice {see Annex E). 

12.10.1 The building plans for buildings identified 
in 12.2.5.1 shall also be subject to the scrutiny of the 
Fire Authority and the sanction through building permit 
shall be given by the Authority after the clearance from 
the Fire Authority {see also 11.1.3). 

12.10.2 If within 30 days of the receipt of the notice 
under 12.1 of the Code, the Authority fails to intimate 
in writing to the person, who has given the notice, of 
its refusal or sanction, the notice with its plans and 
statements shall be deemed to have been sanctioned; 
provided the fact is immediately brought to the notice 
of the Authority in writing by the person who has given 
notice and having not received any intimation from 
the Authority within fifteen days of giving such written 
notice. Subject to the conditions mentioned in this 
clause, nothing shall be construed to authorize any 
person to do anything in contravention of or against 
the terms of lease or titles of the land or against any 
other regulations, byelaws or ordinance operating on 
the site of the work. 

12.10.3 In the case of refusal, the Authority shall quote 
the reason and relevant sections of the Code which the 
plans contravene. The Authority shall as far as possible 
advise all the objections to the plans and specifications 
in the first instance itself and ensure that no new 



14 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



objections are raised when they are resubmitted after 
compliance of earlier objections. 

12.10.4 Once the plan has been scrutinized and 
objections have been pointed out, the owner giving 
notice shall modify the plan to comply with the 
objections raised and re-submit it. The Authority shall 
scrutinize the re-submitted plan and if there be further 
objections, the plan shall be rejected. 

13 RESPONSIBILITIES AND DUTIES OF THE 
OWNER 

13.1 Neither the granting of the permit nor the approval 
of the drawings and specifications, nor inspections 
made by the Authority during erection of the building 
shall in any way relieve the owner of such building 
from full responsibility for carrying out the work in 
accordance with the requirements of the Code (see 9). 

13.2 Every owner shall: 

a) permit the Authority to enter the building or 
premises for which the permit has been 
granted at any reasonable time for the purpose 
of enforcing the Code; 

b) submit a document of ownership of the site; 

c) obtain, where applicable, from the Authority, 
permits relating to building, zoning, grades, 
sewers, water mains, plumbing, signs, 
blasting, street occupancy, electricity, 
highways, and all other permits required in 
connection with the proposed work; 

d) give notice to the Authority of the intention 
to start work on the building site (see 
Annex F); 

e) give written notice to the Authority intimating 
completion of work up to plinth level; 

f) submit the certificate for execution of work 
as per structural safety requirements (see 
Annex G); and give written notice to the 
Authority regarding completion of work 
described in the permit (see Annex H); 

g) give written notice to the Authority in case of 
termination of services of a professional 
engaged by him; and 

h) obtain an occupancy permit (see Annex J) 
from the Authority prior to any: 

1 ) occupancy of the building or part thereof 
after construction or alteration of that 
building or part, or 

2) change in the class of occupancy of any 
building or part thereof. 

13.2.1 Temporary Occupancy 

Upon the request of the holder of the permit, the 
Authority may issue a temporary certificate of 



occupancy for a building or part thereof, before the 
entire work covered by permit shall have been 
completed, provided such portion or portions may be 
occupied safely prior to full completion of building 
without endangering life or public welfare. 

13.3 Documents at Site 

13.3.1 Where tests of any materials are made to ensure 
conformity with the requirements of the Code, records 
of the test data shall be kept available for inspection 
during the construction of the building and for such a 
period thereafter as required by the Authority. 

13.3.2 The person to whom a permit is issued shall 
during construction keep pasted in a conspicuous place 
on the property in respect of which the permit was 
issued: 

a) a copy of the building permit; and 

b) a copy of the approved drawings and 
specifications referred in 12. 

14 INSPECTION, OCCUPANCY PERMIT AND 
POST-OCCUPANCY INSPECTION 

14.1 Generally all construction or work for which a 
permit is required shall be subject to inspection by the 
Authority and certain types of construction involving 
unusual hazards or requiring constant inspection shall 
have continuous inspection by special inspectors 
appointed by the Authority. 

14.2 Inspection, where required, shall be made within 
7 days following the receipt of notification, after 
which period the owner will be free to continue the 
construction according to the sanctioned plan. At the 
first inspection, the Authority shall determine to the 
best of its ability that the building has been located 
in accordance with the approved site plans. The final 
inspection of the completion of the work shall be 
made within 21 days following the receipt of 
notification [see 13.2(f)] for the grant of occupancy 
certificate. 

14.2.1 The owner/concerned registered architect/ 
engineer/structural engineer/town planner will serve 
a notice/completion certificate to the Authority that 
the building has been completed in all respects as per 
the approved plans. The deviations shall also be 
brought to the notice of the Authority (with relevant 
documents). The team of building officials or its duly 
authorized representative shall then visit the site and 
occupancy certificate shall be given in one instance. 

14.2.2 The occupancy certificate should clearly state 
the use/type of occupancy of the building. However, 
the applicant can apply for change of use/occupancy 
permitted within the purview of the Master Plan/Zonal 
Plan/Building Byelaws, where so required. 



PART 2 ADMINISTRATION 



15 



14.3 When inspection of any construction operation 
reveals than any lack of safety precautions exist, the 
Authority shall have right to direct the owner to stop 
the work immediately until the necessary remedial 
measures to remove the violation of safety precautions 
are taken. 

14.4 Periodic Occupancy Renewal Certificate 

14.4.1 For buildings covered in 12.2.5.1 after 
completion of the building and obtaining the occupancy 
certificate, periodic inspections of buildings shall be 
made by the Fire Authority to ensure the fire safety of 
the building and compliance with the provisions of fire 
and life safety requirements (see Part 4 Tire and Life 
Safey'). Periodic occupancy renewal certificate shall 
be made available by the Authority/Fire Authority which 
shall also include safekeep of fire fighting installations 
and equipments for such buildings. 

14.4.2 All occupied building and buildings covered 
under 12.2.5.1 shall also be subjected to periodic 
physical inspection by a team of multi-disciplinary 
professionals of local Authority. The work by team of 
professionals may be outsourced by the Authority to 
competent professionals as may be deemed necessary. 
The team shall ensure the compliance of byelaws, 
natural lighting, ventilation, etc, besides structural and 
electrical safety. After checking, the team shall be 
required to give the certificate for above aspects. If 
any shortcoming/deficiencies or violations are noticed 
during inspection, the Authority shall ensure the 
compliance of these within a specified time frame of 
six months. If not complied with, the building shall be 
declared unsafe. The period of inspection shall usually 
be 3 to 5 years but in any case not more than 5 years. 

15 UNSAFE BUILDING 

15.1 All unsafe buildings shall be considered to 
constitute danger to public safety and shall be restored 
by repairs or demolished or dealt with as otherwise 
directed by the Authority (see 15.2 to 15.5). 

15.2 Examination of Unsafe Building 

The Authority shall examine or cause to be examined 
every building reported to be unsafe or damaged, and 
shall make a written record of such examination. 

15.3 Notice to Owner, Occupier 

Whenever the Authority finds any building or portion 
thereof to be unsafe, it shall, in accordance with 
established procedure for legal notice, give to the owner 
and occupier of such building written notices stating 
the defects thereof. This notice shall require the owner 
or the occupier within a stated time either to complete 
specified repairs or improvements or to demolish and 
remove the building or portion thereof. 



15.3.1 The Authority may direct in writing that the 
building which in his opinion is dangerous, or has 
no provision for exit if caught fire, shall be vacated 
immediately or within the period specified for the 
purpose; provided that the Authority concerned shall 
keep a record of the reasons for such action with 
him. 

If any person does not comply with the orders of 
vacating a building, the Authority may direct the police 
to remove the person from the building and the police 
shall comply with the orders. 

15.4 Disregard of Notice 

In case the owner or occupier fails, neglects, or refuses 
to comply with the notice to repair or to demolish the 
said building or portion thereof, the Authority shall 
cause the danger to be removed whether by demolition 
or repair of the building or portion thereof or otherwise. 

15.5 Cases of Emergency 

In case of emergency, which, in the opinion of the 
Authority involves imminent danger to human life or 
health, the decision of the Authority shall be final. The 
Authority shall forthwith or with such notice as may 
be possible promptly cause such building or portion 
thereof to be rendered safe by retrofitting/strengthening 
to the same degree of safety or removed. For this 
purpose, the Authority may at once enter such structure 
or land on which it stands, or abutting land or structure, 
with such assistance and at such cost as may be deemed 
necessary. The Authority may also get the adjacent 
structures vacated and protect the public by an 
appropriate fence or such other means as may be 
necessary. 

15.6 Costs 

Costs incurred under 15.4 and 15.5 shall be charged to 
the owner of the premises involved. Such costs shall 
be charged on the premises in respect of which or for 
the benefit of which the same have been incurred and 
shall be recoverable as provided under the laws (see 
Note). 

NOTE — The costs may be in the form of arrears of taxes. 

16 DEMOLITION OF BUILDING 

Before a building is demolished, the owner shall notify 
all utilities having service connections within the 
building, such as water, electric, gas, sewer and other 
connections. A permit to demolish a building shall not 
be issued until a release is obtained from the utilities 
stating that their respective service connections and 
appurtenant equipment, such as, meters and regulators 
have been removed or sealed and plugged in a safe 
manner. 



16 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



17 VALIDITY 

17.1 Partial Invalidity 

In the event any part or provision of the Code is held 
to be illegal or void, this shall not have the effect of 
making void or illegal any of the other parts or 
provisions thereof, which may or shall be determined 
to be legal, and it shall be presumed that the Code 
would have been passed without such illegal or invalid 
parts or provisions. 

17.2 Segregation of Invalid Provisions 

Any invalid part of the Code shall be segregated 
from the remainder of the Code by the court holding 
such part invalid, and the remainder shall remain 
effective. 

17.3 Decisions Involving Existing Buildings 

The invalidity of any provision in any clause of the 
Code as applied to existing buildings and structures 
shall not be held to effect the validity of such section 
in its application to buildings hereafter erected. 

18 ARCHITECTURAL CONTROL 

18.1 Compliance with the provisions of the Code is 
adequate for normal buildings. But for major public 
building complexes or buildings coming up in an 
important area near historic/monumental buildings and 
areas of heritage, the aesthetics of the whole scheme 
may also have to be examined, vis-a-vis existing 
structures. In addition, any development which may 
mar the general characteristics and environment of 
historical, architectural or other monuments should also 
be subject to the provisions of this clause. This clause 
is intended to cover very few structures to come up in 
the vicinity of other declared/historically important 
structures, and the scrutiny shall be limited to the 
external architectural features only so as to ensure an 
aesthetic continuance of the existing structures with 
the new. The scrutiny shall not deal with the routine 
building plan scrutiny from other requirements of 



Code from the point of view of structural safety and 
functional requirements. 

18.2 An Urban Arts Commission shall be established 
at the city/state level on issues related to urban 
aesthetics, through a statute. This statutory authority/ 
commission established by an Act of State Legislative 
Assembly, shall accord approval to all major buildings/ 
important development projects having bearing on the 
urban aesthetics, depending upon the importance of 
the area with respect to natural or built heritage or 
projects on plot areas above 1 hectare and located 
in specifically identified areas. The Urban Arts 
Commission shall act as guardian of urban architecture; 
mainly with regard to building form and envelope, the 
relationship between the building, and the ambient 
environment vis-a-vis other dependants should be seen 
in depth. 

18.3 The Commission may work in the following 
manner: 

a) The Commission may select only the 
important buildings as in 18.1 and examine 
the same. The person responsible for the 
schemes, say an architect or an engineer, may 
examine either alone or with the owner. A 
study of the plans, elevations, models, etc, 
should be made. The architect/engineer 
should explain in general terms the purposes 
which the building is to serve and the main 
conditions which have influenced him in 
preparing the design. 

b) The Commission after full discussion, may 
communicate their decision in writing to the 
parties concerned. The Commission may 
recommend a change in the whole scheme or 
suggest modifications in the existing scheme, 
if so required. 

18.4 The Urban Arts Commission should also be 

charged with advising the city government, on schemes 
which will beautify the city and add to its cultural 
vitality. 



PART 2 ADMINISTRATION 



17 



ANNEX A 

(Foreword and Clauses 2.17, 6.5, 6.6, 9.1.3, 12.2.8, 12.3 and 12.9) 
GUIDE FOR THE QUALIFICATIONS AND COMPETENCE OF PROFESSIONALS 



A-l ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENTS 

A-l.l Every building/development work for which 
permission is sought under the Code shall be planned, 
designed and supervised by registered professionals. 
The registered professionals for carrying out the 
various activities shall be: (a) architect, (b) engineer, 
(c) structural engineer, (d) supervisor, (e) town planner, 
(f) landscape architect, (g) urban designer, and 
(h) utility service engineer. Requirements of 
registration for various professionals by the Authority 
or by the body governing such profession and 
constituted under a statute, as applicable to practice 
within the local body's jurisdiction, are given in A-2.1 
to A-2.5. The competence of such registered personnel 
to carry out various activities is also indicated 
inA-2.1.1 to A-2.5.1. 

A-2 REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION 
AND COMPETENCE OF PROFESSIONALS 

A-2.1 Architect 

The minimum qualifications for an architect shall be 
the qualifications as provided for in the Architects Act, 
1972 for registration with the Council of Architecture. 

A-2. 1.1 Competence 

The registered architect shall be competent to carryout 
the work related to the building/development permit 
as given below: 

a) All plans and information connected with 
building permit except engineering services 
of multistoreyed/special buildings given 
in 12.2.5.1. 

b) Issuing certificate of supervision and 
completion of all buildings pertaining to 
architectural aspects. 

c) Preparation of sub-division/layout plans and 
related information connected with 
development permit of area up to 1 hectare 
for metro-cities and 2 hectare for other places. 

d) Issuing certificate of supervision for 
development of land of area up to 1 hectare 
for metro-cities and 2 hectare for other places. 

A-2.2 Engineer 

The minimum qualifications for an engineer shall be 
graduate in civil engineering/architectural engineering 
of recognized Indian or foreign university, or the 
Member of Civil Engineering Division/ Architectural 



Engineering Division of the Institution of Engineers 
(India) or the statutory body governing such profession, 
as and when established. 

A-2.2.1 Competence 

The registered engineer shall be competent to carryout 
the work related to the building/development permit 
as given below: 

a) All plans and information connected with 
building permit; 

b) Structural details and calculations of buildings 
on plot up to 500 m 2 and up to 5 storeys or 
16 m in height; 

c) Issuing certificate of supervision and 
completion for all buildings; 

d) Preparation of all service plans and related 
information connected with development 
permit; and 

e) Issuing certificate of supervision for 
development of land for all area. 

A-2.3 Structural Engineer 

The minimum qualifications for a structural engineer 
shall be graduate in civil engineering of recognized 
Indian or foreign university, or Corporate Member of 
Civil Engineering Division of Institution of Engineers 
(India), and with minimum 3 years experience in 
structural engineering practice with designing and field 
work. 

NOTE — The 3 years experience shall be relaxed to 2 years in 
the case of post-graduate degree of recognized Indian or foreign 
university in the branch of structural engineering. In case of 
doctorate in structural engineering, the experience required 
would be one year. 

A-2.3.1 Competence 

The registered structural engineer shall be competent 
to prepare the structural design, calculations and details 
for all buildings and supervision. 

A-2.3.1.1 In case of buildings having special structural 
features, as decided by the Authority, which are within 
the horizontal areas and vertical limits specified 
in A-2.2.1 (b) and A-2.4.1(a) shall be designed only 
by structural engineers. 

A-2.4 Supervisor 

The minimum qualifications for a supervisor shall 
be diploma in civil engineering or architectural 
assistantship, or the qualification in architecture or 



18 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



engineering equivalent to the minimum qualification 
prescribed for recruitment to non-gazetted service by 
the Government of India plus 5 years experience in 
building design, construction and supervision. 

A-2.4.1 Competence 

The registered supervisor shall be competent to carryout 
the work related to the building permit as given below: 

a) All plans and related information connected 
with building permit for residential buildings 
on plot up to 100 m 2 and up to two storeys or 
7.5 m in height; and 

b) Issuing certificate of supervision for buildings 
as per (a). 

A-2.5 Town Planner 

The minimum qualification for a town planner shall 
be the Associate Membership of the Institute of Town 
Planners or graduate or post-graduate degree in town 
and country planning. 

A-2.5.1 Competence 

The registered town planner shall be competent to 
carryout the work related to the development permit 
as given below: 

a) Preparation of plans for land sub-division/ 
layout and related information connected with 
development permit for all areas. 

b) Issuing of certificate of supervision for 
development of land of all areas. 

NOTE — However, for land layouts for development 
permit above 5 hectare in area, landscape architect 
shall also be associated, and for land development 
infrastructural services for roads, water supplies, 
sewerage/drainage, electrification, etc, the registered 
engineers for utility services shall be associated. 

A-2.6 Landscape Architect 

The minimum qualification for a landscape architect 
shall be the bachelor or master' s degree in landscape 
architecture or equivalent from recognized Indian or 
foreign university. 

A-2,6.1 Competence 

The registered landscape architect shall be competent 
to carryout the work related to landscape design for 



building/development permit for land areas 5 hectares 
and above. In case of metro-cities, this limit of land 
area shall be 2 hectares and above. 

NOTE — For smaller areas below the limits indicated above, 
association of landscape architect may also be considered from 
the point of view of desired landscape development. 

A-2.7 Urban Designer 

The minimum qualification for an urban designer shall 
be the master's degree in urban design or equivalent 
from recognized Indian or foreign university. 

A-2.7.1 Competence 

The registered urban designer shall be competent to 
carryout the work related to the building permit for 
urban design for land areas more than 5 hectares and 
campus area more than 2 hectares. He/She shall also 
be competent to carryout the work of urban renewal 
for all areas. 

NOTE — For smaller areas below the limits indicated above, 
association of urban designer may be considered from the point 
of view of desired urban design. 

A-2.8 Engineers for Utility Services 

For buildings identified in 12.2.5.1, the work of 
building and plumbing services shall be executed under 
the planning, design and supervision of competent 
personnel. The qualification for registered mechanical 
engineer (including HVAC), electrical engineer and 
plumbing engineers for carrying out the work of Air- 
conditioning, Heating and Mechanical Ventilation, 
Electrical Installations, Lifts and Escalators and Water 
Supply, Drainage, Sanitation and Gas Supply 
installations respectively shall be as given in Part 8 
'Building Services' and Part 9 'Plumbing Services' or 
as decided by the Authority taking into account 
practices of the National professional bodies dealing 
with the specialist engineering services. 

A-3 BUILDER/CONSTRUCTOR ENTITY 

The minimum qualification and competence for the 
builder/constructor entity for various categories of 
building and infrastructural development shall be as 
decided by the Authority to ensure compliance of 
quality, safety and construction practices as required 
under the Code. 



PART 2 ADMINISTRATION 



19 



ANNEX B 

(Clause 12.1) 

FORM FOR FIRST APPLICATION TO DEVELOP, ERECT, RE-ERECT OR TO MAKE 
ALTERATION IN ANY PLACE IN A BUILDING 



To 



Sir, 

I hereby give notice that I intend to develop, erect, re-erect or to make alteration in the building No 

or to on/in Plot No in Colony/ 

Street MOHALLA/BAZAR/Rond City and 

in accordance with the building code of Part II, Clauses and 

I f orw ard herewith the following plans and specifications in triplicate duly signed by me and 

the Architect/Engineer/Structural Engineer/Supervisor/Town Planner/Landscape Architect/Urban Designer 1 *, 
Registration No who will supervise its erection. 

(Name in block letters) 

1 . Key plan 

2. Site plans 

3. Sub-division/layout plan 

4. Building plans 

5. Services plans 

6. Specifications, general and detailed 2) 

7 . Title of ownership of land/building 

8. Certificates for structural sufficiency and supervision 

I request that the development/construction may be approved and permission accorded to me to execute the 
work. 

Signature of Owner 

Name of the Owner 

(in block letters) 
Address of Owner 



Date: 



Strike out whichever is not applicable. 

2) A format may be prepared by the Authority for direct use. 



20 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



ANNEX C 

(Clause 12.2.8) 
FORM FOR CERTIFICATE FOR STRUCTURAL DESIGN SUFFICIENCY 

With respect to the building work of erection, re-erection or for making alteration in the building 

No or to on/in Plot No Colony/ 

Street MOHALLA/BAZARfRozd City , 

we certify that the structural plans and details of the building submitted for approval satisfy the structural safety 
requirements for all situations including natural disasters, as applicable, as stipulated under Part 6 Structural 
Design of the National Building Code of India and other relevant Codes; and the information given therein is 
factually correct to the best of our knowledge and understanding. 



Signature of owner 
with date 

Name: 


Signature of the 
Registered Engineer/ 
Structural Engineer with 
date and registration No. 


Address: 





ANNEX D 

(Clause 12.2.9) 

FORM FOR SUPERVISION 

I hereby certify that the development, erection, re-erection or material alteration in/of building No 

or the on/in Plot No in Colony/ 

Street MOHALLAIBAZARfRozd City 

shall be carried out under my supervision and I certify that all the materials (type and grade) and the workmanship 
of the work shall be generally in accordance with the general and detailed specifications submitted along with, 
and that the work shall be carried out according to the sanctioned plans. 

Signature of Architect/Engineer/Structural Engineer/Supervisor/Town Planner/Landscape Architect/Urban 
Designer^ 

Name of Architect/Engineer/Structural Engineer/Supervisor/Town Planner/Landscape Architect/Urban 
Designer 

(in block letters) 

Registration No. of Architect/Engineer/Structural Engineer/Supervisor/Town Planner/Landscape Architect/Urban 
Designer^ 

Address of Architect/Engineer/Structural Engineer/Supervisor/Town Planner/Landscape Architect/Urban 
Designer ]) 



Date: 



Strike out whichever is not applicable. 

PART 2 ADMINISTRATION 21 



ANNEX E 

(Clause 12.10) 

FORM FOR SANCTION OR REFUSAL OF DEVELOPMENT/BUILDING PERMIT 



To 



Sir, 

With reference to your application dated for grant of permit 

for the development, erection, re-erection or material alteration in the building No 

or to on/in Plot No in Colony/ 

Street MOHALLA/BAZAR/Rozd City 

I have to inform you that the sanction has been granted/refused by the Authority on the following grounds: 

1. 

2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 

Office Stamp Signature of the Authority 

Office (Communication) No Name, Designation and Address 

of the Authority 

Date: 



ANNEX F 

[Clause 13.2 (d)] 

FORM FOR NOTICE FOR COMMENCEMENT 

I hereby certify that the development, erection, re-erection or material alteration in/of building No 

or the on/in Plot No in Colony/Street MOHALLA/ 

BAZAR/Road City will be commenced on as per your permission, 

vide No dated under the supervision of Registered 

Architect/Engineer/Structural Engineer/Supervisor/Town Planner/Landscape Architect/Urban Designer 1 *, 

Registration No and in accordance witji the plans sanctioned, vide 

No dated 

Signature of Owner 

Name of Owner 



(in block letters) 



Address of Owner. 
Date: 



1} Strike out whichever is not applicable. 

22 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



ANNEX G 

[Clause 13.2(f)] 

FORM FOR CERTIFICATE FOR EXECUTION OF WORK AS PER 
STRUCTURAL SAFETY REQUIREMENTS 

With respect to the building work of erection, re-erection or for making alteration in the building No 

or to on/in Plot No Colony/Street MOHALLA/ 

BAZARfRoad City , we certify: 

a) that the building has been constructed according to the sanctioned plan and structural design (one set of 
drawings as executed enclosed), which incorporates the provisions of structural safety as specified in 
Part 6 'Structural Design' of the National Building Code of India and other relevant Codes; and 

b) that the construction has been done under our supervision and guidance and adheres to the drawings and 
specifications submitted and records of supervision have been maintained. 

Any subsequent changes from the completion drawings shall be the responsibility of the owner. 

Signature of owner Signature of the 

with date Registered Engineer/ 



Structural Engineer with 
date and registration No. 



Name: 
Address: 



ANNEX H 

[Clause 13.2(f)] 

FORM FOR COMPLETION CERTIFICATE 

I hereby certify that the development, erection, re-erection or material alteration in/of building No 

or the on/in Plot No in Colony/Street MOHALLA/ BAZAR/ 

Road City has been supervised by me and has been completed on 

according to the plans sanctioned, vide No dated The work 

has been completed to my best satisfaction, the workmanship and all the materials (type and grade) have been 
used strictly in accordance with general and detailed specifications. No provisions of the Code, no requisitions 
made, conditions prescribed or orders issued thereunder have been transgressed in the course of the work. The 
land is fit for construction for which it has been developed or re-developed or the building is fit for use for which 
it has been erected, re-erected or altered, constructed and enlarged. 

I hereby also enclose the plan of the building completed in all aspects. 

Signature of Architect/Engineer/Structural Engineer/Supervisor/Town Planner/Landscape Architect/Urban 
Designer 

Name of Architect/Engineer/Structural Engineer/Supervisor/Town Planner/Laridscape Architect/Urban 

Designer 

(in block letters) 

Registration No. of Architect/Engineer/Structural Engineer/Supervisor/Town Planner/Landscape Architect/Urban 
Designer 

Address of Architect/Engineer/Structural Engineer/Supervisor/Town Planner/Landscape Architect/Urban 
Designer 

Date: Signature of the Owner 



Strike out whichever is not applicable. 

PART 2 ADMINISTRATION 23 



ANNEX J 

[Clause 13.2(h)] 

FORM FOR OCCUPANCY PERMIT 

The work of erection, re-erection or alteration in/of building No or the on/ 

in Plot No in Colony/Street.... MOHAIIAIBAZARIRozd 

City completed under the supervision of. Architect/Engineer/Structural 

Engineer/Supervisor, Registration No has been inspected by me. The building can be permitted/ 

not permitted for occupation for occupancy subjected to the following: 

1. 

2. 
3. 

One set of completion plans duly certified is returned herewith. 

Signature of the Authority 



Office Stamp 
Date: 



24 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 

PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES AND 
GENERAL BLTLDING REQUIREMENTS 



BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS 



CONTENTS 



FOREWORD ... 3 

1 SCOPE ... 7 

2 TERMINOLOGY ... 7 

3 LAND USE CLASSIFICATION AND USES PERMITTED ... 12 

4 MEANS OF ACCESS ... 13 

5 COMMUNITY OPEN SPACES AND AMENITIES ... 15 

6 REQUIREMENTS OF PLOTS ... 21 

7 CLASSIFICATION OF BUILDINGS ... 22 

8 OPEN SPACES (WITHIN A PLOT) ... 23 

9 AREA AND HEIGHT LIMITATIONS ... 26 

10 OFF-STREET PARKING SPACES ... 28 

1 1 GREENBELTS, LANDSCAPING AND WATER CONSERVATION ... 29 

1 2 REQUIREMENTS OF PARTS OR BUILDINGS ... 29 

13 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY ... 34 

1 4 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION ... 34 

1 5 LIGHTING AND VENTILATION ... 34 

1 6 ELECTRICAL AND ALLIED INSTALLATIONS (INCLUDING LIGHTNING ... 35 
PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS) 

17 AIR CONDITIONING, HEATING AND MECHANICAL VENTILATION ... 35 

1 8 ACOUSTICS, SOUND INSULATION AND NOISE CONTROL ... 35 

19 HEAT INSULATION ... 35 

20 INSTALLATION OF LIFTS AND ESCALATORS ... 35 

21 PLUMBING SERVICES AND SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ... 35 

ANNEX A CIVIL AVIATION REQUIREMENTS FOR CONSTRUCTION IN ... 36 
THE VICINITY OF AN AERODROME. 

ANNEX B OFF-STREET PARKING SPACES ... 41 

ANNEX C SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR LOW INCOME HOUSING IN ... 42 
URBAN AREAS 

ANNEX D SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANNING OF PUBLIC ... 45 
BUILDINGS MEANT FOR USE OF PHYSICALLY CHALLENGED 

ANNEX E SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS OF CLUSTER PLANNING FOR ... 56 
HOUSING 

ANNEX F SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR LOW INCOME HABITAT ... 57 
PLANNING IN RURAL AREAS 

ANNEX G SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR DEVELOPMENT PLANNING ... 60 
IN HILLY AREAS 

LIST OF STANDARDS ... 63 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



National Building Code Sectional Committee, CED 46 



FOREWORD 

This Part covers development control rules, including such aspects as sub-division and layout rules, land use 
classifications, open spaces, area and height limitations, means of access, and parking spaces; this part also 
covers the general building requirements, such as the requirements of parts of buildings, provision of lifts, etc. 

It is expected that for proper coordination and enforcement of the development control rules and general building 
requirements, the departments concerned, namely, the town planning department and the building department, 
will coordinate the total development and building activity at both organizational and technical levels. 

Particular attention is invited to Table 3 on floor area ratio (FAR) limitations. It is emphasized that the floor area 
of a single storey building is limited in absolute terms by the type of construction and occupancy class. Also, the 
absolute floor areas for different types of construction and different occupancies have a definite ratio among 
them. The ratios as recommended in the American Iron and Steel Institute publication 1961 Tire Protection 
Through Modern Building Codes' have been generally adopted in this Part and Table 3 has been developed on 
this basis. Table 3 is repeated in Part 4 Tire and Life Safety' also for convenience of reading. 

Limitation of areas and heights of buildings is achieved in this country by specifying it in terms of floor area ratio 
(FAR) or floor space index (FSI). The significance of the contribution of different types of construction giving 
different fire resistances has not been taken cognizance of in specifying FAR for different occupancies, in the 
present development control rules and municipal byelaws of the country. Table 3, therefore, gives the comparative 
ratios of FAR between types of buildings and occupancy classes and these have been specified mainly from the 
fire protection aspect of buildings. To arrive at the actual FAR for different buildings coming up in different 
areas, the Authority should further modify them, by taking into consideration other aspects like density of any 
area, parking facilities required, the traffic load (road width) and the services available. The heights of buildings 
shall also be regulated, keeping in view the local fire fighting facilities. 

In some state byelaws, the FAR (or FSI) has been expressed in the form of percentage. However, the Committee 
responsible for preparation of this Code is of the opinion that, it being a ratio should be expressed only in the 
form of a ratio, as done in this Part. 

It is particularly to be borne in mind by the Authority that the ratios are definitive and it can assess the particular 
FAR for a type of construction and for an occupancy and establish a new table, but retaining the comparative 
ratios as given in Table 3. 

Keeping in view the enormous problems faced by the country with regard to the ever increasing squatter settlements/ 
pavement dwellers in urban areas (cities of all sizes), it is imperative that all the urban local bodies sooner or later 
evolve schemes for their rehabilitation. The resources are meagre and the problems are enormous. There has 
been a tendency on the part of a number of development agencies/local bodies to link space norms with 
affordability. Affordability is an important criterion but at the same time a public agency cannot ignore the basic 
minimum needs of the family to be housed (including the mental, physical and social health of the marginalized 
groups, which is linked with shelter). The local bodies shall have to evolve appropriate policies for their integration 
with the broad urban society and generate/allocate resources and more importantly adopt a planning process, 
which are people friendly. The Government of India has also formulated the National Slum Policy to this effect 
Therefore, keeping in view the needs of low income housing, to cater to Economically Weaker Sections of 
Society (EWS) and Low Income Group (LIG), the requirements on planning, design of layout/shelter have 
been rationalized and the same are provided in this Part. This will contribute significantly in the massive 
housing programmes undertaken for the low income sector. This information is based on the provisions 
of IS 8888 (Part 1) : 1993 'Guide for requirements of low income housing: Part 1 Urban areas (first revision)' . 

Further, city development process would need a dynamic approach to take care of urban renewal and also 
development needs in dense core areas of the cities. Innovative approaches in planning and design with participating 
models of public private-people's partnership become necessary to solve the emerging development needs. With 

PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES AND GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS 3 



this in view, many city development agencies have evolved innovative planning and development tools like 
transferable development rights (TDR) where the developer would receive a portion of the development rights in 
a new location, keeping in view the constraints in the existing land area and the development potential. Such 
development rights can be transferred into outskirts or new developed areas where land availability is assured. 
This would encourage the professionals and developers to participate in urban renewal and at the same time 
ensure that the developments in both the inner core areas and new areas take place in an orderly and efficient 
manner. The TDR concept should be increasingly encouraged by the authority dealing with urban renewal, re- 
development projects including housing and re-development projects for slum including dwellers. 

Urbanization in India is taking place at a rapid pace. With 5 million population in cities at the time of independence, 
it has already crossed 28 million (2001 census). It is likely to be 50 million by 2021. The number of cities and 
towns have been expanding and there are 5 161 cities and towns of various sizes. In the Indian practice cities 
over 50 lakhs population have been identified as mega-cities (6 in number) and cities over 10 lakhs (29 in 
number) population as metro-cities. These 35 cities above 10 lakhs population is likely to be above 70 by 2021. 
The other cities are either small or medium towns or cities with different population limits. Urbanization in each 
of above cities and towns (mega-cities, metro-cities, small and medium towns and cities) will be different in 
nature and the development challenges are also different keeping in view the extent of urbanization, 
industrialization, commercialization and the nature of transportation needs. Therefore, the Code provisions should 
be appropriately utilized depending upon the need of hierarchy of cities for which the administrative and technical 
requirements have been covered in the Code for various facets of the activity. 

The first version of this Part was prepared in 1970. As a result of incorporation of this Part in the revised 
development control rules and building byelaws of some municipal corporations and municipalities, some useful 
suggestions had emerged. First revision of this part was brought out in 1983, where these suggestions were 
incorporated to the extent possible. The major modifications incorporated in the first revision included: 

a) Addition of development control rules giving guidance on means of access, community spaces and 
other aspects required for planning layouts. 

b) Addition of provisions regarding plot sizes and frontage for different types of buildings, such as detached, 
semi-detached, row type and special housing schemes. 

c) Requirements of open spaces for other occupancies, such as educational, institutional, assembly, industrial 
buildings, etc, were included. 

d) Provisions relating to interior open space were elaborated, including requirements for ventilation shaft. 

e) Requirements of open spaces for group housing development were covered. 

f) Requirements of off-street parking spaces were covered. 

g) Requirements for greenbelts and landscaping including norms for plantations of shrubs and trees were 
covered. 

h) Requirements of certain parts of buildings, such as loft, store room, garage, basement, chimney, parapet, 

cabin, boundary wall, wells, septic tanks, office-cum-letter box room, meter room were included. 
j) Special requirements of low income housing were covered. 

The term Development Control Rules used in this Part encompasses the related aspects comprehensively with a 
view to promoting orderly development of an area. 

This second revision is being brought out to incorporate the modifications found necessary in light of the experience 
gained with the use of this Part. Significant modifications incorporated in this revision include: 

a) Terminology given in this Part has been made exhaustive by incorporating definitions of additional 
terms used, such as, access, chimney, to erect, etc, and number of terms pertaining to cluster planning 
for housing. 

b) Detailed planning norms/open spaces for various amenities such as educational facilities, health care 
facilities, socio-cultural facilities, distribution services, police, civil defence and home guards, and fire 
services have been included. 

c) Off-street parking requirements have now been also included for cities with population (i) between 
1 000 000 and 5 000 000, and (ii) above 5 000 000 (see Annex B). 

d) Special requirements for low income housing given in the earlier version have been modified and 
updated (see Annex C) based on IS 8888 (Part 1) : 1993 'Guide for requirements of low income housing: 

4 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



Part 1 Urban area (first revision)' . In these revised provisions, single room dwelling has been discouraged, 
guidelines for water seal latrine have also been incorporated, and cluster planning approach has been 
recommended. 

e) Requirements for cluster planning for housing have been added (see Annex E), which are based on the 
guidelines given in IS 13727 : 1993 'Guide for requirements of cluster planning for housing'. 

f) Special requirements for low income housing for rural habitat planning has been added (see Annex F). 

g) Special requirements for development planning in hilly areas has been added (see Annex G). 

h) The requirements for buildings and facilities for the physically challenged have been revised, with 
listing of additional categories of physically challenged; modifications in requirements of ramps, stairs, 
doors, handrails and controls; and incorporation of additional requirements regarding windows. 

j) Also, the opportunity has been utilized to update the reference to Indian Standards. 



PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES AND GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 

PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES AND 
GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS 



1 SCOPE 

This Part deals with the development control rules and 
general building requirements to ensure health and 
safety of the public. 

2 TERMINOLOGY 

2.0 For the purpose of this part, the following 
definitions shall apply: 

2.1 Access — A clear approach to a plot or a building. 

2.2 Accessory Use — Any use of the premises 
subordinate to the principal use and customarily 
incidental to the principal use. 

2.3 Alteration — A change from one occupancy to 
another, or a structural change, such as an addition to 
the area or height, or the removal of part of a building, 
or any change to the structure, such as the construction 
of, cutting into or removal of any wall, partition, 
column, beam, joist, floor or other support, or a change 
to or closing of any required means of ingress or egress 
or a change to the fixtures or equipment. 

2.4 Approved — Approved by the Authority having 
jurisdiction. 

2.5 Authority Having Jurisdiction — The Authority 
which has been created by a statute and which for the 
purpose of administering the Code/Part may authorize 
a committee or an official to act on its behalf; 
hereinafter called the 'Authority'. 

2.6 Back-to-Back Cluster — Clusters when joined 
back to back and/or on sides (see Fig. 1). 





Fig. 1 Back-to-Back Cluster 

2.7 Balcony — A horizontal projection, with a 
handrail or balustrade or a parapet, to serve as passage 
or sitting out place. 

2.8 Basement or Cellar — The lower storey of a 
building below or partly below ground level. 



2.9 Building — Any structure for whatsoever purpose 
and of whatsoever materials constructed and every part 
thereof whether used as human habitation or not and 
includes foundation, plinth, walls, floors, roofs, 
chimneys, plumbing and building services, fixed 
platforms, VERANDAH, balcony, cornice or projection, 
part of a building or anything affixed thereto or any 
wall enclosing or intended to enclose any land or space 
and signs and outdoor display structures. Tents, 
SHAMIANAHS, tarpaulin shelters, etc, erected for 
temporary and ceremonial occasions with the permission 
of the Authority shall not be considered as building. 

2.10 Building, Height of — The vertical distance 
measured in the case of flat roofs, from the average 
level of the ground around and contiguous to the 
building or as decided by the Authority to the terrace 
of last livable floor of the building adjacent to the 
external walls; and in the case of pitched roofs, up to 
the point where the external surface of the outer wall 
intersects the finished surface of the sloping roof; and 
in the case of gables facing the road, the mid-point 
between the eaves level and the ridge. Architectural 
features serving no other function except that of 
decoration shall be excluded for the purpose of 
measuring heights. 

2.11 Building Envelope — The horizontal spatial 
limits up to which a building may be permitted to be 
constructed on a plot. 

2.12 Building Line — The line up to which the plinth 
of a building adjoining a street or an extension of a 
street or on a future street may lawfully extend. It 
includes the lines prescribed, if any, in any scheme. 
The building line may change from time-to-time as 
decided by the Authority. 

2.13 Cabin — A non-residential enclosure constructed 
of non-load bearing partition. 

2.14 Canopy — A projection over any entrance. 

2.15 Carpet Area — The covered area of the usable 
rooms at any floor level (excluding the area of the wall). 

2.16 CHHAJJA — A sloping or horizontal structural 
overhang usually provided over openings on external 
walls to provide protection from sun and rain. 

2.17 Chimney — An upright shaft containing one or 
more flues provided for the conveyance to the outer 
air of any product of combustion resulting from the 
operation of heat producing appliance or equipment 
employing solid, liquid or gaseous fuel. 

2.18 Chowk or Courtyard — A space permanently 



PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES AND GENERAL BtlLDING REQUIREMENTS 



open to the sky, enclosed fully or partially by building 
and may be at ground level or any other level within 
or adjacent to a building. 

2.19 Chowk, Inner — A chowk enclosed on all sides. 

2.20 Chowk, Outer — A chowk one of whose sides 
is not enclosed. 

2.21 Closed Clusters — Clusters with only one 
common entry into cluster open space (see Fig. 2). 

2.22 Cluster — Plots or dwelling units or housing 
grouped around an open space (see Fig. 3). 

Ideally housing cluster should not be very large. In 
ground and one storey ed structures not more than 20 
houses should be grouped in a cluster. Clusters with 
more dwelling units will create problems in identity, 
encroachments and of maintenance. 

2.23 Cluster Court Town House — A dwelling in a 
cluster plot having 100 percent or nearly 100 percent 
ground coverage with vertical expansion, generally 
limited to one floor only and meant for self use. 

2.24 Cluster Plot — Plot in a cluster. 

2.25 Cooking Alcove — A cooking space having 



direct access from the main room without any inter- 
communicating door. 

2.26 Covered Area — Ground area covered by the 
building immediately above the plinth level. The area 
covered by the following in the open spaces is excluded 
from covered area (see Table 3): 

a) Garden, rockery, well and well structures, 
plant nursery, waterpool, swimming pool (if 
uncovered), platform round a tree, tank, 
fountain, bench, CHABUTRA with open top 
and unenclosed on sides by walls and the like; 

b) Drainage culvert, conduit, catch-pit, gully pit, 
chamber, gutter and the like; 

c) Compound wall, gate, unstoreyed porch and 
portico, canopy, slide, swing, uncovered 
staircase, ramps areas covered by CHHAJJA 
and the like; and 

d) Watchmen's booth, pumphouse, garbage 
shaft, electric cabin or sub-stations, and such 
other utility structures meant for the services 
of the building under consideration. 

NOTE — For the purpose of this Part, covered area 
equals the plot area minus the area due for open spaces. 




-one common entry- 
Fig. 2 Closed Cluster 



GROUP OPEN 

SPACE IN A, CLUSTER - 



12 



13 



14 



15 



\ 



\ 



10 



\ 



ie 



18 



Fig. 3 Cluster 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



2.27 <Cul-de-Sac' Cluster 

Plots/dwelling units when located along a 
pedestrianised or vehicular 'cul-de-sac' road (see 

Fig. 4). 




Fig. 4 Cul-de-Sac Cluster 

2.28 Density — The residential density expressed in 
terms of the number of dwelling units per hectare. 

NOTE — Where such densities are expressed exclusive of 
community facilities and provision of open spaces and major 
roads (excluding incidental open spaces), these will be net 
residential densities. Where these densities are expressed taking 
into consideration the required open space provision and 
community facilities and major roads, these would be gross 
residential densities at neighbourhood level, sector level or 
town level, as the case may be. The provision of open spaces 
and community facilities will depend on the size of the 
residential community. 

Incidental open spaces are mainly open spaces required to be 
left around and in between two buildings to provide lighting 
and ventilation. 

2.29 Detached Building — A building detached on 
all sides. 

230 Development — 'Development' with grammatical 
variations means the carrying out of building, 
engineering, mining or other operations, in, or over, 
or under land or water, on the making of any material 
change, in any building or land, or in the use of any 
building, land, and includes re-development and layout 
and subdivision of any land and 'to develop' shall be 
construed accordingly. 

2.31 Drain — A conduit, channel or pipe for the 
carriage of storm water, sewage, waste water or other 
water borne wastes in a building drainage system. 

2.32 Drainage — The removal of any liquid by a 
system constructed for the purpose. 

2.33 Dwelling Unit/Tenement — An independent 
housing unit with separate facilities for living, cooking 
and sanitary requirements. 



2.34 Escalator — A power driven, inclined, continuous 
stairway used for raising or lowering passengers. 

2.35 Exit — A passage, channel or means of egress 
from any building, storey or floor area to a street or 
other open space of safety. 

2.36 External Faces of Cluster — Building edges 
facing the cluster open spaces. 

2.37 Fire Separation — The distance in metres 
measured from the external wall of the building 
concerned to the external wall of any other building 
on the site, or from other site, or from the opposite 
side of a street or other public space for the purpose of 
preventing the spread of fire. 

2.38 Floor — The lower surface in a storey on which 
one normally walks in a building. The general term 
'floor' unless specifically mentioned otherwise shall 
not refer to a 'mezzanine floor'. 

2.39 Floor Area Ratio (FAR) — The quotient 
obtained by dividing the total covered area (plinth area) 
on all floors by the area of the plot: 



FAR = 



Total covered area of the floors 
Plot area 



2.40 Gallery — An intermediate floor or platform 
projecting from a wall of an auditorium or a hall 
providing extra floor area, additional seating 
accommodation, etc. It shall also include the structures 
provided for seating in stadia. 

2.41 Garage, Private — A building or a portion 
thereof designed and used for parking of private owned 
motor driven or other vehicles. 

2.42 Garage, Public — A building or portion thereof, 
other than a private garage, designed or used for 
repairing, servicing, hiring, selling or storing or parking 
motor driven or other vehicles. 

2.43 Group Housing — Housing for more than one 
dwelling unit, where land is owned jointly (as in the 
case of co-operative societies or the public agencies, 
such as local authorities or housing boards, etc) and 
the construction is undertaken by one Agency. 

2.44 Group Open Space — Open space within a 
cluster. 

Group open pace is neither public open space nor 
private open space. Each dwelling unit around the 
cluster open space have a share and right of use in it. 
The responsibility for maintenance of the same is to 
be collectively shared by all the dwelling units around. 

2.45 Habitable Room — A room occupied or 
designed for occupancy by one or more persons for 
study, living, sleeping, eating, kitchen if it is used as a 



PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES AND GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS 



living room, but not including bathrooms, water-closet 
compartments, laundries, serving and store pantries, 
corridors, cellars, attics, and spaces that are not used 
frequently or during extended periods. 

2.46 Independent Cluster — Clusters surrounded 
from all sides by vehicular access roads and/or 
pedestrian paths {see Fig. 5). 




Fig. 5 Independent Cluster 

2.47 Interlocking Cluster — Clusters when joined 
at back and on sides with at least one side of a cluster 
common and having some dwelling units opening onto 
or having access from the adjacent clusters. 

Dwelling units in such clusters should have at least 
two sides open to external open space. Houses in an 
interlocking cluster can have access, ventilation and 
light from the adjacent cluster and should also cater 
for future growth {see Fig. 6). 

2.48 Internal Faces of Cluster — Building edges 
facing the adjacent cluster open space (as in case of 
interlocking cluster) of the surrounding pedestrian 
paths or vehicular access roads. 

2.49 Ledge or TAND — A shelf-like projection, 
supported in any manner whatsoever, except by means 
of vertical supports within a room itself but not having 
projection wider than 1 m. 



2.50 Lift — An appliance designed to transport 
persons or materials between two or more levels in a 
vertical or substantially vertical direction by means of 
a guided car or platform. The word 'elevator' is also 
synonymously used for 'lift'. 

2.51 Loft — A structure providing intermediate 
storage space in between two floors with a maximum 
height of 1.5 m, without having a permanent access. 

2.52 Mezzanine Floor — An intermediate floor 
between two floors of any storey forming an integral 
part of floor below. 

2.53 Occupancy or Use Group — The principal 
occupancy for which a building or a part of a building 
is used or intended to be used; for the purposes of 
classification of a building according to occupancy; 
an occupancy shall be deemed to include subsidiary 
occupancies which are contingent upon it. 

2.54 Occupancy, Mixed — The occupancy, where 
more than one occupancy are present in different 
portions of-the building. 

2.55 Open Clusters — Cluster where cluster open 
spaces are linked to form a continuous open space {see 
Fig. 7). 

2.56 Open Space — An area, forming an integral part 
of the plot, left open to the sky. 

NOTE — The open space shall be the minimum distance 
measured between the front, rear and side of the building and 
the respective plot boundaries. 

2.57 Open Space, Front — An open space across the 
front of a plot between the building line and front 
boundary of the plot. 

2.58 Open Space, Rear — An open space across the 
rear of a plot between the rear of the building and the 
rear boundary of the plot. 

2.59 Open Space, Side — An open space across the 
side of the plot between the side of the building and 
the side boundary of the plot. 





Fig. 6 Interlocking Cluster 



10 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



lTjv ? i'M ; 






". * . V..V.VH-; 




W 


.fey 










.;V:rJ-.*.'">" 








































H:> '•;**? '?r' 




















































































































































..^■^^','v 






;■;■:>> 














r- lS '"" ; '-/'-, '' ' 



Fig. 7 Open Cluster 



2.60 Owner — Person or body having a legal interest 
in land and/or building thereon. This includes free 
holders, leaseholders or those holding a sub-lease 
which both bestows a legal right to occupation and 
gives rise to liabilities in respect of safety or building 
condition. 

In case of lease or sub-lease holders, as far as ownership 
with respect to the structure is concerned, the structure 
of a flat or structure on a plot belongs to the allottee/ 
lessee till the allotment/lease subsists. 

2.61 Parapet — A low wall or railing built along the 
edge of a roof or floor. 

2.62 Parking Space — An area enclosed or unenclosed, 
covered or open, sufficient in size to park vehicles, 
together with a drive- way connecting the parking space 
with a street or alley and permitting ingress and egress 
of the vehicles. 

2.63 Partition — An interior non-load bearing barrier, 
one storey or part-storey in height. 

2.64 Plinth — The portion of a structure between the 
surface of the surrounding ground and surface of the 
floor, immediately above the ground. 

2.65 Plinth Area — The built up covered area 
measured at the floor level of the basement or of any 
storey. 

2.66 Porch — A covered structure supported on 
pillars or otherwise for the purpose of pedestrian or 
vehicular approach to a building. 

2.67 Road — See 2.82. 

2.68 Road Line — See 2.84. 

2.69 Room Height — The vertical distance measured 
from the finished floor surface to the finished ceiling 
surface. Where a finished ceiling is not provided, the 
underside of the joists or beams or tie beams shall 
determine the upper point of measurement. 



2.70 Row Housing/Row Type Building — A row of 

buildings, with only front, rear and interior open spaces 
where applicable. 

2.71 Semi-Detached Building — A building detached 
on three sides. 

2.72 Service Road/Lane — A road/lane provided 
adjacent to a plot(s) for access or service purposes as 
the case may be. 

2.73 Set-Back Line — A line usually parallel to the 
plot boundaries and laid down in each case by the 
Authority, beyond which nothing can be constructed 
towards the plot boundaries. 

2.74 Site (Plot) — A parcel (piece) of land enclosed 
by definite boundaries. 

2.75 Site, Corner — A site at the junctions of and 
fronting on two or more intersecting streets. 

2.76 Site, Depth of — The mean horizontal distance 
between the front and rear site boundaries. 

2.77 Site, Double Frontage — A site, having a 
frontage on two streets, other than a corner plot. 

2.78 Site, Interior or Tandem — A site access to 
which is by a passage from a street whether such 
passage forms part of the site or not. 

2.79 Staircover (or MUMTY) — A structure with a 
roof over a staircase and its landing built to enclose 
only the stairs for the purpose of providing protection 
from weather and not used for human habitation. 

2.80 Storey — The portion of a building included 
between the surface of any floor and the surface of the 
floor next above it, or if there be no floor above it, 
then the space between any floor and the ceiling next 
above it. 

2.81 Storey, Topmost — The uppermost storey in a 
building whether constructed wholly or partly on the 
roof. 



PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES AND GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS 



11 



2.82 Street — Any means of access, namely, 
highway, street, lane, pathway, alley, stairway, 
passageway, carriageway, footway, square, place or 
bridge, whether a thoroughfare or not, over which the 
public have a right of passage or access or have passed 
and had access uninterruptedly for a specified period, 
whether existing or proposed in any scheme, and 
includes all bunds, channels, ditches, storm-water 
drains, culverts, sidewalks, traffic islands, roadside 
trees and hedges, retaining walls, fences, barriers and 
railings within the street lines. 

2.83 Street Level or Grade — The officially 
established elevation or grade of the central line of the 
street upon which a plot fronts and if there is no 
officially established grade, the existing grade of the 
street at its mid-point. 



2.84 Street Line 

of a street. 



■ The line defining the side limits 



2.85 To Abut — To abut on a street boundary such 
that any portion of the building is on the road boundary . 

2.86 To Erect — To erect a building means: 

a) to erect a new building on any site whether 
previously built upon or not; and 

b) to re-erect any building of which portions 
above the plinth level have been pull down, 
burnt or destroyed. 



2.87 Tower-like Structures — Structures shall be 
deemed to be tower-like structures when the height of 
the tower-like portion is at least twice the height of the 
broader base at ground level. 

2.88 VERANDAH — A covered area with at least one 
side open to the outside with the exception of 1 m high 
parapet on the upper floors to be provided on the open 
side. 

2.89 Volume to Plot Area Ratio (VPR) — The ratio 
of volume of building measured in cubic metres to the 
area of the plot measured in square metres and 
expressed in metres. 

2.90 Water-Closet (WC) — A water flushed 
plumbing fixture designed to receive human excrement 
directly from the user of the fixture. The term is used 
sometimes to designate the room or compartment in 
which the fixture is placed. 

2.91 Window — An opening to the outside other than 
a door, which provides all or part of the required natural 
light or ventilation or both to an interior space. 

3 LAND USE CLASSIFICATION AND USES 
PERMITTED 

3.1 Land Use Classification 

The land use classification may be as indicated 
below: 



SI No. Use Zone (Level 1) 

(1) (2) 



Use Zone (Level 2) 
(3) 



i) Residential (R) 



ii) Commercial (C) 



iii) Manufacturing (M) 



iv) Public and Semi-Public (PS) 



v) Recreational (P) 



Primary Residential Zone (R-l) 
Mixed Residential Zone (R-2) 
Unplanned/Informal Residential Zone (R-3) 

Retail Shopping Zone (C-l) 

General Business and Commercial District/Centres (C-2) 

Wholesale, Godowns, Warehousing/Regulated Markets (C-3) 

Service and Light Industry (M-l) 

Extensive and Heavy Industry (M-2) 

Special Industrial Zone Hazardous, Noxious and Chemical (M-3) 

Government/Semi-Government/Public Offices (PS- 1 ) 

Government Land (use determined) (PS-2) 

Educational and Research (PS-3) 

Medical and Health (PS-4) 

Social, Cultural and Religious (PS-5) 

Utilities and Services (PS-6) 

Cremation and Burial Grounds (PS-7) 

Playgrounds/Stadium/Sports Complex (P-l) 
Parks and Gardens — Public Open Spaces (P-2) 
Special Recreational Zone — Restricted Open Spaces (P-3) 
Multi-Open Space (Maidan) (P-4) 



12 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



SI No. Use Zone (Level 1) 

(1) (2) 



Use Zone (Level 2) 
(3) 



vi) Transportation and 
Communication (T) 



vii) Agriculture and Water Bodies 



viii) Special Area 



Roads (T-l) 

Railways (T-2) 

Airport (T-3) 

Seaports and Dockyards (T-4) 

Bus Depots/Truck Terminals and Freight Complexes (T-5) 

Transmission and Communication (T-6) 

Agriculture (A-l) 

Forest (A-2) 

Poultry and Dairy Farming (A-3) 

Rural Settlements (A-4) 

Brick Kiln and Extractive Areas (A-5) 

Water Bodies (A-6) 

Old Built-up (Core) Area (S-l) 
Heritage and Conservation Areas (S-2) 
Scenic Value Areas (S-3) 
Village Settlement (S-4) 
Other Uses (S-5) 



NOTES 

1 Areas of informal activities may be identified in the above land use categories at Level 2. 

2 Mixed use zone may be identified at the development plan level, having more than one use zone with mixed activities of 
such use zones. 

3 In all, there could be 35 use zones at the development plan level within eight land use categories at the perspective plan 
level as given in the above table. 

4 Use premises for different activities could be provided at the project/action plan level or with the approval of the Authority 
as the case may be. 

5 Use zone regulations for the use permissibility could be decided by the town planner depending upon the requirement/ 
feasibility. 



3.2 The various building uses and occupancies (see 7) 
permitted on the various zones shall be as given in the 
Master Plan. 

3.3 Uses to be in Conformity with the Zone 

Where the use of buildings or premises is not 
specifically designated on the Development Plan or in 
the absence of Development Plan, shall be in 
conformity with the zone in which they fall. 

3.4 Uses as Specifically Designated on Development 
Plan 

Where the use of a site is specifically designated on 
the Development Plan, it shall be used only for the 
purpose so designated. 

3.5 Non-conforming Uses 

No plot shall be put to any use, occupancy or premises 
other than the uses identified in 3.1, except with the 
prior approval of the Authority. 



3.6 Fire Safety 

Buildings shall be so planned, designed and constructed 
as to ensure fire safety and this shall be done as per 
Part 4 Tire and Life Safety'. 

4 MEANS OF ACCESS 

4.1 Every building/plot shall abut on a public/private 
means of access like streets/roads duly formed. 

4.2 Every person who erects a building shall not at 
any time erect or cause or permit to erect any building 
which in any way encroaches upon or diminishes the 
area set apart as means of access required in the Code. 
No buildings shall be erected so as to deprive any other 
building of the means of access. 

4.3 Width of Means of Access 

The residential plots shall abut on a public means of access 
like street/road. Plots which do not abut on a street/road 
shall abut/front on a means of access, the width and other 
requirements of which shall be as given in Table 1. 



PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES AND GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS 



13 



Table 1 Width and Length of Means of Access 

(Clause 4.3) 



SI 


Width of Means 


Length of Means 


No. 


of Access 


of Access 




m 


m 


(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


i) 


6.0 


75 


ii) 


7.5 


150 


iii) 


9.0 


250 


iv) 


12.0 


400 


v) 


18.0 


1000 


vi) 


24.0 


above 1 000 


NOTE- 


— If the development is only 


on one side of the means of 


access, the prescribed widths may be reduced by 1 m in each case. 



In no case, development on plots shall be permitted 
unless it is accessible by a public street of width not 
less than 6 m. 

4.3.1 Other Buildings 

For all industrial buildings, theatres, cinema houses, 
assembly halls, stadia, educational buildings, markets, 
other buildings which attract large crowd, the means 
of access shall not be less than the following: 



Width of Means of 


Length of Means 


Access 




of Access 


m 




m 


12.0 




200 


15.0 




400 


18.0 




600 


24.0 




above 600 



Further, in no case shall the means of access be lesser 
in width than the internal accessways in layouts and 
subdivision. 

4.3.2 Pathways 

The approach to the buildings from road/street/internal 
means of access shall be through paved pathway of 
width not less than 1.5 m, provided its length is not 
more than 30 m. 

4.3.2.1 In the case of special housing schemes for low 
income group and economically weaker section of 
society developed up to two storeyed row/cluster 
housing scheme, the pedestrian pathway width shall 
be 3 m subject to provisions of 9.4.1(a). The pedestrian 
pathway shall not serve more than 8 plots on each side 
of the pathway; the length of the pathway shall be not 
more than 50 m. 

4.3.3 The length of the main means of access shall 
be determined by the distance from the farthest plot 
(building) to the public street. The length of the 
subsidiary accessway shall be measured from the 
point of its origin to the next wider road on which it 
meets. 



4.3.4 In the interest of general development of an area, 
the Authority may require the means of access to be of 
larger width than that required under 4.3 and 4.3.1. 

4.3.5 In existing built-up areas in the case of plots 
facing street/means of access less than 4.5 m in width, 
the plot boundary shall be shifted to be away by 2.25 m 
from the central line of the street/means of accessway 
to give rise to a new street/means of accessway of 4.5 m 
width. 

4.4 The means of access shall be levelled, metalled, 
flagged, paved, sewered, drained, chanelled, lighted, 
laid with water supply line and provided with trees for 
shade to the satisfaction of the Authority free of 
encroachment by any structure or fixture so as not to 
reduce its width below the minimum required under 4.3 
and shall be maintained in a condition to the satisfaction 
of the Authority. 

44.1 If any private street or any other means of access 
to a building is not levelled, metalled, flagged or paved, 
sewered, drained, channelled, lighted or laid with water 
supply line or provided with trees for shade to the 
satisfaction of the Authority, who may, with the sanction 
of the Authority, by written notice require the owner or 
owners of the several premises fronting or adjoining the 
said street or other means of access or abutting thereon 
or to which access is obtained through such street or 
other means of access or which shall benefit by works 
executed, to carry out any or more of the aforesaid 
requirements in such manner as he shall direct. 

4.4.2 If any structure or fixture is set upon a means of 
access so as to reduce its width below the minimum 
required, the Authority may remove the same further 
and recover the expenses so incurred from the owner. 

4.5 Access from Highways/Important Roads 

No premises other than highway amenities like petrol 
pumps, motels, etc, shall have an access direct from 
highways and such other roads not less than 52 m in 
width, which the Authority with the approval of the 
Highway Authority shall specify from time-to-time. 
The Authority shall maintain a register of such roads 
which shall be open to^public inspection at all times 
during office hours. The portion of such roads on which 
direct access may be permitted shall be as identified in 
the Development Plan. However, in the case of existing 
development on highways/other roads referred to 
above, the operation of this clause shall be exempted. 
These provisions shall, however, be subject to the 
provisions of the relevant State Highway Act, and 
National Highway Act. 

4.6 For high rise buildings and buildings other than 
residential, the following additional provisions of 
means of access shall be ensured: 



14 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



a) The width of the main street on which the 
building abuts shall not be less than 12m and 
one end of this street shall join another street 
not less than 12 m in width; 

b) The approach to the building and open spaces 
on all its sides up to 6 m width and the layout 
for the same shall be done in consultation with 
the Chief Fire Officer of the city and the same 
shall be hard surface capable of taking the 
mass of fire engine, weighing up to 45 tonnes. 
The said open space shall be kept free of 
obstructions and shall be motorable. 

c) The main entrance to the plot shall be of 
adequate width to allow easy access to the fire 
engine and in no case shall it measure less than 
6 m. The entrance gate shall fold back against 
the compound wall of the premises, thus 
leaving the exterior accessway within the plot 
free for movement of fire service vehicle. If 
the main entrance at the boundary wall is built 
over, the minimum clearance shall be 4.5 m. 
A turning radius of 9 m shall be provided for 
fire tender movement. 

4.7 Cul-de-sacs giving access to plots and extending 
from 150 m to 275 m in length with an additional 
turning space at 150 m will be allowed only in 
residential areas, provided cul-de-sacs would be 
permissible only on straight roads and further provided 
the end of cul-de-sacs shall be higher in level than the 
level of the starting point of such dead end road. The 
turning space, in this case shall be not less than 81 m 2 
in area, with no dimension less than 9 m. 

4.8 Intersection of Roads 

For intersection junctions of roads meeting at right 
angles as well as other than right angles, the rounding 
off or cut off or splay or similar treatment shall be 
done, to the approval of the Authority, depending upon 
the width of roads, the traffic generated, the sighting 
angle, etc, to provide clear sight distance. 

4.9 The building line shall be set back at least 3 m 
from internal means of access in a layout of buildings 
in a plot subject to provisions of 8.2.1. 

5 COMMUNITY OPEN SPACES AND AMENITIES 

5.1 Residential and Commercial Zones 

In any layout or sub-division of land measuring 0.3 
hectare of more in residential and commercial zones, 
the community open spaces shall be reserved for 
recreational purposes which shall as far as possible be 
provided in one place or planned out for the use of the 
community in clusters or pockets. 

5.1,1 The community open spaces shall be provided 



catering to the needs of area of layout, population for 
which the layout is planned and the category of 
dwelling units. The following minimum provision shall 
be made: 

a) 15 percent of the area of the layout, or 

b) 0.3 to 0.4 ha/1 000 persons; for low income 
housing the open spaces shall be 0.3 ha/1 000 
persons. 

5.2 No recreational space shall generally be less than 
450 m 2 . 

5.2.1 The minimum average dimension of such 
recreational space shall be not less than 7.5 m; if the 
average width of such recreational space is less than 
24 m, the length thereof shall not exceed 2.5 times 
the average width. However, depending on the 
configuration of the site, commonly open spaces of 
different shapes may be permitted by the Authority, as 
long as the open spaces provided serve the needs of the 
immediate community contiguous to the open spaces. 

5.2.2 In such recreational spaces, a single storeyed 
structure as pavilion or gymnasia up to 25 m 2 in area 
may be permitted; such area may be excluded from 
FAR calculations. 

5.3 Each recreational area and the structure on it shall 
have an independent means of access. Independent 
means of access may not be insisted upon if 
recreational space is approachable directly from every 
building in the layout. Further, the building line shall 
be at least 3 m away from the boundary of recreational 
open space. 

5.4 Industrial Zones 

In the case of sub-division of land in industrial zones 
of area 0.8 hectare or more, 5 percent of the total area 
shall be reserved as amenity open space which shall 
also serve as a general parking space; when such 
amenity open space exceeds 1 500 m 2 , the excess area 
could be utilized for the construction of buildings for 
banks, canteens, welfare centres and such other 
common purposes considered necessary for the 
industrial user, as approved by the Authority. 

5.4.1 In all industrial plots measuring 1 000 m 2 or more 
in area, 10 percent of the total area shall be provided as 
an amenity open space to a maximum of 2 500 m 2 . Such 
an amenity open space shall have a means of access and 
shall be so located that it could be conveniently utilized 
as such by the persons working in the industry. 

5.5 Other Amenities 

In addition to community open spaces, the layouts shall 
provide for the amenities as given in 5.5.1 to 5.5.6. 

These provisions may be modified based on specific 
requirements, as decided by the Authority. 



PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES AND GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS 



15 



5.5.1 Educational Facilities 



Land Area Required, Min 

a) Pre-Primary to Secondary Education 

1) Pre-primary, nursery school (1 for every 2 500 population) 

i) Area per school 0.08 ha 

ii) Location of pre-primary/nursery school Near a park 

2) Primary school (class 1 to 5) (1 for every 5 000 population) 
i) Strength of school — 500 students 

ii) Area per school 0.40 ha 

a) School building area 0.20 ha 

b) Play field area (with a minimum of 18 m x 36 m to be ensured for effective play) 0.20 ha 

3) Senior secondary school (class 6 to 12) (1 for every 7 500 population) 
° i) Strength of the school — 1 000 students 

ii) Area per school 1.80 ha 

a) School building area 0.60 ha 

b) Play field area (with a minimum of 68 m x 126 m to be ensured for effective play) 1.00 ha 

c) Parking area 0.20 ha 

4) Integrated school without hostel facility (class 1 to 12) (1 for every 90 000 to 100 000 
population) 

i) Strength of the school — 1 500 students 

ii) Area per school 3.50 ha 

a) School building area 0.70 ha 

b) Play field area 2.50 ha 

c) Parking 0.30 ha 

5) Integrated school with hostel facilities (class 1 to 12) (1 for every 90 000 to 100 000 
population) 

i) Strength of school — 1 500 students 

ii) Area per school 3.90 ha 

a) School building area 0.70 ha 

b) Play field area 2.50 ha 

c) Residential (including hostel area) 0.40 ha 

d) Parking area 0.30 ha 

6) School for physically challenged (class 1 to 12) (1 for every 45 000 population) 
i) Strength of school — 400 students 

ii) Area per school 0.70 ha 

a) School building area 0.20 ha 

b) Play field area 0.30 ha 

c) Parking area 0.20 ha 

b) Higher Education — General 

1) College (1 for every 125 000 population) 

i) Student strength of college — 1 000 to 1 500 students 

ii) Area per college 5.00 ha 

a) College building area 1.80 ha 

b) Play field area 2.50 ha 

c) Residential (including hostel area) 0.40 ha 

d) Parking area 0.30 ha 

2) University campus/centre area 10.00 ha 

3) New university area 60.00 ha 

16 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



Land Area Required, Min 

c) Technical Education 

1) Technical education centre (A) (1 for every 1 000 000 population to include 1 ITI and 
1 polytechnic) 

i) Strength of ITI — 400 students 

ii) Strength of polytechnic — 500 students 

iii) Area per technical education centre 

a) Area for ITI 

b) Area for polytechnic 

2) Technical education centre (B) (1 for every 1 000 000 population to include 1 ITI y 
1 technical centre and 1 coaching centre) 
Area per technical education centre 

a) Area for ITI 

b) Area for technical centre 

c) Area for coaching centre 

d) Professional Education 

1) Engineering college (1 for every 1 000 000 population) 
i) Strength of the college — 1 500 students 
ii) Area per college 6.00 ha 

2) Medical college (1 for every 1 000 000 population) 
Area of site including space for general hospital 15.00 ha 

3) Other professional colleges (1 for every 1 000 000 population) 
i) Area of site for students strength upto 250 students 2.00 ha 
ii) Additional area of site for every additional 100 students or part thereof upto 

total strength of 1 000 students 0.50 ha 

iii) Area of site for strength of college — From 1 000 to 1 500 students 6.00 ha 



4.00 ha 
1.60 ha 
2.40 ha 



4.00 ha 
1.60 ha 
2.10 ha 
0.30 ha 



5.5.2 Health Care Facilities 



1) Dispensary (1 for every 15 000 population) 
Area 

2) Nursing home, child welfare and maternity centre (1 for every 45 000 to 
100 000 population) 

i) Capacity 25 to 30 beds 
ii) Area 

3) Poly-clinic with some observation beds (1 for every 100 000 population) 
Area 

4) Intermediate hospital (category B) (1 for every 100 000 population) 

i) Capacity 80 beds (initially the provision may be for 50 including 20 maternity 

beds) 
ii) Total area 

a) Area for hospital 

b) Area for residential accommodation 

5) Intermediate hospital (category A) (1 for every 100 000 population) 
i) Capacity 200 beds (initially the provision may be for 100 beds) 
ii) Total area 

a) Area for hospital 

b) Area for residential accommodation 



Land Area Required, Min 
0.08 ha to 0.12 ha 



0.20 ha to 0.30 ha 
0.20 ha to 0.30 ha 



1.00 ha 
0.60 ha 
0.40 ha 



3.70 ha 
2.70 ha 
1.00 ha 



PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES AND GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS 



17 



Land Area Required, Min 

6) General hospital (1 for every 250 000 population) 

i) Capacity 500 beds (initially the provision may be for 300 beds) 

ii) Total area 6.00 ha 

a) Area for hospital 4.00 ha 

b) Area for residential accommodation 2.00 ha 

7) Multi-speciality hospital (1 for 100 000 population) 

i) Capacity 200 beds (initially the provision may be for 100 beds) 

ii) Total area 9.00 ha 

a) Area for hospital 6.00 ha 

b) Area for residential accommodation 3.00 ha 

8) Speciality hospital (1 for every 100 000 population) 

i) Capacity 200 beds (initially the provision may be for 100 beds) 

ii) Total area 3.70 ha 

a) Area for hospital 2.70 ha 

b) Area for residential accommodation 1.00 ha 

5.5.3 Socio-cultural facilities 

Land Area Required, Min 

1) Community room (1 for every 5 000 population) 

Area 750 m 2 

2) Community hall, mangal karyayala/kalyana mandapam/barat ghar/library 
(1 for every 15 000 population) 

Area 2 000 m 2 

3) Recreational club (1 for every 100 000 population) (see also 5.2, 5.2.1, 5.2.2 and 5.3) 

Area 10 000 m 2 

4) Music, dance and drama centre (1 for every 100 000 population) 

Area 1 000 m 2 

5) Meditation and spiritual centre (1 for every 100 000 population) 

Area 5 000 m 2 

6) Socio-cultural centre (1 for every 1 000 000 population) 

Area 15 ha 

5.5.4 Distribution Services 

Land Area Required, Min 

1) Petrol/diesel filling and servicing centre 

May be permitted in central as well as sub-central business district, district centres, 
community centres (only filling station), residential and industrial use zones in urban 
areas, along the national highways, state highways, villages identified as growth centres, 
freight complex and on proposed major roads. 
Shall not be located on the road having right of way less than 30 m. 
Shall be approved by the explosive/fire department. 
Area/Size 

i) Only filling station 30 m x 17 m 

ii) Filling-cum-service station 36 m x 30 m 

iii) Filing-cum-service station-cum-workshop 45 m x 36 m 

iv) Filling station only for two and three wheelers 18 m x 15 m 

2) Compressed natural gas (CNG)/filling centre 

Permitted in all use zones (except in regional parks and Developed District Parks) and 
along the national highways, state highways and villages identified as growth centres, 
freight complex and on proposed major roads 

18 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



Land Area Required y Min 
Shall not be located on the road having right of way less than 30 m. 
Shall be approved by the explosive/fire department. 

Area/size for mother station (building component — control room/office/dispensing 1 080 m 2 

room, store, pantry and W.C. (36 m x 30 m) 

3) LPG godowns/Gas godown 1 for every 40 000 to 50 000 population 

The major concern for its storage and distribution is the location which shall be away 
from the residential areas and shall have open spaces all around as per the Explosive 
Rules. 

i) Capacity — 500 cylinders or 8 000 kg of LPG 520 m 2 

ii) Area (inclusive of chowkidar hut) (26 m x 20 m) 

4) Milk distribution (1 milk booth for every 5 000 population) 

Area inclusive of service area 150 m 2 

5.5.5 Police, Civil Defence and Home Guards 

Land Area Required, Min 

1) Police station (1 for every 90 000 population) 

Area (inclusive of essential residential accommodation 0.05 ha additional to be 1.50 ha 

provided for civil defence and home guards) 

2) Police post (1 for every 40 000 to 50 000 population) (not served by a police station) 

Area (inclusive of essential residential accommodation) 0.16 ha 

3) District office and battalion (1 for every 1 000 000 population) 

i) Area for district office 0.80 ha 

ii) Area for battalion 4.00 ha 

iii) Total area 4.80 ha 

4) Police line (1 for every 2 000 000 population) 

Area 4.00 to 6.00 ha 

5) District Jail (1 for every 1 000 000 population) 

Area 10.00 ha 

6) Civil defence and home guards (1 for every 1 000 000 population) 

Area 2.00 ha 

5.5.6 Fire 

Land Area Required, Min 
One fire station or sub-fire station within 1 km to 3 km (for every 200 000 population) 

i) Area for fire station with essential residential accommodation 1 .00 ha 

ii) Area for sub-fire station with essential residential accommodation 0.60 ha 

5.5.7 Telephone, Telegraphs, Postal and Banking Facilities 

Land Area Required, Min 
a) Telephone and Telegraphs 

1) Telephone exchange of 40 000 lines (1 for every 400 000 population) 

Area 4.00 ha 

2) Telegraph booking counter (1 for every 100 000 population) 

Floor area to be provided in community centre 200 m 2 

3) Telegraph booking and delivery office (1 for every 500 000 population) 

Floor area to be provided in district centres 1 700 m 2 

PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES AND GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS 19 



b) Postal 

1) Post office counter without delivery (1 for every 15 000 population) 
Floor area to be provided in local shopping centre 

2) Head post office with delivery office (1 for 250 000 population) 
Area 

3) Head post office and administrative office (1 for 500 000 population) 
Area 

c) Banking 

1) Extension counters with ATM facility (1 for every 15 000 population) 
i) Floor area for counters 

ii) Floor area for ATM 

2) Bank with locker, ATM and other banking facilities (1 for 100 000 population) 
Area 



Land Area Required, Min 

85 m 2 

750 m 2 

2 500 m 2 



75 m 2 
6 m 2 

2 500 m 2 



5.5.8 Sports Activity 



1 ) Divisional sports centre (1 for 1 000 000 population) 
Area 

2) District sport centre (1 for 100 000 population) 
Area 

3) Neighbourhood play area (1 for 15 000 population) 
Area 

4) Residential unit play area (1 for 5 000 population) 
Area 



Land Area Required, Min 

20.00 ha 

8.00 ha 

1.50 ha 

5 000 m 2 



5.5.9 Shopping 



Land Area Required, Min 
1500 m 2 
4 600 m 2 
5.00 ha 



1 ) Convenience shopping (1 for 5 000 population) 
Area 

2) Local shopping including service centre (1 for 15 000 population) 
Area 

3) Community centre with service centre (1 for 100 000 population) 
Area 

4) District centre (1 at district level/1 for 500 000 population) 

Area 7.50 ha 

5) Local wholesale market (1 for 1 000 000 population) 

Area 10.00 ha 

6) Weekly markets (1 to 2 locations for every 100 000 populations with 300 to 400 units per 
location) 

Parking and other open spaces within the commercial centres could be so designed that 

weekly markets can operate in these areas during non-working hours. 

The area of informal sector should have suitable public conveniences and solid waste 

disposal arrangements. 

Area per location 0.40 ha 

7) Organized informal sector eating places (1 for 100 000 population) 

Area 2 000 m 2 



20 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



5.5.10 Religious 



1) Religious campus (1 for 100 000 population) 
Area 



Land Area Required, Min 
5.00 ha 



5.5.11 Electrical Sub-station 



1) 11 kV Substation (1 for 15 000 population) 
Area 

2) 66 kV Sub-station (2 for 100 000 population) 
Area for each Sub-station 

3) 220 kV Sub-station (1 for 500 000 population) 
Area 



Land Area Required, Min 

500 m 2 

6 000 m 2 
(that is 60 m x 100 m) 

4.00 ha 



5.5.12 Transport 



1) Three wheeler and taxi stand (1 for 15 000 population) 
Area 

2) Bus terminal (1 for 100 000 population) 
Area 

3) Bus depot (1 for 500 000 population) 
Area 



Land Area Required, Min 
500 m 2 
4 000 m 2 
2.00 ha 



5.5.13 Cremation/Burial Ground 

The site shall be identified in locations, which are not proximous to residential areas 



1) Electric crematorium (1 for large size towns) 
Area 

2) Cremation ground (1 for 500 000 population) 
Area 

3) Burial ground (1 for 500 000 population) 
Area 



Land Area Required, Min 
2.00 ha 
2.50 ha 
4.00 ha 



5.5.14 Dhobi Ghat 



Land Area Required, Min 
1) Dhobi ghat with appropriate arrangements for water and drainage facilities 
and it shall be ensured that the water bodies are not polluted as a result of 
such activities (1 for 100 000 population) 
Area 5 000 m 2 



5.6 Every layout or sub-division shall take into account 6 REQUIREMENTS OF PLOTS 

the provisions of development plan and if the land is 61 No building shall be constructed on any site, on 

affected by any reservation for public purposes, the any part of which mere is deposited refuse, excreta or 

Authority may agree to adjust the location of such other offensive matter objectionable to the Authority, 



reservations to suit the development. 



until such refuse has been removed therefrom and the 



PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES AND GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS 



21 



site has been prepared or left in a manner suitable for 
building purposes to the satisfaction to the Authority. 

6.2 Damp Sites 

Wherever the dampness of a site or the nature of the 
soil renders such precautions necessary, the ground 
surface of the site between the walls of any building 
erected thereon shall be rendered damp-proof to the 
satisfaction of the Authority. 

6.3 Surface Water Drains 

Any land passage or other area within the curtilage of 
a building shall be effectively drained by surface water 
drains or other means. 

6.3.1 The written approval of the Authority shall be 
obtained for connecting any sub-soil or surface water 
drain to a sewer. 

6.4 Distance from Electric Lines 

No VERANDAH, balcony, or the like shall be allowed 
to be erected or re-erected or any additions or alterations 
made to a building within the distances quoted below in 
accordance with the current Indian Electricity Rules as 
amended from time-to-time between the building and 
any overhead electric supply line: 



corresponding to the type of development as given 
below: 





Vertically 


Horizontally 




m 


m 


(1) (2) 


(3) 


(4) 


a) Low and medium 


2.5 


1.2 


voltage lines and 
service lines 






b) High voltage lines up 
to and including 
1 1 000 V 


3.7 


1.2 


c) High voltage lines 
above 11 000 V and 


3.7 


2.0 


up to and including 
33 000 V 






d) Extra high voltage 
line beyond 33 000 V 


3.7 
(plus 0.3 m 


2.0 
(plus 0.3 m 




for every 
additional 


for every 
additional 




33 000 V 
or part 
thereof) 


33 000 V 
or part 
thereof) 



6.5 Distance of site from the normal edge of water 
course/area may be specified by the Authority, keeping 
in view the normal maximum flood/tide level. 

6.6 Size of Plots 
6.6.1 Residential 

Each plot shall have a minimum size/frontage 



Type of Development 


Plot Size 


Frontage 




m 2 


m 


(1) 


(2) 


(3) 



Detached building Above 250 Above 12 

Semi-detached building 125-250 8 to 12 

Row type building 50-125 4.5 to 8 

NOTE — For low income housing see 12.20. 

6.6.1.1 The minimum size of the site for group housing 
development shall be as given in the Master Plan and 
local development control rules. 

6.6.2 Industrial 

The size of the plot shall not be less than 300 m 2 and 
its width shall not be less than 15 m. 

6.6.3 Other Land Uses 

The minimum size of plots for buildings for other uses 
not covered under 5.5 shall be as decided by the 
Authority. 

7 CLASSIFICATION OF BUILDINGS 

7.0 Buildings are classified based on occupancy and 
types of construction. 

7.1 For the purpose of the Code, the following 
shall be the occupancy classification and types of 
construction; for more detailed information, reference 
may be made to Part 4 'Fire and Life Safety'. 

7.1.1 Occupancy Classification 

a) Residential; 

b) Educational; 

c) Institutional; 

d) Assembly; 

e) Business; 

f) Mercantile (will include both retail and 
wholesale stores); 

g) Industrial (will include low, moderate and 
high fire hazards); 

h) Storage; and 
j) Hazardous. 

7.1.2 Types of Construction 

a) Type 1, 

b) Type 2, 

c) Type 3, and 

d) Type 4. 



22 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



8 OPEN SPACES (WITHIN A PLOT) 

8.1 General 

Every room intended for human habitation shall abut 
on an interior or exterior open space or an open 
VERANDAH open to such interior or exterior open 
space. 

8.1.1 The open spaces inside and around a building 
have essentially to cater for the lighting and ventilation 
requirements of the rooms abutting such open spaces, 
and in the case of buildings abutting on streets in the 
front, rear or sides, the open spaces provided shall be 
sufficient for the future widening of such streets. 

8.1.2 Open Spaces Separate for each Building or Wing 

The open spaces shall be separate or distinct for each 
building and where a building has two or more wings, 
each wing shall have separate or distinct open spaces 
for the purposes of lighting and ventilation of the wings. 

However, separation between accessory and main 
buildings more than 7 m in height shall not be less 
than 1.5 m; for buildings up to 7 m in height no such 
separation shall be required. 

8.1.3 The open space shall be the minimum distance 
measured between the front, rear and side of the 
building and the respective plot boundaries. The front, 
rear and side of the building shall be the point of the 
building nearest to the boundary. 

8.2 Residential Buildings 

8.2.1 Exterior Open Spaces 

8.2.1.1 Front open space 

a) Every building fronting a street shall have a 
front space, forming an integral part of the 
site as below: 



SI 


Front Open 


Space, 


Width of Street 


No. 


Min 




Fronting the Plot 




m 




m 


(1) 


(2) 




(3) 


i) 


1.5 1} 




Upto7.5 1} 


ii) 


3.0 




7.5 to 18 


iii) 


4.5 




18 to 30 


iv) 


6.0 




Above 30 



For buildings up to a maximum height 7 m. 

NOTE — In case a building abuts two or more streets, the 
value of open paces is to be based on the average width of 
streets, subject to a minimum of 1.8 m for cases (ii), (iii) and 
(iv) above. 



b) For streets less than 7.5 m in width, the 
distance of the building (building line) shall 



be at least 5 m from the centre line of the street 
{see 4.3.5), 

NOTE — This limiting distance has to be determined 
by the Authority for individual road/street widths taking 
into account the traffic flow. 



8.2.1.2 Rear open space 



a) 



b) 



c) 



Every residential building shall have a rear 
open space, forming an integral part of the 
site, of an average width of 3 m and at no 
place measuring less than 1.8 m, except that 
in the case of a back-to-back sites, the width 
of the rear open space shall be 3 m throughout. 
Subject to the condition of free ventilation, 
the open space left up to half the width of the 
plot shall also be taken into account for 
calculating the average width of the rear open 
space. For plots of depths less than 9 m, for 
buildings up to 7 m in height, the rear open 
space may be reduced to 1.5 m. 
Rear open space to extend the rear wall 
The rear open space shall be co-extensive with 
the entire face of the rear wall. If a building 
abuts on two or more streets, such rear open 
space shall be provided throughout the face 
of the rear wall. Such rear wall shall be the 
wall on the opposite side of the face of the 
building abutting on the wider street unless 
the Authority directs otherwise. 
In case of corner plots less than 300 m 2 in 
area, the rear open space should be 2.4 m 
minimum. 



8.2.1.3 Side open space 

a) Every semi-detached and detached building 
shall have a permanently open air space, 
forming an integral part of the site as below: 

1) For detached buildings there shall be a 
minimum side open space of 3 m on both 
the sides. 

NOTE — For detached residential buildings up 
to 7 m in height on plots with a frontage less than 
12 m {see 6.6.1), one of the side open spaces may 
be reduced to 1.5 m. 

2) For semi-detached buildings, there shall 
be a minimum side open space of 3 m on 
one side. 

NOTE — For semi-detached buildings up to 7 m 
in height on plots with a frontage less than 9 m 
{see 6.6.1), the side open spaces may be reduced 
to 1.5 m. 

3) For row-type buildings, no side open is 
required. 

b) In the case of semi-detached buildings, the 
open spaces provided on one side shall be as 



PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES AND GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS 



23 



in 8.2.1.3 (a) and all habitable rooms shall 
abut either on this side open space or front 
and rear open spaces or an interior open space 
(see 8.2.5). 

8.2.2 The provisions of 8.2.1.2 and 8.2.1.3 are not 

applicable to parking lock-up garages up to 3 m in 
height located at a distance of 7.5 m from any street 
line or front boundary of the plot. 

8.2.3 The open spaces mentioned in 8.2.1.1 to 8.2.1.3 

shall be for residential buildings up to a height of 10 m. 

8.2.3.1 For buildings of height above 10 m, the open 
spaces (side and rear) shall be as given in Table 2. The 
front open spaces for increasing heights of buildings 
shall be governed by 9.4.1 (a). 

Table 2 Side and Rear Open Spaces for Different 
Heights of Buildings 

(Clause 8.2.3.1) 



SI 


Height of 


Side and Rear Open Spaces to 


No. 


Buildings 


be Left Around Building 




m 


m 


(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


i) 


10 


3 


ii) 


15 


5 


iii) 


18 


6 


iv) 


21 


7 


v) 


24 


8 


vi) 


27 


9 


vii) 


30 


10 


viii) 


35 


11 


ix) 


40 


12 


x) 


45 


13 


«) 


50 


14 


xii) 


55 and above 


16 



NOTES 

1 For buildings above 24 m in height, there shall be a minimum 
front open space of 6 m. 

2 Where rooms do not derive light and ventilation from the 
exterior open space, the width of such exterior open space as 
given in col 3 may be reduced by 1 m subject to a minimum of 

3 m and a maximum of 8 m. No further projections shall be 
permitted. 

3 If the length or depth of the building exceeds 40 m, add 
to col (3) 10 percent of length or depth of building minus 
4.0 m. 

8.2.3.2 For tower-like structures, as an alternative 
to 8.2.3.1, open spaces shall be as below: 

a) Up to a height of 24 m, with one set-back, the 
open spaces at the ground level, shall be not 
less than 6 m; 

b) For heights between 24 m and 37.5 m with 
one set-back, the open spaces at the ground 
level, shall be not less than 9 m; 

c) For heights above 37.5 m with two set-backs, 
the open spaces at the ground level, shall be 
not less than 12 m; and 



d) The deficiency in the open spaces shall be 
made good to satisfy 8.2.3.1 through the set- 
backs at the upper levels; these set-backs shall 
not be accessible from individual rooms/flats 
at these levels. 

8.2.4 The front open space would govern the height 
of the building (see 9.4). 

8.2.5 Interior Open Spaces 

a) Inner courtyard — In case the whole of one 
side of every room excepting bath, WC and 
store room is not abutting on either the front, 
rear or side open spaces, it shall abut on an 
inner courtyard, whose minimum width shall 
be 3 m. 

Further, the inner courtyard shall have an area, 
throughout its height, of not less than the 
square of one-fifth the height of the highest 
wall abutting the courtyard. Provided that 
when any room (excluding staircase bay, 
bathroom and water-closet) is dependent for 
its light and ventilation on an inner courtyard, 
the dimension shall be such as is required for 
each wing of the building. 
Where only water-closet and bath room are 
abutting on the interior courtyard, the size of 
the interior courtyard shall be in line with the 
provision for ventilation shaft as given 
in 8.2.5 (b). 

b) Ventilation shaft — For ventilating the spaces 
for water-closets and bath rooms, if not 
opening on to front, side, rear and interior 
open spaces, these shall open on the 
ventilation shaft, the size of which shall not 
be less than the values given below: 



Height of 


Size of 


Minimum 


Buildings 


Ventilation 


One Dimension of 




Shaft 


the Shaft 


m 


m 2 


m 


(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


Up to 10 


1.2 


0.9 


12 


2.8 


1.2 


18 


4.0 


1.5 


24 


5.4 


1.8 


30 


8.0 


2.4 


Above 30 


9.0 


3.0 



NOTES 

1 For buildings of height above 30 m, a mechanical ventilation 
system shall be installed besides the provision of minimum 
ventilation shaft. 

2 For fully air-conditioned residential buildings for lodging 
purposes, the ventilation shaft need not be insisted upon, 
provided the air-conditioning system works in an uninterrupted 
manner, also, provided there is an alternative source of power 
supply. 



24 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



c) Outer courtyard — The minimum width of 
the outer courtyard (as distinguished from its 
depth) shall be not less than 2.4 m. If the width 
of the outer courtyard is less than 2.4 m, it 
shall be treated as a notch and the provisions 
of outer courtyard shall not apply. However, 
if the depth of the outer courtyard is more than 
the width, the provisions of 8.1.2 shall apply 
for the open spaces to be left between the 
wings. 

8.2.6 Joint Open Air Space 

Every such interior or exterior open air space, unless 
the latter is a street, shall be maintained for the benefit 
of such building exclusively and shall be entirely within 
the owner's own premises. 

8.2.6.1 If such interior or exterior open air space is 
intended to be used for the benefit of more than one 
building belonging to the same owner, the width of 
such open air space shall be the one specified for the 
tallest building as specified in 8.2.3 abutting on such 
open air space. 

8.2.6.2 If such interior or exterior open air space is 
jointly owned by more than one person, its width shall 
also be as specified in 8.2, provided every such person 
agrees in writing to allow his portion of such joint open 
air space to be used for the benefit of every building 
abutting on such joint open air space and provided he 
sends such written consent to the Authority for record. 
Such common open air space shall thenceforth be 
treated as a permanently open air space required for 
the purposes of the Code. No boundary wall between 
such joint open air space shall be erected or raised to a 
height of more than 2.0 m. 

8.3 Other Occupancies 

8.3.1 Open spaces for other occupancies shall be as 
below: 

a) Educational buildings — Except for nursery 
schools, the open spaces around the building 
shall be not less than 6 m. 

b) Institutional buildings — The open spaces 
around the building shall be not less than 6 m. 

c) Assembly buildings — The open space at front 
shall be not less than 12 m and the other open 
spaces around the building shall be not less 
than 6 m. 

NOTE — However, if assembly buildings are permitted 
in purely residential zones, the open spaces around the 
building shall be not less than 12 m. 

d) Business, mercantile and storage buildings — 
The open spaces around the building shall be 
not less than 4.5 m. Where these occur in a 
purely residential zone or in a residential with 



shops line zone the open spaces may be 
relaxed. 

e) Industrial buildings — The open spaces 
around the building shall be not less than 
4.5 m for heights up to 16 m, with an increase 
of the open spaces of 0.25 m for every 
increase of 1 m or fraction thereof in height 
above 16 m. 

NOTE — Special rules for narrow industrial plots in 
the city, namely plots less than 15 m in width, and with 
appropriate set-backs from certain streets and highways, 
shall be applicable. 

f) Hazardous occupancies — The open spaces 
around the building shall be as specified for 
industrial buildings [see 8.3.1 (e)]. 

8.4 Exemption to Open Spaces 

8.4.1 Projections into Open Spaces 

Every open space provided either interior or exterior 
shall be kept free from any erection thereon and shall 
be open to the sky, except as below: 

a) Cornice, roof or weather shade not more than 
0.75 m wide; 

b) Sunshades over windows/ventilators or other 
openings not more than 0.75 m wide; # 

c) Canopy not to be used as a sit out with 
clearance of 1 .5 m between the plot boundary 
and the canopy; 

d) Projected balcony at higher floors of width 
not more than 1.2 m; and 

e) Projecting rooms/balconies [see (d)] at 
alternate floors such that rooms of the lower 
two floors get light and air and the projection 
being not more than the height of the storey 
immediately below. 

However, these projections into open spaces shall not 
reduce the minimum required open spaces. 

8.4.1.1 Accessory building 

The following accessory buildings may be permitted 
in the open spaces: 

a) In an existing building, sanitary block of 

2.4 m in height subject to a maximum of 4 m 2 
in the rear open space at a distance of 1 .5 m 
from the rear boundary may be permitted, 
where facilities are not adequate. 

b) Parking lock up garages not exceeding 2.4 m 
in height shall be permitted in the side or 
rear open spaces at a distance of 7.5 m from 
any road line or the front boundary of the plot; 
and 

c) Suction tank and pump room each up to 

2.5 m 2 in area. 



PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES AND GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS 



25 



8.4.2 Projection into Street 

8.4.2.1 In existing built-up or congested areas, no 
projection of any sort whatsoever, except sunshades 
{see 8.4.2.3) extending more than 23 cm below a height 
of 4.3 m, shall project over the road or over any drain 
or over any portion outside the boundaries of the site, 
provided the projection arising out of the vertical part 
of the rain-water spouts projecting at the road level or 
the water pipe may be permitted in accordance with 
the drainage plan. 

8.4.2.2 Porticos in existing developed area 

Porticos in bazaar areas of existing developed areas 
may be permitted to project on road land subject to the 
following limitations: 

a) Porticos may be allowed on such roads 
leaving a minimum clear space of 18 m 
between kerbs; 

b) The porticos shall not be less than 3 m wide; 

c) Nothing shall be allowed to be constructed 
on the portico which shall be used as an open 
terrace; 

d) Nothing shall be allowed to project beyond 
the line of arcades; and 

e) The space under the portico shall be paved 
and channelled according to the directions of 
the Authority. 

8.4.2.3 Sunshades over windows and ventilators 

Projections of sunshades over windows or ventilators 
in existing built-up or congested areas when permitted 
by the Authority shall fulfil the following conditions: 

a) No sunshade shall be permitted over the road 
or over any drain or over any portion outside 
the boundaries of the site below a height of 
2.8 m from the road level; 

b) Sunshades provided above a height of 2.8 m 
from the ground level shall be permitted to 
project up to a maximum width of 60 cm, if 
the road over which they project exceeds 9 m 
in width; and 

c) No sunshade shall be permitted on roads less 
than 9 m in width or on roads having no 
footpaths. 

8.5 Limitations to Open Spaces 

8.5.1 Safeguard Against Reduction of Open Space 

No construction work on a building shall be allowed 
if such work operates to reduce an open air space of 
any other adjoining building, belonging to the same 
owner to an extent less than what is prescribed at the 
time of the proposed work or to reduce further such 
open space if it is already less than that prescribed. 



8.5.2 Additions or Extensions to a Building 

Additions or extensions to a building shall be allowed, 
provided the open spaces for the additions/extensions 
satisfy 8.2 after such additions/extensions are made. 

9 AREA AND HEIGHT LIMITATIONS 

9.1 General 

The limitation of area and height of buildings of 
different occupancy classes and types of construction 
shall be achieved by specifying it in terms of FAR, 
which shall take into account the various aspects that 
govern in specifying FAR as given below: 

a) Occupancy class; 

b) Types of construction; 

c) Width of street fronting the building and the 
traffic load; 

d) Locality where the building is proposed and 
the density; 

e) Parking facilities; 

f) Local fire fighting facilities; and 

g) Water supply and drainage facilities. 

9.2 The comparative FAR's for different occupancies 
and types of construction are as given in Table 3 and 
the Authority shall select a basic FAR for one 
occupancy and a type of construction and arrive at the 
FAR values for other combinations taking into account 
the other local factors (see 9.1). 

9.2.1 Unlimited Areas 

The minimum fire separation on all sides of buildings 
of unlimited areas (see Table 3) and of Type 1 
construction shall be 9 m. 

9.3 Street Width 

The area limits shall apply to all buildings fronting on 
a street or public space not less than 9 m in width 
accessible to a public street. 

9.4 Height Limit 

The height and number of storeys shall be related to 
FAR and the provisions of 8. 

9.4.1 Where a building height is not covered by 
Table 3, the maximum height shall be limited 
according to the width of the street as follows: 

a) The maximum height of building shall not 
exceed 1 .5 times the width of road abutting 
plus the front open space; 

b) If a building abuts on two or more streets of 
different widths, the building shall be deemed 
to face upon the street that has the greater 
width and the height of the building shall be 



26 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



Table 3 Comparative Floor Area Ratios for 

Occupancies Facing One Public Street 

of at Least 9 m Width 

(Clauses 2.26, 9.2 and 9.2.1) 



Occupancy 




Type of Construction 




Classification 






^^s^ 






Typel 


Type 2 


Type 3 


— V 

Type 4 


(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


Residential 


UL 


2.0 


1.4 


1.0 


Educational 


UL 


2.0 


1.4 


1.0 


Institutional 


UL 


1.5 


1.0 


0.8 


Assembly 


UL 


1.0 


0.7 


0.5 


Business 


UL 


2.9 


2.3 


1.6 


Mercantile 


8.0 


1.8 


1.4 


1.0 


Industrial 


7.5 


1.9 


1.6 


1.3 


Storage 


6.0 


.1.5 


1.3 


1.0 


(see Note 4) 










Hazardous 


2.8 


1.1 


0.9 


NP 


(see Note 4) 










UL — Unlimited 








NP — Not Permitted 









NOTES 

1 This table has been prepared, taking into account the 
combustible content in the different occupancies as well as 
the fire resistance offered by the type of construction (see Part 4 
'Fire and Life Safety'). 

2 This table shall be modified by the Authority, taking into 
account the other aspects as given below (see 9.1): 

a) Density in terms of dwelling units/hectare; 

b) Traffic considerations; 

c) Parking spaces; 

d) Local fire fighting facilities; and 

e) Water supply, drainage and sanitation requirements. 

3 The FAR specified may be increased by 20 percent for the 
following: 

a) A basement or cellar and space under a building 
constructed on stilts and used as a parking space, and air- 
conditioning plant room used as accessory to the principal 
use; 

b) Electric cabin or sub-station, watchman's booth of 
maximum size of 1.6 m 2 with minimum width or diameter 
of 1.2 m, pumphouse, garbage shaft, space required for 
location of fire hydrants, electric fittings and water tank; 

c) Projections and accessory buildings as specifically 
exempted (see 8.4.1); and 

d) Staircase room and lift rooms above the topmost storey, 
architectural features; and chimneys and elevated tanks of 
dimensions as permissible under the Code; the area of the 
lift shaft shall be taken only on one floor. 

4 In so far as single storey storage and hazardous occupancies 
are concerned, they would be further governed by volume to 
plot area ratio (VPR), to be decided by the Authority. 



regulated by the width of that street and may 
be continued to this height to a depth of 
24 m along the narrower street subject to 
conformity of 8; and 

For buildings in vicinity of aerodromes, 
provisions of 9.5 shall apply. 



c) 



9.4.2 Height Exceptions 

9.4.2.1 Roof structures 

The following appurtenant structures shall not be 
included in the height of the building unless the 
aggregate area of such structures, including pent- 
houses, exceeds one-third of the area of the roof of 
building upon which they are erected: 

a) Roof tanks and their supports (with support 
height not exceeding 1 m); 

b) Ventilating, air-conditioning, lift rooms and 
similar service equipment; 

c) Stair cover (MUMTY) not exceeding 3 m in 
height; and 

d) Chimneys, parapet walls and architectural 
features not exceeding 1.2 m in height. 

9.4.2.2 The building height for different occupancy 
types shall not exceed the maximum height prescribed 
in Part 4 'Fire and Life Safety'. 

9.5 Restrictions in the Vicinity of Aerodromes 

9.5.1 For buildings in the vicinity of aerodromes, the 
maximum height of such buildings shall be decided in 
consultation with the Civil Aviation Authorities. This 
shall be regulated by the rules for giving no objection 
certificate for construction of buildings in the vicinity 
of aerodromes of Directorate General of Civil Aviation, 
which are given in Annex A. However, the latest rules 
of Directorate General of Civil Aviation shall be 
followed in all cases of buildings coming up in the 
vicinity of an aerodrome. 

9.5.1.1 For the purpose of 9.5.1 new buildings, 
structures which rise to 30 m or more in height and are 
to be located within 20 km of the aerodrome reference 
point, shall be constructed only if no objection 
certificate has been obtained from the Directorate 
General of Civil Aviation. 

9.5.1.2 In the case of buildings to be erected in the 
vicinity of defence aerodromes, the maximum height 
of such buildings shall be decided by the Defence 
Authority. 

9.5.2 This will apply specially to new constructions, 
overhead high voltage/medium voltage lines, 
telephones/telegraph lines, factories, chimneys, wire/ 
TV antennas. 

9.5.2.1 No new chimneys or smoke producing 
factories shall be constructed within a radius of 8 km 
from the aerodrome reference point (ARP). 

9.5.2.2 Overhead high voltage/medium voltage lines 
or telephone/telegraph lines shall not be permitted in 
the approach/take-off climb areas within 3 000 m of 
the inner edge of these areas. 



PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES AND GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS 



27 



9.5.2.3 A 3 m margin shall be allowed in new 
constructions for wireless/TV antennas, cooling towers 
and MUMTIES. 

9.5.3 Butcheries, tanneries and solid waste disposal 
sites shall not be permitted within 10 km from the 
aerodrome reference point. 

9.6 Group Housing 

9.6.1 Group housing development may be in low rise 
house clusters or multi-storeyed apartments for high 
density development. 

9.6.2 No limit to floors and height shall be applicable, 
but the coverage and floor area ratio for various 
densities may be as given in Table 4 unless otherwise 
provided in the Master Plan and local development 
control rules. 

Table 4 Floor Area Ratio and Coverage for 
Group Housing 

(Clause 9.6.2) 



SI Net Residential 

No. Density in Dwelling 
Units/ Hectare 

(1) (2) 



Maximum 

Coverage in 

Percent 

(3) 



Floor Area 
Ratio 

(4) 



i) 


25 


25 


0.50 


ii) 


50 


30 


0.75 


iii) 


75 


33 


0.90 


iv) 


100 


35 


1.00 


v) 


125 


35 


1.25 


vi) 


150 


35 


1.50 


vii) 


175 


35 


1.75 


NOTE 


— The coverage 


shall be calculated on the basis of the 


whole < 


area reserved for group housing. 





9.6.3 The minimum size of the site for group housing 
multi-storeyed apartment shall be 3 000 m 2 . 

9.6.3.1 The number of dwelling units are calculated 
on the basis of the density pattern given in the 
Development Plan taking into consideration a 
population of 4.5 persons per dwelling unit. 

9.6.3.2 The basement may vary between 33.33 
to 50 percent of the plot area and is to be used for 
parking, servicing and for essential household storage 
without counting in FAR. 

9.6.3.3 One car parking space for every two flats up 
to 90 m 2 floor area and one for every flat for 100 m 2 or 
more shall be provided. 

9.6.4 With a view to providing adequate parking for 
occupancies and the vehicular load, appropriate off- 
street parking provisions have to be made in the 
building/on-site. This could also be permitted in 
basement areas and the footprint for the basement 
parking can exceed the ground coverage of the 
building subject to no basement building construction 



to cross the building line and all other safety features 
for structural, fire, health and public safety being 
ensured. 

10 OFF-STREET PARKING SPACES 

10.1 The off-street parking (on-site parking) spaces 
in a plot to be provided shall be in accordance with 
Annex B. The spaces given in Annex B shall be 
considered by the Authority in conjunction with the 
Development Rules, in force, if any. 

10.2 The spaces to be left out for off-street parking as 
given in 10.3 to 10.6 shall be in addition to the open 
spaces left out for lighting and ventilation purposes as 
given in 15. 

10.2.1 Further 50 percent of the open spaces required 
around buildings under 8 may be allowed to be utilized 
for parking or loading or unloading spaces, provided a 
minimum distance of 3.6 m around the building is kept 
free from any parking, loading or unloading spaces 
subject to the provisions of Part 4 Tire and Life Safety ' . 

10.3 Each off-street parking space provided for 
vehicles shall be as follows: 

a) For car, the minimum parking space to be 
3 m x 6 m when individual parking space is 
required and 2.75 m x 5 m when common 
parking space is required. 

b) Space for scooter/two wheeler and bicycle 
to be not less than 1.25 m 2 and 1.00 m 2 
respectively. 

c) Area for each equivalent car space inclusive 
of circulation area is 23 m 2 for open parking, 
28 m 2 for ground floor covered parking and 
32 m 2 for basement. 

10.4 For buildings of different occupancies, off-street 
parking space for vehicles shall be provided as 
stipulated below: 

a) Motor Vehicles — Space shall be provided 
as specified in Annex B for parking motor 
vehicles (cars). 

b) Other Types of Vehicles — For non-residential 
building, in addition to the parking areas 
provided in (a) above, 25 to 50 percent 
additional parking space shall be provided for 
parking other types of vehicles and the additional 
spaces required for other vehicles shall be as 
decided by the Authority, keeping in view the 
nature of traffic generated in the city. 

10.5 Off-street parking space shall be provided with 
adequate vehicular access to a street; and the area of 
drives, aisles and such other provisions required for 
adequate manoeuvering of vehicle shall be exclusive 
of the parking space stipulated in these provisions. 



28 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



10.6 If the total parking space required by these 
provisions is provided by a group of property owners 
for their mutual benefits, such use of this space may 
be construed as meeting the off-street parking 
requirements under these provisions, subject to the 
approval of the Authority. 

10.7 In buildings of mercantile (commercial), 
industrial and storage type, in addition to the parking 
spaces provided, a space at the rate of 3.5 m x 7.5 m, 
shall be provided for loading and unloading activities, 
for each 1 000 m 2 of floor area or fraction thereof. 

10.8 Parking spaces shall be paved and clearly marked 
for different types of vehicles. 

10.9 Apart from parking at ground level, provision of 
underground or multistoreyed parking may be 
permitted. The parking of vehicles at different level 
may also be mechanized. In the case of parking spaces 
provided in basement(s), at least two ramps of adequate 
width and slope shall be provided, located preferably 
at opposite ends. In case of underground/multistoreyed 
parking, special measures with regard to fire safety 
shall be taken (see Part 4 Tire and Life Safety'). 

11 GREENBELTS, LANDSCAPING AND WATER 
CONSERVATION 

11.1 General 

Greenbelts and landscaping including plantation of 
shrubs and trees help to certain extent in enhancing 
the environmental quality. 

11.1.1 Planting of trees in streets and in open spaces 
should be done carefully to take advantage of both 
shades and sunshine without obstructing the flow of 
wind circulation and sight. Their advantage for abating 
glare and for providing cool and/or warm pockets in 
developed areas should also be taken, 

11.2 Norms for Planting of Shrubs and Trees 

11.2.1 Suitable provisions may be made for greeneries 
including plantation of shrubs and trees as a part of 
environmental protection in general. This aspect shall 
be taken care of from the initial stage of town and 
country planning, zoning and planning of development 
of particular area and group housing. Finally, this 
aspect shall also be taken into account in planning 
individual building of different occupancies. 

11.2.2 The types of plants, the distance between trees/ 
plants from the building and the distance between plants 
shall be carefully worked out keeping in view the 
structural safety and aesthetic requirements of buildings. 

11.3 Trees shall be numbered area-wise, plot-wise and 
road-wise by the concerned authority and they shall 
be checked periodically. 



11.4 Cutting and pruning of trees in public as well as 
private areas shall be suitably regulated. Trees shall 
be cut only after obtaining the permission of the 
Authority designated for this purpose. 

11.5 The landscape planning and design shall be done 
in accordance with Part 10 'Landscaping, Signs and 
Outdoor Display Structures, Section 1 Landscape 
Planning and Design'. 

11.6 Water Conservation and Augmentation 

In view of critical shortage of water, conservation of 
water by rain water harvesting and by use of recycled 
water to the maximum extent possible will be 
required. In this regard the following provisions may 
be adopted. 

11.6.1 The local authority preparing a town-planning 
scheme or a development plan should see that the local 
water bodies are preserved, and if dry, are activated 
by directing water-courses appropriately. If required, 
the same should be enlarged, deepened, etc. 

11.6.2 The water body should be protected by 
ensuring that no permanent/temporary construction 
development takes place around it up to a distance of 
50 m from the edge of the water body and the same 
shall be suitably landscaped. Further, the public shall 
have easy access to the water body. 

11.6.3 The rain water run-off shall be suitably directed 
to Recharging Wells in plots belonging to the local 
authority and of appropriate design. 

11.6.4 The local authority should encourage for 
collection of rain water from roofs and terraces and direct 
the same either to a storage tank or to a recharging well. 

11.6.5 Buildings having central air-conditioning plants 
requiring water for cooling purposes may not be 
allowed to use fresh water for the purpose. 

11.6.6 Commercial or residential multi-storey complexes 
may use recycled water for flushing of toilets. Separate 
storage tanks and separate distribution pipes shall be 
provided for the purpose. 

12 REQUIREMENTS OF PARTS OR BUILDINGS 
12.1 Plinth 

12.1.1 Main Buildings 

The plinth or any part of a building or outhouse shall 
be so located with respect to the surrounding ground 
level that adequate drainage of the site is assured. The 
height of the plinth shall be not less than 450 mm from 
the surrounding ground level. 

12.1.2 Interior Courtyards and Covered Parking 
Every interior courtyard shall be raised at least 150 mm 



PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES AND GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS 



29 



above the determining ground level and shall be 
satisfactorily drained. 

12.2 Habitable Rooms 

12.2.1 Height 

The height of all rooms for human habitation shall not 
be less than 2.75 m measured from the surface of the 
floor to the lowest point of the ceiling (bottom of slab). 
In the case of pitched roof, the average height of rooms 
shall not be less than 2.75 m. The minimum clear head 
room under a beam, folded plates or eaves shall be 
2.4 m. In the case of air-conditioned rooms, a height 
of not less than 2.4 m measured from the surface of 
the floor to the lowest point of air-conditioning duct 
or the false ceiling shall be provided. 

12.2.1.1 The requirements of 12.2.1 apply to 

residential, business and mercantile buildings. For 
educational and industrial buildings, the following 
minimum requirements apply: 

a) Educational Ceiling height 3.6 m for all 
Buildings regions; in cold regions, 3 m 



b) 



Industrial 
Buildings 



Ceiling height 3.6 m, except 
when air-conditioned, 3 m 
(Factory Act 1948 and Rules 
therein shall govern such 
heights, where applicable). 



12.2.2 Size 



The area of habitable room shall not be less than 9.5 m 2 , 
where there is only one room with a minimum width 
of 2.4 m. Where there are two rooms, one of these 
shall not be less than 9.5 m 2 and the other not less than 
7.5 m 2 , with a minimum width of 2.1 m. 

12.3 Kitchen 

12.3.1 Height 

The height of a kitchen measured from the surface of 
the floor to the lowest point in the ceiling (bottom slab) 
shall not be less than 2.75 m, except for the portion to 
accommodate floor trap of the upper floor. 

12.3.2 Size 

The area of a kitchen where separate dining area is 
provided, shall be not less than 5.0 m 2 with a minimum 
width of 1.8 m. Where there is a separate store, the 
area of the kitchen may be reduced to 4.5 m 2 . A kitchen, 
which is intended for use as a dining area also, shall 
have a floor area of not less than 7.5 m 2 with a 
minimum width of 2.1 m. 

12.3.3 Other Requirements 

Every room to be used as kitchen shall have: 

a) unless separately provided in a pantry, means 
for the washing of kitchen utensils which 



shall lead directly or through a sink to a 
grated and trapped connection to the waste 
pipe; 

b) an impermeable floor; 

c) a flue, if found necessary; and 

d) a window or ventilator or opening of size not 
less than as specified in 15.1.1 subject to 
increase in area of opening in accordance with 
Note 3 of 15.1.2. 

12.4 Bathrooms and Water-Closets 

12.4.1 Height 

The height of a bathroom or water-closet measured 
from the surface of the floor to the lowest point in 
the ceiling (bottom of slab) shall not be less than 

2.1m. 

12.4.2 Size 

The area of a bathroom shall not be less than 1.8 m 2 
with a minimum width of 1.2 m. The floor area of 
water-closet shall be 1.1 m 2 with a minimum width of 
0.9 m. If bath and water-closet are combined, its floor 
area shall not be less than 2.8 m 2 with a minimum width 
of 1.2 m. 

12.4.3 Other Requirements 

Every bathroom or water-closet shall: 

a) be so situated that at least one of its walls shall 
open to external air; 

b) not be directly over or under any room other 
than another water-closet, washing place, bath 
or terrace, unless it has a water-tight floor; 

c) have the platform or seat made of water-tight 
non-absorbent material; 

d) be enclosed by walls or partitions and the 
surface of every such wall or partition shall 
be finished with a smooth impervious material 
to a height of not less than 1 m above the floor 
of such a room; 

e) be provided with an impervious floor 
covering, sloping towards the drain with a 
suitable grade and not towards VERANDAH 
or any other room; and 

f) have a window or ventilator, opening to a 
shaft or open space, of area not less than 
0.3 m 2 with side not less than 0.3 m. 

12.4.4 No room containing water-closets shall be used 
for any purpose except as a lavatory and no such room 
shall open directly into any kitchen or cooking space 
by a door, window or other opening. Every room 
containing water-closet shall have a door completely 
closing the entrance to it. 



30 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



12.5 Ledge or TAND/Loft 

12.5.1 Height 

The minimum head-room of ledge or TAND/loft shall 
be 2.2 m. The maximum height of loft shall be 1.5 m. 

12.5.2 Size 

A ledge or TANDfloft in a habitable room shall not 
cover more than 25 percent of the area of the floor on 
which it is constructed and shall not interfere with the 
ventilation of the room under any circumstances. 

12.6 Mezzanine Floor 

12.6.1 Height 

It shall have a minimum height of 2.2 m. 

12.6.2 Size 

The minimum size of the mezzanine floor, if it is to be 
used as a living room, shall not be less than 9.5 m 2 . 
The aggregate area of such mezzanine floor in a 
building shall in no case exceed one-third the plinth 
area of the building. 

12.6.3 Other Requirements 

A mezzanine floor may be permitted over a room or a 
compartment provided: 

a) it conform to the standard of living rooms as 
regards lighting and ventilation in case the 
size of mezzanine floor is 9.5 m 2 or more 
(see 14.1.2); 

b) 'it is so constructed as not to interfere under 

any circumstances with the ventilation of the 
space over and under it; 

c) such mezzanine floor is not sub-divided into 
smaller compartments; 

d) such mezzanine floor or any part of it shall 
not be used as a kitchen; and 

e) in no case shall a mezzanine floor be closed 
so as to make it liable to be converted into 
unventilated compartments. 

12.7 Store Room 

12.7.1 Height 

The height of a store room shall be not less than 2.2 m. 

12.7.2 Size 

The size of a store room, where provided in a residential 
building, shall be not less than 3 m 2 . 

12.8 Garage 
12.8.1 Height 

The height of a garage shall be not less than 2.4 m. 



12.8.2 Size 

The size of garages shall be as below: 

a) Private Garage — 3.0 m x 6.0 m, minimum; 
and 

b) Public Garage — Based on the number of 
vehicles parked, etc (see 10). 

12.9 Basement 

12.9.1 The basement shall not be used for residential 
purposes. 

12.9.2 The construction of the basement shall be 
allowed by the Authority in accordance with the 
land use and other provisions specified under the 
Development Control Rules. 

12.9.2.1 The basement to be constructed within the 
building envelope and subject to maximum coverage 
on floor 1 (entrance floor) may be put to only the 
following uses: 

a) Storage of household or other goods of 
ordinarily non-combustible material; 

b) Strong rooms, bank cellars, etc; 

c) Air-conditioning equipment and other 
machines used for services and utilities of the 
building; and 

d) Parking spaces. 

12.9.3 The basement shall have the following 
requirements: 

a) Every basement shall be in every part at least 
2.4 m in height from the floor to the underside 
of the roof slab or ceiling; 

b) Adequate ventilation shall be provided for the 
basement. The ventilation requirements shall 
be the same as required by the particular 
occupancy according to byelaws. Any 
deficiency may be met by providing adequate 
mechanical ventilation in the form of blowers, 
exhaust fans, air-conditioning systems, etc; 

c) The minimum height of the ceiling of any 
basement shall be X).9 m and the maximum, 
1.2 m above the average surrounding ground 
level; 

d) Adequate arrangements shall be made such 
that surface drainage does not enter the 
basement; 

e) The walls and floors of the basement shall be 
watertight and be so designed that the effects 
of the surrounding soil and moisture, if any, 
are taken into account in design and adequate 
damp proofing treatment is given; and 

f) The access to the basement shall be separate 
from the main and alternative staircase 



PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES AND GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS 



31 



providing access and exit from higher floors. 
Where the staircase is continuous in the case 
of buildings served by more than one 
staircase, the same shall be of enclosed type 
serving as a fire separation from the basement 
floor and higher floors. Open ramps shall be 
permitted if they are constructed within the 
building line subject to the provision of (d). 

The exist requirements in basements shall comply with 
the provisions of Part 4 Tire and Life Safety'. 

12.10 Chimneys 

The chimneys shall be built at least 0.9 m above flat 
roofs, provided the top of the chimneys is not below 
the top of the adjacent parapet wall. In the case of 
sloping roofs, the chimney top shall not be less than 
0.6 m above the ridge of the roof in which the chimney 
penetrates. 

12.11 Parapet 

Parapet walls and handrails provided on the edges of 
roof terraces, balcony, VARANDAH, etc shall not be 
less than 1 .0 m and not more than 1 .2 m in height from 
the finished floor level. 

12.12 Cabin 

The size of cabins shall not be less than 3.0 m 2 with a 
minimum width of 1 .0 m. The clear passages within 
the divided space of any floor shall not be less than 
0.75 m and the distance from the farthest space in a 
cabin to any exit shall not be more than 18.5 m. In 
case the sub-divided cabin does not derive direct 
lighting and ventilation from any open spaces/ 
mechanical means, the maximum height of the cabin 
shall be 2.2 m. 

12.13 Boundary Wall 

12.13.1 The requirements of the boundary wall are 
given below: 

a) Except with the special permission of the 
Authority, the maximum height of the 
compound wall shall be 1.5 m above the 
centre line of the front street. Compound wall 
up to 2.4 m height may be permitted if the 
top 0.9 m is of open type construction of a 
design to be approved by the Authority. 

b) In the case of a corner plot, the height of the 
boundary wall shall be restricted to 0.75 m 
for a length of 10 m on the front and side of 
the inter-sections and the balance height of 
0.75 m if required in accordance with (a) may 
be made up of open type construction 
(through railings) and of design to be 
approved by the Authority. 

c) However, the provisions of (a) and (b) are not 



applicable to boundary walls of jails. In 
industrial buildings, electric sub-stations, 
transformer stations, institutional buildings 
like sanitoria, hospitals, industrial buildings 
like workshops, factories and educational 
buildings like schools, colleges, including 
hostels, and other uses of public utility 
undertakings and strategically sensitive 
buildings, a height up to 2.4 m may be 
permitted by the Authority. 

12.14 Wells 

Wells, intended to supply water for human consumption 
or domestic purposes, where provided, shall comply with 
the requirements of 12.14.1 and 12.14.2. 

12.14.1 Location 

The well shall be located: 

a) not less than 15 m from any ash pit, refuse 
pit, earth closet or privy and shall be located 
on a site upwards from the earth closet or 
privy; 

b) not less than 18 m from any cess pit soakway 
or borehole latrine and shall be located on a 
site upwards from the earth closet or privy; 

c) that contamination by the movement of sub- 
soil or other water is unlikely; and 

d) not under a tree or otherwise it should have a 
canopy over it, so that leaves and twigs may 
not fall into the well and rot. 

12.14.2 Requirements 
The well shall: 

a) have a minimum internal diameter of not less 
than 1 m; 

b) be constructed to a height not less than 1 m 
above the surrounding ground level, to form a 
parapet or kerb and to prevent surface water 
from flowing into a well, and shall be 
surrounded with a paving constructed of 
impervious material which shall extend for a 
distance of not less than 1 .8 m in every direction 
from the parapetfrom the kerb forming the well 
head and the upper surface of such a paving 
shall be sloped away from the well; 

c) be of sound and permanent construction 
(PUCCA) throughout. Temporary or exposed 
(KUTCHA) wells shall be permitted only in 
fields or gardens for purposes of irrigation; and 

d) have the interior surface of the lining or walls 
of the well be rendered impervious for a 
depth of not less than 1.8 m measured 
from the level of the ground immediately 
adjoining the well-head. 



32 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



12.15 Septic Tanks 

Where a septic tank is used for sewage disposal, the 
location, design and construction of the septic tank shall 
conform to requirements of 12.15.1 and 12.15.2 [see 
also Part 9 'Plumbing Services, Section 1 Water 
Supply, Drainage and Sanitation (Including Solid 
Waste Management)']. 

12.15.1 Location of the Septic Tanks and Subsurface 
Absorption Systems 

A sub-soil dispersion system shall not be closer than 
18 m from any source of drinking water, such as well, 
to mitigate the possibility of bacterial pollution of water 
supply. It shall also be as far removed from the nearest 
habitable building as economically feasible but not 
closer than 6 m, to avoid damage to the structures. 

12.15.2 Requirements 

a) Dimensions of septic tanks — Septic tanks 
shall have a minimum width of 750 mm, a 
minimum depth of 1 m below the water level 
and a minimum liquid capacity of 1 m 3 . The 
length of tanks shall be 2 to 4 times the width; 

b) Septic tanks may be constructed of brickwork, 
stone masonry, concrete or other suitable 
materials as approved by the Authority; 

c) Under no circumstances shall effluent from a 
septic tank be allowed into an open channel 
drain or body of water without adequate 
treatment; 

d) The minimum nominal diameter of the pipe 
shall be 100 mm. Further, at junctions of pipes 
in manholes, direction of flow from a branch 
connection shall not make an angle exceeding 
45° with the direction of flow in the main pipe; 

e) The gradients of land drains, under-drainage 
as well as the bottom of dispersion trenches 
and soakways shall be between 1:300 and 
1:400; 

f) Every septic tank shall be provided with 
ventilating pipe of at least 50 mm diameter. 
The top of the pipe shall be provided with a 
suitable cage of mosquito-proof wire mesh. 
The ventilating pipe shall extend to a height 
which would cause no smell nuisance to any 
building in the area. Generally, the ventilating 
pipe may extend to a height of about 2 m, 
when the septic tank is at least 15 m away 
from the nearest building and to a height of 
2 m above the top of the building when it is 
located closer than 15 m; 

g) When the disposal of septic tank effluent is 
to a seepage pit, the seepage pit may be of 
any suitable shape with the least cross- 



sectional dimension of 0.90 m and not less 
than 1 .00 m in depth below the invert level of 
the inlet pipe. The pit may be lined with stone, 
brick or concrete blocks with dry open joints 
which should be backed with at least 15 mm 
of clean coarse aggregate. The lining above 
the inlet level should be finished with mortar. 
In the case of pits of large dimensions, the 
top portion may be narrowed to reduce the 
size of the RCC cover slabs. Where no lining 
is used, specially near trees, the entire pit 
should be filled with loose stones. A masonry 
ring may be constructed at the top of the pit 
to prevent damage by flooding of the pit by 
surface runoff. The inlet pipe may be taken 
down a depth of 0.90 m from the top as an 
anti-mosquito measure; and 
h) When the disposal of the septic tank effluent 
is to a dispersion trench, the dispersion trench 
shall be 0.50 m to 1.00 m deep and 0.30 m to 
1.00 m wide excavated to a slight gradient 
and shall be provided with 150 mm to 250 mm 
of washed gravel or crushed stones. Open 
jointed pipes placed inside the trench shall 
be made of unglazed earthenware clay or 
concrete and shall have a minimum internal 
diameter of 75 mm to 100 mm. Each 
dispersion trench shall not be longer than 
30 m and trenches shall not be placed closer 
than 1.8 m. 

12.16 Office-cum-Letter Box Room 

In the case of multi-storeyed multi-family dwelling 
apartments constructed by existing and proposed 
Cooperative Housing Societies or Apartment Owners 
Associations, limited companies and proposed 
societies, an office-cum-letter box room of dimension 
3.6 m x 3 m shall be provided on the ground floor. In 
case the number of flats is more than 20, the maximum 
size of the office-cum-letter box room shall be 20 m 2 . 

12.16.1 Business Buildings 

Provision shall be made for letter boxes on the entrance 
floor as per the requirements of the postal department. 

12.17 Meter Rooms 

For all buildings above 15 m in height and in special 
occupancies, like educational, assembly, institutional, 
industrial, storage, hazardous and mixed occupancies 
with any of the aforesaid occupancies having area more 
than 500 m 2 on each floor, provision shall be made for 
an independent and ventilated meter (service) room, 
as per requirements of electric (service) supply 
undertakings on the ground floor with direct access 
from outside for the purpose of termination of electric 



PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES AND GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS 



33 



supply from the licensee's service and alternative 
supply cables. The door/doors provided for the service 
room shall have fire resistance of not less than two 
hours. 

12.18 Staircase/Exit Requirements 

12.18.1 The minimum clear width, minimum tread 
width and maximum riser of staircases for buildings 
shall be as given in 12.18.1.1 to 12.18.1.3 {see also 
Part 4 'Fire and Life Safety'). 

12.18.1.1 Minimum width — The minimum width of 
staircase shall be as follows: 

a) Residential buildings (dwellings) 1.0 m 

NOTE — For row housing with 2 storeys, 
the minimum width shall be 0.75 m. 



b) 


Residential hotel buildings 


1.5 m 


c) 


Assembly buildings like 
auditoria, theatres and cinemas 


2.0 m 


d) 


Educational building 


1.5 m 


e) 


Institutional buildings 


2.0 m 


f) 


All other buildings 


1.5 m 



12.18.1.2 Minimum tread 

The minimum width of tread without nosing shall be 
250 mm for residential buildings. The minimum width 
of tread for other buildings shall be 300 mm. 

12.18.1.3 Maximum riser 

The maximum height of riser shall be 190 mm for 
residential buildings and 150 mm for other buildings 
and these shall be limited to 12 per flight. 

12.18.2 The minimum head-room in a passage under 
the landing of a staircase shall be 2.2 m. The minimum 
clear head-room in any staircase shall be 2.2 m. 

12.18.3 Exit Requirements 

All aspects of exit requirements for corridors, doors, 
stair cases, ramps, etc in respect of widths, travel 
distance shall be as per Part 4 Tire and Life Safety'. 

12.19 Roofs 

12.19.1 The roof of a building shall be so designed 
and constructed as to effectively drain water by means 
of sufficient rain-water pipes of adequate size, 
wherever required, so arranged, jointed and fixed as 
to ensure that the rain-water is carried away from the 
building without causing dampness in any part of the 
walls, roof or foundations of the building or an adjacent 
building. 

12.19.2 The Authority may require rain-water pipes 
to be connected to a drain or sewer to a covered channel 
formed beneath the public footpath to connect the rain- 



water pipe to the road gutter or in any other approved 
manner. 

12.19.3 Rain-water pipes shall be affixed to the 
outside of the external walls of the building or in 
recesses or chases cut or formed in such external walls 
or in such other manner as may be approved by the 
Authority. 

12.19.4 It is desirable to conserve rain water using 
suitable rain water harvesting techniques including by 
roof water collection. In this context, reference may 
be made to Part 9 'Plumbing Services, Section 1 Water 
Supply, Drainage and Sanitation (Including Solid 
Waste Management)'. 

12.20 Special Requirements of Low Income 
Housing 

Special requirements of low income housing shall be 
as given in Annex C. For detailed information in this 
regard, reference may be made to the accepted 
standards [3(1)]. 

12.21 Special Requirements for Physically Challenged 

Special requirements for planning of buildings and 
facilities keeping in view the needs of the physically 
challenged, applicable particularly to public buildings 
meant for their use, are given in Annex D. 

12.22 Special Requirements for Cluster Planning 
for Housing 

Special requirements for cluster planning for housing 
shall be as given in Annex E. 

12.23 Special Requirements for Low Income 
Habitat Planning in Rural Areas 

Special requirements for low income habitat planning 
in rural areas shall be as given in Annex F. 

12.24 Special Requirements for Development 
Planning in Hilly Areas 

Special requirements for development planning in hilly 
areas is given in Annex G. 

13 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 

For requirements regarding fire and life safety for 
different occupancies, reference shall be made to Part 4 
Tire and Life Safety'. 

14 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 

For requirements regarding structural design, reference 
shall be made to Part 6 * Structural Design' and for 
construction (including safety) reference shall be made 
to Part 7 'Constructional Practices and Safety'. 

15 LIGHTING AND VENTILATION 

15.1 For requirements regarding lighting and 



34 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



ventilation for different uses and occupancies, 
reference shall be made to Part 8 'Building Services, 
Section 1 Lighting and Ventilation'. 

15.1.1 Lighting and Ventilation of Rooms 

Rooms shall have, for the admission of light and air, 
one or more openings, such as windows and ventilators, 
opening directly to the external air or into an open 
VERANDAH. 

15.1.2 Notwithstanding the area of openings obtained 
through 15.1, the minimum aggregate area (see Notes 
1 to 3) of such openings, excluding doors inclusive of 
frames, shall be not less than: 

a) one-tenth of the floor area for dry hot climate; 

b) one-sixth of the floor area for wet hot 
climate; 

c) one-eighth of the floor area for intermediate 
climate; and 

d) one-twelfth of the floor area for cold climate, 

NOTES 

1 If a window is partly fixed, the openable area shall 
be counted. 

2 No portion of a room shall be assumed to be lighted, 
if it is more than 7.5 m away from the opening assumed 
for lighting that portion. 

3 The area of openings as given in (a) to (d) above 
shall be increased by 25 percent in the case of a kitchen 
[see 12.3.3(d)]. 

16 ELECTRICAL AND ALLIED INSTALLATIONS 
(INCLUDING LIGHTNING PROTECTION OF 
BUILDINGS) 

For requirements regarding electrical installations in 
buildings including lightning protection of buildings, 
reference shall be made to Part 8 'Building Services, 
Section 2 Electrical and Allied Installations'. 



17 AIR CONDITIONING, HEATING AND 
MECHANICAL VENTILATION 

For requirements regarding design, construction and 
installation of air conditioning, heating and mechanical 
ventilation systems, reference shall be made to Part 8 
'Building Services, Section 3 Air Conditioning, 
Heating and Mechanical Ventilation'. 

18 ACOUSTICS, SOUND INSULATION AND 
NOISE CONTROL 

For requirements regarding the desired noise levels and 
sound insulation in different occupancies, reference 
shall be made to Part 8 'Building Services, Section 4 
Acoustics, Sound Insulation and Noise Control' . 

19 HEAT INSULATION 

For calculation of solar radiation on buildings and 
recommended limits of thermal transmittance of roofs 
and walls for different parts of the country and heat 
transmission losses due to different constructions, 
reference may be made to good practice [3(2)]. 



20 INSTALLATION 
ESCALATORS 



OF LIFTS AND 



Provision for lifts shall be made for buildings 15 m or 
more in height. For requirements regarding planning, 
designing and installation, etc of lifts and escalators, 
reference shall be made to Part 8 'Building Services, 
Section 5 Installation of Lifts and Escalators'. 

21 PLUMBING SERVICES AND SOLID WASTE 
MANAGEMENT 

For requirements regarding water supply, drainage and 
sanitation (including solid waste management) and gas 
supply, reference shall be made to Part 9 'Plumbing 
Services'. 



PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES AND GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS 



35 



ANNEX A 
(Clause 9.5.1) 

CIVIL AVIATION REQUIREMENTS FOR CONSTRUCTION IN THE 
VICINITY OF AN AERODROME 



A-0 GENERAL 

A-0.1 For the purpose of this Annex, the following 
definitions shall apply. 

A -0.1.1 Aerodrome Reference Point (ARP) — This is 
a designated point, which is established in the 
horizontal plane at or near the geometric centre of the 
landing area. 

A-0.1.2 Approach Funnel — See Fig. 8. 

A-0. 1.3 Elevation or Reduced Level — The vertical 
distance of a point or a level, on or affixed to the surface 
of the earth, measured from the mean sea level. 

A-0.1.4 Transitional Area — An area which is below 
a specified surface sloping upwards and outwards from 
the edge of the approach funnel and from a line 
originating at the end of the inner edge of each 
approach area, drawn parallel to the runway centre line 
in the direction of landing (see Fig. 8). 

A-0.1.5 Runway Strip — See Fig. 8. 
A-l PROHIBITED AREA 

A-l.l No building or structure shall be constructed 
or erected, or no tree shall be planted, on any land 
within the limits specified in A-1.2 and A-1.3 in respect 
of the aerodromes listed in A-3 and in respect of the 
aerodrome at Thiruvananthapuram. 

A-1.2 For the Aerodromes (see A-3) 

These requirements shall be applicable for the land 
enclosed in approach funnels of the runway with a 
maximum distance of 360 m measured from each 
runway and along the extended centre line of the 
runway. For the purpose of this clause, the requirements 
of approach funnel and an instrument runway shall be 
as given in A-l.2.1 to A-l.2.3. 

A-l.2.1 Approach funnel in the case of an instrument 
runway means the area in the shape of an isosceles 
trapezium having the longer parallel side 4 800 m long 
(2 400 m on either side of the extended centre line of 
the runway) and smaller parallel side 300 m long 
(150 m on either side of the extended centre line of 
the runway) where the smaller and longer parallel sides 
are placed at a distance of 60 m and 15 060 m, 
respectively, from the end of the runway and at right 
angles to the extended centre line. 

A-l.2.2 In the case of a non-instrument runway, the 



approach funnel means the area in the shape of an 
isosceles trapezium having the longer parallel side 
1 800 m long (900 m on either side of the extended 
centre line of the runway) and smaller parallel side 
180 m long (90 m on either side of the extended centre 
line of the runway), where the smaller and longer 
parallel sides are placed at a distance of 60 m and 
6 540 m, respectively, from the end of the runway and 
at right angles to the extended centre line. Thereafter, 
the trapezium is followed by a contiguous rectangular 
area of that width for the remainder of the length up to 
a distance of 15 060 m from the end of the runway. 

A-l.2.3 An instrument runway is a runway served by 
visual and non-visual aid or aids providing at least 
directional guidance adequate for a straight in approach 
and intended for the operation of aircraft using 
instrument approach procedures. 

A-1.3 For the Aerodrome at Thiruvananthapuram 

These requirements shall be applicable for the land 
enclosed in approach funnels of all runways with a 
maximum distance of 304.80 m, measured from each 
runway and along extended centre line of the runway, 
and the land enclosed in a belt of 30.48 m width outside 
the operational boundary of the aerodrome. For the 
purpose of this clause, the requirements of approach 
funnel and operational boundary shall be as given 
in A-l.3,1 and A-l.3.2. 

A-l.3.1 Approach funnel means the area in the shape 
of an isosceles trapezium having the longer parallel side 
of length 4 724.4 m (2 362.2 m on either side of the 
extended centre line of the runway) and smaller parallel 
side of 152.4 m (76.2 m on either side of the extended 
centre line of the runway) where the smaller and longer 
parallel sides are placed at a distance of 60.9 m and 
15 301 m, respectively, from the end of the runway and 
at right angles to the extended centre line. 

A-l.3.2 Operational boundary means an area enclosed 
between parallel lines at a distance of 152.4 m on either 
side of the centre line of the runways or 30.4 m from 
the boundary fencing of the aerodrome, whichever is 
greater. 

A-2 HEIGHT RESTRICTION 

A-2.1 For the Aerodromes (see A-3) 

No building or structure higher than the height 
specified in Tables 5 and 6 shall be constructed or 



36 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 






< 

r 
O 
^o 

Z 

n 
o 
z 

r 

a 
r 
w 



Z 

w 

r 
a 
a 

I 



o 

a 



S 

i 



TRANSITIONAL 




RUNWA^ 


I 


BASIC STRIP 






oNER^ce^ , 






— 48 


1 


tt - , **»«* 


SURFACE — ^ 


V 


_1 











"^ 


■A 




315 






















1 200 APPROACH CHANNEL 


00 


1200 






\ 








r 




1 








\> 315 










j. ^^ 




1 






2250 








m 3000 








3000 


















' 








15000 






^_ 







TRANSITIONAL 
SURFACE - 



8A INSTRUMENT RUNWAY 



BASIC STRiP RUNWAY 



SO*?** 



DIVERGENCE t0% 



750 




3 



J NON-INSTRUMENT RUNWAY 

All dimensions in metres. 

Fig. 8 Runway 



erected, or no tree which is likely to grow or ordinarily 
grows higher than the height specified in the Tables 5 
and 6, shall be planted, on any land within a radius of 
20 km from ARP of the aerodromes listed in A-3, 
excluding the land covered by A-1.2. 

Table 5 Height Restriction with Respect to 
Approach Funnels 

(Clauses A-2.1 and A-2.1.1) 



SI 
No. 



(1) 



Area 



(2) 



Maximum Permissible 

Height Above the 

Elevation of the Nearest 

Runway End 

(3) 



i) More than 360 m but not 
exceeding 510 m 

ii) More than 510 m but not 
exceeding 660 m 

iii) More than 660 m but not 
exceeding 810 m 

iv) More than 810 m but not 
exceeding 960 m 

v) More than 960 m but not 
exceeding 1 1 10 m 

vi) More than 1 110 m but not 
exceeding 1 260 m 

vii) More than 1 260 m but not 
exceeding 1 410 m 

viii) More than 1 410 m but not 
exceeding 1 560 m 

ix) More than 1 560 m 



6 
9 
12 

15 
18 
.21 
24 
27 
30 



A-2.1.1 Table 5 gives the height restriction with 
respect to approach funnels and shall be applicable for 
the land enclosed in the approach funnels of all runways 
where distances are measured from each end of the 
runway, along extended centre line of the runway. 

A-2.1.2 Table 6 gives height restriction with respect 
to transitional area and shall be applicable for the land 
enclosed in the transitional area of all runways at an 
aerodrome listed in A-3 where distances are measured 
from the associated runway strip and the edge of the 
associated approach funnels, forming the inner 
boundary of the transitional area and along a line at 
right angles to the centre line of the runway. 

A-2.2 For the Aerodrome at Thiruvananthapuram 

No building or structure higher than the height 
specified in Table 7 shall be constructed or erected, or 
no tree which is likely to grow or ordinarily grows 
higher than the height specified in Table 7, shall be 
planted, on any level within a radius of 20 km from 
ARP of the aerodrome at Thiruvananthapuram, 
excluding the land covered by A-1.3. 



Table 6 Height Restriction with Respect to 
Transitional Area 

(Clauses A-2.1 and A-2.1.2) 



SI 


Distance from the Inner 


Maximum Permissible 


No. 


Boundary of the Transitional 


Height Above the 




Area Specified Above 


Elevation of the ARP 


(1) 


(2) 


(3) 



i) Up to a distance of 21 m 

ii) More than 21 m but not 
exceeding 42 m 

iii) More than 42 m but not 
exceeding 63 m 

iv) More than 63 m but not 
exceeding 84 m 

v) More than 84 m but not 
exceeding 105 m 

vi) More than 105 m but not 
exceeding 126 m 

vii) More than 1 26 m but not 
exceeding 147 m 

viii) More than 147 m but not 
exceeding 168 m 

ix) More than 168 m but not 

exceeding 189 m 
x) More than 189 m but not 

exceeding 210m 

xi) Morethan210m 



3 
6 
9 
12 
15 
18 
21 
24 
27 
30 



Table 7 Height Restriction 

(Clause A-2.2) 



SI 
No. 

(1) 



Area 



(2) 



Maximum 

Permissible Height 

Above Ground 

Level 

(3) 



i) The area lying between the coastline 3 

and the Chakai canal other than 
specified in A-13 

ii) The area lying in a belt of 457.2 m 6 

width between the Eastern Bank of 
the Chakai canal and a line running 
parallel to this canal for the entire 
length 

iii) A parallel belt of 762 m width 15.2 

running East of area (ii) above 

iv) A parallel belt of 609.6 m width 24.3 

running East of area (iii) above 

v) Rest of the area extending up to 20 30.4 

km from ARP 



A-3 AERODROMES 

A-3.1 A list of aerodromes indicating runway 
directions, runway elevations and ARP elevations is 
given in Table 8. 



38 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



Table 8 Runway Directions, Runway End 




Table 8 


— Continued 




Elevations and ARP Elevations for Aerodromes 


(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 




(Clause A-3.1) 












17. 


Chennai 


10.5 


07 
25 


12 


SI Aerodrome 


ARP 


Runway 


Runway End 


15.5 


No. 


Elevation 

m 


No. 


Elevation 








12 
30 


9 

13 


(1) (2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


18. 


Coimbatore 


396 


05 

23 


402 
391 


1. Ahmadabad 


55 


14 

32 


54 
56 


19. 


Cooch-Behar 


41.5 


04 
22 


41.5 
41.5 






05 


54 


20. 


Delhi (Palam) 


227 


10 


219 






23 


56 








28 


236.5 


2. Agartala 


14 


05 

23 


12 
14.5 








09 

27 


220 
229 






18 


13.5 


21. 


Delhi (Safdarjung) 


212 


12 


215 






36 


13.5 








30 


212 


3. Akola 


305 


10 

28 


303 
303 


22. 


Dibrugarh 


109.5 


05 

23 


109 
109.5 


4. Amritsar 


229 


07 

25 


229 
230 


23. 


Gauhati 


48 


03 
21 


49 

48 






16 


230 


24. 


Gaya 


110 


10 


108 






34 


229 








28 


115.5 


5. Aurangabad 


581 


09 

27 


582 
573.5 








01 
19 


109 
111 


6. Belgaum 


758 


08 
26 


755 
747 


25. 


Hyderabad 


531 


09 

27 


530 
522 


7. Balurghat 


24 


09 

27 


24 

23 








14 

32 


531 
528 


8. Bangalore 


888 


09R 

27L 


875 
881 


26. 


Indore 


561 


07 

25 


563.5 
559.5 






09L 


876 


27. 


Jabalpur 


495 


06 


480 






27R 


882.5 








24 


494.5 


9. Vadodara 


37 


04 

22 
09 

27 


36.5 

37.5 
36.5 
38.7 


28. 


Jaipur 


385 


15 
33 
09 

27 


389.5 
384.4 
383.7 
381.3 


10. Behala 


2.6 


18 
36 


3.5 
3.5 


29. 


Jhansi 


236 


15 

33 


236.5 
236.5 


1 1 . Bhavnagar 


5.4 


07 

25 


11 
6 


30. 


Jharsuguda 


228 


06 
24 


228.20 
229.14 


12. Bhopal 


523 


06 
24 


522.5 
521 


31. 


Kailashadar 


27.5 


03 
21 


28.5 
27.5 






12 


521.5 


32. 


Kamalpur 


39 


01 


45 






30 


523 








19 


41 


13. Bhubaneshwar 


44.5 


05 

23 


33 
41.5 


33. 


Kandla 


29 


05 

23 


29 
29 






14 


38 


34. 


Kanpur 


m 


10 


125 






32 


37 








28 


124.5 


14. Bhuj 


78.5 


05 
23 
11 
29 


81.5 
74.5 
79 

77.5 


35. 


Keshod 


49.5 


05 
23 
18 
36 


50.5 
50.5 
50 

52 


15. Bilaspur 


274 


06 

24 


270 

282 


36. 


Khajuraho 


217.4 


01 
19 


222 
210 






17 


276 


37. 


Kolhapur 


607 


07 


609.6 






35 


269 








25 


605.6 


16. Chakulia 


129 


08 
26 
17 
38 


135 
132 
130 

27 


38. 


Kolkata 


5.3 


OIL 
19R 
01R 
19L 


4.8 
5 
5 
4.5 



PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES AND GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS 



39 



Table 8 — Continued 




Table 8 — Concluded 




(1) (2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(1) (2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


39. Kota 


273 


08 


272 


57. Pantnagar 


233 


10 


234 






26 


272 






28 


234 


40. Kulu 


1084 


16 


1089 


58. Porbandar 


5 


09 


6.7 






34 


1088 






27 


4.5 


41. Khowai 


29 


18 


26 


59. Port Blair 


6 


04 


3.66 






36 


27 






22 


17.8 


42. Lalitpur 


367 


10 


368.5 


60. Raipur 


313.6 


06 


309 






28 


363 






24 


316 


43. Lilabari 


100.2 


04 


101.5 


61. Rajahmundry 


45 


05 


34 






22 


101.5 






23 


46 


44. Lucknow 


122 


09 


122 


62. Rajkot 


134 


05 


133 






27 


122 






23 


128.5 






01 


122 






14 


130 






19 


123 






32 


133.5 


45. Madurai 


136.30 


09 


140 


63. Ranchi 


646 


13 


654 






27 


130 






31 


632.5 






13 


138.5 


64. Satna 


319 


11 


316.5 






31 


136 






29 


316 


46. Malda 


24 


11 


24 


65. Sholapur 


418 


15 


478.5 






29 


23.5 






33 


478 


47. Mangalore 


102 


09 


97 


66. Silchar 


102 


06 


98.5 






27 


89 






24 


107.5 


48. Mumbai (Juhu) 


3 


08 


5 


67. Tanjore 


76 


14 


77 






26 


2.5 






32 


70.5 






04 


2.5 






07 


76.5 






22 


2.5 






25 


74.5 






16 


2.5 


68. Tiruchchirappalli 


85 


15 


84 






34 


2.5 






33 


85 


49. Mumbai (Santacruz) 


8 


09 


4 






09 


88 






27 


10 






27 


84 






14 


11 


69. Tirupati 


103 


08 


106.4 






32 


7.5 






26 


102 


50. Muzaffarpur 


53 


11 


53 


70. Tulihal (Imphal) 


774.5 


04 


773.5 






29 


53 






22 


775 


5 1 . Mysore 


715.5 


05 


720 


71. Udaipur 


509 


08 


511.5 






23 


710 






26 


508 






09 


717.5 


72. Varanasi 


80 


09 


80 






27 


708 






27 


80 


52. Nagpur 


308.5 


09 


309 


73. Vijayawada 


21 


08 


25 






27 


301 






26 


21.5 






14 


315 


74. Vishakhapatnam 


3 


05 


4 






32 


307 






23 


2 


53. Panagarh 


73 


15 


71 






09 


4 






33 


73 






27 


2 


54. Panna 


425 


17 


435.80 






18 


4 






35 


410.35 






36 


4 


55. Passighat 


155.5 


17 


156.5 


75. Warangal 


285 


15 


290 






35 


153 






33 


276.5 


56. Patna 


51 


07 


52 






09 


289 






25 


52 






27 


280.5 



40 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



ANNEX B 

(Clause 10.1) 

OFF-STREET PARKING SPACES 

The off-street parking spaces shall be as given below: 



SI 


Occupancy 




One Car Parking Space 


for Every 




No. 


Population 

less than 

50 000 


Population 
50 000 to 
200 000 


Population 
Between 

200 000 to 
1 000 000 


Population 

Between 

1000 000 to 

5 000 000 


Population 

Above 
5 000 000 


(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


(7) 


i) 


Residential 

a) Multi-family 


— 


— 


a) 2 tenements 
having built- 
up area 101 
to 200 m 2 

b) 1 tenement of 
200 m 2 built- 
up area 


1 tenement of 
100 m 2 built- 
up area 


1 tenement of 
75 m 2 built-up 
area 




b) Lodging 

establishments, 
tourist homes and 
hotels, with lodging 
accommodation 


12 guest 
rooms 


8 guest 
rooms 


4 guest 
rooms 


3 guest 
rooms 


2 guest 
rooms 


ii) 


Educational 
(see Note 1) 


— 


— 


2 

70 m area or 
fraction 


50 m area or 
fraction 


35 m area or 
fraction 



iii) Institutional (Medical) 



iv) a) Assembly halls, 
cinema theatres 

b) Restaurants 

c) Marriage halls, 
community halls 

d) Stadia and 
exhibition centre 

v) a) Business offices 
and firms for 
private business 

b) Public or semi- 
public offices 



20 beds 
(Private) 

30 beds 
(Public) 

120 seats 
60 seats 



thereof of the 
administrative 
office area and 
public service 
areas 

15 beds 10 beds (Private) 
(Private) 

25 beds 15 beds (Public) 
(Public) 

80 seats 25 seats 



40 seats 



600 m 2 plot 400 m 2 plot 



area 
240 seats 

2 

300 m area 
or fraction 
thereof 

500 m area 
or fraction 
thereof 



area 
160 seats 

2 

200 m area 
or fraction 
thereof 

2 

300 m area 
or fraction 
thereof 



20 seats 

200 m 2 plot 
area 

50 seats 

2 

100 m area 
or fraction 
thereof 

200 m area 
or fraction 
thereof 



thereof of the 
administrative 
office area and 
public service 
areas 

5 beds 
(Private) 

10 beds 
(Public) 

15 seats 



10 seats 

50 m plot 
area 

30 seats 



50 m area 
or fraction 
thereof 

100 m area 
or fraction 
thereof 



thereof of the 
administrative 
office area and 
public service 
areas 

2 beds 
(Private) 

5 beds 
(Public) 

10 seats 

5 seats 

25 m 2 plot 
area 

20 seats 

2 

25 m area 
or fraction 
thereof 

50 m area 
or fraction 

thereof 



PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES AND GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS 



41 



(1) 



(2) 



(3) 



(4) 



(5) 



(6) 



(7) 



vi) Mercantile 
(see Note 2) 

vii) Industrial 



viii) Storage 



300 m area 
or fraction 
thereof 

400 m 2 area 
or fraction 
thereof 



200 m area 
or fraction 
thereof 

300 m 2 area 
or fraction 
thereof 



100 m area 
or fraction 
thereof 

200 m 2 area 
or fraction 
thereof 

500 m 2 floor 
area or part 
thereof 



50 m area 
or fraction 
thereof 

100 m 2 area 
or fraction 
thereof 

250 m 2 area 
or fraction 
thereof 



25 m area 
or fraction 
thereof 

50 m 2 area 
or fraction 
thereof 

125 m 2 area 
or fraction 
thereof 



NOTES 

1 In the case of auditoria for educational buildings, parking space shall be provided as per SI No. (iv) 

2 For plots up to 50 m 2 , as in the case of shops, parking spaces need not be insisted upon. 

3 For other institutions, transport/communication centre, parking space requirement shall be assessed based on the proposed building. 



ANNEX C 

(Clause 12.20) 

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR LOW INCOME HOUSING IN URBAN AREAS 



C-l GENERAL 

C-l.l These guidelines cover the planning and 
general building requirements of low income housing 
for houses having a maximum plinth area of 40 m 2 
including future expansion. The requirement 
regarding layout planning of low income housing 
colonies are applicable to public and private agencies/ 
government bodies. The requirements on design and 
construction of buildings for low income housing in 
approved layouts are applicable to all private and 
public agencies. 

C-1.2 In these planning standards, the general master 
plan requirement for community open spaces estimated 
at 0.3 ha for thousand persons is provided; road areas 
are worked out between 10 and 20 percent of the site 
area; one nursery school of 0.1 ha is provided for a 
population of 1 500 and shopping centres at 4 shops 
per thousand population are also covered. 

C-1.3 It is emphasized that this type of development 
should apply to clusters of 400 dwelling units, so 
distributed in the development under consideration as 
to maintain the overall densities of the master plan for 
the area. 

C-2 PLANNING 

C-2.1 Type of Development 

The type of development for low income housing shall 
be plotted developments as row housing/flatted 
development as row housing or group housing on 
cluster pattern. 



C-2.2 Layout Pattern 

C-2.2.1 In the land to be developed, at least 75 percent 
of the plots may be of the size less than or up to 60 m 2 
per dwelling unit in metropolitan towns and 100 m 2 in 
other towns and hill areas. Remaining 25 percent of 
the plots may be more than 60 m 2 , however, no plot 
shall be more than 200 m 2 . In case of group housing or 
flatted development at least 75 percent units should 
have a plinth area (excluding external circulation such 
as stairs, lifts, lobbies, etc) up to or not exceeding 40 m 2 
including future expansion. 

C-2.2.2 The mix of plot of different sizes should have 
a wide range to accommodate the need of lower income 
group. The project may include more than one site 
provided they are in the same neighbourhood. 

C-2.2.3 The layout should generally conform to the 
following land use: 

Land Under Each Use 



Saleable 

i) Residential 



General Hill Area 

50 percent, 35 percent 
Min 

ii) Work places, schools, 20 percent, 15 percent 
institutions, shops, Max 

community places, etc 

Non-Saleable 

Roads, pedestrian paths, 30 percent, 50 percent 
drains, public and semi- Max 

public open spaces 

NOTES 

1 Any neighbourhood development should have provision for 



42 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



basic civic and community facilities, however, where such 
facilities are available in proximity the same could be considered 
and, in that case, the area under residential use could be increased 
correspondingly. 

2 If land required under statutory provisions of master plan/ 
development plan is proportionately higher but serves larger 
city needs, re-adjustment of the recommended land use pattern 
can be considered. Such provisions should, however, be 
carefully reviewed by the planning authorities to keep them to 
the barest minimum levels. 

C-2.3 Plot Area 

C-2.3.1 Plot Size 

The minimum plot size with ground coverage not 
exceeding 75 percent, shall not be less than 40 m 2 in 
small and medium town and not less than 30 m 2 in 
metropolitan cities. Plot sizes below 30 m 2 but not less 
than 15 m 2 may be permitted in case of cluster planning , 
however, in such cases the ground coverage and FSI 
shall be 100 percent and 2 percent respectively (see 
also Annex E for Special requirements for cluster 
planning for housing). 

NOTES 

1 In exceptional cases in metropolitan cities with population 
more than 1 million the size of plots may be brought down to 
25 m 2 in cases of low income housing colonies located in 
congested areas as decided by the Authority. In mega-cities it 
may be further reduced to 15 m 2 . In such cases where plot size 
is below 25 m 2 , only cluster planning or group housing may 
be adopted. 

2 A minimum of 25 percent of the plot size shall be left open 
without adversely affecting light and ventilation for habitable 
spaces and toilet. It shall not be made mandatory to leave set 
back on any side. 

C-2.3.2 Minimum Frontage 

The minimum frontage of the plot shall be 3.6 m in 
width. 

C-2.4 Density 

The density norms for plotted development and mixed 
development shall be as follows: 



Type of Development 

a) Plotted development 

b) Mixed development 
i) Small towns 



Range of Densities 

(Gross) 

65-120 plots per hectare 



75-100 dwelling units 
per hectare 

ii) Cities 100-125 dwelling units 

per hectare 

iii) Metropolitan Cities 125-150 dwelling units 
per hectare 

C-2.4.2 In case of developments with per dwelling 
unit covered area of 15 m 2 maximum densities of 500 
dwelling units per hectare shall be permissible. 



C-2.5 Height of Building 

The height of building shall not exceed 15 m. 

NOTES 

1 For buildings up to the height of 15 m, there is no need to 
provide lifts. 

2 Housing for the low-income group shall preferably be up to 
a maximum of two storeys. 

3 Buildings for housing beyond 15 m in height should be 
resorted to in exceptional circumstances and it should be 
governed by provisions laid down in this Code. 

C-2.6 Cluster Planning 

For size of open cluster and open space, set backs, 
vehicular access and pedestrian paths in cluster 
planning, the provisions given in Annex E shall apply. 

C-3 GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS 

C-3.1 General 

The requirements of parts of buildings shall be as given 
in C-3.2 to C-3.9. 

C-3.2 Plinth 

The minimum height of plinth shall be regulated on 
the basis of environmental and topographical condition 
and higher plinth height may be required in areas prone 
to flooding. 

C-3.3 Size of Room 

C -3.3.1 Habitable Room 

Every dwelling unit to be provided should have at least 
two habitable rooms. Even if one room house is 
provided initially it should be capable of adding a new 
second room in future. However, in case single room 
tenements are required to be provided where future 
additions are not possible, the carpet area of 
multipurpose single room should be at least 12.5 m 2 . 
Such one room dwelling units with 12.5 m 2 carpet area 
of habitable space is permitted only in case of on site 
rehabilitation of slum dwellers. In a house of two 
rooms, first room shall not be less than 9.0 m 2 with 
minimum width of 2.5 m and second room shall not 
be less than 6.5 m 2 with^a minimum width of 2.1 m 
provided the total area of both the rooms is not less 
than 15.5 m 2 . In incremental housing the bigger room 
shall always be the first room. 

C-3.3.1.1 To facilitate incremental housing in case of 
flatted development or otherwise, habitable space at 
mezzanine level may be permitted. The minimum size 
of such a mezzanine floor should not be lesser than 
6.5 m 2 and such a floor should occupy not more than 
50 percent of the room area of which it is a part. Such 
a mezzanine floor should have appropriate openings 
to facilitate light and ventilation as per C-3.6. Minimum 



PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES AND GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS 



43 



clear height below and above the mezzanine floor 
should be 2.4 m and 2.1 m respectively. 

As far as possible mezzanine floor should have direct 
ventilation from the external face of the building. 
Where this is not possible ventilation through main 
room may be allowed provided total area of openings 
in the main room is provided taking into consideration 
area of mezzanine floor. 

Such mezzanine floor may be accessible through the 
main room by a ladder, whose minimum angle with 
vertical plane should be 22 1 /2°. Height of the riser 
should be less than 250 mm. 

C-3.3.2 Water Closet/Bathroom 

1) The size of independent water-closet shall be 
0.90 m 2 with minimum width of 0.9 m; 

2) The size of independent bathroom shall be 
1.20 m 2 with a minimum width of 1.0 m; and 

3) The size of combined bathroom and water- 
closet shall be 1.80 m 2 with minimum width 
of 1.0 m. 

C-3.3.3 Kitchen 

The size of a cooking alcove serving as cooking space 
shall not be less than 2.4 m 2 with a minimum width of 
1.2 m. The size of individual kitchen provided in a 
two-roomed house shall not be less than 3.3 m 2 with a 
minimum width of 1.5 m. 

C-3.3.4 Balcony 

The minimum width of individual balcony, where 
provided, shall be 0.9 m and shall not be more than 
1.2 m and it shall not project beyond the plot line and 
on roads or pathway. 

C-3.4 Basement 

No basement floor shall be allowed. 
C-3.5 Minimum Height 

The minimum height of rooms/spaces shall be as 
follows: 



a) 


Habitable room 


2.6 m 


b) 


Kitchen 


2.6 m 


c) 


Bath/water-closet 


2.1 m 


d) 


Corridor 


2.1 m 



C-3.5.1 In the case of sloping roofs, the average height 
of roof for habitable rooms shall be 2.6 m and the 
minimum height at eaves shall be 2.0 m. 

C-3.6 Lighting and Ventilation 

The openings through windows, ventilators and other 
openings for lighting and ventilation shall be in 
accordance with 15.1.2. 



NOTE — The windows and other openings shall abut onto 
open spaces either through areas left open within the plot or 
the front, side and rear spaces provided in the layouts which 
shall be deemed to be sufficient for light and ventilation 
purposes. Wherever ventilation/lighting is provided by means 
of JAU or grill of any material, total area of openings shall 
calculated excluding solid portion of the JAU or grill. 

C-3.7 Stairs 

The following criteria shall be adopted for internal 
individual staircase: 



a) Minimum Width 




1)2 storeyed — straight 


0.60 m 


2) 2 storeyed — winding 


0.75 m 


3) 3 or more storeyed — 


0.75 m 


straight 




4) 3 or more storeyed — 


0.90 m 


winding 




b) Riser 


200 mm, Max 


c) Tread 




1) 2 storeyed 


225 mm, Min 




(see Note) 


2) 3 storeyed or more 


250 mm, Min 


d) Head Room — The minimum 





clear head room shall be 2.1 m. 

NOTE — This could be reduced to 200 mm as the clear tread 
between perpends, with possibility of open riser as well as 
nosing and inclined riser to have an effective tread of 225 mm. 

C-3.8 Circulation Area 

The circulation area on any floor including staircase, 
shall not exceed 8 m 2 /dwelling unit. 

C-3.9 Water Seal Latrine 

No building plan shall be approved and no building 
shall be deemed to have been completed and fit for 
human occupation unless provision is made for water 
seal latrine. No dry latrine shall be allowed. Water seal 
latrines can also be provide on the basis of community 
toilets or shared toilets as per the recommendation 
given in good practice [3(3)]. 

Where leaching pits are used, it should be constructed 
within the premises of the households as it would be 
economical as well as facilitate their cleaning. However, 
where, due to space constraint, construction of pits 
within the premises may not be possible, pits may be 
constructed in places like lanes, streets and roads. 

In case the pit is located under the road, street or foot 
path, the inverted level of the pipe connecting the 
latrine pan with the pit shall be at least 1.1 m below 
ground level or below the bottom of the water main 
existing within a distance of 3 m from the pits 
whichever is more. Construction of such pits may be 
in accordance with good practice [3(4)]. 



44 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



The water seal latrine should be properly maintained 
and kept in sanitary condition by the owner or the 
occupier. The contents of the septic tanks, soak pits, 
leach pits, etc should be periodically emptied. 

The leach pits should be cleaned only after 2 years of 
their being put out of service after they were full. 

C-4 ROADS AND PATHWAYS 

The area under roads and pathways in such housing 
projects should normally not exceed 20 percent of the 
total land area of the project. 

Access to the dwelling units, particularly where 
motorized vehicles are not normally expected should 
be by means of paved footpaths with a right of way 
of 6 m and a pathway of 2 m only. The right of way 
should be adequate to allow for the plying of 
emergency vehicles and also for road side drains and 
plantation. 

Where pedestrian pathways are not meant for 
motorable access to the minimum, right of way of such 
pedestrian pathway shall be 3 m. Where houses are 
accessible from one side only pathway can be 2 m wide. 
The maximum length of such pathways should not be 
more than 60 m. 

C-5 OTHER REQUIREMENTS 

C-5.1 Requirements of fire safety, structural design, 
building services and plumbing services shall be as 
specified in the Code. 

C-5. 2 One water tap per dwelling unit may be 
provided, where adequate drinking water supply is 
available. If supply is inadequate, public hydrants shall 



be provided. In the absence of piped water supply, hand 
pumps may be used for provision of water supply. 

C-5.3 Recognising the need for informal use of space 
for shopping and informal occupation like road side 
repairs, pan shops, etc, it is suggested that about Va of 
the total shopping area in a layout should be reserved 
for such informal uses to cater to the needs of low 
income families. 

C-5.4 The infrastructural services shall be provided 
before the plots are handed over to individual owners. 

C-6 SITE AND SERVICES SCHEMES 

C-6.1 The developed plot sizes shall be as per C-2.3.1 . 
Services would have to be laid by the Agency 
concerned as per the provisions of the Code. In so far 
as roads and pathways are concerned, they could also 
be in line with C-4. 

C-6.2 Site and services schemes shall provide for the 
following. 



a) 



b) 
c) 

d) 



Complete infrastructural needs for a 

permanent housing, on the periphery of 

individual plot or a group/cluster plots; 

A service sanitary core in the plot; 

A skeletal structure of columns and roof or a 

developed plinth; and 

Permission to allow temporary construction 

on the plot. 



While provisions in C-6.2(a) and C-6.2(d) are 
essential in site and services projects provisions, 
recommendations in C-6.2(b) and C-6.2(c) are 
additional provisions depending upon affordability. 



ANNEX D 

{Clause 12.21) 

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANNING OF PUBLIC BUILDINGS 
MEANT FOR USE OF PHYSICALLY CHALLENGED 



D-l GENERAL 

D-l.l These requirements apply to all buildings and 
facilities used by the public. These apply to temporary 
or emergency conditions as well as permanent 
conditions. It does not apply to private residences. 

These requirements are concerned with non- 
ambulatory disabilities, semi-ambulatory disabilities, 
sight disabilities, hearing disabilities, disabilities of 
inco-ordination, aging, allergies, heart and lung 
diseases, epilepsy, haemophilia, incontinence and 
enterostomy. 

It is intended to make all buildings and facilities used by 



the public accessible to, and functional for the physically 
challenged through and within^heir doors, without loss 
of function, space or facility where the general public is 
concerned. It supplements the general requirements of 
the Code, and reflects greater concern for safety of life 
and limb. In cases of practical difficulty, unnecessary 
hardship, or extreme differences, the Authority may grant 
exceptions from the literal requirements of this Annex or 
permit the use of other methods or materials, but only 
when it is clearly evident that equivalent facilities and 
protection are thereby secured. 

D-1.2 For the purpose of this Annex, the following 
definitions shall apply. 



PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES AND GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS 



45 



D-l.2.1 Aging 

Those manifestations of the aging processes that 
significantly reduce mobility, flexibility, co-ordination, 
and perceptiveness but are not accounted for in the 
categories mentioned in D-l.2.3.1 to D-l.2.3.9. 

D-l.2.2 Appropriate Number 

The number of a specific item that would be necessary, 
in accordance with the purpose and function of building 
or facility, to accommodate individuals with specific 
disabilities in proportion to the anticipated number or 
individuals with disabilities who would use a particular 
building or facility. 

D-l.2.3 Disabilities 

D-l.2.3.1 Non-ambulatory disabilities 

Impairments that, regardless of cause or manifestation, 
for all practical purposes, confine individuals to 
wheelchairs. 

D-l.2.3.2 Semi-ambulatory disabilities 

Impairments that cause individuals to walk with 
difficulty or insecurity. Individuals using braces or 
crutches, amputees, arthritis, spastics and those with 
pulmonary and cardiac ills may be semi-ambulatory. 

D-l.2.3.3 Sight disabilities 

Total blindness or impairments affecting sight to the 
extent that the individual functioning in public areas 
is insecure or exposed to danger. 

D-l.2.3.4 Hearing disabilities 

Deafness or hearing handicaps that might make an 
individual insecure in public areas because he is unable 
to communicate or hear warning signals. 

D-l.2.3.5 Disabilities of inco-ordination 

Faulty co-ordination or palsy from brain spinal, or 
peripheral nerve injury. 

D-l.2.3.6 People with allergies 

People with allergies may be sensitive to dust, mildew, 
pollen, animal hair, formalin, turpentine, etc. Some are 
sensitive to contact with substances and materials, such 
as, nickel, chromium and rubber. 

D-l.2.3.7 People with heart and lung diseases 

People with heart and lung diseases may only be able 
to walk short distances and may be unable to climb 
stairs. The requirements of these people are similar to 
those with impaired mobility. 

D-l.2.3.8 People with epilepsy, haemophilia, etc 

The requirements of those with epilepsy, heamophilia, 
etc, are related primarily to the design of buildings and 
the need to minimize the risk of injury caused by falling 
or encountering obstacles. 



D-l.2.3.9 People with incontinence, enterostomy 
operations, etc 

The requirements of people with incontinence, 
enterostomy operations, etc (colostomies, ileostomies 
and urostomies) are mainly related to bathroom 
provision. In certain circumstances, for example, in 
public water-closet compartments, it may be desirable 
to provide a special sink for emptying urine bags. 

D-l.2.4 Fixed Turning Radius, Front Structure to Rear 
Structure 

The turning radius of a wheelchair, left front-foot 
platform to right rear wheel, or right front-foot platform 
to left rear wheel, when pivoting on a spot. 

D-l.2.5 Fixed Turning Radius Wheel 

The tracking of the caster wheels and large wheels of 
a wheelchair when pivoting on a spot. 

D- 1.2.6 Involved (Involvement) 

A portion or portions of the human anatomy or 
physiology, or both, that have a loss or impairment of 
normal function as a result of genesis, trauma, disease, 
inflammation or degeneration. 

D-l.2.7 Ramps, Ramps with Gradients 

Because the term 'ramp' has a multitude of meanings 
and uses, its use in this text is clearly defined as ramps 
with gradients (gradual slope joining two level 
surfaces) that deviate from what would otherwise be 
considered the normal level. An exterior ramp, as 
distinguished from a 'walk', would be considered an 
appendage to a building leading to a level above or 
below the existing ground level. 

D-l.2.8 Walk, Walks 

Because the terms 'walk' and 'walks' have a multitude 
of meanings and uses, their use in this standard is 
clearly defined as a predetermined prepared surface, 
exterior pathway leading to or from a building or 
facility, or from one exterior area to another, placed 
on the existing ground level and not deviating from 
the level of the existing ground immediately adjacent. 

D-2 SITE DEVELOPMENT 

D-2.1 Almost any building can be made accessible to 
physically challenged persons by so planning the site 
that the terraces, retaining walls and winding walks 
are used effectively. 

D-2.1. 1 Site development is the most effective means 
to resolve the problems created by topography, 
definitive architectural designs or concepts, water table, 
existing streets, and typical problems, singularly or 
collectively, so that aggress, ingress and egress to 
buildings by physically challenged may be facilitated 
while preserving the desired design and effect of the 
architecture. 



46 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



D-2.2 Walks 

D-2.2.1 Public walks should be at least 1 200 mm wide 
and should have a gradient not greater than 1 in 20. 

D-2.2.1. 1 It is essential that the gradient of walks and 
driveways be less than that prescribed for ramps, since 
walks would be devoid of handrails and kerbs and 
would be considerably longer and more vulnerable to 
the elements. Walks of near maximum grade and 
considerable length should have level areas at intervals 
for purposes of rest and safety. Walks or driveways 
should have a non-slip surface. 

D-2.2.2 Such walks shall be of a continuing common 
surface not interrupted by steps or abrupt changes in level. 

D-2.2.3 Wherever walks cross other walks, driveways, 
or parking lots they should blend to a common level. 

D-2.2.3. 1 This requirement, does not require the 
elimination of kerbs, which, particularly if they occur 
at regular intersections, are a distinct safety feature for 
all of the challenged, particularly the blind. The 
preferred method of meeting the requirement is to have 
the walk incline to the level of the street. However, at 
principal intersections, it is vitally important that the 
kerbs run parallel to the street, up to the point where 
the walk is inclined, at which point the kerb would 
turn in and gradually meet the level of the walk at its 
highest point. A less preferred method would be to 
gradually bring the surface of the driveway or street to 
the level of the walk. The disadvantage of this method 
is that a blind person would not know when he has left 
the protection of a walk and has entered the hazards of 
a street or driveway (see Fig. 9). 

D-2.2.4 A walk shall have a level platform at the top 
which is at least 1 500 mm long, if a door swings out 
onto the platform or towards the walk. This platform 



shall extend at least 300 mm beyond each side of the 
doorway. 

D-2.2.5 A walk shall have a level platform at least 
900 mm deep, if the door does not swing onto the 
platform or towards the walk. This platform shall extend 
at least 300 mm beyond each side of the doorway. 

D-2.3 Parking Space 

D-2.3.1 Spaces that are accessible and approximate 
to the facility should be set aside and identified for use 
by individuals with physical disabilities. 

D-2.3.2 A parking space open on one side, allowing 
room for individuals in wheelchairs or individuals on 
braces and crutches to get in and out of an automobile 
onto a level surface, is adequate. It should have a 
minimum width of 2 700 mm preferably 2 800 mm 
for ambulant disabled and minimum 3 000 mm 
preferably 3 300 mm for wheel chair users. 

D-2.3.3 Parking spaces for individuals with physical 
disabilities when placed between two conventional 
diagonal or head-on parking spaces should be 3.6 m 
to 3.8 m wide and the length of the aisle should 7.3 m, 
6.1 m and 6.5 m for head-on, 90° and 60° parking 
respectively. 

D-2.3.4 Care in planning should be exercised, so that 
individuals in wheelchairs and individuals using braces 
and crutches are not compelled to wheel or walk behind 
parked cars. 

D-2.3.5 Consideration should be given to the 
distribution of spaces for use by the disabled in 
accordance with the frequency and persistency of 
parking needs. 

D-2.3.6 Walks shall be in conformity with D-2.2. 




MAX. GRADIENT 1 IN 10 

KERB MAX. 25mm HIGH 

Fig. 9 Suitable Method of Blending Pavement and Roadway Surfaces 



PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES AND GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS 



47 



D-3 BUILDINGS 

D=3.1 Ramps with Gradients 

Where ramps with gradients are necessary or desired, they 
shall conform to the following requirements (see Fig. 10). 

D-3.L1 A ramp when provided should not have a 
slope greater than 1 in 20 or maximum of 1 in 12 for 
short distance up to 9 000 mm. 

D-3. 1,2 A ramp shall have handrails on at least one 
side, and preferably two sides, that are 900 mm high, 
measured from the surface of the ramp, that are smooth, 
and that extend 300 mm beyond the top and bottom of 
the ramp. Where major traffic is predominantly 
children, the handrails should be placed 760 mm high. 

NOTES 

1 Where handrails are specified to be of heights other than 
80 cm, it is recommended that two sets of handraJS be installed 
to serve all people. Where major traffic is predominantly 
children, particularly physically disabled children, extra care 
should be exercised in the placement of handrails, in 
accordance with the nature of the facility and the age group or 
groups being serviced (see also D-3). 

2 Care should be taken that the extension of the handrails is 
no! in itself a hazard. Extension up to 300 mm may be made 
on the side of a continuing wall. 

D-3. 1.3 A ramp shall have a surface that is non-slip 
surface and if length is 3 500 mm, the minimum width 
shall be 1 500 mm. 

D-3.1.3.1 The provision of non-slip surfaces on ramps 

RECESS ENTRANCE DOOR 
WHERE IN EXPOSED POSiTiON 



1800 x 1800mmMIN. 
LEVEL PLATFORM 

50 mm KERB 



greatly assists the challenged persons with semi- 
ambulatory and ambulatory disabilities. Non-slip 
surfaces are provided by many finishes and materials. 
The surfaces of the concrete ramps can be made non- 
skid by brooming the surface or by finishing with an 
indenting roller. 

D-3.1.4 A ramp shall have a level platform at the top 
which is at least 1 800 mm long, if a door swings out 
onto the platform or toward the ramp. This platform 
shall extend at least 300 mm beyond each side of the 
doorway (see Fig. 11). 

D-3.1.5 Each ramp shall have at least I 800 mm of 
straight clearance at the bottom. 

D-3.1.6 Ramps shall have level platforms at 10 m to 
12 m intervals for purposes of rest and safety, and shall 
have platforms minimum 1.5 m length wherever they 
turn. 

D-3.1.7 For visually impaired people, ramps may be 
colour contrasted with landing. 

D-3.1.8 To minimize rise to wheelchair users, ramps 
should be equipped with herbs approximately 50 mm 
high at exposed sides. 

D-3.2 Entrances 

D-3.2.1 At least one primary entrance to each building 
shall be usable by individuals in wheelchairs (see 
Fig. 1 2A) and shall be indicated by a sign (see Fig. 12B). 



EXTENDED HANDRAIL AT 
HEAD OF RAMP 

50 mm KERB TO EXPOSED 
SIDE OF RAMP 

HANDRAILS 



ALTERNATIVE STEPPED 

APPROACH WHERE RAMP 

GRADIENT EXCEEDS 1 IN 12 

TREAD MIN. 300 mm 

RISERS MAX. 150 mm 




RAMP WITH SLOPE NOT 

GREATER THAN 1 IN 20 

OR MAXIMUM OF 1:12 

FOR SHORT DISTANCE 



EXTENDED HANDRAIL 
AT FOOT OF RAMP 



Fig. 10 Example of Ramped Approach 



48 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



r300 min 




1 



1800-^— |ar 1800 



1 



RAMP 
UP OR 
DOWN t 



1800 



All dimensions in millimetres. 

Fig. 11 Level Areas Required at End of Ramps Leading to Doorways 




-ORANGE 
.(LUMINOUS COLOUR) 




WHITE 



BLACK- 



12A PLAN OF DOORS 
SUITABLE FOR THE 
WHEELCHAIR BOUND 



12B SIGN FOR USE AT 
THE ENTRANCE 



Fig. 12 Entrances 



D-3.2.2 At least one entrance usable by individuals 
in wheelchairs shall be on a level that would make the 
elevators accessible. 

D-3.3 Doors and Doorways 

D-3.3.1 Doorwidth 

To enable wheelchair users to pass through doors, the 
minimum clear width should be 900 mm and shall be 
operable by a single effort. In certain cases the clear 
width should be 900 mm to 1 000 mm; for example, if 
the wheelchair has to be turned in the doorway, where 
there is a door-closer or at entrance doors to public 
buildings and in other situations where there is 
considerable traffic. 



D-3.3.1.1 Two-leaf doors are not usable by those with 
disabilities defined in D-l.2.1, D-l.2.2 and D-l.2.5 

unless they operate by a single effort, or unless one of 
the two leaves meets the requirements of D-3.3.1. 

D-3.3.1.2 Side-hung doors 

To facilitate wheelchair manoeuvre, doors should be 
hung with the hinges in room corners. Doors opening 
out into corridors or circulation spaces should be 
avoided as far as possible. 

D-3.3.1.3 It is recommended that all doors have kick 
plates extending from the bottom of the door to at least 
400 mm from the floor, or be made of a material and 
finish that would safely withstand the abuse they might 



PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES AND GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS 



49 



receive from canes, crutches, wheelchair foot- 
platforms, or wheelchair wheels. 

D-3.3.2 Wheelchair Manoeuvring Space 

To enable wheelchair users to approach doors 
manoeuvring space is needed as shown in the Fig. 13. 
A corridor should have a width of at least 1 200 mm to 
allow a 90° turn to be made through a door. In narrow 
spaces sliding doors may be preferable. 




8 


b 


450 


1500 


550 


1400 



All dimensions in millimetres. 

NOTE — Depending on the free space beside the opening side 
(450 or 550 mm), the depth of free space should be 1 500 or 

1 400 mm. 

Fig. 13 Manoeuvring Space Needed for 
Wheelchair Users to Approach Doors 

D-3.3.3 Thresholds 

Raised thresholds should be avoided, but where this is 
not possible, their height should not exceed 25 mm. 
Rubber thresholds are advantageous for wheelchair 
users. 

D-3.3.3. 1 Care should be taken in the selection, 
placement and setting of door closers so that they do 
not prevent the use of doors by the physically disabled. 
Time-delay door closers are recommended. 

D-3.3.3.2 Self-closing doors 

Wheelchair users and other with impaired mobility 
have difficulty in using self-closing doors. The force 
required to open them should be reduced as far as 
possible. Public buildings should preferably have 
sliding automatic doors. 

D-3.3.4 Door Identification 

To help people with impaired vision to see doors, the 
door and frame should be in a colour which contrasts 
with the adjoining wall. Glass or glazed doors should 



be marked with a coloured band or frame, a little below 
eye-level. 

D-3.3.5 Handles 

Door handles and locks should be easy to manipulate. 
To facilitate the closing of a door by wheelchair users 
(for example, a water-closet compartment), the door 
should have a horizontal handle approximately 800 mm 
from the floor. Self-closing doors should be equipped 
with an easy gripped vertical pull-handle with a 
length of at least 300- mm, and with the lower end 
approximately 800 mm above floor. For many people 
and specially those with impaired vision, it is helpful 
to make clear whether doors are to be pulled or pushed 
(see Fig. 14). 




AH dimensions in millimetres. 
fte. 14 Position of Handle 

D-3.4 Windows 

Windows should be designed to avoid the glare which 
is a particular problem for people with impaired 
vision. Large glass areas close to circulation spaces 
should be marked a little below eye-level with a 
coloured band or frame. To enable wheelchair users 
to see through a window comfortably, the sill should 
be not higher than 800 mm from the floor. Windows 
should be easy to open and close. Their controls 
should be placed in the zone 900 to 1 200 mm from 
the floor (see Fig. 15). 



50 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 




All dimensions in millimetres. 
Fig. 15 Position of Sill and Window Control 

D-3.5 Stairs 

Stairs should not be the only means of moving between 
floors. They should be supplemented by lifts or ramps. 

D-3.5. 1 Straight flights of steps are preferred 
by ambulant disabled people. Treads should be 
approximately 300 mm deep and risers not higher than 
150 mm. Steps should be of a consistent height and 
depth throughout the stair. Projecting nosings and open 



stairs should be avoided to minimize the risk of 
stumbling. 

D-3.5.2 Handrails should be provided to both sides 
of any stairway. They should be continuous and extend 
not less than 300 mm beyond the top and bottom step 
(otherwise it is difficult for the disabled to use the rail 
at the first and last step; see Fig. 16). 

D-3.5.3 For people with impaired vision, there should 
be a colour contrast between landings, and top and 
bottom steps of a flight of steps, or the front edge of 
each step should have a contrasting colour. 

D-3.6 Floors 

D-3.6.1 Floors shall have a non-slip surface. 

D-3.6.2 Floors on a given storey shall be of a common 
level through out or be connected by a ramp in 
accordance with D-3.1.1 to D-3.1.8. 

D-3.6.2.1 A gentle slope up to 10 mm may be given 
between the level of the floor of the corridor and the 
level of the floor of the toilet rooms. 

D-3.6.2.2 There should not be a difference between 
the level of the floor of a corridor and the level of a 
meeting room, dining room, or any other room, unless 
proper ramps are provided. 

D-3.7 Sanitary Facilities 

It is essential that sanitary facilities, in accordance with 
the nature and use of a specific building or facility, be 
made accessible to, and usable by, the physically 
challenged. 

D-3.7.1 Sanitary facihties shall have space to allow traffic 
of individuals in wheelchairs (see Fig. 17 and 18). 




All dimensions in millimetres. 

Fig. 16 Extension of Handrail in Stairs 



PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES AND GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS 



51 



VERTICAL 
RAIL 



ALTERNATIVE 
FOR DOOR 



RISING BUTT 
HINGES 



455 




1370 mm mln. OR 1520 mm WHERE 
DEPTH IS LESS THAN 1750 mm OR 
DOOR IN ALTERNATIVE POSITION 



TOILET PAPER 
HOLDER 



WASH HAND BASIN WITH 
TOWEL DISPENSER OVER 
RiM AT 810 mm ABOVE 
FLOOR 



VERTICAL 
RAIL 



All dimensions in millimetres. 

Fig. 17 Suggested Plan of WC Compartment for the Wheelchair Bound 



RAIL AT 280 mm 
ABOVE WC SEAT - 




PAPER 

TOWEL 

DISPENSER 



TOILET 
PAPER 
HOLDER 



li 




VERTICAL RAIL 

835mm TO 1295 nrmnT 

ABOVE FLOOR 







BASIN RIM AT 
780 mm 
WC SEAT AT ABOVE FLOOR 

500mm 
ABOVE FLOOR 



-i tz: 



O 

UJ 



2*8 

< 



AH dimensions in millimetres. 



Fig. 18 Section Through WC Compartment for the Wheelchair Bound 



52 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



D-3.7.2 Sanitary facilities shall have at least one water- 
closet cubical for the ambulant disabled (see Fig. 19 
and 20), that: 



a) 
b) 
c) 

d) 



e) 



is 900 mm wide; 

is at least 1 500 mm, preferably 1 600 mm deep; 

has a door (where doors are used), that is, 

800 mm wide and swings out; 

has handrails on each side, 780 mm high and 

parallel to the floor, 40 mm clearance between 

rail and wall, and fastened securely at ends 

and centre; and 

has a water-closet with the seat 500 mm from 

the floor. 

NOTE — The design and mounting of the water-closet 
is of considerable importance. A wall-mounted water- 
closet with a narrow understructure that recedes sharply 
is most desirable. If a floor mounted water-closet must 
be used, it should not have a front that is wide and 
perpendicular to the floor at the front of the seat. The 
bowl should be shallow at the front of the seat and turn 
backwards more than downwards to allow the individual 
in a wheelchair to get close to the water-closet with the 
seat of the wheelchair. 

D-3.7.3 Sanitary facilities shall have wash basins with 
narrow aprons, which when mounted at standard height 
are usable by individuals in wheelchairs; or they shall 
have wash basins mounted higher, when particular 



designs demand, so that they are usable by individuals 
in wheelchairs. 

D-3.7.3.1 The drain pipes and hot-water pipes under 
a sanitary appliance shall be covered or insulated so 
that a wheelchair individual do not find it inconvenient. 

D-3.7.4 Some mirrors and shelves shall be provided 
above the wash basins at a height as low as possible 
and not higher than 1 m above the floor, measured 
from the top of the shelf and the bottom of the mirror. 

D-3.7.5 Sanitary facilities for men shall have wall- 
mounted urinals with the opening of the basin 460 mm 
from the floor, or shall have floor-mounted urinals that 
are on level with the main floor of the toilet room. 

D-3.7.6 Toilet rooms shall have an appropriate number 
of towel racks, towel dispensers, and other dispensers 
and disposal units mounted not higher than 910 mm 
from the floor. 

D-3.8 Drinking Fountains 

An appropriate number of drinking fountains or other 
water-dispensing means shall be accessible to and 
usable by the physically disabled. 

D-3.8.1 Drinking water fountains or water coolers 
shall have up front spouts and control. 




TOILET PAPER 
HOLDER 



HORIZONTAL RAIL AT 
280 mm ABOVE WC 

SEAT LEVEL 

■ \/y 

VERTICAL RAIL 
1295 mm HIGH 

RECOMMENDED 
EXTENSIONTO 
HORIZONTAL RAIL 



HORIZONTAL 
PULL RAIL 

Fig* 19 Suggested Plan WC Compartment for the Ambulant 

PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES AND GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS 



53 



280 mm 



RAIL AT 280 mm 
ABOVE WC SEAT 

^ TOILET PAPER 




VERTICAL RAIL c 
835mm TO 1295 mm 
ABOVE FLOOR 



i 



WC SEAT AT 

500 mm 
ABOVE FLOOR 



a: 

■=*lS! 



Fig. 20 Section Through WC Compartment for the Ambulant Disabled 



D-3.8.2 Drinking water fountains or water coolers 
shall be hand-operated or hand and foot-operated. 

D-3.8.2. 1 Conventional floormounted water coolers 
may be convenient to individuals in wheelchairs if a 
small fountain is mounted on the side of the cooler 
800 mm above the floor. 

D-3.8.2.2 Fully recessed drinking water fountains are 
not recommended. 

D-3.8.2.3 Drinking water fountains should not be set into 
an alcove unless the alcove is wider than a wheelchair. 

D-3.9 Public Telephones 

An appropriate number of public telephones should be 
made accessible to and usable by the physically disabled. 

NOTE — The conventional public telephone booth is not 
usable by most physically disabled individuals. There are many 
ways in which public telephones may be made accessible and 
usable. It is recommended that architects and builders confer 
with the telephone companies in the planning of the building 
or facility. 

D-3.9.1 Such telephones should be kept so that the dial 
is placed at minimum 1 200 mm from floor and the 
handset may be reached by individuals in wheelchairs. 

D-3.10 Handrails 

Handrails are used as a locational and mobility aid by 
blind and visually impaired people, and as a support for 
people with mobility impairments. The handrail should 



be securely fitted to the wall to withstand heavy pressure. 
Handrails should turn in towards the wall at either end. 

D-3.10.1 Handrails should be approximately 900 mm 
from the floor. The rail should be easy to grip, having 
a circular section with a diameter of approximately 
40 mm and fixed as shown in Fig. 21. 




120 



1 



jj 




All dimensions in millimetres. 
Fig. 21 Fixing of Hand Rail 



54 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



D-3.10.2 To aid indentification, the colour of the rail 
should contrast with the wall behind. 

D-3.11 Elevators 

In a multi-storey building, elevators are essential to 
the successful functioning of physically disabled 
individuals. They shall conform to the requirements 
given in D-3.11.1 and D-3.11.2. 

D-3.11.1 Elevators shall be accessible to, and usable 
by the physically disabled on the level that they use to 
enter the building, and at all levels normally used by 
the general public. 

D-3.11.2 Elevators shall allow for traffic by wheelchairs 
(see also D-3.3). 

D-3.12 Controls 

It is advantageous for wheelchair users if controls are 
placed at low level. For visually impaired people, they 
should be at eye-level. 

D-3.12.1 To enable wheelchair users to reach controls 
while not placing them too low for visually impaired 
people, controls should be in the zone 900 mm to 
1 200 mm from the floor. It is advantageous if controls 
in, for example, lifts are placed at an angle of 
approximately 45° to the wall so that they are easier to 
read and operate. To cater for wheelchair users, 
controls should be placed not less than 400 mm from 
room corners. All the power and electric points should 
be placed at one metre above the floor level and should 
not project outside walls. 

D-3.12.2 Again, to cater for visually impaired people, 
controls should be colour-contrasted with 
backgrounds. Information should preferably be in relief 
for tactile reading. 

D-3.12.3 To aid operation for people with impaired 
co-ordination or impaired vision, switches, etc, should 
have large push plates. 

D-3.12.4 Controls for powered door openers to hinged 
doors should be located so that the doors do not conflict 
with wheelchairs, sticks, walking aids, etc. 

D-3.12.5 To facilitate operation for people with 
limited strength in arms and hands, handles should be 
easy to grip and turn. 

D-3.13 Identification 

Appropriate identification of specific facilities within 
a building used by the public is particularly essential 
to the blind. 

D-3.13.1 Raised letters or numbers shall be used to 
identify rooms or offices. 

D-3.13.2 Such identification should be placed on the 



wall, to left of the door, preferably at a height of 
1 500 mm from the floor. 

D-3.13.3 Doors that are not intended for normal use, 
and that might prove dangerous if a blind person were 
to exit or enter by them, should be made quickly 
identifiable to the touch by knurling the door handle 
or knob (see Fig. 22). 



KNURLINGS 




Fig. 22 Door Handle 

D-3.14 Warning Signals 

D-3.14.1 Audible warning signals shall be accompanied 
by simultaneous visual signals for the benefit of those 
with hearing disabilities. 

D-3.14.2 Visual signals shall be accompanied by 
simultaneous audible signals for the benefit of the 
blind. To assist blind people, lettering and symbols on 
signs should be in relief for tactile reading. 

D-3.14.3 Signs should be designed and located so that 
they are easy to read. For visually impaired people, 
signs should preferably be at eye-level and it should 
be possible to approach them closely. Text and symbols 
should be colour-contrasted with the background. The 
letters should not be less than 12 mm high. 

D-3.14.4 Signs should pe well illuminated and 
surfaces should not cause mirroring or reflections. 
Signs should not be behind glass or similar materials. 

D-3.14.5 Information baspd on colour codes only 
should be avoided; colourblind people may find them 
difficult to understand. 

D-3.15 Work Bench 

This should be at least 800 mm wide, 600 mm deep 
and 650 mm to 700 mm high. For wheelchair users, 
the convenient height of work tops is between 
750 mm and 850 mm; flexible provision is preferred. 
Further, for wheelchair access to a work bench, wash 
basin or table, a clear space for knees and footrests is 
needed. 



PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES AND GENERAL BLTLDING REQUIREMENTS 



55 



D-3.16 Hazards 

Every effort shall be exercised to obviate hazards to 
individuals with physical disabilities. 

D-3.16.1 Access panels or manholes in floors, walks, 
and walls may be extremely hazardous, particularly 
when in use, and should be avoided. 

D-3.16.2 When manholes or access panels are open 
and in use, or when an open excavation exists on a 
site, particularly when it is in proximity of normal 
pedestrian traffic, barricades shall be placed on all open 
sides, at least 8.5 m from the hazard, and warning 
devices shall be installed in accordance with D-3.14.2. 

D-3.16.3 Low-hanging door closers that remain within 
the opening of a doorway, when the door is open or 
that protrude hazardously into regular corridors or 
traffic ways when the door is closed, shall be avoided. 

D-3.16.4 Low-hanging signs, ceiling lights, and 
similar objects or signs and fixtures that protrude into 
regular corridors or traffic way shall be avoided. A 



minimum height of 2.1 m measured from the floor is 
recommended. 

D-3.16.5 Ramps shall be adequately lighted. 

D-3.16.6 Exit signs shall be in accordance with good 
practices [3(5)]. 

D-3.16.7 Equipment and materials causing allergic 
reactions should as far as possible be avoided in 
dwellings and buildings. 

D-4 DESIGNING FOR CHILDREN 

The dimensions given in this Annex are for adults of 
average stature. In designing buildings for use by 
children, it may be necessary to alter some dimensions, 
such as, height of handrails, in accordance with 
accepted standards [3(6)]. 

D-5 For additional information regarding other 
facilities and conveniences required in buildings meant 
for use of physically challenged, reference may be 
made to accepted standards [3(7)]. 



ANNEX E 

(Clauses 12.22, C-2.3.1 and C-2.6) 

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS OF CLUSTER PLANNING FOR HOUSING 



E-l GENERAL 

E-1.1 These guidelines cover planning and building 
requirements of housing developed as clusters. These 
requirements are applicable to all housing projects 
taken up by public, private or co-operative agencies. 

E-2 PLANNING 

E-2.1 Plot Size 

The minimum plot size permissible shall be 15 m 2 with 
100 percent ground coverage and an FSI of two. 
Hundred percent ground coverage and FSI of 2 will 
be applicable up to plot size of 25 m 2 . For plot sizes 
beyond 25 m 2 , provision in accordance with good 
practice [3(1)] shall be applicable. 

E-2.2 Plot/Plinth Area for Slum Resettlement on 
Same Site 

In case of slum resettlement on the same site, minimum 
area may be reduced to 12.5 m 2 with potential for adding 
another 12.5 m 2 on first floor with an internal staircase. 

E-2.3 Group Housing 

Group housing may be permitted within cluster housing 



concept. However, dwelling units with plinth areas up 
to 20 m 2 should have scope for adding a habitable 
room. Group housing in a cluster should not be more 
than 15 m in height. 

E-2.4 Size of Cluster 

In ground and one storeyed structures not more than 
20 houses should be grouped in a cluster. Clusters with 
more dwelling units may create problems relating to 
identity, encroachment and maintenance. 

E-2.5 Size of Cluster Open Space 

Minimum dimensions ofopen spaces shall be not less 
than 6 m or 3/4th of the height of buildings along the 
cluster open space, whichever is higher. The area of 
such cluster court shall not be less than 36 m 2 . Group 
housing around a cluster open space should not be 
normally more than 15 m in height. Maximum cluster 
courtyard width and breadth shall be 13 m. 

E-2.6 Setbacks 

No setbacks are needed from the edges of cluster as 
pedestrian/vehicular access roads surrounding the 
cluster. 



56 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



E-2.7 Right to Build in Sky 

Pedestrian paths and vehicular access roads to clusters 
separating two adjacent clusters may be bridged to 
provide additional dwelling units. While bridging the 
pedestrian path way minimum clearance should be one 
storey height; length of such bridging should be not more 
than two dwelling units. While bridging the vehicular 
access roads minimum clearance should be 6 m. 

E-2.8 Vehicular Access 

A right of way of at least 6 m width should be provided 
up to the entrance to the cluster to facilitate emergency 
vehicle movement up to cluster. 

E-2.9 Pedestrian Paths 

Minimum width of pedestrian paths shall be 3 m. 

E-2.10 Width of Access Between Two Clusters 

Built area of dwelling unit within cluster shall have no 
setbacks from the path or road, space. Hence, the height 
of the building along the pathway or roads shall be not 
less than 60 percent of the height of the adjacent 
building subject to minimum of 3 m in case of pathway 
and 6 m in case of vehicular access. 



E-2.11 Density 

Cluster planning methodologies result in higher 
densities with low rise structures. With per dwelling 
unit covered area of 15 m 2 densities of 500 dwelling 
units per hectare (net) shall be permissible. Densities 
higher than this should not allowed. 

E-2.12 Group Toilet 

Cluster housing for economically weaker section 
families can have group toilets at the rate of one water- 
closet, one bath and a washing place for three families. 
These shall not be community toilets, as keys to these 
toilets shall be only with these three families, making 
them solely responsible for the maintenance and 
upkeep of these toilets. 

E-3 OTHER REQUIREMENTS 

E-3.1 Requirements of Building Design 

With the exception of clauses mentioned above, 
requirements of building will be governed by the 
provision of this Code and good practice [3(1)]. 

E-3.2 Requirements of fire safety, structural design, 
building services and plumbing services shall be as 
specified in this Code. 



ANNEX F 
(Clause 12.23) 

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR LOW INCOME HABITAT PLANNING 

IN RURAL AREAS 



F-l GENERAL 

F-l.l These guidelines cover planning and general 
building requirements for low-income houses having 
a maximum built-up area of 40 m 2 including future 
expansion, built on notified (as notified by the State 
Governments) rural areas. The provisions on layout 
planning of low-income housing colonies in rural areas 
are applicable to public and private agencies/ 
government bodies. The provisions of this Code on 
design and construction of buildings for low income 
housing in approved layouts are applicable to all private 
and public agencies. 



F-2 SETTLEMENT 
PLANNING 



AND ENVIRONMENT 



F-2.1 While planning for rural settlements the 
following factors shall be taken into consideration: 

a) Ecosystem and Biodiversity. 

b) Topography with its direct effect on climate, 



likelihood of natural disasters, natural 
drainage, etc. 

c) Identity of the place rooted in its culture and 
heritage. 

d) Nearness and connectivity with nearby urban 
centres. 

e) Occupation related requirements. 

f) Water management 

g) Waste management, 
h) Land tenure. 

j) Site selected shall be conveniently 
approachable and suitably developed and 
shall not be subjected to water logging/ 
flooding. 



k) Plot size 

m) Density (Gross) 

n) Minimum frontage 



80 m 2 , Min 

60 plots per hectare, 

Max 

6m 



PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES AND GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS 



57 



p) Ground Coverage 



q) 

r) 



s) 



Floor area ratio (FAR) : 
Open spaces 



t) 



33 percent (subject to 
a maximum of 50 
percent) 
2, Max 

1.21 hectare open 
space for a village 
with 200 houses. 
Facilities like branch of co-operative bank, a 
fertilizer depot, a veterinary hospital, market 
place and a branch of the co-operative 
consumer store besides facilities for 
educational and health care should be 
available within a maximum distance of 5 km 
from any settlement. 
Proposed Road Hierarchy 



Road Road 


Road 


Function/Remarks 


Type Description 


Width 




(1) (2) 


(3) 


(4) 



Ri 



R2 



R3 



Road which 
connects 
village to 
nearby areas 

Road which 
take major 
traffic to the 

village 



9 m Widest road 



6 m 



Internal 
village road 
R4 Internal 

village road 



Main village roads 
with drain on both 
sides to facilitate 
drainage system of 
the village 
4.5 m Other village roads 

3 m Village lanes 



F-3 GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS 
(HOMESTEAD) 

F-3.1 General 

The requirements of parts of buildings shall be as given 
in F-3.2 to F-3.7. 

F-3.2 Plinth 

The minimum height of plinth shall be regulated on 
the basis of environmental and topographical condition 
and higher plinth height may be required in areas prone 
to flooding. 

F-3.3 Size of Room 

F-3.3.1 Habitable Room 

Every dwelling unit to be provided should have at least 
two habitable rooms. Even if one room house is 
provided initially it should be capable of adding a new 
second room in future. In a house of two rooms, first 
room shall not be less than 9.0 m 2 with minimum width 
of 2.5 m and second room shall not be less than 6.5 m 2 
with a minimum width of 2. 1 m provided the total area 



of both the rooms is not less than 15.5 m 2 . In 
incremental housing the bigger room shall always be 
the first room. 

F-3.3. 1.1 To facilitate incremental housing in case 
of flatted development or otherwise, habitable space 
at mezzanine level may be permitted. The minimum 
size of such a mezzanine floor should not be lesser 
than 6.5 m 2 and such a floor should occupy not more 
than 50 percent of the room area of which it is a part. 
Such a mezzanine floor should have appropriate 
openings to facilitate light and ventilation as 
perF-3.5. Minimum clear height below and above 
the mezzanine floor should be 2.4 m and 2.1 m 
respectively. 

As far as possible mezzanine floor should have direct 
ventilation from the external face of the building. 
Where this is not possible ventilation through main 
room may be allowed provided total area of openings 
in the main room is provided taking into consideration 
area of mezzanine floor. 

Such mezzanine floor may be accessible through the 
main room by a ladder, whose minimum angle with 
vertical plane should be 22 1 /2°. Height of the riser 
should be less than 250 mm. 

F-3.3.2 Water-Closet/Bathroom 

a) The size of independent water-closet shall be 
0.9 m 2 ; with minimum width of 90 cm. 

b) The size of independent bathroom shall be 
1.2 m 2 with minimum width of lm, and 

c) The size of combined bath and water closet 
shall be 1.8 m 2 with minimum width of 1 m. 

F-3.3.3 Kitchen 

The size of a cooking alcove serving as cooking space 
shallnot be less than 2.4 m 2 with a minimum width of 
1 .2 m. The size of individual kitchen shall not be less 
than 3.3 m 2 with a minimum width of 1.5 m. Semi- 
open spaces with low walls and roof may also be 
provided for cooking in areas where such provision is 
suitable with respect to climatic comfort. Provision for 
smokeless CHULLHA shall be made in all kitchens 
considering fuel efficiency and health hazard due to 
smoke inhalation. 

F-3.3.4 Balcony 

The minimum width of individual balcony, where 
provided, shall be 0.9 m and shall not be more than 
1.2 m and it shall not project beyond the plot line and 
on roads or pathway. 

F-3.4 Minimum Height 

The minimum height of rooms/spaces shall be as 
follows: 



58 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



a) Habitable room 

b) Kitchen 

c) Bath/water-closet 

d) Corridor 



2.75 m 
2.6 m 
2.2 m 
2.1m 



F-3.4.1 In the case of sloping roofs, the average height 
of roof for habitable rooms shall be 2.75 m and the 
minimum height at eaves shall be 2.10 m. 

F-3.5 Lighting and Ventilation 

The openings through windows, ventilators and other 
openings for lighting and ventilation shall be as per in 
accordance with 15.1.2. 

NOTE — The windows and other openings shall abut onto 
open spaces either through areas left open within the plot or 
the front, side and rear spaces provided in the layouts which 
shall be deemed to be sufficient for light and ventilation 
purposes. Wherever ventilation/lighting is provided by means 
of JALJ or grill of any material, total area of openings shall 
calculated excluding solid portion of the JALJ or grill. 

F-3.6 Stairs 

The following criteria shall be adopted for internal 
individual staircase: 

a) Minimum width 

1) 2 storeyed-straight 0.60 m 

2) 2 storeyed-winding 0.75 m 

3) 3 or more storeyed-straight 0.75 m 

4) 3 or more storeyed-winding 0.90 m 

b) Riser 200 mm, Max 

c) Tread 

1) 2 storeyed 225 mm, Min 

2) 3 storeyed or more 250 mm, Min 

NOTE — This could be reduced to 20 cm as the clear tread 
between perpends, with possibility of open riser as well as 
nosing and inclined riser to have an effective going of 
22.5 cm. 

F-3.7 Water Seal Latrine 

No building plan shall be approved and no building 
shall be deemed to have been completed and fit for 
human occupation unless provision is made for water 
seal latrine. No dry latrine shall be allowed. Water seal 
latrines can also be provide on the basis of community 
toilets or shared toilets as per the recommendation 
given in [3(3)]. 

Where leaching pits are used, it should be constructed 
within the premises of the households as it would be 
economical as well as facilitate their cleaning. However, 
where, due to space constraint, construction of pits 
within the premises may not be possible, pits may be 
constructed in places like lanes, streets and roads. 

In case the pit is located under the road, street or foot 
path, the inverted level of the pipe connecting the 



latrine pan with the pit shall be at least 1.1m below 
ground level or below the bottom of the water main 
existing within a distance of 3 m from the pits 
whichever is more. Construction of such pits may be 
in accordance with [3(4)]. 

The water seal latrine should be properly maintained 
and kept in sanitary condition by the owner or the 
occupier. The contents of the septic tanks, soak pits, 
leach pits, etc, should be periodically emptied. 

The leach pits should be cleaned only after 2 years of 
their being put out of service after they were full. 

Location of sanitary facility either as part of the house 
or separately shall be decided on the basis of felt 
perceptions. 

F-3.8 The house site shall provide space for storage of 
food grains and keeping cattle. A manure pit having a 
minimum area of 1.0 m 2 shall also be catered for. This 
will take care of composting of biodegradable waste. 

F-4 OTHER REQUIREMENTS 

F-4.1 Requirements of fire safety, structural design, 
building services and plumbing services shall be as 
specified in relevant parts of the Code. 

F-4.2 One water tap per dwelling unit may be 
provided, where adequate drinking water supply is 
available. If supply is inadequate, public hydrants shall 
be provided. In the absence of piped water supply, hand 
pumps may be used for provision of water supply. 

F-4.3 Drainage System 

F-4.3.1 Water from drains shall be connected to 
village ponds and appropriate eco-friendly methods 
like growing of duck weed plants shall be adopted to 
treat waste water. 

F-4.3.2 This treated water may be used for irrigation 
and agriculture. 

F-4.4 Appropriate methods (namely conservation, 
ground water recharging, rain water harvesting, etc.) 
should be employed to ensure effective water 
management. 

F -4.5 Community Facilities 

F-4.5.1 A community hzlUBARAAT GHAR shall be 
established. 

F-4.5.2 Rural Development Centre shall include 
PANCHAYAT GHAR, a MAHILA KENDRA that may 
also serve as a vocational training centre. 

F-4.5.3 School, health centre, post office, police post, 
shopping, work sheds for the artisans, telephone 
facilities, etc should also be established. 

F-4.6 The use (to the extent possible) of locally 



PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES AND GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS 



59 



available building materials and cost effective 
substitutes for scarce building materials. Appropriate 
technology inputs shall be introduced for improving 
the local materials or conventional or traditional 
practices for improved efficiency. 

F-4.7 The concept of 'aided self-help' shall be ensured 
for active participation of the prospective users and 
association in the construction and development of 
dwelling units and other community building. 



F-4.8 The special needs of women headed households/ 
single and working women/woman in difficult 
circumstances should be addressed. The specific 
requirement of women in terms of providing necessary 
facilities in homes to lessen their drudgery would be 
given sufficient attention. 

F-4.9 Protecting and promoting our cultural heritage, 
architecture and traditional skills should be given due 
importance. 



ANNEX G 

(Clause 12.24) 

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR DEVELOPMENT PLANNING IN HILLY AREAS 



G-l GENERAL 

G-l.l These guidelines provides requirements relating 
to development planning and design of buildings in 
hilly areas. Any area above 600 m in height form mean 
sea level may be classified as hilly, or any area with 
average slope of 30° may also be classified as hilly, 
considering the sensitive and fragile eco-system of hills 
and mountains. However, the State Governments 
may identify and notify areas to be covered under 
'Hilly Area', which need to be dealt with special 
consideration, when developmental activities are 
taken up. 

G-l. 2 Hilly areas have one of the most fragile eco- 
systems, which need to be conserved. Therefore 
planning and development strategies for hilly areas 
shall have to be designed with added sensitivity and 
stress on integrated development. The development 
approach shall comprise sound land use planning and 
settlement planning. 



G-1.3 Settlement planning in the hill areas has 
extremely large implications on the environment. For 
planning of the new settlements or working out the 
strategies for the growth of the existing settlements, it 
is necessary to conduct detailed environmental 
inventory/impact assessment. The inventory would 
involve geological investigations, slope analysis, soil, 
flora and fauna analysis, climatic inventories, 
vulnerability to natural disasters, etc. In addition to 
this the aesthetic factors, cultural, architectural and 
historical heritage, scenic/landscape value should also 
be taken into consideration. Keeping in view the 
scarcity of good buildable land and also the high cost 
of the construction, it is necessary to optimize the use 
of land and at the same time, use cost effective, 
appropriate building materials and technologies. 

G-2 LAND USE PLANNING 

G-2.1 The following land use structure shall be 
adopted in Development Planning in Hilly areas: 



Land Use 



(1) 



Percentage of Developed Area 



Small Towns 


Medium Towns 


Large Cities 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


50-55 


48-52 


45-50 


2-3 


2-3 


4-5 


3-4 


4-5 


5-7 


8-10 


8-10 


12-15 


15-18 


15-18 


18-20 


5-6 


5-6 


6-8 


8-10 


8-10 


8-10 



Residential 

Commercial 

Industrial 

Public and semi-public 

Recreational 

Transport and commerce 

Ecological 



60 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



G-3 OPEN SPACES 

G-3.1 The following standards shall be adopted in Development Planning in Hilly areas. 



Type 



(1) 



Area Range Area per 1 000 
Population 
(in ha) (in ha) 

(2) (3) 



Remarks 



(4) 



Tot lot 




0.03-0.05 


— 


Playground 




0.50-1.00 


0.12 to 0.20 


Parks 




1.20-2.00 


0.12 to 0.20 


City parks/playgrounds/ma/dan/ 
exhibition grounds/cultural 
gathering grounds 




0.12 to 0.20 


Botanical garden 




10-20 


— 


Recreational complex 


including zoo 


10-12 


— 



Minimum width 15 m 

One for every 5 000 may be combined 
with schools. 

One for every 10 000 population. 

For the entire town at one of more sites, 
depending upon design and space 
availability. 

One for every town 

One for every settlement with tourist 
potential 



G-4 ROADS AND PATHS 

G-4.1 Street orientation shall preferably be East- West 
to allow for maximum South sun to enter the buildings. 
The street shall be wide enough to ensure that the 



buildings on one side do not shade those on the other 
side. 

G-4.2 The following road widths shall be adopted for 
urban roads in Hilly areas. 



Road Type 








Width (in m) 






Open Areas 


Built-up Areas 


Plains 


(1) 






(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


Arterial road 






18-24 


15-18 


50-60 


Sub-arterial road 






15-18 


12-15 


30-40 


Collector road 






9-12 


7.5-9 


20-30 


Local street 






4.5-6 


3-6 


10-20 


Loop street (maximum length = 


= 500 


m) 


4.5 


4.5 


9 


Cul-de-sac (maximum length = 


= 500 


m) 


4.5 


4.5 


7.5 


Pedestrian path 






1.5-2.5 


1-1.5 


1.5-4.5 



G-4.3 Hill Road Manual (IRC:SP:48-1998), a 
publication of the Indian Roads Congress shall be 
referred to for detailed guidelines for planning roads 
in Hilly areas. 



G-5 COMMUNITY FACILITIES AND SERVICES 

G-5.1 The following standards shall be adopted for 
community facilities and Services in Hilly areas. 



Type 
(1) 



Population 


Distance 


Area Range 

(in ha) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


4 000 


1-2 


0.20 to 0.30 


15 000 


5-7 


0.30 to 0.50 


— 


8-12 


0.30 to 0.60 


30 000 


8-12 


2.00 to 3.00 



Educational 
Primary school 
Secondary school (10+2) 
Industrial training centre 
College 



PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES AND GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS 



61 



Type 


Population 


Distance 


Area Range 

(in ha) 


(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 



B. Health 

Health sub-centre 
Primary health centre 
(25-50 beds) 
Hospital (200-250 beds) 
Veterinary centre 

C Other facilities 

Community welfare centre 

D. Services 

Fire station 
General post office 
Post office 
Rural post office 
Rural post office 
Bank (tribal areas) 
Telephone exchange 
Electric sub-station (66 kV) 
Electric sub-station (11 kV) 
LPG godown 



3000 


2-4 


0.025 to 0.067 


20000 


16-20 


0.105 to 0.210 


80000 


16-20 


0.840 to 2.100 


1000 


16-20 


0.050 to 0.100 



16 000 


5-7 


0.10 to 0.15 


50 000 


_ 


0.30 to 0.80 


50 000 


10-15 


0.20 to 0.40 


10 000 


5-7 


0.10 to 0.15 


2 000 


2-4 


0.025 to 0.050 


1000 


1-2 


— 


10 000 


16-20 


0.100 to 0.150 


50 000 


10-15 


0.20 to 0.40 


— 


— 


1.00 


__ 


— 


0.05 


— 


— 


0.15 



G-6 GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS 

G-6.1 General 

The provisions contained in this Part shall 
apply excepting for the specific provisions given 
hereunder. 

G-6.2 Siting 

G-6.2.1 No house shall preferably be located closer 
than 1 m to another house. 

G-6.2.2 No house shall be located closer than 10 m 
to a steep slope. 

G-6.2.3 No house shall be built on a landfill or on the 
edge of a slope known to have been levelled. 

G-6.2.4 Buildings in hills shall be clustered together 
to minimise the exposure to cold winds. Open spaces 
provided shall allow for maximum South sun. 

G-6.2.5 Buildings shall be located on the south slope 
of a hill or mountain for better exposure to solar 
radiation. At the same time, exposure to cold winds 
may be minimized by locating the building on the 
leeward side. 



G-6.3 Passive Systems for Climatic Control 

G-6.3.1 Appropriate solar passive methods, such as 
orientation, double-glazing, trombe walls and solar 
collectors, shall be adopted to achieve climatic comfort 
with little use of conventional energy. 

G-6.3.2 Care shall be taken in siting and design of 
buildings to provide passive controls to modify the 
effect of cold/strong winds. 

G-6.4 Flat land is normally not available in hilly 
regions. The houses are required to be constructed on 
partially sloping land made available by cutting and 
filling. It shall be necessary to protect the house by 
building retaining walls/breast walls [see 3(8)] to avoid 
landslides occurring at time of earthquakes or heavy 
rains. 

G-6.5 Disaster Resistance 

All necessary steps shall be taken in designing and 
building in hilly regions to achieve disaster resistance 
as per the relevant codes and Part 6 'Structural Design' . 
All natural disasters likely to affect the locality shall 
be taken into consideration, namely earthquakes, 
cyclones, avalanches, flash floods, landslides etc. 



62 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



LIST OF STANDARDS 



The following list records those standards which are 
acceptable as 'good practice' and 'accepted standards' 
in the fulfillment of the requirements of the Code. The 
latest version of a standard shall be adopted at the time 
of enforcement of the Code. The standards listed may 
be used by the Authority as a guide in conformance 
with the requirements of the referred clauses in the Code. 



(1) 



IS No. 

8888 
(Part 1) : 1993 



(2) 3792 : 1978 



11907: 1986 



(3) 13727 : 1993 



Title 
Guide for requirements of low 
income housing: Part 1 Urban 
area (first revision) 
Guide for heat insulation of non- 
industrial buildings {first revision) 
Recommendations for calculation 
of solar radiation on buildings 
Guide for requirements of cluster 
planning for housing 





IS No. 


(4) 


12314 : 1987 


(5) 


4878 : 1986 


(6) 


4838 : 1990 



(7) 4963 : 1987 



(8) 14458 



(Part 1) : 1998 
(Part 2) : 1997 



Title 

Code of practice for sanitation 
for leaching pits for rural 
community 

Byelaws for construction of 
cinema buildings (first revision) 

Anthropometric dimensions for 
school children age group 5-17 
years (second revision) 

Recommendations for buildings 
and facilities for the physically 
challenged (first revision) 

Guidelines for retaining walls 
for hill area: 

Selection of type of wall 

Design of retaining/breast walls 



PART 3 DEVELOPMENT CONTROL RULES AND GENERAL BUILDING REQUIREMENTS 



63 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 

PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS 



CONTENTS 



FOREWORD 

1 SCOPE 

2 TERMINOLOGY 

3 FIRE PREVENTION 

4 LIFE SAFETY 

5 FIRE PROTECTION 

6 ADDITIONAL OCCUPANCY- WISE REQUIREMENTS 

ANNEX A CALORIFIC VALUES OF COMMON MATERIALS AND 
TYPICAL VALUES OF FIRE LOAD DENSITY 

ANNEX B BROAD CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL AND 

NON-INDUSTRIAL OCCUPANCIES INTO DIFFERENT 
DEGREE OF HAZARD 

ANNEX C FIRE PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR HIGH RISE 
BUILDINGS — 15 m IN HEIGHT OR ABOVE 

ANNEX D FIRE PROTECTION CONSIDERATIONS FOR VENTING IN 
INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 

ANNEX E GUIDELINES FOR FIRE DRILL AND EVACUATION 
PROCEDURES FOR HIGH RISE BUILDINGS 
(ABOVE 15 m IN HEIGHT) 

LIST OF STANDARDS 



7 
7 
9 

26 
32 
49 

62 
63 

65 

71 
77 



83 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



National Building Code Sectional Committee, CED 46 



FOREWORD 

This Part of the Code deals with safety from fire. It specifies the demarcation of fire zones, restrictions on 
construction of buildings in each fire zone, classification of buildings based on occupancy, types of building 
construction according to fire resistance of the structural and non-structural components and other restrictions 
and requirements necessary to minimize danger to life from fire, smoke, fumes or panic before the buildings can 
be evacuated. The Code recognizes that safety of life is more than a matter of means of exits and accordingly 
deals with various matters which are considered essential to the safety of life. 

Fire protection techniques have to be based on the fire behaviour characteristics of different materials and structural 
elements of buildings. The activities pursued by the occupants of buildings must also be taken into consideration 
for assessing the extent of hazards, and method should then be devised by which the hazards could be minimized. 
An indefinite combination of variables is involved in the phenomenon of fire, all of which cannot be quantified. 
The requirements of this Code should, therefore, be taken as a guide and an engineering design approach should 
be adopted for ensuring a fire safe design for buildings. It would also be necessary for this purpose to associate 
qualified and trained fire protection engineers with the planning of buildings, so that adequate fire protection 
measures could be incorporated in the building design right from the beginning. 

Absolute safety from fire is not attainable in practice. The objective of this Part is to specify measures that will 
provide that degree of safety from fire which can be reasonably achieved. The Code endeavours to avoid 
requirements that might involve unreasonable hardships or unnecessary inconvenience or interference with normal 
use and occupancy of buildings, but insists upon compliance with minimum standards for fire safety necessary in 
public interest. For ensuring compliance of fire protection equipments/installations to the laid down quality 
requirements, it is desirable to use such equipments/installation duly certified under the BIS Certification Marks 
Scheme. 

While providing guidelines for minimizing chances of occurrence of fire through passive fire protection measures, 
this Part does not intend to cover all aspects of general fire prevention including sources of ignition. Nor does it 
cover the prevention of accidental personal injuries during the course of normal occupancy of buildings. 

This Part while recognizing that panic in a building on fire may be uncontrollable, deals with the potential panic 
hazard through measures designed to prevent the development of panic. Experience indicates that panic seldom 
develops even in the presence of potential danger, so long as occupants of buildings are moving towards exits 
which they can see within a reasonable distance and with no obstruction or undue congestion in the path of 
travel However, any uncertainty as to the location or adequacy of means of egress, the presence of smoke or 
fumes and the stoppage of travel towards the exit, such as may occur when one person stumbles and falls on 
stairs, may be conducive to panic. Danger from panic is greater when a large number of people are trapped in a 
confined area. 

Experience has shown that concealed spaces within a building, such as, space between ceiling and false ceiling, 
horizontal and vertical ducts, etc, tend to act as flues/tunnels during a fire. Provision should, therefore, be made 
to provide fire stopping within such spaces. 

Nothing in this Part of the Code shall be construed to prohibit better types of building construction, more exits or 
otherwise safer conditions than the minimum requirements specified in this Part. 

Compliance with this Part shall not be construed as eliminating or reducing the necessity for other provisions for 
safety of persons using a building or structure under normal occupancy conditions. Nor shall any provision of 
this Code be construed as requiring or permitting any addition that may be hazardous under normal occupancy 
conditions. 

One of the major points brought out in this Part is the limitation of heights and areas of buildings based on fire 
safety of the occupants. Individual municipal corporations are free to alter Table 19 based on local conditions, 

PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 3 



but the ratios of areas as maintained in the table for different occupancies and types of construction shall be 
adhered to. 

Advantage has been taken of the developments, particularly in fire resistance rating of materials, designating 
types of construction in a rational manner and relating the area limitations of different occupancies to different 
types of construction. 

Halons (halogenated hydrocarbons) which exhibit exceptional fire fighting and explosion prevention/suppression 
characteristics have been found to possess high ozone depleting potential. They come under Group II of Annex 
A of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, the international environmental agreement 
for phasing out ozone depleting substances. Due to increasing evidence that the ozone layer is getting depleted at 
a faster rate than thought earlier, the developed countries accelerated their phase-out schedule with a view to 
achieving 100 percent phase-out of halons by 1 January 1994, instead of the earlier target date of 1 January 2000 
after which only essential use of halon was allowed. For developing countries like India, the total phase-out of 
halons is to be achieved by 1 January 2010, as per Montreal Protocol, unless a decision is taken in between to 
hasten up the phase-out of ozone depleting substances. India, having become a signatory to the Protocol in June 
1992, is committed to abide by the Montreal Protocol decisions. In accordance with Ministry of Environment 
and Forests, Government of India, Ozone Depleting Substances (Regulations), Rules, 2000, the manufacture of 
halon based fire extinguishers and extinguishing systems has been phased out by 1 January 2001. Meanwhile, 
the practical implications of the phasing out of the halons cover, by and large, the following aspects: 

a) Availability of halons will be restricted; 

b) Non-standard halon extinguishers, like aerosol type, shall not be permitted; 

c) Discharge of halons for training/testing, etc shall not be permitted; 

d) All efforts shall be made for avoiding/minimizing halon emissions at various levels such as production, 
fire equipment manufacture, use, service and maintenance; 

e) Since 'drop-in' substitutes for halons are not likely to be available on a commercial scale in the near 
future, wherever possible, instead of halon, use of suitable alternative extinguishing media/methods 
will be resorted to, even accepting some trade-offs, if necessary; and 

f) Halons shall be restricted for 'essential uses' only, for protection of critical fire explosion risk areas 
which would otherwise result in serious impairment of an essential service to society, or pose an 
unacceptable threat to life, the environment, or national security. 

NOTE — Detailed instructions which will be issued by the Government of India from time-to-time for implementation of the 
Country Programme for the phasing out of ozone depleting substance (ODS) and regarding permitting use of halons for 
applications till the availability of proper substitutes, shall have to be complied with. 

The first version of this Part was formulated in 1970 and first revision was brought out in 1983. Subsequently the 
first revision of this Part was modified in 1997 through Amendment No. 3 to 1983 version of the Code. This 
modified version of this part included few tables for the fire resistance ratings of various building components, 
such as walls, columns, beams and floors. The requirements for wet riser, down-comer, automatic sprinkler 
installation, high velocity (10-15 m/s) water spray or foam generating system, etc, for buildings were modified. 
Annex giving guidelines for selection of fire detectors had been deleted and relevant Indian Standards on fire 
alarm system and smoke detectors had been referred. Also, Annex for determination of fire loads and fire load 
density for arriving at the classification of occupancy hazard and calorific values of some common materials 
were included. Annex for broad classification of industrial and non-industrial occupancies into low, moderate 
and high hazard had also been included. 

As a result of implementation of this Part, some useful suggestions have emerged. This revision has, therefore, 
been prepared to take care of the same. The significant modifications incorporated include: 

a) The text has now been divided into the following broad clauses: 

1) Fire Prevention — Covering aspects of fire prevention pertaining to design and construction of 
buildings on passive fire protection measures, also describing the various types of building materials 
and their fire rating. 

2) Life Safety — Covering life safety provisions in the event of fire and similar emergencies, also 
addressing construction and occupancy features that are necessary to minimize danger to life from 
fire, smoke, fumes or panic. 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



3) Fire Protection — covering the significant appurtenances and their related components and guidelines 
for selecting the correct type of equipment and installation meant for fire protection of the building, 
depending upon the classification and type of the building. 

b) The classification of building based on occupancy has been elaborated, with: 

1) Starred hotels now covered as a new sub-division A-6 under occupancy Group A Residential. 

2) Heritage structures and archeological monuments now covered under sub-division D-3 occupancy 
Group D Assembly buildings. 

3) Mixed assembly occupancies now covered as a new sub-division D-6 and under ground elevated 
railways have been covered as a new sub-division D-7 under occupancy Group D Assembly 
buildings. 

4) TV stations now covered under sub-division E-5 of occupancy Group E Business buildings. 

c) The minimum capacity of smoke exhaust equipment has been increased to 12 air changes per hour. 

d) For the external stairs for exit requirements, the width and treads have been increased to 1 250 mm and 
250 mm respectively. 

e) Under the requirements for institutional buildings the clear width of all required exits which serve as 
egress from hospital or infirmary section has been increased from 1.5 m to 2 m. Also, provision of 
patient-lift has been included. 

f) Due cognizance of halon phase out programme has been taken, while specifying provisions in this Part 
with respect to fire protection using fire extinguishers/systems. 

All standards cross-referred to in the main text of this section, are subject to the revision. The parties to agreement 
based on this Part are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the 
standards. 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



1 SCOPE 

This Part covers the requirements for fire prevention, 
life safety in relation to fire and fire protection of 
buildings. The Code specifies construction, occupancy 
and protection features that are necessary to minimize 
danger to life and property from fire. 

2 TERMINOLOGY 

2.0 For the purpose of this Part, the following 
definitions shall apply. 

2.1 Automatic Fire Detection and Alarm System 

— Fire alarm system comprising components for 
automatically detecting a fire, initiating an alarm of 
fire and initiating other actions as appropriate. 

NOTE — The system may also include manual fire alarm call 
points. 

2.2 Automatic Sprinkler System — A system of water 
pipes fitted with sprinkler heads at suitable intervals and 
heights and designed to actuate automatically, control 
and extinguish a fire by the discharge of water. 

2.3 Building — Any structure for whatsoever purpose 
and of whatsoever materials constructed and every part 
thereof whether used as human habitation or not and 
includes foundation, plinth, walls, floors, roofs, 
chimneys, plumbing and building services, fixed 
platforms, VERANDAH, balcony, cornice or projection, 
part of a building or anything affixed thereto or any wall 
enclosing or intended to enclose any land or space 
and signs and outdoor display structures. Tents, 
SHAMIANAHS, tarpaulin shelters, etc, erected for 
temporary and ceremonial occasions with the permission 
of the Authority shall not be considered as building. 

2.4 Building, Height of — The vertical distance 
measured in the case of flat roofs, from the average level 
of the ground around and contiguous to the building or 
as decided by the Authority to the terrace of the last 
livable floor of the building adjacent to the external wall; 
and in the case of pitched roofs, up to the point where 
the external surface of the outer wall intersects the 
finished surface of the sloping roof; and in the case of 
gables facing the road, the mid-point between the eaves 
level and the ridge. Architectural features serving no 
other function except that of decoration, shall be 
excluded for the purpose of measuring heights. 

2.5 Combustible Material — The material which 
either burns itself or adds heat to a fire, when tested 
for non-combustibility in accordance with accepted 
standard [4(1)]. 

2.6 Covered Area — Ground area covered by the 



building immediately above the plinth level. The area 
covered by the following in the open spaces is excluded 
from covered area (see Table 19): 

a) garden, rockery, well and well structures, 
plant nursery, waterpool, swimming pool (if 
uncovered), platform round a tree, tank, 
fountain, bench, CHABUTARA with open top 
and unenclosed on sides by walls and the like; 

b) drainage culvert, conduit, catch-pit, gully pit, 
chamber, gutter and the like; 

c) compound wall, gate, unstoreyed porch and 
portico, slide, swing, uncovered staircases, 
ramp areas covered by CHHAJJA and the like; 
and 

d) watchman's booth, pumphouse, garbage 

shaft, electric cabin or sub-stations, and such 

other utility structures meant for the services 

of the building under consideration. 

NOTE — For the purpose of this Part, covered area 
equals the plot area minus the area due for open spaces 

in the plot. 

2.7 Down-comer — An arrangement of fire fighting 
within the building by means of down-comer pipe 
connected to terrace tank through terrace pump, gate 
valve and non-return valve and having mains not less 
than 100 mm internal diameter with landing valves on 
each floor/landing. It is also fitted with inlet 
connections at ground level for charging with water 
by pumping from fire service appliances and air release 
valve at roof level to release trapped air inside. 

2.8 Dry Riser — An arrangement of fire fighting 
within the building by means of vertical rising mains 
not less than 100 mm internal diameter with landing 
valves on each floor/landing which is normally dry 
but is capable of being charged with water usually by 
pumping from fire service appliances. 

2.9 Emergency Lighting — Lighting provided for use 
when the supply to the normal lighting fails. 

2.10 Emergency Lighting System — A complete but 
discrete emergency lighting installation from the 
standby power source to the emergency lighting 
lamp(s), for example, self-contained emergency 
luminaire or a circuit from central battery generator 
connected through wiring to several escape luminaries. 

2.11 Escape Lighting — That part of emergency 
lighting which is provided to ensure that the escape 
route is illuminated at all material times, for example, 
at all times when persons are on the premises, or at 
times the main lighting is not available, either for the 
whole building or for the escape routes. 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



2.12 Fire Door — A fire-resistive door approved for 
openings in fire separation. 

2.13 Fire Exit — A way out leading to an escape route 
having panic bar hardware provided on the door. 

2.14 Fire Lift — The lift installed to enable fire 
services personnel to reach different floors with 
minimum delay, having such features as required in 
accordance with this Part. 

2.15 Fire Load — Calorific energy, of the whole 
contents contained in a space, including the facings of 
the walls, partitions, floors and ceilings. 

2.16 Fire Load Density — Fire load divided by floor 
area. 

2.17 Fire Resistance Rating — The time that a 
material or construction will withstand the standard 
fire exposure as determined by fire test done in 
accordance with the standard methods of fire tests of 
materials/structures. 

2.18 Fire Resistance — Fire resistance is a property 
of an element of building construction and is the 
measure of its ability to satisfy for a stated period some 
or all of the following criteria: 

a) resistance to collapse, 

b) resistance to penetration of flame and hot 
gases, and 

c) resistance to temperature rise on the unexposed 
face up to a maximum of 180°C and/or 
average temperature of 150°C. 

2.19 Fire Separation — The distance in metres 
measured from the external wall of the building 
concerned to the external wall of any other building 
on the site, or from other site, or from the opposite 
side of street or other public space for the purpose of 
preventing the spread of fire. 

2.20 Fire Separating Wall — The wall provides 
complete separation of one building from another or 
part of a building from another or part of a building 
from another part of the same building to prevent any 
communication of fire or heat transmission to wall itself 
which may cause or assist in the combustion of 
materials on the side opposite to that portion which 
may be on fire. 

2.21 Fire Stop — A fire resistant material, or 
construction, having a fire resistance rating of not lesss 
than the fire separating elements, installed in concealed 
spaces or between structural elements of a building to 
prevent the spread/propagation of fire and smoke through 
walls, ceilings and like as per the laid down criteria. 

2.22 Fire Tower — An enclosed staircase which can 
only be approached from the various floors through 
landings or lobbies separated from both the floor areas 



and the staircase by fire-resisting doors, and open to 
the outer air. 

2.23 Fire Resisting Wall — A fire resistance rated 
wall, having protected openings, which restricts the 
spread of fire and extends continuously from the 
foundation to at least 1 m above the roof. 

2.24 Floor Area Ratio (FAR) — The quotient 
obtained by dividing the total covered area (plinth area) 
on all floors by the area of the plot: 



FAR = 



Total covered area of all floors 
Plot area 



2.25 High Rise Building — For the purpose of this 
Part, all buildings 15 m or above in height shall be 
considered as high rise buildings. 

2.26 Horizontal Exit — An arrangement which 
allows alternative egress from a floor area to another 
floor at or near the same level in an adjoining building 
or an adjoining part of the same building with adequate 

fire separation. 

2.27 Means of Egress — A continuous and 
unobstructed way of travel from any point in a building 
or structure to a place of comparative safety. 

2.28 Occupancy or Use Group — The principal 
occupancy for which a building or a part of a building 
is used or intended to be used; for the purpose of 
classification of a building according to the occupancy, 
an occupancy shall be deemed to include subsidiary 
occupancies which are contingent upon it. 

2.29 Plinth Area — The built-up covered area measured 
at the floor level of the basement or of any storey. 

2.30 Pressurization — The establishment of a 
pressure difference across a barrier to protect a 
stairway, lobby, escape route or room of a building 
from smoke penetration. 

2.31 Pressurization Level — The pressure difference 
between the pressurized space and the area served by 
the pressurized escape route, expressed in pascals (Pa). 

2.32 Roof Exits — A means of escape on to the roof 
of a building, where the roof has access to it from the 
ground. The exit shall have adequate cut-off within 
the building from staircase below. 

2.33 Site Plot — A parcel (piece) of land enclosed by 
definite boundaries. 

2.34 Stack Pressure — Pressure difference caused 
by a temperature difference creating an air movement 
within a duct, chimney or enclosure. 

2.35 Travel Distance — The distance to be travelled 
from any point in a building to a protected escape route, 
external escape route or final exit. 



8 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



2.36 Ventilation — Supply of outside air into, or the 
removal of inside air from an enclosed space. 

2.37 Venting Fire — The process of inducing heat 
and smoke to leave a building as quickly as possible 
by such paths that lateral spread of fire and heat is 
checked, fire fighting operations are facilitated and 
minimum fire damage is caused. 

2.38 Volume to Plot Area Ratio (VPR) — The ratio 
of volume of building measured in cubic metres to the 
area of the plot measured in square metres and 
expressed in metres. 

2.39 Wet Riser — An arrangement for fire fighting 
within the building by means of vertical rising mains 
not less than 100 mm nominal diameter with landing 
valves on each floor/landing for fire fighting purposes 
and permanently charged with water from a pressurized 
supply. 

NOTE — For definitions of other terms, reference shall be 
made to good practice [4(2)]. 

3 FIRE PREVENTION 

3.1 Classification of Building Based on Occupancy 

3.1.1 General Classification 

All buildings, whether existing or hereafter erected 
shall be classified according to the use or the character 
of occupancy in one of the following groups: 

Group A Residential 

Group B Educational 

Group C Institutional 

Group D Assembly 

Group E Business 

Group F Mercantile 

Group G Industrial 

Group H Storage 

Group J Hazardous 

3.1.1.1 Minor occupancy incidental to operations in 
another type of occupancy shall be considered as part 
of the main occupancy and shall be classified under 
the relevant group for the main occupancy. 

Examples of buildings in each group are given in 3.1.2 
to 3.1.10. 

3.1.2 Group A Residential Buildings 

These shall include any building in which sleeping 
accommodation is provided for normal residential 
purposes with or without cooking or dining or both 
facilities, except any building classified under Group C. 

Buildings and structures under Group A shall be further 
sub-divided as follows: 

Sub-division A-l Lodging or rooming houses 



Sub-division A-2 One or two-family private 

dwellings 

Sub-division A-3 Dormitories 

Sub-division A-4 Apartment houses (flats) 

Sub-division A-5 Hotels 

Sub-division A-6 Hotels (Starred) 

a) Sub-division A-l Lodging or rooming houses 
— These shall include any building or group 
of buildings under the same management, in 
which separate sleeping accommodation for 
a total of not more than 40 persons (beds), on 
transient or permanent basis, with or without 
dining facilities but without cooking facilities 
for individuals is provided. This includes inns, 
clubs, motels and guest houses. 

A lodging or rooming house shall be classified 
as a dwelling in sub-division A-2 if no room 
in any of its private dwelling units is rented 
to more than three persons. 

b) Sub-division A-2 One or two-family private 
dwellings — These shall include any private 
dwelling which is occupied by members of 
one or two families and has a total sleeping 
accommodation for not more than 20 persons. 
If rooms in a private dwelling are rented to 
outsiders, these shall be for accommodating 
not more than three persons per room. 

If sleeping accommodation for more than 20 
persons is provided in any one residential 
building, it shall be classified as a building in 
sub-division A-l, A-3 or A-4 as the case may 
be. 

c) Sub-division A-3 Dormitories — These shall 
include any building in which group sleeping 
accommodation is provided, with or without 
dining facilities for persons who are not 
members of the same family, in one room or 
a series of closely associated rooms under 
joint occupancy and single management, for 
example, school and college dormitories, 
students, and other hostels and military 
barracks. 

d) Sub-division A-4 Apartment houses (flats) — 
These shall include any building or structure 
in which living quarters are provided for three 
or more families, living independently of each 
other and with independent cooking facilities, 
for example, apartment houses, mansions and 
chawls. 

e) Sub-division A-5 Hotels — These shall 
include any building or group of buildings 
under single management, in which sleeping 
accommodation is provided, with or without 
dining facilities for hotels classified up to 
4 Star Category. 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



f) Sub-division A-6 Hotels (starred) — These 
shall include the hotels duly approved by the 
concerned authorities as Five Star and above 
Hotels. 

3.1.3 Group B Educational Buildings 

These shall include any building used for school, 
college, other training institutions for day-care 
purposes involving assembly for instruction, education 
or recreation for not less than 20 students. 

Buildings and structures under Group B shall be further 
sub-divided as follows: 

Sub-division B-l Schools up to senior secondary 
level 

Sub-division B-2 All others/training institutions 

a) Sub-division B-l Schools up to senior 
secondary level — This sub-division shall 
include any building or a group of buildings 
under single management which is used for 
students not less than 20 in number. 

b) Sub-division B-2 All others/training 
institutions — This sub-division shall include 
any building or a group of buildings under 
single management which is used for students 
not less than 100 in number. 

In the case of temporary buildings/structures which 
are utilized for educational purposes, the provisions 
of 3.2.5.3 shall apply. 

If residential accommodation is provided in the 
schools/institutions, that portion of occupancy shall be 
classified as a building in sub-division A-3. 

3.1.4 Group C Institutional Buildings 

These shall include any building or part thereof, which 
is used for purposes, such as medical or other treatment 
or care of persons suffering from physical or 
mental illness, disease or infirmity; care of infants, 
convalescents or aged persons and for penal or 
correctional detention in which the liberty of the 
inmates is restricted. Institutional buildings ordinarily 
provide sleeping accommodation for the occupants. 

Buildings and structures under Group C shall be further 
sub-divided as follows: 

Sub-division C-l Hospitals and sanatoria 
Sub-division C-2 Custodial institutions 
Sub-division C-3 Penal and mental institutions 
a) Sub-division C-l Hospitals and sanatoria — 
This sub-division shall include any building or 
a group of buildings under single management, 
which is used for housing persons suffering 
from physical limitations because of health 
or age, for example, hospitals, infirmaries, 
sanatoria and nursing homes. 



b) Sub-division C-2 Custodial institutions — 
This sub-division shall include any building 
or a group of buildings under single 
management, which is used for the custody 
and care of persons, such as children, 
convalescents and the aged, for example, 
homes for the aged and infirm, convalescent 
homes and orphanages. 

c) Sub-division C-3 Penal and mental institutions 
— This sub-division shall include any 
building or a group of buildings under single 
management, which is used for housing 
persons under restraint, or who are detained 
for penal or corrective purposes, in which the 
liberty of the inmates is restricted, for 
example, jails, prisons, mental hospitals, 
mental sanatoria and reformatories. 

3.1.5 Group D Assembly Buildings 

These shall include any building or part of a building, 
where number of persons not less than 50 congregate 
or gather for amusement, recreation, social, religious, 
patriotic, civil, travel and similar purposes, for 
example, theatres, motion picture houses, assembly 
halls, auditoria, exhibition halls, museums, skating 
rinks, gymnasiums, restaurants, places of worship, dance 
halls, club rooms, passenger stations and terminals of 
air, surface and marine public transportation services, 
recreation piers and stadia, etc. 

Buildings under Group D shall be further sub-divided 
as follows: 

Sub-division D-l Buildings having a theatrical or 
motion picture or any other stage and fixed seats 
for over 1 000 persons 

Sub-division D-2 Buildings having a theatrical or 
motion picture or any other stage and fixed seats 
upto 1 000 persons 

Sub-division D-3 Buildings without a permanent 
stage having accommodation for 300 or more 
persons but no permanent seating arrangement. 

Sub-division D-4 Buildings without a permanent 
stage having accommodation for less than 300 
persons with no permanent seating arrangement. 

Sub-division D-5 All other structures including 
temporary structures designed for assembly of 
people not covered by sub-divisions D-l to D-4, 
at ground level. 

Sub-division D-6 Buildings having mixed 
occupancies providing facilities such as shopping, 
cinema theatres, and restaurants. 

Sub-division D-7 All other structures, elevated or 
underground, for assembly of people not covered 
by sub-divisions D-l to D-6. 
a) Sub-division D-l — This sub-division shall 



10 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



include any building primarily meant for 
theatrical or operatic performances and 
exhibitions and which has a raised stage, 
proscenium curtain, fixed or portable scenery 
or scenery loft, lights, motion picture houses, 
mechanical appliances or other theatrical 
accessories and equipment and which is 
provided with fixed seats for over 1 000 persons. 

b) Sub-division D-2 — This sub-division shall 
include any building primarily meant for use 
as described for sub-division D-l, but with 
fixed seats up to 1 000 persons. 

c) Sub-division D-3 — This sub-division shall 
include any building, its lobbies, rooms and 
other spaces connected thereto, primarily 
intended for assembly of people, but which 
has no theatrical stage or permanent theatrical 
and/or cinematographic accessories and has 
accommodation for 300 persons or more, for 
example, dance halls, night clubs, halls for 
incidental picture shows, dramatic, theatrical 
or educational presentation, lectures or other 
similar purposes having no theatrical stage 
except a raised platform and used without 
permanent seating arrangement; art galleries 
exhibition halls, community halls, marriage 
halls, places of worship, museums, lecture 
halls, passenger terminals and Heritage and 
Archeological Monuments. 

d) Sub-division D-4 — This sub-division shall 
include any building primarily intended for 
use as described in sub-division D-3, but with 
accommodation for less than 300 persons with 
no permanent seating arrangements. 

e) Sub-division D-5 — This sub-division shall 
include any building or structure permanent 
or temporary meant for assembly of people not 
covered by sub-divisions D-l to D-4, for 
example, grandstands, stadia, amusement park 
structures, reviewing stands and circus tents. 

f) Sub-division D-6 — This sub-division shall 
include any building for assembly of people 
provided with multiple services/facilities like 
shopping, cinema theatres and restaurants, for 
example, multiplexes. 

g) Sub-division D-7 — This sub-division shall 
include any building or structure permanent 
or temporary meant for assembly of people 
not covered by D-l to D-6, for example, 
underground or elevated railways. 

3.1.6 Group E Business Buildings 

These shall include any building or part of a building 
which is used for transaction of business (other than 
that covered by Group F and part of buildings covered 



by 3.1.1.1); for keeping of accounts and records and 
similar purposes, professional establishments, service 
facilities, etc. City halls, town halls, court houses and 
libraries shall be classified in this group so far as the 
principal function of these is transaction of public 
business and keeping of books and records. 

Business buildings shall be further sub-divided as 
follows: 

Sub-division E-l Offices, banks, professional 
establishments, like offices of architects, 
engineers,: doctors, lawyers and police stations. 

Sub-division E-2 Laboratories, research 
establishments, libraries and test houses. 

Sub-division E-3 Computer installations. 

Sub-division E-4 Telephone exchanges. 

Sub-division E-5 Broadcasting stations and T.V. 
stations. 

3.1.7 Group F Mercantile Buildings 

These shall include any building or part of a building, 
which is used as shops, stores, market, for display and 
sale of merchandise, either wholesale or retail. 

Mercantile buildings shall be further sub-divided as 
follows: 

Sub-division F-l Shops, stores, departmental 
stores markets with area up to 500 m 2 . 
Sub-division F-2 Shops, stores, departmental 
stores markets with area more than 500 m 2 . 
Sub-division F-3 Underground shopping centres. 
Storage and service facilities incidental to the sale 
of merchandise and located in the same building 
shall be included under this group. 

3.1.8 Group G Industrial Buildings 

These shall include any building or part of a building 
or structure, in which products or materials of all kinds 
and properties are fabricated, assembled, manufactured 
or processed, for example, assembly plants, industrial 
laboratories, dry cleaning plants, power plants, 
generating units, pumping stations, fumigation 
chambers, laundries, buildings or structures in gas 
plants, refineries, dairies and saw-mills, etc. 

Buildings under Group G shall be further sub-divided 
as follows: 

Sub-division G-l Buildings used for low hazard 

industries. 

Sub-division G-2 Buildings used for moderate 

hazard industries. 

Sub-division G-3 Buildings used for high hazard 

industries. 

The hazard of occupancy, for the purpose of the Code, 
shall be the relative danger of the start and spread of 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



11 



fire, the danger of smoke or gases generated, the danger 
of explosion or other occurrences potentially 
endangering the lives and safety of the occupants of 
the buildings. 

Hazard of occupancy shall be determined by the 
Authority on the basis of the fire loads of the contents, 
and the processes or operations conducted in 
the building, provided, however, that where the 
combustibility of the material, the flame spread rating 
of the interior finish or other features of the building 
or structure are such as to involve a hazard greater than 
the occupancy hazard, the greater degree of hazard shall 
govern the classification. 

For determination of fire loads and fire load density 
for arriving at the classification of occupancy hazard, 
guidance including the calorific values of some 
common materials, is given at Annex A. 

A broad classification of industrial and non-industrial 
occupancies into low, moderate and high hazard classes 
is given at Annex B, for guidance. Any occupancy not 
covered in Annex B, shall be classified in the most 
appropriate class depending on the degree of hazard. 

Where different degrees of hazard of occupancy exist 
in different parts of a building, the most hazardous of 
those shall govern the classification for the purpose of 
this Code, except in cases where hazardous areas are 
segregated or protected as specified in the Code. 

a) Sub-division G-l — This sub-division shall 
include any building in which the contents are 
of such comparative low combustibility and the 
industrial processes or operations conducted 
therein are of such a nature that there are hardly 
any possibilities for any self propagating fire to 
occur and the only consequent danger to life 
and property may arise from panic, fumes or 
smoke, or fire from some external source. 

b) Sub-division G-2 — This sub-division shall 
include any building in which the contents or 
industrial processes or operations conducted 
therein are liable to give rise to a fire which 
will burn with moderate rapidity or result in 
other hazardous situation and may give off a 
considerable volume of smoke, but from 
which neither toxic fumes nor explosions are 
to be feared in the event of fire. 

c) Sub-division G-3 — This sub-division shall 
include any building in which the contents or 
industrial processes or operations conducted 
therein are liable to give rise to a fire which 
will burn with extreme rapidity or result in 
other hazardous situation or from which 
poisonous fumes or explosions are to be 
feared in the event of a fire. For fire safety in 
petroleum and fertilizer plant, good practice 
[4(3)] may be referred. 



3.1.9 Group H Storage Buildings 

These shall include any building or part of a building 
used primarily for the storage or sheltering (including 
servicing, processing or repairs incidental to storage) 
of goods, ware or merchandise (except those that 
involve highly combustible or explosive products 
or materials) vehicles or animals, for example, 
warehouses, cold storage, freight depots, transit sheds, 
storehouses, truck and marine terminals, garages, 
hangers, grain elevators, barns and stables. Storage 
properties are characterized by the presence of 
relatively small number of persons in proportion to 
the area. Any new use which increase the number of 
occupants to a figure comparable with other classes of 
occupancy shall change the classification of the 
building to that of the new use, for example, hangars 
used for assembly purposes, warehouses used for office 
purposes, garage buildings used for manufacturing. 

3.1.10 Group J Hazardous Buildings 

These shall include any building or part of a building 
which is used for the storage, handling, manufacture 
or processing of highly combustible or explosive 
materials or products which are liable to burn with 
extreme rapidity and or which may produce poisonous 
fumes or explosions for storage, handling, 
manufacturing or processing which involve highly 
corrosive, toxic or noxious alkalis, acids or other liquids 
or chemicals producing flame, fumes and explosive, 
poisonous, irritant or corrosive gases; and for the 
storage, handling or processing of any material 
producing explosive mixtures of dust which result in 
the division of matter into fine particles subject to 
spontaneous ignition. Examples of buildings in this 
class are those buildings which are used for: 

a) Storage, under pressure of more than 
0.1 N/mm 2 and in quantities exceeding 70 m 3 , 
of acetylene, hydrogen, illuminating and 
natural gases, ammonia, chlorine, phosgene, 
sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, methyloxide 
and all gases subject to explosion, fume or 
toxic hazard, cryogenic gases, etc; 

b) Storage and handling of hazardous and highly 
flammable liquids, liquefiable gases like LPG, 
rocket propellaflts, etc; 

c) Storage and handling of hazardous and highly 
flammable or explosive materials (other than 
liquids); and 

d) Manufacture of artificial flowers, synthetic 
leather, ammunition, explosives and fireworks. 

NOTE — A list of hazardous substances giving 
quantities, for which or exceeding which owners 
handling such substances are required to be covered 
under the Public Liability Insurance Act, has been 
notified under Government of India, Ministry of 
Environment and Forests Notification No. G.S.R. 
347(E) dated 1 August 1996. 



12 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



3.1.11 Any building not covered by Annex B or 3.1.8 
shall be classified in the group which most nearly 
resembles its existing or proposed use. 

3.1.12 Where change in the occupancy of any building 
places it in a different group or in a different sub- 
division of the same group, such building shall be made 
to comply with the requirements of the Code for the 
new group or its sub-division. 

3.1.13 Where the new occupancy of a building is less 
hazardous, based on life and fire risk, than its existing 
occupancy, it shall not be necessary to conform to the 
requirements of the Code for the new group or its sub- 
division. 

3.1.14 A certificate of occupancy shall be necessary, as 
required under Part 2 4 Administration' , before any change 
is effected in the character of occupancy of any building. 

3.2 Fire Zones 

3.2.1 Demarcation 

The city or area under the jurisdiction of the Authority 
shall for the purpose of the Code, be demarcated into 
distinct zones, based on fire hazard inherent in the 
buildings and structures according to occupancy 
(see 3.1), which shall be called as Tire Zones'. 

3.2.2 Number and Designation of Fire Zones 

3.2.2.1 The number of fire zones in a city or area under 
the jurisdiction of the Authority depends upon the 
existing layout, types of building construction (see 3.3), 
classification of existing buildings based on occupancy 
(see 3.1) and expected future development of the city 
or area. In large cities or areas, three fire zones may be 
necessary, while in smaller ones, one or two may be 
adequate. 

3.2.2.2 The fire zones shall be made use of in land use 
development plan and shall be designated as follows: 

a) Fire Zone No. 1 — This shall comprise areas 
having residential (Group A), educational 
(Group B), institutional (Group C), and 
assembly (Group D), small business (Sub- 
divisions E- 1 ) and retail mercantile (Group F) 
buildings, or areas which are under development 
for such occupancies. 

b) Fire Zone No. 2 — This shall comprise 
business (Sub-divisions E-2 to E-5) and 
industrial buildings (Sub-division G-l and 
G-2), except high hazard industrial buildings 
(Sub-division G-3) or areas which are under 
development for such occupancies. 

c) Fire Zone No. 3 — This shall comprise areas 
having high hazard industrial buildings (Sub- 
division G-3), storage buildings (Group H) 
and buildings for hazardous used (Group J) 



or areas which are under development for 
such occupancies. 

3.2.3 Change in the Fire Zone Boundaries 

When the boundaries of any fire zone are changed, or 
when it is intended to include other areas or types of 
occupancies in any fire zone, it shall be done by 
following the same procedure as for promulgating new 
rules or ordinances or both. 

3.2.4 Overlapping Fire Zones 

3.2.4.1 When any building is so situated that it extends 
to more than one fire zone, it shall be deemed to be in 
the fire zone in which the major portion of the building 
or structure is situated. 

3.2.4.2 When any building is so situated that it extends 
equally to more than one fire zone, it shall be deemed 
to be in the fire zone having more hazardous occupancy 
buildings. 

3.2.5 Temporary Buildings or Structures 

3.2.5.1 Temporary buildings and structures shall be 
permitted only in Fire Zones No. 1 and 2 as the case 
may be, according to the purpose for which these are 
to be used, by special permit from the Authority for a 
limited period and subject to such conditions as may 
be imposed in the permit. 

3.2.5.2 Such buildings and temporary structures shall 
be completely removed on the expiry of the period 
specified in the permit. 

3.2.5.3 Adequate fire precautionary measures in the 
construction of temporary structures and PANDALS 
shall be taken in accordance with good practice [4(4)]. 

3.2.6 Restrictions on the Type of Construction for New 
Buildings 

3.2.6.1 Buildings erected in Fire Zone No. 1 shall 
conform to construction of Type 1, 2, 3 or 4. 

3.2.6.2 Buildings erected in Fire Zone No. 2 shall 
conform to construction of Type 1, 2 or 3. 

3.2.6.3 Buildings erected in Fire Zone No. 3 shall 
conform to construction of Type 1 or 2. 

3.2.7 Restrictions on Existing Buildings 

The existing buildings in any fire zone shall not be 
required to comply with the requirement of the Code 
unless these are altered, or in the opinion of the 
Authority, such building constitutes a hazard to the 
safety of the adjacent property or the occupants of the 
building itself or is an unsafe building. In the event of 
alteration, it shall be necessary to obtain permission 
of the Authority for such alteration consistent with fire 
hazard (see Part 2 'Administration'). 

Alterations/modifications/renovations shall be 
accomplished so as to ensure conformity with all the 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



13 



safety requirements of the new buildings. Such 
alterations shall not in anyway bring down level of 
fire and life safety below that which existed earlier. 
Any addition or alterations or construction of cubicles 
or partitioning for floor area exceeding 500 m 2 for all 
high rise buildings shall be with approval of local fire 
authority. 

3.3 Types of Construction 

3.3.1 General 

The design of any building and the type of materials 
used in its construction are important factors in making 
the building resistant to a complete burn-out and in 
preventing the rapid spread of fire, smoke or fumes, 
which may otherwise contribute to the loss of lives 
and property. 

The fire resistance of a building or its structural and 
non-structural elements is expressed in hours against 
a specified fire load which is expressed in kcal/m 2 , and 
against a certain intensity of fire. The fire-resistance 
test for structural element shall be done in accordance 
with good practice [4(5)]. For the purpose of the Code, 
the types of construction according to fire resistance 
shall be classified into four categories, namely, 



Type 1 Construction, Type 2 Construction, Type 3 
Construction and Type 4 'Construction'. The fire 
resistance ratings for various types of construction for 
structural and non-structural members shall be as given 
in Table 1 . 

For buildings 15 m in height or above non-combustible 
materials should be us^ed for construction and the 
internal walls of staircase enclosures should be of 
brick work or reinforced concrete or any other 
material of construction with minimum of 2 h rating. 
The walls for the chimney shall be of Type 1 and 
Type 2 Construction depending on whether the gas 
temperature is above 200°C or less. 

33.2 It is required that an element/component shall 
have the requisite fire resistance rating when tested in 
accordance with the accepted standard [4(1)]. 
Tables 2 to 18 provide available data regarding fire 
resistance ratings of various building components such 
as walls, columns, beams and floors. Fire damage 
assessment, post fire structural safety assessment of 
various structural elements of the building and 
adequacy of the structural repairs can be done by the 
fire resistance ratings mentioned in Tables 2 to 18. 



Table 1 Fire Resistance Ratings of Structural and Non-Structural Elements (Hours) 

(Clause 3.3.1) 

lent Type of Construction 



SI 






Structural 


No. 








(1) 






(2) 


i) 


Exterior walls: 








a) Fire separation less than 3.7 m 


a) 


Bearing 






b) 


Non-bearing 




b) Fire separation of 3.7 m or more 


a) 


Bearing 




but less than 9 m 


b) 


Non-bearing 




c) Fire separation of 9 m or more 


a) 


Bearing 






b) 


Non-bearing 



ii) 
iii) 

iv) 

v) 

vi) 
vii) 
viii) 

ix) 



x) 
xi) 
xii) 



Fire resisting walls 

Fire separation assemblies (like fire 

check doors) 

Fire enclosures of exitways, hallways 

and stairways 

Shaft other than exitways, elevator 

and hoistways 

Exitway access corridors 

Vertical separation of tenant spaces 

Dwelling unit separation 

Non-load bearing partitions 

Interior bearing walls, bearing 

partitions, columns, girders, trusses 

(other than roof trusses) and framing 

Structural members support walls 
Floor construction including walls 
Roof construction 



Typel 


Type 2 


Type3 


Type 4 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


4 


2 


2 




2 


\Vi 


1 




4 


2 


2 




Wi 


1 


1 




4 


2 


2 




1 


1 


1 




4 


2 


2 


2 


4 


2 


2 


2 



a) Supporting more than one floor 

b) Supporting one floor only 

c) Supporting a roof only 



a) 5 m or less in height to lowest member 

b) More than 5 m but less than 6.7 m in 
height to lowest member 

c) 6.7 m or more in height to lowest 
member 



1 


/' 1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 




— At least half 


an hour — 




4 


2 


2 


2 


3 


1*4 


1 


1 


3 


Vh 


1 


1 


3 


\Vi 


1 


1 


3 


\Yi 


1 


1 


2 


Vh 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 



14 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



Table 2 Masonry Walls: Solid (Required to Resist Fire from One Side at a Time) 

(Clause 3.3.2) 



SI Nature of Construction 




Minimum Thickness (mm 


), Excluding any 


Finish for 


a 




No. and Materials 








Fire Resistance (Hours) of 
































^-* 


Load Bearing 






Non-load Bearing 










--*- 










* 








<*-*" 








~"N 


' —N 




1 


V/2 


2 


3 


4 


1 


Vh 


2 


3 


4 


(1) (2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


(7) 


(8) 


(9) 


(10) 


(11) 


(12) 


i) Reinforced^ cement concrete 


120 

(25) 2) 


140 

(25) 2) 


160 

(25) 2) 


200 

(25) 2) 


240 

(25) 2) 












ii) Unreinforced cement concrete 


150 


175 


— 


— 


— 












iii) No-fines concrete with : 






















a) 13 mm cement/sand or gypsum/sand 












150 


150 


150 


150 


150 


b) 13 mm light weight aggregate gypsum 












150 


150 


150 


150 


150 


plaster 






















iv) Bricks of clay: 






















a) Without finish 


90 


100 


100 


170 


170 


75 


90 


100 


170 


170 


b) With 13 mm lightweight aggregate 


90 


90 


90 


100 


100 


75 


90 


90 


90 


100 


gypsum plaster 






















v) Bricks of sand lime: 






















a) Without finish 


90 


100 


100 


190 


190 


75 


90 


, 100 


170 


170 


b) With 13 mm lightweight aggregate 


90 


90 


90 


100 


100 


75 


90 


90 


90 


100 


gypsum plaster 






















vi) Blocks of concrete: 






















a) Without finish 


90 


100 


100 


— 


— 


75 


90 


100 


140 


150 


b) With 13 mm lightweight aggregate 


90 


90 


90 


100 


100 


75 


75 


75 


90 


100 


gypsum plaster 






















c) With 13 mm cement/sand or gypsum/ 












75 


90 


90 


100 


140 


sand 






















vii) Blocks of lightweight concrete: 






















a) Without finish 


90 


100 


100 


140 


150 


75 


75 


75 


125 


140 


b) With 13 mm lightweight aggregate 


90 


90 


90 


100 


100 


50 


63 


75 


75 


75 


gypsum plaster 






















c) With 13 mm cement/sand or gypsum/ 












75 


75 


75 


90 


100 


sand 






















viii) Blocks of aerated concrete: 






















a) Without finish 


90 


100 


100 


140 


180 


50 


63 


63 


75 


100 


b) With 13 mm lightweight aggregate 


90 


90 


100 


100 


150 












gypsum plaster 


forceme 


:nt. 


















Walls containing at least 1 percent of vertical rein 




2) Minimum thickness of actual cover to reinforcement. 





















Table 3 Masonry Walls: Hollow (Required to Resist Fire from One Side at a Time) 

(Clause 3.3.2) 



SI 




Nature of Construction 






] 


Minimum Thickness (mm), Excluding any Finish for a 


i 




No. 




and Materials 










Fire Resistance (Hours) of 


•j.. 








*^ 


Load Bearing 








fJon-load 


Bering 




~~ "*"**. 
















-*-, 




















































1 


Wi 


2 


3 


4 


Vi 


1 


\V2 


2 


3 


4 


(1) 






(2) 




(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


(7) 


(8) 


(9) 


(10) 


(ID 


(12) 


(13) 


i) 


Bricks of clay: 




















■' 










a) 


Without finish 






170 


170 


170 


200 


200 


75 


75 


90 


100 


170~ 


* 170 




b) 


With 13 mm 
gypsum plaster 


lightweight 


aggregate 


100 


100 


170 


170 


170 


75 


75 


90 


90 


90 


100 


ii) 


Blocks of concrete: 






























a) 


Without finish 
















90 


125 


125 


140 


140 


150 




b) 


With 13 mm cement/sand or gypsum/sand 


190 


200 


200 


— 


— 


90 


125 


125 


140 


140 


140 




c) 


With 13 mm 
gypsum plaster 


lightweight 


aggregate 












75 


90 


90 


100 


125 


125 


iii) 


Blocks of lightweight 


t concrete: 




























a) 


Without finish 






100 


100 


100 


— 


— 


75 


90 


90 


100 


140 


150 




b) 


With 13 mm cement/sand or gypsum/sand 












75 


75 


75 


100 


140 


140 




c) 


With 13 mm 
gypsum plaster 


lightweight 


aggregate 








" 




63 


63 


63 


75 


90 


100 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



15 



Table 4 Framed Construction, Load Bearing (Required to Resist Fire 
from One Side at a Time) 

(Clause 3.3.2) 

SI Nature of Construction and Materials/Timber Studs at Centres not Minimum Thickness (mm) of Protection 

No. Exceeding 600 mm, Faced on Each Side with for a Fire Resistance of lh 

(1) (2) (3) ' 

i) Plasterboard layers with joints staggered, joints in outer layer taped and filled — Total 25 

thickness for each face 

ii) One layer of 12.7 mm plasterboard with a finish of lightweight aggregate gypsum 13 

plaster 

iii) Metal lath and plaster, thickness of plaster: 

a) Sanded gypsum plaster (metal lathing grade) 22 

b) Lightweight aggregate gypsum plaster 13 

Table 5 Framed Construction, Non-Load Bearing (Required to Resist Fire 
from One Side at a Time) 

(Clause 3.3.2) 

Nature of Construction and Materials/Steel or Timber Frame at Stud Minimum Thickness (mm) of Protection 

Centres not Exceeding 600 mm, Facings on Both Sides of Construction for a Fire Resistance 



Vih lh lVih 2h 

0) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) 

A) Dry lining with materials fixed direct to studs 
(without plaster finish) 

1 . One layer of plasterboard with taped and filled joints Timber or steel 1 2.7 

2. Two layers of plasterboard with joints staggered, joints in Timber or steel 19 25 
outer layer taped and filled — Total thickness for each face 

3. One layer of asbestos insulating board with transverse joints Timber or steel 9 12 
backed by fillers of asbestos insulating board not less than 9 

mm thick, or by timber 

4. One layer of wood wool slabs Timber 25 

5 . One layer of chipboard or of plywood Timber or steel 1 8 

B) Lining with materials fixed direct to suds, with plaster finish: 

Plasterboard of thickness: Timber or steel 

a) With not less than 5 mm gypsum plaster finish 9.5 

b) With not less than 13 mm gypsum plaster finish 12.7 

C) Wet finish: 

Metal lath and plaster, thickness of plaster: 

a) Sanded gypsum plaster Timber or steel 1 3 

b) Lightweight aggregate gypsum plaster Timber 

Steel 

Table 6 Framed External Walls Load Bearing (Required to Resist Fire 
from One Side at a Time) 

(Clause 3.3.2) 



13 19 25 

13 



SI 
No. 


Nature of Construction and Materials Minimum Thickness (mm) of Protection 

for a Fire Resistance of 1 h 


(1) 


(2) (3) 




Timber studs at centers not exceeding 600 mm with internal linings of : 


i) 


Plasterboard layers with joints in outer layer taped and filled, total thickness of 25 
plasterboard 



16 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



Table 7 Framed External Walls Non-Load Bearing Required to Resist Fire only 

from Inside the Building (A) 

(Clause 3.3.2) 



Nature of Construction and Materials 



Minimum Thickness (mm) of Protection for a 
Fire Resistance 



(1) 



Vih 

(2) 



lh 

(3) 



(4) 



Steel frame with an external cladding of non-combustible sheets (excluding 
sheet steel), with a steel supporting framework and internal lining of: 

1 . Metal lath and plaster, thickness of plaster: 

a) Sanded gypsum plaster (metal lathing grade) 

b) Lightweight aggregate gypsum plaster 

2. Two layer of plasterboard with joints staggered joints in outer layer 
taped and filled — Total thickness 

3. Plasterboard of thickness: 

a) With not less than 5 mm gypsum plaster finish 

b) With not less than 13 mm gypsum plaster finish 

c) With not less than 10 mm lightweight aggregate gypsum plaster 

4. One layer of asbestos insulating board with transverse joints backed by 
fillers of asbestos insulating board not less than 9 mm thick, or by timber 

5. One layer of wood/wool slabs without finish 

6. One layer of compressed straw building slabs: 

a) Without finish 

b) With not less than 5 mm gypsum plaster finish 

7. Aerated concrete blocks 

8. Bricks of clay: 



2h 

(5) 



3h 
(6) 



4h 
(7) 



Without finish 

With not less than 13 mm lightweight aggregate gypsum plaster 



13 


13 










10 


13 


15 


15 


15 


19 


21 


32 










12.7 












9.5 












9.5 












9 


9 

50 


12 


12 


12 


12 


50 


50 










50 


50 


63 


63 


75 


100 


75 r 


75 


90 


90 


100 


100 






75 


75 


90 


90 



Table 8 Framed External Walls Non-Load Bearing Required to Resist Fire only 

from Inside the Building (B) 

(Clause 3.3.2) 



Nature of Construction and Materials 



(1) 



Minimum Thickness (mm) of Protection to 

Provide Sufficient Insulation to Achieve a 

Modified Fire Resistance of Up to 4 h 

(2) 



Steel frame with an external cladding of sheet steel fully lapped, steel bolted and 
fixed to steel sheeting rails, with timber or steel supporting framework and internal 
lining of: 

1 . Metal lath and plaster, thickness of plaster: 

a) Sanded gypsum plaster (metal lathing grade) 13 

b) Lightweight aggregate gypsum plaster 10 

2. One layer of plasterboard with joints taped and filled 12.7 

3. Plasterboard of thickness with not less than 5 mm gypsum plaster finish 9.5 

4. One layer of asbestos insulating board with transverse joints backed by 9 
fillers of asbestos insulating board not less than 9 mm thick, or by timber 

5. One layer of wood/wool slabs 25 

6. One layer of compressed straw building slabs 50 

7. One layer of chipboard or of plywood 18 

8. Aerated concrete blocks 50 

9. Bricks of clay 75 

10. Any internal decorative lining with a cavity fill independently supported 50 

and retained in position of mineral fibre insulating material (excluding 
glass) at a density of 48 kg/m 3 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



17 



Table 9 Framed Walls Non-Load Bearing Required to Resist Fire only from Inside the Building (C) 

{Clause 3.3.2) 



Nature of Construction and Materials 



(1) 



Minimum Thickness (mm) of Protection for a 
Fire Resistance of IV2 h 

(2) 



Timber frame with external cladding of weather boarding or external plywood, 
9.5 mm with an internal lining of: 

1. Plasterboard not less than 9.5 mm thick, finished with: 

a) Gypsum plaster 

b) Lightweight aggregate gypsum plaster 

2. Plasterboard not less than 12.7 mm thick, finished with: 

a) Gypsum plaster 

b) Lightweight aggregate gypsum plaster 

3. One layer of asbestos insulating board with transverse joints backed by fillers 
of asbestos insulating board not less than 9 mm thick, or by timber 



13 
10 

10 

10 

9 

12 



Table 10 Reinforced Concrete Columns 

(Clause 3.3.2) 



SI 


Nature of Construction and Materials 




Minimum Dimensions (mm) Excluding 


any finish, 




No. 












for a Hre Resistance of 








Vih 


lh 


lVzh 


2h 


3h 


4h 


(1) 




(2) 




(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


(7) 


(8) 


i) 


Fully exposed 




Width 


150 


200 


250 


300 


400 


450 








Cover 


40 


40 


40 


40 


40 


40 


ii) 


50 percent exposed 




Width 


125 


160 


200 


200 


300 


350 








Cover 


40 


40 


40 


40 


40 


40 


iii) 


One face exposed 




Thickness 


100 


120 


140 


160 


200 


240 








Cover 


40 


40 


40 


40 


40 


40 



Table 11 Concrete Beams 

(Clause 3.3.2) 



SI Nature of Construction and Materials 
No. 



Minimum Danensions (mm) Excluding any Finish, 
for a Fire Resistance of 



(1) 



(2) 





Vih 


lh 


l^h 


2h 


3h 


4h 




(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


(7) 


(8) 


Width 


200 


200 


200 


200 


240 


280 


Cover 


20 


20 


20 


40 


60^ 


70^ 


Width 


200 


200 


200 


200 


240 


280 


Cover 


20 


20 


20 


30 


40 


50 l) 


Width 


100 


120 


150 


200 


240 


280 


Cover 


25 


40 


55 


70 


80 


90 


Width 


80 


100 


120 


150 


200 


240 


Cover 


20 


30 


40 


55 


70 


80 



i) Reinforced concrete (simply supported) 

ii) Reinforced concrete (continuous) 

iii) Prestressed concrete (simply supported) 

iv) Prestressed concrete (continuous) 



1 Require attention to the additional measures necessary to reduce the risk of spalling. 



Table 12 Concrete Floors 

(Clause 3.3.2) 



SI 
No. 



(1) 



Nature of Construction and Materials 



(2) 



Minimum Dimensions (mm) Excluding any Finish, 
for a fire Resistance of 





^— ■ 










— * 




Vih 


lh 


IVih 


2h 


3h 


4h 




(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


(7) 


(8) 


Thickness 


75 


95 


110 


125 


150 


170 


Cover 


20 


20 


25 


35 


45'> 


55 1} 


Thickness 


75 


95 


110 


125 


150 


170 


Cover 


20 


20 


20 


25 


35 


45° 



i) Reinforced concrete (simply supported) 
ii) Reinforced concrete (continuous) 



n Require attention to the additional measures necessary to reduce the risk of spalling. 



18 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



Table 13 Concrete Floors: Ribbed Open Soffit 

(Clause 3.3.2) 



SI 

No. 



(1) 



Nature of Construction and Materials 



(2) 



Minimum Dimensions (mm) Excluding any Finish, 
for a Fire Resistance of 





Vi h 


lh 


lV4h 


2h 


3h 


4h 




(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


(7) 


(8) 


Thickness of floor 


75 


95 


110 


125 


150 


170 


Rib width 


125 


125 


125 


125 


150 


175 


Cover 


20 


20 


35 


45 


55 


65 


Thickness 


75 


95 


110 


125 


150 


170 


Width 


125 


125 


125 


125 


150 


175 


Cover 


20 


20 


20 


35 


45 


55 



i) Reinforced concrete (simply supported) 



ii) Reinforced concrete (continuous) 



Table 14 Encased Steel Columns, 203 mm x 203 mm 
(Protection Applied on Four Sides) 

(Clause 3.3.2) 



Nature of Construction and Materials 



Minimum Dimensions (mm) Excluding any Finish, 
for a Fire Resistance of 



(1) 



lh 
(2) 



A) Hollow protection (without an air cavity over the flanges): 

1 . 1} Metal lathing with trowelled lightweight aggregate gypsum plaster 

2. Plasterboard with 1.6 mm wire binding at 100 mm pitch, finished with 
lightweight aggregate gypsum plaster not less than the thickness 
specified: 

a) 9.5 mm plaster board 

b) 1 9 mm plaster board 

3. Asbestos insulating boards, thickness of board: 

a) Single thickness of board, with 6 mm cover fillets at transverse 
joints 

b) Two layers, of total thickness 

4. Solid bricks of clay, composition or sand lime, reinforced in every 
horizontal joint, unplastered 

5. Aerated concrete blocks 

6. Solid blocks of lightweight concrete hollow protection (with an air 
cavity over the flanges) 

B) Asbestos insulating board screwed to 25 mm asbestos battens 

C) Solid protections 

1. Concrete, not leaner than 1:2:4 mix (unplastered): 

a) Concrete not assumed to be load bearing, reinforced 2) 

b) Concrete assumed to be load bearing 

2. Lightweight concrete, not leaner than 1:2:4 mix (unplastered): concrete 
not assumed to be load bearing, reinforced 2) 



13 



10 



12 



lHh 

(3) 



2h 
(4) 



15 



15 



19 



19 



20 



10 



25 



3h 
(5) 



32 



13 



4h 
(6) 



20 









38 


50 


50 


50 


50 


75 


100 


60 


60 


60 






50 


50 


50 


60 


75 



25 


25 


25 


50 


75 


50 


50 


50 


75 


75 


25 


25 


25 


40 


60 



So fixed or designed, as to allow full penetration for mechanical bond. 

2) Reinforcement shall consist of steel binding wire not less than 2.3 mm in thickness, or a steel mesh weighing not less than 0,5 kg/m . In 
concrete protection, the spacing of that reinforcement shall not exceed 200 mm in any direction. 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



19 



Table 15 Encased Steel Beams, 406 mm x 176 mm (Protection Applied on Three Sides) 

(Clause 3.3.2) 

Nature of Construction and Materials Minimum Thickness (mm) of Protection for a 

Fire Resistance of 



Vih lh Wih 2h 3h 4h 
0) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 

A) Hollow protection (without an air cavity beneath the lower flange): 

1. ]> Metal lathing with trowelled lightweight aggregate gypsum plaster 13 13 15 20 25 

2. Plasterboard with 1.6 mm wire binding 2) at 100 mm pitch, finished 
with lightweight aggregate gypsum plaster not less than the 
thickness specified: 

a) 9.5 mm plaster board 10 10 15 

b) 19 mm plaster board 10 10 13 20 

3. Asbestos insulating boards, thickness of board: 

a) Single thickness of board, with 6 mm cover fillets at transverse 19 25 
joints 

b) Two layers, of total thickness 38 50 

B) Hollow protection (with an air cavity below the lower flange): 

1 . Asbestos insulating board screwed to 25 mm asbestos battens 9 12 

C) Solid protection: 

1 . Concrete, not leaner than 1 :2:4 mix (unplastered): 

a) Concrete not assumed to be load bearing, reinforced 3) 

b) Concrete assumed to be load bearing 

2. Lightweight concrete 4) , not leaner than 1:2:4 (mix) unplastered 



25 


25 


25 


25 


50 


75 


50 


50 


50 


50 


75 


75 


25 


25 


25 


25 


40 


60 



n So fixed or designed, as to allow full penetration for mechanical bond. 

2) Where wire binding cannot be used, expert advice should be sought regarding alternative methods of support to enable the lower edges 
of the plasterboard to be fixed together and to the lower flange, and for the top edge of the plasterboard to be held in position. 

3) Reinforcement shall consist of steel binding wire not less than 2.3 mm in thickness or a steel mesh weighing not less than 0.5 kg/m 2 . In 
concrete protection, the spacing of that reinforcement shall not exceed 200 mm in any direction. 

4) Concrete not assumed to be load bearing, reinforced. 

Table 16 Timber Floors — Tongued and Grooved Boarding, or Sheets of Tongued and Grooved 
Plywood or Wood Chipboard, of not Less than 21 nun Finished Thickness 

(Clause 3.3.2) 

Nature of Construction and Materials Minimum TWckness (mm) of Protection For a 

Fire Resistance of 



Hh lh 2h 

(i) m o) (4) 

37 mm (minimum) timber joists with a ceiling of: 

1. Timber lathing and plaster, plaster of thickness 15 

2. Metal lathing and plaster, thickness of plaster: 

a) Sanded gypsum plaster (metal lathing grade) 15 

b) Lightweight aggregate gypsum plaster 15 13 25 

3. One layer of plasterboard with taped and filled joints 12.7 

4. Two layers of plasterboard with joints staggered, joints in outer layer 19 31 
taped and filled total thickness 

5. One layer of plasterboard not less than 9.5 mm thick, finished with: 

a) Gypsum plaster 5 

b) Sanded gypsum plaster 13 

c) Lightweight aggregate gypsum plaster 13 

6. One layer of plasterboard not less than 12.7 mm thick, finished with: 

a) Gypsum plaster 5 

b) Lightweight aggregate gypsum plaster 10 

7. One layer of asbestos insulating board with any transverse joints 9 12 
backed by fillets of asbestos insulating board not less than 9 mm 

thick, or by timber 



20 NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



Table 17 Timber Floors — Tongued and Grooved Boarding, or Sheets of Tongued and Grooved 
Plywood or Wood Chipboard, of not Less than 15 mm Finished Thickness 

(Clause 3.3.2) 

Nature of Construction and Materials Minimum Thickness (mm) of Protection for i 

Fire Resistance of 



VAh lh 2h 

(1) (2) (3) (4) 



37 mm (minimum) timber joists with a ceiling of: 

1 . Timber lathing and plaster, plaster of thickness 1 5 

2. Metal lathing and plaster, thickness of plaster for: 

a) Sanded gypsum plaster (metal lathing grade) 15 

b) Lightweight aggregate gypsum plaster 13 13 25 

3 . One layer of plasterboard with taped and filled joints 1 2.7 

4. Two layers of plasterboard with joints staggered, joints in outer layer taped 22 31 
and filled total thickness 

5. One layer of plasterboard not less than 9.5 mm thick, finish with: 

a) Gypsum plaster 5 

b) Sanded gypsum plaster 15 

c) Lightweight aggregate gypsum plaster 13 

6. One layer of plasterboard not less than 12.7 mm thick, finished with: 

a) Gypsum plaster 5 

b) Lightweight aggregate gypsum plaster 10 

1. One layer of asbestos insulating board, with any transverse joints backed by 9 12 1 ' 

fillets of asbestos insulating board not less than 9 mm thick, or by timber 



^ Finished on top with 25 mm minimum thick glass fibre or mineral wool laid between joints. 

Table 18 Timber Floors — Any Structurally Suitable Flooring of 
Timber or Lignocelluloses Boards 

(Clause 3.3.2) 

Nature of Construction and Materials Minimum Thickness (mm) of Protection for i 

Fire Resistance of 



V4h lh 

(1) (2) (3) 



37 mm (minimum) timber joists with a ceiling of: 

1 . Timber lathing and plaster, plaster of thickness 1 5 

2. Metal lathing and plaster, thickness of plaster for: 

a) Sanded gypsum plaster (metal lathing grade) 1 5 

b) Lightweight aggregate gypsum plaster 13 19 

3. One layer of plasterboard with joints taped and filled and backed by timber 12.7 

4. Two layers of plasterboard with joints staggered, joints in outer layer taped 25 
and filled total thickness 

5. Two layers of plasterboard, each not less than 9.5 mm thick, joints between 5 
boards staggered and outer layer finished with gypsum plaster 

6. One layer of plasterboard not less than 9.5 mm thick, finish with: 

a) Sanded gypsum plaster 13 

b) Lightweight aggregate gypsum plaster 15 

7. One layer of plasterboard not less than 12.7 mm thick, finished with: 

a) Sanded gypsum plaster 15 

b) Lightweight aggregate gypsum plaster 1 3 

8. One layer of asbestos insulating board with any transverse joints backed by 12 
fillets of asbestos insulating board not less than 9 mm thick, or by timber 

3.3.3 Steel Construction f f ire j^ s could be ac hi e ved by use of appropriate 

Load hearing steel beams and columns of buildings methodology using suitable fire resistance rated 
having total covered area of 500 m 2 and above shall be materials alongwith suppression system {see Table 14, 

protected against failure/collapse of structure in case Table 15 and also accepted standard [4(5)]}. 

PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 21 



3.4 General Requirements of All Individual 
Occupancies 

3.4.1 General 

All buildings shall satisfy certain requirements which 
contribute, individually and collectively, to the safety 
of life from fire, smoke, fumes and panic arising from 
these or similar causes. There are, however, certain 
general principles and common requirements which 
are applicable to all or most of the occupancies. 

3.4.2 Exceptions and Deviations 

Exceptions and deviations to the general provisions of 
requirements of individual occupancies are given as 
applicable to each type of occupancy in 6.1 to 6.9. In 
case of practical difficulty or to avoid unnecessary 
hardship, without sacrificing reasonable safety, the 
Authority may grant exemptions from the Code. 

3.4.3 Occupation of Buildings under Construction 

3.4.3.1 A building or portion of the building may be 
occupied during construction, repairs, alterations or 
additions only if all means of exit and fire protection 
measures are in place and continuously maintained for 
the occupied part of the building. 

3.4.3.2 A high rise building during construction shall 
be provided with the following fire protection 
measures, which shall be maintained in good working 
condition at all the times: 

a) Dry riser of minimum 100 mm diameter pipe 
with hydrant outlets on the floors constructed 
with a fire service inlet to boost the water in the 
dry riser and maintenance should be as per the 
requirements laid down in good practice [4(6)]. 

b) Drums filled with water of 2 000 litres capacity 
with two fire buckets on each floor; and 

c) A water storage tank of minimum 20 000 
litres capacity, which may be used for other 
construction purposes also. 

3.4.4 Maximum Height 

Every building shall be restricted in its height above 
the ground level and the number of storeys, depending 
upon its occupancy and the type of construction. The 
height shall be measured as specified in Part 3 
'Development Control Rules and General Building 
Requirements'. The maximum permissible height 
for any combination of occupancy and types of 
construction should necessarily be related to the width 
of street fronting the building, or floor area ratios and 
the local fire fighting facilities available. 

3.4.5 Floor Area Ratio 

The comparative floor area ratios for different 
occupancies and types of construction are given in 



Table 19 (see also Part 3 'Development Control Rules 
and General Building Requirements'). 

Table 19 Comparative Floor Area Ratios for 

Occupancies Facing One Public Street 

Atleast 9 m Wide 

(Clauses 2.6 and 3.4.5) 



Occupancy 

f^lsic<cifi{*nHftn 




Type of Construction 




V/iarauiui uuii 


Type 1 


Type2 


Type 3 


Type 4 


(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


Residential 


UL 


2.0 


1.4 


1.0 


Educational 


UL 


2.0 


1.4 


1.0 


Institutional 


UL 


1.5 


1.0 


0.8 


Assembly 


UL 


1.0 


0.7 


0.5 


Business 


UL 


2.9 


2.3 


1.6 


Mercantile 


8.0 


1.8 


1.4 


1.0 


Industrial 


7.5 


1.9 


1.6 


1.3 


Storage (see Note 5) 


6.0 


1.5 


1.3 


1.0 


Hazardous (see Note 5) 


2.8 


1.1 


0.9 


NP 


UL — Unlimited. 










NP — Not permitted. 










NOTES 











1 The FAR values given in this table are subject to overall 
restrictions on the heights of buildings in the case of 
educational, institutional, assembly, storage and hazardous 
occupancies as specified in col 2 of Table 23. 

2 This table has been prepared, taking into account the 
combustible content in the different occupancies as well as 
the fire resistance offered by the type of construction. 

3 This table should be modified by the Authority, taking into 
account the other aspects as given below: 

a) Density in terms of dwelling units per hectare; 

b) Traffic considerations; 

c) Parking spaces; 

d) Local fire fighting facilities; and 

e) Water supply, drainage and sanitation requirements. 

4 The FAR values specified in this table may be increased 
by 20 percent for the following services: 

a) A basement or cellar space under a building constructed 
on stilts and used as a parking space and air- 
conditioning plant room used as accessory to the 
principal use; 

b) Watchman's booth, pumphouse, garbage shaft, electric 
cabin or sub-station and other utility structures meant 
for the services of the building under considerations; 

c) Projections and accessory buildings as specifically 
exempted under the Code; and 

d) Staircase room and lift rooms above the topmost storey; 
architectural feature; and chimneys and elevated tanks 
of dimensions as permissible under the Code; the area 
of the lift shaft shall be taken only on one floor. 

5 In so far as single storey storage and hazardous occupancies 
are concerned, they would be further governed by volume to 
plot area ratio (VPR) to be decided by the Authority. 

3.4.5.1 Each portion of a building, which is separated 
by one or more continuous fire resisting walls, having 
a fire resistance of not less than 2 h, extending from 
the foundation to 1 m above the roof at all points, may 



22 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



be considered to be a separate building for the 
calculation of maximum permissible height and floor 
area, provided openings, if any, in the separating 
wall are also protected by fire assemblies of not less 
than 2 h. 

3.4.6 Open Spaces 

The open spaces around or inside a building shall 
conform to the requirements of Part 3 'Development 
Control Rules and General Building Requirements'. 

3.4.6.1 For high rise buildings, the following 
additional provisions of means of access to the building 
shall be ensured (see Part 3 'Development Control 
Rules and General Building Requirements'): 

a) The width of the main street on which the 
building abuts shall not be less than 12 m and 
one end of this street shall join another street 
not less than 12 m in width; 

b) The road shall not terminate in a dead end; 
except in the case of residential building, up 
to a height of 30 m. 

c) The compulsory open spaces around the 
building shall not be used for parking; and 

d) Adequate passageway and clearances 
required for fire fighting vehicles to enter the 
premises shall be provided at the main 
entrance; the width of such entrance shall be 
not less than 4.5 m. If an arch or covered gate 
is constructed, it shall have a clear head-room 
of not less than 5 m. 

3.4.7 Mixed Occupancy 

When any building is used for more than one type of 
occupancy, then in so far as fire safety is concerned, it 
shall conform to the requirements for the occupancies 
of higher hazard. Unless the high hazard area is 
separated by separating walls of 4 h rating, the 
occupancies shall not be treated individually. 

3.4.8 Openings in Separating Walls and Floors 

At the time of designing openings in separating walls 
and floors, particular attention shall be paid to all such 
factors as will limit fire spread through these openings 
and maintain fire rating of the structural member. 

3.4.8.1 For Types 1 to 3 construction, a doorway or 
opening in a separating wall on any floor shall be 
limited to 5.6 m 2 in area with a maximum height/width 
of 2.75 m. Every wall opening shall be protected with 
fire-resisting doors having the fire rating of not less 
than 2 h in accordance with accepted standard [4(7)]. 
All openings in the floors shall be protected by vertical 
enclosures extending above and below such openings, 
the walls of such enclosures having a fire resistance of 
not less than 2 h and all openings therein being 



protected with a fire-resisting assembly as specified 
in 3.4.9. 

3.4.8.2 For Type 4 construction, openings in the 
separating walls or floors shall be fitted with 2 h fire- 
resisting assemblies. 

3.4.8.3 Openings in walls or floors which are 
necessary to be provided to allow passages of all 
building services like cables, electrical wirings, 
telephone cables, plumbing pipes, etc, shall be 
protected by enclosure in the form of ducts/shafts 
having a fire resistance not less than 2 h. The inspection 
door for electrical shafts/ducts shall be not less than 
2 h and for other services shafts/ducts, the same shall 
have fire resistance not less than 1 h. Medium and low 
voltage wiring running in shafts/ducts, shall either be 
armoured type or run through metal conduits. Further, 
the space between the conduits pipes and the walls/ 
slabs shall be filled in by a filler material having fire 
resistance rating of not less than 1 h. 

NOTE — In the case of buildings where it is necessary to lower 
or lift heavy machinery or goods from one floor to the other, it 
may be necessary to provide larger openings in the floor. Such 
openings shall be provided with removable covers which shall 
have the same strength and fire resistance as the floor. 

3.4.8.4 Vertical opening 

Every vertical opening between the floors of a building 
shall be suitably enclosed or protected, as necessary, 
to provide the following: 

a) Reasonable safety to the occupants while 
using the means of egress by preventing 
spread of fire, smoke, or fumes through 
vertical openings from floor to floor to allow 
occupants to complete their use of the means 
of egress. Further it shall be ensured to 
provide a clear height of 2 100 mm in the 
passage/escape path of the occupants. 

b) Limitation of damage to the building and its 
contents. 

3.4.9 Fire Stop or Enclosure of Openings 

Where openings are permitted, they shall not exceed 
three-fourths the area of the wall in the case of an 
external wall and they shall be protected with fire 
resisting assemblies or enclosures having a fire 
resistance equal to that of the wall or floor in which 
these are situated. Such assemblies and enclosures shall 
also be capable of preventing the spread of smoke or 
fumes through the openings so as to facilitate the safe 
evacuation of building in case of a fire {see also 
accepted standard [4(8)]}. 

3.4.10 Electrical Installations 

For requirements regarding electrical installations from 
the point of view of fire safety, reference may be made 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



23 



to good practice [4(9)] {see also Part 8 'Building 
Services, Section 2 Electrical and Allied Installations'). 

3.4.11 Air-conditioning and Ventilation 

Air-conditioning and ventilation requirements of 
different rooms or areas in any occupancy shall be as 
given in Part 8 'Building Services, Section 1 Lighting 
and Ventilation and Section 3 Air-conditioning, 
Heating and Mechanical Ventilation'. 

3.4.11.1 Air-conditioning and ventilating systems 
shall be so installed and maintained as to minimize the 
danger of spread of fire, smoke or fumes from one 
floor to other or from outside to any occupied building 
or structure {see C-1.17). 

3.4.11.2 Air-conditioning and ventilating systems 
circulating air to more than one floor or fire area shall be 
provided with dampers designed to close automatically 
in case of fire and thereby preventing spread of fire or 
smoke and shall be in accordance with the accepted 
standard [4(10)]. Such a system shall also be provided 
with automatic controls to stop fans in case of fire, unless 
arranged to remove smoke from a fire, in which case these 
shall be designed to remain in operation. 

3.4.11.3 Air-conditioning system serving large places 
of assembly (over 1 000 persons), large departmental 
stores or hotels with over 100 rooms in a single block 
shall be provided with effective means for preventing 
circulation of smoke through the system in the case of 
a fire in air filters or from other sources drawn into the 
system, and shall have smoke sensitive devices for 
actuation in accordance with the accepted standards 
[4(H)]. 

3.4.11.4 From fire safety point of view, separate air 
handling units for the various floors shall be provided 
so as to avoid the hazards arising from spread of fire 
and smoke through the air-conditioning ducts. The 
requirements of air-conditioning ducts shall be in 
accordance with good practice [4(12)]. 

3.4.11.5 For normal operation, air changes schedule 
shall be as given in Part 8 'Building Services, Section 3 
Air-conditioning, Heating and Mechanical Ventilation'. 

3.4.12 Smoke Venting 

3.4.12.1 Smoke venting facilities for safe use of exits 
in windowless buildings, underground structures, large 
area factories, hotels and assembly buildings (including 
cinema halls) shall be automatic in action with manual 
controls in addition. 

3.4.12.2 Natural draft smoke venting shall utilize roof 
vents or vents in walls at or near the ceiling level; such 
vents shall be normally open, or, if closed, shall be 
designed for automatic opening in case of fire, by 
release of smoke sensitive devices. 



3.4.12.3 Where smoke venting facilities are installed 
for purposes of exit safety, these shall be adequate to 
prevent dangerous accumulation of smoke during the 
period of time necessary to evacuate the area served, 
using available exit facilities with a margin of safety to 
allow for unforeseen contingencies. It is recommended 
that smoke exhaust equipment should have a minimum 
capacity of 12 air changes per hour. Where mechanical 
venting is employed, it shall be firesafe. 

3.4.12.4 The discharge apertures of all natural draft 
smoke vents shall be so arranged as to be readily 
accessible for opening by fire service personnel. 

3.4.12.5 Power operated smoke exhausting systems 
shall be substituted for natural draft* vents only by 
specific permission of the Authority. 

3.4.13 Heating 

Installation of chimney and heating apparatus shall be 
in accordance with good practice [4(13)]. 

3.4.14 Additional Precautions 

In addition to the factors covered by 3.4.2 to 3.4.12 
there are certain aspects, applicable to particular 
occupancies only, which may effect the spread of 
fumes and thus the safe evacuation of the building in 
case of fire. Some such aspects are: 

a) interior finish and decoration; 

b) seating, aisles, railings, turnstiles and 
revolving doors in places of assembly; 

c) service equipment and storage facilities in 
buildings other than storage buildings; and 

d) hazards on stage, in waiting spaces, projection 
booths, etc, in theatres and cinemas. 

3.4.15 Surface Interior Finishes 

3.4.15.1 The use of combustible surface finishes on 
walls (including facade of the building) and ceilings 
affects the safety of the occupants of a building. Such 
finishes tend to spread the fire and even though the 
structural elements may be adequately fire resistant, 
serious danger to life may result. It is, therefore, 
essential to have adequate precautions to minimize 
spread of flame on wall, facade of building and ceiling 
surfaces. 

The finishing materials used for various surfaces and 
decor shall be such that it shall not generate toxic 
smoke/fumes. 

3.4.15.2 The susceptibility to fire of various types 
of wall surfaces is determined in terms of the rate of 
spread of flame. Based on the rate of spread of flame, 
surfacing material shall be considered as divided into 
four classes as follows {see also good practice 
[4(14)]}. 



24 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



Class 1 Surfaces of very low flame spread. 
Class 2 Surfaces of low flame spread. 
Class 3 Surfaces of medium flame spread. 
Class 4 Surfaces of rapid flame spread. 

3.4.15.3 The uses for which surface materials falling 
into various classes shall be adopted in building 
construction are given below: 



Class 1 



Class 2 



Class 3 



May be May be used in May be used only 

used in any any situation, in living rooms and 

situation except on walls, bed rooms (but not 

facade of the in rooms on the 

building, roof) and only as a 

staircase and lining to solid walls 

corridors and partitions; not 

on staircases or 

corridors or facade 

of the building. 

NOTE — Panelling (lining) shall be permitted in a limited 
area. It shall not be permitted in a vestibule. 

3.4.15.4 Materials of Class 4 which include untreated 
wood fibreboards may be used with due fire retardant 
treatment as ceiling lining, provided the ceiling is at 
least, 2.4 m from the top surface of the floor below, 
and the wall surfaces conform to requirements of class 
[see Note under 3.4.15.3] Class 4 materials shall not 
be used in kitchens, corridors and staircases. Some 
materials contain bitumen and, in addition to risk from 
spread of fire, emit dense smoke on burning; such 
materials shall be excluded from use under these 
conditions and shall also not be used for construction 
of ceiling where the plenum is used for return air in 
air-conditioned buildings [see also 5.1.7(m)]. 

3.4.15.5 When frames, walls, partitions or floors are 
lined with combustible materials, the surfaces on both 
sides of the materials shall conform to the appropriate 
class, because there is considerable danger from fire 
starting and rapidly spreading within the concealed 
cavity unknown to the occupants whose escape may 
be hampered there by. For detailed information on 
materials and details of construction with their fire- 
resistance rating, reference may be made to good 
practice [4(15)]. 

3.4.16 Glazing 

3.4.16.1 Building of Types 1 to 4 construction shall 
employ one of the two types of glazing described 
in 3.4. 16.2 and 3.4. 16.3 except that Type 4 construction 
may have the alternative of hardwood sashes or frames 
or both. 

3.4.16.2 Wired glass shall comply with the following 
requirements: 



a) Wired glass — The wired glass shall be of 
minimum half hour fire resistance rating. 

b) Sashes and frames — The sashes or frames 
or both shall be entirely of iron or other 
suitable metal such as stainless steel, securely 
bolted or keyed into the wall, except in the 
case of panels in internal doors. 

c) Setting of glass — The panels of glass shall 
be set in rebates or grooves not less than 
6.0 mm in width or depth, with due allowance 
for expansion, and shall be secured by hard 
metal fastenings to the sashes or frames 
independently of any cement or putty used 
for weather-proofing purposes. 

3.4.16.3 Electro-copper glazing shall comply with the 
following requirements: 

a) Electro-copper glazing — The electro-copper 
glazing shall be of minimum half hour fire 
resistance rating. 

b) Sashes and frames — The sashes or frames 
or both shall be entirely of iron or other hard 
metal, securely bolted or keyed into the wall, 
except when in panels in internal doors. 

c) Fixing of sectional lights — The sectional 
lights shall be set in rebate or grooves not less 
than 6.5 mm in width or depth, with due 
allowance for expansion and shall be secured 
by hard metal fastenings to the sashes or 
frames independently of any lead, cement or 
putty used for weather-proofing purposes. 

3.4.16.4 Maximum permissible area shall be 5 m 2 for 
protection by wired glass or electro-copper glazing. 

3.4.16.5 Casement 

Hard metal casements, not exceeding 0.8 m 2 fitted with 
wired glass or electro-copper glazing in accordance 
with 3.4.16.2 and 3.4.16.3, secured to the frames by 
hard metal hinges not more than 600 mm apart and by 
fastening at top, centre and bottom shall be permissible. 

3.4.17 Skylights 

3.4.17.1 Wired glass for skylights or monitor lights 
shall comply with the following requirements: 

a) Wired glass for skylights or monitor lights — 
The wired glass for skylights or monitor lights 
shall be of minimum half hour fire resistance 
rating. 

b) Frames and glazing — The frame shall be 
continuous and divided by bars spaced at not 
more than 700 mm centres. The frame and 
bars shall be of iron or other hard metal, and 
supported on a curb either of metal or of wood 
covered with sheet metal. The toughened glass 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



25 



shall be secured by hard metal fastenings to 
the frame and bars independently of any lead, 
cement or putty used for weather-proofing 
purposes. 

3.4.18 Louvers 

Louvers wherever provided shall be of minimum half 
hour fire resistance rating. 

3.4.19 Glass of facade for high rise buildings, etc shall 
be of minimum 1 h fire resistance rating. 

4 LIFE SAFETY 

4.1 General 

Every building shall be so constructed, equipped, 
maintained and operated as to avoid undue danger to 
the life and safety of the occupants from fire, smoke, 
fumes or panic during the time period necessary for 
escape. 

4.2 General Exit Requirements 

4.2.1 An exit may be a doorway; corridor; passageway(s) 
to an internal staircase, or external staircase, or to a 
VERANDAH or terrace(s), which have access to the 
street, or to the roof of a building or a refuge area. An 
exit may also include a horizontal exit leading to an 
adjoining building at the same level. 

4.2.2 Lifts and escalators shall not be considered as 
exits. 

4.2.3 Every exit, exit access or exit discharge shall be 
continuously maintained free of all obstructions or 
impediments to full use in the case of fire or other 
emergency. 

4.2.4 Every building meant for human occupancy shall 
be provided with exits sufficient to permit safe escape 
of occupants, in case of fire or other emergency. 

4.2.5 In every building or structure, exits shall comply 
with the minimum requirements of this part, except 
those not accessible for general public use. 

4.2.6 No building shall be so altered as to reduce the 
number, width or protection of exits to less than that 
required. 

4.2.7 Exits shall be clearly visible and the route to 
reach the exits shall be clearly marked and signs posted 
to guide the occupants of the floor concerned. Signs 
shall be illuminated and wired to an independent 
electrical circuit on an alternative source of supply. 
The sizes and colours of the exit signs shall be in 
accordance with good practice [4(16)]. The colour of 
the exit signs shall be green. 

NOTE — This provision shall not apply to A-2 and A-4 
occupancies less than 15 m in height. 



4.2.8 The floors of areas covered for the means of exit 
shall be illuminated to values not less than 1 ft candle 
(10 lux) at floor level. In auditoriums, theatres, concert 
halls and such other places of assembly, the 
illumination of floor exit/access may be reduced during 
period of performances to values not less than 1/5 ft 
candle (2 lux). 

4.2.9 Fire doors with 2 h fire resistance shall be 
provided at appropriate places along the escape route 
and particularly at the entrance to lift lobby and stair 
well where a 'funnel or flue effect' may be created, 
inducing an upward spread of fire to prevent spread of 
fire and smoke. 

4.2.10 All exits shall provide continuous means of 
egress to the exterior of a building or to an exterior 
open space leading to a street. 

4.2.11 Exits shall be so arranged that they may be 
reached without passing through another occupied 
unit. 

4.3 Occupant Load 

For determining the exits required, the number of 
persons within any floor area or the occupant load shall 
be based on the actual number of occupants, but in no 
case less than that specified in Table 20. 

4.3.1 Mezzanine 

The occupant load of a mezzanine floor discharging 
to a floor below shall be added to that floor occupancy 
and the capacity of the exits shall be designed for the 
total occupancy load thus established. 

4.4 Capacities of Exits 

4.4.1 The unit of exit width, used to measure the 
capacity of any exit, shall be 500 mm. A clear width 
of 250 mm shall be counted as an additional half unit. 
Clear widths less than 250 mm shall not be counted 
for exit width. 

NOTE — The total occupants from a particular floor must 
evacuate within 2Vi minutes for Type 1 construction, 
\Yi minutes for Type 2 construction and 1 minute for Type 3 
construction. Size of the exit door/exitway shall be calculated 
accordingly keeping in view the travel distance as per 
Table 22. / 

4.4.2 Occupants per unit exit width shall be in 
accordance with Table 21. 

4.4.3 Horizontal Exit Allowance 

When horizontal exit is provided in buildings of 
mercantile, storage, industrial, business and assembly 
occupancies, the capacity per storey per unit width of 
exit of stairways in Table 21 may be increased by 50 
percent and in buildings of institutional occupancy it 
may be increased by 100 percent. 



26 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



Table 20 Occupant Load 

(Clause 4.3) 



SI 


Group of Occupancy 


Occupant Load, floor 


No. 




Area in m /Person 


(1) 


(2) 




(3) 


i) 


Residential (A) 




12.5 


ii) 


Educational (B) 




4 


iii) 


Institutional (C) 


15 (see Note}) 


iv) 


Assembly (D) 








a) With fixed or loose seats 


0.6 (see Note 2) 




and dance floors 








b) Without seating facilities 


1.5 (see Note 2) 




including dining rooms 






v) 


Mercantile (F) 








a) Street floor and sales 




3 




basement 








b) Upper sale floors 




6 


vi) 


Business and industrial (E&G) 




10 


vii) 


Storage (H) 




30 


viii) 


Hazardous (J) 




10 



NOTES 

1 Occupant load in dormitory portions of homes for the 
aged, orphanages, insane asylums, etc, where sleeping 
accommodation is provided, shall be calculated at not less than 
7.5 m 2 gross floor area/person. 

2 The gross floor area shall include, in addition to the main 
assembly room or space, any occupied connecting room or 
space in the same storey or in the storeys above or below, where 
entrance is common to such rooms and spaces and they are 
available for use by the occupants of the assembly place. No 
deductions shall be made in the gross area for corridors, closets 
or other sub-divisions; the area shall include all space serving 
the particular assembly occupancy. 

Table 21 Occupants per Unit Exit Width 

(Clauses 4.4.2, 4.43 and C-l.6.2) 



SI 
No. 

(1) 



Group of 
Occupancy 

(2) 



Number of Occupants 



Stairways 

(3) 



Ramps 

(4) 



Doors 

(5) 



i) 
ii) 

iii) 
iv) 
v) 
vi) 
vii) 
viii) 
ix) 



Residential (A) 
Educational (B) 
Institutional (C) 
Assembly (D) 
Business (E) 
Mercantile (F> 
Industrial (G) 
Storage (H) 
Hazardous (J) 



25 
25 
25 
40 
50 
50 
50 
50 
25 



50 
50 
50 
50 
60 
60 
60 
60 
30 



75 
75 
75 
60 
75 
75 
75 
75 
40 



4.5 Arrangement of Exits 

4.5.1 Exits shall be so located that the travel distance 
on the floor shall not exceed the distance given in 
Table 22. 

4.5.2 The travel distance to an exit from the dead end 
of a corridor shall not exceed half the distance specified 



in Table 22, except in assembly and institutional 
occupancies in which case it shall not exceed 6 m. 

4.5.3 Whenever more than one exit is required for any 
room space or floor of a building, exits shall be placed 
as remote from each other as possible and shall be 
arranged to provide direct access in separate directions 
from any point in the area served. 

Table 22 Travel Distance for Occupancy and 
Type of Construction 

(Clauses 4.4.1, 4.5.1 and 4.5.2) 



SI 
No. 


Group of Occupancy 


Maximum Travel Distance 
Construction 




Types 1 & 2 


Types 3 & 4 






m 


m 


(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


i) 


Residential (A) 


30.0 


22.5 


ii) 


Educational (B) 


30.0 


22.5 


iii) 


Institutional (C) 


30.0 


22.5 


iv) 


Assembly (D) 


30.0 


30.0 


v) 


Business (E) 


30.0 


30.0 


vi) 


Mercantile (F) 


30.0 


30.0 


vii) 


Industrial (G) 


45.0 


i) 


viii) 


Storage (H) 


30.0 


i) 


ix) 


Hazardous (J) 


22.5 


D 



NOTES 

1 For fully sprinklered building, the travel distance may be 
increased by 50 percent of the values specified, 

2 Ramps shall be protected with automatic sprinkler system 
and shall be counted as one of the means of escape. 

Construction of type 3 or 4 is not permitted. 

4.6 Number of Exits 

4.6.1 General 

The general requirements of number of exits shall 
supplement the requirement of different occupancies 
in 6.1 to 6.9. 

4.6.2 All buildings, which are 1 5 m in height or above, 
and all buildings used as educational, assembly, 
institutional, industrial, storage, and hazardous 
occupancies and mixed occupancies with any of the 
aforesaid occupancies, having area more than 500 m 2 
on each floor shall have a minimum of two staircases. 
They shall be of enclosed type; at least one of them 
shall be on external walls of buildings and shall open 
directly to the exterior, interior open space or to an 
open place of safety. Further, the provision or otherwise 
of alternative staircases shall be subject to the 
requirements of travel distance being complied with. 

4.7 Doorways 

4.7.1 Every exit doorway shall open into an enclosed 
stairway or a horizontal exit of a corridor or passageway 
providing continuous and protected means of egress. 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



27 



4.7.2 No exit doorway shall be less than 1 000 mm in 
width except assembly buildings where door width 
shall be not less than 2 000 mm. Doorways shall be 
not less than 2 000 mm in height. 

4.7.3 Exit doorways shall open outwards, that is, away 
from the room, but shall not obstruct the travel along 
any exit. No door, when opened, shall reduce the 
required width of stairway or landing to less than 
900 mm; overhead or sliding doors shall not be 
installed. 

NOTE — In the case of buildings where there is a central 
corridor, the doors of rooms shall open inwards to permit 
smooth flow of traffic in the corridor. 

4.7.4 Exit door shall not open immediately upon a 
flight of stairs; a landing equal to at least the width of 
the door shall be provided in the stairway at each 
doorway; the level of landing shall be the same as that 
of the floor which it serves. 

4.7.5 Exit doorways shall be openable from the side 
which they serve without the use of a key. 

4.7.6 Mirrors shall not be placed in exit ways or exit 
doors to avoid confusion regarding the direction of exit. 

4.8 Corridors and Passageways 

4.8.1 Exit corridors and passageways shall be of width 
not less than the aggregate required width of exit 
doorways leading from them in the direction of travel 
to the exterior. 

4.8.2 Where stairways discharge through corridors and 
passageways, the height of corridors and passageways 
shall be not less than 2.4 m. 

4.8.3 All means of exit including staircases lifts lobbies 
and corridors shall be adequately ventilated. 

4.9 Internal Staircases 

4.9.1 Internal stairs shall be constructed of non- 
combustible materials throughout. 

4.9.2 Internal stairs shall be constructed as a self- 
contained unit with an external wall of the building 
constituting at least one of its sides and shall be 
completely enclosed. 

4.9.3 A staircase shall not be arranged round a lift shaft. 

4.9.4 Hollow combustible construction shall not be 
permitted. 

4.9.5 No gas piping or electrical panels shall be 
allowed in the stairway. Ducting in stairway may be 
permitted if it is of 1 h fire resistance rating. 

4.9.6 Notwithstanding the detailed provision for exits 
in accordance with 4.3, 4.4 and 4.5, the following 
minimum width shall be provided for staircases: 



a) Residential buildings (dwellings) 1.0 m 

b) Residential hotel buildings 1.5 m 

c) Assembly buildings like auditorium, 2.0 m 
theatres and cinemas 

d) Educational buildings up to 30 m in 1.5 m 
height 

e) Institutional buildings like hospitals 2.0 m 

f) All other buildings 1.5 m 

4.9.7 The minimum width of tread without nosing 
shall be 250 mm for internal staircase of residential 
buildings. This shall be 300 mm for assembly, hotels, 
educational, institutional, business and other buildings. 
The treads shall be constructed and maintained in a 
manner to prevent slipping. 

4.9.8 The maximum height of riser shall be 190 mm 
for residential buildings and 150 mm for other buildings 
and the number shall be limited to 15 per flight. 

4.9.9 Handrails shall be provided at a height of 
1 000 mm to be measured from the base of the middle 
of the treads to the top of the handrails. Balusters/railing 
shall be provided such that the width of staircase does 
not reduce {see Fig. 1). 

4.9.10 The number of people in between floor landings 
in staircase shall not be less than the population on 
each floor for the purpose of design of staircase. The 
design of staircase shall also take into account the 
following: 

a) The minimum headroom in a passage under 
the landing of a staircase and under the 
staircase shall be 2.2 m. 

b) For building 15 m in height or more, access 
to main staircase shall be through a fire/smoke 
check door of a minimum 2 h fire resistance 
rating. Fire resistance rating may be reduced 
to 1 h for residential buildings (except hotels 
and starred hotels). 

c) No living space, store or other fire risk shall 
open directly into the staircase or staircases. 

d) External exit door of staircase enclosure at 
ground level shall open directly to the open 
spaces or through a large lobby, if necessary, 

e) The main and external staircases shall be 
continuous from ground floor to the terrace 
level. 

f) No electrical shafts/ AC ducts or gas pipes, etc, 
shall pass through or open in the staircases. 
Lifts shall not open in staircase. 

g) No combustible material shall be used for 
decoration/wall paneling in the staircase. 

h) Beams/columns and other building features 
shall not reduce the head room/width of the 
staircase. 



28 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 




BLUSTER 



All dimensions in millimetres. 

Fig. 1 Typical Detail for Handrail/Blusters of a Staircase 



j) The exit sign with arrow indicating the way 
to the escape route shall be provided at a 
suitable height from the floor level on the wall 
and shall be illuminated by electric light 
connected to corridor circuits. All exit way 
marking signs should be flush with the wall 
and so designed that no mechanical damage 
shall occur to them due to moving of furniture 
or other heavy equipments. Further, all 
landings of floor shall have floor indicating 
boards prominently indicating the number of 
floor as per bye-laws. 

The floor indication board shall be placed on 
the wall immediately facing the flight of stairs 
and nearest to the landing. It shall be of size 
not less than 0.5 m x 0.5 m. 

k) Individual floors shall be prominently 
indicated on the wall facing the staircases. 

m) In case of single staircase it shall terminate 
at the ground floor level and the access to 
the basement shall be by a separate staircase. 
The second staircase may lead to basement 
levels provided the same is separate at 
ground level by ventilated lobby with 
discharge points to two different ends 
through enclosures. 



4.10 Pressurization of Staircases (Protected Escape 
Routes) 

4.10.1 Though in normal building design, 
compartmentation plays a vital part in limiting the 
spread of fire, smoke will readily spread to adjacent 
spaces through the various leakage openings in the 
compartment enclosure, such as cracks, openings 
around pipes ducts, airflow grills and doors, as perfect 
sealing of all these openings is not possible. It is smoke 
and toxic gases, rather than flame, that will initially 
obstruct the free movement of occupants of the 
building through the means of escape (escape routes). 
Hence the exclusion of smoke and toxic gases from 
the protected routes is of great importance. 

4.10.2 Pressurization is a method adopted for protected 
escape routes against ingress of smoke, especially in 
high-rise buildings. In pressurization, air is injected 
into the staircases, lobbies or corridors, to raise their 
pressure slightly above the pressure in adjacent parts 
of the building. As a result, ingress of smoke or toxic 
gases into the escape routes will be prevented. The 
pressurization of staircases shall be adopted for high 
rise buildings and building having mixed occupancy/ 
multiplexes having covered area more than 500 m 2 . 

4.10.3 The pressure difference for staircases shall be 
as under: 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



29 



Building 


Pressure Difference 


Height 


<*•*" ^*" ->» 




Reduced Emergency 




Operation Operation 




(Stage 1 of (Stage 2 of a 




a 2-Stage 2-Stage System 




System) or Single 




Stage System) 




(Pa) (Pa) 


Less than 15 m 


8 50 


15 m or above 


15 50 



If possible, the same levels shall be used for lobbies 
and corridors, but levels slightly lower may be used 
for these spaces if desired. The difference in 
pressurization levels between staircase and lobbies (or 
corridors) shall not be greater than 5 Pa. 

4.10.4 Pressurization system may be of two types: 

a) Single-stage, designed for operation only in 
the event of an emergency, and 

b) Two-stage, where normally a level of 
pressurization is maintained in the protected 
escape routes and an increased level of 
pressurization can be brought into operation 
in an emergency. 

4.10.5 The normal air-conditioning system and the 
pressurization system shall be treated as an integral 
one, especially for a two-stage system. When the 
emergency pressurization is brought into action, the 
following changes in the normal air-conditioning 
system shall be effected: 

a) Any re-circulation of air shall be stopped and 
all exhaust air vented to atmosphere; 

b) Any air supply to the spaces/areas other than 
escape routes shall be stopped; 

c) The exhaust system may be continued 
provided: 

1) the positions of the extraction grills 
permit a general air flow away from the 
protected escape route entry; 

2) the construction of the ductwork and fans 
is such that, it will not be rendered 
inoperable by hot gases and smoke; and 

3) there is no danger of spread of smoke to 
other floors by the path of the extraction 
system which can be ensured by keeping 
the extraction fans running. 

4.10.6 The pressurization system can be 
interconnected with the automatic/manual fire alarm 
system for actuation. 

4.10.7 It will be desirable to have all the staircases in 
a building pressurized, if pressurization system is to 



be resorted to. The use of pressurized and naturally 
ventilated staircases in the same building may introduce 
difficulties and hence shall be avoided. Under no 
circumstances shall a pressurized staircase be 
connected by a corridor or lobby to an un-pressurized 
staircase. Wherever pressurized staircase is to be 
connected to un-pressurized area, the two areas shall 
be segregated. 

4.11 External Stairs 

An external staircase is desirable to be provided for 
high rise buildings. 

External stairs, when provided shall comply the 
following: 

4.11.1 External stairs shall always be kept in sound 
operable conditions. 

4.11.2 All external stairs shall be directly connected 
to the ground. 

4.11.3 Entrance to the external stairs shall be separate 
and remote from the internal staircase. 

4.11.4 Care shall be taken to ensure that no wall 
opening or window opens on to or close to an external 
stairs. 

4.11.5 The route to the external stairs shall be free of 
obstructions at all times. 

4.11.6 The external stairs shall be constructed of non- 
combustible materials, and any doorway leading to it 
shall have the required fire resistance. 

4.11.7 No external staircase, used as a fire escape, shall 
be inclined at an angle greater than 45° from the 
horizontal. 

4.11.8 External stairs shall have straight flight not less 
than 1 250 mm wide with 250 mm treads and risers 
not more than 190 mm. The number of risers shall be 
limited to 15 per flight. 

4.11.9 Handrails shall be of a height not less than 
1 000 mm and not exceeding 1 200 mm. There shall 
be provisions of balusters with maximum gap of 
150 mm. 

4.11.10 The use of spiral staircase shall be limited to 
low occupant load and to a building not exceeding 9 m 
in height. 

A spiral stair case shall be not less than 1 500 mm in 
diameter and shall be designed to give adequate 
headroom. 

4.11.11 Unprotected steel frame staircase will not be 
accepted as means of escape. However, steel staircase 
in an enclosed fire rated compartment of 2 h will be 
accepted as means of escape. 



30 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



4.12 Horizontal Exits 

4.12.1 The width of horizontal exit shall be same as 
for the exit doorways. 

4.12.2 A horizontal exit shall be equipped with at least 
one fire/smoke door of minimum 1 h fire resistance, 
of self-closing type. Further, it is required to have direct 
connectivity to the fire escape staircase for evacuation. 

4.12.3 For buildings more than 24 m in height, refuge 
area of 15 m 2 or an area equivalent to 0.3 m 2 per person 
to accommodate the occupants of two consecutive 
floors, whichever is higher, shall be provided as under: 

The refuge area shall be provided on the periphery of 
the floor or preferably on a cantilever projection and 
open to air at least on one side protected with suitable 
railings. 

a) For floors above 24 m and Up to 39 m — 
One refuge area on the floor immediately 
above 24 m. 

b) For floors above 39 m — One refuge area on 
the floor immediately above 39 m and so on 
after every 15 m. Refuge area provided in 
excess of the requirements shall be counted 
towards FAR. 

NOTE — Residential flats in multi-storied building with 
balcony, need not be provided with refuge area, 
however flats without balcony shall provide refuge area 
as given above. 

4.12.4 Where there is a difference in level between 
connected areas for horizontal exits, ramps, not more 
than 1 in 10 m slope shall be provided; steps shall not 
be used. 

4.12.5 Doors in horizontal exits shall be openable at 
all times from both sides. 

4.13 Fire Tower 

Fire towers are the preferred type of escape route for 
storeyed buildings and these shall be considered as the 
safest route for escape. Their number, location and size 
shall depend on the building concerned, and its 
associated escape routes. 

4.13.1 In high rise buildings with over 8 storeys or 
24 m in height, at least one required means of egress 
shall preferably be a fire tower. 

4.13.2 The fire towers shall be constructed of walls 
with a 2 h fire resistance rating without openings other 
than the exit doorways, with platforms, landings and 
balconies having the same fire-resistance rating. 

4.14 Ramps 

4.14.1 Ramps shall comply with all the applicable 
requirements for stairways regarding enclosure, 



capacity and limiting dimensions except where 
specified in 6.1 to 6.9 for special uses and occupancies. 

4.14.2 The slope of a ramp shall not exceed 1 in 10. 
In certain cases steeper slopes may be permitted but in 
no case greater than 1 in 8. 

4.14.3 For all slopes exceeding 1 in 10 and wherever 
the use is such as to involve danger of slipping, the 
ramp shall be surfaced with approved non-slipping 
material. 

4.15 Fire Lifts 

4.15.1 Where applicable, fire lifts shall be provided 
with a minimum capacity for 8 passengers and fully 
automated with emergency switch on ground level. In 
general, buildings 15 m in height or above shall be 
provided with fire lifts. 

4.15.2 In case of fire, only fireman shall operate the fire 
lift. In normal course, it may be used by other persons. 

4.15.3 Each fire lift shall be equipped with suitable 
inter-communication equipment for communicating 
with the control room on the ground floor of the 
building. 

4.15.4 The number and location of fire lifts in a 
building shall be decided after taking into consideration 
various factors like building population, floor area, 
compartmentation, etc. 

4.16 Emergency and Escape Lighting 

4.16.1 Emergency lighting shall be powered from a 
source independent of that supplying the normal 
lighting [see good practice [4(17)]. 

Escape lighting shall be capable of: 

a) Indicating clearly and unambiguously the 
escape routes, 

b) Providing adequate illumination along such 
routes to allow safe movement of persons 
towards and through the exits, 

c) Ensuring that fire alarm call points and fire- 
fighting equipments provided along the 
escape routes can be readily located. 

4.16.2 The horizontal luminance at floor level on the 
centreline of an escape route shall be not less than 
10 lux. In addition, for escape routes up to 2 m wide, 
50 percent of the route width shall be lit to a minimum 
of 5 lux. 

4.16.3 The emergency lighting shall be provided to 
be put on within 1 s of the failure of the normal lighting 
supply. 

4.16.4 Escape lighting luminaries should be sited to 
cover the following locations: 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



31 



a) Near each intersection of corridors, 

b) at each exit door, 

c) Near each change of direction in the escape 
route, 

d) Near each staircase so that each flight of stairs 
receives direct light, 

e) Near any other change of floor level, 

f) Outside each final exit and close to it, 

g) Near each fire alarm call point, 
h) Near fire-fighting equipment, and 

j) To illuminate exit and safety signs as required 
by the enforcing authority. 

NOTE — For the purposes of this clause 'near' is 
normally considered to be within 2 m measured 

horizontally. 

4.16.5 Emergency lighting systems shall be designed 
to ensure that a fault or failure in any one luminaire 
does not further reduce the effectiveness of the 
system. 

4.16.6 The luminairies shall be mounted as low as 
possible, but at least 2 m above the floor level. 

4.16.7 Signs are required at all exits, emergency 
exits and escape routes, which should comply with 
the graphic requirements of the relevant Indian 
Standards. 

4.16.8 Emergency lighting luminaires and their fittings 
shall be of non-flammable type. 

4.16.9 It is essential that the wiring and installation of 
the emergency lighting systems are of high quality so 
as to ensure their perfect serviceability at all times. 

4.16.10 The emergency lighting system shall be 
capable of continuous operation for a minimum 
duration of 1 h and 30 m even for the smallest 
premises. 

4.16.11 The emergency lighting system shall be well 
maintained by periodical inspections and tests so as to 
ensure their perfect serviceability at all times. 

4.17 Illumination of Means of Exit 

Staircase and corridor lights shall conform to the 
following: 

a) The staircase and corridor lighting shall be 
on separate circuits and shall be independently 
connected so that it could be operated by one 
switch installation on the ground floor easily 
accessible to fire fighting staff at any time 
irrespective of the position of the individual 
control of the light points, if any. It should be 
of miniature circuit breaker type of switch so 
as to avoid replacement of fuse in case of 
crisis; 



b) Staircase and corridor lighting shall also 
be connected to alternative supply. The 
alternative source of supply may be provided 
by battery continuously trickle charged from 
the electric mains; and 

c) Suitable arrangements shall be made by 
installing double throw switches to ensure that 
the lighting installed in the staircase and the 
corridor does not get connected to two sources 
of supply simultaneously. Double throw 
switch shall be installed in the service room 
for terminating the stand-by supply. 

4.18 Fire Detection and Warning 

In buildings of such size, arrangement or occupancy 
where a fire may not itself provide adequate warning 
to occupants, automatic fire detection and alarm 
facilities shall be provided, where necessary, to warn 
occupants early of the existence of fire, so that they 
may escape, and to facilitate the orderly conduct of 
fire exit drills. 

4.18.1 The fire detection system shall be in accordance 
with accepted standards [4(18)]. Guidelines for 
selection of various types of fire detectors for different 
occupancies and their installation and maintenance 
shall be in accordance with [4(19)]. 

4.18.2 The requirements of fire detection and alarm 
systems are covered for each occupancy in Table 23 
and under 6.1 to 6.9; attention is also drawn to such 
requirements in case of high rise buildings (15 m or 
more in height) as given in Annex C. 

5 FIRE PROTECTION 

5.1 Fire Extinguishers/Fixed Fire Fighting 
Installations 

5.1.1 All buildings depending upon the occupancy use 
and height shall be protected by fire extinguishers, wet 
riser, down-comer, automatic sprinkler installation, 
high/medium velocity water spray, foam, gaseous or 
dry powder system in accordance with the provisions 
of 5.1.2 to 5.1.9. 

5.1.2 These fire extinguf&hers/fixed installations shall 
be in accordance with accepted standards [4(20)]. The 
typical requirements of fire extinguishers/wet riser/ 
down-comer installation and capacity of water storage 
tanks and fire pumps, etc shall be as specified in 
Table 23. The requirements regarding size of mains/ 
risers shall be as given in Table 24. The typical 
arrangements of down-comer and wet riser installations 
are shown in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3. The wet riser shall be 
designed for zonal distribution ensuring that unduly 
high pressures are not developed in risers and hose- 
pipes. 



32 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



-AIR RELEASE VALVE 



3 WAY FIRE 
SERVICE INLET 



SLUCE AND NR 



TERRACE TANK 
FOR FIRE FIGHTING/ 
DOMESTIC SUPPLY - 



DRAIN VALVE 




Fig. 2 Typical Arrangement of Down-Comer for Building Above 15 m 
but not Exceeding 30 m in Height 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



33 



O. H. TANK 



HXKh 



6 6 6 6 6 (Jltl 



ra 



8 



6 6 6 6 oi^ 



HP - HYDRANT PUMP / 

MAIN ELECTRIC PUMP 
JP - JOCKEY PUMP 
DP - DIESEL PUMP 
SP - SPRINKLER PUMP 
SH - SUCTION HEADER 
DH - DLIVERY HEADER 
R - PIPE TO RISER 
Y - PIPE TO YARD 

HYDRANT 
S - PIPE TO SPRINKLER 

SYSTEM 
AV - AIR VESSEL 
iCV- INSTALLATION 

CONTROL VALVE 



6 6 6 6 6 6!^ 



JL 



SPRINKLER RISER -^ 
SPRINKLER LINE TEST DRAIN 



1 






1-1 



1 



1 ''iii 

i4J 



It 



WET RISER 



O C C\ 9 — 



6 6 6 O O l^ 



6 6 1?? 



6 6 6 



6 6 6 6 6 6|trn_.. 



FIRST FLOOR 



YARD 
HYDRANT 



H^PJmM s 
^! j ♦♦ TPFT ni DP 






666606666 



GROUND FLOOR 



HT^o 



3"^ 
ICV 
AV l 



TO DRAIN SUMP gl 



TT1 



an. 

! fill — 

!! 



8 



— 4 HOSE REEL 

4 SINGLE HEAD 
LANDING VALVE 

f AIR RELEASE VALVE 

_^j_ SLUICE VALVE 

-*- NON - RETURN VALVE 

-s- FLOW SWITCH 

=y SPRINKLER HEAD 

CABLE TO ANNUNCIATION 

PANEL 

CABLE CONDUITE FOR 

HOOTER 

CABLE CONDUIT FOR 
MANUAL CALL BOX 



Wi - 



H 1 

i 

Hi Hi 



HOOTER 
HZ] MANUAL CALL BOX 



1!!! 
I 

IIIMi 



|IIHI 



illllli 

mm 

,ihii 



I — I FIRE BRIGADE DRAW 
FROM TANK 

|—< FIRE BRIGADE INLET 
TANK FILLING 



fl=ipr 



hill 



FIRE ALARM PANEL WITH 
BATTERY BACK-UP AND 
P.A. SYSTEM 



ZONAL SPRINKLER 
ANNUNCIATION PANEL 



UG FIRE 
TANK 



Fig. 3 Typical Arrangement of Wet Riser and Total Sprinkler System of Building 
Other than Appartment Exceeding 30 m in Height 



34 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



*0 
> 

H 



> 

r 
w 



Table 23 Minimum Requirements for Fire Fighting Installations 

(Clauses 4.18.2, 6.1.2, 6.2.3, 6.3.2, 6.4.3, 6.5.2, 6.5.2.1, 6.5.2.2, 6.5.2.3, 6.5,2.4, 6.5.2.5, 6.6.2, 6.7.2, 6.8.2 and 6.9.2) 



SI Type of Building 
No. Occupancy 








Type of Installation 








Water Supply 
(ml) 


Pump Capacity 
(in I/min) 


Fire 
Ex tin- 
gusher 


Hose 
Reel 


Dry 

Riser 

(see 

Note 6) 


Wet 
Riser 


Down- Yard 
Comer Hydrant 


Automatic 

Sprinkler 

System 


Manually 

Operated 

Electric 

Fire Alarm 

Systems 


Automatic 

Detection 

and Alarm 

System 


Underground 

Static Water 

Storage 

Tank 


Terrace 
Tank 


Pump Near 

Underground 

Static Water 

Storage Tank 

(Fire Pump) 

with Minimum 

Pressure of 

3.5 kg/cm 2 

at 

Terrace Level 


At the 

Terrace 

Tank Level 

with 
Minimum 
Pressure 

of 
2.0 kg/cm 2 


(1) (2) (3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


(7) (8) 


(9) 


(10) 


(11) 


(12) 


(13) 


(14) 


(15) 


RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS (A) 

a) Lodging or Rooming 
Houses (A-l) 

(see Note 1) 

1) Less than 15 m in 
height 

























i) Up to 15 rooms 



ii) More than 15 and 
up to 30 rooms 



iii) More than 
30 rooms 



NR NR NR 



NR NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 


R 

(see Note 2) 


NR 


NR 


R 
(see Note 2) 


NR 


NR 


R 

(see Note 2) 


R 

(see Note 5) 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



5 000 
(see Note 3) 

5 000 

(5 000) 

(see Note 4) 

10 000 

(5 000) 

(see Note 4) 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



450 

(450) 

(see Note 4) 

450 

(450) 

(see Note 4) 



b) One or two Family 
Private Dwellings 

(A-2) 

(see Note 1) 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



in 






Table 23 — Continued 



(l) 



(2) 



(3) (4) (5) (6) (7) 



(8) (9) 



(10) (II) (12) 



(13) 



(14) 



(15) 



c) Dormitories (A-3) 
Apartment 
Houses (A-4) 



1) Less than 15 m 
in height 



2) 15 m and above but 
not exceeding 35 m 
in height 



R R NR NR NR 



R R NR NR R 



NR R 

(see Note 2) 



NR 



NR 



NR R R NR 

(see Note 2) (see Note 7) 



NR 



NR 



5 000 

(5 000) 

(see Note 4) 

25 000 



NR 



NR 



450 

(450) 
(see Note 4) 

900 



3) Above 35 m but not 
exceeding 45 m in 
height 

4) Above 45 m in height 
but not exceeding 

60 m in height 



R R NR R NR 



R R NR R NR 



NR 



R 

(see Notes 
2 and 8) 

R 



NR 



NR 



75 000 



75 000 



5 000 

(5 000) 

(see Note 4) 

10 000 



(see Note 1 9) 



(see Note 20) 



NR 



NR 



5) Above 60 m 
in height 



R R NR R NR 



100 000 



25 000 (see Note 21) NR 



d) Hotels (A-5) 

1) Less than 15 m 
in height 



2 

> 

1 

> 

r 

w 

d 
F 

o 
o 

3 

w 
o 



i) Covered area not 
exceeding 300 m 2 
on each floor 

ii) Covered area 
exceeding 300 m 2 
but not more 
1 000 m 2 on 
each floor 



iii) Covered area 
exceeding 
1 000 m 2 on 
each floor 



R R 



R R 



R R 



NR NR NR 



NR R NR 

(see 
Note 5) 



NR R NR 

(see 
Note 9) 



NR R 

(see Note 2) 



NR R 

(see Note 2) 



NR 



R R R 

(see Note 10) 



NR 


5 000 


NR 


450 




(see Note 2) 




(see Note 3) 


10 000 for 


10 000 


(see Notes 5 


NR 


every 500 m 2 


(see Note 2) 


and 19) 




covered area 








subject to 








minimum of 








50 000 








(see Note 5) 








100 000 


10 000 


(see Notes 9 


NR 


(see Note 9) 


(see Note 2) 


and 19) 





5 



O 

r 



c/3 

3 



Table 23 — Continued 



(i) 



(2) 



(3) 



(4) 



(5) 



(6) 



(7) 



(8) 



(9) 



(10) 



(11) 



(12) 



(13) 



(14) 



(15) 



2) 15 m and above but 
not exceeding 30 m 

3) Above 30 m in 
height 



NR 



NR 



e) Hotels (A-6) R R NR R 

EDUCATIONAL BUILDINGS (B) (see Note 12) 
1) Less than 15 m in height 

R NR NR NR 



i) Ground plus one 
storey 

ii) Ground plus two 
or more storeys 



2) 15 m and above but not 
exceeding 30 m in height 



NR 






INSTITUTIONAL BUILDINGS (C) (see Note 12) 

a) Hospitals, Sanatoria 
and Nursing Homes 
(C-l) 

1) Less than 15 m in height 
with plot area up to 
1 000 m 2 

i) Up to ground plus R R NR 

one storey, with 
no beds 

ii) Up to ground plus R R NR 

one storey with beds 

iii) Ground plus two R R NR 

or more storeys, 
with no beds 

iv) Ground plus two or R R NR 

more storeys, with 
beds 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



R R 

(see Note 10) 

R R 

(see Note 10) 

R R 

(see Note 10) 



NR R 

(see Note 2) 



NR NR NR NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



R 

(see Note 2) 



R 

(see Note 2) 



R 

(see Note 2) 



R 

(see Note 2) 

R 

(see Note 2) 



R 

(see Note 2) 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



150 000 
200 000 
200 000 

NR 
NR 

NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



50 000 



20 000 



20 000 



20 000 



5 000 
(see Note 3) 

10 000 

(5 000) 

(see Note 4) 

25 000 



{see Note 20) NR 

(w Note 21) NR 

(see Note 22) NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



450 
(see Note 3) 

450 

(450) 

(see Note 4) 

900 



2 500 


NR 


NR 


(2 500) 






(see Note 4) 






5 000 


NR 


450 


(5 000) 




(450) 


(see Note 4) 




(see Note 4) 


5 000 


NR 


450 


(5 000) 




(450) 


(see Note 4) 




(see Note 4) 


5 000 


(see Note 19) 


NR 


(5 000) 






(see Note 4) 







00 



Table 23 — Continued 



0) 



(2) 



(3) 



(4) 



(5) 



(6) 



(7) 



(8) 



(9) 



(10) 



(11) 



(12) 



(13) 



(14) 



(15) 



I 



2) Less than 15 m in height 
wiih plot area more 
than i 000 m 2 

3) 1 5 rn and above but not 
exceeding 24 m in height 

4) Above 24 m and not 
exceeding 30 m in height 

b) Custodial (C-2) t and 
Penal and Plental (C-3) 

1) Less than 10 m in 
height 

i) Up to 300 persons 



ii) More than 300 
persons 



2) 10 in and above but 
not exceeding 15 m 
in height 

3) 15m and above but 
not exceeding 24 m in 
height 

4) 24 m and above but 
not exceeding 30 m in 
height 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR NR 



NR NR 



NR 



NR 



R NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



R 

(see Note 2) 



(see Note il) 



(see Note 11) 



R 

(see Note 2) 



R 
(see Note 2) 



R 

(see Note 2) 



(see Note 11) 



(see Note 11) 



NR 



NR 



1 00 000 

100 000 
150 000 



NR 



NR 



50 000 



75 000 



100 000 



10 000 



20 000 



(see Note 19) 



20 000 (see Note 21) 



NR 



(see Note 20) NR 



NR 



10 000 

(5 000) 

(see Note 4) 


NR 


450 (900) 
(see Note 4) 


15000 

(5 000) 

(see Note 4) 


NR 


450 (900) 
(see Note 4) 


5000 

(5 000) 

(see Note 4) 


(see Note 20) 


NR 


10 000 


(see Note 20) 


NR 


20000 


(see Note 21) 


NR 



p 

I 

n 
o 

© 



ASSEMBLY BUILDINGS (D) (see Note 12) 

a) Buildings 
(D-l to D-5) 

1) Less than 10 rn in height 

i) Up to 300 persons R R 



NR NR 



NR 



(see Note 2) 



NR 



NR 



10000 

(5 000) 

(see Note 4) 



NR 



450 

(450) 
(see Note 4) 



> 



o 
r 1 



<Z3 

m 

H 



Table 23 — Continued 



(1) 



(2) 



(3) 



(4) (5) 



(6) 



(7) 



(8) 



(9) 



(10) 



CM 



ii) More than 
300 persons 



2) Above 10m but not 
exceeding 15 m in height 

3) Above 15 m but not 
exceeding 24 m in height 

4) Above 24 m but not 
exceeding 30 m in height 

b) Multiplex D-6 

c) D-7 

BUSINESS BUILDINGS (E) 

1) Less than 10 m in 
height 



2) Above 10 m but not R 
exceeding 15 m in 

height 

3) Above 15 m arid up to R 
24 m in height 

4) Above 24 m and up to R 
30 m in height 

5) Above 30 m in height R 

MERCANTILE BUILDINGS (F) 

a) F-l & F-2 

(see Note 12) 

1) Less than 15 m in height 

i) Ground plus one R 

storey, with total 
covered area not 
exceeding 500 m 2 



NR NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



R NR 

For details see 6.4.8 



NR NR 



NR R 

(see Note 2) 



NR NR R 

(see Note 2) 

NR R R 

(.see Note 11) 

NR R R 

(see Note 10) 

NR R R 

(see Note 10) 



R 


NR 


NR 


R 


NR 


R 

(see Note 2) 


R 


R 


NR 


R 


NR 


NR 


R 

(see Note 2) 


R 


R 


NR 


R 


NR 


R 


R 

(see Note 11) 


R 


R 


NR 


R 


NR 


R 


R 

(see Note 10) 


R 


^ R 


NR 


R 


NR 


R 


R 

(see Note 10) 


R 



NR R 

(see Note 2) 



NR 



(11) 



NR 



NR 



R 
R 
R 



NR 



(12) 



NR 



50000 



75 000 



100 000 



200 000 



NR 



50000 



75 000 



100 000 



200000 



NR 



(13) 



(14) 



(15) 



15 000 
(5 000) 

(see Note 4) 

5 000 

(5 000) 

(see Note 4) 

10 000 



20 000 



20 000 



10000 

(5 000) 

(see Note 4) 

5000 

(5 000) 

(see Note 4) 

10 000. 



20000 



20 000 



5000 

(5 000) 

(see Note 4) 



NR 



900 



(see Note 20) 450 

(450) 

(see Note 4) 
(see Note 20) NR 



(see Note 21) NR 



(see Note 22) NR 



NR 



450 

(450) 
(see Note 4) 



(see Note 20) 450 

(450) 
(see Note 4) 

(see Note 20) NR 



(see Note 21) 



(see Note 22) 



NR 



NR 



NR 



450 

(450) 

(see Note 4) 



Table 23 — Continued 



$ 



_0) Ph (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) 

ii) Ground plus one RRNRNRRNRR R NR NR 25 000 NR 900 

storey and covered ( see Note 2) 

area exceeding 
500 m 2 



hi) More than ground R R R NR R NR R R NR NR 

plus one storey { see Note 2) 

2) Above 15 m but not R R NR R NR NR R R R 100 000 

exceeding 24 m in ( see Note 1 1) 

height 



5000 

(5 000) 
{see Note 4) 


NR 


10 000 


{see Note 20) 


10 000 


(.see Note 21) 


10000 


(see Note 21) 



J* ii) Built up area more RRNRNRRNR R NR NR NR 

^ than 100 m 2 and (, e£ Note 2) 

O up to 500 m 2 

Z ■ ' 



iii) Built up area more R JR NR R R R R NR R 100 000 



W than ^m m 2 



than 500 m z {see Note 7) 



5000 
{see Note 3) 




NR 


5000 

(5 000) 
{see Note 4) 




NR 


10000 


{set 


? Note 20) 



i) Built up area 
uptolOOm 2 


R 


R 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 


ii) Built up area more 
than 100 m 2 and 
up to 500 m 2 


R 


R 


NR 


NR 


NR 


NR 



900 



NR 



3) Above 24 m but not RRNRRNRR R R R 150 000 10 000 {see Note 21) NR 

exceeding 30 m in ( see Note 1 0) 

height 

b) Underground shopping R RNRR NR R R R R 1 50 000 10000 {see Note 2 1 ) NR 

complex (F-3) ( Jee Note 10) 

(jeeNotel3) 

INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS (G) {see Note 14) 

a) Low Hazard (G-l) 

(see Note 15) 

i) Builtuparea R NR NR' NR NR NR R NR NR NR 5 000 NR 450 

uptolOOm 2 (see Note 2) { see Note 3) (see Note 3) 



450 



450 



2 b) Moderate Hazard 

g (G-2) {see Note 14) 

Q i) Builtuparea RRNRNRNRNR R NR NR NR 10000 NR 450 

W 

£ u> Built up area more R R NR NR NR NR R NR NR NR 10 000 NR 900 



gg Table 23 — Continued 

w _ . 



2 0) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) ( 13 ) ( 14 ) i^L 

S iii) Built up area more R R NR R R R R R R 75 000 20 000 (see Note 20) 900 

W than 500 m 2 and (see Note 7) 

£ up to 1 000 m 2 

g iv) Built up area more RRNRR R R R R R 100000 20 000 (see Note 20) 900 

|j than 1000 m 2 (see Note 7) 

CO 

*j c) High Hazard (G-3) 

3 (we Note 16) 

i) Builtuparea R R NR NR NR NR R NR NR NR 5 000 NR 450 

up to 50 m 2 

ii) Built up area more R R NR NR NR NR R NR R NR 5 000 NR 450 

than 50 m 2 and 
up to 150 m 2 

iii) Built up area more RRNRR NR NR R NR R 25 000 10 000 (see Note 19) 450 

than 150 m 2 and 
up to 300 m 2 

iv) Built up area more RRNRR NR R R R R 50 000 20 000 (see Note 19) 900 

than 300 m 2 and 
up to 500 m 2 

v) Built up area more R R NR R R R R R R 100 000 20 000 (see Note 20) 900 

than 500 m 2 (we Note 7) 

STORAGE BUILDINGS (H) (see Note 17) 

1) Below 15 m in height R R NR NR NR NR R NR NR 25 000 5 000 (see Note 19) 450 
and covered area less 

than 250 m 2 ^ 

2) Below 15 m in height 
and covered area more 
than 250 m 2 



i) Ground floor only 


R 


R 


NR 


R 


NR 


R 


R 


NR 


R 


50000 


10 000 


(see Note 20) 


450 


ii) Ground plus 


R 


R 


NR 


R 


NR 


R 


R 


NR 


R 


75 000 


10000 


(see Note 20) 


450 


one floor 
































Table 23 — Concluded 



(l) 



(2) 



(3) 



(4) 



(5) 



(6) 



(7) 



(8) 



(9) 



(10) 



(ID 



(12) 



(13) 



(14) 



(15) 



r 



© 

i 

o 

© 

o 



iii) More than ground R R 

plus one floor 

HAZARDOUS BUILDINGS (J) (see Note 17) 

1) Up to 15 m in height 

i) Single Storey R R 

Building 



NR 



NR 



NR 



100 000 



10 000 



(see Note 20) 



450 



ii) 



More than one floor 
building but not 
exceeding 15 m 



NR 



NR 



NR 



NR 



Minimum 

4 h fire 

fighting 

requirements 

Minimum 

4 h fire 

fighting 

requirements 



NR 



50 000 



(see? Note 18) 



(see Note 18) 



NR 



900 



R — Required 
NR — Not Required 

NOTES 

1 Buildings abovelS m in height not to be permitted for occupancies A-l and A-2. 

2 Required to be installed in basement if area of basement exceeds 200 m 2 . 

3 Required to be provided if basement area exceeds 200 m 2 . 

4 Additional value given in parenthesis shall be added if basement area exceeds 200 m 2 . 

5 Required to be provided for buildings with more than two storeys (Ground + One). 

6 As per the requirement of local authority Dry Riser may be used in hilly areas, industrial areas or as required. 

7 Required to be provided for buildings with height above 15 m. 

8 To be installed in basement. If basement provided is used for car parking and area thereof exceeds 750 m 2 then the sprinklers shall be fed water from both underground static water storage tank and 
terrace tank. 

9 Required to be provided for buildings with more than one storey. 

10 To be installed in entire building. 

11 To be installed in all floors at appropriate places and in consultation with local fire authorities. 

12 Buildings above 30 m in height not to be permitted for Group B, Group C, Group D and Group F occupancies. 

13 All underground shopping areas should be fully air-conditioned, 

14 The requirements given in this table for Group G Industrial Buildings are for small scale industry units. For other industries the requirements will have to be worked out on the basis of relevant Indian 
Standards and also in consultation with the local fire authorities. 

15 Buildings above 18 m in height not to be permitted for G-l and G-2 occupancies. 

16 Buildings above 15 m in height not to be permitted for G-3 occupancies. 

17 Buildings above 15 m in height not to be permitted for Group H and Group J occupancies. 



J? 18 Pump capacity shall be based on the covered area of the building. 

2 19 One electric and one diesel pump of capacity 1 620 1/min and one electric pump of capacity 180 1/min (see Fig, .4). 
■* 20 One electric and one diesel pump of capacity 2 280 1/min and one electric pump of capacity 180 1/min (see Fig. 4). 

3 21 Two electric and one diesel pump of capacity 2 280 1/min and one electric pump of capacity 180 1/min (see Fig. 5). 
^ 22 Two electric and one diesel pump of capacity 2 850 1/min and one electric pump of capacity 180 1/min (see Fig. 5). 

% 23 For buildings 45 m and above, the entire quantity of water for fire fighting purpose (as required in respective occupancy), if provided at the terrace level, the main pump qpgakjer pump, jockey pump 
and common pump need not be provided, however one electric fire pump of 900 LPM capacity with automatic operation is required to be provided. 



e 



CM 



ELEVATIONALVIEW 




GR.FL 



FIRE& SPRINKLER 
• FROM FIRE PLANT ROOM 
-SPRINKLER DRAIN PIPE 

TO FIRE TANK 



TO FIRE & 

SPRINKLER SYSTEM «*- 

(INTERNAL) 



TO EXTERNAL FIRE 

HYDRANT 

(EXTERNAL) 



** 



«M- 



F-2 






FIRE PUMP ROOM 



LEGEND :- 

F-1 ELECTRICAL FIRE 

PUMP 

F-2 DIESEL DRIVEN FIRE 

PUMP 

F-3 JOCKEYPUMP 

PV PRESSURE VESSEL 

M FH FIRE HYDRANT 

Q— VALVE 

-R FLEXIBLE CONNECTION 

NONRETURN VALVE 

WIRING TO FAP 
VALVE 
€ JOINT 
WITCH 
TO SPRINKLERS SYSTEM 

VALVE 



TEST VALVE 
SIGHT GLASS 




DETAIL-'* 



FIRE WATER TANK-1 



FIRE WATER TANK-2 



PLAN 

Fig. 4 Typical System of Pumping with One Electric and 
One Diesel Fire Pump 



44 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



ELEVATIONAL VIEW 




FRFL, 



i^H^^;ViW;v^i^::ja » 



1 — *— i — i — T 

SP 



ORFL. 



tFROM 
"FIRE PLANT ROOM 
-SPRINKLER RISER FROM 

FIRE PLANT ROOM 
"SPRINKLER DRAIN 

PIPE TO FIRE TANK 



LEGEND:- 

F-1 DIESEL DRIVEN FIRE PUMP 

F-2 EL. HYDRANT FIRE PUMP 

F-3 JOCKEY PUMP 

F-4 EL. SPRINKLER PUMP 

PV PRESSURE VESSEL 

FH FIRE HYDRANT 

— M VALVE 

— O— FLEXIBLE CONNECTION 
— R NONRETURN VALVE 

WIRING TO FAP 
I VALVE 
iE JOINT 

FLOW SWITCH 

TO SPRINKLERS 
SYSTEM 

IN VALVE 

TEST VALVE 
SIGHT GLASS 
UNION 

DETAIL-'* 




TO FIRE 
SYSTEM 
(INTERNAL) 



TO EXTERNAL FIRE 
HYDRANT (EXTERNAL) 



TO SPRINKLER 
SYSTEM -* 



-*K-F«3-^)a-M— 



*- 



<*■ 



•w 



F-1 



F-2 



F-3 



F-4 



-*h-F+CJ-^)e*»— 



-M- 



FIRE PUMP ROOM 



FIRE WATER TANK-1 



FIRE WATER TANK-2 



PLAN 

Fig. 5 Typical System of Pumping with Two Electric, 
One Diesel Fire Pump 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



45 



5.1.3 In situations where one occupancy is provided 
with all the required fire protection arrangements but 
due to proximity of unprotected buildings around, 
causing exposure hazard to the protected building, the 
protected building walls facing the unprotected 
building shall be made of the requisite fire resistance 
rated materials or alternatively provided with water 
curtain/drencher system which can be actuated, when 
necessary. 

5.1.4 First-aid fire fighting appliances shall be 
provided and installed in accordance with good practice 
[4(21)]. The fire fighting equipment and accessories 
to be installed in buildings for use in fire fighting shall 
be in accordance with the accepted standards contained 
in [4(20)] and shall be maintained periodically so as 
to ensure their perfect serviceability at all times. 

5.1.5 In addition to wet riser or down-comer, first-aid 
hose reels shall be installed on all the floors of buildings 
of 15 m in height or more and shall be in accordance 
with accepted standards [4(22)]. The first-aid hose reel 
shall be connected directly to the riser/down-comer 
main and diameter of the hose reel shall not be less 
than 19 mm. 

5.1.6 Static Water Storage Tanks 

A satisfactory supply of water for the purpose of fire 
fighting shall always be available in the form of 
underground/terrace level static storage tank with 
capacity specified for each building with arrangements 
or replenishment by mains of alternative source of 
supply at the rate of 1 000 1/min for underground static 
tank. When this is not practicable, the capacity of static 
storage tank(s) shall be increased proportionately in 
consultation with the local fire brigade. 

The static storage water supply required for the above 
mentioned purpose shall entirely be accessible to the 
fire engines of the local fire service. Provision of 
suitable number of manholes shall be made available 
for inspection, repairs, insertion of suction hose, 
etc. The covering slab shall be able to withstand the 
total vehicular load of 45 T equally divided as a four 
point load when the slab forms a part of pathway/ 
driveway. 

The domestic suction tank connected to the static water 
storage tank shall have an overflow capable of 
discharging 2 250 1/min to a visible drain point from 
which by a separate conduit, the overflow shall be 
conveyed to a storm water drain. 

a) To prevent stagnation of water in the static 
water storage tank, the suction tank of the 
domestic water supply shall be fed only 
through an overflow arrangement to maintain 
the level therein at the minimum specified 
capacity (see Fig. 6). 



b) The static water storage tank shall be provided 
with a fire brigade collecting head with 4 
number 63 mm diameter (2 number 63 mm 
diameter for pump with capacity 1 400 1/min) 
instantaneous male inlets arranged in a valve 
box at a suitable point at street level and 
connected to the static tank by a suitable fixed 
pipe not less than 150 mm in diameter to 
discharge water into the tank when required 
at the rate of 2 250 1/min, if tank is in the 
basement or not approachable for the fire 
engines. 

5.1.7 Automatic Sprinklers 

Automatic sprinklers shall be installed in: 

a) basements used as car parks or storage 
occupancy, if the area exceeds 200 m 2 ; 

b) multi-level basements, covered upper floors 
used as car parks, and for housing essential 
services ancillary to a particular occupancy 
or for storage occupancy, excluding any area 
to be used for sub-station, A.C. plant and DG 
set; 

c) any room or other compartment of a building 
exceeding 1 125 m 2 in area except as in (g) 
(see Note 1), if so advised by local authority; 

d) departmental stores or shops, if the aggregate 
covered area exceeds 500 m 2 ; 

e) all non-domestic floors of mixed occupancy 
which constitute a hazard and are not provided 
with staircases independent of the remainder 
of the buildings; 

f) godowns and warehouses, as considered 
necessary; 

g) on all floors of the buildings other than 
residential and educational buildings, if the 
height of the building exceeds 15 m (45 m in 
case of group housing and apartments) (see 
Note 1); 

h) dressing room, scenery docks, stages and 

stage basements of theatres; 
j) in hotels, hospitals, industries low and 

moderate hazard mercantile buildings of 

height 15 m or above; 
k) in hotels below 15 m, if covered area at each 

floor is more than 1 000 m 2 ; 
m) false ceiling voids exceeding 800 mm in 

height (see Note 2); and 
n) canteen provided in upper floors of D-l 

and D-2 occupancies shall be sprinklered. 

NOTES 

1 It is desirable that all high rise buildings should be fully 
sprinklered irrespective of their height and occupancy. If 



46 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



4 Nos. 63 mm 
INLET - 




VALVE BOX 
/ CABINET 



PRIME 
MOVER 



TOWN MAIN 
SUPPLY 



0150 mm 



MANHOLE 



GL 







FIRE 
PUMP 



{ 



SUCTION 



FIRE 

FIGHTING 

TANK 



2 



as i— ~ — : ^v\v 



SLOPJE 



jD 




OVERFLOW 
AND VENT 

GL 



-SEPARATION 
WALL 

-DOMESTIC WATER 
SUPPLY TANK (OTHER 
THAN DRINKING WATER) 



FOOT VALVES 



6A WITH NEGATIVE SUCTION 



DOMESTIC WATER 
SUPPLY TANK (OTHER 
THAN DRINKING WATER) - 



SEPARATION WALL - 



TO DOMESTIC 
X PUMP SUCTION 



SLUICE 
VALVE - 



VALVE BOX 
/CABINET 



OVERFLOW 
AND VENT 



4 Nos. 63 1 
F. B. INLET 




3B WITH POSITIVE SUCTION 

Fig. 6 Typical Arrangement for Providing Combind Fire Fighting and 
Domestic Water Storage Tank 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



47 



Table 24 Size of Rising Mains/Risers 

(Clause 5.1.2) 



Size of the Mains 




Type of Building 


(1) 




(2) 


100 mm as single outlet 
landing valves 


1. 


Residential buildings (A) 

i) l) Lodging or rooming houses 
ii) Dormitories 

iii) One or two family private dwellings 
iv) Apartment houses (flats) 
v) With shopping area not exceeding 

500 m 2 
vi) Hotels 


-do- 


2. 


Educational buildings (B) 


-do- 


3. 


Institutional buildings (C) 



Height of Building 

(3) 



-do- 

-do- 
-do- 



-do- 
-do- 

-do- 



-do- 

150 mm with twin outlet 
landing valves 

-do- 
-do- 
-do- 
-do- 



i) For hospitals and sanitorium 
ii) For custodial institutions and mental 
institutions 

4. Assembly buildings (D) 



5. Business buildings (E) 

6. Mercantile buildings (F) 

7. Industrial buildings (G) 

8. All buildings classified under 1 (i) to (iv) 

9. All buildings classified under 5 above with 
shopping area exceeding 500 m 2 

10. All buildings classified under 1 (v) above 

11. Hotels 

12; All buildings classified under 2 and 3 above 

13. All buildings classified under 5 above 

14. All storage buildings (H) 

15. All Hazardous buildings (J) 



15 m or above and not exceeding 45 m 

Less than 15 m 

15 m or above in height but not exceeding 30 m 
and area not exceeding 600 m 2 per floor 

15 m or above but not exceeding 30 m 



15 m or above but not exceeding 30 m 
15 m or above but not exceeding 30 m 



15 m or above but not exceeding 30 m and total floor 
area not exceeding 500 m 2 /floor (above 30 m, not to 
be permitted) 

15 m or above but not exceeding 30 m 

15 m or above but not exceeding 30 m 
(above 30 m, not to be permitted) 

15 m or above but not exceeding 18 m 
Above 45 m 

Above 15 m 



Above 30 m and area exceeding 500 m 2 
Above 30 m 

AtemMm 

Above 30 m 

Above 10 m but not exceeding 15 m 

Above 10 m but not exceeding 15 m 



l) Buildings above 15 m in height not permitted in case of high hazard industrial buildings. 



selective sprinklering is adopted, there is a real danger of a fire 
starting on one of the lower unsprinklered floors gathering 
momentum, spreading upwards from floor to floor through the 
unsprinklered floor and reaching the first sprinklered floor as 
a fully developed fire. In such an event, the sprinklers can be 
rendered useless or ineffective. 

2 Use of false ceiling voids for storage or as return air plenums 
should be discouraged, 

3 For areas having very high ceiling height and other special 
function areas, where automatic sprinklers cannot be provided, 
appropriate sprinklers/provisions shall be provided in 
consultation with local fire authorities. 

5.1.8 Automatic High Velocity Water Spray or 
Emulsifying System 

Automatic high velocity water spray or emulsifying 
system shall be provided for protection of indoor oil- 



cooled transformers as applicable in accordance 
with C-1.16 and good practice [4(23)]. 

5.1.9 Fixed Foam Installation 

Fixed foam generating system shall be provided for 
protection of oil storage area for boilers with its 
ancillary storage of furnace oils in basement. Fixed 
foam installations can be low, medium or high 
expansion types, which can cover fire risks in oil 
storage areas generally. High expansion foams are used 
for cable tunnels and other confined areas. 

5.1.10 Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing System 

Fixed carbon dioxide fire extinguishing installation 
shall be provided in accordance with good practice 



48 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



[4(24)] on premises where water or foam cannot be 
used for fire extinguishing because of the special nature 
of the contents of the buildings/areas to be protected. 
For some special fire risk/essential applications, carbon 
dioxide may not be suitable and it may be necessary to 
provide BCF (Bromochlorodifluoromethane) — Halon 
1211 or BTM (Bromochlorotrifluoromethane) — 
Halon 1301 or some other identified substitutes. 

However, the use of halons shall be discouraged, as 
halons are ozone depleting substances (ODS) and their 
use is being phased out throughout the world. 

5.1.11 Fire fighting equipment shall be suitably 
located and clearly marked by luminous signs. 

NOTE — This provision shall not apply to occupancies A-2 
and A-4 less than 15 m in height. 

5.2 Fire Detection/Extinguishing System 

In buildings of such size, arrangement or occupancy 
that a fire may not itself provide adequate warning to 
occupants, automatic fire detection and alarm facilities 
shall be provided, where necessary, to warn occupants 
early of the existence of fire, so that they may escape, 
or to facilitate the orderly conduct of fire exit drills. 

5.2.1 The fire detection and extinguishing system shall 
be in accordance with accepted standards [4(18)]. 
Guidelines for selection of various types of fire 
detectors for different occupancies shall be in 
accordance with good practice [4(19)]. Addressable 
analog fire detection system shall be preferred. 

5.2.2 The requirements of fire detection and alarm 
systems are also covered for each occupancy in 6.1 
to 6.9; and for high rise buildings (15 m or more in 
height) in Annex C. 

5.3 Fire Extinguisher/Extinguishing System Using 
Halon Alternatives 

Provisions for certain fire extinguishers and extinguishing 
systems for fire protection which may be used as halon 
alternatives, shall be in accordance in [4(25)]. 

6 ADDITIONAL OCCUPANCY-WISE 
REQUIREMENTS 

6.1 Requirements of Residential Buildings (Group A) 

6.1.1 In addition to the general requirements for the 
type of construction and occupancy group specified 
in 3.4 and the exit requirements given in 4, the 
requirements 6.1.2 to 6.1.4.10 shall be complied with. 
The capacity of any open mezzanine or balcony shall 
be added to the capacity of the floor below for the 
purpose of determining exit capacity. 

6.1.2 Fire Detection/Extinguishing System 

The requirements for occupancy sub-divisions A-l to 



A-5 as specified in Table 23 and Annex C (for High 
Rise Buildings) shall apply. 

6.1.3 Exit Facilities 

The capacity of any open mezzanine or balcony shall 
be added to the capacity of the floor for the purpose of 
determining the exit capacity. 

6.1.3.1 In addition to requirements specified for 
occupancy sub-division A-2, the following shall be 
provided for occupancy sub-division A-l: 

Every sleeping room above the street floor shall 
have access to two separate means of exits, 'at least 
one of which shall consist of an enclosed interior 
stairway, or a fire escape or horizontal exit all so 
arranged as to provide a safe path of travel to the 
outside of the building without traversing any 
corridor or space exposed to an unprotected 
vertical opening. 

6.1.3.2 For occupancy sub-division A-2 of more than 
two rooms, every occupied room, excluding areas used 
solely for storage shall have at least two means of exits, 
at least one of which shall be a door or a stairway 
providing a means of un-obstructed travel to the outside 
of the building or street or grade level. No room or 
space shall be occupied which is accessible only by a 
ladder, folding stairs or through a trap door. 

Further the following provisions shall be made: 

All locking devices, which would impede or 
prohibit exit, such as chain type bolts, limited 
opening sliding type locks and burglar locks, 
which are not dis-engaged easily by quick- 
releasing catches, shall be prohibited. All closet 
door latches shall be such that even children can 
open the doors from inside. All bathroom door 
locks or fasteners shall be designed to permit the 
opening of the locked or closed door from the 
outside in an emergency without the use of a 
special key. 

6.1.3.3 For occupancy sub-division A-3, the following 
provisions shall apply: 

All dormitories shall lave exits so arranged that 
from any sleeping room or open dormitory 
sleeping area, there shall be access to two separate 
and distinct exits in different directions with no 
common path of travel unless the room or space 
is subject to occupancy by not more than 10 
persons and has a door opening directly to the 
outside of the building at street or grade level, or 
to an outside stairway in which case one means of 
exit may be accepted. 

6.1.3.4 For occupancy sub-division A-4, the following 



provisions shall apply: 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



49 



a) Every individual living unit covered by 
occupancy sub-division A-4 shall comply 
with the requirement for occupancy sub- 
division A-2 in respect of exits. 

b) Every living unit shall have access to at least 
two separate exits, which are remote from 
each other and are reached by travel in 
different directions, except that a common 
path of travel may be permitted for the first 
6 m (that is a dead end corridor up to 6 m long 
may be permitted) provided that single exit 
may be permitted under any of the conditions 
given under (c). 

c) Any part of building lower than the grade 
level shall have direct accessibility from 
outside. 

d) At least half of required exits shall discharge 
direct to the outside of the buildings; any 
other exit shall be the same as required for 
hotels. 

6.1.3.5 For occupancy sub-divisions A-5 and A-6, the 
following provisions shall apply: 

a) Not less than two exits, as remote from each 
other as practicable, shall be accessible from 
every floor, including basements occupied for 
hotel purpose, except as a single exit as 
permitted in (b) below. Exits and ways of 
access thereto shall be so arranged that they 
are accessible in at least two different 
directions from every point in any open area, 
or from any room door. 

b) Any room or section with an outside door at 
street or grade level may have such outside 
door as a single exit, provided no part of the 
room or area is more than 15 m from the door 
measured along the natural path of travel. 

c) Provision of panic bars shall be provided in 
the exits. 

6.1.3.5.1 Where stairways or other exits serve two or 
more upper floors, the same stairway or other exit 
required to serve any one upper floor may also serve 
other upper floors, except that no inside open stairway 
or ramp may serve as a required egress facility from 
more than one floor [see good practice 4(26)]. 

6.1.3.6 Basement Exits 

a) Basements occupied for hotel purposes shall 
have exits arranged in accordance with 6.1.3.5. 

b) Basement exits shall be sufficient to provide 
for the capacity of the basement as determined 
in accordance with 6.1.1. In no case shall there 
be less than two independent basement exits. 

c) Basement or sub-basements not open to the 
public and used only for heating equipment, 



storage and service operations (other than 
kitchens, which are considered part of the hotel 
occupancy) shall have exits appropriate to the 
actual occupancy, in accordance with other 
applicable provisions of the Code, or in case 
of mixed occupancy where there may be doubt 
as to which other section is applicable, such 
basements shall have exits determined on the 
basis of lesser exit capacity. 

6.1.4 Additional Precautions 

6.1.4.1 Flammable liquids for household purposes 
shall be kept in tightly stoppered or sealed containers. 
For the limits of quantities of flammable liquids to be 
allowed in various occupancies, reference may be made 
to appropriate regulations. 

6.1.4.2 No stove or combustion heater shall be located 
directly under or immediately at the foot of stairs or 
otherwise so located as to block escape in case of 
malfunctioning of the stove or heater. 

6.1.4.3 All kitchen exhaust fans, where provided, shall 
be fixed to an outside wall or to a duct of non- 
combustible material, which leads directly to the 
outside. The ducts must not pass through areas having 
combustible materials. 

6.1.4.4 All wiring shall be done in accordance with 
Part 8 'Building Services, Section 2 Electrical 
Installations', good practice [4(10)] and National 
Electric Code. 

6.1.4.5 Where television is installed, all outdoor 
antennae shall be properly grounded and protected 
from lightning (see Part 8 'Building Services, Section 2 
Electrical Installations'). 

6.1.4.6 Doors leading to rooms in which flammable 
liquids are stored or used shall be as in 4.7. Such 
assembly shall be self-closing and shall be posted with 
a sign on each side of the door in 25 mm high block 
letters stating — 'FIREDOOR — KEEP CLOSED'. 

6.1.4.7 Where a boiler room is provided or a central 
heating plant is installeq\ which uses solid or liquid 
fuel, it shall be separated j&rom rest of the building by a 
separation wall with all openings protected as in 3.4.7 
and 3.4.8. 

6.1.4.8 Rooms containing high pressure boilers, 
refrigerating machinery, transformers or other service 
equipment subject to possible explosion shall not be 
located directly under or adjacent to exits. All such 
rooms shall be effectively cut off from other parts of 
the building and shall be provided with adequate vents 
to the outside air. 

6.1.4.9 All rooms or areas of high hazard in additions 
to those herein before mentioned, shall be segregated 



50 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



or shall be protected as may be directed by the 
enforcing Authority where, in the opinion of the 
enforcing Authority, fire, explosion or smoke there 
from is likely to interfere with safe egress from the 
building. 

6.1.4.10 For detailed information regarding fire safety 
requirements for hazardous petroleum products, 
reference may be made to the Petroleum Act, 1934 
and the Rules thereof. 

6.2 Requirements of Educational Buildings 
(Group B) 

6.2.1 In addition to the general requirements specified 
in 3.4 for the type of construction and occupancy group 
and the exit requirements given in 4, the requirements 
given in 6.2.2 to 6.2.6.3 shall be complied with. 

6.2.2 Buildings intended for educational occupancy 
shall not be used for any hazardous occupancy. 

6.2.3 Fire Detection/Extinguishing System 

The requirements for occupancy sub-divisions B-l and 
B-2 as specified in Table 23 and Annex C (for High 
Rise Buildings) shall apply. 

6.2.4 Exit Facilities 

The capacity of any open mezzanine or balcony shall 
be added to the capacity of the floor for the purpose of 
determining the exit capacity. 

In addition to the provisions in 4, the following shall 
be provided: 

6.2.4.1 Exits, in accordance with 4 shall be so arranged 
that at least two separate exits are available in every 
floor area. Exits shall be as remote from each other as 
practicable and so arranged that there are no pockets 
or dead ends of appreciable size in which occupants 
may be trapped. 

6.2.4.2 Every room with a capacity of over 45 persons 
in area shall have at least two doorways. 

6.2.4.3 Exterior doors shall be operated by panic bars 
or some other panic hardware device, except that doors 
leading from classrooms directly to the outside may 
be equipped with the same type of lock as is used on 
classroom doors leading to corridor, with no provision 
whatsoever for locking against egress from the 
classroom. 

6.2.5 Additional Precautions 

6.2.5.1 Storage of volatile flammable liquids shall be 
prohibited and the handling of such liquids shall be 
restricted to science laboratories only. 

6.2.5.2 Each building shall be provided with an 
approved outside gas shut-off valve conspicuously 



marked. The detailed requirements regarding safe use 
of gas shall be as specified in Part 9 'Plumbing 
Services, Section 3 Gas Supply'. 

6.2.5.3 All exterior openings in a boiler room or rooms 
containing central heating equipment, if located below 
opening in another storey or if less than 3 m from other 
doors or windows of the same building, shall be 
protected by a fire assembly as in 3.4.8. Such 
assemblies shall be fixed, automatic or self-closing. 
Provisions of 6.1.4.7 shall also apply to this group of 
occupancy. 

6.2.6 Exception and Deviation 

6.2.6.1 Gymnasiums, indoor stadiums and similar 
occupancies may have floors/running tracks of wood, 
cinder, synthetic or unprotected steel or iron. 

6.2.6.2 In gymnasiums and in multi-purpose school 
rooms having an area not greater than 300 m\ 25 mm 
nominal tight tongue-and-grooved or 20 mm plywood 
wall covering may be used in the inner side in lieu of 
fire-resistant plaster. 

6.2.6.3 A building, which will have only the first floor 
and is accessible to not more than 20 pupils at any 
time, may be used for school purposes with the 
following exceptions: 

a) Exterior walls or parts of walls which are less 
than 900 mm from adjacent property lines 
shall have no openings therein. 

b) Classrooms may have only one exit not less 
than 900 mm wide. 

6.3 Requirements of Institutional Buildings 
(Group C) 

6.3.1 In addition to the general requirements specified 
in 3.4 for the type of construction and occupancy group 
and the exit requirements given in 4, the requirements 
given in 6.3.2 to 6.3.5 shall be complied with. 

6.3.2 Fire Detection/Extinguishing System 

The requirements for occupancy sub-divisions as 
specified in Table 23 and Annex C (for High Rise 
Buildings) shall apply. 

6.3.3 Exit Facilities 

In addition to the provisions of 4, the following 
requirements shall be complied with. 

6.3.3.1 In buildings or sections occupied by bed- 
ridden patients where the floor area is over 280 m 2 , 
facilities shall be provided to move patients in hospital 
beds to the other side of a smoke barrier from any part 
of such building or section not directly served by 
approved horizontal exits or exits from the first floor 
(floor 2) of a building to the outside. 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



51 



6.3.3.2 Not less than two exits of one or more of the 
following types shall be provided for every floor, 
including basement, of every building or section: 

a) Doors leading directly outside the building; 

b) Stairways; 

c) Ramps; 

d) Horizontal exits; and 

e) Fire tower. 

6.3.3.3 All required exits that serve as egress from 
hospital or infirmary sections shall be not less than 
2 m in clear width including patient bedroom doors to 
permit transportation of patients on beds, litters, or 
mattresses. The minimum width of corridors serving 
patients bedrooms in buildings shall be 2 400 mm. For 
detailed information on recommendations for buildings 
and facilities for the physically handicapped, reference 
may be made to good practice [4(27)]. 

6.3.3.4 Elevators constitute a desirable supplementary 
facility, but are not counted as required exits. Patient 
lifts shall also be provided with enough room for 
transporting a stretcher trolley. 

6.3.3.5 Any area exceeding 500 m 2 shall be divided 
into compartments by fire resistant walls. 

6.3.3.6 Doors in fire resistant walls shall be so installed 
that these may normally be kept in open position, but 
will close automatically. Corridor door openings in 
smoke barriers shall be not less than 2 000 mm in width. 
Provision shall also be made for double swing single/ 
double leaf type door. 

6.3.3.7 Exits and other features for penal and mental 
institutions, and custodial institutions shall be the same 
as specified for hospitals, in so far as applicable. 
Reliable means shall be provided to permit the prompt 
release of inmates from any locked section in case of 
fire or other emergency. 

6.3.3.8 Wherever any inmates are confined in any locked 
rooms or spaces, adequate guards or other personnel shall 
be continuously on duty or immediately available to 
provide for release of inmates or for such other action as 
may be indicated in case of fire or other emergency. 

6.3.3.9 No building constructed in whole or in part of 
combustible materials shall be used to confine inmates 
in cells or sleeping quarters, unless automatic sprinkler 
protection is provided. 

6.3.3.10 All buildings or sections of buildings in penal 
and mental institutions used for manufacturing, storage 
or office purposes shall have exits in accordance with 
the provisions of the Code for those occupancies. 

6.3.4 Additional Precautions 

6.3.4.1 No combustible material of any kind shall be 



stored or used in any building or section thereof used 
for institutional occupancy, except as necessary to 
normal occupancy and use of the building. 

6.3.4.2 Bare minimum quantities of flammable 
material such as chloroform, ethyl alcohol, spirit, etc 
shall be allowed to be stored and handled. The handling 
of such liquids shall not be permitted by un-authorized 
persons. Bulk storage of these items, will be governed 
by relevant rules and safe practices. 

6.3.5 Exceptions and Deviations 

It is recognized that in institutions or part of buildings 
housing various types of psychiatric patients, or used 
as penal and mental institutions, it is necessary to 
maintain locked doors and barred windows; and to such 
extent the necessary provision in other sections of the 
Code requiring the keeping of exits unlocked may be 
waived. It is also recognized that certain type of 
psychiatric patients are not capable of seeking safety 
without adequate guidance. In buildings where this 
situation prevails, reliable means for the rapid release 
of occupants shall be provided, such as remote control 
of locks, or by keying all locks to keys commonly used 
by attendants. 

6.4 Requirements of Assembly Buildings (Group D) 

6.4.1 In addition to the general requirements specified 
in 3.4 for type of construction and occupancy group 
and the exit requirements given in 4, the requirements 
given in 6.4.2 to 6.4.8.9 shall be complied with. 

6.4.2 Mixed Occupancy 

Places of assembly in buildings of other occupancy, 
such as ballrooms in hotels, restaurants in stores and 
assembly rooms in schools, shall be so located, 
separated or protected as to avoid any undue danger to 
the occupants of the place of assembly from a fire 
originating in the other occupancy or smoke therefrom. 

6.4.3 Fire Detection/Extinguishing System 

The requirements for occupancy sub-divisions D-l to 
D-5 as specified in Tible 23 and Annex C (for High 
Rise Buildings) shall apply. 

NOTE — Canteens shall not be provided in basements. If 
provided in the upper floors, it shall be sprinklered. 

6.4.4 Exit Facilities 

6.4.4.1 Every place of assembly, every tier or balcony, 
and every individual room used as a place of assembly 
shall have exits sufficient to provide for the total 
capacity thereof as determined in accordance with 4. 
Door width for assembly buildings shall not be less 
than 2 000 mm. 

a) Every place of assembly of sub-division D-l 



52 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



shall have at least four separate exits as remote 
from each other as practicable, 
b) Every place of assembly of sub-division 
D-2, shall have at least two separate exits as 
remote from each other as practicable and if 
of capacity over 600 at least three exits shall 
be provided with each exit not less than of 
2 000 mm width. 

6.4.4.2 Clear aisles not less than 1.2 m in width shall 
be formed at right angles to the line of seating in such 
number and manner that no seat shall be more than seven 
seats away from an aisle. Rows of seats opening on to 
an aisle at one end only shall have not more than seven 
seats. Under the conditions, where all these aisles do 
not directly meet the exit doors, cross-aisles shall be 
provided parallel to the line of seating so as to provide 
direct access to the exit, provided that not less than one 
cross aisle for every 10 rows shall be required. The width 
of cross-aisles shall be minimum of 1 m. Steps shall not 
be placed in aisles to overcome differences in levels, 
unless the gradient exceeds 1 in 10. 

6.4.4.3 The fascia of boxes, balconies and galleries 
shall have substantial railings not less than 1 000 mm 
high above the floor. The railings at the end of aisles 
extending to the fascia shall be not less than 1 100 mm 
high for the width of the aisle or 1 200 mm high at the 
foot of steps. 

6.4.4.4 Cross-aisles except where the backs of seats 
on the front of the aisle project 600 mm or more above 
the floor of the aisle shall be provided with railings 
not less than 900 mm high. 

6.4.4.5 No turnstiles or other devices to restrict the 
movement of persons shall be installed in any place of 
assembly in such a manner as to interfere in any way 
with the required exit facilities. 

6.4.4.6 In theatres and similar places of public 
assembly where persons are admitted to the building 
at a time when seats are not available for them and are 
allowed to wait in a lobby or similar space until seats 
are available, such use of lobby or similar space shall 
not encroach upon the required clear width of exits. 
Such waiting shall be restricted to areas separated from 
the required exit ways by substantial permanent 
partitions or fixed rigid railing not less than 105 cm 
high. Exits shall be provided for such waiting spaces 
on the basis o*f one person for each 0.3 m 2 of waiting 
space area. Such exits shall be in addition to the exits 
specified for the main auditorium area and shall 
conform in construction and arrangement to the general 
rules of exits given above. 

6.4.4.7 No display or exhibit shall be so installed or 
operated as to interfere in any way with access to any 
required exit, or with any required exit sign. 



All displays or exhibits of combustible material or 
construction and all booths and temporary construction 
in connection therewith shall be so limited in 
combustibility or protected as to avoid any undue 
hazard of fire which might endanger occupants before 
they have opportunity to use the available exits, as 
determined by the authority. 

6.4.4.8 Places of assembly in buildings of other 
occupancy may use exits common to the place of 
assembly and the other occupancy, provided the 
assembly area and the other occupancy are considered 
separately, and each has exits sufficient to meet the 
requirements of the Code. 

6.4.4.9 Exits shall be sufficient for simultaneous 
occupancy of both the places of assembly and other 
parts of the building, unless the Authority determines 
that the conditions are such that simultaneous 
occupancy will not occur. 

6.4.4.10 For any place of assembly under sub-division 
D- 1 , at least half the required means of exits shall lead 
directly outdoors or through exit ways completely 
separated from exits serving other parts of the building. 

6.4.4.11 For detailed information regarding cinema 
buildings, reference may be made to good practice 
[4(28)]. 

6.4.5 Lighting 

No open flame lighting devices shall be used in any 
place of assembly, except in the following cases: 

a) Where necessary for ceremonial purposes, the 
enforcing Authority may permit open flame 
lighting under such restrictions as are 
necessary to avoid danger of ignition of 
combustible materials or injury to occupants. 

b) Candles may be used on restaurant tables if 
securely supported on non-combustible bases 
and so located as to avoid danger of ignition 
of combustible materials. 

c) Open flame devices may be used on stages 
where they are a necessary part of theatrical 
performance, provided adequate precautions, 
satisfactory to' the Authority are taken to 
prevent ignition of combustible materials. 

6.4.6 Additional Precautions 

6.4.6.1 The decorations of places of assembly shall 
be of non-flammable materials. Fabrics and papers used 
for such purpose shall be treated with an effective 
flame-retardant material. Stage settings made of 
combustible materials shall likewise be treated with 
fire retardant materials of Class 1 flame spread. 

6.4.6.2 Seats in places of public assembly, 
accommodating more than 300 persons, shall be 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



53 



securely fastened to the floor, except as permitted 
in 6.4.6.3. All seats in balconies and galleries shall be 
securely fastened to the floor, except that in nailed-in 
enclosures, boxes with level floors and having not more 
than 14 seats, the seats need not be fastened. 

6.4.6.3 Chairs not secured to the floor may be 
permitted in restaurants, night clubs and other 
occupancies where the fastening of seats to the floor 
may not be practicable, provided that in the area used 
for seating, excluding dance floor, stage, etc, there shall 
be not more than one seat for each 1 .4 m 2 of floor area 
and adequate aisles to reach exits shall be maintained 
at all times. 

6.4.6.3.1 Rows of seats between aisles shall have not 
more than 14 seats. 

6.4.6.3.2 Rows of seats opening on to an aisle at one 
end only shall have not more than 7 seats. 

6.4.6.3.3 Seats without dividing arms shall have their 
capacity determined by allowing 450 mm per person. 

6.4.6.4 The spacing of rows of seats from back-to- 
back shall be neither less than 850 mm nor less than 
700 mm plus the sum of the thickness of the back and 
inclination of the back. There shall be a space of not 
less than 350 mm between the back of one seat and 
the front of the seat immediately behind it as measured 
between plumb lines. 

6.4.6.5 Rooms containing high pressure boilers, 
refrigerating machinery other than domestic 
refrigerator type, large transformers or other service 
equipments subject to possible explosion shall not be 
located directly under or adjacent to the required exits. 
All such rooms shall be effectively cut off from other 
parts of the building and provided with adequate vents 
to the outer air. 

6.4.6.6 All rooms or areas used for storage of any 
combustible materials or equipment, or for painting, 
refinishing, repair or similar purposes shall be 
effectively cut off from assembly areas or protected 
with a standard system of automatic sprinklers. They 
shall be located away from staircases. 

6.4.6.7 Every stage equipped with fly galleries, grid 
irons and rigging for movable theatre type scenery, 
shall have a system of automatic sprinklers over and 
under such stage areas or spaces and auxiliary spaces, 
such as dressing rooms, store rooms and workshops, 
and the proscenium opening shall be provided with a 
fire- resisting curtain, capable of withstanding a lateral 
pressure of 4 kN/m 2 over the entire area. The curtain 
shall have an emergency closing device capable of 
causing the curtain to close without the use of power 
and when so closed, it shall be reasonably tight against 
the passage of smoke. 



6.4.6.8 The stage roof of every theatre using movable 
scenery or having a motion picture screen of highly 
combustible construction shall have a ventilator or 
ventilators in or above it, openable from the stage floor 
by hand and also opening by fusible links or some other 
approved automatic heat/smoke actuated device, to 
give a free opening equal to at least one-eighth the 
area of the floor of the stage. 

6.4.6.9 The proscenium wall of every theatre using 
movable scenery of decorations shall have, exclusive 
of the proscenium opening, not more than two openings 
entering the stage, each not to exceed 2 m 2 and fitted 
with self-closing fire resistant doors. 

6.4.6.10 Every place of assembly in which projection 
of motion pictures by light is made shall have the 
projection apparatus enclosed in a fire-resisting fixed 
booth in accordance with good practice [4(27)], except 
that such booth shall not be required where no 
nitrocellulose motion picture film is used. 

6.4.6.11 Automatic smoke vents actuated by smoke 
detectors shall be installed above the auditorium or 
theatres, including motion picture houses, with vent 
area equal to not less than 3 percent of the floor area 
of the auditorium, including the sum of the floor areas 
of all balconies, galleries, boxes and tiers. It may be 
desirable to provide a large number of small vents 
rather than a small number of large vents. 

6.4.7 Exception and Deviation 

6.4.7.1 Where boilers or central heating plants using 
liquid or solid fuel are located at grade level, these 
shall be separated from the remainder of the building 
by a separating wall with openings protected as in 3.4.7 
and 3.4.8. 

6.4.7.2 Gymnasiums, indoor stadiums and similar 
occupancies may have floors/running tracks of wood, 
cinder, synthetic or un-protected steel or iron. 

6.4.7.3 The underside of continuous steel deck grand 
stands when erected outdoors need not be fire-protected 
when occupied for public toilets. 

6.4.8 Fire Protection and Fire Fighting System for 
Metro Stations 

6.4.8.1 Wet riser system 

Main and diesel fire pump of 1 800 1/min capacity to 
be provided to support 3 to 4 hydrants at a time. Jockey 
pump capacity shall be 180 1/min. Where it is possible 
to extend reliable DG supply to the fire pump room 
without routing through the station building, the 
provision of diesel pump can be dispensed with and 
instead, two electric pumps may be provided out of 
which at least one should have DG back-up. The jockey 
pump should also have DG back-up. 



54 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



6.4.8.2 Internal hydrant 

The internal hydrant is proposed to be provided with 
2 number RRL hose pipes of 38 mm dia with 63 mm 
standard instantaneous coupling along with associated 
branch pipes and cabinet and a first aid hose reel of 
25 mm dia, length 45 m and fitted with 6.5 mm 
nozzle. 

Two internal hydrants are proposed to be provided on 
each platform in such a way so that most of the platform 
is covered by hose. However, in case of necessity, the 
hose pipes from other hose cabinets can be utilized for 
extending the length of fire hose pipe for fire fighting, 
if need be. At the concourse level minimum two 
hydrants will be provided. In station where the 
concourse is split into two halves at least one hydrant 
is to be provided in each half of the concourse. Further, 
in case the area is more than 2 000 m 2 , an additional 
first aid hose-reel point shall be provided for every 
additional 1 000 m 2 . 

In addition, hydrants shall be provided in commercial 
areas also. 

One hydrant shall be provided at entry of each station 
at ground floor for providing the coverage to the 
parking area. 

6.4.8.3 Sprinklers 

Sprinklers are required to be provided only in the 
commercial areas, if any, in the station. The commercial 
areas will be segregated from the station area through 
2 h fire rated walls and doors. Additional sprinkler 
pumps are not required, as two pumps already provided 
for hydrant system will take care of the sprinkler flow 
requirements. 

However, if such commercial areas in the premises of 
stations are in isolated building separate from the 
station building then the provision of sprinkler pump 
and water tank capacities shall be as per this Code. 
The water storage and pumps may however be 
common. 

6.4.8.4 Detectors 

Detectors are required to be provided only in areas 
where there are false ceiling and false floor and areas 
of equipment rooms. Wherever there are false ceiling, 
the detectors should be provided both above and below 



false ceiling giving due consideration to depth of false 
ceiling/flooring. However, in concourse, the detectors 
below false ceiling may not be effective due to heights/ 
cross ventilation and therefore may not be provided. 
In other areas, because of high heights and cross- 
ventilations, detectors will not be effective and hence 
therefore can be dispensed. A conventional detection 
system will suffice at a normal station. 

6.4.8.5 Manual call box 

Manual call box should be provided at a central place 
on each platform (near emergency plunger) and at least 
two on the concourse, on each sidewall. When the 
concourse in two halves there should be one manual 
call box on each side. 

6.4.8.6 Manual panel gas flooding 

Electric panels should have provision of manual gas 
flooding. Alternatively panels can be provided with 
linear heat sensing tubes with C0 2 cylinder. This 
required to be provided only in main power panels, 
that is HT panel, main LT panel, main LT distribution 
board and essential power panels and other such major 
panels. 

6.4.8.7 External area of the station 

A 'two way/four way' fire brigade inlet to be provided 
at ground level on each rising main for hydrants/ 
sprinkles. 

The 'Draw Off Connection' shall be provided on the 
underground tank for fire brigade. 

6.4.8.8 Water tank capacity 

Capacity of fire tanks at stations without any 
commercial development (Beverage stall/ ATM/Florist/ 
Book stalls up to total 250 m 2 excluded) shall be 50 000 
litres. 

However, at stations having commercial development, 
the fire tank capacity shall be 100 000 litres. 

6.4.8.9 Portable fire extinguishers 

For the purpose of standardization, the following 
portable extinguishers are, recommended: 

a) Water C0 2 type 9 litres 

b) C0 2 fire extinguishers 4.5 kg 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



55 



They shall be provided in various areas as detailed hereunder: 



SI 


Item 


Numbers and Location 


No. 






(1) 


(2) 


(3) 



PLATFORM 

1 . Internal Hydrants 

2. Manual call box 

3. Portable Extinguishers 

CONCOURSE 

1. Internal Hydrants 

2. Additional first-aid reel point 



3. Manual call box 

4. Portable Extinguishers 

5. Detectors 

EQUIPMENT ROOM AREAS 

1 . Internal Hydrants/first-aid reel 
point 

2. Manual call box 

3. Portable Extinguishers 

4. Detectors 

5. Response Indicator 

6. Panel gas flooding 

EXTERNAL AREAS 

1 . Hydrants 

2. Two/four way fire brigade inlet 

3. Fire brigade Draw-off connection 



Two at each platform. The hydrants at two platforms may be 
staggered for maximum coverage. 

One on each platform preferably near emergency plunger. 

One set of Water C0 2 and C0 2 type on each platform at a central 
area. 

Two at each concourse. When concourse is in two parts then each 
part should have at least one hydrant. 

Additional first-aid reel point for every additional 1 000 m 2 , if the 
area is more than 2 000 m 2 . Similarly, if the concourse is in two parts 
then additional first aid reel point for every additional 
1 000 m 2 , if the area of the part is more than 1 000 m 2 . 

Two at each concourse. When concourse is in two parts then each 
part should have at least one. 

Two sets at each concourse. When concourse is in two parts then 
each part should have at least one set. 

Above false ceiling where depth of false ceiling is greater than 
800 mm. Required in commercial areas also. 

The requirement shall get covered with platform/concourse. 
Additional first-aid reel point may be provided, if required. 

One at a central place. When the equipment rooms are in two/more 
parts then each part should have one. 

One set for each room. 

Above and below false ceiling and below floor giving due 
consideration to depth of false ceiling/floor. 

To be provided. 

To be provided for HT panel, main LT panel, main LT distribution 
board and essential power panels and other such major panels. 

One at ground floor at each entry to station near staircase/DG room. 
To be provided for each riser/sprinkler riser. 
To be provided on water tank. 



6.5 Business Buildings (Group E) 

6.5.1 In addition to the general requirements specified 
in 3.4 for type of construction and occupancy group 
and the exit requirements given in 4, the requirements 
given in 6.5.2 to 6.5.5 shall be complied with. 

6.5.2 Fire Detection/Extinguishing System 

The requirements for occupancy sub-divisions as 
specified in Table 23 and Annex C (for High Rise 
Buildings) shall apply. 



6.5.2.1 Occupancy sub-division E-l (except office 
buildings) 

Details of Fire Detection/Extinguishing 

Occupancy System 

E-l Automatic fire alarm system {good 

practice [4(17)] and [4(18)], and 

Table 23}. 



56 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



6.5.2.2 Occupancy sub-division E-2 



Details of 
Occupancy 
a) Laboratory 
with delicate 
instruments 



b) Solvent storage 
and/or flammable 
liquid 



Fire Detection/Extinguishing 
System 

Fixed automatic C0 2 fire 
extinguishing system or 
automatic fire alarm system 
{good practice [4( 1 8)] and 
[4(19)], and Table 23} 

Automatic foam installation 
or automatic C0 2 fire 
extinguishing system 



6.5.2.3 Occupancy sub-division E-3 



Details of 
Occupancy 

a) Area of computer 
installations 



b) Space under false 
ceiling (floor) 

c) Space above false 
ceiling and below 
false floor 

d) Electrical switch 
board 



Fire Detection/Extinguishing 
System 

Automatic fire alarm system 
{good practice [4(18)] and 
[4(19)], and Table 23} any 
suitable halon alternative fire 
extinguishing system {see 
5.3) or any other suitable fire 
extinguishing installation 
{see also [4(29)]}. 

Automatic fire alarm system 
{good practice [4(18)] and 
[4(19)], and Table 23} 
Automatic fire alarm system 
{good practice [4(18)] and 
[4(19)], and Table 23} 

Automatic fire alarm system 
{good practice [4(18)] and 
[4(19)], and Table 23} and 
C0 2 fire extinguishing 
installation 



6.5.2.4 Occupancy sub-division E-4 



Details of 
Occupancy 

Telephone exchanges 



Fire Detection/Extinguishing 
System 

Any suitable halon 

alternative fire extinguishing 
system (see 5.3) and/or 
automatic sprinkler system as 
per requirement (see also 
Table 23) 



6.5.2.5 Occupancy sub-division E-5 



Details of 
Occupancy 

Broadcasting stations 



Fire Detection/ 
Extinguishing System 

Automatic fire alarm system 
based on smoke detectors 
and sprinkler system (see 
also Table 23) 



6.5.3 Exit Facilities 

6.5.3.1 In the case of mezzanines or balconies open 
to the floor below, or other unprotected vertical 
openings between floors, the population of the 
mezzanine or other subsidiary floor for level shall be 
added to that of the main floor for the purpose of 
determining the required exits, provided, however, that 
in no case shall the total number of exit units be less 
than that required if all vertical openings were enclosed. 

6.5.3.2 Not less than two exits shall be provided for 
every floor, including basements occupied for office 
purposes or uses incidental thereto. 

6.5.4 Additional Requirements 

6.5.4.1 The handling and use of gasoline, fuel oil and 
other flammable liquids shall not be permitted, unless 
such use and handling complies with the appropriate 
regulations. 

6.5.4.2 Every boiler room or room containing a central 
heating plant using solid or liquid fuel shall be 
separated from the rest of the building by a separating 
wall. Every boiler room or room containing a central 
heating plant, which burns gas as a fuel shall be 
adequately separated from the rest of the building. 

6.5.5 Exception and Deviation 

6.5.5.1 Basements used only for storage, heating, any 
other service equipment shall conform to exit 
requirements for Group H occupancies in all respects. 



6.6 Requirements 
(Group F) 



of Mercantile Buildings 



6.6.1 In addition to the general requirements specified 
in 3.4 for type of construction and occupancy and the 
exit requirements given in 4, the requirements given 
in 6.6.1.1 to 6.6.5 shall be complied with. 

6.6.1.1 Mixed occupancy 

No dwelling unit shall have its sole means of exit 
through any mercantile occupancy in the same building 
except in the case of a single family unit where the 
family operates the store. 

6.6.2 Fire Detection/Extinguishing System 

The requirements for occupancy sub-divisions F-l to 
F-3 as specified in Table 23 and Annex C (for High 
Rise Buildings) shall apply. 

6.6.3 Exit Facilities 

In addition to the provisions of 4, the following 
requirements shall be complied with. 

6.6.3.1 In the case of mezzanines or balconies open 
to the floor below, or other un-protected vertical 
openings between floors, the population or area of the 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



57 



mezzanine or other subsidiary floor level shall be added 
to that of the main floor for the purpose of determining 
the required exits, provided, however, that in no case 
shall the total number of exit units be less than that 
required if all vertical openings were enclosed. 

6.6.3.2 At least two separate exits shall be accessible 
from every part of every floor, including basements; 
such exits shall be as remote from each other as 
practicable and so arranged as to be reached by 
different paths of travel in different directions, except 
that a common path of travel may be permitted for the 
first 15 m from any point. 

6.6.4 Additional Precautions 

6.6.4.1 Requirements specified in 6.5.4.1 shall be 
applicable to all Group F occupancies also. 

6.6.4.2 Hazardous areas of mercantile occupancies 
shall be segregated or protected suitably. 

6.6.4.3 In self-service stores, no check-out stand or 
associated railings or barriers shall obstruct exits or 
required aisles or approaches thereto. 

6.6.4.4 Open-air mercantile operations, such as open- 
air markets, gasoline filling stations, roadside stands 
for the sale of a farm produce and other outdoor 
mercantile operations shall be so arranged and 
conducted as to maintain free and unobstructed ways 
of travel at all times to permit prompt escape from any 
point of danger in case of fire or other emergency, but 
no dead-ends in which persons might be trapped due 
to display stands, adjoining buildings, fences, vehicles 
or other obstructions. 

6.6.4.5 If mercantile operations are conducted in 
roofed-over areas, these shall be treated as mercantile 
buildings, provided canopies over individual small 
stands to protect merchandise from the weather shall 
not be constructed to constitute buildings for the 
purpose of the Code. 

6.6.5 Exception and Deviation 

Any mercantile occupancy, where goods of a highly 
hazardous nature are pre-dominant, shall be considered 
under Group J occupancy for the purpose of the Code. 

6.7 Requirements of Industrial Buildings (Group G) 

6.7.1 In addition to the general requirements specified 
in 3.4 for the type of construction and occupancy group 
and the exit requirements given in 4, the requirements 
given in 6.7.2 to 6.7.5 shall be complied with. 

6.7.2 Fire Detection/Extinguishing System 

The requirements for occupancy sub-divisions G- 1 to 
G-3 as specified in Table 23 and Annex C (for High 
Rise Buildings) shall apply. 



6.7.3 Exit Facilities 

In addition to the provisions of 4, the following 
requirements shall be complied with. 

6.7.3.1 Not less than two exits shall be provided for 
every floor or section, including basements used for 
industrial purposes or uses incidental thereto. 

6.7.3.2 In buildings used for aircraft assembly or other 
occupancy requiring undivided floor areas so large that 
the distances from points within the area to the nearest 
outside walls where exit doors could be provided are 
in excess of 45 m, requirements for distance to exits 
may be satisfied by providing stairs leading to exit 
tunnels or to overhead passageways. In cases where 
such arrangements are not practicable, the Authority 
may, by special ruling, permit other exit arrangements 
for one storey buildings with distances in excess of 
the maximum distances specified in 4, if completely 
automatic sprinkler protection is provided and if the 
heights of ceiling curtain boards and roof ventilation 
are such as to minimize the possibility that employees 
will be overtaken by the spread of fire or smoke within 
1 800 mm of the floor level before they have time to 
reach exits, provided, however, that in no case may 
the distance of travel to reach the nearest exit exceed 
45 m where smoke venting is required as a condition 
for permitting distances of travel to exits in excess of 
the maximum otherwise allowed. 

6.7.3.3 Additional precautions 

a) In any room in which volatile flammable 
substances are used or stored, no device 
generating a glow or flame capable of igniting 
flammable vapour shall be installed or used. 
Such a room shall be provided with a suitably 
designed exhaust ventilation system (see 
Annex D). To ensure safety from fire due to 
short circuit, faulty electrical connection or 
some similar cause, proper care shall be taken 
in designing electrical installations in such 
room (see Part 8 'Building Services, Section 2 
Electrical Installations'). 

b) The storage, use and handling of gasoline, 
fuel oil and othej* flammable liquids shall 
not be permitted in any Group G occupancy 
unless it complies with regulations 
pertaining to Petroleum Act, 1934 and Rules 
thereunder. 

c) Every boiler room or room below the first 
floor containing a heating plant shall be 
adequately separated from the rest of the 
buildings. 

d) For requirements regarding electrical 
generating and distribution stations, reference 
may be made to good practice [4(23)]. 



58 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



6.7.3.4 Exception and deviation 

a) Basements used only for storage, heating or 
other service equipment, and not subject to 
industrial occupancy, shall have exits in 
accordance with the requirements of Group 
H occupancies. 

b) The following exceptions shall apply to 
special purpose industrial occupancies: 

1) Exits need be provided only for the 
persons actually employed; spaces not 
subject to human occupancy because of 
the presence of machinery or equipment 
may be excluded from consideration. 

2) Where unprotected vertical openings are 
necessary to manufacturing operations, 
these may be permitted beyond the limits 
specified for industrial occupancy, 
provided every floor level has direct 
access to one or more enclosed stairways 
or other exits protected against obstruction 
by any fire in the open areas connected 
by the unprotected vertical openings or 
smoke therefrom. 

3) Industrial buildings of low and moderate 
hazard are permitted only up to 18 m 
height. 

c) The following exceptions shall apply to high 
hazard industrial occupancies: 

1) Exits shall be so located that it will not 
be necessary to travel more than 22.5 m 
from any point to reach the nearest exit. 

2) From every point in every floor area, 
there shall be at least two exits accessible 
in different directions; where floor areas 
are divided into rooms, there shall be at 
least two ways of escape from every 
room, however small, except toilet 
rooms, so located that the points of access 
thereto are out of or suitably shielded 
from areas of high hazard. 

3) In addition to types of exits for upper 
floors specified for Group G occupancies, 
slide escapes may be used as required 
exits for both new and existing 
buildings. 

4) All high hazard industrial occupancies 
shall have automatic sprinkler protection 
or such other protection as may be 
appropriate to the particular hazard, 
including explosion venting for any area 
subject to explosion hazard, designed to 
minimize danger to occupants in case of 
fire or other emergency before they have 
time to utilize exits to escape. 



5) Industrial buildings of high hazard are 
permitted only up to 15 m height. 

6.7.4 For detailed information on fire safety of certain 
individual (specific) industrial occupancies reference 
may be made to good practice [4(39)]. 

6.7.5 Fire protection considerations for venting 
industrial occupancies shall be as given in Annex D. 

6.8 Requirements of Storage Buildings (Group H) 

6.8.1 In addition to the general requirements 
specified in 3.4 for type of construction and 
occupancy group and the exit requirements given in 4, 
the requirements given in 6.8.2 to 6.8.5 shall be 
complied with. 

6.8.2 Fire Detection/Extinguishing System 

The requirements for occupancy group H, as specified 
in Table 23 and Annex C (for High Rise Building) 
shall apply. 

NOTE — Automatic sprinklers are prohibited where water 
reactive materials are kept. Instead automatic fire alarm system 
coupled with suitable fire extinguishing systems shall be 
installed. 

6.8.3 Exit Facilities 

In addition to the provisions of 4, the following 
requirements shall also be complied with. 

6.8.3.1 Every building or structure used for storage 
and every section thereof considered separately, shall 
have access to at least one exit so arranged and located 
as to provide a suitable means of escape for any person 
employed therein and in any room or space exceeding 
1 400 m 2 gross area, or where more than 10 persons 
may be normally present, at least two separate means 
of exit shall be available, as remote from each other as 
practicable. 

6.8.3.2 Every storage area shall have access to at least 
two means of exit, which can be readily opened. This 
shall not be subject to locking so long as any persons 
are inside and shall not depend on power operation. 

6.8.3.3 The following special provisions shall apply 
to parking garages of closed or open type, above or 
below ground, but not to mechanical parking facilities 
where automobiles are moved into and out of storage 
mechanically which are not normally occupied by 
persons and thus require no exit facilities. Where repair 
operations are conducted, the exits shall comply with 
the requirements of Group G occupancies in addition 
to compliance with the following: 

a) Where both parking and repair operations are 
conducted in the same building, the entire 
building shall comply with the requirements 
for Group G occupancies, unless the parking 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



59 



and repair sections are effectively separated 
by separation walls. 

b) Every floor of every closed parking garage 
shall have access to at least two separate 
means of exit, so arranged that from any point 
in the garage the paths of travel to the two 
means of exit shall be in different directions, 
except that a common path of travel may be 
permitted for the first 15 m, from any point. 

c) On the street floor, at least two separate exit 
doors shall be provided, except that any 
opening for the passage of automobiles may 
serve as a means of exit, provided no door or 
shutter is installed thereon. Street floor exits 
in closed garages shall be so arranged that no 
point in the area is more than 30 m from the 
nearest exit, or 45 m in the case of garages 
protected by automatic sprinklers, distance 
being measured along the natural path of 
travel. 

d) On floors above the street, at least two means 
of exit shall be provided, one of which shall 
be an enclosed stairway. The other means of 
egress may be a second exit of any of the 
types, or in a ramp type garage with open 
ramps not subject to closure, the ramp may 
serve as the second means of exit. 

e) Upper floor exits in closed garages shall be 
so arranged that no point in the area shall be 
more than 30 m from the nearest exit other 
than a ramp on the same floor level or 45 m 
in the case of garages protected by automatic 
sprinklers. 

f) On floors below the street (either basement 
or outside underground garages) at least two 
exits shall be provided, not counting any 
automobile ramps, except that for garages 
extending only one floor level below the 
street, a ramp leading direct to the outside may 
constitute one required means of exit. In 
garages below street level, exits shall be so 
arranged that no part of the area shall be more 
than 30 m from the nearest stair exit. 

g) If any gasoline pumps are located within any 
closed parking garage, exits shall be so 
located that travel away from the gasoline 
pump in any direction shall lead to an exit; 
with no dead-end in which occupants might 
be trapped by fire or explosion at any 
gasoline pump. Such exit shall lead to the 
outside on the building on the same level, or 
downstairs; no upward travel shall be 
permitted unless direct outside exits are 
available from that floor and any floor below 
(as in the case of a basement garage where 



the grade is one storey or more lower at the 
rear than at the street). 

6.8.3.4 Exits from aircraft hangers (storage or 
servicing areas) shall be provided at intervals of not 
more than 45 m on all exterior walls of aircraft hangers. 
There shall be a minimum of two exits serving each 
aircraft storage or servicing areas. Horizontal exits 
through interior fire walls shall be provided at intervals 
of not more than 30 m. 'Dwarf or 'smash' doors 
accommodating aircraft may be used to comply with 
these requirements. All doors designated as exits shall 
be kept unlocked in the direction of exit travel while 
the area is occupied. 

6.8.3.5 Exits from mezzanine floors in aircraft storage 
or servicing areas shall be so arranged that the 
maximum travel to reach the nearest exits from any 
point on the mezzanine shall not exceed 22.5 m. Such 
exits shall lead directly to a properly enclosed stairwell 
discharging directly to the exterior or to a suitably cut- 
off area or to outside fire escape stairs. 

6.8.3.6 The following special provisions shall apply 
to grain elevators: 

a) There shall be at least one stair tower from 
basement to first floor and from the first floor 
to the top floor of workhouse which is enclosed 
in a dust-tight non-combustible shaft. 

b) Non-combustible doors of self-closing type 
shall be provided at each floor landing. 

c) An exterior fire escape of the stair or basket 
ladder type shall be provided from the roof 
of the workshop to ground level or the roof 
of an adjoining annexe with access from all 
floors above the first. 

d) An exterior fire escape of either the stair or 
basket ladder type shall be provided from the 
roof of each storage annexe to ground level. 

6.8.4 Additional Precautions 

Requirements specified in 6.7.3.3 shall apply to Group 
H occupancies also. 

6.8.5 Exceptions and Deviations 

Every ,area used for the storage of hazardous 
commodities shall have an exit within 22.5 m of any 
point in the area where persons may be present or 35 m 
where automatic sprinkler protection is provided. 

6.9 Requirements of Buildings for Hazardous Uses 
(Group J) 

6.9.1 In addition to the general requirements specified 
in 3.4 for type of construction and occupancy group 
and the exit requirements given in 4, the requirements 
given in 6.9.2 to 6.9.4 shall be complied with. 



60 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



6.9.2 Fire Detection/Extinguishing System 

The requirements for occupancy Group J, as specified 
in Table 23 and Annex C (for High Rise Building) 
shall apply. 

NOTE — Hazardous buildings shall have vapour detectors/ 
explosion suppression systems/automatic sprinklers, besides 
hydrant system, wet risers and automatic fire alarm system 
depending on the type of fire hazard involved. 

6.9.3 Exit Facilities 

Requirements specified in 4 and 6.7.3.4 (c) shall apply 
to Group J occupancies also. 

6.9.4 Additional Precautions 

The following requirements shall apply to all Group J 
occupancies, as applicable: 

a) Each building where gas is employed for any 
purpose shall be provided with an approved 
outside gas shut-off valve conspicuously 
marked. The detailed requirements regarding 
safe use of gas shall be as specified in 
Part 9 'Plumbing Services, Section 2 Gas 
Supply'. 

b) Each boiler room or room containing a 
heating plant shall be separated from the rest 
of the building by a separating wall. 

c) In any room in which volatile flammable 
substances are used or stored, no device 
generating a spark, or glow flame capable of 
igniting flammable vapour shall be installed 



or permitted unless it is enclosed in a 
flameproof enclosure. 

d) The use, handling, storage and sale of 
gasoline, fuel oil and other flammable liquids 
snail not be permitted in Group J occupancies 
unless such use, handling, storage and sale is 
in accordance with appropriate legislation in 
force. 

e) All openings in exterior walls except wall 
vents shall be protected by a fire stop 
assembly as in 4 and they shall be fixed, 
automatic or self-closing. Wall vents having 
an area of not less than 100 cm 2 each shall be 
placed in the exterior walls near the floor line, 
not more than 1 800 mm apart horizontally. 
Each building shall be provided with a power 
driven fan exhaust system of ventilation 
which shall be arranged and operated so as to 
produce a complete change of air in each room 
every 3 min. 

f) Each machine in dry-cleaning establishments 
which uses flammable liquid shall have an 
adequate steam line or any other suitable 
extinguishing agent directly connected to it, 
so arranged as to have the agent automatically 
released to the inside of each machine should 
an explosion occur in the machine. 

g) Equipment or machinery which generates or 
emits combustible or explosive dust or fibres 
shall be provided with an adequate dust 
collecting and exhaust system. 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



61 



ANNEX A 

(Clause 3.1.8) 

CALORIFIC VALUES OF COMMON MATERIALS AND TYPICAL 
VALUES OF FIRE LOAD DENSITY 



A-l The calorific values of some common materials 
are given in Table 25 for guidance. 

Table 25 Calorific Values of Common Materials 



Table 25 — Concluded 



Material 



(1) 



Calorific Value Wood 
(10 3 kj/kgr 1 ) l) Equivalent 
(kg/kg) 

(2) (3) 



Solid Fuels 

Anthracite 

Bituminous Coal 

Charcoal 

Coke (average) 

Peats 

Sub-bituminous Coal 

Woods (hard or softwood) 

Hydrocarbons 

Benzene 

Butane 

Ethane 

Ethylene 

Fuel Oil 

Gas Oil 

Hexane 

Methane (natural gas) 

Octane 

Paraffin 

Pentane 

Propane 

Propylene 

Alcohols 

Ethyl Alcohol 
Methyl Alcohol 
Propyl Alcohol 

Polymers 

Casein 

Cellulose 

Cellulose Acetate 

Polyethylene 

Polypropylene 

Polystyrene 

Polyvinylchloride 

Polymethylmethacrylate 

Polyurethane 

Polyamide (nylon) 

Polyester 

Common Solids 

Asphalt 

Bitumen 

Carbon 

Cotton (Dry) 

Flax 

Furs and Skins 

Hair (animal) 

Leather 



28,6 
30,8 
28;4 
27:5 
20$ 
22.0 
17.6 

39.6 
47.1 
49.1 
47.7 
41.6 
42.9 
44.9 
52.8 
45.3 
39.6-44.0 
46.0 
47.3 
46.2 

28.4 
21.1 
31.9 

23.1 
16.5 
17.8 
48.4 
48.4 
41.8 
20.9 
24.6 
35.2 
22.0 
22.0 

38.3 
33.4 
32.1 
15.8 
14.3 
18.7 
20.9 
17.6 



1.66 

1.75 
1.61 
1.56 
1.19 
1.25 
1.00 

2.25 
2.68 
2.79 
2.71 
2.36 
2.44 
2.55 
3.00 
2.58 
2.3-2.5 
2.61 
2.69 
2.63 

1.61 
1.20 
1.81 

1.31 
0.94 
1.01 
2.75 
2.75 
2.38 
1.19 
1.40 
2.00 
1.25 
1.25 

2.13 
1.90 
1.83 
0.90 
0.81 
1.06 
1.19 
1.00 



(1) 



(2) 



(3) 



Ozokerite (wax) 

Paper (average) 

Paraffin wax 

Pitch 

Rubber 

Straw 

Tallows 

tan bait 

lar (Diturninousj 

Wool (raw) 

Wool (scoured) 

Foodstuffs 

Barely 

Bran 

Bread 

Butter 

Cheese (Cheddar) 

Commeal 

Flour 

Margarine 

Oatmeal 

Rice 

Soyabean Flour 

Sugar 

Whole Wheat 

Miscellaneous 

Acetone 

Acetaldehyde 

Formaldehyde 

Hydrogen 



43.3 


2.46 


15.4 


0.88 


40.9 


2.33 


33.0 


1.88 


37.4 


2.13 


13.2 


0.75 


37.6 


2.14 


20.9 


1.19 


35.2 


2.00 


21.6 


1.23 


19,6 


1.11 


14.1 


0.80 


1L0 


0.63 


9J9 


0.56 


29.5 


1.68 


18.1 


1.03 


14.1 


0.80 


14.1 


0,80 


29.5 


1.68 


15.8 


0.90 


13.9 


0.79 


16.1 


0.91 


15.4 


0.88 


14.3 


0.81 


29.7 


1.69 


25.1 


1.43 


17.6 


1.00 


134,2 


7.63 


24.0 


1.36 



u 1 kJ is approximately equal to 1 Btu so the figures in the tables 
are also equivalent to Btu/kg. 

A-2 The typical values fire load density for arriving 
at the classification of occupancy hazard is given in 
Table 26 for guidance. 

Table 26 Typical Values of Fire Load Density 



SI Building Type 
No. 


Fire Load Density (Expressed 
as Wood Equivalent 

kg/m 2 


(1) (2) 


(3) 


i) Residential (A-l and A-2) 


25 


ii) Residential (A-3 to A-5) 


25 


iii) Institutional and 


25 


Educational (B and C) 




iv) Assembly (D) 


25-50 


v) Business (E) 


25-50 


vi) Mercantile (F) 


Upto250 


vii) industrial (G) 


Up to 150 


viii) Storage and Hazardous 
(Hand J) 


Up to 500 



62 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



ANNEX B 
(Clauses 3.1.8 and 3.1.11) 

BROAD CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL AND NON-INDUSTRIAL OCCUPANCIES 
INTO DIFFERENT DEGREE OF HAZARD 



B-l LOW HAZARD OCCUPANCIES 

Abrasive manufacturing premises 
Aerated water factories 
Agarbatti manufacturing premises 
Analytical and/or Q.C. Laboratories 
Arecanut slicing and/or Betelnut factories 
Asbestos steam packing and lagging manufacturers 
Assembly buildings small (D-4 and D-5) 
Battery charging and service stations 
Battery manufacturing 
Breweries 
Brickworks 
Canning factories 
Cardamom factories 

Cement factories and/or asbestos or concrete products 
manufacturing premises 

Ceramic factories, crockery, stoneware pipe 
manufacturing 

Clay works 

Clock and watch manufacturing 

Clubs 

Coffee curing, roasting and grinding factories 

Condensed milk factories, milk pasturising plants and 
dairies 

Confectionary manufacturing 

Dwellings, lodges, dormitories, etc 

Educational and research institutions 

Electric lamps (incandescent and fluorescent) and T. V. 

tube manufacturing 
Electroplating works 
Engineering workshops 

Fruits and vegetables dehydrating and drying factories 
Fruits products and condiment factories 
Glass and glass fibre manufacturing 
Godowns and warehouses (non-combustible goods) 
Gold thread/gilding factories 
Gum and/or glue and gelatine manufacturing 
Ice candy and ice-cream and ice factories 
Ink (excluding printing ink) factories 
Mica products manufacturing 



Office premises 

Places of worship 

Pottery works 

Poultry farms 

Residential buildings (A-l to A-4) (except hotels A-5) 

Salt crushing factories/refineries stables 

Sugar candy manufacturing 

Sugar factories and refineries 

Tanneries 

Umbrella assembling factories 

Vermicelli factories 

Water treatment/filtration plants and water pump houses 

Zinc/copper factories 

B-2 MODERATE HAZARD OCCUPANCIES 

Airport and other transportation terminal buildings 

Aluminium factories 

Assembly buildings (D-l to D-3) 

Atta and cereal grinding 

Bakeries and biscuit factories 

Beedi factories 

Bobbin factories 

Book-binders, envelopes and paper bag manufacturing 

Cable manufacturing 

Camphor boiling 

Candle works 

Carbon paper/typewriter ribbon makers 

Card board box manufacturing 

Carpenters, wood wool and furniture makers 

Carpet and durries factories 

Cashewnut factories 

Chemical manufacturers (using raw materials having 

F.P > 23°C) 
Cigar and cigarette factories 
Coir factories 
Cold storage premises 
Computer installations 
Cork products manufacturing (coir, carpets, rugs and 

tobacco) (hides and skin presses) 
Dry cleaning, dyeing and laundries 
Electric sub-stations/distribution stations 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



63 



Electrical generating stations except under ground 

powerhouses 
Enamelware factories 
Filler and wax paper manufacturing 
Flour mills 
Garment makers 

Ghee factories (other than vegetable) 
Godowns and warehouses (other than non-combustible 

goods) 
Grains and seed disintegrating or crushing 
Grease manufacturing 
Hosiery, lace, embroidery and thread 
Hospitals including 'X'-ray and other diagonastic 

clinics (institutional buildings) 

Incandescent gas mantle manufacturers 

Industrial gas manufacturing (only halogenated 
hydrocarbons/inert gases) 

Man-made yarn/fibre (except acrylic fibre/yarn) 

Manure and fertilizer works (blending, mixing and 

granulating only) 
Mercantile occupancies (departmental stores, shopping 

complex, etc) 

Mineral oil blending and processing 

Museums, archieves, record rooms 

Oil and leather cloth factories 

Open storage of flammable liquids (in drums, cans, etc) 

Oxygen plants 

Paper and cardboard mills (except raw material yard) 

Piers, wharves, dockyards 

Plastic goods manufacturing 

Plywood/wood veneering factories 

Printing press premises 

Pulverizing and crushing mills 

Residential apartments, hotels, cafes, restaurants 

Rice mills 

Rope works 

Rubber goods manufacturing 

Rubber tyres and tubes manufacturing 

Shellac factories 

Silk filiatures 

Soaps and glycerine factories 

Spray painting 

Starch factories 

Tea factories (including blending packing of tea) 

Telephone exchanges, garages 

Textile mills 



Tobacco chewing and pan masala making 
Tobacco re-drying factories 
Woolen mills 

B-3 HIGH HAZARD OCCUPANCIES 

A) 

Aircraft hangers 

Aluminium/magnesium powder plants 

Bitumanized paper/hessian cloth/tar felt manufacturing 

Bulk storage of flammable liquids (tank farm, etc) 

Celluloid goods making 

Chemical manufacturers (where raw materials have a 

F.P. < 23°C) 
Cigarette filter manufacturing 
Cinema films and T.V. production studios 
Coal, coke and charcoal ball and briquettes making 
Collieries, steel plants 

Cotton seeds cleaning and delinting factories 
Cotton waste factories 
Distilleries 

Duplicating/stencil paper making 
Fire works manufacture 
Foamed plastic and/or converting plants 
Godowns of warehouses (combustible/hazardous 

goods) (H) 
Grass, hay, fodder and BHOOSA (chaff) 
Hazardous occupancy buildings (J) 
Industrial gas manufacturing (except halogenated 

hydrocarbon gases/inert gases) 

Industrial units (G-3 occupancies) 
Jute mills and jute presses 
Linoleum factories 

Man-made fibres (only acrylic fibre/yarn making) 
Match factories 

Mattress and pillow makings (foam plastics) 
Metal or tin printers (if more than 50 percent is 
engineering, shift to oidinary hazard) 

Oil mills 

Oil extraction plants 

Oil terminals/depots 

Paints/Varnish factories 

Paper and cardboard mills (only raw material yard) 

Pressing factories 

Printing ink making 

Resin, lamp black and turpentine manufacture 

Saw mills 



64 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



Surgical cotton manufacturing 
Tarpaulin and canvas proofing factories 
Turpentine and resin distilleries 
Tyre retreading and resolving factories 
Underground shopping complexes (F-3) 

B) 

Ammonia and urea synthesis plants 



Explosive factories 
LPG bottling plants 
Petrochemical plants 
Petroleum refineries 

NOTE — In case of complexes having segregated plants with 
varying degrees of hazards, the competent authority having 
jurisdictions shall be consulted to decide the level of protections 
to be provided. 



ANNEX C 

(Clauses 3.4.11.1, 4.18.2, 5.1.8, 5.2.2, 6.1.2, 6.2.3, 6.3.2, 6.4.3, 6.5.2, 6.6.2, 

6.7.2, 6.8.2 and 6.9.2) 

FIRE PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR HIGH RISE BUILDINGS — 
15 m IN HEIGHT OR ABOVE 



C-0 GENERAL 

In addition to the general provisions given in this Part, 
the Authority may insist on suitable protection 
measures (see C-l to C-ll) in abuilding 15 m in height 
or above. 

C-l CONSTRUCTION 

C-l.l All materials of constructions in load bearing 
elements, stairways and corridors and facades shall be 
non-combustible. 

C-1.2 The interior finish materials shall not have a flame 
spreadability rating exceeding Class 1 (see 3.4.15.2). 

C-1.3 The internal walls or staircase shall be of brick 
or reinforced concrete with a minimum of 2 h fire 
rating. 

C-1.4 The staircase shall be ventilated to the 
atmosphere at each landing and a vent at the top; the 
vent openings shall be of 0.5 m 2 in the external wall 
and the top. If the staircase cannot be ventilated, 
because of location or other reasons, a positive pressure 
50 Pa shall be maintained inside. The mechanism for 
pressurizing the staircase shall operate automatically 
with the fire alarm. The roof of the shaft shall be 1 m 
above the surrounding roof. Glazing or glass bricks if 
used in staircase, shall have fire resistance rating of 
minimum 2 h. 

C-1.5 Lifts 

General requirements of lifts shall be as follows: 

a) Walls of lift enclosures shall have a fire rating 
of 2 h; lifts shafts shall have a vent at the top 
of area not less than 0.2 m 2 . 

b) Lift motor room shall be located preferably 



on top of the shaft and separated from the shaft 
by the floor of the room. 

c) Landing doors in lift enclosures shall have a 
fire resistance of not less than 1 h. 

d) The number of lifts in one row for a lift bank 
shall not exceed 4 and the total number of 
lifts in the bank (of two rows) shall not exceed 
8. A wall of 2 h fire rating shall separate 
individual shafts in a bank. 

e) Lift car door shall have a fire resistance rating 
of half an hour. 

f) Collapsible gates shall not be permitted for 
lifts and shall have solid doors with fire 
resistance of at least 1 h. 

g) If the lift shaft and lobby is in the core of the 
building, a positive pressure between 25 and 
30 Pa shall be maintained in the lobby and a 
positive pressure of 50 Pa shall be maintained 
in the lift shaft. The mechanism for 
pressurization shall act automatically with the 
fire alarm; it shall be possible to operate this 
mechanically also. 

h) Exit from the lift lobby, if located in the 
core of the building, shall be through a self- 
closing smoke stop door of half an hour fire 
resistance. 

j) Lifts shall not normally communicate with 
the basement; if, however, lifts are in 
communication, the lift lobby of the 
basements shall be pressurized as in (g), with 
self-closing door as in (h). 

k) Grounding switch(es), at ground floor level, 
shall be provided on all the lifts to enable the 
fire service to ground the lifts. 

m) Telephone or other communication facilities 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



65 



shall be provided in lift cars for building of 
30 m in height and above. Communication 
system for lifts shall be connected to fire 
control room for the building. 

n) Suitable arrangements such as providing slope 
in the floor of lift lobby, shall be made to 
prevent water used during fire fighting, etc, 
at any landing from entering the lift shafts. 

p) A sign shall be posted and maintained on 
every floor at or near the lift indicating that 
in case of fire, occupants shall use the stairs 
unless instructed otherwise. The sign shall 
also contain a plan for each floor showing the 
locations of the stairways. 
Alternate source of power supply shall be 
provided for all the lifts through a manually 
operated changeover switch. 

q) Fire Lifts — Following details shall apply for 
a fire lift: 

1) To enable fire services personnel to reach 
the upper floors with the minimum delay, 
one fire lift per 1 200 m 2 of floor area 
shall be provided and shall be available 
for the exclusive use of the firemen in an 
emergency. 

2) The lift shall have a floor area of not less 
than 1 .4 m 2 . It shall have loading capacity 
of not less than 545 kg (8 persons lift) 
with automatic closing doors of 
minimum 0.8 m width. 

3) The electric supply shall be on a separate 
service from electric supply mains in a 
building and the cables run in a route safe 
from fire, that is, within the lift shaft. 
Lights and fans in the elevators having 
wooden paneling or sheet steel 
construction shall be operated on 24 V 
supply. 

4) Fire fighting lift should be provided with 
a ceiling hatch for use in case of 
emergency, so that when the car gets 
stuck up, it shall be easily openable. 

5) In case of failure of normal electric 
supply, it shall automatically trip over to 
alternate supply. For apartment houses, 
this changeover of supply could be done 
through manually operated changeover 
switch. Alternatively, the lift shall be so 
wired that in case of power failure, it 
comes down at the ground level and 
comes to stand-still with door open. 

6) The operation of a fire lift is by a simple 
toggle or two-button switch situated in a 
glass-fronted box adjacent to the lift at 



the entrance level. When the switch is on, 
landing call-points will become 
inoperative and the lift will be on car 
control only or on a priority control 
device. When the switch is off, the lift 
will return to normal working. This lift 
can be used by the occupants in normal 
times. 

7) The words 'Fire Lift' shall be 
conspicuously displayed in fluorescent 
paint on the lift landing doors at each 
floor level. 

8) The speed of the fire lift shall be such 
that it can reach the top floor from ground 
level within 1 min. 

C-1.6 Basements 

C-l.6.1 Each basement shall be separately ventilated. 
Vents with cross-sectional area (aggregate) not less 
than 2.5 percent of the floor area spread evenly round 
the perimeter of the basement shall be provided in the 
form of grills, or breakable stallboard lights or 
pavement lights or by way of shafts. Alternatively, a 
system of air inlets shall be provided at basement floor 
level and smoke outlets at basement ceiling level. Inlets 
and extracts may be terrninated at ground level with 
stallboard or pavement lights as before, but ducts to 
convey fresh air to the basement floor level have to be 
laid. Stallboard and pavement lights should be in 
positions easily accessible to the fire brigade and 
clearly marked 'SMOKE OUTLET' or 'AIR INLET' 
with an indication of area served at or near the opening. 

C-l.6.2 The staircase of basements shall be of 
enclosed type having fire resistance of not less than 
2 h and shall be situated at the periphery of the 
basement to be entered at ground level only from the 
open air and in such positions that smoke from any 
fire in the basement shall not obstruct any exit serving 
the ground and upper stores of the building and shall 
communicate with basement through a lobby provided 
with fire resisting self closing doors of 1 h resistance. 
For travel distance see 45. If the travel distance exceeds 
as given in Table 21, additional staircases shall be 
provided at proper places. 

C-l.6.3 In multi-storey basements, intake ducts may 
serve all basement levels, but each basement levels 
and basement compartment shall have separate smoke 
outlet duct or ducts. Ducts so provided shall have the 
same fire resistance rating as the compartment itself. 
Fire rating may be taken as the required smoke 
extraction time for smoke extraction ducts. 

C-l.6.4 Mechanical extractors for smoke venting 
system from lower basement levels shall also be 
provided. The system shall be of such design as to 



66 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



operate on actuation of heat/smoke sensitive detectors 
or sprinklers, if installed, and shall have a considerably 
superior performance compared to the standard units. 
It shall also have an arrangement to start it manually. 

C-l.6.4.1 Mechanical extractors shall have an internal 
locking arrangement, so that extractors shall continue 
to operate and supply fans shall stop automatically with 
the actuation of fire detectors. 

C-l.6.4.2 Mechanical extractors shall be designed to 
permit 30 air changes per hour in case of fire or distress 
call. However, for normal operation, air changes 
schedule shall be as given in 3.4.11.5. 

C-l.6.4.3 Mechanical extractors shall have an 
alternative source of supply. 

C-l.6.4.4 Ventilating ducts shall be integrated with 
the structure and made out of brick masonry or 
reinforced cement concrete as far as possible and when 
this duct crosses the transformer area or electrical 
switchboard, fire dampers shall be provided. 

C-l.6.5 Use of basements for kitchens working on gas 
fuel shall not be permitted, unless air conditioned. 

The basement shall not be permitted below the ward block 
of a hospital/nursing home unless it is fully sprinkled. 

Building services such as electrical sub-stations, boiler 
rooms in basements shall comply with the provisions 
of the Indian Electricity Act/Rules. 

C-l.6.6 If cut outs are provided from basements to 
the upper floors or to the atmospheres, all sides cut 
out openings in the basements shall be protected by 
sprinkler head at close spacing so as to form a water 
curtain in the event of a fire. 

C-1.7 Openable windows on external walls shall be 
fitted with such locks that can be opened by a fireman' s 
axe. 

C-1.8 All floors shall be compartmented with area not 
exceeding 750 m 2 by a separation wall with 2 h fire 
rating, for floors with sprinklers the area may be 
increased by 50 percent. In long building, the fire 
separation walls shall be at distances not exceeding 
40 m. For departmental stores, shopping centres and 
basements, the area may be reduced to 500 m 2 for 
compartmentation. Where this is not possible, the 
spacings of the sprinklers shall be suitably reduced. 
When reducing the spacing of sprinklers, care should 
be taken to prevent spray from one sprinkler impeding 
the performance of an adjascent sprinkler head. 

C-l.8.1 It is essential to make provisions for drainage 
of any such water on all floors to prevent or minimize 
water damage of the contents. The drain pipes should 
be provided on the external wall for drainage of water 



from all floors. On large area floors several such pipes 
may be necessary which should be spaced 30 m apart. 
Care shall be taken to ensure that the construction of 
the drain pipe does not allow spread of fire/smoke from 
floor to floor. 

C-1.9 Service Ducts/Shafts 

a) Service ducts and shafts shall be enclosed by 
walls of 2 h and doors of 1 h, fire rating. All 
such ducts/shafts shall be properly sealed and 
fire stopped at all floor levels. 

b) A vent opening at the top of the service shaft 
shall be provided having between one-fourth 
and one-half of the area of the shaft. 

C-1.10 Refuse chutes shall have opening at least 1 m 
above roof level or venting purpose and they shall have 
an enclosure wall of non-combustible material with 
fire resistance of not less than 2 h. They shall not be 
located within the staircase enclosure or service shafts, 
or air-conditioning shafts inspection panel and doors 
shall be tight fitting with 1 h fire resistance; the chutes 
should be as far away as possible from exits. 

C-l.ll Refuge Area 

Provisions contained in 4.12.3 shall apply for all 
buildings except multi-family dwellings, refuge area 
of not less than 15 m 2 shall be provided on the external 
walls. 

C-1.12 Electrical services shall conform to the 
following; 

a) The electric distribution cables/wiring shall 
be laid in a separate duct. The duct shall be 
sealed at every floor with non-combustible 
materials having the same fire resistance as 
that of the duct. Low and medium voltage 
wiring running in shaft and in false ceiling 
shall run in separate conduits; 

b) Water mains, telephone lines, intercom lines, 
gaspipes or any other service line shall not be 
laid in the duct for electrical cables; use of 
bus ducts/solid rising mains instead of cables 
is preferred; 

c) Separate circuits for fire fighting pumps, lifts, 
staircases and corridor lighting and blowers 
for pressurizing system shall be provided 
directly from the main switch gear panel and 
these circuits shall be laid in separate conduit 
pipes, so that fire in one circuit will not affect 
the others. Such circuits shall be protected at 
origin by an automatic circuit breaker with 
its no-volt coil removed. Master switches 
controlling essential service circuits shall be 
clearly labelled; 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



67 



d) The inspection panel doors and any other 
opening in the shaft shall be provided with 
air-tight fire doors having fire resistance of 
not less than 2 h; 

e) Medium and low voltage wiring running in 
shafts, and within false ceiling shall run in 
metal conduit. Any 230 V wiring for lighting 
or other services, above false ceiling, shall 
have 660 V grade insulation. The false ceiling, 
including all fixtures used for its suspension, 
shall be of non-combustible material and shall 
provide adequate fire resistance to the ceiling 
in order to prevent spread of fire across ceiling 
reference may be made to good practice 
[4(29)]; 

f) An independent and well ventilated service 
room shall be provided on the ground level or 
first basement with direct access from outside 
or from the corridor for the purpose of 
termination of electric supply from the 
licensees 1 service and alternative supply cables. 
The doors provided for the service room shall 
have fire resistance of not less than 2 h; 

NOTE — If service room is located at the first basement, 
it should have automatic fire extinguishing system. 

g) If the licensees agree to provide meters on 
upper floors, the licensees' cables shall be 
segregated from consumers' cables by 
providing a partition in the duct. Meter rooms 
on upper floors shall not open into stair case 
enclosures and shall be ventilated directly to 
open air outside; and 

h) Suitable circuit breakers shall be provided at 
the appropriate points. 

C-1.13 Gas supply shall conform to the following: 

a) Town Gas/L.P. Gas Supply Pipes — Where 
gas pipes are run in buildings, the same shall 
be run in separate shafts exclusively for this 
purpose and these shall be on external walls, 
away from the staircases. There shall no 
interconnection of this shaft with the rest of 
the floors. LPG distribution pipes shall always 
be below the false ceiling. The length of these 
pipes shall be as short as possible. In the case 
of kitchen cooking range area, apart from 
providing hood, covering the entire cooking 
range, the exhaust system should be designed 
to take care of 30 m 3 per minute per m 2 of 
hood protected area. It should have grease 
filters using metallic grill to trap oil vapours 
escaping into the fume hood. 

NOTE — For detailed information on gas pipe 
installations, reference may be made to Part 9 'Plumbing 

Services, Section 3 Gas Supply'. 



b) All wiring in fume hoods shall be of fibre 
glass insulation. Thermal detectors shall be 
installed into fume hoods of large kitchens 
for hotels, hospitals, and similar areas located 
in high rise buildings. Arrangements shall be 
made for automatic tripping of the exhaust 
fan in case of fire. If LPG is used, the same 
shall be shut off. The voltage shall be 24 V or 
100 V dc operated with external rectifier. The 
valve shall be of the hand re-set type and shall 
be located in an area segregated from cooking 
ranges. Valves shall be easily accessible. The 
hood shall have manual facility for steam or 
carbon dioxide gas injection, depending on 
duty condition; and 

c) Gas meters shall be housed in a suitably 
constructed metal cupboard located in a well 
ventilated space, keeping in view the fact that 
LPG is heavier than air and town gas is lighter 
than air. 

C-1.14 Illumination of Means of Exit 

Staircase and corridor lights shall conform to the 
following (see 4.16 and 4.17 for additional details): 

a) The staircase and corridor lighting shall be 
on separate circuits and shall be independently 
connected so as it could be operated by one 
switch installation on the ground floor easily 
accessible to fire fighting staff at any time 
irrespective of the position of the individual 
control of the light points, if any. It should be 
of miniature circuit breaker type of switch so 
as to avoid replacement of fuse in case of 
crisis; 

b) Staircase and corridor lighting shall also be 
connected to alternative supply. The 
alternative source of supply may be provided 
by battery continuously trickle charged from 
the electric mains; 

c) Suitable arrangements shall be made by 
installing double^throw switches to ensure that 
the lighting installed in the staircase and the 
corridor does not get connected to two sources 
of supply simultaneously. Double throw 
switch shall be installed in the service room 
for terminating the stand-by supply; 

d) Emergency lights shall be provided in the 
staircase and corridor; and 

e) All wires and other accessories used for 
emergency light shall have fire retardant 
property. 

C-1.15 A stand-by electric generator shall be installed 
to supply power to staircase and corridor lighting 
circuits, fire lifts, the stand-by fire pump, pressurization 



68 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



fans and blowers, smoke extraction and damper 
systems in case of failure of normal electric supply. 
The generator shall be capable of taking starting current 
of all the machines and circuits stated above 
simultaneously. If the stand-by pump is driven by diesel 
engine, the generator supply need not be connected to 
the stand-by pump. Where parallel HV/LV supply from 
a separate sub-station is provided with appropriate 
transformer for emergency, the provision of generator 
may be waived in consultation with the Authority. 

C-1.16 Transformers shall conform to the following: 

a) A sub-station or a switch-station with oil filled 
equipment shall not be located in the building. 
The sub-station structure shall have separate 
fire resisting walls/surroundings and shall 
necessarily be located at the periphery of the 
floor having separate access from fire escape 
stair case. The outside walls, ceiling, floor, 
openings including doors and windows to the 
sub-station area shall be provided with a fire 
resisting door of 2 h fire rating. Direct access 
to the transformer room shall be provided, 
preferably from outside fire escape staircase. 

b) The sub-station area needs to be maintained at 
negative air pressures and area in sub-station 
shall not be used as storage/dump areas. 

c) When housed inside the building, the 
transformer shall be of dry type and shall be 
cut off from the other portion of premises by 
walls/doors/cutout having fire resistance 
rating of 4 h. 

C-1.17 Air-conditioning shall conform to the 
following: 

a) Escape routes like staircases, common 
corridors, lift lobbies, etc, shall not be used 
as return air passage. 

b) The ducting shall be constructed of substantial 
gauge metal in accordance with good practice 
[4(31]. 

c) Wherever the ducts pass through fire walls or 
floors, the opening around the ducts shall be 
sealed with materials having fire resistance 
rating of the compartment. 

d) Where duct crosses a compartment which is 
fire rated, the ducts shall be fire rated for same 
fire rating. Further depending on services 
passing around the duct work, which may get 
affected in case of fire temperature rising, the 
ducts shall be insulated. 

e) As far as possible, metallic ducts shall be used 
even for the return air instead of space above 
the false ceiling. 

f) Where plenum is used for return air passage, 



ceiling and its fixtures shall be of non- 
combustible material. 

g) The materials used for insulating the duct 
system (inside or outside) shall be of non- 
combustible materials. Glass wool shall not 
be wrapped or secured by any material of 
combustible nature. 

h) Area more than 750 m 2 on individual floor 
shall be segregated by a fire wall and 
automatic fire dampers for isolation shall be 
provided [see (j)]. 

j) Air ducts serving main floor areas, corridors, 
etc, shall not pass through the staircase 
enclosure. 

k) The air-handling units shall be separate for 
each floor and air ducts for every floor shall 
be separated and in no way inter-connected 
with the ducting of any other floor. 

m) If the air-handling unit serves more than one 
floor, the recommendations given above shall 
be complied with in addition to the conditions 
given below: 

1) proper arrangements by way of automatic 
fire dampers working on smoke detector/ 
or fusible link for isolating all ducting at 
every floor from the main riser shall be 
made. 

2) When the automatic fire alarm operates, 
the respective air-handling units of the air- 
conditioning system shall automatically 
be switched off. 

n) The vertical shaft for treated fresh air shall 
be of masonry construction. 

p) The air filters of the air-handling units shall 
be of non-combustible materials. 

q) The air-handling unit room shall not be used 
for storage of any combustible materials. 

r) Inspection panels shall be provided in the 
main trunking to facilitate the cleaning of 
ducts of accumulated dust and to obtain access 
for maintenance of fire dampers. 

s) No combustible material shall be fixed nearer 
than 150 mm to any duct unless such duct is 
properly enclosed and protected with non- 
combustible material (glass wool or spunglass 
with neoprene facing enclosed and wrapped 
with aluminimum sheeting) at least 3.2 mm thick 
and which would not readily conduct heat. 

t) Fire Dampers 

1) These shall be located in conditioned air 
ducts and return air ducts/passages at the 
following points: 
i) At the fire separation wall. 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



69 



ii) Where ducts/passages enter the 

central vertical shaft, 
iii) Where the ducts pass through floors, 
iv) At the inlet of supply air duct and the 

return air duct of each compartment 

on every floor. 

2) The dampers shall operate automatically 
and shall simultaneously switch off the 
air-handling fans. Manual operation 
facilities shall also be provided. 

NOTE — For blowers, where extraction system 
and duct accumulators are used, dampers shall be 
provided. 

3) Fire/smoke dampers (for smoke extraction 
shafts) for buildings more than 24 m in 
height. 

For apartment In non-ventilated 

houses lobbies/ corridors 

operated by fusible 
link/smoke detectors 
and with manual 
control. 

For other On operation of smoke 

buildings detection system and 

with manual control. 

4) Automatic fire dampers shall be so 
arranged as to close by gravity in the 
direction of air movement and to remain 
tightly closed on operation of a fusible 
link/smoke detector. 

C-1.18 Provisions of boiler and boiler rooms shall 
conform to Indian Boiler Act. Further, the following 
additional aspects may be taken into account in the 
location of boiler room: 

a) The boilers shall not be allowed in sub- 
basement, but may be allowed in the 
basements away from the escape routes. 

b) The boilers shall be installed in a fire resisting 
room of 4 h fire resistance rating, and this 
room shall be situated on the periphery of the 
basement. Catch-pits shall be provided at the 
low level. 

c) Entry to this room shall be provided with a 
composite door of 2 h fire resistance. 

d) The boiler room shall be provided with fresh 
air inlets and smoke exhausts directly to the 
atmosphere. 

e) The furnace oil tank for the boiler, if located 
in the adjoining room shall be separated by 
fire resisting wall of 4 h rating. The entrance 
to this room shall be provided with double 
composite doors. A curb of suitable height 
shall be provided at the entrance in order to 



prevent the flow of oil into the boiler room in 
case of tank rupture, 
f) Foam inlets shall be provided on the external 
walls of the building near the ground level to 
enable the fire services to use foam in case of 
fire. 

C-2 PROVISION OF FIRST-AID FIRE FIGHTING 
APPLIANCES 

The first-aid fire fighting equipment shall be provided 
on all floors, including basements, lift rooms, etc, in 
accordance with good practice [4(21)] in consultation 
with the Authority. 

C-3 FIRE ALARM SYSTEM 

C-3.1 All buildings with heights of 15 m or above 
shall be equipped with manually operated electrical 
fire alarm (MOEFA) system and automatic fire alarm 
system in accordance with good practice [4(18)] and 
[4(19)]. However, apartment buildings between 15 m 
and 30 m in height may be exempted from the 
installation of automatic fire alarm system provided 
the local fire brigade is suitably equipped for dealing 
with fire in a building of 15 m in height or above and 
in the opinion of the Authority, such building does not 
constitute a hazard to the safety of the adjacent property 
or occupants of the building itself. 

C-3.1. 1 Manually operated electrical fire alarm system 
shall be installed in a building with one or more call 
boxes located at each floor. The call boxes shall 
conform to good practice [4(18)] and [4(19)]. 

C-3.1.2 The installation of call boxes in hostels and 
such other places where these are likely to be misused 
shall as far as possible be avoided. Location of call boxes 
in dwelling units shall preferably be inside the building. 

C-4 LIGHTNING PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS 

The lightning protection for buildings shall be provided 
as given in Part 8 'Building Services, Section 2 
Electrical Installations'. 

C-5 FIRE CONTROL ROOM 

For all buildings 15 m in height or above and apartment 
buildings with a height of 30 m and above, there shall 
be a control room on the entrance floor of the building 
with communication system (suitable public address 
system) to all floors and facilities for receiving the 
message from different floors. Details of all floor plans 
along with the details of fire fighting equipment and 
installations shall be maintained in the fire control 
room. The fire control room shall also have facilities 
to detect the fire on any floor through indicator boards 
connection; fire detection and alarm systems on all 
floors. The fire staff incharge of the fire control room 



70 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



shall be responsible for the maintenance of the various 
services and fire fighting equipment and installations 
in co-ordination with security, electrical and civil staff 
of the building. 

C-6 FIRE OFFICER FOR HOTELS, BUSINESS 
AND MERCANTILE BUILDINGS WITH HEIGHT 
MORE THAN 30 m 

C-6.1 A qualified Fire Officer with experience of not 
less than 3 years shall be appointed who will be 
available on the premises. 

C-6.2 The Fire Officer shall: 

a) maintain the fire fighting equipment in good 
working condition at all times, 

b) prepare fire orders and fire operational plans 
and get them promulgated, 

c) impart regular training to the occupants of the 
buildings in the use of fire fighting 
equipments provided on the premises and 
keep them informed about the fire emergency 
evacuation plan, 

d) keep proper liaison with city Fire Brigade, and 

e) ensure that all fire precautionary measures are 
observed at the times. 

NOTE — Competent authority having jurisdiction may 
insist on compliance of the above rules in case of 
buildings having very large areas even if the height is 
less than 30 m. 

C-7 HOUSE KEEPING 

To eliminate fire hazards, good house keeping, both 



inside and outside the building, shall be strictly 
maintained by the occupants and/or the owner of the 
building. 

C-8 FIRE DRILLS AND FIRE ORDERS 

Fire notices/orders shall be prepared to fulfil the 
requirements of fire fighting and evacuation from the 
buildings in the event of fire and other emergency. The 
occupants shall be made thoroughly conversant with 
their actions in the event of emergency, by displaying 
fire notices at vantage points and also through regular 
training. Such notices should be displayed prominently 
in broad lettering. 

For guidelines for fire drills and evacuation procedures 
for high rise buildings, see Annex E. 

C-9 COMPARTMENTATION 

The building shall be suitably compartmentalized so 
that fire/smoke remain confined to the area where fire 
incident has occurred and does not spread to the 
remaining part of the building. 

C-10 HELIPAD 

For high rise buildings above 60 m in height, provision 
for helipad should be made. 

C-ll MATERIALS FOR INTERIOR 
DECORATION/FURNISHING 

The use of materials which are combustible in nature 
and may spread toxic fume/gases should not be used 
for interior decoration/furnishing, etc. 



ANNEX D 

(Clauses 6.7.3.3 (a) and 6.7.5) 
FIRE PROTECTION CONSIDERATIONS FOR VENTING IN INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 



D-l APPLICATION AND SCOPE 

D-l.l The provisions given below are applicable 
only to single storey industrial buildings (factories 
and storage buildings) covering large floor areas 
without sub-dividing/separating walls which are 
usually designed to meet modern production 
methods. 

D-l. 2 The requirements of fire and explosion venting 
of industrial buildings, as dealt with in this section, 
fall under two categories: 

a) Smoke and fire venting, and 

b) Explosion relief vents. 



D-2 SMOKE AND FIRE VENTING 

,/■■ 

D-2.1 The basic considerations for formulating the 
design and other requirements for smoke and fire vents 
are as given in D-2.1.1 to D-2. 1.20. 

D-2.1.1 The smoke and hot combustion products from 
a fire, being lighter than the surrounding air, tend to 
rise and on reaching the roof or ceiling spread out 
(mushroom) on all sides and form a layer which floats 
on top of the cold air beneath. In the absence of vents, 
this layer becomes progressively deeper until the whole 
building is filled with hot smoky gases. The time 
consumed for this to happen may be only a few 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



71 



minutes, depending on variables like, type of materials 
on fire, process/storage conditions involved, etc. 

D-2.1.2 The hot gases at the roof level moved by 
convection currents contribute to rapid lateral spread 
of fire. 

D-2.1.3 The provision of properly designed and 
suitably located vents in adequate number helps the 
speedy removal of smoke and hot gases, thereby 
preventing spread of fire, besides reducing risks of 
explosion of unburnt gases and reducing damage to 
the contents and structure of the building by heat and 
smoke. In addition, they facilitate fire fighting 
operations, and minimize personal hazards to the 
firemen. 

D-2.1.4 The time taken for accumulation of smoke 
and hot gases within a building on fire being very short, 
the venting devices installed shall be designed to 
operate in the early stage of the fire and must be 
automatic so as to ensure speed and efficiency in their 
operation. 

D-2.1.5 The smoke and fire venting system shall be 
designed in such a manner as to keep the temperature 
of the combustion products from the fire as low as 
possible, preferably below approximately 150°C. 

D-2.1.6 Automatic venting systems are complementary 
to the fire extinguishing systems, and automatic 
sprinklers, where provided, should operate before the 
operation of the vents; otherwise, venting may delay 
sprinkler operation. 

D-2.1.7 It is easier to vent a building of smoke than 
clear it of smoke once it has been filled. 

D-2.1.8 Venting is particularly desirable in large area 
industrial buildings or warehouses, windowless 
buildings, underground structures or in areas housing 
hazardous operations. Automatic fire vents shall be 
provided for all industrial occupancies (including 
storage buildings) classified as medium hazard or 
above having floor areas exceeding 750 m 2 , irrespective 
of whether they are compartmentalized or not. 

D-2.1.9 These provisions do not cover other aspects, 
of ventilation (or lighting) designed for regulation of 
temperature within a building for personal comfort or 
meeting process needs. 

D-2.1.10 Similarly, fire and smoke venting requirements 
as given here under are also not applicable to multi-storey 
buildings, as their requirements are different and more 
complex. 

D-2.1,11 It is difficult to determine precise venting 
requirements on account of the many variables 
involved. For instance, the rate of combustion varies 
appreciably according to the nature, shape, size and 



packaging of the combustible materials as well as the 
size, height and disposition of the stacks of materials. 

D-2.1.12 In industrial buildings of floor area less than 
750 m 2 and used as low fire hazard occupancies, 
conventional ventilators fitted high up near the eaves 
of the external walls may serve as vents for smoke and 
hot gases, provided care is taken to ensure that they 
are kept open at all times or are designed to open 
automatically in case of fire. 

D-2.1.13 Extinction of fires by closing the doors and 
windows is not likely in the case of industrial buildings 
because of their large size, where sufficient air to 
sustain the fire at least in the initial stages can be 
expected to be present. 

D-2.1.14 Of the two types of building ventilation, 
namely, vertical and horizontal, vertical ventilation is 
the one commonly adopted in the case of single storey 
industrial buildings. 

D-2.1.15 Since 70 to 80 percent of heat produced in a 
fire is convective heat, the ventilation system has to 
be suitably designed to ensure early outflow of the heat 
and thereby minimize fire spread. 

D-2.1.16 Combustible roof linings shall be avoided, 
as they themselves will contribute to the spread of fire, 
thereby multiplying the venting problems. 

D-2.1.17 A wind blowing across a flat roof or a roof 
with a pitch under 40° produces a negative pressure, 
that is, it tends to draw gases out of the building and so 
aids venting of hot gases. Wind blowing across a roof 
of pitch greater than 40° will draw gases out on the 
leeward side, but oppose outward flow on the 
windward side of the roof. 

D-2.1.18 For vents to work at full efficiency, the area 
of the inlets for cold air entering the compartment must 
equal at least the total area of the vents. Ideally, the 
inlets shall be as close to the ground as possible. 

D-2.1.19 Where roof verits are installed in a single- 
storey building any neighbouring buildings, 
particularly those of more than one storey, will be 
subject to some degree of exposure hazard either from 
flying birds or radiation, or both, as a result. 

D-2.1.20 If vents are to be installed, the size, design, 
number and disposition of the vents and the associated 
roof screens/curtain boards have to be assessed after 
careful analysis of the various factors stated 
under D-2.1.11 above, as well as other related factors 
like type of building construction, nature and height 
of roof, process hazards, exposure hazard, etc. 

D-2.2 Venting Area 

D-2.2.1 The estimated requirements for ventilation are 



72 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



largely based on the assumed build-up of the fire from 
the time of initial outbreak to the time of effective fire 
fighting action by fire brigade. 

D-2.2.2 The vent area required to be provided shall 
be approximately proportional to the perimeter of the 
fire area, because the entrained air forms the bulk of 
the vented gases. 

D-2.2.3 The effective area shall be the minimum cross- 
sectional area through which the hot gases must flow 
out to the atmosphere. 

D-2.2.4 No consideration shall be given to the 
increased air movement obtained by power operated 
fans, since it must be assumed that in the event of fire, 
power will be interrupted, or fans damaged by heat. 

D-2.2.5 The total vent areas to be provided shall be 
as per the following ratios of effective area of vent 
openings to floor area for various occupancy 
classifications indicated: 

a) Low heat release content 1: 150 
(Sub-division G-l) 

b) Moderate heat release content 1 : 1 00 
(Sub-division G-2) 

c) High heat release content 1:30 to 1 :50 
(Sub-division G-3) 

D-2.3 Types of Vents 

D-2.3.1 Venting shall be accomplished by any of the 
types such as monitors continuous gravity vents, until 
type vents or sawtooth roof skylights. 

D-2,3.2 Where monitor type vents are installed, wired 
glass or metal panels shall be used only if the sash is 
arranged to open automatically. 

D-2.3.3 The use of plain thin glass for venting shall 
be avoided on account of its unpredictable behaviour 
during fire. However, if glass or other suitable plastic 
sheet materials with early disintegration characteristics 
are used, they should be designed for automatic 
operation. 

D-2.3.4 Where monitors or unit type vents are used, 
the panels shall be hinged at the bottom and designed 
to open automatically. Both sides of the vents shall be 
designed to vent simultaneously to ensure that their 
effectiveness at the time of fire is not in any way 
impeded by wind direction. 

D-2.3. 5 Where movable shutters are provided 
for continuous gravity vents, these shall open 
automatically in the event of fire. 

D-2.3.6 Unit type vents shall be of relatively small 
area, ranging between 1 m 2 and 9 m 2 , having light 
weight metal frames and housing with hinged dampers 



which shall be designed for both manual and automatic 
operation. 

D-2.3.7 Sawtooth roof skylight shall be considered as 
satisfactory for venting purposes only when designed 
for automatic operation. 

D-2.3.8 Likewise, exterior wall windows shall not be 
reckoned as satisfactory means for venting of fire gases 
and smoke in industrial buildings. However, they may 
be reckoned as additional means of venting when, they 
are located close to the eaves and are provided with 
ordinary glass or movable sash arranged for both 
manual and automatic operation. 

D-2.3.9 Baffles shall not be installed inside vents, as 
they greatly reduce the effective area for venting. 

D-2.4 Vent Operation 

D-2.4.1 The vents shall be automatic in operation, 
unless where specified in these provisions that they 
shall be designed for both manual and automatic 
operation. 

D-2.4.2 The release mechanism shall be simple for 
operation and independent of electrical power, since 
electrical services may be interrupted by fire. 

D-2.4.3 The automatic operation of vents shall be 
achieved by actuation of fusible links or other types of 
heat and smoke detectors, or by interlocking with 
operation of sprinkler system or any other automatic 
fire extinguishing system covering the area. Following 
their release, the vents shall be designed to open by a 
system of counterweights and associated equipment 
utilizing the force of gravity or spring loaded levers. 

D-2.4.4 Automatic fire alarm system, where installed, 
shall be coupled to the automatic vents to ensure 
simultaneous operation. 

D-2.4.5 Automatic sprinklers, where installed, shall 
operate before the vents open in order to avoid any 
likely delay in sprinkler operation. However, heat 
actuated devices used for vent release shall be suitably 
shielded from sprinkler discharge so that water does 
not delay their action. 

D-2.4.6 Premises where height of roof apex is 10 m 
or more or where the materials handled or stored have 
high smoke producing characteristics, in addition to 
fusible links, the vent release mechanism shall be 
interlinked to smoke actuated automatic fire detectors 
to ensure early operation of vents. 

D-2.4.7 Non-corrosive materials shall be used for 
hinges, hatches and other related parts to ensure long 
fail-safe operation of the vents. 

D-2.4.8 In case of any doubts regarding the types of 
vents required to be installed for any particular 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



73 



occupancy, authorities having jurisdiction shall be 
consulted. 

D-2.5 Size, Spacing and Disposition of Vents 

D-2.5.1 Vents shall be correctly sited to ensure their 
functional efficiency. Ideally, they shall be sited at the 
highest point in each area to be covered. 

D-2.5. 2 They shall, as far as possible, be located 
immediately above the risk to be protected so as to 
allow free and speedy removal of smoke and other 
combustion products in the event of fire. 

D-2.5.3 The minimum dimension for an effective vent 
opening shall be not less than 1.25 m in any direction. 

D-2.5.4 The spacing of the individual vents shall be 
based on the principle that more number of well 
distributed smaller vents are more effective than less 
number of badly located larger vents. 

D-2.5.5 The maximum spacing between vents for the 
three occupancy classifications shall be as follows: 

a) Low heat release content — 45 m between 
centres 

b) Moderate heat release content — 36 to 37 m 
between centres 

c) High heat release content — 22.5 to 30 m 
between centres, depending on the severity 
of fire potential. 

D-2.5.6 Vents shall be placed in a sheltered situation 
where advantage can be taken of the prevailing wind. 
The design of the vent shall be such as to produce a 
suction effect. A wind blowing across a flat roof or 
one with a pitch be 40° produces a negative pressure, 
that is, it tends to draw gases out of the building and so 
aids venting of hot gases. Wind blowing across a roof 
of pitch greater than 40° will draw gases out on the 
leeward side, but oppose outward flow on the 
windward side of the roof. 

D-2.5.7 Low level inlets, with total area not less than 
the total area of vents, shall be provided to permit 
outside air to be drawn in to aid automatic venting. 
These inlets, which may be in the form of doors, 
windows or such other openings, shall be designed for 
manual operation when desired. 

D-2.6 Roof Screens or Curtain Boards 

D-2.6.1 Industrial buildings with large areas and 
having no sub-division/separating walls limiting the 
area of individual compartments to 750 m 2 or less, shall 
be provided with roof screens or curtain boards. 

These screens which extend from the roof downwards 
at specific intervals not only prevent lateral spread of 
heat and smoke in the event of fire below, but 



substantially assist in early operation of automatic 
sprinklers and vents. 

D-2.6.2 They shall be of sheet metal or any other 
substantial non-combustible material strong enough to 
withstand damage by heat or impact. 

D-2.6.3 They shall be reasonably gas-tight, although 
small openings for passage of pipes, conduits, etc, shall 
be permitted. 

D-2.6.4 They shall extend down from the roof/ceiling 
for a minimum depth of 2.2 m. Around specific 
hazards, the depth shall be 4 m. Where roof/ceiling 
height exceeds 15 m they shall extend down to within 
3 m of the floor. For pitched sawtoothed roofs, they 
shall extend down to truss level dividing the roof into 
compartments. 

D-2.6.5 In moderate hazard occupancies, the distance 
between the screens/curtain boards shall not exceed 
75 m and the curtained areas shall be limited to a 
maximum of 4 500 m 2 . 

D-2.6.6 In high hazard occupancies, the distance 
between screens shall not exceed 30 m and the 
curtained area shall be limited to 750 m 2 . 

D-2.6.7 The curtained roof area shall be so arranged 
that they effectively aid in the venting of smoke and 
hot gases through the automatic vents provided in each 
area. 

D-2.6.8 In sprinklered buildings, the screens shall 
preferably be so located as to coincide with the 
individual sprinkler system areas. 

D-3 EXPLOSION RELIEF VENTS 

D-3.1 Industrial premises where combustible dusts can 
accumulate or where flammable gases, vapours or mists 
in explosive concentrations may be present are 
constantly exposed to explosion hazards. Pressures 
developed by such explosions may be of the order of 
7 x 10 5 Pa and ordinary buildings will not be able to 
withstand the shock of such pressures. Hence, such 
buildings require explosion relief vents for preventing 
structural damage. 

D-3.2 Basic Principle/Considerations 

D-3. 2.1 Most ordinary building walls will not 
withstand a sustained internal pressure as great as 
6.9 x 10 3 Pa. Hence, explosion relief vents for 
buildings must be designed to operate at pressures well 
below those at which the building walls will fail. 

D-3.2.2 There is a rise in pressure during an explosion 
within an enclosure even with open, unobstructed 
vents, and any delay in opening the venting devices 
increases that pressure. 



74 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



D-3.2.3 Structural damage can be minimized by 
locating hazardous operations or equipment outside 
buildings and cut off from other operations by a 
pressure resisting wall. Such isolated processes or 
equipment shall be housed in single-storey buildings 
properly vented and a device provided at the inlet of 
the collector which will prevent an explosion from 
blowing back through the duct work and into the 
building. 

D-3.2.4 Where highly hazardous operations cannot be 
located outside of main buildings they shall be 
segregated by pressure resisting walls and each such 
unit shall be ventilated outdoors. External walls may 
be of heavy construction if equipped with suitable vents 
or high weight panels which blow out easily. 

D-3.2.5 Operations or equipment involving explosion 
hazards shall not be permitted in basements or areas 
partially below grade. 

D-3.2.6 Fire can be expected to follow an explosion in 
most occupancies, so that any fixed fire extinguishing 
equipment, like sprinklers, if installed, shall be such 
that only the minimum damage is caused to it. 

D-3.2.7 For a given material, the finer the particle size 
of the dust, the more violent is the explosion. Some 
materials, such as aluminium powder, hydrogen, and 
acetylene, are difficult to vent effectively due to the 
rapid rate of pressure rise. Some slow burning 
materials, such as coal dust in a confined space, may 
do much damage because of the longer duration of 
their presence. Some dusts, such as magnesiusm, 
titanium and zirconium and several metal hydrides may 
react with water and ignite in some common inert 
gases, such as nitrogen and carbon dioxide. 

D-3.2.8 The maximum explosion pressure in a vented 
structure decreases as the size of the vent increases, but 
is independent of the rupturing pressure of a diaphragm. 

D-3.2.9 The most effective vent for the release of 
explosion pressures is an unobstructed vent opening. 

D-3.2.10 Pressure required to rupture diaphragms of 
the same area and material directly varies with the 
thickness of the material. 

D-3.2.11 The slower the rate of pressure rise, the more 
easily can the explosion be vented. 

D-3.2.12 The degree of venting required is directly 
proportional to the degree of explosion hazard. 

D-3.2.13 Experience has shown that most explosions 
of dusts, vapours and gases do not involve a large part 
of the total volume of the enclosure, and frequently 
occur near the upper or lower limits of the explosive 
range. Consequently, such explosions are relatively 
weak compared with the optimum. 



D-3.2.14 Rectangular unrestricted vents are as 
effective as square vents of equal area. 

D-3.3 Types of Explosion Relief Vents 

D-3.3.1 The explosion relief vents shall be any one or 
more of the following types, depending on individual 
requirements as assessed by the Authority. Open or 
unobstructed vents, louvers, open roof vents, hanger 
type doors, building doors, windows, roof or wall 
panels or movable fixed sash. 

D-3.3.2 The effect of external wind pressure or suction 
on these devices shall be taken into consideration while 
designing and selecting the type of vents, since wind 
pressures may reach over 2 x 10 5 Pa in severe wind 
storms. 

D-3.3.3 The type of vent for explosion relief for any 
occupancy shall be selected with life safety as the 
primary aim followed by minimum damage to 
property. 

D-3.3.4 Where large hanger type doors or metal 
curtain doors in side walls are used as vents care shall 
be taken to ensure that they are kept wide open during 
operations. 

D-3.3.5 Where weather hoods are used to cover roof 
vents, they shall be as light as possible and lightly 
attached so as to enable them to be blown off quickly 
when an explosion occurs. 

D-3.3.6 Doors and windows when used as explosion 
vents shall be installed to swing outwards. Doors shall 
have friction, spring or magnetic latches that will 
function automatically to permit the door to open under 
slight internal pressure. 

D-3.3.7 Movable sash shall be of the top or bottom 
hinged or protected type. These shall be equipped with 
a latch or friction device to prevent accidental opening 
due to wind action or intrusion. Such latches or locks 
shall be well maintained. 

D-3.3.8 Fixed sash shall be set in place with very light 
wall anchorages, or, if right, shall be securely fitted 
and glazed with plastic panes in plastic putty. 

D-3.3.9 Where the process is such that the whole of a 
building or a room may be desirable to arrange for a 
lightly constructed wall or roof to collapse and thus 
avert the worst effects of an explosion. 

D-3.4 Design, Size and Disposition of Vents 

D-3.4.1 The required area of explosion vents shall 
ordinarily depend on the expected maximum intensity 
of an explosion in the occupancy, the strength of the 
structure, the type of vent closure and other factors. 

D-3.4.2 Venting shall be planned in such a manner as 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



75 



to prevent injury to personnel and damage to 
explosures. In congested locations, substantial ducts 
or diverters shall be provided to direct the blast. 

D-3.4.3 When ductwork is used, the ducts shall be of 
sufficient strength to withstand the maximum expected 
explosion pressure. 

D-3.4.4 Where explosions are likely within duct and 
piping systems, they shall be vented by the use of 
suitable diaphragms designed to blow out at a 
predetermined pressure. There shall be no physical 
connection between ductwork system for more than 
one collector. 

D-3.4.5 In large structures, the position of vents shall 
be relative to the point of origin of explosion, when it 
can be determined. 

D-3.4.6 Where relatively slow explosions involving 
coal dust, chlorinated solvents, etc, are involved, light, 
hinged swinging panels may be preferred to diaphragm 
type of vents. 

D-3.4.7 Obstructions of any kind blocking the vents 
from the risk covered shall be avoided, particularly 
where risks of rapid violent explosions are present. 

D-3.4.8 Counter weights add to the inertia of the vents 
and so shall be avoided. 

D-3.4.9 Various relieving devices, including devices 
actuated by detonators, shall start to open at as low a 
pressure as possible. They shall be of light construction, 
so that full opening can be quickly attained. 

D-3.4.10 Vents shall be of such size and design as to 
prevent rupture of the protected device or apparatus. 

D-3.4.11 Skylights or monitors with movable sash that 
will open outwards, or fixed sash containing panes of 
glass or plastic that will blow out readily under pressure 
from within, can be used to supplement wall vents or 
windows, provided resistance to their displacement or 
opening is kept as low as consistent with the 
requirements for structural strength, 

D-3.4.12 Flexible plastic sheets when used for vent 
closures shall be installed in slotted frames in such a 
way that pressure from within bulges the sheets and 
releases them from the holding frame. 

D-3.4.13 Fragile sheets made of plastic, when used 
for vent closures, shall be thin sheets that will crack or 
rupture under less pressure than single strength glass. 
For this reason use of transparent or translucent plastic 
sheets is more advantageous instead of glass in window 
sash. 



D-3.4.14 If closed vents are used they shall be larger 
in area than unenclosed vents to provide equivalent 
explosion pressure relief. 

D-3.4.15 Small enclosures, such as machines, shall 
be vented more generously than buildings, because if 
an explosion occurs in a machine, its entire volume 
may be involved. 

D-3.4.16 Vents for the protection of buildings and 
equipment shall be installed on the following basis: 

D-3.4.16.1 Small enclosures of less than 30 m 3 , 
machines and ovens of light construction: 1 000 cm 2 
for each 0.3 m 3 to 0.9 m 3 . 

D-3.4.16.2 For small enclosures of more substantial 
construction having reasonably high bursting strength: 
1 000 cm 2 for each 0.9 m 3 . 

D-3.4.16.3 Fairly large enclosures of 30 to 700 m 3 , 
such as bins, silos, rooms, storage tanks, etc: 1 000 cm 2 
for each 0.9 m 3 to 1.5 m 3 . In these cases, attempt shall 
be made to the extent possible to predict the likely point 
of origin of the explosion in relation to the vent. 

D-3.4.16.4 Large rooms and buildings over 700 m 3 
containing hazardous equipment comprising a small 
fraction of the entire volume: 

a) For heavy reinforced concrete, walls — 
100 cm 2 for each 2.25 m 3 . 

b) For light reinforced concrete, brick or wood 
construction — 1 000 cm 2 for each 1.65 m 3 
to 2.25 m 3 . 

c) For lightweight construction such as 
prefabricated panels — 1 000 cm 2 for each 
1.5 m 3 to 1.65 m 3 . 

D-3.4.16.5 Large rooms or building over 700 m 3 
containing hazardous equipment comprising a large 
part of the entire volume of a room or building shall 
be vented as generously as possible 1 000 cm 2 for each 
0.3 m 3 to 1.05 m 3 . 

D-3.4.16.6 In order to obtain these ratios, the size of 
the building or room must be limited. For some 
hazardous materials, such as hydrogen, acetylene, 
carbon disulphide, etc, these limits are extremely low. 

D-3.4.17 Emphasis shall always be placed on 
segregating hazardous areas by means of firewalls or 
separating walls to prevent spread of fire. 

D-3.4.18 Interior walls of light construction, such as 
tile, shall be avoided in hazardous locations, since they 
can cause injuries to personnel in the event of an 
explosion. 



76 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



ANNEX E 

(Clause C-8) 

GUIDELINES FOR FIRE DRILL AND EVACUATION PROCEDURES FOR 
HIGH RISE BUILDINGS (ABOVE 15 m IN HEIGHT) 



E-l INTRODUCTION 

In case of fire in a high rise building, safe evacuation 
of its occupants may present serious problems unless 
a plan for orderly and systematic evacuation is prepared 
in advance and all occupants are well drilled in the 
operation of such plan. These guidelines are intended 
to assist them in this task. 

E-2 ALARMS 

Any person discovering fire, heat or smoke shall 
immediately report such condition to the fire brigade, 
unless he has personal knowledge that such a report 
has been made. No person shall make, issue, post or 
maintain any regulation or order, written or verbal, that 
would require any person to take any unnecessary 
delaying action prior to reporting such condition to 
the fire brigade. 

E-3 DRILLS 

E-3.1 Fire drills shall be conducted, in accordance with 
the Fire Safety Plan, at least once every three months 
for existing buildings during the first two years. 
Thereafter, fire drills shall t^e conducted at least once 
every six months. 

E-3.2 All occupants of the building shall participate 
in the fire drill. However, occupants of the building, 
other than building service employees, are not required 
to leave the floor or use the exits during the drill. 

E-3.3 A written record of such drills shall be kept on 
the premises for a three years period and shall be readily 
available for fire brigade inspection. 

E-4 SIGNS AND PLANS 

E-4.1 Signs at Lift Landings 

A sign shall be posted and maintained in a conspicuous 
place on every floor at or near the lift landing in 
accordance with the requirements, indicating that in 
case of fire, occupants shall use the stairs unless 
instructed otherwise. The sign shall contain a diagram 
showing the location of the stairways except that such 
diagram may be omitted, provided signs containing 
such diagram are posted in conspicuous places on the 
respective floor. 

A sign shall read "IN CASE OF FIRE, USE STAIRS 
UNLESS INSTRUCTED OTHERWISE". The lettering 
shall be at least 12.5 mm block letters in red and white 



background. Such lettering shall be properly spaced 
to provide good legibility. The sign shall be at least 
250 mm x 300 mm, where the diagram is also 
incorporated in it and 62.5 mm x 250 mm where the 
diagram is omitted. In the latter case, the diagram sign 
shall be at least 200 mm x 300 mm. The sign shall be 
located directly above a call-button and squarely 
attached to the wall or partition. The top of the sign 
shall not be above 2 m from the floor level. 

E-4.2 Floor Numbering Signs 

A sign shall be posted and maintained within each 
stair enclosure on every floor, indicating the number 
of the floor, in accordance with the requirements 
given below. 

The numerals shall be of bold type and at least 75 mm 
high. The numerals and background shall be in 
contrasting colours. The sign shall be securely attached 
to the stair side of the door. 

E-4.3 Stair and Elevator Identification Signs 

Each stairway and each elevator back shall be identified 
by an alphabetical letter. A sign indicating the letter of 
identification shall be posted and maintained at each 
elevator landing and on the side of the stairway door 
from which egress is to be made, in accordance with 
the requirements given below: 

The lettering on the sign shall be at least 75 mm high, 
of bold type and of contrasting colour from the 
background. Such signs shall be securely attached. 

E-4.4 Stair Re-entry Signs 

A sign shall be posted and maintained on each floor 
within each stairway and on the occupancy side of the 
stairway where required, indicating whether re-entry 
is provided into the buildjfcg and the floor where 
such re-entry is provided, in accordance with the 
requirements given below: 

The lettering and numerals of the signs shall be at least 
12.5 mm high of bold type. The lettering and 
background shall be of contrasting colours and the 
signs shall be securely attached approximately 1.5 m 
above the floor level. 

E-4.5 Fire command station shall be provided with 
floor plan of the building and other pertinent 
information relative to the service equipment of the 
building. 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



77 



E-5 FIRE SAFETY PLAN 

E-5.1 A format for the Fire Safety Plan shall be as 
given in E-8. 

E-5.2 The applicable parts of the approved Fire Safety 
Plan shall be distributed to all tenants of the building 
by the building management when the Fire Safety Plan 
has been approved by the Fire Authority. 

E-5.3 The applicable parts of the approved Fire Safety 
Plan shall then be distributed by the tenants to all their 
employees and by the building management to all their 
building employees. 

E-5.4 Where the owner of the building is also an 
occupant of the building, he shall be responsible for 
the observance of these rules and the Fire Safety Plan 
in the same manner as a tenant. 

E-5.5 In the event there are changes from conditions 
existing at the time the Fire Safety Plan for the building 
was approved, and the changes are such so as to require 
amending the Fire Safety Plan, within 30 days after 
such changes, an amended Fire Safety Plan shall be 
submitted to the fire brigade for approval 

E-6 FIRE COMMAND STATION 

A Fire Command Station shall be established in the 
lobby of the building on the entrance floor. Such 
command station shall be adequately illuminated. 

E-7 COMMUNICATIONS AND FIRE ALARM 

A means of communication and fire alarm for use during 
fire emergencies shall be provided and maintained by 
the owner or person in charge of the building. 

E-8 FIRE SAFETY PLAN FORMAT 

E-8.1 Building Address 

Street and Pin Code Number 

Telephone Number 



E-8.2 Purpose and Objective 

E-8.2.1 Purpose 

To establish method of systematic, safe and orderly 
evacuation of an area or building by its occupants in 
case of fire or other emergency, in the least possible 
time, to a safe area by the nearest safe means of egress; 
also the use of such available fire appliances (including 
sounding of alarms) as may have been provided for 
controlling or extinguishing fire and safeguarding of 
human life. 

E-8.2.2 Objective 

To provide proper education as a part of continuing 
employee indoctrination and through a continuing 



written programme for all occupants, to ensure prompt 
reporting of fire, the response of fire alarms as 
designated, and the immediate initiation of fire safety 
procedures to safeguard life and contain fire until the 
arrival of the fire brigade. 

E-8.3 Fire Safety Director 

a) Name 

b) Regularly assigned employment — Title 

c) Regularly assigned location 

d) How is he notified when at regular location? 

e) How is he notified when not at regular location? 

f) Normal working hours 

g) Duties of Fire Safety Director {see E-9.1) 

E-8.4 Deputy Fire Safety Director 

a) Name 

b) Regularly assigned employment — Title 

c) Regularly assigned location 

d) How is he notified when at regular location? 

e) How is he notified when not at regular 
location? 

f) Normal working hours 

g) Duties of Deputy Fire Safety Director 
{see E-9.2) 

E-8.5 Fire Wardens and Deputy Fire Wardens 

a) Are their names on Organization Charts for 
each floor and/or tenancy? 

b) Submit typical completed Organization Chart 
for Fire Drill and Evacuation Assignment. 

c) Duties of Fire Wardens and Deputy Fire 
Wardens {see E-9.3). 

E-8.6 Building Evacuation Supervisor 

a) Name 

b) Regularly assigned employment — Title 

c) Regularly assigned location 

d) How is he notified when at regular location? 

e) How is he notified when not at regular location? 

f) Normal working hours 

g) Duties of Building Evacuation Supervisor 
{see E-9.4). 

E-8.7 Fire Party 

a) Submit a completed Organization Chart for 
Fire Parties naming person in charge, and his 
title in the building. 

b) Indicate standards of selection from building 
employees based on background and 
availability. 



78 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



c) How are they notified? 

d) How are they notified when they are not at 
their regular locations? 

e) Means of responding 

f) Duties of each member of Fire Party 
(see E-9.5). 

E-8.8 Occupants Instructions 

Distribution of instructions to all tenants, tenents' 
employees and building employees (see E-9.6). 

E-8.9 Evacuation Drills 

a) Frequency of drills 

b) How conducted? 

c) Participation: Who participated? How? 

d) Controls and supervision 

e) Recording of details of drills 

E-8.10 Fire Command Station 

a) Location 

b) Requirements 

1) Adequate illumination 

2) Adequate communication to mechanical 
equipment room and elevator control 
room on each floor 

3) Copy of Fire Safety Plan 

4) Copy of Building Information Form 

5) Representative floor plans showing 
location of signs, floor remote station, 
communications, etc. 

E-8.11 Signs 

a) Signs at elevator landings, Floor diagrams 

b) Floor numbering 

c) Stairway identification 

d) Elevator identification 

e) Stair re-entry 

E-8.12 Fire Prevention and Fire Protection 
Programme (see E- 9.7). 

E-8.13 Building Information Form (see E-9.8). 

E-8.14 Representative Floor Plan (see E-9.9). 

E-8.15 Fire Safety Plan Prepared by (see E-9.10). 

a) Date when prepared. 

b) Date when revised. 

E-9 DUTIES 

E-9.1 Fire Safety Director's Duties 

E-9.1.1 Be familiar with the written Fire Safety Plan 
providing for fire drill and evacuation procedure in 
accordance with orders on the subject. 



E-9.1.2 Select qualified building service employees 
for a Fire Party and organize, train and supervise such 
Fire Brigade. 

E-9.1.3 Be responsible for the availability and state 
of readiness of the Fire Party. 

E-9.1.4 Conduct fire and evacuation drills. 

E-9.1.5 Be responsible for the designation and training 
of a Fire Warden for each floor, and sufficient Deputy 
Fire Wardens for each tenancy in accordance with 
orders on the subject. 

E-9.1.6 Be responsible for a daily check for the 
availability of the Fire Wardens, and see that up-to- 
date organization charts are posted. 

NOTE — If the number of Fire Wardens and Deputy Fire 
Wardens in the building is such that it is impractical to 
individually contact each one daily, a suggested method to 
satisfy the requirements is to make provisions for the Fire 
Warden, or a Deputy Fire Warden in the absence of the Fire 
Warden, to notify the Fire Safety Director when the Fire 
Warden or required number of Deputy Fire Wardens are not 
available. In order to determine the compliance by the Fire 
Warden and Deputy Fire Wardens, when this method is used, 
the Fire Safety Director shall make a spot check of several 
different floors each day. 

E-9.1.7 Notify the owner or some other person having 
charge of the building when any designated individual 
is neglecting his responsibilities contained in Fire 
Safety Plan. The owner or the other person in-charge 
of the building shall bring the matter to the attention 
of the firm employing the individual. If the firm fails 
to correct the condition, the Fire Department shall be 
notified by the owner/person in-charge of the building. 

E-9,1.8 In the event of fire, shall report to the Fire 
Command Station to supervise, provide for and 
coordinate: 

a) Ensure that the Fire Department has been 
notified of any fire or fire alarm. 

b) Manning of the Fire Command Station. 

c) Direction of evacuating procedures as 
provided in the Fire Safety Plan. 

d) Reports on conditions on fire floor for 
information of Fyee Department on their 
arrival. 

e) Advise the Fire Department Officer in-charge 
in the operation of the Fire Command Station. 

E-9.1.9 Be responsible for the training and activities 
of the Building Evacuation Supervisor. 

E-9.2 Deputy Fire Safety Director's Duties 
E-9.2.1 Subordinate to the Fire Safety Director. 

E-9.2.2 Perform duties of Fire Safety Director in his 

absence. 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



79 



E-9.3 Fire Wardens and Deputy Fire Wardens 
Duties 

The tenant or tenants of each floor shall, upon request 
of the owner or person in charge of buildings, make 
responsible and dependable employees available for 
designation by the Fire Safety Director as Fire Warden 
and Deputy Fire Wardens. 

E-9.3.1 Each floor of a building shall be under the 
direction of a designated Fire Warden for the 
evacuation of occupants in the event of fire. He shall 
be assisted in his duties by the Deputy Fire Wardens. 
A Deputy Fire warden shall be provided for each 
tenancy. When the floor area of a tenancy exceeds 
700 m 2 of occupiable space, a Deputy Fire Warden 
shall be assigned for each 700 m 2 or part thereof. 

E-9.3.2 Each Fire Warden and Deputy Fire Warden 
shall be familiar with the Fire Safety Plan, the location 
of exits and the location and operation of any available 
fire alarm system. 

E-9.3.3 In the event of fire, or fire alarm the Fire 
Warden shall ascertain the location of the fire, and 
direct evacuation of the floor in accordance with 
directions received and the following guidelines: 

a) The most critical areas for immediate 
evacuation are the fire floor and floors 
immediately above. 

Evacuation from the other floors shall be 
instituted when instructions from the Fire 
Command Station or conditions indicate such 
action. Evacuation shall be via uncontaminated 
stairs. The Fire Warden shall try to avoid 
stairs being used by the Fire Department. If 
this is not possible, he shall try to attract the 
attention of the Fire Department Personnel 
before such personnel open the door to the 
fire floor. 

b) Evacuation to two or more levels below the 
fire floor is generally adequate. He shall keep 
the Fire Command Station informed regarding 
his location. 

c) Fire Wardens and their Deputies shall see that 
all occupants are notified of the fire, and that 
they proceed immediately to execute the Fire 
Safety Plan. 

d) The Fire Warden on the fire floor shall, as 
soon as practicable, notify the Fire Command 
Station of the particulars. 

e) Fire Wardens on floors above the fire shall, 
after executing the Fire Safety Plan, notify 
the Fire Command Station of the means being 
used for evacuation and any other particulars. 

f) In the event that stairways serving fire floor 



and/or floors above are unusable due to 
contamination or cut off by fire and/or smoke 
or that several floors above fire involve 
large numbers of occupants who must be 
evacuated, consideration may be given to 
using elevators in accordance with the 
following: 

1) If the elevators servicing his floor also 
service the fire floor, they shall not be 
used. However, elevators may be used if 
there is more than one bank of elevators, 
and he is informed from the Fire Command 
Station that one bank is unaffected by the 
fire. 

2) If elevators do not service the fire floor 
and their shafts have no openings on the 
fire floor, they may be used, unless 
directed otherwise. 

3) Elevators manned by trained building 
personnel or firemen may also be used. 

4) In the absence of a serviceable elevator, 
the Fire Warden shall select the safest 
stairway to use for evacuation on the 
basis of the location of the fire and any 
information received from the Fire 
Command Station. The Fire Warden shall 
check the environment in the stairs prior 
to entry for evacuation. If it is affected 
by smoke, alternative stair shall be 
selected, and the Fire Command Station 
notified. 

5) The Fire Warden shall keep the Fire 
Command Station informed of the means 
being employed for evacuation by the 
occupants of his floor. 

g) Ensure that an alarm has been transmitted. 

E-9.3. 4 Organization Chart for Fire Drill and 
Evacuation Assignment 

A chart designating employees and their assignments 
shall be prepared and posted in a conspicuous place in 
each tenancy and on each floor of a tenancy that 
occupies more than one/floor and a copy shall be in 
the possession of the Fire Safety Director. 

E-9.3.5 Keep available an updated listing of all 
personnel with physical disabilities who cannot use stairs 
unaided. Make arrangements to have these occupants 
assisted in moving down the stairs to two or more levels 
below fire floor. If it is necessary to move such occupants 
to a still lower level during the fire, move them down 
the stairs to the uppermost floor served by an uninvolved 
elevator bank and then remove them the street floor by 
elevator. Where assistance is required for such 
evacuation, notify Fire Safety Director. 



80 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



E-9.3.6 Provide for Fire Warden identification during 
fire drills and fires, such as using armband, etc. 

E-9.3.7 Ensure that all persons on the floor are notified 
of fire and all are evacuated to safe areas. A search 
must be conducted in the lavatories to ensure all are 
out. Personnel assigned as searchers can promptly and 
efficiently perform this duty. 

E-9.3.8 Check availability of applicable personnel on 
Organization Chart and provide for a substitute when 
the position on a chart is not covered. 

E-9.3.9 After evacuation, perform a head count to 
ensure that all regular occupants known to have 
occupied the floor have been evacuated. 

E-9.3.10 When alarm is received, the Fire Warden 
shall remain at a selected position in the vicinity of the 
communication station on the floor, in order to 
maintain communication with the Fire Command 
Station and to receive and give instructions. 

E-9.4 Building Evacuation Supervisor's Duties 

A building Evacuation Supervisor is required at all 
times other than normal working or business hours 
when there are occupants in the building and there is 
no Fire Safety Director on duty in the building. 

E-9.4. 1 He should be capable of directing the 
evacuation of the occupants as provided by the Fire 
Safety Plan. 

E-9.4. 2 During fire emergencies, the primary 
responsibility of the Building Evacuation Supervisor 
shall be to man the Fire Command Station, and the 
direction and execution of the evacuation as provided 
in the Fire Safety Plan. The Building Evacuation 
Supervisor's training and related activities shall be 
under the direction of the Fire Safety Director in 
accordance with these rules, and the Fire Safety Plan. 
Such activities shall be subject to Fire Department 
control. 

E-9.5 Fire Party Duties 

On receipt of an alarm for fire the Fire Party shall: 

a) report to the floor below the fire to assit in 
evacuation and provide information to the 
Fire Command Station. 

b) after evacuations of fire floor, endeavour to 
control spread of fire by closing doors, etc. 

c) attempt to control the fire until arrival of the 
Fire Department, if the fire is small and 
conditions do not pose a personal threat. 

d) leave one member on the floor below the fire 
to direct the Fire Department to the fire 
location and to inform them of conditions. 



e) on arrival of the Fire Department, the Fire 
Party shall report to the Fire Command Station 
for additional instructions. 

f) have a member designated as runner, who 
shall know the location of the nearest 
telephone, and be instructed in its use. Such 
member shall immediately upon receipt of 
information that there is a fire or evidence of 
fire, go to the telephone, transmit an alarm 
and await the arrival of the Fire Department 
and direct such department to the fire. 

NOTE — A qhart designating employees and their 
assignments shall be prepared. 

E-9.6 Occupant's Instructions 

a) The applicable parts of the approved Fire 
Safety Plan shall be distributed to all tenants 
of the building by the building management 
when the Fire Safety Plan has been approved 
by the Fire Commissioner. 

b) The applicable parts of the approved Fire 
Safety Plan shall then be distributed by the 
tenants to all their employees and by the 
building management to all their building 
employees. 

c) All occupants of the building shall participate 
and cooperate in carrying out the provisions 
of the Fire Safety Plan. 

E-9.7 Fire Invention and Fire Protection Programme 

a) A plan for periodic formal inspections of each 
floor area, including exit facilities, fire 
extinguishers and house keeping shall be 
developed. A copy of such plan be submitted. 

b) Provision shall be made for the monthly 
testing of communication and alarm systems. 

E-9.8 Building Information Form 

It shall include the following information: 

a) Building address.. Pin Code 

b) Owner or person in-charge of building — 
Name, Address and Telephone Number. 

c) Fire Safety Director and Deputy Fire Safety 
Director's Name and Telephone Number. 

d) Certificate of occupancy. Location where 
posted, or duplicate attached. 

e) Height, area, class of construction. 

f) Number, type and location of fire stairs and/ 
or fire towers. 

g) Number, type and location of horizontal exits 
or other areas of refuge. 

h) Number, type, location and operation of 
elevators and escalators. 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



81 



j) Interior fire alarms, or alarms to central 

stations, 
k) Communications systems and/or walkie 

talkie, telephones, etc. 
m) Standpipe system; size and location of risers, 

gravity or pressure tank, fire pump, location 

of Siamese connections, name of employee 

with certificate of qualification and number 

of certificate, 
n) Sprinkler system; name of employee with 

Certificate of Fitness and certificate number. 

Primary and secondary water supply, fire 

pump and areas protected, 
p) Special extinguishing system, if any, 

components and operation, 
q) Average number of persons normally employed 

in building. Daytime and night time, 
r) Average number of handicapped people in 

building. Location. Daytime and night time. 
s) Number of persons normally visiting the 

building. Daytime and night time, 
t) Service equipment such as: 

1) Electric power, primary, auxiliary; 

2) Lighting, normal, emergency, type and 
location; 

3) Heating, type, fuel, location of heating 
unit; 

4) Ventilation — with fixed windows, 
emergency means of exhausting heat and 
smoke; 

5) Air-Conditioning Systems — Brief 
description of the system, including ducts 
and floors serviced; 

6) Refuse storage and disposal; 

7) Fire fighting equipment and appliances, 
other than standpipe and sprinkler 
system; and 

8) Other pertinent building equipment. 

u) Alterations and repair operations, if any, and 

the protective and preventive measures 

necessary to safeguard such operations with 

attention to torch operations, 
v) Storage and use of flammable solids, liquids 

and/or gases, 
w) Special occupancies in the building and the 

proper protection and maintenance thereof. 

Places of public assembly, studios, and 

theatrical occupancies. 

E-9.9 Representative Floor Plan 

A floor plan, representative of the majority or the floor 
designs of the entire building, shall be at the Command 
Post, in the main lobby, under the authority of the Fire 



Safety Director. One copy of a representative floor plan 
shall be submitted to the Fire Department with the Fire 
Safety plan. 

E-9.10 Fire Safety Plan 

In planning, evaluate the individual floor layouts, the 
population of floors, the number and kinds of exits, 
the zoning of the floor by area and occupants. 
Determine the movement of traffic by the most 
expeditious route to an appropriate exit and alternative 
route for each zone, since under fire conditions one or 
more exits may not be usable. This format is to be used 
in the preparation of the Fire Safety Plan. Nothing 
contained in this Fire Safety Plan format is to be 
construed as all inclusive. All rules and other 
requirements are to be fully complied with. 

E-9.11 Personal Fire Instruction Card 

All the occupants of the building shall be given a 
Personal Fire Instruction Card giving the details of the 
floor plan and exit routes along with the instruction to 
be followed in the event of fire. A typical Personal 
Fire Instruction Card shall be as follows: 

PERSONAL FIRE 

INSTRUCTION CARD 

SEAL 

NAME OF THE ORGANIZATION 

ADDRESS OF THE ORGANIZATION 

NAME: 

DESIGNATION: 

FLOOR NO.: 

DATE: 

FIRE WARDEN 

INSTRUCTIONS 

FOR YOUR OWN SAFETY YOU SHOULD KNOW 

1. Two push button fire alarm boxes are 
provided per floor. You should read the 
operating instructions. 

2. You should read the operating instructions on 
the body of the fire extinguishers provided 
on your floor. 

3. The nearest exit from your table. 

4. Your assembly point on ground floor (check 
with your Fire/Deputy Fire Warden). 

5. FOR YOUR OWN PROTECTION YOU 
SHOULD REPORT TO YOUR FIRE/ 
DEPUTY FIRE WARDEN 



82 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



a) If any exit door/route is obstructed by loose 
materials, goods, boxes, etc. 

b) If any staircase door, lift lobby door does not 
close automatically, or does not close 
completely. 

c) If any push button fire alarm point, or fire 
extinguisher is obstructed, damaged or 
apparently out of order. 

IF YOU DISCOVER A FIRE 

1 . Break the glass of the nearest push button fire 
alarm and push the button. 

2. Attack the fire with extinguishers provided on 
your floor. Take guidance from your Wardens. 



3. Evacuate if your Warden asks you to do so. 
IF YOU HEAR EVACUATION INSTRUCTIONS 



1. 



Leave the floor immediately by the south/ 

north staircase. 

Report to your Warden, at your predetermined 

assembly point outside the building. 

Do not try to use lifts. 

Do not go to cloakroom. 

Do not run or shout. 

Do not stop to collect personal belongings. 

Keep the lift lobby and staircase doors shut. 

YOUR ASSEMBLY POINT IS 



2. 

3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 

7. 



LIST OF STANDARDS 



The following list records those standards which are 
acceptable as 'good practice' and 'accepted standards' 
in the fulfillment of the requirements of the Code. The 
standards listed may be used by the Authority as a guide 
in conformance with the requirements of the referred 
clauses in the Code. 



IS No. 

(1) 3808: 1979 

(2) 8757 : 1999 
7673 : 1975 

(3) 15394:2003 

(4) 8758 : 1993 



(5) 3809 : 1979 
1641 : 1988 

15103:2002 

(6) 9668 : 1990 



Title 

Method of test for non- 
combustibility of building 
materials (first revision) 

Glossary of terms associated 
with fire safety {first revision) 

Glossary of terms for fire 
fighting equipment 

Fire safety in petroleum refinery 
and fertilizer plants — Code of 
practice 

Recommendations for fire 
precautionary measures in the 
construction of temporary 
structures and PANDALS (first 
revision) 

Fire resistance test of structure 
(first revision) 

Code of practice for fire safety 
of buildings (general): General 
principles of fire grading and 
classification (first revision) 

Specification for fire resistant 
steel 

Code of practice for provision 
and maintenance of water 
supplies and fire fighting 



IS No. 
3844 : 1989 



(7) 3614 

(Part 1) : 1966 

(8) 12458 : 1988 

(9) 1646 : 1997 

2309 : 1989 
(10) 

(11) 11360:1985 

(12) 659 : 1964 

(13) 1649:1962 

1642 : 1989 

(14) 12777 : 1989 



Title 
Code of practice for installation 
and maintenance of internal fire 
hydrants and hose reels on 
premises (first revision) 

Specification for fire check 
doors: Part 1 Plate, metal covered 
and rolling type 

Method of test for fire resistance 
test for fire stops 

Code of practice for fire safety 
of buildings (general) : 
Electrical installations (second 
revision) 

Code of practice for protection of 
building and allied structures 
against lighting (second revision) 

Specification for fire dampers 
for air conditioning ducts (under 
preparation) 

Specification for smoke 
detectors for use in automatic 
electrical fire alarm system 

Safety code for air-conditioning 

Code of practice for design and 
construction of flues and 
chimneys for domestic heating 
appliances (first revision) 

Code of practice for safety of 
buildings (general): Details of 
construction (first revision) 

Fire safety-flame-spread of 
products — Method for 
classification 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



83 



IS No. 

(15) 1642 : 1989 

1643 : 1988 

1644 : 1988 



(16)9457: 1980 
12349 : 1988 
12407 : 1988 

(17)2175: 1988 



11360: 1985 



(18)2189 : 1999 



(19) 636 : 1988 



884 : 1985 



901 : 1988 



902 : 1992 



903 : 1993 



904 : 1983 



905 : 1980 



Title 
Code of practice for fire safety 
of buildings (general): Details of 
construction (first revision) 

Code of practice for fire safety 
of buildings (general): Exposure 
hazard (first revision) 

Code of practice for fire safety 
of buildings (general): Exit 
requirements and personal 
hazard (first revision) 

Safety colours and safety signs 

Fire protection — Safety sign 

Graphic symbols for fire 
protection plan 

Specification for heat sensitive 
fire detectors for use in 
automatic fire alarm system 
(second revision) 

Specification for smoke 
detectors for use in automatic 
electrical fire alarm system 

Code of practice for selection, 
installation and maintenance of 
automatic fire detection 
and alarm system (second 
revision) 

Non-percolating flexible fire 
fighting delivery hose (third 
revision) 

Specification for first-aid hose 
reel for fire fighting (first 
revision) 

Specification for couplings, 
double male and double female 
instantaneous pattern for fire 
fighting (third revision) 

Specification for suction hose 
couplings for fire fighting 
purposes (third revision) 

Specification for fire hose 
delivery couplings, branch pipe, 
nozzles and nozzle spanner 
(fourth revision) 

Specification for two-way and 
three-way suction collecting 
heads for fire fighting purposes 
(second revision) 

Specification for delivery 
breechings, dividing and 
collecting, instantaneous pattern 
for fire fighting purposes (second 
revision) 



IS No. Title 

906 : 1988 Specification for revolving 

branch pipe for fire fighting 
(third revision) 

907 : 1984 Specification for suction 

strainers, cylindrical type for fire 
fighting purpose (second revision) 

908 : 1975 Specification for fire hydrant, 

stand post type (second revision) 

909 : 1992 Specification for underground 

fire hydrant: Sluice valve type 
(third revision) 

910 : 1980 Specification for combined key 

for hydrant, hydrant cover and 
lower valve (second revision) 

926 : 1985 Specification for fireman's axe 

(second revision) 

927 : 1981 Specification for fire hooks 

(second revision) 

928 : 1984 Specification for fire bells 

(second revision) 

937 : 1981 Specification for washers for 

water fittings for fire fighting 
purposes (second revision) 

939 : 1977 Specification for snatch block 

for use with fibre rope for fire 
brigade use (first revision) 

940 : 1989 Specification for portable fire 

extinguisher, water type (gas 
cartridge) (third revision) 

941 : 1985 Specification for blowers and 

exhauster for fire fighting 
(second revision) 

942 : 1982 Functional requirements for 275- 

1/min portable pump set for fire 
fighting (second revision) 

943 : 1979 Functional requirement for 680- 

1/min trailer pump for fire 
brigade use (second revision) 

944 : 1979 Functional requirement for 

1800-1/min trailer pump for fire 
brigade use (second revision) 

947 : 1985 Functional requirement for 

towing tender for trailer fire 
pump for fire brigade use (first 
revision) 

948 : 1983 Functional requirement for water 

tender, Type A, for fire brigade 
use (second revision) 

949 : 1985 Functional requirement for 

emergency (rescue) tender for fire 
brigade use (second revision) 



84 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



IS No. 


950: 


: 1980 


952: 


1986 


955: 


1980 



957 : 1967 

1941 
(Part 1) : 1976 

2097 : 1983 
2171 : 1999 

2175 : 1988 



2298 : 1977 



2546 : 1974 



2696 : 1974 



2745 : 1983 



2871 : 1983 



2878 : 2004 



2930 : 1980 



3582 : 1984 



Title 
Functional requirements 
for water tender, Type B for fire 
brigade use (second revision) 

Specification for foghnozzle for 
fire brigade use (first revision) 

Functional requirements for dry 
power tender for fire-brigade 
use (150 kg capacity) (first 
revision) 

Specification for control van for 
fire brigade 

Functional requirements for 
electric motor sirens: Part 1 ac 3 
phase 50Hz, 415 V type (second 
revision) 

Specification for foam making 
branch pipe (first revision) 

Specification for portable fire 
extinguishers, dry powder 
(cartridge type) (third revision) 

Specification for heat sensitive 
fire detectors for use in 
automatic detectors for use in 
automatic fire alarm system 
(second revision) 

Specification for single-barrel 
stirrup pump for fire fighting 
purposes (second revision) 

Specification for galvanized 
mild steel fire bucket (first 
revision) 

Functional requirements for 
1 125 1/min light fire engine 
(first revision) 

Specification for non-metal 
helmet for firemen and civil 
defence personnel (second 
revision) 

Specification for branch pipe, 
universal for fire fighting 
purposes (first revision) 

Specification for fire 
extinguisher, carbon-dioxide 
type (portable and trolley 
mounted) (third revision) 

Functional requirements for 
hose laying tender for fire 
brigade use (first revision) 

Specification for basket strainers 
for fire fighting purposes 
(cylindrical type) (first revision) 



IS No. 

4308 : 1982 

4571 : 1977 
4643 : 1984 
4861 : 1984 

4927 : 1992 

4928 : 1986 
4947 :^985 



4989 
(Part 1) : 2004 



4989 
(Part 2) : 1984 



(Part 3) : 1987 
5131 : 1986 



5290 : 1993 
5486 : 1985 
5505 : 1985 

5612 



(Part 1) : 1977 
(Part 2) : 1977 
5714: 1981 



Title 
Specification for dry powder for 
fire fighting (first revision) 

Specification for aluminium 
extension ladders for fire brigade 
use (first revision) 

Specification for suction 
wrenches for fire brigade use 
(first revision) 

Specification for dry powder for 
fighting fires in burning metals 
(first revision) 

Specification for unlined flax 
canvas hose for fire fighting 
(first revision) 

Specification for delivery valve 
for centrifugal pump outlets 
(first revision) 

Specification for gas cartridges 
for use in fire extinguishers 
(second revision) 

Specifications for multipurpose 
aqueous film forming foam 
liquid concentrate for 
extinguishing hydrocarbon 
and polar solvent fires (third 
revision) 

Specification for foam concentrate 
(compound) for producing 
mechanical foam for fire 
fighting: Part 2 Aqueous film 
forming foam (AFFF) 

Ruoro protein foam 

Specification for dividing 
breeching with control, for fire 
brigade use (first revision) 

Specification for landing valve 
(third revision) 

Specification for quick release 
knife (first revision) 

Specification for multi-edged 
rescue axe (non-wedging) (first 
revision) 

Specification for hose-clamps 
and hose-bandages for fire 
brigade use: 

Hose clamps (first revision) 

Hose bandages (first revision) 

Specification for hydrant, stand- 
pipe for fire fighting (first 
revision) 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



85 



IS No. Title 

6026 : 1985 Specification for hand-operated 
sirens (first revision) 

6067 : 1983 Functional requirements for 
water tender, Type 'X' for fire 
brigade use (first revision) 

6234 : 1986 Specification for portable fire 
extinguishers, water type (stored 
pressure) (first revision) 

8090: 1992 Specification for couplings, 
branch pipe, nozzle, used in hose 
reel tubing for fire righting (first 
revision) 

8096 : 1992 Specification for fire beaters 
(first revision) 

8 1 49 : 1 994 Functional requirements for twin 
C0 2 fire extinguishers (trolley 
mounted) (first revision) 

8423 : 1994 Specification for controlled 
percolating hose for fire fighting 
(first revision) 

8442 : 1 977 Specification for stand post type 
water monitor for fire fighting 

9972 : 1981 Specification for automatic 
sprinkler heads 

10204 : 1982 Specification for portable fire 
extinguisher mechanical foam 
type 

10460: 1983 Functional requirements for 
small foam tender for fire 
brigade use 

10658 : 1999 Specification for higher capacity 
dry powder fire extinguisher 
(trolley mounted) 

10993 : 1984 Functional requirements for 
2000 kg dry powder tender for 
fire brigade us 

11070: 1984 Specification for bromo 
chlorodifluoromethane (Halon- 
1211) for fire fighting 

111.01 : 1984 Specification for extended 
branch pipe for fire brigade 
use 

11108 : 1984 Specification for portable fire 
extinguisher halon- 12 11 type 

11360: 1985 Specification for smoke 
detectors for use in automatic 
electrical fire alarm systems 

11833 : 1986 Specification for dry powder 
fire extinguisher for metal 
fires 



IS No. Title 

12717 : 1989 Functional requirements of fire 
fighting equipment — High 
capacity portable pumpset 
(1 100-1 600 1/min) 

12796 : 1989 Specification for fire rake 

13039 : 1991 Code of practice for provision 
and maintenance of external 
hydrant system 

13385 : 1992 Specification for fire 

extinguisher 50 capacity wheel 
mounted water type (gas 
cartridge) 

13386 : 1992 Specification for 50 litre capacity 

fire extinguisher, mechanical 
foam type 
13849 : 1993 Specification for portable fire 
extinguisher dry powder type 
(constant pressure) 

14609 : 1999 Specification for ABC dry 
powder for fire fighting 

14933 : 2001 Specification for high pressure 
fire fighting hose 

14951 : 2001 Specification for fire 
extinguisher, 135 litre capacity 
mechanical foam type 

15051 : 2002 Specification for high pressure 
fire hose delivery couplings 

15105 : 2002 Design and installation of 
fixed automatic sprinkler fire 
extinguishing system 

15220 : 2002 Specification for halon 121 1 and 
halon 1301 — Fire extinguishing 
media for fire protection 

15493 : 2004 Gaseous fire extinguishing 
systems — General requirements 

15497 : 2004 Specification for gaseous fire 
extinguishing system — IG 01 
extinguishing system 

15501 : 2004 Specification for gaseous fire 
extinguishing system — IG 541 
extinguishing system 

15505 : 2004 Gaseous fire extinguishing 

systems — HCFC blend A 
extinguishing systems 

15506 : 2004 Specification for inert gaseous 

total fire protection total flooding 
system — Argonite, IG 55 
extinguishing system 

15517 : 2004 Gaseous fire extinguishing 
systems — HFC 227 (heptafluoro 
propane) extinguishing system 



86 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



IS No. 
15519 : 2004 



15525 : 2004 



15528 : 2004 



(20) 2190 : 1992 

(21)884: 1985 
15517 :2004 

(22) 3034 : 1993 

(23) 6382 : 1984 

(24) 14609 : 2001 
15493 : 2004 

(25) 13716: 1993 

(26) 4963 : 1987 

(27) 4878 : 1986 

(28) 12456 : 1988 

(29) 1646: 1997 
2726 : 1988 



Title 
Code of practice for water mist 
fire protection systems — 
System design, installation and 
commissioning 

Specification for gaseous fire 
extinguishing system — IG 100 
extinguishing system 

Gaseous fire extinguishing 
systems — Carbon dioxide, total 
flooding and local application 
(sub-flour and in-cabinet), high 
and low pressure (refrigerated) 
systems 

Code of practice for selection, 
installation and maintenance 
of portable first-aid fire 
extinguishers (third revision) 

Specification for first-aid hose 
reel for fire fighting (first revision) 

Code of practice for inspection 
and maintenance of gaseous fire 
extinguishing systems 

Code of practice for fire safety 
of industrial buildings: Electrical 
generating and distributing 
stations (second revision) 

Code of practice for design and 
installation of fixed carbon 
dioxide fire extinguishing 
system (first revision) 

Specification for dry powder for 
fire fighting — Class ABC fires 

General requirement for 
commissioning of gaseous fire 
extinguishing systems 

Code of practice for fire safety 
in hotels 

Recommendations for buildings 
and facilities for the physically 
handicapped (first revision) 

Bye-laws for construction of 
cinema buildings (first revision) 

Code of practice for fire 
protection of electronic data 
processing installations 

Code of practice for fire safety 

of buildings (general) : 

Electrical installations (second 

revision) 

Code of practice for fire safety 

of industrial buildings: Cotton 



IS No, Title 

ginning and pressing (including 
cotton seed delintering) factories 
(first revision) 

3034 : 1993 Code of practice for fire safety 
of industrial buildings: Electrical 
generating and distributing 
stations (second revision) 

3058 : 1990 Code of practice for fire safety 
of industrial buildings: Viscose 
rayon yarn and/or staple fibre 
plants (first revision) 

3079 : 1990 Code of practice for fire safety 
of industrial buildings: Cotton 
textile mills (first revision) 

3594 : 1991 Code of practice for fire safety 

of industrial buildings: General 
storage and warehousing 
including cold storage (first 
revision) 

3595 : 1984 Code of practice for fire safety 

of industrial buildings: Coal 
pulverizers and associated 
equipment (first revision) 

3836 : 2000 Code of practice for fire safety 
of industrial buildings: Jute 
mills (second revision) 

4209 : 1987 Code of safety in chemical 
laboratories (first revision) 

4226 : 1988 Code of practice for fire safety of 
industrial buildings: Aluminium/ 
Magnesium powder factories 
(first revision) 

4886 : 1991 Code of practice for fire safety 
of industrial buildings: Tea 
factories (first revision) 

6329 : 2000 Code of practice for fire safety 
of. industrial buildings: Saw 
mills and wood works (first 
revision) 

9109 : 2000 Code of practice for fire safety 
of industrial buildings: Paint and 
varnish factories 

11457 Code of practice for fire safety 

(Part 1) : 1985 of chemical industries: Part 1 
Rubber and plastic 

1 1460 : 1985 Code of practice for fire safety of 
libraries and archives buildings 

12349 : 1988 Fire protection — Safety signs 

12407 : 1988 Graphic symbols for fire 
protection plans 



PART 4 FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY 



87 



IS No. Title 

12456:1988 Code of practice for fire 
protection of electronic data 
processing installation 

12458 : 1988 Method of test for fire resistance 

test of fire stops 

12459 : 1988 Code of practice for fire- 

protection of cable runs 

12777 : 1989 Fire safety — Flame spread of 
products — Method for 
classification 

13045 : 1991 Code of practice for fire safety 
in industrial buildings: Floor 
mills 



IS No. 
13694 : 



1993 



13716 : 1993 
14435 : 1997 
14689 : 1999 
14850 : 2000 
(30) 655 : 1963 
(31)9583: 1981 



Title 

Code of practice for fire safety 
in iron and steel industries 

Code of practice for fire safety 
of hotels 

Code of practice for fire safety 
in educational institutions 

Code of practice for fire safety in 
printing and publishing industry 

Code of practice for fire safety 
of museums 

Specification for metal air ducts 
(revised) 

Emergency lighting units 



88 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 

PART 5 BUILDING MATERIALS 



BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS 



CONTENTS 



FOREWORD 

1 SCOPE 

2 MATERIALS 

3 NEW OR ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS 

4 THIRD PARTY CERTIFICATION 

5 USED MATERIALS 

6 STORAGE OF MATERIALS 

7 METHODS OF TEST 

LIST OF STANDARDS 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



National Building Code Sectional Committee, CED 46 



FOREWORD 

Ensuring the quality and effectiveness of building materials used in the construction and their storage are as 
important as the other phases of building activity like planning, designing and constructing the building itself. 
This Part, therefore, lists Indian Standards for materials used in building construction. The methods of tests, to 
ensure the requirements demanded of the materials in the various situations, are also included. 

Historically choice of building materials was determined by what was locally available, appropriateness to geo- 
climatic conditions and affordability of users. In recent past, different initiatives have been taken in the areas of 
research and development, standardization, and development and promotion of innovative materials. A review 
of the recent trends indicates that the growth in the area of building materials covers emerging trends and latest 
developments in the use of wastes, mineral admixtures in cement and concrete, substitutes to conventional timber, 
composite materials and recycling of wastes, at the same time ensuring desired response of materials to fire, long 
term performance and durability. In addition to these developments, the future decade may witness development 
of specific materials which may be structured and designed to meet needs to specially developed construction 
technologies, such as, for disaster prone areas or aggressive climatic and industrial situations. 

In this context, the following factors have become important for facilitating application and adoption in practice, 
of the materials: 

a) Utilization of industrial, mining, mineral and agricultural wastes; plantation timbers; and renewable 
natural fibres and residues for production of building materials. 

b) Impact of production of building materials on the consumption levels of natural resources. 

c) Change in energy demand in production of building materials due to development of efficient 
manufacturing processes. 

d) Impact of production and usage of materials and disposal thereof on the environment. 

To encourage use of appropriate materials, it may be desirable to have, to the extent possible, performance 
oriented approach for specifications rather than prescriptive approach. The approach has been already adopted in 
some cases in development of standards, wherever found possible. 

Indian Standards cover most of the requirements for materials in use. However, there may be a gap between 
development of new materials and techniques of application and formulation of standards. It, therefore, becomes 
necessary for a Building Code to be flexible to recognize building materials other than those for which Indian 
Standards are available. This Part, therefore, since its first version, duly takes care of this aspect and explicitly 
provides for use of new or alternate building materials, provided it is proved by authentic tests that the new or 
alternative material is effective and suitable for the purpose intended. However, it is worthwhile that more and 
more emphasis is given to the satisfaction of performance requirements expected of a building material, so that 
a wide range of such new or alternate materials can be evaluated and used, if found appropriate. 

As already emphasized, quality of material is quite important for their appropriate usage, whether it is a material 
for which an Indian Standard is available or a new or alternative material as defined in 3 of this Part. Third party 
certification schemes available in the country for quality assurance of above materials can be used with advantage 
to ensure the appropriateness of these materials. 

This Part of the Code was first published in 1970 and subsequently revised in 1983. The first revision of this Part 
incorporated an updated version of the list of Indian Standards given at the end of this Part of the Code. The 
present draft revision of this Part, while basically retaining the structure of 1983 version of the Code, explicitly 
takes care of the following: 

a) While continuing to emphasize on conformity of building materials to available Indian Standards, the 
building regulating authority also recognizes use of building materials conforming to other specifications 
and test methods (see 3), in case Indian Standards are not available for particular materials. 

PART 5 BUILDING MATERIALS 3 



b) The list at the end of this part has been completely reclassified to make it more user friendly and 
updated to reflect the latest available Indian Standard and methods of test. 

A reference to SP 21 'Summaries of Indian Standards for building materials' may be useful. This publication 
gives the summaries of Indian Standards covering various building materials, fittings and components except 
standards relating to paints. 

All standards cross-referred to in the main text of this Part, are subject to revision. The parties to agreement 
based on this section are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the 
standards. 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



PART 5 BUILDING MATERIALS 



1 SCOPE 

This Part of the Code covers the requirements of building 
materials and components, and criteria for accepting new 
or alternative building materials and components. 

2 MATERIALS 

Every material used in fulfilment of the requirements 
of this Part, unless otherwise specified in the Code or 
approved, shall conform to the relevant Indian Standards. 
A list of Indian Standards as the 'accepted standards' is 
given at the end of this Part of the Code. At the time of 
publication of the Code, the editions indicated were 
valid. All standards are subject to amendments and 
revisions. The Authority shall take cognizance of such 
amendments and revisions. The latest version of a 
standard shall, as far as possible, be adopted at the time 
of enforcement of this Part of the Code. 

3 NEW OR ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS 

3.1 The provisions of this Part are not intended to 
prevent the use of any material not specifically 
prescribed under 2. Any such material may be approved 
by the Authority or an agency appointed by them for 
the purpose, provided it is established that the material 
is satisfactory for the purpose intended and the 
equivalent of that required in this Part or any other 
specification issued or approved by the Authority, The 
Authority or an agency appointed by them shall take 
into account the following parameters, as applicable 
to the concerned new or alternative building material: 

a) Requirements of the material specified/ 
expected in terms of the provisions given in 
the standards on its usage, including its 
applicability in geo-climatic condition; 

b) General appearance; 

c) Dimension and dimensional stability; 

d) Structural stability including strength properties; 

e) Fire safety; 

f) Durability; 

g) Thermal properties; 

h) Mechanical properties; 

j) Acoustical properties; 

k) Optical properties ; 

m) Biological effect; 

n) Environmental aspects; 

p) Working characteristics; 

q) Ease of handling; and 

r) Consistency and workability. 

For establishing the performance of the material/ 



component, laboratory/field tests, and field trials, as 
required, and study of historical data are recommended. 

3.2 Approval in writing of the Authority or an agent 
appointed by them for the purpose of approval of 
material, shall be obtained by the owner or his agent 
before any new, alternative or equivalent material is 
used. The Authority or their agent shall base such 
approval on the principle set forth in 3.1 and shall 
require that tests be made (see 7.1) or sufficient 
evidence or proof be submitted, at the expense of the 
owner or his agent, to substantiate any claim for the 
proposed material. 

NOTE — For interpretation of the term 'Authority' {see 
also 7.1), the definition of 'Authority having jurisdiction' given 
in Part 2 'Administration' shall apply. 

4 THIRD PARTY CERTIFICATION 

For ensuring the conformity of materials for which 
Indian Standards exist and for new or alternative 
building materials, to requisite quality parameters the 
services under the third party certification schemes of 
the Government, may be utilized with advantage. 

5 USED MATERIALS 

The use of used materials may not be precluded 
provided these meet the requirements of this Part for 
new materials (see Part 2 'Administration'). 

6 STORAGE OF MATERIALS 

All building materials shall be stored on the building 
site in such a way as to prevent deterioration or the 
loss or impairment of their structural and other essential 
properties (see Part 7 'Constructional Practices and 
Safety'). 

7 METHODS OF TEST 

7.1 Every test of material required in this Part or by 
the Authority shall be carried out in accordance with 
the Indian Standard methods of test. In the case of 
methods of tests where Indian Standards are not 
available, the same shall conform to the methods of 
tests issued by the Authority or their agent. A list of 
Indian Standard methods of test is given at the end of 
this Part of the Code as the 'good practices' . Laboratory 
tests shall be conducted by recognized laboratories 
acceptable to the Authority. 

7.1.1 The manufacturer/supplier shall satisfy himself 
that materials conform to the requirements of the 
specifications and if requested shall supply a certificate 
to this effect to the purchaser or his representative. 
When such test certificates are not available, the 
specimen of the material shall be tested. 



PART 5 BUILDING MATERIALS 



LIST OF STANDARDS 



Following are the Indian Standards for various building 
materials and components, to be complied with in 
fulfillment of the requirements of the Code. 

In the following list, while enlisting the Indian 
Standards, the materials have been categorized in such 
a way as to make the list user friendly. In the process, 
if so required, some of the standards have been included 
even in more than one category of products, such as in 
the category based on composition as well as on end 
application of the materials. The list has been arranged 
in alphabetical order of their principal category as given 
below: 

1. ALUMINIUM AND OTHER LIGHT METALS 
AND THEIR ALLOYS 

2. BITUMEN AND TAR PRODUCTS 

3. BUILDER'S HARDWARES 

4. BUILDING CHEMICALS 

5. BUILDING LIME AND PRODUCTS 

6. BURNT CLAY PRODUCTS 

7. CEMENT AND CONCRETE (including concrete 
reinforcement) 

8. COMPOSITE MATRIX PRODUCTS (including 
cement matrix products) 

9. CONDUCTORS AND CABLES 

10. DOORS, WINDOWS AND VENTILATORS 

11. ELECTRICAL WIRING, FITTINGS AND 
ACCESSORIES 

12. FILLERS, STOPPERS AND PUTTIES 

13. FLOOR COVERING, ROOFING AND OTHER 
FINISHES 

14. GLASS 

15. GYPSUM BASED MATERIALS 

16. LIGNOCELLULOSIC BUILDING MATERIALS 
(including timber, bamboo and products thereof) 

17. PAINTS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS 

18. POLYMERS, PLASTICS AND 
GEOSYNTHETICS/GEOTEXTILES 

19. SANITARY APPLIANCES AND WATER 
FITTINGS 

20. SOIL-BASED PRODUCTS 

21. STEEL AND ITS ALLOYS 

22. STONES 

23. STRUCTURAL SECTIONS 

24. THERMAL INSULATION MATERIALS 

25. THREADED FASTENERS AND RIVETS 

26. UNIT WEIGHTS OF BUILDING MATERIALS 

27. WATERPROOFING AND DAMP-PROOFING 
MATERIALS 

28. WELDING ELECTRODES AND WIRES 



29. WIRE ROPES AND WIRE PRODUCTS 

1. ALUMINIUM AND OTHER LIGHT METALS 
AND THEIR ALLOYS 

IS No. Title 

733 : 1983 Specification for wrought 

aluminium and aluminium alloys, 
bars, rods and sections for general 
engineering purposes (third 
revision) 

737 : 1986 Specification for wrought 

aluminium and aluminium alloys, 
sheet rods and strip for general 
engineering purposes (third 
revision) 

738 : 1994 Specification for wrought 

aluminium and aluminium alloy 
drawn tube for general engineering 
purposes (third revision) 

740 : 1977 Specification for wrought 

aluminium and aluminium alloy 
rivet stock for general engineering 
purposes (second revision) 

1254 : 1991 Specification for corrugated 

aluminium sheet (third revision) 

1284 : 1975 Wrought aluminium alloy bolt and 

screw stock for general engineering 
purposes (second revision) 

1285 : 2002 Specification for wrought 

aluminium and aluminium alloys, 
extruded round tube and hollow 
sections for general engineering 
purposes (third revision) 

2479 : 1981 Colour code for the identification 

of aluminium and aluminium 
alloys for general engineering 
purposes (second revision) 

2676 : 1981 Dimensions for wrought 

aluminium and aluminium alloy 
sheet and strip 

2677 : 1979 Dimensions for wrought 

aluminium and aluminium alloys, 
plates and hot rolled sheets 

14712 : 1999 Wrought aluminium and its alloys 

— Chequered/tread sheets for 
general engineering purposes — 
Specification 

2. BITUMEN AND TAR PRODUCTS 

73 : 1992 Specification for paving bitumen 

(second revision) 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



IS No. 

212 : 1983 

215 : 1995 

216 : 1961 

217 : 1988 

218 : 1983 

454 : 1994 
702 : 1988 
1201 to 1220 

1201 : 1978 

1202 : 1978 

1203 : 1978 

1204: 1978 

1205 : 1978 

1206 

(Part 1) : 1978 
(Part 2) : 1978 
(Part 3) : 1978 

1207 : 1978 

1208 : 1978 

1209 : 1978 

1210: 1978 

1211 : 1978 

1212 : 1978 

1213 : 1978 

1215 : 1978 

1216 : 1978 

1217 : 1978 



Title 

Specification for crude coal tar for 

general use (second revision) 

Specification for road tar (third 

revision) 

Specification for coal tar pitch (first 

revision) 

Specification for cutback bitumen 

(second revision) 

Specification for creosote oil for 

use as wood preservatives (second 

revision) 

Specification for cutback bitumen 

from waxy crude (second revision) 

Specification for industrial bitumen 

(second revision) 

Methods for testing tar and 

bituminous materials 

Sampling (first revision) 

Determination of specific gravity 

(first revision) 

Determination of penetration (first 

revision) 

Determination of residue of 

specified penetration (first revision) 

Determination of softening point 
(first revision) 
Determination of viscosity: 
Industrial viscosity (first revision) 
Absolute viscosity (first revision) 
Kinematic viscosity (first revision) 

Determination of equiviscous 
temperature (EVT) (first revision) 

Determination of ductility (first 

revision) 

Determination of flash point and 

fire point (first revision) 

Float test (first revision) 
Determination of water content 
(Dean and Stark method) (first 
revision) 

Determination of loss of heating 

(first revision) 

Distillation test (first revision) 

Determination of matter insoluble 
in toluene (first revision) 

Determination of solubility 
in carbon disulphide or 
trichloroethylene (first revision) 
Determination of mineral matter 
(ASH) (first revision) 



IS No. 


1218: 


: 1978 


1219: 


: 1978 


1220: 


: 1978 


3117 


:2004 


8887 


:2004 


9381 : 


1979 



9382 : 1979 



10511 : 1983 

10512 : 2003 

13758 
(Part 1) : 1993 

(Part 2) : 1993 
15172 : 2002 



15173 : 2002 



15174 : 2002 



15462 : 2004 



Title 

Determination of phenols (first 
revision) 

Determination of naphthalene (first 

revision) 

Determination of volatile matter 

content (first revision) 

Specification for bitumen emulsion 
for roads (anionic type) (first 
revision) 

Specification for bitumen emulsion 
for roads (cationic type) (second 
revision) 

Methods for testing tar and 

bituminous materials: Determination 

of FRAASS breaking point of 

bitumen 

Methods for testing tar and 

bituminous materials: Determination 

of effect of heat and air by thin film 

oven test 

Method for determination of 

asphaltenes in bitumen by 

precipitation with normal haptane 

Method for determination of wax 
content in bitumen (first revision) 

Coal tar pitch: 

Determination of matter insoluble 

in quinoline 

Determination of coking value 

Methods for testing tar and 
bituminous materials — 
Determination of curing index for 
cutback bitumens 
Methods for testing tars and 
bituminous materials — 
Determination of breaking point 
for cationic bitumen emulsion 

Methods for testing tar and 
bituminous material — 
Determination of breaking point 
for anionic bitumen emulsion 
Specification for polymer and 
rubber modified bitumen 



3. BUILDER'S HARDWARE 

204 Specification for tower bolts: 
(Part 1) : 1991 Ferrous metals (fifth revision) 
(Part 2) : 1992 Non-ferrous metals (fifth revision) 

205 : 1992 Specification for non-ferrous metal 

butt hinges (fourth revision) 



PART 5 BUILDING MATERIALS 



IS No. Title 

206 : 1992 Specification for tee and strap 

hinges {fourth revision) 

208 : 1996 Specification for door handles {fifth 

revision) 

281 : 1991 Specification for mild steel sliding 

door bolts for use with padlock 
{third revision) 

362 : 1 99 1 Specification for parliament hinges 

(fifth revision) 

363 : 1993 Specification for hasps and staples 

(fourth revision) 

364 : 1993 Specification for fanlight catch 

(third revision) 

452 : 1973 Specification for door springs, rat- 

tail type (second revision) 

453 : 1993 Specification for double-acting 

spring fringes (third revision) 

729 : 1979 Specification for drawer locks, 

cupboard locks and box locks 
(third revision) 

1019 : 1974 Specification for rim latches 

(second revision) 

1341 : 1992 Specification for steel butt hinges 

(sixth revision) 

1823 : 1980 Specification for floor door 

stoppers (third revision) 

1837 : 1966 Specification for fanlight pivots 

(first revision) 

2209 : 1976 Specification for mortice locks 

(vertical type) (third revision) 

2681 : 1993 Specification for non-ferrous metal 

sliding door bolts for use with 
padlocks (third revision) 

3564 : 1995 Specification for door closers 

(hydraulically regulated) (second 
revision) 

3818 : 1992 Specification for continuous 

(piano) hinges (third revision) 

3828 : 1966 Specification for ventilator chains 

3843 : 1995 Specification for steel backflap 

hinges (first revision) 

3847 : 1992 Specification for mortice night 

latches (first revision) 

4621 : 1975 Specification for indicating bolts 

for use in public baths and 
lavatories (first revision) 

4948 : 2002 Specification for welded steel wire 

fabric for general use (second 
revision) 



IS No. Title 

4992 : 1975 Specification for door handles for 

mortice locks (vertical type) (first 
revision) 

5187 : 1972 Specification for flush bolts (first 

revision) 

5899 : 1970 Specification for bathroom latches 

5930 : 1970 Specification for mortice latch 

(vertical type) 

6315 : 1992 Specification for floor springs 

(hydraulically regulated) for heavy 
doors (second revision) 

6318 : 1971 Specification for plastic window 

stays and fasteners 

6343 : 1982 Specification for door closers 

(pneumatically regulated) for light 
door weighing up to 40 kg (first 
revision) 

6607 : 1972 Specification for rebated mortice 

locks (vertical type) 

7196 : 1974 Specification for hold fast 

7197 : 1974 Specification for double action 

floor springs (without oil check) for 
heavy doors 

7534 : 1985 Specification for sliding locking 

bolts for use with padlocks (first 
revision) 

7540 : 1974 Specification for mortice dead 

locks 

8756 : 1978 Specification for ball catches for 

use in wooden almirah 

8760 : 1978 Specification for mortice sliding 

door locks, with lever mechanism 

9106 : 1979 Specification for rising butt hinges 

9131 : 1979 Specification for rim locks 

9460 : 1980 Specification for flush drop handle 

for drawer 

9899 : 1981 Specification for hat coat and 

wardrobe hooks 

10019 : 1981 Specification for mild steel stays 

and fasteners 

10090 : 1982 Specification for numericals 

1 0342 : 1 982 Specification for curtain rail system 

12817 : 1997 Specification for stainless steel butt 

hinges (first revision) 

12867 : 1989 Specification for PVC hand rails 

covers 

14912 : 2001 Specification for door closers 

concealed type (hydraulically 
regulated) 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



IS No. Title 

4. BUILDING CHEMICALS 

a) Anti-termite Chemicals 

632 : 1978 Specification for gamma-BHC 

(lindane) emulsifiable concentrates 
(fourth revision) 

8944 : 1978 Specification for chlorpyrifos 

emulsifiable concentrates 

b) Chemical Admixture/Water Proofing Compounds 

2645 : 2003 Specification for integral 

waterproofing compounds for 
cement mortar and concrete 
(second revision) 

6925 : 1973 Methods of test for determination 

of water soluble chlorides in 
concrete admixtures 

9103 : 1999 Specification for concrete 

admixtures (first revision) 



c) Sealants/Fillers 



1834: 1984 
1838 

(Part 1): 1983 

(Part 2) : 1984 

11433 
(Part 1) : 1985 

12118 

(Part 1) : 1987 
(Part 2) : 1987 

d) Adhesives 

848: 1974 

849 : 1994 
851 : 1978 

852: 1994 



Specification for hot applied 
sealing compound for joint in 
concrete (first revision) 
Specification for preformed fillers 
for expansion joint in concrete 
pavements and structures (non- 
extruding and resilient type): 

Bitumen impregnated fibre (first 

revision) 

CNSL aldehyde resin and coconut 

pith 

Specification for one grade 

polysulphide based joint sealant: 

Part 1 General requirements 

Specification for two parts 

polysulphide based sealants: 

General requirements 

Methods of test 



Specification for synthetic resin 
adhesives for plywood (phenolic 
and aminoplastic) (first revision) 
Specification for cold setting case 
in glue for wood (first revision) 

Specification for synthetic resin 
adhesives for construction work 
(non-structural) in wood (first 
revision) 

Specification for animal glue for 
general wood-working purposes 
(second revision) 



IS No. Title 

1508 : 1972 Specification for extenders for use 

in synthetic resin adhesives (urea- 
formaldehyde) for plywood (first 
revision) 

4835 : 1979 Specification for polyvinyl acetate 

dispersion-based adhesives for 
wood (first revision) 

9188 : 1979 Performance requirements for 

adhesive for structural laminated 
wood products for use under 
exterior exposure condition 

12830 : 1989 Rubber based adhesives for fixing 

PVC tiles to cement 

12994 : 1990 Epoxy adhesives, room temperature 

curing general purpose 

5. BUILDING LIME AND PRODUCTS 

712 : 1984 Specification for building limes 

(third revision) 

1 624 : 1 986 Method of field testing of building 

lime (first revision) 

2686 : 1977 Specification for cinder as fine 

aggregates for use in lime concrete 
(first revision) 

3068 : 1986 Specification for broken brick 

(burnt-clay) coarse aggregates for 
use in lime concrete (second 
revision) 

3115 : 1992 Specification for lime based blocks 

(second revision) 

3182 : 1986 Specification for broken bricks 

(burnt clay) fine aggregates for use 
in lime mortar (second revision) 

4098 : 1983 Specification for lime-pozzolana 

mixture (first revision) 

4139 : 1989 Specification for calcium silicate 

bricks (second revision) 

6932 Method of tests for building limes: 

(Part 1) : 1973 Determination of insoluble residue, 
loss on ignition, insoluble matter, 
silicon dioxide, ferric and 
aluminium oxide, calcium oxide 
and magnesium oxide 

(Part 2) : 1973 Determination of carbon dioxide 
content 

(Part 3) : 1973 Determination of residue on 
slaking of quicklime 

(Part 4) : 1973 Determination of fineness of 
hydrated lime 

(Part 5) : 1973 Determination of unhydrated 
oxide 



PART 5 BUILDING MATERIALS 



IS No. 
(Part 6) : 1973 

(Part 7) : 1973 

(Part 8) : 1973 
(Part 9) : 1973 
(Part 10) : 1973 

(Part 11): 1984 

10360 : 1982 

10772 : 1983 

12894:2002 



Title 

Determination of volume yield of 
quicklime 

Determination of compressive and 
transverse strength 

Determination of workability 

Determination of soundness 

Determination of popping and 
pitting of hydrated lime 

Determination of setting time of 
hydrated lime 

Specification for lime pozzolana 
concrete blocks for paving 

Specification for quick setting lime 
pozzolana mixture 

Specification for pulverized fuel 
ash lime bricks (first revision) 



6. BURNT CLAY PRODUCTS 



a) Blocks 

3952 : 1988 



Specification for burnt hollow 
bricks for walls and partitions 
(second revision) 



b) Soil-Based Products 

1725 : 1982 Specification for soil-based blocks 

used in general building construction 

c) Bricks 

1077 : 1992 Specification for common burnt 

clay building bricks (fifth revision) 

2117 : 1991 Guide for manufacture of hand- 

made-common burnt clay building 
bricks (third revision) 

2180 : 1988 Specification for heavy duty burnt 

clay building bricks (third revision) 

2222 : 1991 Specification for burnt clay 

perforated building bricks (fourth 
revision) 

2691 : 1988 Specification for burnt clay facing 

bricks (second revision) 
3495 (Parts Methods of test of burnt clay 

1 to 4) : 1992 building bricks (third revision) 
3583 : 1988 Specification for burnt clay paving 

bricks (second revision) 
4885 : 1988 Specification for sewer bricks (first 

revision) 
5454 : 1978 Methods for sampling of clay 

building bricks 
5779 : 1986 Specification for burnt clay soling 

bricks (first revision) 



IS No. 
6165 : 1992 

11650: 1991 

13757 : 1993 

d) Jallies 

7556 : 1988 

e) Tiles 
654 : 1992 

1464 : 1992 

1478 : 1992 

2690 

(Part 1) : 1993 
(Part 2) : 1992 
3367 : 1993 

3951 

(Part 1) : 1975 
(Part 2) : 1975 
13317 : 1992 



Title 

Dimensions for special shapes of 
clay bricks (first revision) 

Guide for manufacture of common 
burnt clay building bricks by semi- 
mechanized process (first revision) 

Specification for burnt clay fly ash 
building bricks 



Specification for burnt clay jallies 
(first revision) 



Specification for clay roofing tiles, 
Mangalore pattern (third revision) 

Specification for clay ridge and 
ceiling tiles (second revision) 

Specification for clay flooring tiles 
(second revision) 

Specification for burnt clay flat 
terracing tiles: 

Machine made (second revision) 

Handmade (second revision) 

Specification for burnt clay tiles for 
use in lining irrigation and drainage 
works (second revision) 

Specification for hollow clay tiles 
for floor and roofs: 

Filler type (first revision) 

Structural type (first revision) 

Specification for clay roofing 
camty tiles, half round and flat tiles 



7. CEMENT AND CONCRETE (including concrete 
reinforcement) 

a) Aggregates 

383 : 1970 Specification for coarse and fine 

aggregates from natural sources for 
concrete (second revision) 

1542 : 1992 Specification for sand for plaster 

(second revision) 

2116: 1980 Specification for sand for masonry 

mortars (first revision) 

2386 Methods of test for aggregates for 

concrete: 
(Part 1) : 1963 Particle size and shape 

(Part 2) : 1963 Estimation of deleterious materials 
and organic impurities 

(Part 3) : 1963 Specific gravity, density, voids, 
absorption and bulking 



10 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



IS No. 
(Part 4) : 1963 
(Part 5) : 1963 
(Part 6) : 1963 

(Part 7) : 1963 
(Part 8) : 1963 
2430 : 1986 

6579 : 1981 



9142: 1979 

b) Cement 

269 : 1989 

455 : 1989 

1489 

(Part 1): 1991 
(Part 2) : 1991 
3466 : 1988 

6452 : 1989 

6909 : 1990 

8041 : 1990 

8042 : 1989 

8043 : 1991 
8112: 1989 
12269: 1987 
12330: 1988 
12600: 1989 



Title 
Mechanical properties 
Soundness 

Measuring mortar making properties 
of fine aggregates 
Alkali aggregate reactivity 
Petrographic examination 
Methods of sampling of aggregates 
of concrete (first revision) 
Specification for coarse aggregate 
for water bound macadam (first 
revision) 

Specification for artificial light- 
weight aggregates for concrete 
masonry units 



Specification for ordinary portland 
cement, 33 Grade (fourth revision) 
Specification for Portland slag 
cement (fourth revision) 
Specification for Portland 
pozzolana cement: 

Flyash based (third revision) 

Calcined clay based (third revision) 

Specification for masonry cement 

(second revision) 

Specification for high alumina 

cement for structural use (first 

revision) 

Specification for supers ulphated 

cement 

Specification for rapid hardening 

Portland cement (second revision) 

Specification for white Portland 
cement (second revision) 

Specification for hydrophobic 
Portland cement (second revision) 

Specification for 43 grade ordinary 

Portland cement (first revision) 

Specification for 53 grade ordinary 

Portland cement 

Specification for sulphate resisting 

Portland cement 

Specification for low heat Portland 

cement 



c) Mineral/Chemical Admixtures and Pozzolanas 

1344 : 1981 Specification for calcined clay 

pozzolana (second revision) 

1121 : 1967 Methods of test for pozzolanic 

materials (first revision) 



IS No. Title 

3812 Specification for pulverized fuel 

ash: 

(Part 1) : 2003 For use as pozzolana in cement, 
cement mortar and concrete 
(second revision) 

(Part 2) : 2003 For use as admixture in cement 
mortar and concrete (second 
revision) 
6491 : 1972 Method of sampling of flyash 

6925 : 1973 Methods of test for determination 

of water soluble chlorides in 
concrete admixtures 

9103 : 1999 Specification for admixtures for 

concrete (first revision) 

12089 : 1987 Specification for granulated slag 

for manufacture of Portland slag 
cement 

12870 : 1989 Methods of sampling calcined clay 

pozzolana 
15388 : 2003 Specification for silica fume 

d) Concrete 

456 : 2000 Code of practice for plain and 

reinforced concrete (fourth 
revision) 

1343 : 1980 Code of practice for prestressed 

concrete (first revision) 

4926 : 2003 Code of practice for ready-mixed 

concrete (third revision) 

e) Cement and Concrete Sampling and Methods of 
Test 

516 : 1959 Methods of test for strength of 

concrete 

1 199 : 1959 Methods of sampling and analysis 

of concrete 
2770 Methods of testing bond in 

(Part 1) : 1967 reinforced concrete: Part 1 Pullout 

test 
3085 : 1965 Methods of test for permeability of 

cement mortar and concrete 

3535 : 1986 Methods of sampling hydraulic 

cement (first revision) 

4031 Methods of physical tests for 

hydraulic cement: 

(Part 1) : 1996 Determination of fineness by dry 
sieving (second revision) 

(Part 2) : 1999 Determination of fineness by 
specific surface by Blaine air 
permeability method (second 
revision) 



PART 5 BUILDING MATERIALS 



11 



IS No. 

(Part 3) : 1988 

(Part 4) : 1988 

(Part 5) : 1988 
(Part 6): 1988 

(Part 7): 1988 

(Part 8) : 1988 

(Part 9) : 1988 
(Part 10) : 1988 
(Part 11): 1988 
(Part 12): 1988 

(Part 13) : 1988 

(Part 14) : 1989 
(Part 15): 1991 

4032: 1985 

5816: 1999 

8142: 1976 

9013 : 1978 

9284 : 1979 
12423 : 1988 
12803 : 1989 



Title 

Determination of soundness (first 
revision) 

Determination of consistency of 
standard cement paste (first 
revision) 

Determination of initial and final 
setting times (first revision) 

Determination of compressive 
strength of hydraulic cement (other 
than masonry cement) (first 
revision) 

Determination of compressive 
strength of masonry cement (first 
revision) 

Determination of transverse and 
compressive strength of plastic 
mortar using prism (first revision) 

Determination of heat of hydration 
(first revision) 

Determination of drying shrinkage 
(first revision) 

Determination of density (first 
revision) 

Determination of air content of 
hydraulic cement mortar (first 
revision) 

Measurement of water retentivity 
of masonry cement (first revision) 

Determination of false set 

Determination of fineness by wet 
sieving 

Methods of chemical analysis for 
hydraulic cement (first revision) 

Method of test for splitting 
tensile strength of concrete (first 
revision) 

Methods of test for determining 
setting time of concrete by 
penetration resistance 

Method of making, curing and 

determining compressive strength 

of accelerated cured concrete test 

specimens 

Method of test for abrasion 

resistance of concrete 

Methods for colorometric analysis 

of hydraulic cement 

Methods of analysis of hydraulic 

cement by X-ray fluorescence 

spectrometer 



IS No. Title 

12813 : 1989 Method of analysis of hydraulic 

cement by atomic absorption 
spectrophotometer 

13311 Methods of non-destructive testing 

of concrete: 

Ultrasonic pulse velocity 

Rebound hammer 



(Part 1) : 1992 
(Part 2) : 1992 

f) Treatment of Concrete Joints 



1834 : 1984 



1838 



(Part 1) : 
(Part 2) 



1983 



1984 



10566 : 1983 



11433 

(Part 1) : 1985 
(Part 2) : 1986 
12118 



(Part 1) : 1987 
(Part 2) : 1987 

g) Concrete Reinforcement 



Specification for hot applied 
sealing compound for joint in 
concrete (first revision) 

Specification for preformed fillers 
for expansion joint in concrete 
pavements and structures (non- 
extruding and resilient type): 

Bitumen impregnated fibre (first 
revision) 

CNSL aldehyde resin and coconut 
pith 

Methods of test for preformed 
fillers for expansion joints in 
concrete paving and structural 
construction 

Specification for one grade 
polysulphide based joint sealant: 

General requirements 

Methods of test 

Specification for two parts 
polysulphide based sealants: 

General requirements 

Methods of test 



432 Specification for mild steel and 

medium tensile steel bars and hard 
drawn steel wire for concrete 
reinforcement: 

(Part 1) : 1982 Mild steel and medium tensile steel 
bars (third revision) 

(Part 2) : 1982 Hard drawn steel wire (third 
revision) 

1566 : 1982 Specification for hard drawn steel 

wire fabric for concrete 
reinforcement (second revision) 

1608 : 1995 Mechanical testing of materials — 

Tensile testing 

1785 Specification for plain hard 

drawn steel wire for prestressed 
concrete: 



12 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



IS No. Title 

(Part 1) : 1983 Cold drawn stress-relieved wire 
(second revision) 

(Part 2) : 1983 As drawn wire (first revision) 

1786 : 1985 Specification for high strength 

deformed steel bars and wires for 
concrete reinforcement (third 
revision) 

2090 : 1983 Specification for high tensile steel 

bars used in prestressed concrete 
(first revision) 

6003 : 1983 Specification for indented wire 

for prestressed concrete (first 
revision) 

6006 : 1983 Specification for uncoated stress- 

relieved strand for prestressed 
concrete (first revision) 

10790 Methods of sampling of steel 

for prestressed and reinforced 
concrete: 

(Part 1) : 1984 Prestressing steel 

(Part 2) : 1984 Reinforcing steel 

13620 : 1993 Specification for fusion bonded 

epoxy coated reinforcing bars 

14268 : 1995 Specification for uncoated stress 

relieved low relaxation seven ply 
strand for prestressed concrete 

8. COMPOSITE MATRIX PRODUCTS 
a) Cement Matrix Products 

i) Precast Concrete Products 

21 85 Specification for concrete masonry 

units: 

(Part 1) : 1979 Hollow and solid concrete blocks 

(second revision) 
(Part 2) : 1983 Hollow and solid lightweight 

concrete blocks (first revision) 

(Part 3) : 1984 Autoclaved cellular (aerated) 
concrete blocks (first revision) 

4996 : 1984 Specification for reinforced 

concrete fence posts (first revision) 

5751 : 1984 Specification for precast concrete 

coping blocks (first revision) 

5758 : 1984 Specification for precast concrete 

kerbs (first revision) 

5820 : 1970 Specification for precast concrete 

cable covers 

6072 : 1971 Specification for autoclaved 

reinforced cellular concrete wall 
slabs 



IS No. 


6073 : 1971 


6441 


(Part 1) : 1972 


(Part 2) : 1972 


(Part 4)': 1972 


(Part 5) : 1972 


(Part 6) : 1973 


(Part 7) : 1973 


(Part 8) : 1973 


(Part 9) : 1973 


6523 : 1983 


9872 : 1981 


9893 : 1981 


12440 : 1988 


12592 : 2002 


13356: 1992 


13990 : 1994 


14143 : 1994 



14201 : 1994 



14241 : !994 



Title 

Specification for autoclaved 
reinforced cellular concrete floor 
and roof slabs 

Methods of test for autoclaved 
cellular concrete products: 

Determination of unit weight or 
bulk density and moisture content 

Determination of drying shrinkage 

Corrosion protection of steel 
reinforcement in autoclaved 
cellular concrete 

Determination of compressive 
strength 

Strength, deformation and cracking 
of flexural members subject to 
bending-short duration loading test 

Strength, deformation and cracking 
of flexural members subject to 
bending-sustained loading test 

Loading tests for flexural members 
in diagonal tension 

Jointing of autoclaved cellular 
concrete elements 

Specification for precast reinforced 
concrete door and window frames 
(first revision) 

Specification for precast concrete 
septic tanks 

Specification for precast concrete 
blocks for lintels and sills 

Specification for precast concrete 
stone masonry blocks 

Specification for precast concrete 

manhole covers and frames (first 

revision) 

Specification for precast 

ferrocement water tanks (250 to 

10 000 litres capacity) 

Specification for precast reinforced 
concrete planks and joists for 
flooring and roofing 
Specification for prefabricated 
brick panel and partially precast 
concrete joist for flooring and 
roofing 

Specification for precast reinforced 
concrete channel unit for 
construction of floors and roofs 
Specification for precast L-Panel 
units for roofing 



PART 5 BUILDING MATERIALS 



13 



IS No. Title 

ii) Asbestos Fibre Cement Products 

459 : 1992 Specification for corrugated and 

semi-corrugated asbestos cement 
sheets (third revision) 

1592 : 2003 Specification for asbestos cement 

pressure pipes and joints (fourth 
revision) 

1626 Specification for asbestos cement 

building pipes and pipe fittings, 
gutters and gutter fittings and 
roofing fittings: 

(Part 1) : 1994 Pipes and pipe fittings (second 
revision) 

(Part 2) : 1994 Gutters and gutter fittings (second 
revision) 

(Part 3) : 1994 Roofing fittings (second revision) 

2096 : 1992 Specification for asbestos cement 

flat sheets (first revision) 

2098 : 1997 Specification for asbestos cement 

building boards (first revision) 

5913: 2003 Methods of test for asbestos cement 

products (second revision) 

6908 : 1991 Specification for asbestos cement 

pipes and fittings for sewerage and 
drainage (first revision) 

7639 : 1975 Method of sampling asbestos 

cement products 

9627 : 1980 Specification for asbestos cement 

pressure pipes (light duty) 

13000 : 1990 Silica-asbestos-cement flat sheets 

— Specification 
13008 : 1990 Specification for shallow corrugated 

asbestos cement sheets 

iii) Other Fibre Cement Products 

14862 : 2000 Specification for fibre cement flat 

sheets 

14871 : 2000 Specification for products in 

fibre reinforced cement long 
corrugated or asymmetrical section 
sheets and fittings for roofing and 
cladding 

iv) Concrete Pipes and Pipes Lined/Coated with 
Concrete or Mortar 

458 : 2003 Specification^or precast concrete 

pipes (with and without 
reinforcement) (fourth revision) 

784 : 2001 Specification for prestressed 

concrete pipes (including specials) 
(second revision) 



IS No, 
1916: 1989 

3597 : 1998 
4350 : 1967 
7319: 1974 
7322 : 1985 

15155 : 2002 



Title 

Specification for steel cylinder pipe 
with concrete lining and coating 
(first revision) 

Methods of test for concrete pipes 
(second revision) 

Specification for concrete porous 
pipes for under drainage 
Specification for perforated 
concrete pipes 

Specification for specials for steel 
cylinder reinforced concrete pipes 
(first revision) 

Specification for bar/wire wrapped 
steel cylinder pipe with mortar 
lining and coating 



b) Resin Matrix Products 

1998 : 1962 Methods of test for thermosetting 

synthetic resin bonded laminated 
sheets 

2036 : 1995 Specification for phenolic 

laminated sheets (second revision) 

2046 : 1995 Specification for decorative 

thermosetting synthetic resin 
bonded laminated sheets (second 
revision) 

9. CONDUCTORS AND CABLES 

694 : 1990 Specification for PVC insulated 

cables for working voltages up to 
and including 1 100 V (third 
revision) 

1554 Specification for PVC insulated 

(heavy duty) electric cables: 

(Part 1) : 1988 For working voltages up to and 
including 1 100 V (third revision) 

(Part 2) : 1988 For working voltages from 3.3 kV 
up tp and including 1 1 kV (second 
revision) 

4289 Specification for flexible cables for 

lifts and other flexible: 

(Part 1) : 1984 Elastomer insulated cables (first 
revision) 

(Part 2) : 2000 PVC insulated circular cables 
7098 Specification for cross-linked 

#Pv polyethylene insulated PVC 
sheathed cables: 

(Part 1) : 1988 For working voltage up to 
and including 1 100 V (second 
revision) 



14 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



IS No, 


Title 


IS No. 




(Part 2) : 1985 
(Part 3) : 1993 


For working voltages from 3.3 kV 
up to and including 33 kV (first 
revision) 

For working voltages from 66 kV 
up to and including 220 kV (first 
revision) 


(Part 24) : 
(Part 25) : 
(Part 26) : 


1984 
1984 
1984 


9968 


Specification for elastomer- 
insulated cables: 


(Part 27) : 


1984 


(Part 1) : 1988 
(Part 2) : 2002 

10810 


For working voltages up to and 
including 1 100 V (first revision) 

For working voltages from 3.3 kV 

up to and including 33 kV (first 

revision) 

Methods of test for cables 


(Part 28) : 
(Part 29) : 
(Part 30): 

(Part 31): 
(Part 32) : 
(Part 33) : 
(Part 34) : 

(Part 35) : 


1984 
1984 
1984 
1984 
1984 
1984 
1984 


(PartO): 1984 


General 


(Part 1) : 1984 
(Part 2) : 1984 


Annealing test for wires used in 
conductors 

Tensile test for aluminium wires 


1984 


(Part 3) : 1984 


Wrapping test for aluminium 


(Part 36) : 


1984 


(Part 4) : 1984 


wires 

Persulphate test of conductor 


(Part 37) : 


1984 


(Part 5): 1984 


Conductor resistance test 


(Part 38): 


1984 


(Part 6) : 1984 


Thickness of thermoplastic and 
elastomeric insulation and sheath 


(Part 39) : 


1984 


(Part 7) : 1984 


Tensile strength and elongation 
at break of thermoplastic and 
elastomeric insulation and sheath 


(Part 40) : 


1984 


(Part 8) : 1984 
(Part 9) : 1984 


Breaking strength and elongation 

at break for impregnated paper 

insulation 

Tear resistance for paper insulation 


(Part 41) : 
(Part 42) : 


: 1984 
: 1984 


(Part 10) : 1984 
(Part 11): 1984 
(Part 12) : 1984 
(Part 13) : 1984 
(Part 14): 1984 
(Part 15): 1984 


Loss of mass test 
Thermal ageing in air 
Shrinkage test 
Ozone resistance test 
Heat shock test 
Hot deformation test 


(Part 43) : 
(Part 44) 
(Part 45) 
(Part 46) 
(Part 47) 


: 1984 
:1984 
: 1984 
:1984 
:1984 


(Part 16) : 1986 


. Accelerated ageing test by oxygen 
pressure method 


(Part 48) 
(Part 49) 


: 1984 
:1984 


(Part 17): 1986 
(Part 18) : 1984 


Tear resistance test for heavy duty 
sheath 

Colour fastness to day light 


(Part 50) 
(Part 51) 
(Part 52) 


: 1984 
: 1984 
:1984 


(Part 19) : 1984 


Bleeding and blooming test 


(Part 53) 


:1984 


(Part 20) : 1984 


Cold bend test 


(Part 54) 


:1984 


(Part 21): 1984 
(Part 22) : 1984 


Cold impact test 
Vicat softening point 


(Part 55) 
(Part 56) 


:1986 
: 1987 



(Part 23) : 1984 Melt-flow index 



Title 

Water soluble impurities test of 
insulating paper 

Conductivity of water extract test 

of insulating paper 

pH value of water extract test of 

insulating paper 

Ash content test of insulating 

paper 

Water absorption test (Electrical) 

Environmental stress cracking test 

Hot set test 

Oil resistance test 

Carbon content test for polyethylene 

Water absorption test (Gravimetric) 

Measurement of thickness of 

metallic sheath 

Determination of tin in lead alloy 

for sheathing 

Dimensions of armouring material 

Tensile strength and elongation at 

break of armouring materials 

Torsion test on galvanized steel 
wires for armouring 
Winding test on galvanized steel 
strips for armouring 

Uniformity of zinc coating on steel 
armour 

Mass of zinc coating on steel 
armour 

Resistivity test of armour wires and 
strips and conductance test of 
armour (wires/strips) 
Insulation resistance 
Spark test 
High voltage test 
Partial discharge test 
Impulse test 

Dielectric power factor test 
Heating cycle test 
Bending test 
Dripping test 
^Drainage test 
Rammability test 
Static flexibility test 
Abrasion test 

Accelerated ageing by the air- 
pressure method 



PART 5 BUILDING MATERIALS 



15 



IS No. 

(Part 57) : 1987 
(Part 58) : 1998 
(Part 59) : 1988 



(Part 60) : 1988 

(Part 61) : 1988 
(Part 62) : 1993 

(Part 63) : 1993 

(Part 64) : 2003 
12943 : 1990 



Title 

Flexing test 

Oxygen index test 

Determination of the amount of 
halogen acid gas evolved during 
combustion of polymeric materials 
taken from cables 

Thermal stability of PVC insulation 
and sheath 

Flame retardant test 

Fire resistance test for bunched 
cables 

Smoke density of electric cables 
under fire conditions 

Measurement of temperature index 

Brass glands for PVC cables 



10. DOORS, WINDOWS AND VENTILATORS 

a) Wooden Doors, Windows and Ventilators 

1003 Specification for timber panelled 

and glazed shutters: 

(Part 1) : 2003 Door shutters (fourth revision) 

(Part 2) : 1994 Window and ventilator shutters 
(third revision) 

1826 : 1961 Specification for Venetian blinds 

for windows 

2191 Specification for wooden flush 

door shutters (cellular and hollow 
core type): 

(Parti): 1983 Plywood face panels (fourth 
revision) 

(Part 2) : 1983 Particle board face panels and 
hardboard face panels (third 
revision) 

2202 Specification for wooden flush 

door shutters (solid core type): 

1 99 1 Plywood face panels (fifth revision) 

1983 Particle board face panels and 
hardboard face panels (third 
revision) 

4020 Method of tests for door shutters: 

(Part 1) : 1998 General (third revision) 

(Part 2) : 1998 Measurement of dimensions and 
squareness (third revision) 

(Part 3) : 1998 Measurement of general flatness 
(third revision) 

(Part 4) : 1998 Local planeness test (third revision) 

(Part 5) : 1998 Impact indentation test (third 
revision) 



(Part 1) 
(Part 2) 



IS No. 

(Part 6) : 1998 
(Part 7) : 1998 
(Part 8) : 1998 
(Part 9) : 1998 

(Part 10) : 1998 
(Part 11): 1998 
(Part 12) : 1998 

(Part 13): 1998 
(Part 14) : 1998 
(Part 15) : 1998 
(Part 16) : 1998 

4021 : 1995 

4962: 1968 

6198 : 1992 



b) Metal Doors, 

1038 : 1983 

1361 : 1978 

1948: 1961 
1949 : 1961 
4351:2003 
6248 : 1979 

7452 : 1990 

10451 : 1983 



10521 : 1983 

c) Plastic Doors and Windows 

14856:2000 



Title 

Flexure test (third revision) 

Edge loading test (third revision) 

Shock resistance test (third revision) 

Buckling resistance test (third 
revision) 

Slamming test (third revision) 

Misuse test (third revision) 

Varying humidity test (third 
revision) 

End immersion test (third revision) 

Knife test (third revision) 

Glue adhesion test (third revision) 

Screw withdrawal resistance test 
(third revision) 

Specification for timber door, 
window and ventilator frames 

Specification for wooden side 
sliding doors 

Specification for ledged, braced 
and battened timber shutters 
(second revision) 

Windows Frames and Ventilators 

Specification for steel doors, 
windows and ventilators (third 
revision) 

Specification for steel windows 
for industrial buildings (first 
revision) 

Specification for aluminium doors, 
windows and ventilators 

Specification for aluminium 
windows for industrial buildings 

Specification for steel door frames 
(second revision) 

Specification for metal rolling 
shutters and rolling grills (first 
revision)^ 

Specification for hot rolled steel 
sections for doors, windows and 
ventilators (second revision) 

Specification for steel sliding 
shutters (top hung type) 

Specification for collapsible gates 



Specification for glass fibre 
reinforced (GRP) panel type door 
shutters for internal use 



16 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



IS No. Title 

15380 : 2003 Specification for moulded raised 

high density fibre (HDF) panel 
doors 

11. ELECTRICAL WIRING FITTINGS AND 
ACCESSORIES 

371 : 1999 Specification for ceiling roses 

(third revision) 
374 : 1979 Specification for electric ceiling 

type fans and regulators {third 

revision) 

418 : 1978 Specification for tungsten filament 

general service electric lamps 
(third revision) 

1258 : 1987 Specification for bayonet lamp 

holders (third revision) 

1293 : 1988 Specification for plugs and socket- 

outlets rated voltage up to and 
including 250 V and rated current 
up to and including 16 amperes 
(second revision) 

1534 Specification for ballasts for 

(Part 1): 1977 fluorescent lamps: Part I For 
switch start circuits (second 
revision) 

1 554 PVC insulated (heavy duty) electric 

cables: 
(Part 1) : 1988 For working voltages upto and 
including 1 100 V (third revision) 

(Part 2) : 1988 For working voltages from 3.3 kV 
upto and including 1 1 kV (second 
revision) 

1777 : 1978 Specification for industrial 

luminaire with metal reflectors 
(first revision) 

2086 : 1 993 Specification for carriers and bases 

used in re-wirable type electric 
fuses up to 650 V (third revision) 

2148 : 2004 Specification for flameproof 

enclosures "d" for electrical 
apparatus for explosive gas 
atmospheres (third revision) 

2206 Specification for flameproof 

electric lighting fittings: 

(Part 1): 1984 Well glass and bulkhead types (first 

revision) 
(Part 2) : 1976 Fittings using glass tubes 

(Part 3) : 1989 Fittings using fluorescent lamps 

and plastic covers 
(Part 4) : 1987 Portable flame-proof handlamps 

and approved flexible cables 



IS No. Title 

2215 : 1983 Specification for starters for 

fluorescent lamps (third revision) 

2412 : 1975 Specification for link clips for 

electrical wiring (first revision) 

2418 Specification for tubular 

fluorescent lamps for general 
lighting services: 

(Parti): 1977 Requirements and tests (first 
revision) 

(Part 2) : 1977 Standard lamp data sheets (first 
revision) 

(Part 3) : 1977 Dimensions of G-5 and G-13 bi- 
pin caps (first revision) 

(Part 4) : 1977 Go and no-go gauges for G-5 and 
G-13 bi-pin caps (first revision) 

2667 : 1988 Specification for fittings for rigid 

steel conduits for electrical wiring 
(second revision) 

2675 : 1983 Specification for enclosed 

distribution fuseboards and cutouts 
for voltages not exceeding 1 000 V 
(second revision) 

3287 : 1965 Specification for industrial lighting 

fittings with plastic reflectors 

3323 : 1980 Specification for bi-pin lamp 

holders for tubular fluorescent 
lamps (first revision) 

3324 : 1982 Specification for holders for 

starters for tubular fluorescent 
lamps (first revision) 

3419 : 1989 Specification for fittings for rigid 

non-metallic conduits (second 
revision) 

3480 : 1966 Specification for flexible steel 

conduits for electrical wiring 

3528 : 1966 Specification for waterproof 

electric lighting fittings 

3553 : 1966 Specification for watertight electric 

lighting fittings 

3837 : 1976 Specification for accessories for 

rigid steel conduits for electrical 
wiring (first revision) 

3854 : 1997 Specification for switches for 

domestic and similar purposes 
(second revision) 

4012: 1967 Specification for dust-proof 

electric lighting fittings 

4013 : 1967 Specification for dust-tight electric 

lighting fittings 



PART 5 BUILDING MATERIALS 



17 



IS No. 



Title 



IS No. 



Title 



4160 : 1967 
4615 : 1968 
4649 : 1968 
5077 : 1969 
6538 : 1971 
8030 : 1976 
8828 : 1996 

9537 

(Part 1): 1980 
(Part 2) : 1981 
(Part 3) : 1983 

(Part 4) : 1983 

(Part 5) : 2000 

(Part 6) : 2000 

(Part 8) : 2003 

9926: 1981 



10322 

(Part 1) : 1982 

(Part 2) : 1982 

(Part 3) : 1984 

(Part 4) : 1984 

(Part 5/Sec 1) : 
1985 

(Part 5/Sec 2) : 
1985 

(Part 5/Sec 3) : 
1987 

(Part 5/Sec 4) : 
1987 



Specification for interlocking 
switch socket outlet 

Specification for switch socket 
outlets (non-interlocking type) 

Specification for adaptors for 
flexible steel conduits 
Specification for decorative 
lighting outfits 

Specification for three-pin plugs 
made of resilient material 

Specification for luminaires for 

hospitals 

Specification for circuit-breakers 

for over current protection for 

household and similar installation 

(second revision) 

Specification for conduits for 
electrical installations: 

General requirements 

Rigid steel conduits 

Rigid plain conduits for insulating 

materials 

Pliable self-recovering conduits for 

insulating materials 

Pliable conduits of insulating 
materials 

Pliable conduits of metal or 
composite materials 

Rigid non-threadable conduits of 

aluminium alloy 

Specification for fuse wires used in 

rewirable type electric fuses up to 

650 V 

Specification for luminaires: 

General requirements 

Constructional requirements 

Screw and screwless terminations 

Methods of tests 

Particular requirements, Section 1 
General purpose luminaires 

Particular requirements, Section 2 
Recessed luminaires 

Particular requirements, Section 3 
Luminaires for road and street 
lighting 

Particular requirements, Section 4 
Portable general purpose 
luminaires 



(Part 5/Sec 5) : 
1987 

11037: 1984 

13010 : 2002 

13779 : 1999 

13947 
(Part 3) : 1993 



14763 : 2000 



14768 

(Part 1) : 2000 
(Part 2) : 2003 
14772 : 2000 



14927 

(Part 1) : 2001 
(Part 2) : 2001 

14930 

(Part 1) : 2001 
(Part 2) : 2001 

15368 : 2003 



Particular requirements, Section 5 
Flood light 

Electronic type fan regulators 

AC watt-hour meters, Class 0.5, 1 
and 2 (first revision) 

AC static watthour meters (Class 1 
and 2) (first revision) 

Specification for low-voltage 
switchgear and controlgear: Part 3 
Switches, disconnectors, switch 
disconnectors and fuse 
combination units 

Conduit for electrical purposes, 
outside diameters of conduits for 
electrical installations and threads 
for conduits and fittings 

Conduit fittings for electrical 
installations: 

General requirements 

Metal conduit fittings 

Enclosures for accessories for 
household and similar fixed 
electrical installations 

Cable trunking and ducting 
systems for electrical installations 

General requirements 

Cable trunking and ducting 
systems intended for mounting on 
walls or ceilings 

Conduit systems for electrical 
installations: 

General requirements 

Particular requirements for conduit 
system buried underground 

Cable reels for household and 
similar purposes 



12. FILLERS, STOPPERS AND PUTTIES 

110: 1983 Specification for ready mixed 

paint, brushing, grey filler, for 
enamels, for use over primers (first 
revision) 

419 : 1967 Specification for putty for use on 

window frames (first revision) 

423 : 1961 Specification for plastic wood, for 

joiner's filler (revised) 

3709 : 1 966 Specification for mastic cement for 

bedding of metal windows 

7164 : 1973 Specification for stopper 



18 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



IS No. Title 

13184 : 1991 Specification for mastic filler, 

epoxy based 

13. FLOOR COVERING, ROOFING AND OTHER 
FINISHES 

a) Concrete Flooring 

1237 : 1980 Specification for cement concrete 

flooring tiles (first revision) 

13801 : 1993 Specification for chequered cement 

concrete tiles 

b) Flooring Compositions 

657 : 1982 Specification for materials for use 

in the manufacture of magnesium 
oxychloride flooring compositions 
(second revision) 

9162 : 1979 Methods of tests for epoxy resin, 

hardeners and epoxy resin 
composition for floor topping 

9197 : 1979 Specification for epoxy resin, 

hardness and epoxy resin 
compositions for floor topping 

10132: 1982 Method of test for materials 

for use in the preparation of 
magnesium oxychloride flooring 
composition 

c) Linoleum Flooring 

653 : 1992 Specification for linoleum sheets 

and tiles (third revision) 

9704 : 1980 Methods of tests for linoleum 

sheets and tiles 



IS No. Title 

heavy hydrocarbon products like 
kerosene, diesel and furnace oil 



d) Rubber Flooring 

809 : 1992 



Specification for rubber flooring 
materials for general purposes 
(second revision) 

e) Bituminous Flooring 

1195 : 2002 Specification for bitumen mastic 

for flooring (third revision) 

8374 ; 1977 Specification for bitumen mastic, 

anti-static and electrically 

conducting grade 
9510 : 1980 Specification for bitumen mastic 

acid resisting grade 
13026 : 1991 Specification for bitumen mastic 

for flooring for industries handling 

LPG and other light hydrocarbon 

products 
15194 : 2002 Specification for pitch-mastic 

flooring for industries handling 



f) Plastic Flooring 

3461 : 1980 . 



3462 : 1986 



3464 : 1986 



Specification for PVC asbestos 
floor tiles (first revision) 

Specification for unbacked flexible 
PVC flooring (second revision) 

Methods of test for plastic flooring 
and wall tiles (second revision) 



g) Ceramic/Vitreous 

2333 : 1992 Specification for plaster of Paris for 

ceramic industry (second revision) 

4457 : 1982 Specification for ceramic unglazed 

vitreous acid resisting tile (first 
revision) 

13630 Method of test for ceramic tiles: 

(Part 1) : 1993 Determination of dimensions and 
surface quality 

(Part 2) : 1992 Determination of water absorption 

(Part 3) : 1992 Determination of moisture 
expansion using boiling water — 
Unglazed tiles 

(Part 4) : 1992 Determination of linear thermal 
expansion 

(Part 5) : 1992 Determination of resistance to 
thermal shock 

(Part 6) : 1993 Determination of modulus of rupture 

(Part 7) : 1993 Determination of chemical resistance 

— Unglazed tiles 

(Part 8) : 1993 Determination of chemical resistance 

— Glazed tiles 

(Part 9) : 1993 ^termination of crazing resistance 

— Glazed tiles 

(Part 10) : 1993 Determination of frost resistance 

(Part 11) : 1993 Determination of resistance to 
surface abrasion — Glazed tiles 

(Part 12) : 1993 Deterrnjtnationofresistancetodeep 
abrasion — Unglazed tiles 

(Part 13) : 1993 Determination of scratch hardness 
of surface according to Mohs' 

13711 : 1993 Sampling and basis for acceptance 

of ceramic tiles 

13753 : 1993 Specification for dust pressed 

ceramic tiles with water absorption 
of E> 10% Group (Bill) 

13754 : 1993 Specification for dust pressed 

ceramic tiles with water absorption 
of 6% < E < 10% Group (B II b) 



PART 5 BUILDING MATERIALS 



19 



IS No. 
13755 : 1993 



Title 



Specification for dust pressed 
ceramic tiles with water absorption 
of 3% < E < 6% Group (B II a) 

13756: 1993 Specification for dust pressed 

ceramic tiles with water absorption 
of E < 3% Group B I 

h) Other Floorings 



4456 


Methods of test for chemical 






resistant mortars: 


(Part 1) : 1967 


(Part 1) : 1967 


Silicate type and resin type 


(Part 2) : 1967 


(Part 2) : 1967 


Sulphur type 


4832 


4457 : 1982 


Specification for ceramic unglazed 






vitreous acid resisting tile (first 


(Part 1) : 1969 




revision) 


(Part 2) : 1969 


4832 


Specification for chemical resistant 


(Part 3) : 1968 




mortars: 


15418:2003 


(Part 1) : 1969 


Silicate type 




(Part 2) : 1969 


Resin type 




(Part 3) : 1968 


Sulphur type 


14. GLASS 


4860 : 1968 


Specification for acid resistant 






bricks 


2553 
(Part 1) : 1990 


j) Roofing 






277 : 1992 


Specification for galvanized steel 
sheets (plain and corrugated (fifth 


2835 : 1987 




revision) 


3438 : 1994 



459 : 1992 Specification for corrugated and 

semi-corrugated asbestos cement 
sheets (third revision) 

654 : 1992 Specification for clay roofing tiles, 

Mangalore pattern (third revision) 

1464 : 1992 Specification for clay ridge and 

ceiling tiles (second revision) 

2690 Specification for burnt clay flat 

terracing tiles: 

(Part 1) : 1993 Machine made (second revision) 

(Part 2) : 1992 Hand-made (second revision) 

395 1 Specification for hollow clay tiles 

for floor and roofs: 

(Part 1) : 1975 Filler type (first revision) 

(Part 2) : 1975 Structural type (first revision) 

10388 : 1982 Specification for corrugated coir 

wood wool cement roofing sheets 

12583 : 1988 Specification for corrugated 

bitumen roofing sheets 

12866 : 1989 Specification for plastic translucent 

sheets made from thermosetting 
polyester resin (glass fibre 
reinforced) 



IS No. Title 

13317 : 1992 Specification for clay roofing 

camty tiles, half round and flat 
tiles 

k) Wall Coverings/Finishing 

1542 : 1992 Specification for sand for plaster 

(second revision) 

4456 Methods of test for chemical 

resistant mortars: 

Silicate type and resin type 

Sulphur type 

Specification for chemical resistant 
mortars: 

Silicate type 

Resin type 

Sulphur type 

Specification for finished wall 
papers, wall vinyls and plastic wall 
coverings in roll form 



Specification for safety glass: 
Part 1 General purpose (third 
revision) 

Specification for flat transparent 
sheet glass (third revision) 

Specification for silvered glass 
mirrors for general purposes 
(second revision) 

5437 : 1 994 Specification for figured rolled and 

wired glass (first revision) 

14900 : 2000 Specification for transparent float 

glass 

15. GYPSUM BASED MATERIALS 



2095 

(Part 1) : 1996 
(Part 2) : 2001 

(Part 3) : 1996 

2542 

(Part 1/Sec 1): 
1978 

(Part 1/Sec 2) : 
1978 



Specification for gypsum plaster 
boards: 

Plain gypsum plaster boards 

Coated/laminated gypsum plaster 
boards 

Reinforced gypsum plaste^boards 
(second revision) 

Methods of test for gypsum plaster, 
concrete and products: 

Plaster and concrete, Section 1 
Normal consistency of gypsum 
plaster (first revision) 

Plaster and concrete, Section 2 
Normal consistency of gypsum 
concrete (first revision) 



20 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



IS No. 

(Part 1/Sec 3) ; 
1978 



(Part 1/Sec 4) : 
1978 

(Part 1/Sec 5): 
1978 



(Part 1/Sec 6) : 
1978 

(Part 1/Sec 7) 
1978 



(Part 1/Sec 8) : 
1978 

(Part 1/Sec 9) : 

1978 
(Part 1/Sec 10) 

1978 

(Part 1/Sec 11) 
1978 

(Part 1/Sec 12): 
1978 

(Part2/Sec 1): 
1981 

(Part 2/Sec 2) : 
1981 

(Part 2/Sec 3) : 
1981 

(Part 2/Sec 4) : 

1981 
(Part 2/Sec 5) : 

1981 

(Part 2/Sec 6) : 
1981 

(Part 2/Sec 7) : 
1981 

(Part 2/Sec 8) : 
1981 

2547 



Title 

Plaster and concrete, Section 3 
Setting time of plaster and concrete 
(first revision) 

Plaster and concrete, Section 4 
Transverse strength of gypsum 
plaster (first revision) 

Plaster and concrete, Section 5 
Compressive strength and dry set 
density of gypsum plaster (first 
revision) 

Plaster and concrete, Section 6 
Soundness of gypsum plaster (first 
revision) 

Plaster and concrete, Section 7 
Mechanical resistance of gypsum 
plaster by dropping ball test (first 
revision) 

Plaster and concrete, Section 8 
Freedom from coarse particles 
(first revision) 

Plaster and concrete, Section 9 
Expansion of plaster (first revision) 
Plaster and concrete, Section 10 
Sand in set plaster (first revision) 

Plaster and concrete, Section 1 1 
Wood fibre content in gypsum 
plaster (first revision) 

Plaster and concrete, Section 12 
Dry bulk density (first revision) 
Gypsum products, Section 1 
Measurement of dimensions (first 
revision) 

Gypsum products, Section 2 
Determination of mass (first 
revision) 

Gypsum products, Section 3 
Determination of mass and thickness 
of paper surfacing (first revision) 
Gypsum products, Section 4 
Transverse strength (first revision) 
Gypsum products, Section 5 
Compressive strength (first revision) 

Gypsum products, Section 6 . 
Water absorption (first revision) 

Gypsum products: Section 7 
Moisture content (first revision) 
Gypsum products, Section 8 
Nail retention of precast reinforced 
gypsum slabs (first revision) 

Specification for gypsum building 
plaster: 



IS No. Title 

(Part 1) : 1976 Excluding premixed lightweight 
plaster (first revision) 

(Part 2) : 1976 Premixed lightweight plaster (first 
revision) 

2849 : 1983 Specification for non-load bearing 

gypsum partition blocks (solid and 
hollow types) 

8272: 1984 Specification for gypsum plaster or 

use in the manufacture of fibrous 
plasterboards (first revision) 

9498 : 1980 Specification for inorganic 

aggregates for use in gypsum 
plaster 

16. LIGNOCELLULOSIC BUILDING 
MATERIALS 

a) Timber and Bamboo 

i) Timber Classification 

399 : 1963 Classification of commercial 

timbers and their zonal distribution 
(revised) 

1150:2000 Trade names and abbreviated 

symbols for timber species (third 
revision) 

4970 : 1973 Key for identification of commercial 

timber (first revision) 

ii) Timber Conversion and Grading 

190 : 1991 Specification for coniferous sawn 

timber (baulks and scantlings) 
(fourth revision) 

1326 : 1992 Specification for non-coniferous 

sawn timber (baulks and scantlings) 
(second revision) 

1331 : 1971 Specification for cut sizes of timber 

(second revision) 

3337 : 1978 Specification for bailies for general 

purposes (first revision) 

5966 : 1993 Specification for non-coniferous 

timber in converted form for 
general purpose (first revision) 

14960 : 2001 Specification for preservative 

treated and seasoned sawn timber 
from rubberwood (Hevea 
brasiliensis) 

iii) Timber Testing 

1708 Methods of testing small clear 

specimens of timber: 

(Part 1) : 1986 Determination of moisture content 
(second revision) 



PART 5 BUILDING MATERIALS 



21 



IS No. 
(Part 2) : 1986 

(Part 3) : 1986 

(Part 4) : 1986 

(Part 5) : 1986 
(Part 6) : 1986 

(Part 7) : 1986 
(Part 8) : 1986 

(Part 9) : 1986 

(Part 10): 1986 
(Part 11): 1986 
(Part 12) : 1986 
(Part 13) : 1986 

(Part 14) : 1986 
(Part 15): 1986 
(Part 16): 1986 
(Part 17) : 1986 
(Part 18) : 1986 

1900: 1974 

2408 : 1963 

2455 : 1990 

2753 



Title 

Determination of specific gravity 
(second revision) 

Determination of volumetric 
shrinkage (second revision) 

Determination of radial and 
tangential shrinkage and fibre 
saturation point (second revision) 

Determination of static bending 
strength (second revision) 

Determination of static bending 
strength under two point loading 
(second revision) 

Determination of impact bending 
strength (second revision) 

Determination of compressive 

strength parallel to grain (second 

revision) 

Determination of compressive 

strength perpendicular to grain 

(second revision) 

Determination of hardness under 
static indentation (second revision) 
Determination of shear strength 
parallel to grain (second revision) 
Determination of tensile strength 
parallel to grain (second revision) 

Determination of tensile strength 

perpendicular to grain (second 

revision) 

Determination of cleavage strength 

parallel to grain (second revision) 

Determination of nail and screw 
holding power (second revision) 

Determination of brittleness by 
izod impact (second revision) 

Determination of brittleness by 
Charpy impact (second revision) 
Determination of torsional strength 
(second revision) 

Method of testing wood poles (first 
revision) 

Methods of static tests of timbers 
in structural sizes 

Method of sampling of model trees 
and logs for timber testing and their 
conversion (second revision) 

Methods for estimation of 
preservatives in treated timber and 
treating solutions: 



IS No. Title 

(Part 1) : 1991 Determination of copper, arsenic, 
chromium, zinc, boron, creosote 
and fuel oil (first revision) 

Determination of copper (in copper 
organic preservative salt) and 
pentachlorophenol (first revision) 

Method of testing timber connectors 

Methods for evaluation of working 
quality of timber under different 
wood operations — Method of test 
(first revision) 

Methods of sampling of timber 
scantlings from depots and their 
conversion for testing 

Methods of presentation of data of 
physical and mechanical properties 
of timber (first revision) 
Method of determination of sound 
absorption coefficient of timber by 
standing wave method 

Method of determination of thermal 
conductivity of timber 
Methods for determination of 
moisture content of timber and 
timber products (first revision) 
Method of test for determination of 
dielectric constant of wood under 
microwave frequencies 

iv) Structural Timber and Test 

Specification for structural timber 
in building (first revision) 

Specification for preferred cut sizes 
of structural timber (first revision) 

4924 Method of test for nail jointed 

timber trusses: 

Destructive test 

Proof test 



(Part 2) : 1991 

4907 : 1968 
8292 : 1992 

8720 : 1978 

8745 : 1994 

10420 : 1982 

10754 : 1983 
11215: 1991 

13621 : 1993 



3629 : 1986 



4891 : 1988 



(Part 1) : 1968 
(Part 2) : 1968 

v) Logs 

3364 

(Part 1) : 1976 
(Part 2) : 1976 
4895 : 1985 

5246 : 2000 

7308 : 1999 



Method of measurement and 
evaluation of defects in timber: 

Logs (first revision) 

Converted timber (first revision) 

Specification for teak logs (first 

revision) 

Specification for coniferous logs 

(first revision) 

Specification for non-coniferous 

logs (first revision) 



22 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



IS No. 

vi) Bamboo 

6874 : 1973 
8242 : 1976 

b) Reconstituted 

i) Plywood 
303 : 1989 

1328: 1996 

1734 
(Part 1): 1983 

(Part 2): 1983 

(Part 3): 1983 

(Part 4) : 1983 

(Part5): 1983 

(Part 6) : 1983 

(Part 7) : 1983 
(Part 8): 1983 

(Part 9): 1983 

(Part 10: 1983 

(Part 11): 1983 

(Part 12) : 1983 

(Part 13) : 1983 

(Part 14) : 1983 

(Part 15): 1983 

(Part 16): 1983 

(Part 17) : 1983 

(Part 18): 1983 

(Part 19) : 1983 



Title 

Method of tests for round bamboos 
Methods of tests for split bamboos 

Products 



Specification for plywood for 
general purposes (third revision) 

Specification for veneered 
decorative plywood (third revision) 
Method of test for plywood: 

Determination of density and 
moisture content (second revision) 

Determination of resistance of dry 
heat (second revision) 

Determination of fire resistance 

(second revision) 

Determination of glue shear strength 

(second revision) 

Test for adhesion of plies (second 

revision) 

Determination of water resistance 

(second revision) 

Mycological test (second revision) 

Determination of pH value (second 

revision) 

Determination of tensile strength 

(second revision) 

Determination of compressive 

strength (second revision) 

Determination of static bending 
strength (second revision) 
Determination of scarf joint 
strength (second revision) 

Determination of panel shear 
strength (second revision) 

Determination of plate shear 
strength (second revision) 
Central loading of plate test 
(second revision) 

Vibration of plywood plate test 
(second revision) 
Long time loading test of plywood 
strips (second revision) 

Impact resistance test on the 

surface of plywood (second 

revision) 

Determination of nails and screws 

holding power (second revision) 



IS No. 
(Part 20) : 1983 

4990 : 1993 

5509 : 2000 
5539 : 1969 



7316: 


1974 


10701 


: 1983 


13957 


: 1994 



Title 

Acidity and alkalinity resistance 
test (second revision) 

Specification for plywood for 
concrete shuttering work (second 
revision) 

Specification for fire retardant 
plywood (second revision) 

Specification for preservative 
treated plywood 

Specification for decorative 
plywood using plurality of veneers 
for decorative faces 

Specification for structural plywood 
Specification for metal faced 
plywood 

ii) Blockboards, Particle Boards and Fibre Boards 

1658 : 1977 Specification for fibre hardboards 

(second revision) 

Specification for block boards 
(third revision) 

Methods of test for wood particle 
boards and boards from other 
lignocellulosic materials: 

Preparation and conditioning of 
test specimens (first revision) 

Accuracy of dimensions of boards 
(first revision) 

Determination of moisture content 
and density (first revision) 

Determination of static bending 
strength (first revision) 

Determination of tensile strength 
perpendicular to surface (first 
revision) 

Determination of tensile strength 
parallel to surface (first revision) 
Determination of compression — 
Perpendicular to plane of the board 
(first revision) 

Compression parallel to surface 

test (first revision) 

Determination of resistance to 

shear in plane of the board (first 

revision) 

Falling hammer impact test (first 

revision) 

Surface hardness (first revision) 

Central loading of plate test (first 
revision) 



1659 : 1990 
2380 

(Part 1) : 1977 
(Part 2) : 1977 
(Part 3) : 1977 
(Part 4) : 1977 
(Part 5) : 1977 

(Part 6) : 1977 
(Part 7) ■: 1977 

(Part 8) : 1977 
(Part 9) : 1977 

(Part 10) : 1977 

(Part 11): 1977 
(Part 12) : 1977 



PART 5 BUILDING MATERIALS 



23 



IS No. 

(Part 13): 1977 

(Part 14) : 1977 
(Part 15) : 1977 
(Part 16) : 1977 
(Part 17) : 1977 
(Part 18): 1977 

(Part 19) : 1977 

(Part 20) : 1977 

(Part 21) : 1977 

(Part 22) : 1981 

(Part 23): 1981 
3087 : 1985 

3097 : 1980 
3129 : 1985 
3308: 1981 
3348 : 1965 
3478 : 1966 
12406 : 2003 

12823 : 1990 
13745 : 1993 

14276 : 1995 
14587 : 1998 



Title 

Long time loading bending test 
(first revision) 

Screw and nail withdrawal test 
(first revision) 

Lateral nail resistance (first 
revision) 

Determination of water absorption 
(first revision) 

Determination of swelling in water 
(first revision) 

Determination of mass and 
dimensional changes caused by 
moisture changes (first revision) 

Durability cyclic test for interior 
use (first revision) 

Accelerated weathering cyclic test 
for exterior use (first revision) 

Planeness test under uniform 
moisture content (first revision) 

Determination of surface glueability 
test 

Vibration test for particle boards 

Specification for wood particle 
boards (medium density) for 
general purposes (first revision) 

Specification for veneered particle 
boards (first revision) 

Specification for low density 
particle board (first revision) 

Specification for wood wool 
building slabs (first revision) 

Specification for fibre insulation 
boards 

Specification for high density 
wood particle boards 

Specification for medium density 
fibreboards for general purposes 
(first revision) 

Specification for prelaminated 
particle boards 

Method for determination of 
formaldehyde content in particle 
board by extraction method called 
perforator method 

Specification for cement bonded 
particle boards 

Specification for prelaminated 
medium density fibre board 



IS No. 

iii) Wood-Based Laminates 



Title 



3513 (Part 3): 
1989 



3513 (Part 4): 
1966 

7638: 1998 

9307 

(Part 1) : 1979 
(Part 2) : 1979 
(Part 3) : 1979 
(Part 4) : 1979 
(Part 5) : 1979 
(Part 6) : 1979 
(Part 7) : 1979 
(Part 8) : 1979 
14315 : 1995 

14616 : 1999 



Specification for resin treated 
compressed wood laminates 
(compregs): Part 3 For general 
purposes (first revision) 

Specification for high and medium 
density wood laminates (compreg): 
Part 4 Sampling and tests 

Methods of sampling for wood/ 
lignocellulosic based panel products 

Methods of tests for wood-based 
structural sandwich construction: 

Flexure test 

Edgewise compression test 

Flatwise compression test 

Shear test 

Flatwise tension test 

Flexure creep test 

Cantilever vibration test 

Weathering test 

Specification for commercial 

veneers 

Specification for laminated veneer 
lumber 



iv) Bamboo and Coir Board Products 

13958 : 1994 Specification for bamboo mat 

board for general purposes 

14588 : 1999 Specification for bamboo mat 

veneer composite for general 
purposes 

14842 : 2000 Specification for coir veneer board 

for general purposes 

15476:2004 Specification for bamboo and 

corrugated sheets 

v) Adhesives 

848 : 1974 Specification for synthetic resin 

adhesives for plywood (phenolic 
and aminoplastic) (first revision) 

849 : 1994 Specification for cold setting case 

in glue for wood (first revision) 

851 : 1978 Specification for synthetic resin 

adhesives for construction work 
(non-structural) in wood (first 
revision) 

852 : 1994 Specification for animal glue for 

general wood-working purposes 

(second revision) 



24 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



IS No, Title 

1508 : 1972 Specification for extenders for use 

in synthetic resin adhesives (urea- 
formaldehyde) for plywood (first 
revision) 

4835 : 1979 Specification for polyvinyl acetate 

dispersion-based adhesives for 
wood (first revision) 

9188 : 1979 Performance requirements for 

adhesive for structural laminated 
wood products for use under 
exterior exposure condition 

17, PAINTS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS 

a) Water Based Paints and Pigments 

427 : 1965 Specification for distemper, dry, 

colour as required (revised) 

428 : 2000 Specification for distemper, 

washable (second revision) 

5410 : 1992 Specification for cement paint, 

colour as required (first revision) 

5411 Specification for plastic emulsion 
paint: 

(Part 1) : 1974 For interior use (first revision) 

(Part 2) : 1972 For exterior use 

b) Ready Mixed Paints, Enamels and Powder 
Coatings 



101 



(Part l/Sec 1) : 
1986 

(Part l/Sec 2) : 
1987 



(Part l/Sec 3) : 
1986 

(Part l/Sec 4) : 
1987 

(Part l/Sec 5) : 
1989 

(Part l/Sec 6) : 
1987 



Methods of sampling and test for 
paints, varnishes and related 
products: 

Test on liquid paints (general 
and physical), Section 1 Sampling 
(third revision) 

Test on liquid paints (general 
and physical), Section 2 Preliminary 
examination and preparation 
of samples for testing (third 
revision) 

Test on liquid paints (general and 
physical), Section 3 Preparation of 
panels (third revision) 
Test on liquid paints (general and 
physical), Section 4 Brushing test 
(third revision) 

Test on liquid paints (general and 
physical), Section 5 Consistency 
(third revision) 

Test on liquid paints (general and 
physical), Section 6 Flash point 
(third revision) 



IS No. 

(Part l/Sec 7) : 
1987 



(Part2/Secl): 
1988 

(Part 2/Sec 2) ; 
1986 

(Part 3/Sec 1) ; 
1986 

(Part 3/Sec 2) : 
1989 

(Part 3/Sec 4) ; 
1987 

(Part 3/Sec 5) : 
1987 

(Part4/Sec 1) : 
1988 

(Part 4/Sec 2) : 
1989 

(Part 4/Sec 3) : 
1988 

(Part 4/Sec 4) : 
1986 

(Part 5/Sec 1) : 
1988 

(Part 5/Sec 2) : 
1988 

(Part 5/Sec 3) : 
1986 

(Part 5/Sec 4) : 
1986 

(Part 6/Sec 1) : 
1988 



(Part 6/Sec 2) : 
1989 

(Part 6/Sec 3) : 
1990 



Title 

Test on liquid paints (general and 
physical), Section 7 Mass per 
10 litres (third revision) 

Test on liquid paints (chemical 
examination), Section 1 Water 
content (third revision) 

Test on liquid paints (chemical 
examination), Section 2 Volatile 
matter (third revision) 

Tests on paint film formation, 
Section 1 Drying time (third 
revision) 

Tests on paint film formation, 
Section 2 Film thickness (third 
revision) 

Tests on paint film formation, 
Section 4 Finish (third revision) 

Tests on paint film formation, 
Section 5 Fineness of grind (third 
revision) 

Optical test, Section 1 Opacity 

(third revision) 

Optical test, Section 2 Colour 
(third revision) 

Optical test, Section 3 Light 
fastness test (third revision) 

Optical test, Section 4 Gloss (third 
revision) 

Mechanical test on paint films, 
Section 1 Hardness tests (third 
revision) 

Mechanical test on paint films, 
Section 2 Flexibility and adhesion 
(third revision) 

Mechanical test on paint films, 
Section 3 Impact resistance (fourth 
revision) 

Mechanical test on paint films, 
Section^ Print free test (third 
revision) 

Durability tests, Section 1 
Resistance to humidity under 
conditions of condensation (third 
revision) 

Durability tests, Section 2 Keeping 
properties (third revision) 

Durability tests, Section 3 Moisture 
vapour permeability (third 
revision) 



PART 5 BUILDING MATERIALS 



25 



IS No. Title 

(Part 6/Sec 4) : Durability tests, Section 4 
1991 Degradation of coatings (pictorial 

aids for evaluation) 

(Part 6/Sec 5) : Durability tests, Section 5 
1997 Accelerated weathering test (third 

revision) 

(Part 7/Sec 1) : Environmental tests on paint films, 

1989 Section 1 Resistance to water (third 
revision) 

(Part 7/Sec 2) : Environmental tests on paint films, 

1990 Section 2 Resistance to liquids 
(third revision) 

(Part 7/Sec 3) : Environmental tests on paint films, 

1990 Section 3 Resistance to heat (third 

revision) 

(Part 7/Sec 4) : Environmental tests on paint films, 

1 990 Section 4 Resistance to bleeding of 

pigments (third revision) 

(Part 8/Sec 1) : Tests for pigments and other 

1989 solids, Section 1 Residue on sieve 
(third revision) 

(Part 8/Sec 2) : Tests for pigments and other 

1 990 solids, Section 2 Pigments and non- 
volatile matter (third revision) 

(Part 8/Sec 3) : Tests for pigments and other 
1993 solids, Section 3 Ash content 

(Part 8/Sec 4) : Tests for pigments and other 
1 993 solids, Section 4 Phthalic anhydride 

(Part 8/Sec 5) : Tests for pigments and other 
1993 solids, Section 5 Lead restriction 

test (third revision) 

(Part 8/Sec 6) : Tests for pigments and other 
1993 solids, Section 6 Volume solids 

(Part 9/Sec 1) : Tests for lacquers and varnish, 
1993 Section 1 Acid value 

(Part 9/Sec 2) : Tests for lacquers and varnish, 
1993 Section 2 Rosin test 

104 : 1979 Specification for ready mixed 

paint, brushing, zinc chrome, 
priming (second revision) 

109 : 1968 Specification for ready mixed 

paint, brushing, priming, plaster to 
Indian Standard colours No. 361 
and 631 (first revision) 

123 : 1962 Specification for ready mixed 

paint, brushing, finishing, semi- 
gloss, for general purposes, to 
Indian Standard colours No. 445, 
446, 448, 449, 451 and 473; and 
red oxide (colour unspecified) 
(revised) 



IS No. Title 

133 : 1993 Specification for enamel, interior 

(a) undercoating, (b) finishing 
(third revision) 

137 : 1965 Specification for ready mixed 

paint, brushing, matt or egg-shell 
flat, finishing, interior, to Indian 
Standard colour, as required 
(revised) 

158 : 1981 Specification for ready mixed 

paint, brushing, bituminous, black, 
lead-free, acid, alkali, and heat 
resisting (third revision) 

168 : 1993 Specification for ready mixed 

paint, air-drying semi-glossy/matt, 
for general purposes (third 
revision) 

341 : 1973 Specification for black Japan, 

Types A, B and C (first revision) 

2074 : 1992 Specification for ready mixed 

paint, air drying red oxide-zinc 
chrome, priming (second revision) 

2075 : 2000 Specification for ready mixed paint, 

stoving, red oxide-zinc chrome, 
priming (second revision) 

2339 : 1963 Specification for aluminium paint 

for general purposes, in dual 
container 

2932 : 2003 Specification for enamel, synthetic, 

exterior, (a) undercoating, (b) 
finishing (third revision) 

2933 : 1975 Specification for enamel, exterior, 

(a) undercoating, (b) finishing (first 
revision) 

3536 : 1999 Specification for ready mixed 

paint, brushing, wood primer (first 
revision) 

3537 : 1966 Specification for ready mixed 

paint, finishing, interior for general 
purposes, to Indian Standard 
colours No. 101, 216, 217, 219, 
275/281, 352, 353, 358 to 361, 
363, 364, 388, 410, 442, 444, 628, 
631, 632, 634, 693, 697, white and 
black 

3539 : 1966 Specification for ready mixed 

paint, undercoating, for use under 
oil finishes, to Indian Standard 
colours, as required 

3585 : 1966 Specification for ready mixed paint, 

aluminium, brushing, priming, 
water resistant, for wood work 



26 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



IS No. Title 

3678 : 1966 Specification for ready mixed 

paint, thick white, for lettering 

8662 : 1993 Specification for enamel, synthetic, 

exterior, (a) undercoating, 
(b) finishing, for railway coaches 
(first revision) 

9862 : 1981 Specification for ready mixed 

paint, brushing, bituminous black 
lead free, acid, alkali, water and 
chlorine resisting 

11883 : 1986 Specification for ready mixed 

paint, brushing, red oxide, priming 
for metals 

13183 : 1991 Specification for aluminium paints, 

heat resistant 

13213 : 1991 Specification for polyurethane full 

gloss enamel (two pack) 

13607 : 1992 Specification for ready mixed 

paint, finishing, general purposes, 
synthetic 

13871 : 1993 Specification for powder coatings 

c) Thinners and Solvents 

82 : 1992 Methods of sampling and test for 

thinners and solvents for paints 
(first revision) 

324: 1959 Specification for ordinary 

denatured spirit (revised) 

533 : 1998 Specification for gum spirit of 

turpentine (oil of turpentine) 
(second revision) 

14314 : 1995 Specification for thinner general 

purposes for synthetic paints and 
varnishes 

d) Varnishes and Lacquers 

337 : 1975 Specification for varnish, finishing, 

interior (first revision) 

347 : 1975 Specification for varnish, shellac, 

for general purposes (first revision) 

348 : 1968 Specification for French polish 

(first revision) 

524 : 1983 Specification for varnish, finishing, 

exterior, synthetic (second revision) 

525 : 1968 Specification for varnish, finishing, 

exterior and general purposes (first 
revision) 
642 : 1963 Specification for varnish medium 

for aluminium paint (revised) 



IS No. 



Title 



18. POLYMERS, PLASTICS AND 
GEOSYNTHETICS/GEOTEXTILES 



1998 : 1962 



2036 : 1995 



2046 : 1995 



2076: 1981 

2508 : 1984 

6307 : 1971 
9766 : 1992 

10889 : 1984 

12830 : 1989 

13162 
(Part 2) : 1991 

(Part 3) : 1992 
(Part 4) : 1992 
(Part 5) : 1992 
13262 : 1992 
13325 : 1992 



13326 (Part 1) : 
1992 



14182 : 1994 



Methods of test for thermosetting 
synthetic resin bonded laminated 
sheets 

Specification for phenolic 
laminated sheets (second revision) 

Specification for decorative 

thermosetting synthetics resin 

bonded laminated sheets (second 

revision) 

Specification for unsupported 

flexible vinyl film and sheeting 

(first revision) 

Specification for low density 
polyethylene films (second 
revision) 

Specification for rigid PVC sheets 

Specification for flexible PVC 
compound (first revision) 

Specification for high density 
polyethylene films 

Specification for rubber based 
adhesives for fixing PVC tiles to 
cement 

Methods of test for geotextiles: 

Determination of resistance to 
exposure of ultra-violet light and 
water (Xenon arc type apparatus) 

Determination of thickness at 
specified pressure 

Determination of puncture 
resistance by falling cone method 

Determination of tensile properties 
using a wide width strip 

Specification for pressure sensitive 
adhesive tapes with plastic base 

Method of test for the determination 

to tensile properties of extruded 

polymer geogrids using the wide 

strip 

Method of test for the evaluation 

of interface friction between 
geosynthetics and soil: Part 1 
Modified direct shear technique 

Specification for solvent cement 
for use with unplasticized 
polyvinylchloride plastic pipe and 
fittings 



PART 5 BUILDING MATERIALS 



27 



IS No. 



Title 



IS No. 



Title 



14293 : 1995 

14294 : 1995 

14324 : 1995 

14443 : 1997 
14643 : 1999 

14706 : 1999 

14714 : 1999 

14715 : 2000 
14716: 1999 
14739 : 1999 
14753 : 1999 

14986 : 2001 

15060 : 2001 

19. SANITARY 
FITTINGS 

a) General 

775 : 1970 

782 : 1978 
804 : 1967 
1700 : 1973 
2963 : 1979 

3489 : 1985 



Method of test for trapezoid tearing 5219 (Part 1) : 
— Geotextiles 1969 

Method of determination of 5455 : 1969 

apparent opening size by dry 

sieving technique — Geotextiles 6411 : 1985 

Method of test for determination of 

water permeability-permittivity — 

Geotextiles 87 i 8 . i 97 g 

Specification for polycarbonate 
sheets 872 7 ; 1978 

Specification for unsintered 
polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) 9140 . 1995 
tape for thread sealing applications 

Sampling and preparation of test 

specimen of geotextiles 12701 : 1996 

Determination of abrasion 

resistance of geotextiles 

Specification for woven jute 13983 : 1994 
geotextiles 

Determination of mass per unit area 14399 
of geotextiles 

Methods for determination of creep 

of geotextiles (Part 1): 1996 

Specification for poly (methyl) (Part 2) : 1996 

methacrylate (PMMA) (Acrylic) 

sheets 

Jute geo-grid for rain water erosion 
control in road and railway 
embankments and hill slopes 

Tensile test for joints/seams by 

wide width method of geotextiles 2501 : 1995 

APPLIANCES AND WATER 



Specification for cast copper alloy 
traps: Part 1 T' and 'S' traps 

Specification for cast-iron steps for 
manholes 

Specification for gel-coated glass 
fibre reinforced polyester resin 
bath tubs {first revision) 

Specification for vitreous 
enamelled steel kitchen sinks 

Specification for vitreous 
enamelled steel wash basins 

Method of sampling of vitreous 
and fire clay sanitary appliances 
{second revision) 

Specification for rotational moulded 
polyethylene water storage tanks 
(first revision) 

Specification for stainless steel 
sinks for domestic purposes 
Hot press moulded thermosetting 
glass fibre reinforced (GRP) 
sectional water storage tanks: 

Specification for panels 

Guidelines for assembly, installation 
and testing 



b) Pipes and Fittings Excluding Valves 

i) Brass and Copper Pipes and Fittings 
407 : 1981 



Specification for brass tubes for 
general purposes {third revision) 

Specification for solid drawn 
copper tubes for general engineering 
purposes {third revision) 



ii) Cast Iron Pipes and Fittings 



Specification for cast iron brackets 1 536 : 2001 
and supports for wash basins and 
sinks (second revision) 

Specification for caulking lead 

(third revision) 1537 : 1976 

Specification for rectangular 
pressed steel tanks (first revision) 

Specification for drinking 1538 : 1993 
fountains (first revision) 

Specification for copper alloy 

waste fittings for wash-basins and 1729 : 2002 

sinks (first revision) 

Specification for enamelled steel 
bath tubs (first revision) 



Specification for centrifugally cast 
(spun) iron pressure pipes for 
water, gas and sewage (fourth 
revision) 

Specification for vertically cast 
iron pressure pipes for water, gas 
and sewage (first revision) 

Specification for cast iron fittings 
for pressure pipes for water, gas 
and sewage (third revision) 

Specification for sand cast iron 
spigot and socket soil, waste and 
ventilating pipes, fittings and 
accessories (second revision) 



28 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



IS No. 


1879: 


: 1987 


3486: 


: 1966 


3989: 


: 1984 



5531 : 1988 

6163 : 1978 

6418 : 1971 
7181 : 1986 
8329 : 2000 

8794 : 1988 

9523 : 1980 
10292 : 1988 

10299 : 1982 

11606: 1986 
12820: 1989 



12987: 1991 



Title 

Specification for malleable cast 
iron pipe fittings (second revision) 

Specification for cast iron spigot 
and socket drain pipes 

Specification for centrifugally cast 
(spun) iron spigot and socket 
soil, waste and ventilating pipes, 
fittings and accessories (second 
revision) 

Specification for cast iron specials 
for asbestos cement pressure pipes 
for water, gas and sewage (second 
revision) 

Specification for centrifugally cast 
(spun) iron low pressure pipes 
for water, gas and sewage (first 
revision) 

Specification for cast iron and 
malleable cast iron flanges for 
general engineering purposes 

Specification for horizontally cast 
iron double flanged pipes for water, 
gas and sewage (first revision) 

Specification for centrifugally cast 
(spun) ductile iron pressure pipes 
for water, gas and sewage (third 
revision) 

Specification for cast iron 
detachable joints for use with 
asbestos cement pressure pipes 
(first revision) 

Specification for ductile iron 
fittings for pressure pipes for water, 
gas and sewage 

Dimensional requirements for 
rubber sealing rings for CID joints 
in asbestos cement piping (first 
revision) 

Cast iron saddle pieces for service 
connection from asbestos cement 
pressure pipes 

Methods of sampling cast iron 
pipes and fittings 

Dimensional requirements of 
rubber gaskets for mechanical 
joints and push on joints for use 
with cast iron pipes and fittings for 
carrying water, gas and sewage 

Cast iron detachable joints for use 
with asbestos cement pressure 
pipes (light duty) 



IS No. Title 

12988 : 1991 Rubber sealing rings for CID 

joints for light duty AC pipes — 
Dimensional requirements 

13382 : 1992 Cast iron specials for mechanical 

and push on flexible joints for 
pressure pipelines for water, gas 
and sewage 

iii) Lead Pipes and Fittings 

404 (Part 1) ': Specification for lead pipes: Part 1 

1993 For other than chemical purpose 

(third revision) 

iv) Fibre Pipes and Fittings 

11925 : 1986 Specification for pitch- 

impregnated fibre pipes and fittings 
for drainage purposes 

v) Plastic Pipes and Fittings 

3076 : 1985 Specification for low density 

polyethylene pipes for potable 
water supplies (second revision) 

4984 : 1995 Specification for high density 

polyethylene pipes for water 
supply (fourth revision) 

4985 : 2000 Specification for unplasticized 

PVC pipes for potable water 
supplies (third revision) 

7834 Specification for injection moulded 

PVC socket fittings with solvent 
cement joints for water supplies: 

(Part 1) : 1987 General requirements (first revision) 

(Part 2) : 1987 Specific requirements for 45° 
elbows (first revision) 

(Part 3) : 1987 Specific requirements for 90° 
elbows (first revision) 

(Part 4) : 1987 Specific requirements for 90° tees 
(first revision) 

(Part 5) : 1987 Specific requirements for 45° tees 
(first revision) 

(Part 6) : 1987 Specific requirements for sockets 
(first revision) 

(Part 7) : 1987 Specific requirements for unions 
(first revision) 

(Part 8) : 1987 Specific requirements for caps 
(first revision) 

8008 Specification for injection moulded 

high density polyethylene (HDPE) 
fittings for potable water supplies: 

(Part 1) : 2003 General requirements 



PART 5 BUILDING MATERIALS 



29 



IS No. 

(Part 2) : 2003 

(Part 3) : 2003 
(Part 4) : 2003 
(Part 5) : 2003 

(Part 6) : 2003 
(Part 7) : 2003 

(Part 8) : 2003 

(Part 9) : 2003 

8360 

(Part 1) : 1977 
(Part 2) : 1977 
(Part 3) : 1977 

10124 

(Part 1) : 1988 
(Part 2) : 1988 

(Part 3) : 1988 

(Part 4) : 1988 

(Part 5) : 1988 

(Part 6) : 1988 

(Part 7) : 1988 
(Part 8): 1988 
(Part 9) : 1988 
(Part 10) : 1988 
(Part 11): 1988 
(Part 12) : 1988 
(Part 13): 1988 



Title 

Specific requirements for 90° 
bends {first revision) 

Specific requirements for 90° tees 

Specific requirements for reducers 

Specific requirements for ferrule 
reducers (first revision) 

Specific requirements for pipe ends 

Specific requirements for sandwich 
flanges 

Specific requirements for reducing 
tests 

Specific requirements for end caps 
(first revision) 

Specification for fabricated high 
density polyethelene (HDPE) 
fittings for potable water supplies: 

General requirements 

Specific requirements for 90° tees 

Specific requirements for 90° 
bends 

Specification for fabricated PVC 
fittings for potable water supplies: 

General requirements (first revision) 

Specific requirements for sockets 
(first revision) 

Specific requirements of straight 
reducers (first revision) 

Specific requirements for caps 
(first revision) 

Specific requirements for equal 
tees (first revision) 

Specific requirements for flanged 
tail piece with metallic flanges 
(first revision) 

Specific requirements for threaded 
adaptors (first revision) 

Specific requirements for 90° 
bends (first revision) 

Specific requirements for 60° 
bends (first revision) 

Specific requirements for 45° 
bends (first revision) 

Specific requirements for 30° 
bends (first revision) 

Specific requirements for 22V2° 
bends (first revision) 

Specific requirements for \\ l A° 
bends (first revision) 



IS No. Title 

12235 Methods of test for unplasticized 

PVC pipes for potable water 
supplies: 
(Part 1) : 1986 Method of measurement of outside 
diameter 

1986 Measurement of wall thickness 
1986 Test for opacity 
1986 Determining the detrimental effect 
on the composition of water 

Reversion test 

Stress relief test 

Test for resistance to sulphuric acid 

Internal hydrostatic pressure test 

Impact strength test 

Method for determination of 

organotin as tin aqueous solution 

Extractability of cadmium and 
mercury occurring as impurities 
Specification for glass-fibre 
reinforced plastic (GRP) pipes 
joints and fittings for use for 
potable water supply (first revision) 
Specification for unplasticized 
PVC screen and casing pipes for 
bore/tubewell (first revision) 
Specification for UPVC pipes for 
soil and waste discharge systems 
inside buildings including 
ventilation and rainwater system 
Specification for high density 
polyethylene pipes for sewerage 
Specification for GRP pipes, joints 
and fittings for use for sewerage, 
industrial waste and water (other 
than potable) 

Specification for unplasticized 
polyvinyl chloride (UPVC) 
injection moulded fittings for soil 
and waste discharge system for 
inside buildings including 
ventilation and rain water system 

14885 : 2001 Specification for polyethylene pipe 

for supply of gaseous fuel 

15225 : 2002 Specification for chlorinated 

polyvinyl chloride compounds 
used for pipes and fittings 

15328 : 2003 Specification for unplasticized 

non-pressure polyvinyl chloride 
(PVC-U) pipes for use in 
underground drainage and sewerage 
system 



(Part 2) 
(Part 3) 

(Part 4) 



(Part 5) : 1986 
(Part 6) : 1986 
(Part 7) : 1986 
(Part 8) : 1986 
(Part 9) : 1986 
(Part 10) : 1986 

(Part 11): 1986 

12709 : 1994 



12818 : 1992 
13592: 1992 

14333 : 1996 
14402 : 1996 

14735 : 1999 



30 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



IS No. 


vi) Steel Tubes, 


1239 


(Part 1) : 1990 


(Part 2) : 1992 


3589 : 1991 



4270 : 1992 
5504: 1997 
6286 : 1979 
6392 : 1971 



Title 
Pipes and Fittings 

Mild steel tubes, tubular and other 
wrought steel fittings: 

Mild steel tubes (fifth revision) 
Mild steel tubular and other 
wrought steel pipe fittings (third 
revision) 

Specification for seamless or 
electrically welded steel pipes for 
water, gas and sewage (168.3 to 
2 032 mm outside size) (second 
revision) 

Steel tubes used for water wells 
(second revision) 

Specification for spiral welded 
pipes (first revision) 

Seamless and welded steel pipe for 
sub-zero temperature service 

Steel pipe flanges 



vii) Stoneware Pipes and Fittings 
651 : 1992 



3006 : 1979 



Specification for salt-glazed 
stoneware pipes and fittings (fifth 
revision) 

Specification for chemically 
resistant glazed stoneware pipes 
and fittings (first revision) 



viii) Asbestos Cement Pipes 

[See 8 (a) (ii) under the category 'Composite Matrix 
Products'] 

ix) Concrete Pipes and Pipes Lined/Coated with 
Concrete or Mortar 

[See 8 (a) (iv) under the category 'Composite Matrix 
Products'] 

c) Kitchen and Sanitary Appliances 

771 Specification for glazed fire clay 

sanitary appliances: 

(Part 1) : 1979 General requirements (second 
revision) 

(Part 2) : 1985 Specific requirements of kitchen 
and laboratory sinks (third revision) 

(Part 3/Sec 1) : Specific requirements of urinals, 
1979 Section 1 Slab urinals (second 

revision) 

(Part 3/Sec 2) : Part 3 Specific requirements of 
1985 urinals, Section 2 Stall urinals 

(third revision) 



IS No. 
(Part 4) : 1979 

(Part 5) : 1979 

(Part 6) : 1979 

(Part 7) : 1981 

772 : 1973 , 

773 : 1988 

774 : 1984 

1726 : 1991 
2326: 1987 

2548 
(Part 1) : 1996 
(Part 2) : 1996 

2556 
(Part 1) : 1994 
(Part 2) : 1994 

(Part 3) : 1994 
(Part 4) : 1994 
(Part 5) : 1994 
(Part 6) : 1995 
(Part 7) : 1995 

(Part 8) : 1995 



Title 

Specific requirements of post 
mortom slabs (second revision) 

Specific requirements of shower 
trays (second revision) 

Specific requirements of bed-pan 
sinks (second revision) 

Specific requirements of slop sinks 
(second revision) 

Specification for general 
requirements of enamelled cast 
iron sanitary appliances (second 
revision) 

Specification for enamelled cast 
iron water-closets railway stock 
type (fourth revision) 

Specification for flushing cisterns 
for water-closets and urinals (other 
than plastic cisterns) (fourth revision) 

Specification for cast iron manhole 
covers and frames (third revision) 

Specification for automatic flushing 
cisterns for urinals (second 
revision) 

Specification for plastic seats and 
covers for water-closets: 

Thermoset seats and covers (fifth 
revision) 

Thermoplastic seats and covers 
(fifth revision) 

Specification for vitreous sanitary 
appliances (vitreous china): 

General requirements (third 
revision) 

Specific requirements of wash- 
down water-closets (fourth 
revision) 

Specific requirements of squatting 
pans (fourth revision) 

Specific requirements of wash 
basins (third revision) 

Specific requirements of laboratory 
sinks (third revision) 

Specific requirements of urinals 
and partition plates (fourth revision) 

Specific requirements of accessories 
for sanitary appliances (third 
revision) 

Specific requirements of siphonic 
wash-down water closets (fourth 
revision) 



PART 5 BUILDING MATERIALS 



31 



IS No. 
(Part 9) : 1995 



Title 



Specific requirements of bidets 
(fourth revision) 

(Part 14): 1995 Specific requirements of integrated 
squatting pans (first revision) 

(Part 15) : 1995 Specific requirements of universal 
water closets (first revision) 

(Part 16) : 2002 Specific requirements for wash 
down wall mounted water-closets 

(Part 17) : 1995 Specific requirements for wall 
mounted bidets 

5961 : 1970 Specification for cast iron gratings 

for drainage purposes 

7231 : 1984 Specification for plastic flushing 

cisterns for water-closets and 
urinals (second revision) 

11246:1992 Specification for glass fibre 

reinforced polyester resins (GRP) 
squatting pans (first revision) 

d) Valves and Fittings (Including Ferrules) 

778 : 1984 Specification for copper alloy gate, 

globe, and check valves for water 
works purposes (fourth revision) 

781 : 1984 Specification for cast copper alloy 

screw-down bib taps and stop 
valves for water services (third 
revision) 

1701 : 1960 Specification for mixing valves 

for ablutionary and domestic 
purposes 

1 703 : 2000 Specification for copper alloy float 

valves (horizontal plunger type) 
for water supply fittings (third 
revision) 

1711 : 1984 Specification for self-closing taps 

for water supply purposes (second 
revision) 

1795 : 1982 Specification for pillar taps for 

water supply purposes (second 
revision) 

2692 : 1 989 Specification for ferrules for water 

services (second revision) 

3004 : 1979 Specification for plug cocks for 

water supply purposes (first 
revision) 

3042 : 1965 Specification for single faced 

sluice gates (200 to 1 200 mm size) 

3311 : 1979 Specification for waste plug and 

its accessories for sinks and 
washbasins (first revision) 



IS No. 


3950: 


: 1979 


4038: 


: 1986 


4346: 


: 1982 



5312 

(Part 1) : 1984 
(Part 2) : 1986 
8931 : 1993 



9338 : 1984 

9739: 1981 

9758 : 1981 

9762 : 1994 

9763 : 2000 
12234 : 1988 
13049 : 1991 
13114: 1991 

14845 : 2000 

14846 : 2000 

e) Water Meters 

779 : 1994 



Title 

Specification for surface boxes for 
sluice valves (first revision) 

Specification for foot valves for 
water works purposes (second 
revision) 

Specification for washers for use 
with fittings for water services (first 
revision) 

Specification for swing check type 
reflux (non-return) valves: 

Single door pattern (first revision) 

Multi-door pattern 

Specification for cast copper alloy 
fancy single tap combination tap 
and stop valves for water services 
(first revision) 

Specification for cast iron screw- 
down stop valves and stop and 
check valves for water works 
purposes (first revision) 

Specification for pressure reducing 
valves for domestic water supply 
systems 

Specification for flush valves and 
fittings for water-closets and urinals 

Specification for polyethylene 
floats (spherical) for float valves 
(first revision) 

Specification for plastic bib taps, 
pillar taps, angle valves, hot and 
cold water services (second revision) 

Specification for plastic 
equilibrium float valve for cold 
water services 

Specification for diaphragm type 
(plastic body) float operated valves 
for cold water services 

Specification for forged brass gate, 
globe aiid check valves for water 
works purposes 

Specification for resilient seated 
cast iron air relief valves for water 
works purposes 

Specification for sluice valves 
for water works purposes (50 to 
1 200 mm) 



Specification for water meters 
(domestic type) (sixth revision) 



32 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



IS No. 


Title 


IS No. 


2104: 1981 


Specification for water meter boxes 
(domestic type) (first revision) 


8500 : 1991 


2373 : 1981 


Specification for water meters 






(bulk type) (third revision) 


8952 : 1995 


6784 : 1996 


Method for performance testing of 
water meters (domestic type) 
(second revision) 





20. SOIL-BASED PRODUCTS 

1725 : 1982 Specification for soil-based blocks 

used in general building 
construction 

21. STEEL AND ITS ALLOYS 

a) General 

1030 : 1998 Carbon steel castings for general 

engineering purposes (fifth 
revision) 

1136 : 1990 Preferred sizes for wrought metal 

products (first revision) 

1137 : 1990 Thickness of sheet and diameters 

of wire (first revision) 

1762 (Part 1) : Code for designation of steels: 
1 974 Part 1 Based on letter symbols (first 

revision) 

2049 : 1978 Colour code for the identification 

of wrought steel for general 
engineering purposes (first 
revision) 

2644 : 1994 High tensile steel castings (fourth 

revision) 

7598 : 1990 Classification of steels (first revision) 

b) Structural Steel 

1977 : 1996 Specification for low tensile 

structural steels (third revision) 

2062 ; 1999 Specification for steel for general 

structural purposes (fifth revision) 

2830: 1992 Specification for carbon steel 

billets ingots, blooms and slabs for 
re-rolling into steel for general 
structural purposes (second 
revision) 

2831 : 2000 Specification for carbon steel 

billets ingots, blooms and slabs for 
re-rolling into low tensile structural 
steel (third revision) 

8053 : 1976 Specification for steel ingots and 

billets for the production of steel 
wire for the manufacture of wood 
screws 



9467 : 1980 

c) Sheet and 

277 : 2003 

412 : 1975 

513 : 1994 

1079 : 1994 
6911 : 1992 
7226 : 1974 

11587: 1986 
14246 : 1995 

15103 : 2002 



Title 

Specification for structural steels 
microalloyed (medium and high 
strength qualities) 

Steel ingots, blooms and billets for 
production of mild steel wire rods 
for general engineering purposes 
(first revision) 

Steel ingots and billets for 
production of rivet bars for 
structural purposes 



Strip 



Specification for galvanized steel 
sheets (plain and corrugated) (sixth 
revision) 

Specification for expanded metal 
steel sheets for general purposes 
(second revision) 

Specification for cold rolled low 
carbon steel sheets and strips 
(fourth revision) 

Specification for hot rolled carbon 
steel sheet and strip (fifth revision) 

Stainless steel plate, sheet and strip 
(first revision) 

Specification for cold rolled 
medium, high carbon and low alloy 
steel strip for general engineering 
purposes 

Specification for structural weather 
resistant steels 

Specification for continuously pre- 
painted galvanized steel sheets and 
coils 

Specification for fire resistant 
steel 



d) Bars, Rods, Wire and Wire Rods 

280: 1978 Specification for mild steel wire for 

general engineering purposes 
(third revision) 

1148 : 1982 Specification for hot rolled steel 

rivet bars (up to 40 mm diameter) 
for structural purposes (third 
revision) 

1149 : 1982 Specification for high tensile steel 

rivet bars for structural purposes 
(third revision) 

1673 : 1984 Specification for mild steel wire 

cold heading quality (second 
revision) 



PART 5 BUILDING MATERIALS 



33 



IS No. 
1812: 1982 

1835 : 1976 
2591 : 1982 

3150: 1982 
4826: 1979 

6527 : 1995 

6528 : 1995 
6603 : 2001 
7887 : 1992 

10631 : 1983 

e) Plates 

3502 : 1994 



Title 

Specification for carbon steel wire 
for the manufacture of wood screw 
(second revision) 

Specification for round steel wire 
for ropes (third revision) 

Dimensions for hot rolled bars for 
threaded components (second 
revision) 

Specification for hexagonal wire 
netting for general purposes 

Specification for hot-dipped 
galvanized coatings on round steel 
wires (first revision) 

Stainless steel wire rod (first 
revision) 

Specification for stainless steel 
wire (first revision) 

Specification for stainless steel bars 
and flats (first revision) 

Specification for mild steel wire 
rods for general engineering 
purposes (first revision) 

Stainless steel for welding 
electrode core wire 



Specification for steel chequered 
plates (second revision) 



f) Tubes and Tubulars 

1161 : 1998 Specification for steel tubes 

for structural purposes (fourth 
revision) 

4516 : 1968 Specification for elliptical mild 

steel tubes 

4923 : 1997 Specification for hollow mild steel 

sections for structural use (first 
revision) 

g) Slotted Sections 

8081 : 1976 Specification for slotted sections 



22. STONES 

1121 

(Part 1): 1974 

(Part 2) : 1974 
(Part 3) : 1974 
(Part 4) : 1974 



Methods of test for determination 
of strength properties of natural 
building stones: 

Compressive strength (first 
revision) 

Transverse strength (first revision) 

Tensile strength (first revision) 

Shear strength (first revision) 



IS No, Title 

1 1 22 : 1 974 Method of test for determination of 

true specific gravity of natural 
building stones (first revision) 

1123 : 1975 Method of identification of natural 

building stones (first revision) 

1124 : 1974 Method of test for determination of 

water absorption, apparent specific 
gravity and porosity of natural 
building stones (first revision) 

1125 : 1974 Method of test for determination of 

weathering of natural building 
stones (first revision) 

1126: 1974 Method of test for determination of 

durability of natural building 
stones (first revision) 

1127 : 1970 Recommendations for dimensions 

and workmanship of natural 
building stones for masonry work 
(first revision) 

1128 : 1974 Specification for limestone (slab 

and tiles) (first revision) 

1129 : 1972 Recommendation for dressing 

of natural building stones (first 
revision) 

1130 : 1969 Specification for marble (blocks, 

slabs and tiles) 

1706:1972 Method of determination of 

resistance to wear by abrasion of 
natural building stones (first 
revision) 

3316 : 1974 Specification for structural granite 

(first revision) 

3620: 1979 Specification for laterite stone 

block for masonry (first revision) 

3622 : 1977 Specification for sand stone (slabs 

and tiles) (first revision) 

4121 : 1967 Method of test for determination of 

water transmission rate by capillary 
action through natural building 
stones 

4 1 22 : 1 967 Method of test for surface softening 

of natural building stones by 
exposure to acidic atmospheres 

4348 : 1973 Methods of test for determination 

of permeability of natural building 
stones (first revision) 

5218 : 1969 Method of test for toughness of 

natural building stones 

5640 : 1970 Method of test for determining the 

aggregate impact value of soft 
coarse aggregates 



34 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDL4 



IS No. Title 

6250 : 1981 Specification for roofing slate tiles 

(first revision) 

7779 Schedule for properties and 

availability of stones for construction 
purposes: 

(Part 1/Sec 1) : Gujarat state, Section 1 Availability 
1975 of stones 

(Part 1/Sec 2) : Gujarat state, Section 2 Engineering 
1975 properties of building stones 

(Part 1/Sec 3) : Gujarat state, Section 3 Engineering 
1975 properties of stone aggregates 

(Part 2/Sec 1) : Maharashtra state, Section 1 
1979 Availability of stones 

(Part 2/Sec 2) : Maharashtra state, Section 2 
1 979 Engineering properties of building 

stones 

(Part 2/Sec 3) : Maharashtra state, Section 3 

1979 Engineering properties of stone 
aggregates 

(Part 3/Sec 2) : Tamil Nadu state, Section 2 
1 990 Engineering properties of building 

stones 

(Part 3/Sec 3) : Tamil Nadu state, Section 3 

1980 Engineering properties of stone 
aggregates 

(Part4/Sec 1 Karnataka state, Sections 
to 3): 1996 (1 to 3) 

(Part 5/Sec 1) : Andhra Pradesh, Section 1 
1997 Availability of stones 

(Part 5/Sec 2) : Andhra Pradesh, Section 2 
1 997 Engineering properties of building 

stones 

(Part 5/Sec 3) : Andhra Pradesh, Section 3 
1997 Engineering properties of stone 

aggregates 

9394 : 1979 Specification for stone lintels 

14223 (Part 1) : Specification for polished building 
1994 stones: Part 1 Granite 

23. STRUCTURAL SECTIONS 

a) Structural Shapes 

811 : 1987 Specification for cold formed light 

gauge structural steel sections 
(revised) 

1173 : 1978 Specification for hot rolled and slit 

steel tee bars (second revision) 

1852:1985 Specification for rolling and 

cutting tolerances for hot rolled 
steel products (fourth revision) 



IS No. Title 

1863 : 1979 Specification for hot rolled steel 

bulb flats (first revision) 

2314 : 1986 Specification for steel sheet piling 

sections (first revision) 

3443 : 1980 Specification for crane rail sections 

(first revision) 

3908 : 1986 Specification for aluminium equal 

leg angles (first revision) 

3909 : 1986 Specification for aluminium 

unequal leg angles (first revision) 

3921 : 1985 Specification for aluminium 

channels (first revision) 

3954 : 1991 Specification for hot rolled steel 

channels sections for general 
engineering purposes (first 
revision) 

3964 : 1980 Specification for light rails (first 

revision) 

5384: 1985 Specification for aluminium 

I-beams (first revision) 

6445 : 1985 Specification for aluminium tee 

sections (first revision) 

12779 : 1989 Rolling and cutting tolerances for 

hot rolled parallel flange beam and 
column sections 

b) Dimensional Standards 

808 : 1989 Dimensions for hot rolled steel 

beam, column channel and angle 
sections (third revision) 

1730 : 1989 Dimensions for steel plates, sheets 

strips and flats for general 
engineering purposes (second 
revision) 

1732 : 1989 Dimensions for round and square 

steel bars for structural and general 
engineering purposes (second 
revision) 

2525 : 1982 Dimensions for wrought 

alumiriium and aluminium alloy 
wire (first revision) 

2591 : 1982 Dimensions for hot rolled steel bars 

for threaded components (second 
revision) 

2673 : 2002 Dimensions for wrought aluminium 

and aluminium alloys, extruded 
round tube (second revision) 

2676 : 1981 Dimensions for wrought aluminium 

and aluminium alloys, sheet and 
strip (first revision) 



PART 5 BUILDING MATERIALS 



35 



2678 : 1987 



3577 : 1992 



3965 : 1981 



6477 : 1983 



12778 : 1989 



IS No. Title 

2677 : 1979 Dimensions for wrought aluminium 

and aluminium alloys, plates and 
hot rolled sheets {first revision) 

Dimensions and tolerances for 
wrought aluminium and aluminium 
alloys, drawn round tubes (second 
revision) 

Dimensions and tolerances for 
wrought aluminium and aluminium 
alloys rivet, bolt and screw stock 
(first revision) 

Dimensions for wrought aluminium 
and aluminium alloys, bar, rod and 
section (first revision) 

Dimensions for wrought aluminium 
and aluminium alloys, extruded 
hollow sections 

Dimensions for hot rolled steel 
parallel flange beam and column 
sections 

24. THERMAL INSULATION MATERIALS 

3144 : 1992 Methods of test for mineral wool 

thermal insulation material (second 
revision) 

3346 : 1980 Methods for the determination of 

thermal conductivity of thermal 
insulation materials (two slab, 
guarded hot-plate method) (first 
revision) 

3677 : 1985 Specification for unbonded rock 

and slag wool for thermal insulation 
(second revision) 

4671 : 1984 Specification for expanded 

polystyrene for thermal insulation 
purposes (first revision) 

5688 : 1982 Methods of test for preformed 

block-type and pipe-covering type 
thermal insulation (first revision) 

5724: 1970 Methods of test for thermal 

insulating cement 

6598 : 1972 Specification for cellular concrete 

for thermal insulation 

7509 : 1993 Specification for thermal insulating 

cement (first revision) 

8154: 1 993 Specification for preformed calcium 

silicate insulation for temperature 
up to 650°C) (first revision) 

8183 : 1993 Specification for bonded mineral 

wool (first revision) 



IS No. 
9403 : 1980 



9489 : 1980 



9490 : 1980 



9742 : 1993 

9743 : 1990 
9842 : 1994 
11128: 1994 

11129: 1984 

11239 

(Part 1) : 1985 
(Part 2) : 1985 
(Part 3) : 1985 
(Part 4) : 1985 
(Part 5) : 1985 

(Part 6) : 1985 
(Part 7) : 1985 

(Part 8) : 1985 

(Part 9) : 1985 
(Part 10): 1985 
(Part 11): 1985 
(Part 12) : 1989 
(Part 13): 1992 

11307: 1985 

11308: 1985 



Title 
Method of test for thermal 
conductance and transmittance of 
built up sections by means of 
guarded hot box 

Method of test for thermal 
conductivity of materials by means 
of heat flow meter 

Method of determination for 
thermal conductivity of insulation 
materials (water calorimeter 
method) 

Specification for sprayed mineral 
wool thermal insulation (first 
revision) 

Specification for thermal insulation 
finishing cements (first revision) 

Specification for preformed fibrous 
pipe insulation (first revision) 

Specification for spray applied 
hydrated calcium silicate thermal 
insulation 

Method of test for tumbling 
friability of preformed block-type 
thermal insulation 

Method of test for rigid cellular 
thermal insulation materials: 

Dimensions 

Apparent density 

Dimensional stability 

Water vapour transmission rate 

Volume percent of open and closed 
cells 

Heat distortion temperature 

Coefficient of linear thermal 
expansion at low temperatures 

Flame height, time of burning and 
loss of mass 

Water absorption 

Flexural strength 

Compressive strength 

Horizontal burning characteristics 

Determination of flammability by 
oxygen index 

Specification for cellular glass 
block and pipe thermal insulating 

Specification for thermal insulating 
castables (hydraulic setting) for 
temperatures up to 1 250°C 



36 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



IS No. Title 

12436 : 1988 Specification for preformed 

rigid polyurethane (PUR) and 
polyisocyanurate (Pir) foams for 
thermal insulation 

13204 : 1991 Specification for rigid phenolic 

foams for thermal insulation 

13286 : 1992 Methods of test for surface spread 

of flame for thermal insulation 
materials 

25. THREADED FASTENERS AND RIVETS 

207 : 1964 Specification for gate and shutter 

hooks and eyes (revised) 

451 : 1999 Specification for technical supply 

conditions for wood screws (third 
revision) 

554 : 1999 Specification for pipe threads 

where pressure-tide joints are made 
on the threads — Dimensions, 
tolerances and designation (fourth 
revision) 

723 : 1972 Specification for steel countersunk 

head wire nails (second revision) 

724 : 1964 Specification for mild steel and 

brass cup, ruler and square hooks 
and screw eyes (revised) 

725 : 1961 Specification for copper wire nails 

(revised) 

730 : 1978 Specification for hook bolts for 

corrugated sheet roofing (second 
revision) 

1120 : 1975 Specification for coach screws 

(first revision) 

1363 Specification for hexagon head 
bolts, screws and nuts of product 
grade C: 

(Part 1 ) : 2002 Hexagon head bolts (size range M 5 
to M64) (fourth revision) 

(Part 2) : 2002 Hexagon head screws (size range 
M5 to M64) (fourth revision) 

(Part 3) : 2002 Part 3 Hexagon nuts (Size range 
M5 to M64) (fourth revision) 

1364 Specification for hexagon head 
bolts, screws and nuts of product 
Grades A and B: 

(Part 1) : 2002 Hexagon head bolts (size range 
Ml. 6 to M64) (fourth revision) 

(Part 2) : 2002 Hexagon head screws (size range 
Ml. 6 to M64) (fourth revision) 



IS No. 


(Part 3) : 


2002 


(Part 4) : 


2003 


(Part 5) : 


2002 


(Part 6) : 


2002 


365 : 1978 


366 : 2002 


367 




(Part 1) : 


2002 


(Part 2) : 


2002 


(Part 3) : 


2002 



(Part 5) : 2002 

(Part 6) : 1994 
(Part 7) : 1980 
(Part 8) : 2002 



(Part 9/Sec 1) : 
1993 

(Part 9/Sec 2) : 
1993 

(Part 10) : 2002 

(Part 11) :2002 

(Part 12) : 1981 



Title 

Hexagon nuts (size range Ml. 6 to 
M64) (fourth revision) 

Hexagon thin nuts (chamfered) 
(size range Ml. 6 to M64) (fourth 
revision) 

Hexagon thin nuts (unchamfered) 
(size range M1.6 to M10) (fourth 
revision) 

Hexagon nuts, style 2 

Specification for slotted countersunk 
head screws (third revision) 

Specification for slotted cheese 
head screws (third revision) 

Specification for technical supply 
conditions for threaded steel 
fasteners: 

Introduction and general information 
(third revision) 

Product grades and tolerances 
(third revision) 

Mechanical properties and test 
methods for bolts, screws and studs 
with full loadability (fourth 
revision) 

Mechanical properties and test 
methods for set screws and similar 
threaded fasteners not under tensile 
stresses (third revision) 

Mechanical properties and test 
methods for nuts with specified 
proof loads (third revision) 

Mechanical properties and test 
methods for nuts without specified 
proof loads (second revision) 

Mechanical and performance 
properties for prevailing torque 
type steel hexagon nuts (third 
revision) 

Surface discontinuities, Section 1 
Bolts, screws and studs for general 
applications (third revision) 

Surface discontinuities, Section 2 
Bolts, screws and studs for special 
applications (third revision) 

Surface discontinuities on nuts 
(third revision) 

Electroplated coatings (third 
revision) 

Phosphate coatings on threaded 
fasteners (second revision) 



PART 5 BUILDING MATERIALS 



37 



IS No. 
(Part 13): 1983 



(Part 14/Sec 1) : 
2002 



(Part 14/Sec 2) : 
2002 

(Part 14/Sec 3) : 
2002 



(Part 16) : 2002 
1929: 1982 

2016 : 1967 
2155 : 1982 

2585 : 1968 

2643 : 1999 

2687 : 1991 
2907 : 1998 
2998 : 1982 

3063 : 1994 

3121 : 1981 

3468 : 1991 
3757 : 1985 



Title 

Hot dip galvanized coatings 
on threaded fasteners (second 
revision) 

Mechanical properties of corrosion 
resistance stainless steel fasteners, 
Section 1 Bolts, screws and studs 
(third revision) 

Mechanical properties of corrosion 
resistance stainless steel fasteners, 
Section 2 Nuts (third revision) 

Mechanical properties of corrosion 
resistance stainless steel fasteners, 
Section 3 Set screws and similar 
fasteners not under tensile stress 
(third revision) 

Designation system and symbols 
(third revision) 

Specification for hot forged steel 
rivets for hot closing (12 to 36 mm 
diameter) (first revision) 

Specification for plain washers 
(first revision) 

Specification for cold forged solid 
steel rivets for hot closing (6 to 
16 mm diameter) (first revision) 

Specification for black square bolts 
and nuts (dia range 6 to 39 mm) 
and black square screws (dia range 
6 to 24 mm) (first revision) 

Dimensions, tolerances and 
designation for pipe threads where 
pressure-tight joints are not made 
on the threads (second revision) 

Specification for cap nuts (second 
revision) 

Specification for non-ferrous rivets 
(first revision) 

Specification for cold forged steel 
rivets for cold closing (1 to 16 mm 
diameter) (first revision) 

Specification for fasteners single 
coil rectangular section spring lock 
washers (second revision) 

Specification for rigging screws 
and stretching screws (first 
revision) 

Specification for pipe nuts (second 
revision) 

Specification for high strength 

structural bolts (second revision) 



IS No. 


4206: 


1987 


4762: 


2002 


5369: 


1975 


5372: 


1975 


5373: 


1969 


5374: 


: 1975 


5624: 


: 1993 


6113: 


: 1970 


6610: 


: 1972 


6623: 


: 1985 


6639 


: 1972 


6649 


: 1985 



6733 : 1972 
6736 : 1972 
6739 : 1972 
6760 : 1972 
8033: 1976 
8412 : 1977 

8822 : 1978 
8869 : 1978 
8911 : 1978 
10102 : 1982 



Title 

Dimensions for nominal lengths, 
and thread lengths for bolts, screws 
and studs (first revision) 

Specification for worm drive hose 

clips for general purposes (second 

revision) 

General requirements for plain 

washers and lock washers (first 

revision) 

Specification for taper washer for 
channels (ISMC) (first revision) 

Specification for square washers 
for wood fastenings 

Specification for taper washers for 
L-beam (ISMB) (first revision) 

Specification for foundation bolts 
(first revision) 

Specification for aluminium 
fasteners for building purposes 

Specification for heavy washers for 

steel structures 

Specification for high strength 

structural nuts (first revision) 

Specification for hexagon bolts for 

steel structures 

Specification for hardened and 

tempered washers for high strength 

structural bolts and nuts (first 

revision) 

Specification for wall and roofing 

nails 

Specification for slotted raised 
countersunk head wood screws 

Specification for slotted round 
head wood screws 

Specification for slotted 
countersunk head wood screws 

Specification for washers with 
square hole for wood fastenings 

Specification for slotted 

countersunk head bolts for steel 

structures 

Specification for slotted mushroom 

head roofing bolts 

Specification for washers for 
corrugated sheet roofing 

Specification for slotted raised 
countersunk head screws 

Specification for technical supply 
conditions for rivets 



38 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



IS No. Title 

10238 : 2001 Specification for step bolts for steel 

structures 

12427 : 2001 Specification for transmission 

tower bolts 

26. UNIT WEIGHTS OF BUILDING MATERIALS 

875 (Part 1) : Code of practice for design loads 

1987 (other than earthquake) for 

buildings and structures: Part 1 
Dead loads — Unit weights of 
building material and stored 
materials (second revision) 

27. WATERPROOFING AND DAMP-PROOFING 
MATERIALS 



IS No. Title 

(Part 4) : 1993 Pressure head test 

(Part 5) : 1993 Heat resistance test 

(Part 6) : 1993 Water absorption test 

(Part 7) : 1993 Determination of binder content 

14695 : 1999 Specification for glass fibre base 

coal tar pitch outer wrap 

28. WELDING ELECTRODES AND WIRES 



814 : 1991 



1278 : 1972 



1322: 1993 


Specification for bitumen felts for 
waterproofing and damp-proofing 
(fourth revision) 


1395 


: 1982 


1580 : 1991 


Specification for bituminous 
compound for waterproofing and 
caulking purposes (first revision) 


2879: 


: 1998 


3037 : 1986 


Specification for bitumen mastic 
for use in waterproofing of roofs 
(first revision) 


3613 : 


: 1974 


3384 : 1986 


Specification for bitumen primer 
for use in waterproofing and damp- 
proofing (first revision) 


4972: 


: 1968 


5871 : 1987 


Specification for bitumen mastic 
for tanking and damp-proofing 
(first revision) 


5206: 


: 1983 


7193 : 1994 
12027 : 1987 


Specification for glass fibre base 
coal tar pitch and bitumen felts 
(first revision) 

Specification for silicone-based 
water repellents 


5511 : 


1991 


13435 


Method of tests for acrylic based 
waterproofing material: 


5897: 


1985 


(Part 1): 1992 


Determination of solid content 






(Part 2) : 1992 


Determination of coarse particle 






(Part 3) : 1992 


Determination of capillary water 
take-up 


5898: 


1970 


(Part 4) : 1992 
(Part 5) : 1992 


Determination of pH value 
Determination of minimum film 
forming temperature and white 
point 


6419: 


1996 


13826 


Bitumen based felts — Method of 

test: 


6560: 


1996 


(Part 1) : 1993 


Breaking strength test 






(Part 2) : 1993 


Pliability test 






(Part 3) : 1993 


Storage sticking test 







Specification for covered 
electrodes for manual metal arc 
welding of carbon and carbon 
manganese steel (fifth revision) 

Specification for filler rods and 
wires for gas welding (second 
revision) 

Specification for low and medium 
alloy steel covered electrodes for 
manual metal arc welding (third 
revision) 

Mild steel for metal arc welding 
electrodes (third revision) 

Acceptance tests for wire flux 
combinations for submerged-arc 
welding of structural steel (first 
revision) 

Specification for resistance spot- 
welding electrodes 

Covered electrodes for manual arc 
welding of stainless steel and other 
similar high alloy steels (first 
revision) 

Specification for covered 
electrodes for manual metal arc 
welding of cast iron (first revision) 

Specification for aluminium and 
aluminium alloy welding rods and 
wires and magnesium alloy 
welding rods (first revision) 

Specification for copper and 
copper alloy bare solid welding 
rods and electrodes 

Specification for welding rods and 
bare electrodes for gas shielded arc 
welding of structural steel (first 
revision) 

Specification for molybdenum and 
chromium-molybdenum low alloy 
steel welding rods and bare 
electrodes for gas shielded arc 
welding (first revision) 



PART 5 BUILDING MATERIALS 



39 



Title 

Specification for bare wire 
electrodes for submerged-arc 
welding of structural steels 

Specification for bare wire electrodes 
for electroslag welding of steels 

Stainless steel for welding electrode 
core wire 

29. WIRE ROPES AND WIRE PRODUCTS 



IS No. 


7280: 


1974 


8363: 


1976 


10631 


: 1983 



278 : 1978 



2140 : 1978 



Specification for galvanized steel 
barbed wire for fencing (third 
revision) 

Specification for stranded 
galvanized steel wire for fencing 
(first revision) 



IS No, Title 

2266 : 2002 Specification for steel wire ropes 

for general engineering purposes 

(fourth revision) 

2365 : 1977 Specification for steel wire 

suspension ropes for lifts , elevators 
and hoists (first revision) 

2721 : 2003 Specification for galvanized steel 

wire chain link fences fabric 

(second revision) 

6594 : 1977 Specification for technical supply 

conditions for wire ropes and 
strands (first revision) 

1 2776 : 2002 Specification for galvanized strand 

for earthing (first revision) 



40 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 

PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN 
Section 1 Loads, Forces and Effects 



BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS 



CONTENTS 



FOREWORD ... 3 

1 SCOPE ... 5 

2 DEAD LOAD ... 5 

3 IMPOSED LOAD ... 5 

4 WIND LOAD ... 14 

5 SEISMIC LOAD ... 53 

6 SNOW LOAD ... 75 

7 SPECIAL LOADS ... 81 

8 LOAD COMBINATIONS ... 86 

9 MULTI-HAZARD RISK IN VARIOUS DISTRICTS OF INDIA ... 86 

ANNEX A ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE SHOWING REDUCTION OF ... 88 
UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED IMPOSED FLOOR LOADS IN 
MULTI-STOREYED BUILDINGS FOR DESIGN OF COLUMNS 

ANNEX B NOTATIONS ... 89 

ANNEX C BASIC WIND SPEED A 10 m HEIGHT FOR SOME IMPORTANT ... 89 
CITIES/TOWNS 

ANNEX D CHANGES IN TERRAIN CATEGORIES ... 90 

ANNEX E EFFECT OF A CLIFF OR ESCARPMENT ON THE EQUIVALENT ... 92 
HEIGHT ABOVE GROUND (* 3 FACTOR) 

ANNEX F WIND FORCE ON CIRCULAR SECTIONS ... 94 

ANNEX G SYMBOLS ... 95 

ANNEX H COMPREHENSIVE INTENSITY SCALE (MSK 64) ... 96 

ANNEX J ZONE FACTORS FOR SOME IMPORTANT TOWNS ... 99 

ANNEX K SHAPE COEFFICIENTS FOR MULTILEVEL ROOFS ... 100 

ANNEX L VIBRATIONS IN BUILDINGS ... 101 

ANNEX M SUMMARY OF DISTRICTS HAVING SUBSTANTIAL ... 102 
MULTI-HAZARD RISK AREAS 

LIST OF STANDARDS ... 103 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



National Building Code Sectional Committee, CED 46 



FOREWORD 

This Section covers the various loads, forces and effects which are to be taken into account for structural design 
of buildings. The various loads that are covered under this Section are dead load, imposed load, wind load, 
seismic load, snow load, special loads and load combinations. 

This Code was first published in 1970 and revised in 1983. Subsequently the first revision of this Section was 
modified in 1987 through Amendment No. 2 to the 1983 version of the Code to bring this Section in line with the 
latest revised loading code. Now, in view of the revision of the important Indian Standard on earthquake resistant 
design of structure, that is IS 1893, a need to revise this Part was felt. This revision has therefore been prepared 
to take into account this revised standard, IS 1893 (Part 1) : 2002 'Criteria for earthquake resistant design of 
structures: Part 1 General provision and buildings (fifth revision)* and also incorporate latest information on 
additional loads, forces and effects as also the details regarding multi-hazard risk in various districts of India. 

The significant changes incorporated in this revision include: 

a) The seismic zone map is revised with only four zones, instead of five. Erstwhile Zone I has been merged 
in to Zone II. Hence, Zone I does not appear in the new zoning; only Zones II, III, IV and V do. 

b) The values of seismic zone factors have been changed; these now reflect more realistic values of effective 
peak ground acceleration considering Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) and service life of 
structure in each seismic zone. 

c) Response spectra are now specified for three types of founding strata, namely rock and hard soil, medium 
soil and soft soil. 

d) Empirical expression for estimating the fundamental natural period 7 of multi-storeyed buildings with 
regular moment resisting frames has been revised. 

e) This revision adopts the procedure of first calculating the actual force that may be experienced by the 
structure during the probable maximum earthquake, if it were to remain elastic. Then, the concept of 
response reduction due to ductile deformation or frictional energy dissipation in the cracks is brought in 
this Section explicitly, by introducing the 'response reduction factor' in place of the earlier performance 
factor. 

f) A lower bound is specified for the design base shear of buildings, based on empirical estimate of the 
fundamental natural period 7\ 

g) The soil-foundation system factor is dropped. Instead, a clause has been introduced to restrict the use of 
foundations vulnerable to differential settlements in severe seismic zones. 

h) Torsional eccentricity values have been revised upwards in view of serious damages observed in buildings 
with irregular plans. 

j) Modal combination rule in dynamic analysis of buildings has been revised. 

k) Other clauses have been redrafted where necessary for more effective implementation. 

m) A new clause on multi-hazard risk in various districts of India and a list of districts identified as multi- 
hazard prone districts have been included. 

n) Latest amendments issued to IS 875 have been incorporated. 

p) A clause on vibration in buildings has been introduced for general guidance. 

q) Reference has been included to the Indian Standards on landslide control and design of retaining walls, 
formulated after the last revision of the Section. 

The information contained in this Section is largely based on the following Indian Standards: 

IS 1893 (Part 1) : 2002 Criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures: Part 1 General provisions 
and buildings (fifth revision) 

PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN — SECTION 1 LOADS, FORCES AND EFFECTS 3 



IS 875 (Part 2) : 1987 Code of practice for design loads (other than earthquake) for buildings and 

structures: Part 2 Imposed loads (second revision) 
IS 875 (Part 3) : 1988 Code of practice for design loads (other than earthquake) for buildings and 

structures: Part 3 Wind loads (second revision) 
IS 875 (Part 4) : 1987 Code of practice for design loads (other than earthquake) for buildings and 

structures: Part 4 Snow loads (second revision) 
IS 875 (Part 5) : 1987 Code of practice for design loads (other than earthquake) for buildings and 

structures: Part 5 Special loads and load combinations (second revision) 

This Section has to be read together with Sections 2 to 7 of Part 6 'Structural Design'. 

A reference to SP 64 (S&T) : 2001 'Explanatory Handbook on Indian Standard Code of practice for design 
loads (other than earthquake) for buildings and structures: Part 3 Wind loads IS 875 (Part 3) : 1987' may be 
useful. This publication gives detailed background information on the provisions for wind loads and also the use 
of these provisions for arriving at the wind loads on buildings and structures while evaluating their structural 
safety. 

Reference may also be made to the Vulnerability Atlas of India, 1997 and Landslide Hazard Zonation Atlas of 
India, 2003 Building Materials and Technology Promotion Council, Ministry of Urban Development and Poverty 
Alleviation, Government of India. The vulnerability Atlas contains information pertaining to each State and 
Union Territory of India, on (a) seismic hazard map, (b) cyclone, and wind map, (c) flood prone area map, and 
(d) housing stock vulnerability table for each district indicating for each house type the level of risk to which it 
could be subjected. The Atlas can be used to identify areas in each district of the country which are prone to high 
risk from more than one hazard. The information will be useful in establishing the need of developing housing 
designs to resist the combination of such hazards. 

All standards, whether given herein above or cross-referred to in the main text of this Section, are subject to 
revision. The parties to agreement based on this Section are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying 
the most recent editions of the standards. 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 

PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN 
Section 1 Loads, Forces and Effects 



1 SCOPE 

1.1 This Section covers basic design loads to be 
assumed in the design of buildings. The imposed loads, 
wind loads, seismic loads, snow loads and other loads, 
which are specified herein, are minimum working loads 
which should be taken into consideration for purposes 
of design. 

1.2 This Section does not take into consideration loads 
incidental to construction. 

2 DEAD LOAD 

2.1 Assessment of Dead Load 

The dead load in a building shall comprise the weight 
of all walls, partitions, floors and roofs, and shall include 
the weights of all other permanent constructions in the 
building and shall conform to good practice [6-1(1)]. 

3 IMPOSED LOAD 

3.1 This clause covers imposed loads (live loads) to 
be assumed in the design of buildings. The imposed 
loads specified herein are minimum loads which should 
be taken into consideration for the purpose of structural 
safety of buildings. 

NOTE — This Section does not cover detailed provisions for 
loads incidental to construction and special cases of vibration, 
such as moving machinery, heavy acceleration from cranes, 
hoists and the like. Such loads shall be dealt with individually 
in each case. 

3.2 Terminology 

3.2.1 For the purpose of imposed loads specified 
herein, the following definitions shall apply: 

3.2.1.1 Assembly Buildings — These shall include any 
building or part of a building where groups of people 
congregate or gather for amusement, recreation, social, 
religious, patriotic, civil, travel and similar purposes; 
for example, theatres, motion picture houses, assembly 
halls, city halls, marriage halls, town halls, auditoria, 
exhibition halls, museums, skating rinks, gymnasiums, 
restaurants (also used as assembly halls), place of 
worship, dance halls, club rooms, passenger stations 
and terminals of air, surface and other public 
transportation services, recreation piers and stadia, etc, 

3.2.1.2 Business Buildings — These shall include any 
building or part of a building, which is used for 
transaction of business (other than that covered by 
mercantile buildings); for keeping of accounts and 
records for similar purposes; offices, banks, 
professional establishments, courthouses, and libraries 
shall be classified in this group so far as principal 



function of these is transaction of public business and 
the keeping of books and records. 

3.2.1.3 Dwellings — These shall include any building 
or part occupied by members of single/multi-family 
units with independent cooking facilities. These shall 
also include apartment houses (flats). 

3.2.1.4 Educational Buildings — These shall include 
any building used for school, college or day-care 
purposes involving assembly for instruction, education 
or recreation and which is not covered by assembly 
buildings. 

3.2.1.5 Imposed Load — The load assumed to be 
produced by the intended use or occupancy of a 
building including the weight of movable partitions, 
distributed and concentrated loads, loads due to impact 
and vibration, and dust loads but excluding wind, 
seismic, snow and other loads due to temperature 
changes, creep, shrinkage, differential settlement, etc. 

3.2.1.6 Industrial Buildings — These shall include any 
building or a part of a building or structure, in which 
products or materials of various kinds and properties 
are fabricated, assembled or processed like assembly 
plants, power plants, refineries, gas plants, mills, 
dairies, factories, workshops, etc. 

3.2.1.7 Institutional Buildings — These shall include 
any building or a part thereof, which is used for 
purposes, such as, medical or other treatment in case 
of persons suffering from physical and mental illness, 
disease or infirmity; care of infants, convalescents or 
aged persons and for penal or correctional detention 
in which the liberty of the inmates is restricted. 
Institutional buildings ordinarily provide sleeping 
accommodation for the occupants. It includes hospitals, 
sanitoria, custodial institutions or penal institutions like 
jails, prisons and reformatories. 

3.2.1.8 Occupancy or Use Group — The principal 
occupancy for which a buijding or part of a building is 
used or intended to be used; for the purpose of 
classification of a building according to occupancy, 
an occupancy shall be deemed to include subsidiary 
occupancies which are contingent upon it. The 
occupancy classification is given in the following 
groups. 

3.2.1.9 Office Buildings — The buildings primarily to 
be used as an office or for office purposes; 'office 
purposes' include the purpose of administration, clerical 
work, handling money, telephone and telegraph operating, 
and operating computers, calculating machines, 'clerical 
work' includes writing, book-keeping, sorting papers, 



PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN — SECTION 1 LOADS, FORCES AND EFFECTS 



typing, filing, duplicating, punching cards or tapes, 
drawing of matter for publication and the editorial 
preparation of matter for publication. 

3.2.1.10 Mercantile Buildings — These shall include 
any building or a part of a building which is used 
as shops, stores, market for display and sale of 
merchandize either wholesale or retail. Office, storage 
and service and facilities incidental to the sale of 
merchandize and located in the same building shall be 
included under this group. 

3.2.1.11 Residential Buildings — These shall include 
any building in which sleeping accommodation is 
provided for normal residential purposes with or 
without cooking or dining or both facilities (except 
buildings under institutional buildings). It includes one 
or multi-family dwellings, apartment houses (flats), 
lodging or rooming houses, restaurants, hostels, 
dormitories and residential hotels. 

3.2.1.12 Storage Buildings — These shall include any 
building or part of a building used primarily for the 
storage or sheltering of goods, wares or merchandize, 
like warehouses, cold storages, freight depots, transity 
sheds, store houses, garages, hangers, truck terminals, 
grain elevators, barns and stables. 

3.3 Imposed Loads on Floors Due to Use and 
Occupancy 

3.3.1 Imposed Loads 

The imposed loads to be assumed in the design of 
buildings shall be the greatest loads that probably will 
be produced by the intended use or occupancy, but shall 
not be less than the equivalent minimum loads specified 
in Table 1 subject to any reductions permitted in 3.3.2. 

Floors shall be investigated for both the uniformly 
distributed load (UDL) and the corresponding 
concentrated load specified in Table 1, and designed 
for the most adverse effects but they shall not be 
considered to act simultaneously. The concentrated 
loads specified in Table 1 may be assumed to act over 
an area of 0.3 m x 0.3 m. However, the concentrated 
loads need not be considered where the floors are 
capable of effective lateral distribution of this load. 

All other structural elements shall be investigated for 



the effects of uniformly distributed loads on the floors 
specified in Table 1. 

NOTES 

1 Where, in Table 1 , no values are given for concentrated load, 
it may be assumed that the tabulated distributed load is adequate 
for design purposes. 

2 The loads specified in Table 1 are equivalent uniformly 
distributed loads on the plan area and provide for normal effects 
of impact and acceleration. They do not take into consideration 
special concentrated loads and other loads. 

3 Where the use of an area or floor is not provided in Table 1, 
the imposed load due to the use and occupancy of such an area 
shall be determined from the analysis of loads resulting from: 

a) weight of the probable assembly of persons; 

b) weight of the probable accumulation of equipment and 
furnishing; 

c) weight of the probable storage materials; and 

d) impact factor, if any. 

4 While selecting a particular loading, the possible change in 
use or occupancy of the building should be kept in view. 
Designers should not necessarily select in every case the lower 
loading appropriate to the first occupancy. In doing this they 
might introduce considerable restrictions in the use of the 
building at a later date, and thereby reduce its utility. 

5 The loads specified herein, which are based on estimations, 
may be considered as the characteristic loads for the purpose of 
limit state method of design till such time statistical data are 
established based on load surveys to be conducted in the country. 

6 When an existing building is altered by an extension in 
height or area, all existing structural parts affected by the 
addition shall be strengthened where necessary and all new 
structural parts shall be designed to meet the requirements for 
building hereafter erected. 

7 The loads specified in the section does not include loads 
incidental to construction. Therefore, close supervision during 
construction is essential to ensure that overloading of the building 
due to loads by way of stacking of building materials or use of 
equipment (for example, cranes and trucks) during construction 
or loads which may be induced by floor to floor propping in 
multi-storeyed construction, does not occur. However, if 
construction loads were of short duration, permissible increase 
in stresses in the case of working stress method or permissible 
decrease in load factors in limit state method, as applicable to 
relevant design codes, may be allowed for. 

8 The loads in Table 1 are grouped together as applicable to 
buildings having separate principal occupancy or use. For a 
building with multiple occupancies, the loads appropriate to 
the occupancy with comparable use shall be chosen from other 
occupancies. 

9 Regarding loading on lift machine rooms including storage 
space used for repairing lift machines, designers should go by 
the recommendations of lift manufacturers for the present. 
Regarding loading due to fajse ceiling, the same should be 
considered as imposed loads tin the roof/floor to which it is fixed. 



Table 1 Imposed Floor Loads for Different Occupancies 

{Clause 3.3.1) 



Si 
No. 

(1) 



Occupancy Classification 

(2) 



Uniformly Distributed 
Load (UDL) 

(3) 



Concentrated Load 

(4) 



i) Residential Buildings 
a) Dwelling houses: 

1 ) All rooms and kitchens 

2) Toilets and bathrooms 



KN/m' 

2.0 
2.0 



KN 



1.8 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



Table 1 — Continued 



(1) 



(2) 



(3) 



(4) 



ii) 



3) Corridors, passages, staircases including fire escapes 
and store rooms 

4) Balconies 

b) Dwelling units planned and executed in accordance with 

[6-1(2)] only: 

1) Habitable rooms, kitchens, and toilets and bathrooms 

2) Corridors, passages and staircases including fire escapes 

3) Balconies 

c) Hotels, hostels, boarding houses, lodging houses, 
dormitories and residential clubs: 

1) Living rooms, bed rooms and dormitories 

2) Kitchen and laundries 

3) Billiards room and public lounges 

4) Store rooms 

5) Dining rooms, cafeterias and restaurants 

6) Office rooms 

7) Rooms for indoor games 

8) Baths and toilets 

9) Corridors, passages staircases including fire escapes and 
lobbies as per the floor services (excluding stores and 
the like) but not less than 

10) Balconies 



d) Boiler rooms and plant roomsto be calculated but not less 
than 

e) Garages: 

1) Garage floors (including parking area and repair 
workshops for passenger cars and vehicles not 
exceeding 2.5 tonnes gross weight, including access 
ways and ramps — to be calculated but not less than 

2) Garage floors for vehicles not exceeding 4.0 tonnes 
gross weight (including access ways and ramps) — to be 
calculated but not less than 

Educational Buildings 

a) Class rooms and lecture rooms (not used for assembly 
purposes) 

b) Dining rooms, cafeterias and restaurants 

c) Offices, lounges and staff rooms 

d) Dormitories 

e) Projection rooms 

f) Kitchens 

g) Toilets and bathrooms 
h) Storerooms 

j) Libraries and archives: 
1) Stack room/stack area 



2) Reading rooms (without separate storage) 

3) Reading rooms (with separate storage) 

k) Boiler rooms and plant rooms — to be calculated but not 
less than 

m) Corridors, passages, lobbies, staircases including fire 
escapes — as per the floor serviced (without accounting for 
storage and projection rooms) but not less than 

n) Balconies 



3.0 
3.0 



1.5 
1.5 
.3.0 



2.0 
3.0 
3.0 
5.0 
4.0 
2.5 
3.0 
2.0 
3.0 



Same as rooms to which they 
give access but with a 
minimum of 4.0 
5.0 



2.5 



5.0 



3.0 



4.5 

1.5 per metre run 
concentrated at the outer edge 



1.4 

1.4 

1.5 per metre run 
concentrated at the outer edge 



1.8 

4.5 
2.7 
4.5 
2.7 
2.7 
1.8 

4.5 



1.5 per metre run 
concentrated at the outer edge 

6.7 



9.0 



9.0 



2.7 



3.0 l) 




2.7 


2.5 




2.7 


2.0 




2.7 


5.0 




— 


3.0 




4.5 


2.0 




— 


5.0 




4.5 


6.0 kN/m 2 for a 


minimum 


4.5 


height of 2.2 m + 


2.0 kN/m 2 




per metre height beyond 2.2 m 




4.0 




4.5 


3.0 




4.5 


4.0 




4.5 



4.0 



Same as rooms to which they 
give access but with a 
minimum of 4.0 



4.5 



1.5 metre run concentrated at 
the outer edge 



PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN — SECTION 1 LOADS, FORCES AND EFFECTS 



Table 1 — Continued 



(l) 



(2) 



(3) 



(4) 



iii) Institutional Buildings 

a) Bed rooms, wards, dressing rooms, dormitories and lounges 

b) Kitchens, laundries and laboratories 

c) Dining rooms, cafeterias and restaurants 

d) Toilets and bathrooms 

e) X-ray rooms, operating rooms and general storage areas — 
to be calculated but not less than 

f) Office rooms and O.P.D. rooms 

g) Corridors, passages, lobbies, staircases including fire 
escapes — as per the floor serviced (without accounting for 
storage and projection rooms) but not less than 

h) Boiler rooms and plant rooms — to be calculated but not 

less than 
j) Balconies 

iv) Assembly Building 

a) Assembly areas: 

1) With fixed seats 2) 

2) Without fixed seats 

b) Restaurants (subject to assembly), museums and art 
galleries and gymnasia 

c) Projection rooms 

d) Stages 

e) Office rooms, kitchens and laundries 

f) Dressing rooms 

g) Lounges and billiards rooms 
h) Toilets and bathrooms 

j) Corridors, passages and staircases including fire escapes 
k) Balconies 



m) Boiler rooms and plant rooms including weight of 
machinery 

n) Corridors, passages, subject to loads greater than from 
crowds, such as wheeled vehicles, trolleys and the like 
corridors, staircases and passages in grandstands 
v) Business and Office Buildings (see also 3 2.1) 

a) Rooms for general use with separate storage 

b) Rooms without separate storage 

c) Banking halls 

d) Business computing machine rooms (with fixed computers 
or similar equipment) 

e) Records/files store rooms and storage space 

f) Vaults and strong rooms — to be calculated but not less 
than 

g) Cafeterias and dinning rooms 

h) Kitchens 

j) Corridors, passages, lobbies, staircases including fire 
escapes — as per the floor serviced (excluding stores) but 
not less than 

k) Bath and toilets rooms 

m) Balconies 



2.0 

3.0 

3.0 1} 

2.0 

3.0 

2.5 
4.0 

5.0 

Same as rooms to which they 
give access but with a 
minimum of 4.0 



1.8 
4.5 

2.7 

4.5 

2.7 
4.5 

4.5 

1.5 metre run concentrated at 
the outer edge 



4.0 








_ 


5.0 








3.6 


4.0 








4.5 


5.0 











5.0 








4.5 


3.0 








4.5 


2.0 








1.8 


2.0 








2.7 


2.0 








— 


4.0 








4.5 


Same as rooms to 
give access but 
minimum of 4.0 


which they 
with a 


1.5 metre 
the outer i 


run concentrated at 
edge 


7.5 








4.5 


5.0 








4.5 



2.5 
4.0 
3.0 
3.5 

5.0 
5.0 

3.0 l > 

3.0 

4.0 

2.0 



n) Stationary stores 



p) Boiler rooms and plant rooms — to be calculated but not 
less than 

q) Libraries 



Same as rooms to which they 
give access but with a 
minimum of 4.0 

4.0 for each metre of storage 
height 

5.0 
S«?SlNo.(ii) 



2.7 
4.5 
2.7 
4.5 

4.5 
4.5 

2.7 
2.7 
4.5 



1.5 metre run concentrated at 
the outer edge 

9.0 

6.7 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



Table 1 — Concluded 



(1) 



(2) 



(3) 



(4) 



vi) 



vii) 



Merchantile Buildings 

a) Retail shops 

b) Wholesale shops — to be calculated but not less than 

c) Office rooms 

d) Dining rooms, restaurants and cafeterias 

e) Toilets 

f) Kitchens and laundries 

g) Boiler rooms and plant rooms — to be calculated but not 
less than 

h) Corridors, passages, staircases including fire escapes and 
lobbies 

j) Corridors, passages, staircases subject to loads greater than 
from crowds, such as wheeled vehicles, trolleys and the like 
k) Balconies 

Industrial Buildings'^ 

a) Work areas without machinery/equipment 

b) Work areas with machinery/equipment 3) 

1) Light duty *1 

2) Medium duty V To be calculated but not less than 

3) Heavy duty J 

c) Boiler rooms and plant rooms — to be calculated but not 
less than 

d) Cafeterias and dinning rooms 

e) Corridors, passages, staircases including fire escapes 

f) Corridors, passages, lobbies, staircases subject to machine 



4.0 

6.0 

2.5 

3.0» 

2.0 

3.0 

5.0 

' 4.0 

5.0 

Same as rooms to which they 
give access but with a 
minimum of 4.0 

2.5 

5.0 
7.0 
10.0 
5.0 

3.0 1} 

4.0 

5.0 



loads and wheeled vehicles - 
than 



- to be calculated but not less 



g) Kitchens 3.0 

h) Toilets and bathrooms 2.0 

viii) Storage Buildings 4 * 

a) Storage rooms (other than cold storage) and warehouses — 2.4 kN/m 2 per metre of 
to be calculated based on the bulk density of materials 



stored but not less than 
b) Cold storage — to be calculated but not less than 



c) Corridors, passages, staircases including fire escapes — as 
per the floor serviced but not less than 

d) Corridors, passages subject to loads greater than from 
crowds, such as wheeled vehicles, trolleys and the like 



e) Boiler rooms and plant rooms 



storage height with 
minimum of 7.5 kN/m 2 

5.0 kN/m 2 per metre 
storage height with 
minimum of 15 kN/m 2 

4.0 

5.0 



7.5 



of 
a 



3.6 
4.5 
2.7 
2.7 

4.5 
6.7 

4.5 

4.5 

1.5 metre run concentrated at 
the outer edge 



4.5 

4.5 
4.5 
4.5 
6.7 

2.7 
4.5 
4.5 

4.5 

7.0 

9.0 

4.5 
4.5 

4.5 



!) Where unrestricted assembly of persons is anticipated, the value of UDL should be increased to 4.0 kN/m 2 

2) With fixed seats' implies that the removal of the seating and the use of the space for other purposes is improbable. The maximum 
likely load in this case is, therefore, closely controlled. A . 

3> The loading in industrial buildings (workshops and factories) varies considerably and so three loadings under the terms 'light*, 
'medium' and 'heavy' are introduced in order to allow for more economical designs but the terms have no special meaning in 
themselves other than the imposed load for which the relevant floor is designed. It is, however, important particularly in the case 
of heavy weight loads, to assess the actual loads to ensure that they are not in excess of 10 kN/m 2 ; in case where they are in excess, 
the design shall be based on the actual loadings. 

4) For various mechanical handling equipment which are used to transport goods, as in warehouses, workshops, store rooms, etc, the 
actual load coming from the use of such equipment shall be ascertained and design should cater to such loads. 



3.3.1.1 Load application 

The uniformly distributed loads specified in Table 1 
shall be applied as static loads over the entire floor 
area under consideration or a portion of the floor area 



whichever arrangement produces critical effects on the 
structural elements as provided in respective design 
codes. 



In the design of floors, the concentrated loads are 
PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN —SECTION 1 LOADS, FORCES AND EFFECTS 9 



considered to be applied in the positions which produce 
the maximum stresses and where deflection is the main 
criterion in the positions which produce the maximum 
deflections. Concentrated load, when used for the 
calculation of bending and shear, are assumed to act at 
a point. When used for the calculation of local effects, 
such as, crushing or punching, they are assumed to act 
over an actual area of application of 0.3 m x 0.3 m. 

3.3.1.2 Loads due to light partitions 

In office and other buildings, where actual loads due 
to light partitions cannot be assessed at the time of 
planning the floors and the supporting structural 
members shall be designed to carry, in addition to other 
loads, uniformly distributed loads per square metre of 
not less than 33.33 percent of weight per metre run of 
finished partitions, subject to a minimum of 1 kN/m 2 , 
provided total weight of partition walls per m 2 of the 
wall area does not exceed 1.5 kN/m 2 and the total 
weight per metre length is not greater than 4.0 kN. 

3.3.2 Reduction in Imposed Loads on Floors 

3.3.2.1 For members supporting floors 

Except as provided for in 3,3.2.1 (a), the following 
reductions in assumed total imposed loads on the floors 
may be made in designing columns, load bearing walls, 
piers, their supports and foundations. 



Number of Floors 

(Including the Roof) 

to be Carried by 

Member Under 

Consideration 


Reduction in Total 

Distributed Imposed Load 

on All Floors to be Carried 

by the Member Under 

Consideration Percent 


(i) 
i 


(2) 



2 

3 

4 
5 to 10 
Over 10 


10 
20 
30 
40 
50 



a) No reduction shall be made for any plant or 
machinery which is specifically allowed for, 
or for buildings for storage purposes, 
warehouses and garages. However, for other 
buildings, where the floor is designed for an 
imposed floor load of 5.0 kN/m 2 or more, the 
reductions shown in 3.3.2.1 may be taken 
provided that the loading assumed is not less 
than it would have been if all the floors 
had been designed for 5.0 kN/m 2 with no 
reductions. 

NOTE — In case if the reduced load in the lower floor 
is lesser than the reduced load in the upper floor, then 
the reduced load of the upper floor will be adopted. 

b) An example is given in Annex A illustrating 



the reduction of imposed loads in a multi- 
storeyed building in the design of column 
members. 

3.3.2.2 For beams in each floor level 

Where a single span of beam, girder or truss supports 
not less than 50 m 2 of floor at one general level, the 
imposed floor load may be reduced in the design of 
the beams, girders or trusses by 5 percent for each 
50 m 2 area supported subject to a maximum reduction 
of 25 percent. However, no reduction shall be made in 
any of the following types of loads: 

a) any superimposed moving load, 

b) any actual load due to machinery or similar 
concentrated loads, 

c) the additional load in respect of partition 
walls; and 

d) any impact or vibration. 

NOTE — The above reduction does not apply to beams, 
girdes or trusses supporting roof loads. 

3.3.3 Posting of Floor Capacities 

Where a floor or part of a floor of a building has been 
designed to sustain a uniformly distributed load 
exceeding 3.0 kN/m 2 and in assembly, business 
mercantile, industrial or storage buildings, a permanent 
notice in the form shown below indicating the actual 
uniformly distributed and/or concentrated loadings for 
which the floor has been structurally designed shall be 
posted in a conspicuous place in a position adjacent to 
such floor or on such part of a floor. 



DESIGNED IMPOSED FLOOR LOADING 

Distributed kN/m 2 

Concentrated kN 



Label Indicating Designed Imposed 
Floor Loading 

NOTES 

1 The lettering of such notice shall be embossed or cast suitably 
on a tablet whose least dimension shall not be less than 0.25 m 
and located not less than 1.5>m above floor level with lettering 
of a minimum size of 25 mm. 

2 If a concentrated load or a bulk load has to occupy a definite 
position on the floor, the same could also be indicated in the 
lable. 

3.4 Imposed Loads on Roofs 

3.4.1 Imposed Loads on Various Types of Roofs 

On flat roofs, sloping roofs and curved roofs, the 
imposed loads due to use and occupancy of the 
buildings and the geometry of the types of roofs shall 
be as given in Table 2. 



10 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



Table 2 Imposed Loads on Various Types of Roofs 

{Clause 3.4.1) 



SI 
No. 


Type of Roof 


(1) 


(2) 



Imposed Load Measured on Flan Area 



(3) 



Minimum Imposed Load 
Measured on Plan 

(4) 



Hat, sloping or curved roof with 

slopes up to and including 10 

degrees 

a) Access provided 



b) Access not provided except for 
maintenance 



1.5 kN/m 2 



0.75 kN/m 2 



ii) Sloping roof with slope greater than 

10° 

iii) Curved roof with slope of line 
obtained by joining springing point 
to the crown with the horizontal, 
greater than 10° 



3.75 kN uniformly distributed over 
any span of one metre width of the 
roof slab and 9 kN uniformly 
distributed over the span of any beam 
or truss or wall 

1.9 kN uniformly distributed over any 
span of one metre width of the roof 
slab and 4.5 kN uniformly distributed 
over the span of any beam or truss or 
wall 

Subject to a minimum of 0.4 kN/m 2 



Subject to a minimum of 0.4 kN/m 2 



For roof membrane sheets or purlins - 0.75 kN/m 2 

less 0.02 kN/m 2 for every degree increase in slope 

over 10° 

(0.75 -0.52 a 2 ) kN/m 2 

where 

a=hll 

h- height of the highest point of the structure 
measured from its springing; and 

I = chord width of the roof if singly curved and 
shorter of the two sides if doubly curved. 

Alternatively, where structural analysis can be 
carried out for curved roofs of all slopes in a simple 
manner applying the laws of statistics, the curved 
roofs shall be divided into minimum 6 equal 
segments and for each segment imposed load shall 
be calculated appropriate to the slope of the chord 
of each segment as given in (i) and (ii). 

NOTES 

1 The loads given above do not include loads due to snow, rain, dust collection, etc. The roof shall be designed for imposed loads 
given above or for snow/rain load, whichever is greater. 

2 For special types of roofs with highly permeable and absorbent material, the contingency of roof material increasing in weight due 
to absorption of moisture shall be provided for. 



3.4.1.1 Roofs of buildings used for promenade or 
incidental to assembly purposes shall be designed for 
the appropriate imposed floor loads given in Table 1 
for the occupancy. 

3.4.2 Concentrated Load on Roof Coverings 

To provide for loads incidental to maintenance, unless 
otherwise specified by the Engineer-in-Charge, all roof 
coverings (other than glass or transparent sheets made 
of fibre glass) shall be capable of carrying an incidental 
load of 0.90 kN concentrated on an area of 12.5 cm 2 so 
placed as to produce maximum stresses in the covering. 
The intensity of the concentrated load may be reduced 
with the approval of the Engineer-in-Charge, where it 
is ensured that the roof coverings would not be traversed 
without suitable aids. In any case, the roof coverings 
shall be capable of carrying the loads in accordance 
with 3.4.1, 3.4.3, 3.4.4 and wind load. 



3.4.3 Loads Due to Rain 

On surfaces whose positioning, shape and drainage 
system are, such as, to make accumulation of rain water 
possible, loads due to such accumulation of water and 
the imposed loads for the roof as given in Table 2 shall 
be considered separately and the more critical of the 
two shall be adopted in the design. 

3.4.4 Dust Loads 

In areas prone to settlement of dust on roofs (example, 
steel plants, cement plants), provision for dust load 
equivalent to probable thickness of accumulation of 
dust may be made. 

3.4.5 Loads on Members Supporting Roof Coverings 

Every member of the supporting structure which is 
directly supporting the roof covering(s) shall be 



PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN — SECTION 1 LOADS, FORCES AND EFFECTS 



11 



designed to carrv the more severe of the following 
loads except as provided in 3*4*5*1: 

a) The load transmitted to the members from the 
roof covering! s) in accordance with 3.4.1, 3.4.3 
and 3.4.4; and 

b) An incidental concentrated load of 0.90 kN 
concentrated over a length of 12.5 cm placed 
at the most favourable positions on the 
member. 

NOTE — Where it is ensured that the roofs would be 
traversed only with the aid of planks and ladders capable 
of distributing the loads on them to two or more 

indicated in 3.4.5 (b) may be reduced to 0.5 kN with 
the approval of the Engineer-in-Charge. 

3.4.5.1 In case of sloping roois witn siope greater tnan 

iv.;°, mcITiucTS Supporting tnc TOOi pUTunS, SUCii ES 

* , i ™,. ~;-,4 — „ ~+^ m ,,,, u~ j~^;~«~j f^*. +,,,^ 

uus^cs, uca.ni:>, guucis, t;ic, may ut; ut^aigntu hji lwu- 

* U i ••/! fi /\f tU/i i «-i»-w>in n/1 1/^n-ij-H /-i« v\n *«1 1 « s-\v ms^T inrt n 1-t date* 
UlllUA UI Ult^ UlipW^^U IWtlU KJYl pUlllll KJl IWUllllg >3 1 lV^V^ U"> . 

3.5 Imposed Horizontal Loads on Parapets and 
Balustrades 

3.5.1 Parapets, Parapet Walls and Balustrades 

Parapets, parapet walls and balustrades, together with 
the members which give them structural support, shall 
be designed for the minimum loads given in Table 3. 
These are expressed as horizontal forces acting at 
handrail or coping level. These loads shall be 
considered to act vertically also but not simultaneously 
with the horizontal forces. The values given in Table 3 
are minimum values and where values for actual 
loadings are available, they shall be used instead. 



Grandstands, stadia, assembly platforms, reviewing 
stands and the like shall be designed to resist a 
horizontal force applied to seats of 0.35 kN per linear 
metre along the line of seats and 0.15 kN per linear 
metre perpendicular to the line of the seats. These 
loadings need not be applied simultaneously. Platforms 
without seats shall be designed to resist a minimum 
horizontal force of 0.25 kN/m 2 of plan area. 

3.6 Loading Effects Due to Impact and Vibration 

The crane loads to be considered under imposed loads 
shall include the vertical loads, eccentricity effects 
induced by vertical loads, impact factors, lateral and 
longitudinal braking forces acting across and along the 
crane rails respectively. 

3.6.1 Impact Allowance for Lifts, Hoisis and Machinery 

The imposed loads specified in 3.3.1 shall be assumed 
to include adequate allowance for ordinary impact 
conditions. However, for structures carrying loads 



Table 3 Horizontal Loads on Parapets. 





Parapet Walls and Balustrades 










SI 


Usage Area 




Intensity of 


No. 






nonzoniai Luaa 
kN/m Run 


(1) 


(2) 




(3) 


i) Lis 


;ht aCCesS StairS, gangways and like 





not more than 600 mm wide 

ii) Light access stairs, gangways and like, 0.35 

more than 600 mm wide; stairways, 
landings, balconies and parapet walls 
(private and part of dwellings) 

iii) All Othef Stairways, landings and v. i ~> 

balconies and all parapets and handrails 
to roofs [except those subject to 
overcrowding covered under (iv)J 

iv) Parapets and balustrades in place of 2.25 

aSSeinbiy, Such aS theatres, Cinemas, 
churches, schools, places of 
entertainment, sports and buildings and 
buildings likely to be overcrowded 

NOTE — In the case of guard parapets on a floor of multi- 
storeyed car park or crash barriers provided in certain buildings 
for fire escape, the vaiue of imposed horizontal load (together 

with imrm^t lr*«(1^ mnv hp Hf»t"f»rminpH 



which induce im n act or vibration, as far as n ossibIc^ 
calculations shall be made for increase in the imnosed 
load due to impact or vibration. In the absence of 
sufficient data for such calculation, the increase in the 
imnosed loads shall be as follows: 



Structures 



a) For frames supporting lifts 
and hoists 

W\ Fnr fniinHatinn« fnntincrQ 

and niers sunnortin** lifts and 
hoisting apparatus 

r*\ Pf/^ir ciir\r\/^it-tinrr etnir^tiir^c QnH 
fruinHntirmQ fnr lioht 

machinery, shaft or motor 
units 

r\\ PT/^ir ciir\r\rkrtinrr ctmrhirpc QnH 

fminHntinnQ fnr rprinmrnrincr 
marhinerv or nnwe.r units 



Impact Allowance, 
Percent, 
Min 
100 



40 



?n 



sn 



3.6.2 Concentrated Imposed Loads with Impact and 
Vibration 

Concentrated imposed loads with impact and vibration 
which may be due to installed machinery snail be 
considered and provided for in the design. The impact 
factor snail not be less than 20 percent which is the 
amount allowable for light machinery. 

3.6.2.1 Provision shall also be made for carrying any 



12 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



concentrated equipment loads while the equipment is 
being installed or moved for servicing and repairing. 

3.6.3 Impact Allowance for Crane Girders 

For crane gantry girders and supporting columns, the 
impact allowances (given in informal table below) shall 
be deemed to cover all forces set up by vibration, shock 
from slipping of slings, kinetic action of acceleration, 
and retardation and impact of wheel loads. 



Forces specified in (c) and (d) shall be considered as 
acting at the rail level and being appropriately 
transmitted to the supporting system. Gantry girders 
and their vertical supports shall be designed on the 
assumption that either of the horizontal forces in 
(c) and (d) may act at the same time as the vertical 
load. 



NOTE 
cranes. 



See [6-1(3)] for classification (Class I to IV) of 



b) 
c) 



d) 



Impact Allowance for Crane Girders 

(Clause 3.63) 



Type of Load 
a) Vertical loads for electric overhead 



cranes 



Vertical loads for hand operated cranes 

Horizontal forces transverse to rails: 

1) For electric overhead cranes with 
trolley having rigid mast for 
suspension of lifted weight (such as, 
soaker crane, stripper crane, etc) 



2) For all other electric overhead 
cranes and hand operated cranes 



Horizontal traction forces along the 
rails for overhead cranes, either 
electrically operated or hand operated 



Additional Load 

25 percent of maximum static loads for crane girders for all 
class of cranes 

25 percent for columns supporting Class HI and Class IV 
cranes. 

10 percent for columns supporting Class I and Class II cranes. 

No additional load for design of foundations. 

10 percent of maximum wheel loads for crane girders only 

10 percent of weight of crab and the weight lifted by the 
cranes, acting on any one crane track rail, acting in either 
direction and equally distributed amongst all the wheels on 
one side of rail track 

For frame analysis, this force, calculated as above, shall be 
applied on one side of the frame at a time in either direction. 

5 percent of weight of crab and the weight lifted by the 
cranes, acting on any one crane track rail, acting in either 
direction and equally distributed amongst the wheels on one 
side of rail track 

For the frame analysis, the force, calculated as above, shall be 
applied on one side of the frame at a time in either direction. 

5 percent of all static wheel loads 



3.6.3.1 Overloading factors in crane supporting 
structures 

For all ladle cranes and charging cranes where there 
is possibility of overloading from production 
considerations, an overloading factor of 10 percent of 
the maximum wheel loading shall be taken. 

3.6.4 Crane Load Combinations 

In the absence of any specific indications, the load 
combinations shall be as indicated below. 

3.6.4.1 Vertical loads 

In an aisle, where more than one crane is in operation 
or has provision for more than one crane in future, the 
following load combinations shall be taken for vertical 
loading: 



a) Two adjacent cranes working in tandem with 
full load and with overloading according to 
3.6.3.1; and 

b) For long span gantijes, where more than one 
crane can come in the span, the girder shall 
be designed for one crane fully loaded with 
overloading according to 3.63.1 plus as many 
loaded cranes as can be accommodated on 
the span but without taking into account 
overloading according to 3.6,3 (a) to give the 
maximum effect. 

3.6.4.2 Lateral surge 

For design of columns and foundations, supporting 
crane girders, the following crane combinations shall 
be considered: 



PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN— SECTION 1 LOADS, FORCES AND EFFECTS 



13 



a) For Single Bay Frames — Effect of one crane 
in the bay giving the worst effect shall be 
considered for calculation of surge force; and 

b) For Multi-Bay Frames — Effect of two cranes 
working, one each in any of two bays in the 
cross-section to give the worst effect shall be 
considered for calculation of surge force. 

3.6.4.3 Tractive force 

a) Where one crane is in operation with no 
provision for future crane, tractive force from 
only one crane shall be taken. 

b) Where more than one crane is in operation or 
there is provision for future crane, tractive 
force from two cranes giving maximum effect 
shall be considered. 

NOTE — Lateral surge force and longitudinal tractive 
force acting across and along the crane rail respectively 
shall not be assumed to act simultaneously. However, 
if there is only one crane in the bay, the lateral and 
longitudinal forces may act together simultaneously 
with vertical loads. 

4 WIND LOAD 
4,1 General 

This clause gives wind forces and their effects (static 
and dynamic) that should be taken into account when 
designing buildings, structures and components 
thereof. 

NOTES 

1 It is believed that ultimately wind load estimation will be 
made by taking into account the random variation of wind 
speed with time, but available theoretical methods have not 
matured sufficiently at present for use in the Section. For 
this reason, equivalent static load estimation which implies a 
steady wind speed, which has proved to be satisfactory for 
normal, short and heavy structures, is given in 4.5 and 4.6. 
However, a beginning has been made to take account of the 
random nature of the wind speed by requiring that the along- 
wind or drag load on structures which are prone to wind 
induced oscillations, be also determined by the gust factor 
method {see 4.8) and the more severe of the two estimates be 
taken for design. 

A large majority of structures met within practice do not, 
however, suffer wind induced oscillations and generally do 
not require to be examined for the dynamic effects of wind 
including use of gust factor method. Nevertheless, there are 
various types of structures or their components, such as some 
tall buildings, etc, which require investigation of wind incjuced 
oscillations. In identifying and analyzing such structures 4.6 
shall be followed. 

2 In the case of tall structures with un symmetrical geometry, 
the designs may have to be checked for torsional effects due 
to wind pressure. 

4.1.1 Wind is air in motion relative to the surface of 
the earth. The primary cause of wind is traced to earth' s 
rotation and differences in terrestrial radiation. The 
radiation effects are primarily responsible for 
convection either upwards or downwards. The wind 



generally blows horizontal to the ground at high wind 
speeds. Since vertical components of atmospheric 
motion are relatively small, the term 'wind' denotes 
almost exclusively the horizontal wind, vertical winds 
are always identified as such. The wind speeds are 
assessed with the aid of anemometers or anemographs 
which are installed at meteorological observatories 
at heights generally varying from 10 to 30 m above 
ground. 

4.1.2 Very strong wind speeds (greater than 80 km/h) 
are generally associated with cyclonic storms, 
thunderstorms, dust storms or vigorous monsoons. A 
feature of the cyclonic storms over the Indian area is 
that they rapidly weaken after crossing the coasts and 
move as depressions/lows inland. The influence of a 
severe storm after striking the coast does not, in general, 
exceed about 60 km, though sometimes, it may extend 
even up to 120 km. Very short duration hurricanes of 
very high wind speeds called Kal Baisaki or Norwesters 
occur fairly frequently during summer months over 
North-Eastern India. 

4.1.3 The wind speeds recorded at any locality are 
extremely variable and, in addition to steady wind at 
any time, there are effects of gusts which may last for 
a few seconds. These gusts cause increase in air 
pressure but their effect on the stability of the building 
may not be so important; often, gusts affect only part 
of the building and the increased local pressures may 
be more than balanced by a momentary reduction in 
the pressure elsewhere. Because of the inertia of the 
building, short period gusts may not cause any 
appreciable increase in stress in the main components 
of the building, although the walls, roof sheeting and 
individual cladding units (glass panels) and their 
supporting members, such as purlins, sheeting rails and 
glazing bars may be more seriously affected. Gusts 
can also be extremely important for the design of 
structures with high slenderness ratios. 

4.1.4 The liability of a building to high wind pressures 
depends not only upon the geographical location and 
proximity of other obstructions to air flow but also upon 
the characteristics of the structure itself. 

4.1.5 The effect of wind on the structure as a whole is 
determined by the combined action of external and 
internal pressures acting upon it. In all cases, the 
calculated wind loads act normal to the surface to which 
they apply. 

4.1.6 Buildings shall also be designed with due 
attention to the effects of wind on the comfort of people 
inside and outside the buildings. 

4.1.7 The stability calculations of the building as a 
whole shall be done considering the combined effect, 
as well as separate effects of imposed loads and wind 



14 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



loads on vertical surfaces, roofs and other parts of the 
building above the general roof level. 

4.2 Notations 

The notations to be followed, unless otherwise 
specified in relevant clauses under wind loads, are 
given in Annex B. 

4.3 Terminology 

4.3.1 For the purpose of wind loads, the following 
definitions shall apply. 

4.3.1.1 Angle of attack — Angle between the direction 
of wind and a reference axis of the structure. 

4.3.1.2 Breadth — Breadth means horizontal 
dimension of the building measured normal to the 
direction of wind. 

4.3.1.3 Depth — Depth means the horizontal 
dimension of the building measured in the direction 
of the wind. 

NOTE — Breadth and depth are dimensions measured in 
relation to the direction of the wind, whereas length and width 
are dimensions related to the plan, 

4.3.1.4 Developed height 

Developed height is the height of upward penetration 
of the velocity profile in a new terrain. At large, fetch 
lengths, such penetration reaches the gradient height 
above which the wind speed may be taken to be 
constant. At lesser-fetch lengths, a velocity profile of 
a smaller height but similar to that of the fully 
developed profile of that terrain category has to be 
taken, with the additional provision that the velocity 
at the top of this shorter profile equals that of the 
unpenetrated earlier velocity profile at that height. 

4.3.1.5 Effective frontal area 

The projected area of the structure normal to the 
direction of the wind. 

4.3.1.6 Element surface area 

The area of surface over which the pressure coefficient 
is taken to be constant. 

4.3.1.7 Force coefficient 

A non-dimensional coefficient such that the total wind 
force on a body is the product of the force coefficient, 
the dynamic pressure of the incident design wind 
speed and the reference area over which the force is 
required. 

NOTE — When the force is in the direction of the incident 
wind, the non-dimensional coefficient will be called as drag 
coefficient. When the force is perpendicular to the direction 
of incident wind the non-dimensional coefficient will be called 
as 'lift coefficient'. 



4.3.1.8 Ground roughness 

The nature of the earth's surface as influenced by small 
scale obstructions such as trees and buildings (as 
distinct from topography) is called ground roughness. 

4.3.1.9 Gust 

A positive or negative departure of wind speed from 
its mean value, lasting for not more than say 2 min 
over a specified interval of time. 

4.3.1.10 Peak gust 

Peak gust or peak gust speed is the wind speed 
associated with the maximum amplitude. 

4.3.1.11 Fetch length 

Fetch length is the distance measured along the wind 
from a boundary at which a change in the type of terrain 
occurs. When the changes in terrain types are 
encountered (such as the boundary of a town or city, 
forest, etc), the wind profile changes in character but 
such changes are gradual and start at ground level, 
spreading or penetrating upwards with increasing fetch 
length. 

4.3.1.12 Gradient height 

Gradient height is the height above the mean ground 
level at which the gradient wind blows as a result of 
balance among pressure gradient force, coriolis force 
and centrifugal force. For the purpose of this Section, 
the gradient height is taken as the height above the 
mean ground level above which the variation of wind 
speed with height need not be considered. 

4.3.1.13 Mean ground level 

The mean ground level is the average horizontal plane 
of the area enclosed by the boundaries of the structure. 

4.3.1.14 Pressure coefficient 

Pressure coefficient is the ratio of the difference 
between the pressure acting at a point on a surface and 
the static pressure of the incident wind to the design 
wind pressure, where the static and design wind 
pressure are determined at the height of the point 
considered after taking into account the geographical 
location, terrain conditions and shielding effect. The 
pressure coefficient is also equal to [1-(V7V Z ) 2 ], where 
V is the actual wind speed at any point on the structure 
at a height corresponding to that of V z . 

NOTE — Positive sign of the pressure coefficient indicates 
pressure acting towards the surface and negative sign indicates 
pressure acting away from the surface. 

4.3.1.15 Return period 

Return period is the number of years, the reciprocal of 
which gives the probability of extreme wind exceeding 
a given wind speed in any one year. 



PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN — SECTION 1 LOADS, FORCES AND EFFECTS 



15 



4.3.1.16 Shielding effect 

Shielding effect or shielding refers to the condition 
where wind has to pass along some structure(s) or 
structural element(s) located on the upstream wind side, 
before meeting the structure or structural element under 
consideration. A factor called 'shielding factor' is used 
to account for such effects in estimating the force on 
the shielded structures. 

4.3.1.17 Suction 

Suctions means pressure less than the atmospheric 
(static) pressure and is taken to act away from the 
surface. 

4.3.1.18 Solidity ratio 

Solidity ratio is equal to the effective area (projected 
area of all the individual elements) of a frame normal 
to the wind direction divided by the area enclosed by 
the boundary of the frame normal to the wind direction. 

NOTE — Solidity ratio is to be calculated for individual frames. 

4.3.1.19 Terrain category 

Terrain category means the characteristics of the 
surface irregularities of an area which arise from natural 
or constructed features. The categories are numbered 
in increasing order of roughness. 

4.3.1.20 Velocity profile 

The variation of the horizontal component of the 
atmospheric wind speed at different heights above the 
mean ground level is termed as velocity profile. 

4.3.1.21 Topography 

The nature of the earth's surface as influenced by the 
hill and valley configurations. 

4.4 Wind Speed and Pressure 

4.4.1 Nature of Wind in Atmosphere 

In general, wind speed in the atmospheric boundary 
layer increases with height from zero at ground level 
to a maximum at a height called the gradient height. 
There is usually a slight change in direction (Ekman 
effect) but this is ignored in the Section. The variation 
with height depends primarily on the terrain conditions. 
However, the wind speed at any height never remains 
constant and it has been found convenient to resolve 
its instantaneous magnitude into an average or mean 
value and a fluctuating component around this average 
value. The average value depends on the averaging 
time employed in analyzing the meteorological data 
and this averaging time varies from a few seconds to 
several minutes. The magnitude of the fluctuating 
component of the wind speed, which is called as gust, 
depends on the averaging time. In general, smaller the 



averaging interval, greater is the magnitude of the gust 
speed. 

4.4.2 Basic Wind Speed 

Figure 1 gives basic wind speed map of India, as 
applicable to 10 m height above mean ground level 
for 10 m height above mean ground level for different 
zones of the country. Basic wind speed is based on 
peak gust velocity averaged over a short time interval 
of about 3 s and corresponds to mean heights above 
ground level in an open terrain (Category 2). Basic 
wind speeds presented in Fig. 1 have been worked out 
for a 50 year return period. Basic wind speed for some 
important cities/towns is also given in Annex C. 

4A3 Design Wind Speed (V z ) 

The basic wind speed ( V b ) for any site shall be obtained 
from Fig. 1 and shall be modified to include the 
following effects to get V z , design wind speed at any 
height for the chosen structure. 

a) risk level; 

b) terrain roughness, height and size of structure; 
and 

c) local topography. 

It can be mathematically expressed as follows: 

where 

V = design of wind speed at any height z in m/s; 
V h = basic wind speed in m/s (Fig. 1); 
fcj = probability factor (risk coefficient) (4.4.3.1); 
k 2 = terrain, height and structure size factor 

(4.4.3.2); and 
k 3 = topography factor (4.4.3.3) 

NOTE — Design wind speed up to 10 m height from mean 
ground level shall be considered constant. 

4.4.3.1 Risk coefficient (k { ) 

Figure 1 gives basic wind speeds for terrain Category 2 
as applicable at 10 m above ground level based on 
50 year mean return period. The suggested life period 
to be assumed in design and the corresponding k l 
factors for different classes of structure for the purpose 
of design is given in Table 4. In the design of all 
buildings and structures, a regional basic wind speed 
having a mean return period of 50 years shall be used 
except as specified in the note of Table 4. 

4.4.3.2 Terrain, height and structure size factor (k 2 ) 

a) Terrain — Selection of terrain categories shall 
be made with due regard to the effect of the 
obstruction which constitute the ground surface 
roughness. The terrain category used in the 



16 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 




Based upon Survey of India Outline Map printed In 1993 

The territorial waters of India extend into nwseatad distance of twelve nautical miles measured from Ihe appropriate base line 

The boundary of Meghatoya shown on this map is as interpreted from the North-Eastam Areas (Recrcjanisetton) Act. 11171, hut has yet to be vertfted 

Responsibility tor correctness of internal details shown on the map rests with the publisher 

The state bour«darlG6 between Uttaranchal & Uttar Pradesh, B<har & Jherkhand and Chhattegarh & Madhys Pradesh have not been verified by Governments concerned. 



©Govemmert of India Copyright, 2005 



Fig 1 Basic Wind Speed in m/s (Based on 50- Years Return Period) 



Table 4 Risk Coefficients for Different Classes of Structures in Different Wind Speed Zones 

(Clause 4.4.3.1) 



Class of Structure 




Mean Probable 

Design Life of 

Structure in Years 

(2) 




ki Factor for Basic Wind Speed 
(m/s) of 




(1) 


*■ — 
33 

(3) 


39 44 47 50 
(4) (5) (6) (7) 


55 
(8) 


All general buildings and structures 
Temporary sheds, structures such as 


those 


50 
5 


1.0 
0.82 


1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 
0.76 0.73 0.71 0.70 


1.0 

0.67 



used during construction operations (for 
example, formwork and falsework), 
structures during construction stages and 
boundary walls 

Buildings and structures presenting a low 
degree of hazard to life and property in the 
event of failure, such as isolated towers in 
wooded areas, farm buildings, other than 
residential buildings 

Important buildings and structures, such as 
hospitals, communications buildings/towers 
and power plant structures 



25 



100 



0.94 0.92 0.91 0.90 0.90 0.89 



1.05 1.06 1.07 1.07 L08 1.08 



*,=- 



-* N * N 



A-B 



ln[-\-ln{\ -/» N )} 

N 



A + 4B 



where 



N = mean probable design life of structure in years; 

P K = risk level in N consecutive years (probability that the design wind speed is exceeded at least once in N successive 
years), nominal value = 0.63; 

extreme wind speed for given values of N and /> N ; and 



"so 63 = extreme wind speed for N = 50 years and P N = 0.63 



N' N 

A and B are coefficients having the following values for different basic wind speed zones: 

Zone A B 

33 m/s 83.2 9.2 

39 m/s 84.2 14.0 

44 m/s 88.0 18.0 

47 m/s 88.0 20.5 

50 m/s 88.8 22.8 

55 m/s 90.8 27.3 

NOTE — The factor h l is based on statistical concepts which take account of the degree of reliability required and period of time 
in years during which there will be exposure to wind, that is, life of the structure. Whatever wind speed is adopted for design 
purposes, there is always a probability (however small) that it may be exceeded in a storm of exceptional violence; the greater 
the period of years over which there will be exposure to wind, the greater is the probability. Higher return periods ranging from 
100 to 1 000 years (implying lower risk level) in association with greater periods of exposure may have to be selected for 
exceptionally important structures, such as nuclear power reactors and satellite communication towers. Equation given above 
may be used in such cases to estimate k x factors for different periods of exposure and chosen probability of exceedence (risk 
level). The probability level of 0.63 is normally considered sufficient for design of buildings and structures against wind effects 
and the values of k } corresponding to this risk level are given in Table 4. 



design of a structure may vary depending on 
the direction of wind under consideration. 
Wherever sufficient meteorological 
information is available about the nature of 
wind direction, the orientation of any building 
or structure may be suitably planned. 
Terrian, in which a specific structure stands, 
shall be assessed as being one of the following 
terrain categories: 



Category 1 — Exposed open terrain with few 
or no obstructions and in which the average 
height of any objects surrounding the structure 
is less than L5 m. 

NOTE — This category includes open sea-coasts and 
flat treeless plains. 

Category 2 — Open terrain with well scattered 
obstructions having heights generally between 
1.5 and 10 m. 



PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN — SECTION 1 LOADS, FORCES AND EFFECTS 



19 



b) 



NOTE — This is the criterion for measurement of 
regional basic wind speeds and includes airfields, open 
parklands and undeveloped sparsely built-up outskirts 
of towns and suburbs. Open land adjacent to sea coast 
may also be classified as category 2 due to roughness 
of large sea waves at high winds. 

Category 3 — Terrain with numerous closely 
spaced obstruction having the size of 
building-structures up to 10 m in height with 
or without a few isolated tall structures. 
NOTES 

1 This category includes well wooded areas and shrubs, 
towns and industrial areas fully or partially developed. 

2 It is likely that the next higher category than this 
will not exist in most design situations and that selection 
of a more severe category will be deliberate. 

3 Particular attention must be given to the performance 
of the obstructions in areas affected by fully developed 
tropical cyclones. Vegetation, which is likely to be 
blown down or defoliated, cannot be relied upon to 
maintain Category 3 conditions. Where such situation 
may exist, either an intermediate category with velocity 
multipliers midway between the values for Categories 
2 and 3 given in Table 5 or Category 2 should be 
selected having due regard to local conditions. 

Category 4 — Terrain with numerous large 
high closely spaced obstructions. 

NOTE — This category includes large city centres, 
generally with obstructions above 25 m and well 
developed industrial complexes. 

Variation of Wind Speed with Height for 
Different Sizes of Structure in Different 
Terrains (k 2 Factor) — Table 5 gives 



c) 



multiplying factors (k 2 ) by which the basic 
wind speed given in Fig. 1 shall be multiplied 
to obtain the wind speed at different heights, 
in each terrain category for different sizes of 
buildings/structures. 

The buildings/structures are classified into the 
following three different classes depending 
upon their size: 

Class A — Buildings and/or their components, 
such as cladding, glazing, roofing etc, having 
maximum dimension (greatest horizontal or 
vertical dimension) less than 20 m. 
Class B — Buildings and/or their components, 
such as cladding, glazing, roofing etc, 
having maximum dimension (greatest 
horizontal or vertical dimension) between 
20 m and 50 m. 

Class C — Buildings and/or their components, 
such as cladding, glazing, roofing etc, having 
maximum dimension (greatest horizontal or 
vertical dimension) greater than 50 m. 
Terrain Categories in Relation to the 
Direction of Wind — The terrain category 
used in the design of a building may 
vary depending on the direction of wind 
under consideration. Where sufficient 
meteorological information is available, the 
basic wind speed may be varied for specific 
wind direction. 



Table 5 k 2 Factors to Obtain Design Wind Speed Variation with Height in Different 
Terrains for Different Classes of Building Structures 

[Clause 4.4.3.2 (b)] 



Height 




Terrain 






Terrain 






Terrain 






Terrain 




(m) 


Category 1 Class 


Category 2 Class 


Category 3 Class 


Category 4 Class 






jk. 






,-*- 






>t 






,j^ 






A 


B 


C 


^— ■■■"—'■» 
A 


B 


C 


A 


B 


C 


A 


B 


C 


10 


1.05 


1.03 


0.99 


1.00 


0.98 


0.93 


0.91 


0.88 


0.82 


0.80 


0.76 


0.67 


15 


1.09 


1.07 


1.03 


1.05 


1.02 


0.97 


0.97 


0.94 


0.87 


0.80 


0.76 


0.67 


20 


1.12 


1.10 


1.06 


1.07 


1.05 


1.00 


1.01 


0.98 


0,91 


0.80 


0.76 


0.67 


30 


1.15 


1.13 


1.09 


1.12 


1.10 


1.04 


1.06 


1.03 


6.96 


0.97 


0.93 


0.83 


50 


1.20 


1.18 


1.14 


1.17 


1.15 


1.10 


1.12 


1.09 


1.02 


1.10 


1.05 


0.95 


100 


1.26 


1.24 


1.20 


1.24 


1.22 


1.17 


1.20 


1.17 


uo 


1.20 


1.15 


1.05 


150 


1.30 


1.28 


1.24 


1.28 


1.25 


1.21 


1.24 


1.21 


iJ 


1.24 


1.20 


1.10 


200 


1.32 


1.30 


1.26 


1.30 


1.28 


1.24 


1,27 


1.24 


1.18 


1.27 


1.22 


1.13 


250 


1.34 


1.32 


1.28 


1.32 


1.31 


1.26 


1.29 


1.26 


1.20 


1.28 


1.24 


1.16 


300 


1.35 


1.34 


1.30 


1.34 


1.32 


1.28 


1.31 


1.28 


1.22 


1.30 


1.26 


1.17 


350 


1.37 


1.35 


1.31 


1.36 


1.34 


1.29 


1.32 


1.30 


1.24 


1.31 


1.27 


1.19 


400 


1.38 


1.36 


1.32 


1.37 


1.35 


1.30 


1.34 


1.31 


1.25 


1.32 


1.28 


1.20 


450 


1.39 


1.37 


1.33 


1.38 


1.36 


1.31 


1.35 


1.32 


1.26 


1.33 


1.29 


1.21 


500 


1.40 


1.38 


1.34 


1.39 


1.37 


1.32 


1.36 


1.33 


1.28 


1.34 


1.30 


1.22 



NOTES 

1 See 4.43.2 (b) for definitions of Class A, Class B and Class C structures. 

2 Intermediate values may be obtained by linear interpolation, if desired. It is permissible to assume constant wind speed between two 
heights for simplicity. 



20 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



d) Changes in Terrain Categories — The velocity 
profile for a given terrain category does not 
develop to full height immediately with the 
commencement of that terrain category, but 
develops gradually to height (h x ), which 
increases with the fetch or upwind distance (x) 

1) Fetch and Developed Height 
Relationship — The relation beween the 
developed height (h x ) and the fetch (x) 
for wind-flow over each of the four 
terrain categories may be taken as given 
in Table 6. 

2) For buildings of heights greater than the 
developed height (h x ) in Table 6, the 
velocity profile may be determined in 
accordance with the following: 

i) The less or least terrain; or 

ii) The method described in Annex D. 

Table 6 Fetch and Developed Height 
Relationship 

[Clause 4.4.3.2(b)] 

Developed Height, fc x in m 



Fetch 


Terrain 


Terrain 


Terrain 


Terrain 


(x)km 


Category 1 


Category 2 


Category 3 


Category 4 


(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 



0.2 

0.5 

1 

2 

5 
10 
20 
50 



12 

20 
25 
35 
60 
80 
120 
180 



20 
30 
45 
65 
100 
140 
200 
300 



35 
35 
80 
110 
170 
250 
350 
400 



60 
95 
130 
190 

300 
450 
500 
500 



4.4.3.3 Topography (k v factor) 

The basic wind speed V b given in Fig. 1 takes account 
of the general level of the site above sea level. This 
does not allow for local topographic features, such as 
hills, valleys, cliffs, escarpments or ridges, which can 
significantly affect wind speed in their vicinity. The 
effect of topography is to accelerate wind near the 
summits of hills or crests of cliffs, escarpments or 
ridges and decelerate the wind in valleys or near the 
foot of cliffs, steep escarpments or ridges. 

The effect of topography will be significant at a site 
when the upwind slope is greater than about 3°, and 
below that the value of k 3 may be taken to be equal 
to 1 .0. The value of k 3 is confined in the range of 1 .0 
to 1.36 for slopes greater than 3°. A method of 
evaluating the value of k 3 for slope greater than 3° is 
given in Annex E. It may be noted that the value of k 3 
varies with height above ground level with a maximum 
near the ground, and reducing to 1.0 at higher levels. 



4.4.4 Design Wind Pressure 

The design wind pressure at any height above mean 
ground level shall be obtained by the following 
relationship between wind pressure and wind 

velocity: 



p=0.6V> 



where 



p z ~ design wind pressure in N/m 2 at height Z, 

and 
V z = design wind velocity in m/s at height Z. 

NOTE — The coefficient 0.6 (in SI units) in the above 
formula depends on a number of factors, and mainly on the 
atmospheric pressure and air temperature. The value chosen 
corresponds to the average appropriate Indian atmospheric 
conditions. 

4.4.5 Offshore Wind Velocity 

Cyclonic storms form far way from the sea coast and 
gradually reduce in speed as they approach the sea 
coast. Cyclonic storms generally extend up to about 
60 km inland after striking the coast. Their effect on 
land is already reflected in basic wind speeds specified 
in Fig. 1 . The influence of wind speed off the coast up 
to a distance of about 200 km may be taken as 
1.15 times the value on the nearest coast in the absence 
of any definite wind data. 

4.5 Wind Pressure and Forces on Buildings/ 
Structure 

4.5.1 General 

The wind load on a building shall be calculated for: 

a) the building as a whole; 

b) individual structural elements as roofs and 
walls; and 

c) individual cladding units including glazing 
and their fixings. 

4.5.2 Pressure Coefficients 

The pressure coefficients are always given for a 
particular surface or part of the surface of a building. 
The wind load acting normjd to a surface is obtained 
by multiplying the area of that surface or its appropriate 
portion by the pressure coefficient (C _); and the design 
wind pressure at the height of the surface from the 
ground. The average values of these pressure 
coefficients for some building shapes are given 
in 4.5.2.2 and 4.5.2.3. 

Average values of pressure coefficients are given for 
critical wind directions in one or more quadrants. In 
order to determine the maximum wind load on the 
building, the total load should be calculated for each 
of the critical directions shown from all quadrants. 



PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN — SECTION 1 LOADS, FORCES AND EFFECTS 



21 



Where considerable variation of pressure occurs over 
a surface, it has been sub-divided and mean pressure 
coefficients given for each of its several parts. 

In addition, areas of high local suction (negative 
pressure concentration) frequently occurring near the 
edges of walls and roofs are separately shown. 
Coefficients for the local effects should only be used 
for calculation of forces on these local areas affecting 
roof sheeting, glass panels and individual cladding 
units including their fixtures. They should not be used 
for calculating force on entire structural elements such 
as roof, walls or structure as a whole. 

NOTES 

1 The pressure coefficients given in the different tables have 
been obtained mainly from measurements on models in wind 
tunnels, and the great majority of data available have been 
obtained in conditions of relatively smooth flow. Where 
sufficient field data exist as in the case of rectangular buildings, 
values have been obtained to allow for turbulent flow. 

2 In recent years, wall glazing and cladding design has been a 
source of major concern. Although of less consequence than 
collapse of the main structures, damage to glass can be 
hazardous and cause considerable financial losses. 

3 For pressure coefficients for structures not covered herein, 
reference may be made to specialist literature on the subject 
or advise may be sought from specialists in the subject. 

4.5.2.1 Wind load on individual members 

When calculating the wind load on individual structural 
elements such as roofs and walls, and individual 
cladding units and their fittings, it is essential to take 
account of the pressure difference between opposite 
faces of such elements or units. For clad structures, it 
is, therefore, necessary to know the internal pressure 
as well as external pressure. Then the wind load, 
F (in N) acting in a direction normal to the individual 
structural element or cladding unit is: 



^ = ( C pe- C pi^d 



where 



C pe = external pressure coefficient; 

C = internal pressure coefficient; 

A - surface area of structural element or 
cladding unit in m 2 ; and 

p d = design wind pressure in N/m 2 

NOTES 

1 If the surface design pressure varies with height, the surface 
areas of the structural element may be sub-divided so that the 
specified pressures are taken over appropriate areas. 

2 Positive wind load indicates the force acting towards the 
structural element and negative away from it. 

4.5.2.2 External pressure coefficients 

a) Walls — The average external pressure 
coefficient for the walls of clad buildings of 



rectangular plan shall be as given in Table 7. 
In addition, local pressure concentration 
coefficients are also given. 

b) Pitched Roofs of Rectangular Clad Buildings 

— The average external pressure coefficients 
and pressure concentration coefficients for 
pitched roofs of rectangular clad building 
shall be as given in Table 8. Where no 
pressure concentration coefficients are given, 
the average coefficients apply. The pressure 
coefficients on the underside of any over- 
hanging roof shall be taken in accordance with 
4.5.2.2 (g). 

NOTES 

1 The pressure concentration shall be assumed to act 
outward (suction pressure) at the ridges, eaves, cornices 
and 90° corners of roofs. 

2 The pressure concentration shall not be included 
with the net external pressure when computing overall 
loads. 

c) Monoslope Roofs of Rectangular Load 
Buildings — The average pressure coefficient 
and pressure concentration coefficient for 
monoslope (lean-to) roofs of rectangular clad 
buildings shall be as given in Table 9. 

d) Canopy Roofs with l A < hlw < 1 and 1 < L/w < 3 

— The pressure coefficients are given in 
Tables 10 and 11 separately for monopitch 
and double pitch canopy roofs, such as open- 
air parking garages, shelter areas, outdoor 
areas, railway platforms, stadiums and 
theatres. The coefficients take account of the 
combined effect of the wind exerted on and 
under the roof for all wind directions; the 
resultant is to be taken normal to the canopy. 
Where the local coefficients overlap the 
greater of the two given values should be 
taken. However, the effect of partial closures 
of one side and or both sides, such as those 
due to trains, buses and stored materials shall 
be foreseen and taken into account. 

The solidity ratio is equal to the area of 
obstruction under the canopy divided by the 
gross area under the canopy, both areas 
normal to the wind direction. = represents 
a canopy with no obstructions underneath. 
= 1 represents the canopy fully blocked with 
contents to the downwind eaves. Values of 
C for intermediate solidities may be linearly 
interpolated between these two extremes, and 
apply upwind of the position of maximum 
blockage only. Downwind of the position of 
maximum blockage the coefficients for = 
may be used. 
In addition to the pressure forces normal to 



22 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



Table 7 External Pressure Coefficients (C ) for Walls of Rectangular Clad Buildings 











[C/aii5e 4.5.2.2 (a)] 












Building 
Height Ratio 


Building 
Plan Ratio 


Elevation 


Plan 


Wind 

Angle 

Degree 


Cpe for Surface 


Local 


A 


B 


C 


D 




(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


(7) 


(8) 


(9) 


(10) 




i<ia 

w 2 


j— — w — »-| 


1. 

h 

t 


D 



90 


+0.7 
-0.5 


-0.2 
-0.5 


-0.5 
+0.7 


-0.5 

-0.2 






I 




-0.8 


*<I 


—1 U— 0.25w 




w 2 


3 ' „ 

2 w 






c 





90 


+0.7 
-0.5 


-0.25 
-0.5 


-0.6 

+0.7 


-0.6 
-0.1 












V 




B 






i 




-1.0 
















D 








i<i s l 

w 2 








D 



90 


+0.7 
-0.6 


-0.25 
-0.6 


-0.6 

+0.7 


-0.6 

-0.25 






! 






-1.1 


1/^3 






— < — < — 

2 w 2 


3 ' „ 
-< — <4 

2 w 










C 





90 


+0.7 
-0.5 


-0.3 
-0.5 


-0.7 
+0.7 


-0.7 
-0.1 








1 




V 




B 


-1.1 








D 








i<ia 

w 2 








D 



90 


+0.8 
-0.8 


-0.25 
-0.8 


-0.8 
+0.8 


-0.8 
-0.25 








I 




-1.2 








3 ,* * 
-<1— <6 


3 > „ 
— < — <4 

2 w 








C 



90 


+0.7 
-0.5 


-0.4 
-0.5 


-0.7 
+0.8 


-0.7 
-0.1 




: 


! 

1 












2 w 






B 


-1.2 






D 
















/ _3 
w~2 

1 = 1.0 
1 = 2 











90 


+0.95 

-0.8 


-1.85 
-0.8 


-0.9 
+0.9 


-0.9 

-0.85 






I 


1 . 






C 




-1.25 






V 




B 




1,6 

w 


^ 


i 





90 


+0.95 

-0.7 


-0.25 
-0.7 


-0.7 
+0.95 


-0.7 
-1.25 


-1.25 

















90 


+0.85 
-0.75 


-0.75 
-0.75 


-0.75 
+0.85 


-0.75 
-0.75 


-1.25 















NOTE — h is the height of eaves or parapet, / is the greater horizontal dimension of a building and w is the lesser horizontal 
dimension of a building. 



PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN — SECTION 1 LOADS, FORCES AND EFFECTS 



23 



Table 8 External Pressure Coefficients (C^) for Pitched Roofs of Rectangular Clad Buildings 

[Clause 4.5.2.2 (b)] 





Building Height Ratio 


Roof 


Wind Angle 6 


Wind Angle 6 


Local Coefficients 






Angle 

degrees 


0° 


90° 








EF 


GH 


EG 


FH 


mm 


M 


^^ 


B 


(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


(6) 


(7) 


(8) 


<9) 


(10) 






*■ — w — ■- 





5 


-0.8 
-0.9 


-0.4 
-0.4 


-0.8 
-0.8 


-0.4 
-0.4 


-2.0 
-1.4 


-2.0 
-1.2 


-2.0 
-1.2 


-1.0 












10 
20 
30 


-1.2 
-0.4 

o 


-0.4 

-0.4 

04 


-0.8 
-0.7 
-07 


-0.6 
-0.6 
-0.6 
-0.6 


-1.4 
-1.0 
-0.8 


-1.4 




-1.2 


w 2 






-1.2 
-1.1 
-1.1 




h— ' 




45 


+0.3 


-0.5 


-0.7 










60 


+0.7 


-0.6 


-0.7 


-0.6 








-1.1 






-» — w — mK 






5 


-0.8 
-0.9 


-0.6 
-0.6 


-1.0 
-0.9 


-0.6 
-0.6 


-2.0 
-2.0 


-2.0 
-2.0 


-2.0 
-1.5 


-1.0 












10 


-1.1 


-0.6 


-0.8 


-0.6 


-2.0 


-2.0 


-1.5 


-1.2 


1 h ^ 3 






— < — s — 

2 w 2 








20 


-0.7 


-0.5 


-0.8 


-0.6 


-1.5 


-1.5 


-1.5 


-1.0 








h 

♦ 


30 
45 
60 


-0.2 
+0.2 
+0.6 


-0.5 
-0.5 
-0.5 


-0.8 
-0.8 
-0.8 


-0.8 
-0.8 
-0.8 


-1.0 






-1.0 


















— W m. 







-0.7 


-0.6 


-0.9 


-0.7 


-2.0 


-2.0 


-2.0 


— 






y\ 




5 


-0.7 


-0.6 


-0.8 


-0.8 


-2.0 


-2.0 


-1.5 


-1.0 




x 


^ ^ 


n 


10 


-0.7 


-0.6 


-0.8 


-0.8 


-2.0 


-2.0 


-1.5 


-1.2 


3 ft . 
-< — <6 

2 w 






1 

h 


20 
30 


-0.8 
-1.0 


-0.6 
-0.5 


-0.8 
-0.8 


-0.8 
-0.7 


-1.5 
-1.5 


-1.5 


-1.5 


-1.2 












40 


-0.2 


-0.5 


-0.8 


-0.7 


-1.0 
















W 


50 
60 


+0.2 
+0.5 


-0.5 
-0.5 


-0.8 
-0.8 


-0.7 
-0.7 

















NOTES 

1 h is the height to caves or parapet, w is the lesser horizontal dimension of a building. 

2 Where no local coefficients are given the overall coefficients apply. 



WIND 




KEY PLAN 

v = h or 0.15 w, 
whichever is the lesser 



24 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



Table 9 External Pressure Coefficients (C ) for Monoslope Roofs for Rectangular 

pe 

[Clause 4.5.2.2(c)] 



WIND 




I H. 



H 1 



H- 



ha 4_iia- T - 



I 



lUzzi 



.X- 



-w- 



II II 



w 



y = h or 0.15 w, whichever is the lesser 



V?* 



*sr 



NOTE — Area H and area L refer to the whole quadrant. 



OVERALL COEFFICIENTS 



Roof Angle 


Wind Angle $ 




0° 


45° 


90° 


135° 


180° 


Degree 


H 


L 


H 


L 


H&L 


H&L 


H 


L 


H 


L 


5 

10 
15 
20 
25 
30 


-1.0 
-1.0 
-0.9 
-0.8 
-0.7 
-0.5 


-0.5 
-0.5 
-0.5 
-0.5 
^0.5 
-0.5 


-1.0 
-1.0 
-1.0 
-1.0 
-1.0 
-1.0 


-0.9 
-0.8 
-0.7 
^0.6 
-0.6 
^0.6 


Applies to length wll 
from wind ward end 

-1.0 

-1.0 

-1.0 

-0.9 

-0.8 

^0.8 


Applies to 
remainder 

-0.5 

-0.5 

-0.5 

-0.5 

-0.5 

-0.5 


-0.9 
-0.8 
-0.6 
-0.5 
^0.3 
-0^ 


-1.0 
-1.0 
-1.0 
-1.0 
^0.9 
^0.6 


-0.5 
-0,4 
-0.3 
^0.2 
^0.1 



-1.0 
-1.0 
-1.0 
-1.0 
^0.9 
-0.6 



Roof Angle 






LOCAL COEFFICIENTS C^ 


,/*- 




Degree 


Hi 


H 2 


U 


u 


H 


L 


5 


-2.0 


-1.5 


-2.0 


-1.5 


-2.0 


-2.0 


10 


-2.0 


-1.5 


-2.0 


-1.5 


-2.0 


-2.0 


15 


-1.8 


-0.9 


-1.8 


-1.4 


-2.0 


-2.0 


20 


-1.8 


-0.8 


-1.8 


-1.4 


-2.0 


-2.0 


25 


-1.8 


-0.7 


-0.9 


^0.9 


-2.0 


-2.0 


30 


-1.8 


^0.5 


^0.5 


^0.5 


-2.0 


-2.0 



NOTE — h is the height to eaves at lower side, / is greater horizontal dimension of a building and w is the lesser horizontal 
dimension of a building. 



PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN — SECTION 1 LOADS, FORCES AND EFFECTS 



25 



Table 10 Pressure Coefficients for Free Standing Monosioped Roofs 

[Clause 4.5.2.2(d)] 



ROOF ANGLE 




SECTION 



I 



-W/10 

— w- 



i 



L/10 " 



r 



L/10w 



— Iw / 



10 



KEY PLAN 



Roof Angle 


Solidity Ratio 


Maximum (Largest +ve) and Minimum (Largest 
Pressure Coefficients 


-ve) 




Overall 
coefficients 


Local coefficients 










Degree 


1 1 


Y///A 


I^SI 







+0.2 


+0.5 


+1.8 


+1.1 


5 




+0.4 


+0.8 


+2,1 


+1.3 


10 




+0.5 


+1.2 


+2.4 


+1.6 


15 


All values of 


+0.7 


+1.4 


+2.7 


+1.8 


20 




+0.8 


+1.7 


+2.9 


+2.1 


25 




+1.0 


+2.0 


+3.1 


+2.3 


30 




+1.2 


+2,2 


+3,2 


+2,4 





= 


-0.5 


-0.6 


=1.3 


-1.4 




0=1 


-1.0 


-1.2 


-1.8 


-1.9 


5 


= 


-0.1 


-1.1 


-1.7 


-1.8 




0=1 


-1.1 


-1.6 


-2.2 


-2.3 


10 


= 


-0.9 


-1.5 


-2.0 


-2.1 




0=1 


-1.3 


-2.1 


-2.6 


-2.7 


15 


= 


-1.1 


-1.8 


-2,4 


-2.5 




0=1 


-1.4 


-2.3 


-2.9 


-3.0 


20 


= 


-1.3 


-2,2 


-2,8 


-2,9 




0=1 


-1.5 


-2.6 


-3.1 


-3.2 


25 


= 


-1.6 


-2,6 


-3.2 


-3,2 




0=1 


-1.7 


-2.8 


-3.5 


-3.5 


30 


= 


-1.8 


-3.0 


-3.8 


-3,6 




0=1 


-1.8 


-3.0 


-3.8 


-3.6 



NOTE — For monopitch canopies the centre of pressure should be taken to act at 0.3 w from the windward edge. 



26 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDLA 



Table 11 Pressure Coefficients for Free Standing Double Sloped Roofs 

[Clause 4.5.2.2 (d)] 





-ve ROOF ANGLE 



+ve ROOF ANGLE 



W/10- 






H 



m 



W/10- 



EgE^ 



L/10 " 

r 



-W/10 



-W- 



i 



1 



L/10 



T 



-W/10 



KEY PLAN 



Roof Angle 


Solidity Ratio 


Maximum (Largest +ve) and Minimum (Largest -ve) Pressure Coefficients 




Overall 
coefficients 


Local coefficients 








WZ\ 






Degree 


1 1 


fc^ 


t=l 


-20 




+0.7 


+0.8 


+1.6 


+0.6 


+ 1.7 


-15 




+0.5 


+0.6 


+1.5 


+0.7 


+ 1.4 


-10 




+0.4 


+0.6 


+1.4 


+0.8 


+1.1 


-5 




+0.3 


+0.5 


+1.5 


+0.8 


+0.8 


+5 
+10 


AH values of 


+0.3 
+0.4 


+0.6 
+0.7 


+1.8 
+1.8 


+1.3 

+1.4 


+0.4 
+0.4 


+15 




+0.4 


+0.9 


+1.9 


+1.4 


+0.4 


+20 




+0.6 


+1.1 


+1.9 


+1.5 


+0.4 


+25 




+0.7 


+1.2 


+1.9 


+1.6 


+0.5 


+30 




+0.9 


+1.3 


+1.9 


+ 1.6 


+0.7 


-20 


= 


-0.7 


-0.9 


-1.3 


-1.6 


-0.6 




0=1 


-0.9 


-1.2 


-1.7 


-1.9 


-1.2 


-15 


= 


-0.6 


-0.8 


-1.3 


-1.6 


-0.6 




0=1 


-0.8 


-1.1 


-1.7 


-1.9 


-1.2 


-10 


= 


-0.6 


-0.8 


-1.3 


-1.5 


-0.6 




0=1 


-0.8 


-1.1 


-1.7 


-1.9 


-1.3 


-5 


= 


-0.5 


-0.7 


-1.3 


-1.6 


-0.6 




0=1 


-0.8 


-1.5 


-1.7 


-1.9 


-1.4 


+5 


= 


-0.6 


-0.6 


-1.4 


-1.4 


-1.1 




0=1 


-0.9 


-1.3 


-1.8 


-1.8 


-2.1 


+10 


= 


-0.7 


-0.7 


-1.5 


-1.4 


-1.4 




0=1 


-1.1 


-1.4 


-2.0 


-1.8 


-2.4 


+15 


= 


-0.8 


-0.9 


-1.7 


-1.4 


-1.8 




0=1 


-1.2 


-1.5 


-2.2 


-1.9 


-2.8 


+20 


= 


-0.9 


-1.2 


-1.8 


-1.4 


-2.0 




0=1 


-1.3 


-1.7 


-2.3 


-1.9 


-3.0 


+25 


= 


-1.0 


-1.4 


-1.9 


-1.4 


-2.0 




0=1 


-1.4 


-1.9 


-2.4 


-2.1 


-3.0 


+30 


= 


-1.0 


-1.4 


-1.9 


-1.4 


-2.0 




0=1 


-1.4 


-2.1 


-2.6 


-2.2 


-3.0 



NOTE — Each slope of a duopitch canopy should be able to withstand forces using both the maximum and the minimum coefficients, 
and the whole canopy should be able to support forces using one slope at the maximum coefficient with the other slope at the 
minimum coefficient. For duopitch canopies the centre of pressure should be taken to act at the centre of each slope. 



PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN — SECTION 1 LOADS, FORCES AND EFFECTS 



27 



the canopy, there will be horizontal loads on 
the canopy due to the wind pressure on any 
fascia and to friction over the surface of the 
canopy. For any wind direction, only the 
greater of these two forces need be taken into 
account. Fascia loads should be calculated on 
the area of the surface facing the wind, using 
a force coefficient of 1.3. Frictional drag 
should be calculated using the coefficients 
given in 4.5.3.1. 



e) 



NOTE — Tables 12 to 17 may be used to get internal 
and external pressure coefficients for pitches and 
troughed free roofs for some specific cases for which 
aspect ratios and roof slopes have been specified. 
However, while using Tables 12 to 17 any significant 
departure from it should be investigated carefully. No 
increase shall be made for local effects except as 
indicated. 

Curved Roofs — For curved roofs, the 
external pressure coefficients shall be as given 
in Table 18. Allowance for local effects shall 
be made in accordance with Table 8. 



Table 12 Pressure Coefficients (Top and Bottom) for Pitched Roofs, a = 30° 

[Clause 4.5.2.2 (d)] 




b' = d 



b = 5d 



a = 30° 

6 = 0°-45°, D,D', E, E'fulll 

6 = 90°, D, D\ E, E'part length b* 



PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS, C p 



e 


D 


D' 


E 


E' 


End Surfaces 




C 


C' 


G 


G' 


0° 


0.6 


-1.0 


-0.5 


-0.9 


— 


— 


— 


— 


45° 


0.1 


-0.3 


-0.6 


-0.3 


— 


_. 


_ 


— 


90° 


-0.3 


-0.4 


-0.3 


-0.4 


-0.3 


0.8 


0.3 


-0.4 



45°For;: C p top = -1.0; C p bottom = -0.2. 
90°Tangentially acting friction: /?9o°= 0.05 p 6 .db. 



28 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



Table 13 Pressure Coefficients (Top and Bottom) for Pitched Free Roofs, a = 30° 
with Effects of Train or Stored Materials 

[Clause 4.5.2.2 (d)] 




b = 5d 



a = 30° 

Effects of trains or stored materials: 

e = 0°~45°, or 135° -180°, D,D",E, E'fuH'length 

e = 90°, D, d; E, E'part length b' 



PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS, C P 






D 


D' 


E 


E' 


End Surfaces 




C 


C 


G 


G' 


0° 


0.1 


0.8 


-0.7 


0.9 


— 


— 


— 


— 


45° 


-0.1 


0.5 


-0.8 


0.5 


— 


— 


— . 


— 


90° 


-0.4 


-0.5 


-0.4 


-0.5 


-0.3 


0.8 


0.3 


-0.4 


180° 


-0.3 


0.6 


0.4 


. -0.6 


— 


— 


'— ' 


— 



45°F6ry: C p top = -1.5; C p bottom = 0.5. 
90°Tangentially acting friction: Rw = 0.05 p&.db. 



PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN — SECTION 1 LOADS, FORCES AND EFFECTS 



29 



Table 14 Pressure Coefficients (Top and Bottom) for Pitched Free Roofs, a = 10° 

[Clause 4.5.2.2 (d)] 




C 



b = 5d 



b' = d 




a = 10° 

8 = 0°-45°, D, D',E, E'full length 

= 90°, a D r , E, E'part length b' 



PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS, C p 






D 


D r 


E 


E' 


End Surfaces 




C 


c 


G 


G' 


0° 


-1.0 


0.3 


-0.5 


0.2 


__ 


— 


— 


— 


45° 


-0.3 


0.1 


-0.3 


0.1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


90° 


-0.3 


0.0 


-0.3 


0.0 


-0.4 


0.8 


0.3 


-0.6 



0° For/- C p top = -1 .0; C p bottom = 0.40. 

0-90° Tangentially acting friction: R^ = 0. 1 p d .db. 



30 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



Table 15 Pressure Coefficients (Top and Bottom) for Pitched Free Roofs, a = 10° 
with Effects of Train or Stored Materials 

[Clause 4.5.2.2 (d)] 




a = 10° 

Effects of trains or stored materials: 

9 = 0°~45°, 135°-180°, D, D', E, E'full length 

9 = 90°, D, D\ E, E'part length b' 



PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS, C p 



e 


D 


D f 


E 


E' 


i rm . ■■ 'V ..-.I ... i ii in 

End Surfaces 




C 


C 


G 


■■■■'i-G': 7 . 


0° 


-1.3 


0.8 


-0.6 


0.7 


— 


— 


— • 


— 


45° 


0.5 


0.4 


-0.3 


0.3 


— 


— 


_ 


— 


90° 


-0.3 


0.0 


-0.3 


0.0 


— 


— 


— 


-^~ 


180° 


-0.4 


-0.3 


-0.6 


-0.3 


-0.4 


0.8 


OS 


-m 



0° For/: C p top = -1 .6; C p bottom = 0.9. 

0°- 180° Tangentially acting friction: R^ = 0.1 p d .db. 



PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN — SECTION 1 LOADS, FORCES AND EFFECTS 



31 



Table 16 Pressure Coefficients for Troughed 
Free Roofs, a = 10° 

[Clause 4.5.2.2 (d)] 




Table 17 Pressure Coefficients for Troughed 

Free Roofs, a = 10° with Effects of 

Trains or Stored Materials 

[Clause 4.5.2.2 (d)] 




h' = 0.8h- 



X 






b = 5d 



b' = d 



n Rgo- 
4> f = 0. 



2d 



Wi 

m 
w 

% 



— m — 



Roof slope a - 10° 

= 0° - 45°, D, D\ E, E'full length 

e = 90°, D, D',E, E' part lengths 





PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS, C p 


e 


D 


D' 


E 


E' 


0° 


0.3 


-0.7 


0.2 


-0.9 


45° 


0.0 


-0.2 


0.1 


-0.3 


90° 


-0.1 


0.1 


-0.1 


0.1 



0° For/: C p top = 0.4; C p bottom = 1.5. 

0° - 90° Tangentially acting friction: /?9o° = 0.1 pd-bd. 



^^ 




>4 d 

LA... 



b = 5d 



1 1 

L 



Roo- 



ty =d 



Roof slope a = 10° 

Effects of trains or stored materials: 

6 = 0°-45°,or 135°- 180°, D, D', E, E'full length 

6 = 90°, D, D', E, E' part length b' 





PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS, C p 


e 


D 


D' 


E 


E' 


0° 


-0.7 


0.8 


-0.6 


0.6 


45° 


-0.4 


0.3 


-0.2 


0.2 


90° 


-0.1 


0.1 


-0.1 


0.1 


180° 


-0.4 


-1.2 


-0.6 


-0.3 



0° For/: C p top = 1 . 1 ; C p bottom = 0.9. 

0° - 180° Tangentially acting friction: Rw = 0.1 p d .bd. 



32 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



Table 18 External Pressure Coefficients for Curved Roofs 

[Clause 4.5.2.2 (e)] 




a) ROOF SPRINGING FROM GROUND LEVEL 
C 




WIND 



+ 0.8 



1 



■0.6 



b) ROOF ON ELEVATED STRUCTURE 



-WINDWARD 
^QUARTER 



PORTION OF ROOF 

BELOW THIS LINE 

TO BE TREATED AS 

AN EXTENSION OF 

VERTICAL SUPPORTS 




CENTRAL HALF (C) 



-0.6 



c) DOUBLY CURVED ROOFS 



H h 

— > 0.6 and - > 0.6 
/ / 



LEEWARD [ Av 

QUARTER (0.4) h 

i « 





Values of Cd and C 2 




Hll 


C 


c, 


c 2 


0.1 


-0.8 


+0.1 


-0.8 


0.2 


-0.9 


+0.3 


-0.7 


0.3 


-1.0 


+0.4 


-0.3 


0.4 


-1,1 


+0.6 


+0.4 


0.5 


-1.2 


+0.7 


+0.7 



NOTE — When the wind is blowing normal to the gable ends, C^ may be taken as equal to -0.7 f or the full width of the roof over i 
length of 111 from the gable ends and -0.5 for the remaining portion. 



PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN — SECTION 1 LOADS, FORCES AND EFFECTS 



33 



Pitched and Saw-Tooth Roofs of Multi-span 
Buildings — For pitched and saw-tooth 
roofs of multi-span buildings, the external 
average pressure coefficients and pressure 
concentration coefficients shall be as given 



in Tables 19 and 20 respectively, provided 
that all spans shall be equal and the height to 
the eaves shall not exceed the span. 

NOTE — Evidence on multi-span buildings is 
fragmentary. Any departure given in Tables 19 and 20 
should be investigated separately. 



Table 19 External Pressure Coefficients (C ) for Pitched Roofs of Multi-span Buildings 

(All Spans Equal) with h > w ' 

[Clause 4.5.2.2(f)] 




y = /)OR0.1w 

WHICHEVER IS 

LESSER 

1 

h 
1 



SECTION 



Roof Angle 


Wind Angle 


First 
Span 


First Intermediate Span 


Other Intermediate 
Span 


End Span 


Local Coefficient 


degrees 


degrees 

e 














a 


b 


c 


d 


m 


n 


X 


z 






a 


^ 


WA 


5 





-0.9 


-0.6 


-0.4 


-0.3 


-0.3 


-0.3 


-0.3 


-0.3 






10 




-1.1 


-0.6 


-0.4 


-0.3 


-0.3 


-0.3 


-0.3 


-0.4 






20 




-0.7 


-0.6 


-0.4 


-0.3 


-0.3 


-0.3 


-0.3 


-0.5 


-2.0 


-1.5 


30 




-0.2 


-0.6 


-0.4 


-0.3 


-0.2 


-0.3 


-0.2 


-0.5 






45 




+0.3 


-0.6 


-0.6 


-0.4 


-0.2 


-0.4 


-0.2 


-0.5 







Roof Angle 

degrees 


Wind Angle 

degrees 

e 


Distance 


a 


hi 


hi 


to 


Up to 45 


90 


-0.8 


-0.6 


-0.2 



Frictional drag: when wind angle 9 = 0° horizontal forces due to frictional drag are allowed for in the above values; 
when wind angle = 90° allow for frictional drag in accordance with 4.5.3.1. 

NOTE — Evidence on these buildings is fragmentary and any departures from the cases given should be investigated separately. 



34 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



Table 20 External Pressure Coefficients (C„ e ) for Saw-Tooth Roofs of Multispan Buildings 

(All Spans Equal) with h > w' 



mis,,,*.,, a < n n mi 



wu^twun 






" "■ "■ " ■■" ML H t 



V 



N^ 



■ l^'n^ww^v^ 



W 



^^^^^^^^^^ 



irint^rrrrr^ 



W 



mw 1 1 >y> i > i 



w 



Wft 



■*— w' — *- 



_L 



f 



\\^*<{<((€<(<\ 



■*— w' — ■* 



9 1 \W. W 999 99999 A 



— *H r^— u. i w 

J1L 



W 






^te^rflfe^^Mfe^ 



* + ^W<<{(((€<< 



—— w' — *- 



W-%- J. 
IT H 7 

1 



n^nm^n^n^n 



W' 



ROOF PI AN 



y = /?OR0.1w 

WHICHEVER IS 

LESSER 



stu I ION 



ttiiiu migKi 

degrees 


I'll 91 k7pdll 


Span 


AtkAK Intdnnuliafa 
UtUVi lUH-tiuvuiaiv 

Span 




Coefficient 


(9 


fl 


b 


c 


d 


m 


n 


JC 


z 


^ 


EZZ\ 



ISO 


+0.6 
-0.5 


-0.7 
-0.3 


-0.7 
-0.3 


-0.4 
^0.3 


-0.3 
^0.4 


-0.2 
^0.6 


-0.1 
^0.6 


-0.3 
^0.1 


-2.0 


-1.5 



Wind Angle 




Distance 




uCgI££S 




__ ma *^_ 




* — 




""—*»* 





hi 


hi 


«3 


90 


-0.8 


-0.6 


-0.2 


270 




Similarly, but handed 





Frictional drag: when wind angle = 0° horizontal forces due to factional drag are allowed for in the above values; 
when wind angle - 90°aiiow for frictional drag in accordance with 4.5.3.1. 

NOTE — Evidence on these buildings is fragmentary and any departures from the cases given should be 
investigated separately. 



PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN— SECTION 1 LOADS, FORCES AND EFFECTS 



35 



g) Pressure Coefficients on Overhangs from 
Roofs — The pressure coefficients on the top 
overhanging portion of the roofs shall be 
taken to be the same as that of the nearest top 
portion of the non-pressure coefficients for 
the underside surface of the overhanging 
portions shall be taken as follows and shall 
be taken as positive if the overhanging portion 
is on the windward side: 

1) 1.25, if the overhanging slopes; 
downwards; 

2) 1 .0, if the overhanging is horizontal; and 

3) 0.75, if the overhanging slopes upwards. 
For overhanging portions on sides other than 
windward side, the average pressure coefficients 
on the adjoining walls may be used. 

h) Cylindrical Structures — For the purpose of 
calculating the wind pressure distribution 



around a cylindrical structure of circular 
cross-section, the value of external pressure 
coefficients given in Table 21 may be used 
provided that the Raynolds number is greater 
than 10 000. They may be used for wind 
blowing normal to the axes of cylinders 
having axis normal to the ground plane (that 
is, chimneys and silos) and cylinders having 
their axis parallel to the ground plane (that is, 
horizontal tanks) provided that the clearance 
between the tank and the ground is not less 
than the diameter of the cylinder. 
h is the height of a vertical cylinder or length 
of a horizontal cylinder. Where there is a free 
flow of air around both ends, h is to be taken 
as half the length when calculating h/D ratio. 

1) -0.8, where h/D is not less than 0.3; and 

2) -0.5, where h/D is less than 0.3. 



Table 21 External Pressure Distribution Coefficients Around Cylindrical Structures 

[Clause 4.5.2.2 (h)] 




mmmmzwA 




Position of Periphery, 


Pressure Coefficient, Cpe 


in degrees 


H/D = 25 


H/D = 7 


H/D= 1 





1.0 


1.0 


1.0 


15 


0,8 


0.8 


0.8 


30 


0.1 


0.1 


0.1 


45 


-0.9 


-0.8 


-0.7 


60 


-1.9 


-1.7 


-1.2 


75 


-2.5 


-2.2 


-1.6 


90 


-2.6 


-2.2 


-1.7 


105 


-1.9 


-1.7 


-1.2 


120 


-0.9 


^0.8 


-0.7 


135 


-0.7 


-0.6 


-0.5 


150 


-0.6 


-0,5 


-0.4 


165 


-0.6 


-0.5 


-0.5 


180 


-0.6 


-0.5 


-0.4 



36 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



j) Roofs and Bottom of Cylindrical Related 
Structure — The external pressure coefficients 
for roofs and bottoms of cylindrical elevated 
structures shall be as given in Table 22 (see 
also Fig. 2). 

The total resultant load (P) acting on the roof 
of the structure is given by the following 
formula: 



P = 0.785 D*(C p ,-C pe )/> d 

The resultant of P for roofs lies at 0. 1 D from 
the centre of the roof on the windward side. 

k) Combined Roofs and Roofs with a Sky Light 
— The average external pressure coefficients 
for combined roofs and roofs with a sky light 
are shown in Table 23. 




0.2D<h<3D 
tana <0.2 



m 



SECTION AA 




Cpe = -1.5_/ 



Cpe = - 0.5 



Cpe = -1.0 



0.5 D FOR 2 < h / D < 3 

0.15 h + 0.2 D FOR 0.2 < h / D < 2 



PLAN 



(For force coefficient corresponding to shell portion see Table 23) 

Fig. 2 External Pressure Coefficients on the Upper Roof Surface of Singular 
Circular Standing on the Ground 



PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN — SECTION 1 LOADS, FORCES AND EFFECTS 



37 



Table 22 External Pressure Coefficients for Roofs and Bottoms of 
Cylindrical Structures 

[Clause 4.5.5.2 (j)] 



DIRECTION 
OF WIND 




Coefficient of External Pressure, C 



pe 



Structure According to Shape 


a 


b andc 


d 


HID 


Roof 


(Z/H) -1 


Roof 


Bottom 


0.5 
1.0 
2.0 


-0.65 
-1.00 
-1.00 


1.00 
1.25 
1.50 


-0.75 
-0.75 
-0.75 


-0.8 
-0.7 
-0.6 



Total force acting on the roof of the structure, P = 0.785 D 2 (C pi - C^)p A . 
The resultant of P lies eccentrically, e = 0.1 £). 



38 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



Table 23 External Pressure Coefficients, C n for Combined Roofs and Roofs with a Sky Light 

















[Clause 4.5.2.2 (k)] 














a) Combined Roofs 






0.9 " 




DIRECTION 1 


c^^d 


DIRECTION 2 
y| 
















— i 


~r t 


) 


ji 








ai<30° y/ 
bi < b2 / 






0.6 ■ 








) 


' t 

h 2 

i 


hi 










































0.4 






y\ 


vs/;;;;/)///////////// 




a x 
















u 1 - - u 2 






































0.2 
0.13 










1.2 










- Cpe = 0.4 -^- 0.6 






Cpe 
















7\ 
I 

• 














.. 







0.5 


1< 


) 1 


1.! 


5 / 


1.8 2 





2.5 


3.0 


H2 














a 




















-0.2 












1 


\- Cpe -15-1.7 
























/ 




















-0.4 










J 


f 




DIRECTION 1 

e 


c^^*^ 


.d 


DIRECTION 2 

Z 1 . 












J 








f * 


i 
1 






-0.6 


Cpe' = 2-J£ -2'.9-/ 


/ 




















/ 










■ ■* 




-0.8 








a 






































i - 








-1.0 


Values of C^ 






Portion Direction 1 Direction 2 




a From the Diagram 

C^ = -0.5, Mb < 1.5 ~°' 4 
b Cpe = -0.7,fti/ft 2 >1.5 






candd See Table 5 




e See 4.5.2.2 (g) 





PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN — SECTION 1 LOADS, FORCES AND EFFECTS 



39 



Table 23 — Concluded 



b) Roofs with a Sky Light 

DIRECTION 
OF WIND 




:: 7^r7777777777777777777ZR7y 



DIRECTION 
OF WIND 




b r 



vM/J/J/JMM^.w/fM'MJV/* 



-b^I 



^1>^2 



Portion 



-0.6 



+0.7 



&i<*l 



See Table for 
Combined Roofs 



m) Grandstands — The pressure coefficients on 
the roof (top and bottom) and rear wall of a 
typical grandstand roof, which is open on 
three sides, is given in Table 24. The pressure 
coefficients are valid for a particular ratio of 
dimensions as specified in Table 24, but may 
be used for deviations up to 20 percent. In 
general, the maximum wind load occurs, 
when the wind is blowing into the open front 
of the stand causing positive pressure under 
the roof and negative pressure on the roof. 

n) Upper Surface of Round Silos and Tanks — 
The pressure coefficients on the upper surface 
of round silos and tanks standing on ground 
shall be as given in Fig. 2. 



p) Spheres — The external pressure coefficients 
for spheres shall be as given in Table 25. 
4.5.2.3 Internal pressure coefficients 

Internal air pressure in a building depends upon the 
degree of permeability of the cladding to the flow of 
air. The internal air pressure may be positive or 
negative depending on the direction of flow of air in 
relation to the openings in the buildings. 

a) In the case of buildings where the claddings 
permit the flow of air with openings not more 
than about 5 percent of the wall areas but 
where there are no large openings, it is 
necessary to consider the possibility of the 
internal pressure being positive or negative. 



40 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



Table 24 Pressure Coefficients at Top and Bottom Roof of Grandstands 
Open Three Sides (Roof = 5°) 

[Clause 4.5.2.2 (m)] 



(h:b:l = 0.8: 1:2.2) 




y///////////////////////////// — 



WIND 




Front and Back of Wall 



e 


J 


K 


L 


M 


o° , 


+0.9 


-OS 


+0.9 


-0.5 


45° 


+0.8 


-0.6 


+0.4 


-0.4 


135° 


-1.1 


+0.6 


-1.0 


+0.4 


180° 


-03 


+0.9 


-0.3 


+0.9 


60° 


A^-CpofX^-1.0 






60° 


M w -C p of/=+1.0 







( Shaded area to scale ) 



Top and Bottom of Roof 



e 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G 


.■-..■ B 


0° 


-1.0 


+0.9 


-1.0 


+0.9 


-0.7 


+0.9 


+0.7 


+0.9 


45° 


-1.0 


+0.7 


-0.7 


+0.4 


-0.5 


+0.8 


-0.5 


+0.3 


135° 


-0.4 


-1.1 


-0.7 


-1.0 


-0.9 


-1.1 


-0.9 


!0 


180° 


-0.6 


-0.3 


-0.6 


-0.3 


-0.6 


-^0.3 


-0.6 


-0.3 


45° 


Mr -C P (top) = -2.0 














45° 


Af R - C P (bottom) = - 


(-1.0 













PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN — SECTION 1 LOADS, FORCES AND EFFECTS 



41 



Table 25 Kxternai Pressure Distribution Coefficients Around Spherical Structures 

[Clause 4.5.2.2 (p)| 




t*D-*-i 



Position of Periphery, 


c 


Remarks 


in degrees 









+1.0 




15 


+0.9 


Q - 0.5forW 2 <7 


30 


+0.5 


= 0.2forDV z >7 


45 


-0.1 




60 


-0.7 




75 


-1.1 




90 


-1.2 




105 


-1.0 




120 


-0.6 




135 


-0.2 




150 


+0.1 




165 


+0.3 




180 


+0.4 





Two design conditions shall be examined, one 
with an internal pressure coefficient of 
+0,2 and another with an internal pressure 
coefficient of -0,2, 

The internal pressure coefficient is algebraically 
added to the external pressure coefficient and 
the analysis, which indicates greater distress 
of the member shall be adopted. In most 
situations, a simple inspection of the sign of 
the external pressure will at once indicate the 
proper sign of the internal pressure coefficient 
to be taken for design. 

NOTE — The terms normal permeability relates to the 
now of air commonly afforded by the claddings not 
only through the open windows and doors, but also 



through the slits round the closed windows and doors 
and through chimneys, ventilators and through the joints 
between roof coverings, the total open area being less 
than 5 percent of the irea of the walls having the 
openings. 

b) Building with medium and large openings — 
Buildings with medium and large openings 
may also exhibit either positive or negative 
internal pressure depending upon the direction 
of wind. Buildings with medium openings 
between about 5 to 20 percent of wall area 
shall be examined for an internal pressure 
coefficient of +0.5 and later with an internal 
pressure coefficient of -0.5, and the members 
shall be adopted. Buildings with large 
openings, that is, openings larger than 



42 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



c) 



20 percent of the wall area shall be examined 
once with an internal pressure coefficient of 
+0.7 and again with an internal pressure 
coefficient of -0.7, and the analysis which 
produces greater distress on the members shall 
be adopted. 

Buildings with one open side or openings 
exceeding 20 percent of wall area may be 
assumed to be subjected to internal positive 
pressure or suction similar to those for 
buildings with large openings. A few 
examples of buildings with one sided 
openings are shown in Fig. 3 indicating values 
of internal pressure coefficients with respect 
to direction of wind: 

In buildings with roofs but no walls, the roofs 
will be subjected to pressure from both inside 



and outside, and the recommendations shall 
be as given in 4.5.2.2. 

4.5.3 Force Coefficients 

The value of force coefficients apply to a building or 
structure as a whole, and when multiplied by the 
effective frontal area, A e of the building or structure 
and by design wind pressure, p 6 give the total wind 
load on that particular building or structure. 

where F is the force acting in a direction specified in 
the respective tables and C f is the force coefficient for 
the building. 

NOTES 

1 The value of the force coefficient differs for the wind acting 

on different faces of a building or structure. In order to 



^T 






4 



I tri 



B 



trl 



<$=> 




(b) FOR l > 1 



(c)FOR £=1, USE AVERAGE VALUES 
(ARROWS INDICATE DIRECTION OF WIND FLOW) 

Fig. 3 Large Opening in Buildings (Values of Coefficient of Internal Pressure) 

(with Top Closed) 



PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN — SECTION 1 LOADS, FORCES AND EFFECTS 



43 



determine the critical load, the total wind load should be 
calculated for each wind direction. 

2 If surface design pressure varies with height, the surface area 
of tbe building/structure may be sub-divided so that specified 
pressure are taken over appropriate areas. 

3 In tapered buildings/structures, the force coefficients shall 
be applied after sub-dividing the building/structure into suitable 
number of strips and the load on each strip calculated 
individually, taking the area of each strip as A e . 

4 Force coefficients for structures not covered herein, reference 
may be made to specialist literature on the subject or advise 
may be sought from specialists in the subject. 

4.5.3.1 Frictional drag 

In certain buildings of special shape, a force due to 
frictional drag shall be taken into account, in addition 
to those loads specified in 4.5.2. For rectangular clad 
buildings, this addition is necessary only where the 
ratio dlh or dlb is greater than 4. The frictional drag 
force, F' in the direction or the wind given by the 
following formulae: 

If h £b,F'= C\ (d~4h) bp d + C\ W- 4h) 2hp d 
or If h > b, F'=C' f (d-4b) bp d + C' f (d-4b) 2hp d 

The first term in each case gives the drag on the roof 
and the second on the walls. The value of C' f has the 
following values: 

C\ - 0.01 for smooth surfaces without 

corrugations or ribs across the wind 

direction; 
C\ - 0.02 for surfaces with corrugations or ribs 

across the wind direction; 
C\ = 0.04 for surfaces with ribs across the wind 

direction. 

For other buildings, the frictional drag has been 
indicated, where necessary, in the tables of pressure 
coefficients and force coefficients. 

4.5.3.2 Force coefficients for clad buildings 

a) Clad buildings of uniform section — The 
overall force coefficients for rectangular clad 
buildings of uniform section with flat roofs 
in uniform flow shall be as given in Fig. 4 
and for other clad buildings of uniform section 
(without projections, except where otherwise 
shown) shall be as given in Table 26. 

b) Buildings of circular shapes — Force 
coefficients for buildings of circular cross- 
section shall be as given in Table 27 (see 
Fig. 5 and Annex F). 

c) Low walls and hoardings — Force 
coefficients for low walls and hoardings less 
than 15 m high shall be as given in Table 27 
provided the height shall be measured from 
the ground to the top of the walls or hoarding, 
and provided that for walls or hoardings above 



the ground the clearance between the wall or 
hoarding and the ground shall be not less than 
0.25 times the vertical dimension of the wall 
or hoarding. 

To allow for oblique winds the design shall 
also be checked for the net pressure normal 
to the surface varying linearly from a 
maximum of 1.7 C f at the up wind edge to 
0.44 C f at the down wind edge. 
The wind load on appurtenances and supports 
for hoardings shall be accounted for 
separately by using the appropriate net 
pressure coefficients. Allowance shall be 
made for the shielding effects of one element 
or another, 
d) Solid circular shapes mounted on a surface 
— The force coefficients for solid circular 
shapes mounted on a surface shall be as given 
in Fig. 6. 

4.6 Dynamic Effects 

4.6.1 General 

Flexible slender structures and structural elements shall 
be investigated to ascertain the importance of wind 
induced oscillations for excitations along and across 
the direction of wind. 

In general the following guidelines may be used for 
examining the problems of wind induced oscillations: 

a) Buildings and closed structures with a height 
to minimum lateral dimension ratio of more 
than about 5.0; or 

b) Buildings and structures whose natural 
frequency in the first mode is less than 1 .0 Hz. 
Any building or structure which satisfies 
either of the above two criteria shall be 
examined for dynamic effects of wind. 

NOTES 

1 The fundamental natural period (rj, in seconds, of 
a moment-resisting frame building without brick infil 
panels and of all other buildings including with brick 
infil panels may be estimated in accordance with 5.4.6. 

2 If preliminary studies indicate that wind-induced 
oscillations are likely to be significant, investigations 
should be persued with the aid of analytical methods 
or, if necessary, by means of wind tunnel tests on 
models. 

3 Cross wind motions may be due to the lateral 
gustiness of the wind, unsteady wake flow (for example, 
vortex shedding), negative aerodynamic damping or to 
a combination of these effects. These cross-wind 
motions can become critical in the design of tall 
building structures. 

4 Motions in the direction of the wind (also known as 
buffeting) are caused by fluctuating wind force 
associated with gusts. The excitations depend on the 
gust energy available at the resonant frequency. 



44 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



3.0 



2.5 



2.0 



1.5 



1.0 



0.5 









/-20 










^ JPife- 


/ 


r* 












y~Z 






. ■■/ 












z 1 























WIND 



0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 

a/b ► 

a) Values of C , versus a / b for h / b > 1 




PLAN 




v/y//////// 



ELEVATION 
F^CfR^bh 



1.4 



1.2 



1.0 



0.8 























h 1 
^b " 4 










L h 1 
b " 2 







0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 



a/b 



b) Values of C f versus a/b for h / b < 1 

Fig. 4 Force Coefficient for Rectangular Clad 
Building in Uniform Flow 



PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN — SECTION 1 LOADS, FORCES AND EFFECTS 



45 



Table 26 Force Coefficients C for Clad Buildings of Uniform Section 
(Acting in the Direction of Wind) 



[Clause 4.3.3.Z (a)| 





Plan §hnng 








1/ A 

m 2 /s 




£\ f or W £ 










Up to 1/2 


1 


2 


5 


10 


20 


00 






Aii surfaces 


<6 


0.7 


0.7 


0.7 


0.8 


0.9 


i.o 


i.2 


X 1 


*~ m l J b 


Rough or with 
projections 


> A 


(iec also Annex E) 


Smooth 


>6 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


0.6 


0.6 


1 
i 


— — d— -i i 

I T 


Ellipse bid- 1/2 


< 10 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


0.6 


0,6 


07 


"1 h 


> 10 


2 


2 


2 


2 


a i 


a o 


A n 


i 
f 
1 


—i 


i 


Eiiipse bid = 2 


<8 


0.8 


0.8 


0.9 


in 


I.I 


1.3 


1.7 




/ X f 

' I 1 


"^ I i n 

1 J T 
\ / 1 
\ J 1 


>» o 


t\ o 
\i,0 


n o 




1.0 


1.1 


1.3 


1.5 








bid-\ 

rib = 1 /3 


< 4 


n a 


n a 




n n 
\j. i 


A O 


A O 


i n 

l.KJ 




\ 
N — r 

l J 






>4 


0.4 


0.4 


0.4 


0.4 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


l\ 1 

1 \__ 1 


£/a = I 
r//>= 1/6 


< 10 


0.7 


0.8 


0.8 


0.9 


1.0 


1.0 


1.3 


1 

1 
\ 






> 10 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


0.6 


0.6 


0.6 




— — - 


- j __ ■ 


r/b =1/2 


<3 


0.3 


0.3 


0.3 


0.3 


0.3 


0.3 


0.4 


r x i : 




7 ¥ 


> 3 


0.2 


0.2 


0.2 


0.2 


0.3 


0.3 


0.3 










ua = i n 
rib = 1/6 


All values 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


0.6 


0.6 


0.7 




— \j — 




— 


L<" -si 
X 

N — r 
V. J 


\ i 

b 
t 












bid =2 
r ju^ 1/12 


All values 


0.9 


0.9 


i.o 


l.i 


i.2 


1.5 


1.9 






"0 






1 
1 
I 

b 
i 
1 
1 









I^AllUrNAL BUlLUirNU tUUfi Uf irNlMA 



Table 26 — Continued 



Plan Shape 




V z 6 

m 2 /s 






C, for Height/Breadth Ratio 






Up to 1/2 


1 


2 


5 


10 


20 


00 








<6 


0.7 


0.8 


0.8 


0.9 


1.0 


1.2 


1.6 




r *\l i 
























1 

b 


All surfaces 


















.__ 




bld = 2 
rib = 1/4 




































w ♦ 
























>6 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


0,5 


0.5 


0.6 


0.6 


*17N 




<10 


0.8 


0.8 


0.9 


1.0 


1.1 


1.3 


1.5 


-M^ 


3 r/a = l/3 


















>10 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


0.6 


0.6 


- ^S 




















\s 


r/a =1/12 


All values 


0.9 


0.9 


0.9 


1.1 


1.2 


1.3 


1.6 


-A. 




















y/^ 




















— *■ \x 1 X 




















^, 


rla = 1/48 


All values 


0.9 


0.9 


0.9 


1.1 


1.2 


13 


1.6 


^ 


1 




<11 


0.7 


0.7 


0.7 


0.8 


0.9 


1.0 


1.2 


— &-< 


rib ~ 1/4 


















UN 


















(—— d— »n 




>H 


0.4 


0.4 


0.4 


0.4 


0,5 


0.5 


0.5 


s* 


1 




















~^ 


b 


r/fc=l/12 


All values 


0.8 


0.8 


0.8 


1.0 


LI 


1.2 


1.4 


y 


1 




















— " <v. 


b 

j 


rib = 1/48 


All values 


0.7 


0.7 


0.8 


0.9 


1.0 


1.1 


1.3 


\ 





















PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN— SECTION 1 LOADS, FORCES AND EFFECTS 



47 



Table 26 — Concluded 



Plan 


(Shape 




m 2 /s 


C t for Height/Breadth Ratio 




Up to 1/2 


1 


2 


5 


10 


20 


00 






<8 


0.7 


0.7 


0.8 


0.9 


1.0 




1.3 


n 


% 




















— *- b 


Ts 


r/b=l/4 


















*<\ 


















£— a-*-< 




>8 


0.4 


0.4 


0.4 


0.4 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


— 


D> 


1/48 < r/fc 
< 1/12 


All values 


1.2 


1.2 


1.2 


1.4 


1.6 


1.7 


2.1 


• -v 




<12 


0.7 


0.7 


0.8 


0.9 


1.0 


1.1 


1.3 


_^ f— d— 4 


12 sided 
polygon 


















C7 






















>12 


0.7 


0.7 


0.7 


0.7 


0,8 


0.9 


1.1 


-O 


Octagon 


All values 


1.0 


1.0 


1.1 


1.2 


1.2 


1.3 


1.4 


-o 


Hexagon 


All values 


1.0 


1.1 


1.2 


1.3 


1.4 


1.4 


1.5 



NOTE — Structures that, because of their size and the design wind velocity, are in the supercritical flow regime may need further 
calculation to ensure that the greatest loads do not occur at some wind speed below the maximum when the flow will be sub- 
critical. 

The coefficients are for buildings without projections, except where otherwise shown. In this table V b is used as an indication of the 
airflow regime. 



48 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 





1.4 
1.2 
1.0 
O.S 
0.6 

0.4 

0.2 















































FOR 


3X10 4 <Re 


< 1 


o 5 , 


C 

1 + 


ire- 

D 


.2 














e 
D 


X10 3 










































60 
40 
20 

10 ^ 

f.5 
1.0 

0.5 




























_ 




i 


























j 












F*10> 
























// 

fi! 


^zr 












5.0=^ 
_ 4.0^ 

3,0 -^ 
2.0 — 






















r - 


^~ 


^^ 


0.1 
0.05 










Cf 






D 




























0.01 
0.002 

f 








































1 


1 1 ■ — ■ ■ [ 

= DRAG COEFFICIENT 


























E 
I 


XTR 

I 


1 


1 1 

^1 ATFP v/ai t ice 












1 1 


JLM 1 CL 

1 


I 


uc%; 



10 5 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 6 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 7 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 8 



Re ► 

Q 
Fig. 5 Variation of 1+ 2e with Re < 3 x 10 4 for Circular Sections 



Table 27 Force Coefficients for Low Walls or Hoardings (<15 m High) 

[Clause 4.5.3.2(b)] 





ABOVE GROUND h' > 0.25 h 



ONE EDGE ON GROUND 
(Wind normai to face) 



Width to Height Ratio, bfh 


Drag Coefficient, Ct 


Wall above ground 


Wall on ground 




From 0.5 to 6 


From 1 to 12 


1.2 


10 


20 


1.3 


16 


32 


1.4 


20 


40 


1.5 


40 


80 


1.7 


60 


120 


1.8 


80 or more 


160 more 20 


2.0 



FAR I 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN — SECTION 1 LOADS, FORCES AND EFFECTS 



49 



SIDE ELEVATION 



DESCRIPTION OF SHAPE 



CIRCULAR DISC 



1.2 



W/////////M 




HEMISPHERICAL BOWL 



1.4 




HEMISPHERICAL BOWL 



0.4 




HEMISPHERICAL SOLID 



-1,2 




SPHERICAL SOLID 



0.5FORVD<7 
0.2FORVD>7 



Fig. 6 Force Coefficients for Solid Shapes Mounted on a Surface 



5 The wake shed from an upstream body may intensify 
motions in the direction of the wind, and may also effect 
crosswind motions. 

6 The designer must be aware of the following three 
forms of wind induced motion which are characterized 
by increasing amplitude of oscillation with increase of 
wind speed. 

a) Galloping — Galloping is transverse oscillations 
of some structures due to the development of 
aerodynamic forces which are in phase with the 
motion. It is characterized by the progressively 
increasing amplitude of transverse vibration with 
increase of wind speed. The cross-sections which 
are particularly prone to this type of excitation 
include the following: 

i) Ail structures with non-circular cross- 
sections, such as triangular, square, polygons, 
as well as angles, crosses and T-sections. 
ii) Twisted cables and cables with ice 
encrustations. 



b) Flutter — Flutter is unstable oscillatory motion 
of a structure due to coupling between 
aerodynamic force and the elastic deformation of 
the structure. Perhaps the most common form is 
the oscillatory motion due to combined bending 
and torsion. Although oscillatory motions in each 
degree of freedom may be dampled, instability 
can set in due to energy transfer from one mode 
of oscillation to another, and the structure is seen 
to execute sustained or divergent oscillations with 
a type of motion which is a combination of the 
individual modes of motion. Such energy transfer 
takes place when the natural frequencies of the 
modes, taken individually, are close to each other 
(ratio being typically less than 2.0). Flutter can 
set in at wind speeds much less than those required 
for exciting the individual modes of motion. Long 
span suspension bridge decks or any member of a 
structure with large values of dlt (where d is the 
depth of a structure or structural member parallel 
to wind stream and t is the least lateral dimension 



50 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



of a member) are prone to low speed flutter. Wind 
tunnel testing is required to determine critical 
flutter speeds and the likely structural response. 
Other types of flutter are single degree of freedom 
stall flutter, torsional flutter etc. 
c) Ovatling — Thin walled structures with open ends 
at one or both ends, such as oil storage tanks, and 
natural draught cooling towers, in which the ratio 
of the diameter of minimum lateral dimension to 
the wall thickness is of the order of 100 or 
more, are prone to ovalling oscillations. These 
oscillations are characterized by periodic radial 
deformation of the hollow structure. 

7 Buildings and structures that may be subjected to 
serious wind excited oscillations require careful 
investigation. It is to be noted that wind induced 
oscillations may occur at wind speeds lower than the 
static design wind speed for the location. 

8 Analytical methods for determining dynamic 
response of structures to wind loading can be found in 
the following publications: 

a) Engineering Science Data, Wind Engineering sub- 
series (4 volumes), London, ESDU International. 

b) 'Wind Engineering in the Eighties'. Construction 
Industry Research and Information Association, 
1981, London. 

c) 'Wind Effects on Structures' by E Simiu and 
R.H. Scanlan. Johan Wiley and Sons, New York, 

1978. 

d) Supplement to the National Building Code of 
Canada, 1980. NRCC, No. 17724. National 
Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, 1980. 

e) Wind Forces on Structures by Peter Sachs. 
Pergamon Press. 

f) Flow Induced Vibration by Robert D. Clevins. 
Von Nostrand Reinfold Co. 

9 In assessing wind loads due to such dynamic 
phenomenon as galloping, flutter and ovalling, if the 
required information is not available either in the 
references of Note 8 or other literature, specialist advice 
shall be sought, including experiments on models in 
wind tunnels. 

4.6.2 Motions Due to Vortex Shedding 

4.6.2.1 Slender structures — For a structure, the 
shedding frequency, r| shall be determined by the 
following formula; 

„- sv < 



where 



a) 



S = Strouhal number, 

V d = design wind velocity, and 

b - The breadth of a structure or structural 

members in the horizontal plane normal 

to the wind direction. 

Circular Structures — For structures circular 
in cross-section: 

S = 0.20 for bV z not greater than 7, and 

S = 0.25 for bV z greater than 7. 



b) Rectangular Structures — For structures of 
rectangular cross-section: 

S = 0.15 for all values of bV z . 

NOTES 

1 Significant cross wind motions may be produced by 
vortex shedding if the natural frequency of the structure 
or structural element is equal to the frequency of the 
vortex shedding within the range of expected wind 
velocities. In such cases, further analysis should be 
carried out on the basis of references given in Note 8 
of 4.6.1. 

2 Unlined welded steel chimney stacks and similar 
structures are prone to excitation by vortex shedding. 

3 Intensification of the effects of periodic vortex 
shedding has been reported in cases where two or more 
similar structures are located in close proximity, for 
example, at less than 20 b apart, where b is the 
dimension of the structure normal to the wind. 

4 The formulae given in 4.6.2.1 (a) and 4.6.2.1 (b) are 
valid for infinitely long cylindrical structures. The value 
of S decreases slowly as the ratio of length to maximum 
transverse width decreases; the reduction being up to 
about half the value, if the structure is only three times 
higher than its width. Vortex shedding need not be 
considered if the ratio of length to maximum transverse 
width is less than 2.0. 

4.7 Gust Factor (GF) or Gust Effectiveness Factor 
(GEF) Method 

4.7.1 Application 

Only the method of calculating load along wind or drag 
load by using gust factor method is given in the section 
since methods for calculating load across-wind or other 
components are not fully matured for all types of 
structures. However, it is permissible for a designer to 
use gust factor method to calculate all components of 
load on a structure using any available theory. 
However, such a theory must take into account the 
random nature of atmospheric wind speed. 

NOTE — It may be noted that investigations for various types 
of wind induced oscillations out lined in 4.6 are in no way 
related to the use of gust factor method given in 4.7. Although 
study of 4.6 is needed for using gust factor method. 

4.7.2 Hourly Mean Wind 

Use of the existing theories of gust factor method 
require a knowledge of the maximum of the wind 
speeds averaged over one hour at a particular site. 
Hourly mean wind speeds at different heights over 
different terrains is given in Table 28. 

NOTE — It must also be recognized that the ratio of hourly 
mean wind (HMW) to peak gust (PG) given in Table 28 may 
not be obtainable in India since extreme wind occurs mainly 
due to cyclones and thunderstorms, unlike in UK and Canada 
where the mechanism is fully developed pressure system. 
However Table 28 may be followed at present for the estimation 
of the hourly mean wind speed till more reliable values become 
available. 



PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN — SECTION 1 LOADS, FORCES AND EFFECTS 



51 



Table 28 Hourly Mean Wind Speed Factor k 2 in 
Different Terrains for Different Heights 

(Clause 4.1 2) 



Height 




Terrain 




m 


Category 1 


Category 2 


Category 3 


Category 4 


(I) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


10 


0.78 


0.67 


0.50 


0.24 


15 


0.82 


0.72 


0.55 


0.24 


20 


0,85 


0.75 


0.59 


0,24 


30 


0.88 


0.79 


0.64 


0.34 


50 


0.93 


0.85 


0.70 


0.45 


100 


0.99 


0.92 


0.79 


0.57 


150 


1.03 


0.96 


0,84 


0,64 


200 


1.06 


1.00 


0.88 


0.68 


250 


1.08 


1.02 


0.91 


0.72 


300 


1.09 


1.04 


0.93 


0.74 


350 


1.11 


1.06 


0.95 


0.77 


400 


1.12 


1.07 


0.97 


0.79 


450 


1.13 


1.08 


0.98 


0.81 


500 


1.14 


1.09 


0.99 


0.82 



4.7*2,1 Variation of hourly mean wind speed with height 

The variation of hourly mean wind speed with height 
shall be calculated as follows: 



'z ~ 'b' v 1* v 2* v 3 



where 



V y = hourly mean wind speed in m/s at height z, 

V h = regional basic wind speed in m/s (see Fig. 1 ), 

k l - probability factor (Table 4), 

k 2 = terrain and height factor (Table 28), and 



k^ - topography factor (4.4.3.3). 
4.7.3 Along Wind Load 

Along wind load on a structure on a strip area (A e ) at 
any height (Z) is given by: 



F z =C f A e p z G 



where 



b\ = along wind load on the structure at any 

height Z corresponding to strip area A , 
C f = force coefficient for the building, 
A = effective frontal area considered for the 

e 

structure at height Z. 
p 7 = design pressure at height Z due to mean 
hourly wind obtained as 0.6 V 2 , (N/m 2 ), and 

_ r peak load , . . 

O = gust lactor — - and is given by: 



mean load 



G = l + * f r 4 



fl(l + 0) 2 + — 
P. 



where 



g f = peak factor defined as the ratio of the 

expected peak value to the root mean value 

of a fluctuating load, and 
r = a roughness factor which is dependent on 

the size of the structure in relation, to the 

ground roughness. 

The value of 'g f r is given in Fig. 7. 




50 100 200 

BUILDING HEIGHT, m 

Fig. 7 Values of g { r and L h 



500 



52 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



Table 28 Hourly Mean Wind Speed Factor k 2 in 
Different Terrains for Different Heights 

(Clause 4.7.2) 



Height 




Terrain 




m 


Category 1 


Category 2 


Category 3 


Category 4 


(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


10 


0.78 


0.67 


0.50 


0.24 


15 


0.82 


0.72 


0.55 


0.24 


20 


0.85 


0.75 


0.59 


0.24 


30 


0.88 


0.79 


0.64 


0.34 


50 


0.93 


0.85 


0.70 


0.45 


100 


0.99 


0.92 


0.79 


0.57 


150 


1.03 


0.96 


0.84 


0.64 


200 


1.06 


1.00 


0.88 


0.68 


250 


1.08 


1.02 


0.91 


0.72 


300 


1.09 


1.04 


0.93 


0.74 


350 


1.11 


1.06 


0.95 


0.77 


400 


1.12 


1.07 


0.97 


0.79 


450 


1.13 


1.08 


0.98 


0.81 


500 


1.14 


1.09 


0.99 


0.82 



k 3 = topography factor (4.4.3.3). 
4.7.3 Along Wind Load 

Along wind load on a structure on a strip area (A e ) at 
any height (Z) is given by: 

F z =C t \p z G 

where 

F z = along wind load on the structure at any 
height Z corresponding to strip area A e , 

C f = force coefficient for the building, 

A e = effective frontal area considered for the 
structure at height Z. 

p z = design pressure at height Z due to mean 
hourly wind obtained as 0.6 V 2 z (N/m 2 ), and 

G = gust factor— — - and is given by: 



mean load 



4.7.2. 1 Variation of hourly mean wind speed with height 

The variation of hourly mean wind speed with height 
shall be calculated as follows: 



where 

V z - hourly mean wind speed in m/s at height z, 

V h = regional basic wind speed in m/s (see Fig. 1 ), 

k x = probability factor (Table 4), 

k 2 = terrain and height factor (Table 28), and 



G = l + g f r A 



Z?(l + 0) 2 + — 



where 

g { = peak factor defined as the ratio of the 

expected peak value to the root mean value 

of a fluctuating load, and 
r - a roughness factor which is dependent on 

the size of the structure in relation to the 

ground roughness. 

The value of 'g f f is given in Fig. 7. 




1250 ^ 



100 200 

BUILDING HEIGHT, m 

Fig. 7 Values of g ( r and L h 



52 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



B is a background factor indicating a measure of 
the slowly varying component of the fluctuating 
wind load and is obtained from Fig. 8. 

SE 

~jT is a measure of the resonant component of the 

fluctuating wind load. 

E is a measure of the available energy in the wind 

stream at the natural frequency of the structure 

(see Fig. 9). 

S is size reduction factor (see Fig, 10). 

(3 is the damping coefficient (as a fraction of critical 

damping) of the structure (see Table 29). 



5 SEISMIC LOAD 

5.0 This clause deals with assessment of seismic loads 
on various structures and earthquake resistant design 
of buildings. (For the purpose of this clause the symbols 
given at Annex G are applicable). 

5.1 Terminology for Earthquake Engineering 

5.1.1 For the purpose of this standard, the following 
definitions shall apply which are applicable generally 
to all structures: 

NOTE — For the definitions of terms pertaining to soil 
mechanics and soil dynamics references may be made to Part 6 
'Structural Design, Section 2 Soils and Foundations'. 



and is to be accounted only for buildings 512 Closely-Spaced Modes 



less than 75 m high in terrain category 4 and for 
buildings less than 25 high in terrain category 3, 
and is to be taken as zero in ail other cases. 



In Fig. 8 and 10, 



A^andf = W 

C z h '° V h 



where 



C. = lateral correlation constant which may be taken 
as 10 in the absence of more precise load data; 

C z = longitudinal correlation constant which may 
be taken as J 2 in the absence of more precise 
load data; 

b = breadth of a structure normal to the wind 

stream; 
h - height of a structure; 
V y - hourly mean wind speed at height Z; 
f o = natural frequency of the structure in the 

fundamental mode; and 
L f = a measure of turbulence length scale (see Fig. 7) 

Table 29 Suggested Values of Damping 
Coefficient 

(Clause 4.7.3) 



Nature of Structure 

(1) 



Damping Coefficient, j 

(2) 



Welded steel structures 
Bolted steel structures 
Reinforced concrete structures 



0.010 
0.020 
0.016 



The peak acceleration along the wind direction at the 
top of the structure is given by the following formula: 



a = (2nf ) x g t r — 



where 



x = mean deflection at the position where the 
acceleration is required. 



Closely-spaced modes of a structure are those of its 
natural modes of vibration whose natural frequencies 
differ from each other by 10 percent or less of the lower 
frequency. 

5.1.3 Critical Damping 

The damping beyond which the free vibration motion 
will not be oscillatory. 

5.1.4 Damping 

The effect of internal friction, imperfect elasticity of 
material, slipping, sliding etc, in reducing the amplitude 
of vibration and is expressed as a percentage of critical 
damping. 

5.1.5 Design Acceleration Spectrum 

Design acceleration spectrum refers to an average 
smoothened plot of maximum acceleration as a 
function of frequency or time period of vibration for a 
specified damping ratio for earthquake excitations at 
the base of a single degree of freedom system. 

5.1.6 Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) 

It is the earthquake which can reasonably be expected 
to occur at least once during the design life of the 

structure. 

5.1.7 Design Horizontal Acceleration Coefficient (A h ) 

It is a horizontal acceleration coefficient that shall be 
used for design of structures. 

5.1.8 Design Lateral Force 

It is the horizontal seismic force prescribed by this 
standard, that shall be used to design a structure. 

5.1.9 Ductility 

Ductility of a structure, or its members, is the capacity 
to undergo large inelastic deformations without 
significant loss of strength or stiffness. 



PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN — SECTION I LOADS, FORCES AND EFFECTS 



53 



CO 

of 

e 

o 

Q 

2 
3 

2 

CD 

O 
< 

CO 



0.8 
0.6 
0.4 

0.3 

0.2 

0.1 
0.08 
0.06 

0.04 
0.02 

























r0 




^-0.1 


































.0.2 


































f 
























A = 10 


5^ 




1 "" 

^ 2 ^T V 


s^OS 


^$ 






























^ Vs >^*^ v 


^ 


^ 


s 


^ 


$ 










A ~Czh 














\ 


x 


N 


^ 




























>^ 






K| 











































































































































.01 .02 .04 .06 



.1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .8 1 

C z h/L h 

Fig. 8 Background Factor, B 



4 6 8 10 



0.4 

0.3 

uj 0.2 

g 0.15 

i- 
Q 
£ 0.1 

* 0.05 
g 0.04 

UJ 

k 0.03 
O 0.02 

0.01 



































































































































































































































































































































































6 8 10 20 30 40 60 80 100 200 300 600 

Fig. 9 Gust Energy Factor, E 



54 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 







-Vh »-i 






it 




Vz 














/ J 


i 




h 






/ Z 










i 


f 




ii 



v//y///////////////. 



Vh 




CO 

of 
o 

I- 
o 
< 



O 
D 

a: 

UJ 
N 

CO 



08- 
















































n 5- 










































n a - 




X 












































n ^ - 






X 


















































^ ^ s 


V\ 






































u.z 
n 1^- 
















































U. IO 

n 1- 
















































U. I 

0.08- 
















































n n^- 
















































u.uo 
n ha - 
















































U.U*T 
















































U.Uo 
n no - 
















































u.uz 
















































U.UO 
01- 


















A 




10 


5 


2 1 





.5 


0. 


2C 


1.1 













n nnft-i 












































\ 




u.uuo ^ 
005- 










Oyb 
Czh 
































\ 




n nn>i - 








A 
































N 




U.UU4 










































\ 


U.UUo 
















































U.UUZ 

















































CM Tf CD 

odd 



o o p 

T^ CSI «fr 



q 

CD 



o o 

t= CM 



o o g 

-^ CD O 



o o 
o o 

CM «fr 



o 

o 

CD 



REDUCED FREQUENCY, F = Slh*L 

V h 



Fig. 10 Size Reduction Factor, 5 



PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN — SECTION 1 LOADS, FORCES AND EFFECTS 



55 



5.1.10 Epicentre 

The geographical point on the surface of earth 
vertically above the focus of the earthquake. 

5.1.11 Effective Peak Ground Acceleration (EPGA) 

It is 0.4 times the 5 percent damped average spectral 
acceleration between period 0.1 to 0.3 s. This shall be 
taken as zero period acceleration (ZPA). 

5.1.12 Floor Response Spectra 

Floor response spectra is the response spectra for a 
time history motion of a floor. This floor motion time 
history is obtained by an analysis of multi-storey 
building for appropriate material damping values 
subjected to a specified earthquake motion at the base 
of structure. 

5.1.13 Focus 

The originating earthquake source of the elastic waves 
inside the earth which cause shaking of ground due to 
earthquake. 

5.1.14 Importance Factor (I) 

It is a factor used to obtain the design seismic force 
depending on the functional use of the structure, 
characterised by hazardous consequences of its failure, 
its post-earthquake functional need, historic value, or 
economic importance. 

5.1.15 Intensity of Earthquake 

The intensity of an earthquake at a place is a measure 
of the strength of shaking during the earthquake, and 
is indicated by a number according to the modified 
Mercalli Scale or M.S.K. scale of Seismic Intensities 
(see Annex H). 

5.1.16 Liquefaction 

Liquefaction is a state in saturated cohesionless soil 
wherein the effective shear strength is reduced to 
negligible value for all engineering purpose due to pore 
pressure caused by vibrations during an earthquake 
when they approach the total confining pressure. In 
this condition the soil tends to behave like a fluid mass. 

5.1.17 Lithological Features 

The nature of the geological formation of the earth's 
crust above bed rock on the basis of such characteristics 
as colour, structure, mineralogical composition and 
grain size. 

5.1.18 Magnitude of Earthquake (Richter' s Magnitude) 

The magnitude of earthquake is a number, which is a 
measure of energy released in an earthquake. It is 
defined as logarithm to the base 10 of the maximum 
trace amplitude, expressed in microns, which the 



standard short-period torsion seismometer (with a 
period of 0.8 s, magnification 2 800 and damping 
nearly critical) would register due to the earthquake at 
an epicentral distance of 100 km. 

5.1.19 Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) 

The most severe earthquake effects considered by this 
Code. 

5.1.20 Modal Mass (MJ 

Modal mass of a structure subjected to horizontal or 
vertical, as the case may be, ground motion is a part of 
the total seismic mass of the structure that is effective 
in mode k of vibration. The modal mass for a given 
mode has a unique value irrespective of scaling of the 
mode shape. 

5.1.21 Modal Participation Factor (P k ) 

Modal participation factor of mode k of vibration is 
the amount by which mode k contributes to the overall 
vibration of the structure under horizontal and vertical 
earthquake ground motions. Since the amplitudes of 
95 per cent mode shapes can be scaled arbitrarily, the 
value of this factor depends on the scaling used for 
mode shapes. 

5.1.22 Modes of Vibration (see 5.1.25) 

5.1.23 Mode Shape Coefficient ((j>- ± ) 

When a system is vibrating in normal mode k, at any 
particular instant of time, the amplitude of mass i 
expressed as a ratio of the amplitude of one of the 
masses of the system, is known as mode shape 
coefficient (0 ik ). 

5.1.24 Natural Period (T) 

Natural period of a structure is its time period of 
undamped free vibration. 

5.1.24.1 Fundamental natural period (T x ) 

It is the first (longest) modal time period of vibration. 

5.1.24.2 Modal natural period (T k ) 

The modal natural period of mode k is the time period 
of vibration in mode k 

5.1.25 Normal Mode 

A system is said to be vibrating in a normal mode when 
all its masses attain maximum values of displacements 
and rotations simultaneously, and pass through 
equilibrium positions simultaneously. 

5.1.26 Response Reduction Factor (R) 

It is the factor by which the actual base shear force, 
that would be generated if the structure were to remain 
elastic during its response to the design basis 



56 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



earthquake (DBE) shaking, shall be reduced to obtain 
the design lateral force. 

5.1.27 Response Spectrum 

The representation of the maximum response of 
idealized single degree freedom systems having certain 
period and damping, during earthquake ground motion. 
The maximum response is plotted against the 
undamped natural period and for various damping 
values, and can be expressed in terms of maximum 
absolute acceleration, maximum relative velocity, or 
maximum relative displacement. 

5.1.28 Seismic Mass 

It is the seismic weight divided by acceleration due to 
gravity. 

5.1.29 Seismic Weight (W) 

It is the total dead load plus appropriate amounts of 
specified imposed load. 

5.1.30 Structural Response Factors (SJg) 

It is a factor denoting the acceleration response 
spectrum of the structure subjected to earthquake 
ground vibrations, and depends on natural period of 
vibration and damping of the structure. 

5.1.31 Tectonic Features 

The nature of geological formation of the bed rock in 
the earth's crust revealing regions characterized by 
structural features, such as dislocation, distortion, 
faults, folding, thrusts, volcanoes with their age of 
formation, which are directly involved in the earth 
movement or quake resulting in the above 
consequences. 

5.1.32 Time History Analysis 

It is an analysis of the dynamic response of the structure 
attach increment of time, when its base is subjected to 
a specific ground motion time history. 

5.1.33 Zone Factor (Z) 

It is a factor to obtain the design spectrum depending 
on the perceived maximum seismic risk characterized 
by maximum considered earthquake (MCE) in the zone 
in which the structure is located. The basic zone factors 
included in this standard are reasonable estimate of 
effective peak ground acceleration. 

5.1.34 Zero Period Acceleration (ZPA) 

It is the value of acceleration response spectrum for 
period below 0.03 s (frequencies above 33 Hz). 

5.2 Terminology for Earthquake Engineering of 
Buildings 

5.2.1 For the purpose of earthquake resistant design 



of buildings in this standard, the following definitions 
shall apply: 

5.2.2 Base 

It is the level at which inertia forces generated in the 
structure are transferred to the foundation, which then 
transfers these forces to the ground. 

5.2.3 Base Dimensions (d) 

Base dimension of the building along a direction is 
the dimension at its base, in metres, along that 
direction. 

5.2.4 Centre of Mass 

The point through which the resultant of the masses of 
a system acts. This point corresponds to the centre of 
gravity of masses of system. 

5.2.5 Centre of Stiffness 

The point through which the resultant of the restoring 
forces of a system acts. 

5.2.6 Design Eccentricity (e^) 

It is the value of eccentricity to be used at floor i in 
torsion calculations for design. 

5.2.7 Design Seismic Base Shear (V B ) 

It is the total design lateral force at the base of a 
structure. 

5.2.8 Diaphragm 

It is a horizontal, or nearly horizontal system, which 
transmits lateral forces to the vertical resisting 
elements, for example, reinforced concrete floors and 
horizontal bracing systems. 

5.2.9 Dual System 

Buildings with dual system consist of shear walls (or 
braced frames) and moment resisting frames such 
that: 

a) the two systems are designed to resist the total 
design lateral force in proportion to their 
lateral stiffness considering the interaction of 
the dual system at all floor levels; and 

b) the moment resisting frames are designed to 
independently resist at least 25 percent of the 
design base shear. 

5.2.10 Height of Floor (h { ) 

It is the difference in levels between the base of the 
building and that of floor /. 

5.2.11 Height of Structure (h) 

It is the difference in levels, in metres, between its base 
and its highest level. 



PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN — SECTION 1 LOADS, FORCES AND EFFECTS 



57 



5.2.12 Horizontal Bracing System 

It is a horizontal truss system that serves the same 
function as a diaphragm. 

5.2.13 Joint 

It is the portion of the column that is common to other 
members, for example, beams, framing into it. 

5.2.14 Lateral Force Resisting Element 

It is part of the structural system assigned to resist 
lateral forces. 

5.2.15 Moment-Resisting Frame 

It is a frame in which members and joints are capable 
of resisting forces primarily by flexure. 

5.2.15.1 Ordinary moment-resisting frame 

It is a moment-resisting frame not meeting special 
detailing requirements for ductile behaviour. 

5.2.15.2 Special moment-resisting frame 

It is a moment-resisting frame specially detailed to 
provide ductile behaviour and comply with the 
requirements given in IS 4326 or IS 13920 or 
SP 6(6). 

5.2.16 Number of Storeys (n) 

Number of storeys of a building is the number of levels 
above the base. This excludes the basement storeys, 
where basement walls are connected with the ground 
floor deck or fitted between the building columns. But, 
it includes the basement storeys, when they are not so 
connected. 

5.2.17 Principal Axes 

Principal axes of a building are generally two 
mutually perpendicular horizontal directions in plan 
of a building along which the geometry of the building 
is oriented. 

5.2.18 P-A Effect 

It is the secondary effect on shears and moments of 
frame members due to action of the vertical loads, 
interacting with the lateral displacement of building 
resulting from seismic forces. 

5.2.19 Shear Wall 

It is a wall designed to resist lateral forces acting in its 
own plane. 

5.2.20 Soft Storey 

It is one in which the lateral stiffness is less than 70 
percent of that in the storey above or less than 80 
percent of the average lateral stiffness of the three 
storeys above. 



5.2.21 Static Eccentricity (e si ) 

It is the distance between centre of mass and centre of 
rigidity of floor /. 

5.2.22 Storey 

It is the space between two adjacent floors. 

5.2.23 Storey Drift 

It is the displacement of one level relative to the other 
level above or below. 

5.2.24 Storey Shear (V.J 

It is the sum of design lateral forces at all levels above 
the storey under consideration. 

5.2.25 Weak Storey 

It is one in which the storey lateral strength is less than 
80 percent of that in the storey above. The storey lateral 
strength is the total strength of all seismic force resisting 
elements sharing the storey shear in the considered 
direction. 

5.3 General Principles and Design Criteria 
5.3.1 General Principles 

5.3.1.1 Ground motion 

The characteristics (intensity, duration, etc) of seismic 
ground vibrations expected at any location depends 
upon the magnitude of earthquake, its depth of focus, 
distance from the epicentre, characteristics of the path 
through which the seismic waves travel, and the soil 
strata on which the structure stands. The random 
earthquake ground motions, which cause the structure 
to vibrate, can be resolved in any three mutually 
perpendicular directions. The predominant direction 
of ground vibration is usually horizontal. 

Earthquake-generated vertical inertia forces are to be 
considered in design unless checked and proven by 
specimen calculations to be not significant. Vertical 
acceleration should be considered in structures with large 
spans, those in which stability is a criterion for design, 
or for overall stability analysis of structures. Reduction 
in gravity force due to vertical component of ground 
motions can be particularly detrimental in cases of 
prestressed horizontal members and of cantilevered 
members. Hence, special attention should be paid to the 
effect of vertical component of the ground motion on 
prestressed or cantilevered beams, girders and slabs. 

5.3.1.2 The response of a structure to ground 
vibrations is a function of the nature of foundation soil, 
materials, form, size and mode of construction of 
structures; and the duration and characteristics of 
ground motion. This standard specifies design forces 
for structures standing on rocks or soils which do not 



58 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



settle, liquefy or slide due to loss of strength during 
ground vibrations. 

5.3.1.3 The design approach adopted in this standard 
is to ensure that structures possess at least a minimum 
strength to withstand minor earthquakes (<DBE), 
which occur frequently, without damage; resist 
moderate earthquakes (DBE) without significant 
structural damage though some non-structural damage 
!may occur; and aims that structures withstand a major 
earthquake (MCE) without collapse. Actual forces that 
appear on structures during earthquakes are much 
greater than the design forces specified in this Code. 
However, ductility, arising from inelastic material 
ibehaviour and detailing, and overstrength, arising from 
|the additional reserve strength in structures over and 
above the design strength, are relied upon to account 
for this difference in actual and design lateral loads. 

Reinforced and prestressed concrete members shall be 
suitably designed to ensure that premature failure due 
to shear or bond does not occur, subject to the 
provisions of Part 6 'Structural Design, Section 5 
Concrete'. Provisions for appropriate ductile detailing 
of reinforced concrete members shall be in accordance 
with good practice [6-1(4)]. 

In steel structures, members and their connections 
should be so proportioned that high ductility is 
obtained, vide SP 6(6), avoiding premature failure due 
to elastic or inelastic buckling of any type. 

The specified earthquake loads are based upon post- 
elastic energy dissipation in the structure and because 
of this fact, the provision of this Code for design, 
detailing and construction shall be satisfied even for 
structures and members for which load combinations 
that do not contain the earthquake effect indicate larger 
demands than combinations including earthquake. 

5.3.1.4 Soil-structure interaction 

The soil-structure interaction refers to the effects of 
the supporting foundation medium on the motion of 
structure. The soil-structure interaction may not be 
considered in the seismic analysis for structures 
supported on rock or rock-like material. 

5.3.1.5 The design lateral force specified in this Code 
shall be considered in each of the two orthogonal 
horizontal directions of the structure. For structures 
which have lateral force resisting elements in the two 
orthogonal directions only, the design lateral force shall 
be considered along one direction at a time, and not in 
both directions simultaneously. Structures, having 
lateral force resisting elements (for example, frames, 
shear walls) in directions other than the two orthogonal 
directions, shall be analysed considering the load 
combinations specified in 5.3.3.2. 

Where both horizontal and vertical seismic forces are 



taken into account, load combinations specified 
in 5.3.3.3 shall be considered. 

5.3.1.6 Equipment and other systems, which are 
supported at various floor levels of the structure, will 
be subjected to motions corresponding to vibration at 
their support points. In important cases, it may be 
necessary to obtain floor response spectra for design 
of equipment supports. For detail reference be made 
to good practice [6-1(5)] 

5.3.1.7 Additions to existing structures 

Additions shall be made to existing structures only as 
follows: 

a) An addition that is structurally independent 
from an existing structures shall be designed 
and constructed in accordance with the 
seismic requirements for new structures. 

b) An addition that is not structurally independent 
from an existing structure shall be designed 
and constructed such that the entire structure 
conforms to the seismic force resistance 
requirements for new structures unless the 
following three conditions are complied with: 

1) The addition shall comply with the 
requirements for new structures; 

2) The addition shall not increase the 
seismic forces in any structural elements 
of the existing structure by more than 
5 per cent unless the capacity of the 
element subject to the increased force is 
still in compliance with this standard; and 

3) The addition shall not decrease the 
seismic resistance of any structural 
element of the existing structure unless 
reduced resistance is equal to or greater 
than that required for new structures. 

5.3.1.8 Change in occupancy 

When a change of occupancy results in a structure 
being reclassified to a higher importance factor (/), the 
structure shall conform to the seismic requirements for 
a new structure with the higher importance factor. 

5.3.2 Assumptions 

The following assumptions shall be made in the 
earthquake-resistant design of structures: 

a) Earthquake causes impulsive ground motions, 
which are complex and irregular in character, 
changing in period and amplitude each lasting 
for a small duration. Therefore, resonance of 
the type as visualized under steady-state 
sinusoidal excitations, will not occur as it 
would need time to build up such amplitudes. 
NOTE — However, there are exceptions where 



PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN — SECTION 1 LOADS, FORCES AND EFFECTS 



59 



resonance-like conditions have been seen to occur 
between long distance waves and tall structures founded 
on deep soft soils. 

b) Earthquake is not likely to occur simultaneously 
with wind or maximum flood or maximum 
sea waves. 

c) The value of elastic modulus of materials, 
wherever required, may be taken as for static 
analysis unless a more definite value is 
available for use in such condition (see Part 6 
'Structural Design, Section 5 Concrete and 
Section 6 Steel'. 

5.3.3 Load Combination and Increase in Permissible 
Stresses 

5.3.3.1 Load combinations 

When earthquake forces are considered on a structure, 
these shall be combined as per 5.3.3.1.1 and 5.3.3.1.2 

where the terms DL, IL and EL stand for the response 
quantities due to dead load, imposed and designated 
earthquake load respectively. 

5.3.3.1.1 Load factors for plastic design of steel 
structures 

In the plastic design of steel structures, the following 
load combinations shall be accounted for: 

a) 1.7 (DL + IL) 

b) 1.7 (DL±EL) 

c) 1.3 (DL+IL±EL) 

5.3.3.1.2 Partial safety factors for limit state design of 
reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete structures 

In the limit state design of reinforced and prestressed 
concrete structures, the following load combinations 
shall be accounted for: 

a) 1.5 (DL + IL) 

b) 1.2 (DL+IL±EL) 

c) 1.5 (DL±EL) 

d) 0.9 DL± 1.5 EL 

5.3.3.2 Design horizontal earthquake load 

5.3.3.2.1 When the lateral load resisting elements are 
oriented along orthogonal horizontal direction, the 
structure shall be designed for the effects due to full design 
earthquake load in one horizontal direction at time. 

5.3.3.2.2 When the lateral load resisting elements are 
not oriented along the orthogonal horizontal directions, 
the structure shall be designed for the effects due to 
full design earthquake load in one horizontal direction 
plus 30 percent of the design earthquake load in the 
other direction. 

NOTE — For instance, the building should be designed for 
(± £L ± 03 EL y ) as well as (± 0.3 EL x ± EL y ), where x and y are 



two orthogonal horizontal direction, EL in 5.3.3.1.1 and 5.3.3.1.2 
shall be replaced by (£L ± 0.3 EL y ) or (EL y ± 0.3 £L ). 

5.3.3.3 Design vertical earthquake load 

When effects due to vertical earthquake loads are to 
be considered, the design vertical force shall be 
calculated in accordance with 5.3.4.5. 

5.3.3.4 Combination for two or three component motion 

5.3.3.4.1 When responses from the three earthquake 
components are to be considered, the responses due 
to each components may be combined using the 
assumption that when the maximum response from one 
component occurs, the responses from the other two 
component are 30 percent of their maximum. All 
possible combinations of the three components (£L x , 
EL and EL x ) including variations in sign (plus or minus) 
shall be considered. Thus, the response due earthquake 
force (EL) is the maximum of the following three cases: 

a) ±EL x ±0.3 EL Y ± 03 EL z 

b) ±EL ±03 EL ±03 EL 

/ y x z 

c) ±EL ±03 EL ±03 EL 

' z x y 

Where x and y are two orthogonal directions and z is 
vertical direction. 

5.3.3.4.2 As an alternative to the procedure in 533.4.1, 
the response (EL) due to the combined effect of the 
three components can be obtained on the basis of 
'square root of the sum of the square (SRSS)' that is 

EL = ^(ELS+(EL y ) 1 +(EL L f 

NOTE — The combination procedure of 5.3.3.4.1 and 5.3.3.4.2 
apply to the same response quantity (say, moment in a column 
about its major axis, or storey shear in a frame) due to different 
components of the ground motion. 

5.3.3.4.3 When two component motions (say one 
horizontal and one vertical, or only two horizontal) 
are combined, the equations in 5.3.3.4.1 and 5.3.3.4.2 
should be modified by deleting the term representing 
the response due to the component of motion not being 
considered. 

5.33.5 Increase in permissible stresses 

533.5.1 Increase in permissible stresses in materials 

When earthquake forces are considered along with other 
normal design forces, the permissible stresses in material, 
in the elastic method of design, may be increased by one- 
third. However, for steels having a definite yield stress, 
the stress be limited to the yield stress; for steels without 
a definite yield point, the stress will be limited to 80 
percent of the ultimate strength or 0.2 percent proof stress, 
whichever is smaller; and that in prestressed concrete 
members, the tensile stress in the extreme fibres of the 
concrete may be permitted so as not to exceed two-thirds 
of the modulus of rupture of concrete. 



60 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



5.3.3.5.2 Increase in allowable pressure in soils 

When earthquake forces are included, the allowable 
bearing pressure in soils shall be increased as per 
Table 1, depending upon type of foundation of the 
structure and the type of soil. 

In soil deposits consisting of submerged loose 
sands and soils falling under classification SP with 
standard penetration N values less than 15 in seismic 
Zones III, IV, V and less than 10 in seismic Zone II, 
the vibration caused by earthquake may cause 
liquefaction or excessive total and differential 
settlements. Such sites should preferably be avoided 



while locating new settlements or important projects. 
Otherwise, this aspect of the problem needs to be 
investigated and appropriate methods of compaction 
or stabilization adopted to achieve suitable N values 
as indicated in Note 3 under Table 30. Alternatively, 
deep pile foundation may be provided and taken to 
depths well into the layer which is not likely to 
liquefy. Marine clays and other sensitive clays are 
also known to liquefy due to collapse of soil structure 
and will need special treatment according to site 
condition. 

NOTE — Specialist literature may be referred for determining 
liquefaction potential of a site. 



Table 30 Percentage of Permissible Increase in Allowable Bearing 
Pressure or Resistance of Soils 

{Clause 5.3.3.5.2) 



SI 
No. 



Foundation 



Type of Soil Mainly Constituting the Foundation 



(1) 



(2) 



Type I Rock or Hard Soil: 

Well graded gravel and sand 
gravel mixtures with or without 
clay binder, and clayey sands 
poorly graded or sand clay 
mixtures (GB, CW, SB, SW and 
SC) J) having 2) above 30, where N 
is the standard penetration value 

(3) 



Type II Medium Soils 

All soils with N between 
10 an 30, and poorly 
graded sands or gravelly 
sands with little or no 
fines (SP 1 -) with N > 15 



(4) 



Type m Soft Soils: All 
soils other than SP 1 * 
withAr<10 



(5) 



i) Piles passing through any soil but 

resting on solid type I 
ii) Piles not covered under item (i) 
iii) Raft foundations 
iv) Combined isolated RCC footing with 

tie beams 
v) Isolated RCC footing without tie beams, 

or unreinforced strip foundations 

vi) Well foundations 



50 

50 
50 

50 

50 



50 

25 
50 
25 

25 

25 



50 

25 
50 



25 



NOTES 

1 The allowable bearing pressure shall be determined in accordance with good practice [6-1(6)]. 

2 If any increase in bearing pressure has already been permitted for forces other than seismic forces, the total increase in allowable 
bearing pressure when seismic force is also included shall not exceed the limits specified above. 

3 Desirable minimum field values of N — If soils of smaller W-values are met, compacting may be, adopted to achieve these values or 
deep pile foundations going to stronger strata should be used. 

4 The values of TV (corrected values) are at the founding level and the allowable bearing pressure shall be determined in accordance 
with good practice [6-1(6)]. 



Seismic Zone Level 
m 



Depth Below Ground N-Values 



III, IV and V 



II (for important structures only) 



< 5 

>10 

< 5 
>10 



15 
25 
15 
20 



Remark 



For values of depths between 5 m 
and 10 m, linear interpolation is 
recommended. 



5 The piles should be designed for lateral loads neglecting lateral resistance of soil layers liable to liquefy. 

6 Accepted standard [6-1(7)] and good practice [6-1(8)] may also be referred. 

7 Isolated R.C.C. footing without tie beams, or unreinforced strip foundation shall not be permitted in soft soils with N<10. 



See accepted standard [6-1(7)]. 
' See good practice [6-1(8)]. 



PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN — SECTION 1 LOADS, FORCES AND EFFECTS 



61 



5.3.4 Design Spectrum 

5.3.4.1 For the purpose of determining seismic forces, 
the country is classified into four seismic zones as 
shown in Fig. 11. 

5.3.4.2 The design horizontal seismic coefficient A h 
for a structure shall be determined by the following 
expression: 

_ 71 S. x 

A= 2R g 

Provided that for any structure with T> 0.1 sec, the 
value of A h will not be less than Z/2 whatever be the 
value of///? 

where 

Z - Zone factor given in Table 31, is for the 
maximum considered earthquake (MCE) 
and service life of structure in a zone. The 
factor 2 in the denominator of > is used so 
as to reduce the maximum considered 
earthquake (MCE) zone factor to the factor 
for design basis earthquake (DBE). 
Zone factor for some important towns are 
given at Annex J. 

/ = Importance factor, depending upon the 
functional use of the structures, characterised 
by hazardous consequences of its failure, 
post-earthquake functional needs, historical 
value, or economic importance (Table 35). 

R - Response reduction factor, depending on 
the perceived seismic damage performance 
of the structure, characterized by ductile 
or brittle deformations. However, the 
ratio (///?) shall not be greater than 1.0 
(Table 36). The values of R for buildings 
are given in Table 36. 
S/g - Average response acceleration coefficient 
for rock or soil sites as given by Fig. 1 2 and 
Table 32 based on appropriate natural 
periods and damping of the structure. These 
curves represent free field ground motion. 

NOTE — For various types of structures, the values 
of Importance Factor /, Response Reduction Factor /?, 
and damping values are given in the respective parts 
of this standard. The method (empirical or otherwise) 
to calculate the natural periods of the structure to be 
adopted for evaluating S/g is also given in the 
respective parts of this Code. 

Table 31 Zone Factor, Z 

(Clause 5.3.4.2) 



Seismic Zone 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


Seismic Intensity 


Low 


Moderate 


Severe 


Very Severe 


Z 


0.10 


0.16 


0.24 


0.36 



for dynamic analysis, the value of A h as defined 
in 5.3.4.2 for each mode shall be determined using the 
natural period of vibration of that mode. 

5.3.4.4 For underground structures and foundations 
at depths of 30 m or below, the design horizontal 
acceleration spectrum value shall be taken as half the 
value obtained from 5.3.4.2. For structures and 
foundations placed between the ground level and 30 m 
depth, the design horizontal acceleration spectrum 
value shall be linearly interpolated between A h and 
0.5 v4 h , where A h is as specified in 5.3.4.2. 

5.3.4.5 The design acceleration spectrum for vertical 
motions, when required, may be taken as two-thirds 
of the design horizontal acceleration spectrum 
specified in 5.3.4.2. 

Figure 12 shows the proposed 5 percent spectra for 
rocky and soils sites and Table 32 gives the multiplying 
factors for obtaining spectral values for various other 
dampings. 



For Rocky, or hard soil sites 



S { l + l5T > 
-^=2.50 

S [i.OO/T 

For Medium soil sites 

S fl + lSF; 
^=2.50 
8 [1.36/7 

For Soft soil sites 

S [1 + 157; 
-^ = 2.50 
S 1.67/7 



0.00<7<0.10 
0.10 < 7 < 0.40 
0.40<7<4.00 



0.00 < 7 < 0.10 
0.10 < 7 < 0.55 
0.55<7<4.00 



0.00 <T< 0.10 
0.10<7<0.67 
0.67 <7< 4.00 



Table 32 Multiplying Factors for Obtaining 
Values tor Other Damping 

(Clause 5.3.4.2) 



Damping 


2 5 7 10 15 20 25 30 


percent 




Factors 3.20 


1.40 1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70 0.60 0.55 0.50 



5.3.4.3 Where a number of modes are to be considered 
62 



5.3.4.6 In case design spectrum is specifically 
prepared for a structure at a particular project site, the 
same may be used for design at the discretion of the 
project authorities. 

5.4 Buildings 

5.4.1 Regular and Irregular Configuration 

To perform well in an earthquake, a building should 
possess four main attributes, namely, simple and 
regular configuration, and adequate lateral strength, 
stiffness and ductility. Buildings having simple regular 
in plan as well as in elevation, suffer much less damage 

NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 




r<& 



:? 



MAP OF INDIA 

SHOWING 
SEISMIC ZONES OF INDIA 




Based upon Survey of India Outline Map printed in 1993 

Tho territorial waters ol India extend into Hie sea to a distance of twelve nautical miles measured (rum the appropriate base line. 

The boundary pf MeghaJaya shown on this map is as interpreted from ihe istorth-Easierri Areas (Reorganisation) Act, 1971 . but das yet to be verified. 

Responsibility for correctness of internal details shown on the map rests with true publisher 

The state boundaries between Uttaranchal & Uttar Pradesh. Bihar & Jharkhand and Chhatisgatb & Madhya Pradesh have not been verified by Governments concerned. 

NOTE — Towns falling at the boundary of zones demarcation line between IwO zones shall be considered in higher zone 

Fro, 1 1 seismic Zones 



© Government of India Copyright, 2003 



H 
LLJ 
O 

Li_ 
U= 
HI 

Q 

o 



3.0 



2.5 h 



2.0 



b^ 1.5 

2 « 



LU 

o 

3 



CO 



Q 
LU 

CO 



0,0 



1.0 |- 



0.5 



-TYPE I (ROCK, OR HARD SOIL) 
-TYPE II (MEDIUM SOIL) 
-TYPE!!! (SOFT SOIL) 




0,0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2,0 2,5 

PERIOD(S) 



3,0 



3.5 



4.0 



Fig. 12 Response Spectra for Rock and Soil Sight for 5 Percent Damping 



than buildings with irregular configurations. A building 
shall be considered as irregular for the purposes of this 
standard, if at least one of the conditions given 
in Tables 33 and 34 is applicable. 

Table 33 Definitions of Irregular Buildings — 
Plan Irregularities (Fig. 13) 

(Clause 5.4,1) 

Si No. Irregularity Type and Description 

i) Torsion Irregularity 

To be considered when floor diaphragms are rigid in their 
own plan in relation to the vertical structural elements that 
resist the lateral forces. Torsional irregularity to be 
considered to exist when the maximum storey drift, 
computed with design eccentricity, at one end of the 
structures transverse to an axis is more than 1.2 times the 
average of the storey drifts at the two ends of the structure. 

ii) Re-entrant Corners 

Plan configurations of a structure and its lateral force resisting 
system contain re-entrant corners, where both projections of 
the structure beyond the re-entrant corner are greater than 15 
percent of its plan dimension in the given direction. 

iii) Diaphragm Discontinuity 

Diaphragms with abrupt discontinuities or variations in 
stiffness, including those having cut-out or open areas greater 
than 50 percent of the gross enclosed diaphragm area, or 
changes in effective diaphragm stiffness of more than 50 
percent from one storey to the next. 

iv) Out- of- Plane Offsets 

Discontinuities in a lateral force resistance path, such as out- 
of-plane offsets of vertical elements. 

v) Non-parallel Systems 

The vertical elements resisting the lateral force are not 
parallel to or symmetric about the major orthogonal axes or 
the lateral force resisting elements. 



Table 34 Definition of Irregular Buildings — 
Vertical Irregularities (Fig. 14) 

(Clause 5.4.1) 

Si No. Irreguiarity Type and Description 

i) a) Stiffness Irreguiarity — Soft Storey 

A soft storey is one in which the lateral stiffness is less 

than 70 percent of that in the storey above or less than 

80 percent of the average lateral stiffness of the three storeys 

above. 

b) Stiffness Irregularity — Extreme Soft Storey 

An extreme soft storey is one in which the lateral stiffness 

is less than 60 percent of thai in the storey above or less 

than 70 percent of the average stiffness of the three storeys 

above. For example, buildings on STILTS will fall under 

this category. 

ii) Mass Irregularity 

Mass irregularity shall be considered to exist where the 
seismic weight of any storey is more than 200 percent of 
that of its adjacent storeys. The irregularity need not be 
considered in case of roofs. 

iii) Vertical Geometric Irregularity 

Vertical geometric irregularity shall be considered to exist 
where the horizontal dimension of the lateral force resisting 
system in any storey is more than 150 percent of that in its 
adjacent storey. 

iv) In-Plane Discontinuity in Vertical Elements Resisting 
Lateral Force 

An in-plane offset of the lateral force resisting elements 
greater than the length of those elements. 

v) Discontinuity in Capacity — Weak Strorey 

A weak storey is one in which the storey lateral strength is 
less than 80 percent of that in the storey above. The storey 
lateral strength is the total strength of all seismic force 
resisting elements sharing the storey shear in the considered 
direction. 



PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN— SECTION 1 LOADS, FORCES AND EFFECTS 



65 




VERTICAL COMPONENTS OF 
SEISMIC RESISTING SYSTEM 




HEAVY 
MASS 




I A2 



13 A TORSIONAL IRREGULARITY 



A/L> 0.15 -0.20 



|a/L> 0.15- 0.20 17 



J i 



A/L> 0.15 -0.20 



T 



-L1- 



A1 



Tl 

Ml 



T 



13 B RE - ENTRANT CORNER 



Fig. 1 3 Plan Irregularities — Continued 



66 



NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 



MASS RESISTANCE ECENTRICITY 



RIGID i 
DIAPHRAGM | 

^ ! 

\ "1 

























OPEjp> 


< 


/ 


FLEXIBLE 
DIAPHRAGM 






">' 


/ 



VERTICAL COMPONENTS OF SEISMIC RESISTING 
SYSTEM 











X 










FLOOR 



13 C DIAPHRAGM DISCONTINUITY 



OUT OF PLANE 
DISCONTINUITY 




















r 


















/ 


















'i 


vA 


'///, 


?//, 


>d 


d 


d 


'///, 


ks 



SHEAR WALL 



BUILDING SECTION 



SHEAR WALL 
13 D OUT - OF - PLANE OFFSETS 



SHEAR WALL 



\ 




13 E NON - PARALLEL SYSTEM 



Fig. 13 Plan Irregularities 



PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN — SECTION 1 LOADS, FORCES AND EFFECTS 



67 



0\ 
00 



STOREY STIFFNESS 
FOR THE BUILDING 





1 1 1 1 
Mill 
Mill 

L_1_J 1 l_ 












_ mmm _ _ ■■ 




l l 





wJ9MPS//SSS/SAf 



It- * 
*"ii - i 

k 2 



SOFT STOREY WHEN 
M<0.7 M + 1 

or k^nft/^iiil^iilliiii^ 

■ — * 3 



■\A A STIFFNFSS IRRPfil il ARITV 



/ 



HEAVY 
MASSn 



2 

> 

Hi 

o 

H 

H* 

>! 

O 

n 

/^ 

3 






lim.msiism'smM 




























































































*//////£ 


JAPM 


VMM 


WM 


% 



Vr 






WMWWWMMMM 



X- 



mmmm.mmmm. 



WEIQ3HT 

w n 

W n - 1 



" n-2 



W 2 

W , 



ww^/^wy/wwswz 



MASS RATIO 



it d ivimoo inncuuLnni I T 



Fig. 14 Vertical Irregularities 



MASS IRREGULARITY 
WHEN, w. >2.0Wj _-j 
or Wj>2.0W j + 1 



Continued 



A—H 




A/L>0.15 



q 

" ! t r 

A I ■■ L - I A 




SHEAR WALL 



14 C VERTICAL GEOMETRIC IRREGULARITY, WHEN L 2 > 1.5 L, 





UPPER 
FLOOR 



LOWER 
FLOOR 



STOREY STRENGTH 
(LATERAL) 

F n 

Fn-1 

F n -2 



-\ 1r 



F 3 
F 2 
Fi 



14 E WEAK STOREY, 
WHEN F) < 0.8 Fi +1 



14 D IN - PLANE DISCONTINUITY VERTICAL ELEMENTS 
RESISTING LATERAL FORCE, WHEN b > a 

Fig. 14 Vertical Irregularities 



PART 6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN — SECTION 1 LOADS, FORCES AND EFFECTS 



69 



S.4.Z importance tactor I and Kesponse Keduction 
Factor R 

The minimum value of importance factor, I, for 
different building systems shaii be as given in Table 35. 
The response reduction factor, /c, for different building 
systems shall be as given in Table 36. 

5.4.3 Design Imposed Loads for Earthquake Force 

Calculation 

5.4.3.1 For various loading classes as specified in 
IS 875 (Fart 2), the earthquake force snail be calculated 
for the full dead load plus the percentage of imposed 
load as given in Table 37. 

5.4.3.2