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Full text of "PHCC NSPC (2009): National Standard Plumbing Code"

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NOTICE OF INCORPORATION 

United States Legal Document 

J^" All citizens and residents are hereby advised that 
this is a legally binding document duly incorporated by 
reference and that failure to comply with such 
requirements as hereby detailed within may subject you 
to criminal or civil penalties under the law. Ignorance of 
the law shall not excuse noncompliance and it is the 
responsibility of the citizens to inform themselves as to 
the laws that are enacted in the United States of America 
and in the states and cities contained therein. "^& 

* * 

PHCC NSPC (2009), the National Standard Plumbing 
Code as incorporated and mandated by the State 
of New Jersey in the New Jersey Administrative 
Code, 5:23-3.15 (a) (1) . 






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2009 



NATIONAL STANDARD 
PLUMBING CODE 



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PLUMBING HEATING COOLING 

CONTRACTORS ASSOCIATION 



Published By 
PLUMBING-HEATING-COOLING CONTRACTORS- 
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION 



All inquiries or questions relating to interpretation should be forwarded to 

Code Secretariat 

180 S. Washington St., P.O. Box 6808 

Falls Church, VA 22046-1 148 

1-800-813-7061 



2009 Plumbing-Heating-Cooling Contractors-National Association 
To order additional books call 1-800-533-7694 
(if calling from New Jersey call 1-800-652-7422) 



Third Printing -January 2010 



NATIONAL STANDARD 
PLUMBING CODE 



Title: 

National Standard Plumbing Code 

Scope: 

The development of a recommended code of plumbing practice, design, and installation, 
including the establishment of performance criteria predicated on the need for protection of 
health and safety through proper design, installation, and maintenance of plumbing system s . 
This scope excludes the development of specific standards related to the composition, 
dimensions, and/or mechanical and physical properties of materials, fixtures, devices, and 
equipment used or installed in plumbing systems. 

Purpose: 

To provide practices and performance criteria for the protection of health and safety through 
proper design and installation of plumbing systems. 

Exceptions: 

In case of practical difficulty, unnecessary hardship or new developments, exceptions to 
the literal requirements may be granted by the Authority Having Jurisdiction to permit 
the use of other devices or methods, but only when it is clearly evident that equivalent 
protection is thereby secured. 



Disclaimer: 

PHCC is not responsible or liable for any personal injury, property, or other damages of any nature whatsoever directly or indirectly 
resulting from the publication, use of or reliance on the National Standard Plumbing Code or its Supplements. PHCC also makes no guar- 
antee or warranty as to the accuracy or completeness of any information published herein. 



FOREWORD 

Since its founding as the National Association of Master Plumbers in 
1 883, the National Association of Plumbing-Heating-Cooling Contractors 
has maintained a serious interest in plumbing standards, codes and good 
plumbing design practices. 

The Association published the NAMP "Standard Plumbing Code" in 1933 
and furnished revised editions until 1942. NAPHCC participated in the 
development of special standards for wartime plumbing and later was 
represented on the National Plumbing Code Coordinating Committee, 
whose work ultimately resulted in the adoption of A40.8 as a standard or 
model plumbing code in 1955. 

NAPHCC served as a sponsor in the early 1960's on the project that 
attempted to update the 1 955 document. This proj ect was operated through 
the procedures of the American National Standards Institute. However, 
the A40.8 revision project was not completed because consensus could 
not be achieved. 

In order to provide local and state governments, code administrative 
bodies and industry with a modern, updated code, NAPHCC published 
the "National Standard Plumbing Code" in 1 97 1 , following the format and 
sequence of the A40.8 to provide for maximum convenience of users. 

With the June 1 973 revision, the American Society of Plumbing Engineers 
joined this effort by co-sponsoring the National Standard Plumbing Code. 
ASPE maintained its co-sponsorship status until September 1980. Upon 
ASPE's withdrawal of co-sponsorship, the Code Committee composition 
was changed to include not only members of the contracting and engineering 
communities but also members of the inspection community. Contractors, 
engineers and inspectors now comprise the National Standard Plumbing 
Code Committee. 

This edition of the National Standard Plumbing Code includes changes 
from the 2007 and 2008 Supplements and the changes that were approved 
at the August 2 1 , 2008 Public Hearing. 



IV 



INTRODUCTORY NOTES 



The material presented in this Code does not have legal standing unless it is adopted by 
reference, or by inclusion, in an act of state, county, or municipal government. Therefore, 
administration of the provisions of this Code must be preceded by suitable legislation at the 
level of government where it is desired to use this Code. 

In some places in this Code, reference is made to "Authority Having Jurisdiction." The 
identity of an Authority Having Jurisdiction will be established by the act that gives legal 
standing to the Code provisions. 

Proposed changes to the Code can be submitted by any interested party on forms available from 
NAPHCC. Cutoff dates for submitting proposed changes are published by NAPHCC, along with 
the dates for public hearings and final voting by the NSPC Committee. The NSPC is reprinted 
on a three-year cycle with at least one Code Change Supplement published between reprints of 
the Code. 

Persona] appearance before the Committee for a hearing on any Code matter can be had 
by interested parties after a request in writing. 

In the course of revision, certain outdated sections have been deleted. In order to 
maintain consistency and perpetuity of the numbering system, those deleted sections and 
numbers have been removed from this printed text, or placed in reserve. 



All changes from the previous edition of this Code are 
marked by a vertical line in the margin. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code Committee 



J. Richard Wagner, PE, Chairman 

The Poole & Kent Corporation 
4530 Hollins Ferry Rd 
Baltimore, MD 21227-4670 
Phone: (410)247-2200 
Fax: (410)247-2331 
Dick_Wagner@emcorgroup.com 

Charlie Chalk 

Maryland PHCC 

10176 Baltimore National Pike, #205 

Ellicott City, MD 21042 

Phone: (410)461-5977 

Fax: (410) 750-2507 

cchalk2008@aol.com 

William Chamberlin 

Chamberlin Plbg. & Htg Company 

PO. Box 390 

1274 Route 130 South 

Windsor, N J 08561 

Phone: (609)448-1848 

Fax: (609) 448-8683 

whcplb@yahoo.com 

Michael J. Kastner 

Kastner Plumbing & Heating 
1 2630 Frederick Road 
West Friendship, MD 21794 
Phone: (301)725-5000 
Fax: (410)442-7626 
mjkjr@aol.com 

Leon LaFreniere 

City of Manchester, Dept. of Buildings 

One City Plaza 

Manchester, NH 03101 

Phone: (603)624-6475 

Fax: (603) 624-6324 

llafreniere@ci.manchester.nh.us 

Frank R. Maddalon 

F. R. Maddalon Plumbing & Heating 
1550 Sylvan Ave 
Hamilton, NJ 08610-4461 
Phone: (609)587-8317 
Fax: (609) 587-9848 
fmaddalon@aol.com 

Michael Maloney 

Plumbers & Pipefitters Local Union #9 
2 Iron Ore Rd 

Manalapan, NJ 07726-8086 
Phone: (732)792-0999 
Fax: (732)792-1144 
mmaloney@ualocal9.org 



Thomas C. Pitcherello 

N J Department of Community Affairs 

Codes Assistance Unit 

101 S. Broad Street, PO Box 802 

Trenton, NJ 08625-0802 

Phone: (609)984-7609 

Fax: (609)984-7717 

tpitcherello@dca.state.nj.us 

Luis A. Rodriguez, CPD, LEED AP 

KSi Professional Engineers 

149 Yellowbrook Road 

P.O. Box 628 

Farmingdale, NJ 07727 

Phone: (732) 938.2666 Ext. 1 09 

Fax: (732)938.2521 

lrodriguez@ksi-pe.com 

Ronald W. Stiegler 

Schaefer Mechanical Services, Inc. 
620 Old Westminster Pike 
Westminster, MD 21157 
Phone: (410)876-6825 
Fax: (410)857-0011 
ron@schaefermech.com 

Alex Tucciarone 

Old Bridge Plumbing Inspector 

58 Lear Ct 

East Brunswick, NJ 088 1 6- 1 853 

Phone: (732)721-5600 2420 

Fax: (732) 607-7912 

ajmcophc@comcast.net 

Jerry Van Pelt, CIPE 

GVP Consulting, LLC 
9087 Central Avenue 
Sebastian, FL 32976 
Phone: (772)664-6975 
Fax: (772) 664-6976 
geraldvanpelt@bellsouth.net 

Shawn Martin 

Plumbing Manufacturers Institute 

18210 Pages End 

Davidson, NC 28036 

Phone: (847)481-5500x108 

sm arti n@pmihome . org 

Robert Kordulak 
NSPC Secretariat 

The Arkord Company 
206 1st Ave., #603 
Belmar,NJ 07719-2006 
Phone: (732)681-5400 
Fax: (732) 681-5047 
bkord3565@optonline.net 



Frank R. Maddalon 
Executive Committee Liaison 

F. R. Maddalon Plumbing & Heating 
1550 Sylvan Ave 
Hamilton, N J 08610-4461 
Phone: (609)587-8317 
Fax: (609) 587-9848 
fmaddalon@aol.com 

Julie A. Turner 
Staff Liaison 

Plumbing-Heating-Cooling 
Contractors-National Association 
180 S.Washington St., 
Falls Church, VA 22046 
(703) 237-8100 or (800) 533-7694 
Fax: (703) 237-7442 
e-mail: turner@naphcc.org 
URL: http://www.phccweb.org 



vi 



Contents 



National Standard Plumbing Code i 

Foreword iii 

Introductory Notes v 

2009 National Standard Plumbing Code Committee vi 

Administration 1 

Basic Principles 9 

Chapter 1 Definitions 13 

Chapter 2 General Regulations 31 

Chapter 3 Materials 41 

Chapter 4 Joints And Connections 71 

Chapter 5 Traps, CleanoutsAndBackwater Valves 79 

Chapter 6 Liquid Waste Treatment Equipment 85 

Chapter 7 Plumbing Fixtures, Fixture Fittings And Plumbing Appliances 93 

Chapter 8 Hangers And Supports 113 

Chapter 9 Indirect Waste PipingAnd Special Wastes 115 

Chapter 10 Water Supply And Distribution 121 

Chapter 11 Sanitary Drainage Systems 145 

Chapter 12 Vents And Venting 155 

Chapter 13 Storm Water Drainage 171 

Chapter 14 Special Requirements For Health Care Facilities 181 

Chapter 15 Tests And Maintenance 187 

Chapter 16 Regulations Governing Individual Sewage Disposal Systems For Homes And 

Other Establishments Where Public Sewage Systems Are Not Available 191 

Chapter 17 Potable Water Supply Systems 205 

Chapter 18 Mobile Home & Travel Trailer Park Plumbing Requirements 211 

Appendix A Sizing Storm Drainage Systems 219 

Appendix B Sizing The Building Water Supply System 227 

Appendix C Conversions: MetrictoU.S. Customary Units 263 

Appendix D Determining The Minimum Number Of Required Plumbing Fixtures 265 

Appendix E Special Design Plumbing Systems 271 

Appendix F Requirements Of The Adopting Agency 279 

Appendix G Graywater Recycling Systems 280 

Appendix H Installation OfMedical Gas And Vacuum Piping Systems 285 

Appendix 1 Fixture Unit Value Curves For Water Closets 289 

Appendix J Reserved 291 



VII 



Appendix K Flow In Sloping Drains 293 

Appendix L AnAcceptable Brazing Procedure For General Plumbing 297 

Appendix M Converting Water Supply Fixture Units (WSFU) To Gallons Per Minute Flow 

(GPM) 305 

Index Alphabetical Index 311 



vni 



Administration 



ADM 1.1 TITLE 

The regulations contained in the following chapters and sections shall be known as the "National Standard Plumb- 
ing Code" and may be cited as such, and hereinafter referred to as "this Code". 

ADM 1.2 SCOPE 

The provisions of this Code shall apply to every installation, including the erection, installation, alteration, reloca- 
tion, repair, replacement, addition to, use or maintenance of the plumbing system as defined within this Code. 

ADM 1.3 PURPOSE 

This Code establishes the minimum requirements and standards pertaining to the design, installation, use and 
maintenance of plumbing systems as defined within this Code. 

ADM 1.4 APPLICABILITY 

1.4.1 Addition or Repair 

Additions, alterations or repairs in compliance to this Code may be made to any existing plumbing system 
without requiring the existing installation to comply with all the requirements of this Code. Additions, al- 
terations or repairs shall not cause an existing system to become unsafe, insanitary or overloaded. 

1.4.2 Existing Plumbing Installation 

Plumbing systems that were lawfully installed prior to the adoption of this Code may continue their use, 
maintenance or repairs, provided the maintenance or repair is in accordance with the original design, loca- 
tion, and no hazard has been created to life, health or property by such plumbing system. 

1.4.3 Existing Use 

The lawful use of any plumbing installation, appliances, fixtures, fittings and appurtenances may have their 
use continued, provided no hazards to life, health or property have been created by their continued use. 

1.4.4 Maintenance and Repairs 

The maintenance of all plumbing systems, materials, appurtenances, devices or safeguards, both existing and 
new, shall be maintained in a safe and proper condition. The owner, or his designated agent, shall be respon- 
sible for the maintenance of the plumbing system. Minor repairs to or replacement of any existing systems 
are permitted, provided they are made in the same manner and arrangement as the original installation and 
are approved. 

1.4.5 Change of Building Use 

The plumbing systems of any building or structure that is proposed for a change in use or occupancy shall 
comply to all the requirements of this Code for the new use or occupancy. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



1.4.6 Moved Buildings or Structures 

The plumbing system in any building or structure to be moved into this jurisdiction shall comply with the 
provisions of this Code for new construction. 

1.4.7 Special Historic Buildings 

The provisions of this Code relating to the additions, alterations, repair, replacement or restoration of those 
structures designated as historic buildings shall not be mandatory when such work is deemed to be safe and 
in the public interest of health, safety and welfare by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. 

1.4.8 Appendices 

The provisions in the appendices are intended to supplement the requirements of this Code and are consid- 
ered to be part of this Code when adopted by the Authority Having Jurisdiction 

ADM 1.5 APPROVALS 

1.5.1 Alternates 

The provisions cited in this Code are not intended to prevent the use of any material or method of installa- 
tion when it is determined to meet the intent of this Code and approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction 

1.5.2 Authority Having Jurisdiction 

The Authority Having Jurisdiction may approve any such alternate material or method of installation not 
expressly conforming to the requirements of this Code, provided it finds the proposed material or method of 
installation is at least the equivalent of that required in the Code or that the alternate material or method of 
installation conforms to other nationally accepted plumbing standards. A record of such approval shall be 
kept and shall be available to the public. 

1.5.3 Tests Required 

The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall require sufficient evidence to substantiate any claims made regard- 
ing the equivalency of any proposed alternate material or method of installation. When the Authority Having 
Jurisdiction determines that there is insufficient evidence to substantiate the claims, it may require tests to 
substantiate the claims made by an approved testing agency at the expense of the applicant. 

1.5.4 Test Procedure 

The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall require all tests be made in accordance with approved standards; but, 
in the absence of such standards, the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall specify the test procedure. 

1.5.5 Retesting 

The Authority Having Jurisdiction may require any tests to be repeated if at any time, there is reason to be- 
lieve that any material or method of installation no longer conforms to the requirements on which the original 
approval was based. 

ADM 1.6 ORGANIZATION AND ENFORCEMENT 

1.6.1 Authority Having Jurisdiction 

The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall be the individual official, board, department or agency duly appoint- 
ed by the jurisdiction as having the authority to administer and enforce the provisions of this Code as adopted 
or amended. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



1.6.2 Deputies 

In accordance with the procedures set forth by the jurisdictional authority, the Authority Having Jurisdiction 
may appoint such assistants, deputies, inspectors or other designated employees to carry out the administra- 
tion and enforcement of this Code. 

1.6.3 Right of Entry 

When inspections are required to enforce the provisions of this Code, or there is reasonable cause to believe 
there exists in any building, structure or premises, any condition or violation of this Code causing the build- 
ing, structure or premises to be unsafe, insanitary, dangerous or hazardous, the Authority Having Jurisdiction 
or its designated representative may enter such building, structure or premises at reasonable times to inspect 
or perform the duties imposed by this Code. When the building, structure or premises are occupied, proper 
credentials shall be presented to the occupant when entry is required. In the event the building, structure or 
premises is unoccupied, and entry is required, a reasonable effort shall be made to locate the owner or his 
agent in charge of such building, structure or premises. In the event the occupant or owner of such building, 
structure or premises refuses entry, the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall have recourse to the remedies 
provided by law to gain entry. 

1.6.4 Stop Work Order 

Upon notice from the Authority Having Jurisdiction, work being done on any building, structure or premises 
contrary to the provisions of this Code, or in an unsafe and dangerous manner, shall be stopped immedi- 
ately. The stop work notice shall be in writing, served on the owner of the property, or his agent, or to the 
person doing such work. It shall state the conditions under which the Authority Having Jurisdiction may 
grant authorization to proceed with the work. 

1.6.5 Authority to Condemn 

When the Authority Having Jurisdiction determines that any plumbing system or portion thereof that is regu- 
lated by this Code has become insanitary or hazardous to life, health or property, it shall order in writing that 
such plumbing system or portion thereof be repaired, replaced or removed so as to be in code compliance. 
The written order shall fix a reasonable time limit for the work to be brought into code compliance, and no 
person shall use the condemned plumbing system until such work is complete and approved by the Authority 
Having Jurisdiction. 

1.6.6 Authority to Abate 

Any plumbing system, or portion thereof that is found to be insanitary or constitute a hazard to life, health or 
property is hereby declared to be a nuisance. Where a nuisance exists, the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall 
require the nuisance to be abated and shall seek such abatement in the manner prescribed by law. 

1.6.7 Liability 

The Authority Having Jurisdiction, or any individual duly appointed or authorized by the Authority Having 
Jurisdiction to enforce this Code, acting in good faith and without malice, shall not thereby be rendered per- 
sonally liable for any damage that may occur to persons or property as a result of any act, or by reason of any 
act or omission in the lawful discharge of his duties. Should a suit be brought against the Authority Having 
Jurisdiction or duly appointed representative because of such act or omission, it shall be defended by legal 
counsel provided by this jurisdiction until final termination of the proceedings. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



1.6.8 Work Prior to Permit 

Where work for which a permit is required by this Code is started prior to obtaining the prescribed permit, 
the applicant shall pay a double fee. In the event of an emergency where it is absolutely necessary to perform 
the plumbing work immediately, such as nights, weekends or holidays, said fee shall not be doubled if a per- 
mit is secured at the earliest possible time after the emergency plumbing work has been performed. 

ADM 1.7 VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES 

1.7.1 Violations 

It shall be unlawful for any individual, partnership, firm or corporation to, or cause to, install, construct, 
erect, alter, repair, improve, convert, move, use or maintain any plumbing system in violation of this Code. 

1.7.2 Penalties 

Any individual, partnership, firm or corporation who shall violate or fail to comply with any of the require- 
ments of this Code shall be deemed guilty of a , and if convicted, shall be punishable by a fine or 

imprisonment or both as established by this jurisdiction. Each day during which a violation occurs or contin- 
ues, shall constitute a separate offense. 

ADM 1.8 PERMITS 

1.8.1 Permits Required 

It shall be unlawful for any individual, partnership, firm or corporation to commence, or cause to commence, 
any installation, alteration, repair, replacement, conversion or addition to any plumbing system, or part 
thereof, regulated by this Code, except as permitted in Section 1.8.2, without first obtaining a plumbing 
permit for each separate building or structure, on forms prepared and provided by the Authority Having 
Jurisdiction. 

1.8.2 Permits Not Required for the Following 

a. Permits shall not be required for the following work: 

1 . The stoppage of leaks in drains, soil, waste or vent pipes. However, should the defect necessitate re- 
moval and replacement with new material, it shall constitute new work and a permit shall be obtained and 
inspection made as required in this Code. 

2. The clearing of stoppages. 

3. The repairing of leaks in valves or fixtures. 

4. The removing and reinstallation of a water closet for a cleanout opening provided the reinstallation 
does not require replacement or rearrangement of valves, pipes or new fixtures. 

b. Exemptions from obtaining a permit required by this Code shall not be construed as to authorize any 
work to be performed in violation of this Code. 

ADM 1.9 PROCESS FOR OBTAINING PERMITS 

1.9.1 Application 

a. Applications for a permit shall be made in writing by the person, or his agent, proposing to do such work 
covered by the permit. The applicant shall file such application in writing on a form prepared and provided 
by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Every such permit shall: 

1 . Describe in detail the work to be done for which the permit was obtained. 

2. Describe in detail the parcel of land on which the proposed work is to be done by legal description, street 
address or other means to definitely locate the site or building where the work is to be performed. 

3. List the type of occupancy or use. 

4. Provide plans, drawings, diagrams, calculations or other data as required by Section 1.9.2. 

4 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



5. Be signed by the person or agent making application. 

6. Provide any other information the Authority Having Jurisdiction may require. 

1.9.2 Plans 

Two or more sets of plans shall be submitted with each permit application. The plans shall contain all the 

engineering calculations, drawings, diagrams and other data as required for approval. The Authority Having 

Jurisdiction may also require that the plans, drawings, diagrams and calculations be designed by an engineer 

and/or architect licensed by the state in which the work is to be performed. 

Except that the Authority Having Jurisdiction may waive the submission of plans and other data, provided it 

is determined that the nature of the work covered by the permit does not require plan review to obtain code 

compliance. 

1.9.3 Specifications 

All specifications required to be on the plans shall be drawn to scale and sufficiently clear to indicate the 
nature, location and extent of the proposed work so as to show how it will conform to the requirements of 
this Code. 

1.9.4 Permit Issuance 

If, after reviewing the plans and specifications, the Authority Having Jurisdiction finds that they are complete 
and conform to the requirements of this Code, it shall authorize a permit to be issued upon payment of all the 
fees specified in Section 1.10.1. 

1.9.5 Approved Plans 

When the Authority Having Jurisdiction issues a permit and plans were required, it shall endorse, either in 
writing or stamp the plans "APPROVED", and all work shall be done in accordance with the plans without 
deviation. 

1.9.6 Plans Retention 

The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall retain one set of approved plans until final approval of the work 
contained therein. One set of approved plans shall be returned to the applicant and this set of approved plans 
shall be kept on the job site at all times until final approval of the work contained therein. 

1.9.7 Permit Validity 

The issuance of a permit by the Authority Having Jurisdiction is not and shall not be construed to be autho- 
rization or approval of any violation of the requirements of this Code. Any presumption of a permit to be 
authorization to violate or cancel any provisions of this Code shall be invalid. The issuance of a permit based 
on plans submitted shall not prevent the Authority Having Jurisdiction from requiring the correction of any 
errors in the plans or preventing the progress of the construction when it is in violation of any provision of 
this Code. 

1.9.8 Permit Expiration 

Every permit issued by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, in accordance with the provisions of this Code, 
shall expire by limitation and become null and void when such work authorized by the permit has not com- 
menced within days from the date of issuance or if such work is suspended or abandoned for a period 

of days after commencement of such work. In order for such work to recommence, a new permit shall be 

obtained and a fee of percent of the original permit fee shall be charged, provided no changes have been 

made or will be made to the original plans as submitted. The Authority Having Jurisdiction may grant an ex- 
tension to any permit provided the request is in writing by the permittee stating the reason or circumstances 
that prevented him from completing such work as required by this Code. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



1.9.9 Revocation or Suspension 

At any time, the Authority Having Jurisdiction may suspend or revoke a permit issued in error or on the basis 
of incorrect information submitted or in violation of any section of this Code. The suspension or revocation 
of such permit shall be in written form by the Authority Having Jurisdiction stating the reason or purpose of 
such suspension or revocation. 

ADM 1.10 PERMITS 

1.10.1 Fees Schedule 

The permit fees for all plumbing work shall be set forth by the Authority Having Jurisdiction of the jurisdic- 
tion having authority. 

1.10.2 Plan Review Fees 

When plans are reviewed as a requirement prior to issuance of a permit, the fee shall be equal to percent 

of the total permit fee as set forth in Section 1 . 10. 1 . 

1.10.3 Plan Review Expiration 

Permit application and plan review for which no permit is issued shall expire by limitation within days 

following the date of application. All plan review fees shall be forfeited and the plans may be destroyed by 
the Authority Having Jurisdiction or returned to the applicant. 

1.10.4 Work Without a Permit 

When any plumbing work is commenced without first obtaining a permit from the Authority Having Jurisdic- 
tion, an investigation of such work shall be made before a permit may be issued. The investigation fee shall 
be collected whether or not a permit is then or subsequently issued. Any investigation fee shall equal the 
amount of the permit fee, if a permit were to be issued in accordance with this Code. If the investigation fee 
is collected, it shall not exempt any person from compliance or penalties set forth in this Code. 

1.10.5 Refunding of Fees 

Any fee collected by the Authority Having Jurisdiction that was erroneously paid or collected may be refund- 
ed, provided not more than percent of the fee payment shall be refunded when no work has been done. 

Any request for the refunding of any fee shall be in writing by the applicant no later than days after the 

date of fee payment. 

ADM 1.11 INSPECTIONS 

1.11.1 Required Inspections 

All new plumbing systems, and parts of existing systems that require a permit shall be tested and inspected 
by the Authority Having Jurisdiction prior to being covered or concealed. Where any such work has been 
covered or concealed, the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall require that such work be exposed for inspec- 
tion and testing. All equipment, material and labor required for testing the plumbing system shall be fur- 
nished by the permittee. The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall not be liable for any expense incurred by the 
removal or replacement of materials required to permit inspection or testing. Such expense is the responsibil- 
ity of the permittee. Upon completion of the rough plumbing installation, prior to covering or concealing any 
such work, the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall inspect the work and any such test, as prescribed herein- 
after, to disclose any leaks or defects. After completion of the plumbing system and the plumbing fixtures are 
set and their traps filled with water, a final inspection shall be conducted as required by this Code. Additional 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



inspections may be required when alternate materials or methods of installation are approved by the Author- 
ity Having Jurisdiction. 

1.11.2 Exception: 

For moved-in or relocated structures, minor installations and repairs, the Authority Having Jurisdiction may 
make other such inspections or tests as necessary to assure that the work has been performed and is safe for 
use in accordance with the intent of this Code. 

1 .11 .3 Use of Existing Plumbing 

The operation of any plumbing installation to replace existing systems or fixtures serving an occupied portion 
of any building or structure shall not be considered by the requirements of this Code to prohibit such opera- 
tion, provided a request for inspection has been made to the Authority Having Jurisdiction within 48 hours of 
such work and before any such work is covered or concealed. 

1.11.4 System Testing 

All new plumbing systems and parts of existing systems shall be tested and approved as required elsewhere 
in this Code. 

1.11.5 Requests for Inspection 

The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall be notified by the person doing the work, authorized by the permit, 
that such work has been subjected to the required tests and is ready for inspection. The method of request, 
whether in writing or by telephone, shall be established by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. It shall be the 
duty of the permittee doing the work authorized by a permit to provide reasonable access and means for ac- 
complishing proper inspections. 

1.11.6 Other Inspections 

The Authority Having Jurisdiction may require other inspections, in addition to those required by this Code, 
of any plumbing work in order to ascertain compliance with the requirements of this Code. 

1.11.7 Reinspection Fees 

a. The assessment of a reinspection fee may be required for any of the following: 

1 . For any portion of work not completed for which inspection was requested. 

2. For any required corrections that have not been completed and for which reinspection was requested. 

3. For not having the approved plans on site and readily available to the inspector. 

4. Failure to provide access for inspection on the date inspection was requested. 

5. Deviation from the approved plans that would require reapproval of the Authority Having Jurisdiction. 

6. Failure to provide correct address. 

b. This provision is intended to control the practice of calling for inspections prior to having work ready for 
inspection and not for the first time job rejection for not complying with the installation requirements. 

c. Upon the assessment of a reinspection fee, the applicant shall pay the reinspection fee in accordance 
with Section 1.10.1 and no additional inspections shall be performed until all fees have been paid. 

ADM 1.12 FINAL CONNECTIONS 

1.12.1 Energy or Fuel 

It shall be unlawful for any person to make, or cause to make, any connection to any source of energy or fuel 
to any plumbing system or equipment regulated by this Code prior to the approval of the Authority Having 
Jurisdiction. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



1.12.2 Water and Sewer 

It shall be unlawful for any person to make, or cause to make, any connection to any water supply or sewer 
system to any plumbing system or equipment regulated by this Code prior to the approval of the Authority 
Having Jurisdiction. 

1.12.3 Temporary Connection 

By authorization of the Authority Having Jurisdiction, a temporary connection may be made to any plumb- 
ing equipment to a source of energy or fuel for testing purposes only. 

ADM 1.13 UNCONSTITUTIONALITY 

Should any chapter, section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this Code be held for any reason as uncon- 
stitutional, such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining chapters, sections, subsections, sentences, 
clause or phrases of this Code. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Basic Principles 



This Code is founded upon certain basic principles of environmental sanitation and safety through properly 
designed, acceptably installed, and adequately maintained plumbing systems. Some of the details of plumbing 
construction may vary but the basic sanitary and safety principles desirable and necessary to protect the health of 
the people are the same everywhere. 

The establishment of trade jurisdictional areas is not within the scope of this Code. This inclusion of material, 
even though indicated as approved for purposes of this Code, does not infer unqualified endorsement as to its 
selection or serviceability in any or every installation. 

As interpretations may be required, and as unforeseen situations arise which are not specifically covered in this 
Code, the twenty-two principles which follow shall be used to define the intent. 

Principle No. 1— ALL OCCUPIED PREMISES SHALL HAVE POTABLE WATER 

All premises intended for human habitation, occupancy, or use shall be provided with a supply of potable water. 
Such a water supply shall not be connected with unsafe water sources, nor shall it be subject to the hazards of 
backflow. 

Principle No. 2— ADEQUATE WATER REQUIRED 

Plumbing fixtures, devices, and appurtenances shall be supplied with water in sufficient volume and at pressures 
adequate to enable them to function properly and without undue noise under normal conditions of use. 

Principle No. 3— HOT WATER REQUIRED 

Hot water shall be supplied to all plumbing fixtures which normally need or require hot water for their proper use 
and function. 

Principle No. 4— WATER CONSERVATION 

Plumbing shall be designed and adjusted to use the minimum quantity of water consistent with proper perfor- 
mance and cleaning. 

Principle No. 5— SAFETY DEVICES 

Devices for heating and storing water shall be so designed and installed as to guard against dangers from explo- 
sion or overheating. 

Principle No. 6— USE PUBLIC SEWER WHERE AVAILABLE 

Every building with installed plumbing fixtures and intended for human habitation, occupancy, or use, and located 
on premises where a public sewer is on or passes said premises within a reasonable distance, shall be connected to 
the public sewer. 

Principle No. 7— REQUIRED PLUMBING FIXTURES 

Each family dwelling unit shall have at least one water closet, one lavatory, one kitchen-type sink, and one bath- 
tub or shower to meet the basic requirements of sanitation and personal hygiene. 

All other structures for human habitation shall be equipped with sufficient sanitary facilities. Plumbing fixtures 
shall be made of durable, smooth, non-absorbent and corrosion resistant material and shall be free from concealed 
fouling surfaces. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Principle No. 8— DRAINAGE SYSTEM 

The drainage system shall be designed, constructed, and maintained to guard against fouling, deposit of solids and 
clogging, and with adequate cleanouts so arranged that the pipes may be readily cleaned. 

Principle No. 9— DURABLE MATERIALS AND GOOD WORKMANSHIP 

The piping of the plumbing system shall be of durable material, free from defective workmanship and so designed 
and constructed as to give satisfactory service for its reasonable expected life. 

Principle No. 10— FIXTURE TRAPS 

Each fixture directly connected to the drainage system shall be equipped with a liquid seal trap. 

Principle No. 11— TRAP SEALS SHALL BE PROTECTED 

The drainage system shall be designed to provide an adequate circulation of air in all pipes with no danger of 
siphonage, aspiration, or forcing of trap seals under conditions of ordinary use. 

Principle No. 12— EXHAUST FOUL AIR TO OUTSIDE 

Each vent terminal shall extend to the outer air and be so installed as to minimize the possibilities of clogging and 
the return of foul air to the building. 

Principle No. 13— TEST THE PLUMBING SYSTEM 

The plumbing system shall be subjected to such tests as will effectively disclose all leaks and defects in the work 
or the material. 

Principle No. 14— EXCLUDE CERTAIN SUBSTANCES FROM THE PLUMBING 
SYSTEM 

No substance that will clog or accentuate clogging of pipes, produce explosive mixtures, destroy the pipes or their 
joints, or interfere unduly with the sewage-disposal process shall be allowed to enter the building drainage system. 

Principle No. 15— PREVENT CONTAMINATION 

Proper protection shall be provided to prevent contamination of food, water, sterile goods, and similar materials 
by backflow of sewage. When necessary, the fixture, device, or appliance shall be connected indirectly with the 
building drainage system. 

Principle No. 16— LIGHT AND VENTILATION 

No water closet, urinal, or bidet shall be located in a room or compartment which is not properly lighted and ven- 
tilated. 

Principle No. 17— INDIVIDUAL SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEMS 

If water closets or other plumbing fixtures are installed in buildings where there is no public sewer within a 
reasonable distance, suitable provision shall be made for disposing of the sewage by some accepted method of 
sewage treatment and disposal. 

Principle No. 18— PREVENT SEWER FLOODING 

Where a plumbing drainage system is subject to backflow of sewage from the public sewer or private disposal 
system, suitable provision shall be made to prevent its overflow in the building. 

Principle No. 19— PROPER MAINTENANCE 

Plumbing systems shall be maintained in a safe and serviceable condition from the standpoint of both mechanics 
and health. 



1 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Principle No. 20— FIXTURES SHALL BE ACCESSIBLE 

All plumbing fixtures shall be so installed with regard to spacing as to be accessible for their intended use and for 
cleaning. 

Principle No. 21— STRUCTURAL SAFETY 

Plumbing shall be installed with due regard to preservation of the strength of structural members and prevention 
of damage to walls and other surfaces through fixture usage. 

Principle No. 22— PROTECT GROUND AND SURFACE WATER 

Sewage or other waste shall not be discharged into surface or sub-surface water unless it has first been subjected 
to some acceptable form of treatment. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 1 1 



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j 2 "" 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Chapter 1 



Definitions 



1.1 GENERAL 



For the purpose of this Code, the following terms shall have the meaning indicated in this chapter. No attempt 
is made to define ordinary words that are used in accordance with their established dictionary meaning, except 
where it is necessary to define their meaning as used in this Code to avoid misunderstanding. 

1.2 DEFINITION OF TERMS 

Accessible and Readily Accessible: 

Accessible: access thereto without damaging building surfaces, but that first may require the removal of an 
access panel, door or similar obstructions with the use of tools. 

Readily accessible: access without requiring the use of tools for removing or moving any panel, door or simi- 
lar obstruction. 

Acid Waste: See "Special Wastes" 

Adopting Agency (See also "Authority Having Jurisdiction") The agency, board or authority having the duty 
and power to establish the plumbing code that will govern the installation of all plumbing work to be performed in 
the jurisdictions. 

Air Break (drainage system): A piping arrangement in which a drain from a fixture, appliance, or device dis- 
charges into a receptor at a point below the flood level rim and above the trap seal of the receptor. 

Air Chamber: A pressure surge absorbing device operating through the compressibility of air. 

Air Gap (drainage system): The unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the outlet 
of the waste pipe and the flood level rim of the receptor into which it is discharging. 

Air Gap (water distribution system): The unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between 
the lowest opening from any pipe or faucet supplying water to a tank, plumbing fixture or other device and the 
flood level rim of the receptor. 

Anchors: See "Supports" 

Anti-scald Valve: See "Water Temperature Control Valve" 

Approved: Accepted or acceptable under an applicable standard stated or cited in this Code, or accepted as suit- 
able for the proposed use under procedures and powers of the Authority Having Jurisdiction as defined in 
Section 3.12. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



13 



Area Drain: A receptor designed to collect surface or storm water from an open area. 

Aspirator: A fitting or device supplied with water or other fluid under positive pressure that passes through an 
integral orifice or "constriction" causing a vacuum. 

Authority Having Jurisdiction (See also "Adopting Agency") 

The individual official, board, department or agency established and authorized by a state, county, city or other 
political subdivision created by law to administer and enforce the provisions of the plumbing code as adopted or 
amended. 

Automatic Flushing Device: A device that automatically flushes a fixture after each use without the need for 
manual activation. 

Auxiliary Floor Drain: A floor drain that does not receive the discharge from any indirect waste pipe or other 
predictable drainage flows. Auxiliary floor drains have no DFU loading. 

Backflow Connection: Any arrangement whereby backflow can occur. 

Backflow (drainage): A reversal of flow in the drainage system. 

Backflow Preventer: A device or means to prevent backflow. 

Backflow (Water Distribution): The flow of water or other liquids, mixtures or substances from any source or 
sources into the distribution pipes of a potable water system. Back-siphonage is one type of backflow. 

Backpressure Backflow: Backflow through a cross connection caused by a higher pressure in the non-potable 
system than in the potable supply system. 

Back-Siphonage: Backflow through a cross connection caused by a greater negative pressure in the potable sys- 
tem than in the non-potable supply system. 

Backwater Valve: A device installed in a drain pipe to prevent reverse flow in the drainage system. 

Baptistery: A tank or pool for baptizing by total immersion. 

Bathroom Group: A group of fixtures in a dwelling unit bathroom consisting of one water closet, one or two 
lavatories, and either one bathtub, one combination bath/shower or one shower stall. Other fixtures within the 
bathing facility shall be counted separately when determining the total water supply and drainage fixture loads for 
the bathroom group. 

Battery of Fixtures: Any group of two or more similar adjacent fixtures that discharge into a common horizontal 
waste or soil branch. 

Bedpan Steamer: A fixture used for scalding bedpans or urinals by direct application of steam. 

Boiler Blow-off: An outlet on a boiler to permit emptying or discharge of sediment. 

Boiler Blow-off Tank: A vessel designed to receive the discharge from a boiler blow-off outlet and to cool the 
discharge to a temperature that permits its safe discharge to the drainage system. 

Branch: Any part of the piping system other than a riser, main or stack. 



1 4 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Branch, Fixture: See "Fixture Branch" 

Branch, Horizontal: See "Horizontal Branch Drain" 

Branch Interval: A distance along a vertical soil or waste stack corresponding, in general, to a story height, but 
in no case less than 8 feet within which the horizontal branches from one floor or story of a building are connected 
to the stack. 

Branch Vent: See "Vent, Branch" 

Building: A structure having walls and a roof designed and used for the housing, shelter, enclosure, or support of 
persons, animals, or property. 

Building Classification: The arrangement adopted by the Authority Having Jurisdiction for the designation of 
buildings in classes according to occupancy. 

Building Drain: The lowest piping in a drainage system that receives the discharge from stacks and horizontal fixture 
branches within a building that convey sewage, waste, or other drainage to a building sewer beginning three (3) feet 
outside the building wall. Horizontal fixture branches are sized according to Table 1 1 .5. IB until they connect to the 
building drain or a branch of the building drain that serves two or more horizontal fixture branches. 

Building Drain, Combined: A building drain that conveys both sewage and storm water or other drainage. 

Building Drain, Sanitary: A building drain that conveys sewage only. 

Building Drain, Storm: A building drain that conveys storm water or other drainage, but no sewage. 

Building Sewer: That part of the drainage system that extends from the end of the building drain and conveys 
its discharge to a public sewer, private sewer, individual sewage disposal system or other point of disposal. The 
building sewer begins at a point three feet beyond the outside face of the building. 

Building Sewer, Combined: A building sewer that conveys both sewage and storm water or other drainage. 

Building Sewer, Sanitary: A building sewer that conveys sewage only. 

Building Sewer, Storm: A building sewer that conveys storm water or other drainage but no sewage. 

Building Subdrain: That portion of a drainage system that does not drain by gravity into the building drain or 
building sewer. 

Building Trap: A device, fitting, or assembly of fittings, installed in the building drain to prevent circulation of 
sewer gas between the building sewer and the drainage system in the building. 

Cesspool: A lined and covered excavation in the ground that receives the discharge of domestic sewage or other 
organic wastes from a drainage system, so designed as to retain the organic matter and solids, but permitting the 
liquids to seep through the bottom and sides. 

Chemical Waste: Includes industrial liquid waste, process waste, diluted and undiluted acid waste and corrosive 
and non-corrosive chemical liquid waste. 

Circuit Vent: See "Vent, Circuit" 

2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 1 5 



Clear Water Waste: Effluent in which impurity levels are less than concentrations considered harmful by the 
Authority Having Jurisdiction, such as cooling water and condensate drainage from refrigeration and air condi- 
tioning equipment, cooled condensate from steam heating systems, and residual water from ice making processes. 

Clinical Sink: A sink designed primarily to receive wastes from bedpans, having a flushing rim, intergral trap 
with a visible trap seal, and having the same flushing and cleansing characteristics as a water closet. 

Code: These regulations, or any emergency rule or regulation that the Authority Having Jurisdiction may law- 
fully adopt. 

Combination Fixture: A fixture combining one sink and laundry tray, or a two- or three-compartment sink and 
laundry tray in one unit. 

Combination Thermostatic/Pressure Balancing Valve: See "Thermostatic/Pressure Balancing Valve, Com- 
bined" 

Combination Waste and Vent System: A designed system of waste piping embodying the horizontal wet vent- 
ing of one or more sinks or floor drains by means of a common waste and vent pipe adequately sized to provide 
free movement of air above the flow line of the drain. 

Combined Building Drain: See "Building Drain, Combined" 

Combined Building Sewer: See "Building Sewer, Combined" 

Commercial Kitchen: One or more rooms in a building that is licensed to prepare food to be served for consump- 
tion or process food to be packaged for distribution. 

Common Vent: See "Vent, Common" 

Conductor: A pipe within a building that conveys stormwater from a roof to its connection to a building storm 
drain or other point of disposal. 

Contamination: The impairment of the quality of the potable water that creates an actual hazard to the public 
health through poisoning or through the spread of disease by sewage, industrial fluids or waste. (See the definition 
of "pollution"). 

Continuous Vent: See "Vent, Continuous" 

Continuous Waste: A drain from two or more fixtures connected to a single trap. 

Critical Level: The marking on a backflow prevention device or vacuum breaker established by the manufactur- 
er, and usually stamped on the device by the manufacturer, that determines the minimum elevation above the flood 
level rim of the fixture or receptor served at which the device must be installed. When a backflow prevention 
device does not bear a critical level marking, the bottom of the vacuum breaker, combination valve, or the bottom 
of any approved device constitutes the critical level. 

Cross Connection: Any connection or arrangement between two otherwise separate piping systems, one of 
which contains potable water and the other either water of questionable safety, steam, gas, or chemical, whereby 
there may be a flow from one system to the other, the direction of flow depending on the pressure differential 
between the two systems (See "Backflow and Back-Siphonage). 



1 6 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Day Care Center: A facility for the care and/or education of children ranging from 2-1/2 years of age to 5 years 
of age. 

Day Nursery: A facility for the care of children less than 2-1/2 years of age. 

Dead End, Potable Water: A branch line terminating at a developed length of two (2) feet or more from an ac- 
tive potable water line by means of a plug or cap. 

Dead End, Soil, Waste, or Vent: A branch leading from a soil, waste or vent pipe, building drain, or building 
sewer line and terminating at a developed length of two (2) feet or more by means of a plug, cap, or other closed 
fitting. 

Developed Length: The length of a pipe line measured along the center line of the pipe and fittings. 

Domestic Sewage: The water-borne wastes derived from ordinary living processes. 

Double Check Valve Assembly: A backflow prevention device consisting of two independently acting check 
valves, internally force loaded to a normally closed position between two tightly closing shut-off valves, and with 
means of testing for tightness. 

Double Offset: See "Offset, Double" 

Drain: Any pipe that carries waste or water-borne wastes in a building drainage system. 

Drainage Pipe: See "Drainage System" 

Drainage, Sump : A liquid and air-tight tank that receives sewage and/or liquid waste, located below the eleva- 
tion of a gravity drainage system, that is emptied by pumping. 

Drainage System: All the piping within public or private premises that conveys sewage, rain water, or other 
liquid wastes to a point of disposal. It does not include the mains of a public sewer system or private or public 
sewage-treatment facilities. 

Drainage System, Building Gravity: A drainage system that drains by gravity into the building sewer. 
Drainage System, Sub-building: See "Building Subdrain" 
Dry Vent: See "Vent, Dry" 
Dry Well: See "Leaching Well" 
Dual Vent: See "Vent, Common" 

Dwelling Unit, Multiple: A room, or group of rooms, forming a single habitable unit with facilities that are used, 
or intended to be used, for living, sleeping, cooking and eating; and whose sewer connections and water supply, 
within its own premise, are shared with one or more other dwelling units. Multiple dwelling units include apart- 
ments, condominums, and hotel and motel guest rooms. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



17 



Dwelling Unit, Single: A room, or group of rooms, forming a single habitable unit with facilities that are used, or 
intended to be used, for living, sleeping, cooking and eating; and whose sewer connections and water supply are, 
within its own premise, separate from and completely independent of any other dwelling. 

DWV: An acronym for "drain-waste-vent" referring to the combined sanitary drainage and venting systems. This 
term is equivalent to "soil-waste-vent" (SWV). 

Effective Opening: The minimum cross-sectional area at the point of water supply discharge, measured or ex- 
pressed in terms of (1) diameter of a circle, or (2) if the opening is not circular, the diameter of a circle of equiva- 
lent cross-sectional area. 

Equivalent Length: The length of straight pipe of a specific diameter that would produce the same frictional 
resistances as a particular fitting or line comprised of pipe and fittings. 

Existing Plumbing System: An existing plumbing system, or any part thereof, installed prior to the effective date 
of this Code. 

Existing Work: An existing plumbing system, or any part thereof, installed prior to the effective date of this 
Code. 

Family: One or more individuals living together and sharing the same facilities. 

Fixture: See "Plumbing Fixture" 

Fixture Branch, Supply: A branch of the water distribution system supplying one fixture. 

Fixture Branch, Drainage: A drain serving one or more fixtures that discharges into another drain. 

Fixture Drain: The drain from the trap of a fixture to the junction of that drain with any other drain pipe. 

Fixture Unit (Drainage -DFU): An index number that represents the load of a fixture on the drainage system 
so that the load of various fixtures in various applications can be combined. The value is based on the volume 
or volume rate of drainage discharge from the fixture, the time duration of that discharge, and the average time 
between successive uses of the fixture. One DFU was originally equated to a drainage flow rate of one cubic foot 
per minute or 7.5 gallons per minute through the fixture outlet. 

Fixture Unit (Water Supply - WSFU): An index number that represents the load of a fixture on the water sup- 
ply system so that the load of various fixtures in various applications can be combined. The value is based on the 
volume rate of supply for the fixture, the time duration of a single supply operation, and the average time between 
successive uses of the fixture. Water supply fixture units were originally based on a comparison to a flushometer 
valve water closet, which was arbitrarily assigned a value of 10 WSFU. 

Flexible Water Connector: A connector under continuous pressure in an accessible location that connects a supply 
fitting, faucet, dishwasher, cloths washer, water heater, water treatment unit, or other fixture or equipment to a stop 
valve or its water supply branch pipe. 

Flood Level: See "Flood Level Rim" 

Flood Level Rim: The edge of the receptor or fixture over which water flows if the fixture is flooded. 

Flooded: The condition that results when the liquid in a receptor or fixture rises to the flood level rim. 



18 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Flow Pressure: The pressure in the water supply pipe near the faucet or water outlet while the faucet or water 
outlet is fully open and flowing. 

Flush Pipes and Fittings: The pipe and fittings that connect a flushometer valve or elevated flush tank to a water 
closet, urinal, or bed pan washer. 

Flushing Type Floor Drain: A floor drain that is equipped with an integral water supply connection, enabling 
flushing of the drain receptor and trap. 

Flush Valve: A device located at the bottom of a flush tank for flushing water closets and similar fixtures. 

Flushometer Tank: A water closet flush tank that uses an air accumulator vessel to discharge a predetermined 
quantity of water into the closet bowl for flushing purposes. 

Flushometer Valve: A device that discharges a predetermined quantity of water to fixtures for flushing and is 
closed by direct water pressure or other means. 

Force Main: A main that delivers waste water under pressure from a sewage ejector or pump to its destination. 

Full-way valve: Full-way valves include gate valves, full port ball valves, and other valves that are identified by 
their manufacturer as full port or full bore. 

Grade: The fall (slope) of a line of pipe in reference to a horizontal plane. 

Grease Interceptor: A plumbing appurtenance that is installed in the sanitary drainage system to intercept oily 
and greasy wastes from wastewater discharges, typically in commercial kitchens and food processing plants. Such 
equipment has the ability to intercept commonly occurring free-floating fats and oils. 

Grease Removal (or Recovery) Device (GRD): A plumbing appurtenance that is installed in the sanitary drainage 
system to intercept and remove free-floating fats, oils, and grease from wastewater discharges, typically in commer- 
cial kitchens and food processing plants. Such equipment operates on a time or event- controlled basis and has the 
ability to remove the entire range of commonly occurring free-floating fats, oils, and grease automatically without 
intervention from the user except for maintenance. The removed material is essentially water-free, which allows for 
recycling of the removed product. 

Grease Trap: See "Interceptor" 

Grinder Pump: A pump for sewage that shreds or grinds the solids in the sewage that it pumps. 

Groundwater: Subsurface water occupying the zone of saturation, (a) Confined ground water - a body of 
ground water overlaid by material sufficiently impervious to sever free hydraulic connection with overlying 
ground water, (b) Free ground water - ground water in the zone of saturation extending down to the first impervi- 
ous barrier. 

Half-Bath: A room that contains one water closet and one lavatory within a dwelling unit. 

Hangers: See "Supports" 

Health Hazard: In backflow prevention, an actual or potential threat of contamination of the potable water sup- 
ply to the plumbing system of a physical or toxic nature that would be a danger to health. Health hazards include 
any contamination that could cause death, illness, or spread of disease. 

2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 1 9 



Horizontal Branch Drain: A drain pipe extending laterally from a soil stack, waste stack or building drain with 
or without vertical sections or branches, that receives the waste discharged from one or more fixture drains and 
conducts the waste to a soil stack, waste stack, or building drain. 

Horizontal Pipe: Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle of less than 45° with the horizontal. 

Hot Water: Potable water that is heated to a required temperature for its intended use. 

House Drain: See "Building Drain" 

House Sewer: See "Building Sewer" 

House Trap: See "Building Trap" 

Indirect Connection (Waste): The introduction of waste into the drainage system by means of an air gap or air 
break. 

Indirect Waste Pipe: A waste pipe that does not connect directly with the drainage system, but which discharges 
into the drainage system through an air break or air gap into a trap, fixture, receptor or interceptor. 

Individual Vent: See "Vent, Individual" 

Individual Fixture Supply Valve: A valve installed in fixture supply branch piping used for the purpose of 
regulating or stopping water flow to an individual fixture for installation, repair, or replacement of the fixture or its 
faucet. 

Industrial Wastes: Liquid or liquid-borne wastes resulting from the processes employed in industrial and com- 
mercial establishments. 

Insanitary: Contrary to sanitary principles — injurious to health. 

Installed: Altered, changed or a new installation . 

Interceptor: A device designed and installed so as to separate and retain deleterious, hazardous, or undesirable 
matter from normal wastes while permitting normal sewage or liquid wastes to discharge into the drainage system 
by gravity. 

Invert: The lowest portion of the inside of a horizontal pipe. 

Leaching Well or Pit: A pit or receptor having porous walls that permit the liquid contents to seep into the 
ground. 

Leader: An exterior vertical drainage pipe for conveying storm water from roof or gutter drains. 

Load Factor: The percentage of the total connected fixture unit flow that is likely to occur at any point in the 
drainage system. 

Local Ventilating Pipe: A pipe on the fixture side of the trap through which vapor or foul air is removed from a 
fixture. 

Loop Vent: See "Vent, Loop" 

20 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Low Hazard: See "Hazard, Low" 

Macerating Toilet System: A system that collects drainage from a single water closet, lavatory and/or bathtub 
located in the same room. It consists of a receiving container, a grinder pump, and associated level controls. The 
system pumps shredded or macerated sewage up to a point of discharge 

Main: The principal pipe artery to which branches may be connected. 

Main Sewer: See "Public Sewer" 

Main, Water Supply: That portion of the water supply distribution piping that branches, fixture supply branches, 
and risers are connected to. 

May: The word "may" is a permissive term. 

Medical Gas System: The complete system used to convey medical gases for direct application from central 
supply systems (bulk tanks, manifolds and medical air compressors) through piping networks with pressure and 
operating controls, alarm warning systems, etc., and extending to station outlet valves at use points. 

Medical Vacuum Systems: A system consisting of central-vacuum-producing equipment with pressure and oper- 
ating controls, shut-off valves, alarm warning systems, gauges and a network of piping extending to and terminat- 
ing with suitable station inlets to locations where suction may be required. 

Multiple Dwelling: A building containing two or more dwelling units. 

Non-Health Hazard: In backflow prevention, an actual or potential threat to the physical properties or potability 
of the water supply to the plumbing system, but which would not constitute a health or system hazard. 

Non-Potable Water: Water not safe for drinking, personal or culinary use. 

Nominal Size: (Pipe or Tube): The industry-recognized size of a plumbing pipe or tube that is not necessarily 
an actual dimension. It indicates the size of the pipe or tube as indicated in its material standard listed in Table 
3.1.3. 

Nuisance: Public nuisance at common law or in equity jurisprudence; whatever is dangerous to human life or 
detrimental to health; whatever building, structure, or premises is not sufficiently ventilated, sewered, drained, 
cleaned, or lighted in reference to its intended or actual use; and whatever renders the air, human food, drink or 
water supply unwholesome. 

Offset: A combination of elbows or bends that brings one section of the pipe out of line but into a line parallel 
with the other section. 

Offset, Double: Two offsets installed in succession or series in a continuous pipe. 

Offset, Return: A double offset installed so as to return the pipe to its original alignment. 

Oil Interceptor: See "Interceptor" 

Person: A natural person, his heirs, executors, administrators or assigns; including a firm, partnership or corpora- 
tion, its or their successors or assigns. Singular includes plural; male includes female. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 2 1 



Pitch: See "Grade" 

Plenum: An enclosed portion of the building structure, other than an occupiable space being conditioned, that is 
designed to allow air movement, and thereby serve as part of an air distribution system. 

Plumbing 

The practice, materials, and fixtures within or adjacent to any building structure or conveyance, used in the instal- 
lation, maintenance, extension, alteration and removal of any piping, plumbing fixtures, plumbing appliances, and 
plumbing appurtenances in connection with any of the following: 

a. Sanitary drainage system and its related vent system, 

b. Storm water drainage facilities, 

c. Public or private potable water supply systems, 

d. The initial connection to a potable water supply upstream of any required backflow prevention devices 
and the final connection that discharges indirectly into a public or private disposal system, 

e. Medical gas and medical vacuum systems, 

f. Indirect waste piping including refrigeration and air conditioning drainage, 

g. Liquid waste or sewage, and water supply, of any premises to their connection with an approved water 
supply system or to an acceptable disposal facility. 

NOTE: The following are excluded from the definition: 

1 . All piping, equipment or material used exclusively for environmental control. 

2. Piping used for the incorporation of liquids or gases into any product or process for use in the manufac- 
turing or storage of any product, including product development. 

3. Piping used for the installation, alteration, repair or removal of automatic sprinkler systems installed for 
fire protection only. 

4. The related appurtenances or standpipes connected to automatic sprinkler systems or overhead or under- 
ground fire lines beginning at a point where water is used exclusively for fire protection. 

5. Piping used for lawn sprinkler systems downstream from backflow prevention devices. 

Plumbing Appliance: Any one of a special class of plumbing fixture that is intended to perform a special plumb- 
ing function. Its operation and/or control may be dependent upon one or more energized components, such as 
motors, controls, heating elements, or pressure or temperature-sensing elements. Such fixtures may operate 
automatically through one or more of the following actions: a time cycle, a temperature range, a pressure range, a 
measured volume or weight; or the fixture may be manually adjusted or controlled by the user or operator. 

Plumbing Appurtenance: A manufactured device, a prefabricated assembly, or an on-the-job assembly of com- 
ponent parts, that is an adjunct to the basic piping system and plumbing fixtures. An appurtenance demands no 
additional water supply, nor does it add any discharge load to a fixture or to the drainage system. It is presumed 
that an appurtenance performs some useful function in the operation, maintenance, servicing, economy, or safety 
of the plumbing system. 

Plumbing Fixture: A receptacle or device connected to the water distribution system of the premises, and 
demands a supply of water there from; or discharges used water, liquid-borne waste materials, or sewage either 
directly or indirectly to the drainage system of the premises; or which requires both a water supply connection and 
a discharge to the drainage system of the premises. Plumbing appliances as a special class of fixture are further 
defined. 

Plumbing Inspector: See "Authority Having Jurisdiction" 



22 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Plumbing System: Includes the water supply and distribution pipes, plumbing fixtures and traps; soil, waste and 
vent pipes; sanitary and storm building drains and building sewers; including their respective connections, devices 
and appurtenances to an approved point of disposal. 

Pollution (of Potable Water): An impairment of the quality of the potable water to a degree that does not create 
a hazard to the public health but that does adversely and unreasonably affect the aesthetic qualities of such potable 
water for domestic use. (See the definition of "contamination"). 

Pool: See "Swimming Pool" 

Potable Water: Water free from impurities present in amounts sufficient to cause disease or harmful physiologi- 
cal effects and conforming in its bacteriological and chemical quality to the requirements of the Public Health 
Service Drinking Water Standards or the regulations of the public health authority having jurisdiction. 

Powder Room: See "Half-Bath." 

Pressure Assisted Water Closet: See Water Closet, Pressure Assisted. 

Pressure Balancing Valve: A mixing valve that senses incoming hot and cold water pressures and compensates 
for fluctuations in either to stabilize its outlet temperature. 

Private Sewage Disposal System: A system for disposal of domestic sewage by means of a septic tank or me- 
chanical treatment, designed for use apart from a public sewer to serve a single establishment or building. 

Private Sewer: Any sewer not directly controlled by public authority. 

Private Use, Public Use: 

Private Use - Plumbing facilities for the private and restricted use of one or more individuals in dwelling units 
(including hotel and motel guest rooms), and other plumbing facilities that are not intended for public use. Refer 
to the definition of "Public Use". 

Public Use - Plumbing facilities intended for the unrestricted use of more than one individual (including employ- 
ees) in assembly occupancies, business occupancies, public buildings, transportation facilities, schools and other 
educational facilities, office buildings, restaurants, bars, other food service facilities, mercantile facilities, manu- 
facturing facilities, military facilities, and other plumbing installations that are not intended for private use. Refer 
to the definition of "Private Use". 

Private Water Supply: A supply, other than an approved public water supply, that serves one or more buildings. 

Public Sewer: A common sewer directly controlled by public authority. 

Public Toilet Room: A toilet room intended to serve the transient public, such as in, but not limited to the follow- 
ing examples: service stations, train stations, airports, restaurants, and convention halls. 

Public Water Main: A water supply pipe for public use controlled by public authority. 

Pump Assisted Water Closet: See Water Closet, Pump Assisted. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



23 



Push-Fit Fittings: A type of mechanical joint used with copper, CPVC and/or PEX that is either permanent or 
removable and may be used separately or integrated into plumbing fitting devices used in domestic or commercial 
applications in potable water distribution systems. 

Receptor: A fixture or device that receives the discharge from indirect waste pipes. 

Reduced Pressure Backflow Preventer Assembly: See Reduced Pressure Zone Backflow Preventer Assembly 

Reduced Pressure Principle Assembly: A reduced pressure zone backflow preventer assembly. 

Reduced Pressure Zone Backflow Preventer Assembly: A backflow prevention device consisting of two inde- 
pendently acting check valves, internally force loaded to a normally closed position and separated by an interme- 
diate chamber (or zone), in which there is an automatic relief means of venting to atmosphere, internally loaded to 
a normally open position, and with means for testing for tightness of the checks and opening of the relief means. 

Relief Vent: See "Vent, Relief ' 

Return Offset: See "Offset, Return" 

Revent Pipe: See "Vent, Individual" 

Rim: An unobstructed open edge of a fixture. 

Riser: A water supply pipe that extends vertically one full story or more to convey water to branches or to a 
group of fixtures. 

Roof Drain: A drain installed to receive water collecting on the surface of a roof and to discharge it into a leader 
or a conductor. 

Roughing-in: The installation of all parts of the plumbing system that can be completed prior to the installa- 
tion of fixtures. This includes drainage, water supply, and vent piping, and the necessary fixture supports, or any 
fixtures that are built into the structure. 

Safe Waste: See "Indirect Waste Pipe" 

Sand Filter: A treatment device or structure, constructed above or below the surface of the ground, for removing 
solid or colloidal material of a type that cannot be removed by sedimentation, from septic tank effluent. 

Sand Interceptor: See "Interceptor" 

Sand Trap: See "Interceptor" 

Sanitary Sewer: A sewer that carries sewage and excludes storm, surface and ground water. 

SDR: An abbreviation for "standard dimensional ratio" that relates to a specific ratio of the average specified 
outside diameter to the minimum wall thickness for outside diameter controlled plastic pipe. 

Seepage Well or Pit: See "Leaching Well" 



24 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Septic Tank: A watertight receptacle that receives the discharge of a building sanitary drainage system or part 
thereof; and that is designed and constructed so as to separate solids from the liquid, digest organic matter through 
a period of detention, and allow the liquids to discharge into the soil outside of the tank through a system of open 
joint or perforated piping, or a seepage pit. 

Service Sink: A sink or receptor intended for custodial use that is capable of being used to fill and empty a jani- 
tor's bucket. Included are mop basins, laundry sinks, utility sinks, and similar fixtures. (See Table 7.21.1) 

Sewage: Liquid containing human waste (including fecal matter) and/or animal, vegetable, or chemical waste 
matter in suspension or solution. 

Sewage Ejector, Pneumatic Type: Aunit that uses compressed air to discharge and lift sewage to a gravity sewage 
system. 

Sewage Pump or Pump-Type Ejector: A non-clog or grinder-type sewage pump or ejector. Sewage pumps and 
pump-type ejectors are either the submersible or vertical type. 

Shall: "Shall" is a mandatory term. 

Shock Arrestor (mechanical device): A device used to absorb the pressure surge (water hammer) that occurs 
when water flow is suddenly stopped. 

Short Term: A period of time not more than 30 minutes. 

Shut-off Valve: A ball, gate, or other full way valve located in water supply mains, risers, and branches for the 
purpose of controlling water supply to a fixture or group of fixtures. 

Side Vent: See "Vent, Side" 

Sink, Commercial: A sink other than for a domestic application. Commercial sinks include, but are not limited 
to: 

1 . pot sinks 

2. scullery sinks 

3. sinks used in photographic or other processes 

4. laboratory sinks 

Size of Pipe and Tubing, Incremental: Where relative size requirements are mentioned, the following schedule 
of sizes is recognized, even if all sizes may not be available commercially: 1/4, 3/8, 1/2, 3/4, 1, 1-1/4, 1-1/2, 2, 
2-1/2, 3, 3-1/2, 4, 4-1/2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24. 

Slip Joint: A connection in drainage piping consisting of a compression nut and compression washer that permits 
drainage tubing to be inserted into the joint and secured by tightening the compression nut. Slip joints are typi- 
cally used in trap connections for lavatories, sinks, and bathtubs. They permit the trap to be removed for cleaning 
or replacement, and to provide access to the drainage piping. 

Slope: See "Grade" 

Soil Pipe or Soil Stack: Pipes that convey sewage containing fecal matter to the building drain or building sewer. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 25 



Special Wastes: Wastes that require special treatment before entry into the normal plumbing system. 

Special Waste Pipe: Pipes that convey special wastes. 

Stack: A general term for any vertical line including offsets of soil, waste, vent or inside conductor piping. This 
does not include vertical fixture and vent branches that do not extend through the roof or that pass through not 
more than two stories before being reconnected to the vent stack or stack vent. 

Stack Group: A group of fixtures located adjacent to the stack so that by means of proper fittings, vents may be 
reduced to a minimum. 

Stack Vent: The extension of a soil or waste stack above the highest horizontal drain connected to the stack. 

Stack Venting: A method of venting a fixture or fixtures through the soil or waste stack. 

Standpipe (indirect waste receptor): A vertical drain pipe that has an open top inlet that provides an air break or 
air gap for indirect waste discharge. 

Storm Drain: See " Building Drain, Storm" 

Storm Sewer: A sewer used for conveying rainwater, surface water, condensate, cooling water, or similar liquid 
wastes. 

Subsoil Drain: A drain that collects subsurface or seepage water and conveys it to a place of disposal. 

Suction Line: The inlet pipe to a pump on which a negative pressure may exist under design conditions. 

Sump: A tank or pit that receives only liquid wastes, located below the elevation of a gravity discharge, that is 
emptied by pumping. 

Sump, Drainage (sewage): A liquid and air-tight tank that receives sewage and/or liquid waste, located below 
the elevation of a gravity drainage system, that is emptied by pumping. 

Sump Pump: A mechanical device for removing clear water waste, liquid waste or storm water from a sump. 

Supports: Devices for supporting and securing pipe, fixtures and equipment. See Chapter 8 

Swimming Pool: Any structure, basin, chamber or tank containing a body of water for swimming, diving, or 
recreational bathing. 

Tempered Water: A mixture of hot and cold water to reach a desired temperature for its intended use, typically 
95°F- 105°F. 

Thermostatic/Pressure Balancing Valve, Combination: A mixing valve that senses outlet temperature and 
incoming hot and cold water pressures and compenstates for fluctuations in incoming hot and cold water tempera- 
tures and/or pressures to stabilize its outlet temperature. 

Thermostatic (Temperature Control) Valve: A mixing valve that senses outlet temperature and compensates 
for fluctuations in incoming hot or cold water temperatures. 



26 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Toilet Facility: A room or combination of interconnected spaces in other than a dwelling that contains one or 
more water closets and associated lavatories, with signage to identify its intended use. 

Trap: A fitting or device that provides a liquid seal to prevent the emission of sewer gasses without materially 
affecting the flow of sewage or waste water through it. 

Trap Arm: That portion of a fixture drain between a trap and its vent. 

Trap Primer: A device or system of piping to maintain the water seal in a trap. 

Trap Seal: The maximum vertical depth of liquid that a trap will retain, measured between the crown weir and 
the top of the dip of the trap. 

Vacuum: Any pressure less than that exerted by the atmosphere. 

Vacuum Assisted Water Closet: See Water Closet, Vacuum Assisted. 

Vacuum Breaker: See "Backflow Preventer" 

Vacuum Breaker, Atmospheric Type: A vacuum breaker that is not designed to be subject to continuous line 
pressure. 

Vacuum Breaker, Pressure Type: A vacuum breaker designed to operate under continuous line pressure. 

Vacuum Breaker, Spill-resistant (SVB): A pressure-type vacuum breaker specifically designed to avoid spillage 
during operation, consisting of one check valve force-loaded closed and an air inlet vent valve force-loaded open 
to atmosphere, positioned downstream of the check valve, located between two shutoff valves, and including a 
means for testing. 

Vacuum Relief Valve: A device to prevent vacuum in a pressure vessel. 

Vent, Branch: A vent connecting one or more individual vents with a vent stack or stack vent. 

Vent, Circuit: A vent that connects to a horizontal drainage branch and vents from two to eight traps or trapped 
fixtures connected in a battery. 

Vent, Common: A vent connected at the common connection of two fixture drains and serving as a vent for both 
fixtures. 

Vent, Continuous: A vertical vent that is a continuation of the drain to which it connects. 

Vent, Dry: A vent that does not receive the discharge of any sewage or waste. 

Vent, Individual: A pipe installed to vent a single fixture drain. 

Vent, Loop: A circuit vent that loops back to connect with a stack vent instead of a vent stack. 

Vent Pipe: Part of the vent system. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code ~ ™ __ 27 



Vent, Relief: An auxiliary vent that permits additional circulation of air in or between a drainage and vent sys- 
tem. 

Vent, Side: A vent connecting to a drain pipe through a fitting at an angle not greater than 45° to the vertical. 

Vent Stack: A vertical vent pipe that extends through one or more stories and that is intended to provide circula- 
tion of air to and from the drainage system. 

Vent, Sterilizer: A separate pipe or stack, indirectly drained to the building drainage system at the lower termi- 
nal, that receives the vapors from non-pressure sterilizers, or the exhaust vapors from pressure sterilizers, and 
conducts the vapors directly to the outer air. Sometimes called vapor, steam, atmosphere or exhaust vent. 

Vent System: A pipe, or pipes, installed to provide a flow of air to or from a drainage system or to provide a cir- 
culation of air within such system to protect trap seals from siphonage and back pressure. 

Vent, Wet: A vent pipe that is sized and arranged in accordance with this Code to receive the discharge of waste 
from a fixture. 

Vent, Yoke: A pipe connecting upward from a soil or waste stack to a vent stack for the purpose of equalizing the 
pressures in the stacks. 

Vertical Pipe: Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle of 45° or more with the horizontal. 

Wall Hung Water Closet: A water closet installed in such a way that no part of it touches the floor. 

Waste: Any remaining liquid, or liquid-borne material or residue intended to be discharged to the drainage sys- 
tem after any activity or process, but not including any such materials that contain animal or human fecal matter. 

Waste Pipe: A pipe that conveys only waste. 

Waste Stack, Pipe or Piping: Pipes that convey the discharge from fixtures (other than water closets), appliances, 
areas, or appurtenances, that do not contain fecal matter. 

Water Closet, Pressure Assisted: A low consumption water closet with an air accumulator vessel in the tank that 
stores water and air under pressure, using the water supply pressure. When flushed, the air produces a high veloc- 
ity jet of water and air that forces the contents out of the bowl. 

Water Closet, Pump Assisted: A low consumption water closet with a fractional horsepower pump in the tank 
that produces a high velocity jet in the trap way that assists the flushing action. 

Water Closet, Vacuum Assisted: A low consumption water closet that uses the falling water level in the tank to 
induce a vacuum near the outlet of the trap way that assists the flushing action. 

Water Distribution Piping: Piping within the building or on the premises that conveys water from the water 
service pipe to the points of use. 

Water Lift: See "Sewage Ejector" 

Water Main: A water supply pipe available for public connection. 



2g 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Water Outlet: A discharge opening through which water is supplied to a fixture, into the atmosphere (except into 
an open tank that is part of the water supply system), to a boiler or heating system, to any devices or equipment 
requiring water to operate but that are not part of the plumbing system. 

Water Riser Pipe: See "Riser" 

Water Service Pipe: The pipe from the water main, or other source of potable water supply, to the water distribu- 
tion system of the building served. 

Water Supply System: The water service pipe, the water distribution pipes, and the necessary connecting pipes, 
fittings, control valves, and appurtenances in or adjacent to the building or premises. 

Water Temperature Control Valve: A valve of the pressure balance, thermostatic mixing, or combination pres- 
sure balance/thermostatic mixing type that is designed to control water temperature to reduce the risk of scalding. 

Wet Vent: See "Vent, Wet" 

Whirlpool Bathtub: A plumbing appliance consisting of a bathtub fixture that is equipped and fitted with a circu- 
lation piping system, pump, and other appurtenances and is so designed to accept, circulate, and discharge bathtub 
water upon each use. 

Weir (trap or crown): The overflow level of a trap outlet. 

Yoke Vent: See "Vent, Yoke" 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Cock 29 



Blank Page 



30 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Chapter 2 



General Regulations 



2.1 RESERVED 



2.2 CAST IRON SOIL PIPE MARKING 

All cast iron soil pipe and fittings shall be listed and tested to comply with standards referenced in Table 3.1.3 and 
marked with country of origin and identification of the original manufacturer in addition to any markings required 
by those referenced standards. 

2.3 CHANGES IN DIRECTION OF DRAINAGE PIPING 

2.3.1 Uses for Drainage Fittings 

a. Changes in direction of drainage piping shall be made with long radius drainage fittings except 
where short radius fittings are permitted in Table 2.3.1. Refer to Table 2.3.1 for permissible drainage 
fittings for changes of directions. 

b. Short radius drainage fittings are those having radius or centerline dimensions that are approxi- 
mately equal to or less than their nominal pipe size. The radius or centerline dimensions of long radius 
drainage fittings are greater than their nominal pipe size. 

c. Long radius drainage fittings shall not be used to connect fixture trap arms to vertical drain and vent 
piping. Connections to fixture vents shall be above the top weir of the fixture trap. 

2.3.2 Double Pattern Fittings 

The uses for double pattern drainage fittings shall be the same as for single pattern fittings in Table 2.3.1. 
EXCEPTION: Double sanitary tees and crosses shall not be used to connect blowout fixtures, back-outlet 
water closets, and fixtures or appliances having pumped discharge. 

2.3.3 Back-to-Back Fixtures 

Stack fittings, including carriers, for back-outlet fixtures installed back-to-back shall be either the wye pat- 
tern, incorporate baffles within the drainage fitting, or otherwise be designed to prevent crossflow or mixing 
of the discharges from the two fixtures prior to the change in direction. 

2.4 FITTINGS AND CONNECTIONS IN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS 

2.4.1 Prohibited Fittings 

No running threads or saddles shall be used in the drainage or vent system. No drainage or vent piping shall 
be drilled, tapped, burned or welded. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



31 



Table 2.3.1 PERMISSIBLE DRAINAGE FITTINGS FOR CHANGES IN DIRECTION 


PIPE 
MATERIAL 


CHANGES IN DIRECTION 


HORIZONTAL 

TO 
HORIZONTAL 


HORIZONTAL 

TO 

VERTICAL 


VERTICAL 

TO 

HORIZONTAL 


CAST IRON 
HUB 

& 
SPIGOT 

CAST IRON 
NO-HUB 


long sweep 


sanitary tee 


eighth bend & wye 


short sweep 


eighth bend & wye (2) 


combination wye & eighth bend 


wye 


combination wye & eighth bend 


long sweep 


combination wye & eighth bend 


long sweep 


short sweep 3" or larger 


fifth bend (72-deg) 


short sweep 


quarter bend (1) 


sixth bend (60-deg) 


quarter bend 


short sweep (1) 


eighth bend (45-deg) 






sixteenth bend (22-1/2 deg) 


quarter bend 


CAST IRON 
DRAINAGE 

(threaded) 


extra long turn 90-deg elbow 


drainage tee 


long turn 90-deg TY 


long turn 90-deg elbow 


short turn 90-deg TY 


extra long turn 90-deg elbow 


long turn 45-deg elbow 


long turn 90-deg TY (2) 


long turn 90-deg elbow 


short turn 22-1/2 deg elbow 


45-deg elbow or 45-deg Y branch (2) 


short turn 90-deg elbow ( 1 ) 


short turn 11-1/4 deg elbow 


extra long turn 90-deg elbow 


45-deg elbow & 45-deg Y branch (1 ) 


long turn 90-deg TY 


long turn 90-deg elbow 




short turn 45-deg Y branch 


short turn 90-deg elbow 


short turn 90-deg elbow 




short turn 60-deg elbow 


short turn 45-deg elbow 


COPPER 
DWV 


DWV 90-deg long radius elbow 


DWV tee 


DWV long turn T-Y 


90-deg elbow - long radius 


DWV 90-deg sanitary tee 


45-deg elbow & DWV 45-deg Y 


DWV long turn T-Y 


DWV long turn T-Y (2) 


DWV 90-deg long radius elbow 


DWV 45-deg Y 


45-deg elbow & DWV 45-deg Y (2) 


90-deg elbow - long radius 


DWV 90-deg elbow 


DWV 90-deg long radius elbow 


DWV 90-deg elbow (1) 


DWV 45-deg elbow 


90-deg elbow - long radius 






DWV 90-deg elbow 


PLASTIC 
DWV 


90-deg long turn elbow 


sanitary tee 


long radius TY 


long sweep 1/4 bend 


fixture tee 


45-deg elbow and 45-deg wye 


60-deg elbow or 1/6 bend 


long radius TY (2) 


90-deg long turn elbow 


45-deg elbow or 1/8 bend 


45-deg elbow & DWV 45-deg Y (2) 


90-deg elbow or 1/4 bend (1) 


22-1/2 deg elbow or 1/16 bend 


90-deg long turn elbow 




long radius TY 


90-deg elbow or 1 14 bend 


45-deg wye 




90-deg elbow or quarter bend 


STAINLESS 
STEEL 

push-fit 
DWV 


long sweep 


tee 


eighth bend & wye (2) 


wye 


sanitary tee 


combination wye & eighth bend 


combination wye & eighth bend 


eighth bend & wye (2) 


long sweep 


15-degree 1/24 bend 


combination wye & eighth bend 


90-degree 1/4 bend (1) 


22-1/2 degree 1/16 bend 


long sweep 




30-degree 1/12 bend 


90-deg 1/4 bend 


45-degree 1/8 bend 




90-deg 1/4 bend 



Footnotes for Table 2.3.1 

( 1 ) Short radius fittings shall not be permitted at the base of stacks. 

(2) Long radius fittings shall nqt be used to connect fixture trap arms to vertical drain and vent piping. 



32 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



2.4.2 Heel or Side-Inlet Bends 

A heel or side-inlet quarter bend shall not be used as a dry vent when the inlet is placed in a horizontal posi- 
tion or any similar arrangement of pipe or fittings producing a similar effect. 

EXCEPTION: When the entire fitting is part of a dry vent arrangement system the heel or side-inlet bend 
shall be acceptable. 

2.4.3 Obstruction to Flow 

a. No fitting, connection, device, or method of installation that obstructs or retards the flow of water, 
wastes, sewage, or air in the drainage or venting systems in an amount greater than the normal frictional 
resistance to flow, shall be used unless it is indicated as acceptable in this Code. 

b. 4x3 closet bends and 4x3 closet flanges shall not be considered as obstructions to flow. 

2.4.4 Prohibited Joints 

Cement mortar joints are prohibited. 

EXCEPTION: When used for repairs and/or when used for connections to existing lines constructed with 

such joints. 

2.5 HEALTH AND SAFETY 

Where a health or safety hazard is found to exist on a premise, the owner or his agent shall be required to make 
such corrections as may be necessary to abate such nuisance, and bring the plumbing installation within the provi- 
sions of this Code. 

2.6 TRENCHING, BEDDING, TUNNELING AND BACKFILLING 

2.6.1 Trenching and Bedding 

a. Trenching and excavation for the installation of underground piping shall be performed in compliance 
with occupational safety and health requirements. Trenches shall be of sufficient width to permit proper 
installation of the pipe. Where shoring is required, additional allowance shall be made in the width of the 
trench to provide adequate clearance. 

b. A firm, stable, uniform bedding shall be provided under the pipe for continuous support. Bell holes shall 
be provided for joints in bell and spigot pipe and for other joints requiring such clearance. Blocking shall not 
be used to support the pipe. 

c. The trench bottom may provide the required bedding when adequate soil conditions exist and when ex- 
cavated to the proper depth and grade. Where trenches are excavated to depths below the bottom of the pipe, 
bedding shall be added beneath the pipe as required. Such bedding shall be of clean sand, gravel, or similar 
select material that is compacted sufficiently to provide the support required under 2.6.1.b. 

d. Where rock is encountered in trenching, it shall be removed to a depth of not less than 6 inches below 
the bottom of the pipe and bedding shall be added as required under 2. 6. I.e. The pipe shall not rest on rock at 
any point, including joints. 

2.6.2 Side-fill 

The haunch areas adjacent to the pipe between the bottom of the pipe and its horizontal centerline shall be 
filled with a clean coarse-grain material such as sand, gravel, or soil. Such side-fill shall be placed by hand, 
extending to the sides of the trench, and be compacted to provide lateral support for the pipe. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code ~ 33 



2.6.3 Initial Backfill 

After installation of the side-fill, the trench shall be backfilled to a level not less than 2 feet above the top 
of the pipe. Backfill material shall be sand, gravel, or loose soil that is free of rocks and debris. Maximum 
particle size shall be 1-1/2 inches. Backfill shall be placed in not more than 6-inch layers, each tamped and 
compacted. Heavy compacting equipment shall not be used for the initial backfill. 

2.6.4 Final Backfill 

The trench shall be backfilled from the top of the compacted initial backfill to finish grade using suitable 
material. Heavy compacting equipment may be used for the final backfill. 

2.6.5 Tunneling 

When pipe is installed in a dug or bored earth tunnel, the space around the pipe between the pipe and the wall 
of the tunnel shall be completely filled with packed concrete or grout. When pipe is installed in a jacked-in- 
place conduit or sleeve, the space around the pipe between the pipe and the inside of the conduit or sleeve 
shall be sealed in an approved manner in accordance with Section 2.12.d. 

2.6.6 Underground Plastic Pipe 

a. Underground plastic pipe shall be installed in accordance with the requirements of Section 2.6. 
EXCEPTIONS: 

(1) The maximum particle size in the side-fill and initial backfill shall be not more than 1/2-inch for pipe 
6" size and smaller, and 3/4-inch for pipe 8" and larger. 

(2) For water service piping, refer to ASTM D2774, Standard Practice for Underground Installation of 
Thermoplastic Pressure Piping. 

(3) For gravity-flow drainage pipe, refer to ASTM D2321, Underground Installation of Thermoplastic 
Pipe for Sewers and Other Gravity-flow Applications. 

b. An insulated copper tracer wire or other approved conductor shall be installed adjacent to underground 
non-metallic water service piping and non-metallic force mains, to facilitate finding. One end shall be 
brought above ground inside or outside the building wall. The tracer wire for the water service shall origi- 
nate at the curb valve required in Section 1 0. 12. 1 . The tracer wire for the force main shall originate at the 
final point of disposal. The tracer wire shall not be less than 18 AWG insulated. The insulation shall not be 
yellow in color. 

2.6.7 Underground Copper Piping 

Underground copper piping shall be installed in accordance with the requirements of Section 2.6. 
EXCEPTION: The maximum particle size in the side-fill and initial backfill shall be not more than 1/2-inch 
for pipe 6" size and smaller, and 3/4-inch for pipe 8" and larger. 

2.6.8 Safety Precautions 

Rules and regulations pertaining to safety and protection of workers, other persons in the vicinity, and neigh- 
boring property shall be adhered to where trenching or similar operations are being conducted. 

2.6.9 Supervision 

Where excavation, bedding or backfilling are performed by persons other than the installer of the under- 
ground piping, the pipe installer shall supervise the bedding, side-fill, and initial backfill, and shall be respon- 
sible for its conformance to this Code. 



34 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



2.6.10 Trenchless Pipe Replacement Systems 

Trenchless replacement of water and sewer piping shall be performed using equipment and procedures rec- 
ommended by the equipment manufacturer. Where underground piping beneath paved surfaces or concrete 
floor slabs is replaced by this method, the manufacturer's recommendations for the specific conditions shall 
be used. Approved mechanical couplings shall be used to make the connections between new and existing 
piping. 

2.7 SAFETY 

Any part of a building or premise that is changed, altered, or required to be replaced as a result of the installation, 
alteration, renovation, or replacement of a plumbing system, or any part thereof, shall be left in a safe, non-haz- 
ardous condition. 

2.8 INSTALLATION PRACTICES 

Plumbing systems shall be installed in a manner conforming to this Code and industry installation standards. 

2.9 PROTECTION OF PIPES 

2.9.1 Breakage 

Pipes passing under or through foundation walls shall be protected from breakage. 

2.9.2 Corrosion 

Pipe subject to corrosion by passing through or under corrosive fill, such as, but not limited to, cinders, con- 
crete, or other corrosive material, shall be protected against external corrosion by protective coating, wrap- 
ping, or other means that will resist such corrosion. 

2.9.3 Cutting or Notching 

Any structural member weakened or impaired by cutting, notching, or otherwise, shall be reinforced, repaired 
or replaced, so as to be left in a safe structural condition in accordance with the requirements of the Building 
Code or as required by the proper Authority Having Jurisdiction. 

2.9.4 Penetration 

a. Plastic and copper piping run through framing members to within one inch of the edge of the framing 
shall be protected by steel nail plates not less than 1 8 gauge. Where such piping penetrates top plates or sole 
plates of the framing, the nail plate shall extend at least two inches below top plates and two inches above 
sole plates. 

b. Where plastic and copper piping runs through metal framing members, it shall be protected from abra- 
sion caused by expansion and contraction of the piping or movement of the framing. 

2.10 EXCLUSION OF MATERIALS DETRIMENTAL TO THE SEWAGE 
SYSTEM 

2.10.1 General 

No material shall be deposited into a building drainage system or sewer that would or could either obstruct, 
damage, or overload such system; that could interfere with the normal operation of sewage treatment pro- 
cesses; or that could be hazardous to people or property. This provision shall not prohibit the installation of 
special waste systems when approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 35 



2.10.2 Industrial Wastes 

Waste products from manufacturing or industrial operations shall not be introduced into the public sewer 
system until it has been determined by the Authority Having Jurisdiction that the introduction thereof will not 
cause damage to the public sewer system or interfere with the functioning of the sewage treatment plant. 

2.11 PIPING MATERIALS EXPOSED WITHIN PLENUMS: 

All piping materials exposed within plenums shall comply with the provisions of other applicable Codes. 

2.12 SLEEVES 

a. All piping passing through concrete walls, floors, slabs, and masonry walls shall be provided with 
sleeves for protection. 

EXCEPTION: Sleeves shall not be required for pipes passing through drilled or bored holes. Such holes 
shall provide 1/2 inch minimum clearance around the pipe and any thermal insulation. 

b. Sleeves shall be sized so there is a minimum of 1/2-inch clearance around the pipe and/or insulation. 

c. Piping through concrete or masonry walls shall not be subject to any load from building construction. 

d. The annular space between sleeves and pipes shall be filled or tightly caulked with coal tar, asphaltum 
compound, lead, or other material found equally effective and approved as such by the Authority Having 
Jurisdiction. 

e. All penetrations of construction required to have a fire resistance rating shall be protected in accordance 
with the applicable building regulations. 

2.13 OPENINGS FOR PIPING 

a. Openings for plumbing piping shall be sealed as required to maintain the integrity of the wall, floor, 
ceiling, or roof that has been penetrated. 

b. Collars or escutcheon plates shall be provided to cover the openings around pipes where the piping 
penetrates walls, floors, or ceilings in finished areas that are exposed to view. 

2.14 USED MATERIAL OR EQUIPMENT 

Used plumbing material or equipment that does not conform to the standards and regulations set forth in this Code 
shall not be installed in any plumbing system. 

2.15 CONDEMNED EQUIPMENT 

Any plumbing equipment condemned by the Authority Having Jurisdiction because of wear, damage, defects or 
sanitary hazards, shall not be used for plumbing purposes. 

2.16 FREEZING OR OVERHEATING 

a. The plumbing system shall be protected from freezing or overheating. The following conditions shall be 
met: 

1 . Water service piping shall be installed below recorded frost lines. Minimum earth cover above the top of 
the pipe shall be inches. 

2. Minimum earth cover above the top of building sewers that connect to public sewage systems shall be 

inches. Minimum earth cover above the top of building sewers that connect to individual sewage disposal 
systems shall be inches. 

3. In systems that are used seasonally water piping shall have provisions to be drained. 

4. Piping shall be installed so that the contents will not be heated due to close proximity to any heat source 
or from direct solar radiation. 

5. In areas with seasonal freezing outdoor temperatures, all drain piping and water piping installed in exte- 
rior walls, attics, and other areas exposed to outdoor temperatures shall be protected from freezing. In heated 
spaces, the piping shall be installed on the heated side of the building insulation. 



36 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



2.17 PROTECTING FOOTINGS 

Trenching parallel to and below the bottom of footings or walls shall not penetrate a 45° plane extending outward 
from the bottom corner of the footing or wall, unless the soil type is approved by the Authority Having Jurisdic- 
tion for a different angle of repose. 

2.18 CONNECTIONS TO PLUMBING SYSTEMS REQUIRED 

Every plumbing fixture, drain, appliance, or appurtenance thereto that is to receive or discharge any liquid waste 
or sewage shall discharge to the sanitary drainage system of the building in accordance with the requirements of 
this Code. 

2.19 CONNECTION TO WATER AND SEWER SYSTEMS 

2.19.1 Availability of Public Water and Sewer 

The water distribution and drainage systems of any building in which plumbing fixtures are installed shall 
be connected to a public water supply and sewer system respectively if the public water supply and/or public 

sewer is within feet of any property line of the premises, or other reasonable distance as determined by 

the Authority Having Jurisdiction. 

2.19.2 Private Systems 

Where either a public water supply or sewer system, or both, are not available, a private individual water 
supply or individual sewage disposal system, or both, shall be provided, and the water distribution system 
and drainage system shall be connected thereto. Such private systems shall meet the standards for installation 
and use established by the Health Department or other agency having jurisdiction. (See Chapters 16 and 17.) 

2.20 WASHROOM & TOILET ROOM REQUIREMENTS 

2.20.1 Light and Ventilation 

Light and ventilation shall be provided as required by other applicable codes. 

2.20.2 Location of Piping and Fixtures 

Piping, fixtures, or equipment shall not be located in such a manner as to interfere with the normal operation 
of windows, doors, or other exit openings. 

2.21 PIPING MEASUREMENTS 

Except where otherwise specified in this Code, all measurements shall be made to the center lines of the pipes. 

2.22 WATER CLOSET CONNECTIONS 

a.Three-inch bends may be used on water closets or similar connections provided a 4-inch by 3-inch flange 
is installed to receive the closet fixture horn, 
b. Four-inch by three-inch closet bends shall be permitted. 

2.23 DEAD ENDS 

a. In the installation or removal of any part of a drainage or vent system, dead ends shall be avoided. 
EXCEPTION: Where necessary to extend a cleanout so as to be accessible. 

b. In the installation or removal of any part of a potable water system, dead ends shall be avoided. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 37 



2.24 TOILET FACILITIES FOR CONSTRUCTION WORKERS 

Suitable toilet facilities shall be provided and maintained in a sanitary condition for the use by workers during 
construction. Non-sewer type toilet facilities for construction workers shall conform to ANSI Z4.3. 

2.25 FOOD HANDLING ESTABLISHMENTS AND FOOD HANDLING AREAS 
WITHIN BUILDINGS 

2.25.1 General Area Protection 

a. All food and drink, while being stored, prepared, displayed, served, or sold in food handling establish- 
ments and food handling areas in buildings shall be protected against contamination from drainage overflow, 
flooding, backflow, or leakage. 

EXCEPTION: Seating areas. 

b. Food or drink shall not be stored, prepared or displayed beneath overhead drain or vent piping unless 
such pipes are protected against leakage or condensation reaching the food or drink. 

c. In new or remodeled construction, drain and vent piping shall not be located above food preparation, 
storage, display, or serving areas where possible. 

EXCEPTION: Seating areas. 

d. Where drain and vent piping must be installed above such areas, the amount of piping and the number of 
pipe joints shall be minimized. 

e. Where plumbing fixtures are located above such areas, all openings through floors, including those for 
piping, cleanouts, and other plumbing work shall be provided with sleeves securely bonded to the floor con- 
struction and projecting not less than 3/4 inches above the top of the finished floor with the space between the 
penetration and the sleeve sealed waterproof. 

f. Except for bathtubs or whirlpool baths, plumbing fixtures installed on the floor above such areas shall be 
the wall-mounted or back-outlet type. 

g. Floor drains and shower drains installed on the floor above such areas shall be flashed and equipped with 
integral seepage pans. 

h. The waste and overflow connections for bathtubs and whirlpool baths installed on the floor above such 
areas shall be made above the floor and piped through a single sleeved floor opening to the trap below the 
floor. No floor openings, other than the sleeve for the waste pipe to the fixture trap, shall be permitted. 

i. Drain and vent piping above such areas shall be subjected to a standing water test of not less than 25 feet 
or lOpsig. 

j. Piping subject to operation at temperatures that may cause condensation on the external surfaces of the 
pipe shall be thermally insulated to prevent condensation. 

k. Where drain and vent piping is installed above finished ceilings in such areas, the ceiling panels shall be 
the removable type or sufficient access panels shall be provided to permit complete inspection of the piping. 

2.25.2 Food Service Equipment and Fixtures 

a. All food and/or drink service equipment, including sinks, dishwashers, ice machines, brewers, and 
dispensers, shall be indirectly connected to the drainage system through an air gap or air break in accordance 
with Chapter 9. 

EXCEPTION: If a properly vented floor drain is installed adjacent to a food service fixture that is properly 
trapped and vented, the food service fixture shall be permitted to connect directly to the drainage system on 
the sewer side of the floor drain. 



38 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



b. Where multi-compartment sinks are drained indirectly, each compartment shall discharge separately into 
a floor sink that is capable of draining all of the compartments simultaneously. 

2.25.3 Exposed Food Products 

Wherever unwrapped or unpacked food products are prepared, displayed, or sold for human consumption, all 
fixtures, equipment, devices, utensils, tableware, and apparatus involved in the food service process shall be 
protected against backflow, cross-connection, and flooding from the drainage system by indirect connections 
to the drainage system through air gaps in accordance with Chapter 9. 

2.25.4 Food Display Equipment 

Display cases for refrigerated and frozen food and drink products and other equipment and appliances that 
produce clear water waste shall be indirectly connected to the drainage system through an air gap or air break 
in accordance with Chapter 9. 

2.25.5 Floor Sinks 

Floor sinks in food handling areas shall be of the sanitary design with smooth, corrosion-resistant surfaces 
that can be readily cleaned. 

2.26 ELEVATOR SUMP PITS 

Provisions for draining elevator sump pits shall be in accordance with the requirements of the Adopting 
Agency. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 3" 



Blank Page 



40 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Chapter 3 



Materials 



3.1 MATERIALS 



3.1.1 Minimum Standards 

The standards cited in this chapter shall control all materials, systems, and equipment used in the construc- 
tion, installation, alteration, repair, or replacement of plumbing or drainage systems or parts thereof. 
EXCEPTIONS: 

(1) The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall allow the extension, addition to or relocation of existing water, 
soil, waste, drainage and vent pipes with materials of like grade or quality as permitted in Section 3.12.2. 

(2) Materials not covered by the standards cited in this chapter may be used with the approval of the Au- 
thority Having Jurisdiction as permitted in Section 3.12.2. 

3.1.2 General Requirements 

a. Materials, fixtures, or equipment used in the installation, repair or alteration of any plumbing system 
shall conform at least to the standards listed in this chapter, except as otherwise approved by the Authority 
Having Jurisdiction under the authority contained in Section 3.12. 

b. Materials installed in plumbing systems shall be handled and installed as to avoid damage so that the 
quality of the material will not be impaired. 

c. No defective or damaged materials, equipment or apparatus shall be installed or maintained. (See Sec- 
tions 2.14 and 2.15) 

d. All materials used shall be installed in strict accordance with the standards under which the materials are 
accepted and approved, including the appendices of the standards, and in strict accordance with the manufac- 
turer's instructions. Where the provisions of material standards or manufacturer's instructions conflict with 
the requirements of this Code, this Code shall prevail. 

e. Marking of cast iron soil pipe and fittings: Each length of cast iron soil pipe and fittings used in the 
plumbing system shall be marked by the manufacturer's name or registered trademark to enable the end user 
to readily identify the manufacturer. The marking shall be done during the time of manufacture. Field mark- 
ing shall not be permitted. 

f. Certification of cast iron soil pipe and fittings: Where cast iron soil pipe and fittings are being installed, 
the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall be furnished, when requested, certification by the manufacturer of 
compliance to the product standards. Resellers of cast iron soil pipe and fittings manufactured by others and 
using third party certifications or inspections to support proof of compliance to the product standard shall, in 
addition to the manufacturer's certification, provide, when requested, copies of the third party reports to the 
Authority Having Jurisdiction. 

3.1.3 Standards Applicable to Plumbing Materials 

A material shall be considered approved if it is listed or certified by a recognized certification body as 
complying with one or more of the standards cited in Table 3.1.3, and in the case of plastic pipe, fittings and 
solvent cement also NSF 14. Materials not listed in Table 3.1.3 shall be used only as provided for in Section 
3.12.2 or as permitted elsewhere in this Code. 

Note: Abbreviations in Table 3. 1 .3 refer to the following organizations: 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



41 



AHAM Association of Home Appliance 
Manufacturers 

1 1 1 1 1 9th Street, NW - Suite 402 
Washington, DC 20036 USA 
tel: 1-202-872-5955 
fax: 1-202-872-9354 

ANSI American National Standards Institute 

25 West 43rd Street - 4th Floor 
New York, NY 10036 USA 
tel: 1-212-642-4900 
fax:1-212-398-0023 

ASME ASME International 
Three Park Avenue 
New York, NY 10016-5990 USA 
tel: 1-800-843-2763 
fax: 1-212-591-7674 

ASSE ASSE International 

901 Canterbury Road - Suite A 
Westlake, OH 44145 USA 
tel: 1-440-835-3040 
fax: 1-440-835-3488 

ASTM ASTM International 

100 Barr Harbor Drive - PO Box C700 
West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959 USA 
tel: 1-610-832-9585 
fax: 1-610-832-9555 

AWWA American Water Works Association 
6666 W Quincy Avenue 
Denver, CO 80235 USA 
tel: 1-800-926-7337 
fax: 1-303-347-0804 

CISPI Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute 

5959 Shallowford Road - Suite 419 
Chattanooga, TN 37421 USA 
tel: 1-423-892-0137 
fax: 1-423-892-0817 

CSA Canadian Standards Association 

5060 Spectrum Way 
Mississauga, ON L4W 5N6 CANADA 
tel: 1-800-463-6727 
fax: 1-416-747-2473 



FM FM Global 

1301 Atwood Avenue - PO Box 7500 
Johnston, RI 02919 USA 
tel: 1-401-275-3000 
fax: 1-401-275-3029 

IAPMO International Association of 

Plumbing and Mechanical Officials 
5001 E. Philadelphia Street 
Ontario, CA 91761 USA 
tel: 1-909-472-4100 
fax: 1-909-472-4150 

ISEA International Safety Equipment 

Association 
1901 N.Moore Street 
Arlington, VA 22209-1762 USA 
tel: 1-703-525-1695 
fax: 1-703-528-2148 

MSS Manufacturers Standardization Society 

127 Park Street NE 
Vienna, VA 22180 USA 
tel: 1-703-281-6613 
fax: 1-703-281-6671 

NFPA National Fire Protection Association 

1 Batterymarch Park 
Quincy, MA 02169-7471 USA 
tel: 1-617-770-3000 
fax: 1-617-770-0700 

NSF NSF International 

789 N. Dixboro Road 

Ann Arbor, MI 48113-0140 USA 

tel: 1-800-673-6275 

fax: 1-734-769-0109 

PDI Plumbing & Drainage Institute 

800 Turnpike Street - Suite 300 
North Andover, MA 01845 USA 
tel: 1-800-589-8956 
fax: 1-978-557-0721 

UL Underwriters Laboratories Inc. 

333 Pfingsten Road 
Northbrook, IL 60062-2096 USA 
tel: 1-847-272-8800 
fax: 1-847-272-8129 



42 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



3.1.4 Identification of Materials 

Materials shall be identified as provided in the standard to which they conform. 

3.2 SPECIAL MATERIALS 

3.2.1 Miscellaneous Materials 

Sheet and tubular copper and brass for the following uses shall be not less than: 

a. General use - 12 oz. per square foot 

b. Flashing for vent pipes - 8 oz. per square foot 

c. Fixture traps and trap arms - 17 gauge or ASME Al 18.2/CSAB 125.2 

d. Fixture tailpieces - 20 gauge or ASME A118.2/CSAB125.2 

e. Tailpieces with dishwasher connections - 20 gauge or ASME A118.2/CSAB125.2 

f. Continuous wastes - 20 gauge or ASME A118.2/CSAB125.2 

3.2.2 Lead 

See Table 3.1.3. Sheet lead shall be not less than the following: 

a. Shower pans— not less than 4 pounds per square foot (psf) and be coated with an asphalt paint or 
equivalent. 

b. Flashings of vent terminals — not less than 3 pounds per square foot (psf). 

c. Lead bends and lead traps shall not be less than 1/8" wall thickness. 

3.2.3 Plastic 

a. Trap and tailpiece fittings — minimum 0.062" wall thickness. 

b. Piping — see specific application — Sections 3.4 to 3.11. 

c. Shower pans — approved plastic sheeting material. 

33 FITTINGS, FIXTURES, APPLIANCES & APPURTENANCES 

3.3.1 Drainage Fittings 

See Sections 2.3 and 2.4 for fittings and connections in drainage systems. 

3.3.2 Cleanout Plugs and Caps 

a. Cleanout plugs shall be of brass, plastic, stainless steel, or other approved materials and shall have 
raised or countersunk square heads, except that where raised heads will cause a tripping hazard, countersunk 
heads shall be used. 

b. Cleanout caps shall be of brass, plastic, reinforced neoprene, cast-iron, or other approved material and 
shall be readily removable. 

3.3.3 Fixtures 

a. Plumbing fixtures shall be constructed from approved materials having smooth, non-absorbent surfaces 
and be free from defects, and except as permitted elsewhere in this Code, shall conform to the standards 
cited in Table 3. 1.3. 

b. Materials for special use fixtures not otherwise covered in this Code shall be constructed of materials 
especially suited to the use for which the fixture is intended. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code "^~ ™^~' ~~^^"" ~ .-> 



3.3.4 Floor Flanges and Mounting Bolts 

a. Floor flanges for water closets or similar fixtures shall be not less than 1/8" thick for brass, 1/4" thick and 
not less than 1-1/2" caulking depth for cast-iron or galvanized malleable iron. Approved copper and plastic 
flanges may be used. 

b. If of hard lead, they shall weigh not less than 1 lb. 9 oz. and be composed of lead alloy with not less than 
7.75 percent antimony by weight. Flanges shall be soldered to lead bends or shall be caulked, soldered, or 
threaded into other metal. 

c. Closet screws and bolts shall be corrosion-resisting. 

d. Connections between drainage piping and floor outlet water closets shall be made by means of an ap- 
proved flange that is attached to the drainage piping in accordance with the provisions of this chapter. The 
floor flange shall be set on and securely anchored to the finished floor. 

3.3.5 Flush Pipes and Fittings 

Flush pipes and fittings shall be of nonferrous material. When of brass or copper tube, the material shall be at 
least 0.0313" in thickness (No. 20 U.S. gauge). 

3.3.6 Plumbing Supply Fittings 

Plumbing supply fittings covered under the scope of NSF 61 shall comply with the requirements of NSF 61 . 

3.3.7 Interceptors, Separators, Grease Recovery Devices 

Interceptors, separators, and grease recovery devices shall meet the requirements of Chapter 6. 

3.3.8 Pressure Tanks and Vessels 

a. Hot water storage tanks shall meet construction requirements of ASME, CSA, or UL as appropriate. 

(See Table 3.1.3) 

b. Storage tanks less in volume than those requirements specified by ASME shall be of durable materials 
and constructed to withstand 125 p.s.i. with a safety factor of 2. 

3.3.9 Roof Drains 

Roof drains shall be of cast iron, copper, lead, plastic, or other approved corrosion-resisting materials. 

3.3.10 Safety Devices for Pressure Tanks 

Safety devices shall meet the requirements of the American National Standards Institute, American Society 
of Mechanical Engineers, or the Underwriters Laboratories. Listing by Underwriters Laboratories, Canadian 
Standards Association, or National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors shall constitute evidence 
of conformance with these standards. Where a device is not listed by any of these organizations, it shall have 
certification by an approved laboratory as having met these requirements. (See Section 10.16.) 

3.3.11 Septic Tanks 

a. Plans for all septic tanks shall be submitted to the Authority Having Jurisdiction for approval. Such 
plans shall show all dimensions, reinforcing, structural calculations and such other pertinent data as may be 
required. 

b. Septic tanks shall be constructed of sound durable materials, not subject to excessive corrosion or decay 
and shall be watertight. (See Sections 16.6.5 and 16.6.6.) 

3.3.12 Carriers and Supports 

Carriers and supports for plumbing fixtures shall comply with ASME Al 12.6.1, ASME Al 12.6.2 or ASME 
A112.19.12. 



44 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



3.4 POTABLE WATER PIPING 

3.4.1 Plastic Piping 

Plastic piping materials used for the conveyance of potable water shall comply with NSF 14 and be marked 
accordingly. 

3.4.2 Water Service Piping 

Water service pipe and pipe fittings to the point of entrance into the building through a foundation wall or 
floor shall be of materials listed in Table 3.4 and shall be water pressure rated not less than 160 psi at 73 deg 
F. See Table 3.4.2. Water service pipe and pipe fittings shall comply with NSF 61 . 

3.4.3 Water Distribution Piping 

Water piping for the distribution of hot or cold water within buildings shall be of material listed in Table 3.4, 
and shall be water pressure rated for not less than 100 psi at 180 deg F and 160 psi at 73 deg F. Plastic pip- 
ing used for hot water distribution shall be installed in accordance with the requirements of Section 10.15.8. 
Water distribution pipe and pipe fittings shall comply with NSF 61. 

NOTE: The working pressure rating of certain approved plastic piping materials varies depending on the pipe 
size, material composition, wall thickness, and methods of joining. See Table 3.4.3. 

3.4.4 Fittings 

Fittings for water supply piping shall be compatible with the pipe material used. 

3.4.5 Material Ratings and Installation 

a. Piping used for domestic water shall be suitable for the maximum temperature, pressure, and velocity 
that may be encountered, including temporary increases and surges. 

b. Relief valve temperature and pressure relief settings shall not exceed the pipe, tubing or fitting manufac- 
turer's recommendations. 

c. Pipe and fittings shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and the 
applicable material standards, recognizing any limitations in use. 

3.4.6 Limit on Lead Content 

a. Materials used in the potable water supply system, including faucets and valves, shall not contain more 
than 8 percent lead. 

b. Drinking water system components shall comply with the lead leachate requirements as specified for 
covered products of NSF International 61. 

3.4.7 Shutoff Valves 

All gate valves, ball valves, butterfly valves, globe valves, and other shutoff valves in water service piping 
and water distribution piping shall comply with the requirements of NSF 61 

3.5 SANITARY DRAINAGE PIPING 

3.5.1 Aboveground Piping - Soil, Waste and Indirect Waste 

Aboveground soil and waste piping within buildings shall be of materials listed in Table 3.5. 

3.5.2 Underground Building Sanitary Drains 

Underground building drains and other underground sanitary drain and waste piping within buildings shall be 
of materials listed in Table 3.5. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 45 



3.5.3 Building Sanitary Sewer 

Sanitary sewer piping outside of buildings shall be of materials listed in Table 3.5. Joints shall be watertight 
and root proof. 

3.5.4 Plastic Piping 

a. Pipe and fittings classified by standard dimension ratio that are underground outside of buildings shall 
be SDR 35 or heavier (lower SDR number). Pipe and fittings within buildings shall be SDR 26 or heavier 
(lower SDR number). 

b. Pipe and fittings classified by pipe stiffness that are underground outside of the buildings shall be PS-46 
or heavier (higher PS number). Pipe and fittings within buildings shall be PS- 100 minimum. 

3.5.5 Vitrified Clay Pipe 

Vitrified clay pipe shall be joined using compression joints or couplings. Vitrified clay pipe installed under- 
ground within buildings shall be extra strength and shall have 12" minimum earth cover. 

3.5.6 Fittings 

Fittings in drainage systems shall be compatible with the pipe used and shall have no ledges, shoulders, or 
reductions that can retard or obstruct flow. Threaded fittings shall be the recessed drainage type. 

3.6 VENT PIPING 

3.6.1 Aboveground Piping 

Aboveground vent piping in buildings serving sanitary, waste, or storm drainage systems shall be of materi- 
als listed in Table 3.6. 

3.6.2 Underground Piping 

Vent piping installed underground shall be of materials listed in Table 3.6. 

3.6.3 Plastic Piping 

a. Pipe and fittings classified by standard dimension ratio that are underground outside of buildings shall be 
SDR 35 or heavier (lower SDR number). Pipe and fittings within buildings shall be SDR 26 or heavier (lower 
SDR number). 

b. Pipe and fittings classified by pipe stiffness that are underground outside of buildings shall be PS-46 or 
heavier (higher PS number). Pipe and fittings within buildings shall be PS-100 minimum. 

3.6.4 Fittings 

Fittings in vent piping shall be compatible with the pipe material used. Where threaded pipe is used, fittings 
shall be either the drainage or pressure type, galvanized or black. 

3.7 STORM DRAINAGE PIPING 

3.7.1 Reserved 

3.7.2 Interior Conductors 

Stormwater drain piping installed aboveground in buildings shall be of materials listed in Table 3.7. 



46 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



3.7.3 Underground Building Storm Drains 

Underground building storm drains and other underground stormwater piping within buildings shall be of 
materials listed in Table 3.7. 

3.7.4 Building Storm Sewer 

Building storm sewer piping outside of buildings shall be of materials listed in Table 3.7. 

3.7.5 Plastic Piping 

a. Pipe and fittings classified by standard dimension ratio that are underground outside of buildings shall be 
SDR 35 or heavier (lower SDR number). Pipe and fittings within buildings shall be SDR 26 or heavier (lower 
SDR number), except that SDR 35 fittings shall be permitted. 

b. Pipe and fittings classified by pipe stiffness that are underground outside of buildings shall be PS-46 or 
heavier (higher PS number). Pipe and fittings within buildings shall be PS- 100 minimum. 

3.7.6 Vitrified Clay Pipe 

Vitrified clay pipe shall be joined using compression joints or couplings. Vitrified clay pipe installed under- 
ground within buildings shall be extra strength and shall have 12" minimum earth cover. 

3.7.7 Fittings 

Fittings in drainage systems shall be compatible with the pipe used and shall have no ledges, shoulders, or 
reductions that can retard or obstruct flow. Threaded fittings shall be the recessed drainage type. 

3.8 FOUNDATION DRAINS AND SUBSOIL DRAINAGE 

Piping for foundation drains and other subsoil drainage shall be of materials listed in Table 3.8. 

3.9 AIR CONDITIONING CONDENSATE DRAIN PIPING 

Indirect waste piping from air conditioning unit drains to the point of disposal shall be of a material approved for 
either potable water, sanitary drainage or storm drainage. 

3.10 CONDENSATE DRAINS FROM COMBUSTION PROCESSES 

Piping used to convey condensate from combustion processes (such as from flues and chimneys) shall conform to 
the equipment manufacturer's instructions. 

3.11 CHEMICAL WASTE PIPING SYSTEMS 

3.11.1 Where Required 

Drainage and vent piping systems for other than sanitary drainage shall be separate from building sanitary 
drainage and vent piping and shall be compatible with the wastes being handled. 

3.11.2 Drainage Piping 

Drainage piping materials, including the type of joints and methods of support, shall be listed by the manu- 
facturer as suitable for the wastes being handled. 

3.11.3 Vent Piping 

Vent piping for chemical wastes shall be the same as the drainage piping and shall be run separately to the 
outdoor air, independent from any vent piping for sanitary drainage. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 47 



3.11.4 Separate Systems 

Where separate chemical waste drainage systems are required to handle different chemical wastes, the drain- 
age and vent piping for each system shall also be separated. 

3.12 ALTERNATE MATERIALS AND METHODS 

3.12.1 Existing Buildings 

a. Plumbing work performed in existing buildings shall conform to the requirements of this Code, unless the 
Authority Having Jurisdiction finds that such conformance would result in an undue hardship. 

b. The Authority Having Jurisdiction may grant a variation to the extent necessary to relieve the undue 
nature of the hardship. 

c. A record, open to the public, shall be kept of each variation granted under this section. 

3.12.2 Approval 

a. The Authority Having Jurisdiction may approve the use of any material or method not expressly 
conforming to the requirements of this Code provided all of the following conditions are met: 

1 . The material or method is not expressly prohibited by this Code. 

2. The material or method is determined to be of such design or quality as to appear suitable for the pro- 
posed use. 

3. A record of such approval is kept and shall be available to the public. 

3.12.3 Tests 

When there is insufficient evidence to verify claims for alternate materials, the Authority Having Jurisdic- 
tion may require tests of compliance as proof of suitability. Such tests shall be made by an approved testing 
agency at the expense of the applicant. 

3.12.4 Test Procedure 

Tests shall be made in accordance with applicable standards; but in the absence of such standards, the Au- 
thority Having Jurisdiction shall specify the test procedure. 

3.12.5 Repeated Tests 

The Authority Having Jurisdiction may require tests to be repeated if, at any time, there is reason to believe 
that an alternate material no longer conforms to the requirements on which its approval was based. 



48 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Table 3.1.3 
STANDARDS FOR APPROVED PLUMBING MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT 



I. FERROUS PIPE AM) FITTINGS | 


1 


Hub & Spigot Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings: 


ASTM A74- 2006. 


2 


Hubless Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings: 


CISPI 301-2005, 
ASTMA888-2007a. 


3 


Ductile Iron Pressure Pipe: 


ASTM A377-2003, 
AWWA C 1 5 1 /A2 1 .5 1 -2002. 


4 


Ductile Iron and Gray Iron Fittings (3" and larger): 


AWWA C 1 1 0/A2 1 . 1 0-2003. 


5 


Cement Mortar Lining for Ductile-Iron Pipe and Fittings: 


AWWA C104/A2 1.4-2003. 


6 


Steel Pipe, Galvanized, Welded and Seamless: 


ASTMA53-2007. 


7 


Cast Iron Threaded Drainage Fittings: 


ASMEB16.12-1998(2006). 


8 


Gray Iron Threaded Fittings, Classes 125 and 250: 


ASMEB 16.4- 2006. 


9 


Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings, Class 150 and 300: 


ASMEB 16.3- 2006. 


10 


Ferrous Pipe Plugs, Bushings, and Locknuts with Pipe Threads: 


ASMEB16.14-1991. 


11 


Stainless Steel DWV Pipe and Fittings, Types 304 and 316L (3): 


ASMEA112.3. 1-2007. 


12 


Ferrous Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings (1/2" to 24"): 


ASMEB16.5-2003. 


13 


Ductile Iron Compact Fittings for Water Service: 


AWWA C 1 53/A2 1 .53-2006. 


II. NON-FERROUS METALLIC PIPE AND FITTINGS 


1 


Brass Pipe, Red, Seamless, Standard Sizes: 


ASTM B43- 1998 (2004). 


2 


Cast Bronze Threaded Fittings, Classes 125 & 250: 


ASMEB 16. 15-2006. 


3 


Cast Copper Alloy Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings 
Class 1 50, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1 500, 2500: 


ASMEB 16.24-2006. 


4 


Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Drainage Fittings - DWV: 


ASME B 16.23-2002 (2006). 


5 


Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings: 


ASMEB 16. 18-2001 (2005). 


6 


Copper Drainage Tube (DWV): 


ASTM B306-2002. 


7 


Copper Pipe, Seamless, Standard Sizes : 


ASTMB42-2002.el. 


8 


Copper Pipe, Threadless: 


ASTM B302-2007. 


9 


Copper Water Tube, Seamless (K, L, M): 


ASTM B88-2003. 


10 


Reserved 




11 


Wrought Copper and Copper Alloy Solder Joint Drainage Fittings, DWV: 


ASMEB 16.29-2007. 


12 


Wrought Copper and Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings: 


ASME B 16.22-2001 (2005). 


13 
14 


Reserved 




Reserved 




15 


Cast Copper Alloy Fittings for Flared Copper Tubes: 


ASMEB 16.26-2006. 


16 


Wrought Copper and Copper Alloy Braze - Joint Pressure Fittings: 


ASMEB 16.50-2001 (2008). 


17 


Push-Fit Fittings for Copper Water Tube: 


ASSE 1061-2006. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



49 



PART III. NON-METALLIC PIPE \ND FITTINGS 


1 


Reserved 




2 


Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Pressure Pipe 
Schedules 40 and 80 (1/8" to 12"): 


ASTMD1527-1999el (2005). 


3 


Reserved 




4 


Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Schedule 40 

Plastic Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe and Fittings (1-1/4" to 6"): 


ASTMD266 1-2008. 


5 


Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Schedule 40 Plastic 
Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe with a Cellular Core (1-1/4" to 6"): 


ASTM F628-2008. 


6 


Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Sewer Pipe and Fittings 
(3" to 12"): 


ASTMD275 1-2005. 


7 


Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) and Poly (Vinyl Chloride) 
(PVC) Composite Sewer Pipe (6" to 15"): 


ASTMD2680-2001. 


8 


Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pressure Pipe for Water (4" to 12"): 


AWWAC900-2007. 


9 


Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe 
Schedule 40, 80, and 120 (1/8" to 24"): 


ASTM D 1785-2006. 


10 


Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, 
Schedule 40, socket-type (1/8" to 8"): 


ASTM D2466-2006. 


11 


Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, 
Schedule 80, socket-type (1/8" to 8"): 


ASTM D2467-2006. 


12 


Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, 
Schedule 80, threaded (1/8" to 8"): 


ASTM D2464-2006. 


13 


Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pressure-Rated Pipe 
SDR Series (1/8" to 36"): 


ASTMD2241-2005. 


14 


Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Drain, Waste, and Vent 
Pipe and Fittings (1-1/4" to 12"): 


ASTM D2665-2008. 


15 


Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Schedule 40 Drainage and 
DWV Fabricated Fittings: 


ASTM F 1866-2007. 


16 


3.25" Outside Diameter Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic 
Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe and Fittings: 


ASTMD2949-2001ael. 


17 


Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Sewer Pipe and Fittings (2" to 6"): 


ASTM D2729-2003. 


18 


Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Gasketed Sewer Fittings (4" to 27"): 


ASTM F1336-2007. 


19 


Coextruded Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe with a 
Cellular Core; Non-Pressure Uses, IPS Sched 40 (1-1/4" to 12"): 


ASTM F89 1-2007. 


20 


Coextruded Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe with a Cellular 
Core; Non-Pressure Uses, PS and Sewer/Drain Series (2" to 18"): 


ASTM F89 1-2007. 


21 


Reserved 




22 


Type PSM Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Sewer Pipe and Fittings 
(4" to 15"): 


ASTM D3034-2006. 


23 


Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Hot and Cold 
Water Distribution Systems (3/8" to 2"): 


ASTM D2846 - 2006. 


24 


Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe 
SDR-PR(l/4"tol2"): 


ASTM F442- 1999 (2005). 


25 


Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe 
Schedules 40 and 80 (1/4" to 12"): 


ASTMF441-2002. 



50 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



PARI 'III. NON-MiaAlXICi'II'Ii AND HTTINGS (continued) 


26 


Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings 
Schedule 80, socket-type (1/4" to 8"): 


ASTM F439-2006. 


27 


Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings 
Schedule 80, threaded (1/4" to 6"): 


ASTM F437-2006. 


28 


Polyethylene (PE) Pressure Pipe and Tubing for Water Service 
(1/2" to 3"): 


AWWAC901-2002. 


29 


Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR) Based on Controlled 
Outside Diameter (1/2" to 6"): 


ASTM D3035-2008. 


30 


Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe (SIDR-PR) Based on Controlled 
Inside Diameter (1/2" to 6"): 


ASTMD2239-2003. 


31 


Polyethylene of Raised Temperature (PE-RT) SDR 9 Tubing 


ASTM F2623-2008 


32 


Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40 and 80 
Based on Outside Diameter (1/2" to 12"): 


ASTMD2447-2003. 


33 


Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Tubing (1/2" to 2"): 


ASTMD2737-2003. 


34 


Butt Heat Fusion Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe Fittings 
for Polyethylene Plastic Pipe and Tubing (1/2" to 48"): 


ASTM D326 1-2003. 


35 


Plastic Insert Fittings for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe 
(1/2" to 4"): 


ASTM D2609-2002. 


36 


Corrugated Polyethylene (PE) Tubing and Fittings (3" to 6"): 


ASTM F405-2005. 


37 


Smooth Wall Polyethylene (PE) Pipe for use in Drainage and 
Waste Disposal Absorption Fields (3" to 6"): 


ASTM F8 10-2007. 


38 


Styrene-Rubber (SR) Plastic Drain Pipe and Fittings (2" to 6"): 


ASTM D2852-1995 (2008). 


39 


Reserved 




40 


Fiberglass Pressure Pipe (1" and larger): 


AWWA C950-2007. 
ASTM D35 17-2006. 


41 


Fiberglass (GFR) Sewer and Industrial Pressure Pipe 
(8" and larger): 


ASTM D3754-2006. 


42 


Fiberglass (GFR) Sewer Pipe (8" and larger): 


ASTM D3262-2006. 


43 


Fiberglass (GFR) Non-Pressure Pipe Fittings (8" and larger): 


ASTM D3840-2001 (2005). 


44 


Reserved 




45 


Vitrified Clay Pipe, Extra Strength, Standard Strength and 
Perforated (3" and larger): 


ASTM C700-2007a. 


46 


Concrete Drain Tile (4" and larger): 


ASTM C412-2005a. 


47 


Concrete Sewer, Storm Drain, and Culvert Pipe 
non-reinforced (4" and larger): 


ASTM CI 4-2007. 


48 


Reinforced Concrete Culvert, Storm Drain, and Sewer Pipe 
(12" and larger): 


ASTM C76-2008a. 


49 


Perforated Concrete Pipe (4" and larger) 


ASTM C444-2003. 


50 


Crosslinked Polyethylene (PEX) Plastic Hot and Cold Water 
Distribution Systems: 


ASTM F877-2007. 


51 


Crosslinked Polyethylene (PEX) Plastic Tubing (3/8" to 6"): 


ASTM F876-2007. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



51 



PAR! III. NON-METALLIC PIPE AND FITTINGS (continued) 


52 


Metal Insert Fittings Utilizing a Copper Crimp Ring for SDR 9 
Crosslinked Polyethylene (PEX) Tubing: 


ASTMF 1807-2008. 


53 


Cold Expansion Fittings with PEX Reinforcing Rings for use with 
Crosslinked Polyethylene (PEX) Tubing: 


ASTMF1960-2007a. 


54 


Crosslinked Polyethylene-Aluminum-Crosslinked Polyethylene 
(PEX-AL-PEX) Composite Pressure Pipe (3/8" to 1"): 


ASTMF 128 1-2007. 


55 


Polyethylene-Aluminum-Polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) 
Composite Pressure Pipe (3/8" to 1"): 


ASTMF 1282-2006. 


56 


Metal Insert Fittings for PEX-AL-PEX and PE-AL-PE 
Composite Pressure Pipe: 


ASTMF 1974-2004. 


57 


Polyethylene-Aluminum-Polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) 
Composite Pipe Systems (1/4" to 1"): 


CSAB137.9-2005. 


58 


Crosslinked Polyethylene-Aluminum-Crosslinked Polyethylene 
(PEX-AL-PEX) Composite Pressure Pipe Systems (1/4" to 1"): 


CSAB137.10-2005. 


59 


Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR) based on 
Outside Diameter (3" to 48"): 


ASTMF7 14-2008 
See Tables 3.4, 3.5 & 3.7 for 
minimum SDR values for 
trenchless sewer replacement. 


60 


Reserved 




61 


Stainless Steel Clamps for securing SDR 9 Crosslinked 
Polyethylene (PEX) Tubing to Metal Insert Fittings: 


ASTM F2098-2008. 


62 


Crosslinked Polyethylene- Aluminum-Crosslinked Polyethylene 
(PEX-AL-PEX) Tubing, OD Controlled, SDR 9, (1/2" to 1"): 


ASTM F2262-2005. 


63 


Pressure-rated Composite Pipe and Fittings for Elevated 
Temperature Service, Classes 1 and 2(16 mm to 50 mm): 


ASTMF 1335-2004. 


64 


Cold Expansion Fittings with Metal Compression Sleeves 
for Crosslinked Polyethylene (PEX) Pipe: 


ASTM F2080-2008. 


65 


Push-Fit Fittings for SDR 9 Crosslinked Polyethylene (PEX) 
and Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC): 


ASSE 1061-2006. 


66 


Pressure-rated Polypropylene (PP) Piping Systems: 


ASTM F2389-2007. 


67 


Crosslinked Polyethylene (PEX) Pressure Pipe 

for Water Service (1/2" to 3"): 


AWWAC904-2006. 


68 


Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings 
Schedule 40, Socket-type (1/4" to 6"): 


ASTM F438-2004. 


69 


Butt Heat Fusion Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Fittings for PE Pipe and Tubing 

(1/2" to 48"): 


ASTMD3261-2003. 


70 


Socket-type Polyethylene (PE) Fittings for O.D. Controlled 
PE Pipe and Tubing (1/4" to 4"): 


ASTM D2683-2004. 


71 


Electro-fusion Polyethylene (PE) Fittings for O.D. Controlled 
PE Pipe and Tubing: 


ASTM F1055-1 998 (2006). 


72 


Mechanical Cold Expansion Insert Fittings with Compression 
Sleeve for PEX Tubing: 


ASTMF1865-2002a. 


73 


Metal Mechanical Cold Flare Compression Fittings with 
Disc Spring for PEX Tubing: 


ASTM F 1961 -2002a. 



52 



2009 National Standard Plwnbinv Code 



PART III. NON-METALLIC P1PF: AND !• 11 TINGS (continued) 


74 


Metal Insert Fittings utilizing a Copper Crimp Ring for SDR 9 
PEX Tubing and SDR 9 PEX-AL-PEX Tubing: 


ASTM F2434-2005. 


75 


Pressure-rated Polypropylene (PP) Piping Systems (1/2" to 6"): 


ASTM F2389-2007. 


76 


Flexible Pre-insulated Piping: 


ASTM F2 165-2002. 


77 


Polyethylene-Aluminum-Polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) 
Composite Pressure Pipe for Water Service (1/2" to 2"): 


AWWAC903-2002. 


78 


Crosslinked Polyethylene- Aluminum-Crosslinked Polyethylene 
(PEX-AL-PEX) Composite Pressure Pipe for Water Service 
(1/2" to 2"): 


AWWA C903-2002. 


IV. PIPE JOINTS, JOINING MATERIALS, COUPLINGS. GASKETS 


1 


Pipe Threads, General Purpose: 


ASMEB 1.20.1-1 983 (2006). 


2 


Liquid and Paste Fluxes for Soldering of Copper and Copper 
Alloy Tube: 


ASTMB813-2000el. 


3 


Solder Metal: 


ASTM B32-2008. 


4 


Brazing Filler Metal: 


AWSA5.8-2004. 


5 


Refined Lead: 


ASTM B29-2003. 


6 


Grooved and Shouldered Joints (Split Couplings): 


AWWA C606-2006. 


7 


Flexible Transition Couplings for Underground Piping Systems: 


ASTM CI 173-2006 


8 


Rubber Sheet Gaskets: 


ASTM D 1330-2004. 


9 


Rubber Gasket Joints for Ductile Iron and Gray Iron 
Pressure Pipe and Fittings: 


AWWA CI 11/A21.1 1-2007. 


10 


Rubber Gaskets for Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings: 


ASTM C564-2003a. 


11 


Couplings for Hubless Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings: 


CISPI 310-2004, 
ASTM CI 277-2006, 
ASTM CI 540-2004, 
FM 1680-1989. 


12 


Compression Joints for Vitrified Clay Pipe and Fittings: 


ASTM C425-2004. 


13 


Rubber Gasket Joints in Circular Concrete Sewer and Culvert Pipe: 


ASTM C443-2005a. 


14 


Elastomeric Seals (gaskets) for Push-On Joints in Plastic Pipe: 


ASTM F477-2007. 


15 


Flexible Elastomeric Seals for Plastic Pressure Pipe: 


ASTM D3 139- 1998 (2005). 


16 


Flexible Elastomeric Seals for Plastic Drain and Sewer Pipe: 


ASTM D32 12-2007. 


17 


Joints for IPS PVC Pipe using Solvent Cements: 


ASTM D2672- 1996a (2003). 


18 


Primers for Solvent Cement Joints in PVC Plastic Pipe and Fittings: 


ASTM F656-2002. 


19 


Solvent Cement for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) 
Plastic Pipe and Fittings: 


ASTM D2235-2004. 


20 


Solvent Cements for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Piping Systems: 


ASTM D2564-2004el. 


21 


Solvent Cements for Transition Joints between Acrylonitrile- 
Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) and Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) 
Non-Pressure Piping Components: 


ASTM D3 138-2004. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



53 



^^W-:- ! :^€^. IV. PIPE JOIiNTS, JOINING MATERIALS, COUPLINGS, GASKETS (continued) 


22 


Solvent Cements for Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) 
Plastic Pipe and Fittings: 


ASTM F493-2004. 


23 


Solvent Cements for Styrene-Rubber (SR) Plastic Pipe and Fittings: 


ASTMD3 122- 1995 (2002). 


24 


Mechanical Couplings for Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe and Sewer Pipe: 


CSAB602-2005(2007). 


25 


Plastic Fittings for connecting Water Closets to the Sanitary 
Drainage System: 


ASME Al 12.4.3-1999 (2004). 


26 


Mechanical Couplings using Thermoplastic Elastomeric (TPE) 
Gaskets for joining Drain, Waste, and Vent (DWV), Sewer, 
Sanitary and Storm Plumbing Systems for Above and Below 
Ground Use: 


ASTM CI 46 1-2007. 


27 


Non-Reinforced Extruded Tee Connections for Piping Applications: 


ASTM F20 14-2000 (2006). 


28 


Heavy Duty Shielded Couplings joining Hubless Cast Iron Pipe and Fittings: 


ASTM CI 540-2004. 


29 


Dielectric Pipe Unions: 


ASSE 1079-2005. 


30 


Performance Requirements for Removable and Non-Removable 
Push-Fit Fittings: 


ASSE 1061-2006. 


31 


Grooved and Shouldered Joints (for IPS metallic pipe sizes): 


AWWAC606-2006. 


V. PLUMBING FIXTURES 


1 


Bath Units, Plastic: 


ANSI Zl 24. 1.2-2005, 
CSAB45.5-2002(2008). 


2 


Ceramic Plumbing Fixtures, Non- Vitreous: 


ASMEA112.19.9M-1991 

(2008), 

CSAB45. 1-2002 (2008). 


3 


Drains for Prefabricated and Precast Showers 


ASMEA112.18.2-2005, 
CSAB125.2-2005. 


4 


Drinking Fountains and Water Coolers, Self Contained, 
Mechanically Refrigerated: 


ARI 1010-2002, 

UL 399 Edition 6-1993 

(2006). 


5 


Enameled Cast Iron Plumbing Fixtures: 


ASMEA112.19.1M-1994 

(2004), 

CSAB45.2-2002(2008). 


6 


Enameled Steel Plumbing Fixtures: 


ASMEA112.19.4M-1994 

(2004), 

CSAB45.3-2002(2008). 


7 


Floor and Trench Drains: 


ASME Al 12.6.3-2001 (2007). 


8 


Lavatories, Plastic: 


ANSIZ124.3-2005, 
CSAB45.5-2002(2008). 


9 


Roof, Deck, and Balcony Drains: 


ASME Al 12.6.4-2003 (2008). 


10 


Plastic Bathtub and Shower Units: 


ANSIZ124.1.2-2005, 
CSAB45.5-2002(2008). 


11 


Stainless Steel Plumbing Fixtures (residential design): 


ASMEA112.19.3-2001 

(2004), 

CSAB45.4-2002(2008). 



54 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



V. PLUMSMiNG I IX TURLS (continued) 


12 


Vitreous China Plumbing Fixtures: 


ASMEA112.19.2-2003 

(2008), 

CSAB45. 1-2002 (2008). 


13 


Water Closet Bowls and Tanks, Plastic: 


ANSIZ124.4-2006, 
ASMEA1 12.19.2-2003 
(2008), 
CSAB45.5-2002(2008). 


14 


Whirlpool Bathtub Appliances: 


ASMEA1 12.19.7-2006. 


15 


Reserved 




16 


Urinals, Plastic 


ANSI Z 124.9-2004, 
CSAB45.5-2002(2008). 


16a 


Vitreous China Non- Water Urinals: 


CSAB45.5-2002(2008). 


17 


Fabricated Stainless Steel Security Water Closets: 


IAPMOPS61-2006a, 
CSA B45.4-2002 (2008). 


18 


Hydraulic Requirements for Water Closets and Urinals: 


ASMEA1 12.19.2-2003 
(2008). 


19 


Wall Mounted and Pedestal Mounted Adjustable and Pivoting 
Lavatory and Sink Carrier Systems: 


ASMEA112.19.12-2006. 


20 


Plastic Sinks: 


ANSI Z 124.6-2007, 
CSA B45.5-2002 (2008). 


21 


Prefabricated Spa Shells: 


ANSIZ124.7-1997. 


22 


Plastic Bathtub Liners: 


ANSIZ124.8-1990. 


23 


Bathtubs and Whirlpool Bathtubs with Pressure Sealed Doors: 


ASMEA112.19.15-2005. 


24 


Emergency Eyewash and Shower Equipment: 


ANSI Z358. 1-2004. 


25 


Six Liter Water Closets equipped with Dual Flushing Device: 


ASMEA112.19.14-2006. 


26 


Electro-Hydraulic Water Closets: 


ASMEA112.19.13-2001 
(2007). 


27 


Enameled and Epoxy Coated Cast Iron and PVC Plastic 
Sanitary Floor Sinks: 


ASMEA1 12.6.7-2001 (2007). 


VI. PLUMBING FIXTURE TRIM 


1 


Anti-siphon Fill Valves (Ballcocks) for Gravity Water Closet 
Flush Tanks: 


ASSE 1002-2008, 
CSAB125.3-2005. 


2 


Individual Thermostatic, Pressure Balancing, and Combination 
Pressure Balancing and Thermostatic Control Valves for 
Individual Fixture Fittings: 


ASSE 1016-2005, 
ASMEA1 12.18.1-2005, 
CSA B125. 1-2005. 


3 


Reserved 




4 


Plumbing Supply Fittings: 


ASMEA112. 18.1-2005, 
CSAB125.1-2005. 


5 


Flushometers (pressurized flushing devices): 


ASSE 1037-1990, 
CSAB125.3-2005. 


6 


Laboratory Faucet Vacuum Breakers: 


ASSE 1035-2008. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



55 



VI. PLUMBING FIXTURE TRIM (continued) 


7 


Showers, Hand Held: 


ASMEA112.18.1-2005, 
CSAB125. 1-2005. 


8 


Reserved 




9 


Trim for Water Closet Bowls, Tanks, and Urinals 
(dimensional standards): 


ASMEA1 12.19.5-2005, 
CSAB125.3-2005. 


10 


Flexible Water Connectors: 


ASMEA1 12.18.6-2003 

(2008), 

CSAB 125.3-2005. 


11 


Water Closet Seats, Plastic: 


ANSIZ124.5-2006. 


12 


Whirlpool Suction Fittings: 


ASMEA112.19.8-2007. 


13 


Performance Requirements for Backflow Protection Devices 
and Systems in Plumbing Fixture Fittings: 


ASMEA1 12. 18.3-2002 
(2008). 


14 


Temperature Actuated Flow Reduction (TAFR) Valves for 
Individual Fixture Fittings: 


ASSE 1062-2006. 


15 


Individual Pressure Balancing In-Line Valves for Individual 
Fixture Fittings: 


ASSE 1066-1997. 


16 


Deck Mounted Bath/Shower Transfer Valves with Integral 
Backflow Protection: 


ASMEA112.18.7-1999 
(2004). 


17 


Plumbing Fixture Waste Fittings (size 2 NPS and smaller): 


ASMEA1 12. 18.2-2005, 
CSAB 125.2-2005. 


18 


Thermoplastic Accessible and Replaceable Plastic Tube and 
Tubular Fittings for Waste Connections (1-1/4", 1-1/2"): 


ASTM F409-2002. 


19 


Dual Flush Devices for Water Closets: 


ASMEA112.19.10-2003 
(2008). 


20 


Reserved 




21 


Wall Mounted and Pedestal Mounted Adjustable and 
Pivoting Lavatory and Sink Carrier Systems: 


ASMEA112. 19.12-2006. 


22 


Water Closet Personal Hygiene Devices: 


ASMEA1 12.4.2-2003 (2008). 


23 


Safety Vacuum Release Systems (SVRS) for Spa and Hot Tub 
Suction Systems: 


ASMEA112.19.17-2002. 


VII. PLUMBING APPLIANCES 


1 


Clothes Washers: 


AHAMHLW- 1-2007, 
ASSE 1007-1986. 


2 


Dishwashing Machines, Commercial: 


UL921 Edition 6-2006. 


3 


Dishwashers, Household: 


UL 749 Edition 8-2008, 
AHAMDW- 1-2005, 
ASSE 1006-1986. 


4 


Food Waste Grinder Units, Commercial: 


ASSE 1009-1990. 


5 


Food Waste Disposal Units, Household: 


UL 430 Edition 6-2004 
(2007), 

AHAMFWD- 1-2005, 
ASSE 1008-2006. 


6 


Hot Water Dispensers: 


ASSE 1023-1979. 



56 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



VII. PLIJMBING APPLIANCES (continued) 


7 


Gas Water Heaters - Volume I, Storage Water Heaters with Input Ratings of 
75,000 BTUH or less. 


ANSI Z2 1.1 0.1 -2004 (2007), 
CSA 4. 1-2004 (2007). 


8 


Gas Water Heaters - Volume III, Storage Water Heaters with Input Ratings above 
75,000 BTUH, Circulating and Instantaneous: 


ANSI Z2 1.1 0.3-2004 (2007), 
CSA 4.3-2004 (2007). 


9 


Water Heaters, Household Electric Storage Tank Type: 


UL 174 Edition 11-2004 
(2006). 


10 


Water Heaters, Instantaneous, Electric, Point-of-Use: 


UL499 Edition 13-2005 
(2008). 


11 


Water Heaters, Oil-Fired Storage Type: 


UL 732 Edition 5-1995 
(2005). 


12 


Water Heater Relief Valve Drain Tubes: 


ASMEA1 12.4. 1-1993 (2008). 


13 


Water Softeners (cation exchange): 


NSF 44-2007. 


14 


Reverse Osmosis Drinking Water Systems: 


NSF 58-2007. 


15 


Macerating Toilet Systems and Related Components: 


ASME A112.3.4-2000 (2004), 
CSA B45.9-2002 (2008). 


16 


Drinking Water Treatment Units - Aesthetic Effects: 


NSF 42-2007a. 


17 


Drinking Water Treatment Units - Health Effects: 


NSF 53-2007a. 


18 


Ultraviolet Microbiological Water Treatment Systems: 


NSF 55-2007. 


19 


Drinking Water Treatment Systems: 


CSA B483. 1-2007. 


VIII. VALVES AND APPURTENANCES 


1 


Backwater Valves 


ASMEA112. 14.1-2003 

(2008), 

CSA B 181.1-2006 of CSA 

B 1800 series (ABS) CSA 

B 1 81. 2-2006 of CSA B 1800 

series (PVC). 


2 


Anti-siphon Fill Valves (Ballcocks) for Gravity Water Closet Flush Tanks: 


ASSE 1002-2008, 
CSAB125.3-2005. 


3 


Bronze Gate, Globe, Angle, and Check Valves: 


MSSSP 80-2003. 


4 


Check Valves, Swing, Cast Iron: 


MSSSP 71-2005. 


5 


Cleanouts: 


ASME Al 12.36.2-1991 
(2008). 


6 


Reserved 




7 


Flushometers (pressurized flushing devices): 


ASSE 1037-1990, 
CSA B 125.3-2005. 


8 


Gate Valves, Cast Iron, 125# and 250#: 


MSS SP 70-2006. 


9 


Gate Valves, Iron Body (3" and larger) 


AWWAC500-2002. 


10 


Water Pressure Reducing Valves: 


ASSE 1003-2001. 


11 


Relief Valves and Automatic Gas Shut-off Devices for Hot Water Supply: 


ANSI Z21. 22-1999 (2004), 
CSA 4.4- 1999 (2004). 


12 


Temperature Actuated Mixing Valves for Hot Water 


ASSE 1017-2003, 
CSAB125.3-2005. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



57 



VIII. VALVES AND APPURTENANCES (continued) 


1 3 Trap Seal Primer Valves, Potable Water Supplied 


ASSE 1018-2001. 


14 


Water Hammer Arrestors: 


ASSE 1010-2004, 
PDIWH 201-2006. 


15 


Pre-Pressurized Potable Water Tanks (for thermal expansion): 


IAPMO PS 88-2002. 


16 


Barrier Type Floor Drain Trap Seal Protection Devices 


ASSE 1072-2007. 


17 


Ball Valves, Threaded, Socket- Welding, Solder Joints, 
Grooved, and Flared Ends: 


MSSSP 110-1996. 


18 


Water Temperature Limiting Devices: 


ASSE 1070-2004. 


19 


Wall Hydrants, Vacuum Breaker Type, Freeze Resistant, Automatic Draining: 


ASSE 1019-2004. 


20 


Trap Seal Primer Devices - Drainage and Electronic Types: 


ASSE 1044-2001. 


21 


Wall Hydrants, Dual Check Backflow Type, Freeze Resistant: 


ASSE 1053-2004. 


22 


Pressure Balancing In-Line Mixing Valves for Individual Fixture Fittings: 


ASSE 1066-1997. 


23 


Automatic Temperature Control Mixing Valves: 


ASSE 1069-2005. 


IX. BACKFLOW PREVENTION DEVICES 


1 


Air Gap Drain for Domestic Dishwashers: 


ASSE 1021-2001. 


2 


Backflow Preventers with Intermediate Atmospheric Vent: 


ASSE 1012-2002. 


3 


Detector Assembly, Double Check Type: 


ASSE 1048-2005. 


4 


Detector Assembly, Reduced Pressure Type: 


ASSE 1047-2005. 


5 


Double Check Valve Assembly: 


ASSE 1015-2005. 


6 


Dual Check Valve Type Backflow Preventer: 


ASSE 1024-2004. 


7 


Reserved 




8 


Reduced Pressure Principle Backflow Preventer: 


ASSE 1013-2005. 


9 


Vacuum Breaker, Atmospheric (pipe-applied): 


ASSE 1001-2008. 


10 


Vacuum Breaker, Hose Connection: 


ASSE 1011-2004. 


11 


Vacuum Breaker, Laboratory Faucet: 


ASSE 1035-2008. 


12 


Vacuum Breaker, Pressure: 


ASSE 1020-2004. 


13 


Reserved 




14 


Hose Connection Backflow Preventers: 


ASSE 1052-2004. 


15 


Vacuum Breakers, Spill-Resistant: 


ASSE 1056-2001. 


16 


Air Gaps in Plumbing Systems: 


ASME Al 12. 1.2-2004. 


17 


Performance Requirements for Backflow Protection Devices 
and Systems in ASME All 2. 18.3 Plumbing Fixture Fittings: 


ASME Al 12. 18.3-2002 
(2008). 


18 


Air Gap Fittings for use with Plumbing Fixtures, Appliances, 
and Appurtenances: 


ASME Al 12. 1.3-2000 (2005). 


19 


Outdoor Enclosures for Backflow Prevention Devices: 


ASSE 1060-2006. 


20 


Backflow Prevention Devices for Hand-Held Showers 


ASSE 1014-2005. 


21 


Backflow Preventors for (Carbonated) Beverage Dispensing Equipment: 


ASSE 1022-2003. 



58 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



10 



11 



12 



13 



14 



15 



16 



17 



10 



11 



x. Miaci:u.A.m.om 



Copper Flashing (sheet): 



Lead Flashing (sheet): 



Pipe Hangers and Supports (materials, design, manufacture): 



Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Flexible Concealed 
Water-Contaminant Membrane: 



Shower Pan Liner (PVC plastic sheeting): 



Chlorinated Polyethylene (CPE) Sheeting for Concealed 
Water-Containment Membrane: 



Shower Pan Liner (plastic sheeting): 



Grease Interceptors: 



ASTM B370-2003. 



ASTM B749-2003. 



MSS SP 58-2002. 



ASTMD4551-1996 
(2008el). 



ASTM D455 1-1996 
(2008el). 



ASTMD4068-2001. 



ASTMD4068-2001. 



Floor Affixed Supports for Off-the-Floor Plumbing Fixtures for Public Use: 



Framing Affixed Supports for Off-the-Floor Plumbing Fixtures: 



Plastic Piping System Components and Related Materials: 



Drinking Water System Components - Health Effects: 



Grease Removal (or Recovery) Devices (GRD): 



Reserved 



Chemical Dispensing Systems: 



Installation of Sprinkler Systems: 



Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One- and Two-Family 
Dwellings and Manufactured Homes: 



Installation of Sprinkler Systems in Residential Occupancies 
up to and Including Four Stories in Height 



ASMEA1 12. 14.3-2000, 
PDIG101-2007. 



ASMEA112.6.1M-1997 
(2008). 



ASMEA1 12.6.2-2000 (2004). 



NSF 14-2007. 



NSF 61-2007. 



ASMEA1 12.14.4-2001 
(2007). 



ASSE 1055-1997. 



NFPA 13-2007. 



NFPA 13D-2007. 



NFPA 13R-2007. 



XI. P RACTICES AND STAND A RDS FOR QUALIFICATIONS, INSTALL ATION, AND TESTING 

Installation of Ductile Iron Water Mains and Appurtenances: 



Installing Vitrified Clay Pipe Lines: 



Safe Handling of Solvent Cements, Primers, and Cleaners 
Used for Joining Thermoplastic pipe and Fittings: 



AWWAC600-2005. 



ASTM CI 2-2007. 



ASTM F402-2005. 



Practice for Making Solvent Cemented Joints with Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) 
Pipe and Fittings: 



Underground Installation of Thennoplastic Pressure Pipe (up to 6" size): 



Underground Installation of Thermoplastic Pipe for Sewers and 
other Gravity Flow Applications: 



Recommended Practice for Installation of Thermoplastic Pipe 
and Corrugated Tubing in Septic Tank Leach Fields: 



Plastic Fitting Patterns; Drain, Waste, and Vent (DWV): 



Selection and Application of Pipe Hangers and Supports: 



Fabrication and Installation Standards for Pipe Hangers and Supports: 



Field Test Procedures for Backflow Prevention Devices: 



ASTM D2855- 1996 (2002). 



ASTM D2774-2008. 



ASTM D232 1-2005. 



ASTM F481 -1997 (2002). 



ASTM D33 11 -2006a. 



MSS SP 69-2003. 



MSS SP 89-2003. 



ASSE 5010-2004. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



19" 



XI. PRACTICES AND STANDARDS FOR QUALIFICATIONS, INSTALLATION. AND TESTING (continued) 



12 



13 



14 



15 



16 



17 



19 



Professional Qualification Standard for Backflow Prevention Assembly 
Testers, Repairers, and Surveyors: 



Practice of Heat Fusion Joining Polyolefin Pipe and Fittiings: 



Practice of Electro Fusion Joining Polyolefin Pipe and Fittings: 



Making Capillary Joints by Soldering of Copper and Copper Alloy 
Tube and Fittiings: 



Standard for Health Care Facilities (for medical gas and vacuum): 



Gas and Vacuum Systems (in health care facilities): 



Professional Qualification Standard for Medical Gas Personnel: 



Installation Procedures for Stainless Steel Drainage Systems: 



ASSE Series 5000-2004. 



ASTM D2657-2007. 



ASTM F1290-1998a (2004). 



ASTM B828-2002. 



NFPA 99-2005. 



NFPA99C-2005. 



ASSE Series 6000-2006. 



ASMEA1 12.3.1-2007. 



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2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



63 



Table 3.4.2 
PLASTIC WATER SERVICE PIPING (1) 

(water pressure rated for not less than 1 60 psi at 73 deg F) 


MATERIAL 


COMPOSITION 


DIMENSIONS 


JOINTS 


PIPE SIZES 


ABS(ASTMD1527) 


ABS 1208 


Schedule 40 


not threaded 


up through 1" 


Schedule 80 


threaded 


none 


Schedule 80 


not threaded 


up through 2" 


ABS 1210 


Schedule 40 


not threaded 


up through 1-1/2" 


Schedule 80 


threaded 


up through 1" 


Schedule 80 


not threaded 


up through 4" 


ABS 1316 


Schedule 40 


not threaded 


up through 5" 


Schedule 80 


threaded 


up through 2-1/2" 


Schedule 80 


not threaded 


up through 1 2" 


ABS 2112 


Schedule 40 


not threaded 


up through 3" 


Schedule 80 


threaded 


up through 1-1/4" 


Schedule 80 


not threaded 


up through 6" 


ABS (ASTM D2282) 


ABS 1208 


none 


none 


none 


ABS 1210 


SDR 13.5 


not threaded 


all sizes 


ABS 1212 


SDR 17 and lower 


not threaded 


all sizes 


ABS 1316 


SDR 21 and lower 


not threaded 


all sizes 


PVC (ASTM 1785) 


PVC 1120 


Schedule 40 


not threaded 


up through 8" 


Schedule 80 


threaded 


up through 4" 


Schedule 80 


not threaded 


up through 24" 


Schedule 120 


threaded 


up through 12" 


Schedule 120 


not threaded 


up through 12" 


PVC 1220 


Schedule 40 


not threaded 


up through 8" 


Schedule 80 


threaded 


up through 4" 


Schedule 80 


not threaded 


up through 24" 


Schedule 120 


threaded 


up through 12" 


Schedule 120 


not threaded 


up through 12" 


PVC 2110 


Schedule 40 


not threaded 


up through 1-1/2" 


Schedule 80 


threaded 


up through 1 " 


Schedule 80 


not threaded 


up throuigh 4" 


Schedule 120 


threaded 


up through 1 " 


Schedule 120 


not threaded 


up through 1 2" 


PVC 2112 


Schedule 40 


not threaded 


up through 3" 


Schedule 80 


threaded 


up through 1-1/4" 


Schedule 80 


not threaded 


up through 6" 


Schedule 120 


threaded 


up through 1-1/2" 


Schedule 120 


not threaded 


up through 1 2" 


PVC 21 16 


Schedule 40 


not threaded 


up through 5" 


Schedule 80 


threaded 


up through 2" 


Schedule 80 


not threaded 


up through 24" 


Schedule 120 


threaded 


up through 5" 


Schedule 120 


not threaded 


up through 1 2" 


PVC 2120 


Schedule 40 


not threaded 


up through 8" 


Schedule 80 


threaded 


up through 4" 


Schedule 80 


not threaded 


up through 24" 


Schedule 120 


threaded 


up through 1 2" 


Schedule 120 


not threaded 


up through 1 2" 



64 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Table 3.4.2 (continued) 


PVC(ASTMD2241) 


PVC 1120 


SDR 26 or lower 


not threaded 


all sizes 


PVC 1220 


SDR 26 or lower 


not threaded 


all sizes 


PVC 2110 


SDR 13.5 or lower 


not threaded 


all sizes 


PVC 21 12 


SDR 17 or lower 


not threaded 


all sizes 


PVC 2116 


SDR 2 1 or lower 


not threaded 


all sizes 


PVC 2120 


SDR 26 or lower 


not threaded 


all sizes 


PVC (AWWA C900) 


12454-A,-B 


DR14 


not threaded 


up through 12" 


CPVC (ASTM D2846) 


CPVC 4120 


SDR 11 


not threaded 


all sizes 


CPVC (ASTM F441) 


CPVC 4120 


Schedule 40 


not threaded 


up through 12" 


Schedule 80 


threaded 


up through 4" 


Schedule 80 


not threaded 


up through 1 6" 


CPVC (ASTM F442) 


CPVC 4120 


SDR 26 or lower 


not threaded 


up through 12" 


PE (ASTM D2239) 


PE 1404 
PE 2305 
PE 2306 
PE 2406 
PE 3306 
PE 3406 
PE 3408 


none 
SIDR 5.3 
SIDR 7 or lower 
SIDR 7 or lower 
SIDR 7 or lower 
SIDR 7 or lower 
SIDR 9 or lower 


none 

not threaded 
not threaded 
not threaded 
not threaded 
not threaded 
not threaded 


none 
all sizes 
all sizes 
all sizes 
all sizes 
all sizes 
all sizes 


PE (ASTM D2447) 


PE 1404 


Schedule 40 


not threaded 


none 


Schedule 80 


not threaded 


1/2" 


PE 2305 


Schedule 40 


not threaded 


none 


Schedule 80 


not threaded 


up through 3/4" 


PE 2306 


Schedule 40 


not threaded 


1/2" 


Schedule 80 


not threaded 


up through 1-1/4" 


PE 2406 


Schedule 40 


not threaded 


1/2" 


Schedule 80 


not threaded 


up through 1-1/4" 


PE 3306 


Schedule 40 


not threaded 


1/2" 


Schedule 80 


not threaded 


up through 1-1/4" 


PE 3406 


Schedule 40 


not threaded 


1/2" 


Schedule 80 


not threaded 


up through 1-1/4" 


PE (ASTM D2737) 


PE 2305 


SDR 7.3 


not threaded 


all sizes 


PE 2306 


SDR 9 or lower 


not threaded 


all sizes 


PE 2406 


SDR 9 or lower 


not threaded 


all sizes 


PE 3306 


SDR 9 or lower 


not threaded 


all sizes 


PE 3406 


SDR 9 or lower 


not threaded 


all sizes 


PE 3408 


SDR 1 1 or lower 


not threaded 


all sizes 


PE (ASTM D3035) 


PE 1404 
PE 2406 
PE 3408 


none 

SDR 7 

SDR 1 1 or lower 


none 

not threaded 

not threaded 


none 
all sizes 
all sizes 


PE(ASTMF714) 


PE 2606 


DR 8.3 or lower 


not threaded 


all sizes 


PE 2708 
PE 3608 
PE 3708 
PE 4708 


DR 1 1 or lower 


not threaded 


all sizes 


PE3710 
PE4710 


DR 13.5 or lower 


not threaded 


all sizes 


PE(AWWAC901) 


PE 2406 


IDR 7 or lower 
DR9 


not threaded 


all sizes 


PE 3406 


IDR 7 or lower 
DR9 


not threaded 


all sizes 


PE 3408 


IDR 9 or lower 

DR 1 1 or lower | 


not threaded 


all sizes 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



65 



Table 3.4.2 (continued) 


PE-RT (ASTM F2623) 


PE-RT 


SDR 9 


not threaded 


all sizes 


PE-AL-PE(ASTMF1282) 


PE-AL-PE 


ASTM F 1282 


not threaded 


all sizes 


PE-AL-PE Composite 
(AWWAC903) 


PE-AL-PE 


AWWA C903 


compression 


all sizes 


PEX (ASTM F876) 


PEX 1006 
PEX 1008 


SDR 9 


not threaded 


all sizes 


PEX (ASTM F877) 


PEX 1006 
PEX 1008 


SDR 9 


not threaded 


all sizes 


PEX (AWWA C904) 


PEX 1006 
PEX 1008 


SDR 9 


not threaded 


all sizes 


PEX-AL-PEX (ASTM F1281) 


PEX-AL-PEX 


ASTM F 1281 


not threaded 


all sizes 


PEX-AL-PEX (ASTM F2262) 


PEX-AL-PEX 


SDR 9 


not threaded 


all sizes 


PEX-AL-PEX Composite 
(AWWAC903) 


PEX-AL-PEX 


AWWAC903 


compression 


all sizes 


Composite (ASTM F 1335) 


PE-AL-PE 


ASTMF1335 


compression 


all sizes 


Composite (ASTM F1335) 


PEX-AL-PEX 


ASTM F1335 


compression 


all sizes 



NOTES FOR TABLE 3.4.2 

(1) Refer also to the manufacturer's recommendations, instructions, and limitations. 

(2) Lower SDR, SIDR, IDR, and DR numbers have heavier wall thicknesses and higher pressure ratings. 



Table 3.4.3 
PLASTIC HOT AND COLD WATER DISTRIBUTION PIPING (1) 

(water pressure rated for not less than 100 psi at 1 80 deg F and 160 psi at 73 deg F) 


MATERIAL 


COMPOSITION 


DIMENSIONS 


JOINTS 


PIPE SIZES 


CPVC (ASTM D2846) 


CPVC 4120 


SDR 11 


not threaded 


all sizes 


CPVC (ASTM F441) 


CPVC 4120 


Schedule 40 


not threaded 


up through 1" 


Schedule 80 


threaded 


up through 1/2" 


Schedule 80 


not threaded 


up through 2-1/2" 


CPVC (ASTM F442) 


CPVC 4120 


SDR 11 


not threaded 


all sizes 


PEX (ASTM F876) 


PEX 1006 
PEX 1008 


SDR 9 


not threaded 


all sizes 


PEX (ASTM F877) 


PEX 1006 
PEX 1008 


SDR 9 


not threaded 


all sizes 


PE-AL-PE (ASTM Fl 282) 


PE-AL-PE 


ASTMF1282 


not threaded 


all sizes 


PEX-AL-PEX (ASTM F2262) 


PEX-AL-PEX 


SDR 9 


not threaded 


all sizes 


PEX-AL-PEX (ASTM F1281) 


PEX-AL-PEX 


ASTM F 1281 


not threaded 


all sizes 


Composite Pipe (ASTM F1335) 


PE-AL-PE 


ASTMF1335 


compression 


all sizes 


Composite Pipe (ASTM F1335) 


PEX-AL-PEX 


ASTM Fl 335 


compression 


all sizes 



NOTES FOR TABLE 3.4.3 

(1) Refer also to the manufacturer's recommendations, instructions, and limitations. 



66 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 





































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68 



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X) 

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2CWP National Standard Plumbing Code 



69 



Table 3.8 - MATERIALS FOR FOUNDATION DRAINS AND SUB-SOIL DRAINAGE 


l 


Clay Drain Tile (ASTM C498) 


A 


2 


Concrete Drain Tile (ASTM C4 12) 


A 


3 


Perforated Concrete Pipe (ASTM C444) 


A 


4 


Corrugated Polyethylene Tube (ASTM F405) 


A 


5 


SR Plastic Drain Pipe and Fittings, Perforated (ASTM D2852) 


A 


6 


PVC Sewer Pipe and Fittings, Perforated (ASTM D2729) 


A 


7 


Stainless Steel DWV Systems - Type 31 6L (ASME All 2.3.1) 


A 


8 


Vitrified Clay Pipe, Perforated, Standard and Extra Strength (ASTM C700) 


A 




Approved 


A 



70 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Chapter 4 



Joints and Connections 



4.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 

4.1.1 Tightness 

Joints and connections in the plumbing system shall be gas tight and watertight for the pressure required by 
test, with the exceptions of those portions of perforated or open joint piping that are installed for the purpose 
of collecting and conveying ground or seepage water to the underground storm drains. 

4.1.2 Joint Standards 

a. Pipe and tube shall be cut 90° or perpendicular to the pipe center lines. 

b. The inside diameter of pipe and tube ends shall be reamed, filed, or smoothed to size of bore and all 
chips removed. All burrs on the outside of the pipe and butt ends shall be removed before the installation. 

c. Pipe and tube shall engage into fittings the full manufacturer's design depth of the fitting socket. 

d. Male pipe threads shall be made of sufficient length to ensure the proper engagement. 

e. Pipe shall not extend into a fitting or other pipe to such a depth that it will impede or restrict the design 
flow. 

f. Joints made by bonding, welding, brazing, solvent cementing, soldering, burning, fusion or mechanical 
means shall be free from grease or other substances not specifically required to achieve a satisfactory joint. 

g. Pipe sealing or lubricating compound required for threaded pipe joints shall be applied to the male pipe 
end only and shall be insoluable and nontoxic. 

4.1.3 Expansion Joints 

Mechanical type expansion joints requiring or permitting adjustment shall be accessible for adjustment and/ 
or replacement. 

4.1.4 Increasers and Reducers 

Where different sizes of pipes or pipes and fittings are to be connected, increaser and reducer fittings or bush- 
ings shall be used. (See Section 2.4.3) 

4.2 TYPES OF JOINTS FOR PIPING MATERIALS 

4.2.1 Caulked 
4.2.1.1 Cast-Iron Soil Pipe 

Lead caulked joints for cast-iron hub and spigot soil pipe shall be firmly packed with oakum or hemp and 
filled with molten lead not less than 1 inch deep and not to extend more than 1/8 inch below the rim of the 
hub. No paint, varnish, or other coatings shall be permitted on the jointing material until after the joint has 
been tested and approved. Lead shall be run in one pouring and shall be caulked tight. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



71 



4.2.1.2 Cast-iron Water Pipe 

Lead caulked joints for cast-iron bell and spigot water pipe shall be firmly packed with clean dry jute, or 
treated paper rope packing. The remaining space in the hub shall be filled with molten lead according to the 
following schedule: 

Pipe Size Depth of Lead 

Up to 20 inches 2-1/4 inches 

24, 30, 36 inches 2-1/2 inches 

Larger than 36 inches 3 inches 

Lead shall be run in one pouring and shall be caulked tight. 

4.2.2 Threaded 

The threads in tapered general purpose pipe joints shall conform to ASME B 1 .20. 1 . Pipe ends shall be reamed 
or filed out to the full size of the bore and all chips removed. Thread seal tape, pipe joint compound, or other 
thread lubricant shall be applied only to the male threads. 

4.2.3 Wiped 

Joints in lead pipe or fittings, or between lead pipe or fittings and brass or copper pipe, ferrules, solder 
nipples, or traps, shall be full wiped joints. Wiped joints shall have an exposed surface on each side of a joint 
not less than 3/4 inch and at least as thick as the material being jointed. Wall or floor flange lead-wiped joints 
shall be made by using a lead ring or flange placed behind the joints at wall or floor. Joints between lead pipe 
and cast-iron, steel, or wrought iron shall be made by means of a caulking ferrule, soldering nipple, or bush- 
ing. 

4.2.4 Soldered 

a. Soldered joints in copper water piping shall be made using wrought pressure fittings complying with 
ASME B 16.22, cast pressure fittings complying with ASME B 16. 18, or cast copper alloy flanges complying 
with ASME B 16.24. " ' " J ° 

NOTE: Short-cup brazing fittings complying with ASME B16.50 and bearing the mark "BZ" shall not be 
used where joints are soldered. 

b. Soldered joints in copper drain and vent piping shall be made with wrought drainage fittings complying 
with ASME B16.29 or cast drainage fittings complying with ASME B16.23. 

c. Soldered joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM B828. 

d. Solder shall comply with ASTM B32. Flux shall comply with ASTM B813. 

e. Solder for joints in potable water piping shall contain not more than 0.2% lead. 

4.2.5 Flared 

Flared joints for copper water tube shall be made with fittings complying with ASME B 16.26. The tube shall 
be reamed and then expanded with an approved flaring tool. 

4.2.6 Mechanically Crimped (Pressed) Joints 

a. Copper fittings for water supply and distribution, designed for mechanically crimped (pressed) connec- 
tions to ASTM B88 hard drawn copper water tube, shall include an O-ring gasket complying with NSF 61 for 
potable water. 

EXCEPTION: Mechanically crimped (pressed) joints shall be permitted with annealed copper water tube 
when such use is included in the fitting manufacturer's technical data and installation instructions. 

b. The fittings shall comply with the material and sizing requirements of ASME B 16.22 (wrought copper or 
copper alloy fittings) or ASME B 1 6. 1 8 (cast copper alloy fittings). 

c. During installation, the tube end shall be deburred and depth-marked to permit visual verification of full 
insertion of the tube into the fitting socket. 



72 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



d. The joint shall be crimped (pressed) using a tool approved by the manufacturer of the fitting. 

e. The joints shall be rated by the manufacturer for not less than 200 psig at 1 80 deg F. 

f. The fittings shall be permitted to be installed in concealed locations. 

4.2.7 Push-Fit Joints 

a. Fittings for water supply and distribution, designed for manual push-fit connections to copper, CPVC, and/ 
or PEX tubing, shall comply with ASSE 1061. 

b. Fittings shall be marked with those tubing materials that they are intended to be used with unless they are 
suitable for use with all three tubing materials (copper, CPVC, and PEX). 

c. Fittings will be installed in accordance with their manufacturer's instructions 

d. During installation, the tube end shall be de-burred and depth-marked to permit visual verification of full 
insertion of the tube into the fitting socket. 

e. The fittings shall be rated by their manufacturer for not less than 125 psig at 1 80 deg F as listed by ASSE 
1061. 

f. The fittings shall be permitted to be installed in concealed locations. 

4.2.8 Brazed 

4.2.8.1 General 

a. Brazed joints in copper tubing shall be made in accordance with accepted industry practice. See Ap- 
pendix L for an accepted practice for general plumbing. 

b. Brazed joints in medical gas and vacuum piping shall be made in accordance with NFPA 99 or NFPA 
99C. 

4.2.8.2 Fittings 

a. Fittings in copper tubing with brazed joints shall be wrought solder joint fittings complying with ASME 
B 16.22 or short-cup brazing fittings complying with ASME B 16.50. Short-cup brazed joint fittings shall 
be clearly marked by the manufacturer to differentiate them from solder-joint fittings and avoid their being 
used in piping with soldered joints. 

b. Fittings for medical gas and vacuum piping shall be as required by NFPA 99 or NFPA 99C. 

4.2.8.3 Mechanically Formed Tee Branches 

a. Mechanically formed tee branches shall be permitted in copper tubing in water distribution systems. 
The branch connections shall be formed with appropriate tools and joined by brazing. The branch tube end 
shall be notched and dimpled with two sets of double dimples. The first dimples shall act as depth stops to 
prevent the branch tube from being inserted beyond the depth of the branch collar. The second dimples shall 
be 1/4" above the first dimples and provide a visual means of verifying that the branch connection has been 
properly fitted. The dimples in the branch tube shall be in line with the run of the main. The joints shall be 
brazed in accordance with Section 4.2.8.1 and ASTM F2014. 

b. Mechanically formed tee branches shall not be permitted in drainage piping. 

4.2.9 Cement Mortar 

Where permitted as outlined in Section 2.4.4, cement mortar joints shall be made in the following manner: 

1 . A layer of jute or hemp shall be inserted into the annular joint space and packed tightly to prevent 
mortar from entering the interior of the pipe or fitting. 

2. Not more than 25 percent of the annular space shall be used for jute or hemp. 

3. The remaining space shall be filled in one continuous operation with a thoroughly mixed mortar com- 
posed of one part cement and two parts sand, with only sufficient water to make the mixture workable by 
hand. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 73 



4. Additional mortar of the same composition shall then be applied to form a one to one slope with the 
barrel of the pipe. 

5. The bell or hub of the pipe shall be left exposed for inspection. 

6. When necessary, the interior of the pipe shall be swabbed to remove any mortar or other material that 
may have found its way into such pipe. 

4.2.10 Burned Lead (Welded) 

Burned (welded) joints shall be made in such a manner that the two or more sections to be joined shall be 
uniformly fused together into one continuous piece. The thickness of the weld shall be at least as thick as the 
lead being joined. 

4.2.11 Mechanical (Flexible or Slip Joint) 

4.2.11.1 Stainless Steel DWV Systems 

a. Joints in stainless steel DWV systems shall be made with an elastomeric o-ring of a material that is 
suitable for the intended service. 

b. Joints between stainless steel drainage systems and other piping materials shall be made with an ap- 
proved adapter coupling. 

4.2.11.2 Cast-iron Soil Pipe 

a. Hubless pipe: Joints for hubless cast-iron soil pipe and fittings shall be made with an approved elasto- 
meric sealing sleeve and corrosion resisting clamping device or shall be made using a rigid unshielded TPE 
coupling with center stop installed per Section 4.3.8d. 

b. Hub and Spigot: Joints for hub and spigot cast-iron soil pipe and fittings, designed for use with a com- 
pressed gasket, may be made using a compatible compression gasket that is compressed when the spigot is 
inserted into the hub of the pipe. 

4.2.11.3 Cast-Iron Water Pipe 

Mechanical joints in cast-iron water pipe shall be made with a flanged collar, a rubber ring gasket, and the 
approved number of securing bolts. 

4.2.11.4 Clay Pipe 

Joints in piping and/or fittings shall be made using flexible compression joints. 

4.2.11.5 Concrete pipe 

Flexible joints between lengths of concrete pipe may be made using approved compression type joints or 
elastomeric materials born on the spigot end and in the bell (or hub) end of the pipe. 

4.2.11.6 Elastomeric Sleeves 

Mechanical joints on drainage pipes below ground shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to 
ASTM D3212, CSA B602 or ASTM C1173. Joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's 
instructions. 

4.2.12 Reserved 

4.2.13 Reserved 



74 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



4.2.14 Plastic 

4.2.14.1 General 

a. Joints in plastic piping shall be made by one of the following methods where appropriate: 

1 . solvent cement 

2. heat fusion 

3. couplings with elastomeric sleeves and corrosion resisting metal screw clamps 

4. approved insert fittings 

5. approved mechanical fittings, or 

6. threads according to approved standards 

b. Joints shall be made in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions for the method used. 

4.2.14.2 Solvent Cement Joints in PVC Piping 

Primers and solvent cements shall be suitable for joints in PVC piping. Primers shall be purple in color and 
solvent cements shall not be purple in color. 

4.2.14.3 Solvent Cement Joints in CPVC Piping 

Primers (where used) and solvent cements shall be suitable for joints in CPVC piping. Primer shall be used 
where recommended by the manufacturer of the pipe or the fittings, or both. Solvent cements used with 
primers shall be orange in color. Primers (where used) shall not be orange in color. Single-step solvent ce- 
ment used without a primer on piping 1/2 inch through 2 inch in diameter shall be yellow in color. 

4.2.14.4 UV Detectable Clear Primers 

Where a clear primer that is detectable by ultra-violet light is used as a substitute for a colored primer, the 
installer shall make a UV light detection device available for inspection of the joints for final acceptance. 

4.2.15 Slip 

Slip joints using washers or approved packing or gasket material, when installed in concealed locations, 
shall be provided with an access panel. Slip joints using approved ground joint brass compression rings that 
allow adjustment of tubing but provide a rigid joint when made up, shall not be considered as slip joints that 
require access. 

4.2.16 Expansion 

Expansion joints shall be of approved type and its material shall conform with the type of piping in which it 
is installed. 

4.2.17 Split Couplings 

a. Split couplings consisting of two or more parts and a compression gasket, designed for use with grooved 
or plain end pipe and fittings, shall be permitted to be used for water service piping, hot and cold water dis- 
tribution piping, storm water piping, and sump pump discharge piping. The complete joint assembly shall be 
suitable for the intended use and comply with a standard listed in Table 3. 1 .3. 

b. Galvanized steel pipe may be jointed using rolled or cut grooves. Other interior coated pipe shall not be 
joined using rolled grooves. 

4.2.18 Butt Fusion 

ASTM F714 high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe and ASTM D3261 fittings shall be joined by butt fusion 
in accordance with ASTM D2657. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code it 



4.2.19 Bending 

Changes in direction in copper water tube shall be permitted to be made by the use of factory or field bends. 
Field bends shall be made in accordance with Table 4.2.19. Bends shall be made only with bending equipment 
and procedures intended for that purpose. Hard drawn tubing shall not be bent with tubing benders intended 
for only annealed (soft) tube. All bends shall be smooth and free from buckling, cracks, and other evidence of 
mechanical damage. 



Table 4.2.19: BENDING COPPER TUBE 


Nominal Tube Size -in. 


Tube Type 


Temper 


Min. Bend Radius, in. 


1/4 inch 


K,L 


Annealed (soft) 


3/4" 


3/8 inch 


K,L 


Annealed (soft) 


1-1/2" 


3/8 inch 


K,L,M 


Drawn (hard) 


1-3/4" 


1 11 inch 


K,L 


Annealed (soft) 


2-1/4" 


1/2 inch 


K,L,M 


Drawn (hard) 


2-1/2" 


3/4 inch 


K,L 


Annealed (soft) 


3" 


3/4 inch 


K,L 


Drawn (hard) 


3" 


1 inch 


K,L 


Annealed (soft) 


4" 


1-1/4 inches 


K,L 


Annealed (soft) 


9" 



4.3 TYPES OF JOINTS BETWEEN DIFFERENT PIPING MATERIALS 

4.3.1 Vitrified Clay to Other Material 

Joints between vitrified clay and other piping materials shall be made with an approved joint. 

4.3.2 Reserved 

4.3.3 Reserved 

4.3.4 Threaded Pipe to Cast-Iron 

Joints between steel or brass and cast-iron pipe shall be either caulked or threaded or shall be made with ap- 
proved adapter fittings. 

4.3.5 Lead to Cast-Iron or Steel 

Joints between lead and cast-iron or steel pipe shall be made by means of wiped joints to a caulking ferrule, 
soldering nipple, bushing, or by means of a mechanical adapter. 

4.3.6 Cast-Iron to Copper Tube 

Joints between cast-iron and copper tube shall be made by using an approved brass or copper caulking ferrule 
and by properly soldering the copper tube to the ferrule. 



76 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



4.3.7 Copper Tube to Threaded Pipe Joints 

a. Joints from copper tube to threaded pipe shall be made as follows: 

1 . DWV Systems: with copper or brass threaded adapters. 

2. Potable Water Systems and Galvanized Steel Pipe: cast brass threaded adapters, dielectric pipe unions 
conforming to ASSE 1079, dielectric flanges or dielectric waterway fittings that comply with IAPMO PS 66. 

EXCEPTION: Dielectric pipe unions shall not be installed on connections to water heaters when not rec- 
ommended by the water heater manufacturer. 

3. To any Non-Ferrous Piping: copper or brass threaded adapter. 

b.The adapter fitting shall be connected to the tubing by approved methods, and the threaded section as- 
sembled with tapered national pipe threads (NPT). 

4.3.8 Special Joints and Couplings for Drainage Piping 

a. Joints between two different drainage piping materials or between different size piping, of the same or 
different material, shall be made using fittings or mechanical couplings that are designed for the specific 
application, including adapter fittings, hubless pipe couplings, slip-on couplings, transition couplings, and 
repair couplings. 

b. Fittings and couplings for use under this Section shall either (1) comply with a standard listed in Table 
3. 1 .3, (2) be listed or labeled by a recognized listing agency, or (3) be approved by the Authority Having 
Jurisdiction if such products are not listed or labeled. Installation shall comply with the coupling manufac- 
turer's instructions and intended use. 

c. Shielded couplings shall consist of a flexible elastomeric sealing sleeve, a protecting and supporting 
continuous metal shield or shear ring, and metal screw clamping bands. All metal parts shall be corrosion- 
resisting. Shielded couplings shall be capable of withstanding a shear test based on a load of 50 pounds per 
inch of nominal pipe diameter, and shall be permitted to partially support the pipe being joined when such 
installation is recommended by the manufacturer's instructions. Shielded couplings may be installed above 
ground or underground, as intended by the manufacturer. 

d. Mechanical unshielded couplings using thermoplastic elastomer gaskets shall consist of a rigid or semi- 
rigid sealing sleeve and corrosion-resisting metal screw clamping bands. Mechanical unshielded couplings 
using thermoplastic elastomer gaskets shall not be installed where the operating internal or external tem- 
peratures exceed 130°F (54°C) or are below 0°F (-18°C). The pipe shall be supported on both sides of the 
coupling within 18 inches of the centerline of the coupling. Mechanical unshielded couplings using thermo- 
plastic elastomer gaskets shall be permitted aboveground or underground. Mechanical unshielded couplings 
using thermoplastic elastomer gaskets shall not be installed in construction that has a fire rating that restricts 
the use of flammable materials or be installed in through penetrations or plenums without additional fire 
resistance protection. 

e. Flexible unshielded couplings shall consist of an elastomeric sealing sleeve and corrosive-resisting 
metal screw clamping bands. The use of flexible unshielded couplings shall be limited to joints in under- 
ground sewer, drain or vent piping. 

f. Couplings installed aboveground shall include center stops. 
EXCEPTION: Slip-on repair couplings used for repair or rework. 

g. The shear tests required under this Section shall be performed in accordance with the shear test proce- 
dures specified under any of the coupling standards listed in Table 3.1.3 that include such tests. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 11 



4.3.9 Plastic DWV Pipe to Other Materials 

a. Threaded Joints: Threaded joints for connecting plastic drainage piping to other materials shall be made 
with proper male or female threaded plastic adapters. Joints shall not be over-tightened. After hand tightening, 
one-half to one full turn shall be made with a strap wrench. 

b. Solid Wall Plastic Pipe to Cast-iron Hub Ends: Joints shall be made by caulking the plastic pipe into the 
hub end with molten lead and oakum or by use of a compression gasket that is compressed when the plastic 
pipe is inserted into the hub end. Joints shall be permitted to be made with or without a hub end plastic adapter. 
Adapters without a caulking bead shall be permitted. 

c. Cellular Core Plastic Pipe to Cast-iron Hub Ends: Joints shall be made by caulking a solid plastic adapter 
into the cast-iron hub end with molten lead and oakum or by use of a compression gasket that is compressed 
when the plastic pipe is inserted into the hub end. Adapters without a caulking bead shall be permitted. Cel- 
lular core plastic pipe shall not be lead caulked. 

d. Plastic Pipe to Galvanized Steel, Copper or Stainless Steel DWV Tube, or Cast-iron Spigot Ends: Joints 
between plastic pipe and the listed materials shall be made with proper transition fittings. 

e. ABS and PVC Plastic Pipe: Solvent cemented non-pressure joints between ABS and PVC DWV piping 
systems shall be made with an ASTM D3 138 solvent cement intended for such transition joints. Transition ce- 
ment shall not be permitted to be used within buildings. Transition joints shall be a minimum of 3 feet outside 
of buildings. 

4.4 CONNECTIONS BETWEEN DRAINAGE PIPING AND CERTAIN 
FIXTURES 

a. Connections between drainage piping and floor outlet plumbing fixtures shall be made by means of an ap- 
proved flange that is attached to the drainage piping in accordance with the provisions of this chapter. The floor 
flange shall be set on and securely anchored to the building structure. 

b. Connections between drainage piping and wall hung water closets shall be made by means of an approved 
extension nipple or horn adapter. 

c. Connections shall be bolted to the flange or carrier using corrosion resisting bolts or screws, or assemblies 
recommended by the manufacturer. 

4.5 WATERPROOFING OF OPENINGS 

a. Joints around vent pipes at the roof shall be made watertight by the use of lead, copper, aluminum, plastic, or 
other approved flashing or flashing materials. See Section 12.4.7. 

b. Exterior wall openings shall be made watertight. 



78 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Chapter 5 



Traps, Cleanouts and Backwater Valves 



5.1 SEPARATE TRAPS FOR EACH FIXTURE 

a. Plumbing fixtures shall be separately trapped by a water seal trap placed as close as possible to the fix- 
ture outlet. 

b. The vertical distance from the fixture outlet to the trap weir shall not exceed 24 inches. 

c. Fixtures shall not be double-trapped unless a relief vent is provided between the two traps. 

d. Fixture designs having integral dual traps within the fixture shall be permitted. 
EXCEPTIONS: 

(1) Fixtures that have integral traps. 

(2) Interceptors in Chapter 6 that provide the required trap seal. 

Note: Interceptors in Chapter 6 that do not provide the required trap seal shall be provided with a separate 
trap. 

(3) A combination plumbing fixture may be installed on one trap provided the waste outlets are not more 
than 30 inches apart. 

(4) One trap may be installed for a 2 or 3-compartment sink or up to three (3) lavatories that are immedi- 
ately adjacent to each other in the same room, and where the trap is centrally located when three such fixtures 
are installed. 

(5) No clothes washer or laundry sink shall be discharged to a trap serving a kitchen sink. 

(6) As otherwise permitted by this Code. 

5.2 SIZE OF FIXTURE TRAPS 

Fixture trap size (nominal diameter) shall be sufficient to drain the fixture rapidly and in no case less than given 
in Table 5.2. No trap shall be larger than the drainage pipe into which it discharges. Integral traps shall conform to 
appropriate standards. 

5.3 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR TRAPS 

5.3.1 Design of Traps 

Fixture traps shall be self-scouring and shall have no interior partitions except where such traps are integral 
with the fixture or where corrosion resistant materials of plastic or glass are used. Solid connections, slip 
joints, or couplings may be used on the trap inlet, trap outlet, or within the trap seal. (See Section 7.4.6.) 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



79 



Table 5.2 
MINIMUM SIZE OF NON-INTEGRAL TRAPS 


Plumbing Fixture 


Trap Size in inches 


Bathtub (with or without overhead shower) 


1-1/2 


Bidet 


1-1/4 


Clothes washing machine standpipe 


2 


Combination sink and wash (laundry) sink with food waste grinder unit 


1-1/2(1) 


Combination kitchen sink, domestic dishwasher, and food waste grinder 


1-1/2 


Dental unit or cuspidor 


1-1/4 


Dental lavatory 


1-1/4 


Drinking fountain 


1-1/4 


Dishwasher, commercial 


2 


Dishwasher, domestic (non-integral trap) 


1-1/2 


Floor drain 


2 


Food waste grinder, commercial use 


2 


Food waste grinder, domestic use 


1-1/2 


Kitchen sink, domestic, with food waste grinder unit 


1-1/2 


Kitchen sink, domestic 


1-1/2 


Lavatory, common (private and public) 


1-1/4 


Lavatory (barber shop, beauty parlor or surgeon's) 


1-1/2 


Lavatory, multiple type (wash fountain or wash sink) 


1-1/2 


Laundry tray ( 1 or 2 compartments) 


1-1/2 


Shower stall or shower drain (single shower head) 


1-1/2 


Shower stall or shower drain (multiple shower heads) 


2 


Sink (surgeon's) 


1-1/2 


Sink (flushing rim type, flush valve supplied) 


3 


Sink (service type with floor outlet trap standard) 


3 


Sink (service type with P trap) 


2 


Sink, commercial (pot, scullery, or similar type) 


2 


Sink, commercial (with food grinder unit) 


2 



NOTES FOR TABLE 5.2 

(1) Separate trap required for wash tray and separate trap required for sink compartment with 
food waste grinder. 

5.3.2 Trap Seals 

Each fixture trap shall have a liquid seal of not less than two inches and not more than four inches. 
EXCEPTIONS: 

(1) Interceptors in Chapter 6 that provide the required trap seal. 

Note: Interceptors in Chapter 6 that do not provide the required trap seal shall be provided with a separate 
trap. 

(2) Special conditions such as accessible fixtures, a deeper seal may be required by the Authority Having 
Jurisdiction 

5.3.3 Trap Setting and Protection 

Traps shall be set level with respect to their water seals and, where necessary, shall be protected from freez- 
ing. 



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2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



5.3.4 Building Traps 

Building traps shall not be installed except where required by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Each build- 
ing trap when installed shall be provided with a cleanout and with a relieving vent or fresh air intake on the 
inlet side of the trap that shall be at least one-half the diameter of the drain to which it connects. Such reliev- 
ing vent or fresh air intake shall be carried above grade and terminate in a screened outlet located outside the 
building. 

5.3.5 Prohibited Traps 

a. The following types of traps shall be prohibited: 

1. Traps that depend upon moving parts to maintain their seal. 

2. Bell traps. 

3. Crown vented traps. 

4. Separate fixture traps that depend on interior partitions for their seal, except if made from plastic, glass 
or other corrosion resistant materials. 

5. "S" traps, of uniform internal dimension. 

6. Drum traps. 

b. Hair interceptors, precious metal interceptors and similar appurtenances shall be permitted as required. 

5.3.6 Trap Seal Maintenance 

a. Traps that could lose their seal due to evaporation because of infrequent use shall have accessible means 
to replenish the trap seal or be connected to a trap primer conforming to ASSE 1018 or ASSE 1044. 

b. In addition to the priming requirements of Section 5.3.6.a, floor drains shall be permitted to be fitted 
with a barrier type floor drain trap seal protection device complying with ASSE 1072. 

5.4 DRAINAGE PIPE CLEANOUTS 

5.4.1 Cleanout Spacing 

a. Cleanouts in horizontal drainage lines shall be spaced at intervals not exceeding the following values: 

4" pipe size or less: 75 feet 
5" size and larger: 100 feet 

b. The distance referred to in Sections 5.4.1a shall include the developed length of the cleanout pipe. 

5.4.2 Building Sewer 

Cleanouts, when installed on an underground building sewer, shall be extended vertically to or above the 
finished grade level. 

5.4.3 Change of Direction 

a. Cleanouts shall be installed at changes of direction in drainage piping made with 60°, 70° and 90° fittings. 
EXCEPTION: Where there are multiple changes of direction, not more than one cleanout shall be required in 

40 feet of run. 

b. Cleanouts shall not be required where changes of direction are made with one or more 22 1/2° or 45° fit- 
tings. 

5.4.4 Cleanouts for Concealed Piping 

Cleanouts for concealed piping shall be extended through and terminate flush with the finished wall or floor; 
or pits or chases may be left in the wall or floor, provided they are of sufficient size to permit removal of the 
cleanout plug and proper cleaning of the system. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 8 1 



5.4.5 Base of Stacks 

a. A cleanout shall be provided near the base of each vertical waste or soil stack and located 6 inches above 
the flood level rim of the lowest fixture on the lowest floor. If there are no fixtures installed on the lowest 
floor, the cleanout shall be installed at the base of the stack. 

b. For buildings with a floor slab, a crawl space of less than 18 inches, or where a stack cleanout is not ac- 
cessible, the cleanout shall be installed in the building drain or building sewer, not more than five feet outside 
the building wall. 

c. Rain leaders and conductors connected to a building storm sewer shall have a cleanout installed at the 
base of the outside leader or inside conductor before it connects to the horizontal drain. 

5.4.6 Building Drain and Building Sewer Junctions and the Property Line 

a. There shall be a cleanout near the junction of a building drain and building sewer either inside or outside 
the building wall. 

b. Cleanouts shall be placed in the building sanitary sewer and the building storm sewer at the property 
line and brought to the surface in accordance with the requirements of the Adopting Agency. 

5.4.7 Direction of Flow 

Cleanouts shall be installed so that the cleanout opens in the direction of the flow of the drainage line or at 
right angles thereto. 

5.4.8 Connections to Cleanouts Prohibited 

a. Cleanout plug openings in other than drainage pattern fittings shall not be used for the installation of new 
fixtures or floor drains. 

b. If a cleanout fitting or cleanout plug opening is removed from a drainage pattern fitting in order to ex- 
tend the drain, another cleanout of equal access and capacity shall be provided in the same location. 

5.4.9 Cleanout Size 

Cleanout size shall conform with Table 5.4.9. 



Table 5.4.9 
SIZE OF CLEANOUTS 


Nominal 
Piping Size (inches) 


Nominal 
Size of Cleanout (inches) 


1-1/4 


1-1/4 


1-1/2 


1-1/2 


2 


2 


3 


3 


4&6 


4 


8 & 10 


6 


12& 15 


8 



NOTES FOR TABLE 5.4.9 

(1) See Section 5.4.10 for sizes 12" or larger for building sewers. 

(2) See Section 5.4.13 for cleanout equivalents. 



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2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



5.4.10 Manholes for Large Pipes 

a. Manholes shall be provided as cleanouts for building sewers 12" size and larger. Manholes shall be pro- 
vided at every change of size, alignment, direction, grade, or elevation. The distance between manholes shall 
not exceed 300 feet. 

b. Manholes may be provided in lieu of cleanouts in underground building sewers, building drains, and 
branches thereof, 8" size and larger. 

c. Such manholes shall comply with the requirements of Section 5.4.10a. 

d. If manholes are installed indoors, they shall have a bolted, gas-tight cover. 

e. Manhole construction shall comply with the standards of the Authority Having Jurisdiction. 

5.4.11 Cleanout Clearances 

Cleanouts on 3" or larger pipes shall be so installed that there is a clearance of not less than 18" for the pur- 
pose of rodding. Cleanouts smaller than 3 inches shall be so installed that there is a 12" clearance for rod- 
ding. 

5.4.12 Cleanouts to be Kept Uncovered 

Cleanout plugs shall not be covered with cement, plaster, or any other permanent finishing material. Where 
it is necessary to conceal a cleanout plug, a covering plate or access door shall be provided that will permit 
access to the plug. 

5.4.13 Cleanout Equivalent 

Where the piping is concealed, a fixture trap or a fixture with integral trap, removable without disturbing 
concealed roughing work, shall be accepted as a cleanout equivalent, provided the opening to be used as a 
cleanout opening is the size required by Table 5.4.9. 
EXCEPTIONS: 

(1) The trap arm of a floor drain with a removable strainer. 

(2) Fixtures with removable traps not more than one pipe size smaller than the drain served shall be per- 
mitted. 

5.4.14 Cleanouts for Floor Drains 

A cleanout shall be provided immediately downstream from a floor drain whose strainer is not removable. 

5.5 BACKWATER VALVES 

5.5.1 Where Required 

a. Fixtures and/or drain inlets subject to backflow and overflow from blocked or restricted public sewers 
shall be protected by a backwater valve. 

b. Such situations include those where the flood level rim of fixtures and/or drain inlets are below the 
overflow level of the first upstream manhole in the public sewer that will overflow due to a blockage or flow 
restriction in the public sewer. 

c. Backwater valves shall be installed in drainage piping that receives flow only from fixtures and/or drains 
that are subject to backflow from public sewers. 

d. Other portions of the drainage system not subject to such backflow shall not drain through a backwater 
valve. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 83 



5.5.2 Material Standard and Accessibility 

Backwater valves shall conform to ASME Al 12.14.1 and be installed so that their internal working parts are 
accessible for periodic cleaning, repair or replacement. 

5.5.3 Notice of the Installation of Backwater Valves 

When backwater valves are installed in building sanitary drainage systems, a notice shall be posted at the 
building water service shutoff valve(s) describing where backwater valves are located. 



84 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Chapter 6 



Liquid Waste Treatment Equipment 

6.1 GENERAL 

6.1.1 Where Required 

Interceptors, separators, neutralizers, dilution tanks, or other means shall be provided where required to 
prevent liquid wastes containing fats, oils, greases, flammable liquids, sand, solids, acid or alkaline waste, 
chemicals, or other harmful substances from entering a building drainage system, a public or private sewer, 
or sewage treatment plant or process. 

6.1.2 Design 

The size and type of liquid waste treatment equipment shall be based on the maximum volume and rate of 
discharge of the plumbing fixtures and equipment being drained. 

6.1.3 Exclusion of Other Liquid Wastes 

Only wastes from fixtures and equipment requiring treatment or separation shall be discharged into treatment 
equipment. 

6.1.4 Approval 

6.1.4.1 General 

The type, size, capacity, design, arrangement, construction, and installation of liquid waste treatment 
devices shall be as approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. 

6.1.4.2 Grease Interceptors and Grease Removal (or Recovery) Devices (GRD) 

Grease interceptors rated for up to 1 00 gallons per minute shall be certified according to PDI Standard 
G101 orASME A112.14.3. Grease removal (or recovery) devices rated for up to 100 gallons per 
minute shall be certified according to ASME Al 12. 14.4. 

6.1.4.3 Mechanical Equipment 

Each installation of a manufactured liquid waste treatment device employing pumps, filters, drums, 
collection plates, or other mechanical means of operation shall be certified by the manufacturer to pro- 
vide effluent meeting the environmental requirements of the sewer or other approved point to which it 
discharges. 

6.1.5 Venting 

Liquid waste treatment equipment shall be so designed that they will not become air-bound if tight covers are 
used. Equipment shall be properly vented if loss of its trap seal is possible. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



85 



6.1.6 Accessibility 

a. Liquid waste treatment equipment shall be so installed that it is accessible for the removal of covers and 
the performance of necessary cleaning, servicing and maintenance. 

b. The need to use ladders or move bulky objects in order to service interceptors and other liquid waste 
treatment equipment shall constitute a violation of accessibility. 

6.1.7 Point of Discharge 

Connections to sewers or other points of discharge for the effluent from liquid waste treatment equipment 
shall be as approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. 

6.2 GREASE INTERCEPTORS 

6.2.1 General 

a. Grease interceptors shall comply with the requirements of the Adopting Agency. 

b. Grease interceptors include the following types: 

1 . Type I Hydro-mechanical interceptors 

2. Grease removal (or recovery) devices (GRD) 

3. Type II Gravity interceptors 

c. Grease interceptors shall be provided to receive the waste discharges from fixtures in food handling areas 
that introduce grease into the sanitary drainage system. Fixtures include, but are not limited to pot washing sinks, 
utensil soak sinks, pre-rinse sinks at dishwashers, dishwashers, wok range stations, drains from wash-down 
ventilation hoods, can washing drains, mop sinks, floor drains and floor sinks in areas around grease producing 
fixtures, and similar fixtures. 

d. Water closets, urinals, and other fixtures that discharge human waste shall not discharge through a grease 
interceptor. 

e. Handwashing sinks, lavatories, salad prep sinks, ice machine drains, and other non-grease waste drainages 
shall be permitted to discharge through a grease interceptor along with grease producing fixtures. 

6.2.1.1 Type I Hydro-Mechanical Grease Interceptors 

a. Hydro-mechanical interceptors up to 1 00 gallons per minute capacity shall comply with the 
performance, testing, and installation requirements of ASME A112.14.3 or PDI Standard G101 and 
Section 6.2. 

b. These interceptors shall be sized according to Section 6.2.10. 

c. A calibrated, non-adjustable flow control device shall be provided on the inlet side of each 
interceptor to prevent the waste flow (gpm) from exceeding the rated flow capacity of the interceptor. 
The flow control device shall be vented in accordance with Section 6.2.4. 

6.2.1.2 Grease Removal (or Recovery) Devices (GRD) 

a. Hydro-mechanical interceptors that are capable of automatically removing free-floating grease, 
fats, and oils from their waste discharge without intervention of the user except for maintenance shall 
comply with ASME Al 12.14.4 and Section 6.2. 

b. These interceptors shall be sized according to Section 6.2.10. 

c. A calibrated, non-adjustable flow control device shall be provided on the inlet side of each 
interceptor to prevent the waste flow (gpm) from exceeding the rated flow capacity of the interceptor. 
The flow control device shall be vented in accordance with Section 6.2.4. 



86 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



6.2.1.3 Type II Gravity Grease Interceptors 

a. Outdoor underground gravity grease interceptors serving commercial kitchens shall be sized and 
designed by a registered design professional who is licensed to practice in the particular jurisdiction. 

b. Gravity grease interceptors shall comply with the requirements of the Adopting Agency, including 
materials of construction, arrangement, minimum size, and retention time. 

c. Where drain piping and a gravity grease interceptor are provided for the future installation of a 
commercial kitchen, the design plans shall indicate the maximum permitted future drainage load in 
either gallons per minute (excluding diversity) or drainage fixture units (DFU). 

6.2.2 Compliance for Grease Interceptor Sizes Up to 100 GPM 

a. Type I hydro-mechanical grease interceptors shall comply with ASMEA1 12.14.3 and Section 6.2.1.1, 
and be installed in accordance with the recommendations of PDI Standard G101 and the manufacturer's in- 
structions. They shall have a grease retention capacity not less than two pounds for each gpm of rated flow. 

b. Grease interceptors that include automatic grease removal or recovery (GRD) shall comply with ASME 
A112.14.4 and Section 6.2.1.2. 

6.2.3 Fixture Traps 

a. Fixtures that discharge into a hydro-mechanical or GRD grease interceptor shall be trapped and vented 
between the fixture and the interceptor. 

EXCEPTION: A hydro-mechanical or GRD grease interceptor with the required flow control device shall be 
permitted to serve as a trap for an individual fixture if the developed length of the drain between the fixture 
and the interceptor does not exceed four feet horizontally and 30 inches vertically. 

b. Where one or more fixtures discharge into a hydro-mechanical or GRD grease interceptor, the required 
vented flow control device shall be installed in the drain line between the fixture(s) and the interceptor. 

6.2.4 Fixture Venting 

a. Trapped fixtures draining to grease interceptors shall be vented in accordance with the manufacturer's 
instructions and the applicable provisions of Chapter 12, including combination waste and vent venting. 

b. Where a grease interceptor is permitted to serve as the trap for a single fixture that does not have a trap, 
the air intake for the flow control device between the fixture and the grease interceptor shall be vented by a 
return bend that is open to the space at least 6 inches above the flood level rim of the fixture being served. 

c. When the fixture connected to the grease interceptor has a separate vented trap, the air intake on the 
flow control device shall be connected to the vent piping system. 

6.2.5 Food Waste Grinders 

a. Where food waste grinders discharge through a hydro-mechanical or GRD grease interceptor, a solids 
separator shall be installed either in the drain line from the food waste grinder or upstream of the grease 
interceptor to prevent food waste particles from entering the grease interceptor. 

b. Solids separators shall not be required where food waste grinders discharge to a gravity grease 
interceptor. 

6.2.6 Commercial Dishwashers 

a. Commercial dishwashers shall be permitted to discharge through a grease interceptor. 

b. Where the discharge rate of a commercial dishwasher in gallons per minute is converted to drainage 
fixture units (DFU), each 7.5 GPM of discharge shall be equated to one (1) DFU, with the total rounded up to 
the next whole DFU. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 87 



6.2.7 Location 

Hydro-mechanical and GRD interceptors shall be permitted to be installed within buildings unless otherwise 
prohibited by the Adopting Agency. Where gravity grease interceptors or holding tanks are remote from the 
fixtures served, the drain piping between the fixtures and the interceptor or holding tank shall be as direct as 
possible and shall include provisions for periodic cleaning. 

6.2.8 Prohibited Interceptors 

The installation of water-cooled grease interceptors is prohibited. 

6.2.9 Chemicals - Where Prohibited 

a. The use of enzymes, emulsifiers, or similar chemicals in hydro-mechanical grease interceptors, GRD 
grease interceptors, and gravity interceptors is prohibited. 

b. Sinks or sink compartments used for sanitizing pots or other ware shall not be drained through a grease 
interceptor. 

6.2.10 Interceptor Sizing 

a. Where hydro-mechanical interceptors and grease removal devices (GRD) serve one or more individual 
fixtures, they shall be sized for the total drainage flow rate from the fixtures served in accordance with Table 
6.2.10. All compartments of multi-compartment sinks shall be considered to drain simultaneously, except that 
sanitizing compartments shall not be drained through a grease interceptor. 

b. Gravity interceptors for commercial kitchens shall be sized based on the inlet pipe size flowing half- full 
according to Appendix K and a 30-minute retention time or as required by the Adopting Agency. 



Table 6.2.10 

FIXTURE DRAINAGE FLOW RATES FOR SIZING 

HYDRO-MECHANICAL AND GRD GREASE INTERCEPTORS 


FIXTURE 


FLOW 


1-1/4" Sink Drain Outlet (each) 


7.5 GPM 


1-1/2" Sink Drain Outlet (each) 


15GPM 


2" Sink Drain Outlet (each) 


22.5 GPM 


Floor Drain without Indirect Waste 


OGPM 


Floor Drain or Floor Sink with Indirect Waste 


(1) 


Commercial Dishwasher 


(2) 



NOTES FOR TABLE 6.2.10 

(1) The GPM drain load shall be the total indirect waste flow in GPM. 

(2) The GPM drain load for a commercial dishwasher shall be not less than the manufacturer's peak rate of drain 
flow with a full tank. 

6.2.11 Individual Dwelling Units 

Grease interceptors shall not be required in individual dwelling units or any private living quarters. 

6.2.12 Combination Systems 

A combination of hydro-mechanical and exterior gravity grease interceptors shall be allowed in order to meet 
separation needs of the Adopting Agency when space or existing physical constraints of existing buildings 
necessitates such installations. 



88 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



6.3 OIL/WATER SEPARATORS 

6.3.1 Where Required and Approved Point of Discharge 

a. Liquid waste containing grease, oil, solvents, or flammable liquids shall not be directly discharged into 
any sanitary sewer, storm sewer, or other point of disposal. Such contaminants shall be removed by an ap- 
propriate separator. 

b. Sand interceptors and oil separators shall be provided wherever floors, pits or surface areas subject to 
accumulation of grease or oil from service or repair operations are drained or washed into a drainage system. 
Such locations include, but are not limited to, car or truck washing facilities, engine cleaning facilities, and 
similar operations. The drainage or effluent from such locations shall be connected to the sanitary sewer. 

c. Drains shall not be required in service or repair garages that employ dry absorbent cleaning methods; 
however, if any drains are located in such areas, they shall discharge to the sanitary sewer through a sand 
interceptor and oil interceptor. 

d. Drains shall not be required in parking garages unless the garage, or portions thereof, has provisions for 
either washing vehicles or rinsing the floor. Where such cleaning facilities are provided, the area subject to 
waste drainage shall be provided with one or more floor drains, complete with sand interceptor and oil inter- 
ceptor, and the effluent from the oil separator shall be connected to the sanitary sewer. Any storm water shall 
be drained separately and directly to the storm sewer. 

e. Where parking garages without provisions for vehicle washing or floor rinsing require storm water drain- 
age, drains shall be permitted to connect to the storm sewer without a sand interceptor and oil separator. Such 
drainage, including melting snow, ice or rainwater runoff from vehicles, shall not be connected to the sani- 
tary sewer. 

f. Where oil separators include a waste holding tank, it shall not be used to store or contain any other waste 
oil (e.g., motor oil) or hazardous fluid. 

6.3.2 Design of Oil Separators 

a. Where oil separators are required in garages and service stations, they shall have a minimum volume of 
six cubic feet for the first 100 square feet of area drained, plus one cubic foot for each additional 100 square 
feet of area drained. Oil separators in other applications shall be sized according to the manufacturers rated 
flow. 

b. Field-fabricated oil separators shall have a depth of not less than two feet below the invert of the dis- 
charge outlet. The outlet opening shall have a water seal depth of not less than 18 inches. 

c. Manufactured oil separators shall be sized according to gallons per minute of rated flow. They shall 
include a flow control device and adjustable oil draw-off. 

d. Oil separators shall have a 3-inch minimum discharge line and a 2-inch minimum vent to atmosphere. 
The discharge line shall have a full-size cleanout extended to grade or otherwise be accessible. 

e. The oil draw-off or overflow piping from oil separators shall be connected to an approved waste oil tank 
that is installed and permitted according to the environmental requirements of the Authority Having Jurisdic- 
tion. The waste oil from the separator shall flow by gravity or may be pumped to a higher elevation by an au- 
tomatic pump. Pumps shall be adequately sized, explosion-proof, and accessible. Waste oil tanks shall have a 
2-inch minimum pump-out connection and a 1-1/2 inch minimum vent to atmosphere. 

f. Where oil separators are subject to backflow from a sewer or other point of disposal, their discharge line 
shall include a backwater valve, installed in accordance with Section 5.5. 

g. Where oil separators are installed in parking garages and other areas where the waste flow will include 
sand, dirt or similar soilds, a sand interceptor shall be provided upstream from the oil separator. Sand inter- 
ceptors shall comply with Section 6.4. 

h. Oil interceptors, waste oil tanks, oil pump-out connections, backwater valves and atmospheric vent pip- 
ing shall be permanently identified by suitable labels or markings. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 89 



6.3.3 Vapor Venting 

The atmospheric vents from oil separators and their waste holding tanks shall be separate from other plumb- 
ing system vents and shall be extended to an approved location at least 12 feet above grade or the surround- 
ing area. 

6.3.4 Combination Oil Separator and Sand Separator 

A combination oil separator and sand separator meeting the functional requirements of Sections 6.3 and 6.4 
shall be permitted to be installed. 

6.4 SAND INTERCEPTORS 

6.4.1 Where Required 

a. A sand interceptor shall be installed upstream from an oil separator if required in Section 6.3.2.g. 

b. A sand interceptor shall be provided downstream from any drain whose discharge may contain sand, 
sediment, or similar matter on a continuing basis that would tend to settle and obstruct the piping in the 
drainage system. Multiple floor drains shall be permitted to discharge through one sand interceptor. 

6.4.2 Construction and Size 

a. Sand interceptors shall be constructed of concrete, brick, fabricated coated steel, or other watertight 
material, and shall be internally baffled to provide an inlet section for the accumulation of sediment and a 
separate outlet section. 

b. The outlet pipe of a sand interceptor shall be the same size as the drain served. 

EXCEPTION: If serving an oil separator, the outlet from the sand interceptor shall be the same size as the 
inlet to the oil separator. 

c. The inlet baffle shall have two top skimming openings, each the same size as the outlet pipe and at the 
same invert as the outlet opening. The openings in the baffle shall be offset to prevent straight-line flow 
through the interceptor from any of its inlets to its outlet. 

d. The inlet to the interceptor shall be at the same elevation as, or higher than, the outlet. The bottom of the 
inlet section shall be at least 24 inches below the invert of the outlet pipe. 

e. The bottom of the inlet section shall be at least two feet wide and two feet long for flow rates up to 20 
gallons per minute. The bottom of the inlet section shall be increased by one square foot for each 5 gpm of 
flow or fraction thereof over 20 gpm. The bottom of the outlet section shall be not less than 50% of the area 
of the bottom of the inlet section. 

f. A solid removable cover shall cover the outlet section. An open grating suitable for the traffic in the area 
in which it is located shall cover the inlet section. Covers shall be set flush with the finished floor. 

6.4.3 Water Seal 

When a sand interceptor is used separately without also discharging through an oil separator, its outlet pipe 
shall be turned down inside the separator below the water level to provide a six-inch minimum water seal. A 
cleanout shall be provided for the outlet line. 

6.4.4 Alternate Design 

Alternate designs for construction of, or baffling in, sand interceptors shall comply with the intent of this 
Code and be submitted to the Authority Having Jurisdiction for approval. 



90 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



6.5 SOLIDS INTERCEPTORS 

a. Solids interceptors shall be provided where necessary to prevent harmful solid materials from entering 
the drainage system on a continuing basis. Such harmful materials include, but are not limited to, aquarium 
gravel, barium, ceramic chips, clay, cotton, denture grindings, dental silver, fish scales, gauze, glass particles, 
hair, jewels, lint, metal grindings, plaster, plastic grindings, precious metal chips, sediment, small stones, and 
solid food particles. 

b. Solids interceptors shall separate solids by gravity, trapping them in a removable bucket or strainer. 

c. Solids interceptors shall be sized according to their drain pipe size or by the required flow rate. 

6.6 NEUTRALIZING AND DILUTION TANKS 

a. Neutralizing or dilution tanks shall be provided where necessary to prevent acidic or alkaline waste from 
entering the building drainage system. Such waste shall be neutralized or diluted to levels that are safe for the 
piping in the drainage and sewer systems. 

b. Vents for neutralizing or dilution tanks shall be constructed of acid-resistant piping and shall be indepen- 
dent from sanitary system vents. 

6.7 SPECIAL APPLICATIONS 

6.7.1 Laundries 

Commercial laundries shall be equipped with one or more lint interceptors having wire baskets or similar de- 
vices, removable for cleaning, that will prevent passage into the drainage system of solids 1/2 inch or larger 
in size, strings, rags, buttons, lint, and other materials that would be detrimental to the drainage system. 

6.7.2 Bottling Establishments 

Bottling plants shall discharge their process wastes into a solids separator that will retain broken glass and 
other solids, before discharging liquid wastes into the drainage system. 

6.7.3 Slaughter Houses 

Drains in slaughtering rooms and dressing rooms shall be equipped with separators or interceptors, approved 
by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, that will prevent the discharge into the drainage-system of feathers, 
entrails, and other waste materials that are likely to clog the drainage system. 

6.7.4 Barber Shops and Beauty Parlors 

Shampoo sinks in barbershops, beauty parlors, and other grooming facilities shall have hair interceptors 
installed in lieu of regular traps. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code Q| 



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92 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Chapter 7 



Plumbing Fixtures, Fixture Fittings and 
Plumbing Appliances 



7.1 FIXTURE STANDARDS 

Plumbing fixtures, plumbing fixture trim, and plumbing appliances shall comply with the standards listed in Table 
3.1.3. Plumbing supply fittings covered under the scope of NSF 61 shall comply with the requirements of NSF 61. 

7.2 FIXTURES FOR ACCESSIBLE USE 

Plumbing fixtures for accessible use and their installation shall confirm to the requirements of the Authority Hav- 
ing Jurisdiction. 

7.3 INSTALLATION 

7.3.1 General 

Plumbing fixtures, fixture trim, and plumbing appliances shall be installed in accordance with the require- 
ments of this Code and the manufacturer's instructions and recommendations. 

7.3.2 Minimum Clearances 

For other than accessible applications, minimum clearances between plumbing fixtures and from fixtures to 
adjacent walls shall be in accordance with Figure 7.3.2. 

7.3.3 Access for Cleaning 

Plumbing fixtures shall be so installed as to provide access for cleaning the fixture and the surrounding area. 

7.3.4 Securing Floor-Mounted Fixtures 

Floor-mounted fixtures shall be securely supported by the floor or floor/wall structure. No strain shall be 
transmitted to the connecting piping. Fastening screws or bolts shall be corrosion-resisting. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



93 



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24" CLEARENCE IN FRONT OF OPENING 



Figure 7.3.2 
MINIMUM FIXTURE CLEARANCES 



94 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



7.3.5 Supporting Wall-Hung Fixtures 

a. Wall-hung water closets shall be supported by concealed metal carriers that transmit the entire weight 
of the fixture to the floor and place no strain on the wall or connecting piping. Supports of this design shall 
comply with ASME A 1 1 2.6. 1 . 

b. Free-standing lavatories, wall-hung urinals, water closets with or without concealed tanks and other 
wall-mounted fixtures shall be supported by a concealed or exposed finished wall hanger plate or equivalent 
that transmits the weight of the fixture to the wall structure, if adequate, or to the floor without placing strain 
on the piping. Such supports shall comply with ASME Al 12.6.2 or ASME Al 12. 19. 12. In addition to the 
wall support brackets, pedestals or legs may provide additional support for pedestal lavatories. 

7.3.6 Orientation and Operation of Faucets 

Where fixtures are supplied with both hot and cold water, the faucet(s) and supply piping shall be installed 
so that the hot water is controlled from the left side of the fixture or faucet when facing the controls during 
fixture use. 

EXCEPTION: Single handle and single control valves for showers and tub/shower combinations where the 
hot and cold temperature orientation is marked on the fitting surface. 

7.3.7 Access to Concealed Connections 

Where fixtures have drains with concealed slip joint connections or incorporate a cleanout plug, a means of 
access shall be provided for inspection and repair. Such access is not required for connections that are sol- 
dered, threaded, solvent cemented, or equivalently secured. 

7.3.8 Joints with Walls and Floors 

Joints where fixtures contact walls and floors shall be caulked or otherwise made water-tight. 

7.4 WATER CLOSETS 

7.4.1 Compliance 

Vitreous china water closets shall comply with ASME Al 12.1 9. 2M. Plastic water closets shall comply with 
ANSI Z 124.4. 

7.4.2 Water Conservation 

Water closets, whether operated by flush tank, flushometer tank, or fmshometer valve, shall comply with 
ASME A112.19.2M or ANSI Z124.4 and shall be the low-consumption type having an average consumption 
of not more than 1 .6 gallons per flush when tested in accordance with ASME Al 12.19.6. 
EXCEPTION: Blow-out water closets and clinical sinks. 

7.4.3 Contour of Bowls 

Water closets shall have elongated bowls with open-front seats. 
EXCEPTIONS: 

(1) Water closets having closed-front seats and either round or elongated bowls shall be permitted in dwell- 
ing units. 

(2) Water closets having closed-front seats that are protected by automated seat cover protection. 

(3) A water closet in a private office toilet room, intended for the exclusive use of one individual. 

(4) Water closets intended for use in pre-school and kindergarten facilities. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 95 



7.4.4 Bowl Height 

The height of water closet bowls shall be a minimum of 13/4 inches from the floor to the top of the rim. 
EXCEPTIONS: 

(1) Bowls intended for children's use (5 years and younger) are permitted to be 9-1/2" to 10-1/2" high to the 
rim and juvenile use (6-12 years) are permitted to be 10-1/2" to 13-1/2" high to the rim. 

(2) The height of bowls intended specifically for children's accessible use (12 years and younger) shall be 
such that the top of the seat is 11" to 17" above the floor and comply with Section 7.2. 

(3) The height of bowls intended specifically for adult accessible use (13 years and older) shall be such that 
the top of the seat is 17" to 19" above the floor and comply with Section 7.2. 

7.4.5 Water Closet Seats 

Seats for water closets shall be of smooth, non-absorbent materials, be properly sized to fit the water closet 

bowl, and comply with ANSI Z124.5 

EXCEPTION: Water closet seats in single dwelling units are not required to comply with ANSI Z124.5. 

7.4.6 Hotels, Motels, Dormitories, and Boarding Houses 

Water closets in hotels, motels, dormitories, boarding houses and similar occupancies shall be the elongated 
type complying with ASME A112.19.2 or ANSI Z124.4, andASME A112.19.6 and with open-front seats 
complying with ANSI Z124.5 
EXCEPTIONS: 

(1) Closed-front seats shall be permitted in hotel and motel guest rooms. 

(2) Closed-front seats that are provided with automatic seat cover protection. 

7.4.7 Prohibited Water Closets 

Water closets not having a visible trap seal or having either unventilated spaces or walls that are not washed 
at each discharge shall be prohibited. 

7.4.8 Macerating Toilet Systems 

Macerating toilet systems and related components shall comply with ASME All 2.3.4 or CSAB45.9. 

7.5 URINALS 

7.5.1 Compliance 

a. Water-fed vitreous china urinals shall comply with ASME All 2. 19.2. 

b. Non-water vitreous china urinals shall comply with ASME Al 12.19.19. 

c. Water-fed and waterless plastic urinals shall comply with ANSI Z 124.9. 

d. Waterless (non-water) urinals shall have a liquid trap seal as required by Section 5.3.2, ASME 
A112.19.19, and ANSI Z124.9. 

e. Water-fed urinals with a concealed trap seal and/or an outlet strainer shall be supplied by an automatic 
flushing device. 

7.5.2 Water Conservation 

Water-fed urinals shall be the low-consumption type having an average water consumption of not more than 
1 .0 gallon per flush when tested in accordance with ASME Al 12.9.6. 



96 2009 National Standard Plumbing "Code 



7.5.3 Surrounding Surfaces 

Urinals shall not be installed where wall and floor surfaces are not waterproof and do not have a smooth, 
readily cleanable, non-absorbent surface extending not less than four feet above the floor and one foot to each 
side of the urinal, and one foot in front of the lip of the urinal. 

7.5.4 Prohibited Urinals 

Trough urinals and urinals having walls that are not washed at each discharge shall be prohibited. 
EXCEPTION: Waterless (non-water) urinals. 

7.6 LAVATORIES 

7.6.1 Compliance 

a. Lavatories shall comply with the following standards: 

1. Ceramic, non-vitreous; ASME A112.19.9M 

2. Enameled cast-iron; ASME Al 12. 1 9. 1M 

3. Enameled steel; ASME All 2.1 9.4M 

4. Plastic; ANSI Z124.3 

5. Stainless steel; ASME A112.19.3M 

6. Vitreous china; ASME A112. 19.2M 

7.6.2 Water Conservation 

a. Except as required under Section 7.6.2.C, lavatory faucets shall be designed and manufactured so that they 
will not exceed a water flow rate of 2 .2 gallons per minute when tested in accordance with ASME A 1 1 2 1 8 1 / 
CSAB125.1. 

b. Public lavatory faucets, other than the metering type, shall be designed and manufactured according to 
ASME Al 12.1 8. 1/CSAB 125.1. 

c. Self-closing or self-closing/metering faucets shall be installed on lavatories intended to serve the tran- 
sient public, such as those in, but not limited to, service stations, train stations, airport terminals, restaurants, 
and convention halls. Metering faucets shall deliver not more than 0.25 gallon of water per use when tested 
in accordance with ASME Al 12. 18.1 /CS A B 125.1. Self-closing faucets shall be designed and manufactured 
so that they will not exceed a water flow rate of 0.5 gallon per minute when tested in accordance with ASME 
A112.18.1/CSAB125.1. 

7.6.3 Waste Outlet 

The waste outlet pipe on individual lavatories shall be not less than 1-1/4" nominal size. A strainer, pop-up 
stopper, crossbar grid, or other device shall be provided to protect the waste outlet. 

7.6.4 Integral Overflow 

Where lavatories include an integral overflow drain, the waste fitting shall be designed and installed so that 
standing water in the bowl of the fixture cannot rise in the overflow channel when the drain is closed, nor 
shall any water remain in the overflow channel when the bowl is empty. The overflow shall drain to the inlet 
side of the fixture trap. 

7.6.5 Lavatory Equivalent 

Where group-type wash fountains or wash sinks are used to satisfy the number of lavatories required by 
Section 7.21.1, each 18-inch usable length of rim having an available water spray shall be considered as one 
lavatory. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 97 



7.7 BIDETS 

7.7.1 Compliance 

Vitreous china bidets shall comply with ASME A112.19.2M. Bidet faucets shall comply to ASME A112.18.1/ 
CSAB125.1. 

7.7.2 Backflow Prevention 

Bidets having integral flushing rims shall have a vacuum breaker assembly on the mixed water supply to the 
fixture. Bidets without flushing rims shall have an over-the-rim supply fitting providing the air gap required 
by Chapter 10. 

7.7.3 Integral Overflow 

Where bidets include an integral overflow drain, the waste fitting shall be designed and installed so that 
standing water in the bowl of the fixture cannot rise in the overflow channel when the drain is closed, nor 
shall any water remain in the overflow channel when the bowl is empty. The overflow shall drain to the inlet 
side of the fixture trap. 

7.8 BATHTUBS 

7.8.1 Compliance 

a. Bathtubs shall comply with the following standards: 

1 . Plastic, cultured marble and other synthetic products or finishes; ANSI Z124. 1 

2. Enameled cast-iron; ASME All 2. 19.1 

3. Enameled steel; ASME Al 12. 19.4 

4. Bathtubs with pressure sealed doors; ASME Al 12.19.15 

7.8.2 Waste and Overflow 

Bathtubs shall have waste outlet and overflow pipes not less than 1-1/2" nominal size. Waste outlets shall be 
equipped with a pop-up waste, chain and stopper, or other type of drain plug. 

7.8.3 Combination Bath/Showers 

Shower heads, including the hand-held type, shall be designed and manufactured so that they will not exceed 
a water supply flow rate of 2.5 gallons per minute when tested in accordance with ASME Al 12.18. 1/CSA 
B125.1. The control of mixed water temperatures to bath/shower combinations shall comply with Section 
10.15.6. Surrounding wall construction shall be in accordance with Section 7.10.5.e. Riser pipes to shower 
heads shall be secured in accordance with Section 7.10.7. 

7.8.4 Backflow Prevention 

Unless equipped with an atmospheric backflow preventer in accordance with ASSE 1001 or ASME 

Al 12. 18.7, the bathtub filler shall be equipped with an air gap between the end of the over-rim tub filler spout 

and the overflow rim of the tub that complies with Section 10.5. 

7.9 WHIRLPOOL BATHS 

7.9.1 General 

The requirements of Section 7.8 for bathtubs shall also apply to whirlpool baths. The provisions for wet vent- 
ing in Section 12.10 shall also apply to whirlpool baths. 



9g 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



7.9.2 Compliance 

Whirlpool bathtubs shall comply with ASME A112.19.7M. 

7.9.3 Drainage 

The arrangements of circulating piping and pumps shall not be altered in any way that would prevent the 
pump and associated piping from draining after each use of the fixture. 

7.9.4 Access 

One or more removable panels shall be provided where required for access to pumps, heaters, and controls, 
as recommended by the fixture manufacturer. 

7.10 SHOWERS 

7.10.1 Compliance 

Plastic shower receptors and stalls shall comply with ANSI Z124.2. 

7.10.2 Water Conservation 

Shower heads shall be designed and manufactured so that they will not exceed a water supply rate of 2.5 gal- 
lons per minute when tested in accordance with ASME Al 12.1 8. 1/CSAB 125.1. 
EXCEPTION: Emergency safety showers. 

7.10.3 Control of Mixed Water Temperature 

The control of mixed water temperatures shall comply with Section 10.15.6. 

7.10.4 Shower Waste Outlet 

a. For a shower with a single shower head, the waste outlet connection shall be not less than 1-1/2" inches 
nominal size and for a shower with multiple shower heads shall be not less than 2 inches nominal size and 
have a removable strainer not less than 3 inches in diameter with V" minimum openings. 
EXCEPTIONS: 

(1) Bathubs with overhead showers. 

(2) Waste outlets shall be securely connected to the drainage system. 

(3) In group showers where each shower space is not provided with an individual waste outlet, the waste 
outlet(s) shall be so located and the floor so pitched that waste water from one outlet does not flow over the 
floor area serving another outlet. 

7.10.5 Shower Compartments 

a. The minimum outside rough-in dimension for shower bases and prefabricated shower compartments 
shall be 32 inches, except where a shower receptor has a minimum overall dimension of 30 inches (750 mm) 
in width and 60 inches (1,500 mm) in length. 

b. The minimum rough-in depth for prefabricated tub/shower combinations shall be 30 inches. 

c. Where shower compartments have glass enclosures or field-constructed tile walls, the compartment shall 
provide clearance for a 30 inch diameter circle with the door closed. 

d. The walls in shower compartments and above built-in bathtubs having installed shower heads shall be 
constructed of smooth, non-corrosive, non-absorbent waterproof materials that extend to a height of not less 
than 68 inches above the fixture drain. 

e. The joints between walls and with bathtubs and shower compartment floors shall be water-tight. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 99 



7.10.6 Shower Floors and Shower Pan Liners 

a. Adequate structural support shall be provided under shower floors. 

b. Finished shower floor surfaces shall be smooth and water-proof. 
EXCEPTION: Grouted shower floor surfaces shall be smooth and water-resistant. 

c. Manufactured shower pans, shower bases, and shower receptors shall be installed in accordance with 
this Code and the manufacturer's instructions. 

d. The edges of shower pans, bases, and receptors shall include flanges or other means of making a 
water-proof joint with the walls of the shower enclosure. 

e. Shower pan liners shall be provided beneath shower floors that are water-resistant (not water-proof) 
and also if required by the manufacturer's installation instructions for pre-fabricated or pre-finished shower 
pans, bases, or receptors. 

EXCEPTION: Shower pan liners shall not be required under water-resistant shower floors if they are 
installed on shower pans, bases, and receptors that provide for the drainage of water seepage through the 
floor finish. 

f. Shower pan liners shall slope to the shower drain outlet and be sealed to the weep holes in the drain 
fitting. The liner shall provide a water-tight basin up to the overflow elevation of the shower floor. 

7.10.7 Water Supply Riser 

Whether exposed or concealed, the water supply riser pipe from the shower control valve(s) to the shower 
head outlet shall be secured to the wall structure. 

7.11 SINKS 

7.11.1 Compliance 

a. Sinks shall comply with the following standards: 

1. Enameled cast-iron; ASME A112.19.1M 

2. Enameled steel; ASME All 2. 19.4M 

3. Stainless steel; ASME All 2. 19.3M 

4. Plastic; ANSI Z124.6. 

7.11.2 Domestic Kitchen Sinks and Bar Sinks 

a. Each compartment in a kitchen sink or bar sink shall have an outlet suitable for either a domestic 
food waste grinder or a basket strainer. The waste outlet pipe for each compartment shall be 1-1/2" nominal 
size. Outlet fittings shall have crossbars or other provisions for protecting the drain outlet and shall include 
a means of closing the drain outlet. 

b. Faucets for kitchen sinks and bar sinks shall be designed and manufactured so that they will not 
exceed a water flow rate of 2.2 gallons per minute when tested in accordance with ASME Al 12. 1 8. 1/CSA 
B125.1. 

7.11.3 Laundry Sinks 

a. Sinks for laundry use shall be not less than 12 inches deep with a strainer and waste outlet connection 
not less than 1-1/2" nominal size. 

b. Utility faucets for laundry sinks shall comply with ASME A112. 18. 1/CSAB125.1. 



100 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



7.11.4 Service Sinks and Mop Receptors 

a. Service sinks and mop receptors shall have removable strainers and waste outlet connections not less 
than 2" nominal size. 

b. Service sinks and mop receptors shall not be installed where walls and floors are not waterproof and do 
not have a smooth, readily cleanable surface at least one foot in front of the sink or receptor, at least one foot 
on each side, and up to a point one foot above the faucet height. 

7.11.5 Sink Faucets 

a. Sink faucets having a hose thread or other means of attaching a hose to the outlet shall be protected from 
back-siphonage by either an integral vacuum breaker, an atmospheric vacuum breaker attached to the outlet, 
or pressure-type vacuum breakers on the fixture supply lines. 

b. Faucets for kitchen sinks shall be designed and manufactured so that they will not exceed the flow rate 
for kitchen faucets specified in ASME A112.18.1/ CSAB125.1. 

7.12 DRINKING FOUNTAINS AND WATER COOLERS 

7.12.1 Compliance 

Refrigerated drinking fountains and water coolers shall comply with ARI 1010 and UL 399. 

7.12.2 Prohibited Locations 

Drinking fountains or water coolers shall not be located in public toilet rooms. 

EXCEPTION: Convertible lavatory faucets and fixture fittings that provide a discharge stream similar to a 

drinking fountain shall be permitted in bathrooms in dwelling units. 

7.12.3 Outdoor Drinking Fountains 

Freeze-resistant drinking fountains shall be the sanitary type. Weep hole drains that form a cross connection 
between ground water and the potable water supply shall not be permitted. 

7.13 AUTOMATIC CLOTHES WASHERS 

7.13.1 Compliance 

Automatic clothes washers shall comply with AHAM HLW-2PR or ASSE 1007, and shall have an air gap 
incorporated in the internal tub fill line. 

7.14 FOOD-WASTE-GRINDER UNITS 

7.14.1 Compliance 

Domestic food-waste-grinder units shall comply with UL 430 and either AHAM FWD-1 or ASSE 1008. 

7.14.2 Domestic Units 

Domestic food-waste-grinder units shall have not less than a 1-1/2" nominal waste connection to the drainage 
system. Such units may connect to a kitchen sink drain outlet, as permitted under Section 7. 11. 2. a. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 101 



7.14.3 Commercial Units 

Commercial food-waste-grinder units shall be connected to the drainage system and be separately trapped 
from any sink compartment or other fixture. The waste pipe size for such fixtures shall be of sufficient size to 
serve the fixture but shall be not less than 2-inch nominal size. 

7.14.4 Water Supply 

An adequate supply of water shall be provided for proper operation of food-waste-grinders. 

7.15 DISHWASHING MACHINES 

7.15.1 Compliance 

Domestic dishwashing machines shall comply with UL 749 and either AHAM DW-2PR or ASSE 1006. 
Commercial dishwashing machines shall comply with UL 921 and ASSE 1004. The water supply to dish- 
washing machines shall be protected from back-siphonage by an integral air gap or other internal means. 

7.15.2 Residential Sink and Dishwasher 

The discharge from a residential kitchen sink and dishwasher may discharge through a single 1-1/2" trap. 
The discharge line from the dishwasher shall be not less than the size recommended by the dishwasher 
manufacturer. It shall either be looped up and securely fastened to the underside of the counter or be con- 
nected to a deck-mounted dishwasher air gap fitting. The discharge shall then be connected to a branch inlet 
wye fitting between the sink waste outlet and the trap inlet. The discharge may also drain indirectly into a 
trapped standpipe, or receptor. 

7.15.3 Residential Sink, Dishwasher, and Food- Waste-Grinder 

The discharge from a residential kitchen sink, dishwasher, and food-waste-grinder may discharge through 
a single 1-1/2" trap. The discharge line from the dishwasher shall be not less than the size recommended 
by the dishwasher manufacturer. It shall either be looped up and securely fastened to the underside of the 
counter or be connected to a deck-mounted dishwasher air gap fitting. The discharge shall then be connected 
either to the chamber of the food-waste-grinder or to a branch inlet wye fitting between the food-waste-grind- 
er outlet and the trap inlet. The discharge may also drain indirectly into a trapped standpipe, or receptor. 

7.15.4 Commercial Dishwashing Machine 

a. Commercial dishwashing machines shall be indirectly connected to the drainage system through either 
an air gap or an air break. When the machine is within 5 feet developed length of a trapped and vented floor 
drain, an indirect waste pipe from the dishwasher may be connected to the inlet side of the floor drain trap. 

b. Commercial dishwashers shall be permitted to discharge through a grease interceptor in accordance with 
Section 6.4.2. 

7.16 FLOOR AND TRENCH DRAINS 

7.16.1 Compliance 

Floor and trench drains shall comply with ASMEA1 12.6.3 or ASMEA1 12.3.1. 



1 02 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



7.16.2 Trap Seal and Strainer 

a. Floor drains shall have a water seal of not less than 2 inches and shall be fitted with a removable strainer. 
The free open area of strainers shall be at least 2/3 of the cross-sectional area of the nominal drain outlet size. 

b. Where infrequently used floor drains are subject to evaporation of their trap seals, they shall either 1) be 
provided with a 4-inch deep trap seal, or 2) be fed from an automatic trap priming device. 

c. Where traps are automatically primed, the priming connection shall be above the weir of the trap. 

7.16.3 Size of Floor Drains 

a. Floor drains and their branch piping shall be sized on the basis of their normal, expected flow rate. Floor 
drains shall be not less than 2" nominal size. 

b. If provided for emergency showers and eyewash stations, floor drains and their fixture drain branches 
shall be sized for the GPM discharge capacity of the shower or eyewash, but the drainage fixture unit (DFU) 
loading on the sanitary drainage system shall be zero (0.0 DFU). 

7.16.4 Required Locations for Floor Drains 

a. Floor drains shall be installed in the following areas: 

1. Toilet rooms containing either two or more water closets or wall hung urinals or a combination of one or 
more water closets and wall hung urinals, except in a dwelling unit. 

2. Commercial kitchens. 

3. Common laundry rooms in commercial buildings and buildings having more than two dwelling units. 

7.16.5 Walk-in Coolers and Freezers 

Floor drains located in walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers where food or other products for human con- 
sumption are stored shall be indirectly connected to the drainage system in accordance with Section 9.1.6. 

7.16.6 Floor Slope 

Where floor drains receive indirect waste or other drainage on a regular or frequent basis, the elevation of the 
floor drain shall be set so that the floor within a 2 foot radius can be sloped to the drain. 

7.17 GARBAGE CAN WASHERS 

Garbage can washers shall include a removable basket or strainer to prevent large particles of garbage from enter- 
ing the drainage system. The water supply connection shall be protected from back-siphonage in accordance with 
Chapter 10. Garbage can washers shall be trapped and vented as required for floor drains. 

7.18 SPECIAL INSTALLATIONS 

7.18.1 Protection of Water Supply 

The water supply to special installations shall be protected from backflow in accordance with Chapter 10. 
Examples of such special installations include decorative fountains, ornamental pools, waterfalls, swimming 
and wading pools, baptisteries, and similar custom-built equipment. 

7.18.2 Approval 

Special installations requiring water supply and/or drainage shall be submitted to the Authority Having Juris- 
diction for approval. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 1 03 



7.19 FLUSHING DEVICES FOR WATER CLOSETS AND URINALS 

7.19.1 General 

Appropriate flushing devices shall be provided for water closets, urinals, clinical sinks, and other fixtures that 
depend on trap siphonage to discharge the contents of the fixture. 

7.19.2 Separate Devices 

A separate flushing device shall be provided for each fixture. 

EXCEPTION: A single device may be used to automatically flush two or more urinals. 

7.19.3 Flush Tanks: Gravity, Pump Assisted, Vacuum Assisted. 

a. Flush tanks shall have ballcocks or other means to refill the tank after each discharge and to shutoff the 
water supply when the tank reaches the proper operating level. Ballcocks shall be the anti-siphon type and 
comply with ASSE 1002. 

b. Except in approved water closet and flush tank designs, the seat of the tank flush valve shall be at least 1 
inch above the flood level rim of the fixture bowl. 

c. The flush valve shall be designed so that it will close tightly if the tank is flushed when the fixture drain 
is clogged or partly restricted, so that water will not spill continuously over the rim of the bowl or backflow 
from the bowl to the flush tank. 

d. Flush tanks shall include a means of overflow into the fixture served having sufficient capacity to pre- 
vent the tanks from overflowing with normal flow through the fill valve. 

7.19.4 Flushometer Tanks (Pressure Assisted) 

Flushometer tanks (pressure assisted) shall comply with ASSE 1037 and shall include built-in pressure regu- 
lation and backflow prevention devices. 

7.19.5 Flushometer Valves 

Flushometer valves shall comply with ASSE 1037 and include a vacuum breaker assembly and means of 
flow adjustment. Flushometer valves shall be accessible for maintenance and repair. 

7.19.6 Required Water Pressure 

The available water supply pressure shall be adequate for proper operation of the particular flushing devices 

used, as recommended by the manufacturer. 

NOTE: Some one-piece tank-type water closets require 30 psig flowing pressure and 1/2" supplies for proper 

operation. 

7.20 FIXTURES FOR DETENTION AND CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTIONS 

Special design fixtures for use in detention and correctional institutions shall comply with the requirements of this 
Code except that fixtures may be fabricated from welded seamless stainless steel and be equipped with necessary 
security devices. Water closets shall be the elongated type with integral or separate seats. Urinals shall have a 
continuous flushing rim that washes all four walls of the fixture. 

7.21 MINIMUM NUMBER OF REQUIRED FIXTURES 

7.21.1 Number of Fixtures 

Plumbing fixtures shall be provided for the type of building occupancy and in the numbers not less than those 
shown in Table 7.21.1. 



1 04 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



7.21.2 Occupant Load 

a. The minimum number of plumbing fixtures shall be based on the number of persons to be served by the 
fixtures, as determined by the person responsible for the design of the plumbing system. 

b. Where the occupant load is not established and is based on the egress requirements of a building code, 
the number of occupants for plumbing purposes shall be permitted to be reduced to two-thirds of that for fire 
or life safety purposes. 

c. Wherever both sexes are present in approximately equal numbers, the total occupant load shall be 
multiplied by 50 percent to determine the number of persons of each sex to be provided for, unless specific 
information concerning the percentage of male and female occupants is available. 

d. Plans for plumbing systems, where required, shall indicate the maximum number of persons to be served 
by the facilities. 

e. In occupancies having established seating, such as auditoriums and restaurants, the number of occupants 
for plumbing purposes shall not be less than the number of seats. 

7.21.3 Access to Fixtures 

a. In multi-story buildings, accessibility to the required fixtures shall not exceed one story. 

b. Fixtures accessible only to private offices shall not be counted to determine compliance with this 
section. 

c. The lavatories required by Tables 7.21.1 for employee and public toilet facilities shall be located 
within the same toilet facility as their associated water closets and urinals. 

7.21.4 Separate Facilities 

a. Separate toilet facilities shall be provided for each sex. 
EXCEPTIONS: 

(1). Residential installations. 

(2). In occupancies serving 15 or fewer people, one toilet facility, designed for use by no more than one 
person at a time, shall be permitted for use by both sexes. 

(3). In business occupancies with a total floor area of 1500 square feet or less, one toilet facility, 
designed for use by no more than one person at a time, shall satisfy the requirements for serving 
customers and employees of both sexes. 

(4). In mercantile occupancies with a net occupiable floor area of 1500 square feet or less that is acces- 
sible to customers, one toilet facility designed for use by no more than one person at a time, shall satisfy the 
requirements for serving customers and employees of both sexes. 

7.21.5 Substitution and Omission of Fixtures 

a. Urinals: Not more than 50% of the required number of water closets may be substituted with urinals. 

b. Drinking Water Facilities: A kitchen or bar sink shall be considered as meeting the requirements for 
drinking water facilities for employees. 

c. Laundry Trays: Multiple dwelling units or boarding houses without public laundry rooms shall not 
require laundry trays. 

d. Service Sinks: Service sinks may be omitted when the Authority Having Jurisdiction determines that 
they are not necessary for proper cleaning of the facility. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 105 



7.21.6 Fixture Requirements for Special Occupancies 

a. Additional fixtures may be required when unusual environmental conditions or special activities are 
encountered. 

b. In food preparation areas of commercial food establishments, fixture requirements may be dictated by 
the health and/or sanitary codes. Fixtures, fixture compartments and appliances used for rinsing or sanitizing 
equipment or utensils, processing or preparing food for sale or serving, shall be installed in accordance with 
Section 9. 1 . 1 to ensure the required protection from backflow and flooding. 

c. Types of occupancies not shown in Table 7.21.1 shall be considered individually by the Authority Hav- 
ing Jurisdiction. 

d. Where swimming pools operated by an apartment building, condominium, or similar multi-family 
dwelling unit are restricted to the use of residents and guests of residents of dwelling units in the immedi- 
ate vicinity of the pool, the minimum required toilet facilities for bathers within the pool compound shall be 
one (1) male toilet room and one (1) female toilet room, each consisting of a water closet and lavatory as a 
minimum. 

e. Hand washing facilities shall be provided in each examination room in a doctor's office or medical of- 
fice. 

7.21.7 Facilities in Mercantile and Business Occupancies Serving Customers 

a. Requirements for customers and employees shall be permitted to be met with a single set of restrooms 
accessible to both groups. The required number of fixtures shall be the greater of the required number for 
employees or the required number for customers. 

b. Fixtures for customer use shall be permitted to be met by providing a centrally located facility accessible 
to several stores. The maximum distance of entry from any store to this facility shall not exceed 500 feet. 

c. In stores with a floor area of 150 square feet or less, the requirement to provide facilities for employees 
shall be permitted to be met by providing a centrally located facility accessible to several stores. The maxi- 
mum distance of entry from any store to this facility shall not exceed 300 feet. 

d. Drinking water facilities are not required for customers where normal occupancy is short term. 

e. For establishments less than 1500 square feet in total floor area, one water closet and one lavatory in a 
restroom with a lockable door shall be permitted to provide the requirements for serving the customers and 
employees. 

7.21.8 Food Service Establishments 

a. Food service establishments with an occupant load of 101 or more customers shall be provided with 
separate toilet facilities for employees and customers. Customer and employee toilet facilities may be 
combined for customer loads of 100 or less. For employees of 15 or less, one toilet facility, designed for use 
by no more than one person at a time, shall be permitted for use by both sexes. 

b. Drinking water facilities are not required in restaurants or other food service establishments if drinking 
water service is provided. 

7.22 WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS 

Water softeners, reverse osmosis water treatment units, and other drinking water treatment systems shall meet the 
requirements of the appropriate standards listed in Table 3.1.3. Waste discharge from such equipment shall enter 
the drainage system through an air gap. 



1 06 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



7.23 SAFETY FEATURES FOR SPAS AND HOT TUBS 

7.23.1 Spas and Hot Tubs 

Spas and hot tubs shall comply with the requirements of subsections 7.23.2, 7.23.3, and 7.23.4. 

7.23.2 Entrapment Avoidance 

There shall be nothing in the spa or hot tub that can cause the user to become entrapped underwater. Types 
of entrapment can include, but not be limited to, rigid, non-giving protrusions, wedge-shaped openings, and 
any arrangement of components that could pinch and entrap the user. 

7.23.3 Outlets Per Pump 

There shall be a minimum of two (2) suction inlets for each pump in the suction inlet system, separated by 
at least 3 feet or located on two (2) different planes, such as one on the bottom and one on a vertical wall, or 
one on each of two vertical walls. The suction inlets shall be piped so that water is drawn through the inlets 
simultaneously by a common suction line to the pump. Blocking one suction inlet shall not create excessive 
suction at other suction inlets. 

7.23.4 Obstructions and Entrapment Avoidance 

Where vacuum cleaning fittings are provided, they shall be located outside of the spa or hot tub and shall not 
be accessible to the spa or hot tub user. 

724 PLUMBED EMERGENCY EYEWASH AND SHOWER EQUIPMENT 

a. Emergency eyewash and shower equipment shall comply with the requirements of ANSI Z358.1 

b. The equipment installer shall assemble and install the equipment in accordance with the manufacturer's 
instructions. 

c. The location of emergency eyewash and shower equipment shall be determined by the facility designer 
to provide the required access for protection from the specific hazards within the facility. 

d. Emergency eyewash and shower equipment shall be designed and manufactured to provide the discharge 
patterns and flow rates required by ANSI Z3 5 8. 1 for the hazard(s) for which protection is being provided. 

e. The temperature of the flushing fluid shall be from 65°F to 95°F unless the facility designer has indicated 
that other specific temperatures are required to provide protection for a particular hazard. 



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2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Chapter 8 



Hangers and Supports 



8.1 GENERAL 

a. Hangers and anchors shall be securely attached to the building construction at sufficiently close intervals 
to support the piping and its contents. 

b. Fixtures, appliances and equipment shall be connected to support the weight of the device and any ad- 
ditional probable loads that may impact on the device. 

c. Fixtures shall be rigidly supported so that no strain is transmitted in the piping connections. 

8.2 VERTICAL PIPING 

Vertical pipe of the following materials shall be supported according to manufacturer's recommendations, but at 
no greater than the distances listed below: 

1 . Cast-iron soil pipe — at base and at each story height. 

2. Steel threaded pipe — at every other story height. 

3. Copper tube — at each story height but not more than 10-foot intervals. 

4. Lead pipe — four-foot intervals. 

5. Plastic pipe — see Section 8.7. 

6. Flexible plastic tubing — each story height and at mid-story. 

7. Stainless steel drainage pipe — at each story height. 

8.3 HORIZONTAL PIPING 

Horizontal pipe of the following materials shall be supported according to manufacturer's recommendations, but 
at no greater than the distances listed below: 

1 . Cast-iron soil pipe — minimum of one hanger per pipe length located within 1 8 inches of each joint (up 
to 10-foot maximum pipe length), at changes in direction, and at branch connections. Where pipe is sus- 
pended by non-rigid hangers more than 18 inches long, provide lateral support at 25-foot maximum spacing. 
Lateral support shall consist of either 1) a sway brace or 2) either a change in direction or a branch connec- 
tion that provides the required lateral support. 

2. Steel threaded pipe— 3/4-inch size and smaller— 10-foot intervals. One-inch size and larger— 12-foot 
intervals. 

3. Copper tube (1-1/4 inch size and smaller) — 6-foot intervals. 

4. Copper tube (1-1/2 inch size and larger) — 10-foot intervals. 

5. Lead pipe — on continuous metal or wood strips for its entire length. 

6. Plastic pipe — see Section 8.7. 

7. Flexible plastic tubing — 32 inches. 

8. Stainless steel drainage pipe — 10 foot intervals, changes of direction and branch connections. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



113 



8.4 MATERIAL 

a. Hangers, anchors, and supports shall be of metal or other material of sufficient strength to support the 
piping and its contents. 

b. Piers shall be of concrete, brick, or other masonry construction. 

8.5 STRAIN AND STRESSES IN PIPE 

Piping in the plumbing system shall be installed so as to prevent strains and stresses that will exceed the structural 
strength of the pipe. Provision shall be made for expansion and contraction of the piping. (See Sections 4.1.3 and 
4.2.16.) 

8.6 BASE OF STACKS 

Bases of cast-iron stacks shall be supported on concrete, brick laid in cement mortar, metal brackets attached to 
the building construction, or by other methods approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Other piping mate- 
rial shall be so anchored as to support the stack at the base. 

8.7 SUPPORT OF PLASTIC PIPE 

a. Plastic drain, waste, vent, and pressure pipe shall be installed and supported as recommended by the 
manufacturer's instructions. 

b. Maximum horizontal support spacing shall be based on the pipe schedule or wall thickness, the pipe 
size, the system operating temperature, the ambient temperature, and any concentrated loads. 

c. Vertical pipe shall be maintained in straight alignment.with supports at each story height. Intermediate 
supports shall be provided where required for stability. 

d. Pipe shall also be supported at changes of direction or elevation. 

e. Supports shall not compress, distort, cut, or abrade the piping and shall allow free movement. 

f. Provisions shall be made for expansion and contraction of the piping. 

g. Fixture trap arms longer than three feet shall be supported as close as possible to the trap. 

8.8 UNDERGROUND INSTALLATION 

See Section 2.6. 

8.9 SEISMIC SUPPORTS FOR PIPING 

Where earthquake loads are applicable in accordance with the adopted building code, plumbing piping supports 
shall be designed and installed for the seismic forces in accordance with the adopted building code. 

8.10 ALTERNATE PIPE HANGER AND SUPPORT SPACING 

In lieu of the pipe hanger and support spacing required by Section 8.2 for vertical piping and Section 8.3 for hori- 
zontal piping, the pipe support spacing shall be permitted to comply with MSS SP-69 and the pipe manufacturer's 
recommendations. The spacing for water piping, waste and sanitary drain piping, and storm water piping shall be 
based on full-flow water service. The spacing for vent piping shall be permitted to be based on vapor service. 



I ] 4 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Chapter 9 



Indirect Waste Piping and Special Wastes 



9.1 INDIRECT WASTES 

9.1.1 General 

Drains from fixtures, fixture compartments, equipment, appliances, appurtenances, and other devices 
requiring protection against contamination from backfiow or flooding from the drainage system or other 
source shall not be directly connected to any soil, waste, or vent pipe. Such drains shall discharge sepa- 
rately through an air gap or, where permitted, an air break. 

9.1.2 Air Gaps 

The clear air gap between a drain outlet or indirect waste pipe and the flood level rim of an indirect waste 
receptor or other point of disposal shall be not less than twice the diameter of the effective opening of the 
drain served, but not less than one inch. 

9.1.3 Air Breaks 

Where air breaks are permitted, the waste pipe shall be permitted to terminate below the flood level rim of 
the receptor but shall maintain an air space above the top of the receptor's trap seal. Such indirect waste 
pipes shall be permitted to connect to the inlet side of the receptor's trap. 

9.1.4 Where Indirect Wastes Are Required 

Indirect wastes shall be provided for food-handling or food-storage equipment, medical or other sterile 
equipment, clear-water wastes or discharges, and other drains as required herein. 

9.1.5 Food Handling Areas 

a. Fixtures and appliances used for the storage, processing, preparation, serving, dispensing, or sale of 
food shall be drained indirectly. Examples of such fixtures include refrigerated cases, steam kettles, dish- 
washing machines, culinary sinks and/or sink compartments used for rinsing, sanitizing, soaking or wash- 
ing food, ice machines, ice storage bins, drink dispensers, and similar equipment or appliances. A separate 
indirect waste pipe shall be provided for each fixture and/or compartment drain and each shall discharge 
separately through an air gap or air break into a trapped and vented receptor. 

b. Where bar sinks, glass-washing sinks, or other counter sinks cannot be vented according to the 
requirements of Chapter 12, they shall be permitted to each discharge separately to a trapped and vented 
receptor through indirect waste pipes providing either an air break or an air gap. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



115 



EXCEPTIONS: 

(1) For multi-compartment commercial sinks, only the compartment used for washing pots, tableware, 
kitchenware, and utensils shall discharge to the drainage system through a grease interceptor in accordance 
with Sections 6.1.1 and 6.2. 

(2) The rinsing and sanitizing compartments of multi-compartment commercial sinks shall be drained 
indirectly, in accordance with Section 9.1.1. 

(3) If a properly vented floor drain is installed immediately adjacent to a sink used for dishwashing or 
food prep, a properly trapped and vented sink or sink compartment shall be permitted to connect directly to 
the drainage system, on the sewer side of the floor drain trap. 

(4) Indirect drains shall not be required for domestic kitchen sinks or domestic dishwashers. 

9.1.6 Walk-in Coolers and Freezers 

a. If floor drains are located in walk-in coolers or walk-in freezers used for the storage of food or other 
products for human consumption, they shall be indirectly connected to the sanitary drainage system. 

b. Separate indirect waste pipes shall be provided for the floor drains from each cooler or freezer, and 
each shall discharge separately through an air gap or air break into a trapped and vented receptor. 

c. Traps shall be provided in the indirect waste pipe when required under Section 9.2.3. 

d. Indirectly connected floor drains may be located in freezers or other spaces where freezing tempera- 
tures are maintained, provided that traps are not required under Section 9.2.3. Otherwise, the floor of the 
freezer shall be sloped to a floor drain located outside the storage compartment. 

e. The above requirements do not apply to refrigerated food preparation areas or work rooms. 

9.1.7 Medical and Other Sterile Equipment 

Stills, sterilizers, and other sterile equipment requiring drainage shall each discharge separately through an 
air gap into a trapped and vented receptor. 

9.1.8 Potable Clear-Water Wastes 

Discharges of potable water from the water distribution system, water storage or pressure tanks, water heat- 
ers, water pumps, water treatment equipment, boilers, relief valves, backflow prevention devices, and other 
potable water sources shall be indirect through an air gap. 

EXCEPTION: An air break shall be permitted where the potable water supply to boilers, water-cooled 
equipment, heating and air-conditioning systems, and similar cross-connections is protected by a backflow 
prevention device in accordance with Section 10.5. 

9.1.9 Drinking Fountains and Water Coolers 

Drinking fountains and water coolers shall be permitted to discharge indirectly through an air break or air 
gap. Where such fixtures are connected to a dedicated drainage stack, the fixtures may connect directly to 
the stack and the stack shall terminate with an air break or air gap. 

9.1.10 Air Conditioning Equipment 

Where condensate or other drainage from air conditioning or cooling equipment discharges to a drainage 
system, it shall discharge indirectly to a trapped and vented receptor through an air break or air gap. 
EXCEPTION: An air break shall not be permitted where the drain connects to a point in the air condition- 
ing equipment that operates at a pressure below atmospheric. 

9.1.11 Swimming Pools 

Drainage from swimming pools or wading pools, including pool drains, filter backwash, overflows, and 
pool deck drains, shall discharge indirectly through an air gap to a trapped and vented receptor. 



1 1 " 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



9.1-12 Relief Valve Discharge Piping 

Discharge piping from relief valves and any associated indirect waste piping shall be in accordance with 
Section 10.16.6. 

9.2 INDIRECT WASTE PIPING 

9.2.1 Materials and Installation 

- Indirect waste piping shall be of materials approved for sanitary drainage under Section 3.5. 

9.2.2 Pipe Size 

Indirect waste piping shall be not less than the nominal size of the drain outlet on the fixture or equipment 
served. 

9.2.3 Fixture Traps 

Traps shall be provided at fixtures and equipment connections where the developed length of indirect waste 

piping exceeds ten feet. 

EXCEPTION: Drain lines used for clear- water wastes. 

9.2.4 Provisions for Cleaning 

Indirect waste piping shall be installed in a manner to permit ready access for flushing and cleaning. Where 
necessary, cleanouts shall be provided in accordance with Section 5.4. 

9.3 INDIRECT WASTE RECEPTORS 

9.3.1 General 

a. Receptors for indirect wastes shall be properly trapped and vented floor drains, floor sinks, standpipes, 
open-hub drains, air gap fittings, or other approved fixtures. 

b. Receptors shall be of such size, shape, and capacity as required to prevent splashing or flooding by the 
discharge from any and all indirect waste pipes served by the receptor. 

c. Plumbing fixtures that are used for domestic or culinary purposes shall not be used as receptors for 
indirect wastes, except as follows: 

EXCEPTIONS: 

1) In a dwelling unit, a kitchen sink trap, or food waste grinder, shall be permitted to receive the dis- 
charge from a dishwasher. 

(2) In a dwelling unit, a laundry sink, provided that an air gap is maintained for any potable clear-water 
waste, shall be an acceptable receptor for: 

a. Air conditioning condensate. 

b. Automatic clothes washer. 

c. Water treatment unit. 

d. Water heater relief valve discharge. 

(3) A service sink or mop basin shall be an acceptable receptor for air conditioning condensate and any 
infrequent potable clear-water waste if the required air gap is provided for potable clear-water wastes. 

9.3.2 Strainers or Baskets 

Floor sinks and floor drains that handle other than clear-water wastes shall include an internal or a remov- 
able metal basket to retain solids. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 117 



9.3.3 Prohibited Locations 

Receptors for indirect wastes shall not be located in a toilet room or in any confined, concealed, inacces- 
sible, or unventilated space. 

EXCEPTION: Air conditioning condensate in dwellings shall be permitted to drain to a tub waste and over- 
flow or lavatory tailpiece in accordance with Section 9.4.3.C.5. 

9.3.4 Standpipes 

A standpipe, 2-inch minimum pipe size and extending not more than 48 inches nor less than 1 8 inches 
above its trap, shall be permitted to serve as a receptor for a domestic clothes washer. In a dwelling, a laun- 
dry sink shall be permitted to drain into the standpipe. 

9.3.5 Open-hub Drains 

A trapped and vented open-end drain pipe extending not less than 2 inches above the surrounding floor 
shall be permitted to serve as a receptor for clear-water wastes. 

9.3.6 Minimum Receptor Pipe Size 

a. The minimum drain pipe size for an indirect waste receptor shall be at least one pipe size larger than 
the indirect waste pipe that it serves. 

EXCEPTION: A laundry sink receiving the discharge from an automatic clothes washer under Section 
9.3.1.c(2).b. 

b. Where a receptor receives indirect drainage from two or more fixtures, the cross-sectional area of the 
receptor drain shall be not less than the aggregate cross-sectional area of all indirect waste pipes served by 
the receptor. For the purposes of this requirement, 1-1/4" pipe =1.2 in 2 , 1-1/2" pipe = 1.8 in 2 , 2" pipe = 
3.1 in 2 , 2-1/2" pipe = 4.9 in 2 , 3" pipe = 7.1 in 2 , 4" pipe = 12.6 in 2 , 5" pipe = 19.6 in 2 , and 6" pipe = 28.3 
in 2 . 

9.3.7 Drainage Fixture Unit (DFU) Values 

The drainage fixture unit values used to combine the loading of indirect waste receptors with other fixtures 
shall be the sum of the DFU values for all fixtures that are indirectly drained into the receptor. 

9.4 SPECIAL WASTES 

9.4.1 Treatment of Corrosive Wastes 

Corrosive liquids, spent acids, or other harmful chemicals that may damage a drain, sewer, soil or waste 
pipe, create noxious or toxic fumes, or interfere with sewage treatment processes shall not be discharged 
into the plumbing system without being thoroughly neutralized or treated by passing through a properly 
constructed and approved neutralizing device. Such devices shall be provided automatically with a suf- 
ficient supply of neutralizing medium, so as to make its contents non-injurious before discharge into the 
drainage system. The nature of the corrosive or harmful waste and proposed method of its treatment shall 
be submitted to and approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction prior to installation. 

9.4.2 High Temperature Wastes 

No waste at temperatures above 140°F shall be discharged directly into any part of a drainage system. Such 
wastes shall be discharged to an indirect waste receptor and a means of cooling shall be provided where 
necessary. 



118 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



9.4.3 Air Conditioning Condensate 

a. Indirect waste piping from air conditioning units shall be sized according to the condensate-generating 
capacity of the units served. Branches from individual units shall be no smaller than the drain opening or 
drain connection on the unit. Traps shall be provided at each air conditioning unit or cooling coil to main- 
tain atmospheric pressure in the waste piping. 

b. Condensate waste piping shall be sloped not less than 1/8" per foot. Drainage fittings shall be used in 
sizes 1-1/4" and larger. Minimum pipe sizing shall be as follows: 

3/4" pipe size through 3-ton cooling capacity 
1" pipe size through 20-ton cooling capacity 
1-1/4" pipe size through 100-ton cooling capacity 
1-1/2" pipe size through 300-ton cooling capacity 
2" size pipe through 600-ton cooling capacity 

c. Discharge of air conditioning condensate shall not be permitted to create a nuisance such as by flowing 
across the ground or paved surfaces. Unless expressly prohibited by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, the 
point of indirect discharge for air conditioning condensate shall be one of the following: 

1 . The building sanitary drainage system. 

2. The building storm drainage system. 

3. A sump pump. 

4. A subsurface absorption pit or trench. 

5. Within dwellings, a tub waste and overflow or lavatory tailpiece within the same dwelling. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



~m 



Blank Page 



'^0 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Chapter 10 



Water Supply and Distribution 



10.1 QUALITY OF WATER SUPPLY 

Only potable water shall be supplied to plumbing fixtures used for drinking, bathing, culinary use or the process- 
ing of food, medical or pharmaceutical products. 

10.2 IDENTIFICATION OF POTABLE AND NON-POTABLE WATER 

a. In buildings where dual water distribution systems are installed, one potable and the other non-potable, 
each system shall be identified either by color marking, or metal tags, or other appropriate methods such as 
may be approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Each outlet on the non-potable water line that may be 
used for drinking or domestic purposes shall be posted: DANGER (red background) - UNSAFE WATER - 
DO NOT DRINK. 

b. Color coding of piping shall be based on ANSI A13.1. System designations and background colors shall 
be as follows or the equivalent: 

Potable Water = GREEN 
Non-Potable Water = YELLOW 
Cold Water Supply = GREEN 
Hot Water Supply = YELLOW 
Hot Water Return = YELLOW 
Sanitary Drain = GREEN 
Plumbing Vent = GREEN 
Waste = GREEN 
Waste (corrosive) = YELLOW 
Storm Drain = GREEN 
Roof Drain = GREEN 

10.3 WATER REQUIRED 

10.3.1 Buildings 

Plumbing fixtures shall be provided with a potable supply of water in the amounts and at the pressures speci- 
fied in this Chapter. 

10.4 PROTECTION OF POTABLE WATER SUPPLY 

10.4.1 General 

A potable water supply shall be designed, installed and maintained to prevent contamination from non-pota- 
ble liquids, solids or gases by cross connections. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



121 



10.4.2 Interconnections 

Interconnections between two or more public water supplies shall be permitted only with the approval of the 
Authority Having Jurisdiction. 

10.4.3 Cross Connection Control 

Potable water supplies shall be protected in accordance with the cross connection control program of the 
Authority Having Jurisdiction and the provisions of this Code. Cross connection control shall be provided 
at individual outlets, and where required, by containment of the premises. Each potential cross connection 
within the premises shall be protected. Where containment is required, the potable water supply shall be pro- 
tected by a backflow protection device installed immediately downstream of the meter or between the service 
shutoff valve and the first outlet or branch connection. 

10.4.4 Private Supplies 

a. Private potable water supplies (i.e., wells, cisterns, lakes, streams) shall require the same backflow pro- 
tection that is required for a public potable water supply. 

b. Cross connection between a private potable water supply and a public potable water supply shall not be 
made unless specifically approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. 

10.4.5 Toxic Materials 

a. Piping conveying potable water shall be constructed of non-toxic material. 

b. The interior surface of a potable water tank shall not be lined, painted, or repaired with any material that 
will affect either the taste, odor, color or potability of the water supply when the tank is placed in or returned 
to seivice. 

10.4.6 Reserved 

10.4.7 Reserved 

10.4.8 Used Materials 

Materials that have been used for any purpose other than conveying potable water shall not be used for con- 
veying potable water. 

10.4.9 Water As a Heat-Transfer Fluid 

Potable water may be used as a heat-transfer fluid provided that the potable water system is protected against 
cross connection. 

10.5 BACKFLOW PREVENTION 

10.5.1 Plumbing Fixtures, Appliances, Water Supply Outlets 

The water supply shall be protected from back-siphonage by a fixed air gap between the potable water outlet 
and the overflow level of the fixture or receptor. 



122 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



10.5.2 Requirements for Air Gaps 

a. How Measured: The air gap shall be measured vertically from the lowest end of a potable water outlet to 
the flood rim or line of the fixture or receptor into which it discharges. 

b. Minimum Size (distance): The minimum required air gap shall be twice the effective opening of a po- 
table water outlet unless the outlet is a distance less than 3 times the effective opening away from a wall or 
similar vertical surface, in which case, the minimum required air gap shall be 3 times the effective opening of 
the outlet. In no case shall the minimum required air gap be less than that shown in Table 10.5.2. 



Table 10.5.2 
MINIMUM AIR GAPS FOR PLUMBING FIXTURES 


Fixture 


Minimum Air Gap 


When not Affected by a 
Near Wall 1 (Inches) 


When Affected by a 
Near Wall 2 (Inches) 


Lavatories with effective opening not greater than 1/2 inch diameter 


1 


1-1/2 


Sink, laundry trays, goose-neck bath faucets and other fixtures with effective 
openings not greater than 3/4" diameter 


1-1/2 


2-1/4 


Over rim bath fillers and other fixtures with effective openings not greater 
than 1 inch diameter 


2 


3 


Drinking water fountains-single orifice not greater than 7/16 (0.437) in. diam- 
eter or multiple orifices having total area of 0.150 square inches (area of circle 
7/16 in. diameter) 


1 


1-1/2 


Effective openings greater than one inch 


2X diameter of 
effective opening 


3X diameter of 
effective opening 



NOTES FOR TABLE 10.5.2 

1. Side walls, ribs or similar obstructions do not affect air gaps when spaced from inside edge of the spout opening a 
distance greater than three times the diameter of the effective opening for a single wall, or a distance greater than four times 
the diameter of the effective opening for two intersecting walls. 

2. Vertical walls, ribs, or similar obstructions extending from the water surface to or above the horizontal plane of the spout 
opening require a greater air gap when spaced closer to the nearest inside edge of the spout opening than specified in Note 
1. above. The effect of three or more such vertical walls or ribs has not been determined. In such cases, the air gap shall be 
measured from the top of the wall. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



123 



10.5.3 Required Backflow Prevention Devices 

The following requirements shall apply: 
A. Backsiphonage, Non-Continuous Pressure, Non-Health Hazard 

1. Atmospheric vacuum breaker -AS SE 1001 (AVB) 

2. Hose connection vacuum breaker - ASSE 101 1 

3. Any backflow protection device approved for protection against backsiphonage with non-continuous 
or continuous pressure and a non-health hazard or health hazard. 

B.Backsiphonage, Continuous Pressure, Non-Health Hazard 

1. Pressure vacuum breaker - ASSE 1020 (PVB) 

2. Spill-resistant vacuum breaker -ASSE 1056 (SVB) 

3. Backflow preventer with intermediate atmospheric port - ASSE 1012 

4. Double check valve assembly ASSE 1015 (DC and DCVA) 

5. Any backflow protection device approved for protection against backsiphonage with continuous pres- 
sure and a non-health hazard or health hazard. 

C. Backsiphonage, Non-Continuous Pressure, Health Hazard 

1 . Atmospheric vacuum breaker - ASSE 1001 (AVB) 

2. Hose connection backflow preventer - ASSE 1052 

3. Any backflow protection device approved for protection against backsiphonage with non-continuous 
or continuous pressure and a health hazard. 

D. Backsiphonage, Continuous Pressure, Health Hazard 

1 . Pressure vacuum breaker - ASSE 1020 (PVB) 

2. Spill-resistant vacuum breaker - ASSE 1056 (SVB) 

3. Reduced pressure backflow preventer assembly - ASSE 1013 (RP, RPZ, and RPBA) 

4. Any backflow protection device approved for protection against backsiphonage with continuous pres- 
sure and a health hazard. 

E. Back Pressure, Non-Health Hazard 

1 . Dual check backflow preventer - ASSE - 1 024 (DuCh) 

2. Double check valve assembly - ASSE 1015 (DC)(DCVA) 

3. Reduced pressure backflow preventer assembly - ASSE 1013 (RP)(RPZ)(RPBA) 

F. Back Pressure, Health Hazard 

1. Reduced pressure backflow preventer assembly - ASSE 1013 (RP)(RPZ)(RPBA) 

10.5.4 Approval of Devices 

Backflow prevention devices shall be listed or certified by a recognized certification body as complying with 
the appropriate standards in Table 3.1.3 - Part IX. 

10.5.5 Installation of Backflow Preventers 

a. Devices of All Types: All backflow prevention devices shall be accessible for testing (if testable), 
maintenance, repair, and replacement. Clearances shall be as recommended by the manufacturer. Backflow 
prevention devices having atmospheric vents shall not be installed in pits, vaults, or similar potentially sub- 
merged locations. Vacuum breakers and other devices with vents shall not be located within fume hoods. 

b. Atmospheric Vacuum Breakers: Pipe applied atmospheric vacuum breakers shall be installed with the 
critical level at least six inches above the flood level rim or highest point of discharge of the fixture being 
served. Approved deck-mounted and pipe-applied vacuum breakers and vacuum breakers within equipment, 
machinery and fixtures where the critical level is a specified distance above the source of contanination shall 
be installed in accordance with manufacturer's instructions with the critical level not less than one inch above 
the flood level rim. Such devices shall be installed on the discharge side of the last control valve to the fixture 
and no shut-off valve or faucet shall be installed downstream of the vacuum breaker. Vacuum breakers on 
urinals shall be installed with the critical level six inches above the flood level rim. 



\ 24 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



c. Pressure Type Vacuum Breakers: Pressure type vacuum breakers shall be installed with the critical level 
at a height of at least 12 inches above the flood level rim for ASSE 1020 devices and with the critical level at 
least six inches above the flood level rim or highest point of discharge of the fixture being served for ASSE 
1056 devices. Deck-mounted and pipe-applied pressure type (ASSE 1056) vacuum breakers within equip- 
ment, machinery and fixtures where the critical level is a specified distance above the source of contamina- 
tion shall be installed in accordance with manufacturer's instructions with the critical level not less than one 
inch above the flood level rim. 

d. Double Check Valves and Reduced Pressure Principle Valves: Such devices shall be installed at not less 
than 12 inches above the floor or permanent platform with the maximum of 60 inches above floor or perma- 
nent platform. 

e. Spill-resistant Vacuum Breakers: Approved deck mounted and pipe-applied spill-resistant vacuum break- 
ers within equipment, machinery and fixtures where the critical level is a specified distance above the source 
of contamination shall be installed in accordance with manufacturer's instructions with the critical level not 
less than one inch above the flood level rim. 

10.5.6 Maintenance and Testing of Backflow Prevention Devices 

a. Devices installed in a building potable water supply distribution system for protection against backflow 
shall be maintained in good working condition by the person or persons responsible for the maintenance of 
the system. 

b. Devices that are designed to be field tested shall be tested prior to final inspection of the initial installa- 
tion and once each year thereafter, using field test procedures conforming to ASSE 5010 Series Professional 
Qualifications Standards or equivalent. 

NOTE: Testable devices are those backflow prevention devices having test cocks and include, but are not 
limited, to the following: 

1 . Pressure vacuum breakers 

2. Spill-resistant vacuum breakers 

3. Double check valve assemblies 

4. Double check detector assemblies 

5. Reduced pressure backflow preventer assemblies 

6. Reduced pressure detector assemblies 

c. Where tests indicate that the device is not functioning properly, it shall be serviced or repaired in accor- 
dance with the manufacturer's instructions and be retested. 

d. Testing and repair of devices shall be performed by certified individuals approved by an agency accept- 
able to the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Certification for testing shall be in accordance with ASSE 5000 or 
equivalent. Certification for repair shall be in accordance with ASSE 5030 or equivalent. Certification shall 
include not less than 32 hours of combined classroom and practice training and successful completion of a 
written and practical examination. 

e. Copies of test reports for the initial installation shall be sent to the Authority Having Jurisdiction and the 
water supplier. Copies of annual test reports shall be sent to the water supplier. 

f. Where a continuous water supply is critical and cannot be interrupted for the periodic testing of a back- 
flow prevention device, multiple backflow prevention devices or other means of maintaining a continuous 
supply shall be provided that does not create a potential cross connection. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



125 



10.5.7 Tanks and Vats — Below Rim Supply 

a. Where a potable water outlet terminates below the rim of a tank or vat and the tank or vat has an over- 
flow of a diameter not less than given in Table 10.8.3, the overflow pipe shall be provided with an air gap as 
close to the tank as possible. 

b. The potable water supply outlet to the tank or vat shall terminate a distance not less than 1-1/2 times the 
height to which water can rise in the tank above the top of the overflow. This level shall be established at the 
maximum flow rate of the supply to the tank or vat and with all outlets closed except the air-gapped overflow 
outlet. 

c. The distance from the outlet to the high water level shall be measured from the critical point of the po- 
table water supply outlet. 

10.5.8 Connections to Carbonated Beverage Dispensers 

a. The water supply to a carbonated beverage dispenser shall be protected against backflow with an integral 
backflow preventer conforming to ASSE 1022 or an air gap. Carbonated beverage dispensers and carbonated 
beverage dispensing systems without an integral backflow preventer conforming to ASSE 1022 or an air gap 
shall have the water supply protected with a double check valve with atmospheric vent conforming to ASSE 
1022. 

b. Where an ASSE 1022 device must be installed in the water supply piping external to a carbonated bever- 
age dispenser, the piping from the device to the beverage dispenser shall be acid resistant and not copper. 

10.5.9 Protection from Fire Systems 

a. Potable water supplies to water-based fire protection systems, including but not limited to standpipes and 
automatic sprinkler systems, shall be protected from back-pressure and back-siphonage by one of the following 
testable devices: 

1. double check fire protection backflow preventer assembly -ASSE 1015 (DCF) 

2. double check detector fire protection backflow preventer assembly - ASSE 1048 (DCDF) 

3. reduced pressure fire protection backflow preventer assembly - ASSE 1013 (RPF) 

4. reduced pressure detector fire protection backflow preventer assembly - ASSE 1047 (RPDF) 
EXCEPTIONS 

(1) ASSE 1024 dual check valves shall be permitted in stand-alone residential sprinkler systems that 
comply with NFPA 13D or NFPA 13R, do not supply plumbing fixtures, and do not include a fire department 
connection. 

(2) Backflow preventers shall not be required in multi-purpose or network residential sprinkler systems 
that supply both plumbing fixtures and residential fire sprinklers in accordance with NFPA 13D. The piping in 
such systems shall be approved for potable water. Such systems shall not have a fire department connection. 

(3) ASSE 1024 dual check valves shall be permitted in limited area sprinkler systems that comply with 
NFPA 13 and do not have a fire department connection. 

(4) Where fire protection systems include a fire department connection, reduced pressure assemblies (RPF 
or RPDF) shall be required. 

(5) Where fire protection systems are filled with solutions that are considered to be health hazards as defined 
in Section 1.2, reduced pressure assemblies (RPF or RPDF) shall be required. 

b. Whenever a backflow protection device is installed in a potable water supply to a fire protection system, 
the hydraulic design of the fire protection system shall account for the pressure drop through the backflow 
protection device. 

c. If backflow protection devices are retrofitted for an existing fire protection system, the hydraulics of the 
fire protection system shall be checked to verify that there is sufficient water pressure available for satisfactory 
operation of the fire protection system. 



126 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



10.5.10 Protection from Lawn Sprinklers and Irrigation Systems 

a. Potable water supplies to systems having no pumps or connections for pumping equipment, and no 
chemical injection or provisions for chemical injection, shall be protected from backflow by one of the fol- 
lowing devices: 

1 . Atmospheric vacuum breaker (AVB) 

2. Pressure vacuum breaker (PVB) 

3. Spill-resistant vacuum breaker (SVB) 

4. Reduced pressure backflow preventer assembly (RP, RPZ, RPBA) 

b. Where sprinkler and irrigation systems have pumps, connections for pumping equipment, auxiliary air 
tanks or are otherwise capable of creating back-pressure, the potable water supply shall be protected by the 
following type of device if the backflow device is located upstream from the source of back-pressure. 

1 . Reduced pressure backflow preventer assembly (RP, RPZ, RPBA) 

c. Where systems have a backflow device installed downstream from a potable water supply pump or a 
potable water supply pump connection, the device shall be one of the following: 

1 . Atmospheric vacuum breaker (AVB) 

2. Pressure vacuum breaker (PVB) 

3. Spill-resistant vacuum breaker (SVB) 

4. Reduced pressure backflow preventer assembly (RP, RPZ, RPBA) 

d. Where systems include a chemical injector or any provisions for chemical injection, the potable water 
supply shall be protected by the following: 

1 . Reduced pressure backflow preventer assembly (RP, RPZ, RPBA) 

10.5.11 Domestic Water Heat Exchangers 

a. Heat exchangers used for heat transfer, heat recovery, or solar heating shall protect the potable water 
system from being contaminated by the heat transfer medium, in accordance with either subparagraph b or c 
below. 

b. Single-wall heat exchangers shall be permitted if they satisfy all of the following requirements: 

1 . The heat transfer medium is either potable water or contains only substances that 
are recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 

2. The pressure of the heat transfer medium is maintained less than the normal minimum 
operating pressure of the potable water system. 

EXCEPTION: Steam complying with subparagraph b.l. 

3. The equipment is permanently labeled to indicate that only additives recognized as 
safe by the FDA shall be used in the heat transfer medium. 

c. Double-wall heat exchangers shall separate the potable water from the heat transfer medium by provid- 
ing a space between the two walls that is vented to the atmosphere. 

10.5.12 Hose Connections 

A pressure -type or atmospheric-type vacuum breaker or a permanently attached hose connection vacuum breaker 
shall protect hose bibbs, sill-cocks, wall hydrants and other openings with a hose connection. 
EXCEPTIONS: 

(1) Water heater and boiler drain valves that are provided with hose connection threads and that are intended 
only for tank or vessel draining shall not be required to be equipped with a backflow preventer. 

(2) This section shall not apply to water supply valves intended for connection to clothes washing machines 
where backflow prevention is otherwise provided or is integral with the machine. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 127 



10.5.13 Protection for Special Equipment 

The water supply for any equipment or device that creates a cross-connection with the potable water supply 
shall be protected against backflow as required in Section 10.5. Such equipment and devices includes, but is 
not limited to, chemical dispensers, portable cleaning equipment, sewer and drain cleaning equipment, and 
dental pump equipment. 

a. Chemical Dispensing Systems 

Chemical dispensing systems with connections to the potable water distribution system shall protect the water 
distribution system from backflow in accordance with AS SE 1055. 

b. Portable Cleaning Equipment 

Where the water distribution system connects to portable cleaning equipment, the water supply system shall be 
protected against backflow in accordance with Section 10.5, which allows for an atmospheric vacuum breaker, 
pressure vacuum breaker, double check valve, or a reduced pressure principle assembly. 

EXCEPTION: Atmospheric vacuum breakers shall not be used where there are shutoff valves or other shutoff 
devices downstream or where they are subject to continuous pressure for more than 12 hours at a time. 

c. Dental Pump Equipment 

Where the water distribution system connects to dental pumping equipment, the water supply system shall be 
protected against backflow in accordance with Section 10.5, which allows for an atmospheric vacuum breaker, 
pressure vacuum breaker, double check valve, or a reduced pressure principle assembly. 

EXCEPTION: Atmospheric vacuum breakers shall not be used where there are shutoff valves or other shutoff 
devices downstream or where they are subject to continuous pressure for more than 12 hours at a time. 

10.6 WATER SERVICE 

10.6.1 Separation of Water Service and Building Drain or Building Sewer 

The water service pipe and building drain or building sewer shall not have less than one foot horizontal dis- 
tance between the piping. 

10.6.2 Water Service Near Sources of Pollution 

Potable water service piping shall not be located in, under, or above cesspools, septic tanks, septic tank drain- 
age fields, or drainage pits. A separation often feet shall be maintained from such systems. When a water 
line parallels or crosses over or under a sewer, a minimum clearance of 12 inches in all directions shall be 
maintained. 

10.6.3 Stop-and- Waste Valves Prohibited 

Combination stop-and-waste valves or cocks shall not be installed underground in water service piping. 

10.6.4 Water Service Pipe Sleeves 

Pipe sleeves shall be provided where water service pipes penetrate foundation walls or floor slabs to protect 
against corrosion of the pipe and allow clearance for expansion, contraction and settlement. The sleeve shall 
form a watertight bond with the wall or floor slab. The annular space between the pipe and the sleeve shall 
be resiliently sealed watertight. Where water service piping is plastic, the wall sleeve shall be not less than 
five feet long extended outside beyond the wall. 

10.6.5 Water Service Sizing 

The water service pipe shall be of sufficient size to furnish water to the building in the quantities and at the 
pressures required elsewhere in this Code. The pipe size shall not be less than 3/4 inch nominal. 



1 28 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



10.7 WATER PUMPING AND STORAGE EQUIPMENT 

10.7.1 Pumps and Other Appliances 

Water pumps, filters, softeners, tanks and other appliances and devices used to handle or treat potable water 
shall be protected against contamination as per Section 10.5. 

10.7.2 Prohibited Location of Potable Supply Tanks 

Potable water gravity tanks or manholes of potable water pressure tanks shall not be located directly under 
any soil or waste piping. 

10.8 WATER PRESSURE BOOSTER SYSTEMS 

10.8.1 Water Pressure Booster Systems Required 

a. When the water pressure in the public water main or individual water supply system is insufficient to 
supply the potable peak demand flow to plumbing fixtures and other water needs freely and continuously 
with the minimum pressure and quantities specified in Section 10.14.3, or elsewhere in this Code, and in ac- 
cordance with good practice, the rate of supply shall be supplemented by one of the following methods: 

1. An elevated water tank. 

2. A hydro-pneumatic pressure booster system. 

3. A water pressure booster pump. 

10.8.2 Reserved 

10.8.3 Overflows for Water Supply Tanks 

Gravity or suction water supply tanks shall be provided with an overflow having a diameter not less than that 
shown in Table 10.8.3. The overflow outlet shall discharge above and within not less than 6 inches of a roof 
or roof drain, floor or floor drain, or over an open water-supplied fixture. The overflow outlet shall be covered 
by a corrosion-resistant screen of not less than 16 x 20 mesh to the inch and by 1/4 inch hardware cloth, or it 
shall terminate in a horizontally installed 45° angle-seat check valve. Drainage from overflow pipes shall be 
directed so as not to freeze on roof walkways. 



Table 10.8.3 
Sizes 1 Of Overflow Pipes For Water Supply Tanks 



Maximum Capacity of 

Water Supply Line 

to Tank 



0-13 gpm 



14-55 gpm 



56-100 gpm 



101-165 gpm 



166-355 gpm 



Diameter of 

Overflow Pipe 

(Inches ID) 



1-1/2 



2-1/2 



Maximum Capacity of 

Water Supply Line 

to Tank 



356-640 gpm 



641-1040 gpm 



over 1 040 gpm 



Diameter 

Overflow Pipe 

(Inches ID) 



Computed by the method of NBS Mono. 31, for vertical pipes flowing not greater than 1/2 full at terminal velocity. 
(1/3 full for 1-1/2 in. pipe). 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



IB 



10.8.4 Covers 

All water supply tanks shall be covered to keep out unauthorized persons, dirt, and vermin. The covers of 
gravity tanks shall be vented with a return bend vent pipe having an area not less than the area of the down 
feed riser pipe and the vent shall be screened with corrosion resistant screen having not less than 14 and not 
more than 20 openings per linear inch. 

10.8.5 Potable Water Inlet Control and Location 

Potable water inlets to gravity tanks shall be controlled by a ball cock or other automatic supply valve so 
installed as to prevent the tank from overflowing. The inlet shall be terminated so as to provide an accepted 
air gap but in no case less than 4 inches above the overflow. 

10.8.6 Tank Drain Pipes 

Each tank shall be provided at its lowest point with a valved pipe to permit emptying the tank. 

10.8.7 Low Pressure Cut-Off Required on Booster Pumps 

Booster pumps shall be protected by a low pressure cut-off switch to shut-off the pump(s) if the suction pres- 
sure drops to an unsafe value. 

10.8.8 Pressure Tanks — Vacuum Relief 

Domestic water pressure tanks shall be provided with vacuum relief if required by Section 10.16 .7 or the 
tank manufacturer. 

10.8.9 Pressure Tanks — Pressure Relief 

All water pressure tanks shall be provided with approved pressure relief valves set at a pressure not in excess 
of the tank working pressure. 

10.9 FLUSHING AND DISINFECTING POTABLE WATER SYSTEMS 

10.9.1 Flushing 

The water service piping and distribution piping to all fixtures and outlets shall be flushed until the water runs 
clear and free of debris or particles. Faucet aerators or screens shall be removed during flushing operations. 

10.9.2 Disinfecting 

a. Where required by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, the water service piping and the hot and cold water 
distribution piping in new or renovated potable water systems shall be disinfected after flushing and prior to 
use. The procedure used shall be as follows or an approved equivalent: 

1 . All water outlets shall be posted to warn against use during disinfecting operations. 

2. Disinfecting shall be performed by persons experienced in such work. 

3. The water supply to the piping system or parts thereof being disinfected shall be valved-off from the 
normal water source to prevent the introduction of disinfecting agents into a public water supply or portions 
of a system that are not being disinfected. 

4. The piping shall be disinfected with a water-chlorine solution. During the injection of the disinfecting 
agent into the piping, each outlet shall be fully opened several times until a concentration of not less than 50 
parts per million chlorine is present at every outlet. The solution shall be allowed to stand in the piping for at 
least 24 hours. 



|30 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



5. An acceptable alternate to the 50 ppm/24-hour procedure described in Section 10.9.2.a.4 shall be to 
maintain a level of not less than 200 parts per million chlorine for not less than three hours. If this alternate 
procedure is used, the heavily concentrated chlorine shall not be allowed to stand in the piping system for 
more than 6 hours. Also, special procedures shall be used to dispose of the heavily concentrated chlorine in 
an environmentally acceptable and approved manner. 

6. At the end of the required retention time, the residual level of chlorine at every outlet shall be not less 
than five parts per million. If the residual is less than five parts per million, the disinfecting procedure shall 
be repeated until the required minimum chlorine residual is obtained at every outlet. 

7. After the required residual chlorine level is obtained at every outlet, the system shall be flushed to re- 
move the disinfecting agent. Flushing shall continue until the chlorine level at every outlet is reduced to that 
of the incoming water supply. 

8. Any faucet aerators or screens that were removed under Section 10.9.1 shall be replaced. 

9. A certification of performance and laboratory test report showing the absence of coliform organisms 
shall be submitted to the Authority Having Jurisdiction upon satisfactory completion of the disinfecting 
operations. 

10.10 WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM MATERIALS 

See Section 3.4.3. 

10.11 ALLOWANCE FOR CHARACTER OF SOIL AND WATER 

When selecting the material and size for water service supply pipe, tube, or fittings, due consideration shall be 
given to the action of the water on the interior of the pipe and of the soil, fill or other material on the exterior of 
the pipe. (Appendix B gives recommendations concerning allowances to be made in sizing water piping because 
of the properties of the water.) 

10.12 WATER SUPPLY CONTROL VALVES 

10.12.1 Curb Valve 

On the water service from the street main to the building, an approved gate valve or ground key stopcock or 
ball valve shall be installed near the curb line between the property line and the curb. This valve or stopcock 
shall be provided with an approved curb valve box. 

10.12.2 Building Valve 

The building water service shall be provided with a readily accessible gate valve with bleed or other full-way 
valve with bleed located inside the building near the point where the water service enters. When the build- 
ing water service enters a crawl space, the building valve shall be readily accessible. Where there are two or 
more water services serving one building, a check valve shall be installed on each service in addition to the 
above shutoff valves. 

10.12.3 Water Supply Tank Valve 

A shutoff valve shall be provided at the outlet of any tank serving as a water supply source, either by gravity 
or pressure. 

10.12.4 Valves in Dwelling Units 

a. In single dwelling units, the building valve required by Section 10.12.2 shall shutoff the water supply to 
all fixtures and outlets. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code '31 



b. In multiple dwelling units, one or more shutoff valves shall be provided in the main supply or main 
branches in each dwelling unit so that the water supply to any plumbing fixture or group of fixtures in that 
dwelling unit can be shut off without stopping the water supply to fixtures in other dwelling units. These 
valves shall be accessible in the dwelling unit that they control. 

c. Except as permitted in Section 10.12.4.d, individual fixture shutoff or stop valves shall be provided for 
water closets, lavatories, kitchen sinks, laundry trays, bar sinks, bidets, clothes washing machines, sill cocks, 
wall hydrants, appliances, and equipment connected to the water supply system. Valves for fixtures, appli- 
ances, and equipment shall be accessible without having to move the appliance or equipment. 

EXCEPTION: Appliances shall be permitted to be moved for access to shutoff valves for ice makers. 

d. Unless individual fixture shutoff valves are provided for fixtures in powder rooms or bathroom groups 
in accordance with Section 10.12.4x, shutoff valves may be provided for the each powder room or bathroom 
group in lieu of individual fixture shutoff valves. In individual dwelling units where powder rooms or bath- 
room groups are located adjacent to each other or one directly above the other, they may be considered as a 
single group and shall be permitted to have a single set of shutoff valves. 

e. Self-piercing and needle-type saddle valves shall be prohibited. 

10.12.5 Riser Valves 

Shutoff valves shall be provided for isolating each water supply riser serving fixtures on two or more floors. 
EXCEPTION: Risers within individual dwelling units that serve fixtures only in that unit. 

10.12.6 Individual Fixture Valves 

a. In a building used or intended to be used for other than dwelling purposes, the water distribution pipe to 
each fixture or other piece of equipment shall be provided with a valve or fixture stop to shut off the water 
to the fixture or to the room in which it is located. These valves shall be accessible. Each sill cock and wall 
hydrant shall be separately controlled by a valve inside the building. 

b. Self-piercing and needle-type saddle valves shall be prohibited. 

10.12.7 Water Heating Equipment Valve 

A shutoff valve shall be provided in the cold water supply to each water heater. If a shutoff valve is also pro- 
vided in the hot water supply from the heater, it shall not isolate any safety devices from the heater or storage 
tank. Shutoff valves for water heaters shall be the gate, ball, plug, or butterfly type. 

10.12.8 Meter Valve 

A gate valve or other full-way valve shall be installed in the line on the discharge side of each water meter. 
The valve shall not be less in size than the building water service pipe. 

10.12.9 Valve Accessibility 

Water supply control valves shall be placed so as to be accessible for service and maintenance. 

10.13 FLEXIBLE WATER CONNECTORS 

Flexible water connectors exposed to continuous pressure shall conform to ASME Al 12.18.6. Access shall be pro- 
vided to all flexible water connectors. 



132 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



10.14 MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR WATER DISTRIBUTION 

SYSTEMS 

10.14.1 Maximum Velocity (See Appendix B.6) 

Water distribution piping within buildings shall be sized for a maximum velocity of 8 feet per second at the 
design flow rate unless the pipe manufacturer's sizing recommendations call for the maximum velocity to be 
less than 8 feet per second. 

10.14.2 Size of Individual Fixture Supply Branches 

a. Individual fixture supply branch pipe sizes shall be based on the minimum available flowing water pres- 
sure at the point of connection to the water distribution system, any elevation difference between that con- 
nection and the fixture, and the allowable pressure loss in the fixture supply branch. The minimum fixture 
supply branch pipe sizes shall be as indicated in Table 10.14.2A. For design purposes, the required pressure 
at each fixture inlet shall be 15 psig minimum with flow for all fixtures, except 20 psig flowing for flushom- 
eter valves on siphon jet water closets and 25 psig flowing for flushometer valves on blowout water closets 
and blowout urinals. Flushometer tank (pressure assisted) water closets require a minimum of 25 psig static 
pressure. The following water flow rates shall be used for the purpose of sizing individual fixture supply 
branch pipes: 

5.0 gpm for hose bibbs and wall hydrants; 

4.0 gpm for bath faucets and clothes washers; 

0.75 gpm for drinking fountains and water coolers; 

2.2 gpm for sink faucets; 

2.5 gpm for showers; 

2.2 gpm for lavatory faucets; 

3 .0 gpm for water closets other than the flushometer valve type; 

12.0 gpm for flushometer valve urinals; 

30.0 gpm for flushometer valve water closets 

b. Fixture supply branches shall extend from the distribution system to within 30 inches of the point of 
connection to the fixture or device served and be within the same area and physical space as the point of con- 
nection to the fixture or device. Fixture supply tubes and flexible water connectors shall be not less than the 
size recommended by the manufacturer of the fixture, faucet, appliance or device served. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 133 



Table 10.14.2A 

WATER SUPPLY FIXTURE UNITS (WSFU) 

AND MINIMUM FIXTURE BRANCH PIPE SIZES 


HEAVY-USE ASSEMBLY 


OTHER THAN DWELLING UNITS 


— 


SERVING 3 OR MORE DWELLING 


UNITS 




INDIVIDUAL DWELLING UNITS 


MINIMUM BRANCH PIP] 


SSIZE 


wssmtsmMiist! 



.' ■ muo< ■: ■ mi i's -.-. ;■ !...;■>.•' -.( v 
oTiinmi \\ i in ° ri.iMio.Mi ir.R \-.\i\ i. ni'i: 

Half-Bath or Powder Room 


1 
......... 


1 Bathroom Group 


5.0 


3.5 


iiliilli 




1-1/2 Bathroom Groups 


6.0 


4.0 


2 Bathroom Groups 


7.0 


4.5 




2-1/2 Bathroom Groups j 


8.0 


5.0 




3 Bathroom Groups 


9.0 


5.5 






Each Additional Half-Bath 


0.5 


0.5 


Each Additional Bathroom Group 


1.0 

4.0 


1.0 





BATHROOM (il«JI P\ HAVING 3.5 (.IT (or taighei.l GRAVITY'f4Nk 
WUl'KU.OSFIS 


gum 


3.0 


liilisiil 


Half-Bath or Powder Room 


1 Bathroom Group 


6.0 


5.0 


1-1/2 Bathroom Groups 


8.0 


5.5 


2 Bathroom Groups 




10.0 


6.0 






2-1/2 Bathroom Groups 


11.0 


6.5 






3 Bathroom Groups 


12.0 


7.0 


Each Additional Half-Bath 


0.5 


0.5 






Each Additional Bathroom Group 


1.0 


1.0 






OTHER GROUPS OF FIXTURES 


jjfjli! 


6.0 






Bathroom Group with 1.6 GPF Flushometer Valve 


4.0 






Bathroom Group with 3.5 GPF (or higher) Flushometer Valve 


8.0 


6.0 






Kitchen Group with Sink and Dishwasher 


2.0 


1.5 


iiilii 




Laundry Group with Sink and Clothes Washer 




5.0 


3.0 





134 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Table 10.14.2A (continued) 

WATER SUPPLY FIXTURE UNITS (WSFU) 

AND MINIMUM FIXTURE BRANCH PIPE SIZES 


HEAVY-USE ASSEMBLY 


OTHER THAN DWELLING UNITS 




SERVING 3 OR MORE DWELLING UNITS 




INDIVIDUAL DWELLING UNITS 




MINIMUM BRANCH PIPE SIZE 




IMUMIH \t iTMi HI s 


3/8" 










Bar Sink 


1.0 


0.5 






Bathtub or Combination Bath/Shower 


1/2" 


4.0 








Bidet 


1/2" 


1.0 


0.5 


0.75 


Clothes Washer, Domestic 


1/2" 


4.0 


2.5 


4.0 


Dishwasher, Domestic 


1/2" 


1.5 


1.0 


1.5 


Drinking Fountain or Water Cooler 


3/8" 


llilllil 


I11111I 


0.5 


Hose Bibb (first) 


1/2" 


2.5 


2.5 


2.5 


iifiiii 


Hose Bibb (each additional) 


1/2" 


1.0 


1.0 


1.0 


Kitchen Sink, Domestic 


1/2" 


1.5 


1.0 


1.5 


Laundry Sink 


1/2" 


2.0 


1.0 


2 \ 
i 


Lavatory 


3/8" 


1.0 


0.5 


1.0 1.0 


Service Sink or Mop Basin 


1/2" 


#SlE!il8 








Shower 


1/2" 


2.0 


2.0 


2.0 


Shower, continuous use 


1/2" 






5.0 


5.0 


Urinal, 1.0 GPF 


3/4" 






4.0 


Urinal, greater than 1 .0 GPF 


3/4" 






5.0 


6.0 


Water Closet, 1 .6 GPF Gravity Tank 


1/2" 


2.5 


2.5 


2.5 


4.0 


Water Closet, 1 .6 GPF Flushometer Tank 


1/2" 


2.5 


2.5 


2.5 


3.5 


Water Closet, 1 .6 GPF Flushometer Valve 


1" 


5.0 


5.0 


5.0 


8.0 


Water Closet, 3.5 GPF Gravity Tank 


1/2" 


3.0 


3.0 


5.5 


7.0 


Water Closet, 3.5 GPF Flushometer Valve 


1" 


7.0 


7.0 


8.0 


10.0 


Whirlpool Bath or Combination Bath/Shower 


1/2" 


4.0 


4.0 





NOTES FOR TABLE 10.14.2.A: 

1 . A Bathroom Group, for the purposes of this Table, consists of not more than one water closet, up to two lavatories, and either one bathtub, one bath/ 
shower combination, or one shower stall. Other fixtures within the bathing facility shall be counted separately to determine the total water supply fixture unit 
load. 

2. A Half-Bath or Powder Room, for the purposes of this Table, consists of one water closet and one lavatory. 

3. For unlisted fixtures, refer to a listed fixture having a similar flow and frequency of use. 

4. The listed fixture unit values for Bathroom Groups and Individual Fixtures represent their load on the cold water service. The separate cold water and 
hot water fixture unit values for fixtures having both cold and hot water connections shall each be taken as 3/4 of the listed total value for the individual 
fixture.. 

5. When WSFU values are added to determine the demand on the water distribution system or portions thereof, round the sum to the nearest whole num- 
ber before referring to Table 10. 14.2B for the corresponding gallons per minute (gpm) flow. WSFU values of 0.5 or more should be rounded up to the next 
higher whole number (9.5 = 10 WSFU). Values of 0.4 or less should be rounded down to the next lower whole number (9.4 = 9 WSFU). 

6. The listed minimum supply branch pipe sizes for individual fixtures arc the nominal (I.D.) pipe size in inches. 

7. "Other Than Dwelling Units" applies to business, commercial, industrial, and assembly occupancies other than those defined under "Heavy-Use As- 
sembly." Included are the public and common areas in hotels, motels, and multi-dwelling buildings. 

8. "Heavy-Use Assembly" applies to toilet facilities in occupancies that place heavy, but intermittent, time-based demands on the water supply system, 
such as' schools, auditoriums, stadiums, race courses, transportation terminals, theaters, and similar occupancies where queuing is likely to occur during 
periods of peak use. 

9. For fixtures or supply connections likely to impose continuous flow demands, determine their required flow in gallons per minute (gpm) and add it 
separately to the demand (in gpm) for the distribution system or portion thereof. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



135 



Table 10.14.2B 
TABLE FOR CONVERTING DEMAND IN WSFU TO GPM 1 


WSFU 


GPM 
Flush Tanks 2 


GPM 
Flush Valves 3 


WSFU 


GPM 
Flush Tanks 2 


GPM 
Flush Valves 3 


3 


3 




120 


49 


74 


4 


4 




140 


53 


78 


5 


4.5 


22 


160 


57 


83 


6 


5 


23 


180 


61 


87 


7 


6 


24 


200 


65 


91 


8 


7 


25 


225 


70 


95 


9 


7.5 


26 


250 


75 


100 


10 


8 


27 


300 


85 


110 


11 


8.5 


28 


400 


105 


125 


12 


9 


29 


500 


125 


140 


13 


10 


29.5 


750 


170 


r 175 


14 


10.5 


30 


1000 


210 


210 


15 


11 


31 


1250 


240 


240 


16 


12 


32 


1500 


270 


270 


17 


12.5 


33 


1750 


300 


300 


18 


13 


33.5 


2000 


325 


325 


19 


13.5 


34 


2500 


380 


380 


20 


14 


35 


3000 


435 


435 


25 


17 


38 


4000 


525 


525 


30 


20 


41 


5000 


600 


600 


40 


25 


47 


6000 


650 


650 


50 


29 


51 


7000 


700 


700 


60 


33 


55 


8000 


730 


730 


80 


39 


62 


9000 


760 


760 


100 


44 


68 


10,000 


790 


790 



NOTES FOR TABLE 10.14.2B: 

1 . This table converts water supply demands in water supply fixture units (WSFU) to required water flow in gallons per min- 
ute (GPM) for the purpose of pipe sizing. 

2. This column applies to portions of piping systems where the water closets are the flush tank type (gravity or pressure) or 
there are no water closets, and to hot water piping. 

3. This column applies to portions of piping systems where the water closets are the flush valve type. 



136 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



10.14.3 Sizing Water Distribution Piping 

a. The supply demand in gallons per minute in the building hot and cold water distribution system shall 
be determined on the basis of the load in terms of water supply fixture units (WSFU) as shown in Table 
10. 14.2A and the relationship between the load in WSFU and the supply demand in gallons per minute 
(GPM) as shown in Table 10.14.2B. Refer to Appendix M for a more detailed table of WSFU and equivalent 
GPM. For fixtures having both hot water and cold water connections, the separate hot and cold water loads 
shall be taken as 75% of the listed WSFU value. 

b. Main risers and branches of the water distribution system shall be sized based on the minimum available 
water pressure at the source, any elevation differences between the source and the fixtures, pressure losses in 
the distribution system, and the pressure (with flow) required at each connection of the fixture supply branch- 
es. 

10.14.4 Inadequate Water Pressure 

Whenever water pressure from the street main or other sources of supply is insufficient to provide flow pres- 
sures at fixture outlets as required under Section 10.14.3, a booster pump and pressure tank or other approved 
means shall be installed on the building water supply system. 

10.14.5 Variable Street Pressures 

Where street water main pressures fluctuate, the building water distribution system shall be designed for the 
minimum pressure available. 

10.14.6 Excessive Pressures 

a. Pressure reducing valves complying with ASSE 1003 shall be provided if required to limit the water 
supply pressure at any fixture appliance, appurtenance, or outlet to not more than 80 psi under no-flow condi- 
tions. 

b. The requirement of Section 10. 14.6. a above shall not prohibit supply pressures higher than 80 psi to wa- 
ter pressure booster systems under Section 10.14.4 or in high pressure distribution systems, provided that the 
pressure at the fixtures served is subsequently reduced to 80 psi maximum. Where operating water pressures 
exceed 80 psi, the working pressure rating of materials and equipment shall be suitable for the maximum 
pressure that may be encountered, including temporary increases or surges. 

c. Where pressure reducing valves are installed and the downstream piping is not rated for the maximum 
upstream pressure, a pressure relief valve shall be installed downstream from the pressure reducing valve. 
The relief valve shall be set not higher than the working pressure rating of the downstream piping and sized 
for not less than the flow capacity of the pressure reducing valve. Relief valves shall discharge in accordance 
with Sections 10.16.6a, b, c, and d. 

d. When a pressure reducing valve is installed, a gauge port or pressure gauge with pressure range of - 
1 50 psi shall be installed within 24 inches down stream of the reducing valve. 

10.14.7 Water Hammer 

a. Approved water hammer arresters, complying with ANSI/ASSE 1010, shall be installed on water distri- 
bution piping in which quick closing valves are installed. 

EXCEPTION: Single lever faucets, domestic clothes washers, and domestic dishwashers. 

b. Water hammer arresters shall be placed as close as possible to the quick acting valve, at the end of long 
piping runs, or near batteries of fixtures. 

c. Arresters shall be accessible for replacement. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 137 



10.15 HOT WATER 

10.15.1 Hot Water Supply System 

In residences and buildings intended for human occupancy, hot water shall be supplied to all plumbing 
fixtures and equipment used for bathing, washing, culinary purposes, cleansing, laundry or building mainte- 
nance. 

EXCEPTION: In buildings other than dwelling units, tempered water supply systems may be installed in 
lieu of hot and cold water systems with the approval of the Authority Having Jurisdiction. 

10.15.2 Temperature Maintenance Where Required 

a. Heated water distribution systems in buildings where developed length of heated water piping from the 
source of the heated water to the farthest fixture exceeds 100 feet shall maintain heated water temperature in 
all supply piping to within 25 feet of any heated water outlet. 

b. An approved electric heat tracing system shall be permitted to be used to satisfy the requirements of Sec- 
tion 10.15.2a. 

10.15.3 Minimum Requirements for Hot Water Storage Tanks 

a. Hot water storage tanks shall be adequate in size, when combined with the BTUH input of the water 
heating equipment, to provide the rise in temperature necessary. 

b. Water heaters and storage tanks shall be sized to provide sufficient hot water to provide both daily re- 
quirements and hourly peak loads of the occupants of the building. 

c. Storage tanks shall be protected against excessive temperatures and pressure conditions as specified in 
this Code. (See Sections 3.3.8 and 3.3.10) 

10.15.4 Drainage of Hot Water Storage Tanks 

Hot water storage tanks shall be equipped with a valve capable of draining the tank completely. 

10.15.5 Pressure Marking of Hot Water Storage Tanks 

Hot water storage tanks shall be permanently marked in an accessible place with the maximum allowable 
working pressure, in accordance with the applicable standard as listed in Table 3. 1 .3. 

10.15.6 Mixed Water Temperature Control 

a. Showers and Bath/Shower Combinations: All showers and bath/shower combinations shall be pro- 
vided with individual balanced pressure, thermostatic, or combination automatic compensating valves that 
comply with ASSE 1016 or ASME A112.18.1/CSAB125.1. These valves shall include a means to limit the 
maximum discharge temperature of the water and shall be installed and field-adjusted in accordance with 
the manufacturer's instructions to a temperature no higher than 120°F. No further mixing of water shall be 
permitted downstream of the automatic compensating valve. 

EXCEPTION: Where multiple showers are supplied by a one-pipe tempered water distribution system, 
the tempered water distribution system shall be controlled by an automatic temperature control mixing valve 
complying with ASSE 1069. These valves shall include a means to limit the maximum discharge tempera- 
ture of the water and shall be installed and field-adjusted in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions 
to a temperature no higher than 105T. No further mixing of water shall be permitted downstream of the 
automatic temperature controlled mixing valve. 

b. Bathtubs and Whirlpool Baths: The water discharged into bathtubs and whirlpool baths, with or without 
deck-mounted hand sprays, shall be controlled to a temperature no higher than 120°F by a device complying 
with CSAB125.3, ASSE 1070, ASME B112.18.1/CSAB125.1, or ASSE 1016. 



138 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



c. Public-Use Hand Washing Facilities: Water discharged from public-use hand washing facilities shall 
be limited to a temperature no higher than 1 10°F using a water temperature limiting device complying with 
ASSE1070. 

d. Commercial Hair/Shampoo Sink Sprays: The temperature of water discharged from commercial hair/ 
shampoo sink sprays shall be limited to a temperature no higher than 1 10°F by a water temperature- limiting 
device complying with ASSE 1070, ASMEA112.18.1/CSAB125.1, or CSAB125.3. 

e. Temperature Actuated Flow Reduction (TAFR) Devices: Where temperature actuated flow reduction 
(TAFR) devices are installed to limit the maximum discharge temperature to 120°F for individual fixture fit- 
tings, such devices shall comply with ASSE 1062. These devices alone shall not supersede the other require- 
ments of Section 10.15.6. 

f. In-Line Pressure Balancing Valves: Where in-line pressure balancing valves are installed to compensate 
for water pressure fluctuations to stabilize the temperature discharges from their individual faucet or fixture 
fitting, such devices shall comply with ASSE 1066. These devices shall be installed in an accessible location 
and alone shall not supersede the other requirements of Section 10.15.6 

g. Temperature-Actuated Mixing Valves: Where temperature-actuated mixing valves are installed to control 
the in-line hot water supply temperature in the water distribution system, they shall comply with ASSE 1017. 
Such devices shall be installed at the hot water source and alone shall not supersede the other requirements of 
Section 10.15.6 for mixed water temperature control. 

h. The temperature control devices for water heaters and other hot water supply sources shall not be per- 
mitted to be used to meet this Section's requirements for mixed water temperature control. 

i. Alternative Methods: The use of a combination of water temperature control or limiting devices that 
comply with the standards listed in Table 3.1.3 and satisfy the performance requirements of Section 10.15.6 
shall be subject to the approval of the Authority Having Jurisdiction. 

10.15.7 Thermal Expansion Control 

Where a water pressure regulator (with or without an internal thermal expansion bypass), a backflow preven- 
tion device, or a check valve is installed in the supply to water heating equipment such that a closed system is 
created, a device for controlling thermal expansion shall be provided. 
EXCEPTION: Instantaneous water heaters. 

10.15.8 Plastic Piping 

a. Plastic piping used for hot water distribution shall conform to the requirements of Section 3 .4 and Table 
3.4. Piping shall be water pressure rated for not less than 100 psi at 180°F and 160 psi at 73°. 

NOTE: The working pressure rating for certain approved plastic piping materials varies depending on 
material composition, pipe size, wall thickness and method of joining. See Table 3.4.3. 

b. Plastic pipe or tube shall not be used downstream from instantaneous water heaters, immersion water heat- 
ers or other heaters not having approved temperature safety devices. 

c. Piping within six inches of flue or vent connectors shall be approved metallic pipe or tube. 

d. The normal operating pressure in water distribution piping systems utilizing approved plastic pipe or tube 
for hot water distribution shall be not more than 80 psi. Where necessary, one or more pressure reducing valves 
shall be provided to regulate the hot and cold water supply pressure to not more than 80 psi. 

e. The pressure in the hot water distribution piping shall be limited by a pressure relief valve set no higher 
than 1 50 psi. When the water heater is protected by a pressure relief valve or combination pressure temperature 
relief valve having a pressure setting higher than 150 psi, a separate pressure relief valve shall be provided to 
protect the piping. The relief valve for the piping shall comply with Section 10.16.2 except that it shall be set 
no higher than 150 psi. Thermal expansion shall be controlled as required under Section 10.15.7. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 139 



10.15.9 Drip Pans 

10.15.9.1 Where Required 

Where tank-type water heaters or hot water storage tanks are installed in locations where leakage will 
cause structural damage to the building, the tank or water heater shall be installed in a drip pan in ac- 
cordance with Section 10.15.9.2 and 10.15.9.3. 

10.15.9.2 Construction 

a. Drip pans shall be watertight and constructed of corrosion-resistant materials. Metallic pans shall 
be 24 gage minimum. Non-metallic pans shall be .0625-inch minimum thickness. Pans shall be not 
less than 1-1/2" deep and shall be of sufficient size to hold the heater without interfering with drain 
valves, burners, controls, and any required access. 

b. High impact plastic pans shall be permitted under gas-fired water heaters where the heater is listed 
for zero clearance for combustible floors and the application is recommended by the pan manufacturer. 

10.15.9.3 Drainage 

a. Drip pans shall have drain outlets not less than %" size, with indirect drain pipes extending to 
an approved point of discharge, a suitably located indirect waste receptor, or floor drain, or extend to 
within 2 to 6 inches above the adjacent floor. 

b. Discharge from a relief valve into a water heater pan shall be prohibited. 

10.15.10 Water Heaters Used for Space Heating 

a. Water heaters used for space heating shall be listed for such use. 

b. Piping and components connected to a water heater for space heating application shall be suitable for use 
with potable water. 

c. Where required, a water temperature control valve shall be installed in every combination water heating- 
space heating system application to limit domestic hot water temperature to 140°F. The temperature control 
device shall be an ASSE 1017 listed device. 

10.16 SAFETY DEVICES FOR PRESSURE VESSELS 

10.16.1 Tank Protection 

a. Pressure vessels used for heating water or storing water at pressures above atmospheric shall be 
protected by approved safety devices in accordance with one of the following methods: 

1. A separate pressure relief valve and a separate temperature relief valve; or 

2. A combination pressure and temperature relief valve; or 

3. Either "1" or "2" above and an energy cut-off device. 

4. Tank construction conforming to a standard that does not require a temperature or pressure safety or 
relief valve. 

10.16.2 Pressure Relief Valves 

a. Pressure relief valves shall comply with the applicable standards listed in Table 3.1.3. 

b. The valves shall have a relief setting of not more than the pressure rating of the tank, or 150 psig maxi- 
mum, and shall be installed either directly in a tank tapping or in the hot or cold water piping close to the 
tank. Pressure relief valves installed in hot water piping shall be rated not less than 180 degrees F. 

c. There shall be no shutoff valve between the pressure relief valve and the tank. 

d. The pressure relief valve shall be set to open at not less than 25 psig above the street main pressure or 
not less than 25 psig above the setting of any building water pressure regulating valve. 



140 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



10.16.3 Temperature Relief Valves 

a. Temperature relief valves shall be of adequate relief rating, expressed in BTU/HR, for the equipment 
served. 

b. The valves shall be installed so that the temperature sensing element is immersed in the hottest water 
within the top 6 inches of the tank. 

c. The valves shall be set to open when the stored water temperature reaches a maximum of 210°F. (See 
Section 3.3.10.) 

d. The valves shall conform to an approved standard and shall be sized so that when the valve opens, the 
water temperature cannot exceed 210°F with the water heating equipment operating at maximum input. 

10.16.4 Combination Pressure-Temperature Relief Valves 

Combination pressure-temperature relief valves shall comply with all the requirements of the separate pres- 
sure and temperature relief valves. (See Section 3.3.10.) 

10.16.5 Tankless Water Heaters 

a. Tankless instantaneous water heaters shall have an overheat prevention device to shutoff the unit in the event 
of unsafe high water temperature. The pressure and temperature tank protection required by Section 10.16.1 
shall not be necessary unless required by the manufacturer's installation instructions. 

b. The outlet temperature control device for tankless water heaters shall be set no higher than 140°F hot 
water. 

10.16.6 Relief Valve Discharge Piping 

a. Piping from the outlet of a relief valve to the point of disposal shall be of a material suitable for potable 
water (see Section 3.4). Discharge pipes from temperature relief valves and combination pressure-temper- 
ature relief valves shall be listed in Table 3.4 for hot water distribution, and shall be suitable for conveying 
water at 210°F to an open discharge. The pressure rating of the pipe at 210 deg F is not required to equal or 
exceed the pressure setting of the relief valve. 

b. There shall be no shut-off valve, check valve or other restricting device between a relief valve and the 
pressure vessel or piping system being protected. 

c. The discharge end of the pipe shall be no smaller than the outlet size of its relief valve and shall extend 
to a point of disposal without valves, traps or rises that would prevent the discharge piping from draining by 
gravity. The discharge end of the pipe shall not be threaded. 

d. An air gap shall be provided where relief valves discharge into an indirect waste pipe, floor drain, trench 
drain, service sink, mop basin, laundry sink, standpipe or other approved receptor. The minimum size of fix- 
ture drains or waste pipes that receive the discharge from relief valves shall be as indicated in Table 10.16.6. 

e. Where relief valves discharge to the floor, the discharge pipe shall terminate not more than 6 inches nor 
less than 2 inches above the floor. 

f. If the point of disposal is not within the space or room in which the relief valve is located, an indirect 
gravity drain shall be provided from the room or space to the point of disposal. Indirect waste pipes shall 
be sized according to Table 10.16.6 and shall be of a material approved for potable water, sanitary drainage 
or storm drainage (see Tables 3.4, 3.5, and 3.7). A visible air gap shall be provided in the room or space in 
which the relief valve is located. 

EXCEPTION: Where water heaters are located above ceilings, the relief valve discharge pipe shall extend 
to a point of disposal or indirect waste that is readily observable in an area below the heater. 

g. Where two or more relief valves serving independent systems are located in the same area, each shall be 
discharged separately. Where such relief valves for independent systems are discharged into a common grav- 
ity drain or indirect waste pipe, the drain or waste pipe shall be sized according to the largest discharge pipe 
served. 



TTi 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Table 10.16.6 
SIZE OF DRAINS OR WASTE PIPES RECEIVING RELIEF VALVE DISCHARGE 


Discharge Pipe Size 


Minimum Drain or 

Indirect Waste Size 


3/4" 


2"* 


1" 


3" 


1-1/2" 


4" 


2" 


4" 


2-1/2" 


6" 



^EXCEPTION: A laundry sink with 1-1/2" waste pipe. 

10.16.7 Vacuum Relief Valves 

Where a hot water storage tank or an indirect water heater is located at an elevation above the fixture outlets 
in the hot water system, a vacuum relief valve shall be installed on the storage tank or heater. 

10.16.8 Replacement of Relief Valves 

a. Relief valves shall be maintained in proper working order and shall be replaced when necessary. 

b. Whenever a water heater is replaced, its temperature relief valve and pressure relief valve, or combina- 
tion temperature -pressure relief valve shall also be replaced and shall not be reused. 

10.17 MANIFOLD-TYPE PARALLEL WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS 

10.17.1 General 

a. Parallel water distribution systems shall provide individual hot and cold water supply lines from a mani- 
fold to each fixture served. 

b. Manifolds shall be specifically designed and manufactured for parallel water distribution. 

c. Manufacturer's of such systems shall provide complete sizing and installations instructions, including 
any limitations or restrictions on use. 

d. Piping materials shall be as recommended by the system manufacturer and be listed in Table 3.4 for hot 
and cold water distribution. 

10.17.2 Sizing 

See Appendix B for sizing manifolds and distribution lines. Distribution line sizes shall be as recommend- 
ed by the system manufacturer to provide the fixture flow rates listed in Section 10.14.2a. The minimum line 
size shall be 3/8" nominal. 

10.17.3 Valving 

a. Each manifold outlet that is equipped with a shutoff valve shall identify the fixture being supplied. Ad- 
ditional shut-off or stop valves at the fixtures shall be provided as required by Section 10.12.4. 

EXCEPTION: Additional shut-off or stop valves at the fixtures shall not be required if a manifold with 
shutoff valves is located within the same room as the fixtures, or in an adjacent closet. 

b. Manifolds having shutoff valves shall be readily accessible. 

10.17.4 Support 



142 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



a. Tube bundles for manifold systems shall be supported in accordance with Chapter 8 of this Code. 

b. Supports at changes in direction shall be in accordance with the system manufacturer's recommenda- 
tions. 

10.17.5 Combined Distribution Systems 

Manifold-type parallel water distribution systems shall be permitted to be combined with conventional main/ 
branch piping systems that serve one or more fixture(s) through common main and branch piping. 

10.18 DRINKING WATER TREATMENT UNITS 

10.18.1 Compliance with Standards 

Drinking water treatment units shall comply with the standards listed in Table 3.1.3. 

10.18.2 Air Gap Discharge 

Discharge from all drinking water treatment units shall be installed with an air gap. 

EXCEPTION: Reject water connections from reverse osmosis drinking water treatment units shall be 

through an air gap or alternate air gap device in accordance with the requirements of NSF 58. 

10.18.3 Connection Tubing 

The tubing to and from the drinking water treatment unit shall be of a size and material as recommended by 
the manufacturer. The tubing shall comply with NSF 14, NSF 58 or NSF 61 . 

10.19 SIZING OF RESIDENTIAL WATER SOFTENERS 

Residential -use water softeners shall be sized per Table 10.19. 



Table 10.19 
SIZING OF RESIDENTIAL WATER SOFTENERS 


Required Size of Softener Connection (in.) 


l 
Number of Bathroom Groups Served 


3/4 


2 
Up to 2 


1 


3 
Up to 4 



Installation with a kitchen sink and dishwasher, laundry tray and automatic clothes washer. 

■y 

An additional water closet and lavatory shall be permitted without an increase in sizing. 
Over four Bathroom Groups, the softener shall be engineered for the specific installation. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 1 43 



Blank Page 



1 44 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Chapter 11 



Sanitary Drainage Systems 



11.1 MATERIALS 

See Section 3.1. 

11.2 BUILDING SEWERS AND BUILDING DRAINS 

11.2.1 Sewer or Drain in Filled Ground 

Building sewers or building drains that are- installed in filled or unstable ground shall be installed in accor- 
dance with Section 2.6. 

11.2.2 Existing Building Sewers and Building Drains 

Existing building sewers and building drains may be used in connection with new building sewer and drain- 
age systems only when found by examination to conform to the new system in quality of material prescribed 
by this Code. 

11.2.3 Building Sewer and Building Drain Size 

The size of the building sewer and the size of the building drain shall be determined by fixture unit loads 
connected in accordance with Table 11. 5.1 A. 

11.3 DRAINAGE PIPING INSTALLATION 

11.3.1 Slope of Horizontal Drainage Piping 

a. Horizontal drainage piping shall be installed in uniform alignment at uniform slopes not less than 1/4 
inch per foot for 2-inch size and smaller, and not less than 1/8 inch per foot for 3-inch size and larger. 

b. Where conditions do not permit building drains and sewers to be laid with slope as great as that speci- 
fied, a lesser slope may be permitted by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. 

11.4 FIXTURE UNITS 

11.4.1 Load on Drainage Piping 

The load on drainage system piping shall be computed in terms of drainage fixture unit values in accordance 
with Table 1 1 .4. 1 and Section 1 1 .4.2. 

11.4.2 Conversion of Flow in GPM to DFU 

Where the discharge rate of fixtures or equipment is expressed in gallons per minute (GPM), two (2) drainage 
fixture units (DFU) shall be allowed for each gallon per minute (GPM) of flow. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



145 



Table 11.4.1 
DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT (DFU) VALUES 


HEAVY-USE ASSEMBLY 


OTHER THAN DWELLING UNITS 




SERVING 3 OR MORE DWELLING UNITS 




INDIVIDUAL DWELLING UNITS 




BATHROOM GROUPS HAVING 1.6 GPF GRAVITY-TANK WATER CLOSETS 1 


j 




Half-Bath or Powder Room 


3 

5 


2 






1 Bathroom Group 






1-1/2 Bathrooms 


6 






fiiii 


2 Bathrooms 


7 








2-1/2 Bathrooms 


8 






3 Bathrooms 


9 






Each Additional Half-Bath 


0.5 






.... . 


Each Additional Bathroom Group 


1 

3 5 




| BATHROOM <". ROM'S HAVING \.& GPT I'UI-'^M HI -T \\K WA'IER. CLOSETS 


j 


Half-Bath or Powder Room 


1 Bathroom Group 


5 5 


3.5 





1-1/2 Bathrooms 


6.5 




j 


2 Bathrooms 


7 5 
8.5 
9.5 








2-1/2 Bathrooms 








3 Bathrooms 






; 

SSI! 


Each Additional Half-Bath 


0.5 


i:^:iiM:MM 






Each Additional Bathroom Group 


1 






.- ... 


B'WilWJOM (,K(i! h l! A\ IM. 3.5 GIT (»r liiuhi-r} GRAVITY TANfc V \I'I.R 

CLOSilTS 




illilli 
litllttl 


Half-Bath or Powder Room 


3 






1 Bathroom Group 


6 4 




1-1/2 Bathrooms 


8 






2 Bathrooms 


10 









2-1/2 Bathrooms 


11 

12 




3 Bathrooms 







Each Additional Half-Bath 


0.5 






Each Additional Bathroom Group 


1 






BATH GROUP (1.6 GPF Flushometer Valve) 


5 


3 






BATH GROUP (3.5 GPF Flushometer Valve) 


1 6 


4 





146 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Table 11.4.1 (Continued) 
DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT (DFU) VALUES 


.HEAVY-USE ASSEMBLY 


OTHER THAN DWELLING UI> 


ITS 




SERVING 3 OR MORE DWELLING UNITS 


INDIVIDUAL DWELLING W 


JITS 




!\h:\:i)l Vi.l IM I Kl-.S 


--■ .- 

l 


ijlijijll 




Bathtub or Combination Bath/Shower, 1-1/2" Trap 


2 


iiiSiUli 


Bidet, 1-1/4" Trap 


1 




Clothes Washer, Domestic, 2" Standpipe 


3 


3 


3 


... .. 


Dishwasher, Domestic, with Independent Drain 


2 1 2 


2 


Drinking Fountain or Watercooler 






0.5 




Food-Waste-Grinder, Commercial, 2" Min Trap 






3 




Floor Drain, Auxiliary 


2 


2 







Kitchen Sink, Domestic, with One 1-1/2" Trap 


2 


Kitchen Sink, Domestic, with Food-Waste-Grinder 


2 


2 


2 


_^_ 


Kitchen Sink, Domestic, with Dishwasher 


3 


3 


3 


Kitchen Sink, Domestic, with Grinder and Dishwasher 


3 


3 


3 


Laundry Sink, One or Two Compartments, 1-1/2" Waste 


2 


2 


2 


Laundry Sink, with Discharge from Clothes Washer 


2 


2 


2 




Lavatory, 1-1/4" Waste 


1 


1 


1 1 1 
3 


Mop Basin, 3" Trap j 




Service Sink, 3" Trap j 




3 [ 


Shower Stall, 1-1/2" Trap 2 


9 


r\ 


Shower Stall, 2" Trap 


2 


2 


2 1 


Sho'Avr-.. Group, per He. id (Contimiuii; Use) 




^ j 


Sink, 1-1/2" Trap 


2 


2 


^ j 


Sink, 2" Trap 


3 


3 


3 1 


Sink, 3" Trap 






5 


Trap Size, 1 - 1 /4" (Other) 


1 


1 


1 j 


Trap Size, 1-1/2" (Other) 


2 


2 


2 




Trap Size, 2" (Other) 


3 


3 


3 




Trap Size, 3" (Other) 






5 1 


Trap Size, 4" (Other) 






-• 1 


Urinal, 1.0 GPF 


lift 


ist 


4 


5 


Urinal, Greater Than 1 .0 GPF 


5 




Wash Fountain, 1-1/2" Trap 






2 




Wash Fountain, 2" Trap 




WMMMt 


3 




Wash Sink, Each Set of Faucets 


2 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



147 



Table 11.4.1 (Continued) 
DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT (DFU) VALUES 


HEAVY-USE ASSEMBLY 


OTHER THAN DWELLING UNITS 




SERVING 3 OR MORE DWELLING UNITS 




INDIVIDUAL DWELLING UI» 


ttTS 










Water Closet, 1 .6 GPF Gravity or Pressure Tank 


3 


3 


4 


6 


Water Closet, 1 .6 GPF Flushometer Valve 


3 


3 


4 


6 


Water Closet, 3.5 GPF Gravity Tank 


4 


4 


6 


8 


Water Closet, 3.5 GPF Flushometer Valve 


4 




Whirlpool Bath or Combination BathVShower, 1-1/2" Trap 


2 





NOTES FOR TABLE 11.4.1: 

1 . A Bathroom Group, for the purposes of this Table, consists of not more than one water closet, up to two lavatories, and either one 
bathtub, one bath/shower combination, or one shower stall. Other fixtures within the bathing facility shall be counted separately to 
determine the total drainage fixture unit load. 

2. A Half-Bath or Powder Room, for the purposes of this Table, consists of one water closet and one lavatory. 

3. For unlisted fixtures, refer to a listed fixture having a similar flow and frequency of use. 

4. When drainage fixture unit (DFU) values are added to determine the load on the drainage system or portions thereof, round the 
sum to the nearest whole number before referring to Tables 1 1 .5.1 A, 11. 5. IB, or 12.16.6A for sizing the drainage and vent piping. 
Values of 0.5 or more should be rounded up to the next higher whole number (9.5 = 10 DFU). Values of 0.4 or less should be rounded 
down to the next lower whole number (9.4 = 9 DFU). 

5. "Other Than Dwelling Units" applies to business, commercial, industrial, and assembly occupancies other than those defined 
under "Heavy-Use Assembly." Included are the public and common areas in hotels, motels, and multi-dwelling buildings. 

6. "Heavy-Use Assembly" applies to toilet facilities in occupancies that place heavy, but intermittent, time-based loads on the drain- 
age system, such as; schools, auditoriums, stadiums, race courses, transportation terminals, theaters, and similar occupancies where 
queuing is likely to occur during periods of peak use. 

7. Where other than water-supplied fixtures discharge into the drainage system, allow 2 DFU for each gallon per minute (gpm) of 
flow. (See Section 11.4.2.) 

11.4.3 Diversity Factors 

In certain structures such as hospitals, laboratory buildings, and other special use or special occupancy build- 
ings where the ratio of plumbing fixtures to occupants is proportionally more than required by the building 
occupancy and in excess of 1 ,000 drainage fixture units, the Authority Having Jurisdiction may permit the 
use of a diversity factor for sizing branches, stacks, building drains, and building sewers. 

11.5 DETERMINING DRAINAGE PIPE SIZES 

11.5.1 Selecting the Size of Drainage Piping 

Pipe sizes shall be determined from Table 11.5.1Aand 11. 5. IB on the basis of the drainage fixture unit load 
(DFU) computed from Table 11.4.1 and Section 11.4.1. Sanitary drainage pipe sizes shall not be reduced in 
the direction of flow. 

EXCEPTION: Drain pipe sizes for individual fixtures shall be not less than the minimum trap size required 
in Section 5.2. 



148 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Table 11.5.1A 
BUILDING DRAINS AND SEWERS 1 


Maximum Number of Drainage Fixture Units (DFU) That May Be 
Connected to Any Portion of the Building Drain or the Building Sewer. 


Pipe Size- Inches 


Slope Per Foot 
1/16-Inch 


Slope Per Foot 
1/8-Inch 


Slope Per Foot 
1/4-Inch 


Slope Per Foot 
1/2-Inch 


2 






21 


26 


3' 




36 2 


42 2 


50 2 


4 




180 


216 


250 


5 




390 


480 


575 


6 




700 


840 


1,000 


8 


1,400 


1,600 


1,920 


2,300 


10 


2,500 


2,900 


3,500 


4,200 


12 


3,900 


4,600 


5,600 


6,700 


15 


7,000 


8,300 


10,000 


12,000 



NOTES FOR TABLE 11.5.1A 

1 . On-site sewers that serve more than one building may be sized according to the current standards and specifications of the 
Authority Having Jurisdiction for the public sewers. 

2. See Sections 11.5.6.d 



Table 11.5.1B 
HORIZONTAL FIXTURE BRANCHES AND STACKS 


Maximum Number of Drainage Fixture Units (DFU) That May Be 

Connected to Any Horizontal Fixture Branch, a Stack of Three Branch 

Intervals or Less, or Stacks of more than Three Branch Intervals 




Stacks with more than 
Three Branch Intervals 


Pipe Size- Inches 


Any Horizontal 
Fixture Branch 1 


One Stack of 

Three Branch 

Intervals or Less 


Total for Stack 


Total in One 
Branch Interval 


1-1/4 


1 


1 


I 


1 


1-1/2 


3 


4 


8 


2 


2 


6 


10 


24 


6 


3 


20 2 


48 3 


72 3 


20 3 


4 


160 


240 


500 


90 


5 


360 


540 


1,100 


200 


6 


620 


960 


1,900 


350 


8 


1,400 


2,200 


3,600 


600 


10 


2,500 


3,800 


5,600 


1,000 


12 


3,900 


8,400 


8,400 


1,500 


15 


7,000 









NOTES FOR TABLE 11.5.1B 

1 . Does not include branches of the building drain. 

2. See Section 11.5.6.b. 

3. See Section 1 1.5.6.C 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



149 



11.5.2 Minimum Size of Soil and Waste Stacks 

Soil and waste stacks shall be sized according to Table 11. 5. IB. based on the number of branch intervals and 
drainage fixture unit load. 

EXCEPTION: Sections of stacks shall not be smaller than their largest branch connection, except that stack 
sizes shall not be reduced in the direction of flow. 

11.5.3 Horizontal Fixture Branches and Branches of the Building Drain: 

Horizontal fixture branches shall be sized according to Table 11. 5. IB to the point where they connect to the 
building drain or a branch of the building drain. Building drain piping that serves two or more horizontal fixture 
branches are branches of the building drain and may be sized according to Table 11.5.1A. 

11.5.4 Provision for Future Fixtures 

When provision is made for the future installation of fixtures, those provided for shall be considered in deter- 
mining the required sizes of drain and vent pipes. Construction to provide for such future installation shall be 
terminated with a plugged fitting or fittings. 

11.5.5 Minimum Size of Underground Drainage Piping 

No portion of the drainage system installed underground shall be less than two inch pipe size. 
EXCEPTION: Condensate waste, tub and shower traps and trap arms, and piping that receives the discharge 
from relief valves after an air gap. 

11.5.6 Restrictions on the Number of Water Closets on 3" Drains 

a. 3" Horizontal Fixture Branches 

No more than four water closets or bathroom groups shall be installed on a 3" horizontal fixture branch. 

EXCEPTION: Where the water closets are rated 3.5 gallons or more per flush, no more than two water closets 
or bathroom groups shall be permitted. 

b. 3" Stacks 

No more than four water closets or bathroom groups shall be installed within any branch interval of a 3" stack, 
and no more than a total of twelve on the stack. 

EXCEPTION: Where the water closets are rated 3 .5 gallons or more per flush, no more than two water closets 
or bathroom groups shall be permitted in any branch interval, and no more than a total of six on the stack. 

c. 3" Building Drains and Sewers 

1 . In single dwelling units, no more than six water closets or bathroom groups shall be installed on a 3" 
building drain or building sewer, or branches thereof. 

EXCEPTION: Where the water closets are rated 3.5 gallons or more per flush, no more than three water 
closets or bathroom groups shall be permitted. 

2. In other than single dwelling units, no more than four water closets or bathroom groups shall be 
installed on a 3" building drain or building sewer, or branches thereof. 

EXCEPTION: Where the water closets are rated 3.5 gallons or more per flush, no more than two water 
closets or bathroom groups shall be permitted. 

d. Mixed Water Closets on 3" Drains 

Where 3" drainage piping serves a mixture of 1.6 GPF water closets and 3.5 (or higher) GPF water closets, 
the 3.5 (or higher) GPF water closets shall be counted as two water closets for the purpose of determining the 
total number of water closets on the 3" drainage piping. The drainage fixture unit (DFU) load for each 3.5 (or 
higher) GPF water closet shall be as indicated in Table 11.4.1 



1 50 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



11.5.7 Stack Size Reduction 

a. Stacks shall be sized according to the total accumulated drainage fixture unit load (DFU) at each story or 
branch interval. 

b. The stack size shall be permitted to be reduced as the DFU load decreases on the upper portion of the 
stack. 

EXCEPTION: No portion of a stack shall be less than one-half of the required size at the base of the stack. 

11.6 SIZING OF OFFSETS IN DRAINAGE PIPING 

11.6.1 Vertical Offsets 

An offset in a stack that is 45 degrees or more from horizontal shall be sized as a straight vertical stack in ac- 
cordance with Table 11. 5. IB. 

11.6.2 Reserved 

11.6.3 Offsets Above the Highest Branch 

An offset in a stack above the highest horizontal branch drain connection shall not affect the size of the stack, 
only the developed length of the stack vent. 

11.6.4 Reserved 

11.6.5 Horizontal Offsets 

a. A stack with an offset of less than 45 degrees from the horizontal shall be sized as follows: 
1 : The portion of the stack above the offset shall be sized as a regular stack based on the total number of 
fixture units above the offset. 

2. The offset shall be sized as a building drain (See Table 11. 5.1 A). 

3. The portion of the stack below the offset shall be sized as the offset or based on the total number of 
fixture units on the entire stack, whichever is the larger. 

4. A relief vent shall be provided for the offset as required by Section 12.3.3. 

11.7 SUMPS AND EJECTORS 

11.7.1 Building Subdrains 

a. Building sanitary drains that cannot be discharged by gravity shall be discharged into a sump pit from 
which the contents shall be lifted and discharged into the building gravity drainage system by automatic 
pumping equipment or by an equally efficient method approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. 

b. Only drains that must be lifted for gravity discharge shall be connected to such sump pits. All other 
drains shall discharge by gravity. 

EXCEPTION: Existing buildings. 

c. Sump pits shall be a minimum of 15 inches in diameter and 18 inches deep, and be accessible, tightly 
covered, and vented. 

11.7.2 Reserved 

11.7.3 Reserved 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code \§\ 



11.7.4 Venting 

Building subdrain systems shall be vented according to Chapter 12 of this Code. 

11.7.5 Reserved 

11.7.6 Grinder Pump Ejector 

a. Grinder pumps shall be permitted to be used when installed according to the manufacturer's recommen- 
dations. 

b. The rated flow velocity for grinder pump discharge piping shall be not less than 2 feet per second. 

c. The size of grinder pump discharge piping shall be: 

1. 1-1/4" size for up to 25 gallons per minute. 

2. 1-1/2" size for up to 35 gallons per minute. 

3. 2" size for up to 65 gallons per minute. 

d. The discharge piping from a grinder pump ejector shall include a backwater valve and a full-way shutoff 
valve. 

11.7.7 Pneumatic Ejectors 

Vents from pneumatic ejectors shall be carried separately to the open air as a vent terminal in accordance 
with Section 12.14.2. 

11.7.8 Sewage Ejectors or Sewage Pumps 

a. A sewage ejector or sewage pump receiving the discharge from a water closet or urinal shall have a mini- 
mum capacity of 20 gallons per minute. 

b. The discharge piping from a sewage ejector and sewage pump shall include a backwater valve and a full- 
way shutoff valve. 

c. Ejectors or pumps other than grinders in single dwelling units shall be capable of passing a 1-1/2 inch 
diameter solid. 

d. In other than single dwelling units, ejectors and pumps other than grinders shall be capable of passing a 
2 inch diameter solid. 

11.7.9 Individual Fixture Ejector or Pump 

a. Individual fixtures other than water closets, urinals, and similar fixtures, may discharge directly into an 
approved fixture-mounted ejector or pump, or into receptors having ejectors or pumps. 

b. The discharge piping from a sewage ejector or sewage pump for an individual fixture shall be sized on a 
hydraulic basis and include a backwater valve and full- way shutoff valve. 

c. Direct -mounted equipment may be manually or automatically operated. 

d. The installation of manually or automatically operated equipment shall not be subject to the venting 
requirements of this Code, but shall be vented only as required for proper operation of the equipment. 

e. A vent on the fixture side of the trap may terminate locally in the area served. 

f. If the equipment provides a proper water seal, additional traps are not required. 

11.7.10 Macerating Toilet Systems 

a. The sump for macerating toilets shall be vented with a 1-1/4" vent. 

b. The discharge line from the sump shall be not less than 3/4" size and include a check valve and full-way 
shutoff valve. 

c. The distance from a macerating toilet system to a gravity drain shall not exceed the recommendations of 
the manufacturer of the macerating toilet system 



J 52 2009 National Standard Plumbing Cock 



11.7.11 High Water Alarms 

All sewage ejector or sewage pump systems shall be provided with an audible, visual, or combination high 

water alarm device. 

EXCEPTION: Sewage ejectors and sewage pumps serving individual fixtures and macerating toilet systems. 

11.8 RESERVED 

11.9 BRANCH CONNECTIONS NEAR THE BASE OF STACKS 

a. Horizontal branch drain connections shall not be made within 10 pipe diameters downstream from the base 
of a stack. 

b. A relief vent shall be provided for stacks of five or more branch intervals, either above the base of the stack 
or within 10 pipe diameters downstream from the base of the stack. 

c. Branch drains shall not connect between the base of a stack and its relief vent. 

11.10 BRANCH CONNECTIONS TO OFFSETS IN STACKS 

a. Branch drains shall be permitted to connect to a horizontal stack offset, provided that the connection is not 
less than 10 pipe diameters downstream from the upper portion of the stack 

b. Where stacks have five or more branch intervals above a horizontal offset, there shall be no branch connec- 
tions to the stack within 2 feet above or below the offset. 

c. Where stacks having five or more branch intervals above a vertical offset have branch connections to the 
stack within 2 feet above or below the offset, the offset shall be vented as required for a horizontal offset. 

11.11 SUDS PRESSURE ZONES 

11.11.1 General 

Where suds-producing fixtures on upper floors discharge into a soil or waste stack, suds pressure zones shall 
exist as described in Section 11.11.2. Fixture or branch drain connections shall not be made to such stacks in 
the suds pressure zones except where relief vents complying with Section 12.15 are provided. Suds-produc- 
ing fixtures include kitchen sinks, laundry sinks, automatic clothes washers, dishwashers, and other fixtures 
that could discharge sudsy detergents. 

11.11.2 Locations in Stacks Serving Suds-Producing Fixtures 

a. Zone 1 - at offsets greater than 45 degrees from vertical. A suds pressure zone shall extend 40 pipe diam- 
eters up the stack above the offset, 10 pipe diameters downstream from the base of the upper portion of the 
stack, and in the horizontal offset, 40 pipe diameters upstream from the top of the lower portion of the stack. 

b. Zone 2 - at the base of a soil or waste stack. A suds pressure zone shall extend 40 pipe diameters up the 
stack above its base. 

c. Zone 3 - in the horizontal drain beyond the base of a soil or waste stack. A suds pressure zone shall 
extend 10 pipe diameters from the base of the stack. Also, if a turn greater than 45 degrees occurs in the 
horizontal drain less than 50 feet from the base of the stack, suds pressure zones shall exist 40 pipe diameters 
upstream and 10 pipe diameters downstream from the horizontal turn. 

d. Zone 4 - in a vent stack at the base of a soil or waste stack. Where a vent stack connects above or beyond 
the base of a soil or waste stack, a suds pressure zone shall extend up the vent stack to a level equal to the 
level of the suds pressure zone in the soil or waste stack. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 153 



11.11.3 Separate Stacks 

Where soil or waste stacks serving suds-producing fixtures extend six or more floors above the base of the 
stack or above a horizontal offset in the stack, the lowest four floors above the base or horizontal offset shall 
be drained by a separate stack. In the case of a horizontal offset, the separate stack for the four floors above 
the offset may be reconnected to the main stack below the offset, provided that the point of connection is not 
a suds pressure zone in either stack. 

11.11.4 Exceptions 

The requirements of Sections 11.11 and 12.15 shall not apply to the following: 

a. Stacks that are less than three stories in height. 

b. Stacks in individual dwellings having their own building sewer. 



1 54 7009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Chapter 12 



Vents and Venting 



12.1 MATERIALS 

See Section 3.6. 



12.2 PROTECTION OF TRAP SEALS 

12.2.1 Protection Required 

a. The protection of trap seals from siphonage, aspiration, or back-pressure shall be accomplished by the 
appropriate use of soil or waste stacks with adequate venting in accordance with the requirements of this 
Code. 

b. Venting systems shall be designed and installed so that at no time will trap seals be subjected to a pneu- 
matic pressure differential of more than one inch of water column under design load conditions. 

c. If a trap seal is subject to loss by evaporation, means shall be provided to prevent the escape of sewer 
gas. (See Section 5.3.6.) 

12.3 VENTING OF DRAINAGE STACKS 

12.3.1 Stack Vents and Vent Stacks 

a. A vent stack shall be provided for drainage stacks having five or more branch intervals. 

b. Where drainage stacks have five or more branch intervals, the vent stack shall connect to the drainage 
stack as a relief vent, either: 

1 . To the drainage stack at or below the lowest fixture branch or, 

2. To the building drain within 10 pipe diameters downstream from the base of the stack. 

c. Vent stacks shall also be permitted to be provided for drainage stacks having less than five branch inter- 
vals. 

12.3.2 Relief Vents for Stacks Having Ten or More Branch Intervals 

a. Where drainage stacks have ten or more branch intervals, a relief vent shall be provided for each ten 
branch intervals, starting at the top of the stack. 

b. The lower end of each relief vent shall connect to the drainage stack as a yoke vent below its tenth 
branch interval. 

c. The upper end of the relief vent shall connect to the vent stack at an elevation not less than 3 feet above 
the floor level served by the branch interval. 

12.3.3 Horizontal Offsets 

a. Horizontal offsets in stacks having five or more branch intervals discharging above the offset shall be 
vented either: 

1. by considering the stack as two separate stacks, one above and one below the offset, and venting each 
separately. 

2. by providing a yoke vent from the drainage stack below the offset to the vent stack required by Section 
12.3.1 not less than 3 feet above the offset. This relief vent may be a stack vent for the lower portion of the 
drainage stack. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



155 



12.3.4 Vertical Offsets 

Where vertical offsets in drainage stacks having five or more branch intervals above the offset have branch 
connections within 2 feet above or below the offset, a relief vent shall be provided for the lower portion of 
the stack below the offset. 

12.3.5 Vent Headers 

Vents may be connected into a common header at the top of one or more stacks and then be extended to the 
open air at one point. 

12.3.6 Other Use Prohibited 

The plumbing vent system shall not be used for purposes other than venting of the plumbing system. 

12.4 VENT TERMINALS 

12.4.1 Extension Above Roofs 

Vent pipes shall terminate not less than 6 inches above the roof, measured from the highest point where the 
vent intersects the roof. 

EXCEPTION: Where a roof is used for any purpose other than weather protection and maintaining equip- 
ment, vents shall extend at least 7 feet above the roof and shall be properly supported. 

12.4.2 Waterproof Flashings 

Vent terminals shall be made watertight with the roof by proper flashing. 

12.4.3 Flag Poling Prohibited 

Vent terminals shall not be used for the purpose of flag poling, TV aerials, or similar purposes. 

12.4.4 Location of Vent Terminal 

a. Vent terminals shall not be located where vapors can enter the building. 

b. No vent terminal shall be located directly beneath any door, window, or other ventilating opening of a 
building or of another building, nor shall any such vent terminal be within 10 feet horizontally of such open- 
ing unless it is at least 2 feet above the top of such opening. 

c. Where a vent terminal is within 10 feet horizontally and less than 2 feet above a ventilation opening 
described in Section 12.4.4b and the line-of-sight from the vent terminal to the ventilation opening is inter- 
rupted by the continuous ridge of a roof, the ridge shall be at least 2 feet above the top of the opening. Other- 
wise, the vent terminal shall comply with Section 12.4.4b. 

d. Where a vent terminal is within 10 feet horizontally and less than 2 feet above a ventilation opening 
described in Section 12.4.4b and the line of sight from the vent terminal to such ventilation opening is inter- 
rupted by a solid wall or solid barrier, the top of the wall or barrier shall be at least 2 feet above the top of the 
ventilation opening and the shortest travel distance around the wall or barrier from the vent terminal to the 
nearest edge of the ventilation opening shall be at least 10 feet. Otherwise, the vent terminal shall comply 
with Section 12.4.4b. 

12.4.5 Sidewall Venting 

Vent terminals shall be permitted to extend through a wall on an existing building. They shall be at least 10 
feet horizontally from any lot line, 10 feet above existing grade, and terminate with a corrosion-resistant bird 
screen. Vent terminals shall not terminate under an overhang of a building. They shall be located in accor- 
dance with Section 12.4.4. 



156 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



12.4.6 Extensions Outside Building 

No soil, waste, or vent pipe extension shall be installed on the outside of a wall of any new building, but shall 
be carried up inside the building 

EXCEPTION: In those localities where the outdoor temperature does not drop below 32°F, the Authority 
Having Jurisdiction may approve the installation outside the building. 

12.4.7 Flashing Roof Vent Terminals 

a. Vent terminals through the roof shall be made watertight to the roof by sealing the flashing to either the 
exterior or interior of the vent terminal. 

b. Vent terminals that are externally sealed shall employ manufactured vent stack flashing sleeves, roof 
couplings, or no-caulk roof vent flashings. 

c. Where vent terminals are sealed by counter-flashing over the top of the vent terminal, the counter flash- 
ing shall not decrease the interior free area of the minimum required vent terminal size. Vent terminals shall 
be increased at least one pipe size when counter-flashed. Interior counter flashing shall be sealed gas-tight to 
prevent the entrance of sewer gas into the building through the flashing. 

12.5 FROST CLOSURE 

Where the Authority Having Jurisdiction requires protection against frost closure, vent terminals less than 3" pipe 
size shall be increased at least one pipe size to not less than 2" size. Where an increase is necessary, the increase in 
size shall be made inside the building at least one foot below a roof or ceiling that is thermally insulated and in an 
area not subject to freezing temperatures. 

12.6 VENT SLOPES AND CONNECTIONS 

12.6.1 Vent Slope 

Vent and branch vent pipes shall be free from drops and sags and be sloped and connected as to drain by 
gravity to the drainage system. 

12.6.2 Vertical Rise 

Every vent shall rise vertically to a minimum of 6 inches above the flood level of the rim of the fixture being 

served before connecting to another vent. 

EXCEPTIONS: 

(1) Horizontal portions of a vent below the flood level rim of the fixture served that are installed in accor- 
dance with Sections 12.6.2.1, 12.6.2.2, and 12.6.2.3. 

(2) Island sink vents in accordance with Section 12.18. 

12.6.2.1 Horizontal Vent Below Fixture Flood Level Rim 

Where a vent pipe connects to a horizontal fixture drain branch, and conditions require a horizontal 
offset in the vent below the flood level rim of the fixture served, the vent shall be taken off so that the 
invert of the horizontal portion of the vent pipe is at or above the centerline of the horizontal soil or 
waste pipe. 

12.6.2.2 Slope of Horizontal Vent 

The portion of the horizontal vent installed below the flood level rim as permitted in Section 12.6.2.1 
shall be installed with the required slope to drain by gravity to the drainage system. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 157 



12.6.2.3 Cleanouts 

Cleanouts shall be provided in the vent piping so that any blockages in the vent piping below the flood 
level rim of the fixture served can be cleared into the drainage system. 

12.6.3 Vent Connection Height Above Fixtures 

Connections between any horizontal vent pipe, including individual vents, branch vents, relief vents, circuit 
vents or loop vents, and a vent stack or stack vent shall be made at least 6 inches above the flood level rim of 
the highest fixture on the floor level. 

12.6.4 Side-Inlet Closet Bends 

a. Side-inlet closet bends shall be permitted only in cases where the fixture connection thereto is vented. 

b. In no case shall the side-inlet be used to vent a bathroom group without being washed by a fixture. 
EXCEPTION: As allowed in Sections 12.10 and 12.11. 

12.7 ADJACENT FIXTURES 

Two fixtures set adjacent within the distance allowed between a trap and its vent, may be served with one com- 
mon vent, provided that each fixture connects separately into an approved double fitting having inlet openings at 
the same level. (See Section 12.9.2 for inlet openings at different levels.) 

12.8 FIXTURE VENTS 

12.8.1 Venting of Fixture Drains 

Fixture drains shall have a vent so located that the vent connects above the top weir of the trap and the devel- 
oped length of the trap aim is within the limits set forth in Table 12.8.1. 
EXCEPTIONS: 

(1) Water closets and similar siphonic fixtures. 

(2) Combination waste and vent systems, (see Section 12.17) 

(3) Vents may be connected below the top weir of the fixture trap if the following conditions are met: 

a) The vertical section of the drain pipe shall be at least one pipe size larger than the trap inlet size. 

b) The horizontal pipe connected to the trap outlet shall be at least two pipe diameters long. 

c) The developed length of the trap arm shall not exceed the values in Table 12.8.1. 



Table 12.8.1 
MAXIMUM LENGTH OF TRAP ARM 


Size of Trap Arm (Inches) 


Length - Trap Arm to Vent 


Slope - Inches per Foot 


1- 1/4 


3' 6" 


1/4 


1-1/2 


5' 


1/4 


2 


8' 


1/4 


3 


10* 


1/8 


4 


12' 


1/8 



NOTES FOR TABLE 12.8.1: 

This table has been expanded in the "length" requirements to reflect expanded application of the wet venting 
principles. Slope shall not exceed 1/4" per foot. 



1 58 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



12.8.2 Provision for Venting Future Fixtures 

On new construction of residential dwelling units with basements, a 2" minimum size vent shall be installed 
between the basement and attic or tied into an existing, properly sized vent and capped for future use. 

12.8.3 Crown Venting Limitation 

A vent shall not be installed within two pipe diameters of the trap weir. 

12.8.4 Water Closets and Other Siphonic Fixtures 

For water closets and other fixtures that operate by siphonic action, the distance between the outlet of the 
fixture and its vent connection shall not exceed 3 feet vertically and 9 feet horizontally. 

12.9 COMMON VENTS 

12.9.1 Individual Vent as Common Vent 

An individual vent, installed vertically, may be used as a common vent for two fixture traps when both fixture 
drains connect with a vertical drain at the same level. 

12.9.2 Fixtures Drains Connected at Different Levels 

A common vent may be used for two fixtures installed on the same floor but connecting to a vertical drain at 
different levels, provided that the vertical drain is one pipe size larger than the upper fixture drain but in no 
case smaller than the lower fixture drain. 

12.10 WET VENTING 

12.10.1 Single Bathroom Groups 

a. An individually vented lavatory in a single bathroom group shall be permitted to serve as a wet vent for 
either the water closet, the bathtub or shower stall, the water closet and bathtub/shower if all of the following 
conditions are met. 

1. The wet vent is 1-1/2" minimum pipe size if the water closet bend is 3" size or it shall be 2" minimum 
pipe size if the water closet bend is 4" pipe size. 

2. A horizontal branch drain serving both the lavatory and the bathtub or shower stall is 2" minimum pipe 
size. 

3. The length of the trap arm for the bathtub or shower stall is within the limits of Table 12.8.1. If not, the 
bathtub or shower stall shall be individually vented. 

4. The distance from the outlet of the water closet to the connection of the wet vent is within the limits 
established by Section 12.8.4. Otherwise, the water closet shall be individually vented. 

5. A horizontal branch serving the lavatory and the bathtub or shower stall shall connect to the stack at 
the same level as the water closet, or it may connect to the water closet bend, or the lavatory and bathtub or 
shower stall may individually connect to the water closet bend. 

6. When the bathroom group is the topmost load on a stack, a horizontal branch serving the lavatory and 
the bathtub or shower stall may connect to the stack below the water closet bend, or the lavatory and the 
bathtub or shower stall may individually connect to the stack below the water closet bend. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 1 59 



12.10.2 Double Bathtubs and Lavatories 

Two lavatories and two bathtubs or showers back-to-back may be installed on the same horizontal branch 
with a common vent for the lavatories and with no back vent for the bathtubs or shower stalls provided the 
wet vent is 2" in size and the lengths of the tub/shower drains conform to Table 12.8.1. 

12.10.3 Multi-Story Bathroom Groups 

a. On the lower floors of a stack, the waste pipe from one or two lavatories may be used as a wet vent for 
one or two bathtubs or showers as provided in Section 12.10.2. 

b. Each water closet below the top floor shall be individually back vented. 

EXCEPTION: The water closets in bathroom groups shall not be required to be back vented if the follow- 
ing conditions are met: 

1. The 2" waste serving the tubs/showers and lavatories connect directly into the water closet bend with a 
45° wye tap in the direction of flow or, 

2. A special stack fitting is used that consists of a 3" or 4" closet opening and two side inlets each 2" in 
size and the inverts of which are above the center, and below the top of the water closet opening; and one of 
the 2" inlets is connected to the tub/shower drains, and the other is connected to the waste pipe from a maxi- 
mum of two lavatories that are vented to a vent stack or stack vent; or, 

3. In lieu of the special stack fitting of Section 12.10. 3b(2) above, 4" closet bends with two 2" wye taps 
may be used. 

12.10.4 Bathtubs and Water Closets 

a. An individually-vented bathtub in a single bathroom group shall be permitted to serve as a wet vent for 
the water closet if all of the following conditions are met: 

1 . The wet vent is 2" minimum size. 

2. The distance from the outlet of the water closet to the connection of the wet vent is within the limits 
established by Section 12.8.4. Otherwise, the water closet shall be individually vented. 

12.10.5 Reserved 

12.10.6 Floor Drains and Floor Sinks 

a. A lavatory or sink shall be permitted to serve as a wet vent for a floor drain or floor sink if all of the fol- 
lowing conditions are met: 

1 . The wet vent shall be not less than 1-1/2" size for a 1 DFU lavatory or 2" for 2 DFU sink. 

2. The wet vent shall be larger than 1/2 the size of the drain for the floor drain or floor sink. 

3. The distance from the outlet of the floor drain or floor sink to the connection of the wet vent shall be 
within the limits established by Table 12.8.1. 

12.11 STACK VENTING 

12.11.1 Fixture Groups 

a. A single bathroom group and a kitchen sink (with or without a disposer and/or dishwasher) located back- 
to-back, or two bathroom groups back-to-back may be installed without individual fixture vents in a one- 
story building or on the highest branch of a stack provided that the following conditions are met: 

1 . Each fixture drain connects independently to the stack. 

2. The tub and/or shower and water closet enter the stack at the same level. 

3. The requirements of Table 12.8.1 are met. 

4. A side inlet connection into a 4" closet bend shall be considered to be an independent connection to the 
stack. 



160 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



12.11.2 Lower Floors 

a. Lower floor bathroom groups may be vented as provided in Section 12.11.1, provided the following 
conditions are met: 

1 . A wye is installed in the stack with an upright one-eighth bend continuing from the wye branch to 
serve the stack group. 

2. A 2" relief vent is connected to the wye branch at least 6 inches above the flood level rim of the high- 
est fixture on the wye branch. 

12.12 FIXTURE REVENTING 

12.12.1 Reserved 

12.12.2 Horizontal Branches 

Three lavatories or one sink within 8 feet developed length of a main-vented line may be installed on a 2" 
horizontal waste branch without reventing, provided the branch is not less than 2 inches in diameter through- 
out its length, and provided the wastes are connected into the side of the branch and the branch leads to its 
stack connection with a grade of not more than 1/4 inch per foot. 

12.12.3 Fixtures without Revents Above Highest Bathtubs and Water Closets 

a. Fixtures without revents may be connected to a soil or waste stack above the highest water closet or 
bathtub connection if all the following conditions are met: 

1. The total load does not exceed 3 dfu's. 

2. The soil or waste stack is 3" or larger. 

3. The total load on the stack is in accordance with Table 11.5. IB. 

4. The waste piping of the fixture above the water closet or bathtub connection is in accordance with Sec- 
tions 12.8.1 and 12.12.2. 

12.12.4 Vent Washdown 

a. Fixtures other than kitchen sinks or food-waste-grinders shall be permitted to wash down a vertical loop 
vent, circuit vent or relief vent associated with a battery-vented horizontal soil or waste branch without 
reventing, provided that: 

1. Not more than 2 drainage fixture units are drained to a 2" vent, nor more than 4 drainage fixture units 
are drained to a 3" vent; 

2. The fixture trap arm lengths comply with Section 12.8.1; 

3. The fixtures drained to the vent are within the same branch as the other fixtures served by the vent; and 

4. No other fixtures are drained to the vent. 

12.13 CIRCUIT AND LOOP VENTING 

12.13.1 Battery Venting 

a. A maximum of eight floor-outlet water closets, showers, bathtubs, or floor drains connected in battery on 
a horizontal branch drain shall be permitted to be battery vented. 

EXCEPTION: Blowout type water closets. 

b. Each fixture drain shall connect horizontally to the horizontal branch drain being so vented. 

c. The horizontal branch drain shall be considered as a vent extending from the most downstream fixture 
drain connection to the most upstream fixture drain connection. 

d. Back-outlet water closets shall be permitted to be battery vented provided that no floor-outlet fixtures are 
connected to the same horizontal branch drain. 

EXCEPTION: Back-outlet blowout type water closets. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code iti 



e. The battery vent shall be a circuit or loop vent connected to the horizontal branch drain between the two 
most upstream fixture drains and shall be installed in accordance with Section 12.6. 

f. The entire length of the vent section of the horizontal branch drain shall be uniformly sized for the total 
drainage discharge connected thereto. 

g. The maximum slope of the horizontal branch drain shall be 1 inch per foot. 

h. A relief vent shall be provided on battery-vented horizontal branch drains on lower floors that have four 
or more water closets connected. 

i. The relief vent shall connect to the horizontal branch drain between the stack and the most downstream 
fixture drain connection. 

j. Relief vents shall be installed in accordance with Section 12.6. 

k. Circuit, loop, and relief vents shall be permitted to be a fixture drain or fixture branch for fixtures located 
within the same branch interval as the battery-vented horizontal branch drain. 

EXCEPTION: No more than four drainage fixture units (DFU) shall discharge to the vent. (See Section 
12.12.4). 

1. Lavatories and similar fixtures shall be permitted to connect to the horizontal branch drain, either hori- 
zontally or vertically. 

EXCEPTIONS: 

(1) Fixtures that are not located on the same floor as the battery-vented fixtures. 

(2) Fixtures that do not have an individual, common, or continuous vent. 

m. Batteries of more than eight battery-vented fixtures shall have a circuit or loop vent for each group of 
eight or less fixtures. 

n. Where there are two or more groups of battery-vented fixtures, the horizontal branch drain for each 
downstream group shall be sized for the total discharge into that group, including all upstream groups and the 
fixtures within the group being sized. 

12.13.2 Joining Parallel Branches 

Where parallel branches of up to eight battery-vented fixtures each are joined prior to connecting to a stack or 
building drain, the common downstream piping shall be sized for the combined total fixture unit load of both 
branches. A relief vent shall be provided on the common downstream piping when the parallel branches serve 
a combined total of four or more water closets and connect to a stack receiving drainage from an upper floor. 

12.13.3 Vent Connections 

Circuit, loop, and relief vent connections to battery- vented horizontal drain branches shall be taken off at a 
vertical angle or from the top of the horizontal drain. 

12.13.4 Fixtures Back-to-Back in Battery 

When fixtures are connected to one horizontal branch through a double wye or a sanitary tee in a vertical 
position, a common vent for each two fixtures back-to-back or double connection shall be provided. The 
common vent shall be installed in a vertical position as a continuation of the double connection. 

12.14 VENTING OF BUILDING SUBDRAIN SYSTEMS 

12.14.1 Fixture Venting 

Fixtures and gravity drainage piping in a building subdrain system shall be vented in the same manner as a 
conventional gravity drainage system and shall be permitted to connect to vent piping for fixtures and gravity 
drainage piping that are not part of the subdrain system. 

12.14.2 Sump Pits 

a. The minimum size and maximum length of vents for atmospheric sump pits shall be as indicated in Table 

12.14.2 



1^2 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



b. Where subdrain systems utilize pneumatic sewage ejectors, atmospheric sump pits or surge tanks shall 
be provided if water closets, urinals, or other fixtures are close enough to the ejector that they will overflow if 
flushed while the ejector is discharging. 

c. The atmospheric vents from sump pits and surge tanks shall be permitted to be connected to gravity vent 
piping for fixtures other than those served by the sump pit. 



Table 12.14.2 
SIZE AND LENGTH 1 OF SUMP VENTS 


Discharge Capacity 

of Sump Pump 

(gpm) 


Diameter of Vent, (inches) 


1-1/4 


1-1/2 


2 


2-1/2 


3 


4 


10 


NL 2 


NL 2 


NL 2 


NL 2 


NL 2 


NL 2 


20 


270 


NL 2 


NL 2 


NL 2 


NL 2 


NL 2 


40 


72 


160 


NL 2 


NL 2 


NL 2 


NL 2 


60 


31 


75 


270 


NL 2 


NL 2 


NL 2 


80 


16 


41 


150 


380 


NL 2 


NL 2 


100 


<10 3 


25 


97 


250 


NL 2 


NL 2 


150 


NP 4 


<10 3 


44 


110 


370 


NL 2 


200 


NP 4 


NP 4 


20 


60 


210 


NL 2 


250 


NP 4 


NP 4 


10 


36 


132 


NL 2 


300 


NP 4 


NP 4 


<10 3 


22 


88 


380 


400 


NP 4 


NP 4 


NP 4 


<10 3 


44 


210 


500 


NP 4 


NP 4 


NP" 


NP 4 


24 


130 



NOTES FOR TABLE 12.14.2. 

1. The lengths in the table are the developed lengths of the vent pipes. An allowance has been made for entrance 
losses and friction for the pipe and fittings. 

2. No Limit; actual values greater than 500 feet. 

3. Less than 10 feet. 

4. Not Permitted. 

12.14.3 Pneumatic Sewage Ejectors 

Pressure release vents for pneumatic sewage ejectors shall extend to a vent terminal that is separate from 
any gravity system vents. Such pressure release vents shall be of sufficient size to reduce the ejector tank to 
atmospheric pressure within 10 seconds, but shall be not less than 1-1/4" pipe size. 

12.15 SUDS PRESSURE VENTING 

12.15.1 Relief Venting 

Where fixture or branch drains connect to a soil or waste stack within a suds pressure zone as described in 
Section 1 1 .1 1 .2, a suds relief vent shall be provided for the fixture or branch drain. Suds relief vents shall 
be 2" minimum size but not less than one pipe size smaller than the drain branch that they serve. Such relief 
vents shall connect to the drain branch between the suds pressure zone and the first fixture trap on the branch. 

12.15.2 Prohibited Vent Connections 

Connections shall not be made within the suds pressure zone of a vent stack that connects at or downstream 
from the base of a soil or waste stack, as described in Section 11.1 1.2.d. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



163 



Table 12.15.1 
SUDS PRESSURE RELIEF VENTS 


Drain Size (inches) 


Relief Vent Size (inches) 


1-1/2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


4 


3 


5 


4 


6 


5 


8 


6 



12.16 SIZE AND LENGTH OF VENTS 



Table 12.16 
SIZE AND LENGTH OF VENTS 


Size of 

Fixture Drain, 

Drainge Stack, 

or Building Drain 

(inches) 


Drainage 

Fixture 

Units 

Connected 


Diameter of Vent Required (inches) 
for the Maximum Length of Vent (feet] 




1-1/4" 


1-1/2" 


2" 


2-1/2" 


3" 


4" 


5" 


6" 


8" 


1-1/4" 


1 (1) 














1-1/2" 


8 


50 


150 














2" 


12 


30 


75 


200 










2" 


20 


26 


50 | 150 











3" 


10 


30 


100 


200 


600 






3" 


30 






60 


200 


500 








3" 


60 




50 


80 


400 








4" 


100 


I 


35 


100 


260 


1000 




4" 


200 


30 


90 250 


900 






4" 


500 




20 


70 


180 


700 








5" 


200 






1 35 


80 


350 | 1000 






5" 


500 






30 


70 


300 900 




5" 


1100 




8S3ii!!apSMslE 


20 


50 


200 


700 






6" 


350 




lllillllliilfllilllllB 


J 50 | 200 


400 


1300 




6" 


620 





, .. 


flSSS*' 


j 30 | 125 1 300 


1100 




6" 


960 


S1IJM 


j 24 100 1 250 


1000 


! 


6" 


1900 


|| 






20 


70 | 200 


700 


| 


8" 


600 






50 150 


500 


1300 


8" 


1400 J 




rell!iplv-|^ 


j 1 40 


100 


400 


1200 


8" 


2200 










! 30 


80 


350 


1100 


8" 


3600 


- — 









j 25 


60 


250 


800 


10" 


1000 




_.... 


75 


125 


1000 


10" 


2500 











50 


100 


500 


10" 


3800 












30 


80 


350 


10" 


5600 








25 


60 


250 



NOTES FOR TABLE 12.16 

(1) The length of the vent is not limited. 



164 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



12.16.1 Size of Fixture Vents 

a. Vents for individual fixtures shall be sized according to Table 12.16. 

b. Vents shall be not less than 1-1/4" size nor less than one-half the size of the fixture drain that they serve. 

c. Where a vent pipe serves two or more fixtures, the size of the combined vent pipe shall be based on the 
sum of the drainage fixture units (DFU) for all of the drains served. 

d. Where the fixtures being vented are not connected to the same drain stack, the stack size used in Table 
12.16 shall be the equivalent stack size for their total combined DFU load, based on Table 1 1 .5. IB. 

EXCEPTION: As otherwise provided in this Code. 

12.16.2 Size of Circuit or Loop Vents 

Circuit or loop vents shall be not less than one-half the size of the horizontal drainage branch that they serve. 

12.16.3 Size of Relief Vents 

a. The size of relief vents for circuit or loop vented branches of the drainage system shall be not less than 
one-half the size of the branch drain being served. 

b. Relief vents for stacks having ten or more branch intervals and relief vents for horizontal offsets in such 
stacks shall be the same size as the vent stack to which they connect. 

12.16.4 Size of Stack Vents and Vent Stacks 

The minimum required size of stack vents and vent stacks shall be in accordance with Table 12.16. For the 
purpose of sizing, the length of a vent stack or stack vent shall be the developed length from its lowest con- 
nection with the drainage system to its termination in the open air, including any vent headers. 

12.16.5 Vent Headers 

a. Vent headers or portions thereof shall be sized according to Table 12.16. 

b. The number of fixture units (DFU) used to size vent headers shall be the sum of all fixture units (DFU) 
on all stacks served by each section of the header. 

c. The developed length of vent headers shall be the longest vent length from the vent connection at the 
base of the most distant stack to the vent terminal in the open air. 

d. The soil or waste stack size used to size vent headers shall be the equivalent size capable of handling the 
fixture unit load (DFU) on the vent header, based on Table 1 1.5. IB. 

12.16.6 Aggregate Size of Vent Terminals 

a. Each building sewer shall be vented by one or more vents extending from the drainage system, or 
branches thereof, to the open air above the roof. 

b. Stack vents and vent stacks shall be sized according to Table 12.16. 

c. The aggregate cross-sectional area of all vent terminals serving a sewer shall be not less than the cross- 
sectional area of the minimum required size of the building drain that they serve, at the point where it con- 
nects to the building sewer. (See Table 12.16.6 for the cross-sectional areas of pipes). 

EXCEPTION: The aggregate cross-sectional area requirement shall be exclusive of any requirements to 
prevent frost closure of the vent terminal under Section 12.5. 

d. One or more vent terminals having the aggregate cross-sectional area of a 3" vent terminal shall be permit- 
ted to vent a 4" building drain if the drainage fixture unit load (DFU) and number of bathroom groups served 
by the building drain does not exceed the maximum number allowed on a 3" building drain, as permitted by 
Section 1 2.1 6.6. c. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 165 



Table 12.16.6 
NOMINAL PIPE CROSS SECTIONAL ARE A (Sq. Inches) 


Nominal Pipe Size (ID) 


Cross Sectional Area (sq in.) 


1-1/4" 


1.2 


1-1/2" 


1.8 


L 2 " 


3.1 


2-1/2" 


4.9 


3" 


7.1 


4" 


12.6 


5" 


19.6 


6" 


28.3 


8" 


50.3 


10" 


78.5 


12" 


113.1 


15" 


176.7 



12.16.7 Underground Vent Piping 

The minimum size of vent piping installed underground shall be 1-1/2". 

12.17 COMBINATION WASTE AND VENT SYSTEM 

12.17.1 Where Permitted 

a. A combination waste and vent system shall be permitted only where conditions preclude the installation 
of a conventionally vented drainage system as otherwise required by this Code. 

b. Combination waste and vent systems shall be limited to floor drains and other floor receptors, sinks, 
lavatories, and standpipes. 

12.17.2 Trap Size 

Traps in a combination waste and vent system shall be the normal size for the particular fixture. See Table 

5.2. 

12.17.3 Trap Arms 

a. Fixtures shall be considered to be vented at the point that they connect to a combination waste and vent 
system. 

b. Where fixtures have conventionally sized trap arms, the maximum length of the trap arm from the weir 
of its trap to the point of connection to the combination waste and vent systems shall be as limited in Table 
12.8.1. 

c. In the case of fixtures with above -the-floor outlets, the vertical drop at the end of the trap arm shall be 
one size larger than the trap arm and be considered as the beginning of the combination waste and vent sys- 
tem. 

d. Floor-outlet fixtures shall also be permitted to drop into a vertical combination waste and vent that is at 
least one size larger than the trap arm. 

e. Where a fixture trap arm is sized as a combination waste and vent, its length shall not be limited and it 
shall be considered as a branch of the combination waste and vent system. 

f. The maximum vertical drop from a fixture trap arm to a horizontal drain below shall be 6 feet. 



166 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



12.17.4 Pipe Sizing 

The piping in a combination waste and vent system shall be sized according to Table 12.17.4, based on the 
number of drainage fixture units (DFU) served and the slope of the piping. 

EXCEPTION: No pipe shall be smaller than any section of piping upstream, including vertical drops from 
trap arms. 



Table 12.17.4 
PIPE SIZING FOR COMBINATION WASTE AND VENT SYSTEMS 


Load 


slope 
1/8" per ft 


slope 

1/4" per ft 


slope 
3/8" per ft 


slope 

1/2" per ft 


3 dfu 


4" 


2" 


2" 


2" 


12 dfu 


4" 


4" 


3" 


3" 


20 dfu 


5" 


4" 


4" 


4" 


180dfu 


5" 


5" 


4" 


4" 


218 dfu 


6" 


5" 


5" 


5" 


390 dfu 


8" 


8" 


5" 


5" 


480 dfu 


8" 


8" 


6" 


6" 


700 dfu 


8" 


8" 


6" 


6" 


840 dfu 


10" 


8" 


8" 


8" 


1600 dfu 


10" 


10" 


8" 


8" 


1920 dfu 


12" 


10" 


10" 


10" 



12.17.5 Maximum Slope 

All piping in a combination waste and vent system shall be horizontal and sloped at not greater than 1/2 inch 

per foot. 

EXCEPTIONS: 

(1) Vertical drops at the end of trap arms. 

(2) Vertical drops of not greater than 45 degrees from horizontal where the vertical drop is not greater than 
6 feet and the offset is at least 10 pipe diameters from any turn or branch connection. 

12.17.6 Branch Connections 

a. Connections to mains and branches within combination waste and vent systems shall be made horizon- 
tally at a slope not greater than 1/2 inch per foot. 

b. Branch connections shall not be made in vertical drops or offsets. 

12.17.7 Minimum Distances 

The distance between turns, offsets, and branch connections in combination waste and vent piping shall be 
not less than 10 pipe diameters. 

12.17.8 Connections to Conventional Drainage Systems 

a. Combination waste and vent systems shall extend to the point of connection to a conventionally sized 
and conventionally vented drainage system. 

b. At the point of connection, the pipe size of the conventional system shall be at least as large as the com- 
bination system, and sized to accept the added drainage load from the combination system. 

c. Such connection from the combination system to the conventional system shall be made at an angle 
above horizontal of not less than 22-1/2 degrees nor more than 45 degrees. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



167 



12.17.9 Connection of Individual Fixtures 

Where drains from individual fixtures are designed as a combination waste and vent and are connected to a 
conventional drainage system, the connection from the fixture to the conventional system shall be made ac- 
cording to Section 12.17.8. 

12.18 ISLAND SINK VENTING 

12.18.1 Where Permitted 

Island sink venting shall be permitted for sinks and lavatories where the vent pipe cannot rise 6 inches above 
the flood level rim of the fixture before turning horizontal. Kitchen sinks in dwelling units with dishwasher 
connections, food-waste-grinder connections, or both, shall be permitted to be island vented. Also see Section 
12.8.1 EXCEPTION (3). 

12.18.2 Arrangement of Vent Piping; 

The island vent pipe shall rise vertically under the sink at the end of the fixture trap arm to at least 4 inches 
above the outlet of the fixture. The vent shall then turn downward and connect to the horizontal drain line 
below the floor downstream from the fixture drain connection so that the vertical vent drop will drain by grav- 
ity to the drainage system. A horizontal vent pipe shall be extended under the floor from the vertical vent drop 
to a point where it can rise vertically. The vertical rise at the end of the horizontal vent portion shall extend 
upward to at least 6 inches above the flood level rim of the fixture being vented before turning horizontal and 
connecting to a vent to the outdoors. The horizontal portion of the vent under the floor shall pitch back to the 
sink so that it will drain by gravity through the vertical vent drop connection to the drainage system. 

12.18.3 Size of Island Vent Pipes 

Island vent pipes shall be sized as individual or common vents in accordance with Section 12.16.1. 

12.18.4 Cleanouts Required 

Cleanouts shall be provided in the vertical vent drop under the sink and in the vertical rise beyond the horizontal 
portion of the vent so that any blockages in the vent piping can be rodded into the drainage system. 

12.19 WASTE STACK VENTING 

12.19.1 Permitted Fixtures 

Lavatories, bathtubs, showers, kitchen sinks with and without food waste grinders and dishwashers, laundry 
sinks, clothes washer standpipes, drinking fountains, floor drains, and similar fixtures shall be permitted to be 
vented by a waste stack that is sized and installed in accordance with the requirements of this Section. 

12.19.2 Prohibited Fixtures 

Water closets and urinals shall not be vented by waste stacks. 

12.19.3 Waste Stacks 

a. Waste stacks shall be uniformly sized from bottom to top according to the total connected fixture drain- 
age load in accordance with Table 12.9.5. 

b. Waste stacks shall be vertical for their entire height without offsets of any degree, except for the base of 
the stack below the lowest fixture connection. 



1 68 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Table 12.19.5 
WASTE STACK SIZES FOR WASTE STACK VENTING 


Stack Size (inches) 


Total DFU into one Branch 
Interval 


Total DFU into the Stack 


1-1/2 


1 


2 


2 


2 


4 


3 


6 


24 


4 


6 


50 


5 


6 


75 


6 


6 


100 



12.19.4 Connections to the Stack 

a. Each fixture shall individually connect to the stack through a single or double sanitary tee. 

b. The maximum length of the trap arms from the individual fixtures shall be in accordance with Table 
12.8.1. 

12.19.5 Waste Stack Sizes 

Waste stack sizes shall be in accordance with Table 12.19.5. 

12.19.6 Waste Stack Vents 

a. Each waste stack shall be vented by a stack vent that is the same size as the waste stack. 

b. Offsets shall be permitted in stack vents that vent waste stacks above the connection of the top-most 
fixture on the stack. 

12.20 OTHER DESIGNS 

Venting systems not described in this Code may be permitted by the Authority Having Jurisdiction if they 
provide the protection required by Section 12.2.1 and are individually designed by a licensed professonal 
engineer. (See Appendix E - SPECIAL DESIGN PLUMBING SYSTEMS.) 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



169 



Blank Page 



170 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Chapter 13 



Storm Water Drainage 



13.1 GENERAL 



13.1.1 Where Required 

Roofs, paved areas, yards, courts, and courtyards shall be drained to either a storm sewer where available, a 
combined sewer where necessary, or to a place of disposal satisfactory to the Authority Having Jurisdiction. 
EXCEPTION: Storm water from one- and two-family dwellings may be discharged on lawns or streets pro- 
vided that the storm water flows away from the dwelling and does not otherwise create a nuisance. 

13.1.2 Storm Water Drainage to Sanitary Sewer Prohibited 

Storm water shall not be drained into sewers intended for sewage only, except as approved by the Authority 
Having Jurisdiction. 

13.1.3 Sanitary and Storm Sewers 

Where separate systems of sanitary drainage and storm water are installed in the same property, the storm 
and sanitary building sewers and drains may be laid side by side in the same trench. 

13.1.4 Reserved 

13.1.5 Foundation Drains 

a. Foundation drains shall be provided around the perimeter of basements, cellars, crawl spaces, or any 
building space below grade. The drains shall be positioned either inside or outside of the footings, and shall 
be of perforated or open-joint approved drain tile or pipe not less than 3" pipe size. The top of foundation 
drains shall be not less than 2 inches below the underside of the floor slab being protected. 

b. Weep holes 

(1) Where foundation drains are located on the interior side of hollow-core concrete masonry units, 
1/2" — 3/4" diameter weep holes shall be located through the inside face of the foundation wall at the 
footing on 16 inch centers. 

(2) Where foundation drains are located on the interior side of a poured concrete foundation wall, 
1-1/2" pipes shall be installed through the footing on six foot centers. 

c Foundation drains shall be laid in a filter bed of gravel, crushed stone, slag, approved 3/4" crushed re- 
cycled glass aggregate, or other approved porous materials. The bottom of the filter bed shall be no higher 
than the bottom of the base course beneath the floor slab. There shall be not less than 2 inches of filter bed 
beneath the foundation drain. Where foundation drains are located outside of the footings, there shall be at 
least 6 inches of filter bed above the top of the pipe. 

d. Drainage from foundations shall be discharged to a storm drain, street, alley, approved water course, or 
at grade. When discharged at grade, the point of discharge shall be at least 10 feet from any property line and 
shall not create a nuisance. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



171 



e. Where foundation drains are below the required point of discharge, one or more automatic sump pumps 
shall be provided. The pump or pumps shall have adequate capacity to convey all drainage to its point of 
discharge. The minimum pump capacity shall be 1 5 gallons per minute at the required discharge head. Sump 
pits shall be sized to accommodate the pump(s), as recommended by the pump manufacturer, but shall be not 
less than 15 inches in diameter nor less than 18 inches deep. Sump pits shall be provided with fitted cov- 
ers. Pits shall be located to avoid foot traffic where their covers do not have sufficient strength to carry such 
weight. Discharge lines from sump pumps shall be sized according to the design pump capacity and shall be 
not less than 1-1/4" pipe size. A check valve shall either be incorporated into each sump pump or be installed 
in the discharge line from each sump pump, except that check valves may be eliminated where the discharge 
pipe would be subject to freezing. Under such conditions, the sump pit shall be adequately sized to prevent 
short cycling of the pump. 

f. Where sump pumps discharge at grade on unpaved surfaces, the discharge pipe shall extend to a splash 
block or equivalent, which shall be designed to contain the discharge, reduce its velocity, and avoid disturb- 
ing adjacent areas. Where necessary, the discharge pipe shall terminate with an elbow to direct the flow 
along the splash block. Splash blocks shall be at least 24 inches long. 

g. The water supply to water-operated storm water sump pumps shall be protected from backflow in ac- 
cordance with Section 10.5. 

13.1.6 Areaway Drains 

a. Drainage shall be provided for open areaway s below grade where storm water may accumulate. Area- 
ways include outdoor spaces that provide access to basements or floor levels of a building that are below 
grade. Drains in such areas shall be sized according to Table 13.6.2 and shall include strainers as required for 
roof drains or floor drains. 

b. Areaway drains shall not connect to a foundation drain. 
EXCEPTION: Areaways not exceeding 100 square feet in area. 

13.1.7 Window Well Drains 

Window wells shall be drained as required for areaways, except that window wells not greater than 10 square 
feet in area shall be permitted to drain into a foundation drain, either directly by means of a 2" minimum size 
drain, or indirectly through a porous filter bed. 

13.1.8 Parking and Service Garages 

Storm water drainage from parking and service garages shall be in accordance with Sections 6.3. l.d and 
6.3. I.e. 

13.1.9 Reserved 

13.1.10 Roof Drainage 

13.1.10.1 Primary Roof Drainage 

Roof areas of buildings shall be drained by roof drains or scuppers unless gutters and downspouts or 
other non-plumbing drainage is provided. The location and sizing of roof drains and scuppers shall be 
coordinated with the structural design and slope of the roof. Roof drains, scuppers, vertical conductors 
or leaders, and horizontal storm drainage piping for primary drainage shall be sized based on a storm 
of 60 minutes duration and a 1 00-year return period. (See Appendix A). 



172 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



13.1.10.2 Secondary Roof Drainage 

a. Where parapet walls or other construction extend above the roof and create areas where storm 
water would become trapped if the primary roof drainage system failed to provide sufficient drainage, 
an independent secondary roof drainage system consisting of scuppers, standpipes, or roof drains shall 
be provided. Secondary roof drainage shall be sized for a 100-year, 15-minute storm (see Appendix A). 
The capacity of the primary system shall not be considered in the sizing of the secondary system. 

b. Where secondary drainage is provided by means of roof drains or standpipes, the secondary 
system shall be separate from the primary system and shall discharge independently at grade or other 
approved point of discharge. 

c. Where secondary roof drainage is provided, the overflow level(s) into the secondary system shall 
be established by the amount of ponding that is allowed in the structural design of the roof, including 
roof deflection. An allowance shall be made to account for the required overflow head of water above 
the secondary inlets. The elevation of the secondary inlet plus the required overflow head shall not 
exceed the maximum allowable water level on the roof. 

d. Scuppers shall be sized as rectangular weirs, using hydraulic principles to determine the required 
length and resulting overflow head (see Appendix A). Secondary roof drains and standpipes shall be 
sized according to Table 13.6.1 Where standpipes are used, the head allowance required under Section 
13.1.10.2.C shall be not less than 1-1/2 inches. 

e. Strainers shall not be required on open standpipes when used for secondary inlets. 

f. Where secondary roof drainage is provided by roof drains or standpipes, they shall be permitted to 
discharge horizontally, similar to scuppers, but below the roof level. 

13.1.10.3 Vertical Walls 

Where vertical walls drain onto roofs, an allowance based on 50% of the maximum projected wall area 
shall be added to the roof area onto which each wall drains. 

13.1.10.4 Equivalent Systems 

When approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, the requirements of Sections 13.1.10.1 and 
13.1.10.2 shall not preclude the installation of an engineered roof drainage system that has sufficient 
capacity to prevent water from ponding on the roof in excess of that allowed in the roof structural 
design during a 100-year, 15-minute storm. 

13.1.11 Continuous Flow 

Where continuous flow from a spring or ground water is encountered in a foundation drainage system or 
other subsoil drain, the discharge shall be piped to a storm sewer or approved water course. 

13.1.12 Backwater Valves 

Where foundation drains, areaway drains, window well drains, or other storm water drains discharge by 
gravity and are subject to backflow from their point of discharge, a backwater valve shall be provided in the 
discharge line. Backwater valves shall comply with the requirements of Section 5.5. 

13.2 MATERIALS 

See Section 3.7. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



13.3 TRAPS IN STORM DRAINAGE SYSTEMS 

13.3.1 General 

a. Traps shall be installed in a storm drainage system if it connects to a combined sewer conveying both 
sewage and storm water. 

EXCEPTION: Traps shall not be required where roof drains, rain leaders, and other inlets are at locations 
allowed under Section 12.4.4 for vent terminals. 

b. Floor drains or other receptors within a building shall be individually trapped if they are connected to a 
storm drainage system, regardless of whether or not the sewer is combined. 

c. Traps required under this section shall comply with the requirements of Section 5.3.1, 5.3.2, 5.3.3, 5.3.5 
and 13.3.2. Traps shall have accessible cleanouts or other means of clearing the trap. 

13.3.2 Location of Traps 

Where traps are required under Section 13. 3. La, they shall be installed either on individual branches of the 
storm drainage system or in the building storm drain or building storm sewer before it connects to the com- 
bined sewer. Traps shall not be installed in locations where they will be subject to freezing. Where traps are 
required for rain leaders, the minimum earth cover shall be as required in Section 2.16.b. 

13.3.3 Size of Traps 

Traps shall be the same size as the drain pipe in which they are installed. 

13.4 LEADERS OR CONDUCTORS AND CONNECTIONS 

13.4.1 Not to be Used Improperly 

Leaders or conductors shall not be used as soil, waste, or vent pipes nor shall soil, waste, or vent pipes be 
used as leaders. 

13.4.2 Protection of Rain Water Leaders 

Rain water leaders installed along alleyways, driveways, or other locations where they may be exposed to 
damage shall be protected by metal guards, shall be recessed into the wall, or shall be constructed from fer- 
rous alloy pipe to a point 5 foot above grade. 

13.4.3 Combining Storm with Sanitary Drainage 

The sanitary and storm drainage system of a building shall be entirely separate, except that where a combined 
sewer is used, the building storm drain shall connect horizontally to the combined building drain through a 
single wye fitting that is at least 10 feet downstream from any soil stack. 

13.4.4 Double Connections of Storm Drains 

Where the sanitary and storm drains are connected on both sides of the combined sewer, single wyes shall be 
used and the requirements of Section 13.4.3 relative to the location of connections shall also apply. 

13.5 ROOF DRAINS 

13.5.1 Compliance and Materials 

Roof drains shall comply with ASME A112.6.4 and be constructed of coated or galvanized cast iron, bronze, 
stainless steel, plastic, or other corrosion-resisting materials. Drains shall include any deck clamps or other ' 
appurtenances necessary for installation and coordination with the roofing system. 



174 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



13.5.2 Dome Strainers 

Roof areas shall be drained to roof drains having raised dome strainers with dome free areas complying with 
ASME A112.6.4. The minimum free dome area shall be one and one-half (1-1/2) times the area of the drain 
outlet connection. 
EXCEPTIONS 

(1) Pitched roofs draining to hanging gutters. 

(2) Roof areas subject to pedestrian and/or vehicular traffic. 

13.5.3 Flat Grates 

Roof drains on patios, sun decks, parking decks, and other areas subject to pedestrian and/or vehicular traffic 
shall have flat grates with a free inlet area complying with ASME 112.6.4. The minimum grate free area shall 
be two times the cross-sectional area of the drain outlet. Such drains shall not be located where they cannot be 
readily inspected and maintained on a regular basis. 

13.5.4 Roof Drain Flashings 

The connection between roofs and roof drains that pass through the roof and into the interior of the building 
shall be made watertight by the use of proper flashing material. 

13.5.5 Roof Drain Restrictions 

The roof drain size shall not be restricted by insertion of any roofing material or other objects to insure water 
flow into the drain. 

13.5.6 Roof Drain Outlet Pipe Size 

The outlet pipe size of roof drains having vertical conductors shall be not less than the size required for verti- 
cal conductors in Table 13.6.1. 

13.6 SIZE OF VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL STORM DRAIN PIPING 

13.6.1 Vertical Conductors 

Vertical storm water conductors shall be sized according to Table 13.6.1. Where a vertical pipe section is 
smaller than the preceding horizontal pipe section, the reduction in size shall be made in the vertical pipe 
section. 

13.6.2 Size of Horizontal Storm Drain Piping 

a. Horizontal storm drain piping shall be sized according to Table 13.6.2 - Part 1 or Part 2. Such piping 
includes horizontal offsets in storm water conductors, building drains, building sewers, and branches thereof. 

b. The size of horizontal drain piping shall not be reduced in the direction of flow. 

c. The design flows in Table 13.6.2 - Parts 1 and 2 are based on fairly rough pipe with a Manning friction 
coefficient "n" = 0.015. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 1 75 



Table 13.6.1 
SIZE OF VERTICAL STORM WATER CONDUCTORS 


Nominal 

Diameter 

(inches) 


Flow Capacity 
(GPM) 


Allowable Projected Roof Areas (sq ft) 
at Various Rates of Rainfall per Hour (inches) 


1" 


2" 


3" 


4" 


5" 


6" 


2" 


23 


2,180 


1,090 


727 


545 


436 


363 


3" 


67 


6,426 


3,213 


2,142 


1,607 


1,285 


1,071 


4" 


144 


13,840 


6,920 


4,613 


3,460 


2,768 


2,307 


5" 


261 


25,094 


12,547 


8,365 


6,273 


5,019 


4,182 


6" 


424 


40,805 


20,402 


13,602 


10,201 


8,161 


6,801 


8" 


913 


87,878 


43,939 


29,293 


21,970 


17,576 


14,646 


10" 


1655 


159,334 


79,667 


53,111 


39,834 


31,867 


26,556 


12" 


2692 


259,095 


129,548 


86,365 


64,774 


51,819 


43,183 


15" 


4880 


469,771 


234,886 


156,590 


117,443 


93,954 


78,295 






7" 


8" 


9" 


10" 


11" 


12" 


2" 


23 


311 


272 


242 


218 


198 


182 


3" 


67 


918 


803 


714 


643 


584 


536 


4" 


144 


1,977 


1,730 


1,538 


1,384 


1,258 


1,153 


5" 


261 


3,585 


3,137 


2,788 


2,509 


2,281 


2,091 


6" 


424 


5,829 


5,101 


4,534 


4,080 


3,710 


3,400 


8" 


913 


12,554 


10,985 


9,764 


8,788 


7,989 


7,323 


10" 


1655 


22,762 


19,917 


17,704 


15,933 


14,485 


13,277 


12" 


2692 


37,014 


32,387 


28,788 


25,910 


23,554 


21,591 


15" 


4880 


67,110 


58,721 


52,197 


46,977 


42,706 


39,146 



NOTES FOR TABLE 13.6.1 

(1) Flow capacities are based on stacks flowing 7/24 full. 

(2) Interpolation between rainfall rates is permitted. 



176 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Table 13.6.2 Part 1 
SIZE OF HORIZONTAL STORM DRAINS (for 1 7hr to 6"/hr rainfall rates) 


Size of 

Drain 

(inches) 


Design 

Flow of 

Drain 


Allowable Projected Roof Area at Various Rates of Rainfall per Hour 
(Square Feet of Roof) 


Slope 1/16 inch/foot 




GPM 


l'Vhr 


2"/hr 


3"/hr 


4"/hr 


5"/hr 


6"/hr 


2 
















3 
















4 


53 


5,101 


2,551 


1,700 


1,275 


1,020 


850 


5 


97 


9,336 


4,668 


3,112 


2,334 


1,867 


1,556 


6 


157 


15,111 


7,556 


5,037 


3,778 


3,022 


2,519 


8 


339 


32,629 


16,314 


10,876 


8,157 


6,526 


5,438 


10 


615 


59,194 


29,597 


19,731 


14,798 


11,839 


9,866 


12 


999 


96,154 


48,077 


32,051 


24,039 


19,231 


16,026 


15 


1812 


174,405 


87,203 


58,135 


43,601 


34,881 


29,068 


Slope 1/8 inch/foot 


Size 


GPM 


l'Vhr 


2"/hr 


3"/hr 


4"/hr 


5"/hr 


6"/hr 


2 








.■■... . ■...-..■ 








3 


35 


3,369 


1,684 


1,123 


842 


674 


561 


4 


75 


7,219 


3,609 


2,406 


1,805 


1,444 


1,203 


5 


137 


13,186 


6,593 


4,395 


3,297 


2,637 


2,198 


6 


223 


21,464 


10,732 


7,155 


. 5,366 


4,293 


3,577 


L 8 


479 


46,104 


23,052 


15,368 


11,526 


9,221 


7,684 


10 


869 


83,641 


41,821 


27,880 


20,910 


16,728 


13,940 


12 


1413 


136,002 


68,001 


45,334 


34,000 


27,200 


22,667 


15 _j 


2563 


246,689 


123,345 


82,230 


61,672 


49,338 


41,115 


Slope 1/4 inch/foot 


Size 


GPM 


l'Vhr 


2"/hr 


3"/hr 


4"/hr 


5"/hr 


6"/hr 


2 


17 


1,636 


818 


545 


409 


327 


273 


3 


50 


4,813 


2,406 


1,604 


1,203 


963 


802 


4 


107 


10,299 


5,149 


3,433 


2,575 


2,060 


1,716 


5 


194 


18,673 


9,336 


6,224 


4,668 


3,735 


3,112 


6 


315 


30,319 


15,159 


10,106 


7,580 


6,064 


5,053 


8 


678 


65,258 


32,629 


21,753 


16,314 


13,052 


10,876 


10 


1229 


118,292 


59,146 


39,431 


29,573 


23,658 


19,715 


12 1 


1999 


192,404 


96,202 


64,135 


48,101 


38,481 


32,067 


15 


3625 


348,907 


1 74,454 


116,302 


87,227 


69,781 


58,151 


Slope 1/2 inch/foot 


Size 


GPM 


l'Vhr 


2"/hr 


3"/hr 


4"/hr 


5"/hr 


6"/hr 


2 


24 


2,310 


1,155 


770 


578 


462 


385 


3 


70 


6,738 


3,369 


2,246 


1,684 


1,348 


1,123 


4 


151 


14,534 


7,267 


4,845 


3,633 


2,907 


2,422 


5 


274 


26,373 


13,186 


8,791 


6,593 


5,275 


4,395 


6 


445 


42,831 


21,416 


14,277 


10,708 


8,566 


7,139 


8 


959 


92,304 


46,152 


30,768 


23,076 


18,461 


15,384 


10 


1738 


167,283 


83,641 


55,761 


41,821 


33,457 


27,880 


12 


2827 


272,099 


136,050 


90,700 


68,025 


54,420 


45,350 


15 


5126 


493,379 


246,689 


164,460 


123,345 


98,676 


82,230 



NOTES FOR TABLE 13.6.2 - Part 1: 

1. Design flows are based on fairly rough pipe with a Manning friction coefficient of n = 0.015. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



111 



Table 13.6.2 Part 2 
SIZE OF HORIZONTAL STORM DRAINS (for 7"/hr to 12"/hr rainfall rates) 


Size of 

Drain 

(inches) 


Design 

Flow of 

Drain 


Allowable Projected Roof Area at Various Rates of Rainfall per Hour 
(Square Feet of Roof) 


Slope 1/16 inch/foot 


Size 


GPM 


7"/hr 


8"/hr 


9"/hr 


10"/hr 


ll'Vhr 


12"/hr 


2 
















3 
















4 


53 


729 


638 


567 


510 


464 


425 


5 


97 


1,334 


1,167 


1,037 


934 


849 


778 


6 


157 


2,159 


1,889 


1,679 


1,511 


1,374 


1,259 


8 


339 


4,661 


4,079 


3,625 


3,263 


2,966 


2,719 


10 


615 


8,456 


7,399 


6,577 


5,919 


5,381 


4,933 


12 


999 


13,736 


12,019 


10,684 


9,615 


8,741 


8,013 


15 


1812 


24,915 


21,801 


19,378 


17,441 


15,855 


14,534 


Slope 1/8 inch/foot 


Size 


GPM 


7"/hr 


8"/hr 


9"/hr 


10"/hr 


ll'Vhr 


12"/hr 


2 
















3 


35 


481 


421 


374 


337 


306 


281 


4 


75 


1,031 


902 


802 


722 


656 


602 


6 


223 


3,066 


2,683 


2,385 


2,146 


1,951 


1,789 


8 


479 


6,586 


5,763 


5,123 


4,610 


4,191 


3,842 


10 


869 


11,494 


10,455 


9,293 


8,364 


7,604 


6,970 


12 


1413 


12,429 


17,000 


15,111 


13,600 


12,364 


11,334 


15 


2563 


35,241 


30,836 


27,410 


24,669 


22,426 


20,557 


Slope 1/4 inch/foot 


Size 


GPM 


7"/hr 


8"/hr 


9"/hr 


10"/hr 


ll'Vhr 


12"/hr 


2 


17 


234 


205 


182 


164 


149 


136 


3 


50 


688 


602 


535 


481 


438 


401 


4 


107 


1,471 


1,287 


1,144 


1,030 


936 


858 


5 


194 


2,668 


2,334 


2,075 


1,867 


1,698 


1,556 


6 


315 


4,331 


3,790 


3,369 


3,032 


2,756 


2,527 


8 


678 


9,323 


8,157 


7,251 


6,526 


5,933 


5,438 


10 


1229 


16,899 


14,787 


13,144 


11,829 


10,754 


9,858 


12 


1999 


27,486 


24,051 


21,378 


19,240 


17,491 


16,034 


15 


3625 


49,844 


43,613 


38,767 


34,891 


31,719 


29,076 


Slope 1/2 inch/foot 


Size 


GPM 


7"/hr 


8"/hr 


9"/hr 


10"/hr 


ll'Vhr 


12"/hr 


2 


24 


330 


289 


257 


231 


210 


193 


3 


70 


963 


842 


749 


j_ 674 


613 


562 


4 


151 


2,076 


1,817 


1,615 


1,453 


1,321 


1,211 


5 


274 


3,768 


3,297 


2,930 


2,637 


„u_ 2 ' 398 


2,198 


6 


445 


6,119 


5,354 


4,759 


4,283 


3,894 


3,569 


8 


959 


13,186 


11,538 


10,256 


9,230 


8,391 


7,692 


10 


1738 


23,898 


20,910 


18,587 


16,728 


15,208 


13,940 


12 


2827 


38,871 


34,012 


30,233 


27,210 


24,736 


22,675 


15 


5126 


70,483 


61,672 


54,820 


49,338 


44,835 

\ 


41,115 



NOTES FOR TABLE 13.6.2 -Part 2: 

1 . Design flows are based on fairly rough pipe with a Manning friction coefficient of 



0.015. 



178 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



13.7 RESERVED 

13.8 SIZING FOR CONTINUOUS OR INTERMITTENT FLOWS 

Continuous or intermittent flows from a sump pump, air conditioning condensate drain, or other approved dis- 
charge into a storm drainage system shall be determined in gallons per minute flow. Air conditioning condensate 
drainage shall be based on not less than 0.006 gpm/ton of cooling capacity. Such flows shall be added to the 
stormwater load on the storm drainage system, which shall also be determined on the basis of gallons per minute 
according to Table A. 1 and Section A.3 in Appendix A. 

13.9 CONTROLLED FLOW STORM WATER SYSTEM 

13.9.1 Application 

In lieu of sizing the storm drainage system on the basis of actual maximum projected roof areas as previously 
described in this Chapter, the roof drainage system, or part thereof may be sized on equivalent or adjusted 
maximum projected roof areas that result from controlled flow and storage of storm water on the roof pro- 
vided flow control devices are used. 

13.9.2 Design 

A controlled flow storm water system shall be designed, installed, inspected and certified as an engineered 
special design plumbing system as outlined in Appendix E of this Code. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code ' 179 



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180 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Chapter 14 



Special Requirements For Health Care Facilities 

14.1 GENERAL 

This Chapter applies to special fixtures and systems that occur in health care facilities and to the special plumb- 
ing requirements in such facilities. Ordinary plumbing in such facilities shall comply with the other applicable 
Chapters of this Code. 

14.2 WATER SERVICE 

Where required by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, hospitals and similar health care facilities shall have dual 
water service lines to maintain a water supply in the event of a water main failure. Where possible, the service 
pipelines shall be connected to different water mains so that a single water main break can be isolated and re- 
paired without shutting off all water service to the facility. 

14.3 MEDICAL GAS AND VACUUM PIPING SYSTEMS 

14.3.1 General 

The installation of medical gas and vacuum piping systems shall be in accordance with the requirements of 
either NFPA 99 - Standard for Health Care Facilities or NFPA 99C - Gas and Vacuum Systems. 

14.3.2 Professional Qualifications of Installers, Inspectors and Verifiers 

Installers (including brazers), inspectors, and verifiers of medical gas and vacuum systems shall meet the 
requirements of ANSI/ASSE Series 6000 - Professional Qualification Standard for Medical Gas Systems 
Installers, Inspectors, and Verifiers, or the equivalent. 

14.4 PROTRUSIONS FROM WALLS 

Drinking fountains, control valves, medical gas station outlets, vacuum inlet stations, risers, cleanout covers, and 
other devices shall be fully-recessed in corridors and other areas where patients may be transported on a gurney, 
hospital bed, or wheelchair. Protective guards shall be provided where necessary. 

14.5 MENTAL PATIENT ROOMS 

Piping and drain traps in mental patient rooms shall be concealed. Fixtures and fittings shall be vandal-proof. 

14.6 PROHIBITED LOCATIONS FOR ICE STORAGE 

Ice makers or ice storage chests shall not be located in a Soiled Utility Room or similar areas where subject to 
possible contamination. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



181 



14.7 CROSS CONNECTION CONTROL AND BACKFLOW PREVENTION 

a. Backflow prevention shall be in accordance with Section 10.5. 

b. Vacuum breakers for bedpan washers shall be not less than 5 feet above the floor. 

14.8 CLINICAL SINKS AND BEDPAN WASHERS 

14.8.1 General 

a. Clinical sinks and bedpan washers, and flushing-rim service sinks shall be installed in the same manner 
as water closets. Where such fixtures have a vent connection on the inlet side of their trap, a local vent shall 
be provided in accordance with Section 14.9. 

b. Clinical sinks shall not be used as a substitute for non-flushing service sinks, nor shall a non-flushing 
service sink be utilized to clean bedpans. 

c. Vacuum breakers for bedpan washers shall be installed in accordance with Section 14.7.b. 

14.9 LOCAL VENTS AND STACKS FOR CLINICAL SINKS 
OR BEDPAN WASHERS 

14.9.1 General 

Where clinical sinks or bedpan washers have provisions for a local vent, a local vent shall be extended to the 
outdoors above the roof. Local vents shall terminate in accordance with Section 12.4. Local vents from clini- 
cal sinks or bedpan washers shall not be connected to vapor vents for sterilizers or to any drainage system 
vent. 

14.9.2 Material 

Local vent piping shall be of a material acceptable for sanitary vents in accordance with Section 3.6. 

14.9.3 Required Size and Arrangement 

A local vent serving a single clinical sink or bedpan washer shall be not less than 2" pipe size. Where such 
fixtures are installed back-to-back or are located above each other on more than one floor, a local vent stack 
may be provided to serve multiple fixtures. A 2" local vent stack may serve up to three fixtures. A3" local 
vent stack may serve up to six fixtures. A 4" local vent stack may serve up to twelve fixtures. In multiple in- 
stallations, the connections to the local vent stack shall be made using sanitary tee or tee-wye fittings oriented 
for upward flow from the branch. A branch connection to a local vent stack shall extend not more than 5 feet 
horizontally and shall be sloped not less than 1/4 inch per foot back towards the fixture served. 

14.9.4 Provisions for Drainage 

Provisions shall be made for the drainage of vapor condensation within local vent piping. A local vent serv- 
ing a single fixture may drain back to the fixture served. The base of a local vent stack serving one or more 
fixtures shall be directly connected to a trapped and vented waste branch of the sanitary drainage system. The 
trap and waste branch shall be the same size as the local vent stack. The trap seal depth shall be not less than 
3 inches. The vent for the waste branch shall be 1-1/4" minimum size, but not less than one-half the size of 
the waste branch. 

14.9.5 Trap Priming 

The waste trap required under Section 14.9.4 shall be primed by at least one clinical sink or bedpan washer 
on each floor served by the local vent stack. A priming line not less than 1/4" OD size shall be extended from 



182 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



the discharge or fixture-side of the vacuum breaker protecting the fixture water supply to the local vent stack. 
A trap having not less than a 3 -inch water seal shall be provided in the priming line. The line shall prime the 
trap at the base of the local vent stack each time that a fixture is flushed. 

14.10 STERILIZERS 

14.10.1 General 

The requirements of this Section apply to sterilizers and bedpan steamers. Such equipment shall be installed 
in accordance with this Code and the manufacturer's instructions. 

14.10.2 Indirect Waste Connections 

All waste drainage from sterilizers and bedpan steamers shall be indirectly connected to the sanitary drainage 
system through an air gap, in accordance with Chapter 9. Indirect waste pipes shall be not less than the size 
of the drain connection on the fixture. Separate waste pipes shall be provided for each fixture, except that up 
to three sterilizers may have a common indirect waste pipe if its developed length does not exceed 8 feet. The 
size of such common indirect waste pipes shall be not less than the aggregate cross-sectional area of the indi- 
vidual sterilizer drain connections. Except for bedpan steamers, indirect waste pipes shall not require traps. 

14.10.3 Floor Drains 

a. A trapped and vented floor drain, not less than 3" pipe size, shall be provided in each recess room or 
space where recessed or concealed portions of sterilizers are located. The floor drain shall drain the entire 
floor area and shall receive the indirect waste from at least one sterilizer. Where an air gap fitting is provided, 
the waste pipe from the fitting may connect to the body of the floor drain above its trap seal. 

b. Where required by the sterilizer manufacturer, a floor drain shall be located directly beneath the sterilizer 
within the area of its base. 

14.10.4 Cooling Required 

Waste drainage from condensers or steam traps shall be cooled below 140°F before being discharged indi- 
rectly to the sanitary drainage system. 

14.10.5 Traps Required for Bedpan Steamers 

A trap having a minimum seal of 3 inches shall be provided in the indirect waste pipe for a bedpan steamer, 
located between the fixture and the air gap at the indirect waste receptor. 

1 4. 1 1 VAPOR VENTS AND STACKS FOR STERILIZERS 

14.11.1 General 

Where sterilizers have provisions for a vapor vent and such a vent is required by their manufacturer, a vapor 
vent shall be extended to the outdoors above the roof. Sterilizer vapor vents shall terminate in accordance 
with Section 12.4 and shall not be connected to local vents for clinical sinks or bedpan washers or to any 
drainage system vent. 

14.11.2 Material 

Sterilizer vapor vent piping shall be of a material acceptable for sanitary vents in accordance with Section 
3.6. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code \ 83 



14.11.3 Required Size and Arrangement 

a. Sterilizer vapor vents and stacks for individual sterilizers shall be not less than the size of the sterilizer 
vent connection, except that stacks shall be not less than 1-1/2" pipe size. Where vapor vent stacks serve 
more than one sterilizer, the cross-sectional area of the stack shall be not less than the aggregate cross-sec- 
tional areas of the vapor vents for all of the sterilizers served. 

b. In single and multiple installations, the connections to the vapor vent stack shall be made using sanitary 
tee or tee- wye fittings oriented for upward flow from the branch. A branch connection to a sterilizer vapor 
vent stack shall extend not more than 5 feet horizontally and shall be sloped not less than 1/4 inch per foot 
away from the sterilizer and toward the vent stack. 

14.11.4 Provisions for Drainage 

Provisions shall be made for the drainage of vapor condensation within sterilizer vapor vent piping. The base 
of stacks shall drain indirectly through an air gap to a trapped and vented waste receptor connected to the 
sanitary drainage system. 

14.12 DRAINAGE FROM CENTRAL VACUUM SYSTEMS 

14.12.1 General 

Provisions for drainage from medical, surgical, dental, and similar central vacuum systems shall be as 
required by either NFPA 99 - Health Care Facilities or NFPA 99C - Gas and Vacuum Systems. In addition, 
drainage from dental and other vacuum systems that collect fluid waste centrally shall comply with Sections 

14.12.2 through 14.12.4. 

14.12.2 Positive Pressure Drainage from Air/Waste Separators in Dental Vacuum Systems 

a. The waste outlet from an air/waste separator on the discharge side of a vacuum pump or blower shall be 
direct- connected to the sanitary drainage system through a deep-seal trap that is conventionally vented within 
the plumbing system. The trap vent shall extend vertically to not less than 6 inches above the top of the separator 
before making any horizontal turns. The vacuum exhaust airflow from the separator shall be separately vented 
to outodoors as required under NFPA 99 and NFPA 99C. 

b. The trap and drain branch size shall be at least two pipe sizes larger than the waste pipe from the separator, 
but not less than 1-1/2" pipe size. The vent shall be the full size of the trap and drain. The trap seal shall be at 
least two times the exhaust backpressure in the separator, but not less than 4 inches deep. 

14.12.3 Gravity Drainage from Waste Holding Tanks in Dental Vacuum Systems 

a. The drainage from waste holding tanks shall extend from the vacuum check valve on the waste outlet 
of the tank and be direct-connected to the sanitary drainage system through a deep-seal trap that is conven- 
tionally vented within the plumbing system. In addition, a vent shall be installed between the vacuum check 
valve and the drain trap, on the inlet side of the trap, to seal the check valve when the holding tank is operat- 
ing under vacuum and collecting waste. This vent shall be connected to the plumbing system vents. Both 
vents shall extend vertically to not less than 6 inches above the top of the holding tank before making any 
horizontal turns. 

b. The trap and drain size shall be at least two pipe sizes larger than the waste outlet and vacuum check valve, 
but not less than 2" pipe size. The trap shall be not less than 4 inches deep. The vent for the vacuum check 
valve shall be not less than the size of the check valve. The trap vent shall be not less than one-half the size of 
the trap and drain branch. 



J 34 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



14.12.4 Protection from Sewage Backup in Dental Vacuum Systems 

A floor drain or other trapped and vented receptor shall be provided near the connection of the drain from a 
dental vacuum air/waste separator or waste holding tank to the sanitary drainage system that will overflow in 
the event of a backup in the sanitary drainage system and prevent the backup from reaching the level of the 
trap for the air /waste separator or the drain check valve for the waste holding tank. The trap of the floor drain 
or receptor shall be primed if it does not receive an indirect waste discharge. 

14.13 ASPIRATORS 

Provisions for aspirators or other water-supplied suction devices shall be installed only with the specific approval 
of the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Where aspirators are used for removing body fluids, they shall include a 
collection bottle or similar fluid trap. Aspirators shall indirectly discharge to the sanitary drainage system through 
an air gap, in accordance with Chapter 9. The potable water supply to an aspirator shall be protected by a vacuum 
breaker or equivalent, in accordance with Sections 14.7 and 10.5.3. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 1 85 



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1 86 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Chapter 15 



Tests and Maintenance 



15.1 EXPOSURE OF WORK 

New, altered, extended or replaced plumbing shall be left uncovered and unconcealed until it has been tested and 
approved. Where such work has been covered or concealed before it is tested and approved, it shall be exposed for 
testing. 

15.2 EQUIPMENT, MATERIAL AND LABOR FOR TESTS 

Equipment, material and labor required for testing a plumbing system or part thereof shall be furnished by the 
installing contractor. 

15.3 TESTING OF PLUMBING SYSTEMS 

15.3.1 General 

New plumbing systems and parts of existing systems that have been altered, extended or repaired shall be 
tested as prescribed hereinafter to disclose leaks and defects only when required by the Authority Having 
Jurisdiction. 

15.3.2 Exceptions 

a. When required by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, where an existing concealed sewer or drain is reused 
as part of a new or renovated drainage system, the line shall be traced to its point of termination and shall be 
tested to determine that: 

1 . It is connected to the proper drainage system, such as sanitary or storm, 

2. It will withstand a leak test, and, 

3. It is free-flowing and not restricted. 

15.4 METHODS OF TESTING THE DRAINAGE AND VENT SYSTEMS 

15.4.1 Rough Plumbing 

a. Except for perforated or open jointed drain tile, the piping of plumbing drain and vent systems shall be 
tested upon completion of the rough piping installation by water or, for piping systems other than plastic, by 
air and proved watertight. The Authority Having Jurisdiction may require the removal of any cleanout plugs 
to ascertain if the pressure has reached all parts of the system. One of the following test methods shall be 
used: 

1 . The water test shall be applied to the drainage system either in its entirety or in sections after rough 
piping has been installed. If applied to the entire system, all openings in the piping shall be tightly closed, 
except the highest opening, and the system filled with water to point of overflow. If the system is tested in 
sections, each opening shall be tightly plugged except the highest opening of the section under test, and 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



187 



each section shall be filled with water, but no section shall be tested with less than a 10-foot head of water. 
In testing successive sections, at least the upper 10 feet of the next preceding section shall be tested, so that 
no joint or pipe in the building (except the uppermost 10 feet of the system) shall have been submitted to a 
test of less than 10-foot head of water. The water shall be kept in the system or in the portion under test for 
at least 15 minutes before inspection starts; the system shall then be tight at all points. 

2. The air test shall be made by attaching an air compressor testing apparatus to any suitable opening and 
after closing all other inlets and outlets to the system, forcing air into the system until there is a uniform 
gauge pressure of 5 pounds per square inch or sufficient to balance a column of mercury 10 inches in 
height. This pressure shall be held without introduction of additional air for a period of at least 15 minutes. 

15.4.2 Finished Plumbing 

a. When the rough plumbing has been tested in accordance with section 15.4.1, a final test of the finished 
plumbing system may be required to insure that the final fixture connections to the drainage system are gas- 
tight. 

b. After the plumbing fixtures have been set and their traps filled with water, their connections shall be 
tested and proved gas and watertight. A final smoke or peppermint test shall be required, except in the case 
of a previous on site-inspected water or air tested system. If a smoke or peppermint test is required, the fol- 
lowing test methods shall be employed: 

1 . A smoke test shall be made by filling all traps with water and then reintroducing into the entire sys- 
tem a pungent, thick smoke produced by one or more smoke machines. When the smoke appears at stack 
openings on the roof, they shall be closed and a pressure equivalent to a one-inch water column shall be 
developed and maintained for the period of the inspection. 

2. Where the Authority Having Jurisdiction, due to practical difficulties or hardships, finds that a smoke 
test cannot be performed, a peppermint test shall be substituted in lieu thereof. Such peppermint test shall 
be conducted by the introduction of two ounces of oil of peppermint into the roof terminal of every line 
or stack to be tested. The oil of peppermint shall be followed at once by ten quarts of hot (140°F) wa- 
ter whereupon all roof vent terminals shall be sealed. A positive test, which reveals leakage, shall be the 
detection of the odor of peppermint at any trap or other point on the system. Oil of peppermint or persons 
whose person or clothes have come in contact with oil of peppermint shall be excluded from the test area. 

15.5 METHOD OF TESTING BUILDING SEWERS 

The building sewer shall be tested by insertion of a test plug at the point of connection with the public sewer, pri- 
vate sewer, individual sewage disposal system, or other point of disposal. It shall then be filled with water under 
a head of not less than 10 feet. The water level at the top of the test head of water shall not drop for at least 15 
minutes. Where the final connection of the building sewer cannot reasonably be subjected to a hydrostatic test, it 
shall be visually inspected. 

15.6 METHODS OF TESTING WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS 

a. Upon completion of a section or the entire water supply system, it shall be tested and proved tight under 
a water pressure not less than the working pressure under which it is to be used or 80 pounds per square inch, 
whichever is greater. 

b. For metallic pipe and where the Authority Having Jurisdiction determines that providing potable water for the 
test represents a hardship or practical difficulty, the system may be tested with air to the pressures noted above, as 
allowed by the pipe manufacturer. 

c. For plastic pipe, testing by compressed gas or air pressure shall be prohibited. 

d. Piping shall be disinfected after testing per Section 10.9. 



1 88 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



15.7 DEFECTIVE PLUMBING 

Where there is reason to believe that the plumbing system of any building has become defective, it shall be sub- 
jected to test or inspection and any defects found shall be corrected. 

15.8 MAINTENANCE 

15.8.1 General 

The plumbing and drainage systems shall be maintained at all times in compliance with the provisions of this 
Code. 

15.8.2 Exception 

Existing plumbing installed under prior regulations or lack thereof, may remain unchanged unless immediate 
hazards to health, life, or property are evident. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 189 



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1 90 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Chapter 16 



Regulations Governing Individual Sewage Disposal 

Systems for Homes and Other Establishments Where 

Public Sewage Systems Are Not Available 



16.1 GENERAL PROVISIONS 

16.1.1 General 

In the absence of State or other local laws governing the installation, use and maintenance of private sewage 
disposal systems, the provisions of this Chapter shall apply. 

16.1.2 Sewage Disposal 

"Sewage disposal" under this section shall mean all private methods of collecting and disposing of domestic 
sewage, including septic tanks. 

16.1.3 Domestic Sewage 

Domestic sewage shall be disposed of by an approved method of collection, treatment and effluent discharge. 
Domestic sewage or sewage effluent shall not be disposed of in any manner that will cause pollution of the 
ground surface, ground water, bathing areas, lakes, ponds, watercourses, tidewater, or create a nuisance. It 
shall not be discharged into any abandoned or unused well, or into any crevice, sink hole, or other opening 
either natural or artificial in a rock formation. 

16.1.4 Non-Water-Carried Sewage 

When water under pressure is not available, all human body wastes shall be disposed of by depositing them 
in approved privies, chemical toilets, or such other installations acceptable to the Authority Having Jurisdic- 
tion. 

16.1.5 Water-Carried Sewage 

Water-carried sewage from bathrooms, kitchens, laundry fixtures and other household plumbing shall pass 
through a septic or other approved sedimentation tank prior to its discharge into the soil or into a sand filter. 
Where underground disposal or sand filtration is not feasible, consideration shall be given to special methods 
of collection and disposal. 

16.1.6 Responsibility 

The installing contractor is responsible for compliance with these regulations. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



191 



16.1.7 Abandoned Disposal Systems 

Abandoned disposal systems shall be disconnected from the buildings, pumped out and rilled with earth. 

16.1.8 Absorption Capacity 

No property shall be improved in excess of its capacity to properly absorb sewage effluent in the quantities 
and by means provided for in this Code. (See Section 2.19.2.) 

16.2 RESERVED 

16.3 DESIGN OF INDIVIDUAL SEWAGE SYSTEM 

16.3.1 Design 

The design of the individual sewage disposal system must take into consideration location with respect to 
wells or other sources of water supply, topography, water table, soil characteristics, area available, and maxi- 
mum occupancy of the building. 

16.3.2 Type of System 

The type of system to be installed shall be determined on the basis of location, soil permeability, and ground- 
water elevation. 

16.3.3 Sanitary Sewage 

The system shall be designed to receive all sanitary sewage, including laundry waste, from the building. 
Drainage from footings or roofs shall not enter the system. 

16.3.4 Discharge 

The system shall consist of a septic tank discharging into either a subsurface disposal field or one or more 
seepage pits or into a combination of both, if found adequate as such and approved by the Authority Having 
Jurisdiction. 

16.3.5 Backflow 

Plumbing fixtures connected to a private sewage disposal system that are subject to backflow, shall be pro- 
tected by a backwater valve or a sewage ejector. 

16.3.6 Reserved 

16.3.7 Design Criteria 

Design criteria for sewage flows shall be selected according to type of establishment. (See Table 16.3.7.) 

16.4 LOCATION OF INDIVIDUAL SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEMS 

16.4.1 Reserved 

16.4.2 Reserved 



1 92 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Table 16.3.7 
SEWAGE FLOWS ACCORDING TO TYPE OF ESTABLISHMENT 


Schools (toilets and lavatories only) 


15 Gal. per day per person 


Schools (with above plus cafeteria) 


25 Gal. per day per person 


Schools (with above plus cafeteria and showers) 


35 Gal. per day per person 


Day workers at schools and offices 


15 Gal. per day per person 


Day camps 


25 Gal. per day per person 


Trailer parks or tourist camps (with built-in bath) 


50 Gal. per day per person 


Trailer parks or tourist camps (with central bathhouse) 


35 Gal. per day per person 


Work or construction camps 


50 Gal. per day per person 


Public picnic parks (toilet wastes only) 


5 Gal. per day per person 


Public picnic parks (bathhouse, showers and flush toilets) 


10 Gal. per day per person 


Swimming pools and beaches 


10 Gal. per day per person 


Country clubs 


25 Gal. per day per person 


Luxury residences and estates 


150 Gal. per day per person 


Rooming houses 


40 Gal. per day per person 


Boarding schools 


50 gal. per day per person 


Hotels (with connecting baths) 


50 Gal. per day per person 


Hotels (with private baths-2 persons per room 


100 Gal. per day per person 


Boarding schools 


100 Gal. per day per person 


Factories (gallons per person per shift-exclusive of industrial waste) 


25 Gal. per day per person 


Nursing homes 


75 Gal. per day per person 


General hospitals 


150 Gal. per day per person 


Public Institutions (other than hospitals) 


100 Gal. per day per person 


Restaurants (toilet and kitchen wastes per unit of serving capacity) 


25 Gal. per day per person 


Kitchen wastes from hotels, camps, boarding houses, etc. serving three meals per day 


10 Gal. per day per person 


Motels 


50 Gal. per day per bed space 


Motels with bath, toilet, and kitchen wastes 


60 Gal. per day per bed space 


Drive-in theatres 


5 Gal. per day per car space 


Stores 


400 Gal. per day per toilet room 


Service stations 


10 Gal. per day per vehicle served 


Airport Terminals 


3-5 Gal. per day per passenger 


Assembly halls 


2 Gal. per day per seat 


Bowling alleys 


75 Gal. per day per lane 


Churches (small) 


3-5 Gal. per day per sanctuary seat 


Churches (large with kitchen) 


5-7 Gal. per day per sanctuary seat 


Dance halls 


2 Gal. per day per person 


Laundries (coin operated) 


400 Gal. per day per machine 


Service stations 


1000 Gal. (First Bay) per day 
500 Gal. (Each add'l Bay) 


Sub-divisions or individual homes 


75 Gal. per day per person 


Marinas-Flush toilets 


36 Gal. per fixture per hr 


Urinals 


10 Gal. per fixture per hr 


Wash basins 


15 Gal. per fixture per hr 


Showers 


150 Gal. per fixture per hr 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



193 



16.4.3 Minimum Distances 

The minimum distances that shall be observed in locating the various components of the disposal system 
shall be as given in Table 16.4.3. 



Table 16.4.3 

MINIMUM DISTANCE BETWEEN COMPONENTS 

OF AN INDIVIDUAL SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM (in feet) 1 




Shallow 
Well 


Deep 
Well 


Single 

Suction 

Line 


Septic Tank 


Distribution 
Box 


Disposal 
Field 


Seepage 
Pit 


Dry well 


Property 
Line 


Building 


Bldg. Sewer 
other than 
cast-iron 


50 


50 


50 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Bldg. Sewer 
cast-iron 


10 


10 


10 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Septic Tank 


100 


50 


50 


- 


5 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


Distribution 
Box 


100 


50 


50 


5 


- 


- 


5 


5 


10 


20 


Disposal 
Field 


100 


50 


50 


10 


5 


- 


- 


- 


10 


20 


Seepage Pit 


100 


50 


50 


10 


5 


- 


- 


- 


10 


20 


Dry well 


100 


50 


50 


10 


5 


- 


- 


- 


10 


20 


Shallow Well 


- 


- 


- 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 


- 


- 


Deep Well 


- 


- 


- 


50 


50 


50 


50 


50 


- 


- 


Suction Line 


- 


- 


- 


50 


50 


50 


50 


50 


- 


- 


' Minimum distances may be reduced if approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. 



16.4.4 General 

All sewage disposal systems shall conform with the following general principles regarding the site: 

16.4.4.1 Location 

Sewage disposal systems shall be located at the lowest point on the premises consistent with the 
general layout topography and surroundings, including abutting lots. Locations at a higher elevation 
through employment of a forced system may be used with the specific approval of the Authority Hav- 
ing Jurisdiction. 

16.4.4.2 Watersheds 

Sewage disposal facilities shall not be located on any watershed for a public water supply system. 

16.4.4.3 Septic Tanks and Underground Disposal 

Septic tanks and underground disposal means shall not be within 200 feet measured horizontally from 
the high water level in a reservoir or the banks of tributary streams when situated less than 3,000 feet 
upstream from an intake structure. 



194 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



16.4.4.4 Beyond 3,000 feet 

Sewage disposal facilities situated beyond 3,000 feet upstream from intake structures shall be located 
no less than 100 feet measured horizontally from the high water level in the reservoir or the banks of 
tributary streams. 

16.4.4.5 Percolation Test 

Prior to approval, the soil must prove satisfactory by the standard percolation test when underground 
disposal is used. 

16.5 PERCOLATION TEST 

Percolation tests to determine the absorption capacity of soil for septic tank effluent shall be conducted in the fol- 
lowing manner: 

16.5.1 Subsurface Irrigation 

When subsurface irrigation is contemplated, a test pit shall be prepared 2 feet square and not less than 1 foot 
deep. At the time of conducting the percolation test, a hole 1 foot square and 1 foot deep shall be prepared in 
the test pit. 

16.5.2 Water Depth 

The hole shall be filled with water to a depth of 7 inches. For pre -wetting purposes, the water level shall be 
allowed to drop 6 inches before time of recording is started. 

16.5.3 Time Expired 

The time required for the water level to drop 1 inch from 6 inches to 5 inches in depth shall be noted and the 
length of tile in the subsurface irrigation system shall be obtained from Section 16.5.4. In no case, however, 
shall less than 100 feet of tile be installed when 1 foot trenches are used. 

16.5.4 Trench Length in Disposal Fields 

The trench length, in feet for each 100 gallons of sewage per day, shall comply with Table 16.5.4, based on 
the time expired during the percolation test in Section 16.5.3 



Table 16.5.4 

REQUIRED LENGTH OF TRENCHS IN SEWAGE DISPOSAL FIELDS 
IN FEET FOR EACH 100 GALLONS OF SEWAGE PER DAY 


Time in Minutes 
for 1-inch Drop 


For 1- foot 
Trench Width 


For 2- foot 
Trench Width 


For 3- foot 
Trench Width 


1 


25 feet/100 gpd 


13 feet/100 gpd 


9 feet/ 100 gpd 


2 


30 feet/100 gpd 


15 feet/100 gpd 


10 feet/100 gpd 


3 


L 35 feet/100 gpd 


18 feet/100 gpd 


12 feet/ 100 gpd 


5 


42 feet/100 gpd 


21 feet/ 100 gpd 


14 feet/100 gpd 


10 


59 feet/100 gpd 


30 feet/100 gpd 


20 feet/100 gpd 


15 


74 feet/ 100 gpd 


37 feet/100 gpd 


25 feet/ 100 gpd 


20 


91 feet/ 100 gpd 


46 feet/100 gpd 


31 feet/100 gpd 


25 


105 feet/100 gpd 


53 feet/100 gpd 


35 feet/100 gpd 


30 


125 feet/100 gpd 


63 feet/100 gpd 


42 feet/ 100 gpd 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



195 



16.5.5 Seepage Pits 

When seepage pits are contemplated, test pits approximately 5 feet in diameter to permit a man entering the 
pit by means of a ladder and to such depth as to reach a porous soil shall be prepared. In the bottom of this 
pit, a 1 foot square by 1 foot deep hole shall be made at the time of testing and the percolation test conducted 
as indicated under Sections 16.5.1, 16.5.2, and 16.5.3. 

16.5.6 Seepage Pit Absorption Area 

The absorption area of a seepage pit required shall be obtained from Table 16.5.6. In no case, however, shall 
the absorption area in the porous soil be less than 125 square feet. The bottom of the pit shall not be consid- 
ered part of the absorption area. 



Table 16.5.6 

REQUIRED ABSORPTION AREA IN SEEPAGE PITS FOR EACH 

100 GALLONS OF SEWAGE PER DAY 


Time in Minutes for 1-inch Drop 


Effective Absorption Area in Square Feet 


1 


32 sq ft/100 gpd 


2 


40sqft/100gpd 


3 


45 sq ft/100 gpd 


5 


56 sq ft/100 gpd 


10 


75 sq ft/100 gpd 


15 


96 sq ft/100 gpd 


20 


108 sq ft/100 gpd 


25 


139 sq ft/100 gpd 


30 


167 sq ft/100 gpd 



16.5.7 Thickness of Porous Soil 

The thickness of the porous soil below the point of percolation test must be determined by means of digging 
a pit or using a soil auger. The effective absorption area shall be calculated only within this porous soil. 

16.6 CAPACITY OF SEPTIC TANKS 

16.6.1 Liquid Capacity 

The liquid capacity of all septic tanks shall conform to Tables 16.3.7 and 16.6.1 as determined by the number 
of bedrooms or apartment units in dwelling occupancies and the occupant load or the number of plumbing 
fixture units as determined from Table 11.4.1, (whichever is greater) in other building occupancies. 



196 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Table 16.6.1 
CAPACITY OF SEPTIC TANKS 


Single family dwelling- 
number of bedrooms 


Multiple dwellings units or 
apartments-one bedroom each 


Other uses, maximum 
fixture units served 


Minimum septic tank 
capacity in gallons 


1-3 




20 


1000 


4 


2 units 


25 


1200 


5 or 6 


3 


33 


1500 


7 or 8 


4 


45 


2000 




5 


55 


2250 




6 


60 


2500 




7 


70 


2750 




8 


80 


3000 




9 


90 


3250 




10 


100 


3500 


Extra bedroom: 150 gallons each. 

Extra dwelling units over 10: 250 gallons each. 

Extra fixture units over 100: 25 gallons per fixture unit. 



16.6.2 Reserved 

16.6.3 Multiple Compartment 

In a tank of more than one compartment, the inlet compartment shall have a capacity of not less than two- 
thirds of the total tank capacity. 

16.6.4 Septic Tank Materials 

See Sections 3.3.11, 16.6.5 and 16.6.6. 

16.6.5 Steel Tanks 

16.6.5.1 Welding 

All steel tanks shall be continuous welded. (No spot welding is permitted.) 

16.6.5.2 Wall Thickness 

The minimum wall thickness of any steel septic tank shall be No. 12 U.S. gauge (0.109"). 

16.6.5.3 Coatings 

Metal tanks shall be coated inside and out with an approved coating. 

16.6.5.4 Baffles 

The inlet and outlet baffles shall be at least 12 inches in diameter at the point opposite the opening in 
the tank. 

16.6.5.5 Pumpout Opening 

The pumpout opening in the top shall be large enough to permit a 6-inch cast-iron pumpout pipe to be 
inserted with a shoulder to support this pipe. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



197 



16.6.5.6 Tank Opening 

The tank opening shall not be smaller than 6 inches with a 3 -inch collar. 

16.6.5.7 Outside Diameter of Collar 

The outside diameter of this collar shall be 8 inches. 

16.6.5.8 Pumpout Pipe 

The pumpout pipe shall terminate at the surface and a 6-inch iron body brass cleanout shall be caulked 
into the hub of this pipe with oakum and molten lead; the cleanout nut shall be solid brass no smaller 
than one inch. 

16.6.5.9 Manhole 

There shall be a 24 x 24-inch manhole held in position by four 3/8" bolts securely welded in place. 

16.6.5.10 Partition 

There shall be a supporting partition welded in the center of these tanks as per drawings. 

16.6.5.11 Partition Openings 

This partition shall have 2-inch openings at intervals at the top for air circulation. 

16.6.5.12 Capacity, Gauge Metal and Weight 

The capacity, gauge metal, and weight must be stamped on a brass plate and welded to the top of metal 
septic tanks. 

16.6.6 Concrete Tanks 

16.6.6.1 Baffles 

Concrete tanks shall have the same size baffles and pumpout openings as for steel tanks. 

16.6.6.2 Tops 

The tops shall have a 24-inch manhole with handle to remove same, or be cast in three or four sections 
cemented in place. 

16.6.6.3 Wall Thickness 

The minimum thickness of the walls shall be 2-3/4 inches. 

16.6.6.4 Tops and Bottoms 

The tops and bottoms shall be 4 inches thick unless placed under a driveway, then they shall be a mini- 
mum of 6 inches. 

16.6.6.5 Walls and Bottoms 

All tank walls and bottoms shall be reinforced with approved reinforcing. 

16.6.6.6 Top Reinforcing 

The tops shall have 3/8 inch steel reinforcing on 6-inch centers. 

16.6.6.7 Watertight 

The tank shall be watertight. 

1 98 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



16.6.7 Depth of Septic Tank 

The top of the septic tank shall be brought to within 36 inches of the finished grade. Where a greater depth is 
permitted by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, the access manhole must be extended to the finished grade 
and the manhole shall have a concrete marker at grade. 

16.6.8 Limitation 

No septic tank shall serve more than one property unless authorized by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. 

16.6.9 Effluent 

The effluent from all septic tanks shall be disposed of underground by subsurface irrigation or seepage pits or 
both. 

16.7 DISTRIBUTION BOX 

16.7.1 When Required 

A distribution box shall be required when more than one line of subsurface irrigation or more than one seep- 
age pit is used. 

16.7.2 Connection 

Each lateral line shall be connected separately to the distribution box and shall not be subdivided. 

16.7.3 Invert Level 

The invert of all distribution box outlets shall be at the same level and approximately 2 inches above the bot- 
tom of the box. The inlet invert shall be at least 1 inch above the invert of the outlets. The size of the distribu- 
tion box shall be sufficient to accommodate the number of lateral lines. 

16.7.4 Watertight 

The distribution box shall be of watertight construction arranged to receive the septic tank effluent and have 
an outlet or connecting line serving each trench or seepage pit. 

16.7.5 Baffle 

A baffle at least 6 inches high and 12 inches long shall rest on the bottom of the box and be placed at right 
angles to the direction of the incoming tank effluent and 12 inches in front of it. 

16.7.6 Reserved 

16.7.7 Inspection 

The sides of the box shall extend to within a short distance of the ground surface to permit inspection, and 
shall have a concrete marker at grade. 

16.8 SEEPAGE PITS 

16.8.1 Use 

Seepage pits may be used either to supplement the subsurface disposal field or in lieu of such field where 
conditions favor the operation of seepage pits, as may be found necessary and approved by the Authority 
Having Jurisdiction. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 199 



16.8.2 Water Table 

Seepage pits shall not penetrate the water table. 

16.8.3 Septic Tank Effluent Disposal 

Where seepage pits are used for septic tank effluent disposal, the number, diameter and depth of the pits shall 
be determined after percolation tests have been made to ascertain the porosity of the soil. 

16.8.4 Excavation 

The excavation for a seepage pit shall be greater in diameter than the outside diameter of the vertical side- 
walls to allow for the footing. 

16.8.5 Annular Space 

The annular space between the outside of the vertical walls and the excavation shall be backfilled with bro- 
ken stone, coarse gravel, or other suitable material. 

16.8.6 Construction 

Seepage pits shall be constructed with the bottom being open with an outer ring, or footing, to support the 
sidewalls. 

16.8.7 Sidewalls 

The sidewalls shall be made of pre-cast concrete, stone, concrete or cinder blocks, or brick laid in cement 
mortar for strength, with openings at sufficient intervals to permit the septic tank effluent to pass out through 
the wall to the surrounding porous soil. 

16.8.8 Cover Strength 

All septic tank tops and seepage pit covers shall be of sufficient strength to carry the load imposed. Seepage 
pit covers shall be at least as required in Sections 16.8.9, 16.8.10, and 16.8.11. 

16.8.9 Pre-CastTop 

Seepage pit tops shall be pre-cast, reinforced concrete (2,500 pounds per square inch minimum compres- 
sive strength) not less than 5 inches thick and designed to support an earth load of not less than 400 pounds 
per square foot. Each such cover shall extend not less than 3 inches beyond the sidewalls of the pit, shall be 
provided with a 6-inch minimum inspection hole with pipe extended to the surface, and a 6-inch cast-iron 
standpipe with cleanout at grade. 

16.8.10 Depth Below Grade 

The top shall be at least 36 inches below finished grade, except where less is permitted by the Authority Hav- 
ing Jurisdiction. 

16.8.11 Field Fabricated Slabs 

Where field fabricated slabs are used, Table 16.8.11 indicates the requirements. 



200 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Table 16.8.11 
DESIGN OF SEEPAGE PIT COVERS 


Pit Diameter 


Pit Wall Thickness 


Cover Thickness 


Cover Weight 


Reinforcing Steel Required in 
Two Perpendicular Directions 


5ft. 


4" 


5" 


12301b 


#5@ 10-1/2" c/c 


6ft. 


8" 


5" 


1770 lb 


#5 @ 9" c/c 


8ft. 


8" 


6" 


3780 lb 


#5 @ 7-1/2" c/c 


10ft. 


8" 


8" 


7850 lb 


#5 @ 6-1/2" c/c 



6.9 ABSORPTION TRENCHES 

16.9.1 General 

Absorption trenches shall be designed and constructed on the basis of the required effective percolation area. 

16.9.2 Filter Material 

The filter material shall cover the tile and extend the full width of the trench and shall be not less than 6 
inches deep beneath the bottom of the drain tile, and 2 inches above the top of the tile. The filter material 
may be washed gravel, crushed stone, slag, or clean bank-run gravel ranging in size from 1/2 to 2-1/2 inches. 
The filter material shall be covered with burlap, filter cloth, 2 inches of straw, or equivalent permeable mate- 
rial prior to backfilling the excavation. 

16.9.3 Absorption Field 

The size and minimum spacing requirements for absorption fields shall conform to those given in Table 
16.9.3. 



Table 16.9.3 
SIZE AND SPACING FOR DISPOSAL FIELDS 


Width of trench at bottm 
(in.) 


Recommended depth of trench 
(in.) 


Spacing of trenches 1 

(feet) 


Effective absorption area 
per lineal ft. of trench (sq. ft.) 


18 


18 to 30 


6.0 


1.5 


24 


18 to 30 


6.0 


2.0 


30 


18 to 36 


7.5 


2.5 


36 • 


24 to 36 


9.0 


3.0 


1 . A greater spacing is desirable where available area permits. 



16.9.4 Lateral Length 

Length of laterals shall not exceed 100 feet. 

16.9.5 Absorption Lines 

Absorption lines shall be constructed of 4" pipe of open jointed or perforated vitrified clay pipe, open jointed 
or horizontally split or perforated clay tile, perforated plastic pipe or open jointed cast iron soil pipe, all 
conforming to approved standards. In the case of clay tile, open jointed clay pipe, or open jointed cast-iron 
soil pipe, the sections shall be spaced not more than 1/2 inch apart, and the upper half of the joint shall be 
protected by asphalt-treated paper while the piping is being covered. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



201 



16.9.6 Grade 

The trench bottom shall be uniformly graded to slope from a minimum of 2 inches to a maximum of 4 inches 
per 100 feet. 

16.10 RESERVED 

16.11 PIPING MATERIAL 

See Chapter 3. 

16.12 SAND FILTERS 

16.12.1 General Specifications for Design and Construction of a Sand Filter with Chlorination 

16.12.1.1 General 

A sand filter shall consist of a bed of clean, graded sand on which septic tank effluent is distributed by 
means of a siphon and pipe, with the effluent percolating through the bed to a series of underdrains 
through which it passes to the point of disposal. 

16.12.1.2 Filter Size 

The filter size shall be determined on the basis of 1.15 gallons per square foot per day if covered, and 
2.3 gallons per square foot per day if an open filter is to be used. 

16.12.1.3 Dosing Tank Size 

The septic tank effluent shall enter a dosing siphon tank of a size to provide a 2-inch coverage of the 
sand filter. 

16.12.1.4 Siphon 

The siphon shall be of a commercial type and shall discharge the effluent to the sand filter intermit- 
tently. The siphon shall be omitted if a pump is used to lift the septic tank effluent to the sand filter. 

16.12.1.5 Surge Tank 

A surge tank shall be used to receive the pump discharge prior to dosing on the sand filter. 

16.12.1.6 Underdrains 

Four-inch diameter vitrified clay pipe in 2-foot lengths laid with 1/2 inch open joints or unglazed farm 
tile in 1-foot lengths laid with open joints, with the top half of each joint covered with 4-inch wide 
strips of tar paper, burlap, or copper screen, or perforated bituminized-fiber pipe or other approved 
material shall be used for the underdrains. 

16.12.1.7 Underdrain Bed 

The underdrains shall be laid at the bottom of the sand filter, surrounded by washed gravel, crushed 
stone, slag, or clean bank-run gravel ranging in size from 1/2 inch to 2-1/2 inches and free of fines, 
dust, ashes or clay. The gravel shall extend from at least 2 inches below the bottom of the tile to a 
minimum of 2 inches above the top of the tile. 

16.12.1.8 Underdrain Slope and Spacing 

The underdrains shall have a slope from 2 inches to 4 inches per 100 feet and shall be placed at 6-foot 
to 8-foot intervals. 

202 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



16.12.1.9 Underdrain Fill 

Above the gravel or other material surrounding the underdrain shall be placed 2 feet of washed and 
graded sand having an effective size of from 0.35-0.5 mm and a uniformity coefficient of not over 3.5. 
(The effective size of a sand filter is that size of which 10% by weight is smaller and the uniformity 
coefficient is the ratio of that size of which 60% by weight is smaller to the effective size.) 

16.12.1.10 Distribution Pipes 

The distribution pipes shall be laid at the surface of the sand filter, surrounded by gravel as specified 
for the underdrains. 

16.12.1.11 Gravel Cover 

The gravel should be covered with untreated building paper and the entire area covered with a mini- 
mum of 12 inches of earth if the filter is to be covered. 

16.12.1.12 Open Filter 

If the filter is an open one, the four sides shall be constructed of wood or concrete to prevent earth ero- 
sion from entering the sand filter bed. 

16.12.1.13 Chlorine Contact Tank 

The chlorine contact tank for disinfection of sand filter effluent shall provide 20 minutes detention at 
average flow, but in no case shall it be smaller than 50 gallons capacity. Chlorine control should be 
provided by the use of hypochlorite or chlorine machines commercially available. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 203 



Blank Page 



204 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Chapter 17 



Potable Water Supply Systems 

17.1 GENERAL REGULATION 

17.1.1 Jurisdiction 

The regulations in this chapter apply to any potable water supply system where plumbing fixtures are in- 
stalled for human occupancy. 

17.1.2 Pumps 

Pumps shall be installed only in wells, springs and cisterns that comply with the rules and regulations as 
determined by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. 

17.2 QUANTITY OF WATER REQUIRED 

17.2.1 Single Dwelling Units 

The minimum capacity of the system in gallons per minute shall equal the number of fixtures installed. 

17.2.2 Other Than a Single Dwelling Unit 

In other than a single dwelling unit, the water system shall be designed in accordance with Tables 10.14.2A, 
and 10.14.2B and shall be capable of supplying the maximum demand to the system according to usage, but, 
in no case, less than for a minimum period of 30 minutes. 

17.2.3 Available Water 

Total water available during any 24-hour period shall not be less than the requirements of Table 16.3.7. 

17.2.4 Secondary Sources of Water 

a. When the available primary source of water does not meet the minimum requirement of Sections 17.2.1, 
17.2.2, and 17.2.3, one of the following methods shall be used: 

1. Pressure tank of sufficient size. 

2. Gravity tank, see Section 10.8. 

3. Two pump system. 

(a) The capacity of the first pump shall not exceed the flow capacity of the well. It shall supply water 
to a tank that stores the water at atmospheric pressure and has a level control to start and stop the pump. 

(b) The second pump shall supply a hydro-pneumatic tank at the required pressure and volume to sup- 
ply the water distribution system. 

17.3 PRESSURE 

Pressure shall be as required in Section 10.14.3.b. 



155 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



17.4 PIPING MATERIALS 

Piping from a well or other water source to a building water distribution system shall be in accordance with Sec- 
tion 3.4.2. 

17.5 STORAGE TANKS 

Storage equipment shall be as follows: 

17.5.1 Certified Tanks 

All tanks shall be certified under Water Systems Council Standards for size and pressure. 

17.5.2 Tank Material 

All tanks shall be coated or made of material to resist corrosion. 

17.5.3 Pressure Rating 

Hydropneumatic tanks shall have a working pressure rating in excess of the maximum required system pres- 
sure. 

17.5.4 Non-Toxic Materials 

All tanks shall be constructed of materials and/or coatings that are non-toxic. 

17.5.5 Drain Required 

All tanks shall be provided with a means for draining. 

17.5.6 Covers 

Atmospheric storage tanks shall be provided with a cover as required in Section 10.8.4. 

17.6 PUMPS 

17.6.1 Certified Pumps 

Pumps shall be certified under Water Systems Council Rating and Rating Standards. 

17.6.2 Installation 

Pumps shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. 

17.6.3 Equipment Installation 

Pumping equipment shall be installed to prevent the entrance of contamination or objectionable material 
either into the well or into the water that is being pumped. 

17.6.4 Pump Location 

Pumps shall be located to facilitate necessary maintenance and repair. Vertical well pumps shall include over- 
head clearance for removal of drop pipes. 

17.6.5 Pump Mounting 

Pumps shall be suitably mounted to avoid objectionable vibration and noise, and to prevent damage to pump- 
ing equipment. 



206 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



17.6.6 Pump Accessories 

Pump controls and/or accessories shall be protected from weather. 

17.7 PUMP DOWN CONTROL 

17.7.1 Tailpipe 

Thirty (30) feet of tailpipe shall be installed below the jet on deep well installation. 

17.7.2 Switches 

A low pressure cut-off switch and/or water level cut-off switch shall be installed. 

17.7.3 Suction Pipe 

Provide a vertical suction pipe of 30-foot length on shallow well jet installation. 

17.8 CONTROLS 

a. The following controls are required on all pump installations: 

1 . Pressure switch 

2. Thermal overload switch 

3. Pressure relief valve on positive displacement pumps 

4. Low water cut-off switch where the pump capacity exceeds the source of water. 

17.9 WELL TERMINAL 

17.9.1 Upper Well Terminal 

Well casing, curbs and pitless adapters shall terminate not less than eight inches above the finished ground 
surface or pump house floor and at least 24 inches above the maximum high water level where flooding oc- 
curs. No casing shall be cut off or cut in below ground level except to install a pitless adapter. 

17.9.2 Pitless Adapter 

17.9.2.1 Design 

Pitless adapters designed to replace a section of well casing or for attachment to the exterior of a well 
casing shall be constructed of materials that provide strength and durability equal to the well casing. 

17.9.2.2 Installation 

Installation shall be by threaded, welded or compression-gasketed connection to cutoff casing or at- 
tachment to the exterior wall of the casing and shall be watertight. 

17.9.2.3 Adapter Units 

Adapter units designed to replace a section of the well casing shall extend above the finished ground 
surface as provided in Section 17.9.1 . The top of the adapter unit shall be capped with a cover having 
a downward flange that will overlap the edge of the unit. The cover shall be securely fastened to the 
unit and shall fit sufficiently snug to the unit to be vermin proof. The cover shall provide for watertight 
entrance of electrical cables and vent piping or air line if installed. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 207 



17.9.3 Hand Pumps 

17.9.3.1 General 

Hand pumps shall be of the force type equipped with a packing gland around the pump rod, a delivery 
spout that is closed and downward directed, and a one-piece bell type base that is part of the pump 
stand or is attached to the pump column in a watertight manner. 

17.9.3.2 Installation 

The bell base of the pump shall be bolted with a gasket to a flange that is securely attached to the cas- 
ing or pipe sleeve. 

17.9.4 Power Driven Pumps 

17.9.4.1 General 

The design and operating principles of each type of power driven pump determines where each may 
be located with respect to a well. The location selected for the pump determines what factors must be 
considered to make an acceptable installation. 

17.9.4.2 Location Above Well 

Any power driven pump located over a well shall be mounted on the well casing, pipe sleeve, pump 
foundation or pump stand such that a watertight closure is or can be made for the open end of the cas- 
ing or sleeve. 

17.9.4.3 Pump Base 

The pump base bolted with a neoprene or rubber gasket or equivalent watertight seal to a foundation or 
plate provides an acceptable seal. 

17.9.4.4 Large Pump Installation 

On large pump installations, the bolting may be omitted when the weight of the pump and column is 
sufficient to make a watertight contact with the gasket. 

17.9.4.5 Pump Location Other Than Over Casing 

If the pump unit is not located over the casing or pipe sleeve, and the pump delivery or suction pipes 
emerge from the top of the well, a watertight expanding rubber seal or equivalent shall be installed 
between the well casing and piping to provide a watertight closure. 

17.9.4.6 Seal Top 

The top of the seal shall not extend below the uppermost edge of the casing or pipe sleeve. 

17.9.5 Location in Well For Submersible Pumps 

17.9.5.1 General 

This type of location is permissible for submersible pumps only. 

17.9.5.2 Top Discharge Line 

When the discharge line leaves the well at the top of the casing, the opening between the discharge 
line and casing or pipe sleeve shall be sealed watertight with an expanding rubber seal or equivalent 
device. 



208 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



17.9.5.3 Underground Discharge 

When an underground discharge is desired, a properly installed pitless adapter shall be used. A check- 
valve shall be installed in the discharge line above the pump in the well. 

17.9.5.4 Top Discharge Line Sloped to Drain to Well 

When the discharge pipe leaves the well at the top, remains above ground, and slopes to drain back to 
the well, the check valve can be located beyond the well. 

17.9.6 Offset from Well 

17.9.6.1 Location 

Pumps offset from the well, if not located in an above-ground pump house or other building, may 
be located in an approved basement provided the pump and all suction pipes are elevated at least 12 
inches above the floor. 

17.9.6.2 Buried Lines 

All portions of suction lines buried below the ground surface between the well and the pump and that 
are not enclosed in a protective pipe shall be located the same minimum distance from sources of con- 
tamination as are prescribed for the well in Section 16.4.3. 

17.9.6.3 Protective Pipe 

When these minimum distances cannot be obtained, the suction line shall be enclosed in a protective 
pipe of standard thickness from the well to the pump. The protective pipe shall be sealed watertight 
at both ends. This requirement shall be considered satisfied if the suction line lies within a pressure 
discharge line. 

17.10 VENTS 

17.10.1 Size 

All vent piping shall be of adequate size to allow equalization of air pressure in the well and shall not be less 
than one-half inch in diameter. 

17.10.2 Toxic or Flammable Gases 

Particular attention shall be given to proper venting of wells and pressure tanks in areas where toxic or flam- 
mable gases are known to be a characteristic of the water. If determined that either of these types of gases are 
present, all vents when located in buildings shall be extended to discharge outside of the building at a height 
where they will not be a hazard. 

17.10.3 Vent Extension 

The vent shall extend above the upper terminal of the well with the end downturned and covered with not 
less than 16 mesh screen wire. The point of entry into the well shall be sealed watertight. 

17.11 PUMP BEARING LUBRICATION 

17.11.1 General 

Lubrication of bearings of power driven pumps shall be with water or oil that will not adversely affect the 
quality of the water to be pumped. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 209 



17.11.2 Water Lubrication 

If a storage tank is required for the lubrication water, it shall be designed to protect the water from contami- 
nation. 

17.11.3 Oil Lubrication 

The reservoir shall be designed to protect the oil from contamination. The oil shall not contain substances 
that will cause odor or taste to the water pumped. 

17.12 WATER LEVEL MEASUREMENT 

On wells of large capacity where access for measuring the water level in the well is provided, piping for this 
purpose shall terminate above the upper well terminal, be capped or otherwise closed, and all openings around the 
piping at the point of entry into the well sealed watertight. 

17.13 PROHIBITED PUMPS 

No pitcher or chain-bucket pump shall be installed on any water supply. 

17.14 PUMP HOUSING 

17.14.1 Watertight 

A separate structure housing the water supply and pumping equipment shall have an impervious floor and 
rain-tight walls and roof. 

17.14.2 Pump Pit 

A pump pit shall be of watertight construction and provided with a positive drain or sump pump to keep the 
pit dry. 

17.15 CROSS CONNECTION 

17.15.1 Restriction 

There shall be no cross-connection between an individual water supply system and other individual or public 
water supply system. 

17.15.2 Limitations 

No water supply shall serve more than one property unless authorized by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. 



2 1 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Chapter 18 



Mobile Home & Travel Trailer Park 
Plumbing Requirements 

The primary objective of this Chapter is to assure sanitary plumbing installations in trailer parks. Reference 
should be made to the Authority Having Jurisdiction and the regulations promulgated by the Authority Having 
Jurisdiction governing the establishment and operation of trailer parks. 

18.1 DEFINITIONS 

Service Buildings 

A building housing toilet, laundry and any other such facilities as may be required. 

Sewer Connection 

Sewer connection is that portion of the drainage piping that extends as a single terminal under the trailer 
coach for connection with the trailer park drainage system. 

Trailer Coach 

Any camp-car, trailer, or other vehicle with or without motive power, designed and constructed to travel on 
the public thoroughfares in accordance with provisions of the Vehicle Code and designed or used for human 
habitation. 

Trailer Coach, Dependent 

One which is not equipped with a water closet for sewage disposal. 

Trailer Coach, Independent 

One which is equipped with a water closet for sewage disposal. 

Trailer Coach Drain Connection 

The removable extension connecting the trailer coach drainage system to the trailer connection fixture. 

Trailer Coach, Left Side 

The side farthest from the curb when the trailer home is being towed or in transit. 

Trailer Connection Fixture 

A connection to a trap that is connected to the park drainage system, and receives the water, liquid or other 
waste discharge from a trailer coach. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



211 



Trailer Park Drainage System 

The entire system of drainage piping used to convey sewage or other waste from a trailer connection fixture 
to the sewer. 

Trailer Park Branch Line 

That portion of drainage piping that receives the discharge from not more than two trailer connection fixtures. 

Trailer Park 

Any area or tract of land where space is rented or held-out for rent, or occupied by two or more trailer 
coaches. 

Trailer Park Sewer System 

That piping that extends from the public or private sewage disposal system to a point where the first trailer 
park drainage system branch fitting is installed. 

Trailer Park Water Service Main 

That portion of the water distribution system that extends from the street main, water meter, or other source 
of supply to the trailer site water service branch. 

Trailer Site 

That area set out by boundaries on which one trailer can be located. 

Trailer Site Water Service Branch 

That portion of the water distributing system extended from the park service main to a trailer site, and in- 
cludes connections, devices, and appurtenances thereto. 

Water Service Connection 

That portion of the water supply piping that extends as a single terminal under the trailer coach for connec- 
tion with the trailer coach park water supply system. 

18.2 STANDARDS 

18.2.1 General 

Plumbing systems hereafter installed in trailer home parks shall conform to the provisions set forth in the 
preceding chapters of this Code, where applicable, and also to the provisions set forth in this Chapter. Trailer 
home park plumbing and drainage systems shall, in addition, conform to all other applicable Authority Hav- 
ing Jurisdiction regulations. 

18.2.2 Plans and Specifications 

Before any plumbing or sewage disposal facilities are installed or altered in any trailer park, plans and speci- 
fications shall be filed, and required permits obtained from the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Plans shall 
show the following in detail: 

18.2.2.1 Plot Plan 

Plot plan of the park, drawn to scale, indicating elevations, property lines, driveways, existing or pro- 
posed buildings, and sizes of trailer sites. 



212 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



18.2.2.2 Plumbing Layout 

Complete specifications and piping layout of proposed plumbing system or alteration. 

18.2.2.3 Sewage Disposal Layout 

Complete specifications and piping layout of proposed sewer system or alteration. See Sections 3.4, 
3.5, 3.6, and 3.7. 

18.2.2.4 Conformance 

Trailer park plumbing systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with the requirements of 
this Code and shall, in addition, conform to all other pertinent local ordinances and State regulations. 

18.2.3 Materials 

Materials shall conform to the approved standards set forth in other sections of this Code. 

18.3 DRAINAGE SYSTEM 

18.3.1 Design and Installation 

The trailer park drainage system shall be designed and installed in accordance with the requirements of this 
Code. 

18.3.2 Alternate 

The trailer park drainage system may be installed by the use of a combination waste and vent drainage system 
(see Section 12.17), which shall consist of an installation of waste piping, as hereinafter provided in this Sec- 
tion, in which the traps for one or more trailer connection fixtures are not separately or independently vented, 
but which is vented through the waste piping of such size to provide free circulation of air therein. 

18.3.3 Each Independent Trailer Site 

Each independent trailer site shall be provided with a trapped trailer connection that shall consist of a three- 
inch horizontal iron pipe-size threaded connection, installed a minimum of three inches and a maximum of 
six inches (from the bottom of the connection), above the finished grade. The vertical connection to the trailer 
connection fixture shall be anchored in a concrete slab four inches thick, and 18" x 18" square. 

18.3.4 Above Ground 

Any part of the plumbing system extending above the ground shall be protected from damage when deemed 
necessary by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. 

18.3.5 Trap Connections 

Each trailer site shall be provided with a three-inch I.P.S. male or female threaded connection, extended 
above the surrounding grade, from a three- inch minimum size vented p-trap. 

18.3.5.1 Location 

Traps shall be located with reference to the immediate boundary lines of the designated space or area 
within each trailer site that will actually be occupied by the trailer. Each such trap shall be located in 
the rear third-quarter section along the left boundary line of the trailer parking area not less than one 
foot or more than three feet from the road side of the trailer and shall be a minimum of five feet from 
the rear boundary of the trailer site. This location may be varied by permission of the Authority Having 
Jurisdiction when unusual conditions are encountered. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 213 



18.3.5.2 Material 

All traps, tail pipes, vertical vents, the upper five feet of any horizontal vent, and the first five feet of 
any trap branch shall be fabricated from materials approved for use within a building. 

18.3.6 Restriction 

No vertical pipe shall be used in a special waste and vent system, except the vent pipe, and the connection to 
the trailer connection fixture. 

18.3.7 Drain Connections 

Mobile home and travel trailer drain connections shall be of approved semi-rigid or flexible reinforced hose 
having smooth interior surfaces and not be less than a 3-inch inside diameter. Main connections shall be 
equipped with a standard quick-disconnect screw or clamp type fitting, not smaller than the outlet. Main 
connections shall be gas-tight and no longer than necessary to make the connection between the trailer coach 
drain connection and the trailer connector fixture on the site. 

18.3.8 Cleanouts 

Cleanouts shall be provided as required by Chapter 5 of this Code, except cleanouts shall be provided in the 
vent stacks one foot above grade. 

18.3.9 Fixture Unit Loading 

For the purpose of determining pipe sizes, each trailer site connection shall be assigned a waste loading 
value of six fixture units and each trailer park drainage system shall be sized as provided in Table 18.3.12. 
Private sewage disposal shall conform to the requirements of Chapter 16 of this Code. 

18.3.10 Slope 

The grade on sewers shall provide a minimum velocity of two feet per second when the pipe is flowing half 
full. 

18.3.11 Discharge 

The discharge of the park drainage system shall be connected to a public sewer. Where a public sewer is not 
available within 300 feet for use, an individual sewage disposal system of a type that is acceptable and ap- 
proved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction shall be installed. 

18.3.12 Minimum Pipe Size 

Minimum pipe sizes in the drainage system shall be as set forth in Table 18.3.12. 



Table 18.3.12 
DRAIN PIPE SIZING 


Maximum Number of Trailers, 
Individually Vented Systems 


Maximum Number of Trailers, 
Wet- Vented Systems 


Size of Drain 


2 


1 


3" 


30 


10 


4" 


100 


50 


6" 


400 


- 


8" 


1000 


- 


10" 



214 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



18.3.13 Trailer Connections 

Each trailer connection fixture outlet shall be provided with a screw-type plug or cap, and be effectively 
capped when not in use. 

18.4 VENTING 

18.4.1 Location 

Each wet- vented drainage system shall be provided with a vent not more than 15 feet downstream from its 
upper trap, and long mains shall be provided with additional relief vents at intervals of not more than 100 
feet thereafter. The minimum size of each vent serving a wet- vented system shall be as set forth in Table 
18.4.1. 



Table 18.4.1 
VENT SIZING 



Size ofWet- Vented Drain 



3" 



4" 



Minimum Size of Vent 



4" 



18.4.2 Reserved 

18.4.3 Reserved 

18.4.4 Reserved 

18.4.5 Vent Connections 

All vent intersections shall be taken off above the center line of the horizontal pipe. All vent stacks shall be 
supported by a four-inch by four-inch redwood post, set in at least two feet of concrete extending at least 
four inches above the ground, or supported by another approved method. 

18.4.6 Galvanized Steel Vent Pipe 

Galvanized steel vent pipe may extend below the ground vertically, and may directly intersect a drainage 
line with an approved fitting, if the entire section around both the drain and the galvanized pipe is encased 
in concrete to prevent any movement. Galvanized steel pipe encased in concrete shall be first coated with 
bituminous paint, or equivalent protective material. 

18.4.7 Location of Vent Pipes 

Vent pipes shall terminate at least 10 feet above grade and be at least 10 feet from any property line. No 
vent shall terminate directly beneath any door, window, or ventilation opening of any building, nor shall any 
vent terminal be within 10 feet horizontally from such openings unless it is at least 2 feet above the top of 
such opening. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 215 



18.4.8 Reserved 

18.4.9 Wet Vented Branch Drain Lines 

No three-inch branch drain shall exceed six feet in length, and no four-inch branch drain shall exceed 15 feet 
in length, unless they are properly vented. 

18.5 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM 

18.5.1 Conformance 

Each trailer park water distribution system shall conform to the requirements of Chapter 10 of this Code and 
shall be so designed and maintained as to provide a residual pressure of not less than 20 psi at each trailer site 
under normal operating conditions. (See Section 10.14.3.) 

18.5.2 Individual Water Service Branch 

Every trailer site shall be provided with an individual water service branch line that shall not be less than 3/4" 
size, delivering safe, potable water. 

18.5.3 Connection Components 

A control valve shall be installed on the water service branch, followed by an approved backflow preventer 
in accordance with ASSE 1024 or CSA B64.6 on the discharge side of the control valve, with a pressure 
relief valve located on the discharge side of the backflow preventer; with a hose connection or other approved 
attachment on the trailer side of the relief valve. Each such pressure relief valve shall be equipped with a 
full-size drain with the end of the pipe not more than two feet or less than six inches above the ground and 
pointing downward. Such drain may terminate at other approved locations. No part of such drain pipe shall be 
trapped. No shut-off valve shall be installed between any such pressure relief valve and the trailer it serves. 
The backflow device and relief valve shall be located not less than 12 inches above the grade. 

18.5.4 Connection Details 

The service connection shall not be rigid. Flexible metal tubing is permitted. Fittings at either end shall be of 
a quick disconnect type not requiring any special tools or knowledge to install or remove. 

18.5.5 Water Fixture Units 

Each trailer outlet on the water distribution system shall be rated as six water supply fixture units (WSFU). 

18.5.6 Location of Water Connection 

The trailer park water outlet for each trailer coach space shall be located near the center of the left side of 
each trailer coach. 

18.5.7 Fire Protection 

In the design of the water distribution system in a trailer park, consideration for fire outlet stations throughout 
the park should be made relative to the location and quantity of water necessary during an emergency period. 

18.5.8 Backflow Protection 

All requirements as described in Chapter 10 of this Code shall be considered a part of this Section. 



2 1 6 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



18.6 RESERVED 

18.7 TESTING 

Installations shall be tested and inspected as required by this Code. 

18.8 SANITARY FACILITIES 

18.8.1 Public Water Closets, Showers, and Lavatories 

Separate public water closets, showers, and lavatories shall be installed and maintained for each sex in ac- 
cordance with the following ratio of trailer sites: 

18.8.1.1 Dependent Trailer 

Trailer parks constructed and operated exclusively for dependent trailers shall have one water closet, 
one shower, and one lavatory for each 10 sites or fractional part thereof. 

18.8.1.2 Independent Trailer 

Trailer parks constructed and operated exclusively for independent trailers shall have one water 
closet, one shower, and one lavatory for each 100 sites or fractional part thereof. 

18.8.1.3 Combined Trailer Use 

Trailer parks constructed and operated for the combined use of dependent and independent trailers 
shall have facilities as shown in Table 18.8.1.3. 



Table 18.8.1.3 
FACILITIES REQUIRED FOR COMBINED TRAILER USE 


Sites 


Water Closets 


Showers 


Lavatories 


2-25 


1 


1 


I 


26-70 


2 


2 


2 



18.8.1.4 Additional Water Closets 

For combined trailer use, one additional water closet shall be provided for each 1 00 sites or fractional 
part thereof in excess of 70 sites. 

18.8.2 Exclusivity 

Each toilet facility shall be for the exclusive use of the occupants of the trailer sites in the trailer park. 

18.8.3 Showers 

In every trailer park, shower bathing facilities with hot and cold running water shall be installed in separate 
compartments. Every compartment shall be provided with a self-closing door or otherwise equipped with a 
waterproof draw curtain. 

18.8.4 Laundry Facilities 

Every trailer park shall be provided with an accessory utility building containing at least one clothes washer 
or laundry tray equipped with hot and cold running water for every 20 trailer sites or fractional part thereof, 
but in no case shall there be less than two laundry trays in any trailer park. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 21 7 



18.8.5 Shower Compartments 

The inner face of walls of all shower compartments shall be finished with concrete, metal, tile or other ap- 
proved waterproof materials extending to a height of not less than six feet above the floor. Floors or shower 
compartments shall be made of concrete or other similar impervious material. Floors shall be waterproof and 
slope 1/4 inch per foot to the drains. 

18.9 MAINTENANCE 

All required devices or safeguards shall be maintained in good working order. The owner, operator, or lessee of 
the trailer park, or his designated agent shall be responsible for the maintenance. 

18.10 OPERATOR'S RESPONSIBILITY - VIOLATIONS 

When it is evident that there exists, or may exist, a violation of any pertinent regulation, the owner, operator, les- 
see, person in charge of the park, or any other person causing a violation shall immediately disconnect the trailer 
water supply and sewer connections from the park systems and shall employ such other corrective measures as 
may be ordered by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. 



218 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Appendix A 



Sizing Storm 
Drainage Systems 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



219 



A.l Rainfall Rates for Cities 

The rainfall rates in Table A.l, RAINFALL RATES FOR CITIES, are based on U.S. Weather Bureau Technical 
Paper No. 40, specifically Chart 14: 100-YEAR 1 HOUR RAINFALL (inches) and Chart 7: 100-YEAR 
30-MINUTE RAINFALL (inches). The data in Chart 7 were multiplied by 0.72 to determine the rainfall for a 
15-minute period, then multiplied by 4 to establish the corresponding rainfall rate in inches per hour. The flow 
rates in gallons per minute (gpm) were established by dividing the inches per hour by 12 to determine cubic feet 
per hour per square foot, then multiplying by 7.48 gallons per cubic foot to determine gallons per hour per square 
foot, then dividing by 60 minutes per hour to determine the equivalent gallons per minute. 

A.2 Roof Drainage 

Primary roof drainage systems are sized for a 100-year, 60-minute storm. Secondary roof drainage systems are sized 
for a more severe 100-year, 15-minute storm. The rainfall rates in Table A.l should be used for design unless higher 
rates are established locally. 

A.3 Sizing by Flow Rate 

Storm drainage systems may be sized by stormwater flow rates, using the appropriate GPM/SF of rainfall listed in 
Table A. 1 for the local area. Multiplying the listed GPM/SF by the roof area being drained (in square feet) produces 
the gallons per minute (gpm) of required flow for each drain inlet. The flow rates (gpm) can then be added to de- 
termine the flows in each section of the drainage system. Required pipe sizes can be determined from Table 13.6.1 
and Table 13.6.2. 

A.4 Sizing by Roof Area 

Storm drainage systems may be sized using the roof area served by each section of the drainage system. Required 
pipe sizes can be determined from Table 13.6.1 and Table 13.6.2. Using this method, it may be necessary to inter- 
polate between the various listed rainfall rates (inches per hour). To determine the allowable roof area for a listed 
size pipe at a listed slope, divide the allowable square feet of roof area for a 1" rainfall rate by the listed rainfall rate 
for the local area. For example, the allowable roof area for a 6" drain at 1/8" slope with a rainfall rate of 3.2 inches/ 
hour is 21400/3.2 = 6688 square feet. 

A.5 Capacity of Rectangular Scuppers 

Table A.5 lists the discharge capacity of various width rectangular roof scuppers with various heads of water. The 
maximum allowable level of water on the roof should be obtained from the structural engineer, based on the design 
of the roof. 



220 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Table A.l RAINFALL RATES FOR CITIES 


STATES AND CITIES 


PRIMARY STORM DRAINAGE 

60-MIN. DURATION 

100-YR RETURN 


SECONDARY STORM DRAINAGE 

15-MIN. DURATION 

100-YR RETURN 










IN/HR 


GPM/SF 


IN/HR 


GPM/SF 


'■\ L^\c*/* iVl/A 










Birmingham 


3.7 


!8 


7.8 


0.081 


Huntsville 


3.3 


0.034 


7.5 


0.078 


Mobile 


4.5 


0.047 


10.1 


0.105 


Montgomery 


3.8 


0.039 


8.4 


0.087 


ALASKA 










Aleutian Islands 


1.0 


0.010 


2.5 


0.026 


Anchorage 


0.6 


0.006 


1.5 


0.016 


Bethel 


0.8 


0.008 


2.0 


0.021 


Fairbanks 


1.0 


0.010 


2.5 


0.026 


Juneau 


0.6 


0.006 


1.5 


0.016 


ARIZONA 










Flagstaff 


2.3 


0.024 


5.2 


0.054 


Phoenix 


2.2 


0.023 


4.9 


0.051 


Tucson 


3.0 


0.031 


5.8 


0.060 


ARKANSAS 










Eudora 


3.8 


0.039 


8.6 


0.089 


Ft. Smith 


3.9 


0.041 


8.9 


0.092 


Jonesboro 


3.5 


0.036 


7.5 


0.078 


Little Rock 


3.7 


0.038 


8.6 


0.089 


CALIFORNIA 










Eureka 


1.5 


0.016 


3.7 


0.038 


Lake Tahoe 


1.3 


0.014 


2.9 


0.030 


Los Angeles 


2.0 


0.021 


4.3 


0.045 


Lucerne Vallev 


2.5 


0.026 


4.3 


0.045 


Needles 


1.5 


0.016 


3.7 


0.038 


Palmdale 


3.0 


0.031 


7.2 


0.075 


Redding 


1.5 


0.016 


3.7 


0.038 


San Diego 


1.5 


0.016 


3.7 


0.038 


San Francisco 


1.5 


0.016 


3.5 


0.036 


San Luis Obispo 


1.5 


0.016 


3.7 


0.038 


COLORADO 










Craig 


1.5 


0.016 


3.5 


0.036 


Denver 


2.2 


0.023 


4.6 


0.048 


Durango 


1.8 


0.019 


4.3 


0.045 


Stratton 


3.0 


0.031 


6.6 


0.069 


CONNECTICUT 










Hartford 


2.8 


0.029 


6.6 


0.069 


New Haven 


3.0 


, 0.031 


7.2 


0.075 


DELAWARE 










Dover 


3.5 


0.036 


7.8 


0.081 


Rehobeth Beach 


3.6 


0.037 


8.6 


0.089 


DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 










Washington 


4.0 


0.042 


8.6 


0.089 


FLORIDA 










Daytona Beach 


4.0 


0.042 


8.6 


0.089 


Ft. Myers 


4.0 


0.042 


10.1 


0.105 


Jacksonville 


4.3 


0.045 


8.6 


0.089 


Melbourne 


4.0 


0.042 


8.6 


0.089 


Miami 


4.5 


0.047 


11.5 


0.119 


Palm Beach 


5.0 


0.052 


11.5 


0.119 


Tampa 


4.2 


0.044 


10.1 


0.105 


Tallahassee 


4.1 


0.043 


9.2 


0.096 


GEORGIA 










Atlanta 


3.5 


0.036 


7.8 


0.081 


Brunswick 


4.0 


0.042 


8.6 


0.089 


Macon 


3.7 


0.038 


8.1 


0.084 


Savannah 


4.0 


0.042 " 


8.6 


0.089 


Thomasville 


4.0 


0.042 


8.6 


0.089 


HAWAII 










Hawaiian Islands 


(1) 









2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



221 



Table A.l RAINFALL RATES FOR CITIES, continued 


STATES AND CITIES 


PRIMARY STORM DRAINAGE SECONDARY STORM DRAINAGE 
60-MIN. DURATION 15-MIN. DURATION 
I00-YR RETURN 100-YR RETURN 








IN/HR 


(.I'M SI 


IN/HR 


GPM/SF 


IDAHO 










Boise 


1.0 


0.010 


2.3 


0.024 


Idaho Falls 


1.2 


0.012 


3.2 


0.033 


Lewiston 


1.0 


0.010 


2.9 


0.030 


Twin Falls 


1.1 


0.011 


2.3 


0.024 


ILLINOIS 










Chicago 


2.7 


0.028 


6.3 


0.065 


Harrisburg 


3.1 


0.032 


6.9 


0.072 


Peoria 


2.9 


0.030 


6.6 


0.069 


Springfield 


3.0 


0.031 


6.6 


0.069 


INDIANA 










Evansville 


3.0 


0.031 


6.9 


0.072 


Indianapolis 


2.8 


0.029 


6.3 


0.065 


Richmond 


2.7 


0.028 


6.3 


0.065 


South Bend 


2.7 


0.028 


6.0 


0.062 


IOWA 










Council Bluffs 


3.7 


0.038 


8.1 


0.084 


Davenport 


3.0 


0.031 


7.2 


0.075 


Des Moines 


3.4 


0.035 


7.8 


0.081 


Sioux City 


3.6 


0.037 


7.8 


0.081 


KANSAS 










Goodland 


3.5 


0.036 


7.5 


0.078 


Salina 


3.8 


0.039 


8.6 


0.089 


Topeka 


3.8 


0.039 


8.6 


0.089 


Wichita 


3.9 


0.041 


8.9 


0.092 


KENTUCKY 










Bowling Green 


2.9 


0.030 


6.9 


0.072 


Lexington 


2.9 


0.030 


6.6 


0.069 


Louisville 


2.8 


0.029 


6.3 


0.065 


Paducah 


3.0 


0.031 


6.9 


0.072 


LOUISIANA 










Monroe 


3.8 


0.039 


8.9 


0.092 


New Orleans 


4.5 


0.047 


10.1 


0.105 


Shreveport 


4.0 


0.042 


9.5 


0.099 


MAINE 










Bangor 


2.2 


0.023 


4.9 


0.051 


Kittery 


2.4 


0.025 


5.8 


0.060 


Millinocket 


2.0 


0.021 


4.3 


0.045 


MARYLAND 










Baltimore 


3.6 


0.037 


8.6 


0.089 


Frostburg 


2.9 


0.030 


6.6 


0.069 


Ocean City 


3.7 


0.038 


8.6 


0.089 


; MASSACHUSETTS 










Adams 


2.6 


0.027 


6.0 


0.062 


Boston 


2.7 


0.028 


6.3 


0.065 


Springfield 


2.7 


0.028 


6.3 


0.065 


MICHIGAN 










Cheboygan 


2.1 


0.022 


4.6 


0.048 


Detroit 


2.5 


0.026 


5.5 


0.057 


Grand Rapids 


2.6 


0.027 


5.5 


0.057 


Kalamazoo 


2.7 


0.028 


6.0 


0.062 


Traverse City 


2.2 


0.023 


4.9 


0.051 


MINNESOTA 










Duluth 


2.6 


0.027 


6.0 


0.062 


Grand Forks 


2.5 


0.026 


6.0 


0.062 


Minneapolis 


3.0 


0.031 


6.9 


0.072 


Worthington 


3.4 


0.035 


7.5 


0.078 


MISSISSIPPI 










Biloxi 


4.5 


0.047 


10.1 


0.105 


Columbus 


3.5 


0.036 


7.8 


0.081 


Jackson 


3.8 


0.039 


8.6 


0.089 



222 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Table A.l RAINFALL RATES FOR CITIES, continued 


STATES AND CITIES 


PRIMARY STORM DRAINAGE SECONDARY STORM DRAINAGE 

60-MIN. DURATION 15-MIN. DURATION 

100-YR RETURN 100-YR RETURN 








IN/HR 


GPM/SF 


IN/HR 


GPM/SF 


MISSOURI 










Independence 


3.7 


0.038 


8.4 


0.87 


Jefferson City 


3.4 


0.035 


7.8 


0.081 


St. Louis 


3.2 


0.033 


7.2 


0.075 


Springfield 


3.7 


0.038 


8.1 


0.084 


MONTANA 1 










Billings 


1.8 


0.019 


3.7 


0.038 


Glendive 


2.5 


0.026 


5.8 


0.060 


Great Falls 


1.8 


0.019 


3.7 


0.038 


Missoula 


1.3 


0.014 


2.9 


0.030 


NEBRASKA 










Omaha 


3.6 


0.037 


8.1 


0.084 


North Platte 


3.5 


0.036 


7.5 


0.078 


Scotts Bluff 


2.8 


0.029 


6.0 


0.062 


NEVADA 










Las Vegas 


1.5 


0.016 


3.5 


0.036 


Reno 


1.2 


0.012 


2.9 


0.030 


Winnemucca 


1.0 


0.010 


2.3 


0.024 


NEW HAMPSHIRE 










Berlin 


2.2 


0.023 


5.2 


0.054 


Manchester 


2.5 


0.026 


5.8 


0.060 


NEW JERSEY 










Atlantic City 


3.4 


0.035 


8.1 


0.084 


Paterson 


3.0 


0.031 


6.9 


0.072 


Trenton 


3.2 


0.033 


7.2 


0.075 


NEW MEXICO 










Albuquerque 


2.0 


0.021 


4.0 


0.042 


Carlsbad 


2.6 


0.027 


6.0 


0.062 


Gallup 


2.1 


0.022 


4.9 


0.051 


NEW YORK 










Binghamton 


2.4 


0.025 


5.5 


0.057 


Buffalo 


2.3 


0.024 


5.2 


0.054 


New York 


3.1 


0.032 


6.9 


0.072 


Schenectady 


2.5 


0.026 


5.8 


0.060 


Syracuse 


2.4 


0.025 


5.2 


0.054 


NORTH CAROLINA 










Ashville 


3.2 


0.033 


7.2 


0.075 


Charlotte 


3.4 


0.035 


8.1 


0.084 


Raleigh 


4.0 


0.042 


8.9 


0.092 


Wilmington 


4.4 


0.046 


9.5 


0.099 


NORTH DAKOTA 










Bismarck 


2.7 


0.028 


6.3 


0.065 


Fargo 


2.9 


0.030 


6.6 


0.069 


Minot 


2.6 


0.027 


5.8 


0.060 


OHIO 










Cincinnati 


2.8 


0.029 


6.3 


0.065 


Cleveland 


2.4 


0.025 


5.5 


0.057 


Columbus 


2.7 


0.028 


6.3 


0.065 


Toledo 


2.6 


0.027 


5.8 


0.060 


Youngstown 


2.4 


0.025 


5.8 


0.060 


OKLAHOMA 










Boise City 


3.4 


0.035 


7.8 


0.081 


Muskogee 


4.0 


0.042 


9.2 


0.096 


Oklahoma City 


4.1 


0.043 


9.2 


0.096 


OREGON 










Medford 


1.3 


0.014 


3.2 


0.033 


Portland 


1.3 


0.014 


3.2 


0.033 


Ontario 


1.0 


0.010 


2.3 


0.024 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



223 



Table A.l RAINFALL RATES FOR CITIES, continued 


STATES AND CITIES 


PRIMARY STORM DRAINAGE SECONDARY STORM DRAINAGE 

60-MIN. DURATION 15-MIN. DURATION 

1 00- YR RETURN 1 00- YR RETURN 








IN/HR 


GPM/SF 


IN/HR 


GPM/SF 


PENNSYLVANIA 


: : : 


■■ 






Erie 


2.4 


0.025 


5.5 


0.057 


Harrisburg 


2.9 


0.030 


6.6 


0.069 


Philadelphia 


3.2 


0.033 


7.2 


0.075 


Pittsburg 


2.5 


0.026 


5.8 


0.060 


Scranton 


2.8 


0.029 


6.0 


0.062 


RHOTH ISLAN') 










Newport 


3.0 


0.03 1 


7.2 


0.075 


Providence 


2.9 


0.030 


6 9 


0.072 


SOUTH ( ",;OI,lNA 










Charleston 


4.1 


0.043 


7.8 


0.081 


Columbia 


3.5 


0.036 


8.4 


0.087 


Greenville 


3.3 


0.034 


9.2 


0.096 


SOUTH DAKOTA 










Lemmon 


2.7 


0.028 


6.3 


0.065 


Rapid City 


2.7 


0.028 


6.3 


0.065 


Sioux Falls 


3.4 


0.035 


7.5 


0.078 


TENNESSEE 










Knoxvillc 


3.1 


0.032 


7.2 


0.075 


Memphis 


3.5 


0.036 


7.5 


0.078 


Nashville 


3.0 


0.031 


7.2 


0.075 


TEXAS 










Corpus Christi 


4.6 


0.048 


10.7 


0.111 


Dallas 


4.2 


0.044 


9.5 


0.099 


El Paso 


2.0 


0.021 


4.9 


0.051 


Houston 


4.6 


0.048 


10.7 


0.111 


Lubbock 


3.3 


0.034 


7.5 


0.078 


San Antonio 


4.4 


0.046 


9.8 


0.102 


UTAH 










Bluff j 


2.0 


0.021 


4.3 


0.045 


Cedar City 


1.5 


0.016 


3.5 


0.036 


Salt Lake City 


1.3 


0.014 


2.6 


0.027 


VERMONT 










Bennington 


2.5 


0.026 


5.8 


0.060 


Burlington 


2.3 


0.024 


5.2 


0.054 


Rutland 


2.4 


0.025 


5.5 


0.057 


VIRGINIA 










Charlottesville 


3.4 


0.035 


7.8 


0.081 


Richmond 


4.0 


0.042 


8.9 


0.092 


Roanoke 


3.3 


0.034 


7.8 


0.081 


Norfolk 


4.0 


0.042 


9.5 


0.099 


WASHINGTON 










Seattle 


1.0 


0.010 


2.3 


0.024 


Spokane 


1.0 


0.010 


2.6 


0.027 


Walla Walla 


1.0 


0.010 


2.9 


0.030 


WEST VIRGINIA 










Charleston 


2.9 


0.030 


6.6 


0.069 


Martinsburg 


3.0 j 


0.031 


7.2 


0.075 


Morgantown 


2.7 


0.028 


6.3 


0.065 


WISCONSIN 










La Cross 


2.9 


0.030 


6.9 


0.072 


Green Bay 


2.5 


0.026 


5.8 


0.060 


Milwaukee 


2.7 


0.028 


6.3 


0.065 


Wausau 


2.5 


0.026 


5.8 


0.60 


WYOMING 










Casper 


1.9 


0.020 


4.3 


0.045 


Cheyenne 


2.5 


0.026 


5.5 


0.057 


Evaston 


1.3 


0.014 


2.9 


0.030 


Rock Springs 


1.4 


0.015 


3.5 


0.036 












1 . Rainfall rates in Hawaiian Islands vary from 1 .5 in/hr to 8.0 in/hr depending on location and elevation. Consult local data. 



224 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Table A.5 

DISCHARGE FROM RECTANGULAR SCUPPERS - 

GALLONS PER MINUTE 


WATER HEAD 

(Inches) 


WIDTH OF SCUPPER - (Inches) 


6 


12 


18 


24 


30 


36 


0.5 


6 


13 


19 


25 


32 


38 


1 


17 


35 


53 


71 


89 


107 


1.5 


31 


64 


97 


130 


163 


196 


2 




98 


149 


200 


251 


302 


2.5 




136 


207 


278 


349 


420 


3 




177 


271 


364 


458 


551 


3.5 






339 


457 


575 


693 


4 






412 


556 


700 


844 


NOTES: 

1 . Table A.5 is based on discharge over a rectangular weir with end contractions. 

2. Head is depth of water above bottom of scupper opening. 

3. Height of scupper opening should be 2 times the design head. 

4. Coordinate the allowable head of water with the structural design of the roof. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



225 



Blank Page 



226 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Appendix B 



B.l 
B.2 

B.2.1 
B.2.2 
B.2.3 
B.2.4 
B.2.5 
B.2.6 
B.2.7 
B.2.8 
B.2.9 
B.3 

B.4 
B.5 
B.5.1 
B.5.2 



B.5.3 

B.5. 4 

B.5.5 

B.6 

B.6.1 

B.6.2 

B.6.3 

B.7 

B.7.1 

B.7. 2 

B.7. 3 



Sizing the Building Water 
Supply System 

General 229 

Preliminary Information 229 

General 229 

Materials For System 229 

Characteristics Of The Water Supply 229 

Location And Size Of Water Supply Source 229 

Developed Length Of System 230 

Pressure Data Relative To Source Of Supply 230 

Elevations 230 

Minimum Pressure Required At Water Outlets 230 

Provision Of Necessary Information On Plans 230 

Demand At Individual Outlets 230 

Table B.3 Maximum Demand at Individual Water Outlets 231 

Reserved 231 

Estimating Demand 231 

Standard Method 231 

Water Supply Fixture Units (WSFU) Assigned To Fixtures 232 

Table B.5.2 Water Supply Fixture Units (WSFU) And Minimum Fixture Branch Pipe Size For 

Individual Fixtures 233 

Water Supply Fixture Units for Groups of Fixtures 234 

Table B.5.3 Water Supply Fixture Units (WSFU) for Groups of Fixtures 235 

Demand (GPM) Corresponding To Fixture Load (WSFU) 234 

Table B.5.4 Table For Converting Demand in WSFU to GPM 236 

Total Demand Including Continuous Flow 234 

Limitation Of Velocity 237 

Consideration Of Velocity In Design 237 

Good Engineering Practice 237 

Manufacturers' Recommendations For Avoiding Erosion/Corrosion 237 

Simplified Method For Sizing Systems In Relatively Low Buildings 238 

Application 238 

Simplified Method Based On Velocity Limitations 238 

Sizing Tables Based On Velocity Limitations 238 

Table B.7.3.A- Galvanized Steel Pipe -StdWt 239 

Table B.7.3.B - Type K Copper Tube 239 

Table B.7.3.C - Type L Copper Tube 240 

Table B.7.3.D - Type M Copper Tube 240 

Table B.7.3.E - CPVC, PVC, ABS, PE Plastic Pipe - Schedule 40 240 

Table B.7.3.F - CPVC, PVC, ABS, PE Plastic Pipe - Schedule 80 241 

Table B.7.3.G - CPVC Plastic Tubing (Copper Tube Size) - SDR 1 1 241 

Table B.7.3.H - PEX Plastic Tubing (Copper Tube Size) SDR 9 241 

Table B.7.3.I - Composite Plastic Pipe (PE-AL-PE and PEX-AL-PEX) 241 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



111 



B.7.4 Step-By-Step Procedure Of Simplified Sizing Metod 242 

B.8 Illustration Of Simplified Sizing Method Application 242 

B.8.1 Example 242 

Figure B.8.1 Water Supply Fixture Units (WSFU) 243 

Data For Figure B.8.1 - Water Supply Fixture Units (WSFU) 244 

B.8.2 Solution 245 

Figure B.8.2 Design Flow (GPM) and Pipe Sizes 246 

Table B.8.2 Pressure Drops in the Basic Design Circuit in Figure B.8.2 247 

B.8. 3 Supplementary Check Of Friction Loss In Main Lines And Risers 245 

B.8.4 Application To Systems In High Buildings 245 

B.9 Limitation Of Friction 245 

B.9.1 Basic Criterion 245 

B.9.2 Maximum Permissible Friction Loss 248 

B.9.3 Basic Design Circuit 248 

B.9.4 Friction Loss In Equipment 249 

B.9. 5 Estimating Pressure Loss In Displacement Type Cold- Water Meters 249 

B.9. 6 Uniform Pipe Friction Loss 249 

B.9.7 Equivalent Length Of Piping 249 

Table B.9.7.A Equivalent Length of Pipe for Friction Loss in 

Threaded Fittings and Valves 250 

Table B.9.7.B Equivalent Length of Pipe for Friction Loss in 

Copper Tube Fittings and Valves 250 

Table B.9.7.C Equivalent Length of Pipe for Friction Loss in 

Schedule 40 CPVC Fittings 250 

Table B.9.7.D Equivalent Length of Pipe for Friction Loss in 

Schedule 80 CPVC Fittings 251 

Table B.9.7.E Equivalent Length of Pipe for Friction Loss in 

CPVC SDR 11 CTS Tubing Fittings 251 

Determination Of Flow Rates Corresponding To Uniform Pipe Friction Loss 251 

Chart B.9. 8.1 - Flow Vs. Pressure Drop - Galvanized Steel ASTM A53 252 

Chart B.9. 8.2 - Flow Vs. Pressure Drop -Type K Copper Tube 253 

Chart B.9. 8. 3 -Flow Vs. Pressure Drop -Type L Copper Tube 254 

Chart B.9. 8.4 - Flow Vs. Pressure Drop - Type M Copper Tube 255 

Chart B.9.8.5 - Flow Vs. Pressure Drop - CPVC, PVC, ABS, PE Schedule 40 Pipe 256 

Chart B.9.8.6- Flow Vs. Pressure Drop- CPVC, PVC,ABS,PE Schedule 80 Pipe 257 

Chart B.9.8.7 - Flow Vs. Pressure Drop- CPVC Tubing (Copper Tube Size) SDR1 1 258 

Detailed Sizing Method For Systems In Buildings Of Any Height 259 

Illustration Of Detailed Sizing Method Application 260 

Example 260 

Solution 260 

Table B.11.2 Type L Copper Tubing For "Fairly Smooth" Condition 261 

Manifold Type Parallel Water Distribution Systems 261 

Manifolds 261 

Table B.12.1 Manifold Sizing 262 

B.12.2 Distribution Lines 262 



B.9.8 


B.9.8.1 


B.9.8.2 


B.9.8.3 


B.9.8.4 


B.9.8.5 


B.9.8.6 


B.9.8.7 


B.10 


B.ll 


B.ll.l 


B.11.2 


B.12 


B.12.1 



228 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



B.l GENERAL 

Note that there are two questions regarding water supply to a building: first, total consumption of water (hot or 
cold or both) over a period of time, or second, peak flow at any instant of time. This appendix considers only the 
second question. 

Proper design of the water-distributing system in a building is necessary to avoid excessive installed cost and in 
order that the various fixtures may function properly under normal conditions. The instantaneous flow of either 
hot or cold water in any building is variable, depending on the type of structure, usage, occupancy, and time of 
day. The correct design results in piping, water heating, and storage facilities of sufficient capacity to meet the 
probable peak demand without wasteful excess in either piping or maintenance cost. 
For additional information on this subject, the reader is referred to: 

National Bureau of Standards Building Materials and Structures Report BMS 65 (1940), Methods of Estimating 
Loads in Plumbing Systems, by R. B. Hunter 

National Bureau of Standards Building Materials and Structures Report BMS 79 (1941), Water-Distributing Sys- 
tems for Buildings, by R. B. Hunter 

New York State Division of Housing and Community Renewal Building Codes Bureau Technical Report No. 1, 
(1964), A Simplified Method for Checking Sizes of Building Water Supply Systems, by Louis S. Nielsen. 

B.2 PRELIMINARY INFORMATION 

B.2.1 General 

The information necessary for sizing the building water supply system is described in B.2.2 through B.2. 9. 
Correct sizing is contingent upon accuracy and reliability of the information applied. Thus, such information 
should be obtained from responsible parties and appropriate local authorities recognized as sources of the 
necessary information. 

B.2.2 Materials for System 

Determine what kind or kinds of piping materials are to be installed in the system. This is a matter of selec- 
tion by the owner of the building or his authorized representative, who may be the architect, engineer, or 
contractor, as the case may be. 

B.2.3 Characteristics of the Water Supply 

The corrosivity and the scale- forming tendency of a given water supply with respect to various kinds of 
piping materials is information that most officials, architects, engineers, and contractors in a water district 
normally have at their fingertips, as a result of years of experience. For anyone without such experience and 
knowledge, significant characteristics of the water supply, such as its pH value, C0 2 content, dissolved air 
content, carbonate hardness, Langelier Index, and Ryznar Index, may be applied to indicate its corrosivity 
and scale-forming tendency. The most appropriate source of such information is the local water authority 
having jurisdiction over the system supplying the water, or over the wells from which water is pumped from 
the underground water table. 

B.2.4 Location and Size of Water Supply Source 

Location and size of the public water main, where available, should be obtained from the local water author- 
ity. Where a private water supply source, such as a private well system, is to be used, the location and size as 
designed for the premises should be determined. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 229 



B.2.5 Developed Length of System 

Information should be obtained regarding the developed length of the piping run from the source of water 
supply to the service control valve of the building (i.e., the developed length of the water service pipe as 
shown on site plans). Also, determine the developed length of the piping run from the service control valve 
to the highest and/or the most remote water outlet on the system. This may be established by measurement of 
the piping run on the plans of the system. 

B.2.6 Pressure Data Relative to Source of Supply 

Maximum and minimum pressures available in the public main at all times should be obtained from the wa- 
ter authority, as it is the best source of accurate and reliable information on this subject. 
Where a private well water supply system is to be used, the maximum and minimum pressures at which it 
will be adjusted to operate may be applied as appropriate in such cases. 

B.2.7 Elevations 

The relative elevations of the source of water supply and the highest water supply outlets to be supplied in 
the building must be determined. In the case of a public main, the elevation of the point where the water 
service connection is to be made to the public main should be obtained from the local water authority. It has 
the most authoritative record of elevations of the various parts of the public system, and such elevations are 
generally referred to a datum as the reference level, usually related to curb levels established for streets. 

Elevation of the curb level directly in front of the building should be obtained from building plans, as such 
information is required to be shown on the building site plans. Elevations of each floor on which fixtures are 
to be supplied also may be determined from the building plans. 

B.2.8 Minimum Pressure Required at Water Outlets 

Information regarding the minimum flowing pressure required at water outlets for adequate, normal flow 
conditions consistent with satisfactory fixture usage and equipment function may be deemed to be as follows: 
15 psig flowing for all water supply outlets at common plumbing fixtures, except 20 psig for flushometer 
valves on siphon jet water closets and 25 psig for flushometer valves for blowout water closets and blowout 
urinals. Flushometer tank (pressure assisted) water closets require a minimum of 25 psig static pressure. For 
other types of water supplied equipment, the minimum flow pressure required should be obtained from the 
manufacturer. 

B.2.9 Provision of Necessary Information on Plans 

The basis for designing sizes of water supply piping should be provided on plans of the water supply sys- 
tem when submitted to plumbing plan examiners for proposed installations. Provision of such information 
permits the examiner to quickly and efficiently check the adequacy of sizes proposed for the various parts of 
the building water supply system. 

B.3 DEMAND AT INDIVIDUAL OUTLETS 

Maximum possible flow rates at individual fixtures and water outlets have become generally accepted as industry 
practice, which have since become maximum rates set by law. Recognized flow rates at individual water outlets 
for various types of typical plumbing fixtures and hose connections are given in Table B.3. 
For older faucets, if the applied pressure is more than twice the minimum pressure required for satisfactory water 
supply conditions, an excessively high discharge rate may occur. Such rates may cause the actual flow in the 
piping to exceed greatly the estimated probable peak demand rate determined in accordance with the standard 
method discussed in Section B.5. Such excessive velocity of flow and friction loss in piping may adversely affect 
performance and durability of the system. 

More recent faucets, however, are equipped with flow limiting devices that control the discharge rate at a nearly 
constant value over a large range of pressures. 

230 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Where necessary, it is recommended that means to control the rate of supply should be provided in the fixture sup- 
ply pipe (or otherwise) wherever the available pressure at an outlet is more than twice the minimum pressure re- 
quired for satisfactory supply. For this purpose, individual regulating valves, variable orifice flow control devices, 
or fixed orifices may be provided. They should be designed or adjusted to control the rate of supply to be equal to 
or less than the maximum rates set by law. 



Table B.3 
MAXIMUM DEMAND AT INDIVIDUAL WATER OUTLETS 


Type of Outlet 


Maximum Demand, (gpm) 


Metering lavatory faucet 


0.25 gal/cycle 


Public lavatory faucet 


0.5 @ 60 psi 


Drinking fountain jet 


0.75 


Private lavatory faucet 


2.2 @ 60 psi 


Kitchen sink faucet 


2.2 @ 60 psi 


Shower head 


2.5 @ 80 psi 


Ballcock in water closet flush tank 


3.0 


Dishwashing machine (domestic) 


4.0 


Laundry machine (8 or 16 lbs.) 


4.0 


Laundry sink faucet 


5.0 


Service sink faucet 


5.0 


Bath faucet, 1/2" 


5.0 


Hose bibb or sillcock (1/2") 


5.0 


1/2" flush valve (15 psi flow pressure) 


15.0 


1 " flush valve ( 1 5 psi flow pressure) 


27.0 


1 " flush valve (25 psi flow pressure) 


35.0 



NOTES: 

1 . The "total" WSFU values for fixtures represent their load on the water service. The separate cold water and hot water supply fixture 
units for fixtures having both hot and cold connections are each taken as 3/4 of the listed total value for the individual fixture. 

B.4 RESERVED 

B.5 ESTIMATING DEMAND 



B.5.1 Standard Method 

A standard method for estimating the maximum probable demand in building water supply systems has 
evolved and become recognized as generally acceptable. In 1923, the fixture unit method of weighting fix- 
tures in accordance with their load-producing effects was proposed by Roy B. Hunter, of the National Bureau 
of Standards. After studying application of the method in the design of federal buildings over a period of 
years, the method was revised by Hunter in 1940 1 , and then recommended for general application. With ap- 
propriate modifications recently made for modern fixtures, the method fills the need for a reliable, rational 
way to estimate probable peak demand in water supply systems for all types of building occupancy. 

Note that the concept of maximum probable demand is one of probability. We are saying, in effect, that the 
calculated flow rate at any point in a water piping system will not be exceeded more than, say, 0.1% of the 
time. For most systems designed by the method described herein, the design flow rates are never reached. 
Therefore, the method gives a conservative approach that still does not result in wasteful oversizing. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



231 



B.5.2 Water Supply Fixture Units (WSFU) Assigned to Fixtures 

Individual fixture branch piping should be sized to provide the flow rates listed in Table B.3 for the particular 
fixture. Minimum fixture branch pipe sizes are listed in Table B.5.2. 

Peak demand in building water supply systems serving multiple fixtures cannot be determined exactly. The 
demand imposed on a system by intermittently used fixtures is related to the number, type, time between 
uses, and probable number of simultaneous uses of the fixtures installed in the building. In the standard 
method, fixtures using water intermittently under several conditions of service are assigned specific load 
values in terms of water supply fixture units. The water supply fixture unit (WSFU) is a factor so chosen that 
the load-producing effects of different kinds of fixtures under their conditions of service can be expressed ap- 
proximately as multiples of that factor. WSFUs for two or more fixtures can then be added to determine their 
combined effect on the water supply system. 

Values assigned to different kinds of fixtures and different types of occupancies are shown in Table B.5.2. 
The total WSFUs represent the fixture's demand on the domestic water service to the building. For fixtures 
having both hot and cold water supplies, the values for separate hot and cold water demands are taken as 
being three-quarters (3/4) of the total value assigned to the fixture in each case, rounded to the nearest tenth 
of a WSFU. As an example, since the value assigned to a kitchen sink in an individual dwelling unit is 1 .5 
WSFU, the separate demands on the hot and cold water piping thereto are taken as being 1 . 1 WSFU. 

Another consideration, added in 1994, is the nature of the application of the plumbing fixture. Table B.5.2 in- 
cludes columns for Individual Dwelling Units, More Than 3 Dwelling Units, Other Than Dwelling Units, and 
Heavy-Use Assembly. The concept behind these added classifications is that the maximum probable demand 
created by plumbing fixtures varies depending on the type of occupancy in which they are installed. 



1 . National Bureau of Standards Building Materials and Structures Report BMS 6, Methods of Estimating Loads in Plumbing Systems, by R. B. Hunter. 



232 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 











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2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



233 



B.5.3 Water Supply Fixture Units for Groups of Fixtures 

Table B.5.3 lists water supply fixture unit values for typical groups of fixtures in bathrooms, kitchens, and 
laundries in dwelling units. There is more diversity in the use of the fixtures in these groups than is reflected 
by WSFU values for the individual fixtures. The "Total WSFU" represents the demand that the group places 
on the domestic water service to the building. The separate cold and hot WSFU's for the group are each 
taken as 3/4 of the WSFU values for the individual fixtures in the group according to Table B.5.3, but not 
greater than the "Total WSFU" for the group. An exception is that the hot WSFU values for bathroom groups 
having 3.5 GPF (or greater) water closets are the same as those having 1 .6 GPF water closets, since the hot 
WSFU's are not affected by the demand of the water closet. 

B.5.4 Demand (GPM) Corresponding to Fixture Load (WSFU) 

To determine the maximum probable demand in gallons per minute corresponding to any given load in water 
supply fixture units, reference should be made to Table B.5.4, in which the values have been arranged for 
convenient conversion of maximum probable demand from terms of water supply fixture units of load to gal- 
lons per minute of flow. Refer to the increased number of WSFU to GPM listings in Appendix M to avoid the 
need to interpolate between the values in Table B.5.4. 

Note in the table that the maximum probable demand corresponding to a given number of water supply fix- 
ture units is generally much higher for a system in which water closets are flushed by means of direct-supply 
flushometer valves than for a system in which the water closets are flushed by other types of flushing devices. 
The difference in maximum probable demand between the two systems diminishes as the total number of 
fixture units of load rises. At 1,000 water supply fixture units, the maximum probable demand in both types 
of systems is the same, 210 gpm. 

Where a part of the system does not supply flushometer water closets, such as in the case with hot water sup- 
ply piping and some cold water supply branches, the maximum probable demand corresponding to a given 
number of water supply fixture units may be determined from the values given for a system in which water 
closets are flushed by flush tanks. 

B.5.5 Total Demand Including Continuous Flow 

To estimate the maximum probable demand in gpm in any given water supply pipe that supplies outlets at 
which demand is intermittent and also outlets at which demand is continuous, the demand for outlets that 
pose continuous demand during peak periods should be calculated separately and added to the maximum 
probable demand for plumbing fixtures used intermittently. Examples of outlets that impose continuous de- 
mand are those for watering gardens, washing sidewalks, irrigating lawns, and for air conditioning or refrig- 
eration apparatus. 

Note that some continuous-flow outlets may be controlled to be used only during low-flow periods in the 
system. Such time-controlled loads should not be added to the maximum probable demand for intermittently 
used fixtures, since they will not occur at the same times. In such cases, it will be necessary to consider both 
situations and size the piping for the worse case. 



234 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 







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235 



Table B.5.4 
TABLE FOR CONVERTING DEMAND IN WSFU TO GPM 1 ' 4 


WSFU 


GPM 

Flush Tanks 


GPM 
Flush Valves 


WSFU 


GPM 
Flush Tanks 2 


GPM 
Flush Valves 3 


3 


3 




120 


49 


74 


4 


4 




140 


53 


78 


5 


4.5 


22 


160 


57 


83 


6 


5 


23 


180 


61 


87 


7 


6 


24 


200 


65 


91 


8 


7 


25 


225 


70 


95 


9 


7.5 


26 


250 


75 


100 


10 


8 


27 


300 


85 


110 


11 


8.5 


28 


400 


105 


125 


12 


9 


29 


500 


125 


140 


13 


10 


29.5 


750 


170 


175 


14 


10.5 


30 


1000 


210 


210 


15 


11 


31 


1250 


240 


240 


16 


12 


32 


1500 


270 


270 


17 


12.5 


33 


1750 


300 


300 


18 


13 


33.5 


2000 


325 


325 


19 


13.5 


34 


2500 


380 


380 


20 


14 


35 


3000 


435 


435 


25 


17 


38 


4000 


525 


525 


30 


20 


41 


5000 


600 


600 


40 


25 


47 


6000 


650 


650 


50 


29 


51 


7000 


700 


700 


60 


33 


55 


8000 


730 


730 


80 


39 


62 


9000 


760 


760 


100 


44 


68 


10,000 


790 


790 



NOTES: 

1 . This table converts water supply demands in water supply fixture units (WSFU) to required water flow in gallons per 
minute (GPM) for the purpose of pipe sizing. 

2. This column applies to the following portions of piping systems: 
(a). Hot water piping; 

(b). Cold water piping that serves no water closets; and 

(c). Cold water piping that serves water closets other than flush valve type. 

3. This column applies to portions of piping systems where the water closets are the flush valve type. 

4. Refer to Appendix M for WSFU to GPM listings between those in Table B.5.4 to avoid the need to interpolate between 
the values in Table B.5.4. 



236 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



B.6 LIMITATION OF VELOCITY 

B.6.1 Consideration of Velocity in Design 

Velocity of flow through water supply piping during periods of peak demand is an important factor that must 
be considered in the design of building water supply systems. Limitation of water velocity should be ob- 
served in order to avoid objectionable noise effects in systems, shock damage to piping, equipment, tanks, 
coils, and joints, and accelerated deterioration and eventual failure of piping from corrosion. (Also see Sec- 
tion 10.14.1) 

B.6.2 Good Engineering Practice 

In accordance with good engineering practice, it is recommended generally that maximum velocity at maxi- 
mum probable demand in supply piping be limited to 8 fps. This is deemed essential in order to avoid such 
objectionable effects as the production of whistling line noise, the occurrence of cavitation, and associated 
excessive noise in fittings and valves. 

Note that this velocity is too great for systems where the flow is continuous, as in the case of recirculated hot 
water piping. The continuous flow rate for hot water with modest chemical content should be limited to not 
more than 2 fps for such continuous systems. That is, verify that the flow rate in the system as a result of the 
circulation pump only does not exceed 2 fps at any point. 

It is also recommended that maximum velocity be limited to 4 fps in water supply piping that supply a 
quick-closing device, such as a solenoid valve, pneumatic valve, or a quick-closing valve or faucet of the 
self-closing, push-pull, push-button, or other similar type. This limitation is necessary in order to avoid 
excessive and damaging shock pressures in the piping and equipment when flow is suddenly shut off. Plumb- 
ing equipment and systems are not designed to withstand the very high shock pressures that may occur as the 
result of sudden cessation of high velocity flow in piping. (Also see Section 10.14.1) 

B.6.3 Manufacturers' Recommendations for Avoiding Erosion/Corrosion 

Velocity limits recommended by pipe manufacturers to avoid accelerated deterioration of their piping materi- 
als due to erosion/corrosion should be observed. Recent research studies have shown that turbulence accom- 
panying even relatively low flow velocities is an important factor in causing erosion/corrosion, and that this 
is especially likely to occur where the water supply has a high carbon dioxide content (i.e., in excess of 10 
ppm), and where it has been softened to zero hardness. Another important factor is elevated water tempera- 
ture (i.e., in excess of 110°F). 

To control erosion/corrosion effects in copper water tube, and copper and brass pipe, pipe manufacturers' 
recommendations are as follows: 

(1) Where the water supply has a pH value higher than 6.9 and a positive scale-forming tendency, such as 
may be shown by a positive Langelier Index, peak velocity should be limited to 8 fps; 

(2) Where the water supply has a pH value lower than 6.9 and may be classified as aggressively corro- 
sive, or where the water supply has been softened to zero hardness by passage through a water softener, peak 
velocity should be limited to 4 fps; and 

(3) The velocity in copper tube conveying hot water at up to HOT should be limited to 5 fps because of 
the accelerated corrosion rate with hot water. Velocities should be limited to 2 - 3 fps for temperatures above 
140°F. 

Note that the above values apply to velocities at maximum probable demand. For continous flow circulating 
systems, do not exceed 2 fps flow rate for the flow produced by the circulator. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 237 



B.7 SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR SIZING SYSTEMS IN RELATIVELY 
LOW BUILDINGS 

B.7.1 Application 

A simplified method for sizing building water supply systems in accordance with the maximum probable de- 
mand load, in terms of water supply fixture units, has been found to constitute a complete and proper method 
for adequately sizing the water supply systems of a specific category of buildings. In this category are all 
buildings supplied from a source at which the minimum available water pressure is adequate for supplying 
the highest and most remote fixtures satisfactorily during peak demand. Included are almost all one- and 
two-family dwellings, most multiple dwellings up to at least three stories in height, and a considerable por- 
tion of commercial and industrial buildings of limited height and area, when supplied from a source at which 
the minimum available pressure is not less than 50 psi. Under such conditions, the available pressure gener- 
ally is more than enough for overcoming static head and ordinary pipe friction losses, so that pipe friction is 
not an additional factor to consider in sizing. 

B.7.2 Simplified Method Based on Velocity Limitations 

This method is based solely on the application of velocity limitations that are: 

(1) Recognized as good engineering practice; and 

(2) Authoritative recommendations issued by manufacturers of piping materials regarding proper use of 
their products in order to achieve durable performance and avoid failure in service, especially in water areas 
where the supply is aggressively corrosive. These limitations have been detailed in Section B.6. (Also see 
Section 10.14.1.) 

B.7.3 Sizing Tables Based on Velocity Limitations 

Tables B.7.3.A through G provide a means of sizing water supply piping on the basis of flow velocities rang- 
ing from 4 fps to 8 fps. The velocity in copper water tube for hot water up to 140°F should not exceed 5 fps. 
The water flow rates, flow velocities, and pressure loss rates are based on Tables B.9.8.1 through B.9.8.7 for 
the various piping materials. The allowable water supply fixture unit (WSFU) fixture loadings are based on 
Table B.5.4. 

The pressure loss data in the B.7.3 tables is based on friction for straight pipe and tube and does not include 
allowances for fittings, valves, and appurtenances. The equivalent length of the piping can be determined by 
adding the equivalent length of fittings and valves in Tables B.9.7.A, B, C, D, and E. If the exact layout of the 
piping systems cannot be determined, allowances for fittings and valves range up to 50% of the pipe length for 
smooth bore piping such as copper and solvent cement joint plastic piping and up to 75% of the pipe length for 
steel and plastic piping with threaded joints. 

In Tables B.7.3 Athrough B.7.3.G, the columns headed "WSFU (tanks)" apply to piping that serves water closets 
having gravity or pressure-type flush tanks and no fixtures that are flushed by flushometer valves. The columns 
headed "WSFU (valves)" apply to piping that serves fixtures that are flushed by flushometer valves. 



238 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Table B.7.3.A - GALVANIZED STEEL PIPE - STD WT 


PIPE 

SIZE 


4 FPS VELOCITY 


8 FPS VELOCITY 


PIPE 
SIZE 


WSFU 
(tanks) 


WSFU 

(valves) 


FLOW 
GPM 


PD 

psi/lOOft 


WSFU 

(tanks) 


WSFU 

(valves) 


FLOW 
GPM 


PD 

psi/lOOft 


1/2" 


4 




3.8 


7.6 


9 




7.6 


27.3 


1/2" 


3/4" 


8 




6.6 


5.5 


19 




13.3 


19.7 


3/4" 


1" 


15 




10.8 


4.1 


33 


5 


21.5 


14.9 


1" 


1-1/4" 


28 




18.6 


3.0 


74 


24 


37.3 


10.8 


1-1/4" 


1-1/2" 


41 


8 


25.4 


2.5 


129 


49 


50.8 


9.1 


1-1/2" 


2" 


91 


31 


41.8 


1.9 


293 


163 


83.7 


6.8 


2" 


2-1/2" 


174 


73 


59.7 


1.5 


472 


363 


119.4 


5.5 


2-1/2" 


3" 


336 


207 


92.2 


1.2 


840 


817 


184.4 


4.3 


3" 


4" 


687 


634 


158.7 


0.9 


1925 


1925 


317.5 


3.1 


4" 


5" 


1329 


1329 


249.4 


0.7 


3710 


3710 


498.9 


2.4 


5" 


6" 


2320 


2320 


• 360.2 


0.5 


7681 


7681 


720.4 


1.9 


6" 



Table B.7.3.B - TYPE K COPPER TUBE 


TUBE 

SIZE 


4 FPS VELOCITY 


5 FPS VELOCITY 


8 FPS VELOCITY 


TUBE 
SIZE 


WSFU 

(tanks) 


WSFU 

(valves) 


FLOW 
GPM 


PD 

psi/IOOft 


WSFU 

(tanks) 


WSFU 

(valves) 


FLOW 
GPM 


PD 

psi/IOOft 


WSFU 

(tanks) 


WSFU 

(valves) 


FLOW 
GPM 


PD 

psi/IOOft 


3/8" 






1.6 


8.4 






2.0 


12.7 


3 




3.2 


30.4 


3/8" 


1/2" 






2.7 


6.1 


3 




3.4 


9.3 


6 




5.4 


22.1 


1/2" 


3/4" 


6 




5.4 


4.1 


8 




6.8 


6.2 


15 




10.9 


14.8 


3/4" 


1" 


13 




9.7 


2.9 


16 




12.1 


4.4 


29 




19.4 


10.6 


1" 


1-1/4" 


22 




15.2 


2.3 


28 




19.0 


3.4 


53 


14 


30.4 


8.1 


1-1/4" 


1-1/2" 


33 


5 


21.5 


1.8 


45 


10 


26.9 


2.8 


96 


33 


43.0 


6.7 


1-1/2" 


2" 


75 . 


24 


37.6 


1.3 


112 


40 


47.0 


2.0 


251 


126 


75.2 


4.8 


2" 


2-1/2" 


165 


69 


58.1 


1.0 


238 


115 


72.6 


1.6 


456 


341 


116.1 


3.7 


2-1/2" 


3" 


289 


159 


82.8 


0.8 


392 


267 


103.4 


1.3 


725 


682 


165.5 


3.0 


3" 


4" 


615 


541 


145.7 


0.6 


826 


801 


182.1 


0.9 


1678 


1678 


291.4 


2.2 


4" 


5" 


1134 


1134 


226.1 


0.5 


1605 


1605 


282.6 


0.7 


3191 


3191 


452.2 


1.7 


5" 


6" 


1978 


1978 


322.8 


0.4 


2713 


2713 


403.5 


0.6 


5910 


5910 


645.5 


1.4 


6" 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



239 



Table B.7.3.C - TYPE L COPPER TUBE 


TUBE 
SIZE 


4 FPS VELOCITY 


5 FPS VELOCITY 


8 FPS VELOCITY 


TUBE 
SIZE 


WSFU 

(tanks) 


WSFU 
(valves) 


FLOW 
GPM 


PD 

psi/lOOft 


WSFU 

(tanks) 


WSFU 

(valves) 


FLOW 
GPM 


PD 

psi/lOOft 


WSFU 
(tanks) 


WSFU 

(valves) 


FLOW 
GPM 


PD 

psi/lOOft 


3/8" 






1.8 


7.8 


2 




2.3 


11.7 


4 




3.6 


28.0 


3/8" 


1/2" 


3 




2.9 


5.9 


4 




3.6 


8.9 


7 




5.8 


21.3 


1/2" 


3/4" 


7 




6.0 


3.9 


9 




7.5 


5.8 


16 




12.1 


13.9 


3/4" 


1" 


14 




10.3 


2.8 


18 




12.9 


4.3 


31 




20.6 


10.2 


1" 


1-1/4" 


23 




15.7 


2.2 


29 




19.5 


3.3 


56 


15 


31.3 


8.0 


1-1/4" 


1-1/2" 


34 


5 


22.2 


1.8 


47 


11 


27.7 


2.7 


101 


36 


44.4 


6.5 


1-1/2" 


2" 


79 


26 


38.6 


1.3 


117 


43 


48.2 


2.0 


261 


136 


77.2 


4.7 


2" 


2-1/2" 


173 


73 


59.5 


1.0 


247 


120 


74.4 


1.5 


470 


360 


119.0 


3.7 


2-1/2" 


3" 


300 


170 


84.9 


0.8 


406 


281 


106.2 


1.3 


749 


713 


169.9 


3.0 


3" 


4" 


635 


567 


149.3 


0.6 


I 854 


833 


186.7 


0.9 


1739 


1739 


298.7 


2.2 


4" 


5" 


1189 


1189 


232.7 


0.5 


1674 


1674 


290.9 


0.7 


3338 


3338 


465.5 


1.7 


5" 


6" 


2087 


2087 


334.6 


0.4 


2847 


2847 


418.2 


0.6 


6382 


6382 


669.1 


1.4 


6" 



Table B.7.3.D - TYPE M COPPER TUBE 


TUBE 
SIZE 


4 FPS VELOCITY 


5 FPS VELOCITY 


8 FPS VELOCITY 


TUBE 
SIZE 


WSFU 

(tanks) 


WSFU 

(valves) 


FLOW 
GPM 


PD 

psi/lOOft 


WSFU 

(tanks) 


WSFU 

(valves) 


FLOW 
GPM 


PD 

psi/lOOft 


WSFU 

(tanks) 


WSFU 
(valves) 


FLOW 
GPM 


PD 

psi/lOOft 


3/8" 






2.0 


7.3 






2.5 


11.1 


4 




4.0 


26.6 


3/8" 


1/2" 


3 




3.2 


5.6 


4 




4.0 


8.5 


7 




6.3 


20.2 


1/2" 


3/4" 


7 




6.4 


3.7 


10 




8.1 


5.6 


18 




12.9 


13.4 


3/4" 


1" 


15 




10.9 


2.7 


19 




13.6 


4.1 


34 


5 


21.8 


9.9 


1" 




24 




16.3 


2.2 


30 




20.4 


3.3 


59 


17 


32.6 


7.8 






36 


6 


22.8 


1.8 


49 


12 


28.5 


2.7 


107 


38 


45.7 


6.4 




2" 


82 


28 


39.5 


1.3 


122 


46 


49.4 


2.0 


270 


144 


79.1 


4.7 


2" 




180 


77 


61.0 


1.0 


256 


131 


76.2 


1.5 


485 


380 


121.9 


3.6 




3" 


310 


180 


87.0 


0.8 


419 


294 


108.8 


1.2 


775 


743 


174.0 


3.0 


3" 


4" 


648 


583 


151.6 


0.6 


872 


854 


189.5 


0.9 


1783 


1783 


303.3 


2.1 


4" 


5" 


1215 


1215 


235.8 


0.5 


1706 


1706 


294.8 


0.7 


3407 


3407 


471.6 


1.7 


5" 


6" 


2125 


2125 


338.7 


0.4 


2894 


2894 


423.4 


0.6 


6548 


6548 


677.4 


1.3 


6" 



Table B.7.3.E - CPVC, PVC, ABS, PE PLASTIC PIPE - SCHEDULE 40 


PIPE 
SIZE 


4 FPS VELOCITY 


8 FPS VELOCITY 


PIPE 
SIZE 


WSFU 

(tanks) 


WSFU 

(valves) 


FLOW 
GPM 


PD 

psi/100 ft 


WSFU 
(tanks) 


WSFU 

(valves) 


FLOW 
GPM 


PD 

psi/lOOft 


1/2" 


4 




3.6 


5.2 


9 




7.3 


18.7 


1/2" 


3/4" 


7 




6.4 


3.7 


18 




12.9 


13.4 


3/4" 


1" 


14 




10.5 


2.8 


32 


4 


20.9 


10.1 


1" 


1-1/4" 


27 




18.2 


2.0 


71 


22 


36.4 


7.3 


1-1/4" 


1-1/2" 


40 


8 


24.9 


1.7 


124 


47 


49.7 


6.1 


1-1/2" 


2" 


89 


30 


41.1 


1.3 


286 


157 


82.2 


4.6 


2" 


2-1/2" 


168 


70 


58.5 


1.0 


460 


347 


117.1 


3.7 


2-1/2" 


3" 


328 


198 


90.6 


0.8 


820 


795 


181.2 


2.9 


3" 


4" 


675 


618 


156.5 


0.6 


1881 


1881 


313.1 


2.1 


4" 


5" 


1303 


1303 


246.4 


0.5 


3642 


3642 


492.8 


1.6 


5" 


6" 


2284 


2284 


356.2 


0.4 


7413 


7413 


712.4 


1.3 


6" 



240 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Table B.7.3.F - CPVC, PVC, ABS, PE PLASTIC PIPE - SCHEDULE 80 


PIPE 
SIZE 


4 FPS VELOCITY 


8 FPS VELOCITY 


PIPE 
SIZE 


WSFU 
(tanks) 


WSFU 

(valves) 


FLOW 
GPM 


PD 

psi/lOOft 


WSFU 

(tanks) 


WSFU 

(valves) 


FLOW 
GPM 


PD 

psi/lOOft 


1/2" 


3 




2.7 


6.1 


7 




5.5 


22.1 


1/2" 


3/4" 


6 




5.1 


4.2 


14 




10.3 


15.3 


3/4" 


1" 


11 




8.6 


3.1 


25 




17.2 


11.3 


1" 


1-1/4" 


22 




15.4 


2.2 


55 


u 15 


30.8 


8.1 


1-1/4" 


1-1/2" 


33 


4 


21.3 


1.9 


95 


33 


42.7 


6.7 


1-1/2" 


2" 


70 


21 


35.8 


1.4 


233 _j 


112 


71.7 


4.9 


2" 


2-1/2" 


132 


51 


51.4 


1.1 


389 


264 


102.7 


4.0 


2-1/2" 


3" 


277 


149 


80.3 


0.9 


698 


648 


160.7 


3.1 


3" 


4" 


585 


503 


140.4 


0.6 


1590 


1590 


280.7 


2.2 


4" 


5" 


1105 


1105 


222.6 


0.5 


3114 


3114 


445.3 


1.7 


5" 


6" 


1942 


1942 


319.2 


0.4 


5767 


5767 


638.3 


1.4 


6" 



Table B.7.3.G - CPVC PLASTIC TUBING (Copper Tube Size) - SDR 11 


TUBE 

SIZE 
(CTS) 


4 FPS VELOCITY 


8 FPS VELOCITY 


TUBE 
SIZE 

(CTS) 


WSFU 

(tanks) 


WSFU 

(valves) 


FLOW 
GPM 


PD 

psi/lOOft 


WSFU 

(tanks) 


WSFU 

(valves) 


FLOW 
GPM 


PD 

psi/lOOft 


1/2" 


2 




2.4 


6.6 


6 




4.8 


23.9 


1/2" 


3/4" 


6 




4.9 


4.4 


13 




9.8 


15.8 


3/4" 


1" 


10 




8.1 


3.3 


L 24 




16.2 


11.8 


1" 


1-1/4" 


16 




12.1 


2.6 


38 


7 


24.2 


9.3 


1-1/4" 


1-1/2" 


25 




16.9 


2.1 


62 


18 


33.7 


7.7 


1-1/2" 


2" 


50 


12 


28.9 


1.6 


164 


68 


57.8 


5.6 


2" 



Table B.7.3.H - PEX Plastic Tubing (Copper Tube Size) SDR 9 


TUBE 
SIZE 

(CTS) 




8 FPS VELOCITY 


TUBE 
SIZE 

(CTS) 










WSFU 

(tanks) 


WSFU 

(valves) 


FLOW 
GPM 


PD 

psi/100 ft 


3/8" 










1 




2.4 


35.3 


3/8" 


1/2" 










5 




4.5 


24.8 


1/2" 


3/4" 










11 




8.8 


16.8 


3/4" 


1" 










21 




14.5 


12.5 


1" 


1-1/4" 










33 




21.6 


9.9 


1-1/4" 


1-1/2" 










53 


14 


30.2 


8.2 


1-1/2" 


2" 










134 


52 


51.7 


6.0 


2" 



Table B.7.3.I - Composite Plastic Pipe (PE-AL-PE and PEX-AL-PEX) 


PIPE 
SIZE 


4 FPS VELOCITY 


8 FPS VELOCITY 


PIPE 
SIZE 


WSFU 

(tanks) 


WSFU 

(valves) 


FLOW 
GPM 


PD 

psi/100 ft 


WSFU 

(tanks) 


WSFU 

(valves) 


FLOW 
GPM 


PD 

psi/100 ft 


3/8" 


1 




1.1 


10.3 _j 


1 




2.2 


37.0 


3/8" 


1/2" 


2 




2.4 


6.6 


5 




4.7 


23.9 


1/2" 


3/4" 


7 




6.2 


3.8 


17 




12.4 


13.7 


3/4" 


1" 


13 




10.1 


2.9 


31 




20.3 


10.3 


1" 


1-1/4" 


22 




15.5 


2.2 


55 


15 


30.9 


8.1 


1-1/4" 


1-1/2" 


41 


5 


25.3 


1.7 


128 


49 


50.7 


6.0 


1-1/2" 


2" 


81 


27 


39.2 


1.3 


267 


142 


78.4 


4.7 


2" 


2-1/2" 


147 


58 


54.2 


1.1 


417 


292 


108.4 


3.9 


2-1/2" 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



241 



B.7.4 Step-by-Step Procedure of Simplified Sizing Method 

For sizing systems in relatively low buildings, the simplified sizing method consists of the following 
seven steps: 

1 . Obtain all information necessary for sizing the system. Such information should be obtained from 
responsible parties and appropriate local authorities recognized as sources of the necessary information. (See 
Section B.2.) 

2. Provide a schematic elevation of the complete water supply system. Show all piping connections 
in proper sequence and all fixture supplies. Identify all fixtures and risers by means of appropriate letters, 
numbers, or combinations thereof. Identify all piping conveying water at a temperature above 150°F, and all 
branch piping to such water outlets as solenoid valves, pneumatic valves, or quick-closing valves or faucets. 
Provide on the schematic elevation all the necessary information obtained in Step 1. (See Section B.2.9.) 

3 . Mark on the schematic elevation, for each section of the complete system, the hot and cold water loads 
conveyed thereby in terms of water supply fixture units in accordance with Table B.5.2. 

4. Mark on the schematic elevation, adjacent to all fixture unit notations, the demand in gallons per min- 
ute corresponding to the various fixture unit loads in accordance with Table B.5.3. 

5. Mark on the schematic elevation, for appropriate sections of the system, the demand in gallons per 
minute for outlets at which demand is considered continuous, such as outlets for watering gardens, irrigating 
lawns, air conditioning apparatus, refrigeration machines, and similar equipment using water at a relatively 
continuous rate during peak demand periods. Add the continuous demand to the demand for intermittently 
used fixtures, and show the total demand at those sections where both types of demand occur. (See Section 
B.5.4.) 

6. Size all individual fixture supply pipes to water outlets in accordance with the minimum sizes permitted 
by regulations. Minimum fixture supply pipe sizes for typical plumbing fixtures are given in Table B.5.2. 

7. Size all other parts of the water supply system in accordance with velocity limitations recognized as 
good engineering practice, and with velocity limitations recommended by pipe manufacturers for avoid- 
ing accelerated deterioration and failure of their products under various conditions of service. (Sizing tables 
based on such velocity limitations and showing permissible loads in terms of water supply fixture units for 
each size and kind of piping material have been provided and may be applied in this step.) (See Section B.6.) 

B.8 ILLUSTRATION OF SIMPLIFIED SIZING METHOD APPLICATION 

B.8.1 Example 

A three-story, nine-family multiple dwelling fronts on a public street and is supplied by direct street pres- 
sure from a public main in which the certified minimum pressure is 50 psi. The building has a full basement 
and three above-grade stories, each of which is 10' in height from floor to floor. The first floor is 2' above 
the curb level in front of the building. The public water main is located under the street: 5' out from and 4' 
below the curb. 

On each of the above-grade stories there are three dwelling units. Each dwelling unit has a sink and dish- 
washer, tank-type water closet, lavatory, and bathtub/shower combination. 

The basement contains two automatic clothes washing machines, two service sinks, and a restroom with a 
flush-tank water closet and lavatory. 

Two lawn faucets are installed, one on the front of the building and one in the rear. 

Hot water is to be supplied from a central storage-tank water heater. 

The water supply to the building will be metered at the water service entry point to the building. 

An isometric drawing of the water piping layout is shown in Figure B.8.1 . 



242 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



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B.8.2 Solution 

1 . All information necessary to develop the design must be obtained from appropriate sources. 

2. After the information is known, the isometric drawing (Figure B.8.1) is marked up with general water 
supply information, and the mains, risers, and branches are suitably identified. 

3. The water supply fixture unit loads are marked on the drawing next to each section of the system. These 
values are obtained from Tables B.5.2 and B.5.3. Many designers use parentheses marks for WSFU to distin- 
guish them from gpm values. 

4. The maximum probable demand in gpm is marked on the drawing for each section next to the WSFU 
values. These values are obtained from Table B.5.4, using the columns for flush-tank systems. 

5. Where sections of the piping serve more than one hose bibb, each additional hose bibb adds a demand 
of 1.0 WSFU to the piping. Wherever a section of piping serves a single hose bibb, it adds a demand of 2.5 
WSFU. 

6. All individual fixture supply pipes to water outlets are sized in Figure B.8.1 in accordance with the 
minimum sizes shown in Table B.5.2. 

7. All other parts of the system are sized in accordance with the velocity or pressure limitations estab- 
lished for this system as the basis of design. Piping is sized in accordance with the maximum probable 
demand for each section of the system. Sizing is done using Table B.7.3A through Table B.7.3H, and specifi- 
cally the tables dealing with Copper Water Tube, Type K for sizing the water service pipe; and with Copper 
Water Tube, Type L, for sizing piping inside the building since these are the materials of choice as given in 
the general information on the drawing. 

B.8.3 Supplementary Check of Friction Loss in Main Lines and Risers 

A supplementary check of the total friction loss in the main lines and risers is made for the longest run of pip- 
ing from the public water outlet to be sure that the sizes determined were adequate. This run has been shown 
in heavy lines with letters noted at various points. 

The sum of all friction losses due to flow through pipe, valves, and fittings is found to be 17.9 psi, whereas 
the amount of excess pressure available for such friction loss is 19.4 psi. Thus, the sizes determined on the 
basis of velocity limitations exclusively are proven adequate. Checking of friction loss in this case is per- 
formed following steps 8 through 15 of the Detailed Sizing Method for Building of Any Height presented in 
Section B.10. The calculations are shown on Figure B.8.2. 

B.8.4 Application to Systems in High Buildings 

This method of sizing, based upon the velocity limitations that should be observed in design of building 
water supply systems, has much broader application than just to systems in one-, two-, and three-story build- 
ings where ample excess pressure is available at the source of supply. These velocity limitations should be 
observed in all building water supply systems. Thus, the sizes determined by this method are the minimum 
sizes recommended for use in any case. Where pipe friction is an additional factor to be considered in design, 
larger sizes may be required. 

B.9 LIMITATION OF FRICTION 

B.9.1 Basic Criterion 

The design of a building water supply system must be such that the highest water outlets will have available, 
during periods of peak demand, at least the minimum pressure required at such outlets for satisfactory water 
supply conditions at the fixture or equipment. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 245 






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2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Table B.8.2 
PRESSURE DROPS IN THE BASIC DESIGN CIRCUIT IN FIGURE B.8.2 


COLD WATER FRICTION PRESSURE DROP FROM MAIN TO "K" 


SECTION 


WSFU 

(1) 


FLOW 

(gpm) 


LENGTH 

(feet) 


PIPE 
SIZE 


VELOCITY 

(feet/second) 


PD 

(psi/100 ft) 


PRESSURE 
DROP(psi) 


MAIN -A 


66.0 


34.8 


50 


1-1/2" 


6.3 


4.0 


2.0 


A-B 


66.0 


34.8 


12 


1-1/2" 


6.3 


4.0 


0.5 


B-C 


57.6 


32.0 


8 


1-1/2" 


5.8 


3.6 


0.3 


C-D 


52.7 


30.1 


4 


1-1/4" 


7.7 


8.0 


0.3 


D-E 


44.4 


26.8 


8 


1-1/4" 


6.8 


6.0 


0.5 


E-F 


33.9 


22.0 


8 


1-1/4" 


5.6 


4.0 


0.3 


F-G 


15.4 


11.4 


10 


1" 


4.4 


3.2 


0.3 


G-H 


4.9 


10.0(6) 


4 


1"(4) 


3.9 


2.7 


0.1 


H-I 


2.4 


5.0(7) 


10 


3/4" (4) 


3.3 


2.7 


0.3 


I-J 


2.2 (2) 


5.0 (7) 


10 


3/4" (4) 


3.3 


2.7 


0.3 


J-K 


1.1(2) 


2.5 (8) 


10 


1/2" (4) 


3.4 


4.3 


0.4 


Total Pipe Pressure Drop (psig) 


5.3 


Fitting Allowance (50% of pipe loss, psig) 


2.6 


Total Pressure Drop Due to Pipe Friction (psig) 


7.9 


HOT WATER FRICTION PRESSURE DROP FROM MAIN TO "K" 


SECTION 


WSFU 

(1) 


FLOW 

(gpm) 


LENGTH 

(feet) 


PIPE 
SIZE 


VELOCITY 

(feet/second) 


PD 
(psi/100 ft) 


PRESSURE 
DROP (psi) 


MAIN - A 


66.0 


34.8 


50 


1-1/2" 


6.3 


4.0 


2.0 


A-B 


66.0 


34.8 


12 


1-1/2" 


6.3 


4.0 


0.5 


B - HWH 


51.9 


29.8 


4 


1-1/4" 


7.6 


7.5 


0.3 


HWH-C 


51.9 


29.8 


4 


2" (5) 


3.1 


0.8 


0.0 


C-D 


47.4 


28.0 


10 


1-1/2" (5) 


5.0 


2.7 


0.3 


D-E 


39.1 


24.6 


8 


1-1/2" (5) 


4.4 


2.1 


0.2 


E-F 


30.1 


20.1 


8 


1-1/2" (5) 


3.6 


1.6 


0.1 


F-G 


13.5 


10.3 


10 


1"(5) 


4.0 


3.0 


0.3 


G-H 


4.5 


4.3 


4 


3/4" (4) 


2.9 


2.1 


0.1 


H-I 


4.5 


4.3 


10 


3/4" (4) 


2.9 


2.1 


0.2 


I-J 


4.0 (2) 


4.0 


10 


3/4" (4) 


2.7 


1.8 


0.2 


J-K 


2.0 (2) 


4.0(3) 


10 


3/4" (4) 


2.7 


1.8 


0.2 


Total Pipe Pressure Drop (psig) 


4.3 


Fitting Allowance (50% of pipe loss, psig) 


2.2 


Total Pressure Drop Due to Pipe Friction (psig) 


6.5 



NOTES FOR PRESSURE DROP CALCULATIONS 

(1) Water supply fixture units (WSFU) are for sections of piping serving 3 or more dwelling units except as noted by (2). 

(2) Water supply fixture units (WSFU) are for sections of piping serving fixtures in less than 3 dwelling units. 

(3) Water flow (gpm) for the dishwasher. 

(4) Velocity limited to 4 fps because of dishwashers and quick-closing sink faucets. 

(5) Velocity in copper tube with 140 deg F domestic hot water is limited to 5 fps using Chart B.9.8.3. 

(6) Allowance of 5 gpm for the hose bibb and two sinks at 2.5 gpm each. 

(7) Allowance for two sinks at 2.5 gpm each. 

(8) Allowance for one sink at 2.5 gpm. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



247 



SUMMARY OF PRESSURE DROP CALCULATIONS 

Minimum pressure in water main = 50.0 psig. 

Water meter pressure drop = 3.0 psig 

Total cold water friction pressure drop from water main to "K" = 7.9 psig 

Total hot water friction pressure drop from water main to "K" = 6.5 psig 

Elevation pressure drop = (35 ft - 6 ft)(0.433) = 12.6 psig 

Cold water pressure available at "K" = 50-3-7.9 -12.6 = 26.5 psig 

Minimum required water pressure at "K" = 1 5 psig 

Therefore, the pipe sizing is satisfactory. 

If this calculation had shown that the pressure drop was excessive at "K", it would be necessary to examine the design for sections of the 
Basic Design Circuit that had the highest pressure drops and then increasse those segment pipe sizes. 

B.9.2 Maximum Permissible Friction Loss 

The maximum allowable pressure loss due to friction in the water lines and risers to the highest water outlets 
is the amount of excess static pressure available above the minimum pressure required at such outlets when 
no-flow conditions exist. This may be calculated as the difference between the static pressure existing at the 
highest water outlets during no-flow conditions, and the minimum pressure required at such outlets for satis- 
factory supply conditions. 

Where water is supplied by direct pressure from a public main, to calculate the static pressure at the highest 
outlet, deduct from the certified minimum pressure available in the public main the amount of static pressure 
loss corresponding to the height at which the outlet is located above the public main (i.e., deduct 0.433 psi 
pressure for each foot of rise in elevation from the public main to the highest outlet). 
Where supplied under pressure from a gravity water supply tank located at an elevation above the highest 
water outlet, the static pressure at that outlet is calculated as being equal to 0.433 psi pressure for each foot 
of difference in elevation between the outlet and the water level in the tank. In this case, the minimum static 
pressure at the outlet should be determined as that corresponding to the level of the lowest water level at 
which the tank is intended to operate. 

B.9.3 Basic Design Circuit 

Of all the water outlets on a system, the one at which the least available pressure will prevail during periods 
of peak demand is the critical outlet that controls the design. Normally, it is the highest outlet that is supplied 
through the longest run of piping extending from the source of supply. 

This circuit is called the Basic Design Circuit (BDC) for sizing the main water lines and risers. 

In most systems, the BDC will be found to be the run of cold water supply piping extending from the source 
of supply to the domestic hot water vessel plus the run of hot water supply piping extending to the highest 
and most remote hot water outlet on the system. However, in systems supplied directly from the public main 
and having flushometer- valve water closets at the topmost floor, the BDC may be found to be the run of cold 
water supply piping extending from the public main to the highest and most remote flushometer valve in the 
system. 

B.9.4 Friction Loss in Equipment 

Where a water meter, water filter, water softener, strainer, or instantaneous or tankless water heating coil is 
located in the BDC, the friction loss corresponding to the maximum probable demand through such equip- 
ment must be determined and included in pressure loss calculations. Manufacturers' charts and data sheets 
on their products provide such information generally, and should be used as a guide in selecting the best 
type and size of equipment to use with consideration for the limit to which pressure loss due to friction may 
be permitted to occur in the BDC. The rated pressure loss through such equipment should be deducted from 



248 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



the friction loss limit to establish the amount of pressure that is available to be dissipated by friction in pipe, 
valves, and fittings of the BDC. 

B.9.5 Estimating Pressure Loss in Displacement Type Cold-Water Meters 

The American Water Works Association standard for cold-water meters of the displacement type is designat- 
ed AWWA C 700-64. It covers displacement meters known as nutating- or oscillating-piston or disc meters, 
which are practically positive in action. The standard establishes maximum capacity or delivery classification 
for each meter size as follows: 

5/8" 20 gpm 

3/4" 30 gpm 

1" 50 gpm 

1-1/2" 100 gpm 

2" 160 gpm 

3" 300 gpm 

Also, the standard establishes the maximum pressure loss corresponding to these maximum capacities as fol- 
lows: 

15 psi for the 5/8", 3/4" and 1" meter sizes 

20 psi for the 1-1/2", 2", 3", 4" and 6" sizes. 

B.9.6 Uniform Pipe Friction Loss 

To facilitate calculation of appropriate pipe sizes corresponding to the permissible friction loss in pipe, 
valves, and fittings, it is recommended that the BDC be designed in accordance with the principle of uniform 
pipe friction loss throughout its length. In this way, the friction limit for the piping run may be established in 
terms of pounds per square inch per 100 feet of piping length. The permissible uniform pipe friction loss in 
psi/100' is calculated by dividing the permissible friction loss in pipe, valves, and fittings by the total equiva- 
lent length of the basic design circuit, and multiplying by 100. 

B.9.7 Equivalent Length of Piping 

The total equivalent length of piping is its developed length plus the equivalent pipe length corresponding to 
the frictional resistance of all fittings and valves in the piping. When size of fittings are known, or has been 
established in accordance with sizes based upon appropriate limitation of velocity, corresponding equivalent 
lengths may be determined directly from available tables. Five such tables are included herein for various 
piping materials. See Tables B.9.7.A through B.9.7.E. 

As a general finding, it has been shown by experience that the equivalent length to be allowed for fittings and 
valves as a result of such calculations is approximately fifty percent of the developed length of the BDC in 
the case of copper water tube systems, and approximately seventy-five percent for standard threaded pipe 
systems. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 249 



Table B.9.7.A 
EQUIVALENT LENGTH OF PIPE FOR FRICTION LOSS IN THREADED FITTINGS & VALVES 


Fitting or Valve 


Equivalent Feet of Pipe for Various Pipe Sizes 


1/2" 


3/4" 


1" 


1-1/4" 


1-1/2" 


2" 


2-1/2" 


3" 


4" 


5" 


6" 


45 deg Elbow 


0.8 


1.1 


1.4 


1.8 


2.2 


2.8 


3.3 


4.1 


5.4 


6.7 


8.1 


90 deg Elbow, std 


1.6 


2.1 


2.6 


3.5 


4.0 


5.2 


6.2 


7.7 


10.1 


12.6 


15.2 


Tee, run 


1.0 


1.4 


1.8 


2.3 


2.7 


3.5 


4.1 


5.1 


6.7 


8.4 


10.1 


Tee, Branch 


3.1 


4.1 


5.3 


6.9 


8.1 


10.3 


12.3 


15.3 


20.1 


25.2 


30.3 


Gate Valve 


0.4 


0.6 


0.7 


0.9 


1.1 


1.4 


1.7 


2.0 


2.7 


3.4 


4.0 


Globe Valve 


17.6 


23.3 


29.7 


39.1 


45.6 


58.6 


70.0 


86.9 


114 


143 


172 


Angle Valve 


7.8 


10.3 


13.1 


17.3 


20.1 


25.8 


30.9 


38.4 


50.3 


63.1 


75.8 


Butterfly Valve 












7.8 


9.3 


11.5 


15.1 


18.9 


22.7 


Swing Check Valve 


5.2 


6.9 


8.7 


11.5 


13.4 


17.2 


20.6 


25.5 


33.6 


42.1 


50.5 


NOTES FOR TABLE B.9.7.A 

1) Equivalent lengths for valves are based on the valves being wide open. 



Table B.9.7.B 
EQUIVALENT LENGTH OF PIPE FOR FRICTION LOSS IN COPPER TUBE FITTINGS &VALVES 


Fitting or Valve 


Equivalent Feet of Pipe for Various Tube Sizes 


1/2" 


3/4" 


1" 


1-1/4" 


1-1/2" 


2" 


2-1/2" 


3" 


4" 


5" 


6" 


45 deg Elbow 


0.5 


0.5 


1.0 


1.0 


1.5 


2.0 


2.5 


3.5 


5.0 


6.0 


7.0 


90 deg Elbow, std 


1.0 


2.0 


2.5 


3.0 


4.0 


5.5 


7.0 


9.0 


12.5 


16.0 


19.0 


Tee, run 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


1.0 


1.0 


1.5 


2.0 


Tee, Branch 


2.0 


3.0 


4.5 


5.5 


7.0 


9.0 


12.0 


15.0 


21.0 


27.0 


34.0 


Gate Valve 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.5 


1.0 


1.5 


2.0 


3.0 


3.5 


Globe Valve 


17.6 


23.3 


29.7 


39.1 


45.6 


58.6 


70.0 


86.9 


114.0 


143.0 




Angle Valve 


0.0 


0.0 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


0.0 


Butterfly Valve 


7.8 


10.3 


13.1 


17.3 


20.1 


25.8 


30.9 


38.4 


50.3 


63.1 


75.8 


Swing Check Valve 












7.5 


10.0 


15.5 


16.0 


11.5 


13.5 


Fitting or Valve 


2.0 


3.0 


4.5 


5.5 


6.5 


9.0 


11.5 


14.5 


18.5 


23.5 


26.5 


NOTES FOR TABLE B.9.7.B 

1 ) Equivalent lengths for valves are based on the valves being wide open. 

2) Data based in part on the 2004 Copper Tube Handbook by the Copper Development Association. 



Table B.9.7.C 
EQUIVALENT LENGTH OF PIPE FOR FRICTION LOSS IN SCHEDULE 40 CPVC FITTINGS 


Fitting 


Equivalent Feet of Pipe for Various Pipe Sizes 


1/2" 


3/4" 


1" 


1-1/4" 


1-1/2" 


2" 


2-1/2" 


3" 


4" 


5" 


6" 


45 deg Elbow 


0.8 


1.1 


1.4 


1.8 


2.1 


2.7 


3.3 


4.1 


5.3 


6.7 


8.0 


90 deg Elbow 


1.5 


2.0 


2.6 


3.4 


4.0 


5.1 


6.1 


7.6 




12.5 


15.1 


Tee, Run 


1.0 


1.4 


1.7 


2.3 


2.7 


3.4 


4.1 


5.1 


6.7 


8.4 


10.1 


Tee, Branch 


3.0 


4.1 


5.2 


6.8 


8.0 


10.2 


12.2 


15.2 




25.1 


30.2 



250 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Table B.9.7.D 
EQUIVALENT LENGTH OF PIPE FOR FRICTION LOSS IN SCHEDULE 80 CPVC FITTINGS 


Fitting 


Equivalent Feet of Pipe for Various Pipe Sizes 


1/2" 


3/4" 


1" 


1-1/4" 


1-1/2" 


2" 


2-1/2" 


3" 


4" 


5" 


6" 


45 deg Elbow 


0.7 


1.0 


1.2 


1.7 


2.0 


2.6 


3.1 


3.8 


5.0 


6.4 


7.6 


90 deg Elbow 


1.3 


1.8 


2.3 


3.1 


3.7 


4.8 


5.7 


7.2 


9.5 


11.9 


14.3 


Tee, Run 


0.9 


1.2 


1.6 


2.1 


2.5 


3.2 


3.8 


4.8 


6.3 


7.9 


9.5 


Tee, Branch 


2.6 


3.6 


4.7 


6.3 


7.4 


9.6 


11.5 


14.3 


18.9 


23.8 


28.5 



Table B.9.7.E 

EQUIVALENT LENGTH OF PIPE 

FOR FRICTION LOSS IN CPVC SDR 11 CTS TUBING FITTINGS 


Fitting 


Equivalent Feet of Pipe for Various Pipe Sizes 


1/2" CTS 


3/4" CTS 


1" CTS 


1-1/4" CTS 


1-1/2" CTS 


2" CTS 


45 deg Elbow 


0.8 


1.1 


1.4 


1.8 


2.2 


2.8 


90 deg Elbow 


1.6 


2.1 


2.6 


3.5 


4.0 


5.2 


Tee, Run 


1.0 


1.4 


1.8 


2.3 


2.7 


3.5 


Tee, Branch 


3.1 


4.1 


5.3 


6.9 


8.1 


10.3 



B.9.8 Determination of Flow Rates Corresponding to Uniform Pipe Friction Loss 

Flow rates corresponding to any given uniform pipe friction loss may be determined readily for each nominal 
size of the kind of pipe selected for the system. Pipe friction charts (B.9.8. 1 through B.9.8.7) are presented 
herewith for each of the standard piping materials used for water supply systems in buildings. The appropri- 
ate chart to apply in any given case depends upon the kind of piping to be used and the effect the water to be 
conveyed will produce within the piping after extended service. 

These charts are based on piping in average service. If piping is used in adverse service or in retrofit applica- 
tions, conservative practice suggests selecting lower flow rates for a given pipe, or larger pipe for a given 
required flow rate. 

For new work, with the range of materials now available, select a piping material that will not be affected by 
the water characteristics at the site. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



251 



CHART B.9.8.1 
GALVANIZED STEEL - ASTM A53 



1000 
800 




10 ,5 20 "30 40 5060 80100 



PRESSURE DROP (psi/100') 



252 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



CHART B.9.8.2 
TYPE K COPPER TUBE 



bjsP <$? $& 

X 



&t ^' 




2 2 - 5 3 4 5 6 8 10 ,5 20 K 30 40 5060 80100 



PRESSURE DROP (psi/100') 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



253 



CHART B.9.8.3 
TYPE L COPPER TUBE 



&f <$& $& 




1.5 2-5 



2 « 3 4 5 6 



10 ,s 20 25 30 40 5060 80100 



PRESSURE DROP (psi/100*) 



254 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



CHART B.9.8.4 
TYPE M COPPER TUBE 



$& <$f $f 



$& -&f 



'%®J^ ,.^ ) . ...r< ® 




.2 -».3 .4 .5.6 .8 1 '•» 2 "3 4 5 6 8 10 ,s 20 »30 40 5060 80100 



PRESSURE DROP (psi/100') 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



255 



CHART B.9.8.5 
CPVC, PVC, ABS, PE SCHEDULE 40 PIPE 




.3 .4 .5 .6 .8 1 



2 "3 4 5 6 8 10 ,5 20 ^30 405060 80100 



PRESSURE DROP (psi/100') 



256 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



CHART B.9.8.6 
CPVC, PVC, ASB, PE SCHEDULE 80 PIPE 



1000 
800 




.1 - 15 ,2 25 .3 .4 .5.6 



4 5 6 8 10 ,5 20 25 30 40 5060 80100 



PRESSURE DROP (psi/100') 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



257 



CHART B.9.8.7 
CPVC TUBING (Copper Tube Size ) SDR 11 




10 ,s 20 Z5 30 40 5060 80100 



PRESSURE DROP (psi/100') 



258 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



B.10 DETAILED SIZING METHOD FOR SYSTEMS IN BUILDINGS 
OF ANY HEIGHT 

For sizing water supply systems in buildings of any height, a detailed method may be applied in the design of 
modern buildings. The procedure consists of sixteen steps, as follows: 

1. Obtain all information necessary for sizing the system. Such information shall be obtained from responsible 
parties and appropriate local authorities recognized as sources of the necessary information. (See Section B.2.) 

2. Provide a schematic elevation of the complete water supply system. Show all piping connections in proper 
sequence and all fixture supplies. Identify all fixtures and risers by means of appropriate letters, numbers, or com- 
binations thereof. Identify all piping conveying water at a temperature above 150°F, and all branch piping to such 
water outlets as solenoid valves, pneumatic valves, or quick-closing valves or faucets. Provide on the schematic 
elevation all the general information obtained per step 1. (See Section B.2.9.) 

3. Mark on the schematic elevation, for each section of the complete system, the hot and cold water loads served 
in terms of water supply fixture units in accordance with Table B.5.2. 

4. Mark on the schematic elevation, adjacent to all fixture unit notations, the probable maximum demand in gal- 
lons per minute corresponding to the various fixture unit loads in accordance with Table B.5.4. 

5. Mark on the schematic elevation, for appropriate sections of the system, the demand in gallons per minute for 
outlets at which demand is considered continuous, such as outlets for watering gardens, irrigating lawns, air-con- 
ditioning apparatus, refrigeration machines, and similar equipment. Add the continuous demand to the demand for 
intermittently used fixtures, and show the total demand at those sections where both types of demand occur. (See 
Section B.5.4.) 

6. Size all individual fixture supply pipes to water outlets in accordance with the minimum sizes permitted by 
regulations. Minimum fixture supply pipe sizes for typical plumbing are given in Table B.5.2. 

7. Size all other parts of the water supply system in accordance with velocity limitations recognized as good 
engineering practice, and with velocity limitations recommended by pipe manufacturers for avoiding accelerated 
deterioration and failure of their products under various conditions of service. Sizing tables based on such velocity 
limitations and showing permissible loads in terms of water supply fixture units for each size and kind of piping 
material have been provided and may be applied as a convenient and simplified method of sizing in this step. (See 
Section B.6) 

Note: These sizes are tentative until verified in Steps 12, 13, 14, 15. 

8. Assuming conditions of no-flow in the system, calculate the amount of pressure available at the topmost 
fixture in excess of the minimum pressure required at such fixtures for satisfactory supply conditions. This excess 
pressure is the limit for friction losses for peak demand in the system (1 foot of water column = 0.433 psi pres- 
sure). (See Section B.9.2.) 

9. Determine which piping circuit of the system is the basic one for which pipe sizes in main lines and riser 
should be designed in accordance with friction loss limits. This circuit is the most extreme ran of piping through 
which water flows from the public main, or other source of supply, to the highest and most distant water outlet. 
This basic design circuit (BDC) should be specifically identified on the schematic elevation of the system. (See 
Section B.9.3.) 

10. Mark on the schematic elevation the pressure loss due to friction corresponding to the maximum probable 
demand through any water meter, water softener, or instantaneous or tankless water heating coil that may be pro- 
vided in the BDC. (See Sections B.9.4 and B.9.5.) 

11. Calculate the amount of pressure remaining and available for dissipation as friction loss during peak demand 
through pipe, valves, and fittings in the BDC. Deduct from the excess static pressure available at the topmost 
fixtures (determined in step 8), the friction losses for any water meters, softeners, and water heating coils provided 
in the BDC determined in step 10. (See Section B.9.4.) 

12. Calculate the total equivalent length of the BDC. Pipe sizes established on the basis of velocity limitation in 
step 7 for main lines and risers must be considered just tentative at this stage, but may be deemed appropriate for 
determining corresponding equivalent lengths of fittings and valves in this step. (See Section B.9.7.) 

13. Calculate the permissible uniform pressure loss for friction in piping of the BDC. The amount of pressure 
available in the circuit for dissipation as friction loss due to pipe, fittings, and valves (determined in step 1 1), is 
divided by the total equivalent length of the circuit (determined in step 12). This establishes the pipe friction limit 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



259 



for the circuit in terms of pressure loss in psi per foot of total equivalent pipe length. Multiply this value by 100 in 
order to express the pipe friction limit in terms of psi per 100 feet of length. (See Section B.9.6.) 

14. Set up a sizing table showing the rates of flow for various sizes of the kind of piping to be used, correspond- 
ing to the permissible uniform pressure loss for pipe friction calculated for the BDC (determined in step 13). Such 
rates may be determined from a pipe friction chart appropriate for the piping to be used and for the effects upon 
the piping of the quality of the water to be conveyed thereby for extended service. (See Sections B.9.8 and B.2.3.) 

15. Check the sizes of all parts of the BDC, and all other main lines and risers that supply water upward to the 
highest water outlets on the system, in accordance with the sizing table set up in step 14. Where sizes determined 
in this step are larger than those previously established in step 7 (based on velocity limitation), the increased sizes 
are applicable for limitation of friction. 

16. Due consideration must be given to the action of the water on the interior of the piping, and proper allow- 
ance must be made where necessary as a design consideration, such as, where the kind of piping selected and the 
characteristics of the water conveyed are such that an appreciable buildup of corrosion products or hard-water 
scale may be anticipated to cause a significant reduction in bore of the piping system and inadequate capacity for 
satisfactory supply conditions during the normal service life of the system. A reasonable allowance in such cases 
is to select at least one standard pipe size larger than the sizes determined in the preceding steps. Where the water 
supply is treated in such manner as to avoid buildup of corrosion products or hard-water scale, no allowance need 
be made in sizing piping conveying such treated water. (See Sections B.2.3 and B.9.8.) 

B.ll ILLUSTRATION OF DETAILED SIZING METHOD APPLICATION 

B.ll.l Example 

A seven-story building is supplied by direct street pressure from a public water main in which the minimum 
available pressure is 60 psi. The highest fixture supplied is 64'-8" above the public main, and requires 12 psi 
flow pressure at the fixture for satisfactory supply conditions. 

The water supply is to be metered by a meter through which flow at the maximum probable demand rate will 
produce a pressure drop of 5.6 psi. Copper tubing, Type L, is to be used for the entire system. Quality of the 
water supply is known to be noncorrosive to copper tubing in the water district, and is recognized as being 
non-scaling in characteristic. 

The entire system has been initially sized in accordance with the simplified method based solely on velocity 
limitations. Applying these sizes, the total equivalent length of piping from the public main to the highest and 
most remote fixture outlet has been calculated to be 600'. 

B.11.2 Solution 

Steps 1-7. The first seven steps of the detailed sizing method have already been performed. These steps 
constitute the simplified sizing method based solely on velocity limitations established as the design basis. 
All that remains is to perform steps 8 through 15 of the detailed sizing method which relate to sizing in 
accordance with the frictional limitation which must be observed for this particular system, and with allow- 
ances which may be necessary in view of the water characteristics. 

Step 8. Assuming conditions of no-flow in the system, the amount of excess pressure available at the top- 
most fixture in excess of the minimum required at the fixture for satisfactory supply conditions is determined 
as follows: 
Excess pressure available = 60 psi - 12 psi - (64.67 x 0.4333 psi/ft) = 20 psi 

Step 9. The BDC should be specifically identified on the schematic elevation provided as per step 2. 

Step 10. The pressure loss through the water meter selected for this system for flow at maximum probable 
demand is given in the example as being 5.6 psi. No other items of equipment through which significant fric- 
tion losses may occur have been noted in the example. 

Step 1 1 . The amount of pressure remaining for dissipation as friction loss during peak demand through 
pipes, valves, and fittings in the basic design circuit is determined as follows: 



2 60 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Pressure available for friction in piping = 20 psi - 5.6 psi = 14.4 psi 

Step 12. The total equivalent length of the basic design circuit has been given in the example as being 600 
feet, based on the sizes determined in accordance with velocity limitations as per step 7. 

Step 13. The permissible uniform pressure loss for friction in piping of the basic design circuit is deter- 
mined as follows: 

Permissible uniform pipe friction loss = 14.4 psi x (100 ft/600 ft) 
= 2.4 psi per 100 ft pipe length 

Step 14. A sizing table showing the rates of flow through various sizes of copper tubing corresponding to 
a pipe friction loss rate of 2.4 psi per 100 feet of pipe length is given in Table B.11.2. These flow rates were 
determined from the chart applicable to such pipe with a "fairly smooth" surface condition after extended 
service conveying water having the effect stated in the example. 

Step 15. All parts of the BDC should be selected in accordance with the flow rates shown in the table 
established in step 14. Usually, all other parts of the system are sized using the same pressure drop limitation. 



Table B.11.2 
TYPE L COPPER TUBING, FOR "FAIRLY SMOOTH" CONDITION 


Nominal Pipe Size 
(in) 


Flow Rate Corresponding to Friction Loss of 
2-4 psi/100' (gpm) 


1/2 


1.4 


3/4 


3.9 


1 


7.5 


1-1/4 


14.0 


1-1/2 


21.0 


2 


47.0 


2-1/2 


78.0 


3 


130.0 


4 


270.0 



B.12 MANIFOLD TYPE PARALLEL WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS 

B.12.1 Manifolds 

The total water supply demand for the dwelling shall be determined in accordance with Section 10. 14 and 
Appendix B.5. Manifolds shall be sized according to Table B.12.1 based on the total supply demand. 



Table B.12.1 
MANIFOLD SIZING 1 


Nominal Size 
Inches 


Maximum GPM Available @ Velocity 


@ 4 fps 


@8fps 


@ 10 fps 


1/2 


2 


5 


6 


3/4 


6 


11 


14 


1 


10 


20 


25 


1-1/4 


15 


31 


38 


1-1/2 


22 


44 


55 


1 Refer to Section 10. 14 for maximum velocity permitted. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



261 



B.12.2 Distribution Lines 

a. The water pressure available for distribution pipe friction shall be determined from the minimum supply 
pressure available at the source, the developed length and size of the water service, the pressure drop through 
the water meter (if provided), the pressure drop through the manifold, the pressure drop through any other 
equipment or appurtenances in the system, the elevation of each distribution line, and the minimum pressure 
required at each fixture. 

b. The water flow required at each fixture shall be in accordance with Section 10.14.2a for both hot and 
cold water. Distribution line sizes shall be in accordance with the system manufacturer's line sizing proce- 
dure. 

c. The system manufacturer shall provide sizing data for the individual runs of tubing to each fixture based 
on the water pressure available for pipe friction and static elevation, the GPM required at each fixture, the 
tubing material, the tube size, and its maximum allowable length from the manifold to the fixture. Tube sizes 
for parallel water distribution systems include 3/8" nominal, 1/2" nominal, and 3/4" nominal. 



262 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Appendix C 



Conversions: 
Metric to U.S. Customery Units 



LENGTH 

1 millimeter = 0.03937 inches 
100 millimeters = 3.937 inches 
1000 millimeters = 39.37 inches 
1 meter = 3.2808 feet 

AREA 

1 square meter = 10.764 square feet 

VOLUME 

1 liter (L) = 0.2642 gallons (U.S.) 
10 liters (L) = 2.642 gallons (U.S.) 

VELOCITY 

1 meter per second (m/s) = 3.2808 feet per second (ft/s) 

FLOW 

1 liter per minute (L/min) = 0.2642 gallons per minute (GPM) 
10 liters per minute (L/min) = 2.642 gallons per minute (GPM) 

PRESSURE 

1 kilopascal (kPa) = 0.145 pounds per square inch (PSI) 
10 kilopascals (kPa) = 1.45 pounds per square inch (PSI) 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



263 



TEMPERATURE 

deg F = 9/5 deg C + 32 
deg C = 5/9 (deg F - 32) 



TEMPERATURE 


DegC 


DegF 


oc 


32 F 


5C 


41 F 


IOC 


50 F 


15C 


59 F 


20 C 


68 F 


25 C 


77 F 


30 C 


86 F 


35 C 


95 F 


40 C 


104 F 


45 C 


113 F 


50 C 


122 F 


55 C 


131 F 


60 C 


140 F 


65 C 


149 F 


70 C 


158F 


75 C 


167 F 


80 C 


176 F 


85 C 


185 F 


90 C 


194 F 


95 C 


203 F 


100 C 


212F 



PIPE SIZES 


mm 


NPS 


15 


1/2 


20 


3/4 


25 


1 


32 


1-1/4 


40 


1-1/2 


50 


2 


65 


2-1/2 


80 


3 


100 


4 


125 


5 


150 


6 


200 


8 


250 


10 


300 j 12 



CONVERTING WSFU DEMAND 
TO LITERS PER MINUTE (L/min) FLOW 


WSFU 


Flush Tanks 
L/min 


Flush Valves 
L/min 


WSFU 


Flush Tanks 
L/min 


Flush Valves 
L/min 


3 


11 




120 


186 


280 


4 


15 




140 


201 


295 


5 


17 


83 


160 


216 


314 


6 


19 


87 


180 


231 


329 


7 


23 


91 


200 


246 


345 


8 


27 


95 


225 


265 


360 


9 


28 


98 


250 


284 


379 


10 


30 


102 


300 


322 


416 


11 


32 


106 


400 


398 


473 


12 


34 


110 


500 


473 


530 


13 


38 


112 


750 


644 


662 


14 


40 


114 


1000 


795 


795 


15 


42 


117 


1250 


909 


909 


16 


45 


121 


1500 


1022 


1022 


17 


47 


125 


1750 


1136 


1136 


18 


49 


127 


2000 


1230 


1230 


19 


51 


129 


2500 


1438 


1438 


20 


53 


133 


3000 


1647 


1647 


25 


64 


144 


4000 


1987 


1987 


30 


76 


155 


5000 


2271 


2271 


40 


95 


178 


6000 


2460 


2460 


50 


110 


193 


7000 


2650 


2650 


60 


125 


208 


8000 


2763 


2763 


80 


148 


235 


9000 


2877 


2877 


100 


167 


257 


j 10,000 


2990 


2990 



264 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Appendix D 



Determining the Minimum 
Number of Required Plumbing 

Fixtures 



The determination of the minimum number of required plumbing fixtures is a complex issue as many buildings 
are unique as such the Authority Having Jurisdiction is called upon to use good judgement in applying this proce- 
dure. 

1. DETERMINE THE SERVICE POPULATION 

The population for the building or facility should be given on the plans. In the event the population of the build- 
ing or service area is not given on the plans, three approaches may be utilized in determining the population to be 
served by the restroom facility. 

(a) Actual: In some instances the actual population, male and female, of the building service area may be 
known and this value may be used in the calculations. 

(b) Engineering Estimate: The population of many buildings, especially those owner-occupied, may be de- 
termined on the basis of population densities. Typically, office building floor areas range from 200 to 400 square 
feet per person. In the absence of other data, the gender ratio should be 50/50. 

(c) Legal Limit: Many building codes establish a legal occupancy limit based on the means of egress. Where 
the occupant load is based on the egress requirements of a building, the number of occupants for plumbing pur- 
poses shall be permitted to be reduced to two-thirds of that required for fire or life safety purposes. 

2. MINIMUM NUMBER OF REQUIRED PLUMBING FIXTURES 

The minimum number of required plumbing fixtures shall be determined based on building classification, user 
group and population as given in Table 7.21.1. The building classifications and user groups are consistent with 
nationally recognized building codes. 

EXAMPLE A 

Building classification, use group, total population must be known. 



Building classification: 
Use Group: 

Floor area: 
Population 



Assembly 

Auditorium without permanent seating 

20,000 net square feet, 1 story 

2,857 based on egress per the Building Code at 7 sq ft per person 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



265 



1. Determine the Plumbing Population 

Since the given population is based on egress requirements, the population for plumbing purposes can be 2/3 of 
that value (Section 7.21.2.b). The ratio of male and female occupants can be assumed to be 50% each (Section 
7.21.2.C). 

Population for plumbing purposes = 2857 x 2/3 = 1905 
Male population = 1905 x 50% = 953 
Female population = 1905 x 50% = 953 

2. Determine the Minimum Required Number of Plumbing Fixtures 

The minimum required number of plumbing fixtures is determined from Table 7.21.1 under No. 1 Assembly 

The number of males and females are greater than the numerical groups listed in Table 7.2 1 . 1 . To determine the 
total number of fixtures required, calculate the number of fixtures required by the listed numerical groups and then 
determine how many additional groups of 300 there are over the first 300. 

Male Water Closets 

first 50 men (1-50) = 1 water closet 

next 50 men (51-100) = add 1 water closet 

next 100 men (101-200) = add 1 water closet 

next 100 men (201-300) = add 1 water closet 

add 1 water closet for each additional group of 300 over 300 (or parts thereof) 

The listed numerical groups account for the first 300 males. 

The additional groups of 300 = (953-300) divided by 300 per group = 2.18 = 3 groups. 

The total number of male water closets = 1 (first 50) 

= 1 (next 50) 
= 1 (next 100) 
= 1 (next 100) 
= 3 (3 additional groups of 300 @ 1 each) 

The minimum number of water closets for males = 7 

Section 7. 21. 5. a permits 50% of the required water closets to be urinals. 

The male toilet room could contain 4 water closets and 3 urinals. 

Female Water Closets 

first 50 females (1-50) = 1 water closet 

next 50 females (51-100) = 1 water closet 

next 100 females (101-200) = 2 water closet 

next 100 females (201-300) = 1 water closets 

add 2 water closets for each additional group of 300 over 300 (or parts thereof) 

The listed numerical groups account for the first 300 females. 

The additional groups of 300 = (953-300) divided by 300 per group = 2.18 = 3 groups 



266 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



The total number of female water closets = 1 (first 50) 

= 1 (next 50) 
= 2 (next 100) 
= 1 (next 100) 
= 6 (3 additional groups of 300 @ 2 each) 

The minimum number of water closets for females =11 

Male Lavatories 

first 50 men (1-50) = 1 lavatory 

next 50 men (51-100) = lavatories 

next 100 men (101-200) = 1 lavatory 

next 100 men (201-300) = lavatories 

add 1 lavatory for each additional group of 300 over 300 (or parts thereof) 

The listed numerical groups account for the first 300 males. 

The additional groups of 300 = (953-300) divided by 300 per group = 2.18 = 3 groups 

The total number of male lavatories = 1 (first 50) 

= (next 50) 
= 1 (next 100) 
= (next 100) 
= 3 (3 additional groups of 300 @ 1 each) 

The minimum number of lavatories for males = 5 

Female Lavatories 

first 50 females (1-50) = 1 lavatory 

next 50 females (51-100) = 1 lavatory 

next 100 females (101-200) = 1 lavatory 

next 100 females (201-300) = 1 lavatories 

add 2 lavatories for each group of 300 over 300 (or parts thereof) 

The listed numerical groups account for the first 300 females. 

The additional groups of 300 = (953-300) divided by 300 per group = 2.18 = 3 groups 

The total number of female lavatories = 1 (first 50) 

= 1 (next 50) 
= 1 (next 100) 
= 1 (next 100) 
= 6 (3 additional groups of 300 @ 2 each) 

The minimum number of lavatories for females = 10 

Drinking Water Facilities 

Table 7.21.1 requires 1 per 1000 people (or parts thereof) 

Number of drinking water facilities = 1905 divided by 1000 = 1.9 = 2 

Service Sinks 

Table 7.21.1 requires a minimum of 1 per floor. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 267 



EXAMPLE B 

Building classification, use group, total population must be known. 

Building classification: Business 

Use Group: Office building 

Floor area: 48,300 net square feet, 1 story 

Population 386 based on expected occupancy 

1. Determine the Plumbing Population 

Population for plumbing purposes = 386 
Male population = 386 x 50% = 193 
Female population = 386 x 50% = 193 

2. Determine the Minimum Required Number of Plumbing Fixtures 

The minimum required number of plumbing fixtures is determined from Table 7.21.1 under No. 2 Business. 

The number of males and females are greater than the numerical groups listed in Table 7.21.1. To determine the 
total number of fixtures required, calculate the number of fixtures required by the listed numerical groups and then 
determine how many additional groups of 60 there are over the first 75. 

Male Water Closets 

first 50 men (1-50) = 1 water closet 

next 50 men (51-100) = add 2 water closets 

next 100 men (101-200) = add 3 water closets 

next 100 men (201-300) = add 4 water closets 

add 1 water closet for each additional group of 300 over 300 (or parts thereof) 

The listed numerical groups account for the first 300 males. 

The additional groups of 300 = (953-300) divided by 300 per group = 2.18 = 3 groups. 

The total number of male water closets = 1 (first 50) 

= 2 (next 50) 
= 3 (next 100) 
= 4 (next 100) 
= 3 (3 additional groups of 300 @ 1 each) 

The minimum number of water closets for males = 13 

Section 7.21. 5. a permits 50% of the required water closets to be urinals. 

The male toilet room could contain 7 water closets and 6 urinals. 

Female Water Closets 

first 50 females (1-50) = 1 water closet 

next 50 females (51-100) = 2 water closets 

next 100 females (101-200) = 4 water closets 

next 100 females (201-300) = 5 water closets 

add 2 water closets for each additional group of 300 over 300 (or parts thereof) 



268 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



The listed numerical groups account for the first 300 females. 

The additional groups of 300 = (953-300) divided by 300 per group = 2.18 = 3 groups 

The total number of female water closets = 1 (first 50) 

= 2 (next 50) 
= 4 (next 100) 
= 5 (next 100) 
= 6 (3 additional groups of 300 @ 2 each) 

The minimum number of water closets for females = 18 

Male Lavatories 
first 50 men (1-50) = 1 lavatory 
next 50 men (51-100) = 1 lavatory 
next 100 men (101-200) = 2 lavatories 
next 100 men (201-300) = 2 lavatories 

The listed numerical groups account for the first 300 males. 

The additional groups of 300 = (953-300) divided by 300 per group = 2.18 = 3 groups 

The total number of male lavatories = 1 (first 50) 

= 1 (next 50) 
= 2 (next 100) 
= 2 (next 100) 
= 3 (3 additional groups of 300 @ 1 each 

The minimum number of lavatories for males = 9 

Female Lavatories 

first 15 females (1-15) = 1 lavatory 

next 25 females (16-40) = add 1 lavatory 

next 35 females (41-75) = add 1 lavatory 

add 2 for each additional group of 60 over 75 (or parts thereof) 

The total number of female lavatories = 1 (first 15) 

= 1 (next 25) 
= 1 (next 35) 
= 4 (2 additional groups of 60 @ 2 each) 

The minimum number of lavatories for females = 7 

Drinking Water Facilities 

Table 7.21.1 requires 1 per 100 people (or parts thereof). 

Number of drinking water facilities = 386 divided by 100 per group = 3.86 = 4 

Service Sinks 

Table 7.21.1 requires a minimum of 1 per floor. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 269 



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270 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Appendix E 



Special Design 
Plumbing Systems 



E.l GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 

E.l.l Special design plumbing systems shall include all systems that vary in detail from the requirements of 
this Code. 

E.1.2 The provisions of this Appendix shall control the design, installation, and inspection of special design 
plumbing systems. 

E.1.3 Special design plumbing systems shall conform to the Basic Principles of this Code. 

E.1.4 Special design plumbing systems shall be designed by a registered design professional who is licensed 
to practice in the particular jurisdiction. 

E.1.5 The requirements of Section E.l, E.2, E.3, and E.4 shall apply to all special plumbing systems in this 
Appendix E 

E.2 PLANS, SPECIFICATIONS, AND COMPUTATIONS 

E.2.1 Plans, specifications, computations, and other related data for special design plumbing systems, 
prepared by the registered design professional, shall be submitted to the Authority Having Jurisdiction for 
review and approval prior to installation. 

E.2. 2 The design plans shall indicate that the plumbing system (or portions thereof) is a special design 
system. 

E.3 INSTALLATION OF SPECIAL DESIGN PLUMBING SYSTEMS 

E.3.1 Special design plumbing systems shall be installed according to established, tested and approved criteria, 
including manufacturer's instructions. 

E.3.2 The installation shall comply with Chapter 2 - General Regulations and other applicable requirements 
of this Code. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



271 



E.4 CERTIFICATION OF COMPLIANCE 

E.4.1 Inspections shall be made by the Authority Having Jurisdiction to ensure conformance with data 
submitted for approval and the applicable requirements of this Code. 

E.4.2 The complete installation and performance of the special design plumbing system shall be certified 
by the registered design professional as complying with the requirements of the special design. 

E.5 VACUUM DRAINAGE SYSTEMS 
E.5.1 General Requirement 

E.5.1.1 System Design 

Vacuum drainage systems shall be designed in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations. The 
system layout, including piping layout, tank assemblies, vacuum pump assembly and other components/ 
designs necessary for proper function of the system shall be per manufacturer's recommendations. Plans, 
specifications and other data for such systems shall be submitted to the Authority Having Jurisdiction for 
review and approval prior to installation. 

E.5. 1.2 Fixtures 

Gravity type fixtures used in vacuum drainage systems shall comply with Chapter 7 of this Code. 

E.5. 1.3 Drainage Fixture Units 

Fixture units for gravity drainage systems that discharge into or receive discharge from vacuum drainage 
systems shall be based upon values in Chapter 11 of this Code. 

E.5.1.4 Water Supply Fixture Units 

Water supply fixture units shall be based upon values in Chapter 10 of this Code with the addition that the 
fixture unit of a vacuum type water closet shall be one inch. 

E.5. 1.5 Traps and Cleanouts 

Gravity type fixtures shall be provided with traps and cleanouts per Chapter 5 of this Code. 

E.5.1. 6 Materials 

. Vacuum drainage pipe, fittings and valve materials shall be as recommended by the vacuum drainage 
system manufacturer and as permitted by this Code. 

E.5.2 Tests and Demonstrations 

After completion of the entire system installation, the system shall be subjected to a vacuum test of 19 inches 
of mercury and shall be operated to function as required by the Authority Having Jurisdiction and the manu- 
facturer. Recorded proof of all tests shall be submitted to the Authority Having Jurisdiction. 

E.5.3 Written Instructions 

Written instructions for the operation, maintenance, safety and emergency procedures shall be provided to 
the Building Owner as verified by the Authority Having Jurisdiction. 



272 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



E.5.4 Requirements for Special Design Plumbing Systems 

The requirements of Sections E.l, E.2, E.3, and E.4 apply to this special design plumbing system. 

E.6 ONE-PIPE SANITARY DRAINAGE SYSTEMS EMPLOYING AERATOR 
AND DEAERATOR STACK FITTINGS 

E.6.1 Compliance 

a. One-pipe sanitary drainage systems employing aerator and deaerator stack fittings shall be permitted to be 
installed in accordance with (1) the fitting manufacturer's current piping design manual and technical bulletins, 
and (2) the applicable requirements of this Code. 

b. The requirements of this Code shall supercede the fitting manufacturer's piping design manual with regard 
to acceptable piping materials, drainage fixture unit (DFU) values, and minimum drainage pipe sizes. 

c. Complete detailed layout drawings shall be prepared prior to the installation of such a sanitary drainage 
system. 

E.6.2 Piping Materials 

Piping materials for drainage stacks and branches shall be in accordance with Section 3.5 of this Code. Piping 
materials for vents shall be in accordance with Section 3.6 of this Code. 

E.6.3 Drainage Fixture Unit (DFU) Values 

Drainage fixture unit values for bathroom groups and individual fixtures shall be in accordance with Table 
11.4.1 of this Code. 

E.6.4 Drainage Pipe Sizing 

Piping in such a sanitary drainage system shall be sized according to the fitting manufacturer's current piping 

design manual. 

EXCEPTION: Drainage pipe sizes shall not be less than those required by Section 1 1 .5 of this Code. 

E.6.5 Arrangement of Piping 

Piping shall be arranged as illustrated in the fitting manufacturer's current design manual. 

E.6.6 Requirements for Special Design Plumbing Systems 

The requirements of Sections E.l, E.2, E.3, and E.4 apply to this special design plumbing system. 

E.7 SINGLE STACK VENT SYSTEMS 

E.7.1 Where permitted. 

A drainage stack shall be permitted to serve as a single stack vent system when sized and installed in accordance 
with Sections E.7. 2 through E.7.9. The drainage stack and branch piping in a single stack vent system shall 
provide for the flow of liquids, solids, and air without the loss of fixture trap seals. 

E.7.2 Stack Size 

Drainage stacks shall be sized according to Table E.7.2. A maximum of two water closets shall be permitted to 
discharge to a 3 inch stack. Stacks shall be uniformly sized based on the total connected drainage fixture unit 
load with no reductions in size. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 273 



Table E.7.2 
SINGLE STACK SIZE 


Stack Size 
(inches) 


Maximum Connected Drainage Fixture Units 




Stacks Less than 75 
Feet in Height 


Stacks 75 Feet to Less than 160 
Feet in Height 


Stacks 160 Feet or Greater 
in Height 


3 


24(2) 


NP 


NP 


4 


225 


24 


NP 


5 


480 


225 


24 


6 


1015 


480 


225 


8 


2320 


1015 


480 


10 


4500 


2320 


1015 


12 


8100 


4500 


2320 


15 


13,600 


8100 


4500 



1 . NP = not permitted 

2. Not more than two (2) water closets are permitted on a 3" stack. 

E.7.3 Branch Size 

Horizontal branches connecting to a single stack vent system shall be sized according to Table 11.5.1 B. 

EXCEPTIONS: 

(1) No more than one water closet within 18" of the stack horizontally shall be permitted on a 3" horizontal 
branch. 

(2) A water closet within 1 8" of a stack horizontally and one other fixture with up to 1-1/2 inch fixture drain 
size shall be permitted on a 3" horizontal branch when connected to the stack through a sanitary tee. 

E.7.4 Length of Horizontal Branches 

a. Water closets shall be no more than four (4) feet horizontally from the stack. 

EXCEPTION: Water closets shall be permitted to be up to eight (8) feet horizontally from the stack when 
connected to the stack through a sanitary tee. 

b. Fixtures other than water closets shall be no more than twelve (12) feet horizontally from the stack. 

c. The length of any vertical piping from a fixture trap to a horizontal branch shall not be considered it com- 
puting the fixture's horizontal distance from the stack. 

E.7.5 Maximum Vertical Drops From Fixtures 

Vertical drops from fixture traps to horizontal branch piping shall be one pipe size larger than the trap but not 
less than two (2) inch pipe size. Vertical drops shall be four (4) feet maximum length. Fixture drains that are 
not increased in size, or have a vertical drop exceeding 4 feet shall be individually vented. 

E.7.6 Additional Venting Required 

Additional venting shall be provided when more than one water closet is on a horizontal branch and where 
the distance from a fixture trap to the stack exceeds the limits in Section 12.18.4. Where additional venting is 
required, the fixture(s) shall be vented by an individual vent, common vent, wet vent, circuit vent, or a combi- 
nation waste and vent pipe. The dry vent extensions for the additional venting shall connect to a branch vent, 
vent stack, stack vent, air admittance valve, or be extended outdoors and terminate to the open air. 



274 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



E.7.7 Stack Offsets 

Where there are no fixture drain connections below a horizontal offset in a stack, the offset does not need to be 
vented. When there are fixture drain connections below a horizontal offset in a stack, the offset shall be vented 
in accordance with Section 12.3.3. There shall be no fixture connections to a stack within 2 feet above and 
below a horizontal offset. 

E.7.8 Separate Stacks Required 

Where stacks are more than two stories high, a separate stack shall be provided for the fixtures on the lower two 
stories. The stack for the lower two stories may be connected to the branch of the building drain that serves the 
stack for the upper stories at a point that is at least 10 pipe diameters downstream from the base of the upper 
stack. 

E.7.9 Sizing Building Drains and Sewers 

The building drain and branches thereof, and the building sewer in a single stack vent system shall be sized in 
accordance with Table 1 1 .5. 1 A. 

E.7.10 Requirements for Special Design Plumbing Systems 

The requirements of Sections E.l, E.2, E.3, and E.4 apply to this special design plumbing system. 

E.8 AIR ADMITTANCE VALVES 

E.8.1 Definition 

Air admittance valve: A one-way valve designed to allow air to enter the plumbing drainage system when 
negative pressures develop in the system. The device closes by gravity, without springs or other mechanical 
means, and seals the vent terminal at zero differential pressure (no flow conditions) and also under positive 
internal pressure. The purposes of an air admittance valve are (1) to provide a method of allowing air to enter 
the plumbing drainage system without the need for a vent extended outdoors to open air, and (2) to prevent 
sewer gases from escaping into the building. 

E.8.2 Where Permitted 

E.8.2.1 Branch, circuit, common, continuous, and individual vents shall be permitted to terminate with a 
connection to an individual or branch type air admittance valve complying with ASSE 1051. Individual 
and branch type air admittance valves shall only vent fixtures that are on the same floor level and connect 
to a horizontal branch drain. 

E.8.2.2 Vent stacks and stack vents shall be permitted to terminate at a stack type air admittance valve 

complying with ASSE 1050. 

EXCEPTIONS 

(1) Vent stacks and stack vents serving drainage stacks that exceed six (6) branch intervals in height. 

(2) Vent stacks and stack vents that serve relief vents in Section E.8. 3. 

E.8.2.3 Air admittance valves shall not be permitted in the following applications: 

a. vents for special waste drainage systems (Sections 9.4.1 and 9.4.2). 

b. vents for sewage pump or ejector sump pits. 
. c. vents for pneumatic sewage ejectors. 

d. suds pressure zone venting. 

e. relief vents required by Section E.8.3.1. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 275 



E.8.3 Relief Vents 

E.8.3.1 A relief vent shall be provided where a horizontal branch drain that is vented by one or more air 
admittance valves connects to a drainage stack more than four (4) branch intervals from the top of the stack. 
The relief vent shall connect vertically to the horizontal branch drain between the drainage stack and the 
most downstream fixture drain connection on the horizontal branch drain. Relief vents shall extend from 
the horizontal branch drain to a vent stack, stack vent, or other vent that terminates outdoors in open air. 

E.8.3.2 Relief vents shall be the full size of the horizontal branch drain that they serve, up to 3" maximum 
required size. 

E.8.3.3 Relief vents shall be permitted to vent fixtures other than those on the horizontal branch drain be- 
ing relieved. 

E.8.4 Installation 

E.8.4.1 Air admittance valves shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and 
Section E.8. 

E.8.4.2 Air admittance valves shall connect to fixture trap arms within the maximum allowable trap arm 
lengths in Table 12.8.1. 

E.8.4.3 Individual and branch type air admittance valves shall be installed at least 4 inches above the top 
of the trap arm or horizontal branch drain that they serve. 

E.8.4.4 Stack type air admittance valves shall be installed at least 6 inches above the flood level rim of the 
highest fixture served by the valve. 

E.8.4.5 Air admittance valves shall be installed in accessible locations having free movement of air to enter 
the valve. 

E.8.4.6 Air admittance valves shall not be installed in HVAC supply or return air plenums or other areas 
subject to other than atmospheric pressure. 

E.8.4.7 Air admittance valves installed in insulated attic or ceiling spaces shall be installed in free air at 
least six inches above the insulation. 

E.8.4.8 Air admittance valves shall be the same size as the vent pipe to which they are connected. 

E.8.4.9 Air admittance valves shall not be installed until all required leak tests of the drainage and vent 
piping are successfully completed. 

E.8.5 Vent to Outdoors Required 

E.8.5.1 Where a plumbing drainage system is vented by one or more air admittance valves, at least one vent 
pipe shall extend to an outdoor vent terminal complying with Section 12.4. Outdoor venting shall comply 
with either Section E.8.5. 2 or E.8.5. 3. 



276 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



E.8.5.2 The aggregate size of the outdoor vent terminals shall comply with Section 12. 16.6 unless the build- 
ing drain is vented in accordance with Section E.8.5.3,. 

E.8.5.3 Where the aggregate size of outdoor vent terminals does not comply with Section E.8.5.2, a dry 
vent, sized according to Table 12.16, shall be provided downstream from the last fixture connection, branch 
connection, or stack connection to the building drain before the connection of the building drain to the 
building sewer. 

E.8.6 Referenced Standards 

a. ASSE 1050-2002 Stack Air Admittance Valves for Sanitary Drainage Systems. 

b. ASSE 1 05 1 -2002 Individual and Branch Type Air Admittance Valves for Plumbing Drainage Systems. 

E.8.7 Requirements for Special Design Plumbing Systems 

The requirements of Sections E.l, E.2, E.3, and E.4 apply to this special design plumbing system. 

E.9 SIPHONIC ROOF DRAINAGE 

E.9.1 General Requirements 

a. Siphonic roof drainage systems for primary roof drainage shall be designed, installed, inspected, and tested 
in accordance with the requirements of ASPE Standard 45- Siphonic Roof Drainage, its Appendices, and the 
other requirements of Section of E.9 in NSPC Appendix E. 

b. Systems shall be permitted to be designed using computer programs that produce results equivalent to 
ASPE Standard 45. 

c. Design plans shall show all details of the system installation, including pipe sizing, routing, elevations, 
fittings, and orientation. The system installation shall be coordinated with all other aspects of the facility con- 
struction. 

d. The requirements of Sections E.l, E.2, E.3, and E.4 apply to this special design plumbing system. 

E.9.2 Roof Drains 

Siphonic roof drains shall comply with ASMEA1 12.6.9. 

E.9.3 Rainfall Rates 

The rainfall rates used for sizing primary and secondary roof drainage systems shall be in accordance with 
Table A. 1 in NSPC Appendix A. 

E.9.4 Secondary Roof Drainage 

Secondary roof drainage shall be provided in accordance with NSPC Section 13.1.10.2. 

E.9.5 Referenced Standards 

ASPE Standard 45- current edition 
ASMEA1 12.6.9-2005 Siphonic Roof Drains 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 277 



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278 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Appendix F 



Requirements of the 
Adopting Agency 



F.l GENERAL 

This Code does not include specific requirements in certain cases where local practices may vary from one ju- 
risdiction to another. This appendix lists those sections of this Code where the Adopting Agency must establish 
requirements. Adopting agencies should review the sections listed under Appendix F.2. 

F.2 REFERENCES 

1.4.8: Appendicies 

2.16.1: Minimum earth cover for water service pipe. 

2. 16.2: Minimum earth cover for building sewers. 

2.19.1: Distance for required connections to public water supplies and sewers. 

2-19.2: Standards and requirements for private water and sewage disposal systems. 

2.26 Elevator Pits 

10.9.2: Disinfecting water piping. 

1 1 .7.6: Use of grinder pumps. 

15.3.1: Testing new plumbing work. 

15.3.2: Testing existing sewers and drains. 

16.1: State or local requirements for private sewage disposal systems. 

Chapter 1 8: Mobile home and travel trailer park plumbing requirements. 

R3 EXCEPTIONS, WAIVERS, APPROVALS 

There are instances where this Code specifically permits exceptions or waivers of its requirements and the ap- 
proval of alternative materials and methods by the Adopting Agency. These occur throughout this Code. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



279 



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280 2f) °9 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Appendix G 



Graywater Recycling Systems 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



281 



G.l FOREWORD 

In the United States today, regulations concerning water conservation, moratoriums on sewer connections, 
and restrictions on sewer permits are a clear indication of a growing economy restrained by a lack of avail- 
able water. Water being a finite resource, these actions serve as a warning that without adequate planning for 
our future water needs, America is facing a critical water supply shortage. 

In virtually all major metropolitan and many suburban areas in the country, water treatment plants are over- 
loaded and many, due to neglect and deferred maintenance, are beginning to fail. Finding additional water 
sources and supplies and expanding existing water treatment plant capacity is expensive, sometimes imprac- 
tical, and at best, involves long range planning. 

Traditionally, the municipal treatment facility has been the primary source of water disposal for single and 
multi-family residential buildings and complexes. As long term water shortages increasingly are predicted in 
several areas across the nation, water conservation becomes more of a national issue. Fortunately, alternative 
technical solutions are currently available. 

Various potentially useful and dependable water treatment and recycling technologies are being explored. 
One possible source is graywater recycling, an on-site wastewater treatment and recycling system, also 
known as "Graywater Systems". This promising technology offers a practical solution to the water shortage 
problem as it applies to plumbing installations. Graywater systems are designed to safely manage wastewa- 
ter and reduce water consumption. Graywater systems can be used in all types of residential, commercial, 
institutional, and industrial buildings. Some graywater applications include toilet and urinal flushing, land- 
scape irrigation, supply water for ornamental ponds and make-up water for cooling towers. 

G.2 DEFINITIONS 

Biological Treatment: A method of wastewater treatment in which bacterial or biochemical action is intensi- 
fied as a means of producing an oxidized wastewater. 

Black Water: Used untreated water that is flushed down toilets and urinals. This water cannot be directly 
reused. 

Effluent: Partially or completely treated liquid waste discharge from a wastewater treatment system. 

Graywater: Used untreated water generated by clothes washing machines, showers, bathtubs and lavatories. 
It shall not include water from kitchen sinks or dishwashers. 

Reclaimed Water: Effluent from a wastewater treatment facility that has been subjected to extensive treat- 
ment in order to remove organic material, heavy metals, and harmful pathogens (such as bacteria, viruses, 
and protozoa). Reclaimed water is non-potable. 

Septic Tank: A water-tight receptacle that receives the discharge of a building sanitary drainage system or 
part thereof, and is designed and constructed so as to separate solids from the liquid, digest organic matter 
through a period of detention, and allow the liquids to discharge into the soil outside of the tank through a 
system of open joint or perforated piping, or a seepage pit. 

Wastewater: The combination of liquid and water-carried pollutants from residences, commercial buildings, 
industrial plants, and institutions. 



282 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



G.3 APPROVED MATERIALS 

a. All materials, fixtures or equipment used in the installation, repair or alteration of graywater systems, 
shall conform to the standards listed in Chapter 3 of this Code. 

b. Materials not listed in Chapter 3 of this Code may be used with the approval of the Authority Having 
Jurisdiction as permitted in Section 3.12.2. 

G.4 APPROVED INSTALLATIONS 

a. Prior to construction of a graywater system, the appropriate permits shall be obtained from the Authority 
Having Jurisdiction. The applicant shall provide the Authority Having Jurisdiction with complete plans and 
manufacturers' recommendations of the proposed installation. 

b. All pipe sizing and installation procedures shall conform to the applicable sections of this Code. 

G.5 PROHIBITED INSTALLATIONS 

Graywater shall not be applied outdoors above ground nor permitted to collect on the surface of the ground or to 
run off the property. Graywater shall not be permitted to come in direct contact with edible food sources. 

G.6 ACCEPTABLE TREATMENT METHODS 

G.6.1 Nylon or Cloth Filter 

The nylon or cloth filter system typically consists of a filter bag connected to the graywater inlet pipe in a 
tank. The graywater is passed through the filter media (that collects hair and lint) and proceeds on for further 
treatment. 

G.6.2 Sand Filter 

The sand filter system consists of a sand and rock filled tank with an underdrain system. The graywater is 
poured onto splash plates and then filtered through filter media, while receiving physical and biological treat- 
ment. The filtered graywater then is collected and transported via an underdrain system for reuse. 

G.6.3 Diatomaceous Earth Filter 

Diatomaceous filters are commonly used for filtering water for swimming pools and spas. The use of this 
type of filter is primarily limited to separating solids in suspension with the use of a recirculating line. 

G.6.4 Rack or Grate Filters 

The primary function of the rack or grate filter is to remove particle matter from the graywater. 

G.6.5 Collection and Settling 

Commonly found in septic systems, whereby solids flow into the tank and are permitted to settle to the bot- 
tom forming a sludge layer. 

G.6.6 Biological Treatment Units 

Typically a process in which solids are separated through the use of three chambers. Pre-settling, aeration, 
and final settling separate the solids while allowing biological treatment prior to reuse. This type of treat- 
ment is usually found in large commercial applications. 

G.6.7 Reverse Osmosis 

A process involving treatment of the graywater by a reverse osmosis unit. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 283 



G.6.8 Physical/Chemical Treatment 

Graywater is processed through a rapid mix tank in which polymer and activated carbon are added. The 
treated graywater is then passed through a settling tank in which sludge is removed. The graywater then goes 
on to numerous filters for further treatment. 

G.7 DISINFECTION TECHNIQUES 

Ultraviolet Irradiation 

Ozone 

Chlorine 

Iodine 

G.7.1 

Disinfection techniques shall be chosen with regards to the compatibility of the materials used in the pipes, 
fittings, tanks and other equipment in the system. 

G.8 IRRIGATION METHODS 

Sub-surface irrigation 

G.9 PROTECTION OF THE POTABLE WATER SUPPLY 

a. A graywater system shall be designed, installed and maintained to prevent contamination from non-pota- 
ble liquids, solids or gases into the potable water supply through cross-connections. 

b. In all buildings where dual water systems are installed, one potable water and one non-potable water, 
each system shall be identified according to Section 10.2. 

c. The potable water supply shall be protected from backflow and back-siphonage by an approved method 
of cross-connection control required by Sections 10.4 and 10.5. 

G.10 TESTING 

a. All applicable sections of this appendix shall conform to the body of this Code. Installation of the gray- 
water system shall conform in all aspects to the manufacturers recommended installation procedures. 

b. Systems shall be tested and comply with the requirements of the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Piping, 
valves, and fittings shall be tested in compliance with Chapter 15 of this Code. 

G.ll MAINTENANCE 

The graywater system shall be maintained in accordance with the manufacturers recommended maintenance 
instructions. 



284 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Appendix H 



INSTALLATION OF 

MEDICAL GAS 

AND VACUUM PIPING 

SYSTEMS 



(Refer to NFPA 99-2005 or NFPA 99C-2005) 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



285 



Blank Page 



286 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Appendix I 



Fixture Unit Value 
Curves for Water Closets 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



287 



1.1 DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS — WATER CLOSETS 



s 
P 

t 

a 

x 

K 



lo 
8 

6 

4 
2 




Chart 1.1(a) 

Drainage Fixture Units - Water Closets 
Heavy Use Assembly 




■+- 



-+- 



-+- 



-+■ 



0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 

Flush Volume (Gallons) 



1.4 



1.6 



1.8 



Gravity q=1 6 — a— Valve q=1 95 



•Press Tank q=32 





10 


V3 


8 


B 
P 


6 


2 


4 


a 




X 


2 


to 






Chart 1.1(b) 

Drainage Fixture Units - Water Closets 
Other than Dwellings 




-+- 



•+■ 



-+- 



■+- 



03. 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 

Flush Volume (Gallons) 



1.4 



1.6 



1.8 



Gravity q=16 



Valve q=1 92 



-Press Tank q=32 



3 

B 
P 

£ 

a 



10 
8 
6 
4 

2 




Chart 1.1(c) 

Drainage Fixture Units - Water Closets 
Dwellings 




+- 



— I 1 1 

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 

Flush Volume (Gallons) 



Gravity q=1 6 



Valve q=1 9.2 



• PiBSsTankq=32 



©1994 Stevens Institute of Technology 



288 



2009 Notional Standard Plumbing Code 



1.2 WATER SUPPLY FIXTURE UNITS — WATER CLOSETS 



Chart 1.2(a) 

Water Supply Fixture Units • Water Closets 
Heavy Use Assembly 



c 
2 

3 



10 



s 4 
3 
2 
1 




■4- 



-+- 



-H 1 i 

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 

Flush Volume (Gallons) 



1.4 



1.6 



1.8 



Press Tank 
q=1.5 



Gravity q=2.4 



Valve q=20 



Valve q=24 



Chart 1.2(b) 

Water Supply Fixture Units - Water Closets 
Dwellings and other Services 



10 
9 

8 
7 

S 6 

s 5 

2 4 

to. 3 




■+- 



-+- 



■+■ 



■+- 



0.2 



0.4 



0.6 0.8 1 1.2 

Flush Volume (Gallons) 



1.4 



1.6 



1.8 



Press Tank 
q=15 



Gravity q=2.4 



Valve q=20 



Valve q=24 



©1994 Stevens Institute of Technology 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



289 



Blank Page 



290 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Appendix J 



Reserved 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



291 



Blank Page 



2"2 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Appendix K 



Flow In 
Sloping Drains 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



293 



Flow in Sloping Drains 

Tables K-l and K-2 list flow rates in gallons per minute and velocities in feet per second for various size 
drains at various slopes. Table K-l is based on fairly rough pipe. Table K-2 is based on smooth pipe. 

The minimum flow velocity to achieve scouring in horizontal sanitary drain lines is two (2) feet per second. 
For this reason, based on Table K-2 for smooth pipe, drains that are 2 inches and smaller must be sloped at 
not less than 1/4 inch per foot. Drains that are 3" size and larger can be sloped at 1/8 inch per foot. 

Even at 1/4" per foot slope, the uniform velocity in drains that are 1-1/4", 1-1/2", and 2" size is less than 2 
feet per second. Either the slope should be increased or the length of such drains should be kept to a mini- 
mum so that the entrance velocity will provide scouring for the short distance involved. 

Tables K-l and K-2 are based on the Manning Formula for 1/2 full pipe. For full flow, multiply the flow by 
2.00 and the velocity by 1.00. For 1/4 full flow, multiply the flow by 0.274 and the velocity by 0.701. For 3/4 
full flow, multiply the flow by 1.82 and the velocity by 1.13. 

In Table K-l, which is based on fairly rough pipe with "n" = 0.015, for smoother pipe, multiply the flow and 
velocity by 0.015 and divide by the "n" value of the smoother pipe. 

Horizontal sanitary drain and waste pipes are sized to be one-half (1/2) full under design loads. Horizontal 
storm drains are sized to run full under design loads. 

Table 11.5.1A Building Drains and Sewers and the horizontal piping in Table 11. 5. IB "Horizontal Fixture 
Branches and Stacks" is based on Table K-2 for smooth pipe. 

Table 13.6.2 "Size of Horizontal Storm Drains" is based on Table K-l for fairly rough pipe, adjusted for full 
flow. 



294 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Table K-l 

APPROXIMATE FLOW RATES AND VELOCITIES IN SLOPING DRAINS 

(FOR FAIRLY ROUGH PIPE n = 0.015) 

Flowing Half Full 


Pipe Size 
(inches) 


1/16 in./ft. slope 


1/8 in./ft. slope 


1/4 in./ft. slope 


1/2 in./ft. slope 


Flow 
gpm 


Vel. 
fps 


Flow 
gpm 


Vel. 
fps 


Flow 
gpm 


Vel. 
fps 


Flow 
gpm 


Vel. 
fps 


1.250 










2.40 


1.25 


3.40 


1.77 


1.375 










3.10 


1.35 


4.38 


1.91 


1.500 










3.90 


1.41 


5.52 


1.99 


1.625 










4.83 


1.50 


6.83 


2.12 


2 










8.41 


1.73 


11.9 


2.44 


3 






17.5 


1.60 


24.8 


2.26 


35.0 


3.20 


4 


26.7 


1.36 


37.7 


1.92 


53.4 


2.72 


75.5 


3.84 


5 


48.4 


1.58 


68.4 


2.23 


96.8 


3.16 


137 


4.47 


6 


78.7 


1.79 


111 


2.53 


157 


3.57 


223 


5.05 


8 


169 


2.17 


240 


3.06 


339 


4.33 


479 


6.13 


10 


307 


2.51 


435 


3.55 


615 


5.02 


869 


7.10 


12 


500 


2.84 


707 


4.01 


999 


5.67 


1413 


8.02 


15 


906 


3.29 


1281 


4.66 


1812 


6.59 


2563 


9.32 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



295 



Table K-2 
APPROXIMATE FLOW RATES AND VELOCITIES IN SLOPING DRAINS 

(FOR SMOOTH PIPE n = 0.011) 
Flowing Half Full 


Pipe Size 
(inches) 


1/16 in./ft. slope 


1/8 in./ft. slope 


1/4 in./ft. slope 


1/2 in./ft. slope 


Flow 
gpm 


Vel. 
fps 


Flow 
gpm 


Vel. 

fps 


Flow 
gpm 


Vel. 
fps 


Flow 
gpm 


Vel. 
fps 


1.250 










3.27 


1.71 


4.63 


2.42 


1.375 










4.22 


1.84 


5.97 


2.60 


1.500 










5.32 


1.92 


7.53 


2.72 


1.625 










6.86 


2.04 


9.32 


2.89 


2 










11.5 


2.35 


16.2 


3.33 


3 






23.9 


2.18 


33.8 


3.08 


47.8 


4.36 


4 


36.4 


1.85 


51.5 


2.62 


72.8 


3.71 


103 


5.24 


5 


66.0 


2.15 


93.3 


3.05 


132 


4.31 


187 


6.09 


6 


107 


2.44 


152 


3.44 


215 


4.87 


303 


6.89 


8 


231 


2.95 


327 


4.18 


462 


5.91 


654 


8.36 


10 


419 


3.42 


593 


4.84 


838 


6.84 


1185 


9.68 


12 


681 


3.87 


964 


5.47 


1363 


7.73 


1927 


10.94 


15 


1236 


4.49 


1747 


6.35 


2471 


8.99 


3495 


12.71 



296 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Cock 



Appendix L 



An Acceptable Brazing 

Procedure for General 

Plumbing 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



297 



The following is extracted and edited with permission from Chapter VII of The Copper Tube Handbook published 
by the Copper Development Association. This brazing procedure is acceptable for general plumbing work. Refer 
to NFPA 99 orNFPA 99Cfor brazing medical gas piping. 

Introduction 

Strong, leak-tight brazed connections for copper tube may be made by brazing with filler metals which melt at 
temperatures in the range between 1100 F and 1500 F, as listed in Table 12. Brazing filler metals are sometimes 
referred to as hard solders or silver solders. These confusing terms should be avoided. 

The temperature at which a filler metal starts to melt on heating is the solidus temperature; the liquidus tempera- 
ture is the higher temperature at which the filler metal is completely melted. The liquidus temperature is the mini- 
mum temperature at which brazing will take place. 

The difference between solidus and liquidus is the melting range and may be of importance when selecting a filler 
metal. It indicates the width of the working range for the alloy and the speed with which the alloy will become 
fully solid after brazing. Filler metals with narrow ranges, with or without silver, solidify more quickly and, there- 
fore, require more careful application of heat. The melting ranges of common brazing metals are shown in Figure 
8a. 

Brazing Filler Metals 

Brazing filler metals suitable for joining copper tube are of two classes: 

(1) alloys that contain phosphorus (the BCuP series) and 

(2) alloys containing a high silver content (the BAg series) 

The two classes differ in their melting, fluxing and flowing characteristics and this should be considered in selec- 
tion of a filler metal. (See Table 12.) For joining copper tube, any of these filler metals will provide the necessary 
strength when used with standard solder-type fittings or commercially available short-cup brazing fittings. 

Fluxes 

The fluxes used for brazing copper joints are different in composition from soldering fluxes. The two types cannot 
be used interchangeably. 

Brazing fluxes are water based, whereas most soldering fluxes are petroleum based. Similar to soldering fluxes, 
brazing fluxes dissolve and remove residual oxides from the metal surface, protect the metal from re-oxidation 
during heating and promote wetting of the surfaces to be joined by the brazing filler metal. 

Fluxes also provide the craftsman with an indication of temperature. If the outside of the fitting and the heat- 
affected area of the tube are covered with flux (in addition to the end of the tube and the cup), oxidation will be 
prevented and the appearance of the joint will be greatly improved. 

The fluxes best suited for brazing copper and copper alloy tube should meet AWS Classification FB3-A or FB3-C 
as listed in Table 4.1 of the AWS Brazing Handbook. Figure 9, illustrates the need for brazing flux with different 
types of copper and copper-alloy tube, fittings and filler metals when brazing. 



298 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Assembling 

Assemble the joint by inserting the tube into the socket hard against the stop and turn if possible. The assembly 
should be firmly supported so that it will remain in alignment during the brazing operation. 

Applying Heat and Brazing 

Step one: Apply heat to the parts to be joined, preferably with an oxy-fuel flame. Air-fuel is sometimes used on 
smaller sizes. A neutral flame should be used. Heat the tube first, beginning about one inch from the edge of the 
fitting, sweeping the flame around the tube in short strokes at right angles to the axis of the tube. 

It is very important that the flame be in motion continuously and not remain on anyone point long enough to dam- 
age the tube. The flux may be used as a guide as to how long to heat the tube; continue heating the tube until the 
flux becomes quiet and transparent like clear water. The behavior of flux during the brazing cycle is described in 
Figure 8b. 

Step two: Switch the flame to the fitting at the base of the cup. Heat uniformly, sweeping the flame from the fit- 
ting to the tube until the flux on the fitting becomes quiet. Avoid excessive heating of cast fittings. 

Step three: When the flux appears liquid and transparent on both the tube and fitting, start sweeping the flame 
back and forth along the axis of the joint to maintain heat on the parts to be joined, especially toward the base of 
the cup of the fitting. The flame must be kept moving to avoid melting the tube or fitting. 

Step four: Apply the brazing filler metal at a point where the tube enters the socket of the fitting. When the 
proper temperature is reached, the filler metal will flow readily into the space between the tube and fitting socket, 
drawn in by the natural force of capillary action. 

Keep the flame away from the filler metal itself as it is fed into the joint. The temperature of the tube and fitting at 
the joint should be high enough to melt the filler metal. 

Keep both the fitting and tube heated by moving the flame back and forth from one to the other as the filler metal 
is drawn into the joint. 

When the joint is properly made, a continuous fillet of filler metal will be visible completely around the joint. Stop 
feeding as soon as you see that fillet. Table 1 1 is a guide to estimating how much filler metal will be consumed. 

For 1-inch tube and larger it may be difficult to bring the whole joint up to heat at one time. It frequently will 
be found desirable to use a multiple-orifice torch tip to maintain a proper temperature over large areas. A mild 
preheating of the whole fitting is recommended for larger sizes. Heating then can proceed as outlined in the steps 
above. 

Horizontal and Vertical Joints 

When brazing horizontal joints, it is preferable to first apply the filler metal at the bottom, then the two 
sides, and finally the top, making sure the operations overlap. On vertical joints it is immaterial where 
the start is made. If the opening of the socket is pointing down, care should be taken to avoid overheat- 
ing the tube, as this may cause the brazing filler metal to run down the outside of the tube. If this hap- 
pens, take the heat away and allow the filler metal to set. Then reheat the cup of the fitting to draw up the 
filler metal. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 299 



Removing Residue 

After the brazed joint has cooled the flux residue should be removed with a clean cloth, brush or swab using warm 
water. Remove all flux residue to avoid the risk of the hardened flux temporarily retaining pressure and masking 
an imperfectly brazed joint. Wrought fittings may be cooled more readily than cast fittings, but all fittings should 
be allowed to cool naturally before wetting. 

General Hints and Suggestions 

If the filler metal fails to flow or has a tendency to ball up, it indicates oxidation on the metal surfaces or insuf- 
ficient heat on the parts to be joined. If the tube or fitting start to oxidize during heating there is too little flux. If 
the filler metal does not enter the joint and tends to flow over the outside of either member of the joint, it indicates 
that one member is overheated or the other is under heated. 

Testing 

Test all completed assemblies for joint integrity. Follow the testing procedure prescribed by applicable codes gov- 
erning the intended service. 



Table 12 
Filler Metals for Brazing 


AWS 

Classification 1 


Principal Elements 


Temperature F 


Silver 


Phosphorus 


Zinc 


Cadmium 


Tin 


Copper 


Solidus 


Liquidus 


BCup-2 


_ 


7.00-7.5 


- 


- 


- 


Remainder 


1310 


1460 


BCup-3 


4.8-5.2 


5.8-6.2 


- 


- 


- 


Remainder 


1190 


1495 


BCup-4 


5.8-6.2 


7.0-7.5 


- 


- 


- 


Remainder 


1190 


1325 


BCup-5 


14.5-15.5 


4.8-5.2 


- 


- 


- 


Remainder 


1190 


1475 


BAg-P 


44-46 


- 


14-18 


23-25 2 


- 


14-16 


1125 


1145 


BAg-2* 


34-36 


- 


19-23 


17-19 2 


- 


25-27 


1125 


1295 


BAg-5 


44-46 


- 


23-27 


- 


- 


29-31 


1225 


1370 


BAg-7 


55-57 


- 


15-19 


- 


4.5-5.5 


21-23 


1145 


1205 



] ANSI/ AWS A5.8 Specification for Filler Metals for Brazing 

2- WARNING: BAgl and BAg2 contain cadmium. Heating when brazing can produce highly toxic fumes. 

CAUTION: Avoid breathing fumes - use adequate ventilation. Refer to ANSI/ASC Z49.1 Safety in Welding and Cutting. 



300 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Figure 8. Melting Temperature Ranges for Copper and Copper Alloys, Brazing Filler Metals, 
Flux and Solders 



8a. 



aoer 






8b. 



iSf-OF •— I 



10QGF 



two-ma, tmcmtom 

1 mam w«rwfW£ wwee 

1350-151" 5CuP-2 Copper Ptes. 

T3«H : mi€sM CeppsfPtos, 
1fMM4», 6C#-4 ftpfs#r»i». 
l3«M$K\fV "''5 Copper Mm. 
,)- -.f-^KAg-t SKei 
12&-1S5<). B%3 stmt 
13704550. B%8 I 
1205-1400, Mfr7 Sftef 



SWF 



M&.TIW fyWS6~®0t©£ftS 
452^R5r-5 - ■ Vi*<- V 
3ei-42t,5'>-» M-Lsad 



300* F 



1M0F 



1CKWF 



50© F 






m.. 



> 



J9Hew 



Smtag TwsptrattOTt 



^s^~~ 



Fte Char and Gaiei 
tisx Begins teMeft 




WsfwBolsotilofFte 



Room Tiraptfitef 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



301 



Figure 9. Brazing Flux Recommendations 



COPPER 



CAST 




-■•• , 



WROUGHT' BAg 



CAST fifty 



302 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Table 11 
Typical Brazing Filler Metal Consumption 


Tube, nominal 

or standard size, 

inches 


Filler Metal Length, inches 


Average 
weight per 
100 joints, 

pounds 1 


1/16 inch 
wire 


1/8 inch x 0.050 inch 
rod 


3/32 inch 
wire 


1/8 inch 
wire 


1/4 


1/2 


1/4 


1/4 


1/8 


.04 


3/8 


5/8 


3/8 


3/8 


1/4 


.06 


1/2 


1-1/8 


5/8 


1/2 


3/8 


.10 


5/8 


1-5/8 


7/8 


5/8 


1/2 


.15 


3/4 


2-1/4 


1-1/8 


1 


5/8 


.21 


1 


3-1/2 


1-3/4 


1-5/8 


7/8 


.32 


1-1/4 


4-1/2 


2-1/4 


2 


1-1/4 


.42 


1-1/2 


- 


3 


2-5/8 


1-1/2 


.56 


2 


- 


4-3/4 


4-3/8 


2-1/2 


.90 


2-1/2 


- 


6-1/2 


5-7/8 


3-3/8 


1.22 


3 


- 


8-5/8 


7-7/8 


4-1/2 


1.64 


3-1/2 


- 


11-1/2 


10-1/2 


5-7/8 


2.18 


4 


- 


14-7/8 


13-1/2 


7-5/8 


2.81 


5 


- 


22-5/8 


20-1/2 


11-5/8 


4.30 


6 


- 


31-1/2 


28-1/2 


16 


5.97 


8 


- 


53-1/2 


48-1/2 


27-3/8 


10.20 


10 


- 


67-1/4 


61 


34-1/4 


12.77 


12 


- 


90-1/2 


82 


46-1/8 


17.20 



Footnote 1 

The amount of filler material indicated is based on an average two- thirds penetration of the cup and with no provision 
for a fillet. For estimating purposes, actual consumption may be two to three times the amounts indicated in this table, 
depending on the size of the joints, method of application and level of workmanship. 



NOTE: 



1 090 inches of 1/16 inch wire = 1 pound 

534 inches of 1/8 inch x .050-inch wire = 1 pound 

484 inches of 3/32 inch wire = 1 pound 

268 inches of 1/8 inch wire = 1 pound 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



303 



Blank Page 



304 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Appendix M 



Converting Water Supply 
Fixture Units (WSFU) to 
Gallons Per Minute Flow 

(GPM) 



INTRODUCTION 

The water supply fixture unit (WSFU) values in this Appendix are interpolated between the values listed in Table 
10. 14.2. B to the degree that the increments between the WSFU listings are close enough that they do not produce 
GPM differences that will be significant in sizing the water supply distribution piping. 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



305 



WSFU 


GPM 
FLUSH 
TANKS 


GPM 
FLUSH 
VALVES 








1 


1.0 




2 


2.0 




3 


3.0 




4 


4.0 




5 


4.5 


22.0 


6 


5.0 


23.0 


7 


6.0 


24.0 


8 


7.0 


25.0 


9 


7.5 


26.0 


10 


8.0 


27.0 


11 


8.5 


28.0 


12 


9.0 


29.0 


13 


10.0 


29.5 


14 


10.5 


30.0 


15 


11.0 


31.0 


16 


12.0 


32.0 


17 


12.5 


33.0 


18 


13.0 


33.5 


19 


13.5 


34.0 


20 


14.0 


35.0 


21 


14.6 


35.6 


22 


15.2 


36.2 


23 


15.8 


36.8 


24 


16.4 


37.4 


25 


17.0 


38.0 


26 


17.6 


38.6 


27 


18.2 


39.2 


28 


18.8 


39.8 


29 


19.4 


40.4 


30 


20.0 


41.0 


31 


20.5 


41.6 


32 


21.0 


42.2 


33 


21.5 


42.8 


34 


22.0 


43.4 


35 


22.5 


44.0 


36 


23.0 


44.6 


37 


23.5 


45.2 


38 


24.0 


45.8 


39 


24.5 


46.4 


40 


25.0 


47.0 


41 


25.4 


47.4 


42 


25.8 


47.8 


43 


26.2 


48.2 


44 


26.6 


48.6 


45 


27.0 


49.0 


46 


27.4 


49.4 


47 


27.8 


49.8 


48 


28.2 


50.2 


49 


28.6 


50.6 



WSFU 


GPM 
FLUSH 
TANKS 


GPM 
FLUSH 
VALVES 


50 


29.0 


51.0 


51 


29.4 


51.4 


52 


29.8 


51.8 


53 


30.2 


52.2 


54 


30.6 


52.6 


55 


31.0 


53.0 


56 


31.4 


53.4 


57 


31.8 


53.8 


58 


32.2 


54.2 


59 


32.6 


54.6 


60 


33.0 


55.0 


61 


33.3 


55.4 


62 


33.6 


55.7 


63 


33.9 


56.1 


64 


34.2 


56.4 


65 


34.5 


56.8 


66 


34.8 


57.1 


67 


35.1 


57.5 


68 


35.4 


57.8 


69 


35.7 


58.2 


70 


36.0 


58.5 


71 


36.3 


58.9 


72 


36.6 


59.2 


73 


36.9 


59.6 


74 


37.2 


59.9 


75 


37.5 


60.3 


76 


37.8 


60.6 


77 


38.1 


61.0 


78 


38.4 


61.3 


79 


38.7 


61.7 


80 


39.0 


62.0 


81 


39.3 


62.3 


82 


39.5 


62.6 


83 


39.8 


62.9 


84 


40.0 


63.2 


85 


40.3 


63.5 


86 


40.5 


63.8 


87 


40.8 


64.1 


88 


41.0 


64.4 


89 


41.3 


64.7 


90 


41.5 


65.0 


91 


41.8 


65.3 


92 


42.0 


65.6 


93 


42.3 


65.9 


94 


42.5 


66.2 


95 


42.8 


66.5 


96 


43.0 


66.8 


97 


43.3 


67.1 


98 


43.5 


67.4 


99 


43.8 


67.7 



WSFU 


GPM 
FLUSH 
TANKS 


GPM 
FLUSH 
VALVES 


100 


44.0 


68.0 


102 


44.5 


68.6 


104 


45.0 


69.2 


106 


45.5 


69.8 


108 


46.0 


70.4 


110 


46.5 


71.0 


112 


47.0 


71.6 


114 


47.5 


72.2 


116 


48.0 


72.8 


118 


48.5 


73.4 


120 


49.0 


74.0 


122 


49.4 


74.4 


124 


49.8 


74.8 


126 


50.2 


75.2 


128 


50.6 


75.6 


130 


51.0 


76.0 


132 


51.4 


76.4 


134 


51.8 


76.8 


136 


52.2 


77.2 


138 


52.6 


77.6 


140 


53.0 


78.0 


142 


53.4 


78.5 


144 


53.8 


79.0 


146 


53.8 


79.5 


148 "^ 


54.6 


80.0 


150 


55.0 


80.5 


152 


55.4 


81.0 


154 


55.8 


81.5 


156 


56.2 


82.0 


158 


56.6 


82.5 


160 


57.0 


83.0 


162 


57.4 


83.4 


164 


57.8 


83.8 


166 


58.2 


84.2 


168 


58.6 


84.6 


170 


59.0 


85.0 


172 


59.4 


85.4 


174 


59.8 


85.8 


176 


60.2 


86.2 


178 


60.6 


86.6 


180 


61.0 


87.0 


182 


61.4 


87.4 


184 


61.8 


87.8 


186 


62.2 


88.2 


188 


62.6 


88.6 


190 


63.0 


89.0 


192 


63.4 


89.4 


194 


63.8 


89.8 


196 


64.2 


90.2 


198 


64.6 


90.6 



306 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



WSFU 


GPM 
FLUSH 
TANKS 


GPM 
FLUSH 
VALVES 


200 


65.0 


91.0 


205 


66.0 


91.8 


210 


67.0 


92.6 


215 


68.0 


93.4 


220 


69.0 


94.2 


225 


70.0 


95.0 


230 


71.0 


95.8 


235 


72.0 


96.6 


240 


73.0 


97.4 


245 


74.0 


98.2 


250 


75.0 


100.0 


255 


76.0 


101.0 


260 


77.0 


102.0 


265 


78.0 


103.0 


270 


79.0 


104.0 


275 


80.0 


105.0 


280 


81.0 


106.0 


285 


82.0 


107.0 


290 


83.0 


108.0 


295 


84.0 


109.0 


300 


85.0 


110.0 


305 


86.0 


110.8 


310 


87.0 


111.5 


315 


88.0 


112.3 


320 


89.0 


113.0 


325 


90.0 


113.8 


330 


91.0 


114.5 


335 


92.0 


115.3 


340 


93.0 


116.0 


345 


94.0 


116.8 


350 


95.0 


117.5 


355 


96.0 


118.3 


360 


97.0 


119.0 


365 


98.0 


119.8 


370 


99.0 


120.5 


375 


100.0 


121.3 


380 


101.0 


122.0 


385 


102.0 


122.8 


390 


103.0 


123.5 


395 


104.0 


124.3 


400 


105.0 


125.0 


405 


106.0 


125.8 


4)0 


107.0 


126.5 


4)5 


108.0 


127.3 


420 


109.0 


128.0 


425 


110.0 


128.8 


430 


111.0 


129.5 


435 


112.0 


130.3 


440 


113.0 


131.0 


445 


114.0 


131.8 



WSFU 


GPM 
FLUSH 

TANKS 


GPM 
FLUSH 
VALVES 


450 


115.0 


132.5 


455 


116.0 


133.3 


460 


117.0 


134.0 


465 


118.0 


134.8 


470 


119.0 


135.5 


475 


120.0 


136.3 


480 


121.0 


137.0 


485 


122.0 


137.8 


490 


123.0 


138.5 


495 


124.0 


139.3 


500 


125.0 


140.0 


510 


126.8 


141.4 


520 


128.6 


142.8 


530 


130.4 


144.2 


540 


132.2 


145.6 


550 


134.0 


147.0 


560 


135.8 


148.4 


570 


137.6 


149.8 


580 


139.4 


151.2 


590 


141.2 


152.6 


600 


143.0 


152.6 


610 


144.8 


155.4 


620 


146.6 


156.8 


630 


148.4 


158.2 


640 


150.2 


159.6 


650 


152.0 


161.0 


660 


153.8 


162.4 


670 


155.6 


163.8 


680 


157.4 


165.2 


690 


159.2 


166.6 


700 


161.0 


168.0 


710 


162.8 


169.4 


720 


164.6 


170.8 


730 


166.4 


172.2 


740 


168.2 


173.6 


750 


170.0 


175.0 


760 


171.6 


176.4 


770 


173.2 


177.8 


780 


174.8 


179.2 


790 


176.4 


180.6 


800 


178.0 


180.6 


810 


179.6 


183.4 


820 


181.2 


184.8 


830 


182.8 


186.2 


840 


184.4 


187.6 


850 


186.0 


189.0 


860 


187.6 


190.4 


870 


189.2 


191.8 


880 


190.8 


193.2 


890 


192.4 


194.6 



WSFU 


GPM 
FLUSH 
TANKS 


GPM 
FLUSH 
VALVES 


900 


194.0 


196.0 


910 


195.6 


197.4 


920 


197.2 


198.8 


930 


198.8 


200.2 


940 


200.4 


201.6 


950 


202.0 


203.0 


960 


203.6 


204.4 


970 


205.2 


205.8 


980 


206.8 


207.2 


990 


208.4 


208.6 


1000 


210.0 


210.0 


1020 


212.4 


212.4 


1040 


214.8 


214.8 


1060 


217.2 


217.2 


1080 


219.6 


219.6 


1100 


222.0 


222.0 


1120 


224.4 


224.4 


1140 


226.8 


226.8 


1160 


229.2 


229.2 


1180 


231.6 


231.6 


1200 


234.0 


234.0 


1220 


236.4 


236.4 


1240 


238.8 


238.8 


1260 


241.2 


241.2 


1280 


243.6 


243.6 


1300 


246.0 


246.0 


1320 


248.4 


248.4 


1340 


250.8 


250.8 


1360 


253.2 


253.2 


1380 


255.6 


255.6 


1400 


258.0 


258.0 


1420 


260.4 


260.4 


1440 


262.8 


262.8 


1460 


265.2 


265.2 


1480 


267.6 


267.6 


1500 


270.0 


270.0 


1520 


272.4 


272.4 


1540 


274.8 


274.8 


1560 


277.2 


277.2 


1580 


279.6 


279.6 


1600 


282.0 


282.0 


1620 


284.4 


284.4 


1640 


286.8 


286.8 


1660 


289.2 


289.2 


1680 


291.6 


291.6 


1700 


294.0 


294.0 


1720 


296.4 


296.4 


1740 


298.8 


298.8 


1760 


301.0 


301.0 


1780 


303.0 


303.0 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



307 



WSFU 


GPM 
FLUSH 
TANKS 


GPM 
FLUSH 

VALVES 


1800 


305.0 


305.0 


1820 


307.0 


307.0 


1840 


309.0 


309.0 


1860 


311.0 


311.0 


1880 


313.0 


313.0 


1900 


315.0 


315.0 


1920 


317.0 


317.0 


1940 


319.0 


319.0 


1960 


321.0 


321.0 


1980 


323.0 


323.0 


2000 


325.0 


325.0 


2020 


327.2 


327.2 


2040 


329.4 


329.4 


2060 


331.6 


331.6 


2080 


333.8 


333.8 


2100 


336.0 


336.0 


2120 


338.2 


338.2 


2140 


340.4 


340.4 


2160 


342.6 


342.6 


2180 


344.8 


344.8 


2200 


347.0 


347.0 


2220 


349.2 


349.2 


2240 


351.4 


351.4 


2260 


353.6 


353.6 


2280 


355.8 


355.8 


2300 


358.0 


358.0 


2320 


360.2 


360.2 


2340 


262.4 


262.4 


2360 


L 364.6 


364.6 


2380 ^ 


366.8 


366.8 


2400 


369.0 


369.0 


2420 


371.2 


371.2 


2440 


373.4 


373.4 


2460 


375.6 


375.6 


2480 


377.8 


377.8 


2500 


380.0 


380.0 


2520 


382.2 


382.2 


2540 


384.4 


384.4 


2560 


386.6 


386.6 


2580 


388.8 


388.8 


2600 


391.0 


391.0 


2620 


393.2 


393.2 


2640 


395.4 


395.4 


2660 


397.6 


397.6 


2680 


399.8 


399.8 


2700 


402.0 


402.0 


2720 


404.2 


404.2 


2740 


406.4 


406.4 


2760 


408.6 


408.6 


2780 


410.8 


410.8 



WSFU 


GPM 
FLUSH 
TANKS 


GPM 
FLUSH 
VALVES 


2800 


413.0 


413.0 


2820 


415.2 


415.2 


2840 


417.4 


417.4 


2860 


419.6 


419.6 


2880 


421.8 


421.8 


2900 


424.0 


424.0 


2920 


426.2 


426.2 


2940 


428.4 


428.4 


2960 


430.6 


430.6 


2980 


432.8 


432.8 


3000 


435.0 


435.0 


3020 


436.8 


436.8 


3040 


438.6 


438.6 


3060 


440.4 


440.4 


3080 


442.2 


442.2 


3100 


444.0 


444.0 


3120 


445.8 


445.8 


3140 


447.6 


447.6 


3160 


449.4 


449.4 


3180 


451.2 


451.2 


3200 


453.0 


453.0 


3220 


454.8 


454.8 


3240 


456.6 


456.6 


3260 


458.4 


458.4 


3280 


460.2 


460.2 


3300 


462.0 


462.0 


3320 


463.8 


463.8 


3340 


465.6 


465.6 


3360 


467.4 


467.4 


3380 


469.2 


469.2 


3400 


471.0 


471.0 


3420 


472.8 


472.8 


3440 


474.6 


L 474.6 


3460 


476.4 


476.4 


3480 


478.2 


478.2 


3500 


480.0 


480.0 


3520 


481.8 


481.8 


3540 


483.6 


483.6 


3560 


485.4 


485.4 


3580 


487.2 


487.2 


3600 


489.0 


489.0 


3620 


490.8 


490.8 


3640 


492.6 


492.6 


3660 


494.4 


494.4 


3680 


496.2 


496.2 


3700 


498.0 


498.0 


3720 


499.8 


499.8 


3740 


501.6 


501.6 


3760 


503.4 


503.4 


3780 


505.2 


505.2 



WSFU 


GPM 
FLUSH 
TANKS 


GPM 
FLUSH 
VALVES 


3800 


507.0 


507.0 


3820 


508.8 


508.8 


3840 


510.6 


510.6 


3860 


512.4 


512.4 


3880 


514.2 


514.2 


3900 


516.0 


516.0 


3920 


517.8 


517.8 


3940 


519.6 


519.6 


3960 


521.4 


521.4 


3980 


523.2 


523.2 


4000 


525.0 


525.0 


4020 


526.5 


526.5 


4040 


528.0 


528.0 


4060 


529.5 


529.5 


4080 


531.0 


531.0 


4100 


532.5 


532.5 


4120 


534.0 


534.0 


4140 


535.5 


535.5 


4160 


537.0 


537.0 


4180 


r 538.5 


538.5 


4200 


540.0 


540.0 


4220 


541.5 


541.5 


4240 


543.0 


543.0 


4260 


544.5 


544.5 


4280 


546.0 


546.0 


4300 


547.5 


547.5 


4320 


549.0 


549.0 


4340 


550.5 


550.5 


4360 


552.0 


552.0 


4380 


553.5 


553.5 


4400 


555.0 


555.0 


4420 


556.5 


556.5 


4440 


558.0 


558.0 


4460 


559.5 


559.5 


4480 


561.0 


561.0 


4500 


562.5 


562.5 


4520 


564.0 


564.0 


4540 


565.5 


565.5 


4560 


567.0 


567.0 


4580 


568.5 


568.5 


4600 


570.0 


570.0 


4620 


571.5 


571.5 


4640 


573.0 


573.0 


4660 


574.5 


574.5 


4680 


576.0 


576.0 


4700 


577.5 


577.5 


4720 


579.0 


579.0 


4740 


580.5 


580.5 


4760 


582.0 


582.0 


4780 


583.5 


583.5 



308 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



WSFU 


GPM 
FLUSH 

TANKS 


GPM 
FLUSH 
VALVES 


4800 


585.0 


585.0 


4820 


586.5 


586.5 


4840 


588.0 


588.0 


4860 


589.5 


589.5 


4880 


591.0 


591.0 


4900 


592.5 


592.5 


4920 


594.0 


594.0 


4940 


595.5 


595.5 


4960 


597.0 


597.0 


4980 


598.5 


598.5 


5000 


600.0 


600.0 


5020 


601.0 


601.0 


5040 


602.0 


602.0 


5060 


603.0 


603.0 


5080 


604.0 


604.0 


5100 


605.0 


605.0 


5120 


606.0 


606.0 


5140 


607.0 


607.0 


5160 


608.0 


608.0 


5180 


609.0 


609.0 


5200 


610.0 


610.0 


5220 


611.0 


611.0 


5240 


612.0 


612.0 


5260 


613.0 


613.0 


5280 


614.0 


614.0 


5300 


615.0 


615.0 


5320 


616.0 


616.0 


5340 


617.0 


617.0 


5360 


618.0 


618.0 


5380 


619.0 


619.0 


5400 


620.0 


620.0 


5420 


621.0 


621.0 


5440 


622.0 


622.0 


5460 


623.0 


623.0 


5480 


624.0 


624.0 


5500 


625.0 


625.0 


5520 


626.0 


626.0 


5540 


627.0 


627.0 


5560 


628.0 


628.0 


5580 


629.0 


629.0 


5600 


630.0 


630.0 


5620 


631.0 


631.0 


5640 


632.0 


632.0 


5660 


633.0 


633.0 


5680 


634.0 


634.0 


5700 


635.0 


635.0 


5720 


636.0 


636.0 


5740 


637.0 


637.0 


5760 


638.0 


638.0 


5780 


639.0 


639.0 



WSFU 


GPM 
FLUSH 
TANKS 


GPM 
FLUSH 
VALVES 


5800 


640.0 


640.0 


5820 


641.0 


641.0 


5840 


642.0 


642.0 


5860 


643.0 


643.0 


5880 


644.0 


644.0 


5900 


645.0 


645.0 


5920 


646.0 


646.0 


5940 


647.0 


647.0 


5960 


648.0 


648.0 


5980 


649.0 


649.0 


6000 


650.0 


650.0 


6020 


651.0 


651.0 


6040 


652.0 


652.0 


6060 


653.0 


653.0 


6080 


654.0 


654.0 


6100 


655.0 


655.0 


6120 


656.0 


656.0 


6140 


657.0 


657.0 


6160 


658.0 


658.0 


6180 


659.0 


659.0 


6200 


660.0 


660.0 


6220 


661.0 


661.0 


6240 


662.0 


662.0 


6260 


663.0 


663.0 


6280 


664.0 


664.0 


6300 


665.0 


665.0 


6320 


666.0 


666.0 


6340 


667.0 


667.0 


6360 


668.0 


668.0 


6380 


669.0 


669.0 


6400 


670.0 


670.0 


6420 


671.0 


671.0 


6440 


672.0 


672.0 


6460 


673.0 


673.0 


6480 


674.0 


674.0 


6500 


675.0 


675.0 


6520 


676.0 


676.0 


6540 


677.0 


677.0 


6560 


678.0 


678.0 


6580 


679.0 


679.0 


6600 


680.0 


680.0 


6620 


681.0 


681.0 


6640 


682.0 


682.0 


6660 


683.0 


683.0 


6680 


684.0 


684.0 


6700 


685.0 


685.0 


6720 


686.0 


686.0 


6740 


687.0 


687.0 


6760 


688.0 


688.0 


6780 


j 689.0 


689.0 



WSFU 


GPM 
FLUSH 

TANKS 


GPM 
FLUSH 

VALVES 


6800 


690.0 


690.0 


6820 


691.0 


691.0 


6840 


692.0 


692.0 


6860 


693.0 


693.0 


6880 


694.0 


694.0 


6900 


695.0 


695.0 


6920 


696.0 


696.0 


6940 


697.0 


697.0 


6960 


698.0 


698.0 


6980 


699.0 


699.0 


7000 


700.0 


700.0 


7020 


700.6 


700.6 


7040 


701.2 


701.2 


7060 


701.8 


701.8 


7080 


702.4 


702.4 


7100 


703.0 


703.0 


7120 


703.6 


703.6 


7140 


704.2 


704.2 


7160 


704.8 


704.8 


7180 


705.4 


705.4 


7200 


706.0 


706.0 


7220 


706.6 


706.6 


7240 


707.2 


707.2 


7260 


707.8 


707.8 


7280 


708.4 


708.4 


7300 


709.0 


709.0 


7320 


709.6 


709.6 


7340 


710.2 


710.2 


7360 


710.8 


710.8 


7380 


711.4 


711.4 


7400 


712.0 


712.0 


7420 


712.6 


712.6 


7440 


713.2 


713.2 


7460 


713.8 


713.8 


7480 


714.4 


714.4 


7500 


715.0 


715.0 


7520 


715.6 


715.6 


7540 


716.2 


716.2 


7560 


716.8 


716.8 


7580 


717.4 


717.4 


7600 


718.0 


718.0 


7620 


718.6 


718.6 


7640 


719.2 


719.2 


7660 


719.8 


719.8 


7680 


720.4 


720.4 


7700 


721.0 


721.0 


7720 


721.6 


721.6 


7740 


722.2 


722.2 


7760 


722.8 


722.8 


7780 


723.4 


723.4 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



309 



WSFU 


GPM 
FLUSH 
TANKS 


GPM 
FLUSH 

VALVES 


7800 


724.0 


724.0 


7820 


724.6 


724.6 


7840 


725.2 


725.2 


7860 


725.8 


725.8 


7880 


726.4 


726.4 


7900 


727.0 


727.0 


7920 


727.6 


727.6 


7940 


728.2 


728.2 


7960 


728.8 


728.8 


7980 


729.4 


729.4 


8000 


730.0 


730.0 


8020 


730.6 


730.6 


8040 


731.2 


731.2 


8060 


731.8 


731.8 


8080 


732.4 


732.4 


8100 


733.0 


733.0 


8120 


733.6 


733.6 


8140 


734.2 


734.2 


8160 


734.8 


734.8 


8180 


735.4 


735.4 


8200 


736.0 


736.0 


8220 


736.6 


736.6 


8240 


737.2 


737.2 


8260 


737.8 


737.8 


8280 


738.4 


738.4 


8300 


739.0 


739.0 


8320 


739.6 


739.6 


8340 


740.2 


740.2 


8360 


740.8 


740.8 


8380 


741.4 


741.4 


8400 


742.0 


742.0 


8420 


742.6 


742.6 


8440 


743.2 


743.2 


8460 


743.8 


743.8 


8480 


744.4 


744.4 


8500 


745.0 


745.0 


8520 


745.6 


745.6 


8540 


746.2 


746.2 


8560 


746.8 


746.8 


8580 


747.4 


747.4 


8600 


748.0 


748.0 


8620 


748.6 


748.6 


8640 


749.2 


749.2 


8660 


749.8 


749.8 


8680 


750.4 


750.4 


8700 


751.0 


751.0 



WSFU 


GPM 
FLUSH 
TANKS 


GPM 
FLUSH 

VALVES 


8720 


751.6 


751.6 


8740 


752.2 


752.2 


8760 


752.8 


752.8 


8780 


753.4 


753.4 


8800 


754.0 


754.0 


8820 


754.6 


754.6 


8840 


755.2 


755.2 


8860 


755.8 


755.8 


8880 


756.4 


756.4 


8900 


757.0 


757.0 


8920 


757.6 


757.6 


8940 


758.2 


758.2 


8960 


758.8 


758.8 


8980 


759.4 


759.4 


9000 


760.0 


760.0 


9020 


760.6 


760.6 


9040 


761.2 


761.2 


9060 


761.8 


761.8 


9080 


762.4 


762.4 


9100 


763.0 


763.0 


9120 


763.6 


763.6 


9140 


764.2 


764.2 


9160 


764.8 


764.8 


9180 


765.4 


765.4 


9200 


766.0 


766.0 


9220 


766.6 


766.6 


9240 


767.2 


767.2 


9260 


767.8 


767.8 


9280 


768.4 


768.4 


9300 


769.0 


769.0 


9320 


769.6 


769.6 


9340 


770.2 


770.2 


9360 


770.8 


770.8 


9380 


771.4 


771.4 


9400 


772.0 


772.0 


9420 


772.6 


772.6 


9440 


773.2 


773.2 


9460 


773.8 


773.8 


9480 


774.4 


774.4 


9500 


775.0 


775.0 


9520 


775.6 


775.6 


9540 


776.2 


776.2 


9560 


776.8 


776.8 


9580 


777.4 


777.4 


9600 


778.0 


778.0 


9620 


778.6 


778.6 



WSFU 


GPM 
FLUSH 
TANKS 


GPM 
FLUSH 
VALVES 


9640 


779.2 


779.2 


9660 


779.8 


779.8 


9680 


780.4 


780.4 


9700 


781.0 


781.0 


9720 


781.6 


781.6 


9740 


782.2 


782.2 


9760 


782.8 


782.8 


9780 


783.4 


783.4 


9800 


784.0 


784.0 


9820 


784.6 


784.6 


9840 


785.2 


785.2 


9860 


785.8 


785.8 


9880 


786.4 


786.4 


9900 


787.0 


787.0 


9920 


787.6 


787.6 


9940 


788.2 


788.2 


9960 


788.8 


788.8 


9980 


789.4 


789.4 


10,000 


790.0 


790.0 



310 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Alphabetical Index 



Accessible: 

Definition of, 1 .2 

Backflow preventers, 10.5.5 

Backwater valves, 5.5.2 

Expansion joints, 4.1.3 

Fixture, appliance and equipment 
valves, 10. 12.4. c 

Flushometer valves, 7.19.5 

Liquid waste treatment equipment, 6.1.6 

Sump pits, 1 1.7.1 .c 

Valves in multiple dwelling units, 10.12.4.b 

Water hammer arrestors, 10. 14.7. c 

Water supply control valves, 10.12.9 
Adopting Agency: 

Definition of, 1 .2 

Requirements of, Appendix F 
Air Break: 

Definition of, 1 .2 

Air conditioning equipment, 9.1.10 

Commercial dishwashing machines, 7.15.4 

Drain outlets, 9.1.3 

Drinking fountains, 9.1.9 

Food handling areas, 9. 1 .5 

Potable clear water wastes, 9. 1 .8 

Walk-in coolers, 9.1.6 

Walk-in freezers, 9.1.6 
Air Chamber: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Air Gap (drainage): 

Definition of, 1 .2 

Air conditioning equipment, 9. 1 . 10 

Aspirators, 14.13 

Bedpan steamers, 14.10.2 

Commercial dishwashing machines, 7.15.4 

Drain outlets, 9.1.2 

Drinking fountains, 9.1.9 

Drinking water treatment units, 7.22, 10.18.2 

Food handling areas, 9.1.5 

Indirect waste pipes, 9.1.2 

Medical equipment, 9. 1 .7 

Minimum for fixtures, Table 10.5.2 

Potable clear water wastes, 9.1.8 



Relief valve discharge piping, 10.16. 6. d 

Sterilizers, 14.10.2 

Swimming pools, 9.1.11 
Air Gap (water distribution): 

Definition of, 1 .2 

Automatic clothes washers, 7.13.1 

Below rim supply to tank or vat, 10.5.7 

Domestic dishwashers, 7.15.1 

Over-rim tub filler spout, 7.8.4 

Requirements for, 10.5.2 
Alternate Materials and Methods 

Requirements for, 3.12 
Anchors; 

See Supports 
Anti-scald Valve: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Area Drain: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Aspirator: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Authority Having Jurisdiction: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Backfilling: 

Requirements for, 2.6.3, 2.6.4 
Backflow (drainage): 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Backflow (water distribution): 

Definition of, 1.2 
Backflow Preventers: 

Definition of, 1.2 

Approval of, 10.5.4 

Installation of, 10.5.5 

Maintenance and testing of, 10.5.6 

Required types, 10.5.3 

Standards for, Table 3.1 .3 Part IX 
Backflow Prevention: 

Appliances, 10.5.1 

Carbonated beverage dispensers, 10.5.8 

Domestic water heat exchangers, 10.5.11 

Fire protection systems, 10.5.9 

Hose connections, 10.5.12 

Irrigation systems, 10.5.10 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



311 



Lawn sprinklers, 10.5.10 

Plumbing fixtures, 10.5.1 

Special equipment, 10.5.13 

Tanks and vats, 10.5.7 

Water supply outlets, 10.5.1 
Backpressure Backflow: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Back-Siphonage: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Backwater Valve: 

Definition of, 1 .2 

Posted notice, 5.5.3 
Baptistries: 

Backflow protection, 7.18 
Bar Sinks: 

Requirements for, 7. 1 1 .2 
Basic Design Circuit (BDC): 

Explanation of, B.9.3 
Bathroom Group: 

Definition of, 1.2 

Drainage fixture units (DFU), Table 11.4.1 

Stack venting, 12.11 

Water supply fixture units (WSFU), Table 

10.14.2.A 

Wet venting, 12.10 
Bathtubs: 

Requirements for, 7.8 
Battery of Fixtures: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Bedding 

Under pipes in trenches, 2.6.1 
Bidets: 

Requirements for, 7.7 
Branch Interval: 

Definition of, 1.2 
Building Classification: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Building Drain, Sanitary: 

Definition of, 1.2 

Materials, 3.5.2 

Required size, Table 11. 5.1. A 
Building Drain, Storm: 

Definition of, 1 .2 

Materials, 3.7.3 

Required size, 13.6.2 
Building Sewer, Sanitary: 

Definition of, 1 .2 

Materials, 3.5.3 

Required size, Table 1 1 .5. 1 .A 



Separation from water service, 10.6.1 
Building Sewer, Storm: 

Definition of, 1.2 

Materials, 3.7.4 

Required size, 13.6.2 
Building Subdrain: 

Definition of, 1 .2 

Sump pits and pumps, 11.7 

Venting, 11.7.4 
Building Trap: 

Definition of, 1.2 

Where required, 5.3.4 
Cesspool: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Chemical Waste: 

Definition of, 1.2 

Piping, 3.11 

Special Wastes, 9.4 

Treatment of, 9.4.1 
Cleanouts: 

At base of stacks, 5.4.5 

At junction of bldg drain and bldg sewer, 5.4.6 

Direction of opening, 5.4.7 

In building sewers, 5.4.2 

In concealed piping, 5.4.4 

Manholes, 5.4.10 

Prohibited connections to, 5.4.8 

Required size, 5.4.9 

Spacing, 5.4.1 
Clear Water Waste: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Clinical Sink: 

Definition of, 1 .2 

Local vents for, 14.9 

Requirements for, 14.8.1 
Clothes Washers: 

Required compliance, 7.13 
Code: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Combination Fixture: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Combination Waste and Vent System: 

Definition of, 1.2 

Requirements for, 12.17 
Conductor (storm water): 

Definition of, 1 .2 

Connection to combined sewer, 13.4.3 

Improper use, 13.4.1 

Required size, 13.6.1 



312 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Continuous or Intermittent Drain Flow: 

Conversion to DFU, 11.4.2 
Corrosive Fill: 

Protection of pipes, 2.9.2 
Corrosive Wastes: 

Treatment of, 9.4.1 
Critical Level: 

Definition of, 1 .2 

Of backfiow preventers, 10.5.5 
Cross Connection: 

Definition of, 1.2 

Control, 10.4.3 
Cross Connection Control 

Program for, 10.4.3 
Cutting and Notching: 

Structural members, 2.9.3 
Day Care Center: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Day Nursery: 

Definition of, 1.2 
Dead Ends: 

Definitions, 1.2 

Avoidance, 2.23 
Decorative Fountains: 

Backfiow protection, 7.18 
Defective Plumbing: 

Testing or inspecting, 15.7 
Definitions: 

Code terms, Chapter 1 
Demand (water): 

Estimating procedure, B.5 

Sizing distribution piping, 10.14.3 
Developed Length: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Dilution Tanks: 

Requirements for, 6.6 
Directional Changes: 

In drainage piping, 2.3 
Discharge Rates: 

In sloping drains, Appendix K 
Dishwashing Machines: 

Requirements for, 7.15 
Disinfection: 

Of potable water systems, 10.9 
Disposal Fields: 

Size and spacing, 16.9.3 
Distribution Box: 

For individual sewage disposal system, 16.7 
Domestic Sewage 



Definition of, 1.2 
Double Check Valve Assembly 

Definition of, 1 .2 

Installation of, 10.5.5.d 

Maintenance of, 10.5.6 

Testing of, 10.5.6 

Where required, 10.5.3 
Drainage Fixture Unit (DFU) 

Fixture Unit, (Drainage - DFU) 
Drainage Piping: 

See definition of Drainage System 
Drainage System: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Drainage System, Building Gravity: 

Definition of, 1.2 
Drainage System, Sanitary 

Branch connections (near base of stacks), 11.9 

Branch connections (to offsets), 11.10 

Building sewers, 1 1 .2 

Ejectors and pumps, 11.7 

Fixture units (DFU), 11.4 

Offsets in piping, 11.6 

Pipe sizing, 1 1,.5 

Piping materials, 3.5 

Slope of piping, 11.3.1 

Suds pressure zones, 11.11 

Sump pits, 11.7 
Drainage System, Storm: 

Air conditioning condensate, 13.8 

Areaway drains, 13.1.6 

Backwater valves, 13.1.12 

Combined sewer, 13.4.3, 13.4.4 

Continuous flow, 13.1.11 

Controlled flow system, 13.9 

Foundation drains, 13.1.5 

Parking garages, 13.1.8 

Pipe sizing, 13.6 

Piping materials, 3.7 

Prohibited connections, 13.1.2 

Protection of leaders, 13.4.2 

Roof drainage, primary, 13.1.10.1 

Roof drainage, secondary, 13.1.10.2 

Roof drains, 13.5 

Service garages, 13.1.8 

Sewers, 13.1.3 

Traps, 13.3 

Vertical walls, 13.1.10.3 

Window well drains, 13.1.7 
Drinking Fountains: 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



313 



Compliance, 7.12.1 

Indirect waste discharge, 9.1.9 

Prohibited locations, 7.12.2 
Drinking Water Facilities: 

Required number of: Table 7.21.1 
Dry Well: 

Definition of, 1.2 
DWV: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Effective Opening: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Ejector (sewage): 

Building subdrains, 11.7.1 

For individual fixtures, 11.7.9 

Grinder pumps, 11.7.6 

High water alarms, 11.7.11 

Macerating toilet systems, 1 1 .7. 10 

Pneumatic, 11.7.7 

Requirements for, 11.7.8 

Sump pits, 11.7.1 

Venting subdrains, 11.7.4 
Equipment: 

Condemned, 2.15 

Used, 2.14 
Equivalent Length: 

Definition of, 1.2 

Of valves and fittings, B.9.7 
Erosion (pipe): 

Corrosion, B.6.3 
Existing Buildings: 

Code compliance, 3.12.1 
Existing Work: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Expansion Joints: 

Access to, 4.1.3 
Exposure of Work: 

For testing and approval, 15.1 
Family: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Ferrous Pipe and Fittings: 

Standards, Table 3. 1 .3, Part I 
Fixtures (plumbing): 

Definition of, 1 .2 

Accessible use, 7.2 

Access for cleaning, 7.3.3 

Access for use, 7.21.3 

Air gaps for, 10.5.2 

Automatic clothes washers, 7.13 

Back-to-back, 2.3.3 



Bathtubs, 7.8 

Bidets, 7.7 

Circular wash fountains, 7.6.5 

Clearances required, 7.3.2 

Combination bath/showers, 7.8.3 

DFU load values, 11.4 

Dishwashing machines, 7.15 

Drinking fountains, 7.12 

Emergency eyewash stations, 7.24 

Emergency showers, 7.24 

Floor drains, 7.16 

Flushing devices, 7.19 

Food waste grinder units, 7.14 

Garbage can washers, 7.17 

Group-type wash fountains, 7.6.5 

Group-type wash sinks, 7.6.5 

In correctional institutions, 7.20 

In detention centers, 7.20 

In facilities serving customers, 7.21.7 

In food service establishments, 7.21.8 

In special occupancies, 7.21.6 

Installation of, 7.3 

Lavatories, 7.6 

Minimum number of, 7.21 

Occupant load for, 7.21.2 

Omission of, 7.21.5 

Prohibited urinals, 7.5.4 

Prohibited water closets, 7.4.7 

Separate toilet facilities, 7.21.4 

Showers, 7.10 

Sinks, 7.11 

Spa and hot tub safety features, 7.23 

Special installations, 7.18 

Substitution of, 7.21.5 

Standards for, 7.1 

Trench drains, 7.16 

Urinals, 7.5 

Water closets, 7.4 

Water coolers, 7.12 

Water treatment systems, 7.22 

Whirlpool baths, 7.9 

WSFU load values, Table 10.14.2A 
Fixture Branch, Drainage: 

Definition of, 1 .2 

Minimum size underground, 11.5.5 

Sizing, 11.5.3 
Fixture Branch, Supply: 

Definition of, 1 .2 

Flow rates for sizing, 10.14.2 



314 



2009 National Standard Plumbing Code 



Minimum size, 10.4.2A 
Fixture Drain: 

Definition of, 1.2 
Fixture Traps: 

General requirements, 5.3 

Separate for each fixture, 5.1 

Size, 5.2 
Fixture Unit (Drainage - DFU): 

Definition of, 1 .2 

Converting GPM to DFU, 11.4.2 

For bathroom groups, Table 1 1 .4. 1 

For individual fixtures, Table 11.4.1 
Fixture Unit (Water Supply - WSFU): 

Definition of, 1 .2 

Converting WSFU to GPM, Table 10.14.2.B 

For bathroom groups, Table 11.14.2.A 

For individual fixtures, Table 11.14.2.A 

For kitchen groups, Table 11.14.2.A 

For laundry groups, Table 11.14.2.A 
Flashing: 

Roof drains, 13.5.4 

Vent terminals, 12.4.2 

Vent through roof, 4.5 
Flood Level Rim: 

Definition of, 1.2 
Flooded: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Floor Drains: 

Requirements for, 7.16 
Floor Flanges: 

For water closets, 3.3.4 

Water closet connections, 2.22 
Flow Pressure: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Flow Rates (drainage): 

In sloping drains, Appendix K 
Flow Rates (water): 

Based on pressure drop, B.9.8 

Based on velocity, B.7.3 

For individual fixtures, 10. 14.2 
Flushing Devices: 

Flush tanks, 7.19.3 

Flushometer tanks, 7.19.4 

Flushometer valves, 7.19.5 
Food Handling Areas: 

Indirect wastes, 9.1.5 

Requirements for, 2.25 
Food Waste Grinders: 

Into grease interceptor, 6.2.5 



Requirements for, 7.14 

With sink and dishwasher, 7.15.3 
Footings: 

Protection of, 2.17 
Foul Air: 

Exhaust, Principle No. 12 
Freezing: 

Protection from, 2.16 
Friction Loss Allowance 

Fittings and valves, B.9.7 
Frost Closure: 

Vent terminals, 12.5 
Garbage Can Washers: 

Requirements for, 7.17 
Grade: 

Definition of, 1.2 
Gray water Recycling Systems: 

Requirements for, Appendix G 
Grease Interceptors: 

Requirements for, 6.2 
Grease Removal (Recovery) Devices (GRD): 

Requirements for, 6.2 
Ground Water: 

Definition of, 1.2 

Protection of, Principle No. 22 
Hangers (pipe): 

Requirements for, Chapter 8 
Health Care Facilities: 

Aspirators, 14.13 

Bedpan washers, 14.8, 14.9 

Central vacuum systems, 14.12 

Clinical sinks, 14.8, 14.9 

Local vents and stacks, 14.9 

Medical gas and vacuum piping systems, 14.3 

Mental patient rooms, 14.5 

Prohibited locations for ice storage, 14.6 

Protrusions from walls, 14.4 

Special requirements for, Chapter 14 

Sterilizers, 14.10 

Vapor vents and stacks for sterilizers, 14.11 

Water service, 14.2 
Health Hazard: 

Definition of, 1 .2 

Abatement of, 2.5 
Horizontal Branch Drain: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Horizontal Pipe: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Hot Water: 



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Definition of, 1.2 

Mixed water temperature control, 10.15.6 

Plastic piping, 10.15.8 

Temperature maintenance, 10.15.2 

Thermal expansion control, 10.15.7 

Where required, 10.15.1 
Indirect Connections (Waste): 

Definition of, 1 .2 

Air conditioning equipment, 9.1.10 

Drinking fountains, 9.1.9 

Fixture traps, 9.2.3 

Food handling areas, 9.1.5 

Medical equipment, 9.1.7 

Piping, 9.2 

Potable clear water waste, 9. 1 .8 

Receptors, 9.3 

Requirements for, 9.1 

Sterile equipment, 9.1.7 

Swimming pools, 9.1.11 

Walk-in coolers, 9.1.6 

Walk-in freezers, 9.1.6 

Water coolers, 9.1.9 
Indirect Waste Pipe: 

Definition of, 1.2 

Materials, 9.2.1 

Size, 9.2.2 
Indirect Waste Receptors: 

DFU values, 9.3.7 

Minimum pipe size, 9.3.6 

Open-hub drains, 9.3.5 

Prohibited locations, 9.3.3 

Standpipes, 9.3.4 

Strainers or baskets, 9.3.2 
Industrial Wastes: 

Definition of, 1.2 
Insanitary: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Installation Practices: 

Plumbing systems, 2.8 
Installed: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Interceptor: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Invert: 

Definition of, 1.2 
Laundry Sinks: 

Requirements for, 7.1 1 .3 
Lavatories: 

Minimum number required, Table 7.21.1 



Requirements for, 7.6 
Leader (rain water): 

Definition of, 1 .2 

Requirements for, 13.4 

Sizing of, 13.6.1 
Local Ventilating Pipe: 

Definition, 1.2 
Main: 

Definition, 1.2 
Manholes: 

Requirements for, 5.4.10 
May: 

Definition, 1.2 
Metric Conversion: 

Tables, Appendix C 
Mixed Water Temperature Control: 

Requirements for, 10.15.6 
Mobile Home Parks: 

Requirements for, Chapter 1 8 
Multiple Dwelling: 

Definition, 1.2 
Neutralizing Tanks: 

Requirements for, 6.6 
Non-potable Water: 

Definition, 1.2 
Nuisance: 

Definition, 1.2 
Obstruction to Flow: 

Drainage, 2.4.3 
Offset: 

Definition, 1.2 
Offsets (drainage piping) 

Sizing, 11.6 
Oil/Water Separators: 

Requirements for, 6.3 
Overflows: 

Lavatories, 7.6.4 

Flush tanks, 7.1 9.3.d 

Water supply tanks, 10.8.3 
Ornamental Fountains 

Backflow protection, 7.18.1 
Percolation Test: 

Individual sewage disposal systems, 16.5 
Pipe Joints: 

Bending, 4.2.19 

Brazed, 4.2.8 

Burned lead, 4.2.10 

Butt fusion, 4.2.18 

Cement mortar, 4.2.9 



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Different materials, 4.3 

Expansion, 4.2.16 

Flared, 4.2.5 

Mechanical, 4.2.11 

Mechanically formed tee, 4.2.8.3 

Mechanically crimped, 4.2.6 

In plastic pipe, 4.2.14 

Push-fit, 4.2.7 

Slip, 4.2.15 

Soldered, 4.2.4 

Split couplings, 4.2.17 

Threaded, 4.2.2 

Wiped, 4.2.3 
Piping Materials: 

Air conditioning condensate, 3.9 

Chemical wastes, 3.11 

Combustion equipment drains, 3.10 

Foundation drains, 3.8 

Potable water, 3.4 

Sanitary drainage, 3.5 

Storm water, 3.7 

Subsoil drains, 3.8 

Vents, 3.6 
Plumbing: 

Definition, 1.2 
Plumbing Appliance: 

Definition, 1.2 
Plumbing Appurtenance: 

Definition, 1.2 
Plumbing Fixture: 

Definition, 1.2 
Plumbing Inspector: 

Definition, 1 .2 
Plumbing System: 

Definition, 1.2 
Pollution (of Potable Water): 

Definition, 1.2 

Water service near sources of, 10.6.2 
Potable Water: 

Definition, 1.2 
Pressure Balancing Valve: 

Definition, 1.2 
Prevent Contamination: 

From sewage, Principle No. 15 
Private Sewage Disposal System: 

Definition, 1.2 

Requirements for, Chapter 16 
Private Sewer: 

Definition of, 1 .2 



Private Water Supply: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Prohibited Valves: 

Underground stop & waste, 10.6.3 
Public Sewer 

Definition of, 1 .2 

Availability, 2.19.1 

Connection to, Principle No. 6 
Public Toilet Room: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Public Water Main: 

Definition of, 1 .2 

Availability, 2.19.1 

Interconnections, 10.4.2 
Rainfall Rates: 

Appendix A 
Readily Accessible: 

Definition, 1.2 
Reduced Pressure Backflow Preventer Assembly: 

Definition, 1.2 

Installation of, 10.5. 5. d 

Maintenance of, 10.5.6 

Testing of, 10.5.6 

Where required, 10.5.3 
Rim: 

Definition, 1.2 
Riser: 

Definition, 1.2 
Roof Drain: 

Definition, 1.2 

Requirements for, 13.5 
Roughing-in: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Safety Devices: 

Combination P&T relief valves, 10.16.4 

Pressure relief valves, 10.16.2 

Relief valve discharge piping, 10.16.6 

Replacement of relief valves, 10.16.8 

Temperature relief valves, 10.16.3 

Thermal expansion control, 10.15.7 

Vacuum relief valves, 10.16.7 
Sand Interceptors: 

Requirements for, 6.4 
Sanitary Sewer: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
SDR (Standard Dimension Ratio) 

Definition of, 1 .2 

In plastic drainage piping, 3.5.4 
Seepage Pits: 



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Absorption area for, 16.5.6 

Where contemplated, 16.5.5 
Septic Tank: 

Definition of, 1.2 

Capacity of, 16.6 

Location of, 16.4.4 
Sewage: 

Definition of, 1.2 
Sewage Disposal Systems: 

Private, Chapter 16 
Sewage Ejectors, Pneumatic: 

Definition of, 1.2 

Vents, 11.7.7 
Sewage Pump: 

Definition of, 1 .2 

Requirements for, 11.7 
Sewage Systems: 

Private, 2.19.2 
Shall: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Shock Arrestor: 

Definition of, 1 .2 

Water hammer, 10.14.7 
Showers: 

Floors or receptors, 7.10.6 

Minimum number required, Table 7.21.1 

Mixed temperature control, 7.10.3 

Shower compartments, 7.10.5 

Supply riser support, 7T0.7 

Waste outlet size, 7.10.4 

Water conservation, 7.10.2 
Sinks: 

Bar sinks, 7.11.2 

Clinical sinks, 14.8.1 

Compliance, 7.11.1 

Faucets, 7.11.5 

Domestic kitchen sinks, 7.11.2 

Laundry sinks, 7.11.3 

Mop receptors, 7.11.4 

Service sinks, 7.11.4 
Sizing the Building Water Supply System: 

Appendix B 
Slaughterhouses: 

Drainage in, 6.7.3 
Sleeves: 

Pipe, 2.12 
Slope: 

See Grade 
Soil Pipe: 

Definition of, 1.2 



Soil Stack: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Solids Interceptors: 

Requirements for, 6.5 
Special Design Plumbing Systems: 

Appendix E 
Special Wastes: 

Definition of, 1 .2 

Drainage piping, 3. 1 1 .2 

Treatment of, 9.4.1 

Vent piping, 3.11.3 

Where required, 3.11.1 
Stack (drainage): 

Definition of, 1.2 

Size reduction, 11.5.7 
Stack Vent: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Sterilizers: 

Drainage of, 14.10 

Vapor vents and stacks, 14.11 
Storm Sewer: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Storm Water Drainage: 

Where required, 13.1.1 
Strainers (for indirect waste): 

Where required, 9.3.2 
Subsoil Drain: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Suds Pressure Zones: 

Branch connections within, 11.11.1 

Exceptions to, 11.11.4 

Location of zones, 11.11.2 

Separate stacks, 11.11.3 

Venting of, 12.15 
Sump, Drainage (sewage): 

Definition of, 1 .2 

Venting, 12.14.2 
Sump Pump: 

Definition of, 1.2 

Air conditioning condensate flow, 13.8 

For foundation drains, 13.1.5 
Supports: 

Definition of, 1.2 

Hangers and Supports, Chapter 8 
Swimming Pool: 

Definition of, 1 .2 
Tanks: 

Dilution, 6.6 

Hot water, 3.3.8 



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Neutralizing, 6.6 

Septic, 3.3.11, 16.6 

Waste oil, 6.3 
Tempered Water: 

Definition of, 1.2 
Thermal Expansion Control: 

For domestic hot water, 10.15.7 
Toilet Facilities: 

Definition of, 1.2 

For construction workers, 2.24 

Minimum number required, Table 7.21.1 
Toilet Rooms: 

Requirements for, 2.20 
Trap: 

Definition of, 1 .2 

Design, 5.3.1 

Level setting, 5.3.3 

Protection from freezing, 5.3.3 

Required size, 5.2 
Trap Arm: 

Definition of, 1 .2 

Maximum length of, Table 12.8.1 
Trap Seal: 

Definition of, 1.2 

Required depth, 5.3.2 
Travel trailer Parks: 

Requirements for, Chapter 1 8 
Trenching: 

Bedding, 2.6.1 

Copper piping, 2.6.7 

Final backfill, 2.6.4 

Initial backfill, 2.6.3 

Plastic pipe, 2.6.6 

Requirements for, 2.6.1 

Safety, 2.6.8 

Side fill, 2.6.2 

Supervision, 2.6.9 
Trenchless Pipe Replacement 

Requirements for, 2.6.10 
Tunneling: 

Pipe installation, 2.6.5 
Urinals: 

Compliance, 7.5.1 

Prohibited types, 7.5.4 

Surrounding surfaces, 7.5.3 

Water conservation, 7.5.2 
Vacuum Breakers: 

For backflow prevention, 10.5.3 

For lawn sprinkler systems, 10.5.10 



For hose connections, 10.5.12 

For irrigation systems, 10.5.10 

For special equipment, 10.5.13 

Installation of, 10.5.5 

Maintenance of, 10.5.6 

Testing, 10.5.6 
Vacuum Systems: 

Draining of, 14.12 
Valves: 

Access to, 10.12.9 

Anti-scald, 10.15.6 

Backwater, 5.5 

Building, 10.12.2 

Curb, 10.12.1 

Double check, 10.5.3 

Flushometer, 7.19.5 

For individual fixtures, 10.12.6 

In dwelling units, 10.12.4 

Mixed water temperature, 10.15.6 

P&T relief, 10.16.4 

Pressure reducing, 10.14.6 

Pressure relief, 10.16.2 

Riser shutoff, 10.12.5 

Temperature relief, 10.16.3 

Water heater shutoff, 10.12.7 
Velocity Limitations: 

In copper tubing, B.6.3 

In water piping, 10.14.1 
Vent Piping Systems: 

Aggregate size of terminals, 12.16.6 

Circuit venting, 12.13 

Combination waste & vent, 12.17 

Common vents, 12.9 

Extension above roofs, 12.4.1 

Extensions outside of buildings, 12.4.6 

Fixture re venting, 12.12 

Fixtures connected at different levels, 12.9.2 

For building subdrain systems, 12.14 

For horizontal stack offsets, 12.3.3 

For pneumatic sewage ejectors, 12.14.3 

For sump pits, 12.14.2 

Frost closure, 12.5 

Height of connections, 12.6.3 

Island sink venting, 12.18 

Individual vents, 12.9.1 

Length of vents, 12.16 

Location of vent terminals, 12.4.4 

Loop venting, 12.13 

Materials, 3.6 



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Other designs, 12.20 

Pipe size, 12.16 

Pipe slope, 12.6.1 

Prohibited use, 12.3.6, 12.4.3 

Protection of trap seals, 12.2 

Relief vents for stacks, 12.3.2 

Sidewall venting, 12.4.5 

Stack vent size, 12.16.4 

Suds pressure venting, 12.15 

Test methods, 15.4 

Underground piping, 12.16.7 

Vent headers, 12.16.5 

Vent stack size, 12.16.4 

Vent washdown, 12.12.4 

Waste stack venting, 12.19 

Waterproof roof flashings, 12.4.2 

Wet venting, 12.10 
Washrooms: 

Requirements for, 2.20 
Waste: 

Definition of, 1 .2 

Industrial, 2.10.2 

Potable clear water, 9.1.8 

Special, 9.4 
Waste Pipe: 

Definition of, 1.2 

Sizes, 11.5 
Water Distribution Piping: 

Definition of, 1.2 

Backflow prevention, 10.5 

Basic design circuit (BDC), B.9.3 

Control valves, 10.12 

Disinfecting, 10.9.2 

Excessive pressure, 10.14.6 

Flushing, 10.9.1 

Identify potable and non-potable, 10.2 

Inadequate water pressure, 10.14.4 

Materials, 3.4 

Maximum velocity, 10.14.1, B6 

Minimum requirements for, 10.14 

Pressure booster systems, 10.8 

Protection of, 10.4 

Sizing, 10.14.3 

Variable street pressures, 10.14.5 

Water hammer, 10.14.7 

Water quality, 10.1 

Water service, 10.6 
Water Hammer: 

Arrestors, 10.14.7 



Water Heaters: 

Drain valves, 10.15.4 

Minimum requirements for, 10.15.3 

Pressure marking of, 10.15.5 

Safety devices for, 10.16 

Used for space heating, 10.15.10 
Water Pipe Friction: 

Limitations, B.9 
Water Pressure: 

Excessive, 10.14.6 

Inadequate, 10.14.4 

Minimum required, 10.14.2 

Minimum street, 10.14.5 
Water Pressure Booster Systems: 

Requirements for, 10.8 

Where required, 10.8.1 
Water Pressure Tanks: 

Construction, 3.3.8 

Drains for, 10.8.6 

Pressure relief, 10.8.9 

Safety devices for, 3.3.10 



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NOTES 



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NOTES 



322 2009 National Standard Plumbing Code