(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Maryland Building Code"

05.02.07.04 

.04 Incorporation by Reference. 

A. The 2006 International Building Code, with the modifications found in §B of this regulation, is incorporated by reference under 
COMAR 05.02.01. 02- 1B(1). 

B. Modifications to the 2006 International Building Code. 

(1) Chapter 1. Add note to Chapter 1 of the IBC: Local jurisdictions are responsible for the implementation and enforcement of the 
Maryland Building Performance Standards. Refer to each local jurisdiction for local amendments to Chapter 1 of the IBC. Each local 
jurisdiction having authority shall establish, on or before the application date in Regulation .06 of this chapter, implementation and 
enforcement procedures that include: 

(a) Review and acceptance of appropriate plans; 

(b) Issuance of building permits; 

(c) Inspection of the work authorized by the building permits; and 

(d) Issuance of use and occupancy certificates. 

(2) Chapter 1. Delete Exception in the Section 101.2 Scope and replace with the following: 

Exception: 1 . Detached one- and two-family dwellings and multiple single-family dwellings (townhouses) not more than three stories 
above grade plane in height with a separate means of egress and their accessory structures shall comply with the International 
Residential Code. 

Exception: 2. Existing buildings undergoing repair, alterations or additions, and change of occupancy shall comply with the Maryland 
Building Rehabilitation Code set forth in COMAR 05.16. 

(3) Chapter 1. Delete the Section 101.2.1 Appendices and replace with the following: 

101.2.1 Appendices: Provisions in Appendix C, GROUP U— Agricultural Buildings; Appendix F, Rodent Proofing; Appendix G, 
Hood Resistant Construction; Appendix H, Sign; and Appendix I, Patio Covers, are adopted as part of the IBC. Provisions in 
Appendix A, Employee Qualifications; Appendix B, Board of Appeals; Appendix D, Fire Districts; Appendix E, Supplementary 
Accessibility Requirements; and Appendix J, Grading, do not apply unless specifically adopted by authorities having jurisdiction. 

(4) Chapter 5. Delete the first paragraph of Section 504.2 Automatic sprinkler systems, and replace with the following: 

504.2 Automatic sprinkler increase. For buildings protected throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the value specified in Table 503 for maximum height is increased by 20 feet (6096 mm), and the 
maximum number of stories is increased by one story. These increases are permitted in addition to an area increase in accordance with 
Sections 506.2 and 506.3. When the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3. 1.2 for Groups R-l,R-2,and R-4, and in accordance with Section 903.3. 1.3 for Group R-3,the building height 
limitations specified in Table 503 are increased one story and 20 feet (6096 mm) but may not exceed a height of four stories and 60 
feet (18288 mm) above the grade plane. These increases are permitted in addition to the area increase. 

(5) Chapter 7. Add the following new exception in Section 705.6 Vertical continuity: 

6 In Groups R-2 and R-3 as applicable in Section 101.2, walls are permitted to terminate at the roof sheathing or deck in Types III, IV, 
and V construction, if: 

6.1 The roof sheathing or deck is constructed of approved noncombustible materials or of fire-retardant-treated wood for a distance of 
4 feet (1220 mm) on both sides of the wall, or 

6.2 The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 
903 .3 . 1 .2 for Group R-2 , and 903 .3 . 1 . 1 , 903 .3 . 1 .2 , or 903 .3 . 1 .3 for Group R-3 , or 

6.3 All of the following: 

6.3.1 The roof is protected with 5/8 inch (15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board directly beneath the underside of the roof sheathing or 
deck, supported by a minimum of 2-inch (51 mm) ledgers attached to the sides of the roof framing members, for a minimum distance 
of 4 feet (1220 mm) on both sides of the fire wall , and 

6.3.2 Openings in the roof are not located within 4 feet (1220 mm) of the fire wall, and 



6.3.3 The roof is covered with a minimum Class C roof covering. 

(6) Chapter 9. Add note to Section 901.1 Scope Fire protection system requirements of Chapter 9 may be concurrently covered in the 
State Fire Prevention Code, Public Safety Article, §§6-101—6-202, Annotated Code of Maryland, and COMAR 29.06.01. The State 
Fire Prevention Code is enforced by the State Fire Marshal or authorized fire official. 

(7) Chapter 10. 

(a) Delete Exceptions 4 and 5 in Section 1009.3, and replace with the following: 

Exception: 4. In occupancies in Group R-3, as applicable in Section 101.2, within dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2, as 
applicable in Section 101.2, and in occupancies in Group U, which are accessory to an occupancy in Group R-3, as applicable in 
Section 101.2, the maximum riser height shall be 8.25 inches (210 mm) and the minimum tread depth shall be 9 inches (229 mm), the 
minimum winder tread depth at the walk line shall be 9 inches (229 mm), and the minimum winder tread depth shall be 6 inches (152 
mm). A nosing not less than 0.75 inch (19.1 mm) but not more than 1.25 inches (32 mm) shall be provided on stairways with solid 
risers where the tread depth is less than 11 inches (279 mm). 

Exception: 5. See the Maryland Building Rehabilitation Code set forth in COMAR 05.16 for the replacement of existing stairways. 

(b) Add new exception to Section 1012.3 as follows: 

Exception: For occupancies in Group R-3 as applicable in Section 101.2 and within dwelling units in occupancies Group R-2 as 
applicable in Section 101.2, the grip portion of handrails shall have a circular cross section of 1.25 inches (32 mm) minimum to 2.625 
inches (66.7 mm) maximum. Other shapes that provide an equivalent grasping surface are permissible. Edges shall have a minimum 
radius of 0.125 inch (3.2 mm). 

(c) Add note to Section 1001.1 General: Means of egress requirements of Chapter 10 may be concurrently covered in the State Fire 
Prevention Code, Public Safety Article, §§6-101 — 6-602, Annotated Code of Maryland, and COMAR 29.06.01. The State Fire 
Prevention Code is enforced by the State Fire Marshal or authorized fire official. 

(8) Chapter 11. Chapter 11 of the IBC related to accessability requirements is hereby replaced with the Maryland Accessibility Code 
set forth in COMAR 05.02.02. 

(9) Chapter 13. Add note to Section 1301.1 Scope: The requirements concerning energy conservation for buildings and structures are 
governed by Energy Conservation Building Standards, Public Utility Companies Article, §§7-401—7-408, Annotated Code of 
Maryland, as amended. In the event of a conflict between the Annotated Code of Maryland and the IBC, the requirements of the 
Public Utility Companies Article, §§7-401—7-408, Annotated Code of Maryland, prevail. 

(10) Chapter 24. The requirements for safety glazing set forth in Public Safety Article, Title 12, Subtitle 4, Annotated Code of 
Maryland, are in addition to Chapter 24, Section 2406 of the IBC related to safety glazing. In the event of a conflict between Chapter 
24 of the IBC and the Annotated Code of Maryland, the requirements of the Annotated Code of Maryland prevail. 

(11) Chapter 27, ELECTRICAL. Add note to Section 2701.1 Scope: The subject matter of this chapter is not within the scope of the 
Maryland Building Performance Standards. For the applicable electrical requirements, refer to the local electrical code and the 
National Electrical Code as adopted and enforced by the State Fire Marshal , authorized fire officials, or building officials pursuant to 
the provisions of Public Safety Article, Title 12, Subtitle 6, Annotated Code of Maryland. 

(12) Chapter 28. MECHANICAL SYSTEMS. Add note to Section 2801.1 Scope: The subject matter of this chapter is not within the 
scope of the Maryland Building Performance Standards. For the applicable requirements concerning the mechanical systems, refer to 
the local mechanical code and the mechanical code adopted pursuant to the provision of Business Regulation Article, §9A-205, 
Annotated Code of Maryland. 

(13) Chapter 29. PLUMBING SYSTEMS. Add note to Section 2901.1 Scope: The subject matter of this chapter is not within the 
scope of the Maryland Building Performance Standards. For the applicable requirements concerning the plumbing systems, refer to 
the local plumbing code and the plumbing code adopted pursuant to the provisions of Business Occupations and Professions Article, 
Title 12, Annotated Code of Maryland. 

(14) Chapter 30. The provisions of Chapter 30 of the IBC relate to elevators and conveying systems and are in addition to and not 
instead of the requirements set forth in Public Safety Article, Title 12, Subtitle 8, Annotated Code of Maryland. In the event of a 
conflict between the IBC and the Annotated Code of Maryland, the provisions of the Annotated Code of Maryland prevail. 

(15) Chapter 34. 

Add the following exception to section 3401.1 Scope: 

Exception: Any rehabilitation work undertaken in an existing building as defined in COMAR 05.16 shall comply with the 
requirements of Maryland Building Rehabilitation Code set forth in COMAR 05.16. 



C. The 2006 International Residential Code for One- and Two- Family Dwellings, under the following modifications, is incorporated 
by reference under COMAR 05.02.01. 02- 1B(4): 

(1) Chapter 3. Delete Section R3 10.1, and replace with the following: 

R310.1 Emergency escape and rescue required. Every sleeping room shall have at least one openable emergency escape and rescue 
window or exterior door opening for emergency escape and rescue. If openings are provided as a means of escape and rescue they 
shall have a sill height of not more than 44 inches (1118 mm) above the adjacent interior standing surface. If a door opening having a 
threshold below the adjacent ground elevation serves as an emergency escape and rescue opening and is provided with a bulkhead 
enclosure, the bulkhead enclosure shall comply with Section R310.3. The net clear opening dimensions required by this section shall 
be obtained by the normal operation of the window or door opening from the inside. Escape and rescue window openings with a 
finished sill height below the adjacent ground elevation shall be provided with a window well in accordance with Section R310.2. 

(2) Chapter 3. Delete Section R3 11.5.3 Stair treads and risers, and replace with the following: 

R31 1.5.3 Stair treads and risers. 

R31 1.5.3.1 Riser height. The maximum riser height shall be 81/4 inches (210 mm). The riser shall be measured vertically between 
leading edges of the adjacent treads. The greatest riser height within any flight of stairs may not exceed the smallest by more than ? 
inch (9.5 mm). 

R311.5.3.2 Tread depth. The minimum tread depth shall be 9 inches (229 mm). The tread depth shall be measured horizontally 
between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads and at a right angle to the treads leading edge. The greatest 
tread depth within any flight of stairs may not exceed the smallest by more than ? inch (9.5 mm). Winder treads shall have a minimum 
tread depth of 9 inches (229 mm) measured as above at a point 12 inches (305 mm) from the side where the treads are narrower. 
Winder treads shall have a minimum tread depth of 6 inches (152 mm) at any point. Within any flight of stairs, the greatest winder 
tread depth at the 12 inch (305 mm) walk line may not exceed the smallest by more than ? inch (9.5 mm). 

(3) Chapter 3. Delete Exception 1 of the R3 11.5.3.3 Profile, and replace with the following: 
1. A nosing is not required if the tread depth is a minimum of 10 inches (254 mm). 

(4) MECHANICAL. Chapter 12. MECHANICAL ADMINISTRATION. Add note to Section M1201.1 Scope: The subject matter of 
chapters 12 through 24 is not within the scope of the Maryland Building Performance Standards. For the applicable requirements 
concerning the mechanical systems, refer to the local mechanical code and the mechanical code adopted pursuant to the provisions of 
Business Regulation Article, §9A-205, Annotated Code of Maryland. 

(5) PLUMBING. Chapter 25. PLUMBING ADMINISTRATION. Add note to Section P2501.1 Scope: The subject matter of chapters 
25 through 32 is not within the scope of the Maryland Building Performance Standards. For the applicable requirements concerning 
the plumbing systems, refer to the local plumbing code and the plumbing code adopted pursuant to the provisions of Business 
Occupations and Professions Article, Title 12, Annotated Code of Maryland. 

(6) ELECTRICAL. Chapter 33. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS. Add note to Section E3301.1 Applicability: The subject matter of 
chapters 33 through 42 is not within the scope of the Maryland Building Performance Standards. For the applicable electrical 
requirements, refer to the local electrical code and the National Electrical Code as adopted and enforced by the State Fire Marshal, 
authorized fire officials, or building officials pursuant to the provisions of Public Safety Article, Tide 12, Subtitle 6, Annotated Code 
of Maryland. 



A tAemher of the International Code Family® 

International 

Building 

Code* 




INTERNATIONAL 
CODE COUNCIL® 



2006 



2006 International Building Code^ 



First Printing: January 2006 



ISBN-13: 978-1-58001-251-5 (soft) 

ISBN-10: 1-58001-251-5 (soft) 

ISBN-13: 978-1-58001-250-8 (loose-leaf) 

ISBN-10: 1-58001-250-7 (loose-leaf) 

ISBN-13: 978-1-58001-302-4 (e-document) 

ISBN-10: 1-58001-302-3 (e-document) 



COPYRIGHT © 2006 

by 

INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL, INC. 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This 2006 International Building Code® is a copyrighted work owned by the International Code Coun- 
cil, Inc. Without advance written permission from the copyright owner, no part of this book may be reproduced, distributed, or trans- 
mitted in any form or by any means, including, without limitation, electronic, optical or mechanical means (by way of example and 
not limitation, photocopying, or recording by or in an information storage retrieval system). For information on permission to copy 
material exceeding fair use, please contact: Pubhcations, 4051 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, IL 60478-5771. Phone 
1-888-ICC-SAFE (422-7233). 

Trademarks: "International Code Council," the "International Code Council" logo and the "International Building Code" are trade- 
marks of the International Code Council, Inc. 



PRINTED IN THE U.S.A. 



PREFACE 



Introduction 

Internationally, code officials recognize the need for a modem, up-to-date building code addressing the design and installation of 
building systems through requirements emphasizing performance. The International Building Code®, in this 2006 edition, is 
designed to meet these needs through model code regulations that safeguard the public health and safety in all communities, large 
and small. 

This comprehensive building code establishes minimum regulations for building systems using prescriptive and perfor- 
mance-related provisions. It is founded on broad-based principles that make possible the use of new materials and new building 
designs. This 2006 edition is fully compatible with all the International Codes® (I-Codes®) published by the International Code 
Council (ICC)®, including the ICC Electrical Code®, International Energy Conservation Code®, International Existing Building 
Code®, International Fire Code®, International Fuel Gas Code®, International Mechanical Code®, ICC Performance Code®, Inter- 
national Plumbing Code®, International Private Sewage Disposal Code®, International Property Maintenance Code®, Interna- 
tional Residential Code®, International Wildland-Urban Interface Code'^^ and International Zoning Code®. 

The International Building Code provisions provide many benefits, among which is the model code development process that 
offers an international forum for building professionals to discuss performance and prescriptive code requirements. This forum pro- 
vides an excellent arena to debate proposed revisions. This model code also encourages international consistency in the application 
of provisions. 

Development 

The first edition of the International Building Code (2000) was the culmination of an effort initiated in 1997 by the ICC. This 
included five drafting subcommittees appointed by ICC and consisting of representatives of the three statutory members of the 
International Code Council at that time, including: Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc. (BOCA), Inter- 
national Conference of Building Officials (ICBO) and Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI). The intent was to 
draft a comprehensive set of regulations for building systems consistent with and inclusive of the scope of the existing model codes. 
Technical content of the latest model codes promulgated by BOCA, ICBO and SBCCI was utilized as the basis for the development, 
followed by public hearings in 1997, 1998 and 1999 to consider proposed changes. This 2006 edition presents the code as originally 
issued, with changes reflected in the 2003 edition and further changes approved through the ICC Code Development Process 
through 2005. A new edition such as this is promulgated every three years. 

This code is founded on principles intended to establish provisions consistent with the scope of a building code that adequately 
protects public health, safety and welfare; provisions that do not unnecessarily increase construction costs; provisions that do not 
restrict the use of new materials, products or methods of construction; and provisions that do not give preferential treatment to par- 
ticular types or classes of materials, products or methods of construction. 

Adoption 

The International Building Code is available for adoption and use by jurisdictions internationally. Its use within a governmental 
jurisdiction is intended to be accomplished through adoption by reference in accordance with proceedings establishing the jurisdic- 
tion's laws. At the time of adoption, jurisdictions should insert the appropriate information in provisions requiring specific local 
information, such as the name of the adopting jurisdiction. These locations are shown in bracketed words in small capital letters in 
the code and in the sample ordinance. The sample adoption ordinance on page v addresses several key elements of a code adoption 
ordinance, including the information required for insertion into the code text. 

Maintenance 

The International Building Code is kept up to date through the review of proposed changes submitted by code enforcing officials, 
industry representatives, design professionals and other interested parties. Proposed changes are carefully considered through an 
open code development process in which all interested and affected parties may participate. 

The contents of this work are subject to change both through the Code Development Cycles and the governmental body that 
enacts the code into law. For more information regarding the code development process, contact the Code and Standard Develop- 
ment Department of the International Code Council. 

While the development procedure of the International Building Code assures the highest degree of care, ICC, its members and 
those participating in the development of this code do not accept any liability resulting from compliance or noncompliance with the 
provisions because ICC does not have the power or authority to police or enforce compliance with the contents of this code. Only the 
governmental body that enacts the code into law has such authority. 

2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® ill 



Letter Designations in Front of Section Numbers 

In each code development cycle, proposed changes to the code are considered at the Code Development Hearings by the ICC Fire 
Code Development Committee, whose action constitutes a recommendation to the voting membership for final action on the pro- 
posed change. Proposed changes to a code section that has a number beginning with a letter in brackets are considered by a different 
code development committee. For example, proposed changes to code sections that have [F] in front of them (e.g. [F] 903 . 1 . 1 . 1 ) are 
considered by the ICC Fire Code Development Committee at the code development hearings. 

The content of sections in this code that begin with a letter designation are maintained by another code development committee in 
accordance with the following: 

[E] = International Energy Conservation Code Development Committee; 
[EB] = International Existing Building Code Development Committee; 
[EL] = ICC Electrical Code Development Committee; 

[F] = International Fire Code Development Committee; 
[EG] = International Fuel Gas Code Development Committee; 

[M] = International Mechanical Code Development Committee; and 
[P] = International Plumbing Code Development Committee. 

l\/iarginal Markings 

Solid vertical lines in the margins within the body of the code indicate a technical change from the requirements of the 2003 edition. 
Deletion indicators in the form of an arrow ( ■* ) are provided in the margin where an entire section, paragraph, exception or table 
has been deleted or an item in a list of items or a table has been deleted. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE'' 



ORDINANCE 

The International Code5 are designed and promulgated to be adopted by reference by ordinance. Jurisdictions wishing to adopt the 
2006 International Building Code as an enforceable regulation governing structures and premises should ensure that certain factual 
information is included in the adopting ordinance at the time adoption is being considered by the appropriate governmental body. 
The following sample adoption ordinance addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordinance, including the information 
required for insertion into the code text. 

SAMPLE ORDINANCE FOR ADOPTION OF 

THE INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 

ORDINANCE N0._ 

An ordinance of the [JURISDICTION] adopting the 2006 edition of the International Building Code, regulating and governing the 
conditions and maintenance of all property, buildings and structures; by providing the standards for supplied utilities and facilities 
and other physical things and conditions essential to ensure that structures are safe, sanitary and fit for occupation and use; and the 
condemnation of buildings and structures unfit for human occupancy and use and the demolition of such structures in the [JURISDIC- 
TION]; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; repeaUng Ordinance No. of the [JURISDICTION] 

and all other ordinances and parts of the ordinances in conflict therewith. 

The [GOVERNING BODY] of the [JURISDICTION] does ordain as follows: 

Section l.That a certain document, three (3) copies of which are on file in the office of the [TITLE OF JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF 
RECORDS] of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], being marked and designated as the International Building Code, 2006 edition, including 
Appendix Chapters [FILL IN THE APPENDIX CHAPTERS BEING ADOPTED] (see International Building Code Section 101.2.1, 2006 
edition), as published by the International Code Council, be and is hereby adopted as the Building Code of the [JURISDICTION], in 
the State of [STATE NAME] for regulating and governing the conditions and maintenance of all property, buildings and structures; by 
providing the standards for supplied utilities and facilities and other physical things and conditions essential to ensure that structures 
are safe, sanitary and fit for occupation and use; and the condemnation of buildings and structures unfit for human occupancy and 
use and the demolition of such structures as herein provided; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; 
and each and all of the regulations, provisions, penalties, conditions and terms of said Building Code on file in the office of the 
[JURISDICTION] are hereby referred to, adopted, and made a part hereof, as if fully set out in this ordinance, with the additions, inser- 
tions, deletions and changes, if any, prescribed in Section 2 of this ordinance. 

Section 2. The following sections are hereby revised: 

Section 101.1. Insert: [NAME OF JURISDICTION] 

Section 1612.3. Insert: [NAME OF JURISDICTION] 

Section 1612.3. Insert: [DATE OF ISSUANCE] 

Section 3410.2. Insert: [DATE IN ONE LOCATION] 

Section 3. That Ordinance No. of [JURISDICTION] entitled [FILL IN HERE THE COMPLETE TITLE OF THE ORDINANCE OR 

ORDINANCES IN EFFECT AT THE PRESENT TIME SO THAT THEY WILL BE REPEALED BY DEFINITE MENTION] and all other ordinances 
or parts of ordinances in conflict herewith are hereby repealed. 

Section 4. That if any section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this ordinance is, for any reason, held to be unconstitutional, 
such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of this ordinance. The [GOVERNING BODY] hereby declares that it 
would have passed this ordinance, and each section, subsection, clause or phrase thereof, irrespective of the fact that any one or more 
sections, subsections, sentences, clauses and phrases be declared unconstitutional. 

Section 5. That nothing in this ordinance or in the Building Code hereby adopted shall be construed to affect any suit or proceeding 
impending in any court, or any rights acquired, or liability incurred, or any cause or causes of action acquired or existing, under any 
act or ordinance hereby repealed as cited in Section 3 of this ordinance; nor shall any just or legal right or remedy of any character be 
lost, impaired or affected by this ordinance. 

Section 6. That the [JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF RECORDS] is hereby ordered and directed to cause this ordinance to be pubhshed. 
(An additional provision may be required to direct the number of times the ordinance is to be published and to specify that it is to be 
in a newspaper in general circulation. Posting may also be required.) 

Section 7. That this ordinance and the rules, regulations, provisions, requirements, orders and matters established and adopted 
hereby shall take effect and be in full force and effect [TIME PERIOD] from and after the date of its final passage and adoption. 

2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE^ v 



vi 2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE*' 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 1 ADMINISTRATION 1 

Section 

101 General 1 

102 Applicability 1 

103 Department of Building Safety 2 

104 Duties and Powers of Building Official 2 

105 Permits 3 

106 Construction Documents 5 

107 Temporary Structures and Uses 6 

108 Fees 6 

109 Inspections 7 

1 10 Certificate of Occupancy 7 

1 1 1 Service Utilities 8 

1 12 Board of Appeals 8 

113 Violations 8 

1 14 Stop Work Order 9 

115 Unsafe Structures and Equipment 9 

CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS II 

Section 

201 General 11 

202 Definitions 11 

CHAPTER 3 USE AND OCCUPANCY 

CLASSIFICATION 23 

Section 

301 General 23 

302 Classification 23 

303 Assembly Group A 23 

304 Business Group B 24 

305 Educafional Group E 24 

306 Factory Group F 24 

307 High-hazard Group H 25 

308 Institutional Group I 33 

309 Mercantile Group M 34 

310 Residential Group R 34 

311 Storage Group S 35 

312 Utility and Miscellaneous Group U 35 



CHAPTER 4 SPECIAL DETAILED 

REQUIREMENTS BASED ON 

USE AND OCCUPANCY 37 

Section 

401 Scope 37 

402 Covered Mall Buildings 37 

403 High-rise Buildings 40 

404 Atriums 41 

405 Underground Buildings 42 

406 Motor- vehicle-related Occupancies 43 

407 Group 1-2 47 

408 Group 1-3 48 

409 Motion Picture Projection Rooms 49 

410 Stages and Platforms 50 

411 Special Amusement Buildings 52 

412 Aircraft-related Occupancies 52 

413 Combustible Storage 54 

414 Hazardous Materials 55 

415 Groups H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5 58 

416 Application of Flammable Finishes 71 

417 Drying Rooms 72 

418 Organic Coatings 72 

419 Group I-l, R-1, R-2, R-3 72 

420 Hydrogen Cutoff Rooms 72 

CHAPTER 5 GENERAL BUILDING 

HEIGHTS AND AREAS 75 

Section 

501 General 75 

502 Definitions 75 

503 General Height and Area Limitations 75 

504 Height 75 

505 Mezzanines 77 

506 Area Modifications 78 

507 Unlimited Area Buildings 79 

508 Mixed Use and Occupancy 80 

509 Special Provisions 82 

CHAPTER 6 TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 85 

Section 

601 General 85 

602 Construction Classification 85 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



603 Combustible Material in Type I and II 

Construction. 86 

CHAPTER 7 FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED 

CONSTRUCTION 89 

Section 

701 General 89 

702 Definitions 89 

703 Fire-resistance Ratings and Fire Tests 90 

704 Exterior Walls 91 

705 Fire Walls 94 

706 Fire Barriers 96 

707 Shaft Enclosures 97 

708 Fire Partitions ; 100 

709 Smoke Barriers 101 

710 Smoke Partitions 101 

711 Horizontal Assemblies 102 

712 Penetrations 102 

713 Fire-resistant Joint Systems 105 

714 Fire-resistance Rating of 

Structural Members 105 

715 Opening Protectives 106 

716 Ducts and Air Transfer Openings 110 

717 Concealed Spaces 113 

718 Fire-resistance Requirements for Plaster 115 

719 Thermal- and Sound-insulating Materials 115 

720 Prescriptive Fire Resistance 116 

721 Calculated Fire Resistance 136 

CHAPTER 8 INTERIOR FINISHES 165 

Section 

801 General 165 

802 Definitions 165 

803 Wall and Ceiling Finishes .165 

804 Interior Floor Finish 167 

805 Combustible Materials in Type I 

and II Construction 168 

806 Decorative Materials and Trim 168 

CHAPTER 9 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS ... 171 

Section 

901 General 171 

902 Definitions 171 

903 Automatic Sprinkler Systems 174 

904 Alternative Automatic 

Fire-extinguishing Systems 178 

viii 



905 Standpipe Systems ;;. . . 180 

906 Portable Fire Extinguishers 182 

907 Fire Alarm and Detection Systems 182 

908 Emergency Alarm Systems 189 

909 Smoke Control Systems 190 

910 Smoke and Heat Vents 197 

911 Fire Command Center 199 

912 Fire Department Connections 199 

CHAPTER 10 MEANS OF EGRESS 201 

Section 

1001 Administration 201 

1002 Definitions 201 

1003 General Means of Egress 202 

1004 Occupant Load 203 

1005 Egress Width 204 

1006 Means of Egress Illumination 205 

1007 Accessible Means of Egress 205 

1008 Doors, Gates and TurnsUles 207 

1009 Stairways ; .... 212 

1010 Ramps 214 

101 1 Exit Signs 216 

1012 Handrails 216 

1013 Guards 217 

1014 Exit Access 218 

1015 Exit and Exit Access Doorways , 220 

1016 Exit Access Travel Distance 221 

1017 Corridors 221 

1018 Exits 223 

1019 Number of Exits and Continuity 223 

1020 Vertical Exit Enclosures 223 

1021 Exit Passageways 225 

1022 Horizontal Exits 225 

1023 Exterior Exit Ramps and Stairways 226 

1024 Exit Discharge 227 

1025 Assembly 228 

1026 Emergency Escape and Rescue 232 

CHAPTER 11 ACCESSIBILITY 235 

Section 

1101 General 235 

1 102 Definitions 235 

1 103 Scoping Requirements 235 

1 104 Accessible Route . 236 

1105 Accessible Entrances 237 

2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



1106 Parking and Passenger Loading Facilities 238 

1 107 Dwelling Units and Sleeping Units 238 

1108 Special Occupancies 241 

1 109 Other Features and Facilities 243 

1110 Signage . 247 

CHAPTER 12 INTERIOR ENVIRONMENT 249 

Section 

1201 General 249 

1202 Definitions 249 

1203 Ventilation 249 

1204 Temperature Control 250 

1205 Lighting 250 

1206 Yards or Courts 251 

1207 Sound Transmission 251 

1208 Interior Space Dimensions 25 1 

1209 Access to Unoccupied Spaces : 252 

1210 Surrounding Materials 252 

CHAPTER 13 ENERGY EFFICIENCY 253 

Section 

1301 General 253 

CHAPTER 14 EXTERIOR WALLS 255 

Section 

1401 General 255 

1402 Definitions 255 

1403 Performance Requirements 255 

1404 Materials 256 

1405 Installation of Wall Coverings 256 

1406 Combustible Materials on the 

Exterior Side of Exterior Walls 260 

1407 Metal Composite Materials (MCM) 261 

CHAPTER 15 ROOF ASSEMBLIES AND 

ROOFTOP STRUCTURES 263 

Section 

1501 General 263 

1502 Definitions 263 

1503 Weather Protection 263 

1504 Performance Requirements 264 

1505 Fire Classification 265 

1506 Materials 265 

1507 Requirements for Roof Coverings 266 

1508 Roof Insulation 274 



1509 Rooftop Structures. . . ; 275 

1510 Reroofing 276 

CHAPTER 16 STRUCTURAL DESIGN ......... 277 

Section 

1601 General 277 

1602 Definitions and Notations 277 

1603 Construction Documents 278 

1604 General Design Requirements 279 

1605 Load Combinations 282 

1606 Dead Loads 283 

1607 Live Loads 284 

1608 Snow Loads 289 

1609 Wind Loads 289 

1610 Soil Lateral Loads 299 

1611 Rain Loads , 299 

1612 Flood Loads 300 

1613 Earthquake Loads 302 

CHAPTER 17 STRUCTURAL TESTS AND 

SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 327 

Section 

1701 General 327 

1702 Definitions 327 

1703 Approvals 328 

1704 Special Inspections 328 

1705 Statement of Special Inspections 336 

1706 Contractor Responsibility 338 

1707 Special Inspections for Seismic Resistance .... 338 

1708 Structural Testing for Seismic Resistance 339 

1709 Structural Observations 340 

1710 Design Strengths of Materials 340 

171 1 Alternative Test Procedure 340 

1712 Test Safe Load 340 

1713 In-situ Load Tests 340 

1714 Preconstruction Load Tests. 341 

1715 Material and Test Standards 342 

CHAPTER 18 SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 343 

Section 

1801 General 343 

1802 Foundation and Soils Investigations 343 

1803 Excavafion, Grading and Fill 344 

1804 Allowable Load-bearing Values of Soils 345 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



1805 Footings and Foundations 345 

1806 Retaining Walls ' ' 357 

1807 Dampproofing and Waterproofing 357 

1808 Pier and Pile Foundations 358 

1809 Driven Pile Foundations 363 

1810 Cast-in-place Concrete Pile Foundations 366 

1811 Composite Piles 370 

1812 Pier Foundations 370 

CHAPTER 19 CONCRETE 373 

Section 

1901 General 373 

1902 Definitions 373 

1903 Specifications for Tests and Materials 373 

1§04 Durability Requirements , 373 

1905 Concrete Quality, Mixing and Placing 375 

1.906 Formwork, Embedded Pipes and 

Construction Joints 375 

1907 Details of Reinforcement 376 

1908 Modifications to ACI 318 376 

1909 Structural Plain Concrete 379 

1910 Minimum Slab Provisions 380 

1911 Anchorage to Concrete — Allowable 

Stress Design 380 

1912 Anchorage to Concrete— Strength Design 380 

1913 Shotcrete 381 

1914 Reinforced Gypsum Concrete 382 

1^15 Concrete-filled Pipe Columns 382 

CHAPTER 20 ALUMINUM 385 

Section 

2001 General 385 

2002 Materials 385 

CHAPTER 21 MASONRY 387 

Section 

2101 General 387 

2102 Definitions and Notafions 387 

2103 Masonry Construction Materials 391 

2104 Construction. 394 

2105 Quality Assurance 397 

2106 Seismic Design 398 

2107 Allowable Stress Design 400 

2108 Strength Design of Masonry 400 



2109 Empirical Design of Masonry. 401 

2110 Glass Unit Masonry. . 407 

2111 Masonry Fireplaces 408 

21 12 Masonry Heaters 411 

2113 Masonry Chimneys 411 

CHAPTER 22 STEEL 417 

Section 

2201 General 417 

2202 Definifions 417 

2203 Identification and Protection of Steel 

for Structural Purposes 417 

2204 Connections 417 

2205 Structural Steel 417 

2206 Steel Joists 418 

2207 Steel Cable Structures 418 

2208 Steel Storage Racks 419 

2209 Cold-formed Steel 419 

2210 Cold-formed Steel Light-framed Construction .419 

CHAPTER 23 WOOD .421 

Section 

2301 General 421 

2302 Definifions ' 421 

2303 Minimum Standards and Quality .:...... 422 

2304 General Construction Requirements 426 

2305 General Design Requirements for 

Lateral-force-resisting Systems 435 

2306 Allowable Stress Design 442 

2307 Load and Resistance Factor Design 449 

2308 Conventional Light-frame Construction ...... 449 

CHAPTER 24 GLASS AND GLAZING 495 

Section ■ 

2401 General 495 

2402 Definitions ; 495 

2403 General Requirements for Glass. 495 

2404 Wind, Snow, Seismic and 

Dead Loads on Glass 495 

2405 Sloped Glazing and Skylights 497 

2406 Safety Glazing 498 

2407 Glass in Handrails and Guards 500 

2408 Glazing in Athletic Facilities 500 

2409 Glass in Elevator Hoistway 500 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 25 GYPSUM BOARD 

AND PLASTER 501 

Section 

2501 General 501 

2502 Definitions 501 

2503 Inspection 501 

2504 Vertical and Horizontal Assemblies 501 

2505 Shear Wall Construction 501 

2506 Gypsum Board Materials 502 

2507 Lathing and Plastering 502 

2508 Gypsum Construction 502 

2509 Gypsum Board in Showers and 

Water Closets 503 

2510 Lathing and Furring for Cement 

Plaster (Stucco) 504 

2511 Interior Plaster 504 

2512 Exterior Plaster 505 

2513 Exposed Aggregate Plaster 505 

CHAPTER 26 PLASTIC 507 

Section 

2601 General 507 

2602 Definitions 507 

2603 Foam Plastic Insulation 507 

2604 Interior Finish and Trim 510 

2605 Plastic Veneer 511 

2606 Light-transmitting Plastics 511 

2607 Light-transmitting Plastic Wall Panels 512 

2608 Light-transmitting Plastic Glazing ........... 513 

2609 Light-transmitting Plastic Roof Panels 513 

2610 Light-transmitting Plastic Skylight Glazing ... 514 

2611 Light-transmitting Plastic Interior Signs 514 

CHAPTER 27 ELECTRICAL 517 

Section 

2701 General 517 

2702 Emergency and Standby Power Systems 517 

CHAPTER 28 MECHANICAL SYSTEMS 519 

Section 

2801 General 519 

CHAPTER 29 PLUMBING SYSTEMS 521 

Section 

2901 General 521 

2902 Minimum Plumbing Facilities 521 

2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 30 ELEVATORS AND 

CONVEYING SYSTEMS 525 

Section 

3001 General 525 

3002 , Hoistway Enclosures 525 

3003 Emergency Operations 525 

3004 Hoistway Venting 526 

3005 Conveying Systems 526 

3006 Machine Rooms 527 

CHAPTER 31 SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION 529 

Section 

3101 General 529' 

3102 Membrane Structures 529 

3103 Temporary Structures 530 

3104 Pedestrian Walkways and Tunnels 530 

3105 Awnings and Canopies 531 

3106 Marquees 532 

3107 Signs 532 

3108 Radio and Television Towers 532 

3109 Swimming Pool Enclosures and 

Safety Devices 532 

CHAPTER 32 ENCROACHMENTS INTO THE 

PUBLIC RIGHT-OF-WAY 535 

Section 

3201 General 535 

3202 Encroachments 535 

CHAPTER 33 SAFEGUARDS DURING 

CONSTRUCTION .537 

Section 

3301 General 537 

3302 Construction Safeguards 537 

3303 Demolition 537 

3304 Site Work 537 

3305 Sanitary 537 

3306 Protection of Pedestrians 538 

3307 Protection of Adjoining Property 539 

3308 Temporary Use of Streets, Alleys and 

Public Property 539 

3309 Fire Extinguishers 539 

3310 Exits 539 

3311 Standpipes 539 

3312 Automatic Sprinkler System 540 

xi 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 34 EXISTING STRUCTURES 541 

Section 

3401 General 541 

3402 Definitions 541 

3403 Additions, Alterations or Repairs 541 

3404 Fire Escapes 542 

3405 Glass Replacement 543 

3406 Change of Occupancy 543 

3407 Historic Buildings 543 

3408 Moved Structures 543 

3409 Accessibility for Existing Buildings 543 

3410 Compliance Alternatives 545 

CHAPTER 35 REFERENCED STANDARDS 555 

APPENDIX A EMPLOYEE QUALIFICATIONS . . 575 

Section 

AlOl Building Official Qualifications 575 

A102 Referenced Standards 575 

APPENDIX B BOARD OF APPEALS 577 

Section 

BlOl General 577 

APPENDIX C GROUP U— AGRICULTURAL 

BUILDINGS 579 

Section 

ClOl General 579 

C102 Allowable Height and Area 579 

C103 Mixed Occupancies 579 

C104 Exits 579 

APPENDIX D FIRE DISTRICTS 581 

Section 

DlOl General 581 

D102 Building Restrictions 581 

D103 Changes to Buildings 582 

D104 Buildings Located Partially in the 

Fire District 582 

D105 Exceptions to Restrictions in Fire District 582 

D106 Referenced Standards 583 

APPENDIX E SUPPLEMENTARY ACCESSIBILITY 
REQUIREMENTS 585 

Section 

ElOl General 585 

E102 Definitions 585 



XII 



E103 Accessible Route 585 

E104 Special Occupancies 585 

El 05 Other Features and Facilities 586 

E106 Telephones 586 

E107 Signage .587 

E108 Bus Stops 588 

E109 Transportation Facilities and Stations 588 

El 10 Airports 589 

El 1 1 Referenced Standards 589 

APPENDIX F RODENTPROOFING 591 

Section 

FlOl General 591 

APPENDIX G FLOOD-RESISTANT 

CONSTRUCTION 593 

Section 

GlOl Administration 593 

G102 Applicability 593 

G103 Powers and Duties 593 

G104 Permits . . 594 

G105 Variances : 594 

G201 Definitions 595 

G301 Subdivisions 596 

G401 Site Improvement 596 

G501 Manufactured Homes 596 

G601 Recreational Vehicles 596 

G701 Tanks 597 

G801 Other Building Work 597 

G901 Referenced Standards 597 

APPENDIX H SIGNS 599 

Section 

HlOl General 599 

H102 Definitions 599 

H103 Location 599 

H104 Identification 599 

H105 Design and Construction 600 

H106 Electrical 600 

H107 Combustible Materials 600 

H108 Animated Devices 600 

H109 Ground Signs 600 

HllO Roof Signs 601 

Hill Wall Signs 601 

HI 12 Projecting Signs 601 

2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



HI 13 Marquee Signs 602 

H114 Portable Signs 602 

HI 15 Referenced Standards 602 

APPENDIX I PATIO COVERS 603 

Section 

1101 General 603 

1102 Definitions 603 

1103 Exterior Openings 603 

1104 Structural Provisions 603 

APPENDIX J GRADING 605 

JlOl General 605 

J102 Definitions 605 

J 103 Permits Required 605 

J 104 Permit Application and Submittals 605 

J105 Inspections 606 

J106 Excavations 606 

J107 Fills 607 

J108 Setbacks 607 

J109 Drainage and Terracing 607 

Jl 10 Erosion Control 608 

Jill Referenced Standards 608 

APPENDIX K ICC ELECTRICAL CODE 609 

INDEX 637 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® xill 



xiv 2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 1 

ADMINISTRATION 



SECTION 101 
GENERAL 

101.1 Title. These regulations shall be known as the Building 
Code of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], hereinafter referred to as 
"this code." 

101.2 Scope. The provisions of this code shall apply to the con- 
struction, alteration, movement, enlargement, replacement, 
repair, equipment, use and occupancy, location, maintenance, 
removal and demolition of every building or structure or any 
appurtenances connected or attached to such buildings or 
structures. 

Exception: Detached one- and two-family dwellings and 
multiple single-family dwellings (townhouses) not more 
than three stories above grade plane in height with a separate 
means of egress and their accessory structures shall comply 
with the International Residential Code. 

101.2.1 Appendices. Provisions in the appendices shall not 
apply unless specifically adopted. 

101.3 Intent. The purpose of this code is to establish the mini- 
mum requirements to safeguard the public health, safety and 
general welfare through structural strength, means of egress 
facilities, stability, sanitation, adequate light and ventilation, 
energy conservation, and safety to life and property from fire 
and other hazards attributed to the built environment and to 
provide safety to fire fighters and emergency responders dur- 
ing emergency operations. 

101.4 Referenced codes. The other codes listed in Sections 
101.4.1 through 101.4.7 and referenced elsewhere in this code 
shall be considered part of the requirements of this code to the 
prescribed extent of each such reference. 

101.4.1 Electrical. The provisions of the ICC Electrical 
Code shall apply to the installation of electrical systems, 
including alterations, repairs, replacement, equipment, 
appliances, fixtures, fittings and appurtenances thereto. 

101.4.2 Gas. The provisions of the International Fuel Gas 
Code shall apply to the installation of gas piping from the 
point of delivery, gas appliances and related accessories as 
covered in this code. These requirements apply to gas piping 
systems extending from the point of delivery to the inlet 
connections of appliances and the installation and operation 
of residential and commercial gas appliances and related 
accessories. 

101.4.3 Mechanical. The provisions of the International 
Mechanical Code shall apply to the installation, alterations, 
repairs and replacement of mechanical systems, including 
equipment, appliances, fixtures, fittings and/or appurte- 
nances, including ventilating, heating, cooling, air-condi- 
tioning and refrigeration systems, incinerators and other 
energy-related systems. 

101.4.4 Plumbing. The provisions of the International 
Plumbing Code shall apply to the installation, alteration, 



repair and replacement of plumbing systems, including 
equipment, appliances, fixtures, fittings and appurtenances, 
and where connected to a water or sewage system and all 
aspects of a medical gas system. The provisions of the Inter- 
national Private Sewage Disposal Code shall apply to pri- 
vate sewage disposal systems. 

101.4.5 Property maintenance. The provisions of the 
International Property Maintenance Code shall apply to 
existing structures and premises; equipment and facilities; 
light, ventilation, space heating, sanitation, life and fire 
safety hazards; responsibilities of owners, operators and 
occupants; and occupancy of existing premises and struc- 
tures. 

101.4.6 Fire prevention. The provisions of the Interna- 
tional Fire Code shall apply to matters affecting or relating 
to structures, processes and premises from the hazard of fire 
and explosion arising from the storage, handling or use of 
structures, materials or devices; from conditions hazardous 
to life, property or public welfare in the occupancy of struc- 
tures or premises; and from the construction, extension, 
repair, alteration or removal of fire suppression and alarm 
systems or fire hazards in the structure or on the premises 
from occupancy or operation. 

101.4.7 Energy. The provisions of the International Energy 
Conservation Code shall apply to all matters governing the 
design and construction of buildings for energy efficiency. 



SECTION 102 
APPLICABILITY 

102.1 General. Where, in any specific case, different sections 
of this code specify different materials, methods of construc- 
tion or other requirements, the most restrictive shall govern. 
Where there is a conflict between a general requirement and a 
specific requirement, the specific requirement shall be applica- 
ble. 

102.2 Other lavt's. The provisions of this code shall not be 
deemed to nullify any provisions of local, state or federal law. 

102.3 Application of references. References to chapter or sec- 
tion numbers, or to provisions not specifically identified by 
number, shall be construed to refer to such chapter, section or 
provision of this code. 

102.4 Referenced codes and standards. The codes and stan- 
dards referenced in this code shall be considered part of the 
requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of each such 
reference. Where differences occur between provisions of this 
code and referenced codes and standards, the provisions of this 
code shall apply. 

102.5 Partial invalidity. In the event that any part or provision 
of this code is held to be illegal or void, this shall not have the 
effect of making void or illegal any of the other parts or provi- 
sions. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



1 



ADMINISTRATION 



102.6 Existing structures. The legal occupancy of any struc- 
ture existing on the date of adoption of this code shall be per- 
mitted to continue without change, except as is specifically 
covered in this code, the International Property Maintenance 
Code or the International Fire Code, or as is deemed necessary 
by the building official for the general safety and welfare of the 
occupants and the public. 



SECTION 103 
DEPARTMENT OF BUILDING SAFETY 

103.1 Creation of enforcement agency. The Department of 
Building Safety is hereby created and the official in charge 
thereof shall be known as the building official. 

103.2 Appointment. The building official shall be appointed 
by the chief appointing authority of the jurisdiction. 

103.3 Deputies. In accordance with the prescribed procedures 
of this jurisdiction and with the concurrence of the appointing 
authority, the building official shall have the authority to 
appoint a deputy building official, the related technical offi- 
cers, inspectors, plan examiners and other employees. Such 
employees shall have powers as delegated by the building offi- 
cial. For the maintenance of existing properties, see the Inter- 
national Property Maintenance Code. 



SECTION 104 
DUTIES AND POWERS OF BUILDING OFFICIAL 

104.1 General. The building official is hereby authorized and 
directed to enforce the provisions of this code. The building 
official shall have the authority to render interpretations of this 
code and to adopt policies and procedures in order to clarify the 
application of its provisions. Such interpretations, policies and 
procedures shall be in compliance with the intent and purpose 
of this code. Such policies and procedures shall not have the 
effect of waiving requirements specifically provided for in this 
code. 

104.2 Applications and permits. The building official shall 
receive applications, review construction documents and issue 
permits for the erection, and alteration, demolition and moving 
of buildings and structures, inspect the premises for which such 
permits have been issued and enforce compliance with the pro- 
visions of this code. 

104.3 Notices and orders. The building official shall issue all 
necessary notices or orders to ensure compliance with this 
code. 

104.4 Inspections. The building official shall make all of the 
required inspections, or the building official shall have the 
authority to accept reports of inspection by approved agencies 
or individuals. Reports of such inspections shall be in writing 
and be certified by a responsible officer of such approved 
agency or by the responsible individual. The building official is 
authorized to engage such expert opinion as deemed necessary 
to report upon unusual technical issues that arise, subject to the 
approval of the appointing authority. 



104.5 Identification. The building official shall carry proper 
identification when inspecting structures or premises in the 
performance of duties under this code. 

104.6 Right of entry. Where it is necessary to make an inspec- 
tion to enforce the provisions of this code, or where the build- 
ing official has reasonable cause to believe that there exists in a 
structure or upon a premises a condition which is contrary to or 
in violation of this code which makes the structure or premises 
unsafe, dangerous or hazardous, the building official is autho- 
rized to enter the structure or premises at reasonable times to 
inspect or to perform the duties imposed by this code, provided 
that if such structure or premises be occupied that credentials 
be presented to the occupant and entry requested. If such struc- 
ture or premises is unoccupied, the building official shall first 
make a reasonable effort to locate the owner or other person 
having charge or control of the structure or premises and 
request entry. If entry is refused, the building official shall have 
recourse to the remedies provided by law to secure entry. 

104.7 Department records. The building official shall keep 
official records of applications received, permits and certifi- 
cates issued, fees collected, reports of inspections, and notices 
and orders issued. Such records shall be retained in the official 
records for the period required for retention of public records. 

104.8 Liability. The building official, member of the board of 
appeals or employee charged with the enforcement of this 
code, while acting for the jurisdiction in good faith and without 
malice in the discharge of the duties required by this code or 
other pertinent law or ordinance, shall not thereby be rendered 
liable personally and is hereby relieved from personal liability 
for any damage accruing to persons or property as a result of 
any act or by reason of an act or omission in the discharge of 
official duties. Any suit instituted against an officer or 
employee because of an act performed by that officer or 
employee in the lawful discharge of duties and under the provi- 
sions of this code shall be defended by legal representative of 
the jurisdiction until the final termination of the proceedings. 
The building official or any subordinate shall not be liable for 
cost in any action, suit or proceeding that is instituted in pursu- 
ance of the provisions of this code. 

104.9 Approved materials and equipment. Materials, equip- 
ment and devices approved by the building official shall be 
constructed and installed in accordance with such approval. 

104.9.1 Used materials and equipment. The use of used 
materials which meet the requirements of this code for new 
materials is permitted. Used equipment and devices shall 
not be reused unless approved by the building official. 

104.10 Modifications. Wherever there are practical difficul- 
ties involved in carrying out the provisions of this code, the 
building official shall have the authority to grant modifications 
for individual cases, upon application of the owner or owner's 
representative, provided the building official shall first find that 
special individual reason makes the strict letter of this code 
impractical and the modification is in compliance with the 
intent and purpose of this code and that such modification does 
not lessen health, accessibility, life and fire safety, or structural 
requirements. The details of action granting modifications 
shall be recorded and entered in the files of the department of 
building safety. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



ADMINISTRATION 



104.11 Alternative materials, design and methods of con- 
struction and equipment. The provisions of this code are not 
intended to prevent the installation of any material or to pro- 
hibit any design or method of construction not specifically pre- 
scribed by this code, provided that any such alternative has 
been approved. An alternative material, design or method of 
construction shall be approved where the building official finds 
that the proposed design is satisfactory and complies with the 
intent of the provisions of this code, and that the material, 
method or work offered is, for the purpose intended, at least the 
equivalent of that prescribed in this code in quality, strength, 
effectiveness, fixe resistance, durability and safety. 

104.11.1 Research reports. Supporting data, where neces- 
sary to assist in the approval of materials or assemblies not 
specifically provided for in this code, shall consist of valid 
research reports from approved sources. 

104.11.2 Tests. Whenever there is insufficient evidence of 
compliance with the provisions of this code, or evidence 
that a material or method does not conform to the require- 
ments of this code, or in order to substantiate claims for 
alternative materials or methods, the building official shall 
have the authority to require tests as evidence of compliance 
to be made at no expense to the jurisdiction. Test methods 
shall be as specified in this code or by other recognized test 
standards. In the absence of recognized and accepted test 
methods, the building official shall approve the testing pro- 
cedures. Tests shall be performed by an approved agency. 
Reports of such tests shall be retained by the building offi- 
cial for the period required for retention of public records. 



SECTION 105 
PERMITS 

105.1 Required. Any owner or authorized agent who intends 
to construct, enlarge, alter, repair, move, demolish, or change 
the occupancy of a building or structure, or to erect, install, 
enlarge, alter, repair, remove, convert or replace any electrical, 
gas, mechanical or plumbing system, the installation of which 
is regulated by this code, or to cause any such work to be done, 
shall first make application to the building official and obtain 
the required permit. 

105.1.1 Annual permit. In lieu of an individual permit for 
each alteration to an already approved electrical, gas, 
mechanical or plumbing installation, the building official is 
authorized to issue an annual permit upon application there- 
for to any person, firm or corporation regularly employing 
one or more qualified tradepersons in the building, structure 
or on the premises owned or operated by the applicant for 
the permit. 

105.1.2 Annual permit records. The person to whom an 
annual permit is issued shall keep a detailed record of alter- 
ations made under such annual permit. The building official 
shall have access to such records at all times or such records 
shall be filed with the building official as designated. 

105.2 Work exempt from permit. Exemptions from permit 
requirements of this code shall not be deemed to grant authori- 
zation for any work to be done in any manner in violation of the 



provisions of this code or any other laws or ordinances of this 
jurisdiction. Permits shall not be required for the following: 

Building: 

1. One-story detached accessory structures used as 
tool and storage sheds, playhouses and similar uses, 
provided the floor area does not exceed 120 square 
feet (11 m2). 

2. Fences not over 6 feet (1829 mm) high. 

3. Oil derricks. 

4. Retaining walls that are not over 4 feet (1219 mm) in 
height measured from the bottom of the footing to 
the top of the wall, unless supporting a surcharge or 
impounding Class I, II or IIIA Uquids. 

5. Water tanks supported directly on grade if the 
capacity does not exceed 5,000 gallons (18 925 L) 
and the ratio of height to diameter or width does not 
exceed 2:1. 

6. Sidewalks and driveways not more than 30 inches 
(762 mm) above adjacent grade, and not over any 
basement or story below and are not part of an acces- 
sible route. 

7. Painting, papering, tiling, carpeting, cabinets, coun- 
ter tops and similar finish work. 

8. Temporary motion picture, television and theater 
stage sets and scenery. 

9. Prefabricated swimming pools accessory to a Group 
R-3 occupancy that are less than 24 inches (610 mm) 
deep, do not exceed 5,000 gallons (18 925 L) and are 
installed entirely above ground. 

10. Shade cloth structures constructed for nursery or 
agricultural purposes, not including service sys- 
tems. 

1 1 . Swings and other playground equipment accessory 
to detached one- and two-family dwellings. 

12. Window awnings supported by an exterior wall that 
do not project more than 54 inches (1372 mm) from 
the exterior wall and do not require additional sup- 
port of Group R-3 and U occupancies. 

13. Nonfixed and movable fixtures, cases, racks, coun- 
ters and partitions not over 5 feet 9 inches (1753 
mm) in height. 

Electrical: 

Repairs and maintenance: Minor repair work, includ- 
ing the replacement of lamps or the connection of 
approved portable electrical equipment to approved per- 
manently installed receptacles. 

Radio and television transmitting stations: The provi- 
sions of this code shall not apply to electrical equipment 
used for radio and television transmissions, but do apply 
to equipment and wiring for a power supply and the 
installations of towers and antennas. 

Temporary testing systems: A permit shall not be 
required for the installation of any temporary system 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE'' 



ADMINISTRATION 



required for the testing or servicing of electrical equip- 
ment or apparatus 

Gas: 

1. Portable heating appliance. 

2. Replacement of any minor part that does not alter 
approval of equipment or make such equipment 
unsafe. 

Mechanical: 

1. Portable heating appliance. 

2. Portable ventilation equipment. 

3. Portable cooling unit. 

4. Steam, hot or chilled water piping within any heating 
or cooling equipment regulated by this code. 

5. Replacement of any part that does not alter its 
approval or make it unsafe. 

6. Portable evaporative cooler. 

7. Self-contained refrigeration system containing 10 
pounds (5 kg) or less of refrigerant and actuated by 
motors of 1 horsepower (746 W) or less. 

Plumbing: 

1. The stopping of leaks in drains, water, soil, waste or 
vent pipe, provided, however, that if any concealed 
trap, drain pipe, water, soil, waste or vent pipe 
becomes defective and it becomes necessary to 
remove and replace the same with new material, such 
work shall be considered as new work and a permit 
shall be obtained and inspection made as provided in 
this code: 

2. The clearing of stoppages or the repairing of leaks in 
pipes, valves or fixtures and the removal and reinstal- 
lation of water closets, provided such repairs do not 
involve or require the replacement pr rearrangement 
of valves, pipes or fixtures. 

105.2.1 Emergency repairs. Where equipment replace- 
ments and repairs must be performed in an emergency situa- 
tion, the permit application shall be submitted within the 
next working business day to the building official. 

105.2.2 Repairs. Application or notice to the building offi- 
cial is not required for ordinary repairs to structures, 
replacement of lamps or the connection of approved porta- 
ble electrical equipment to approved permanently installed 
receptacles. Such repairs shall not include the cutting away 
of any wall, partition or portion thereof, the removal or cut- 
ting of any structural beam or load-bearing support, or the 
removal or change of any required means of egress, or rear- 
rangement of parts of a structure affecting the egress 
requirements; nor shall ordinary repairs include addition to, 
alteration of, replacement or relocation of any standpipe, 
water supply, sewer, drainage, drain leader, gas, soil, waste, 
vent or similar piping, electric wiring or mechanical or other 
work affecting public health or general safety. 

105.2.3 Public service agencies. A permit shall not be 
required for the installation, alteration or repair of genera- 
tion, transmission, distribution or metering or other related 



equipment that is under the ownership and control of public 
service agencies by established right. 

105.3 Application for permit. To obtain a permit, the appli- 
cant shall first file an application therefor in writing on a form 
furnished by the department of building safety for that purpose. 
Such application shall: 

1 . Identify and describe the work to be covered by the per- 
mit for which application is made. 

2. Describe the land on which the proposed work is to be 
done by legal description, street address or similar 
description that will readily identify and definitely locate 
the proposed building or work. 

3. Indicate the use and occupancy for which the proposed 
work is intended. 

4. Be accompanied by construction documents and other 
information as required in Section 106. 

5. State the valuation of the proposed work. 

6. Be signed by the applicant, or the applicant's authorized 
agent. 

7. Give such other data and information as required by the 
building official. 

105.3.1 Action on application. The building official shall 
examine or cause to be examined applications for permits 
and amendments thereto within a reasonable time after fil- 
ing. If the application or the construction documents do not 
conform to the requirements of pertinent laws, the building 
official shall reject such application in writing, stating the 
reasons therefor. If the building official is satisfied that the 
proposed work conforms to the requirements of this code 
and laws and ordinances applicable thereto, the building 
official shall issue a permit therefor as soon as practicable. 

105.3.2 Time limitation of application. An application for 
a permit for any proposed work shall be deemed to have 
been abandoned 1 80 days after the date of filing, unless such 
application has been pursued in good faith or a permit has 
been issued; except that the building official is authorized to 
grant one or more extensions of time for additional periods 
not exceeding 90 days each. The extension shall be 
requested in writing and justifiable cause demonstrated. 

105.4 Validity of permit. The issuance or granting of a permit 
shall not be construed to be a permit for, or an approval of, any 
violation of any of the provisions of this code or of any other 
ordinance of the jurisdiction. Permits presuming to give 
authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or 
other ordinances of the jurisdiction shall not be valid. The issu- 
ance of a permit based on construction documents and other 
data shall not prevent the building official from requiring the 
correction of errors in the construction documents and other 
data. The building official is also authorized to prevent occu- 
pancy or use of a structure where in violation of this code or of 
any other ordinances of this jurisdiction. 

105.5 Expiration. Every permit issued shall become invalid 
unless the work on the site authorized by such permit is com- 
menced within 1 80 days after its issuance, or if the work autho- 
rized on the site by such permit is suspended or abandoned for a 
period of 180 days after the time the work is commenced. The 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



ADMINISTRATION 



building official is authorized to grant, in writing, one or more 
extensions of time, for periods not more than 180 days each. 
The extension shall be requested in writing and justifiable 
cause demonstrated. 

105.6 Suspension or revocation. The building official is 
authorized to suspend or revoke a permit issued under the pro- 
visions of this code wherever the permit is issued in error or on 
the basis of incorrect, inaccurate or incomplete information, or 
in violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of the provi- 
sions of this code. 

105.7 Placement of permit. The building permit or copy shall 
be kept on the site of the work until the completion of the pro- 
ject. 



SECTION 106 
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS 

106.1 Submittal documents. Construction documents, state- 
ment of special inspections and other data shall be submitted in 
one or more sets with each permit application. The construc- 
tion documents shall be prepared by a registered design profes- 
sional where required by the statutes of the jurisdiction in 
which the project is to be constructed. Where special condi- 
tions exist, the building official is authorized to require addi- 
tional construction documents to be prepared by a registered 
design professional. 

Exception: The building official is authorized to waive the 
submission of construction documents and other data not 
required to be prepared by a registered design professional 
if it is found that the nature of the work applied for is such 
that review of construction documents is not necessary to 
obtain compliance with this code. 

106.1.1 Information on construction documents. Con- 
struction documents shall be dimensioned and drawn upon 
suitable material. Electronic media documents are permit- 
ted to be submitted when approved by the building official. 
Construction documents shall be of sufficient clarity to indi- 
cate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed 
and show in detail that it will conform to the provisions of 
this code and relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regula- 
tions, as determined by the building official. 

106.1.1.1 Fire protection system shop drawings. Shop 
drawings for the fire protection system(s) shall be sub- 
mitted to indicate conformance with this code and the 
construction documents and shall be approved prior to 
the start of system installation. Shop drawings shall con- 
tain all information as required by the referenced instal- 
lation standards in Chapter 9. 

106.1.2 Means of egress. The construction documents shall 
show in sufficient detail the location, construction, size and 
character of all portions of the means of egress in compli- 
ance with the provisions of this code. In other than occupan- 
cies in Groups R-2, R-3, and I-l, the construction 
documents shall designate the number of occupants to be 
accommodated on every floor, and in all rooms and spaces. 

106.1.3 Exterior wall envelope. Construction documents 
for all buildings shall describe the exterior wall envelope in 



sufficient detail to determine compliance with this code. 
The construction documents shall provide details of the 
exterior wall envelope as required, including flashing, inter- 
sections with dissimilar materials, comers, end details, con- 
trol joints, intersections at roof, eaves or parapets, means of 
drainage, water-resistive membrane and details around 
openings. 

The construction documents shall include manufac- 
turer's installation instructions that provide supporting doc- 
umentation that the proposed penetration and opening 
details described in the construction documents maintain 
the weather resistance of the exterior wall envelope. The 
supporting documentation shall fully describe the exterior 
wall system which was tested, where applicable, as well as 
the test procedure used. 

106.2 Site plan. The construction documents submitted with 
the application for permit shall be accompanied by a site plan 
showing to scale the size and location of new construction and 
existing structures on the site, distances from lot lines, the 
established street grades and the proposed finished grades and, 
as applicable, flood hazard areas, floodways, and design flood 
elevations; and it shall be drawn in accordance with an accurate 
boundary line survey. In the case of demolition, the site plan 
shall show construction to be demolished and the location and 
size of existing structures and construction that are to remain 
on the site or plot. The building official is authorized to waive 
or modify the requirement for a site plan when the application 
for permit is for alteration or repair or when otherwise war- 
ranted. 

106.3 Examination of documents. The building official shall 
examine or cause to be examined the accompanying construc- 
tion documents and shall ascertain by such examinations 
whether the construction indicated and described is in accor- 
dance with the requirements of this code and other pertinent 
laws or ordinances. 

106.3.1 Approval of construction documents. When the 
building official issues a permit, the construction docu- 
ments shall be approved, in writing or by stamp, as 
"Reviewed for Code Compliance." One set of construction 
documents so reviewed shall be retained by the building 
official. The other set shall be returned to the applicant, shall 
be kept at the site of work and shall be open to inspection by 
the building official or a duly authorized representative. 

106.3.2 Previous approvals. This code shall not require 
changes in the construction documents, construction or des- 
ignated occupancy of a structure for which a lawful permit 
has been heretofore issued or otherwise lawfully autho- 
rized, and the construction of which has been pursued in 
good faith within 180 days after the effective date of this 
code and has not been abandoned. 

106.3.3 Phased approval. The building official is autho- 
rized to issue a permit for the construction of foundations or 
any other part of a building or structure before the construc- 
tion documents for the whole building or structure have 
been submitted, provided that adequate information and 
detailed statements have been filed complying with perti- 
nent requirements of this code. The holder of such permit 
for the foundation or other parts of a building or structure 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



ADMINISTRATION 



shall proceed at the holder's own risk with the building oper- 
ation and without assurance that a permit for the entire 
structure will be granted. 

106.3.4 Design professional in responsible charge. 

106.3.4.1 General. When it is required that documents 
be prepared by a registered design professional, the 
building official shall be authorized to require the owner 
to engage and designate on the building permit applica- 
tion a registered design professional who shall act as the 
registered design professional in responsible charge. If 
the circumstances require, the owner shall designate a 
substitute registered design professional in responsible 
charge who shall perform the duties required of the origi- 
nal registered design professional in responsible charge. 
The building official shall be notified in writing by the 
owner if the registered design professional in responsible 
charge is changed or is unable to continue to perform the 
duties. 

The registered design professional in responsible 
charge shall be responsible for reviewing and coordinat- 
ing submittal documents prepared by others, including 
phased and deferred submittal items, for compatibility 
with the design of the building. 

Where structural observation is required by Section 
1709, the statement of special inspections shall name the 
individual or firms who are to perform structural obser- 
vation and describe the stages of construction at which 
structural observation is to occur (see also duties speci- 
fied in Section 1704). 

106.3.4.2 Deferred submittals. For the purposes of this 
section, deferred submittals are defined as those portions 
of the design that are not submitted at the time of the 
application and that are to be submitted to the building 
official within a specified period. 

Deferral of any submittal items shall have the prior 
approval of the building official. The registered design 
professional in responsible charge shall list the deferred 
submittals on the construction documents for review by 
the building official. 

Documents for deferred submittal items shall be sub- 
mitted to the registered design professional in responsi- 
ble charge who shall review them and forward them to 
the building official with a notation indicating that the 
deferred submittal documents have been reviewed and 
been found to be in general conformance to the design of 
the building. The deferred submittal items shall not be 
installed until the design and submittal documents have 
been approved by the building official. 

106.4 Amended construction documents. Work shall be 
installed in accordance with the approved construction docu- 
ments, and any changes made during construction that are not 
in compliance with the approved construction documents shall 
be resubmitted for approval as an amended set of construction 
documents. 

106.5 Retention of construction documents. One set of 

approved construction documents shall be retained by the 
building official for a period of not less than 1 80 days from date 



of completion of the permitted work, or as required by state or 
local laws. 



SECTION 107 
TEMPORARY STRUCTURES AND USES 

107.1 General. The building official is authorized to issue a 
permit for temporary structures and temporary uses. Such per- 
mits shall be limited as to time of service, but shall not be per- 
mitted for more than 180 days. The building official is 
authorized to grant extensions for demonstrated cause. 

107.2 Conformance. Temporary structures and uses shall con- 
form to the structural strength, fire safety, means of egress, 
accessibility, light, ventilation and sanitary requirements of 
this code as necessary to ensure public health, safety and gen- 
eral welfare. 

107.3 Temporary power. The building official is authorized to 
give permission to temporarily supply and use power in part of 
an electric installation before such installation has been fully 
completed and the final certificate of completion has been 
issued. The part covered by the temporary certificate shall 
comply with the requirements specified for temporary lighting, 
heat or power in the ICC Electrical Code. 

107.4 Termination of approval. The building official is 
authorized to terminate such permit for a temporary structure 
or use and to order the temporary structure or use to be discon- 
tinued. 



SECTION 108 
FEES 

108.1 Payment of fees. A permit shall not be valid until the 
fees prescribed by law have been paid, nor shall an amendment 
to a permit be released until the additional fee, if any, has been 
paid. 

108.2 Schedule of permit fees. On buildings, structures, elec- 
trical, gas, mechanical, and plumbing systems or alterations 
requiring a permit, a fee for each permit shall be paid as 
required, in accordance with the schedule as established by the 
applicable governing authority. 

108.3 Building permit valuations. The applicant for a permit 
shall provide an estimated permit value at time of application. 
Permit valuations shall include total value of work, including 
materials and labor, for which the permit is being issued, such 
as electrical, gas, mechanical, plumbing equipment and perma- 
nent systems. If, in the opinion of the building official, the valu- 
ation is underestimated on the application, the permit shall be 
denied, unless the applicant can show detailed estimates to 
meet the approval of the building official. Final building permit 
valuation shall be set by the building official. 

108.4 Work commencing before permit issuance. Any person 
who commences any work on a building, structure, electrical, 
gas, mechanical or plumbing system before obtaining the neces- 
sary permits shall be subject to a fee estabUshed by the building 
official that shall be in addition to the required permit fees. 

108.5 Related fees. The payment of the fee for the construc- 
tion, alteration, removal or demolition for work done in 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



ADMINISTRATION 



connection to or concurrently with the work authorized by a 
building permit shall not relieve the applicant or holder of the 
permit from the payment of other fees that are prescribed by 
law. 

108.6 Refunds. The building official is authorized to establish 
a refund policy. 



SECTION 109 
INSPECTIONS 

109.1 General. Construction or work for which a permit is 
required shall be subject to inspection by the building official 
and such construction or work shall remain accessible and 
exposed for inspection purposes until approved. Approval as a 
result of an inspection shall not be construed to be an approval 
of a violation of the provisions of this code or of other ordi- 
nances of the jurisdiction. Inspections presuming to give 
authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or of 
other ordinances of the jurisdiction shall not be valid. It shall be 
the duty of the permit applicant to cause the work to remain 
accessible and exposed for inspection purposes. Neither the 
building official nor the jurisdiction shall be liable for expense 
entailed in the removal or replacement of any material required 
to allow inspection. 

109.2 Preliminary inspection. Before issuing a permit, the 
building official is authorized to examine or cause to be exam- 
ined buildings, structures and sites for which an application has 
been filed. 

109.3 Required inspections. The building official, upon noti- 
fication, shall make the inspections set forth in Sections 
109.3.1 through 109.3.10. 

109.3.1 Footing and foundation inspection. Footing and 
foundation inspections shall be made after excavations for 
footings are complete and any required reinforcing steel is 
in place. For concrete foundations, any required forms shall 
be in place prior to inspection. Materials for the foundation 
shall be on the job, except where concrete is ready mixed in 
accordance with ASTM C 94, the concrete need not be on 
the job. 

109.3.2 Concrete slab and under-floor inspection. Con- 
crete slab and under-floor inspections shall be made after 
in-slab or under-floor reinforcing steel and building service 
equipment, conduit, piping accessories and other ancillary 
equipment items are in place, but before any concrete is 
placed or floor sheathing installed, including the subfloor. 

109.3.3 Lowest floor elevation. In flood hazard areas, upon 
placement of the lowest floor, including the basement, and 
prior to further vertical construction, the elevation certifica- 
tion required in Section 1612.5 shall be submitted to the 
building official. 

109.3.4 Frame inspectioii. Framing inspections shall be 
made after the roof deck or sheathing, all framing, 
fireblocking and bracing are in place and pipes, chimneys 
and vents to be concealed are complete and the rough elec- 
trical, plumbing, heating wires, pipes and ducts are 
approved. 



109.3.5 Lath and gypsum board inspection. Lath and 
gypsum board inspections shall be made after lathing and 
gypsum board, interior and exterior, is in place, but before 
any plastering is applied or gypsum board joints and fasten- 
ers are taped and finished. 

Exception: Gypsum board that is not part of a fire-resis- 
tance-rated assembly or a shear assembly. 

109.3.6 Fire-resistant penetrations. Protection of joints 
and penetrations in fire-resistance-rated assemblies shall 
not be concealed from view until inspected and approved. 

109.3.7 Energy efficiency inspections. Inspections shall 
be made to determine compliance with Chapter 13 and shall 
include, but not be limited to, inspections for: envelope 
insulation /? and [/values, fenestration L/^ value, duct system 
R value, and HVAC and water-heating equipment effi- 
ciency. 

109.3.8 Other inspections. In addition to the inspections 
specified above, the building official is authorized to make 
or require other inspections of any construction work to 
ascertain compliance with the provisions of this code and 
other laws that are enforced by the department of building 
safety. 

109.3.9 Special inspections. For special inspections, see 
Section 1704. 

109.3.10 Final inspection. The final inspection shall be 
made after all work required by the building permit is com- 
pleted. 

109.4 Inspection agencies. The building official is authorized 
to accept reports of approved inspection agencies, provided 
such agencies satisfy the requirements as to qualifications and 
reliability. 

109.5 Inspection requests. It shall be the duty of the holder of 
the building permit or their duly authorized agent to notify the 
building official when work is ready for inspection. It shall be 
the duty of the permit holder to provide access to and means for 
inspections of such work that are required by this code. 

109.6 Approval required. Work shall not be done beyond the 
point indicated in each successive inspection without first 
obtaining the approval of the building official. The building 
official, upon notification, shall make the requested inspec- 
tions and shall either indicate the portion of the construction 
that is satisfactory as completed, or notify the permit holder or 
his or her agent wherein the same fails to comply with this 
code. Any portions that do not comply shall be corrected and 
such portion shall not be covered or concealed until authorized 
by the building official. 



SECTION 110 
CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY 

110.1 Use and occupancy. No building or structure shall be 
used or occupied, and no change in the existing occupancy 
classification of a building or structure or portion thereof shall 
be made until the building official has issued a certificate of 
occupancy therefor as provided herein. Issuance of a certificate 
of occupancy shall not be construed as an approval of a viola- 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



ADMINISTRATION 



tion of the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the 
jurisdiction. 

110.2 Certificate issued. After the building official inspects 
the building or structure and finds no violations of the provi- 
sions of this code or other laws that are enforced by the depart- 
ment of building safety, the building official shall issue a 
certificate of occupancy that contains the following: 

1. The building permit number. 

2. The address of the structure. 

3. The name and address of the owner. 

4. A description of that portion of the structure for which 
the certificate is issued. 

5. A statement that the described portion of the structure 
has been inspected for compliance with the require- 
ments of this code for the occupancy and division of 
occupancy and the use for which the proposed occu- 
pancy is classified. 

6. The name of the building official. 

7. The edition of the code under which the permit was 
issued. 

8. The use and occupancy, in accordance with the provi- 
sions of Chapter 3. 

9. The type of construction as defined in Chapter 6. 

10. The design occupant load. 

11. If an automatic sprinkler system is provided, whether 
the sprinkler system is required. 

12. Any special stipulations and conditions of the building 
permit. 

110.3 Temporary occupancy. The building official is autho- 
rized to issue a temporary certificate of occupancy before the 
completion of the entire work covered by the permit, provided 
that such portion or portions shall be occupied safely. The 
building official shall set a time period during which the tempo- 
rary certificate of occupancy is valid. 

110.4 Revocation. The building official is authorized to, in 
writing, suspend or revoke a certificate of occupancy or com- 
pletion issued under the provisions of this code wherever the 
certificate is issued in error, or on the basis of incorrect infor- 
mation supplied, or where it is determined that the building or 
structure or portion thereof is in violation of any ordinance or 
regulation or any of the provisions of this code. 



SECTION 111 
SERVICE UTILITIES 

111.1 Connection of service utilities. No person shall make 
connections from a utility, source of energy, fuel or power to 
any building or system that is regulated by this code for which a 
permit is required, until released by the building official. 

111.2 Temporary connection. The building official shall have 
the authority to authorize the temporary connection of the 
building or system to the utility source of energy, fuel or power. 

111.3 Authority to disconnect service utilities. The building 
official shall have the authority to authorize disconnection of 



utility service to the building, structure or system regulated by 
this code and the codes referenced in case of emergency where 
necessary to eliminate an immediate hazard to life or property. 
The building official shall notify the serving utility, and wher- 
ever possible the owner and occupant of the building, structure 
or service system of the decision to disconnect prior to taking 
such action. If not notified prior tp disconnecting, the owner or 
occupant of the building, structure or service system shall be 
notified in writing, as soon as practical thereafter. 



SECTION 112 
BOARD OF APPEALS 

112.1 General. In order to hear and decide appeals of orders, 
decisions or determinations made by the building official rela- 
tive to the application and interpretation of this code, there shall 
be and is hereby created a board of appeals. The board of 
appeals shall be appointed by the governing body and shall 
hold office at its pleasure. The board shall adopt rules of proce- 
dure for conducting its business. 

112.2 Limitations on authority. An application for appeal 
shall be based on a claim that the true intent of this code.or the 
rules legally adopted thereunder have been incorrectly inter- 
preted, the provisions of this code do not fully apply or an 
equally good or better form of construction is proposed. The 
board shall have no authority to waive requirements of this 
code. 

112.3 Qualifications. The board of appeals shall consist of 
members who are qualified by experience and training to pass 
on matters pertaining to building construction and are not 
employees of the jurisdiction. 



SECTION 113 
VIOLATIONS 

113.1 Unlawful acts. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm 
or corporation to erect, construct, alter, extend, repair, move, 
remove, demolish or occupy any building, structure or equip- 
ment regulated by this code, or cause same to be done, in con- 
flict with or in violation of any of the provisions of this code. 

113.2 Notice of violation. The building official is authorized to 
serve a notice of violation or order on the person responsible 
for the erection, construction, alteration, extension, repair, 
moving, removal, demolition or occupancy of a building or 
structure in violation of the provisions of this code, or in viola- 
tion of a permit or certificate issued under the provisions of this 
code. Such order shall direct the discontinuance of the illegal 
action or condition and the abatement of the violation. 

113.3 Prosecution of violation. If the notice of violation is not 
complied with promptly, the building official is authorized to 
request the legal counsel of the jurisdiction to institute the 
appropriate proceeding at law or in equity to restrain, correct or 
abate such violation, or to require the removal or termination of 
the unlawful occupancy of the building or structure in violation 
of the provisions of this code or of the order or direction made 
pursuant thereto. 

113.4 Violation penalties. Any person who violates a provi- 
sion of this code or fails to comply with any of the requirements 



8 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



ADMINISTRATION 



thereof or who erects, constructs, alters or repairs a building or 
structure in violation of the approved construction documents 
or directive of the building official, or of a permit or certificate 
issued under the provisions of this code, shall be subject to pen- 
alties as prescribed by law. 



SECTION 114 
STOP WORK ORDER 

114.1 Authority. Whenever the building official finds any 
work regulated by this code being performed in a manner either 
contrary to the provisions of this code or dangerous or unsafe, 
the building official is authorized to issue a stop work order. 

114.2 Issuance. The stop work order shall be in writing arid 
shall be given to the owner of the property involved, or to the 
owner's agent, or to the person doing the work. Upon issuance 
of a stop work order, the cited work shall immediately cease. 
The stop work order shall state the reason for the order, and the 
conditions under which the cited work will be permitted to 
resume. 

114.3 Unlawful continuance. Any person who shall continue 
any work after having been served with a stop work order, 
except such work as that person is directed to perform to 
remove a violation or unsafe condition, shall be subject to pen- 
alties as prescribed by law. 



that the letter was not delivered, a copy thereof shall be posted 
in a conspicuous place in or about the structure affected by such 
notice. Service of such notice in the foregoing manner upon the 
owner's agent or upon the person responsible for the structure 
shall constitute service of notice upon the owner. 

115.5 Restoration. The structure or equipment determined to 
be unsafe by the building official is permitted to be restored to a 
safe condition. To the extent that repairs, alterations or addi- 
tions are made or a change of occupancy occurs during the res- 
toration of the structure, such repairs, alterations, additions or 
change of occupancy shall comply with the requirements of 
Section 105.2.2 and Chapter 34. 



SECTION 115 
UNSAFE STRUCTURES AND EQUIPMENT 

115.1 Conditions. Structures or existing equipment that are or 
hereafter become unsafe, insanitary or deficient because of 
inadequate means of egress facilities, inadequate light and ven- 
tilation, or which constitute a fire hazard, or are otherwise dan- 
gerous to human life or the public welfare, or that involve 
illegal or improper occupancy or inadequate maintenance, 
shall be deemed an unsafe condition. Unsafe structures shall be 
taken down and removed or made safe, as the building official 
deems necessary and as provided for in this section. A vacant 
structure that is not secured against entry shall be deemed 
unsafe. 

115.2 Record. The building official shall cause a report to be 
filed on an unsafe condition. The report shall state the occu- 
pancy of the structure and the nature of the unsafe condition. 

115.3 Notice. If an unsafe condition is found, the building offi- 
cial shall serve on the owner, agent or person in control of the 
structure, a written notice that describes the condition deemed 
unsafe and specifies the required repairs or improvements to be 
made to abate the unsafe condition, or that requires the unsafe 
structure to be demolished within a stipulated time. Such notice 
shall require the person thus notified to declare immediately to 
the building official acceptance or rejection of the terms of the 
order. 

115.4 Method of service. Such notice shall be deemed prop- 
erly served if a copy thereof is (a) delivered to the owner per- 
sonally; (b) sent by certified or registered mail addressed to the 
owner at the last known address with the return receipt 
requested; or (c) delivered in any other manner as prescribed by 
local law. If the certified or registered letter is returned showing 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



1 2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 2 

DEFINITIONS 



SECTION 201 
GENERAL 

201.1 Scope. Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following 
words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have the 
meanings shown in this chapter. 

201.2 Interchangeability. Words used in the present tense 
include the future; words stated in the masculine gender 
include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes 
the plural and the plural, the singular. 

201.3 Terms defined in other codes. Where terms are not 
defined in this code and are defined in the International Fuel 
Gas Code, International Fire Code, International Mechanical 
Code or International Plumbing Code, such terms shall have 
the meanings ascribed to them as in those codes. 

201.4 Terms not defined. Where terms are not defined 
through the methods authorized by this section, such terms 
shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context 
implies. 



SECTION 202 
DEFINITIONS 

AAC MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

ACCESSIBLE. See Section 1102.1. 

ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS. See Section 1002.1. 

ACCESSIBLE ROUTE. See Section 1102.1. 

ACCESSIBLE UNIT. See Section 1102.1. 

ACCREDITATION BODY. See Section 2302.1. 

ADDITION. An extension or increase in floor area or height 
of a building or structure. 

ADHERED MASONRY VENEER. See Section 1402.1. 

ADOBE CONSTRUCTION. See Section 2102.1. 

Adobe, stabilized. See Section 2102.1. 

Adobe, unstabilized. See Section 2102.1. 
[F] AEROSOL. See Section 307.2. 

Level 1 aerosol products. See Section 307.2. 

Level 2 aerosol products. See Section 307.2. 

Level 3 aerosol products. See Section 307.2. 

[F] AEROSOL CONTAINER. See Section 307.2. 

AGRICULTURAL, BUILDING. A structure designed and 
constructed to house farm implements, hay, grain, poultry, live- 
stock or other horticultural products. This structure shall not be 
a place of human habitation or a place of employment where 
agricultural products are processed, treated or packaged, nor 
shall it be a place used by the public. 

AIR-INFLATED STRUCTURE. See Section 3102.2. 



AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURE. See Section 3102.2. 

Double skin. See Section 3102.2. 

Single skin. See Section 3102.2. 

AISLE. See Section 1002. 1 . I 

AISLE ACCESSWAY. See Section 1002.1. 

[F] ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. See Section 
902.1. 

[F] ALARM SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 

[F] ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. See Section 
902.1. 

ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN. See Section 1602.1. 

ALTERATION. Any construction or renovation to an existing 
structure other than repair or addition. 

ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE. See Section 1002.1. 

ANCHOR. See Section 2102.1. 

ANCHOR BUILDING. See Section 402.2. 

ANCHORED MASONRY VENEER. See Section 1402.1. 

ANNULAR SPACE. See Section 702.1. 

[F] ANNUNCIATOR. See Section 902.1. 

APPROVED. Acceptable to the code official or authority hav- I 
ing jurisdiction. I 

APPROVED AGENCY. See Section 1702.1. 

APPROVED FABRICATOR. See Section 1702. 1 . 

APPROVED SOURCE. An independent person, firm or cor- 
poration, approved by the building official, who is competent 
and experienced in the application of engineering principles to 
materials, methods or systems analyses. 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA. See Section 2102. 1 . 

AREA. See Section 2102.1. 

Bedded. See Section 2102.1. 

Gross cross-sectional. See Section 2102.1. 

Net cross-sectional. See Section 2102.1. 

AREA, BUILDING. See Section 502.1. 

AREA OF REFUGE. See Section 1002.1. 

AREAWAY. A subsurface space adjacent to a building open at 
the top or protected at the top by a grating or guard. 

ASSISTED LIVING FACILITIES. See Section 3 10.2, "Res 
idential Care/Assisted living facilities." 

ATRIUM. See Section 404.1.1. 

ATTIC. The space between the ceiling beams of the top story 
and the roof rafters. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE'' 



11 



DEFINITIONS 



[F] AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. 

See Section 902.1. 

IAUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE (AAC). See Sec- 
tion 2102.1. 

[F] AUTOMATIC. See Section 902.1. 

[F] AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. 

See Section 902.1. 

[F] AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. See Section 
; 902.1. 

[F] AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL. See Section 
902.1 

,. AWNING. An architectural projection that provides weather 
protection, identity or decoration and is wholly supported by 
the building to which it is attached. An awning is comprised of 
a lightweight, rigid skeleton structure over which a covering is 
attached. 

BACKING. See Section 1402.1. 

BALCONY, EXTERIOR. See Section 1602. 1 . 

I BALED COTTON. See Section 307.2. 
BALED COTTON, DENSELY PACKED. See Section 
307.2. 

[F] BARRICADE. See Section 307.2. 

Artificial barricade. See Section 307.2. 

Natural barricade. See Section 307.2. 
BASE FLOOD. See Section 1612.2. 
; BASE FLOOD ELEVATION. See Section 1612.2. 
BASEMENT.^See Section 502.1 and 1612.2. 
BED JOINT. See Section 2102.1. 
BLEACHERS. See Section 1002.1. 
BOARDING HOUSE. See Section 310.2. 
[F] BOILING POINT. See Section 307.2. 
BOND BEAM. See Section 2102.1. 
BOND REINFORCING. See Section 2102.1. 
BRACED WALL LINE. See Section 2302.1. 
BRACED WALL PANEL. See Section 2302.1. 
BRICK. See Section 2102.1. 

Calcium silicate (sand lime brick). See Section 2102.1. 

Clay or shale. See Section 2102.1. 

Concrete. See Section 2102.1. 

BUILDING. Any structure used or intended for supporting or 
sheltering any use or occupancy. 

BUILDING LINE. The line estabhshed by law, beyond which 
a building shall not extend, except as specifically provided by 
law. 

BUILDING OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated 
authority charged with the administration and enforcement of 
this code, or a duly authorized representative. 



BUILT-UP ROOF COVERING. See Section 1502.1. 

BUTTRESS. See Section 2102.1. 

CABLE-RESTRAINED, AIR-SUPPORTED STRUC- 
TURE. See Section 3102.2. 

CANOPY. An architectural projection that provides weather 
protection, identity or decoration and is supported by the build- 
ing to which it is attached and at the outer end by not less than 
one stanchion. A canopy is comprised of a rigid structure over 
which a covering is attached. 

[F] CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. 

See Section 902.1. 

CAST STONE. See Section 2102.1. 

[F] CEILING LIMIT. See Section 902.1. 

CEILING RADIATION DAMPER. See Section 702.1. 

CELL.See Section 2102.1. 

CEMENT PLASTER. See Section 2502.1. 

CERAMIC FIBER BLANKET. See Section 721 . 1 . 1 . 

CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE. See Section 1702.1. 

CHIMNEY. See Section 2102. 1 . 

CHIMNEY TYPES. See Section 2102.1. 

High-heat appliance type. See Section 2102. 1 . 

Low-heat appliance type. See Section 2102.1. 

Masonry type. See Section 2102.1. 

Medium-heat appliance type. See Section 2102.1. 

CIRCULATION PATH. See Section 1 102.1. 

[F] CLEAN AGENT. See Section 902. 1 . 

CLEANOUT. See Section 2102. 1 . 

[F] CLOSED SYSTEM. See Section 307.2. 

COLLAR JOINT. See Section 2102.1. 

COLLECTOR. See Section 2302.1. 

COLUMN, MASONRY. See Section 2102. 1 . 

COMBINATION FIRE/SMOKE DAMPER. See Section 
702.1. 

[F] COMBUSTIBLE DUST. See Section 307.2. 

[F] COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS. See Section 307.2. 

[F] COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. See Section 307.2. 

Class II. See Section 307.2. 

Class IIIA. See Section 307.2. 

Class IIIB. See Section 307.2. 

COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL. See Section 
1002.1. 

COMMON USE. See Section 1102.1. 

COMPOSITE ACTION. See Section 2102.1. 

COMPOSITE MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

[F] COMPRESSED GAS. See Section 307.2. 



12 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE*" 



DEFINITIONS 



COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF MASONRY. See Sec 

tion 2102.1. 

CONCRETE, CARBONATE AGGREGATE. See Section 

721.1.1. 

CONCRETE, CELLULAR. See Section 721 . 1 . 1 . 

CONCRETE, LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE. See Sec- 
tion 721.1.1. 

CONCRETE, PERLITE. See Section 721.1.1. 

CONCRETE, SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT. See Section 72 1 . 1 . 1 . 

CONCRETE, SILICEOUS AGGREGATE. See Section 
721.1.1. 

CONCRETE, VERMICULITE. See Section 721.1.1. 

I CONGREGATE LIVING FACILITIES. See Section 3 10.2. 

CONNECTOR. See Section 2102.1. 

[F] CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. See Section 
902.1. 

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. Written, graphic and 
pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing the 
design, location and physical characteristics of the elements of 
a project necessary for obtaining a building permit. 

CONSTRUCTION TYPES. See Section 602. 

Type I. See Section 602.2. 

Type H. See Section 602.2. 

Type m. See Section 602.3. 

Type IV. See Section 602.4. 

Type V. See Section 602.5. 

[F] CONTINUOUS GAS-DETECTION SYSTEM. See 

Section 415.2. 

[F] CONTROL AREA. See Section 307.2. 

CONTROLLED LOW-STRENGTH MATERIAL. A 

self-compacted, cementitious material used primarily as a 
backfill in place of compacted fill. 

CONVENTIONAL LIGHT-FRAME WOOD CON- 
STRUCTION. See Section 2302.1. 

CORRIDOR. See Section 1002.1. 

CORROSION RESISTANCE. The ability of a material to 
withstand deterioration of its surface or its properties when 
exposed to its environment. 

[F] CORROSIVE. See Section 307.2. 

COURT. An open, uncovered space, unobstructed to the sky, 
bounded on three or more sides by exterior building walls or 
other enclosing devices. 

COVER. See Section 2102.1. 

COVERED MALL BUILDING. See Section 402.2. 

CRIPPLE WALL. See Section 2302. 1 . 

CRYOGENIC FLUID. See Section 307.2. 

DALLE GLASS. See Section 2402. 1 . 

DAMPER. See Section 702. 1 . 



DAY BOX. See Section 307.2. 

DEAD LOADS. See Section 1602.1. 

DECK. See Section 1602.1. 

DECORATIVE GLASS. See Section 2402 1 . 

[F] DECORATIVE MATERIALS. All materials applied 
over the building interior finish for decorative, acoustical or 
other effect (such as curtains, draperies, fabrics, streamers and 
surface coverings), and all other materials utilized for decora- 
tive effect (such as batting, cloth, cotton, hay, stalks, straw, 
vines, leaves, trees, moss and similar items), including foam 
plastics and materials containing foam plastics. Decorative 
materials do not include floor coverings, ordinary window 
shades, interior finish and materials 0.025 inch (0.64 mm) or 
less in thickness applied directly to and adhering tightly to a 
substrate. 

[F] DEFLAGRATION. See Section 307.2. 

[F] DELUGE SYSTEM. See Section 902. 1 . 

DESIGN DISPLACEMENT. See Section 1 908. 1 .3 . 

DESIGN EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION. See Sec- 
tion 1613.2. 

DESIGN FLOOD. See Section 1612.2. 

DESIGN FLOOD ELEVATION. See Section 1612.2. 

DESIGN STRENGTH. See Section 1602.1. 

DESIGNATED SEISMIC SYSTEM. See Section 1702.1. 

[F] DETACHED BUILDING. See Section 307.2. 

DETAILED PLAIN CONCRETE STRUCTURAL WALL. 

See Section 1908.1.3. 

DETECTABLE WARNING. See Section 1102.1. 
[F] DETECTOR, HEAT. See Section 902. 1 . 
[F] DETONATION. See Section 307:2. 
DIAPHRAGM. See Sections 1602.1 and 2102.1. 

Diaphragm, blocked. See Sections 1602.1. 

Diaphragm, boundary. See Section 1602.1. 

Diaphragm, chord. See Section 1602.1. 

Diaphragm, flexible. See Section 1602.1. 

Diaphragm, rigid. See Section 1602.1. 

Diaphragm, unblocked. See Section 2302. 1 . 
DIMENSIONS. See Section 2102.1. 

Actual. See Section 2102.1. 

Nominal. See Section 2102.1. 

Specified. See Section 21()2.1. 
DISPENSING. See Section 307.2. 
DOOR, BALANCED. See Section 1002.1. 
DORMITORY. See Section 310.2. 
DRAFTSTOP. See Section 702. 1 . 
DRAG STRUT. See Section 2302.1. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



13 



DEFINITIONS 



[F] DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. See 

Section 902.1. 

DRY FLOODPROOFING. See Section 1612.2. 

DURATION OF LOAD. See Section 1 602. 1 . 

DWELLING. A building that contains one or two dwelling 
units used, intended or designed to be used, rented, leased, let 
or hired out to be occupied for living purposes. 

DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete, inde- 
pendent living facilities for one or more persons, including per- 
manent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and 
sanitation. 

DWELLING UNIT OR SLEEPING UNIT, MULTI- 
STORY. See Section 1102.1. 

DWELLING UNIT OR SLEEPING UNIT, TYPE A. See 

Section 1102.1. 

DWELLING UNIT OR SLEEPING UNIT, TYPE B. See 

Section 1102.1. 

EFFECTIVE HEIGHT. See Section 2102.1. 

EGRESS COURT. See Section 1002.1. 

[F] EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

[F] EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. See Section 

415.2. 

EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. See 

Section 1002.1. 

[F] EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICA- 
TIONS. See Section 902. 1 . 

EMPLOYEE WORK AREA. See Section 1102.1. 

EQUIPMENT PLATFORM. See Section 502.1. 

ESSENTIAL FACILITIES. See Section 1602.1. 

[F] EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. See Section 415.2. 

EXISTING CONSTRUCTION. See Section 1612.2. 

EXISTING STRUCTURE. A structure erected prior to the 
date of adoption of the appropriate code, or one for which a 
legal building permit has been issued. See also Section 1612.2. 

EXIT. See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT, HORIZONTAL. See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT ACCESS. See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT DISCHARGE. See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT DISCHARGE, LEVEL OF. See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT ENCLOSURE. See Section 1002. 1 . 

EXIT PASSAGEWAY. See Section 1002.1. 

EXPANDED VINYL WALL COVERING. See Section 
802.1. 

[F] EXPLOSION. See Section 902.1. 

[F] EXPLOSIVE. See Section 307.2. 

High explosive. See Section 307.2. 

Low explosive. See Section 307.2. 



Mass detonating explosives. See Section 307.2. 
UN/DOTn Class 1 Explosives. See Section 307.2. 

Division 1.1. See Section 307.2. 

Division 1.2. See Section 307.2. 

Division 1.3. See Section 307.2. 

Division 1.4. See Section 307.2. 

Division 1.5. See Section 307.2. 

Division 1.6. See Section 307.2. 

EXTERIOR SURFACES. See Section 2502.1. 

EXTERIOR WALL. See Section 1402. 1 . 

EXTERIOR WALL COVERING. See Section 1402.1 

EXTERIOR WALL ENVELOPE. See Section 1402.1. 

F RATING. See Section 702. 1 . 

FABRIC PARTITIONS. See Section 1602. 1 . I 

FABRICATED ITEM. See Section 1702.1. 

[F] FABRICATION AREA. See Section 415.2. 

FACILITY. See Section 1102.1. 

FACTORED LOAD. See Section 1602.1. 

FIBER CEMENT SIDING. See Section 1402. 1 . I 

FIBERBOARD. See Section 2302. 1 . 

FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. See Section 902. 1 . I 

[F] FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. See Section 902.1. 

[F] FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 

[F] FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE AREA. See Section 702.1. 

FIRE BARRIER. See Section 702. 1 . 

[F] FIRE COMMAND CENTER. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE DAMPER. See Section 702.1. 

[F] FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE DOOR. See Section 702.1. 

FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. See Section 702.1. 

FIRE EXIT HARDWARE. See Section 1002. 1 . 

[F] FIRE LANE. A road or other passageway developed to I 
allow the passage of fire apparatus. A fire lane is not necessar- I 
ily intended for vehicular traffic other than fire apparatus. | 

FIRE PARTITION. See Section 702.1. 

FIRE PROTECTION RATING. See Section 702.1. 

[F] FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE RESISTANCE. See Section 702.1. 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING. See Section 702.1. 

FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEM. See Section 702 1. 

[F] FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE. See Section 702.1. 

FIRE WALL. See Section 702. 1 . 



14 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE 



>® 



DEFINITIONS 



FIRE WINDOW ASSEMBLY. See Section 702.1. 
FIREBLOCKING. See Section 702.1 
FIREPLACE. See Section 2102.1. 
FIREPLACE THROAT. See Section 2102.1. 
FIREWORKS. See Section 307.2. 
FIREWORKS, 1.3G. See Section 307.2. 
FIREWORKS, 1.4G. See Section 307.2. 
' FLAME SPREAD. See Section 802. 1 . 
FLAME SPREAD INDEX. See Section 802.1. 
[F] FLAMMABLE GAS. See Section 307.2. 
[F] FLAMMABLE LIQUEFIED GAS. See Section 307.2. 
[F] FLAMMABLE LIQUID. See Section 307.2. 

Class lA. See Section 307.2. 

Class IB. See Section 307.2. 

Class IC. See Section 307.2. 

[F] FLAMMABLE MATERIAL. See Section 307.2. 

[F] FLAMMABLE SOLID. See Section 307.2. 

[F] FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. See Section 
415.2. 

[F] FLASH POINT. See Section 307.2. 

FLEXURAL LENGTH. See Section 1808.1. 

FLOOD OR FLOODING. See Section 1612.2. 

FLOOD DAMAGE-RESISTANT MATERIALS. See Sec- 
tion 1612.2. 

FLOOD HAZARD AREA. See Section 1612.2. 

FLOOD HAZARD AREA SUBJECT TO HIGH VELOC- 
ITY WAVE ACTION. See Section 1612.2. 

FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP (FIRM). See Section 
1612.2. 

FLOOD INSURANCE STUDY. See Section 1612.2. 

FLOODWAY. See Section 1612.2. 

FLOOR AREA, GROSS. See Section 1002.1. 

FLOOR AREA, NET. See Section 1002.1. 

FLOOR FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. See Section 702.1. 

FLY GALLERY. See Section 410.2. 

[F] FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. See Section 
902.1. 

FOAM PLASTIC INSULATION. See Section 2602.1. 

FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING. See Section 
1002.1. 

FOOD COURT. See Section 402.2. 

FOUNDATION PIER. See Section 2102.1. 

[F] GAS CABINET. See Section 415.2. 

[F] GAS ROOM. See Section 415.2. 

[F] GASEOUS HYDROGEN SYSTEM. See Section 420.2. 



GLASS FIBERBOARD. See Section 721.1.1. 

GLASS UNIT MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

GLUED BUILT-UP MEMBER. See Section 2302.1. 

GRADE FLOOR OPENING. A window or other opening 
located such that the sill height of the opening is not more than 
44 inches (1118 mm) above or below the finished ground level 
adjacent to the opening. 

GRADE (LUMBER). See Section 2302.1. 

GRADE PLANE. See Section 502.1. 

GRANDSTAND. See Section 1002.1. 

GRIDIRON. See Section 410.2. 

GROSS LEASABLE AREA. See Section 402.2. 

GROUTED MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

Grouted hollow-unit masonry. See Section 2102.1. 

Grouted multiwythe masonry. See Section 2102.1. 

GUARD. See Section 1002.1. 

GYPSUM BOARD. See Section 2502.1. 

GYPSUM PLASTER. See Section 2502.1. 

GYPSUM VENEER PLASTER. See Section 2502.1. 

HABITABLE SPACE. A space in a building for living, sleep- 
ing, eating or cooking. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, closets, halls, 
storage or utility spaces and similar areas are not considered 
habitable spaces. 

[F] HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. See 

Section 902.1. 

[F] HANDLING. See Section 307.2. 
HANDRAIL. See Section 1002. 1 . 
HARDBOARD. See Section 2302.1. 
[F] HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. See Section 307.2. 

[F] HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). 

See Section 415.2. 

HEAD JOINT. See Section 2102.1. 

HEADER (Bonder). See Section 2102.1. 

[F] HEALTH HAZARD. See Section 307.2. 

HEIGHT, BUILDING. See Section 502.1. 

HEIGHT, STORY. See Section 502.1. 

HEIGHT, WALLS. See Section 2102.1. 

HELIPORT. See Section 412.5.1. 

HELISTOR See Section 412.5.1. 

[F] HIGHLY TOXIC. See Section 307.2. 

HISTORIC BUILDINGS. Buildings that are listed in or eligi- 
ble for listing in the National Register of Historic Places, or 
designated as historic under an appropriate state or local law 
(see Sections 3407 and 3409.9). 

HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLY. See Section 702.1. 

[F] HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. See Section 415.2. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



15 



DEFINITIONS 



[F] HPM ROOM. See Section 415.2. 

HURRICANE-PRONE REGIONS. See Section 1609.2. 

[F] HYDROGEN CUTOFF ROOM. See Section 420.2. 

IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH 
(IDLH). See Section 415.2. 

IMPACT LOAD. See Section 1 602. 1 . 

INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. See Section 307.2. 

[F] INITIATING DEVICE. See Section 902.1. 

INSPECTION CERTIFICATE. See Section 1702.1. 

INTENDED TO BE OCCUPIED AS A RESIDENCE. See 

Section 1102.1. 

INTERIOR FINISH. See Section 802.1. 

INTERIOR FLOOR FINISH. See Section 802.1. 

INTERIOR SURFACES. See Section 2502. 1 . 

INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH. See Section 
802.1. 

INTERLAYMENT. See Section 1502. 1 . 

JOINT. See Section 702.1. 

JURISDICTION. The governmental unit that has adopted 
this code under due legislative authority. 

LABEL. See Section 1702. 1 . 

LIGHT-DIFFUSING SYSTEM. See Section 2602.1. 

LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUCTION. A type of construction 
whose vertical and horizontal structural elements are primarily 
formed by a system of repetitive wood or light gage steel fram- 
ing members. 

LIGHT-TRANSMITTING PLASTIC ROOF PANELS. 

See Section 2602.1. 

LIGHT-TRANSMITTING PLASTIC WALL PANELS. 

See Section 2602.1. 

LIMIT STATE. See Section 1 602. 1 . 

[F] LIQUID. See Section 415.2. 

[F] LIQUID STORAGE ROOM. See Section 415.2. 

[F] LIQUID USE, DISPENSING AND MIXING ROOMS. 

See Section 415.2. 

LISTED. See Section 902.1. 

LIVE LOADS. See Section 1602.1. 

LIVE LOADS (ROOF). See Section 1602.1. 

LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN (LRFD). 

See Section 1602.1. 

LOAD EFFECTS. See Section 1602.1. 

LOAD FACTOR. See Section 1602.1. 

LOADS. See Section 1602.1. 

LOT. A portion or parcel of land considered as a unit. 

LOT LINE. A line dividing one lot from another, or from a 
street or any public place. 



[F] LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). See Section 

415.2. 

LOWEST FLOOR. See Section 1612.2. 

MAIN WINDFORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM. See Section 
1702.1. 

MALL. See Section 402.2. 

[F] MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX. See Section 902.1. 

MANUFACTURER'S DESIGNATION. See Section 
1702.1. 

MARK. See Section 1702.1. 

MARQUEE. A permanent roofed structure attached to and 
supported by the building and that projects into the public 
right-of-way. 

MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

Ashlar masonry. See Section 2102. 1 . 

Coursed ashlar. See Section 2102.1. 

Glass unit masonry. See Section 2102.1. 

Plain masonry. See Section 2102. 1 . 

Random ashlar. See Section 2102.1. 

Reinforced masonry. See Section 2102.1. 

Solid masonry. See Section 2102.1. 

Unreinforced (plain) masonry. See Section 2 102. 1 . 
MASONRY UNIT. See Section 2102.1. 

Clay. See Section 2102.1. 

Concrete. See Section 2102.1. 

Hollow. See Section 2102.1. 

Solid. See Section 2102.1. 

MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE GROUND I 
MOTION. See Section 1613.2. I 

MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURE. See Section 2102.1. 

MEANS OF EGRESS. See Section 1002.1. ^ 

MECHANICAL-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. 

See Section 406.3.2. 

MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT SCREEN. See Section 
1502.1. 

MECHANICAL SYSTEMS. See Section 1613.2. | 

MEMBRANE-COVERED CABLE STRUCTURE. See 

Section 3102.2. 

MEMBRANE-COVERED FRAME STRUCTURE. See 

Section 3102.2. 

MEMBRANE PENETRATION. See Section 702.1. 

MEMBRANE-PENETRATION FIRESTOR See Section 
702.1. 

MERCHANDISE PAD. See Section 1002. 1 . | 

METAL COMPOSITE MATERIAL (MCM). See Section 
1402.1. 



16 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



METAL COMPOSITE MATERIAL (MCM) SYSTEM. 

See Section 1402.1. 

METAL ROOF PANEL. See Section 1502. 1 . 
METAL ROOF SHINGLE. See Section 1502. 1 . 
MEZZANINE. See Section 502.1. 
I MICROPILES.See Section 1808.1. 
MINERAL BOARD. See Section 721.1.1. 

I MINERAL FIBER. See Section 702.1. 
MINERAL WOOL. See Section 702.1. 

MODIFIED BITUMEN ROOF COVERING. See Section 
1502.1. 

MORTAR. See Section 2102.1. 

MORTAR, SURFACE-BONDING. See Section 2102.1. 

MULTILEVEL ASSEMBLY SEATING. See Section 
1102.1. 

[F] MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. See Section 
902.1. 

[F] MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. See Section 
902.1. 

I MULTISTORY UNITS. See Section 1102.1. 

NAILING, BOUNDARY. See Section 2302.1. 

NAILING, EDGE. See Section 2302.1. 

NAILING, FIELD. See Section 2302.1. 

NATURALLY DURABLE WOOD. See Section 2302.1. 

Decay resistant. See Section 2302.1. 

Termite resistant. See Section 2302. 1 . 
NOMINAL LOADS. See Section 1602.1. 
NOMINAL SIZE (LUMBER). See Section 2302. 1 . 

NONCOMBUSTIBLE MEMBRANE STRUCTURE. See 

Section 3102.2. 

[F] NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE 

(NTP). See Section 415.2. 

NOSING. See Section 1002. 1 . 

[F] NUISANCE ALARM. See Section 902.1. 

OCCUPANCY CATEGORY. See Section 1602.1. 

OCCUPANT LOAD. See Section 1002.1. 

OCCUPIABLE SPACE. A room or enclosed space designed 
for human occupancy in which individuals congregate for 
amusement, educational or similar purposes or in which occu- 
pants are engaged at labor, and which is equipped with means 
of egress and light and ventilation facilities meeting the 
requirements of this code. 

OPEN PARKING GARAGE. See Section 406.3.2. 

[F] OPEN SYSTEM. See Section 307.2. 

OPERATING BUILDING. See Section 307.2. 

(ORDINARY PRECAST STRUCTURAL WALL. See Sec 
tion 1908.1.3. 



ORDINARY REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUC- 
TURAL WALL. See Section 1908.1.3. 

ORDINARY STRUCTURAL PLAIN CONCRETE 
WALL. See Section 1908.1.3. 

[F] ORGANIC PEROXIDE. See Section 307.2. 

Class L See Section 307.2. 

Class II. See Section 307.2. 

Class III. See Section 307.2. 

Class IV. See Section 307.2. 

Class V. See Section 307.2. 

Unclassified detonable. See Section 307.2. 

ORTHOGONAL. See Section 1613.2. 

OTHER STRUCTURES. See Section 1602.1. 

OWNER. Any person, agent, firm or corporation having a 
legal or equitable interest in the property. 

[F] OXIDIZER. See Section 307.2. 

Class 4. See Section 307.2. 

Class 3. See Section 307.2. 

Class 2. See Section 307.2. 

Class 1. See Section 307.2. 

[F] OXIDIZING GAS. See Section 307.2. 

PANEL (PART OF A STRUCTURE). See Section 1602.1. 

PANIC HARDWARE. See Section 1002. 1 . 

PARTICLEBOARD. See Section 2302.1. 

PENETRATION FIRESTOR See Section 702. 1 . 

PENTHOUSE. See Section 1502. 1. 

PERMIT. An official document or certificate issued by the 
authority. having jurisdiction which authorizes performance of 
a specified activity. 

PERSON. An individual, heirs, executors, administrators or 
assigns, and also includes a firm, partnership or corporation, its 
or their successors or assigns, or the agent of any of the afore- 
said. 

PERSONAL CARE SERVICE. See Section 310.2. 

[F] PHYSICAL HAZARD. See Section 307.2. 

[F] PHYSIOLOGICAL WARNING THRESHOLD 
LEVEL. See Section 415.2. 

PIER FOUNDATIONS. See Section 1808.1. 

Belled piers. See Section 1 808. 1 . 
PILE FOUNDATIONS. See Section 1 808. 1 . 

Auger uncased piles. See Section 1808.1. 

Caisson piles. See Section 1808.1. 

Concrete-filled steel pipe and tube piles. See Section 
1808.1. 

Driven uncased piles. See Section 1808.1 . 

Enlarged base piles. See Section 1808.1. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



17 



DEFINITIONS 



Steel-cased piles. See Section 1808.1. 
I , : Timber piles. See Section 1 808. 1 . 

PINRAIL. See Section 410.2. 

PLASTIC, APPROVED. See Section 2602.1. 

PLASTIC GLAZING. See Section 2602.1. 

PLASTIC HINGE. See Section 2102.1. 

PLATFORM. See Section 410.2. 

POSITIVE ROOF DRAINAGE. See Section 1502.1. 
I PREFABRICATED WOOD I- JOIST. See Section 2302.1. 

PRESERVATIVE-TREATED WOOD. See Section 2302.1. 

PRESTRESSED MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

PRIMARY FUNCTION. See Section 3402.1. 

PRISM. See Section 2102.1. 

PROSCENIUM WALL. See Section 410.2. 

PUBLIC ENTRANCE. See Section 1 102. 1 . 

PUBLIC-USE AREAS. See Section 1102.1. 

PUBLIC WAY. See Section 1002.1. 

[F] PYROPHORIC. See Section 307.2. 

[F] PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION. See Section 307.2. 

RAMP. See Section 1002.1. 

RAMP-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. See Sec- 
tion 406.3.2. 

[F] RECORD DRAWINGS. See Section 902.1. 

REFERENCE RESISTANCE (D). See Section 2302.1. 

REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An individual 
who is registered or licensed to practice their respective design 
profession as defined by the statutory requirements of the pro- 
fessional registration laws of the state or jurisdiction in which 
the project is to be constructed. 

REINFORCED PLASTIC, GLASS FIBER. See Section 
2602.1. 

(RELIGIOUS WORSHIP, PLACE OF. A building or portion 
thereof intended for the performance of religious services. 

REPAIR. The reconstruction or renewal of any part of an exist- 
ing building for the purpose of its maintenance. 

REQUIRED STRENGTH. See Sections 1602. 1 and 2102. 1 . 

REROOFING. See Section 1502.1. 

RESIDENTIAL AIRCRAFT HANGAR. See Section 
412.3.1. 

RESIDENTIAL CARE/ASSISTED LIVING FACILI- 
TIES. See Section 310.2. 

RESISTANCE FACTOR. See Section 1602.1. 

RESTRICTED ENTRANCE. See Section 1 102. 1 . 

RETRACTABLE AWNING. See Section 3105.2. 

ROOF ASSEMBLY. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF COVERING. See Section 1502.1. 



ROOF COVERING SYSTEM. See Section 1502.1. 
ROOF DECK. See Section 1502. 1 . 
ROOF RECOVER. See Section 1502.1. 
ROOF REPAIR. See Section 1502.1. 
ROOF REPLACEMENT. See Section 1502 1. 
ROOF VENTILATION. See Section 1502.1. 
ROOFTOP STRUCTURE. See Section 1502.1. 
RUBBLE MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

Coursed rubble. See Section 2102.1. 

Random rubble. See Section 2102.1. 

Rough or ordinary rubble. See Section 2102.1. 

RUNNING BOND. See Section 2102. 1 . 

SCISSOR STAIR. See Section 1002.1. 

SCUPPER. See Section 1502.1. 

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY. See Section 1613.2. 

SEISMIC-FORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM. See Section 
1613.2. 

SELF-CLOSING. See Section 702. 1 . 

SELF-SERVICE STORAGE FACILITY. See Section 
1102.1. 

[F] SERVICE CORRIDOR. See Section 415.2. 

SERVICE ENTRANCE. See Section 1102.1. 

SHAFT. See Section 702.1. 

SHAFT ENCLOSURE. See Section 702.1. 

SHEAR WALL. See Sections 2102. 1 and 2302. 1 . 

Detailed plain masonry shear wall. See Section 2102.1. 

Intermediate prestressed masonry shear wall. See Sec- 
tion 2102.1. 

Intermediate reinforced masonry shear wall. See Section 
2102.1. 

Ordinary plain masonry shear wall. See Section 2102. 1 . 

Ordinary plain prestressed masonry shear wall. See Sec- 
tion 2102.1. 

Ordinary reinforced masonry shear wall. See Section 
2102.1. 

Perforated shear wall. See Section 2302.1. 

Perforated shear wall segment. See Section 2302.1. 

Special prestressed masonry shear wall. See Section 
2102.1. 

Special reinforced masonry shear wall. See Section 
2102.1. 

SHELL. See Section 2102.1. 

SINGLE-PLY MEMBRANE. See Section 1502. 1 . 

[F] SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. See Section 
902.1. 

SITE. See Section 1102.1. 



18 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



SITE CLASS. See Section 1613.2. 

SITE COEFFICIENTS. See Section 1613.2. 

SKYLIGHT, UNIT. A factory-assembled, glazed fenestration 
unit, containing one panel of glazing material that allows for 
natural lighting through an opening in the roof assembly while 
preserving the weather-resistant barrier of the roof. 

SKYLIGHTS AND SLOPED GLAZING. Glass or other 
transparent or translucent glazing material installed at a 
slope of 15 degrees (0.26 rad) or more from vertical. Glazing 
material in skylights, including unit skylights, solariums, 
sunrooms, roofs and sloped walls, are included in this defini- 
tion. 

SLEEPING UNIT. A room or space in which people sleep, 
which can also include permanent provisions for living, eating, 
and either sanitation or kitchen facilities but not both. Such 
rooms and spaces that are also part of a dwelling unit are not 
sleeping units. 

[F] SMOKE ALARM. See Section 902.1. 

SMOKE BARRIER. See Section 702.1. 

SMOKE COMPARTMENT. See Section 702.1. 

SMOKE DAMPER. See Section 702.1. 

[F] SMOKE DETECTOR. See Section 902.1. 

SMOKE-DEVELOPED INDEX. See Section 802.1. 

SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY SEATING. See Sec- 
tion 1002.1. 

SMOKEPROOF ENCLOSURE. See Section 902.1. 

[F] SOLID. See Section 415.2. 

SPECIAL INSPECTION. See Section 1702.1. 

Special inspection, continuous. See Section 1702.1. 

Special inspection, periodic. See Section 1702.1. 

SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD AREA. See Section 1612.2. 

SPECIFIED. See Section 2102.1. 

SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF 
MASONRY (/"J. See Section 2102.1. 

SPLICE. See Section 702. 1 . 

SPRAYED FIRE-RESISTANT MATERIALS. See Section 
1702.1. 

STACK BOND. See Section 2102.1. 

STAGE. See Section 410.2. 

STAIR. See Section 1002.1. 

STAIRWAY. See Section 1002. 1 . 

STAIRWAY, EXTERIOR. See Section 1002.1. 

STAIRWAY, INTERIOR. See Section 1002.1. 

STAIRWAY, SPIRAL. See Section 1002.1. 

[F] STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OE See Section 
902.1. 

Class I system. See Section 902. 1 . 



Class II system. See Section 902.1. 

Class III system. See Section 902.1. 
[F] STANDPIPE, TYPES OF. See Section 902.1. 

Automatic dry. See Section 902.1. 

Automatic wet. See Section 902. 1 . 

Manual dry. See Section 902.1. 

Manual wet. See Section 902. 1 . 

Semiautomatic dry. See Section 902. 1 . 

START OF CONSTRUCTION. See Section 1612.2. 

STEEL CONSTRUCTION, COLD-FORMED. See Section 
2202.1. 

STEEL JOIST. See Section 2202. 1 . 

STEEL MEMBER, STRUCTURAL. See Section 2202.1. 

STEEP SLOPE. A roof slope greater than two units vertical in 
12 units horizontal (17-percent slope). 

STONE MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

Ashlar stone masonry. See Section 2102.1. 

Rubble stone masonry. See Section 2102.1. 

[F] STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. See Section 
415.2. 

STORY. That portion of a building included between the upper 
surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or roof next 
above (also see "Mezzanine" and Section 502.1). It is mea- 
sured as the vertical distance from top to top of two successive 
tiers of beams or finished floor surfaces and, for the topmost 
story, from the top of the floor finish to the top of the ceiling 
joists or, where there is not a ceiling, to the top of the roof raf- 
ters. 

STORY ABOVE GRADE PLANE. Any story having its fin- 
ished floor surface entirely above grade plane, except that a 
basement shall be considered as a story above grade plane 
where the finished surface of the floor above the basement is: 

1. More than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade plane; or 

2. More than 12 feet (3658 mm) above the finished ground 
level at any point. 

STRENGTH. See Section 2102.1. 

Design strength. See Section 2102.1. 

Nominal strength. See Sections 1602.1 and 2102.1. 

Required strength. See Sections 1602.1 and 2102.1. 

STRENGTH DESIGN. See Section 1602.1. 

STRUCTURAL COMPOSITE LUMBER. See Secdon 
2302.1. 

Laminated veneer lumber (LVL). See Section 2302.1. 

Parallel strand lumber (PSL). See Section 2302.1. 

STRUCTURAL GLUED-LAMINATED TIMBER. See' 
Section 2302.1. 

STRUCTURAL OBSERVATION. See Section 1702.1. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



19 



DEFINITIONS 



STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed. 
SUBDIAPHRAGM. See Section 2302.1. 
SUBSTANTIAL DAMAGE. See Section 1612.2. 
SUBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENT. See Section 1612.2. 
SUNROOM ADDITION. See Section 1202.1. 
[F] SUPERVISING STATION. See Section 902.1. 
[F] SUPERVISORY SERVICE. See Section 902.1. 
[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 

[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. See 

Section 902.1. 

SWIMMING POOLS. See Section 3109.2. 

T RATING. See Section 702.1. 

TECHNICALLY INFEASIBLE. See Section 3402. 

TENT. Any structure, enclosure or shelter which is con- 
structed of canvas or pliable material supported in any manner 
except by air or the contents it protects. 

THERMAL ISOLATION. See Section 1202. 1 . 

THERMOPLASTIC MATERIAL. See Section 2602.1. 

THERMOSETTING MATERIAL. See Section 2602.1. 

THIN-BED MORTAR. See Section 2102.1. 

THROUGH PENETRATION. See Section 702.1. 

THROUGH-PENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEM. See 

Section 702.1. 

TIE-DOWN (HOLD-DOWN). See Section 2302.1. 

TIE, LATERAL. See Section 2102.1. 

TIE, WALL. See Section 2102.1. 

TILE. See Section 2102.1. 

TILE, STRUCTURAL CLAY. See Section 2102:1. 

[F] TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF. See Section 902.1. 

TOWNHOUSE. A single-family dwelling unit constructed in 
a group of three or more attached units in which each unit 
extends from the foundation to roof and with open space on at 
least two sides. 

[F] TOXIC. See Section 307.2. 

TRANSIENT. See Section 310.2. 

TREATED WOOD. See Section 2302.1. 

TRIM. See Section 802.1. 

[F] TROUBLE SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 

TYPE A UNIT. See Section 1102.1. 

TYPE B UNIT. See Section 1102.1. 

' UNDERLAYMENT. See Section 1502. 1 . 

[F] UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIAL. See Section 
307.2. 

Class 4. See Section 307.2. 

Class 3. See Section 307.2. 



Class 2. See Section 307.2. 

Class 1. See Section 307.2. 

[F] USE (MATERIAL). See Section 415.2. 

VAPOR-PERMEABLE MEMBRANE. A material or cover- 
inghavingapermeanceratingof5perms(52.9xlO"'°kg/Pa- s- m^) 
or greater, when tested in accordance with the dessicant method 
using Procedure A of ASTM E 96. A vapor-permeable material 
permits the passage of moisture vapor. 

VAPOR RETARDER. A vapor-resistant material, membrane 
or covering such as foil, plastic sheeting or insulation facing 
having a permeance rating of 1 perm (5.7 x 10"'' kg/Pa • s • m^) 
or less, when tested in accordance with the dessicant method 
using Procedure A of ASTM E 96. Vapor retarders limit the 
amount of moisture vapor that passes through a material or wall 
assembly. 

VEHICLE BARRIER SYSTEM. See Section 1602.1. 

VENEER. See Section 1402.1. 

VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of sup- 
plying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such 
air from, any space. 

VINYL SIDING. See Section 1402.1. 

[F] VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. 

See Section 902.1. 

WALKWAY, PEDESTRIAN. A walkway used exclusively as 
a pedestrian trafficway. 

WALL. See Section 2102.1. 

Cavity wall. See Section 2102.1. 

Composite wall. See Section 2102.1. 

Dry-stacked, surface-bonded wall. See Section 2102.1. 

Masonry-bonded hollow wall. See Section 2102.1. 

Parapet wall. See Section 2102. 1 . 

WALL, LOAD-BEARING. Any wall meeting either of the 
following classifications: 

1 . Any metal or wood stud wall that supports more than 100 
pounds per linear foot (1459 N/m) of vertical load in 
addition to its own weight. 

2. Any masonry or concrete wall that supports more than 
200 pounds per linear foot (29 19 N/m) of vertical load in 
addition to its own weight. 

WALL, NONLOAD-BEARING. Any wall that is not a 
load-bearing wall. 

WALL PIER. See Section 1908.1.3. 

[F] WATER-REACTIVE MATERIAL. See Section 307.2. 

Class 3. See Section 307.2. 

Class 2. See Section 307.2. 

Class 1. See Section 307.2. 
WATER-RESISTIVE BARRIER. See Section 1402. 
WEATHER-EXPOSED SURFACES. See Section 2502.1. 
WEB. See Section 2102.1. 



20 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



[F] WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See 

Section 902.1. 

WHEELCHAIR SPACE. See Section 1102.1. 

WIND-BORNE DEBRIS REGION. See Section 1609.2. 

WINDER. See Section 1002.1. 

WIRE BACKING. See Section 2502.1. 

[F] WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM. See Section 
902.1. 

WOOD SHEAR PANEL. See Section 2302.1. 

WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL. See Section 2302.1. 

Composite panels. See Section 2302. 1 . 

Oriented strand board (OSB). See Section 2302.1. 

Plywood. See Section 2302.1. 

[F] WORKSTATION. See Section 415.2. 

WYTHE. See Section 2102.1. 

YARD. An open space, other than a court, unobstructed from 
the ground to the sky, except where specifically provided by 
this code, on the lot on which a building is situated. 

[F] ZONE. See Section 902.1. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 21 



22 2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE'' 



CHAPTER 3 

USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



SECTION 301 
GENERAL 

301.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall control the 
classification of all buildings and structures as to use and occu- 
pancy. 



SECTION 302 
CLASSIFICATION 

302.1 General. Structures or portions of structures shall be 
classified with respect to occupancy in one or more of the 
groups listed below. A room or space that is intended to be 
occupied at different times for different purposes shall comply 
with all of the requirements that are applicable to each of the 
purposes for which the room or space will be occupied. Struc- 
tures with multiple occupancies or uses shall comply with Sec- 
tion 508. Where a structure is proposed for a purpose that is not 
specifically provided for in this code, such structure shall be 
classified in the group that the occupancy most nearly resem- 
bles, according to the fire safety and relative hazard involved. 

1. Assembly (see Section 303): Groups A-1, A-2, A-3, 
A-4 and A-5 

2. Business (see Section 304): Group B 

3. Educational (see Section 305): Group E 

4. Factory and Industrial (see Section 306): Groups F-1 
and F-2 

5. High Hazard (see Section 307): Groups H-1, H-2, H-3, 
H-4 and H-5 

6. Institutional (see Section 308): Groups I-l, 1-2, 1-3 and 
1-4 

7. Mercantile (see Section 309): Group M 

8. Residential (see Section 310): Groups R-1, R-2, R-3 
and R-4 

9. Storage (see Section 311): Groups S-1 and S-2 

10. Utility and Miscellaneous (see Section 312): Group U 



SECTION 303 
ASSEMBLY GROUP A 

303.1 Assembly Group A. Assembly Group A occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a 
portion thereof, for the gathering of persons for purposes such 
as civic, social or religious functions; recreation, food or drink 
consumption; or awaiting transportation. 

Exceptions: 

1. A building used for assembly purposes with an occu- 
pant load of less than 50 persons shall be classified as 
a Group B occupancy. 



2. A room or space used for assembly purposes with an 
occupant load of less than 50 persons and accessory to 
another occupancy shall be classified as a Group B 
occupancy or as part of that occupancy. 

3. A room or space used for assembly purposes that is 
less than 750 square feet (70 m^) in area and is acces- 
sory to another occupancy shall be classified as a 
Group B occupancy or as part of that occupancy. 

Assembly occupancies shall include the following: 

A-1 Assembly uses, usually with fixed seating, intended for 
the production and viewing of the performing arts or 
motion pictures including, but not limited to: 

Motion picture theaters 

Symphony and concert halls 

Television and radio studios admitting an audience 

Theaters 

A-2 Assembly uses intended for food and/or drink con- 
sumption including, but not limited to: 

Banquet halls 
Night clubs 
Restaurants 
Taverns and bars 

A-3 Assembly uses intended for worship, recreation or 
amusement and other assembly uses not classified else- 
where in Group A including, but not limited to: 

Amusement arcades 
Art galleries 
Bowling alleys 
Places of religious worship 
Community halls 
Courtrooms 

Dance halls (not including food or drink consump- 
tion) 

Exhibition halls 
Funeral parlors 

Gymnasiums (without spectator seating) 
Indoor swimming pools (without spectator seating) 
Indoor tennis courts (without spectator seating) 
Lecture halls 
Libraries 
Museums 

Waiting areas in transportation teraiinals 
Pool and billiard parlors 

A-4 Assembly uses intended for viewing of indoor sporting 
events and activities with spectator seating including, 
but not limited to: 

Arenas 
Skating rinks 
Swimming pools 
Tennis courts 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



23 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



A-5 Assembly uses intended for participation in or viewing 
outdoor activities including, but not limited to: 

Amusement park structures 

Bleachers 

Grandstands 

Stadiums 



SECTION 304 
BUSINESS GROUP B 

304.1 Business Group B. Business Group B occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a 
portion thereof, for office, professional or service-type transac- 
tions, including storage of records and accounts. Business 
occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Airport traffic control towers 

Animal hospitals, kennels and pounds 

Banks 

Barber and beauty shops 

Car wash 

Civic administration 

Clinic — outpatient 

Dry cleaning and laundries: pick-up and delivery stations 

and self-service 
Educational occupancies for students above the 12th grade 
Electronic data processing 
Laboratories: testing and research 
Motor vehicle showrooms 
Post offices 
Print shops 
Professional services (architects, attorneys, dentists, 

physicians, engineers, etc.) 
Radio and television stations 
Telephone exchanges 
Training and skill development not within a school or 

academic program 



SECTION 305 
EDUCATIONAL GROUP E 

305.1 Educational Group E. Educational Group E occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a 
portion thereof, by six or more persons at any one time for edu- 
cational purposes through the 12th grade. Religious educa- 
tional rooms and religious auditoriums, which are accessory to 
places of religious worship in accordance with Section 508.3.1 
and have occupant loads of less than 100, shall be classified as 
A-3 occupancies. 

305.2 Day care. The use of a building or structure, or portion 
thereof, for educational, supervision or personal care services 
for more than five children older than 2 V2 years of age, shall be 
classified as a Group E occupancy. 



SECTION 306 
FACTORY GROUP F 

306.1 Factory Industrial Group F. Factory Industrial Group 
F occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or 



structure, or a portion thereof, for assembling, disassembling, 
fabricating, finishing, manufacturing, packaging, repair or pro- 
cessing operations that are not classified as a Group H hazard- 
ous or Group S storage occupancy. 

306.2 Factory Industrial F-1 Moderate-hazard Occupancy. 

Factory industrial uses which are not classified as Factory 
Industrial F-2 Low Hazard shall be classified as F-1 Moderate 
Hazard and shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Aircraft 

Appliances 

Athletic equipment 

Automobiles and other motor vehicles 

Bakeries 

Beverages; over 12-percent alcohol content 

Bicycles 

Boats 

Brooms or brushes 

Business machines 

Cameras and photo equipment 

Canvas or similar fabric 

Carpets and rugs (includes cleaning) 

Clothing 

Construction and agricultural machinery 

Disinfectants 

Dry cleaning and dyeing 

Electric generation plants 

Electronics 

Engines (including rebuilding) 

Food processing 

Furniture 

Hemp products 

Jute products 

Laundries 

Leather products 

Machinery 

Metals 

Millwork (sash & door) 

Motion pictures and television filming (without spectators) 

Musical instruments 

Optical goods 

Paper mills or products 

Photographic film 

Plastic products 

Printing or publishing 

Recreational vehicles 

Refuse incineration 

Shoes 

Soaps and detergents 

Textiles 

Tobacco 

Trailers 

Upholstering 

Wood; distillation 

Woodworking (cabinet) 

306.3 Factory Industrial F-2 Low-hazard Occupancy. Fac- 
tory industrial uses that involve the fabrication or manufactur- 
ing of noncombustible materials which during finishing, 
packing or processing do not involve a significant fire hazard 



24 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



shall be classified as F-2 occupancies and shall include, but not 
be limited to, the following: 

Beverages; up to and including 12-percent alcohol content 

Brick and masonry 

Ceramic products 

Foundries 

Glass products 

Gypsum 

Ice 

Metal products (fabrication and assembly) 



SECTION 307 
HIGH-HAZARD GROUP H 

[F] 307.1 High-hazard Group H. High-hazard Group H occu- 
pancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or 
a portion thereof, that involves the manufacturing, processing, 
generation or storage of materials diat constitute a physical or 
health hazard in quantities in excess of those allowed in control 
areas constructed and located as required in Section 414. Hazard- 
ous uses are classified in Groups H- 1 , H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5 and 
shall be in accordance with this section, the requirements of Sec- 
tion 415 and the International Fire Code. 

Exceptions: The following shall not be classified in Group 
H, but shall be classified in the occupancy that they most 
nearly resemble: 

1 . Buildings and structures that contain not more than 
the maximum allowable quantities per control area 
of hazardous materials as shown in Tables 307.1(1) 
and 307. 1(2), provided that such buildings are main- 
tained in accordance with the International Fire 
Code. 

2. Buildings utilizing control areas in accordance with 
Section 414.2 that contain not more than the maxi- 
mum allowable quantities per control area of haz- 
ardous materials as shown in Tables 307.1(1) and 
307.1(2). 

3. Buildings and structures occupied for the applica- 
tion of flammable finishes, provided that such build- 
ings or areas conform to the requirements of Section 
416 and the International Fire Code. 

4. Wholesale and retail sales and storage of flammable 
and combustible liquids in mercantile occupancies 
conforming to the International Fire Code. 

5 . Closed piping containing flammable or combustible 
liquids or gases utilized for the operation of machin- 
ery or equipment. 

6. Cleaning establishments that utilize combustible 
liquid solvents having a flash point of 140°F (60°C) 
or higher in closed systems employing equipment 
listed by an approved testing agency, provided that 
this occupancy is separated from all other areas of 
the building by 1-hour fire barriers or 1-hour hori- 
zontal assemblies or both. 

7. Cleaning establishments that utilize a liquid solvent 
having a flash point at or above 200°F (93°C). 



8 . Liquor stores and distributors without bulk storage. 

9. Refrigeration systems. 

10. The storage or utilization of materials for agricul- 
tural purposes on the premises. 

11. Stationary batteries utilized for facility emergency 
power, uninterrupted power supply or telecommu- 
nication facilities, provided that the batteries are 
provided with safety venting caps and ventilation is 
provided in accordance with the International 
Mechanical Code. 

12. Corrosives shall not include personal or household 
products in their original packaging used in retail 
display or commonly used building materials. 

13 Buildings and structures occupied for aerosol stor- 
age shall be classified as Group S-1, provided that 
such buildings conform to the requirements of the 
International Fire Code. 

14. Display and storage of nonflammable solid and non- 
flammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous 
materials in quantities not exceeding the maximum 
allowable quantity per control area in Group M or S 
occupancies complying with Section 414.2.5. 

15. The storage of black powder, smokeless propellant 
and small arms primers in Groups M and R-3 and 
special industrial explosive devices in Groups B, F, 
M and S, provided such storage conforms to the 
quantity limits and requirements prescribed in the 
International Fire Code. 

307.1.1 Hazardous materials. Hazardous materials in any 
quantity shall conform to the requirements of this . code, 
including Section 414, and the International Fire Code. 

[F] 307.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, 
for the purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meanings shown herein. 

AEROSOL. A product that is dispensed from an aerosol con- 
tainer by a propellant. 

Aerosol products shall be classified by means of the calcula- 
tion of their chemical heats of combustion and shall be desig- 
nated Level 1, 2 or 3. 

Level 1 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical heat 
of combustion that is less than or equal to 8,600 British ther- 
mal units per pound (Btu/lb) (20 kJ/g). 

Level 2 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical heat 
of combustion that is greater than 8,600 Btu/lb (20 kJ/g), but 
less than or equal to 13,000 Btu/lb (30 kJ/g). 

Level 3 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical heat 
combustion that is greater than 13,000 Btu/lb (30 kJ/g). 

AEROSOL CONTAINER. A metal can or a glass or plastic 
bottie designed to dispense an aerosol. Metal cans shall be lim- 
ited to a maximum size of 33.8 fluid ounces (1,000 ml). Glass 
or plastic bottles shall be limited to a maximum size of 4 fluid 
ounces (118 ml). 

BALED COTTON. A natural seed fiber wrapped in and 
secured with industry accepted materials, usually consisting of 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



25 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



burlap, woven polypropylene, polyethylene or cotton or sheet 
polyethylene, and secured with steel, synthetic or wire bands or 
wire; also includes linters (lint removed from the cottonseed) 
and motes (residual materials from the ginning process). 

BALED COTTON, DENSELY PACKED. Cotton made into 
banded bales with a packing density of at least 22 pounds per 
cubic foot (360 kg/m^), and dimensions complying with the fol- 
lowing: a length of 55 inches (1397 ± 20 mm), a width of 21 
inches (533.4 ± 20 mm) and a height of 27.6 to 35.4 inches (701 to 
899 mm). 

BARRICADE. A structure that consists of a combination of 
walls, floor and roof, which is designed to withstand the rapid 
release of energy in an explosion and which is fully confined, 
partially vented or fully vented; or other effective method of 
shielding from explosive materials by a natural or artificial bar- 
rier. 

Artificial barricade. An artificial mound or revetment a 
minimum thickness of 3 feet (914 mm). 

Natural barricade. Natural features of the ground, such as 
hills, or timber of sufficient density that the surrounding 
exposures that require protection cannot be seen from the 
magazine or building containing explosives when the trees 
are bare of leaves. 

BOILING POINT. The temperature at which the vapor pres- 
sure of a liquid equals the atmospheric pressure of 14.7 pounds 
per square inch (psi) (101 kPa) gage or 760 mm of mercury. 
Where an accurate boiling point is unavailable for the material 
in question, or for mixtures which do not have a constant boil- 
ing point, for the purposes of this classification, the 20-percent 
evaporated point of a distillation performed in accordance with 
ASTM D 86 shall be used as the boiling point of the liquid. 

CLOSED SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous 
material involving a closed vessel or system that remains 
closed during normal operations where vapors emitted by the 
product are not liberated outside of the vessel or system and the 
product is not exposed to the atmosphere during normal opera- 
tions; and all uses of compressed gases. Examples of closed 
systems for solids and liquids include product conveyed 
through a piping system into a closed vessel, system or piece of 
equipment. 

COMBUSTIBLE DUST. Finely divided solid material that is 
420 microns or less in diameter and which, when dispersed in 
air in the proper proportions, could be ignited by a flame, spark 
or other source of ignition. Combustible dust will pass through 
a U.S. No. 40 standard sieve. 

COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS. Readily ignitable and free-bum- 

I ing materials in a fibrous or shredded form, such as cocoa fiber, 

cloth, cotton, excelsior, hay, hemp, henequen, istle, jute, kapok, 

oakum, rags, sisal, Spanish moss, straw, tow, wastepaper, cer- 

Itain synthetic fibers or other like materials. This definition does 
not include densely packed baled cotton. 

COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. A liquid having a closed cup 
flash point at or above 100°F (38°C). Combustible liquids shall 
be subdivided as follows: 



Class II. Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or above 
100°F (38°C) and below 140°F (60°C). 

Class IIIA. Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or 
above 140°F (60°C) and below 200°F (93°C). 

Class IIIB. Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or 
above 200°F (93°C). 

The category of combustible liquids does not include com- 
pressed gases or cryogenic fluids. 

COMPRESSED GAS. A material, or mixture of materials 
which: 

1. Is a gas at 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 pounds per square 
inch atmosphere (psia) (101 kPa) of pressure; and 

2. Has a boiling point of 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 psia 
(101 kPa) which is either liquefied, nonliquefied or in 
solution, except those gases which have no other health- 
or physical-hazard properties are hot considered to be 
compressed until the pressure in the packaging exceeds 
41 psia (282 kPa) at 68°F (20°C). 

The states of a compressed gas are categorized as follows: 

1. Nonliquefied compressed gases are gases, other than 
those in solution, which are in a packaging under the 
charged pressure and are entirely gaseous at a tempera- 
ture of 68 °F (20°C). 

2. Liquefied compressed gases are gases that, in a packag- 
ing under the charged pressure, are partially liquid at a 
temperature of 68°F (20°C). 

3. Compressed gases in solution are nonliquefied gases that 
are dissolved in a solvent. 

4. Compressed gas mixtures consist of a mixture of two or 
more compressed gases contained in a packaging, the 
hazard properties of which are represented by the proper- 
ties of the mixture as a whole. 

CONTROL AREA. Spaces within a building where quanti- 
ties of hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum 
allowable quantities per control area are stored, dispensed, 
used or handled. See also the definition of "Outdoor control 
area" in the International Fire Code. 

CORROSIVE. A chemical that causes visible destruction of, 
or irreversible alterations in, living tissue by chemical action at 
the point of contact. A chemical shall be considered corrosive 
if, when tested on the intact skin of albino rabbits by the method 
described in DOTn 49 CFR, Part 173.137, such a chemical 
destroys or changes irreversibly the structure of the tissue at the 
point of contact following an exposure period of 4 hours. This 
term does not refer to action on inanimate surfaces. 

CRYOGENIC FLUID. A liquid having a boiling point lower 
than -150°F (-101°C) at 14.7 pounds per square inch atmo- 
sphere (psia) (an absolute pressure of 101 kPa). 

DAY BOX. A portable magazine designed to hold explosive 
materials constructed in accordance with the requirements for 
a Type 3 magazine as defined and classified in Chapter 33 of 
the International Fire Code. 



26 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



[F] TABLE 307.1(1) 
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARD^' 


m, n, p 




MATERIAL 


CLASS 


GROUP WHEN 
THE MAXIMUM 
ALLOWABLE 
QUANTITY IS 
EXCEEDED 


STORAGE" 


USE-CLOSED SYSTEMS" 


USE-OPEN SYSTEMS" 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Gas 

(cubic feet 

at NTP) 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Gas 

(cubic feet 

at NTP) 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Combustible liquid'^' ' 


n 

niA 
mB 


H-2orH-3 
H-2orH-3 

N/A 


N/A 


120"'^ 

330<i'^ 

13,200^- f 


N/A 


N/A 


120" 

330" 

13,200^ 


N/A 


N/A 


30" 

80" 

3,300f 


Combustible fiber 


Loose 
baled" 


H-3 


(100) 
(1,000) 


N/A 


N/A 


(100) 
(1,000) 


N/A 


N/A 


(20) 
(200) 


N/A 


Consumer fireworks (Class 
C, Common) 


1.4G 


H-3 


125"' ^'i 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


Cryogenics flammable 


N/A 


H-2 


N/A 


45'* 


N/A 


N/A 


45" 


N/A 


N/A 


10" 


Cryogenics, oxidizing 


N/A 


H-3 


N/A 


45'' 


N/A 


N/A 


45" 


N/A 


N/A 


10" 


Explosives 


Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 
Division 1.4 
Division 1.4G 
Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 


H-1 
H-1 
H-1 or 2 
H-3 
H-3 
H-1 
H-1 


ie.g 

P-g. 

5e,g 

50^' s 

125d,e,l 
ie,g 
Id, e, g 


(1)^-8 

(l)e.g 

(5)^-8 
(50)^-8 

N/A 

(l)e,g 

N/A 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.258 
0.258 

18 

508 
N/A 
0.258 

N/A 


(0.25)8 
(0.25)8 

(1)8 

(50)8 

N/A 

(0.25)8 

N/A 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.258 
0.258 

18 

N/A 
N/A 
0.258 
N/A 


(0.25)8 
(0.25)8 

(1)8 

N/A 

N/A 

(0.25)8 

N/A 


Flammable gas 


Gaseous 
liquefied 


H-2 


N/A 


N/A 
30'''^ 


1,000"'^ 

N/A 


N/A 


N/A 
30"'^ 


1,000"'^ 

N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


Flammable liquid" 


lA 
IB and IC 


H-2 
or H-3 


N/A 


30'*-^ 
120''-« 


N/A 


N/A 


30" 
120" 


N/A 


N/A 


10" 
30" 


Combination flammable 
liquid (lA, IB, IC) 


N/A 


H-2 
or H-3 


N/A 


120d.e.h 


N/A 


N/A 


120"' h 


N/A 


N/A 


30"''' 


Flammable solid 


N/A 


H-3 


125'''^ 


N/A 


N/A 


1251 


N/A 


N/A 


25" 


N/A 


Organic peroxide 


UD 

I 

n 
m 

IV 
V 


H-1 
H-2 
H-3 
H-3 

N/A 
N/A 


le,g 
5cl,e 

50'*'^ 

125"-^ 

NL 

NL 


(l)e,g 
(5)'*'^ 

(50)'*'^ 
(125)'*' « 

NL 
NL 


N/A 

N/A 

N/A ■ 

N/A 

N/A 

N/A 


0.258 
.1'* 
50" 

125" 
N/L 
N/L 


(0.25)8 

(1) 

(50)" 

(125)" 

N/L 

N/L 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.258 
1" 
10" 

25" 
NL 

NL 


(0.25)8 
(1)" 
(10)" 
(25)" 
NL 
NL 


Oxidizer 


4 
3'^ 

2 

1 


H-1 

H-2 or H-3 

H-3 

N/A 


ie,g 
10d,e 

250'''« 

4,000^-f 


(l)e,g 
(10)d.e 

(250)'*'« 
(4,000)«'f 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.258 

2" 
250" 
4,000^ 


(0.25)8 

(2)" 
(250)" 
(4,000)f 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.258 

2" 

50" 
1,000^ 


(0.25)8 
(2)" 
(50)" 

(l,000)f 


Oxidizing gas 


Gaseous 
liquefied 


H-3 


N/A 
N/A 


N/A 
15'''^ 


1,500"'^ 

N/A 


N/A 
N/A 


N/A 
15"'^ 


1,500"'^ 

N/A 


N/A 
N/A 


N/A 
N/A 



(continued) 



[F] TABLE 307.1(1)— continued 
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARD^"" "" 



MATERIAL 


CLASS 


GROUP WHEN 

THE MAXIMUM 

ALLOWABLE 

QUANTITY IS 

EXCEEDED 


STORAGE" 


USE-CLOSED SYSTEMS" 


USE-OPEN SYSTEMS" 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Gas 

(cubic feet 

at NTP) 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Gas 

(cubic feet 

at NTP) 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Pyrophoric material 


■ N/A 


H-2 


4e,g 


(4)e.g 


50^-8 


18 


(1)8 


10^-8 








Unstable (reactive) 


4 
3 
2 
1 


H-1 

H-lorH-2 

H-3 

N/A 


ie,g 

^d, e 

NL 


(l)e,g 

(50)'*- = 

.NL 


IQd'g 

250'*'^ 

■ N/L 


0.258 

I'' 

50" 

NL 


(0.25)8 

(1) 
(50)'' 
N/L 


26, g 

10d,e 

250"-^ 

NL 


0.258 
1" 
10" 

NL 


(0.25)8 
(1)" 
(10)" 
NL 


Water reactive 


3 
2 
1 


H-2 
H-3 

N/A 


5d, e 

NL 


(50)'''^ 

NL 


N/A 

N/A 

■ WA' 


5" 
50'' 
NL 


(5)'^ 
(50)'' 

NL 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


1" 
10" 

NL 


(1)" 
(10)" 

NL 



m 

> 
z 
a 

o 
o 
o 

c 

■D 

> 

Z 

o 

< 

o 

l- 

> 
w 
w 

Tl 

o 

> 

H 

o 

z 



For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.023 m^ 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 
NL = Not Limited; N/A = Not Applicable; UD = Unclassified Detonable 

a. For use of control areas, see Section 414.2. 

b. The aggregate quantity in use and storage shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage. 

c. The quantities of alcohoUc beverages in retail and wholesale sales occupancies shall not be limited providing the liquids are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1 .3 gallons. In retail and wholesale sales 
occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuffs, consumer or industrial products, and cosmetics containing not more than 50 percent by volume of water-miscible liquids with the remainder of the solutions not 
being flammable, shall not be limited, provided that such materials are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons. 

d. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 1 00 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903 .3. 1 . 1 . Where Note e also applies, the increase for 
both notes shall be apphed accumulatively. 

e. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, day boxes, gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures or safety cans. Where Note d also appUes, the increase for 
both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

f. The permitted quantities shall not be limited in a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

g. Permitted only in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 
h. Containing not more than the maximum allowable quantity per control area of Class lA, IB or IC flammable liquids. 

i . Inside a building, the maximum capacity of a combustible Uquid storage system that is connected to a fuel-oil piping system shall be 660 gallons provided such system compUes with the International Fire Code. 

j. Quantities in parenthesis indicate quantity units in parenthesis at the head of each column. 

k. A maximum quantity of 200 pounds of solid or 20 gallons of liquid Class 3 oxidizers is allowed when such materials are neces sary for maintenance purposes, operation or sanitation of equipment. Storage contain- 
ers and the maimer of storage shall be approved. 

1. Net weight of the pyrotechnic composition of the fireworks. Where the net weight of the pyrotechnic composition of the fireworks is not known, 25 percent of the gross weight of the fireworks, including packaging, 
shall be used. 

m. For gallons of Uquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 2703. 1 .2 of the International Fire Code. 

n. For storage and display quantities in Group M and storage quantities in Group S occupancies complying with Section 414.2.4, see Tables 414.2.5(1) and 414.2.5(2). 

o. Densely packed baled cotton that compUes with the packing requirements of ISO 8115 shall not be included in this material class. 

p. The following shall not be included in determining the maximum allowable quantities: 

1. Liquid or gaseous fuel in fuel tanks on vehicles. 

2. Liquid or gaseous fuel in fuel tanks on motorized equipment operated in accordance with this code. 

3. Gaseous fuels in piping systems and fixed appUances regulated by the International Fuel Gas Code. 

4. Liquid fuels in piping systems and fixed appliances regulated by the International Mechanical Code. 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



[F] TABLE 307.1(2) 
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POSING A HEALTH HAZARD^"-'''' 


MATERIAL 


STORAGE" 


USE-CLOSED SYSTEMS" 


USE-OPEN SYSTEMS" 


Solid pounds^' ' 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds)^' ' 


Gas (cubic feet 
at NTP)« 


Solid pounds^ 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds)^ 


Gas (cubic feet 
at NTP)^ 


Solid pounds^ 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds)" 


Corrosive 


5,000 


500 


810f-s 


5,000 


500 


BlO^-g 


1,000 


100 


Highly toxic 


10 


(10)' 


20^ 


10 


(10)' 


20" 


3 


(3)' 


Toxic 


500 


(500)' 


810^ 


500 


(5ooy 


810f 


125 


(125)' 



For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.028 m^ 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

a. For use of control areas, see Section 414.2. 

b. In retail and wholesale sales occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuffs, consumer or industrial products, and cosmetics, containing not more than 50 per- 
cent by volume of water-miscible hquids and with the remainder of the solutions not being flammable, shall not be hmited, provided that such materials are pack- 
aged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons. 

c. For storage and display quantities in Group M and storage quantities in Group S occupancies complying withSection 414.2.4, see Table 414.2.4(1). 

d. The aggregate quantity in use and storage shall not exceed the quantity Usted for storage. 

e. Quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 
Where Note f also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

f. Quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures as specified in the International Fire 
Code. Where Note e also apphes, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

g. A single cylinder containing 1 50 pounds or less of anhydrous ammonia in a single control area in a nonsprinklered building shall be considered a maximum allow- 
able quantity. Two cylinders, each containing 150 pounds or less in a single control area, shall be considered a maximum allowable quantity provided the building 
is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance withSection 903.3.1.1. 

h. Allowed only when stored in approved exhausted gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures as specified in the International Fire Code. 

i. Quantities in parenthesis indicate quantity units in parenthesis at the head of each column. 

j. For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 2703. 1.2 of the International Fire Code. 



DEFLAGRATION. An exothermic reaction, such as the 
extremely rapid oxidation of a flammable dust or vapor in air, 
in which the reaction progresses through the unbumed material 
at a rate less than the velocity of sound. A deflagration can have 
an explosive effect. 

DETACHED BUILDING. A separate single-story building, 
without a basement or crawl space, used for the storage or use 
of hazardous materials and located an approved distance from 
all structures. 

DETONATION. An exothermic reaction characterized by the 
presence of a shock wave in the material which establishes and 
maintains the reaction. The reaction zone progresses through 
the material at a rate greater than the velocity of souiid. The 
principal heating mechanism is one of shock compression. 
Detonations have an explosive effect. 

DISPENSING. The pouring or transferring of any material 
from a container, tank or similar vessel, whereby vapors, dusts, 
fumes, mists or gases are liberated to the atmosphere. 

EXPLOSIVE. Any chemical compound, mixture or device, 
the primary or common purpose of which is to function by 
explosion. The term includes, but is not limited to, dynamite, 
black powder, pellet powder, initiating explosives, detonators, 
safety fuses, squibs, detonating cord, igniter cord, igniters and 
display fireworks, 1.3G (Class B, Special). 

The term "explosive" includes any material determined to be 
within the scope of USC Title 18: Chapter 40 and also includes 
any material classified as an explosive other than consumer 
fireworks, 1 .40 (Class C, Common) by the hazardous materi- 
als regulations of DQTn 49 CFR. 

High explosive. Explosive material, such as dynamite, 
which can be caused to detonate by means of a No. 8 test 
blasting cap when unconfined. 



Low explosive. Explosive material that will bum or defla- 
grate when ignited. It is characterized by a rate of reaction 
that is less than the speed of sound. Examples of low explo- 
sives include, but are not limited to, black powder; safety 
fuse; igniters; igniter cord; fuse lighters; fireworks, 1.3G 
(Class B, Special) and propellants, 1.3C. 

Mass-detonating explosives. Division 1.1, 1.2 and 1.5 
explosives alone or in combination, or loaded into various 
types of ammunition or containers, most of which can be 
expected to explode virtually instantaneously when a small 
portion is subjected to fire, severe concussion, impact, the 
impulse of an initiating agent or the effect of a considerable 
discharge of energy from without. Materials that react in 
this manner represent a mass explosion hazard. Such an 
explosive will normally cause severe structural damage to 
adjacent objects. Explosive propagation could occur imme- 
diately to other items of ammunition and explosives stored 
sufficiently close to and not adequately protected from the 
initially exploding pile with a time interval short enough so 
that two or more quantities must be considered as one for 
quantity-distance purposes. 

UN/DOTn Class 1 explosives. The former classification 
system used by DQTn included the terms "high" and "low" 
explosives as defined herein. The following terms further 
define explosives under the current system applied by 
DQTn for all explosive materials defined as hazard Class 1 
materials. Compatibility group letters are used in concert 
with the division to specify further limitations on each divi- 
sion noted (i.e., the letter G identifies the material as a pyro- 
technic substance or article containing a pyrotechnic 
substance and similar materials). 

Division 1.1. Explosives that have a mass explosion haz- 
ard. A mass explosion is one which affects almost the 
entire load instantaneously. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



29 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



Division 1.2. Explosives that have a projection hazard 
but not a mass explosion hazard. 

Division 1.3. Explosives that have a fire hazard and 
either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard 
or both, but not a mass explosion hazard. 

Division 1.4. Explosives that pose a minor explosion 
hazard. The explosive effects are largely confined to the 
package and no projection of fragments of appreciable 
size or range is to be expected. An external fire must not 
cause virtually instantaneous explosion of almost the 
entire contents of the package. 

Division 1.5. Very insensitive explosives. This division 
is comprised of substances that have a mass explosion 
hazard, but that are so insensitive there is very little prob- 
ability of initiation or of transition from burning to deto- 
nation under normal conditions of transport. 

Division 1.6. Extremely insensitive articles which do not 
have a mass explosion hazard. This division is comprised 
of articles that contain only extremely insensitive deto- 
nating substances and which demonstrate a negligible 
probability of accidental initiation or propagation. 

FIREWORKS. Any composition or device for the purpose of 
producing a visible or audible effect for entertainment pur- 
poses by combustion, deflagration or detonation that meets the 
definition of 1.4G fireworks or 1.3G fireworks as set forth 
herein. 

FIREWORKS, 1.3G. (Formerly Class B, Special Fireworks.) 
Large fireworks devices, which are explosive materials, 
intended for use in fireworks displays and designed to produce 
audible or visible effects by combustion, deflagration or deto- 
nation. Such 1 .3G fireworks include, but are not limited to, fire- 
crackers containing more than 130 milligrams (2 grains) of 
explosive composition, aerial shells containing more than 40 
grams of pyrotechnic composition, and other display pieces 
which exceed the limits for classification as 1.4G fireworks. 
Such 1.3G fireworks are also described as fireworks, UN0335 
by the DOTn. 

FIREWORKS, 1.4G. (Formerly Class C, Common Fire- 
works.) Small fireworks devices containing restricted amounts 
of pyrotechnic composition designed primarily to produce vis- 
ible or audible effects by combustion. Such 1.4G fireworks 
which comply with the construction, chemical composition 
and labeling regulations of the DOTn for fireworks, UN0336, 
and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) as 
set forth in CPSC 16 CFR: Parts 1500 and 1507, are not explo- 
sive materials for the purpose of this code. 

FLAMMABLE GAS. A material that is a gas at 68°F (20°C) 
or less at 14.7 pounds per square inch atmosphere (psia) (101 
kPa) of pressure [a material that has a boiling point of 68°F 
(20°C) or less at 14.7 psia (101 kPa)] which: 

1 . Is ignitable at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) when in a mixture of 13 
percent or less by volume with air; or 

2. Has a flammable range at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) with air of 
at least 12 percent, regardless of the lower limit. 



The limits specified shall be determined at 14.7 psi (101 kPa) 
of pressure and a temperature of 68 °F (20°C) in accordance 
with ASTME 681. 

FLAMMABLE LIQUEFIED GAS. A liquefied compressed 
gas which, under a charged pressure, is partially liquid at a tem- 
perature of 68°F (20°C) and which is flammable. 

FLAMMABLE LIQUID. A liquid having a closed cup flash 
point below 100°F (38°C). Flammable liquids are further cate- 
gorized into a group known as Class I liquids. The Class I cate- 
gory is subdivided as follows: 

Class lA. Liquids having a flash point below 73°F (23°C) 
and a boiling point below 100°F (38°C). 

Class IB. Liquids having a flash point below 73°F (23°C) 
and a boiling point at or above 100°F (38°C). 

Class IC. Liquids having a flash point at or above 73 °F 
(23°C) and below 100°F (38°C). 

The category of flammable liquids does not include com- 
pressed gases or cryogenic fluids. 

FLAMMABLE MATERIAL. A material capable of being 
readily ignited from common sources of heat or at a temperature 
of600°F(316°C)orless. 

FLAMMABLE SOLID. A sohd, other than a blasting agent or 
explosive, that is capable of causing fire through friction, 
absorption or moisture, spontaneous chemical change, or 
retained heat from manufacturing or processing, or which has an 
ignition temperature below 212°F (100°C) or which bums so 
vigorously and persistently when ignited as to create a serious 
hazard. A chemical shall be considered a flammable solid as 
determined in accordance with the test method of CPSC 16 
CFR; Part 1500.44, if it ignites and bums with a self-sustained 
flame at a rate greater than 0. 1 inch (2.5 mm) per second along its 
major axis. 

FLASH POINT. The minimum temperature in degrees Fahren- 
heit at which a Uquid will give off sufficient vapors to form an 
ignitable mixture with air near the surface or in the container, but 
will not sustain combustion. The flash point of a liquid shall be 
determined by appropriate test procedure and apparatus as spec- 
ified in ASTM D 56, ASTM D 93 or ASTM D 3278. 

HANDLING. The deUberate transport by any means to a point 
of storage or use. 

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. Those chemicals or substances 
that are physical hazards or health hazards as defined and classi- 
fied in this section and the International Fire Code, whether the 
materials are in usable or waste condition. 

HEALTH HAZARD. A classification of a chemical for which 
there is statistically significant evidence that acute or chronic 
health effects are capable of occurring in exposed persons. The 
term "health hazard" includes chemicals that are toxic or highly 
toxic, and corrosive. 

HIGHLY TOXIC. A material which produces a lethal dose or 
lethal concentration that falls within any of the following catego- 
ries: 

1 . A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of 50 mil- 
hgrams or less per kilogram of body weight when admin- 



30 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



istered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 
grams each. 

2. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of 200 
milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight when 
administered by continuous contact for 24 hours (or less if 
death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare skin of albino 
rabbits weighing between 2 and 3 kilograms each. 

3. A chemical that has a median lethal concentration (LC50) 
in air of 200 parts per milUon by volume or less of gas or 
vapor, or 2 milUgrams per liter or less of mist, fume or 
dust, when administered by continuous inhalation for 1 
hour (or less if death occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats 
weighing between 200 and 300 grams each. 

Mixtures of these materials with ordinary materials, such as 
water, might not warrant classification as highly toxic. While 
this system is basically simple in application, any hazard evalua- 
tion that is required for the precise categorization of this type of 
material shall be performed by experienced, technically compe- 
tent persons. 

INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. Materials that, when 
mixed, have the potential to react in a manner that generates 
heat, fumes, gases or byproducts which are hazardous to life or 
property. 

OPEN SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous mate- 
rial involving a vessel or system that is continuously open to the 
atmosphere during normal operations and where vapors are 
liberated, or the product is exposed to the atmosphere during 
normal operations. Examples of open systems for solids and 
liquids include dispensing from or into open beakers or con- 
tainers, dip tank and plating tank operations. 

OPERATING BUILDING. A building occupied in conjunc- 
tion with the manufacture, transportation or use of explosive 
materials. Operating buildings are separated from one another 
with the use of intraplant or intraline distances. 

ORGANIC PEROXIDE. An organic compound that contains 
the bivalent -0-0- structure and which may be considered to be 
a structural derivative of hydrogen peroxide where one or both 
of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by an organic radi- 
cal. Organic peroxides can pose an explosion hazard (detona- 
tion or deflagration) or they can be shock sensitive. They can 
also decompose into various unstable compounds over an 
extended period of time. 

Class I. Those formulations that are capable of deflagration 
but not detonation. 

Class II. Those formulations that bum very rapidly and that 
pose a moderate reactivity hazard. 

Class III. Those formulations that bum rapidly and that 
pose a moderate reactivity hazard. 

Class IV. Those formulations that bum in the same manner 
as ordinary combustibles and that pose a minimal reactivity 
hazard. 

Class V. Those formulations that bum with less intensity 
than ordinary combustibles or do not sustain combustion 
and that pose no reactivity hazard. 



Unclassified detonable. Organic peroxides that are capable 
of detonation. These peroxides pose an extremely high 
explosion hazard through rapid explosive decomposition. 

OXIDIZER. A material that readily yields oxygen or other 
oxidizing gas, or that readily reacts to promote or initiate com- 
bustion of combustible materials. Examples of other oxidizing 
gases include bromine, chlorine and fluorine. 

Class 4. An oxidizer that can undergo an explosive reaction 
due to contamination or exposure to thermal or physical 
shock. Additionally, the oxidizer will enhance the buming 
rate and can cause spontaneous ignition of combustibles. 

Class 3. An oxidizer that will cause a severe increase in the 
buming rate of combustible materials with which it comes 
in contact or that will undergo vigorous self-sustained 
decomposition due to contamination or exposure to heat. 

Class 2. An oxidizer that will cause a moderate increase in 
the buming rate or that causes spontaneous ignition of com- 
bustible materials with which it comes in contact. 

Class 1. An oxidizer whose primary hazard is that it slightly 
increases the buming rate but which does not cause sponta- 
neous ignition when it comes in contact with combustible 
materials. 

OXIDIZING GAS. A gas that can support and accelerate 
combustion of other materials. 

PHYSICAL HAZARD. A chemical for which there is evi- 
dence that it is a combustible liquid, compressed gas, cryo- 
genic, explosive, flammable gas, flammable liquid, flammable 
solid, organic peroxide, oxidizer, pyrophoric or unstable (reac- 
tive) or water-reactive material. 

PYROPHORIC. A chemical with an autoignition tempera- 
ture in air, at or below a temperature of 130°F (54.4°C). 

PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION. A chemical mixmre 
that produces visible light displays or sounds through a 
self-propagating, heat-releasing chemical reaction which is 
initiated by ignition. 

TOXIC. A chemical falling within any of the following cate- 
gories: 

1 . A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of more 
than 50 milligrams per kilogram, but not more than 500 
milligrams per kilogram of body weight when adminis- 
tered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 
grams each. 

2. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of more 
than 200 milligrams per kilogram but not more than 
1,000 milligrams per kilogram of body weight when 
administered by continuous contact for 24 hours (or less 
if death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare skin of 
albino rabbits weighing between 2 and 3 kilograms each. 

3. A chemical that has a median lethal concentration (LC50) 
in air of more than 200 parts per million but not more 
than 2,000 parts per million by volume of gas or vapor, or 
more than 2 milligrams per liter but not more than 20 mil- 
ligrams per liter of mist, fume or dust, when adminis- 
tered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour (or less if death 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



31 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats weighing between 
200 and 300 grams each. 

UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIAL. A material, other 
than an explosive, which in the pure state or as commercially 
produced, will vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense 
or become self-reactive and undergo other violent chemical 
changes, including explosion, when exposed to heat, friction or 
shock, or in the absence of an inhibitor, or in the presence of 
contaminants, or in contact with incompatible materials. 
Unstable (reactive) materials are subdivided as follows: 

Class 4. Materials that in themselves are readily capable of 
detonation or explosive decomposition or explosive reac- 
tion at normal temperatures and pressures. This class 
includes materials that are sensitive to mechanical or local- 
ized thermal shock at normal temperatures and pressures. 

Class 3. Materials that in themselves are capable of detona- 
tion or of explosive decomposition or explosive reaction but 
which require a strong initiating source or which must be 
heated under confinement before initiation. This class 
includes materials that are sensitive to thermal or mechani- 
cal shock at elevated temperatures and pressures. 

Class 2. Materials that in themselves are normally unstable 
and readily undergo violent chemical change but do not det- 
onate. This class includes materials that can undergo chemi- 
cal change with rapid release of energy at normal 
temperatures and pressures, and that can undergo violent 
chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures. 

Class 1. Materials that in themselves are normally stable but 
which can become unstable at elevated temperatures and 
pressure. 

WATER-REACTIVE MATERIAL. A material that 
explodes; violently reacts; produces flammable, toxic or other 
hazardous gases; or evolves enough heat to cause autoignition 
or ignition of combustibles upon exposure to water or mois- 
ture. Water-reactive materials are subdivided as follows: 

Class 3. Materials that react explosively with water without 
requiring heat or confinement. 

Class 2. Materials that react violently with water or have the 
ability to boil water. Materials that produce flammable, 
toxic or other hazardous gases or evolve enough heat to 
cause autoignition or ignition of combustibles upon expo- 
sure to water or rhoisture. 

Class 1. Materials that react with water with some release of 
energy, but not violently. 

[F] 307.3 High-hazard Group H-1. Buildings and structures 
containing materials that pose a detonation hazard shall be 
classified as Group H-1. Such materials shall include, but not 
be limited to, the following: 

Explosives: 

Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 

Exception: Materials that are used and maintained in 
a form where either confinement or configuration will 



not elevate the hazard from a mass fire to mass explo- 
sion hazard shall be allowed in H-2 occupancies. ■ 

Division 1.4 

Exception: Articles, including articles packaged for 
shipment, that are not regulated as ah explosive under 
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms regula- 
tions, or unpackaged articles used in process opera- 
tions that do not propagate a detonation or 
deflagration between articles shall be allowed in H-3 
occupancies. 

. Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 

Organic peroxides, unclassified detonable 

Oxidizers, Class 4 

Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 3 detonable and Class 4 

Detonable pyrophoric materials 

[F] 307.4 High-hazard Group H-2. Buildings and structures 
containing materials that pose a deflagration hazard or a hazard 
from accelerated burning shall be classified as Group H-2. 
Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the follow- 
ing: 

Class I, II or IIIA flammable or combustible liquids which 
are used or stored in normally open containers or systems, 
or in closed containers or systems pressurized at more than 
. 15 psi (103.4 kPa) gage. 

Combustible dusts 

Cryogenic fluids, flammable 

Flammable gases 

Organic peroxides. Class I 

Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally open 
containers or systems, or in closed containers or systems 
pressurized at more than 15 psi (103 kPa) gage 

Pyrophoric liquids, solids and gases, nondetonable 

Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 3, nondetonable 

Water-reactive materials. Class 3 

[F] 307.5 High-hazard Group H-3. Buildings and structures 
containing materials that readily support combustion or that 
pose a physical hazard shall be classified as Group H-3. Such 
materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Class I, II or IIIA flammable or combustible liquids that 
are used or stored in normally closed containers or 
systems pressurized at 15 pounds per square inch gauge 
(103.4 kPa) or less 

Combustible fibers, other than densely packed baled cotton 

Consumer fireworks, 1.4G (Class C, Common) 

Cryogenic fluids, oxidizing 

Flammable solids 

Organic peroxides. Class II and III 

Oxidizers, Class 2 

Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally 
closed containers or systems pressurized at 1 5 pounds per 
square inch gauge (103 kPa) or less 

Oxidizing gases 

Unstable (reactive) materials. Class 2 

Water-reactive materials. Class 2 



32 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



[F] 307.6 High-hazard Group H-4. Buildings and structures 
which contain materials that are health hazards shall be classi- 
fied as Group H-4. Such materials shall include, but not be lim- 
ited to, the following: 

Corrosives 

Highly toxic materials 

Toxic materials 

[F] 307.7 High-hazard Group H-5 structures. Semiconduc- 
tor fabrication facilities and comparable research and develop- 
ment areas in which hazardous production materials (HPM) 
are used and the aggregate quantity of materials is in excess of 
those Usted in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2) shall be classified 
as Group H-5. Such facilities and areas shall be designed and 
constructed in accordance with Section 415.8. 

[F] 307.8 Multiple hazards. Buildings and structures containing 
a material or materials representing hazards that are classified in 
one or more of Groups H- 1 , H-2, H-3 and H-4 shall conform to the 
code requirements for each of the occupancies so classified. 



SECTION 308 
INSTITUTIONAL GROUP I 

308.1 Institutional Group I. Institutional Group I occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a 
portion thereof, in which people are cared for or live in a super- 
vised environment, having physical limitations because of 
health or age are harbored for medical treatment or other care 
or treatment, or in which people are detained for penal or cor- 
rectional purposes or in which the liberty of the occupants is 
restricted. Institutional occupancies shall be classified as 
Group 1-1,1-2, 1-3 or 1-4. 

308.2 Group I-l. This occupancy shall include buildings, 
structures or parts thereof housing more than 16 persons, on a 
24-hour basis, who because of age, mental disability or other 
reasons, live in a supervised residential environment that pro- 
vides personal care services. The occupants are capable of 
responding to an emergency situation without physical assis- 
tance from staff. This group shall include, but not be limited to, 
the following: 

Residential board and care facilities 
Assisted living facilities 
Halfway houses 
Group homes 
Congregate care facilities 
Social rehabilitation facilities 
Alcohol and drug centers 
Convalescent facilities 

A facility such as the above with five or fewer persons shall 
be classified as a Group R-3 or shall comply with the Interna- 
tional Residential Code in accordance with Section 101.2. A 
facility such as above, housing at least six and not more than 16 
persons, shall be classified as Group R-4. 

308.3 Group 1-2. This occupancy shall include buildings and 
structures used for medical, surgical, psychiatric, nursing or 
custodial care on a 24-hour basis for more than five persons 
who are not capable of self-preservation. This group shall 
include, but not be limited to, the following: 



Hospitals 

Nursing homes (both intermediate care facilities and 

skilled nursing facilities) 
Mental hospitals 
Detoxification facilities 

A facility such as the above with five or fewer persons shall 
be classified as Group R-3 or shall comply with the Interna- 
tional Residential Code in accordance with Section 101.2. 

308.3.1 Child care facility. A child care facility that pro- 
vides care on a 24-hour basis to more than five children 2V2 
years of age or less shall be classified as Group 1-2. 

308.4 Group 1-3. This occupancy shall include buildings and 
structures that are inhabited by more than five persons who are 
under restraint or security. An 1-3 facility is occupied by per- 
sons who are generally incapable of self-preservation due to 
security measures not under the occupants' control. This group 
shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Prisons 
Jails 

Reformatories 
Detention centers 
Correctional centers 
Prerelease centers 

Buildings of Group 1-3 shall be classified as one of the occu- 
pancy conditions indicated in Sections 308.4.1 through 
308.4.5 (see Section 408.1). 

308.4.1 Condition 1. This occupancy condition shall 
include buildings in which free movement is allowed from 
sleeping areas, and other spaces where access or occupancy 
is permitted, to the exterior via means of egress without 
restraint. A Condition 1 facility is permitted to be con- 
structed as Group R. 

308.4.2 Condition 2. This occupancy condition shall 
include buildings in which free movement is allowed from 
sleeping areas and any other occupied smoke compartment 
to one or more other smoke compartments. Egress to the 
exterior is impeded by locked exits. 

308.4.3 Condition 3. This occupancy condition shall 
include buildings in which free movement is allowed within 
individual smoke compartments, such as within a residen- 
tial unit comprised of individual sleeping units and group 
activity spaces, where egress is impeded by remote-con- 
trolled release of means of egress from such a smoke com- 
partment to another smoke compartment. 

308.4.4 Condition 4. This occupancy condition shall 
include buildings in which free movement is restricted from 
an occupied space. Remote-controlled release is provided to 
permit movement from sleeping units, activity spaces and 
other occupied areas within the smoke compartment to 
other smoke compartments. 

308.4.5 Condition 5. This occupancy condition shall 
include buildings in which free movement is restricted from 
an occupied space. Staff-controlled manual release is pro- 
vided to permit movement from sleeping units, activity 
spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke compart- 
ment to other smoke compartments. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



33 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



308.5 Group 1-4, day care facilities. This group shall include 
buildings and structures occupied by persons of any age who 
receive custodial care for less than 24 hours by individuals 
other than parents or guardians, relatives by blood, marriage or 
adoption, and in a place other than the home of the person cared 
for. A facility such as the above with five or fewer persons shall 
be classified as a Group R-3 or shall comply with the Interna- 
tional Residential Code in accordance with Section 101.2. 
Places of worship during religious functions are not included. 

308.5.1 Adult care facility. A facility that provides accom- 
modations for less than 24 hours for more than five unre- 
lated adults and provides supervision and personal care 
services shall be classified as Group 1-4. 

Exception: A facility where occupants are capable of 
responding to an emergency situation without physical 
assistance from the staff shall be classified as Group A-3 . 

308.5.2 Child care facility. A facility that provides supervi- 
sion and personal care on less than a 24-hour basis for more 
than five children 2 Vj years of age or less shall be classified 
as Group 1-4. 

Exception: A child day care facility that provides care 
for more than five but no more than 100 children 2 V2 
years or less of age, when the rooms where such children 
are cared for are located on the level of exit discharge and 
each of these child care rooms has an exit door directly to 
the exterior, shall be classified as Group E. 



SECTION 309 
MERCANTILE GROUP M 

309.1 Mercantile Group M. Mercantile Group M occupancy 
includes, among others, buildings and structures or a portion 
thereof, for the display and sale of merchandise, and involves 
stocks of goods, wares or merchandise incidental to such pur- 
poses and accessible to the public. Mercantile occupancies 
shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Department stores 

Drug stores 

Markets 

Motor fuel-dispensing facilities 

Retail or wholesale stores 

Sales rooms 

309.2 Quantity of hazardous materials. The aggregate quan- 
tity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or 
noncombustible liquid hazardous materials stored or displayed 
in a single control area of a Group M occupancy shall not 
exceed the quantities in Table 414.2.4(1). 



SECTION 310 
RESIDENTIAL GROUP R 

310.1 Residential Group R. Residential Group R includes, 
among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion 
thereof, for sleeping purposes when not classified as an Institu- 
tional Group I or when not regulated by the International Resi- 



dential Code in accordance with Section 101.2. Residential 
occupancies shall include the following: 

R-1 Residential occupancies containing sleeping units 
where the occupants are primarily transient in nature, 
including: 

Boarding houses (transient) 
Hotels (transient) 
Motels (transient) 

R-2 Residential occupancies containing sleeping units or 
more than two dwelling units where the occupants are 
primarily permanent in nature, including: 

Apartment houses 

Boarding houses (not transient) 

Convents 

Dormitories 

Fraternities and sororities 

Hotels (nontransient) 

Monasteries 

Motels (nontransient) 

Vacation timeshare properties 

Congregate living facilities with 16 or fewer occu- 
pants are permitted to comply with the construction 
requirements for Group R-3. 

R-3 Residential occupancies where the occupants are pri- 
marily permanent in nature and not classified as Group 
R-1, R-2, R-4 or I, including: 

Buildings that do not contain more than two dwelling 

units. 
Adult facilities that provide accommodations for 

five or fewer persons of any age for less than 24 

hours. 
Child care facilities that provide accommodations for 

five or fewer persons of any age for less than 24 

hours. 
Congregate living facilities with 1 6 or fewer persons. 

Adult and child care facilities that are within a sin- 
gle-family home are permitted to comply with the 
International Residential Code. 

R-4 Residential occupancies shall include buildings 
arranged for occupancy as residential care/assisted liv- 
ing facilities including more than five but not more than 
16 occupants, excluding staff. 

Group R-4 occupancies shall meet the require- 
ments for construction as defined for Group R-3, 
except as otherwise provided for in this code, or shall 
comply with the International Residential Code. 

310.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

BOARDING HOUSE. A building arranged or used for lodg- 
ing for compensation, with or without meals, and not occupied 
as a single-family unit. 



34 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE'^ 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



I CONGREGATE LIVING FACILITIES. A building or part 
thereof that contains sleeping units where residents share bath- 
room and/or kitchen facilities. 

DORMITORY. A space in a building where group sleeping 
accommodations are provided in one room, or in a series of 
closely associated rooms, for persons not members of the same 
family group, under joint occupancy and single management, 
as in college dormitories or fraternity houses. 

PERSONAL CARE SERVICE. The care of residents who do 
not require chronic or convalescent medical or nursing care. 
Personal care involves responsibility for the safety of the resi- 
dent while inside the building. 

RESIDENTIAL CARE/ASSISTED LIVING FACILI- 
TIES. A building or part thereof housing persons, on a 24-hour 
basis, who because of age, mental disability or other reasons, 
live in a supervised residential environment which provides 
personal care services. The occupants are capable of respond- 
ing to an emergency situation without physical assistance from 
staff. This classification shall include, but not be limited to, the 
following: residential board and care facilities, assisted living 
facilities, halfway houses, group homes, congregate care facili- 
ties, social rehabiUtation facihties, alcohol and drug abuse cen- 
ters and convalescent facilities. 

(TRANSIENT. Occupancy of a dwelling unit or sleeping unit 
for not more than 30 days. 



SECTION 311 
STORAGE GROUP S 

311.1 Storage Group S. Storage Group S occupancy includes, 
among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion 
thereof, for storage that is not classified as a hazardous occu- 
pancy. 

311.2 Moderate-hazard storage, Group S-1. Buildings 
occupied for storage uses that are not classified as Group S-2, 
including, but not limited to, storage of the following: 

Aerosols, Levels 2 and 3 

Aircraft repair hangar 

Bags: cloth, burlap and paper 

Bamboos and rattan 

Baskets 

Belting: canvas and leather 

Books and paper in rolls or packs 

Boots and shoes 

Buttons, including cloth covered, pearl or bone 

Cardboard and cardboard boxes 

,Clothing, woolen wearing apparel 

Cordage 

Dry boat storage (indoor) 

Furniture 

Furs 

Glues, mucilage, pastes and size 

Grains 

Horns and combs, other than celluloid 

Leather 

Linoleum 

Lumber 

Motor vehicle repair garages complying with the maximum 



allowable quantities of hazardous materials listed in 

Table 307.1(1) (see Section 406.6) 
Photo engravings 
Resilient flooring 
Silks 
Soaps 
Sugar 

Tires, bulk storage of 
Tobacco, cigars, cigarettes and snuff 
Upholstery and mattresses 
Wax candles 

311.3 Low-hazard storage, Group S-2. Includes, among oth- 
ers, buildings used for the storage of noncombustible materials 
such as products on wood pallets or in paper cartons with or 
without single thickness divisions; or in paper wrappings. Such 
products are permitted to have a negligible amount of plastic 
trim, such as knobs, handles or film wrapping. Storage uses 
shall include, but not be limited to, storage of the following: 

Aircraft hangar 

Asbestos 

Beverages up to and including 12-percent alcohol in metal, 

glass or ceramic containers 
Cement in bags 
Chalk and crayons 

Dairy products in nonwaxed coated paper containers 
Dry cell batteries 
Electrical coils 
Electrical motors 
Empty cans 
Food products 

Foods in noncombustible containers 
Fresh fruits and vegetables in nonplastic trays or containers 
Frozen foods 
Glass 

Glass bottles, empty or filled with noncombustible liquids 
Gypsum board 
Inert pigments 
Ivory 
Meats 

Metal cabinets 

Metal desks with plastic tops and trim 
Metal parts 
Metals 
Mirrors 

Oil-filled and other types of distribution transformers 
Parking garages, open or enclosed 
Porcelain and pottery 
Stoves 

Talc and soapstones 
Washers and dryers 



SECTION 312 
UTILITY AND MISCELLANEOUS GROUP U 

312.1 General. Buildings and structures of an accessory char- 
acter and miscellaneous structures not classified in any specific 
occupancy shall be constructed, equipped and maintained to 
conform to the requirements of this code commensurate with 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



35 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



the fire and life hazard incidental to their occupancy. Group U 
shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Agricultural buildings 

Aircraft hangars, accessory to a one- or two-family 

residence (see Section 412.3) 
Bams 
Carports 

Fences more than 6 feet (1829 mm) high 
Grain silos, accessory to a residential occupancy 
Greenhouses 
Livestock shelters 
Private garages 
Retaining walls 
Sheds 
Stables 
Tanks 
Towers 



36 2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE'' 



CHAPTER 4 

SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED 
ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



SECTION 401 
SCOPE 

401.1 Detailed use and occupancy requirements. In addition 
to the occupancy and construction requirements in this code, 
the provisions of this chapter apply to the special uses and 
occupancies described herein. 



SECTION 402 
COVERED MALL BUILDINGS 

402.1 Scope. The provisions of this section shall apply to 
buildings or structures defined herein as covered mall buildings 
not exceeding three floor levels at any point nor more than three 
stories above grade plane. Except as specifically required by 
this section, covered mall buildings shall meet applicable pro- 
visions of this code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Foyers and lobbies of Groups B, R-1 and R-2 are not 
required to comply with this section. 

2. Buildings need not comply with the provisions of this 
section when they totally comply with other applica- 
ble provisions of this code. 

402.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

ANCHOR BUILDING. An exterior perimeter building of a 
group other than H having direct access to a covered mall build- 
ing but having required means of egress independent of the 
mall. 

COVERED MALL BUILDING. A single building enclosing 
a number of tenants and occupants such as retail stores, drink- 
ing and dining establishments, entertainment and amusement 
facilities, passenger transportation terminals, offices, and other 
similar uses wherein two or more tenants have a main entrance 
into one or more malls. For the purpose of this chapter, anchor 
buildings shall not be considered as a part of the covered mall 
building. 

FOOD COURT. A public seating area located in the mall that 
serves adjacent food preparation tenant spaces. 

GROSS LEASABLE AREA. The total floor area designed 
for tenant occupancy and exclusive use. The area of tenant 
occupancy is measured from the centerlines of joint partitions 
to the outside of the tenant walls. All tenant areas, including 
areas used for storage, shall be included in calculating gross 
leasable area. 

MALL. A roofed or covered common pedestrian area within a 
covered mall building that serves as access for two or more ten- 
ants and not to exceed three levels that are open to each other. 



402.3 Lease plan. Each covered mall building owner shall pro- 
vide both the building and fire departments with a lease plan 
showing the location of each occupancy and its exits after the 
certificate of occupancy has been issued. No modifications or 
changes in occupancy or use shall be made from that shown on 
the lease plan without prior approval of the building official. 

402.4 Means of egress. Each tenant space and the covered mall 
building shall be provided with means of egress as required by 
this section and this code. Where there is a conflict between the 
requirements of this code and the requirements of this section, 
the requirements of this section shall apply. 

402.4.1 Determination of occupant load. The occupant 
load permitted in any individual tenant space in a covered 
mall building shall be determined as required by this code. 
Means of egress requirements for individual tenant spaces 
shall be based on the occupant load thus determined. 

402.4.1.1 Occupant formula. In determining required 
means of egress of the mall, the number of occupants for 
whom means of egress are to be provided shall be based 
on gross leasable area of the covered mall building 
(excluding anchor buildings) and the occupant load fac- 
tor as determined by the following equation. 



OLF= (0.00007) (GLA) + 25 
where: 



(Equation 4-1) 



OLF= The occupant load factor (square feet per per- 
son). 

GLA= The gross leasable area (square feet). 

402.4.1.2 OLE range. The occupant load factor (OLF) is 
not required to be less than 30 and shall not exceed 50. 

402.4.1.3 Anchor buildings. The occupant load of 
anchor buildings opening into the mall shall not be 
included in computing the total number of occupants for 
the mall. 

402.4.1.4 Food courts. The occupant load of a food 
court shall be determined in accordance with Section 
1004. For the purposes of determining the means of 
egress requirements for the mall, the food court occupant 
load shall be added to the occupant load of the covered 
mall building as calculated above. 

402.4.2 Number of means of egress. Wherever the dis- 
tance of travel to the mall from any location within a ten- 
ant space used by persons other than employees exceeds 
75 feet (22 860 mm) or the tenant space has an occupant 
load of 50 or more, not less than two means of egress shall 
be provided. 

402.4.3 Arrangements of means of egress. Assembly 
occupancies with an occupant load of 500 or more shall be 
so located in the covered mall building that their entrance 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



37 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



will be immediately adjacent to a principal entrance to the 
mall and shall have not less than one-half of their required 
means of egress opening directly to the exterior of the cov- 
ered mall building. 

402.4.3.1 Anchor building means of egress. Required 
means of egress for anchor buildings shall be provided 
independently from the mall means of egress system. 
The occupant load of anchor buildings opening into the 
mall shall not be included in determining means of egress 
requirements for the mall. The path of egress travel of 
malls shall not exit through anchor buildings. Malls ter- 
minating at an anchor building where no other means of 
egress has been provided shall be considered as a 
dead-end mall. 

402.4.4 Distance to exits. Within each individual tenant 
space in a covered mall building, the maximum distance of 
travel from any point to an exit or entrance to the mall shall 
not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). 

The maximum distance of travel from any point within a 
mall to an exit shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). 

402.4.5 Access to exits. Where more than one exit is 
required, they shall be so arranged that it is possible to travel 
in either direction from any point in a mall to separate exits. 
The minimum width of an exit passageway or corridor from 
a mall shall be 66 inches (1676 mm). 

Exception: Dead ends not exceeding a length equal to 
twice the width of the mall measured at the narrowest 
location within the dead-end portion of the mall. 

402.4.5.1 Exit passageways. Where exit passageways 
provide a secondary means of egress from a tenant space, 
doorways to the exit passageway shall be protected by 
1-hour fire door assemblies that are self- or automatic 
closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 
715.4.7.3. 

402.4.6 Service areas fronting on exit passageways. 

Mechanical rooms, electrical rooms, building service areas 
and service elevators are permitted to open directly into exit 
passageways, provided the exit passageway is separated 
from such rooms with not less than 1-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated fire barriers and 1-hour opening protectives. 

402.5 Mall width. For the purpose of providing required egress, 
malls are permitted to be considered as corridors but need not 
comply with the requirements of Section 1005.1 of this code 
where the width of the mall is as specified in this section. 

402.5.1 Minimum width. The minimum width of the mall 
shall be 20 feet (6096 mm). The mall width shall be suffi- 
cient to accommodate the occupant load served. There shall 
be a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) clear exit width to a 
height of 8 feet (2438 mm) between any projection of a ten- 
ant space bordering the mall and the nearest kiosk, vending 
machine, bench, display opening, food court or other 
obstruction to means of egress travel. 

402.6 Types of construction. The area of any covered mall 
building, including anchor buildings, of Type I, II, III and IV 
construction, shall not be limited provided the covered mall 



building and attached anchor buildings and parking garages are 
surrounded on all sides by a permanent open space of not less 
than 60 feet (18 288 mm) and the anchor buildings do not 
exceed three stories in height. The allowable height and area of 
anchor buildings greater than three stores in height shall com- 
ply with Section 503, as modified by Sections 504 and 506. The 
construction type of open parking garages and enclosed park- 
ing garages shall comply with Sections 406.3 and 406.4, 
respectively. 

402.7 Fire-resistance-rated separation. Fire-resis- 
tance-rated separation is not required between tenant spaces 
and the mall. Fire-resistance-rated separation is not required 
between a food court and adjacent tenant spaces or the mall. 

402.7.1 Attached garage. An attached garage for the stor- 
age of passenger vehicles having a capacity of not more than 
nine persons and open parking garages shall be considered 
as a separate building where it is separated from the covered 
mall building by a fire barrier having a fire-resistance rating 
of at least 2 hours. 

Exception: Where an open parking garage or enclosed 
parking garage is separated from the covered mall build- 
ing or anchor building a distance greater than 10 feet 
(3048 mm), the provisions of Table 602 shall apply. 
Pedestrian walkways and tunnels which attach the open 
parking garage or enclosed parking garage to the covered 
mall building or anchor building shall be constructed in 
accordance with Section 3104. 

402.7.2 Tenant separations. Each tenant space shall be 
separated from other tenant spaces by a fire partition com- 
plying with Section 708. A tenant separation wall is not 
required between any tenant space and the mall. 

402.7.3 Anchor building separation. An anchor building 
shall be separated from the covered mall building by fire 
walls complying with Section 705. 

Exception: Anchor buildings of not more than three sto- 
ries above grade plane that have an occupancy classifica- I 
tion the same as that permitted for tenants of the covered 
mall building shall be separated by 2-hour fire-resistive 
fire barriers complying with Section 706. 

402.7.3.1 Openings between anchor building and 
mall. Except for the separation between Group R-1 
sleeping units and the mall, openings between anchor 
buildings of Type I A, IB, IIA and IIB construction and 
the mall need not be protected. 

[F] 402.8 Automatic sprinkler system. The covered mall 
building and buildings connected shall be equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1, which shall comply with the following: 

1. The automatic sprinkler system shall be complete and 
operative throughout occupied space in the covered mall 
building prior to occupancy of any of the tenant spaces. 
Unoccupied tenant spaces shall be similarly protected 
unless provided with approved alternate protection. 

2. Sprinkler protection for the mall shall be independent 
from that provided for tenant spaces or anchors. Where 



38 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



tenant spaces are supplied by the same system, they shall 
be independently controlled. 

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be 
required in spaces or areas of open parking garages con- 
structed in accordance with Section 406.2. 

402.8.1 Standpipe system. The covered mall building shall 
be equipped throughout with a standpipe system as required 
by Section 905.3.3. 

402.9 Smoke control. A smoke control system shall be pro- 
vided where required for atriums in Section 404. 

402.10 Kiosks. Kiosks and similar structures (temporary or 
permanent) shall meet the following requirements: 

1. Combustible kiosks or other structures shall not be 
located within the mall unless constructed of any of the 
following materials: 

1.1. Fire-retardant-treated wood complying with 
Section 2303.2. 

1.2. Foam plastics having a maximum heat release 
rate not greater than lOOkW (105 Btu/h) when 
tested in accordance with the exhibit booth proto- 
col in UL 1975. 

1.3. Aluminum composite material (ACM) having a 
flame spread index of not more than 25 and a 
smoke-developed index of not more than 450 
when tested as an assembly in the maximum 
thickness intended for use in accordance with 
ASTM E 84. 

2. Kiosks or similar structures located within the mall shall 
be provided with approved fire suppression and detec- 
tion devices. 

3. The minimum horizontal separation between kiosks or 
groupings thereof and other structures within the mall 
shall be 20 feet (6096 mm). 

4. Each kiosk or similar structure or groupings thereof shall 
have a maximum area of 300 square feet (28 m^). 

402.11 Children's playground structures. Structures 
intended as children's playgrounds that exceed 10 feet (3048 
mm) in height and 150 square feet (14 m^) in area shall comply 
with the following. 

402.11.1 Materials. Children's playground structures shall 
be constructed of noncombustible materials or of combusti- 
ble materials that comply with the following: 

1 . Fire-retardant-treated wood. 

2. Light-transmitting plastics complying with Section 
2606. 

3. Foam plastics (including the pipe foam used in 
soft-contained play equipment structures) having a 
maximum heat-release rate not greater than 100 kW 
when tested in accordance with UL 1975. 

4. Aluminum composite material (ACM) meeting the 
requirements of Class A interior finish in accordance 
with Chapter 8 when tested as an assembly in the 
maximum thickness intended for use. 



5. Textiles and films complying with the flame propaga- 
tion performance criteria contained in NFPA 701. 

6. Plastic materials used to construct rigid components 
of soft-contained play equipment structures (such as 
tubes, windows, panels, junction boxes, pipes, slides 
and decks) meeting the UL 94 V-2 classification 
when tested in accordance with UL 94. 

7. Ball pool balls, used in soft-contained play equipment 
structures, having a maximum heat release rate not 
greater than 100 kW when tested in accordance with 
UL 1975. The minimum specimen test size shall be 
36 inches by 36 inches (914 mm by 914 mm) by an 
average of 21 inches (533 mm) deep, and the balls 
shall be held in a box constructed of galvanized steel 
poultry netting wire mesh. 

8. Foam plastics shall be covered by a fabric, coating or 
film meeting the flame propagation performance cri- 
teria of NFPA 701. 

9. The floor covering placed under the children's play- 
ground structure shall exhibit a Class I interior floor 
finish classification, as described in Section 804, 
when tested in accordance with NFPA 253. 

402.11.2 Fire protection. Children's playground structures 
located within the mall shall be provided with the same level 
of approved fire suppression and detection devices required 
for kiosks and similar structures. 

402.11.3 Separation. Children's playground structures 
shall have a minimum horizontal separation from other 
structures within the mall of 20 feet (6090 mm). 

402.11.4 Area limits. Children's playground structures 
shall not exceed 300 square feet (28 m^) in area, unless a 
special investigation has demonstrated adequate fire safety. . 

402.12 Security grilles and doors. Horizontal sliding or verti- 
cal security grilles or doors that are a part of a required means of 
egress shall conform to the following: 

1. They shall remain in the full open position during the 
period of occupancy by the general public. 

2. Doors or grilles shall not be brought to the closed posi- 
tion when there are 10 or more persons occupying spaces I 
served by a single exit or 50 or more persons occupying I 
spaces served by more than one exit. 

3. The doors or grilles shall be openable from within with- 
out the use of any special knowledge or effort where the 
space is occupied. 

4. Where two or more exits are required, not more than 
one-half of the exits shall be permitted to include either a 
horizontal sliding or vertical rolling grille or door. 

402.13 Standby power. Covered mall buildings exceeding 
50,000 square feet (4645 m^) shall be provided with standby 
power systems that are capable of operating the emergency 
voice/alarm communication system. 

[F] 402.14 Emergency voice/alarm communication system. 

Covered mall buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 
m^) in total floor area shall be provided with an emergency 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE"" 



39 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



voice/alarm communication system. Emergency voice/alarm 
communication systems serving a mall, required or otherwise, 
shall be accessible to the fire department. The system shall be 
provided in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2. 

402.15 Plastic signs. Plastic signs affixed to the storefi-ont of 
any tenant space facing the mall shall be limited as specified in 
Sections 402.15.1 through 402.15.5.2. 

402.15.1 Area. Plastic signs shall not exceed 20 percent of 
the wall area facing the mall. 

402.15.2 Height and width. Plastic signs shall not exceed a 
height of 36 inches (914 mm), except if the sign is vertical, 
the height shall not exceed 96 inches (2438 mm) and the 
width shall not exceed 36 inches (914 mm). 

402.15.3 Location. Plastic signs shall be located a mini- 
mum distance of 1 8 inches (457 mm) from adjacent tenants. 

402.15.4 Plastics other than foam plastics. Plastics other 
than foam plastics used in signs shall be light-transmitting 
plastics complying with Section 2606.4 or shall have a 
self-ignition temperature of 650°F (343°C) or greater when 
tested in accordance with ASTM D 1929, and a flame 
spread index not greater than 75 and smoke-developed 
index not greater than 450 when tested in the manner 
intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 84 or meet the 
acceptance criteria of Section 803.2. 1 when tested in accor- 
dance with NFPA 286. 

402.15.4.1 Encasement. Edges and backs of plastic 
signs in the mall shall be fully encased in metal. 

402.15.5 Foam plastics. Foam plastics used in signs shall 
have flame-retardant characteristics such that the sign has a 
maximum heat-release rate of 150 kilowatts when tested in 
accordance with UL 1975 and the foam plastics shall have 
the physical characteristics specified in this section. Foam 
plastics used in signs installed in accordance with Section 
402.14 shall not be required to comply with the flame 
spread and smoke-developed indexes specified in Section 
2603.3. 

402.15.5.1 Density. The minimum density of foam plas- 
tics used in signs shall not be less than 20 pounds per 
cubic foot (pcf) (320 kg/m^). 

402.15.5.2 Thickness. The thickness of foam plastic 
signs shall not be greater than V2 inch (12.7 mm). 

[F] 402.16 Fire department access to equipment. Rooms or 
areas containing controls for air-conditioning systems, auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing systems or other detection, suppres- 
sion or control elements shall be identified for use by the fire 
department. 



SECTION 403 
HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS 

403.1 Applicability. The provisions of this section shall apply 
to buildings with an occupied floor located more than 75 feet 



(22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle ■:, 
access. ;, 

Exception: The provisions of this section shall not apply to 
the following buildings and structures: 

1 . Airport traffic control towers in accordance with Sec- 
tion 412. 

2. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 
406.3. 

3. Buildings with an occupancy in Group A-5 in accor- 
dance with Section 303.1. 

4. Low-hazard special industrial occupancies in accor- 
dance with Section 503. 1 . 1 . 

5. Buildings with an occupancy in Group H-1, H-2 or 
H-3 in accordance with Section 415. 

[F] 403.2 Automatic sprinkler system. Buildings and struc- 
tures shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and a secondary 
water supply where required by Section 903.3.5.2. 

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be 
required in spaces or areas of: 

1. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 
406.3. 

2. Telecommunications equipment buildings used 
exclusively for telecommunications equipment, asso- 
ciated electrical power distribution equipment, bat- 
teries and standby engines , provided that those spaces 
or areas are equipped throughout with an automatic 
fire detection system in accordance with Section 
907.2 and are separated from the remainder of the 
building by fire barriers consisting of not less than I 
1-hour fire-resistance-rated walls and 2-hour 
fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling assemblies. 

403.3 Reduction in fire-resistance rating. The fire-resis- 
tance-rating reductions listed in Sections 403.3.1 and 403.3.2 
shall be allowed in buildings that have sprinkler control valves 
equipped with supervisory initiating devices and water-flow 
initiating devices for each floor. 

403.3.1 Type of construction. The following reductions in 
the minimum construction type allowed in Table 601 shall 
be allowed as provided in Section 403.3: 

1. For buildings not greater than 420 feet (128 m) in I 
height. Type lA construction shall be allowed to be I 
reduced to Type IB. 

Exception: The required fire-resistance rating of 
columns supporting floors shall not be allowed to 
be reduced. 

2. In other than Groups F-1, M and S-1, Type IB con- 
struction shall be allowed to be reduced to Type IIA. 

3. The height and area limitations of the reduced con- 
struction type shall be allowed to be the same as for 
the original construction type. 



40 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



403.3.2 Shaft enclosures. For buildings not greater than 
420 feet (128 m) in height, the required fire-resistance rat- 
ing of the fire barriers enclosing vertical shafts, other than 
exit enclosures and elevator hoistway enclosures, shall be 
reduced to 1 hour where automatic sprinklers are installed 
within the shafts at the top and at alternate floor levels. 

403.4 Emergency escape and rescue. Emergency escape and 
rescue openings required by Section 1026 are not required. 

[F] 403.5 Automatic fire detection. Smoke detection shall be 
provided in accordance with Section 907.2.12.1. 

[F] 403.6 Emergency voice/alarm communication systems. 

An emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be 
provided in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2. 

[F] 403.7 Fire department communications system. A 

two-way fire department communications system shall be pro- 
vided for fire department use in accordance with Section 
907.2.12.3. 

[F] 403.8 Fire command. A fire command center complying 
with Section 911 shall be provided in a location approved by 
the fire department. 

403.9 Elevators. Elevator operation and installation shall be in 
accordance with Chapter 30. 

[F] 403.10 Standby power. A standby power system comply- 
ing with Section 2702 shall be provided for standby power 
loads specified in Section 403.10.2. 

403.10.1 Special requirements for standby power sys- 
tems. If the standby system is a generator set inside a build- 
ing, the system shall be located in a separate room enclosed 
with 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with 
Section 706 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accor- 
dance with Section 711, or both. System supervision with 
manual start and transfer features shall be provided at the 
fire command center. 

[F] 403.10.2 Standby power loads. The following are clas- 
sified as standby power loads: 

1. Power and lighting for the fire command center 
required by Section 403.8; 

2. Electrically powered fire pumps; and 

3. Ventilation and automatic fire detection equipment 
for smokeproof enclosures. 

Standby power shall be provided for elevators in accor- 
dance with Sections 1007.4 and 3003. 

[F] 403.11 Emergency power systems. An emergency power 
system complying with Section 2702 shall be provided for 
emergency power loads specified in Section 403.11.1. 

[F] 403.11.1 Emergency power loads. The following are 
classified as emergency power loads: 

1 . Exit signs and means of egress illumination required 
by Chapter 10; 

2. Elevator car lighting; 

3. Emergency voice/alarm communications systems; 



4. Automatic fire detection systems; and 

5. Fire alarm systems. 

403.12 Stairway door operation. Stairway doors other than 
the exit discharge doors shall be permitted to be locked from 
stairway side. Stairway doors that are locked from the stairway 
side shall be capable of being unlocked simultaneously without 
unlatching upon a signal from the fire command center. 

403.12.1 Stairway communications system. A telephone 
or other two-way communications system connected to an 
approved constantly attended station shall be provided at 
not less than every fifth floor in each required stairway 
where the doors to the stairway are locked. 

403.13 Smokeproof exit enclosures. Every required stairway 
serving floors more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest 
level of fire department vehicle access shall comply with Sec- 
tions 909.20 and 1020.1.7. 

403.14 Seismic considerations. For seismic considerations, 
see Chapter 16. 



SECTION 404 
ATRIUMS 

404.1 General. In other than Group H occupancies, and where 
permitted by Exception 5 in Section 707.2, the provisions of 
this section shall apply to buildings or structures containing 
vertical openings defined herein as "Atriums." 

404.1.1 Definition. The following word and term shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meaning shown herein. 

ATRIUM. An opening connecting two or more stories 
other than enclosed stairways, elevators, hoistways, escala- 
tors, plumbing, electrical, air-conditioning or other equip- 
ment, which is closed at the top and not defined as a mall. 
Stories, as used in this definition, do not include balconies 
within assembly groups or mezzanines that comply with 
, Section 505. 

404.2 Use. The floor of the atrium shall not be used for other 
than low fire hazard uses and only approved materials and dec- 
orations in accordance with the International Fire Code shall 
be used in the atrium space. 

Exception: The atrium floor area is permitted to be used for 
any approved use where the individual space is provided 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1. 

[F] 404.3 Automatic sprinkler protection. An approved 
automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the 
entire building. 

Exceptions: 

1 . That area of a building adj acent to or above the atrium 
need not be sprinklered, provided that portion of the 
, building is separated from the atrium portion by not 
less than a 2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire barrier or 
horizontal assembly, or both. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



41 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



2. Where the ceiling of the atrium is more than 55 feet 
(16 764 mm) above the floor, sprinkler protection at 
the ceiling of the atrium is not required. 

404.4 Smoke control. A smoke control system shall be 
installed in accordance with Section 909. 

Exception: Smoke control is not required for atriums that 
connect only two stories. 

404.5 Enclosure of atriums. Atrium spaces shall be separated 
from adjacent spaces by a 1-hour fire barrier constructed in 
accordance with Section 706 or a horizontal assembly con- 
structed in accordance with Section 71 1, or both. 

Exceptions: 

1 . A glass wall forming a smoke partition where auto- 
matic sprinklers are spaced 6 feet (1829 mm) or less 
along both sides of the separation wall, or on the room 
side only if there is not a walkway on the atrium side, 
and between 4 inches and 12 inches (102 mm and 305 
mm) away from the glass and designed so that the 
entire surface of the glass is wet upon activation of the 
sprinkler system without obstruction. The glass shall 
be installed in a gasketed frame so that the framing 
system deflects without breaking (loading) the glass 
before the sprinkler system operates. 

2. A glass-block wall assembly in accordance with Sec- 
tion 2110 and having a V4-hour fire protection rating. 

3. The adjacent spaces of any three floors of the atrium 
shall not be required to be separated from the atrium 
where such spaces are included in the design of the 
smoke control system. 

[F] 404.6 Standby power. Equipment required to provide 
smoke control shall be connected to a standby power system in 
accordance with Section 909. 1 1 . 

404.7 Interior finish. The interior finish of walls and ceilings 
of the atrium shall not be less than Class B with no reduction in 
class for sprinkler protection. 

404.8 Travel distance. In other than the lowest level of the 
atrium, where the required means of egress is through the 
atrium space, the portion of exit access travel distance within 
the atrium space shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). 



SECTION 405 
UNDERGROUND BUILDINGS 

405.1 General. The provisions of this section apply to building 
spaces having a floor level used for human occupancy more 
than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the lowest level of exit dis- 
charge. 

Exceptions: 

1 . One- and two-family dwellings, sprinklered in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.3. 

2. Parking garages with automatic sprinkler systems in 
compliance with Section 405.3. 

3. Fixed guide way transit systems. 



4. Grandstands, bleachers, stadiums, arenas and similar 
facihties. 

5. Where the lowest story is the only story that would 
qualify the building as an underground building and 
has an area not exceeding 1,500 square feet (139 m^) 
and has an occupant load less than 10. 

405.2 Construction requirements. The underground portion 
of the building shall be of Type I construction. 

[F] 405.3 Automatic sprinkler system. The highest level of 
exit discharge serving the underground portions of the building 
and all levels below shall be equipped with an automatic sprin- 
kler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 
Water-flow switches and control valves shall be supervised in 
accordance with Section 903.4. 

405.4 Compartmentation. Compartmentation shall be in 
accordance with Sections 405.4.1 through 405.4.3. 

405.4.1 Number of compartments. A building having a 
floor level more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) below the lowest 
level of exit discharge shall be divided into a minimum of 
two compartments of approximately equal size. Such 
compartmentation shall extend through the highest level of 
exit discharge serving the underground portions of the 
building and all levels below. 

Exception: The lowest story need not be compartmented 
where the area does not exceed 1,500 square feet (139 
m^) and has an occupant load of less than 10. 

405.4.2 Smoke barrier penetration. The compartments 
shall be separated from each other by a smoke barrier in 
accordance with Section 709. Penetrations between the two 
compartments shall be limited to plumbing and electrical 
piping and conduit that are firestopped in accordance with 
Section 712. Doorways shall be protected by fire door 
assemblies that are automatic closing by smoke detection in 
accordance with Section 715.4.7.3 and are installed in 
accordance with NFPA 105 and Section 715.4.3. Where 
provided, each compartment shall have an air supply and an 
exhaust system independent of the other compartments. 

405.4.3 Elevators. Where elevators are provided, each 
compartment shall have direct access to an elevator. Where 
an elevator serves more than one compartment, an elevator 
lobby shall be provided and shall be separated from each 
compartment by a smoke barrier in accordance with Section 
709. Doors shall be gasketed, have a drop sill and be auto- 
matic closing by smoke detection in accordance with Sec- 
tion 715.4.7.3. 

[F] 405.5 Smoke control system. A smoke control system 
shall be provided in accordance with Sections 405.5.1 and 
405.5.2. 

[F] 405.5.1 Control system. A smoke control system is 
required to control the migration of products of combustion 
in accordance with Section 909 and the provisions of this 
section. Smoke control shall restrict movement of smoke to 
the general area of fire origin and maintain means of egress 
in a usable condition. 

[F] 405.5.2 Compartment smoke control system. Where 
compartinentation is required, each compartment shall have 



42 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



an independent smoke control system. The system shall be 
automatically activated and capable of manual operation in 
accordance with Section 907.2. 18. 

[F] 405.6 Fire alarm systems. A fire alarm system shall be 
provided where required by Section 907.2.19. 

[F] 405.7 Public address. A pubUc address system shall be 
provided where required by Section 907.2. 19. 1 . 

405.8 Means of egress. Means of egress shall be in accordance 
with Sections 405.8.1 and 405.8.2. 

405.8.1 Number of exits. Each floor level shall be provided 
with a minimum of two exits. Where compartmentation is 
required by Section 405.4, each compartment shall have a 
minimum of one exit and shall also have an exit access door- 
way into the adjoining compartment. 

405.8.2 Smokeproof enclosure. Every required stairway 
serving floor levels more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below its 
level of exit discharge shall comply with the requirements 
for a smokeproof enclosure as provided in Section 1020. 1 .7. 

[F] 405.9 Standby power. A standby power system complying 
with Section 2702 shall be provided standby power loads spec- 
ified in Section 405.9.1. 

405.9.1 Standby power loads. The following loads are 
classified as standby power loads. 

1 . Smoke control system. 

2. Ventilation and automatic fire detection equipment 
for smokeproof enclosures. 

3. Fire pumps. 

Standby power shall be provided for elevators in accor- 
dance with Section 3003. 

405.9.2 Pick-up time. The standby power system shall pick 
up its connected loads within 60 seconds of failure of the 
normal power supply. 

[F] 405.10 Emergency power. An emergency power system 
complying with Section 2702 shall be provided for emergency 
power loads specified in Section 405.10.1. 

[F] 405.10.1 Emergency power loads. The following loads 
are classified as emergency power loads: 

1. Emergency voice/alarm communications systems. 

2. Fire alarm systems. 

3. Automatic fire detection systems. 

4. Elevator car lighting. 

5 . Means of egress and exit sign illumination as required 
by Chapter 10. 

[F] 405.11 Standpipe system. The underground building shall 
be equipped throughout with a standpipe system in aqcordance 
with Section 905. 



SECTION 406 
MOTOR-VEHICLE-RELATED OCCUPANCIES 

406.1 Private garages and carports. 
2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



406.1.1 Classification. Buildings or parts of buildings clas- 
sified as Group U occupancies because of the use or charac- 
ter of the occupancy shall not exceed 1,000 square feet (93 
m^) in area or one story in height except as provided in Sec- 
tion 406.1.2. Any building or portion thereof that exceeds 
the limitations specified in this section shall be classified in 
the occupancy group other than Group U that it most nearly 
resembles. 

406.1.2 Area increase. Group U occupancies used for the 
storage of private or pleasure-type motor vehicles where no 
repair work is completed or fuel is dispensed are permitted 
to be 3,000 square feet (279 m^) when the following provi- 
sions are met: 

1 . For a mixed occupancy building, the exterior wall and 
opening protection for the Group U portion of the 
building shall be as required for the major occupancy 
of the building. For such a mixed occupancy building, 
the allowable floor area of the building shall be as per- 
mitted for the major occupancy contained therein. 

2. For a building containing only a Group U occupancy, 
the exterior wall shall not be required to have a 
fire-resistance rating and the area of openings shall 
not be limited when the fire separation distance is 5 
feet (1524 mm) or more. 

More than one 3,000-square-foot (279 m^) Group U 
occupancy shall be permitted to be in the same building, 
provided each 3,000-square-foot (279 m^) area is separated 
by fire walls complying with Section 705. 

406.1.3 Garages and carports. Carports shall be open on at 
least two sides. Carport floor surfaces shall be of approved : 
noncombustible material. Carports not open on at least two 
sides shall be considered a garage and shall comply with the 
provisions of this section for garages. 

Exception: Asphalt surfaces shall be permitted at 
ground level in carports. 

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other 
vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids 
to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway. 

406.1.4 Separation. Separations shall comply with the 
following: 

1 . The private garage shall be separated from the dwell- 
ing unit and its attic area by means of a minimum 
Vj-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board applied to the 
garage side. Garages beneath habitable rooms shall be 
separated from all habitable rooms above by not less 
than a Vg-inch Type X gypsum board or equivalent. 
Door openings between a private garage and the 
dwelling unit shall be equipped with either solid 
wood doors or solid or honeycomb core steel doors 
not less than IVg inches (34.9 mm) thick, or doors in 
comphance with Section 715.4.3. Openings from a 
private garage directly into a room used for sleeping 
purposes shall not be permitted. Doors shall be I 
self-closing and self-latching. I 

2. Ducts in a private garage and ducts penetrating the 
walls or ceilings separating the dwelUng unit from the 
garage shall be constructed of a minimum 0.019-inch 



43 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



(0.48 mm) sheet steel and shall have no openings into 
the garage. 

3 . A separation is not required between a Group R-3 and 
U carport, provided the carport is entirely open on two 
or more sides and there are not enclosed areas above. 

406.2 Parking garages. 

406.2.1 Classification. Parking garages shall be classified 
as either open, as defined in Section 406.3, or enclosed and 
shall meet the appropriate criteria in Section 406.4. Also see 
Section 509 for special provisions for parking garages. 

406.2.2 Clear height. The clear height of each floor level in 
vehicle and pedestrian traffic areas shall not be less than 7 
feet (2134 mm). Vehicle and pedestrian areas accommodat- 
ing van-accessible parking required by Section 1 106.5 shall 
conform to ICC A117.1. 

406.2.3 Guards. Guards shall be provided in accordance 
with Section 1012 at exterior and interior vertical openings 
on floor and roof areas where vehicles are parked or moved 
and where the vertical distance to the ground or surface 
directly below exceeds 30 inches (762 mm). 

406.2.4 Vehicle barriers. Parking areas shall be provided 
with exterior or interior walls or vehicle barriers, except at 
pedestrian or vehicular accesses, designed in accordance 
with Section 1607.7. Vehicle barriers not less than 2 feet 
(607 mm) high shall be placed at the end of drive lanes, and 
at the end of parking spaces where the difference in adjacent 
floor elevation is greater than 1 foot (305 mm). 

Exception: Vehicle storage compartments in a mechani- 
cal access parking garage. 

406.2.5 Ramps. Vehicle ramps shall not be considered as 
required exits unless pedestrian facilities are provided. 
Vehicle ramps that are utilized for vertical circulation as 
well as for parking shall not exceed a slope of 1:15 (6.67 
percent). 

406.2.6 Floor surface. Parking surfaces shall be of concrete 
or similar noncombustible and nonabsorbent materials. 

Exception: Asphalt parking surfaces are permitted at 
ground level. 

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other 
vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids 
to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway. 

406.2.7 Mixed separation. Parking garages shall be sepa- 
rated from other occupancies in accordance with Section 
508.3. 

406.2.8 Special hazards. Connection of a parking garage 
with any room in which there is a fuel -fired appliance shall 
be by means of a vestibule providing a two-doorway separa- 
tion. 

Exception: A single door shall be allowed provided the 
sources of ignition in the appliance are at least 18 inches 
(457 mm) above the floor. 



406.2.9 Attached to rooms. Openings from a parking 
garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall 
not be permitted. 

406.3 Open parking garages. 

406.3.1 Scope. Except where specific provisions are made 
in the following subsections, other requirements of this 
code shall apply. 

406.3.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, 
for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meanings shown herein. 

MECHANICAL-ACCESS OPEN PARKING 

GARAGES. Open parking garages employing parking 
machines, lifts, elevators or other mechanical devices for 
vehicles moving from and to street level and in which public 
occupancy is prohibited above the street level. 

OPEN PARKING GARAGE. A structure or portion of a 
structure with the openings as described in Section 
406.3.3. 1 on two or more sides that is used for the parking or 
storage of private motor vehicles as described in Section 
406.3.4. 

RAMP-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. Open 
parking garages employing a series of continuously rising 
floors or a series of interconnecting ramps between floors 
permitting the movement of vehicles under their own power 
from and to the street level. 

406.3.3 Construction. Open parking garages shall be of 
Type I, II or IV construction. Open parking garages shall 
meet the design requirements of Chapter 16. For vehicle 
barriers, see Section 406.2.4. 

406.3.3.1 Openings. For natural ventilation purposes, 
the exterior side of the structure shall have uniformly dis- 
tributed openings on two or more sides. The area of such 
openings in exterior walls on a tier must be at least 20 
percent of the total perimeter wall area of each tier. The 
aggregate length of the openings considered to be pro- 
viding natural ventilation shall constitute a minimum of 
40 percent of the perimeter of the tier. Interior walls shall 
be at least 20 percent open with uniformly distributed 
openings. 

Exception: Openings are not required to be distrib- 
uted over 40 percent of the building perimeter where 
the required openings are uniformly distributed over 
two opposing sides of the building. 

406.3.4 Uses. Mixed uses shall be allowed in the same 
building as an open parking garage subject to the provisions 
of Sections 508.3, 402.7.1, 406.3.13, 509.3, 509.4 and 
509.7. 

406.3.5 Area and height. Area and height of open parking 
garages shall be limited as set forth in Chapter 5 for Group 
S-2 occupancies and as further provided for in Section 
508.3. 

406.3.5.1 Single use. When the open parking garage is 
used exclusively for the parking or storage of private 
motor vehicles, with no other uses in the building, the 
area and height shall be permitted to comply with Table 



44 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



406.3.5, along with increases allowed by Section 
406.3.6. 

Exception: The grade-level tier is permitted to con- 
tain an office, waiting and toilet rooms having a total 
combined area of not more than 1,000 square feet (93 
m^). Such area need not be separated from the open 
parking garage. 

In open parking garages having a spiral or sloping 
floor, the horizontal projection of the structure at any 
cross section shall not exceed the allowable area per 
parking tier. In the case of an open parking garage having 
a continuous spiral floor, each 9 feet 6 inches (2896 mm) 
of height, or portion thereof, shall be considered a tier. 

The clear height of a parking tier shall not be less than 
7 feet (2134 mm), except that a lower clear height is per- 
mitted in mechanical-access open parking garages where 
approved by the building official. 

406.3.6 Area and height increases. The allowable area and 
height of open parking garages shall be increased in accor- 
dance with the provisions of this section. Garages with sides 
open on three-fourths of the building's perimeter are permit- 
ted to be increased by 25 percent in area and one tier in 
height. Garages with sides open around the entire building's 
perimeter are permitted to be increased by 50 percent in area 
and one tier in height. For a side to be considered open under 
the above provisions, the total area of openings along the 
side shall not be less than 50 percent of the interior area of 
the side at each tier and such openings shall be equally dis- 
tributed along the length of the tier. 

Allowable tier areas in Table 406.3.5 shall be increased 
for open parking garages constructed to heights less than the 
table maximum. The gross tier area of the garage shall not 
exceed that permitted for the higher structure. At least three 
sides of each such larger tier shall have continuous horizon- 
tal openings not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in clear height 
extending for at least 80 percent of the length of the sides 
and no part of such larger tier shall be more than 200 feet (60 
960 mm) horizontally from such an opening. In addition, 
each such opening shall face a street or yard accessible to a 
street with a width of at least 30 feet (9144 mm) for the full 
length of the opening, and standpipes shall be provided in 
each such tier. 



Open parking garages of Type II construction, with all 
sides open, shall be unlimited in allowable area where the 
height does not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). For a side to be 
considered open, the total area of openings along the side 
shall not be less than 50 percent of the interior area of the 
side at each tier and such openings shall be equally distrib- 
uted along the length of the tier. All portions of tiers shall be 
within 200 feet (60 960 mm) horizontally from such open- 
ings or other natural ventilation openings as defined in Sec- 
tion 406.3.3.1. These openings shall be permitted to be 
provided in courts with a minimum width of 30 feet (9144 
mm) for the full width of the openings. 

406.3.7 Fire separation distance. Exterior walls and open- 
ings in exterior walls shall comply with Tables 601 and 602. 
The distance to an adjacent lot line shall be determined in 
accordance with Table 602 and Section 704. 

406.3.8 Means of egress. Where persons other than parking 
attendants are permitted, open parking garages shall meet 
the means of egress requirements of Chapter 10. Where no 
persons other than parking attendants are permitted, there 
shall not be less than two 36-inch- wide (914 mm) exit stair- 
ways. Lifts shall be permitted to be installed for use of 
employees only, provided they are completely enclosed by 
noncombustible materials. 

406.3.9 Standpipes. Standpipes shall be installed where 
required by the provisions of Chapter 9. 

406.3.10 Sprinlder systems. Where required by other pro- 
visions of this code, automatic sprinkler systems and 
standpipes shall be installed in accordance with the provi- 
sions of Chapter 9. 

406.3.11 Enclosure of vertical openings. Enclosure shall 
not be required for vertical openings except as specified in 
Section 406.3.8. 

406.3.12 Ventilation. Ventilation, other than the percentage 
of openings specified in Section 406.3.3.1, shall not be 
required. 

406.3.13 Prohibitions. The following uses and alterations 
are not permitted: 

1. Vehicle repair work. 

2. Parking of buses, trucks and similar vehicles. 



TABLE 406.3.5 
OPEN PARKING GARAGES AREA AND HEIGHT 



TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 


AREA PER TIER 
(square feet) 


HEIGHT (in tiers) 


Ramp access 


Mechanical access 


Automatic sprinkler system 


No 


Yes 


lA 


Unlimited 


Unlimited 


Unlimited 


Unlimited 


IB 


Unlimited 


12 tiers 


12 tiers 


18 tiers 


IIA 


50,000 


10 tiers 


10 tiers 


15 tiers 


HB 


50,000 


8 tiers 


8 tiers 


12 tiers 


IV 


50,000 


4 tiers 


4 tiers 


4 tiers 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE"" 



45 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



3. Partial or complete closing of required openings in 
exterior walls by tarpaulins or any other means. 

4. Dispensing of fuel. 

406.4 Enclosed parking garages. 

406.4.1 Heights and areas. Enclosed vehicle parking 
garages and portions thereof that do not meet the definition 
of open parking garages shall be limited to the allowable 
heights and areas specified in Table 503 as modified by Sec- 
tions 504, 506 and 507. Roof parking is permitted. 

406.4.2 Ventilation. A mechanical ventilation system shall 
be provided in accordance with the International Mechani- 
cal Code. 

406.5 Motor fuel-dispensing facilities. 

406.5.1 Construction. Motor fuel-dispensing facilities 
shall be constructed in accordance with the International 
Fire Code and this section. 

406.5.2 Canopies. Canopies under which fuels are dis- 
pensed shall have a clear, unobstructed height of not less 
than 1 3 feet 6 inches (4 11 5 mm) to the lowest proj ecting ele- 
ment in the vehicle drive-through area. Canopies and their 
supports over pumps shall be of noncombustible materials, 
fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Chapter 23, 
wood of Type IV sizes or of construction providing 1-hour 
fire resistance. Combustible materials used in or on a can- 
opy shall comply with one of the following: 

1. Shielded from the pumps by a noncombustible ele- 
ment of the canopy, or wood of Type IV sizes; 

2. Plastics covered by aluminum facing having a mini- 
mum thickness of 0.010 inch (0.30 mm) or corro- 
sion-resistant steel having a minimum base metal 
thickness of 0.016 inch (0.41 mm). The plastic shall 
have a flame spread index of 25 or less and a 
smoke-developed index of 450 or less when tested in 
the form intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 
84 and a self-ignition temperature of 650°F (343 °C) 
or greater when tested in accordance with ASTM D 
1929; or 

3. Panels constructed of light-transmitting plastic mate- 
rials shall be permitted to be installed in canopies 
erected over motor vehicle fuel-dispensing station 
fuel dispensers, provided the panels are located at 
least 10 feet (3048 mm) from any building on the 
same lot and face yards or streets not less than 40 feet 
(12 192 mm) in width on the other sides. The aggre- 
gate areas of plastics shall not exceed 1,000 square 
feet (93 m^). The maximum area of any individual 
panel shall not exceed 100 square feet (9.3 m^). 

406.5.2.1 Canopies used to support gaseous hydrogen 
systems. Canopies that are used to shelter dispensing 
operations where flammable compressed gases are 
located on the roof of the canopy shall be in accordance 
with the following: 

1 . The canopy shall meet or exceed Type I construc- 
tion requirements. 



2. Operations located under canopies shall be limited 
to refueling only. 

3. The canopy shall be constructed in a manner that 
prevents the accumulation of hydrogen gas. , 

406.6 Repair garages. 

406.6.1 General. Repair garages shall be constructed in 
accordance with the International Fire Code and this sec- 
tion. This occupancy shall not include motor fuel-dispens- 
ing facilities, as regulated in Section 406.5. 

406.6.2 Mixed uses. Mixed uses shall be allowed in the 
same building as a repair garage subject to the provisions of 
Section 508.3. 

406.6.3 Ventilation. Repair garages shall be mechanically 
ventilated in accordance with the International Mechanical 
Code. The ventilation system shall be controlled at the 
entrance to the garage. 

406.6.4 Floor surface. Repair garage floors shall be of con- 
crete or similar noncombustible and nonabsorbent materi- 
als. 

Exception: Slip-resistant, nonabsorbent, interior floor 
finishes having a critical radiant flux not more than 0.45 
W/cm^, as determined by NFPA 253, shall be permitted. 

406.6.5 Heating equipment. Heating equipment shall be 
installed in accordance with the International Mechanical 
Code. 

[F] 406.6.6 Gas detection system. Repair garages used for 
repair of vehicles fueled by nonodorized gases, such as 
hydrogen and nonodorized LNG, shall be provided with an 
approved flammable gas-detection system. 

[F] 406.6.6.1 System design. The flammable gas-detec- 
tion system shall be calibrated to the types of fuels or 
gases used by vehicles to be repaired. The gas detection 
system shall be designed to activate when the level of 
flammable gas exceeds 25 percent of the lower explosive 
limit. Gas detection shall also be provided in lubrication 
or chassis repair pits of garages used for repairing 
nonodorized LNG-fueled vehicles. 

[F] 406.6.6.2 Operation. Activation of the gas detection 
system shall result in all of the following: 

1 . Initiation of distinct audible and visual alarm sig- 
nals in the repair garage. 

2. Deactivation of all heating systems located in the 
repair garage. 

3. Activation of the mechanical ventilation system, 
where the system is interlocked with gas detection. 

[F] 406.6.6.3 Failure of the gas detection system. Fail- 
ure of the gas detection system shall result in the deacti- 
vation of the heating system, activation of the 
mechanical ventilation system when the system is inter- 
locked with the gas detection system and cause a trouble 
signal to sound in an approved location. 



46 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE"" 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



SECTION 407 
GROUP 1-2 

407.1 General. Occupancies in Group 1-2 shall comply with 
the provisions of this section and other applicable provisions of 
this code. 

407.2 Corridors. Corridors in occupancies in Group 1-2 shall 
be continuous to the exits and separated from other areas in 
accordance with Section 407.3 except spaces conforming to 
Sections 407.2. 1 through 407.2.4. 

407.2.1 Spaces of unlimited area. Waiting areas and simi- 
lar spaces constructed as required for corridors shall be per- 
mitted to be open to a corridor, only where all of the 
following criteria are met: 

1. The spaces are not occupied for patient sleeping units, 
treatment rooms, hazardous or incidental use areas as 
defined in Section 508.2. 

2. The open space is protected by an automatic fire 
detection system installed in accordance with Section 
907. 

3 . The corridors onto which the spaces open, in the same 
smoke compartment, are protected by an automatic 
fire detection system installed in accordance with 
Section 907, or the smoke compartment in which the 
spaces are located is equipped throughout with 
quick-response sprinklers in accordance with Section 
903.3.2. 

4. The space is arranged so as not to obstruct access to 
the required exits. 

407.2.2 Nurses' stations. Spaces for doctors' and nurses' 
charting, communications and related clerical areas shall be 
permitted to be open to the corridor, when such spaces are 
constructed as required for corridors. 

407.2.3 Mental health treatment areas. Areas wherein 
mental health patients who are not capable of self-preserva- 
tion are housed, or group meeting or multipurpose therapeu- 
tic spaces other than incidental use areas as defined in 
Section 508.2, under continuous supervision by facility 
staff, shall be permitted to be open to the corridor, where the 
following criteria are met: 

1 . Each area does not exceed 1 ,500 square feet (140 m^). 

2. The area is located to permit supervision by the facil- 
ity staff. 

3. The area is arranged so as not to obstruct any access to 
the required exits. 

4. The area is equipped with an automatic fire detection 
system installed in accordance with Section 907.2. 

5. Not more than one such space is permitted in any one 
smoke compartment. 

6. The walls and ceilings ofthe space are constructed as 
required for corridors. 

407.2.4 Gift shops. Gift shops less than 500 square feet 
(46.5 m^) in area shall be permitted to be open to the corridor 
provided the gift shop and storage areas are fully 



sprinklered and storage areas are protected in accordance 
with Section 508.2. 

407.3 Corridor walls. Corridor walls shall be constructed as 
smoke partitions in accordance with Section 710. | 

407.3.1 Corridor doors. Corridor doors, other than those in 
a wall required to be rated by Section 508.2 or for the enclo- 
sure of a vertical opening or an exit, shall not have a required 
fire protection rating and shall not be required to be 
equipped with self-closing or automatic-closing devices, 
but shall provide an effective barrier to limit the transfer of 
smoke and shall be equipped with positive latching. Roller 
latches are not permitted. Other doors shall conform to Sec- 
tion 715.4. 

407.3.2 Locking devices. Locking devices that restrict 
access to the patient room from the corridor, and that are 
operable only by staff from the corridor side, shall not 
restrict the means of egress from the patient room except for 
patient rooms in mental health facilities. 

407.4 Smoke barriers. Smoke barriers shall be provided to 
subdivide every story used by patients for sleeping or treatment 
and to divide other stories with an occupant load of 50 or more 
persons, into at least two smoke compartments. Such stories 
shall be divided into smoke compartments with an area of not 
more than 22,500 square feet (2092 m^) and the travel distance 
from any point in a smoke compartment to a smoke barrier door 
shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). The smoke barrier shall 
be in accordance with Section 709. 

407.4.1 Refuge area. At least 30 net square feet (2.8 m^) per 
patient shall be provided within the aggregate area of corri- 
dors, patient rooms, treatment rooms, lounge or dining areas 
and other low-hazard areas on each side of each smoke bar- 
rier. On floors not housing patients confined to a bed or lit- 
ter, at least 6 net square feet (0.56 m^) per occupant shall be 
provided on each side of each smoke barrier for the total 
number of occupants in adjoining smoke compartments. 

407.4.2 Independent egress. A means of egress shall be 
provided from each smoke compartment created by smoke 
barriers without having to return through the smoke com- 
partment from which means of egress originated. 

[F] 407.5 Automatic sprinkler system. Smoke compartments 
containing patient sleeping units shall be equipped throughout 
with an automatic fire sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1. The smoke compartments shall be equipped 
with approved quick-response or residential sprinklers in 
accordance with Section 903.3.2. 

[F] 407.6 Automatic fire detection. Corridors in nursing 
homes (both intermediate care and skilled nursing facilities), 
detoxification facilities and spaces permitted to be open to the 
corridors by Section 407.2 shall be equipped with an automatic 
fire detection system. Hospitals shall be equipped with smoke I 
detection as required in Section 407.2. I 

Exceptions: 

1. Corridor smoke detection is not required where 
patient sleeping units are provided with smoke detec- 
tors that comply with UL 268. Such detectors shall 
provide a visual display on the corridor side of each 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



47 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



patient sleeping unit and an audible and visual alarm 
at the nursing station attending each unit. 

2. Corridor smoke detection is not required where 
patient sleeping unit doors are equipped with auto- 
matic door-closing devices with integral smoke 
detectors on the unit sides installed in accordance 
with their listing, provided that the integral detectors 
perform the required alerting function. 

407.7 Secured yards. Grounds are permitted to be fenced and 
gates therein are permitted to be equipped with locks, provided 
that safe dispersal areas having 30 net square feet (2.8 m^) for 
bed and litter patients and 6 net square feet (0.56 m^) for ambu- 
latory patients and other occupants are located between the 
building and the fence. Such provided safe dispersal areas shall 
not be located less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the building 
they serve. 



SECTION 408 
GROUP 1-3 

408.1 General. Occupancies in Group 1-3 shall comply with 
the provisions of this section and other applicable provisions of 
this code (see Section 308.4). 

408.2 Mixed occupancies. Portions of buildings with an occu- 
pancy in Group 1-3 that are classified as a different occupancy 
shall meet the applicable requirements of this code for such 
occupancies. Where security operations necessitate the lock- 
ing of required means of egress, provisions shall be made for 
the release of occupants at all times. 

Means of egress from detention and correctional occupan- 
cies that traverse other use areas shall, as a minimum, conform 
to requirements for detention and correctional occupancies. 

Exception: It is permissible to exit through a horizontal exit 
into other contiguous occupancies that do not conform to 
detention and correctional occupancy egress provisions but 
that do comply with requirements set forth in the appropriate 
occupancy, as long as the occupancy is not a high-hazard use. 

408.3 Means of egress. Except as modified or as provided for 
in this section, the provisions of Chapter 10 shall apply. 

408.3.1 Door width. Doors to resident sleeping units shall 
have a clear width of not less than 28 inches (711 mm). 

408.3.2 Sliding doors. Where doors in a means of egress are 
of the horizontal-sUding type, the force to shde the door to its 
fully open position shall not exceed 50 pounds (220 N) with a 
perpendicular force against the door of 50 pounds (220 N). 

408.3.3 Spiral stairs. Spiral stairs that conform to the 
requirements of Section 1009.8 are permitted for access to 
and between staff locations. 

408.3.4 Exit discharge. Exits are permitted to discharge 
into a fenced or walled courtyard. Enclosed yards or courts 
shall be of a size to accommodate all occupants, a minimum 
of 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the building with a net area of 
15 square feet (1.4 m^) per person. 

408.3.5 Sallyports. A sallyport shall be permitted in a 
means of egress where there are provisions for continuous 



and unobstructed passage through the sallyport during an 
emergency egress condition. 

408.3.6 Exit enclosures. One of the required exit enclo- I 
sures in each building shall be permitted to have glazing 
installed in doors and interior walls at each landing level 
providing access to the enclosure, provided that the follow- 
ing conditions are met: 

1 . The exit enclosure shall not serve more than four floor 
levels. 

2. Exit doors shall not be less than V4-hour fire door 
assemblies complying with Section 715.4 

3. The total area of glazing at each floor level shall not 
exceed 5,000 square inches (3 m^) and individual pan- 
els of glazing shall not exceed 1,296 square inches 
(0.84 m2). 

4. The glazing shall be protected on both sides by an 
automatic fire sprinkler system. The sprinkler system 
shall be designed to wet completely the entire surface 
of any glazing affected by fire when actuated. 

5. The glazing shall be in a gasketed frame and installed 
in such a manner that the framing system will deflect 
without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprin- 
kler system operates. 

6. Obstructions, such as curtain rods, drapery traverse 
rods, curtains, drapes or similar materials shall not be 
installed between the automatic sprinklers and the 
glazing. 

408.4 Locks. Egress doors are permitted to be locked in accor- 
dance with the applicable use condition. Doors from an area of 
refuge to the exterior are permitted to be locked with a key in 
lieu of locking methods described in Section 408.4. 1 . The keys 
to unlock the exterior doors shall be available at all times and 
the locks shall be operable from both sides of the door. 

408.4.1 Remote release. Remote release of locks on doors 
in a means of egress shall be provided with reliable means of 
operation, remote from the resident living areas, to release 
locks on all required doors. In Occupancy Conditions 3 or 4, 
the arrangement, accessibility and security of the release 
mechanism(s) required for egress shall be such that with the 
minimum available staff at any time, the lock mechanisms 
are capable of being released within 2 minutes. 

Exception: Provisions for remote locking and unlocking 
of occupied rooms in Occupancy Condition 4 are not 
required provided that not more than 10 locks are neces- 
sary to be unlocked in order to move occupants from one 
smoke compartment to a refuge area within 3 minutes. 
The opening of necessary locks shall be accomplished 
with not more than two separate keys. 

408.4.2 Power-operated doors and locks. Power-operated 
sliding doors or power-operated locks for swinging doors 
shall be operable by a manual release mechanism at the 
door, and either emergency power or a remote mechanical 
operating release shall be provided. 

Exception: Emergency power is not required in facilities 
with 10 locks or less complying with the exception to 
Section 408.4.1. 



48 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



408.4.3 Redundant operation. Remote release, mechani- 
cally operated sliding doors or remote release, mechanically 
operated locks shall be provided with a mechanically oper- 
ated release mechanism at each door, or shall be provided 
with a redundant remote release control. 

408.4.4 Relock capability. Doors remotely unlocked under 
emergency conditions shall not automatically relock when 
closed unless specific action is taken at the remote location 
to enable doors to relock. 

408.5 Vertical openings. Vertical openings shall be enclosed 
in accordance with Section 707. 

Exception: A floor opening between floor levels of residen- 
tial housing areas is permitted without enclosure protection 
between the levels, provided that both of the following con- 
ditions are met: 

1 . The entire normally occupied areas so interconnected 
are open and unobstructed so as to enable observation 
of the areas by supervisory personnel. 

2. Means of egress capacity is sufficient to provide 
simultaneous egress for all occupants from all inter- 
connected levels and areas. 

The height difference between the highest and lowest fin- 
ished floor levels shall not exceed 23 feet (7010 mm). Each 
story, considered separately, has at least one-half of its individ- 
ual required means of egress capacity provided by exits leading 
directly out of that story without traversing another story 
within the interconnected area. 

408.6 Smoke barrier. Occupancies in Group 1-3 shall have 
smoke barriers complying with Section 709 to divide every 
story occupied by residents for sleeping, or any other story hav- 
ing an occupant load of 50 or more persons, into at least two 
smoke compartments. 

Exception: Spaces having a direct exit to one of the follow- 
ing, provided that the locking arrangement of the doors 
involved complies with the requirements for doors at the 
smoke barrier for the use condition involved: 

1 . A public way. 

2. A building separated from the resident housing area 
by a 2-hour fire-resistance-rated assembly or 50 feet 
(15 240 mm) of open space. 

3 . A secured yard or court having a holding space 50 feet 
(15 240 mm) from the housing area that provides 6 
square feet (0.56 m^) or more of refuge area per occu- 
pant, including residents, staff and visitors. 

408.6.1 Smoke compartments. The maximum number of 
residents in any smoke compartment shall be 200. The 
travel distance to a door in a smoke barrier from any room 
door required as exit access shall not exceed 150 feet (45 
720 mm). The travel distance to a door in a smoke barrier 
from any point in a room shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 
mm). 

408.6.2 Refuge area. At least 6 net square feet (0.56 m^) per 
occupant shall be provided on each side of each smoke bar- 
rier for the total number of occupants in adjoining smoke 
compartments. This space shall be readily available wher- 



ever the occupants are moved across the smoke barrier in a 
fire emergency. 

408.6.3 Independent egress. A means of egress shall be 
provided from each smoke compartment created by smoke 
barriers without having to return through the smoke com- 
partment from which means of egress originates. 

408.7 Subdivision of resident housing areas. Sleeping areas 
and any contiguous day room, group activity space or other 
common spaces where residents are housed shall be separated 
from other spaces in accordance with Sections 408.7. 1 through 
408.7.4. 

408.7.1 Occupancy Conditions 3 and 4. Each sleeping 
area in Occupancy Conditions 3 and 4 shall be separated 
from the adjacent common spaces by a smoke-tight parti- 
tion where the travel distance from the sleeping area 
through the common space to the corridor exceeds 50 feet 
(15 240 mm). 

408.7.2 Occupancy Condition 5. Each sleeping area in 
Occupancy Condition 5 shall be separated from adjacent 
sleeping areas, corridors and common spaces by a smoke- 
tight partition. Additionally, common spaces shall be sepa- 
rated from the corridor by a smoke-tight partition. 

408.7.3 Openings in room face. The aggregate area of 
openings in a solid sleeping room face in Occupancy Condi- 
tions 2, 3, 4 and 5 shall not exceed 120 square inches (77 419 
mm^). The aggregate area shall include all openings includ- 
ing door undercuts, food passes and grilles. Openings shall 
be not more than 36 inches (914 mm) above the floor. In 
Occupancy Condition 5, the openings shall be closeable 
from the room side. 

408.7.4 Smoke-tight doors. Doors in openings in partitions 
required to be smoke tight by Section 408.7 shall be sub- 
stantial doors, of construction that will resist the passage of 
smoke. Latches and door closures are not required on cell 
doors. 

408.8 Windowless buildings. For the purposes of this section, 
a windowless building or portion of a building is one with 
nonopenable windows, windows not readily breakable or with- 
out windows. Windowless buildings shall be provided with an 
engineered smoke control system to provide ventilation 
(mechanical or natural) in accordance with Section 909. for 
each windowless smoke compartment. 



SECTION 409 
MOTION PICTURE PROJECTION ROOMS 

409.1 General. The provisions of this section shall apply to 
rooms in which ribbon-type cellulose acetate or other safety 
film is utilized in conjunction with electric arc, xenon or other 
light-source projection equipment that develops hazardous 
gases, dust or radiation. Where cellulose nitrate film is utilized 
or stored, such rooms shall comply with NFPA 40. 

409.1.1 Projection room required. Every motion picture 
machine projecting film as mentioned within the scope of 
this section shall be enclosed in a projection room. Appurte- 
nant electrical equipment, such as rheostats, transformers 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE*" 



49 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



and generators, shall be within the projection room or in an 
adjacent room of equivalent construction. 

409.2 Construction of projection rooms. Every projection 
room shall be of permanent construction consistent with the 
construction requirements for the type of building in which the 
projection room is located. Openings are not required to be pro- 
tected. 

The room shall have a floor area of not less than 80 square 
feet (7.44 m^) for a single machine and at least 40 square feet 
(3.7 m^) for each additional machine. Each motion picture pro- 
jector, floodlight, spotlight or similar piece of equipment shall 
have a clear working space of not less than 30 inches by 30 
inches (762 mm by 762 mm) on each side and at the rear 
thereof, but only one such space shall be required between two 
adjacent projectors. The projection room and the rooms appur- 
tenant thereto shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 
inches (2286 mm). The aggregate of openings for projection 
equipment shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of the wall 
between the projection room and the auditorium. Openings 
shall be provided with glass or other approved material, so as to 
close completely the opening. 

409.3 Projection room and equipment ventilation. Ventila- 
tion shall be provided in accordance with the International 
Mechanical Code. 

409.3.1 Supply air. Each projection room shall be provided 
with adequate air supply inlets so arranged as to provide 
well-distributed air throughout the room. Air inlet ducts 
shall provide an amount of air equivalent to the amount of 
air being exhausted by projection equipment. Air is permit- 
ted to be taken from the outside; from adjacent spaces 
within the building, provided the volume and infiltration 
rate is sufficient; or from the building air-conditioning sys- 
tem, provided it is so arranged as to provide sufficient air 
when other systems are not in operation. 

409.3.2 Exhaust air. Projection rooms are permitted to be 
exhausted through the lamp exhaust system. The lamp 
exhaust system shall be positively interconnected with the 
lamp so that the lamp will not operate unless there is the 
required airflow. Exhaust air ducts shall terminate at the 
exterior of the building in such a location that the exhaust air 
cannot be readily recirculated into any air supply system. 
The projection room ventilation system is permitted to also 
serve appurtenant rooms, such as the generator and rewind 
rooms. 

409.3.3 Projection machines. Each projection machine 
shall be provided with an exhaust duct that will draw air 
from each lamp and exhaust it directly to the outside of the 
building. The lamp exhaust is permitted to serve to exhaust 
air from the projection room to provide room air circulation. 
Such ducts shall be of rigid materials, except for a flexible 
connector approved for the purpose. The projection lamp or 
projection room exhaust system, or both, is permitted to be 
combined but shall not be interconnected with any other 
exhaust or return system, or both, within the building. 

409.4 Lighting control. Provisions shall be made for control 
of the auditorium lighting and the means of egress lighting sys- 
tems of theaters from inside the projection room and from at 
least one other convenient point in the building. 



409.5 Miscellaneous equipment. Each projection room shall 
be provided with rewind and film storage facilities. 



SECTION 410 
STAGES AND PLATFORMS 

410.1 Applicability. The provisions of this section shall apply 
to all parts of buildings and structures that contain stages or 
platforms and similar appurtenances as herein defined. 

410.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

FLY GALLERY. A raised floor area above a stage from which 
the movement of scenery and operation of other stage effects 
are controlled. 

GRIDIRON. The structural framing over a stage supporting 
equipment for hanging or flying scenery and other stage 
effects. 

PINRAIL. A rail on or above a stage through which belaying 
pins are inserted and to which lines are fastened. 

PLATFORM. A raised area within a building used for wor- 
ship, the presentation of music, plays or other entertainment; 
the head table for special guests; the raised area for lecturers 
and speakers; boxing and wrestling rings; theater-in-the-round 
stages; and similar purposes wherein there are no overhead 
hanging curtains, drops, scenery or stage effects other than 
lighting and sound. A temporary platform is one installed for 
not more than 30 days. 

PROSCENIUM WALL. The wall that separates the stage 
from the auditorium or assembly seating area. 

STAGE. A space within a building utilized for entertainment 
or presentations, which includes overhead hanging curtains, 
drops, scenery or stage effects other than lighting and sound. I 

410.3 Stages. Stage construction shall comply with Sections 
410.3.1 through 410.3.7. 

410.3.1 Stage construction. Stages shall be constructed of 
materials as required for floors for the type of construction 
of the building in which such stages are located. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Stages of Type IIB or IV construction with a nomi- 
nal 2-inch (5 1 nam) wood deck, provided that the 
stage is separated from other areas in accordance 
with Section 410.3.4. 

2. In buildings of Type II A, IIIA and VA construc- 
tion, a fire-resistance-rated floor is not required, 
provided the space below the stage is equipped 
with an automatic fire-extinguishing system in 
accordance with Section 903 or 904. 

3 . In all types of construction, the finished floor shall be 
constructed of wood or approved noncombustible 
materials. Openings through stage floors shall be 
equipped with tight-fitting, soUd wood trap doors 
with approved safety locks. 



50 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE'' 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



410.3.1.1 Stage height and area. Stage areas shall be 
measured to include the entire performance area and 
adjacent backstage and support areas not separated from 
the performance area by fire-resistance-rated construc- 
tion. Stage height shall be measured from the lowest 
point on the stage floor to the highest point of the roof or 
floor deck above the stage. 

410.3.2 Galleries, gridirons, catwalks and pinrails. 

Beams designed only for the attachment of portable or fixed 
theater equipment, gridirons, galleries and catwalks shall be 
constructed of approved materials- consistent with the 
requirements for the type of construction of the building; 
and a fire-resistance rating shall not be required. These areas 
shall not be considered to be floors, stories, mezzanines or 
levels in applying this code. 

Exception: Floors of fly galleries and catwalks shall be 
constructed of any approved material. 

410.3.3 Exterior stage doors. Where protection of open- 
ings is required, exterior exit doors shall be protected with 
fire door assemblies that comply with Section 715. Exterior 
openings that are located on the stage for means of egress or 
loading and unloading purposes, and that are likely to be 
open during occupancy of the theater, shall be constructed 
with vestibules to prevent air drafts into the auditorium. 

410.3.4 Proscenium wall. Where the stage height is greater 
than 50 feet (15 240 mm), all portions of the stage shall be 
completely separated from the seating area by a proscenium 
wall with not less than a 2-hour fire-resistance rating 
extending continuously from the foundation to the roof. 

410.3.5 Proscenium curtain. Where a proscenium wall is 
required to have a fire-resistance rating, the stage opening 
shall be provided with a fire curtain of approved material or 
an approved water curtain complying with Section 
903.3.1.1. The fire curtain shall be designed and installed to 
intercept hot gases, flames and smoke and to prevent a glow 
from a severe fire on the stage from showing on the audito- 
rium side for a period of 20 minutes. The closing of the fire 
curtain from the full open position shall be accomplished in 
less than 30 seconds, with the last 8 feet (2438 mm) of travel 
requiring 5 or more seconds for full closure. 

410.3.5.1 Activation. The curtain shall be activated by 
rate-of-rise heat detection installed in accordance with 
Section 907.10 operating at a rate of temperature rise of 
15 to 20°F per minute (8 to 1 1°C per minute), and by an 
auxiliary manual control. 

410.3.5.2 Fire test. A sample curtain with a minimum of 
two vertical seams shall be subjected to the standard fire 
test specified in ASTM E 1 19 for a period of 30 minutes. 
The curtain shall overlap the furnace edges by an amount 
that is appropriate to seal the top and sides. The curtain 
shall have a bottom pocket containing a minimum of 4 
pounds per linear foot (5.9 kg/m) of batten. The exposed 
surface of the curtain shall not glow, and flame or smoke 
shall not penetrate the curtain during the test period. 
Unexposed surface temperature and hose stream test 
requirements are not applicable to the proscenium fire 
safety curtain test. 



410.3.5.3 Smoke test. Curtain fabrics shall have a 
smoke-developed rating of 25 or less when tested in 
accordance with ASTM E 84. 

410.3.5.4 Tests. The completed proscenium curtain shall 
be subjected to operating tests prior to the issuance of a 
certificate of occupancy. 

410.3.6 Scenery. Combustible materials used in sets and 
scenery shall meet the fire propagation performance criteria I 
of NFPA 70 1 , in accordance with Section 805 and the Inter- I 
national Fire Code. Foam plastics and materials containing 
foam plastics shall comply with Section 2603 and the Inter- 
national Fire Code. 

410.3.7 Stage ventilation. Emergency ventilation shall be 
provided for stages larger than 1,000 square feet (93 m^) in 
floor area, or with a stage height greater than 50 feet (15 240 
mm). Such ventilation shall comply with Section 410.3.7.1 
or 410.3.7.2. 

410.3.7.1 Roof vents. Two or more vents constructed to 
open automatically by approved heat-activated devices 
and with an aggregate clear opening area of not less than 
5 percent of the area of the stage shall be located near the 
center and above the highest part of the stage area. Sup- 
plemental means shall be provided for manual operation 
of the ventilator. Curbs shall be provided as required for 
skylights in Section 2610.2. Vents shall be labeled. 

[F] 410.3.7.2 Smoke control. Smoke control in accor- 
dance with Section 909 shall be provided to maintain the 
smoke layer interface not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) 
above the highest level of the assembly seating or above 
the top of the proscenium opening where a proscenium 
wall is provided in compliance with Section 410.3.4. 

410.4 Platform construction. Permanent platforms shall be 
constructed of materials as required for the type of construction 
of the building in which the permanent platform is located. Per- 
manent platforms are permitted to be constructed of fire-retar- 
dant-treated wood for Type I, II, and IV constmction where the 
platforms are not more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the 
main floor, and not more than one-third of the room floor area 
and not more than 3,000 square feet (279 m^) in area. Where the 
space beneath the permanent platform is used for storage or any 
other purpose other than equipment, wiring or plumbing, the 
floor construction shall not be less than 1-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction. Where the space beneath the perma- 
nent platform is used only for equipment, wiring or plumbing, 
the underside of the permanent platform need not be protected. 

410.4.1 Temporary platforms. Platforms installed for a 
period of not more than 30 days are permitted to be con- 
structed of any materials permitted by the code. The space 
between the floor and the platform above shall only be used 
for plumbing and electrical wiring to platform equipment. 

410.5 Dressing and appurtenant rooms. Dressing and appur- 
tenant rooms shall comply with Sections 410.5.1 through 
410.5.3. 

410.5.1 Separation from stage. Where the stage height is 
greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm), the stage shall be sepa- 
rated from dressing rooms, scene docks, property rooms, 
workshops, storerooms and compartments appurtenant to 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



51 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



the stage and other parts of the building by a fire barrier with 
not less than a 2-hour fire-resistance rating with approved 
opening protectives. For stage heights of 50 feet (15 240 
mm) or less, the required stage separation shall be a fire bar- 
rier with not less than a 1-hour fire-resistance rating with 
approved opening protectives. 

410.5.2 Separation from each other. Dressing rooms, 
scene docks, property rooms, workshops, storerooms and 
compartments appurtenant to the stage shall be separated 
from each other by fire barriers with not less than a 1-hour 
fire-resistance rating with approved opening protectives. 

410.5.3 Stage exits. At least one approved means of egress 
shall be provided from each side of the stage and from each 
side of the space under the stage. At least one means of 
escape shall be provided from each fly gallery and from the 
gridiron. A steel ladder, alternating tread stairway or spiral 
stairway is permitted to be provided from the gridiron to a 
scuttle in the stage roof. 

[F] 410.6 Automatic sprinkler system. Stages shall be 
equipped with an automatic fire-extinguishing system in 
accordance with Chapter 9. Sprinklers shall be installed under 
the roof and gridiron and under all catwalks and galleries over 
the stage. Sprinklers shall be installed in dressing rooms, per- 
former lounges, shops and storerooms accessory to such 
stages. 

Exceptions: 

1. Sprinklers are not required under stage areas less than 
4 feet (1219 mm) in clear height that are utilized 
exclusively for storage of tables and chairs, provided 
the concealed space is separated from the adjacent 
spaces by not less than Vg-inch (15.9 mm) Type X 
gypsum board. 

2. Sprinklers are not required for stages 1,000 square 
feet (93 m^) or less in area and 50 feet (15 240 mm) or 
less in height where curtains, scenery or other com- 
bustible hangings are not retractable vertically. Com- 
bustible hangings shall be limited to a single main 
curtain, borders, legs and a single backdrop. 

3. Sprinklers are not required within portable orchestra 
enclosures on stages. 

[F] 410.7 Standpipes. Standpipe systems shall be provided in 
accordance with Section 905. 



SECTION 411 
SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDINGS 

411.1 General. Special amusement buildings having an occu- 
pant load of 50 or more shall comply with the requirements for 
the appropriate Group A occupancy and this section. Amuse- 
ment buildings having an occupant load of less than 50 shall 
comply with the requirements for a Group B occupancy and 
this section. 

Exception: Amusement buildings or portions thereof that 
are without walls or a roof and constructed to prevent the 
accumulation of smoke. 



For flammable decorative materials, see the International 
Fire Code. 

411.2 Special amusement building. A special amusement 
building is any temporary or permanent building or portion 
thereof that is occupied for amusement, entertainment or edu- 
cational purposes and that contains a device or system that con- 
veys passengers or provides a walkway along, around or over a 
course in any direction so arranged that the means of egress 
path is not readily apparent due to visual or audio distractions 
or is intentionally confounded or is not readily available 
because of the nature of the attraction or mode of conveyance 
through the building or structure. 

[F] 411.3 Automatic fire detection. Special amusement build- 
ings shall be equipped with an automatic fire detection system 
in accordance with Section 907, 

[F] 411.4 Automatic sprinkler system. Special amusement 
buildings shall be equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where 
the special amusement building is temporary, the sprinkler 
water supply shall be of an approved temporary means. 

Exception: Automatic sprinklers are not required where the 
total floor area of a temporary special amusement building 
is less than 1,000 square feet (93 m^) and the travel distance 
from any point to an exit is less than 50 feet (15 240 mm). 

[F] 411.5 Alarm. Actuation of a single smoke detector, the 
automatic sprinkler system or other automatic fire detection 
device shall immediately sound an alarm at the building at a 
constantly attended location from which emergency action can 
be initiated including the capability of manual initiation of 
requirements in Section 907.2.11.2. 

[F] 411.6 Emergency voice/alarm communications system. 

An emergency voice/alarm communications system shall be 
provided in accordance with Sections 907.2. 1 1 and 907.2. 12.2, 
which is also permitted to serve as a public address system and 
shall be audible throughout the entire special amusement build- 
ing. 

411.7 Exit marking. Exit signs shall be installed at the 
required exit or exit access doorways of amusement buildings. 
Approved directional exit markings shall also be provided. 
Where mirrors, mazes or other designs are utilized that dis- 
guise the path of egress travel such that they are not apparent, 
approved low-level exit signs and directional path markings 
shall be provided and located not more than 8 inches (203 mm) 
above the walking surface and on or near the path of egress 
travel. Such markings shall become visible in an emergency. 
The directional exit marking shall be activated by the automatic 
fire detection system and the automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 907.2.1 1.2. 

411.8 Interior finish. The interior finish shall be Class A in 
accordance with Section 803.1. 



SECTION 412 
AIRCRAFT-RELATED OCCUPANCIES 

412.1 Airport traffic control towers. 



52 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE'' 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



412.1.1 General. The provisions of this section shall apply 
to airport traffic control towers not exceeding 1,500 square 
feet (140 m^) per floor occupied only for the following uses: 

1 . Airport traffic control cab. 

2. Electrical and mechanical equipment rooms. 

3. Airport terminal radar and electronics rooms. 

4. Office spaces incidental to the tower operation. 

5. Lounges for employees, including sanitary facilities. 

412.1.2 Type of construction. Airport traffic control tow- 
ers shall be constructed to comply with the height and area 
limitations of Table 412.1.2. 

TABLE 41 2.1 .2 

HEIGHT AND AREA LIMITATIONS FOR AIRPORT 

TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWERS 



TYPE OF 
CONSTRUCTION 


HEIGHT^ 
(feet) 


MAXIMUM AREA 
(square feet) 


lA 


Unlimited 


1,500 


IB 


240 


1,500 


IIA 


100 


1,500 


IIB 


85 


1,500 


niA 


65 


1,500 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^. 
a. Height to be measured from grade plane to cab floor 

412.1.3 Egress. A minimum of one exit stairway shall be 
permitted for airport traffic control towers of any height pro- 
vided that the occupant load per floor does not exceed 15. 
The stairway shall conform to the requirements of Section 
.,'. 1009. The stairway shall be separated from elevators by a 
minimum distance of one-half of the diagonal of the area 
served measured in a straight line. The exit stairway and ele- 
vator hoistway are permitted to be located in the same shaft 
enclosure, provided they are separated from each other by a 
4-hour fire barrier having no openings. Such stairway shall 
be pressurized to a minimum of 0. 1 5 inch of water column 
(43 Pa) and a maximum of 0.35 inch of water column (101 
Pa) in the shaft relative to the building with stairway doors 
closed. Stairways need not extend to the roof as specified in 
Section 1009.11. The provisions of Section 403 do not 
apply. 

Exception: Smokeproof enclosures as set forth in Sec- 
tion 1020.1.7 are not required where required stairways 
are pressurized. 

[F] 412.1.4 Automatic fire detection systems. Airport traf- 
fic control towers shall be provided with an automatic fire 
detection system installed in accordance with Section 
907.2. 

[F] 412.1.5 Standby power. A standby power system that 
conforms to Section 2702 shall be provided in airport traffic 
control towers more than 65 feet (19 812 mm) in height. 
Power shall be provided to the following equipment: 



1 . Pressurization equipment, mechanical equipment and 
hghting. 

2. Elevator operating equipment. 

3. Fire alarm and smoke detection systems. 

412.1,6 Accessibility. Airport traffic control towers need 
not be accessible as specified in the provisions of Chapter 
11. 

412.2 Aircraft hangars. Aircraft hangars shall be in accor- 
dance with Sections 412.2.1 through 412.2.6. 

412.2.1 Exterior walls. Exterior walls located less than 30 
feet (9 144 mm) from property lines, lot lines or a public 
way shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than 2 hours. 

412.2.2 Basements. Where hangars have basements, the 
floor over the basement shall be of Type lA construction and 
shall be made tight against seepage of water, oil or vapors. 
There shall be no opening or communication between the 
basement and the hangar. Access to the basement shall be 
from outside only. 

412.2.3 Floor surface. Floors shall be graded and drained 
to prevent water or fuel from remaining oh the floor. Floor 
drains shall discharge through an oil separator to the sewer 
or to an outside vented sump. 

Exception: Aircraft hangars with individual lease 
spaces not exceeding 2,000 square feet (186 m^) each in 
which servicing, repairing or washing is not conducted 
and fuel is not dispensed shall have floors that are graded 
toward the door, but shall not require a separator. 

412.2.4 Heating equipment. Heating equipment shall be 
placed in another room separated by 2-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction. Entrance shall be from the outside 
or by means of a vestibule providing a two-doorway separa- 
tion. 

Exceptions: 

1. Unit heaters and vented infrared radiant heating 
equipment suspended at least 10 feet (3048 mm) 
above the upper surface of wings or engine enclo- 
sures of the highest aircraft that are permitted to be 
housed in the hangar and at least 8 feet (2438 mm) 
above the floor in shops, offices and other sections 
of the hangar communicating with storage or ser- 
vice areas. 

2. A single interior door shall be allowed, provided 
the sources of ignition in the appliances are at least 
18 inches (457 mm) above the floor. 

412.2.5 Finishing. The process of "doping," involving use 
of a volatile flammable solvent, or of painting, shall be car- 
ried on in a separate detached building equipped with auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing equipment in accordance with 
Section 903. 

[F] 412.2.6 Fire suppression. Aircraft hangars shall be pro- 
vided with fire suppression as required by NFPA 409. 

Exception: Group II hangars as defined in NFPA 409 
storing private aircraft without major maintenance or 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



53 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



overhaul are exempt from foam suppression require- 
ments. 

412.3 Residential aircraft hangars. Residential aircraft han- 
gars as defined in Section 412.3.1 shall comply with Sections 
412.3.2 through 412.3.6. 

412.3.1 Definition. The following word and term shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meaning shown herein. 

RESIDENTIAL AIRCRAFT HANGAR. An accessory 
building less than 2,000 square feet (186 m^) and 20 feet 
(6096 mm) in height, constructed on a one- or two-family 
residential property where aircraft are stored. Such use will 
be considered as a residential accessory use incidental to the 
dwelling. 

412.3.2 Fire separation. A hangar shall not be attached to a 
dwelling unless separated by a fire barrier having a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. Such separation 
shall be continuous from the foundation to the underside of 
the roof and unpierced except for doors leading to the dwell- 
ing unit. Doors into the dwelling unit must be equipped with 
self-closing devices and conform to the requirements of 
Section 715 with at least a 4-inch (102 mm) noncombustible 
raised sill. Openings from a hanger directly into a room used 
for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted. 

412.3.3 Egress. A hangar shall provide two means of 
egress. One of the doors into the dwelling shall be consid- 
ered as meeting only one of the two means of egress. 

[F] 412.3.4 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms shall be pro- 
vided within the hangar in accordance with Section 
907.2.21. 

412.3.5 Independent systems. Electrical, mechanical and 
plumbing drain, waste and vent (DWV) systems installed 
within the hangar shall be independent of the systems 
installed within the dwelling. Building sewer lines shall be 
permitted to be connect outside the structures. 

Exception: Smoke detector wiring and feed for electri- 
cal subpanels in the hangar. 

412.3.6 Height and area limits. Residential aircraft han- 
gars shall not exceed 2,000 square feet (186 m^) in area and 
20 feet (6096 mm) in height. 

[F] 412.4 Aircraft paint hangars. Aircraft painting opera- 
tions where flammable liquids are used in excess of the maxi- 
mum allowable quantities per control area listed in Table 
307.7(1) shall be conducted in an aircraft paint hangar that 
complies with the provisions of Section 412.4. 

[F] 412.4.1 Occupancy group. Aircraft paint hangars shall 
be classified as Group H-2. Aircraft paint hangars shall 
comply with the applicable requirements of this code and 
the International Fire Code for such occupancy. 

412.4.2 Construction. The aircraft paint hangar shall be of 
Type I or II construction. 

[F] 412.4.3 Operations. Only those flammable liquids nec- 
essary for painting operations shall be permitted in quantities 
less than the maximum allowable quantities per control area 



in Table 307.1(1). Spray equipment cleaning operations shall 
be conducted in a Uquid use, dispensing and mixing rooni. 

[F]412.4.4 Storage. Storage of flanmiable liquids shall be 
in a liquid storage room. 

[F] 412.4.5 Fire suppression. Aircraft paint hangars shall 
be provided with fire suppression as required by NFR\ 409. 

412.4.6 Ventilation. Aircraft paint hangars shall be pro- 
vided with ventilation as required in the International 
Mechanical Code. 

412.5 Heliports and helistops. Heliports and helistops shall 
be permitted to be erected on buildings or other locations where 
they are constructed in accordance with this section. 

412.5.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, 
for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meanings shown herein. 

HELIPORT. An area of land or water or a structural surface 
that is used, or intended for use, for the landing and taking off 
of heUcopters, and any appurtenant areas that are used, or 
intended for use, for heliport buildings and other heliport 
facilities. 

HELISTOP. The same as a "Heliport," except that no fuel- 
ing, defueling, maintenance, repairs or storage of helicop- 
ters is permitted. 

412.5.2 Size. The landing area for helicopters less than 
3,500 pounds (1588 kg) shall be a minimum of 20 feet (6096 
mm) in length and width. The landing area shall be sur- 
rounded on all sides by a clear area having a minimum aver- 
age width at roof level of 15 feet (4572 mm) but with no 
width less than 5 feet (1524 mm). 

412.5.3 Design. Helicopter landing areas and the supports 
thereof on the roof of a building shall be noncombustible 
construction. Landing areas shall be designed to confine any 
flammable liquid spillage to the landing area itself and pro- 
visions shall be made to drain such spillage away from any 
exit or stairway serving the helicopter landing area or from a 
structure housing such exit or stairway. For structural design 
requirements, see Section 1605.5. 

412.5.4 Means of egress. The means of egress from heli- 
ports and helistops shall comply with the provisions of 
Chapter 10. Landing areas located on buildings or structures 
shall have two or more means of egress. For landing areas 
less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in length, or less than 2,000 
square feet (186 m^) in area, the second means of egress may 
be a fire escape or ladder leading to the floor below. 

412.5.5 Rooftop heliports and helistops. Rooftop heli- 
ports and helistops shall comply with NFPA 418. 



SECTION 413 
COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE 

413.1 General. High-piled stock or rack storage in any occu- 
pancy group shall comply with the International Fire Code. 

413.2 Attic, under-floor and concealed spaces. Attic, 
under-floor and concealed spaces used for storage of combusti- 
ble materials shall be protected on the storage side as required 



54 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



for 1 -hour fire-resistance-rated construction. Openings shall 
be protected by assemblies that are self-closing and are of 
noncombustible construction or solid wood core not less than 
IV4 inch (45 mm) in thickness. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Areas protected by approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems. 

2. Group R-3 and U occupancies. 



SECTION 414 
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 

[F] 414.1 General. The provisions of this section shall apply to 
buildings and structures occupied for the manufacturing, pro- 
cessing, dispensing, use or storage of hazardous materials. 

[F] 414.1.1 Other provisions. Buildings and structures 
with an occupancy in Group H shall also comply with the 
applicable provisions of Section 415 and the International 
Fire Code. 

[F] 414.1.2 Materials. The safe design of hazardous mate- 
rial occupancies is material dependent. Individual material 
requirements are also found in Sections 307 and 415, and in 
the International Mechanical Code and the International 
Fire Code. 

[F] 414.1.2.1 Aerosols. Level 2 and 3 aerosol products 
shall be stored and displayed in accordance with the 
International Fire Code. See Section 311.2 and the Inter- 
national Fire Code for occupancy group requirements. 

[F] 414.1.3 Information required. Separate floor plans 
shall be submitted for buildings and structures with an occu- 
pancy in Group H, identifying the locations of anticipated 
contents and processes so as to reflect the nature of each 
occupied portion of every building and structure. A report 
identifying hazardous materials including, but not limited 
to, materials representing hazards that are classified in 
Group H to be stored or used, shall be submitted and the 
methods of protection from such hazards shall be indicated 
on the construction documents. The opinion and report shall 
be prepared by a qualified person, firm or corporation 



approved by the building official and shall be provided 
without charge to the enforcing agency. 

[F] 414.2 Control areas. Control areas shall comply with Sec- 
tions414.2.1 through 414.2.5 andthe International Fire Code. 

414.2.1 Construction requirements. Control areas shall 
be separated from each other by fire barriers constructed in 
accordance with Section 706 or horizontal assemblies con- 
structed in accordance with Section 71 1, or both. 

[F] 414.2.2 Percentage of maximum allowable quanti- 
ties. The percentage of maximum allowable quantities of 
hazardous materials per control area permitted at each floor 
level within a building shall be in accordance with Table 
414.2.2. 

[F] 414.2.3 Number. The maximum number of control 
areas within a building shall be in accordance with Table 
414.2.3. 

414.2.4 Fire-resistance-rating requirements. The 

required fire-resistance rating for fire barriers shall be in 
accordance with Table 414.2.2. The floor construction of 
the control area and the construction supporting the floor of 
the control area shall have a minimum 2-hour fire-resistance 
rating. 

Exception: The floor construction of the control area 
and the construction supporting the floor of the control 
area is allowed to be 1-hour fire-resistance rated in build- 
ings of Type IIA, IIIA and VA construction, provided 
that both of the following conditions exist: 

1 . The building is equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1, and 

2. The building is three stories or less in height. 

[F] 414.2.5 Hazardous material in Group M display and 
storage areas and in Group S storage areas. The aggre- 
gate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or 
noncombustible liquid hazardous materials permitted 
within a single control area of a Group M display and stor- 
age area, a Group S storage area or an outdoor control area is 
permitted to exceed the maximum allowable quantities per 



[F] TABLE 414.2.2 
DESIGN AND NUMBER OF CONTROL AREAS 



FLOOR LEVEL 


PERCENTAGE OF THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE 
QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA^ 


NUMBER OF CONTROL 
AREAS PER FLOOR 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING 
FOR FIRE BARRIERS IN HOURS" 


Above grade 
plane 


Higher than 9 

7-9 

6 

5 
4 
3 
2 
1 


5 

5 
12.5 
12.5 
12.5 

50 
75 
100 


1 

2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
3 
4 


2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 


Below grade 
plane 


1 

2 

Lower than 2 


75 

50 

Not Allowed 


3 

2 

Not Allowed 


1 

1 

Not Allowed 



a. Percentages shall be of the maximum allowable quantity per control area shown in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2), with all increases allowed in the notes to those 
tables. 

b. Fire barriers shall include walls and floors as necessary to provide separation from other portions of the building. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE*" 



55 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



control area specified in Tables 307. 1(1) and 307. 1(2) with- 
out classifying the building or use as a Group H occupancy, 
provided that the materials are displayed and stored in 
accordance with the International Fire Code and quantities 
do not exceed the maximum allowable specified in Table 
414.2.5(1). 

In Group M occupancy wholesale and retail sales uses, 
indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall 
not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control 
area as indicated in Table 414.2.5(2), provided that the 
materials are displayed and stored in accordance with the 
International Fire Code. 

The maximum quantity of aerosol products in Group M 
occupancy retail display areas, storage areas adjacent to 
retail display areas and retail storage areas shall be in accor- 
dance with the International Fire Code. 

[F] 414.3 Ventilation. Rooms, areas or spaces of Group H in 
which explosive, corrosive, combustible, flammable or 
highly toxic dusts, mists, fumes, vapors or gases are or may be 
emitted due to the processing, use, handling or storage of 
materials shall be mechanically ventilated as required by the 
International Fire Code and the International Mechanical 
Code. 

Ducts conveying explosives or flammable vapors, fumes or 
dusts shall extend directly to the exterior of the building with- 
out entering other spaces. Exhaust ducts shall not extend into or 
through ducts and plenums. 

Exception: Ducts conveying vapor or fumes having flam- 
mable constituents less than 25 percent of their lower flam- 
mable limit (LFL) are permitted to pass through other 
spaces. 

Emissions generated at workstations shall be confined to the 
area in which they are generated as specified in the Interna- 
tional Fire Code and the International Mechanical Code. 

The location of supply and exhaust openings shall be in 
accordance with the International Mechanical Code. Exhaust 
air contaminated by highly toxic material shall be treated in 
accordance with the International Fire Code,. 

A manual shutoff control for ventilation equipment required 
by this section shall be provided outside the room adjacent to 
the principal access door to the room. The switch shall be of the 
break-glass type and shall be labeled: VENTILATION SYS- 
TEM EMERGENCY SHUTOFF. 

[F] 414.4 Hazardous material systems. Systems involving 
hazardous materials shall be suitable for the intended applica- 
tion. Controls shall be designed to prevent materials from 
entering or leaving process or reaction systems at other than the 
intended time, rate or path. Automatic controls, where pro- 
vided, shall be designed to be fail safe. 

[F] 414.5 Inside storage, dispensing and use. The inside stor- 
age, dispensing and use of hazardous materials in excess of the 
maximum allowable quantities per control area of Tables 
307.1(1) and 307.1(2) shall be in accordance with Sections 
414.5. 1 through 414.5.5 of this code and the International Fire 
Code. 



[F] 414.5.1 Explosion control. Explosion control shall be 
provided in accordance with the International Fire Code as 
required by Table 414.5.1 where quantities of hazardous 
materials specified in that table exceed the maximum allow- 
able quantities in Table 307.1(1) or where a structure, room 
or space is occupied for purposes involving explosion haz- 
ards as required by Section 415 or the International Fire 
Code. 

[F] 414.5.2 Monitor control equipment. Monitor control 
equipment shall be provided where required by the Interna- 
tional Fire Code. 

[F] 414.5.3 Automatic fire detection systems. Group H 
occupancies shall be provided with an automatic fire detec- 
tion system in accordance with Section 907.2. 

[F] 414.5.4 Standby or emergency power. Where mechan- 
ical ventilation, treatment systems, temperature control, 
alarm, detection or other electrically operated systems are 
required, such systems shall be provided with an emergency 
or standby power system in accordance with this code or the 
ICC Electrical Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Storage areas for Class I and II oxidizers. 

2. Storage areas for Class III, IV and V organic per- 
oxides. 

3. Storage, use and handling areas for highly toxic or 
toxic materials as provided for in the International 
Fire Code. 

4. Standby power for mechanical ventilation, treat- 
ment systems and temperature control systems 
shall not be required where an approved fail-safe 
engineered system is installed. 

[F] 414.5.5 Spill control, drainage and containment. 

Rooms, buildings or areas occupied for the storage of solid 
and liquid hazardous materials shall be provided with a 
means to control spillage and to contain or drain off spillage 
and fu-e protection water discharged in the storage area 
where required in the International Fire Code. The methods 
of spill control shall be in accordance with the International 
Fire Code. 

[F] 414.6 Outdoor storage, dispensing and use. The outdoor 
storage, dispensing and use of hazardous materials shall be in 
accordance with the International Fire Code. 

[F] 414.6.1 Weather protection. Where weather protection 
is provided for sheltering outdoor hazardous material stor- 
age or use areas, such areas shall be considered outdoor 
storage or use when the weather protection structure com- 
plies with Sections 414.6.1.1 through 414.6.1.3. 

[F] 414.6.1.1 Walls. Walls shall not obstruct more than 
one side of the structure. 

Exception: Walls shall be permitted to obstruct por- 
tions of multiple sides of the structure, provided that 
the obstructed area does not exceed 25 percent of the 
structure's perimeter. 

[F] 414.6.1.2 Separation distance. The distance from 
the structure to buildings, lot lines, public ways or means 



56 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



[F] TABLE 414.2.5(1) 

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER INDOOR AND OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA IN GROUP M AND S OCCUPANCIES 

NONFLAMMABLE SOLIDS AND NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS "-«' 



CONDITION 


MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA 


Material 


Class 


Solids 
pounds 


Liquids 
gallons 


A. Health-hazard materials — nonflammable and noncombustible solids and liquids 


1. Corrosives*'''^ 


Not Applicable 


. 9,750 


975 


2. Highly toxics 


Not Applicable 


20''''= 


2b, c 


3. Toxics'"''^ 


Not Applicable 


1,000 


100 


B. Physical-hazard materials — nonflammable and noncombustible solids and liquids 


1. Oxidizers''''^ 


4 


Not Allowed 


Not Allowed 


3 


1,1508 


115 


2 


2,250'' 


225 


1 


1 8,000'' J 


1,800''J 


2. Unstable (reactives)''' ^ 


4 


Not Allowed 


Not Allowed 


3. 


550 


55 


2 


1,150 


115 


1 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


3. Water (reactives) 


3''' ^ 


550 


55' 


2b, c 


1,150 


115 


1 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 



For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gaUon = 3.785 L. 

a. Hazard categories are as specified in the International Fire Code. 

b. .Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 1 00 percent in buildings that are sprinklered in accordance with Section 903 . 3 . 1 . 1 . When Note c also applies, the 
increase for both notes shall be appUed accumulatively. 

c. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, in accordance with the International Fire Code. When 
Note b also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

d. See Table 414.2.2 for design and number of control areas. 

e. Allowable quantities for other hazardous material cat^ories shall be in accordance with Section 307. 

f. Maximum quantities shall be increased 100 percent in outdoor control areas. 

g. Maximum amounts are permitted to be increased to 2,250 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or 
packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each. 

h. Maximum amounts are permitted to be increased to 4,500 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or 

packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each, 
i. The permitted quantities shall not be limited in a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 
j. Quantities are unlimited in an outdoor control area. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



57 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



TABLE [F] 414.2.5(2) 

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY OF FLAMMABLE AND CCMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS 

IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL SALES OCCUPANCIES PER CONTROL AREA» 



TYPE OF LIQUID 


MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PEi 1 CONTROL AREA (gallons) 


Sprinklered in accordance with Note B 
densities and arrangements 


Sprinklered In aiicordance with Tables 

3404.3.6.3(4) throujih 3404.3.6.3(8) and Table 

3404.3.7.5.1 of the International Fire Code 


Nonsprlnklered 


Class lA 


60 


60 


30 


Class IB, IC, II and IHA 


7,500= 


15,000= 


1,600 


Class mB 


Unlimited 


Unlimited 


13,200 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute per squar 

a. Control areas shall be separated from each other by not less than a 1-hour fire barrier wall. 

b. To be considered as sprinklered, a building shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sp 
as follows: 

1. For uncartoned commodities on shelves 6 feet or less in height where the ceiling height does not i 
mum sprinkler design density of Ordinary Hazard Group 2. 

2. For cartoned, palletized or racked commodities where storage is 4 feet 6 inches or less in height an 
ties are those permitted with a minimum sprinkler design density of 0.21 ^llon per minute per 

c. Where wholesale and retail sales or storage areas exceed 50,000 square feet in area, the maximum allow 
each 1 ,000 square feet of area in excess of 50,000 square feet, up to a maximum of 1 00 percent of the tal 
cumulative amounts, including amounts attained by having an additional control area, shall not excee 



i foot = 40.75 L/minAn^. 

inkier system with a design providing minimum densities 

;xceed 18 feet, quantities are those permitted with a mini- 

d where the ceiling height does not exceed 1 8 feet, quanti- 
iquare foot over the most remote 1,500-square-foot area, 
ible quantities are allowed to be increased by 2 percent for 
lie amounts. A control area separation is not required. The 
1 30,000 gallons. 



of egress to a public way shall not be less than the dis- 
tance required for an outside hazardous material storage 
or use area without weather protection. 

[F] 414.6.1.3 Noncombustible construction. The over- 
head structure shall be of approved noncombustible con- 
struction with a maximum area of 1,500 square feet (140 
m2). 

Exception: The increases permitted by Section 506 
apply. 

[F] 414.7 Emergency alarms. Emergency alarms for the 
detection and notification of an emergency condition in Group 
H occupancies shall be provided as set forth herein. 

[F] 414.7.1 Storage. An approved manual emergency 
alarm system shall be provided in buildings, rooms or areas 
used for storage of hazardous materials. Emergency 
alarm-initiating devices shall be installed outside of each 
interior exit or exit access door of storage buildings, rooms 
or areas. Activation of an emergency alarm-initiating device 
shall sound a local alarm to alert occupants of an emergency 
situation involving hazardous materials. 

[F] 414.7.2 Dispensing, use and handling. Where hazard- 
ous materials having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accor- 
dance with NFPA 704 are transported through corridors or 
exit enclosures, there shall be an emergency telephone sys- 
tem, a local manual alarm station or an approved alarm-ini- 
tiating device at not more than 150-foot (45 720 mm) 
intervals and at each exit and exit access doorway through- 
out the transport route. The signal shall be relayed to an 
approved central, proprietary or remote station service or 
constantly attended on-site location and shall also initiate a 
local audible alarm. 

[F] 414.7.3 Supervision. Emergency alarm systems shall 
be supervised by an approved central, proprietary or remote 
station service or shall initiate an audible and visual signal at 
a constantly attended on-site location. 



SECTION 415 
GROUPS H-1 , H-2, H-3, H-4 AND H-5 

[F] 415.1 Scope, The provisions of this section shall apply to 
the storage and use of hazardous materials in excess of the 
maximum allow able quantities per control area listed in Sec- 
tion 307.1. Buildings and structures with an occupancy in 
Group H shall also comply with the applicable provisions of 
Section 414 and the International Fire Code. 

[F] 415.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, 
for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in the 
code, have the neanings shown herein. 

[F] CONTINUOUS GAS-DETECTION SYSTEM. A gas 

detection system where the analytical instrument is maintained 
in continuous o])eration and sampling is performed without 
interruption. Analysis is allowed to be performed on a cyclical 
basis at intervals not to exceed 30 minutes. 

[F] EMERGED fCY CONTROL STATION. An approved 
location on the p:.emises where signals from emergency equip- 
ment are received and which is staffed by trained personnel. 

[F] EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. An appUance or piece of 
equipment that ci )nsists of a top, a back and two sides providing 
a means of local <;xhaust for capturing gases, fumes, vapors and 
mists. Such enclosures include laboratory hoods, exhaust fume 
hoods and similtr appliances and equipment used to locally 
retain and exhaus t the gases, fumes, vapors and mists that could 
be released. Rooms or areas provided with general ventilation, 
in themselves, aie not exhausted enclosures. 

[F] FABRIC at: [ON AREA. An area within a semiconductor 
fabrication faciliuy and related research and development areas 
in which there an ^ processes using hazardous production mate- 
rials. Such areas iu^e allowed to include ancillary rooms or areas 
such as dressing rooms and offices that are directly related to 
the fabrication aiea processes. 

[F] FLAMMAILE VAPORS OR FUMES. The concentra- 
tion of flammable constituents in air that exceed 25 percent of 
their lower flammable limit (LFL). 



58 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



[F] GAS CABINET. A fully enclosed, noncombustible enclo- 
sure used to provide an isolated environment for compressed 
gas cylinders in storage or use. Doors and access ports for 
exchanging cylinders and accessing pressure-regulating con- 
trols are allowed to be included. 

[F] GAS ROOM. A separately ventilated, fully enclosed room 
in which only compressed gases and associated equipment and 
supplies are stored or used. 

[F] HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). 

A solid, liquid or gas associated with semiconductor manufac- 
turing that has a degree-of-hazard rating in health, 
flammability or reactivity of Class 3 or 4 as ranked by NFPA 
704 and which is used directly in research, laboratory or pro- 



duction processes that have as their end product materials that 
are not hazardous. 

[F] HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. An HPM liquid that is 
defined as either a Class I flammable liquid or a Class 11 or 
Class niA combustible liquid. 

[F] HPM ROOM. A room used in conjunction with or serving 
a Group H-5 occupancy, where HPM is stored or used and 
which is classified as a Group H-2, H-3 or H-4 occupancy. 

[F] IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND 
HEALTH (IDLH). The concentration of air-borne contami- 
nants which poses a threat of death, immediate or delayed per- 
manent adverse health effects, or effects that could prevent 





[F] TABLE 414.5.1 
EXPLOSION CONTROL REQUIREMENTS" 




MATERIAL 


CLASS 


EXPLOSION CONTROL METHODS 


Barricade construction 


Explosion (deflagration) venting 

or explosion (deflagration) 

prevention systems'' 


HAZARD CATEGORY 


Combustible dusts'^ 





Not Required 


Required 


Cryogenic flammables 





Not Required 


Required 


Explosives 


Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 
Division 1.4 
Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 


Required 
Required 
Not Required 
Not Required 
Required 
Required 


Not Required 
Not Required 
Required 
Required 
Not Required 
Not Required 


Flammable gas 


Gaseous 
Liquefied 


Not Required 
Not Required 


Required 
Required 


Flammable liquid 


IB^ 


Not Required 
Not Required 


Required 
Required 


Organic peroxides 


U 
I 


Required 
Required 


Not Permitted 
Not Permitted 


Oxidizer liquids and solids 


4 


Required 


Not Permitted 


Pyrophoric gas 





Not Required 


Required 


Unstable (reactive) 


4 

3 Detonable 

3 Nondetonable 


Required 

Required 

Not Required 


Not Permitted 

Not Permitted 

Required 


Water-reactive liquids and solids 


3 
2s 


Not Required 
Not Required 


Required 
Required 


SPECIAL USES 


Acetylene generator rooms 





Not Required 


Required 


Grain processing 





Not Required 


Required 


Liquefied petroleum gas- distribution facilities 


— 


Not Required 


Required 


Where explosion hazards exist^ 


Detonation 
Deflagration 


Required 
Not Required 


Not Permitted 
Required 



a. See Section 414.1.3. 

b. See the International Fire Code. 

c. As generated during manufacturing or processing. See definition of "Combustible dust" in Chapter 3. 

d. Storage or use. 

e. In open use or dispensing. 

f . Rooms containing dispensing and use of hazardous materials when an explosive environment can occur because of the characteristics or nature of the hazardous 
materials or as a result of the dispensing or use process. 

g. A method of explosion control shall be provided when Class 2 water-reactive materials can form potentially explosive mixtures. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



59 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



escape from such an environment. This contaminant concen- 
tration level is established by the National Institute of Occupa- 
tional Safety and Health (NIOSH) based on both toxicity and 
flammability. It generally is expressed in parts per million by 
volume (ppm v/v) or milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m^). If 
adequate data do not exist for precise estabUshment of IDLH 
concentrations, an independent certified industrial hygienist, 
industrial toxicologist, appropriate regulatory agency or other 
source approved by the code official shall make such determina- 
tion. 

[F] LIQUID. A material that has a melting point that is equal to 
or less than 68°F (20°C) and a boiling point that is greater than 
68°F (20°C) at 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) 
(101 kPa). When not otherwise identified, the term "liquid" 
includes both flammable and combustible liquids. 

[F] LIQUID STORAGE ROOM. A room classified as a 
Group H-3 occupancy used for the storage of flammable or 
combustible liquids in a closed condition. 

[F] LIQUID USE, DISPENSING AND MIXING ROOMS. 

Rooms in which Class I, n and HIA flammable or combustible 
liquids are used, dispensed or mixed in open containers. 

[F] LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). The minimum 
concentration of vapor in air at which propagation of flame will 
occur in the presence of an ignition source. The LFL is some- 
times referred to as "LEL" or "lower explosive limit." 

NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (NTP). A 

temperature of 70°F (21°C) and a pressure of 1 atmosphere 
[14.7 psia (101 kPa)]. 

[F] PHYSIOLOGICAL WARNING THRESHOLD 
LEVEL. A concentration of air-borne contaminants, normally 
expressed in parts per million (ppm) or milligrams per cubic 
meter, that represents the concentration at which persons can 
sense the presence of the contaminant due to odor, irritation or 
other quick-acting physiological response. When used in 
conjunction with the permissible exposure limit (PEL) the physio- 
logical warning threshold levels are those consistent with the classi- 
fication system used to establish the PEL. See the definition of 
"Permissible exposure limit (PEL)" in the International Fire Code. 

[F] SERVICE CORRIDOR. A fully enclosed passage used 
for transporting HPM and purposes other than required means 
of egress. 

[F] SOLID. A material that has a melting point, decomposes or 
sublimes at a temperature greater than 68°F (20°C). 

[F] STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. 

1 . The keeping, retention or leaving of hazardous materials 
in closed containers, tanks, cylinders or similar vessels, or 

2. Vessels supplying operations through closed connec- 
tions to the vessel. 

[F] USE (MATERIAL). Placing a material into action, includ- 
ing solids, liquids and gases. 

[F] WORKSTATION. A defined space or an independent prin- 
cipal piece of equipment using HPM within a fabrication area 
where a specific function, laboratory procedure or research 
activity occurs. Approved or fisted hazardous materials storage 
cabinets, flammable Hquid storage cabinets or gas cabinets serv- 



ing a workstation are included as part of the workstation. A 
workstation is allowed to contain ventilation equipment, fire 
protection devices, detection devices, electrical devices and 
other processing and scientific equipment. 

[F] 415.3 Fire separation distance. Group H occupancies 
shall be located on property in accordance with the other provi- 
sions of this chapter. In Groups H-2 and H-3, not less than 25 
percent of the perimeter wall of the occupancy shall be an exte- 
rior wall. 

Exceptions: 

1. Liquid use, dispensing and mixing rooms having a 
floor area of not more than 500 square feet (46.5 m^) 
need not be located on the outer perimeter of the 
building where they are in accordance with the Inter- 
national Fire Code and NFPA 30. 

2. Liquid storage rooms having a floor area of not more 
than 1,000 square feet (93 m^) need not be located on 
the outer perimeter where they are in accordance with 
the International Fire Code and NFPA 30. 

3 . Spray paint booths that comply with the International 
Fire Code need not be located on the outer perimeter. 

[F] 415.3.1 Group H occupancy minimum fire separa- 
tion distance. Regardless of any other provisions, buildings 
containing Group H occupancies shall be set back to the 
minimum fire separation distance as set forth in Items 1 
through 4 below. Distances shall be measured from the 
walls enclosing the occupancy to lot fines, including those 
on a public way. Distances to assumed lot lines established 
for the purpose of determining exterior wall and opening 
protection are not to be used to estabfish the minimum fire 
separation distance for buildings on sites where explosives 
are manufactured or used when separation is provided in 
accordance with the quantity distance tables specified for 
explosive materials in the International Fire Code. 

1 . Group H- 1 . Not less than 75 feet (22 860 mm) and not 
less than required by the International Fire Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fireworks manufacturing buildings sepa- 
rated in accordance with NFPA 1124. 

2. Buildings containing the following materi- 
als when separated in accordance with Table 
415.3.1: 

2.1. Organic peroxides, unclassified 
detonable. 

2.2. Unstable reactive materials, Class 4. 

2.3. Unstable reactive materials, Class 3 
detonable. 

2.4. Detonable pyrophoric materials. 

2. Group H-2. Not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) where 
the area of the occupancy exceeds 1,000 square feet 
(93 m^) and it is not required to be located in a 
detached building. 



60 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



TABLE 415.311 
MINIMUM SEPARATION DISTANCES FOR BUILDINGS CONTAINING EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS 







MINIMUM DISTANCE (feet) 


QUANTITY OF EXPLOSIVE MATERIAL^ 


Lot lines" and inhabited buildings" 


Separation of magazines'*' °' ' 


Pounds over 


Pounds not over 


Barricaded" 


Unbarricaded 


2 . 


5 


70 


140 


12 


5 


10 


90 


180 


16 


10 


20 


110 


220 


20 


20 


30 


125 


250 


22 


30 


40 


140 


280 


24 


40 


50 


150 


300 


28 


50 


75 


170 


340 


30 


75 


100 


190 


380 


32 


100 


125 


200 


400 


36 


125 


150 


215 


430 


38 


150 


200 


235 


470 


42 


200 


250 


255 


510 


46 


250 


300 


270 


540 


48 


300 


400 


295 


590 


54 


400 


500 


320 


640 


58 


500 


600 


340 


680 


62 


600 


700 


355 


710 


64 


700 ' 


800 


375 


750 


66 


800 


900 


■ 390 


780 


70 


900 


1,000 


400 


800 


72 


1,000 


1,200 


425 


. 850 


78 


1,200 


1,400 


450 


900 


82 


1,400 


1,600 


470 


940 


86 


1,600 


1,800 


490 


980 


88 


1,800 


2,000 


505 


1,010 


90 


2,000 


2,500 


545 


1,090 


98 


2,500 


3,000 


580 


1,160 


104 


3,000 


4,000 


635 


1,270 


116 


4,000 


5,000 


685 


1,370 


122 


5,000 


6,000 


730 


1,460 


130 


6,000 


7,000 


770 


1,540 


136 


7,000 


8,000 


800 


1,600 


144 


8,000 


9,000 


835 


1,670 


150 


9,000 


10,000 


865 


1,730 


156 


10,000 


12,000 


875 


1,750 


164 


12,000 


14,000 


885 


1,770 ■ 


. 174 


14,000 


16,000 


900 


1,800 


180 


16,000 


18,000 


940 


1,880 


188 


18,000 


20,000 


975 


1,950 


196 


20,000 


25,000 


1,055 


2,000 


210 


25,000 


30,000 


1,130 


2,000 


■ 224 


30,000 


35,000 


1,205 


2,000 


238 


35,000 


40,000 


1,340 


2,000 


248 



(continued) 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



61 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



TABLE 415.3.1— continued 
MINIMUM SEPARATION DISTANCES FOR BUILDINGS CONTAINING EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS 







MINIMUM DISTANCE (feet) 


QUANTITY OF EXPLOSIVE MATERIAL^' 


Lot lines" and inhabited buildings'" 


Separation of magazines'''^'* 


Pounds over 


Pounds not over 


Barricaded'' 


Unbarricaded 


40,000 


45,000 


1,340 


2,000 


258 


45,000 


50,000 


1,400 


2,000 • 


270 


50,000 


55,000 


1,460 


2,000 


280 


55,000 


60,000 


1,515 


2,000 


290 


60,000 


65,000 


1,565 


2,000 


300 


65,000 


70,000 


1,610 


2,000 


310 


70,000 


75,000 


1,655 


2,000 


320 


75,000 


80,000 


1,695 


2,000 


330 


80,000 


85,000 


1,730 


2,000 


340 


85,000 


90,000 


1,760 


2,000 


350 


90,000 


95,000 


1,790 


2,000 


360 


95,000 


100,000 


1,815 


2,000 


370 


100,000 


110,000 


1,835 


2,000 


390 


110,000 


120,000 


1,855 


2,000 


410 


: 120,000 


130,000 


1,875 


2,000 


430 


130,000 


140,000 


1,890 


2,000 


450 


140,000 


150,000 


1,900 


2,000 


470 


150,000 


160,000 


1,935 


2,000 


490 


160,000 


170,000 


1,965 


2,000 


510 


170,000 


180,000 


1,990 


2,000 


530 


180,000 


190,000 


2,010 


2,010 


550 


190,000 


200,000 


2,030 . 


2,030 


570 


200,000 


210,000 


2,055 


2,055 


590 


210,000 


230,000 


2,100 


2,100 


630 


230,000 


250,000 


2,155 


2,155 


670 


250,000 


275,000 


2,215 


2,215 


720 


275,000 


300,000 


2,275 


2,275 


770 



For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929m2. 

a. The number of pounds of explosives listed is the number of pounds of trinitrotoluene (TNT) or the equivalent pounds of other explosive. 

b. The distance listed is the distance to lot line, including lot lines at public ways. 

c. For the purpose of this table, an inhabited building is any building on the same lot that is regularly occupied by people. Where two or more buildings containing 
explosives or magazines are located on the same lot, each building or magazine shall comply with the minimum distances specified from inhabited buildings and, 
in addition, they shall be separated from each other by not less than the distance shown for "Separation of magazines," except that the quantity of explosive materi- 
als contained in detonator buildings or magazines shall govern in regard to the spacing of said detonator buildings or magazines from buildings or magazines con- 
taining other explosive materials. If any two or more buildings or magazines are separated from each other by less than the specified "Separation' of Magazines" 
distances, then such two or more buildings or magazines, as a group, shall be considered as one building or magazine, and the total quantity of explosive materials 
stored in such group shall be treated as if the explosive were in a single building or magazine located on the site of any building or magazine of the group, and shall 
comply with the minimum distance specified from other magazines or inhabited buildings. 

d. Barricades shall effectively screen the building containing explosives from other buildings, public ways or magazines. Where mounds or revetted walls of earth are 
used for barricades, they shall not be less than 3 feet in thickness . A straight line from the top of any side wall of the building containing explosive materials to the 
eave line of any other building, magazine or a point 12 feet above the centerline of a pubUc way shall pass through the barricades. 

e. Magazine is a building or structure, other than an operating building, approved for storage of explosive materials. Portable or mobile magazines not exceeding 1 20 
square feet in area need not comply with the requirements of this code, havever, all magazines shall comply with the International Fire Code. 

f . The distance fisted is permitted to be reduced by 50 percent where approved natural or artificial barriers are provided in accordance with the requirements in Note 
d. 



62 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE*" 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



3. Groups H-2 and H-3. Not less than 50 feet (15 240 
mm) where a detached building is required (see Table 
415.3.2). 

4. Groups H-2 and H-3. Occupancies containing materi- 
als with explosive characteristics shall be separated as 
required by the International Fire Code. Where sepa- 
rations are not specified, the distances required shall 
not be less than the distances required by Table 
415.3.1. 

[F] 415.3.2 Group H-1 and H-2 or H-3 detached build- 
ings. Where a detached building is required by Table 
415.3.2, there are no requirements for wall and opening pro- 
tection based on fire separation distance. 

[F] 415.4 Special provisions for Group H-1 occupancies. 

Group H-1 occupancies shall be in buildings used for no other 
purpose, shall not exceed one story in height and be without a 
basement, crawl spaces or other under-floor spaces. Roofs 
shall be of lightweight construction with suitable thermal insu- 
lation to prevent sensitive material from reaching its decompo- 
sition temperature. 

Group H-1 occupancies containing materials which are in 
themselves both physical and health hazards in quantities 
exceeding the maximum allowable quantities per control area 



in Table 307.1.(2) shall comply with requirements for both 
Group H-1 and H-4 occupancies. 

[F] 415.4.1 Floors in storage rooms. Floors in storage 
areas for organic peroxides, pyrophoric materials and unsta- 
ble (reactive) materials shall be of liquid-tight, 
noncombustible construction. 

[F] 415.5 Special provisions for Group H-2 and H-3 occu- 
pancies. Group H-2 and H-3 occupancies containing quanti- 
ties of hazardous materials in excess of those set forth in Table 
415.3.2 shall be in buildings used for no other purpose, shall 
not exceed one story in height and shall be without basements, 
crawl spaces or other under-floor spaces. 

Group H-2 and H-3 occupancies containing water-reactive 
materials shall be resistant to water penetration. Piping for con- 
veying liquids shall not be over or through areas containing 
water reactives, unless isolated by approved Uquid-tight con- 
struction. 

Exception: Fire protection piping. 

[F] 415.5.1 Floors in storage rooms. Floors in storage 
areas for organic peroxides, oxidizers, pyrophoric materi- 
als, unstable (reactive) materials and water-reactive solids 
and liquids shall be of liquid-tight, noncombustible con- 
struction. 



TABLE 415.3.2 
REQUIRED DETACHED STORAGE 



DETACHED STORAGE IS REQUIRED WHEN THE QUANTITY OF MATERIAL EXCEEDS THAT LISTED HEREIN 


Material 


Class 


Solids and Liquids (1008)°'" 


Gases (cubic feet)^" 


Explosives 


Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 
Division 1.4 
Division 1.4*^ 
Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 

1 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Not Applicable 


Oxidizers 


Class 4 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Unstable (reactives) detonable 


Class 3 or 4 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Oxidizer, liquids and solids 


Class 3 
Class 2 


1,200 
2,000 


Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 


Organic peroxides 


Detonable 
Class I 
Class n 

Class m 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 

■ 25 
50 


Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 


Unstable (reactives) nondetonable 


Class 3 
Class 2 


1 

25. 


2,000 
10,000 


Water reactives 


Class, 3 
Class 2 : 


1 

,25 


Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 


Pyrophoric gases 


Not Applicaijle 


Not Applicable 


2,000 



For SI: 1 ton = 906 kg, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m^ 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 

a. For materials that are detonable, the distance to other buildings or lot lines shall be as specified in Table 415.3. 1 based on trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalence of the 
material. For materials classified as explosives, see Chapter 33 the International Fire Code. For all other materials, the distance shall be as indicated in Section 
415.3.1. 

b. "Maximum Allowable Quantity" means the maximum allowable quantity per control area set forth in Table 307.7(1). 

c. Limited to Division 1 .4 materials and articles, including articles packaged for shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco 
and Firearms (BATF) regulations or unpackaged articles used in process operations that do not propagate a detonation or deflagration between articles, providing 
the net explosive weight of individual articles does not exceed 1 pound. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



63 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



[F] 415.5.2 Waterproof room. Rooms or areas used for the 
storage of water-reactive solids and liquids shall be con- 
structed in a manner that resists the penetration of water 
through the use of waterproof materials. Piping carrying 
water for other than approved automatic fire sprinkler sys- 
tems shall not be within such rooms or areas. 

[F] 415.6 Group H-2. Occupancies in Group H-2 shall be con- 
structed in accordance with Sections 415.6.1 through 415.6.4 
and the International Fire Code. 

[F] 415.6.1 Combustible dusts, grain processing and 
storage. The provisions of Sections 415.6.1.1 through 
415.6.1.6 shall apply to buildings in which materials that 
produce combustible dusts are stored or handled. Buildings 
that store or handle combustible dusts shall comply with the 
applicable provisions of NFPA 61, NFFA 120, NFPA 651, 
NFFA 654, NFPA 655, NFPA 664 and NFPA 85, and the 
International Fire Code. 

[F] 415.6.1.1 Type of construction and height excep- 
tions. Buildings shall be constructed in compliance with 
the height and area limitations of Table 503 for Group 
H-2; except that where erected of Type I or II construc- 
tion, the heights and areas of grain elevators and similar 
structures shall be unlimited, and where of Type IV con- 
struction, the maximum height shall be 65 feet (19 812 
mm) and except further that, in isolated areas, the maxi- 
mum height of Type IV structures shall be increased to 
85 feet (25 908 mm). 

[F] 415.6.1.2 Grinding rooms. Every room or space 
occupied for grinding or other operations that produce 
combustible dusts shall be enclosed with fire barriers that 
have not less than a 2-hour fire-resistance rating where 
the area is not more than 3,000 square feet (279 m^), and 
not less than a 4-hour fire-resistance rating where the 
area is greater than 3,000 square feet (279 m^). 

[F] 415.6.1.3 Conveyors. Conveyors, chutes, piping and 
similar equipment passing through the enclosures of 
rooms or spaces shall be constructed dirt tight and vapor 
tight, and be of approved noncombustible materials com- 
plying with Chapter 30. 

[F] 415.6.1.4 Explosion control. Explosion control 
shall be provided as specified in the International Fire 
Code, or spaces shall be equipped with the equivalent 
mechanical ventilation complying with the International 
Mechanical Code. 

[F] 415.6.1.5 Grain elevators. Grain elevators, malt 
houses and buildings for similar occupancies shall not be 
located within 30 feet (9144 mm) of interior lot Hnes or 
structures on the same lot, except where erected along a 
railroad right-of-way. 

[F] 415.6.1.6 Coal pockets. Coal pockets located less 
than 30 feet (9144 mm) from interior lot lines or from 
structures on the same lot shall be constructed of not less 
than Type IB construction. Where more than 30 feet 
(9 144 mm) from interior lot lines, or where erected along 
a railroad right-of-way, the minimum type of construc- 



tion of such structures not more than 65 feet (19 812 mm) 
in height shall be Type IV. 

[F] 415.6.2 Flammable and combustible liquids. The 

storage, handling, processing and transporting of flamma- 
ble and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with the 
International Mechanical Code and the International Fire 
Code. 

[F] 415.6.2.1 Mixed occupancies. Where the storage 
tank area is located in a building of two or more occupan- 
cies, and the quantity of liquid exceeds the maximum 
allowable quantity for one control area, the use shall be 
completely separated from adjacent fire areas in accor- 
dance with the requirements of Section 508.3.3. 

[F] 415.6.2.1.1 Height exception. Where storage 
tanks are located within only a single-story building, 
the height limitation of Section 503 shall not apply for 
Group H. 

[F] 415.6.2.2 Tank protection. Storage tanks shall be 
noncombustible and protected from physical damage. A 
fire barrier wall or horizontal assemblies or both around 
the storage tank(s) shall be permitted as the method of 
protection from physical damage. 

[F] 415.6.2.3 Tanks. Storage tanks shall be approved 
tanks conforming to the requirernents of the Interna- 
tional Fire Code. 

[F] 415.6.2.4 Suppression. Group H shall be equipped 
throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem, installed in accordance with Section 903. 

[F] 415.6.2.5 Leakage containment. A liquid-tight con- 
tainment area compatible with the stored liquid shall be 
provided. The method of spill control, drainage control 
and secondary containment shall be in accordance with 
the International Fire Code. 

Exception: Rooms where only double-wall storage 
tanks conforming to Section 415.6.2.3 are used to 
store Class I, II and IIIA flammable and combustible 
liquids shall not be required to have a leakage contain- 
ment area. 

[F] 415.6.2.6 Leakage alarm. An approved automatic 
alarm shall be provided to indicate a leak in a storage 
tank and room. The alarm shall sound an audible signal, 
15 dBa above the ambient sound level, at every point of 
entry into the room in which the leaking storage tank is 
located. An approved sign shall be posted on every entry 
door to the tank storage room indicating the potential 
hazard of the interior room environment, or the sign shall 
state: WARNING, WHEN ALARM SOUNDS, THE 
ENVIRONMENT WITHIN THE ROOM MAY BE 
HAZARDOUS. The leakage alarm shall also be super- 
vised in accordance with Chapter 9 to transmit a trouble 
signal. 

[F] 415.6.2.7 Tank vent. Storage tank vents for Class I, 
II or IIIA liquids shall terminate to the outdoor air in 
accordance with the International Fire Code. 



64 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



[F] 415.6.2.8 Room ventilation. Storage tank areas stor- 
ing Class I, II or IIIA liquids shall be provided with 
mechanical ventilation. The mechanical ventilation sys- 
tem shall be in accordance with the International 
Mechanical Code and the International Fire Code. 

[F] 415.6.2.9 Explosion venting. Where Class I hquids 
are being stored, explosion venting shall be provided in 
accordance with the International Fire Code. 

[F] 415.6.2.10 Tank openings other than vents. Tank 
openings other than vents from tanks inside buildings 
shall be designed to ensure that liquids or vapor concen- 
trations are not released inside the building. 

[F] 415.6.3 Liquefied petroleum gas-distribution facili- 
ties. The design and construction of propane, butane, pro- 
pylene, butylene and other liquefied petroleum 
gas-distribution facilities shall conform to the applicable 
provisions of Sections 415.6.3.1 through 415.6.3.5.2. The 
storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gas systems 
shall conform to the International Fire Code. The design 
and installation of piping, equipment and systems that uti- 
lize liquefied petroleum gas shall be in accordance with the 
International Fuel Gas Code. Liquefied petroleum gas-dis- 
tribution facilities shall be ventilated in accordance with the 
International Mechanical Code and Section 415.6.3.1. 

[F] 415.6.3.1 Air movement. Liquefied petroleum gas- 
distribution facilities shall be provided with air inlets and 
outlets arranged so that air movement across the floor of 
the facility will be uniform. The total area of both inlet 
and outlet openings shall be at least 1 square inch (645 
mm^) for each 1 square foot (0.093 m^) of floor area. The 
bottom of such openings shall not be more than 6 inches 
(152 mm) above the floor. 

[F] 415.6.3.2 Construction. Liquefied petroleum 
gas-distribution facilities shall be constructed in accor- 
dance with Section 415.6.3.3 for separate buildings. Sec- 
tion 415.6.3.4 for attached buildings or Section 
415.6.3.5 for rooms within buildings. 

[F] 415.6.3.3 Separate buildings. Where located in sep- 
arate buildings, liquefied petroleum gas-distribution 
facilities shall be occupied exclusively for that purpose 
or for other purposes having similar hazards. Such build- 
ings shall be limited to one story in height and shall con- 
form to Sections 415.6.3.3.1 through 415.6.3.3.3. 

[F] 415.6.3.3.1 Floors. The floor shall not be located 
below ground level and any spaces beneath the floor 
shall be solidly filled or shall be unenclosed. 

[F] 415.6.3.3.2 Materials. Walls, floors, ceilings, 
columns and roofs shall be constructed of 
noncombustible materials. 

[F] 415.6.3.3.3 Explosion venting. Explosion vent- 
ing shall be provided in accordance with the Interna- 
tional Fire Code. 



[F] 415.6.3.4 Attached buildings. Where liquefied 
petroleum gas-distribution facilities are located in an 
attached structure, the attached perimeter shall not 
exceed 50 percent of the perimeter of the space enclosed 
and the facility shall comply with Sections 415.6.3.3 and 
415.6.3.4.1. Where the attached perimeter exceeds 50 
percent, such facilities shall comply with Section 
415.6.3.5. 

[F] 415.6.3.4.1 Fire separation. Separation of the 
attached structures shall be provided by fire barriers 
having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour 
and shall not have openings. Fire barriers between 
attached structures occupied only for the storage of 
LP-gas are permitted to have fire door assemblies that 
comply with Section 715. Such fire barriers shall be 
designed to withstand a static pressure of at least 100 
pounds per square foot (psf) (4788 Pa), except where 
the building to which the structure is attached is occu- 
pied by operations or processes having a similar haz- 
ard. 

[F] 415.6.3.5 Rooms within buildings. Where liquefied 
petroleum gas-distribution facilities are located in rooms 
within buildings, such rooms shall be located in the first 
story above grade plane and shall have at least one exte- 
rior wall with sufficient exposed area to provide explo- 
sion venting as required in the International Fire Code. 
The building in which the room is located shall not have a 
basement or unventilated crawl space and the room shall 
comply with Sections 415.6.3.5.1 and 415.6.3.5.2. 

[F] 415.6.3.5.1 Materials. Walls, floors, ceihngs and 
roofs of such rooms shall be constructed of approved 
noncombustible materials. 

[F] 415.6.3.5.2 Common construction. Walls and 
floor/ceiling assemblies conmion to the room and to 
the building where the room is located shall be fire 
barriers with not less than a 1-hour fire-resistance rat- 
ing and without openings. Common walls for rooms 
occupied only for storage of LP-gas are permitted to 
have opening protectives complying with Section 
715. The walls and ceilings shall be designed to with- 
stand a static pressure of at least 100 psf (4788 Pa). 

Exception: Where the building, within which the 
room is located, is occupied by operations or pro- 
cesses having a similar hazard. 

[F] 415.6.4 Dry cleaning plants. The construction and 
installation of dry cleaning plants shall be in accordance 
with the requirements of this code, the International 
Mechanical Code, the International Plumbing Code and 
NFPA 32. Dry cleaning solvents and systems shall be classi- 
fied in accordance with the International Fire Code. 

[F] 415.7 Groups H-3 and H-4. Groups H-3 and H-4 shall be 
constructed in accordance with the applicable provisions of 
this code and the International Fire Code. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



65 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



[F] 415.7.1 Gas rooms. When gas rooms are provided, such 
rooms shall be separated from other areas by not less than a 
1-hour fire barrier. 

[F] 415.7.2 Floors in storage rooms. Floors in storage 
areas for corrosive liquids and highly toxic or toxic materi- 
als shall be of liquid-tight, noncombustible construction. 

[F] 415.7.3 Separation — highly toxic solids and liquids. 

Highly toxic solids and liquids not stored in approved haz- 
ardous materials storage cabinets shall be isolated from 
other hazardous materials storage by a fire barrier having a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. 

[F] 415.8 Group H-5. 

[F] 415.8.1 General. In addition to the requirements set 
forth elsewhere in this code. Group H-5 shall comply with 
the provisions of Section 415.8 and the International Fire 
Code. 

[F] 415.8.2 Fabrication areas. 

[F] 415.8.2.1 Hazardous materials in fabrication 
areas. 

[F] 415.8.2.1.1 Aggregate quantities. The aggregate 
quantities of hazardous materials stored and used in a 
single fabrication area shall not exceed the quantities 
set forth in Table 415.8.2.1.1. 

Exception: The quantity limitations for any haz- 
ard category in Table 415.8.2.1.1 shall not apply 
where the fabrication area contains quantities of 
hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum 
allowable quantities per control area established 
by Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2). 

[F] 415.8.2.1.2 Hazardous production materials. 

The maximum quantities of hazardous production 
materials (HPM) stored in a single fabrication area 
shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities 
per control area established by Tables 307.1(1) and 
307.1(2). 

[F] 415.8.2.2 Separation. Fabrication areas, whose 
sizes are limited by the quantity of hazardous materials 
allowed by Table 415.8.2.1.1, shall be separated from 
each other, from corridors and from other parts of the 
building by not less than 1-hour fire barriers. 

Exceptions: 

1. Doors within such fire barrier walls, including 
doors to corridors, shall be only self-closing 
fire door assemblies having a fire protection 
rating of not less than V4 hour. 

2. Windows between fabrication areas and corri- 
dors are permitted to be fixed glazing listed and 
labeled for a fire protection rating of at least V4 
hour in accordance with Section 715. 

[F] 415.8.2.3 Location of occupied levels. Occupied 
levels of fabrication areas shall be located at or above the 
first story above grade plane. 



[F] 415.8.2.4 Floors. Except for surfacing, floors within 
fabrication areas shall be of noncombustible construc- 
tion. 

Openings through floors of fabrication areas are per- 
mitted to be unprotected where the interconnected levels 
are used solely for mechanical equipment directly 
related to such fabrication areas (see also Section 
415.8.2.5). 

Floors forming a part of an occupancy separation shall 
be liquid tight. 

[F] 415.8.2.5 Shafts and openings through floors. Ele- 
vator shafts, vent shafts and other openings through 
floors shall be enclosed when required by Section 707. 
Mechanical, duct and piping penetrations within a fabri- 
cation area shall not extend through more than two 
floors. The annular space around penetrations for cables, 
cable trays, tubing, piping, conduit or ducts shall be 
sealed at the floor level to restrict the movement of air. 
The fabrication area, including the areas through which 
the ductwork and piping extend, shall be considered a 
single conditioned environment. 

[F] 415.8.2.6 Ventilation. Mechanical exhaust ventila- 
tion at the rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per 
square foot (0.044 L/s/m^) of floor area shall be provided 
throughout the portions of the fabrication area where 
HPM are used or stored. The exhaust air duct system of 
one fabrication area shall not connect to another duct 
system outside that fabrication area within the building. 

A ventilation system shall be provided to capture and 
exhaust gases, fumes and vapors at workstations. 

Two or more operations at a workstation shall not be 
connected to the same exhaust system where either one 
or the combination of the substances removed could con- 
stitute a fire, explosion or hazardous chemical reaction 
within the exhaust duct system. 

Exhaust ducts penetrating occupancy separations 
shall be contained in a shaft of equivalent fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction. Exhaust ducts shall not pene- 
trate fire walls. 

Fire dampers shall not be installed in exhaust ducts. 

[F] 415.8.2.7 Transporting hazardous production 
materials to fabrication areas. HPM shall be trans- 
ported to fabrication areas through enclosed piping or 
tubing systems that comply with Section 415.8.6.1, 
through service corridors complying with Section 
415.8.4, or in corridors as permitted in the exception to 
Section 415.8.3. The handling or transporting of HPM 
within service corridors shall comply with the Interna- 
tional Fire Code. 

[F] 415.8.2.8 Electrical. 

[F] 415.8.2.8.1 General. Electrical equipment and 
devices within the fabrication area shall comply with 
the ICC Electrical Code. The requirements for haz- 
ardous locations need not be applied where the aver- 



66 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE*" 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



TABLE 415.8.2.1.1 
QUANTITY LIMITS FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN A SINGLE FABRICATION AREA IN GROUP H-5» 


HAZARD CATEGORY 


SOLIDS 
(pounds per square feet) 


LIQUIDS 
(gallons per square feet) 


GAS 
(feet^ @ NTP/square feet) 


PHYSICAL-HAZARD MATERIALS 


.Combustible dust 


Noteb 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Combustible fiber Loose 
Baled 


Noteb 
Notes b, c 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Combustible liquid II 

IIIA 
IIIB 

Combination Class I, E and IIIA 


Not Applicable 


0.01 

0.02 

Not Limited 

0.04 


Not Applicable 


Cryogenic gas Flammable 
Oxidizing 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Noted 
1.25 


Explosives 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Flammable gas Gaseous 
Liquefied 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Note d 
Noted 


Flammable liquid lA 
IB 
IC 

Combination Class lA, IB and IC 
Combination Class I, II and IIIA 


Not Applicable 


0.0025 
0.025 
0.025 
0.025 
0.04 


Not Applicable 


Flammable solid 


0.001 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Organic peroxide 
Unclassified detonable 
Class I 
Class II 
Class m 
Class IV 
Class V 


Noteb 

Noteb 

0.025 

0.1 

Not Limited 

Not limited 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Oxidizing gas Gaseous 
Liquefied 

Combination of gaseous 
and liquefied 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


1.25 
1.25 

1.25 


Oxidizer Class 4 
Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 

Combination Class 1, 2, 3 


Noteb 
0.003 
0.003 
0.003 
0.003 


Noteb 
0.003 
0.003 
0.003 
0.003 


Not Applicable 


Pyrophoric material 


Note b 


0.00125 


Notes d and e 


Unstable reactive Class 4 
Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 


Noteb 

0.025 

0.1 

Not Limited 


Noteb 

0.0025 

0.01 

Not Limited 


Noteb 

Noteb 

Noteb 

Not Limited 


Water reactive Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 


Note b 

0.25 

Not Limited 


0.00125 

0.025 

Not Limited 


Not Applicable 


HEALTH-HAZARD MATERIALS 


Corrosives 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Highly toxic 


Not.Limited 


Not Limited 


Note d 


Toxics 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Noted 



For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 4.882 kgAn^, 1 gallon per square foot = 40.7 L/m^, 1 cubic foot @ NTP/square foot - 0.305 m^ @ NTP/m^, 
1 cubic foot = 0.02832 Ml 

a. Hazardous materials within piping shall not be included in the calculated quantities. 

b. Quantity of hazardous materials in a single fabrication shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2). 

c. Densely packed baled cotton that comphes with the packing requirements of ISO 8115 shall not be included in this material class. 

d. The aggregate quantity of flammable, pyrophoric, toxic and highly toxic gases shall not exceed 9,000 cubic feet at NTP. 

e. The aggregate quantity of pyrophoric gases in the building shall not exceed the amounts set forth in Table 415.3.2. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



67 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



age air change is at least four times that set forth in 
Section 415.8.2.6 and where the number of air 
changes at any location is not less than three times that 
required by Section 415.8.2.6. The use of recirculated 
air shall be permitted. 

[F] 415.8.2.8.2 Workstations. Workstations shall not 
be energized without adequate exhaust ventilation. 
See Section 415.8.2.6 for workstation exhaust venti- 
lation requirements. 

[F] 415.8.3 Corridors. Corridors shall comply with Chap- 
ter 10 and shall be separated from fabrication areas as speci- 
fied in Section 415.8.2.2. Corridors shall not contain HPM 
and shall not be used for transporting such materials, except 
through closed piping systems as provided in Section 
415.8.6.3. 

Exception: Where existing fabrication areas are altered 
or modified, HPM is allowed to be transported in existing 
corridors, subject to the following conditions: 

1. Corridors. Corridors adjacent to the fabrication 
area where the alteration work is to be done shall 
comply with Section 1 1 7 for a length determined 
as follows: 

1.1 The length of the common wall of the cor- 
ridor and the fabrication area; and 

1.2. For the distance along the corridor to the 
point of entry of HPM into the corridor 
serving that fabrication area. 

2. Emergency alarm system. There shall be an emer- 
gency telephone system, a local manual alarm sta- 
tion or other approved alarm-initiating device 
within corridors at not more than 150-foot (45 720 
mm) intervals and at each exit and doorway. The 
signal shall be relayed to an approved central, pro- 
prietary or remote station service or the emergency 
control station and shall also initiate a local audible 
alarm. 

3. Pass-throughs. Self-closing doors having a fire 
protection rating of not less than 1 hour shall sepa- 
rate pass-throughs from existing corridors. 
Pass-throughs shall be constructed as required for 
the corridors and protected by an approved auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing system. 

[F] 415.8.4 Service corridors. 

[F] 415.8.4.1 Occupancy. Service corridors shall be 
classified as Group H-5. 

[F] 415.8.4.2 Use conditions. Service corridors shall be 
separated from corridors as required by Section 
415.8.2.2. Service corridors shall not be used as a 
required corridor. 

[F] 415.8.4.3 Mechanical ventilation. Service corridors 
shall be mechanically ventilated as required by Section 
415.8.2.6 or at not less than six air changes per hour, 
whichever is greater. 



[F] 415.8.4.4 Means of egress. The maximum distance 
of travel from any point in a service corridor to an exit, 
exit access corridor or door into a fabrication: area shall 
not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). Dead ends shall not 
exceed 4 feet (1219 mm) in length. There shall be not less 
than two exits, and not more than one-half of the required 
means of egress shall require travel into a fabrication 
area. Doors from service corridors shall swing in the 
direction of egress travel and shall be self-closing. 

[F] 415.8.4.5 Minimum width. The minimum clear 
width of a service corridor shall be 5 feet ( 1 524 mm), or 
33 inches (838 mm) wider than the widest cart or truck 
used in the corridor, whichever is greater. 

[F] 415.8.4.6 Emergency alarm system. Emergency 
alarm systems shall be provided in accordance with this 
section and Sections 414.7. 1 and 414.7.2. The maximum 
allowable quantity per control area provisions shall not 
apply to emergency alarm systems required for HPM. 

[F] 415.8.4.6.1 Service corridors. An emergency 
alarm system shall be provided in service corridors, 
with at least one alarm device in each service corridor. 

[F] 415.8.4.6.2 Exit access corridors and exit enclo- 
sures. Emergency alarms for exit access corridors and 
exit enclosures shall comply with Section 414.7.2. 

[F] 415.8.4.6.3 Liquid storage rdcims, HPM rooms 
and gas rooms. Emergency alarms for liquid storage 
rooms, HPM rooms and gas rooms shall comply with 
Section 414.7.1. 

[F] 415.8.4.6.4 Alarm-ihitiating devices. An 

approved emergency telephone system, local alarm 
manual pull stations, or other approved alarm-initiat- 
ing devices are allowed to be used as emergency 
alarm-initiating devices. 

[F] 415.8.4.6.5 Alarm signals. Activation of the 
emergency alarm system shall sound a local alarm 
and transmit a signal to the emergency control station. 

[F] 415.8.5 Storage of hazardous production materials. 

[F] 415.8.5.1 General. Storage of HPM in fabrication 
areas shall be within approved or listed storage cabinets 
or gas cabinets or within a workstation. The storage of 
HPM in quantities greater than those listed in Section 
1804.2 of the International Fire Code shall be in liquid 
storage rooms, HPM rooms or gas rooms as appropriate 
for the materials stored. The storage of other hazardous 
materials shall be in accordance with other applicable 
provisions of this code and the International Fire Code. 

[F] 415.8.5.2 Construction. 

[F] 415.8.5.2.1 HPM rooms and gas rooms. HPM 

rooms and gas rooms shall be separated from other 
areas by not less than a 2-hour fire barrier where the 
area is 300 square feet (27.9 m^) or more and not less 
than a 1-hour fire barrier where the area is less than 
300 square feet (27.9 m2). 



68 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



[F] 415.8.5.2.2 Liquid storage rooms. Liquid stor- 
age rooms shall be constructed in accordance with the 
following requirements: 

1. Rooms in excess of 500 square feet (46.5 m^) 
shall have at least one exterior door approved 
for fire department access. 

2. Rooms shall be separated from other areas by 
fire barriers having a fire-resistance rating of 
not less than 1-hour for rooms up to 150 square 
feet (13.9 m^) in area and not less than 2 hours 
where the room is more than 150 square feet 
(13.9 m^) in area. 

3. Shelving, racks and wainscoting in such areas 
shall be of noncombustible construction or 
wood of not less than linch (25 mm) nominal 
thickness. 

4. Rooms used for the storage of Class I flamma- 
ble liquids shall not be located in a basement. 

[F] 415.8.5.2.3 Floors. Except for surfacing, floors of 
HPM rooms and liquid storage rooms shall be of 
noncombustible liquid-tight construction. Raised 
, grating over floors shall be of noncombustible materi- 
als. 

[F] 415.8.5.3 Location. Where HPM rooms, liquid stor- 
age rooms and gas rooms are provided, they shall have at 
least one exterior wall and such wall shall be not less than 
30 feet (9 144 mm) from lot lines, including lot lines adja- 
cent to public ways. 

[F] 415.8.5.4 Explosion control. Explosion control 
shall be provided where required by Section 414.5.1. 

[F] 415.8.5.5 Exits. Where two exits are required from 
HPM rooms, liquid storage rooms and gas rooms, one 
shall be directly to the outside of the building. 

[F] 415.8.5.6 Doors. Doors in a fire barrier wall, includ- 
ing doors to corridors, shall be self-closing fire door 
assemblies having a fire-protection rating of not less than 
V4 hour. 

[F] 415.8.5.7 Ventilation. Mechanical exhaust ventila- 
tion shall be provided in liquid storage rooms, HPM 
rooms and gas rooms at the rate of not less than 1 cubic 
foot per minute per square foot (0.044 L/s/m^) of floor 
area or six air changes per hour, whichever is greater, for 
categories of material. 

Exhaust ventilation for gas rooms shall be designed to 
operate at a negative pressure in relation to the surround- 
ing areas and direct the exhaust ventilation to an exhaust 
system. 

[F] 415.8.5.8 Emergency alarm system. An approved 
emergency alarm system shall be provided for HPM 
rooms, liquid storage rooms and gas rooms. 

Emergency alarm-initiating devices shall be installed 
outside of each interior exit door of such rooms. 

Activation of an emergency alarm-initiating device 
shall sound a local alarm and transmit a signal to the 
emergency control station. 



An approved emergency telephone system, local 
alarm manual pull stations or other approved alarm-initi- 
ating devices are allowed to be used as emergency 
alarm-initiating devices. 

[F] 415.8.6 Piping and tubing. 

[F] 415.8.6.LGeneral. Hazardous production materials 
piping and tubing shall comply with this section and 
ASMEB31.3. 

[F] 415.8.6.2 Supply piping and tubing. 

[F] 415.8.6.2.1 HPM having a health-hazard rank- 
ing of 3 or 4. Systems supplying HPM liquids or 
gases having a health-hazard ranking of 3 or 4 shall be 
welded throughout, except for connections, to the 
systems that are within a ventilated enclosure if the 
material is a gas, or an approved method of drainage 
or containment is provided for the connections if the 
material is a liquid. 

[F] 415.8.6.2.2 Location in service corridors. Haz- 
ardous production materials supply piping or tubing 
in service corridors shall be exposed to view. 

[F] 415.8.6.2.3 Excess flow control. Where HPM 
gases or liquids are carried in pressurized piping 
above 15 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (103.4 
kPa), excess flow control shall be provided. Where 
the piping originates from within a liquid storage 
room, HPM room or gas room, the excess flow con- 
trol shall be located within the liquid storage room, 
HPM room or gas room. Where the piping originates 
from a bulk source, the excess flow control shall be 
located as close to the bulk source as practical. 

[F] 415.8.6.3 Installations in corridors and above 
other occupancies. The installation of HPM piping and 
tubing within the space defined by the walls of corridors 
and the floor or roof above, or in concealed spaces above 
other occupancies, shall be in accordance with Section 
415.8.6.2 and the following conditions: 

1. Automatic sprinklers shall be installed within the 
space unless the space is less than 6 inches (152 
mm) in the least dimension, 

2. Ventilation not less than six air changes per hour 
shall be provided. The space shall not be used to 
convey air from any other area. 

3. Where the piping or tubing is used to transport 
HPM liquids, a receptor shall be installed below 
such piping or tubing. The receptor shall be 
designed to collect any discharge or leakage and 
drain it to an approved location. The 1-hour enclo- 
sure shall not be used as part of the receptor. 

4. HPM supply piping and tubing and nonmetallic 
waste lines shall be separated from the corridor 
and from occupancies other than Group H-5 by 
fire barriers that have a fire-resistance rating of not 
less than 1 hour. Where gypsum wallboard is used, 
joints on the piping side of the enclosure are not 
required to be taped, provided the joints occur over 
framing members. Access openings into the enclo- 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



69 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



sure shall be protected by approved fire protec- 
tion-rated assemblies. 

5. Readily accessible manual or automatic. remotely 
activated fail-safe emergency shutoff valves shall 
be installed on piping and tubing other than waste 
lines at the following locations: 

5.1. At branch connections into the fabrication 
area. 

5.2. At entries into corridors. 

Exception: Transverse crossings of the 
corridors by supply piping that is 
enclosed within a ferrous pipe or tube for 
the width of the corridor need not comply 
with Items 1 through 5. 

[F] 415.8.6.4 Identification. Piping, tubing and HPM 
waste lines shall be identified in accordance with ANSI 
A13.1 to indicate the material being transported. 

[F] 415.8.7 Continuous gas detection systems. A continu- 
ous gas detection system shall be provided for HPM gases 
when the physiological warning threshold level of the gas is 
at a higher level than the accepted PEL for the gas and for 
flammable gases in accordance with this section. 

[F] 415.8.7.1 Where required. A continuous gas-detec- 
tion system shall be provided in the areas identified in 
Sections 415.8.7.1.1 through 415.8.7.1.4. 

[F] 415.8.7.1.1 Fabrication areas. A continuous 
gas-detection systerh shall be provided in fabrication 
areas when gas is used in the fabrication area. 

[F] 415.8.7.1.2 HPM rooms. A continuous 
gas-detection system shall be provided in HPM 
rooms when gas is used in the room. 

[F] 415.8.7.1.3 Gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures 
and gas rooms. A continuous gas-detection system 
shall be provided in gas cabinets and exhausted enclo- 
sures. A continuous gas-detection system shall be 
provided in gas rooms when gases are not located in 
gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures. 

[F] 415.8.7.1.4 Corridors. When gases are trans- 
ported in piping placed within the space defined by 
the walls of a corridor and the floor or roof above the 
corridor, a continuous gas-detection system shall be 
provided where piping is located and in the corridor. 

Exception: A continuous gas-detection system is 
not required for occasional transverse crossings of 
the corridors by supply piping that is enclosed in a 
ferrous pipe or tube for the width of the corridor. 

[F] 415.8.7.2 Gas-detection system operation. The 

continuous gas-detection system shall be capable of 
monitoring the room, area or equipment in which the gas 
is located at or below the PEL or ceiling limit of the gas 
for which detection is provided. For flammable giases, 
the monitoring detection threshold level shall be vapor 
concentrations in excess of 20 percent of the lower 
explosive limit (LEL). Monitoring for highly toxic and 



toxic gases shall also comply with the requirements for 
such material iii the International Fire Code. 

[F] 415.8.7.2.1 Alarms. The gas detection system 
shall initiate a local alarm and transmit a signal to the 
emergency control station when a short-term hazard 
condition is detected. The alarm shall be both visual 
and audible and shall provide warning both inside and 
outside the area where the gas is detected. The audible 
alarm shall be distinct from all other alarms. 

[F] 415.8.7.2.2 Shutoff of gas supply. The gas detec- 
tion system shall automatically close the shutoff valve 
at the source on gas supply piping and tubing related 
to the system being monitored for which gas is 
detected when a short-term hazard condition is 
detected. Automatic closure of shutoff valves shall 
comply with the following: 

1. Where the gas-detection sampling point initiat- 
ing the gas detection system alarm is within a 
gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure, the shutoff 
valve in the gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure 
for the specific gas detected shall automatically 
close. 

2. Where the gas-detection sampling point initiat- 
ing the gas detection system alarm is within a 
room and compressed gas containers are not in 
gas cabinets or an exhausted enclosure, the 
shutoff valves on all gas lines for the specific 
gas detected shall automatically close. 

3. Where the gas-detection sampling point initiat- 
ing the gas detection system alarm is within a 
piping distribution manifold enclosure, the 
shutoff valve supplying the manifold for the 
compressed gas container of the specific gas 
detected shall automatically close. 

Exception: Where the gas-detection sampling 
point initiating the gas detection system alarm is at 
the use location or within a gas valve enclosure of a 
branch line downstream of a piping distribution 
manifold, the shutoff valve for the branch line 
located in the piping distribution manifold enclo- 
sure shall automatically close. 

[F] 415.8.8 Manual fire alarm system. An approved man- 
ual fire alarm system shall be provided throughout buildings 
containing Group H-5. Activation of the alarm system shall 
initiate a local alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency 
control station. The fire alarm system shall be designed and 
installed in accordance with Section 907. 

415.8.9 Emergency control station. An emergency con- 
trol station shall be provided in accordance with Sections 
415.8.9.1 through 415.8.9.3. 

415.8.9.1 Location. The emergency control station 
shall be located on the premises at an approved location 
outside the fabrication area. 

415.8.9.2 Staffing. Trained personnel shall continu- 
ously staff the emergency control station. 



70 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



415.8.9.3 Signals. The emergency control station shall 
receive signals from emergency equipment and alarm 
and detection systems. Such emergency equipment and 
alarm and detection systems shall include, but not be lim- 
ited to, the following where such equipment or systems 
are required to be provided either in this chapter or else- 
where in this code: 

1. Automatic fire sprinkler system alarm and moni- 
toring systems. 

2. Manual fire alarm systems. 

3. Emergency alarm systems. 

4. Continuous gas-detection systems. 

5. Smoke detection systems. 

6. Emergency power system. 

7. Automatic detection and alarm systems for 
pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liq- 
uids required in Section 1805.2.3.5 of the Interna- 
tional Fire Code. 

8. Exhaust ventilation flow alarm devices for 
pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liq- 
uids cabinet exhaust ventilation systems required 
in Section 1805.2.3.5 of the International Fire 
Code: 

[F] 415.8.10 Emergency power system. An emergency 
power system shall be provided in Group H-5 occupancies 
where required in Section 415.8.10.1. The emergency 
power system shall be designed to supply power automati- 
cally to required electrical systems when the normal electri- 
cal supply system is interrupted. 

[F] 415.8.10.1 Required electrical systems. Emer- 
gency power shall be provided for electrically operated 
equipment and connected control circuits for the follow- 
ing systems: 

1. HPM exhaust ventilation systems 

2. HPM gas cabinet ventilation systems. 

3. HPM exhausted enclosure ventilation systems. 

4. HPM gas room ventilation systems. 

5. HPM gas detection systems. 

6. Emergency alarm systems. 
'7. Manual fire alarm systems. 

8. Automatic sprinkler system monitoring and 
alarm systems. 

9. Automatic alarm and detection systems for 
pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive 
liquids required in Section 1805.2.3.5 of the 
International Fire Code. 

10. Flow alarm switches for pyrophoric Uquids and 
Class 3 water-reactive liquids cabinet exhaust 
ventilation systems required in Section 
1805.2.3.5 of the International Fire Code. 

1 1 . Electrically operated systems required elsewhere 
in this code or in the International Fire Code 



applicable to the use, storage or handling of 
HPM. 

[F] 415.8.10.2 Exhaust ventilation systems. Exhaust 
ventilation systems are allowed to be designed to operate 
at not less than one-half the normal fan speed on the 
emergency power system where it is demonstrated that 
the level of exhaust will maintain a safe atmosphere. 

[F] 415.8.11 Automatic sprinkler system protection in 
exhaust ducts for HPM. 

[F] 415.8.11.1 Exhaust ducts for HPM. An approved 
automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in exhaust 
ducts conveying gases, vapors, fumes, mists or dusts 
generated from HPM in accordance with this section and 
the International Mechanical Code. 

[F] 415.8.11.2 Metallic and noncombustible nonme- 
tallic exhaust ducts. An approved automatic sprinkler 
system shall be provided in metallic and noncombustible 
nonmetallic exhaust ducts when all of the following con- 
ditions apply: 

1 . Where the largest cross-sectional diameter is equal 
to or greater than 10 inches (254 mm). 

2. The ducts are within the building. 

3. The ducts are conveying flammable gases, vapors 
or fumes. 

[F] 415.8.11.3 Combustible nonmetallic exhaust 
ducts. Automatic sprinkler system protection shall be 
provided in combustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts 
where the largest cross-sectional diameter of the duct is 
equal to or greater than 10 inches (254 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1. Ducts listed or approved for applications with- 
out automatic fire sprinkler system protection. 

2. Ducts not more than 12 feet (3658 nrai) in 
length installed below ceiling level. 

[F] 415.8.11.4 Automatic sprinkler locations. Sprin- 
kler systems shall be installed at 12-foot (3658 nmi) 
intervals in horizontal ducts and at changes in direction. 
In vertical ducts, sprinklers shall be installed at the top 
and at alternate floor levels. 



SECTION 416 
APPLICATION OF FLAMMABLE FINISHES 

[F] 416.1 General. The provisions of this section shall apply to 
the construction, installation and use of buildings and struc- 
tures, or parts thereof, for the spraying of flammable paints, 
varnishes and lacquers or other flammable materials or mix- 
tures or compounds used for painting, varnishing, staining or 
similar purposes. Such construction and equipment shall com- 
ply with the International Fire Code. 

[F] 416.2 Spray rooms. Spray rooms shall be enclosed with 
fire barriers with not less than a 1-hour fire-resistance rating. 
Floors shall be waterproofed and drained in an approved man- 
ner. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



71 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



[F] 416.2.1 Surfaces. The interior surfaces of spray rooms 
shall be smooth and shall be so constructed to permit the 
free passage of exhaust air from all parts of the interior and 
to facilitate washing and cleaning, and shall be so designed 
to confine residues within the room. Aluminum shall not be 
used. 

[F] 416.3 Spraying spaces. Spraying spaces shall be venti- 
lated with an exhaust system to prevent the accumulation of 
flammable mist or vapors in accordance with the International 
Mechanical Code. Where such spaces are not separately 
enclosed, noncombustible spray curtains shall be provided to 
restrict the spread of flammable vapors. 

[F] 416.3.1 Surfaces. The interior surfaces of spraying 
spaces shall be smooth and continuous without edges; shall 
be so constructed to permit the free passage of exhaust air 
from all parts of the interior and to facilitate washing and 
cleaning; and shall be so designed to confine residues within 
the spraying space. Aluminum shall not be used. 

[F] 416.4 Fire protection. An automatic fire-extinguishing 
system shall be provided in all spray, dip and immersing spaces 
and storage rooms and shall be installed in accordance with 
Chapter 9. 



SECTION 417 
DRYING ROOMS 

[F] 417.1 General. A drying room or dry kiln installed within a 
building shall be constructed entirely of approved 
noncombustible materials or assemblies of such materials reg- 
ulated by the approved rules or as required in the general and 
specific sections of Chapter 4 for special occupancies and 
where applicable to the general requirements of Chapter 28. 

[F] 417.2 Piping clearance. Overhead heating pipes shall have 
a clearance of not less than 2 inches (5 1 mm) from combustible 
contents in the dryer. 

[F] 417.3 Insulation. Where the operating temperature of the 
dryer is 175°F (79°C) or more, metal enclosures shall be insu- 
lated from adjacent combustible materials by not less than 12 
inches (305 mm) of airspace, or the metal walls shall be lined 
with V4-inch (6.35 nmi) insulating mill board or other approved 
equivalent insulation. 

[F] 417.4 Fire protection. Drying rooms designed for 
high-hazard materials and processes, including special occu- 
pancies as provided for in Chapter 4, shall be protected by an 
approved automatic fire-extinguishing system complying with 
the provisions of Chapter 9. 



SECTION 418 
ORGANIC COATINGS 

[F] 418.1 Building features. Manufacturing of organic coat- 
ings shall be done only in buildings that do not have pits or 
basements. 

[F] 418.2 Location. Organic coating manufacturing opera- 
tions and operations incidental to or connected therewith shall 
not be located in buildings having other occupancies. 



[F] 418.3 Process mills. Mills operating with close clearances 
and that process flammable and heat-sensitive materials, such 
as nitrocellulose, shall be located in a detached building or 
noncombustible structure. 

[F] 418.4 Tank storage. Storage areas for flammable and com- 
bustible liquid tanks inside of structures shall be located at or 
above grade and shall be separated from the processing area by 
not less than 2-hour fire barriers. 

[F] 418.5 Nitrocellulose storage. Nitrocellulose storage shall 
be located on a detached pad or in a separate structure or a room 
enclosed with no less than 2-hour fire barriers. 

[F] 418.6 Finished products. Storage rooms for finished prod- 
ucts that are flammable or combustible liquids shall be sepa- 
rated from the processing area by fire barriers having a 
fire-resistance rating of at least 2 hours, and openings in the 
walls shall be protected with approved opening protectives. 



SECTION 419 
GROUP 1-1, R-1,R-2,R-3 

419.1 General. Occupancies in Groups I-l, R-1, R-2 and R-3 
shall comply with the provisions of this section and other appli- 
cable provisions of this code. 

419.2 Separation walls. Walls separating dwelling units in the 
same building and walls separating sleeping units in the same 
building shall comply with Section 708. 

419.3 Horizontal separation. Floor/ceiling assemblies sepa- 
rating dwelling units in the same buildings and floor/ceiling 
assemblies separating sleeping units in the same building shall 
be constructed in accordance with Section 711. 



SECTION 420 
HYDROGEN CUTOFF ROOMS 

[F] 420.1 General. When required by the International Fire 
Code, hydrogen cutoff rooms shall be designed and con- 
structed in accordance with this section. 

[F] 420.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, 
for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meanings shown herein. 

[F] GASEOUS HYDROGEN SYSTEM. An assembly of 
piping, devices and apparatus designed to generate, store, con- 
tain, distribute or transport a nontoxic, gaseous hydrogen-con- 
taining mixture having at least 95-percent hydrogen gas by 
volume and not more than 1 -percent oxygen by volume. Gas- 
eous hydrogen systems consist of items such as compressed 
gas containers, reactors and appurtenances, including pressure 
regulators, pressure relief devices, manifolds, pumps, com- 
pressors and interconnecting piping and tubing and controls. 

[F] HYDROGEN CUTOFF ROOM. A room or space that is 
intended exclusively to house a gaseous hydrogen system. 

[F] 420.3 Location. Hydrogen cut-off rooms shall not be 
located below grade. 

[F] 420.4 Design and construction. Hydrogen cutoff rooms 
shall be classified with respect to occupancy in accordance 
with Section 302. 1 and separated from other areas of the build- 



72 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



ing by not less than 1 -hour fire barriers or as required by Sec- 
tion 508.2 or 508.3 as applicable. 

[F] 420.4.1 Opening protectives. Doors within such fire 
barrier walls, including doors to corridors, shall be 
self-closing in accordance with Section 715. Interior door 
openings shall be electronically interlocked to prevent oper- 
ation of the hydrogen system when doors are opened or ajar 
or the room shall be provided with a mechanical exhaust 
ventilation system designed in accordance with Section 
420.4.1.1. 

[F] 420.4.1.1 Ventilation alternative. When an exhaust 
system is used in lieu of the interlock system required by 
Section 420.4, exhaust ventilation systems shall operate 
continuously and shall be designed to operate at a nega- 
tive pressure in relation to the surrounding area. The 
average velocity of ventilation at the face of the door 
opening with the door in the fully open position shall not 
be less than 60 feet per minute (0.3048 m/s) with a mini- 
mum of 45 feet per minute (0.2287 m/s) at any point in 
the door opening. 

[F] 420.4.2 Windows. Operable windows in interior walls 
shall not be permitted. Fixed windows shall be permitted 
when in accordance with Section 715. 

[F] 420.5 Ventilation. Cutoff rooms shall be provided with 
mechanical ventilation in accordance with the applicable pro- 
visions for repair garages in Chapter 5 of the International 
Mechanical Code. 

[F] 420.6 Gas detection system. Hydrogen cutoff rooms shall 
be provided with an approved flammable gas-detection system 
in accordance with Sections 420.6.1 through 420.6.3. 

[F] 420.6.1 System design. The flammable gas-detection 
system shall be listed for use with hydrogen and any other 
flammable gases used in the room. The gas detection system 
shall be designed to activate when the level of flammable 
gas exceeds 25 percent of the lower flammability limit 
(LFL) for the gas or mixtures present at their anticipated 
temperature and pressure. 

[F] 420.6.2 Operation. Activation of the gas detection sys- 
tem shall result in all of the following: 

1. Initiation of distinct audible and visual alarm signals 
both inside and outside of the cutoff room. 

2. Activation of the mechanical ventilation system. 

[F] 420.6.3 Failure of the gas detection system. Failure of 
the gas detection system shall result in activation of the 
mechanical ventilation system, cessation of hydrogen gen- 
eration and the sounding of a trouble signal in an approved 
location. 

[F] 420.7 Explosion control. Explosion control shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Chapter 9 of the International Fire 
Code. 

[F] 420.8 Standby power. Mechanical ventilation and gas 
detection systems shall be connected to a standby power sys- 
tem in accordance with Chapter 27. 

2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 73 



74 2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 5 

GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



SECTION 501 
GENERAL 

501.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter control the height 
and area of structures hereafter erected and additions to exist- 
ing structures. 

[F] 501.2 Address numbers. Buildings shall have approved 
address numbers, building numbers or approved building iden- 
tification placed in a position that is plainly legible and visible 
from the street or road fronting the property. These numbers 
shall contrast with their background. Address numbers shall be 
Arabic numerals or alphabetical letters. Numbers shall be a 
minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) high with a minimum stroke 
width of 0.5 inch (12.7 mm). 



SECTION 502 
DEFINITIONS 

502.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

AREA, BUILDING. The area included within surrounding 
exterior walls (or exterior walls and fire walls) exclusive of vent 
shafts and courts. Areas of the building not provided with sur- 
rounding walls shall be included in the building area if such 
areas are included within the horizontal projection of the roof 
or floor above. 

BASEMENT. That portion of a building that is partly or com- 
pletely below grade plane (see "Story above grade plane" in 
Section 202). A basement shall be considered as a story above 
grade plane where the finished surface of the floor above the 
basement is: 

1. More than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade plane; or 

2. More than 12 feet (3658 mm) above the finished ground 
level at any point. 

EQUIPMENT PLATFORM. An unoccupied, elevated plat- 
form used exclusively for mechanical systems or industrial 
process equipment, including the associated elevated walk- 
ways, stairs and ladders necessary to access the platform (see 
Section 505.5). 

GRADE PLANE. A reference plane representing the average 
of finished ground level adjoining the building at exterior 
walls. Where the finished ground level slopes away from the 
exterior walls, the reference plane shall be established by the 
lowest points within the area between the building and the lot 
line or, where the lot line is more than 6 feet (1829 mm) from 
the building, between the building and a point 6 feet ( 1 829 mm) 
from the building. 

HEIGHT, BUILDING. The vertical distance from grade 
plane to the average height of the highest roof surface. 



HEIGHT, STORY. The vertical distance from top to top of 
two successive finished floor surfaces; and, for the topmost 
story, from the top of the floor finish to the top of the ceiling 
joists or, where there is not a ceiling, to the top of the roof raf- 
ters. 

MEZZANINE. An intermediate level or levels between the 
floor and ceiling of any story and in accordance with Section 
505. 



SECTION 503 
GENERAL HEIGHT AND AREA LIMITATIONS 

503.1 General. The height and area for buildings of different 
construction types shall be governed by the intended use of the 
building and shall not exceed the limits in Table 503 except as 
modified hereafter. Each part of a building included within the 
exterior walls or the exterior walls and fire walls where pro- 
vided shall be permitted to be a separate building. 

503.1.1 Special industrial occupancies. Buildings and 
structures designed to house special industrial processes 
that require large areas and unusual heights to accommodate 
craneways or special machinery and equipment, including, 
among others, rolling mills; structural metal fabrication 
shops and foundries; or the production and distribution of 
electric, gas or steam power, shall be exempt from the height 
and area limitations of Table 503. 

503.1.2 Buildings on same lot. Two or more buildings on 
the same lot shall be regulated as separate buildings or shall 
be considered as portions of one building if the height of 
each building and the aggregate area of buildings are within 
the limitations of Table 503 as modified by Sections 504 and 
506. The provisions of this code applicable to the aggregate 
building shall be applicable to each building. 

503.1.3 Type I construction. Buildings of Type I construc- 
tion permitted to be of unlimited tabular heights and areas 
are not subject to the special requirements that allow unlim- 
ited area buildings in Section 507 or unlimited height in 
Sections 503. 1 . 1 and 504.3 or increased height and areas for 
other types of construction. 



SECTION 504 
HEIGHT 

504.1 General. The height permitted by Table 503 shall be 
increased in accordance with this section. 

Exception: The height of one-story aiircraft hangars, air- 
craft paint hangars and buildings used for the manufacturing 
of aircraft shall not be hmited if the building is provided 
with an automatic fire-extinguishing system in accordance 
with Chapter 9 and is entirely surrounded by public ways or 
yards not less in width than one and one-half times the 
height of the building. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



75 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



TABLE 503 

ALLOWABLE HEIGHT AND BUILDING AREAS" 

Height limitations shown as stories and feet above grade plane. 

Area limitations as determined by the definition of "Area, building," per story 



GROUP 




TYPE OF CONSTRlicTlbN | 


TYPE 1 


TYPE II 


TYPE III 


TYPE IV 


TYPE V 1 


A 


B 


A 


B ' 


A 


B 


HT 


A 


B 


HGT(feet) 
HGT(S) 


UL 


160 


65 


55 


65 


55 


65 


50 


40 


A-1 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


■ 5 
UL 


3 
15,500 


2 
8,500 


-3 
14,000 


2 
8,500 


3 
15,000 


2 
11,500 


1 
5,500 


A-2 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


3 
15,500 


2 
9,500 


3' 
14,000 


2' 
9,500 


3 
15,000 : 


2- 
11,500 


1 
6,000 


. A-3 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


3 
15,500 


2 
9,500 


3 
.. 14,000 


2. 
9,500 


3 
15,000 


. ■ • 2 • 
11,500 


• 1 
6,000 


A-4 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


3 
• 15,500 


2 
9,500 


3 
14,000 


2 
9,500 


3 
15,000 


2 
11,500 


1 
6,000 


A-5 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 

UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 

UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 

UL 


• UL 
UL 


B 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


5 
37,500 


4 
23,000 


5 
28,500 


4 
19,000 


5 
36,000' ' 


3 
18,000 ' 


2 
9,000 


E 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


5 
UL 


. 3 
26,500 


- . 2 
14,500 


3 
23,500 


■ 2 
14,500 


. 3 
25,500 


1 
18,500 


1 
9,500 


F-1 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


■ 4 
25,000 


2 
15,500 


3 
19,000 


2 
12,000 


4 
33,500 


2 
14,000 


1 
8,500 


F-2 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


, ^5 
37,500 


3 
23,000 


4 
28,500 


3 
18,000 


5 
50,500 


3 
21,000 


2 
13,000 


H-1 


S 
A 


1 
.21,000 


1 
16,500 


1 
11,000 


1 

7,000 • 


1 
9,500 


1 
7,000 


1 
10,500 . 


1 

7,500 


NP 
NP 


H-2'' 


S 

a' 


UL 
21,000 


■3 
16,500 


2 
11,000 


1 
7,000 


2 ■ 
9,500 


1 
7,000 


2 
10,500 


1 

7,500 


1 
3,000 


H-3'' 


s 

A 


UL 
UL 


6 
60,000 


4 
26,500 


2 
14,000 


4 
17,500 


2 
13,000 


4 
. 25,500 


2 ■ 
10,000 


1 
5,006 


H-4 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


7 ■ 
UL 


5 
37,500 


3 
17,500 


5 
28,500 


3 
17,500 


5 
36,000 


3 
18,000 


2 
6,500 


H-5 


S 
A 


4 
UL 


4 
UL 


3 
37,500 


3 
23,000 


3 
28,500 


3 
19,000 


3 
36,000 


3 
■ 18,000 


2 
9,000 


I-l 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


9 
55,000 


4 
19,000 


3 
10,000 


4 
16,500 


3 
10,000 


4 
18,000 


3 
10,500 


2 
4,500 


1-2 


S 

' A' 


UL 
UL 


4 
UL 


. 2 
15,000 


1 
11,000 


1 
12,000 


NP 
hfP 


1 . 
12,000 


1 
9,500 


NP 
NP 


1-3 


S 

A ■ 


UL 
UL 


4 
UL 


2 
15,000 


1 

10,000 


2 
■ 10,500 


1 
7,500 


2 
12,000 


2 
7,500 


1 
5,000 


1-4 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


5 
60,500 


3 
26,500 


2 
13,000 


3 
23,500 


2 
13,000 


3 
25,500 


1 
18,500 


1 
9,000 


M 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


4 
21,500 


4 
12,500 


4 
18,500 


4 . 
12,500 


4 
20,500 


3 
14,000 


1 
9,000 


R-1 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
20,500 


3 
12,000 


2 
7,000 


R-2 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
20,500 


3 
12,000 


'2 
7,000 


R-3 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


4 
UL 


4 
UL 


4 
UL 


4 
UL 


4 
UL 


3 
UL 


3 
UL 


R-4 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 

UL , 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
24,000 


■ 4 ■ 
16,000' 


4 
20,500 


3 
12,000 


'2 
. 7,000 


S-1 


S 
A 


UL 
. UL 


11 
48,000 


4 
26,000 


3 
' 17,500 


3 
26,000 : 


'3 
17,500 


4 
25,500. 


3 ■ 
14,000 


1 
. 9,000 


S-2''''= 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
79,000 


5 
39,000 


4 
26,000 


4 
39,000 


4 
26,000 


5 
38,500 


4 
21,000 


2 
13,500 


U' 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


5 
35,500 


4 
19,000 


2 
8,500 


3 
14,000 


2 
8,500 


4 
18,000 


2 
9,000 


1 
5,500 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 ml ' 
UL = Unlimited, NP = Not permitted. 

a. See the following sections for general exceptions to Table 503: 

1. Section 504.2, Allowable height increase due to automatic sprinkler system installation. 

2. Section 506.2, Allowable area increase due to street frontage. 

3. Section 506.3, Allowable area increase due to automatic sprinkler system installation. 

4. Section 507, Unlimited area buildings. 

b. For open parking structures, see Section 406.3. 

c. For private garages, see Section 406.1. 

d. See Section 415.5 for limitations. 



76 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



504.2 Automatic sprinkler system increase. Where a build- 
ing is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the value 
specified in Table 503 for maximum height is increased by 20 
feet (6096 mm) and the maximum number of stories is 
increased by one. These increases are permitted in addition to 
the area increase in accordance with Sections 506.2 and 506.3. 
For Group R buildings equipped throughout with an approved 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903 . 3 . 1 . 2, the value specified in Table 503 for maximum height 
is increased by 20 feet (6096 mm) and the maximum number of 
stories is increased by one, but shall not exceed 60 feet (18 288 
mm) or four stories, respectively. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Fire areas with an occupancy in Group 1-2 of Type 
TIB, III, IV or V construction. 

2. Fire areas with an occupancy in Group H-1, H-2, H-3 
or H-5. 

3. Fire-resistance rating substitution in accordance with 
Table 601, Note e. 

504.3 Roof structures. Towers, spires, steeples and other roof 
structures shall be constructed of materials consistent with the 
required type of construction of the building except where 
other construction is permitted by Section 1509.2.1. Such 
structures shall not be used for habitation or storage. The struc- 
tures shall be unlimited in height if of noncombustible materi- 
als and shall not extend more than 20 feet (6096 mm) above the 
allowable height if of combustible materials (see Chapter 15 
for additional requirements). 



SECTION 505 
MEZZANINES 

505.1 General. A mezzanine or mezzanines in compliance 
with Section 505 shall be considered a portion of the story 
below. Such mezzanines shall not contribute to either the build- 
ing area or number of stories as regulated by Section 503 . 1 . The 
area of the mezzanine shall be included in determining the fire 
area defined in Section 702. The clear height above and below 
the mezzanine floor construction shall not be less than 7 feet 
(2134 mm). 

505.2 Area limitation. The aggregate area of a mezzanine or 
mezzanines within a room shall not exceed one-third of the 
floor area of that room or space in which they are located. The 
enclosed portion of a room shall not be included in a determina- 
tion of the floor area of the room in which the mezzanine is 
located. In determining the allowable mezzanine area, the area 
of the mezzanine shall not be included in the floor area of the 
room. 

Exceptions: 

1. The aggregate area of mezzanines in buildings and 
structures of Type I or II construction for special 
industrial occupancies in accordance with Section 
503. 1 . 1 shall not exceed two-thirds of the area of the 
room. 

2. The aggregate area of mezzanines in buildings and 
structures of Type I or II construction shall not exceed 



one-half of the area of the room in buildings and 
structures equipped throughout with an approved 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1 and an approved emergency 
voice/alarm communication system in accordance 
with Section 907.2.12.2. 

505.3 Egress. Each occupant of a mezzanine shall have access 
to at least two independent means of egress where the common 
path of egress travel exceeds the limitations of Section 1014.3. 
Where a stairway provides a means of exit access from a mez- 
zanine, the maximum travel distance includes the distance trav- 
eled on the stairway measured in the plane of the tread nosing. 
Accessible means of egress shall be provided in accordance 
with Section 1007. 

Exception: A single means of egress shall be permitted in 
accordance with Section 1015.1. 

505.4 Openness. A mezzanine shall be open and unobstructed 
to the room in which such mezzanine is located except for walls 
not more than 42 inches (1067 mm) high, columns and posts. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Mezzanines or portions thereof are not required to be 
open to the room in which the mezzanines are located, 
provided that the occupant load of the aggregate area 
of the enclosed space does not exceed 10. 

2. A mezzanine having two or more means of egress is 
not required to be open to the room in which the mez- 
zanine is located if at least one of the means of egress 
provides direct access to an exit from the mezzanine 
level. 

3. Mezzanines or portions thereof are not required to be 
open to the room in which the mezzanines are located, 
provided that the aggregate floor area of the enclosed 
space does not exceed 10 percent of the mezzanine 
area. 

4. In industrial facilities, mezzanines used for control 
equipment are permitted to be glazed on all sides. 

5. In other than Groups H and I occupancies no more 
than two stories in height above grade plane and 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, a mezza- 
nine having two or more means of egress shall not be 
required to be open to the room in which the mezza- 
nine is located. 

505.5 Equipment platforms. Equipment platforms in build- I 
ings shall not be considered as a portion of the floor below. 
Such equipment platforms shall not contribute to either the 
building area or the number of stories as regulated by Section 
503 . 1 . The area of the equipment platform shall not be included I 
in determining the fire area. Equipment platforms shall not be a I 
part of any mezzanine and such platforms and the walkways, 
stairs and ladders providing access to an equipment platform 
shall not serve as a part of the means of egress from the build- 
ing- 

505.5.1 Area limitations. The aggregate area of all equip- I 
ment platforms within a room shall not exceed two-thirds of 
the area of the room in which they are located. Where an 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE*" 



77 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



equipment platform is located in the same room as a mezza- 
nine, the area of the mezzanine shall be determined by Sec- 
tion 505.2 and the combined aggregate area of the 
equipment platforms and mezzanines shall not exceed 
two-thirds of the room in which they are located. 

[F] 505.5.2 Fire suppression. Where located in a building 
that is required to be protected by an automatic sprinkler 
system, equipment platforms shall be fully protected by 
sprinklers above and below the platform, where required by 
the standards referenced in Section 903.3. 

505.5.3 Guards. Equipment platforms shall have guards 
where required by Section 1013.1. 



SECTION 506 
AREA MODIFICATIONS 

506.1 General. The areas limited by Table 503 shall be permit- 
ted to be increased due to frontage (If) and automatic sprinkler 
system protection (I J in accordance with the following: 

K ={4 +[A X // ] + [A X ^J} (Equation5-l) 

where: 

Afl = Allowable area per story (square feet). 

At = Tabular area per story in accordance with Table 503 
(square feet). 

// = Area increase factor due to frontage as calculated in 
accordance with Section 506.2. 

Is = Area increase factor due to sprinkler protection as cal- 
culated in accordance with Section 506.3. 

506.1.1 Basements. A single basement that is not a story 
above grade plane need not be included in the total allow- 
able area, provided such basement does not exceed the area 
permitted for a building with no more than one story above 
grade plane. 

506.2 Frontage increase. Every building shall adjoin or have 
access to a public way to receive an area increase for frontage. 
Where a building has more than 25 percent of its perimeter on a 
public way or open space having a minimum width of 20 feet 
(6096 mm), the frontage increase shall be determined in accor- 
dance with the following: 



I If=[F/P-0.25]W/30 



(Equation 5-2) 



where: 



F 



P 

W 



= Area increase due to frontage. 

= Building perimeter that fronts on a public way or open 
space having 20 feet (6096 mm) open minimum width 
(feet). 

= Perimeter of entire building (feet). 

= Width of public way or open space (feet) in accordance 
with Section 506.2.1. 

506.2.1 Width limits. "W" must be at least 20 feet (6096 
mm). Where the value of W varies along the perimeter of the 
building, the calculation performed in accordance with 
Equation 5-2 shall be based on the weighted average of each 



portion of exterior wall and open space where the value of W 
is greater than or equal to 20 feet (6096 mm). Where W 
exceeds 30 feet (9144 mm), a value of 30 feet (9144 mm) 
shall be used in calculating the weighted average, regardless 
of the actual width of the open space. 

Exception: The quantity of Wdivided by 30 shall be per- 
mitted to be a maximum of 2 when the building meets all 
requirements of Section 507 except for compliance with 
the 60-foot (18 288 nun) public way or yard requirement, 
as applicable. 

506.2.2 Open space limits. Such open space shall be either 
on the same lot or dedicated for public use and shall be 
accessed from a street or approved fire lane. 

506.3 Automatic sprinkler system increase. Where a build- 
ing is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the area 
limitation in Table 503 is permitted to be increased by an addi- 
tional 200 percent (I, = 2) for buildings with more than one 
story above grade plane and an additional 300 percent (^ = 3) 
for buildings with no more than one story above grade plane. 
These increases are permitted in addition to the height and 
story increases in accordance with Section 504.2. 

Exception: The area limitation increases shall not be per- 
mitted for the following conditions: 

1. The automatic sprinkler system increase shall not 
apply to buildings with an occupancy in Use Group 
H-1. 

2. The automatic sprinkler system increase shall not 
apply to the floor area of an occupancy in Use Group 
H-2 or H-3. For mixed-use buildings containing such 
occupancies, the allowable area shall be calculated in 
accordance with Section 508.3.3.2, with the sprinkler 
increase applicable only to the portions of the build- 
ing not classified as Use Group H-2 or H-3. 

3. Fire-resistance rating substitution in accordance with 
Table 601, Note e. 

506.4 Area determination. The maximum area of a building 
with more than one stoiy above grade plane shall be deter- 
mined by multiplying the allowable area of the first story (A„), 
as determined in Section 506. 1 , by the number of stories above 
grade plane as listed below: 

1 . For buildings with two stories above grade plane, multi- 
ply by 2; 

2. For buildings with three or more stories above grade 
plane, multiply by 3; and 

3. No story shall exceed the allowable area per story (A„), as 
determined in Section 506. 1 , for the occupancies on that 
story. 

Exceptions: 

1. Unlimited area buildings in accordance with 
Section 507. 

2. The maximum area of a building equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system 
in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2 shall be 
determined by multiplying the allowable area 



78 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



per story |A J, as determined in Section 506.1, 
by the number of stories above grade plane. 

506.4.1 Mixed occupancies. In buildings with mixed occu- 
pancies, the allowable area per story (AJ shall be based on 
the most restrictive provisions for each occupancy when the 
mixed occupancies are treated according to Section 508.3.2. 
When the occupancies are treated according to Section 
508.3.3 as separated occupancies, the maximum total build- 
ing area shall be such that the sum of the ratios for each such 
area on all floors as calculated according to Section 
508.3.3.2 shall not exceed 2 for two-story buildings and 3 
for buildings three stories or higher. 



SECTION 507 
UNLIMITED AREA BUILDINGS 

1507.1 GeneraL The area of buildings of the occupancies and 
configurations specified herein shall not be limited. 

507.2 Nonsprinklered, one story. The area of a one-story. 
Group F-2 or S-2 building shall not be limited when the build- 
ing is surrounded and adjoined by public ways or yards not less 
than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width. 

507.3 Sprinklered, one story. The area of a one-story. Group 
B, F, M or S building or a one-story Group A-4 building, of 
other than Type V construction, shall not be limited when the 
building is provided with an automatic sprinkler system 
throughout in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and is sur- 
rounded and adjoined by public ways or yards not less than 60 
feet (18 288 mm) in width. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Buildings and structures of Type I and II construction 
for rack storage facilities that do not have access by 
the public shall not be limited in height, provided that 
such buildings conform to the requirements of Sec- 

I tions 507.2 and 903.3. 1 . 1 and NFPA 230. 

2. The automatic sprinkler system shall not be required 
in areas occupied for indoor participant sports, such 
as tennis, skating, swimming and equestrian activities 
in occupancies in Group A-4, provided that: 

2. 1 . Exit doors directly to the outside are provided 
for occupants of the participant sports areas; 
and 

2.2. The building is equipped with a fire alarm sys- 
tem with manual fire alarm boxes installed in 
accordance with Section 907. 

3 . Group A- 1 and A-2 occupancies of other than Type V 
construction shall be permitted, provided: 

3.1. All assembly occupancies are separated from 
other spaces as required for separated uses in 
Section 508.3.3.4 with no reduction allowed 
in the fire-resistance rating of the separation 
based upon the installation of an automatic 
sprinkler system; 

3.2. Each Group A occupancy shall not exceed the 
maximum allowable area permitted in Section 
503.1; and 



3.3. All required exits shall discharge directly to I 
the exterior. I 

507.4 Two story. The area of a two-story. Group B, F, M or S 
building shall not be limited when the building is equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 903.3. 1.1, and is surrounded and adjoined by pub- 
lic ways or yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width. 

507.5 Reduced open space. The permanent open space of 60 
feet (18 288 mm) required in Sections 507.2, 507.3, 507.4, I 

507.6 and 507.10 shall be permitted to be reduced to not less I 
than 40 feet (12 192 mm), provided the following requirements 
are met: 

1. The reduced open space shall not be allowed for more 
than 75 percent of the perimeter of the building. 

2. The exterior wall facing the reduced open space shall 
have a minimum fire-resistance rating of 3 hours. 

3. Openings in the exterior wall facing the reduced open 
space shall have opening protectives with a minimum I 
fire protection rating of 3 hours. | 

507.6 Group A-3 buildings. The area of a one-story. Group 
A-3 building used as a place of religious worship, community 
hall, dance hall, exhibition hall, gymnasium, lecture hall, 
indoor swimming pool or tennis court of Type II construction I 
shall not be limited when all of the following criteria are met: 

1 . The building shall not have a stage other than a platform. 

2. The building shall be equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

3 . The assembly floor shall be located at or within 2 1 inches 
(533 mm) of street or grade level and all exits are pro- 
vided with ramps complying with Section 1010. 1 to the 
street or grade level. 

4. The building shall be surrounded and adjoined by public 
ways or yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width. 

507.7 Group H occupancies. Group H-2, H-3 and H-4 occu- 
pancies shall be permitted in unlimited area buildings contain- 
ing Group F and S occupancies, in accordance with Sections 
507.3 and 507.4 and the limitations of this section. The aggre- 
gate floor area of the Group H occupancies located at the per- 
imeter of the unlimited area building shall not exceed 10 
percent of the area of the building nor the area limitations for 
the Group H occupancies as specified in Table 503 as modified 
by Section 506.2, based upon the percentage of the perimeter 
of each Group H fire area that fronts on a street or other unoccu- 
pied space. The aggregate floor area of Group H occupancies 
not located at the perimeter of the building shall not exceed 25 
percent of the area limitations for the Group H occupancies as 
specified in Table 503. Group H fire areas shall be separated 
from the rest of the unlimited area building and from each other 
in accordance with Table 508.3.3 For two-story unlimited area 
buildings, the Group H fire areas shall not be located above the 
first story unless permitted by the allowable height in stories 
and feet as set forth in Table 503 based on the type of construc- 
tion of the unlimited area building. 

507.8 Aircraft paint hangar. The area of a one-story, Group 
H-2 aircraft paint hangar shall not be limited where such air- 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



79 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



craft paint hangar complies with the provisions of Section 
412.4 and is entirely surrounded by public ways or yards not 
less in width than one and one-half times the height of the 
building. 

507.9 Group E buildings. The area of a one-story Group E 
building of Type II, IIIA or IV construction shall not be limited 
when the following criteria are met: 

1 . Each classroom shall have not less than two means of 
egress, with one of the means of egress being a direct exit 
to the outside of the building complying with Section 
1018. 

2. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3. 1 . 1 . 

3. The building is surrounded and adjoined by public ways 
or yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width. 

507.10 Motion picture theaters. In buildings of Type II con- 
struction, the area of a one-story motion picture theater shall 
not be limited when the building is provided with an automatic 
sprinkler system throughout in, accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 and is surrounded and adjoined by public ways or 
yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width. 

507.11 Covered mall buildings and anchor stores. The area 
of covered mall buildings and anchor stores not exceeding 
three stories in height that comply with Section 402.6 shall not 
be limited. 



SECTION 508 
MIXED USE AND OCCUPANCY 

508.1 General. Where a building or portion thereof contains 
two or more occupancies or uses, the building or portion 
thereof shall comply with the applicable provisions of this sec- 
tion. 

508.2 Incidental uses. Incidental use areas shall comply with 
the provisions of this section. 

Exception: Incidental use areas within and serving a dwell- 
ing unit are not required to comply with this section. 

508.2.1 Occupancy classification. An incidental use area 
shall be classified in accordance with the occupancy of that 
portion of the building in which it is located or the building 
shall be classified as a mixed occupancy and shall comply 
with Section 508.3. 

508.2.2 Separation. Incidental use areas shall be separated 
or protected, or both, in accordance with Table 508.2. 

508.2.2.1 Construction. Where Table 508.2 requires a 
fire-resistance-rated separation, the incidental use area 
shall be separated from the remainder of the building by a 
fire barrier constructed in accordance with Section 706 
or a horizontal assembly constructed in accordance with 
Section 7 1 1 , or both. Where Table 508.2 permits an auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing system without a fire barrier, the 
incidental use area shall be separated from the remainder 
of the building by construction capable of resisting the 
passage of smoke. The partitions shall extend from the 
floor to the underside of the fire-resistance-rated 
floor/ceiling assembly or fire-resistance-rated roof/ceil- 



: ing assembly above or to the underside of the floor or 
roof sheathing, or sub deck above. Doors shall be self- or 
automatic closing upon detection of smoke. Doors shall 
not have air transfer openings and shall not be undercut 
in excess of the clearance permitted in accordance with 
NFPA80. 

508.2.3 Protection. Where an automatic fire-extinguishing 
system or an automatic sprinkler system is provided in 
accordance with Table 508.2, only the incidental use areas 
need be equipped with such a system. 

TABLE 508.2 
INCIDENTAL USE AREAS 



ROOM OR AREA 


SEPARATION AND/OR 
PROTECTION 


Furnace room where any piece of 
equipment is over 400,000 Btu ■ 
per hour input 


1 hour or provide automatic 
fire-extinguishing system 


Rooms with boilers where the 
largest piece of equipment is 
over 15 psi'and 10 horsepower 


1 hour or provide automatic 
fire-extinguishing system 


Refrigerant machinery rooms 


1 hour or provide automatic 
sprinkler system . 


Parking garage (Section 406.2) 


2 hours; or 1 hour and provide 
automatic fire-extinguishing 
system' -' ' 


Hydrogen cut-off rooms, not 
classified as Group H 


l-hour in Group B, F, M, S and 
U occupancies. 2-hour in Group 
A, E, I and R occupancies. 


Incinerator rooms 


2 hours and automatic sprinkler 
system 


Paint shops, not classified as 
Group H, located in occupancies 
other than Group F 


2 hours; or 1 hour and provide 
automatic fire-extinguishing 
system 


Laboratories and vocational 
shops, not classified as Group H, 
located in Group E or 1-2 
occupancies 


1 hour or provide automatic 
fire-extinguishing system 


Laundry rooms over 100 square 
feet 


1 hour or provide automatic 
fire-extinguishing system 


Storage rooms over 100 square 
feet 


1 hour or provide automatic 
fire-extinguishing system 


Group 1-3 cells equipped with 
padded surfaces 


1 hour 


Group 1-2 waste and linen 
collection rooms 


1 hour 


Waste and linen collection rooms 
over 100 square feet 


1 hour or provide automatic 
fire-extinguishing system 


Stationary lead-acid battery 
systems having a liquid capacity 
of more than 100 gallons used 
for facility standby power, 
emergency power or 
uninterrupted power supplies 


1-hour in Group B, F, M, S and 
U occupancies. 2-hour in Group 
A, E, I and R occupancies. 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^, 1 pound per square inch = 6.9 kPa, 
i British thermal unit per hour = 0.293 watts, 1 horsepower = 746 watts, 
1 gallon = 3.785 L. 



80 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE'' 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



508.3 Mixed occupancies. Each portion of a building shall be 
individually classified in accordance with Section 302.1. 

Where a building contains more than one occupancy group, 
the building or portion thereof shall comply with Sections 
508.3.1, 508.3.2, 508.3.3 or a combination of these sections. 

Exceptions: 

1. Occupancies separated in accordance with Section 
509. 

2. Where required by Table 415.3.2, areas of Group 
H-1, H-2 or H-3 occupancies shall be located in a sep- 
arate and detached building or structure. 

508.3.1 Accessory occupancies. Accessory occupancies 
are those occupancies subsidiary to the main occupancy of 
the building or portion thereof. Aggregate accessory occu- 
pancies shall not occupy more than 10 percent of the area of 
the story in which they are located and shall not exceed the 
tabular values in Table 503, without height and area 
increases in accordance with Sections 504 and 506 for such 
accessory occupancies. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Accessory assembly areas having a floor area less 
than 750 square feet (69.7 m^) are not considered 
separate occupancies. 

2. Assembly areas that are accessory to Group E 
occupancies are not considered separate occupan- 
cies except when applying the assembly occu- 
pancy requirements of Chapter 1 1 . 



3. Accessory religious educational rooms and reli- 
gious auditoriums with occupant loads of less than 
100 are not considered separate occupancies. 

508.3.1.1 Occupancy classification. Accessory occu- 
pancies shall be individually classified in accordance 
with Section 302.1. Code requirements shall apply to 
each portion of the building based on the occupancy clas- 
sification of that accessory space, except that the most 
restrictive applicable provisions of Section 403 and 
Chapter 9 shall apply to the entire building or portion 
thereof. 

508.3.1.2 Allowable area and height. The allowable 
area and height of the building shall be based on the 
allowable area and height for the main occupancy in 
accordance with Section 503. 1 . The height of any acces- 
sory occupancy shall not exceed the tabular values in 
Table 503, without height and area increases in accor- 
dance with Sections 504 and 506 for such accessory 
occupancies. 

508.3.1.3 Separation. No separation is required 
between accessory occupancies or the main occupancy. 

Exception: Group H-2, H-3, H-4 or H-5 occupancies 
shall be separated from all other occupancies in accor- 
dance with Section 508.3.3. 

508.3.2 Nonseparated occupancies. Buildings or portions 
of buildings that comply with the provisions of this section 
shall qualify as nonseparated occupancies. 

508.3.2.1 Occupancy classification. Nonseparated 
occupancies shall be individually classified in accor- 
dance with Section 302. 1 . Code requirements shall apply 



TABLE 508.3.3 
REQUIRED SEPARATION OF OCCUPANCIES (HOURS) 



OCCUPANCY 


A«,E 


1 


R" 


F-2, S-2''', U" 


B^F-1,M^s-1 


H-1 


H-2 


H-3, H-4, H-5 


S 


NS 


S 


NS 


S 


NS 


S 


NS 


s 


NS 


S 


NS 


S 


NS 


S 


NS 


A^E= 


N 


N 


1 


2 


1 


2 


N 


1 


1 


2 


NP 


NP 


3 


4 


2 


3^ 


I 








N 


N 


1 


NP 


1 


2 


1 


2 


NP 


NP 


3 


NP 


2 


NP 


R" 














N 


N 


1 


2 


1 


2 


NP 


NP 


3 


NP 


2 


NP 


F-2, S-2'^-^ U*" 














— 


— 


N 


N 


1 


2 


NP 


NP 


3 


4 


2 


3^ 


B^ F-i, M^ s-i 


























N 


N 


NP 


NP 


2 


3 


1 


2" 


H-l 











— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


N 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


H-2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


N 


NP 


1 


NP 


H-3, H-4, H-5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


N 


NP 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 ml 

S = Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903 .3 .1.1. 

NS = Buildings not equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance withSection 903.3.1.1. 

N = No separation requirement. 

NP = Not permitted. 

a. For Group H-5 occupancies, see Section 903.2.4.2. 

b. Occupancy separation need not be provided for storage areas within Groups B and M if the: 

1 . Area is less than 10 percent of the floor area; 

2. Area is equipped with an automatic fire-extinguishing system and is less than 3,000 square feet; or 

3. Area is less than 1,000 square feet. 

c. Areas used only for private or pleasure vehicles shall be allowed to reduce separation by 1 hour. 

d. See Section 406.1.4. 

e. Conmiercial kitchens need not be separated from the restaurant seating areas that they serve. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



81 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



to each portion of the building based on the occupancy 
classification of that space except that the most restric- 
tive applicable provisions of Section 403 and Chapter 9 
shall apply to the entire building or portion thereof. 

508.3.2.2 Allowable area and height. The allowable 
area and height of the building or portion thereof shall be 
based on the most restrictive allowances for the occu- 
pancy groups under consideration for the type of con- 
struction of the building in accordance with Section 
503.1. 

508.3.2.3 Separation. No separation is required 
between occupancies. 

Exception: Group H-2, H-3, H-4 or H-5 occupancies 
shall be separated from all other occupancies in accor- 
dance with Section 508.3.3. 

508.3.3 Separated occupancies. Buildings or portions of 
buildings that comply with the provisions of this section 
shall qualify as separated occupancies. 

508.3.3.1 Occupancy classification. Separated occu- 
pancies shall be individually classified in accordance 
with Section 302. 1 . Each fire area shall comply with this 
code based on the occupancy classification of that por- 
tion of the building. 

508.3.3.2 Allowable area. In each story, the building 
area shall be such that the sum of the ratios of the actual 
floor area of each occupancy divided by the allowable 
area of each occupancy shall not exceed one. 

508.3.3.3 Allowable height. Each occupancy shall com- 
ply with the height limitations based on the type of con- 
struction of the building in accordance with Section 
503.1. The height, in both feet and stories, of each fire 
area shall be measured from grade plane. This measure- 
ment shall include the height, in both feet and stories, of 
intervening fire areas. 

Exception: Special provisions permitted by Section 
509. 

508.3.3.4 Separation. Individual occupancies shall be 
separated from adjacent occupancies in accordance with 
Table 508.3.3 

508.3.3.4.1 Construction. Required separations 
shall be fire barriers constructed in accordance with 
Section 706 or horizontal assemblies constructed in 
accordance with Section 711, or both, so as to com- 
pletely separate adjacent occupancies. 



SECTION 509 
SPECIAL PROVISIONS 

509.1 General. The provisions in this section shall permit the 
use of special conditions that are exempt from, or modify, the 
specific requirements of this chapter regarding the allowable 
heights and areas of buildings based on the occupancy classifi- 
cation and type of construction, provided the special condition 
complies with the provisions specified in this section for such 
condition and other applicable requirements of this code. 



509.2 Group S-2 enclosed or open parking garage with 
Group A, B, M, R or S above. A basement and/or the first 
story above grade plane of a building shall be considered as a 
separate and distinct building for the purpose of determining 
area limitations, continuity of fire walls, limitation of number 
of stories and type of construction when all of the following 
conditions are met: 

1 . The basement and/or the first story above grade plane is 
of Type lA construction and is separated from the build- 
ing above with a horizontal assembly having a minimum 
3-hour fire-resistance rating. 

2. Shaft, stairway, ramp or escalator enclosures through the 
horizontal assembly shall have not less than a 2-hour 
fire-resistance rating with opening protectives in accor- 
dance with Table 715.4. 

Exception: Where the enclosure walls below the hor- 
izontal assembly have not less than a 3-hour 
fire-resistance rating with opening protectives in 
accordance with Table 715.4, the enclosure walls 
extending above the horizontal assembly shall be per- 
mitted to have a 1-hour fire-resistance rating, pro- 
vided: 

1. The building above the horizontal assembly is 
not required to be of Type I construction; 

2. The enclosure connects less than four stories; 
and 

3. The enclosure opening protectives above the 
horizontal assembly have a minimum 1-hour 
fire protection rating. 

3. The building above the horizontal assembly shall be per- 
mitted to have multiple Group A uses, each with an occu- 
pant load of less than 300, or Group B, M, R or S uses. 

4. The building below the horizontal assembly is a Group 
S-2 enclosed or open parking garage, used for the park- 
ing and storage of private motor vehicles. 

Exceptions: 

1. Entry lobbies, mechanical rooms and similar 
uses incidental to the operation of the building 
shall be permitted. 

2. Multiple Group A uses, each with an occupant 
load of less than 300, or Group B or M uses 
shall be permitted, in addition to those uses 
incidental to the operation of the building 
(including storage areas), provided that the 
entire structure below the horizontal assembly 
is protected throughout by an approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system. 

5. The maximum building height in feet shall not exceed 
the limits set forth in Section 503 for the building having 
the smaller allowable height as measured from the grade 
plane. 

509.3 Group S-2 enclosed parking garage with Group S-2 
open parking garage above. A Group S-2 enclosed parking 
garage located in the basement or first story below a Group S-2 
open parking garage shall be classified as a separate and dis- 



82 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE"" 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



tinct building for the purpose of determining the type of con- 
struction when the following conditions are met: 

1 . The allowable area of the structure shall be such that the 
sum of the ratios of the actual area divided by the allow- 
able area for each separate occupancy shall not exceed 
1.0. 

2. The Group S-2 enclosed parking garage is of Type I or II 
construction and is at least equal to the fire-resistance 
requirements of the Group S-2 open parking garage. 

3. The height and the number of the floors above the base- 
ment shall be limited as specified in Table 406.3.5. 

4. The floor assembly separating the Group S-2 enclosed 
parking garage and Group S-2 open parking garage shall 
be protected as required for the floor assembly of the 
Group S-2 enclosed parking garage. Openings between 
the Group S-2 enclosed parking garage and Group S-2 
open parking garage, except exit openings, shall not be 
required to be protected. 

5. The Group S-2 enclosed parking garage is used exclu- 
sively for the parking or storage of private motor vehi- 
cles, but shall be permitted to contain an office, waiting 
room and toilet room having a total area of not more than 
1,000 square feet (93 m^), and mechanical equipment 
rooms incidental to the operation of the building. 

509.4 Parking beneath Group R. Where a maximum 
one-story above grade plane Group S-2 parking garage, 
enclosed or open, or combination thereof, of Type I construc- 
tion or open of Type IV construction, with grade entrance, is 
provided under a building of Group R, the number of stories to 
be used in determining the minimum type of construction shall 
be measured from the floor above such a parking area. The 
floor assembly between the parking garage and the Group R 
above shall comply with the type of construction required for 
the parking garage and shall also provide a fire-resistance rat- 
ing not less than the mixed occupancy separation required in 
Section 508.3.3. 

509.5 Group R-2 buildings of Type IIIA construction. The 

height hmitation for buildings of Type IIIA construction in 
Group R-2 shall be increased to six stories and 75 feet (22 860 
mm) where the first-floor construction above the basement has 
a fire-resistance rating of not less than 3 hours and the floor 
area is subdivided by 2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire walls 
into areas of not more than 3,000 square feet (279 m^). 

509.6 Group R-2 buildings of Type IIA construction. The 

height limitation for buildings of Type IIA construction in 
Group R-2 shall be increased to nine stories and 100 feet (30 
480 mm) where the building is separated by not less than 50 
feet (15 240 mm) from any other building on the lot and from 
lot lines, the exits are segregated in an area enclosed by a 2-hour 
fire-resistance-rated fire wall and the first-floor construction 
has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 V2 hours. 

509.7 Open parking garage beneath Groups A, I, B, M and 

R. Open parking garages constructed under Groups A, I, B, M 
and R shall not exceed the height and area hmitations permitted 
under Section 406.3. The height and area of the portion of the 
building above the open parking garage shall not exceed the 
limitations in Section 503 for the upper occupancy. The height. 



in both feet and stories, of the portion of the building above the 
open parking garage shall be measured from grade plane and 
shall include both the open parking garage and the portion of 
the building above the parking garage. 

509.7.1 Fire separation. Fire barriers constructed in accor- 
dance with Section 706 or horizontal assemblies con- 
structed in accordance with Section 711 between the 
parking occupancy and the upper occupancy shall corre- 
spond to the required fire-resistance rating prescribed in 
Table 508.3.3 for the uses involved. The type of construc- 
tion shall apply to each occupancy individually, except that 
structural members, including main bracing within the open 
parking structure, which is necessary to support the upper 
occupancy, shall be protected with the more restrictive 
fire-resistance-rated assemblies of the groups involved as 
shown in Table 601. Means of egress for the upper occu- 
pancy shall conform to Chapter 10 and shall be separated 
from the parking occupancy by fire barriers having at least a 
2-hour fire -resistance rating as required by Section 706 with 
self-closing doors complying with Section 715 or horizon- 
tal assemblies having at least a 2-hour fire-resistance rating 
as required by Section 71 1, with self-closing doors comply- 
ing with Section 715. Means of egress from the open park- 
ing garage shall comply with Section 406.3. 

509.8 Group B or M with Group S-2 open parking garage 
above. Group B or M uses located in the basement or first story 
below a Group S-2 open parking garage shall be classified as a 
separate and distinct building for the purpose of determining 
the type of construction when all of the following conditions 
are met: 

1 . The basement or first story shall be Type I or II construc- 
tion, but not less than the type of construction required 
for the open parking garage above. The height and area 
of the basement or first story shall not exceed the limita- 
tions in Section 503 for the Group B or M uses. 

2. The height and area of the open parking garage shall not 
exceed the limitations permitted under Section 406.3. 
The height, in both feet and stories, of the open parking 
garage shall be measured from grade plane and include 
both the open parking garage and the basement or first 
story. 

3. Fire separation assemblies between the open parking 
garage and the basement or first story use group shall 
correspond to the required fire-resistance rating pre- 
scribed by Table 508.3.3 

4. Exits serving the open parldng garage shall discharge 
directly to a street or public way and shall be separated 
from the basement or first story use group by not less 
than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with 
Section 706 or 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed 
in accordance with Section 711, or both, with opening 
protectives in accordance with Table 715.4. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE*" 



83 



84 2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 6 

TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 



SECTION 601 
GENERAL 

601.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall control the 
classification of buildings as to type of construction. 



SECTION 602 
CONSTRUCTION CLASSIFICATION 

602.1 General. Buildings and structures erected or to be 
erected, altered or extended in height or area shall be classified 
in one of the five construction types defined in Sections 602.2 
through 602.5. The building elements shall have a fire-resis- 
tance rating not less than that specified in Table 601 and exte- 
rior walls shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than that 
specified in Table 602. 

602.1.1 Minimum requirements. A building or portion 
thereof shall not be required to conform to the details of a 
type of construction higher than that type, which meets the 
minimum requirements based on occupancy even though 
certain features of such a building actually conform to a 
higher type of construction. 

602.2 Types I and II. Type I and II construction are those types 
of construction in which the building elements listed in Table 

1601 are of noncombustible materials, except as permitted in 
Section 603 and elsewhere in this code. 

602.3 Type III. Type III construction is that type of construc- 
tion in which the exterior walls are of noncombustible materi- 
als and the interior building elements are of any material 
permitted by this code. Fire-retardant-treated wood framing 
complying with Section 2303.2 shall be permitted within exte- 
rior wall assemblies of a 2-hour rating or less. 

602.4 Type IV. Type IV construction (Heavy Timber, HT) is 
that type of construction in which the exterior walls are of 
noncombustible materials and the interior building elements 
are of solid or laminated wood without concealed spaces. The 
details of Type IV construction shall comply with the provi- 
sions of this section. Fire-retardant-treated wood framing com- 
plying with Section 2303.2 shall be permitted within exterior 
wall assemblies with a 2-hour rating or less. Minimum solid 
sawn nominal dimensions are required for structures built 
using Type IV construction (HT). For glued-laminated mem- 
bers the equivalent net finished width and depths correspond- 
ing to the minimum nominal width and depths of solid sawn 
lumber are required as specified in Table 602.4. 

602.4.1 Columns. Wood columns shall be sawn or glued 
laminated and shall not be less than 8 inches (203 mm), 
nominal, in any dimension where supporting floor loads and 
not less than 6 inches (152 mm) nominal in width and not 
less than 8 inches (203 mm) nominal in depth where sup- 
porting roof and ceihng loads only. Columns shall be con- 
tinuous or superimposed and connected in an approved 
manner. 



602.4.2 Floor framing. Wood beams and girders shall be of 
sawn or glued-laminated timber and shall be not less than 6 
inches (152 mm) nominal in width and not less than 10 
inches (254 mm) nominal in depth. Framed sawn or 
glued-laminated timber arches, which spring from the floor 
line and support floor loads, shall be not less than 8 inches 
(203 mm) nominal in any dimension. Framed timber trusses 
supporting floor loads shall have members of not less than 8 
inches (203 mm) nominal in any dimension. 

602.4.3 Roof framing. Wood-frame or glued-laminated 
arches for roof construction, which spring from the floor 
line or from grade and do not support floor loads, shall have 
members not less than 6 inches (152 mm) nominal in width 
and have less than 8 inches (203 mm) nominal in depth for 
the lower half of the height and not less than 6 inches (152 
mm) nominal in depth for the upper half. Framed or glued- 
laminated arches for roof construction that spring from the 
top of walls or wall abutments, framed timber trusses and 
other roof framing, which do not support floor loads, shall 
have members not less than 4 inches (102 mm) nominal in 
width and not less than 6 inches (152 mm) nominal in depth. 
Spaced members shall be permitted to be composed of two 
or more pieces not less than 3 inches (76 mm) nominal in 
thickness where blocked solidly throughout their interven- 
ing spaces or where spaces are tightly closed by a continu- 
ous wood cover plate of not less than 2 inches (5 1 mm) 
nominal in thickness secured to the underside of the mem- 
bers. SpUce plates shall be not less than 3 inches (76 mm) 
nominal in thickness. Where protected by approved auto- 
matic sprinklers under the roof deck, framing members 
shall be not less than 3 inches (76 mm) nominal in width. 

602.4.4 Floors. Floors shall be without concealed spaces. 
Wood floors shall be of sawn or glued-laminated planks, 
splined or tongue-and-groove, of not less than 3 inches (76 
mm) nominal in thickness covered with 1-inch (25 mm) 
nominal dimension tongue-and-groove flooring, laid cross- 
wise or diagonally, or 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) particleboard or 
planks not less than 4 inches (102 mm) nominal in width set 
on edge close together and well spiked and covered with 
1-inch (25 mm) nominal dimension flooring or 'V32-inch 
(12 mm) wood structural panel or 0.5-inch (12.7 nmi) 
particleboard. The lumber shall be laid so that no continu- 
ous line of joints will occur except at points of support. 
Floors shall not extend closer than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) to 
walls. Such 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) space shall be covered by a 
molding fastened to the wall and so arranged that it will not 
obstruct the swelling or shrinkage movements of the floor. 
Corbeling of masonry walls under the floor shall be permit- 
ted to be used in place of molding. 

602.4.5 Roofs. Roofs shall be without concealed spaces and 
wood roof decks shall be sawn or glued laminated, splined 
or tongue-and-groove plank, not less than 2 inches (51 mm) 
nominal in thickness, 1 Vg-inch-thick (32 mm) wood struc- 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



85 



TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 



tural panel (exterior glue), or of planks not less than 3 inches 
(76 mm) nominal in width, set on edge close together and 
laid as required for floors. Other types of decking shall be 
permitted to be used if providing equivalent fire resistance 
and structural properties. 

602.4.6 Partitions. Partitions shall be of solid wood con- 
struction formed by not less than two layers of 1-inch (25 
mm) matched boards or laminated construction 4 inches 
(102 mm) thick, or of 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construc- 
tion. 

602.4.7 Exterior structural members. Where a horizontal 
separation of 20 feet (6096 mm) or more is provided, wood 
columns and arches conforming to heavy timber sizes shall 
be permitted to be used externally. 

602.5 Type V. Type V construction is that type of construction 
in which the structural elements, exterior walls and interior 
walls are of any materials permitted by this code. 



SECTION 603 

COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL IN TYPE I 

AND II CONSTRUCTION 

603.1 Allowable materials. Combustible materials shall be 
permitted in buildings of Type I or Type II construction in the 
following applications and in accordance with Sections 
603.1.1 through 603.1.3: 

1 . Fire-retardant-treated wood shall be permitted in: 

1.1. Nonbearing partitions where the required 
fire-resistance rating is 2 hours or less. 

1 .2. Nonbearing exterior walls where no fire rating is 
required. 

1.3. Roof construction, including girders, trusses, 
framing and decking. 

Exception: In buildings of Type I construc- 
tion exceeding two stories in height, 
fire-retardant-treated wood is not permitted in 
roof construction when the vertical distance 
from the upper floor to the roof is less than 20 
feet (6096 mm). 

2. Thermal and acoustical insulation, other than foam 
plastics, having a flame spread index of not more than 

25. 

Exceptions: 

1. Insulation placed between two layers of 
noncombustible materials without an interven- 
ing airspace shall be allowed to have a flame 
spread index of not more than 100. 

2. Insulation installed between a finished floor 
and solid decking without intervening airspace 
shall be allowed to have a flame spread index of 
not more than 200. 

3. Foam plastics in accordance with Chapter 26. 

4. Roof coverings that have an A, B or C classification. 



5. Interior floor finish and interior finish, trim and mill- 
work such as doors, door frames, window sashes and 
frames. 

6. Where not installed over 15 feet (4572 mm) above 
grade, show windows, nailing or furring strips and 
wooden bulkheads below show windows, including 
their frames, aprons and show cases. 

7. Finished flooring applied directly to the floor slab or to 
wood sleepers that are fireblocked in accordance with 
Section 717.2.7. 

8. Partitions dividing portions of stores, offices or similar 
places occupied by one tenant only and that do not 
establish a corridor serving an occupant load of 30 or 
more shall be permitted to be constructed of fire-retar- 
dant-treated wood, 1-hour fire-resistance-rated con- 
struction or of wood panels or similar light construction 
up to 6 feet (1829 mm) in height. 

9. Stages and platforms constructed in accordance with 
Sections 410.3 and 410.4, respectively. 

10. Combustible exterior wall coverings, balconies and 
similar projections and bay or oriel windows in accor- 
dance with Chapter 14. 

11. Blocking such as for handrails, millwork, cabinets and 
window and door frames. 

1 2. Light-transmitting plastics as permitted by Chapter 26. 

1 3 . Mastics and caulking materials applied to provide flex- 
ible seals between components of exterior wall con- 
struction. 

14. Exterior plastic veneer installed in accordance with 
Section 2605.2. 

1 5 . Nailing or furring strips as permitted by Section 803 .4. 

16. Heavy timber as permitted by Note d to Table 601 and 
Sections 602.4.7 and 1406.3. 

17. Aggregates, component materials and admixtures as 
permitted by Section 703.2.2. 

18. Sprayed fire-resistant materials and intumescent and 
mastic fire-resistant coatings, determined on the basis 
of fire-resistance tests in accordance with Section 
703.2 and installed in accordance with Section 1704. 10 
and 1704.11, respectively. 

19. Materials used to protect penetrations in fire-resis- 
tance-rated assemblies in accordance with Section 712. 

20. Materials used to protect joints in fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies in accordance with Section 713. 

21 Materials allowed in the concealed spaces of buildings 
of Type I and II construction in accordance with Sec- 
tion 717.5. 

22. Materials exposed within plenums complying with 
Section 602 of the International Mechanical Code. 

603.1.1 Ducts. The use of nonmetallic ducts shall be per- 
mitted when installed in accordance with the limitations of 
the International Mechanical Code. 



86 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 



603.1.2 Piping. The use of combustible piping materials 
shall be permitted when installed in accordance with the 
limitations of the International Mechanical Code and the 
International Plumbing Code. 

603.1.3 Electrical. The use of electrical wiring methods 
with combustible insulation, tubing, raceways and related 
components shall be permitted when installed in accor- 
dance with the limitations of the ICC Electrical Code. 



TABLE 601 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING REQUIREMENTS FOR BUILDING ELEMENTS (hours) 






BUILDING ELEMENT 


TYPEI 


TYPE II 


TYPE III 


TYPE IV 


TYPEV 


A 


. B 


A« 


B 


A" 


B 


HT 


A« 


B 


Structural frame^ 


3" 


2" 


1 





1 





HT 


1 





Bearing walls 
Exterior^ 
Interior 


3 
3*' 


2 
2" 


1 

1 






2 
1 


2 



2 
1/HT 


1 
1 






Nonbearing walls and partitions 
Exterior 


See Table 602 


Nonbearing walls and partitions 
Interior^ 




















See Section 602.4.6 








Floor construction 

Including supporting beams and joists 


2 


2 


1 





1 





HT 


1 





Roof construction 
Including supporting beams and joists 


IV/ 


led 


led 


QCd 


led 


QCd 


HT 


ic, d 






For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. The structural frame shall be considered to be the columns and the girders, beams, trusses and spandrels having direct connections to the columns and bracing 
members designed to carry gravity loads. The members of floor or roof panels which have no connection to the columns shall be considered secondary members 
and not a part of the structural frame. 

b. Roof supports: Fire-resistance ratings of structural frame and bearing walls are permitted to be reduced by 1 hour where supporting a rooi' only 

c. Except in Group F- 1 , H, M and S- 1 occupancies, fire protection of structural members shall not be required, including protection of roof framing and decking 
where every part of the roof construction is 20 feet or more above any floor immediately below. Fire-retardant-treated wood members shall be allowed to be used 
for such unprotected members. 

d. In all occupancies, heavy timber shall be allowed where a 1-hour or less fire-resistance rating is required. 

e. An approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3. 1 . 1 shall be allowed to be substituted for 1 -hour fire-resistance-rated construction, pro- 
vided such system is not otherwise required by other provisions of the code or used for an allowable area increase in accordance with Section 506.3 or an allowable 
height increase in accordance with Section 504.2. The 1-hour substitution for the fire resistance of exterior walls shall not be permitted. 

fi Not less than the fire-resistance rating required by other sections of this code. 

g. Not less than the fire-resistance rating based on fire separation distance (see Table 602). 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



87 



TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 602 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING REQUIREMENTS FOR EXTERIOR WALLS BASED ON FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE^' » 



FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE = X 
(feet) 


TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 


OCCUPANCY 
GROUP H 


OCCUPANCY 
GROUP F-1,M,S-1 


OCCUPANCY 
GROUP A, B, E, F-2, 1, R, S-2, U" 


X<5'^ 


All 


3 


2 


1 


5<X<10 


lA 
Others 


3 

2 


2 
1 


1 

1 


10 < X< 30 


IA,IB 
nB,VB 
Others 


2 
1 
1 


1 

1 


Id 


Id ■ 


X>30 


All 












For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Load-bearing exterior walls shall also comply with the fire-resistance rating requirements of Table 601. 
I b. For special requirements for Group U occupancies see Section 406.1.2 
c. See Section 705.1.1 for party walls. 

Id. Open parking garages complying with Section 406 shall not be required to have a fire-resistance rating, 
e. The fire-resistance rating of an exterior wall is determined based upon the fire separation distance of the exterior \yall and the story in which the wall is located. 



TABLE 602.4 
WOOD MEMBER SIZE 



MINIMUM NOMINAL SOLID SAWN SIZE 


MINIMUM GLUED-LAMINATED NET SIZE 


Width, inch 


Depth, inch 


Width, inch 


Depth, inch 


8 


8 


6V4 


8V, 


6 


10 


5 


IOV2 


6 


8 


5 


8V4 


6 


6 


5 


6 


4 


6 


3 


6^8 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



88 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 7 

FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



SECTION 701 
GENERAL 

701.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
materials and assemblies used for structural fire resistance and 
fire-resistance-rated construction separation of adjacent spaces 
to safeguard against the spread of fire and smoke within a 
building and the spread of fire to or from buildings. 



SECTION 702 
DEFINITIONS 

702.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter, and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

ANNULAR SPACE. The opening around the penetrating 
item. 

CEILING RADIATION DAMPER. A listed device installed 
in a ceiling membrane of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or 
roof/ceiling assernbly to limit automatically the radiative heat 
transfer through an air inlet/outlet opening. 

COMBINATION FIRE/SMOKE DAMPER. A listed 
device installed in ducts and air transfer openings designed to 
close automatically upon the detection of heat and resist the 
passage of flame and smoke. The device is installed to operate 
automatically, controlled by a smoke detection system, and 
where required, is capable of being positioned from a fire com- 
mand center. 

DAMPER. See "Ceiling radiation damper," "Combination 
fire/smoke damper," "Fire damper" and "Smoke damper." 

DRAFTSTOP. A material, device or construction installed to 
restrict the movement of air within open spaces of concealed 
areas of building components such as crawl spaces, floor/ceil- 
ing assemblies, roof/ceiling assemblies and attics. 

F RATING. The time period that the through-penetration 
firestop system limits the spread of fire through the penetration 
when tested in accordance with ASTM E 814. 

FIRE AREA. The aggregate floor area enclosed and bounded 
by fire walls, fire barriers, exterior walls or fire-resis- 
tance-rated horizontal assemblies of a building. 

FIRE BARRIER. A fire-resistance-rated wall assembly of 
materials designed to restrict the spread of fire in which conti- 
nuity is maintained. 

FIRE DAMPER. A hsted device installed in ducts and air 
transfer openings designed to close automatically upon detec- 
tion of heat and resist the passage of flame. Fire dampers are 
classified for use in either static systems that will automatically 
shut down in the event of a fire, or in dynamic systems that con- 
tinue to operate during a fire. A dynamic fire damper is tested 
and rated for closure under elevated temperature airflow. 

FIRE DOOR. The door component of a fire door assembly. 



FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. Any combination of a fire door, 
frame, hardware, and other accessories that together provide a 
specific degree of fire protection to the opening. 

FIRE PARTITION. A vertical assembly of materials 
designed to restrict the spread of fire in which openings are pro- 
tected. 

FIRE PROTECTION RATING. The period of time that an 
opening protective assembly will maintain the ability to con- 
fine a fire as determined by tests prescribed in Section 715. Rat- 
ings are stated in hours or minutes. 

FIRE RESISTANCE. That property of materials or their 
assemblies that prevents or retards the passage of excessive 
heat, hot gases or flames under conditions of use. 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING. The period of time a build- 
ing element, component or assembly maintains the ability to 
confine a fire, continues to perform a given structural function, 
or both, as determined by the tests, or the methods based on 
tests, prescribed in Section 703. 

FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEM. An assemblage of 
specific materials or products that are designed, tested, and 
fire-resistance rated in accordance with either ASTM E 1966 or 
UL 2079 to resist for a prescribed period of time the passage of 
fire through joints made in or between fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies. 

FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE. The distance measured 
from the building face to one of the following: 

1. The closest interior lot line; 

2. To the centerline of a street, an alley or public way; or 

3. To an imaginary line between two buildings on the prop- 
erty. 

FIRE WALL. A fire-resistance-rated wall having protected 
openings, which restricts the spread of fire and extends contin- 
uously from the foundation to or through the roof, with suffi- 
cient structural stabiUty under fire conditions to allow collapse 
of construction on either side without collapse of the wall. 

FIRE WINDOW ASSEMBLY. A window constructed and 
glazed to give protection against the passage of fire. 

FIREBLOCKING. Building materials installed to resist the 
free passage of flame to other areas of the building through 
concealed spaces. 

FLOOR FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. A combination of a fire 
door, a frame, hardware and other accessories installed in a hor- 
izontal plane, which together provide a specific degree of fire 
protection to a through-opening in a fire-resistance-rated floor 
(see Section 71 1.8). 

HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLY. A fire-resistance-rated floor 
or roof assembly of materials designed to restiict the spread of 
fire in which continuity is maintained. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



89 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



JOINT. The linear opening in or between adjacent fire-resis- 
tance-rated assemblies that is designed to allow ind.ependent 
movement of the building in any plane caused by thermal, seis- 
mic, wind or any other loading. 

MEMBRANE PENETRATION. An opening made through 
one side (wall, floor or ceiling membrane) of an assembly. 

MEMBRANE-PENETRATION FIRESTOP. A material, 
device or construction installed to resist for a prescribed time 
period the passage of flame and heat through openings in a pro- 
tective membrane in order to accommodate cables, cable trays, 
conduit, tubing, pipes or similar items. 

MINERAL FIBER. Insulation composed principally of fibers 
manufactured from rock, slag or glass, with or without binders. 

MINERAL WOOL. Synthetic vitreous fiber insulation made 
by melting predominately igneous rock or furnace slag, and 
other inorganic materials, and then physically forming the melt 
into fibers. 

PENETRATION FIRESTOP. A through-penetration 
firestop or a membrane-penetration firestop. 

SELF-CLOSING. As applied to a fire door or other opening, 
means equipped with an approved device that will ensure clos- 
ing after having been opened. 

SHAFT. An enclosed space extending through one or more 
stories of a building, connecting vertical openings in succes- 
sive floors, or floors and roof. 

SHAFT ENCLOSURE. The walls or construction forming 
the boundaries of a shaft. 

SMOKE BARRIER. A continuous membrane, either vertical 
or horizontal, such as a wall, floor, or ceiling assembly, that is 
designed and constructed to restrict the movement of smoke. 

SMOKE COMPARTMENT. A space within a building 
enclosed by smoke barriers on all sides, including the top and 
bottom. 

SMOKE DAMPER. A Usted device installed in ducts and air 
transfer openings designed to resist the passage of smoke. The 
device is installed to operate automatically, controlled by a 
smoke detection system, and where required, is capable of 
being positioned from a fire command center. 

SPLICE. The result of a factory and/or field method of joining 
or connecting two or more lengths of a fire-resistant joint sys- 
tem into a continuous entity. 

T RATING. The time period that the penetration firestop sys- 
tem, including the penetrating item, Hmits the maximum tem- 
perature rise to 325°F (163°C) above its initial temperature 
through the penetration on the nonfire side when tested in 
accordance with ASTM E 814. 

THROUGH PENETRATION. An opening that passes 
through an entire assembly. 

THROUGH-PENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEM. An 

assemblage of specific materials or products that are designed, 
tested and fire-resistance rated to resist for a prescribed period 
of time the spread of fire through penetrations. The F and T rat- 
ing criteria for penetration firestop systems shall be in accor- 



dance with ASTM E 814. See definitions of "F rating" and "T 
rating." 



SECTION 703 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS AND FIRE TESTS 

703.1 Scope. Materials prescribed herein for fire resistance 
shall conform to the requirements of this chapter. 

703.2 Fire-resistance ratings. The fire-resistance rating of 
building elements shall be determined in accordance with the 
test procedures set forth in ASTM E 1 19 or in accordance with 
Section 703.3. Where materials, systems or devices that have 
not been tested as part of a fire-resistance-rated assembly are 
incorporated into the assembly, sufficient data shall be made 
available to the building official to show that the required 
fire-resistance rating is not reduced. Materials and methods of 
construction used to protect joints and penetrations in 
fire-resistance-rated building elements shall not reduce the 
required fire-resistance rating. 

Exception: In determining the fire-resistance rating of exte- 
rior bearing walls, compliance with the ASTM E 1 19 crite- 
ria for unexposed surface temperature rise and ignition of 
cotton waste due to passage of flame or gases is required 
only for a period of time corresponding to the required 
fire-resistance rating of an exterior nonbearing wall with the 
same fire separation distance, and in a building of the same 
group. When the fire-resistance rating determined in accor- 
dance with this exception exceeds the fire-resistance rating 
determined in accordance with ASTM E 1 19, the fire expo- 
sure time period, water pressure, and application duration 
criteria for the hose stream test of ASTM E 119 shall be 
based upon the fire-resistance rating determined in accor- 
dance with this exception. 

703.2.1 Nonsymmetrical wall construction. Interior walls 
and partitions of nonsymmetrical construction shall be 
tested with both faces exposed to the furnace, and the 
assigned fire-resistance rating shall be the shortest duration 
obtained from the two tests conducted in compliance with 
ASTM E 1 19. When evidence is furnished to show that the 
wall was tested with the least fire-resistant side exposed to 
the furnace, subject to acceptance of the building official, 
the wall need not be subjected to tests from the opposite side 
(see Section 704.5 for exterior walls). 

703.2.2 Combustible components. Combustible aggre- 
gates are permitted in gypsum and portland cement concrete 
mixtures approved for fire-resistance-rated construction. 
Any approved component material or admixture is permit- 
ted in assembUes if the resulting tested assembly meets the 
fire-resistance test requirements of this code. 

703.2.3 Restrained classification. Fire-resistance-rated 
assembhes tested under ASTM E 119 shall not be consid- 
ered to be restrained unless evidence satisfactory to the 
building official is furnished by the registered design pro- 
fessional showing that the construction qualifies for a 
restrained classification in accordance with ASTM E 119. 
Restrained construction shall be identified on the plans. 

703.3 Alternative methods for determining fire resistance. 

The application of any of the alternative methods listed in this 



90 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



section shall be based on the fire exposure and acceptance crite- 
ria specified in ASTM E 1 19. The required fire resistance of a 
building element shall be permitted to be established by any of 
the following methods or procedures: 

1. Fire-resistance designs documented in approved 
sources. 

2. Prescriptive designs of fire-resistance-rated building 
elements as prescribed in Section 720. 

3. Calculations in accordance with Section 721. 

4. Engineering analysis based on a comparison of building 
element designs having fire-resistance ratings as deter- 
mined by the test procedures set forth in ASTM E 1 19. 

5. Alternative protection methods as allowed by Section 
104.11. 

703.4 Noncombustibility tests. The tests indicated in Sections 
703.4.1 and 703.4.2 shall serve as criteria for acceptance of 
building materials as set forth in Sections 602.2, 602.3 and 
602.4 in Type I, II, III and IV construction. The term 
"noncombustible" does not apply to the flame spread charac- 
teristics of interior finish or trim materials. A material shall not 
be classified as a noncombustible building construction mate- 
rial if it is subject to an increase in combustibility or flame 
spread beyond the limitations herein established through the 
effects of age, moisture or other atmospheric conditions. 

703.4.1 Elementary materials. Materials required to be 
noncombustible shall be tested in accordance with ASTM E 
136. 

703.4.2 Composite materials. Materials having a struc- 
tural base of noncombustible material as determined in 
accordance with Section 703.4.1 with a surfacing not more 
than 0.125 inch (3.18 mm) thick that has a flame spread 
index not greater than 50 when tested in accordance with 
ASTM E 84 shall be acceptable as noncombustible materi- 
als. 



SECTION 704 
EXTERIOR WALLS 

704.1 General. Exterior walls shall comply with this section. 

704.2 Projections. Cornices, eave overhangs, exterior balco- 
nies and similar projections extending beyond the floor area 
shall conform to the requirements of this section and Section 
1406. Exterior egress balconies and exterior exit stairways 
shall also comply with Sections 1014.5 and 1023.1, respec- 
tively. Projections shall not extend beyond the distance deter- 
mined by the following two methods, whichever results in the 
lesser projection: 

1. A point one-third the distance to the lot line from an 
assumed vertical plane located where protected openings 
are required in accordance with Section 704.8. 

2. More than 12 inches (305 mm) into areas where open- 
ings are prohibited. 

704.2.1 Type I and II construction. Projections from walls 
of Type I or II construction shall be of noncombustible 



materials or combustible materials as allowed by Sections 
1406.3 and 1406.4. 

704.2.2 Type III, IV or V construction. Projections from 
walls of Type EI, IV or V construction shall be of any 
approved material. 

704.2.3 Combustible projections. Combustible projec- 
tions located where openings are not permitted or where 
protection of openings is required shall be of at least 1 -hour 

. fire-resistance-rated construction. Type IV construction, 
fire-retardant-treated wood or as required by Section 
1406.3. 

Exception: Type V construction shall be allowed for R-3 
occupancies. 

704.3 Buildings on the same lot. For the purposes of deter- 
mining the required wall and opening protection and roof-cov- 
ering requirements, buildings on the same lot shall be assumed 
to have an imaginary line between them. 

Where a new building is to be erected on the same lot as an 
existing building, the location of the assumed imaginary line 
with relation to the existing building shall be such that the exte- 
rior wall and opening protection of the existing building meet 
the criteria as set forth in Sections 704.5 and 704.8. 

Exception: Two or more buildings on the same lot shall 
either be regulated as separate buildings or shall be consid- 
ered as portions of one building if the aggregate area of such 
buildings is within the limits specified in Chapter 5 for a sin- 
gle building. Where the buildings contain different occu- 
pancy groups or are of different types of construction, the 
area shall be that allowed for the most restrictive occupancy 
or construction. 

704.4 Materials. Exterior walls shall be of materials permitted 
by the building type of construction. 

704.5 Fire-resistance ratings. Exterior walls shall be 
fire-resistance rated in accordance with Tables 601 and 602. 
The fire-resistance rating of exterior walls with a fire separa- 
tion distance of greater than 5 feet (1524 mm) shall be rated for 
exposure to fire from the inside. The fu-e-resistance rating of 
exterior walls with a fire separation distance of 5 feet (1524 
mm) or less shall be rated for exposure to fu-e from both sides. 

704.6 Structural stability. The wall shall extend to the height 
required by Section 704.1 1 and shall have sufficient structural 
stability such that it will remain in place for the duration of time 
indicated by the required fire-resistance rating. 

704.7 Unexposed surface temperature. Where protected 
openings are not limited by Section 704.8, the limitation on the 
rise of temperature on the unexposed surface of exterior walls 
as required by ASTM E 1 19 shall not apply. Where protected 
openings are limited by Section 704.8, the limitation on the rise 
of temperature on the unexposed surface of exterior walls as 
required by ASTM E 1 19 shall not apply provided that a cor- 
rection is made for radiation from the unexposed exterior wall 
surface in accordance with the following fonnula: 



A,=A + {AfXFJ 



(Equation 7-1) 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



91 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



where: 

Ae = Equivalent area of protected openings. 

A = Actual area of protected openings. 

Af = Area of exterior wall surface in the story under consid- 
eration exclusive of openings, on which the tempera- 
ture limitations of ASTM E 119 for walls are exceeded. 

Feo = An "equivalent opening factor" derived from Figure 
704.7 based on the average temperature of the unex- 



posed wall surface and the fire-resistance rating of the 
wall. 

704.8 Allowable area of openings. The maximum area of 
unprotected or protected openings permitted in an exterior wall 
in any story shall not exceed the values set forth in Table 704.8. 
Where both unprotected and protected openings are located in 
the exterior wall in any story, the total area of the openings shall 
comply with the following formula: 

- + ^<1.0 (Equation 7-2) 

a a.. 



For SI: °C = [(°F) - 32] / 1 .8. 




200 



400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 
Average temperature of unexposed surface (°F) 



FIGURE 704.7 
EQUIVALENT OPENING FACTOR 

TABLE 704.8 
MAXIMUM AREA OF EXTERIOR WALL OPENINGS^ 



CLASSIFICATION 
OF OPENING 


FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE (feet) 


Oto3'l 


Greater 
than 3 to 5"'^ 


Greater 
thanStolO'^'^'S'' 


Greater 
than10to15'''*'9 


Greater 
thamStoZC'S 


Greater 
than 20 to 25'''9 


Greater 
than 25 to sC-s 


Greater 
than 30 


Unprotected 


Not 
Permitted 


Not 
Permitted'^ 


10%' 


15%' 


25%' 


. 45%' 


70%' 


No Limit'' 


Protected 


Not 
Permitted 


15% 


25% 


45% 


75% 


No Limit'' 


No Limit'' 


No Limit'' 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 nun. 

a. Values given are percentage of the area of the exterior wall. 

b. See Section 704.7 for unexposed surface temperature. 

c. For occupancies in Group R-3, the maximum percentage of unprotected and protected ecterior wall openings shall be 25 percent. 

d. The area of openings in an open parking structure with a fire separation distance of greater than 10 feet shall not be limited. 

e. For occupancies in Group H-2 or H-3, unprotected openings shall not be permitted for openings with a fire separation distance of 15 feet or less. 

f . For requirements for fire walls for buildings with differing roof heights, see Section 705 .6.1. 

g. The area of unprotected and protected openings is not limited for occupancies in Group R-3, with a fire separation distance greater than 5 feet, 
h. For special reqiiirements for Group U occupancies, see Section 406. 1 .2. 

i. Buildings whose exterior bearing wall, exterior nonbearing wall and exterior structural frame are not required to be fire-resistance rated by Table 601 or 602 shall 

be permitted to have unlimited unprotected openings, 
j. Includes accessory buildings to Group R-3. 



92 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



where: 

A = Actual area of protected openings, or the equivalent 
area of protected openings, A^ (see Section 704.7). 

a = Allowable area of protected openings. 

Au. = Actual area of unprotected openings. 

au = Allowable area of unprotected openings. 

704.8.1 Automatic sprinkler system. In buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3. 1 . 1 , the maximum allowable 
area of unprotected openings in occupancies other than 
Groups H-1, H-2 and H-3 shall be the same as the tabulated 
limitations for protected openings. 

704.8.2 First story. In occupancies other than Group H, 
unlimited unprotected openings are permitted in the exterior 
walls of the first story above grade facing a street that have a 
fire separation distance of greater than 15 feet (4572 mm) or 
facing an unoccupied space. The unoccupied space shall be 
on the same lot or dedicated for public use, shall not be less 
than 30 feet (9144 mm) in width and shall have access from 
a street by a posted fire lane in accordance with the Interna- 
tional Fire Code. 

704.9 Vertical separation of openings. Openings in exterior 
walls in adjacent stories shall be separated vertically to protect 
against fire spread on the exterior of the buildings where the 
openings are within 5 feet (1524 mm) of each other horizon- 
tally and the opening in the lower story is not a protected open- 
ing with a fire protection rating of not less than V4 hour. Such 
openings shall be separated vertically at least 3 feet (914 mm) 
by spandrel girders, exterior walls or other similar assemblies 
that have a fire-resistance rating of at least 1 hour or by flame 
barriers that extend horizontally at least 30 inches (762 mm) 
beyond the exterior wall. Flame barriers shall also have a 
fire-resistance rating of at least 1 hour. The unexposed surface 
temperature limitations specified in ASTM E 119 shall not 
apply to the flame barriers or vertical separation unless other- 
wise required by the provisions of this code. 

Exceptions: 

1 . This section shall not apply to buildings that are three 
stories or less in height. 

2. This section shall not apply to buildings equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

3. Open parking garages. 

704.10 Vertical exposure. For buildings on the same lot, open- 
ing protectives having a fire-protection rating of not less than 
^/^ hour shall be provided in every opening that is less than 15 
feet (4572 mm) vertically above the roof of an adjoining build- 
ing or adjacent structure that is within a horizontal fire separa- 
tion distance of 15 feet (4572 mm) of the wall in which the 
opening is located. 

Exception; Opening protectives are not required where the 
roof construction has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 
1 hour for a minimum distance of 10 feet (3048 mm) from 
the adjoining building, and the entire length and span of the 



supporting elements for the fire-resistance-rated roof 
assembly has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. 

704.11 Parapets. Parapets shall be provided on exterior walls 
of buildings. 

Exceptions: A parapet need not be provided on an exterior 
wall where any of the following conditions exist: 

1. The wall is not required to be fire-resistance rated in 
accordance with Table 602 because of fire separation 
distance. 

2. The building has an area of not more than 1,000 
square feet (93 m^) on any floor. 

3. Walls that terminate at roofs of not less than 2-hour 
fire-resistance-rated construction or where the roof, 
including the deck and supporting construction, is 
constructed entirely of noncombustible materials. 

4. One-hour fire-resistance-rated exterior walls that ter- 
minate at the underside of the roof sheathing, deck or 
slab, provided: 

4. 1 . Where the roof/ceiling framing elements are 
parallel to the walls, such framing and ele- 
ments supporting such framing shall not be of 
less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated con- 
struction for a width of 4 feet (1220 mm) for 
Groups R and U and 10 feet (3048 mm) for 
other occupancies, measured from the interior 
side of the wall. 

4.2. Where roof/ceiling framing elements are not 
parallel to the wall, the entire span of such 
framing and elements supporting such fram- 
ing shall not be of less than 1-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction. 

4.3. Openings in the roof shall not be located 
within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the 1-hour fire-re- 
sistance-rated exterior wall for Groups R and 
U and 10 feet (3048 mm) for other occupan- 
cies, measured from the interior side of the 
wall. 

4.4. The entire building shall be provided with not 
less than a Class B roof covering. 

5. In Groups R-2 and R-3 where the entire building is 
provided with a Class C roof covering, the exterior 
wall shall be permitted to terminate at the underside of 
the roof sheathing or deck in Type III, IV and V con- 
struction, provided: 

5.1. The roof sheathing or deck is constructed of 
approved noncombustible materials or of 
fire-retardant-treated wood for a distance of 4 
feet (1220 mm); or 

5.2. The roof is protected with 0.625-inch (16 
mm) Type X gypsum board directly beneath 
the underside of the roof sheathing or deck, 
supported by a minimum of nominal 2-inch 
(5 1 mm) ledgers attached to the sides of the 
roof framing members for a minimum dis- 
tance of 4 feet (1220 mm). 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



93 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



6. Where the wall is permitted to have at least 25 percent 
of the exterior wall areas containing unprotected 
openings based on fire separation distance as deter- 
mined in accordance with Section 704.8. 

704.11.1 Parapet construction. Parapets shall have the 
same fire-resistance rating as that required for the support- 
ing wall, and on any side adjacent to a roof surface, shall 
have noncombustible faces for the uppermost 18 inches 
(457 mm), including counterflashing and coping materials. 
The height of the parapet shall not be less than 30 inches 
(762 mm) above the point where the roof surface and the 
wall intersect. Where the roof slopes toward a parapet at a 
slope greater than two units vertical in 12 units horizontal 
(16.7-percent slope), the parapet shall extend to the same 
height as any portion of the roof within a fire separation dis- 
tance where protection of wall openings is required, but in 
no case shall the height be less than 30 inches (762 mm). 

704.12 Opening protection. Windows in exterior walls 
required to have protected openings in accordance with other 
sections of this code or determined to be protected in accor- 
dance with Section 704.3 or 704.8 shall comply with Section 
7 15.5. Other openings required to be protected with fire door or 
shutter assemblies in accordance with other sections of this 
code or determined to be protected in accordance with Section 
704.3 or 704.8 shall comply with Section 715.4. 

Exception: Opening protectives are not required where the 
building is protected throughout by an automatic sprinkler 
system and the exterior openings are protected by an 
approved water curtain using automatic sprinklers approved 
for that use. The sprinklers and the water curtain shall be 
installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and shall 
have an automatic water supply and fire department connec- 
tion. 

704.12.1 Unprotected openings. Where protected open- 
ings are not required by Section 704, windows and doors 
shall be constructed of any approved materials. Glazing 
shall conform to the requirements of Chapters 24 and 26. 

704.13 Joints. Joints made in or between exterior walls 
required by this section to have a fire-resistance rating shall 
comply with Section 713. 

Exception: Joints in exterior walls that are permitted to 
have unprotected openings. 

704.13.1 Voids. The void created at the intersection of a 
floor/ceiling assembly and an exterior curtain wall assem- 
bly shall be protected in accordance with Section 713.4. 

704.14 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations by air 
ducts and air transfer openings in fire-resistance-rated exterior 
walls required to have protected openings shall comply with 
Section 716. 

Exception: Foundation vents installed in accordance with 
this code are permitted. 



SECTION 705 
FIRE WALLS 

705.1 GeneraL Each portion of a building separated by one or 
more fire walls that comply with the provisions of this section 
shall be considered a separate building. The extent and location 
of such fire walls shall provide a complete separation. Where a 
fire wall also separates occupancies that are required to be sep- 
arated by a fire barrier wall, the most restrictive requirements of 
each separation shall apply. 

705.1.1 Party walls. Any wall located on a lot line between 
adjacent buildings, which is used or adapted for joint service 
between the two buildings, shall be constructed as a fire wall 
in accordance with Section 705. Party walls shall be con- 
structed without openings and shall create separate build- 
ings. 

705.2 Structural stability. Fire walls shall have sufficient 
structural stability under fire conditions to allow collapse of 
construction on either side without collapse of the wall for the 
duration of time indicated by the required fire-resistance rat- 
ing. 

705.3 Materials. Fire walls shall be of any approved 
noncoinbustible materials. 

Exception: Buildings of Type V construction. 

705.4 Fire-resistance rating. Fire walls shall have a fire-resis- 
tance rating of not less than that required by Table 705.4. 

TABLE 705.4 
FIRE WALL FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS 



GROUP 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


A,B,E,H-4,I,R-1,R-2,U 


3« 


F-1,H-3\H-5,M,S-1 


3 


H-1, H-2 


4" 


F-2, S-2, R-3, R-4 


2 



a. Walls shall be not less than 2-hour fire-resistance rated where separating 
buildings of Type 11 or V construction. 

b. For Group H-1, H-2 or H-3 buildings, also see Sections 415.4 and 415.5. 

705.5 Horizontal continuity. Fire walls shall be continuous 
from exterior wall to exterior wall and shall extend at least 18 
inches (457 nim) beyond the exterior surface of exterior walls. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fire walls shall be permitted to terminate at the inte- 
rior surface of combustible exterior sheathing or sid- 
ing provided the exterior wall has a fire-resistance 
rating of at least 1 hour for a horizontal distance of at 
least 4 feet (1220 mm) on both sides of the fire wall. 
Openings within such exterior walls shall be pro- 
tected by opening protectives having a fire protection 
rating of not less than V4 hour. 

2. Fire walls shall be permitted to terminate at the inte- 
rior surface of noncombustible exterior sheathing, 
exterior siding or other noncombustible exterior fin- 
ishes provided the sheathing, siding, or other exterior 
noncombustible finish extends a horizontal distance 
of at least 4 feet (1220 mm) on both sides of the fire 
wall. 



94 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



3. Fire walls shall be permitted- to terminate at the inte- 
rior surface of noncombustible exterior sheathing 
where the building on each side of the fire wall is pro- 
tected by an automatic sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

705.5.1 Exterior walls. Where the fire wall intersects the 
exterior walls, the fire-resistance rating for the exterior 
walls on both sides of the fire wall shall have a 1-hour 
fire-resistance rating with V4-hour opening protection 
where opening protection is required. The fire-resistance 
rating of the exterior wall shall extend a minimum of 4 feet 
( 1 220 mm) on each side of the intersection of the fire wall to 
exterior wall. Exterior wall intersections at fire walls that 
form an angle equal to or greater than 1 80 degrees (3.14 rad) 
do not need exterior wall protection. 

705.5.2 Horizontal projecting elements. Fire walls shall 
extend to the outer edge of horizontal projecting elements 
such as balconies, roof overhangs, canopies, marquees and 
similar projections that are within 4 feet (1220 mm) of the 
fire wall. 

Exceptions: 

1. Horizontal projecting elements without concealed 
spaces, provided the exterior wall behind and 
below the projecting element has not less than 
1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction for a dis- 
tance not less than the depth of the projecting ele- 
ment on both sides of the fire wall. Openings 
within such exterior walls shall be protected by 
opening protectives having a fire protection rating 
of not less than V4 hour. 

2. Noncombustible horizontal projecting elements 
with concealed spaces, provided a minimum 
1-hour fire-resistance-rated wall extends through 
the concealed space. The projecting element shall 
be separated from the building by a minimum of 
1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction for a dis- 
tance on each side of the fire wall equal to the depth 
of the projecting element. The wall is not required 
to extend under the projecting element where the 
building exterior wall is not less than 1-hour 
fire-resistance rated for a distance on each side of 
the fire wall equal to the depth of the projecting 
element. Openings within such exterior walls shall 
be protected by opening protectives having a fire 
protection rating of not less than V4 hour. 

3. For combustible horizontal projecting elements 
with concealed spaces, the fire wall need only 
extend through the concealed space to the outer 
edges of the projecting elements. The exterior wall 
behind and below the projecting element shall be 
of not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated con- 
struction for a distance not less than the depth of 
the projecting elements on both sides of the fire 
wall. Openings within such exterior walls shall be 
protected by opening protectives having a 
fire-protection rating of not less than V4 hour. 



705.6 Vertical continuity. Fire walls shall extend from the 
foundation to a termination point at least 30 inches (762 mm) 
above both adjacent roofs. 

Exceptions: 

1. Stepped buildings in accordance with Section 
705.6.1. 

2. Two-hour fire-resistance-rated walls shall be permit- 
ted to terminate at the underside of the roof sheathing, 
deck or slab provided: 

2.1. The lower roof assembly within 4 feet (1220 
mm) of the wall has not less than a 1-hour 
fire-resistance rating and the entire length and 
span of supporting elements for the rated roof 
assembly has a fire-resistance rating of not 
less than 1 hour. 

2.2. Openings in the roof shall not be located 
within 4 feet (1220 mm) of the fire wall. 

2.3. Each building shall be provided with not less 
than a Class B roof covering. 

3. Walls shall be permitted to terminate at the underside 
of noncombustible roof sheathing, deck, or slabs 
where both buildings are provided with not less than a 
Class B roof covering. Openings in the roof shall not 
be located within 4 feet (1220 mm) of the fire wall. 

4. In buildings of Type III, IV and V construction, walls 
shall be permitted to terminate at the underside of 
combustible roof sheathing or decks provided: 

4.1. There are no openings in the roof within 4 feet 
( 1 220 mm) of the fire wall, 

4.2. The roof is covered with a minimum Class B 
roof covering, and 

4.3. The roof sheathing or deck is constructed of 
fire-retardant-treated wood for a distance of 4 
feet ( 1 220 mm) on both sides of the wall or the 
roof is protected with Vg inch (15.9 mm) Type 
X gypsum board directly beneath the under- 
side of the roof sheathing or deck, supported 
by a minimum of 2-inch (51 mm) nominal 
ledgers attached to the sides of the roof fram- 
ing members for a minimum distance of 4 feet 
(1220 mm) on both sides of the fire wall. 

5. Buildings located above a parking garage designed in 
accordance with Section 509.2 shall be permitted to 
have the fire walls for the buildings located above the 
parking garage extend from the horizontal separation 
between the parking garage and the buildings. 

705.6.1 Stepped buildings. Where a fire wall serves as an 
exterior wall for a building and separates buildings having 
different roof levels, such wall shall terminate at a point not 
less than 30 inches (762 mm) above the lower roof level, 
provided the exterior wall for a height of 15 feet (4572 mm) 
above the lower roof is not less than 1-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction from both sides with openings pro- 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



95 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



tected by fire assemblies having a fire protection rating of 
not less than V4 hour. 

Exception: Where the fire wall terminates at the under- 
side of the roof sheathing, deck or slab of the lower roof, 
provided: 

1 . The lower roof assembly within 1 feet (3048 mm) 
of the wall has not less than a 1-hour fire-resistance 
rating and the entire length and span of supporting 
elements for the rated roof assembly has a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. 

2. Openings in the lower roof shall not be located 
within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the fire wall. 

705.7 Combustible framing in fire walls. Adjacent combusti- 
ble members entering into a concrete or masonry fire wall from 
opposite sides shall not have less than a 4-inch (102 mm) dis- 
tance between embedded ends. Where combustible members 
frame into hollow walls or walls of hollow units, hollow spaces 
shall be solidly filled for the full thickness of the wall and for a 
distance not less than 4 inches (102 nam) above, below and 
between the structural members, with noncombustible materi- 
als approved for fireblocking. 

705.8 Openings. Each opening through a fire wall shall be pro- 
tected in accordance with Section 715.4 and shall not exceed 
120 square feet (11 m^). The aggregate width of openings at 
any floor level shall not exceed 25 percent of the length of the 
wall. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Openings are not permitted in party walls constructed 
in accordance with Section 705.1.1. 

2. Openings shall not be limited to 120 square feet (11 
m^) where both buildings are equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3:1.1. 

705.9 Penetrations. Penetrations of fire walls shall comply 
with Section 712. 

705.10 Joints. Joints made in or between fire walls shall com- 
ply with Section 713. 

705.11 Ducts and air transfer openings. Ducts and air trans- 
fer openings shall not penetrate fire walls. 

Exception: Penetrations by ducts and air transfer openings 
of fire walls that are not on a lot line shall be allowed pro- 
vided the penetrations comply with Sections 712 and 716. 
The size and aggregate width of all openings shall not 
exceed the limitations of Section 705.8. 



SECTION 706 
FIRE BARRIERS 

706.1 General. Fire barriers installed as required elsewhere in 
this code or the International Fire Code shall comply with this 
section. 

706.2 Materials. Fire barriers shall be of materials permitted 
by the building type of construction. 

706.2.1 Fire-resistance-rated glazing. Fire-resis- 
tance-rated glazing, when tested in accordance with ASTM 



OCCUPANCY GROUP 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


H-1, H-2 


4 


F-1, H-3, S-1 


3 


A, B, E, F-2, H-4, H-5, 
I, M, R, S-2 


2 


U 


1 



E 1 19 and complying with the requirements of Section 706, 
shall be permitted. Fire-resistance-rated glazing shall bear a 
label or other identification showing the name of the manu- 
facturer, the test standard and the identifier "W-XXX," 
where the "XXX" is the fire-resistance rating in minutes. 
Such label or identification shall be issued by an approved 
agency and shall be permanently affixed to the glazing. 

706.3 Fire-resistance rating. The fire-resistance rating of fire 
barriers shall comply with this section. 

706.3.1 Shaft enclosures. The fire-resistance rating of the 
fire barrier separating building areas from a shaft shall com- 
ply with Section 707.4. 

706.3.2 Exit enclosures. The fire-resistance rating of the 
fire barrier separating building areas from an exit shall com- 
ply with Section 1020.1. 

706.3.3 Exit passageway. The fire-resistance rating of the 
separation between building areas and an exit passageway 
shall comply with Section 1021.1. 

706.3.4 Horizontal exit. The fire-resistance rating of the 
separation between building areas connected by a horizon- 
tal exit shall comply with Section 1022.1. 

706.3.5 Atriums. The fire-resistance rating of the fire bar- 
rier separating atriums shall comply with Section 404.5. 

706.3.6 Incidental use areas. The fire barrier separating 
incidental use areas shall have a fire-resistance rating of not 
less than that indicated in Table 508.2. 

706.3.7 Control areas. Fire barriers separating control 
areas shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than that 
required in Section 414.2.3. 

706.3.8 Separation of mixed occupancies. Where the pro- 
visions of Section 508.3.2 are applicable, the fire barrier 
separating mixed occupancies shall have a fire-resistance 
rating of not less than that indicated in Section 508.3.2 
based on the occupancies being separated. 

706.3.9 Single-occupancy fire areas. The fire barrier or I 
horizontal assembly, or both, separating a single occupancy I 
into different fire areas shall have a fire-resistance rating of 
not less than that indicated in Table 706.3.9. 

TABLE 706.3.9 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING REQUIREMENTS FOR FIRE 

BARRIER ASSEMBLIES BETWEEN FIRE AREAS 



706.4 Exterior walls. Where exterior walls serve as a part of a 
required fire-resistance-rated shaft or exit enclosure, such 
walls shall comply with the requirements of Section 704 for 
exterior walls and the fire-resistance-rated enclosure require- 
ments shall not apply. 

Exception: Exterior walls required to be fire-resistance 
rated in accordance with Section 1023.6. 



96 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



706.5 Continuity. Fire barriers shall extend from the top of the 
floor/ceiling assembly below to the underside of the floor or 
roof slab or deck above and shall be securely attached thereto. 
Such fire barriers shall be continuous through concealed 
spaces, such as the space above a suspended ceiling. The sup- 
porting construction for fire barrier walls shall be protected to 
afford the required fire-resistance rating of the fire barrier sup- 
ported, except for 1-hour fire-resistance-rated incidental use 
area separations as required by Table 508.2 in buildings of 
Type IIB, IIIB and VB construction. Hollow vertical spaces 
within a fire barrier shall be fireblocked in accordance with 
Section 717.2 at every floor level. 

Exceptions: 

1. The maximum required fire-resistance rating for 
assemblies supporting fire barriers separating tank 
storage as provided for in Section 415.6.2.1 shall be 2 
hours, but not less than required by Table 601 for the 
building construction type. 

2. Shaft enclosures shall be permitted to terminate at a 
top enclosure complying with Section 707.12. 

706.6 Exterior walls. Where exterior walls serve as a part of a 
required fire-resistance-rated enclosure or separation, such 
walls shall comply with the requirements of Section 704 for 
exterior walls, and the fire-resistance-rated enclosure or sepa- 
ration requirements shall not apply. 

Exception: Exterior walls required to be fire-resistance 
rated in accordance with Section 1014.5.1 for exterior 
egress balconies, Section 1020.1.4 for exit enclosures and 
Section 1023.6 for exterior exit ramps and stairways. 

706.7 Openings. Openings in a fire barrier wall shall be pro- 
tected in accordance with Section 715. Openings shall be lim- 
ited to a maximum aggregate width of 25 percent of the length 
of the wall, and the maximum area of any single opening shall 
not exceed 156 square feet (15 m^). Openings in exit enclosures 
and exit passageways shall also comply with Sections 1020. 1 . 1 
and 1021.4, respectively. 

Exceptions: 

1. Openings shall not be limited to 156 square feet (15 
m^) where adjoining fire areas are equipped through- 
out with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. Fire doors serving an exit enclosure. 

3. Openings shall not be limited to 156 square feet (15 
m^) or an aggregate width of 25 percent of the length 
of the wall where the opening protective assembly has 
been tested in accordance with ASTM E 1 19 and has a 
minimum fire-resistance rating not less than the 
fire-resistance rating of the wall. 

4. Fire windows permitted in atrium separation walls 
shall not be limited to a maximum aggregate width of 
25 percent of length of the wall. 

706.8 Penetrations. Penetrations of fire barriers shall comply 
with Section 712. 



706.8.1 Prohibited penetrations. Penetrations into an exit 
enclosure or an exit passageway shall be allowed only when 
permitted by Section 1020.1.2 or 1021.5, respectively. 

706.9 Joints. Joints made in or between fire barriers shall com- 
ply with Section 713. 

706.10 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations in a fire 
barrier by ducts and air transfer openings shall comply with 
Section 716. 



SECTION 707 
SHAFT ENCLOSURES 

707.1 General. The provisions of this section shall apply to 
vertical shafts where such shafts are required to protect open- 
ings and penetrations through floor/ceiling and roof/ceiling 
assemblies. Shaft enclosures shall be constructed as fire barri- 
ers in accordance with Section 706 or horizontal assembUes in 
accordance with Section 71 1, or both. 

707.2 Shaft enclosure required. Openings through a 
floor/ceiling assembly shall be protected by a shaft enclosure 
complying with this Section. 

Exceptions: 

1 . A shaft enclosure is not required for openings totally 
within an individual residential dwelling unit and 
connecting four stories or less. 

2. A shaft enclosure is not required in a building 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem in accordance with Section 903.3. 1 . 1 for an esca- 
lator opening or stairway that is not a portion of the 
means of egress protected according to Item 2. 1 or 
2.2: . 

2.1. Where the area of the floor opening between 
stories does not exceed twice the horizontal 
projected area of the escalator or stairway and 
the opening is protected by a draft curtain and 
closely spaced sprinklers in accordance with 
NFPA 13. In other than Groups B and M, this 
application is limited to openings. that do not 
connect more than four stories. 

2.2. Where the opening is protected by approved 
power-operated automatic shutters at every 
penetrated floor. The shutters shall be of 
noncombustible construction and have a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than 1.5 
hours. The shutter shall be so constructed as to 
close immediately upon the actuation of a 
smoke detector installed in accordance with 
Section 907.1 1 and shall completely shut off 
the well opening. Escalators shall cease oper- 
ation when the shutter begins to close. The 
shutter shall operate at a speed of not more 
than 30 feet per minute (152.4 mm/s) and shall 
be equipped with a sensitive leading edge to 
arrest its progress where in contact with any 
obstacle, and to continue its progress on re- 
lease therefrom. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



97 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



3. A shaft enclosure is not required for penetrations by 
pipe, tube, conduit, wire, cable and vents protected in 
accordance with Section 712.4. 

4. A shaft enclosure is not required for penetrations by 
ducts protected in accordance with Section 712.4. 
Grease ducts shall be protected in accordance with the 
International Mechanical Code. 

5. In other than Group H occupancies, a shaft enclosure 
is not required for floor openings complying with the 
provisions for atriums in Section 404. 

6. A shaft enclosure is not required for approved 
masonry chimneys where annular space protection is 
provided at each floor level in accordance with Sec- 
tion 717.2.5. 

7. In other than Groups 1-2 and 1-3, a shaft enclosure is 
not required for a floor opening or an air transfer 
opening that complies with the following: 

7.1. Does not connect more than two stories. 

7.2. Is not part of the required means of egress sys- 
tem, except as permitted in Section 1020.1. 

7.3. Is not concealed within the building construc- 
tion. 

7.4. Is not open to a corridor in Group I and R oc- 
cupancies. 

7.5. Is not open to a corridor on nonsprinklered 
floors in any occupancy. 

7.6. Is separated from floor openings and air trans- 
fer openings serving other floors by construc- 
tion conforming to required shaft enclosures. 

7.7. Is limited to the same smoke compartment. 

8. A shaft enclosure is not required for automobile 
ramps in open and enclosed parking garages con- 
structed in accordance with Sections 406.3 and 
406.4, respectively. 

9. A shaft enclosure is not required for floor openings 
between a mezzanine and the floor below. 

10. A shaft enclosure is not required for joints protected 
by a fire-resistant joint system in accordance with 
Section 713. 

11. A shaft enclosure shall not be required for floor 
openings created by unenclosed stairs or ramps in 
accordance with Exception 8 or 9 in Section 1020. 1 . 

12. Floor openings protected by floor fire doors in 
accordance with Section 711.8. 

13. Where permitted by other sections of this code. 

707.3 Materials. The shaft enclosure shall be of materials per- 
mitted by the building type of construction. 

707.4 Fire-resistance rating. Shaft enclosures shall have a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours where connecting 
four stories or more, and not less than 1 hour where connecting 
less than four stories. The number of stories connected by the 
shaft enclosure shall include any basements but not any mezza- 
nines. Shaft enclosures shall have a fire-resistance rating not 



less than the floor assembly penetrated, but need not exceed 2 
hours. 

707.5 Continuity. Shaft enclosures shall be constructed as fire 
barriers in accordance with Section 706 or horizontal assem- 
blies constructed in accordance with Section 71 1, or both, and 
shall have continuity in accordance with Section 706.5 for fire 
barriers or Section 71 1.4 for horizontal assemblies as applica- 
ble. 

707.6 Exterior walls. Where exterior walls serve as a part of a 
required shaft enclosure, such walls shall comply with the 
requirements of Section 704 for exterior walls and the 
fire-resistance-rated enclosure requirements shall not apply. 

Exception: Exterior walls required to be fire-resistance 
rated in accordance with Section 1014.5.1 for exterior I 
egress balconies. Section 1020.1.4 for exit enclosures and I 
Section 1023.6 for exterior exit ramps and stairways. 

707.7 Openings. Openings in a shaft enclosure shall be pro- 
tected in accordance with Section 7 15 as required for fire barri- 
ers. Doors shall be self- or automatic closing by smoke I 
detection in accordance with Section 715.3.7.3. I 

707.7.1 Prohibited openings. Openings other than those 
necessary for the purpose of the shaft shall not be permitted 
in shaft enclosures. 

707.8 Penetrations. Penetrations in a shaft enclosure shall be 
protected in accordance with Section 712 as required for fire 
barriers. 

707.8.1 Prohibited penetrations. Penetrations other than 
those necessary for the purpose of the shaft shall not be per- 
mitted in shaft enclosures. I 

707.9 Joints. Joints in a shaft enclosure shall comply with Sec- 
tion 713. 

707.10 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations of a 
shaft enclosure by ducts and air transfer openings shall comply 
with Section 716. | 

707.11 Enclosure at the bottom. Shafts that do not extend to 
the bottom of the building or structure shall: 

1 . Be enclosed at the lowest level with construction of the 
same fire-resistance rating as the lowest floor through 
which the shaft passes, but not less than the rating 
required for the shaft enclosure; 

2. Terminate in a room having a use related to the purpose 
of the shaft. The room shall be separated from the 
remainder of the building by a fire barrier having a | 
fire-resistance rating and opening protectives at least 
equal to the protection required for the shaft enclosure; 
or 

3. Be protected by approved fire dampers installed in 
accordance with their listing at the lowest floor level 
within the shaft enclosure. 

Exceptions: 

1 . The fire-resistance-rated room separation is not 
required, provided there are no openings in or 
penetrations of the shaft enclosure to the inte- 
rior of the building except at the bottom. The 



98 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE"" 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



bottom of the shaft shall be closed off around 
the penetrating items with materials permitted 
by Section 717.3.1 for draftstopping, or the 
room shall be provided with an approved auto- 
matic fire suppression system. 

2. A shaft enclosure containing a refuse chute or 
laundry chute shall not be used for any other 
purpose and shall terminate in a room protected 
in accordance with Section 707.13.4. 

3. The fire-resistance-rated room separation and 
the protection at the bottom of the shaft are not 
required, provided there are no combustibles in 
the shaft and there are no openings or other pen- 
etrations through the shaft enclosure to the inte- 
rior of the building. 

707.12 Enclosure at the top. A shaft enclosure that does not 
extend to the underside of the roof sheathing, deck or slab of the 
building shall be enclosed at the top with construction of the 
same fire-resistance rating as the topmost floor penetrated by 
the shaft, but not less than the fire-resistance rating required for 
the shaft enclosure. 

707.13 Refuse and laundry chutes. Refuse and laundry 
chutes, access and termination rooms and incinerator rooms 
shall meet the requirements of Sections 707.13.1 through 
707.13.6. 

Exception: Chutes serving and contained within a single 
dwelling unit. 

707.13.1 Refuse and laundry chute enclosures. A shaft 
enclosure containing a refuse or laundry chute shall not be 
used for any other purpose and shall be enclosed in accor- 
dance with Section 707.4. Openings into the shaft, includ- 
ing those from access rooms and termination rooms, shall 
be protected in accordance with this section and Section 
715. Openings into chutes shall not be located in corridors. 
Doors shall be self- or automatic closing upon the actuation 
of a smoke detector in accordance with Section 715.4.7.3, 
except that heat-activated closing devices shall be permitted 
between the shaft and the termination room. 

707.13.2 Materials. A shaft enclosure containing a refuse 
or laundry chute shall be constructed of materials as permit- 
ted by the building type of construction. 

707.13.3 Refuse and laundry chute access rooms. Access 

openings for refuse and laundry chutes shall be located in 
rooms or compartments enclosed by a fire barrier that has a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. Openings into 
the access rooms shall be protected by opening protectives 
having a fire protection rating of not less than V4 hour. Doors 
shall be self- or automatic closing upon the detection of 
smoke in accordance with Section 715.4.7.3. 

707.13.4 Termination room. Refuse and laundry chutes 
shall discharge into an enclosed room separated from the 
remainder of the building by a fire barrier that has a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. Openings into 
the termination room shall be protected by opening 
protectives having a fire protection rating of not less than V4 
hour. Doors shall be self- or automatic closing upon the 
detection of smoke in accordance with Section 715.4.7.3. 



Refuse chutes shall not terminate in an incinerator room. 
Refuse and laundry rooms that are not provided with chutes 
need only comply with Table 508.2. 

707.13.5 Incinerator room. Incinerator rooms shall com- 
ply with Table 508.2. 

707.13.6 Automatic sprinkler system. An approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system shall be installed in accordance with 
Section 903.2.10.2. 

707.14 Elevator, dumbwaiter and other hoistways. Elevator, 
dumbwaiter and other hoistway enclosures shall be con- 
structed in accordance with Section 707 and Chapter 30. 

707.14.1 Elevator lobby. An enclosed elevator lobby shall 
be provided at each floor where an elevator shaft enclosure 
connects more than three stories. The lobby shall separate 
the elevator shaft enclosure doors from each floor by fire 
partitions equal to the fire-resistance rating of the corridor 
and the required opening protection. Elevator lobbies shall 
have at least one means of egress complying with Chapter 
10 and other provisions within this code. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Enclosed elevator lobbies are not required at the I 
street floor, provided the entire street floor is I 
equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. Elevators not required to be located in a shaft in 
accordance with Section 707.2 are not required to I 
have enclosed elevator lobbies. 

3. Where additional doors are provided at the 
hoistway opening in accordance with Section 
3002.6. Such doors shall be tested in accordance 
with UL 1784 without an artificial bottom seal. 

4. In other than Group 1-3, and buildings having I 
occupied floors located more than 75 feet (22 860 
nmn) above the lowest level of fire department 
vehicle access, enclosed elevator lobbies are not I 
required where the building is protected by an 
automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

5. Smoke partitions shall be permitted in lieu of fire 
partitions to separate the elevator lobby at each I 
floor where the building is equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

6. Enclosed elevator lobbies are not required where 
the elevator hoistway is pressurized in accordance 
with Section 707.14.2. 

707.14.2 Enclosed elevator lobby pressurization alterna- 
tive. Where elevator hoistway pressurization is provided in 
lieu of required enclosed elevator lobbies, the pressurization 
system shall comply with this section. 

707.14.2.1 Pressurization requirements. Elevator 
hoistways shall be pressurized to maintain a minimum 
positive pressure of 0.04 inches of water colunm and a 
maximum positive pressure of 0.06 inches of water col- 
umn with respect to adjacent occupied space on all 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



99 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



floors. This pressure shall be measured at the midpoint of 
each hoistway door, with all ground floor level hoistway 
doors open and all other hoistway doors closed. The sup- 
ply air intake shall be from an outside, uncontaminated 
source located a minimum distance of 20 feet (6096 mm) 
from any air exhaust system or outlet. 

707.14.2.2 Ducts for system. Any duct system that is 
part of the pressurization system shall be protected with 
the same fire-resistance rating as required for the eleva- 
tor shaft enclosure. 

707.14.2.3 Fan system. The fan system provided for the 
pressurization system shall be as required by this section. 

707.14.2.3.1 Fire resistance. When located within 
the building, the fan system that provides the pressur- 
ization shall be protected with the same fire-resis- 
tance rating required for the elevator shaft enclosure. 

707.14.2.3.2 Smoke detection. The fan system shall 
be equipped with a smoke detector that will automati- 
cally shut down the fan system when smoke is 
detected within the system. 

707.14.2.3.3 Separate systems. A separate fan sys- 
tem shall be used for each bank of elevators. 

707.14.2.3.4 Fan capacity. The supply fan shall 
either be adjustable with a capacity of at least 1,000 
cfm (.47 19 mVs) per door, or that specified by a regis- 
tered design professional to meet the requirements of 
a designed pressurization system. 

707.14.2.4 Standby power. The pressurization system 
shall be provided with standby power from the same 
source as other required emergency systems for the 
building. 

707.14.2.5 Activation of pressurization system. The 

elevator pressurization system shall be activated upon 
activation of the building fire alarm system or upon acti- 
vation of the elevator lobby smoke detectors. 



SECTION 708 
FIRE PARTITIONS 

708.1 General. The following wall assemblies shall comply 
with this section: 

1 . Walls separating dwelling units in the same building. 

2. Walls separating sleeping units in occupancies in Group 
R-1 hotel, R-2 and I-l occupancies. 

3 . Walls separating tenant spaces in covered mall buildings 
as required by Section 402.7.2. 

4. Corridor walls as required by Section 1017.1. 

5. Elevator lobby separation as required by Section 
707.14.1. 

6. Residential aircraft hangars. 

708.2 Materials. The walls shall be of materials permitted by 
the building type of construction. 



708.3 Fire-resistance rating. Fire partitions shall have a I 
fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. I 

Exceptions: 

1. Corridor walls as permitted by Table 1017.1. 

2. Dwelling and sleeping unit separations in buildings of 
Type IIB, IIIB and VB construction shall have 
fire-resistance ratings of not less than V2 hour in build- 
ings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

708.4 Continuity. Fire partitions shall extend from the top of 
the foundation or floor/ceiling assembly below to the under- I 
side of the floor or roof sheathing, slab or deck above or to the I 
fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly 
above, and shall be securely attached thereto. If the partitions 
are not continuous to the sheathing, deck or slab, and where 
constructed of combustible construction, the space between the 
ceiling and the sheathing, deck or slab above shall be 
fireblocked or draftstopped in accordance with Sections 717.2 
and 717.3 at the partition line. The supporting construction 
shall be protected to afford the required fire-resistance rating of 
the wall supported, except for tenant and sleeping unit separa- 
tion walls and corridor walls in buildings of Types IIB, IIIB and 
VB construction. 

Exceptions: 

1. The wall need not be extended into the crawl space 
below where the floor above the crawl space has a 
minimum 1-hour fire-resistance rating. 

2. Where the room-side fire-resistance-rated membrane 
of the corridor is carried through to the underside of 
the floor or roof sheathing, deck or slab of a fire-resis- 
tance-rated floor or roof above, the ceiling of the cor- 
ridor shall be permitted to be protected by the use of 
ceiling materials as required for a 1-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated floor or roof system. 

3. Where the corridor ceiling is constructed as required 
for the corridor walls, the walls shall be permitted to 
terminate at the upper membrane of such ceiling 
assembly. 

4. The fire partition separating tenant spaces in a mall, 
complying with Section 402.7.2, are not required to 
extend beyond the underside of a ceiling that is not 
part of a fire-resistance-rated assembly. A wall is not 
required in attic or ceiling spaces above tenant separa- 
tion walls. 

5. Fireblocking or draftstopping is not required at the 
partition line in Group R-2 buildings that do not 
exceed four stories in height, provided the attic space 
is subdivided by draftstopping into areas not exceed- 
ing 3,000 square feet (279 m^) or above every two 
dwelUng units, whichever is smaller. 

6. Fireblocking or draftstopping is not required at the 
partition line in buildings equipped with an automatic 
sprinkler system installed throughout in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, provided that 



100 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



automatic Sprinklers are installed in combustible 
floor/ceiling and roof/ceiling spaces. 

708.5 Exterior walls. Where exterior walls serve as a part of a 
required fire-resistance-rated separation, such walls shall com- 
ply with the requirements of Section 704 for exterior walls, and 
the fire-resistance-rated separation requirements shall not 
apply. 

Exception: Exterior walls required to be fire-resistance 
rated in accordance with Section 1014.5.1 for exterior 
egress balconies, Section 1020.1.4 for exit enclosures and 
Section 1023.6 for exterior exit ramps and stairways. 

708.6 Openings. Openings in a fire partition shall be protected 
in accordance with Section 715. 

708.7 Penetrations. Penetrations of fire partitions shall com- 
ply with Section 712. 

708.8 Joints. Joints made in or between fire partitions shall 
comply with Section 713. 

708.9 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations in a fire 
partition by ducts and air transfer openings shall comply with 
Section 716. 



SECTION 709 
SMOKE BARRIERS 

709.1 General. Smoke barriers shall comply with this section. 

709.2 Materials. Smoke barriers shall be of materials permit- 
ted by the building type of construction. 

709.3 Fire-resistance rating. A 1-hour fire-resistance rating is 
required for smoke barriers. 

Exception: Smoke barriers constructed of minimum 
0.10-inch-thick (2.5 mm) steel in Group 1-3 buildings. 

709.4 Continuity. Smoke barriers shall form an effective 
membrane continuous from outside wall to outside wall and 
from the top of the foundation or floor/ceiling assembly below 
to the underside of the floor or roof sheathing, deck or slab 
above, including continuity through concealed spaces, such as 
those found above suspended ceilings, and interstitial struc- 
tural and mechanical spaces. The supporting construction shall 
be protected to afford the required fire-resistance rating of the 
wall or floor supported in buildings of other than Type IIB , IHB 
or VB construction. 

Exception: Smoke-barrier walls are not required in intersti- 
tial spaces where such spaces are designed and constructed 
with ceilings that provide resistance to the passage of fire 
and smoke equivalent to that provided by the smoke-barrier 
walls. 

709.5 Openings. Openings in a smoke barrier shall be pro- 
tected in accordance with Section 715. 

Exception: In Group 1-2, where doors are installed across 
corridors, a pair of opposite-swinging doors without a cen- 
ter muUion shall be installed having vision panels with 
fire-protection-rated glazing materials in fire-protec- 
tion-rated frames, the area of which shall not exceed that 
tested. The doors shall be close fitting within operational 
tolerances, and shall not have undercuts, louvers or grilles. 



The doors shall have head and jamb stops, astragals or 

rabbets at meeting edges and shall be automatic closing by I 

smoke detection in accordance with Section 715.4.7.3. Pos- I 

itive-latching devices are not required. I 

709.6 Penetrations. Penetrations of smoke barriers shall com- 
ply with Section 712. 

709.7 Joints. Joints made in or between smoke barriers shall 
comply with Section 713. 

709.8 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations in a 
smoke barrier by ducts and air transfer openings shall comply I 
with Section 716. I 



SECTION 710 
SMOKE PARTITIONS 

710.1 General. Smoke partitions installed as required else- 
where in the code shall comply with this section. 

710.2 Materials. The walls shall be of materials permitted by 
the building type of construction. 

710.3 Fire-resistance rating. Unless required elsewhere in the 
code, smoke partitions are not required to have a fire-resistance 
rating. 

710.4 Continuity. Smoke partitions shall extend from the top 
of the foundation or floor below to the underside of the floor or 
roof sheathing, deck or slab above or to the underside of the 
ceiling above where the ceiling membrane is constructed to 
limit the transfer of smoke. 

710.5 Openings. Windows shall be sealed to resist the free pas- 
sage of smoke or be automatic-closing upon detection of smoke. 
Doors in smoke partitions shall comply with this section. 

710.5.1 Louvers. Doors in smoke partitions shall not 
include louvers. 

710.5.2 Smoke and draft control doors. Where required 
elsewhere in the code, doors in smoke partitions shall be 
tested in accordance with UL 1784 with an artificial bottom 
seal installed across the full width of the bottom of the door 
assembly during the test. The air leakage rate of the door 
assembly shall not exceed 3 cubic feet per minute per square 
foot [ftV(min ft^)] (0.0 15424 mV s • m^) of door opening at 
0.10 inch (24.9Pa) of water for both the ambient tempera- 
ture test and the elevated temperature exposure test. 

710.5.3 Self- or automatic-closing doors. Where required 
elsewhere in the code, doors in smoke partitions shall be 
self- or automatic closing by smoke detection in accordance 
with Section 715.4.7.3. 

710.6 Penetrations and joints. The space around penetrating 
items and in joints shall be filled with an approved material to 
limit the free passage of smoke. 

710.7 Ducts and air transfer openings. The space around a 
duct penetrating a smoke partition shall be filled with an 
approved material to limit the free passage of smoke. Air trans- 
fer openings in smoke partitions shall be provided with a 
smoke damper complying with Section 716.3.2. 

Exception: Where the installation of a smoke damper will 
interfere with the operation of a required smoke control sy s- 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



101 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



tern in accordance with Section 909, approved alternative 
protection shall be utilized. 



SECTION 711 
HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLIES 

711.1 GeneraL Floor and roof assemblies required to have a 
fire-resistance rating shall comply with this section. 

711.2 Materials. The floor and roof assemblies shall be of 
materials permitted by the building type of construction. 

711.3 Fire-resistance rating. The fire-resistance rating of 
floor and roof assemblies shall not be less than that required by 
the building type of construction. Where the floor assembly 
separates mixed occupancies, the assembly shall have a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than that required by Section 
508.3.2 based on the occupancies being separated. Where the 
floor assembly separates a single occupancy into different fire 
areas, the assembly shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less 
than that required by Section 706.3.9. Floor assembhes sepa- 
rating dwelling units in the same building or sleeping units in 
occupancies in Group R- 1 , hotel occupancies, R-2 and I- 1 shall 
be a minimum of l-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. 

Exception: Dwelling unit and sleeping unit separations in 
buildings of Type IIB, IIIB, and VB construction shall have 
fire-resistance ratings of not less than Vj hour in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

711.3.1 Ceiling panels. Where the weight of lay-in ceiling 
panels, used as part of fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or 

. roof/ceiling assemblies, is not adequate to resist an upward 
force of 1 lb/ft.2 (48 Pa), wire or other approved devices 
shall be installed above the panels to prevent vertical dis- 
placement under such upward force. 

711.3.2 Access doors. Access doors shall be permitted in 
ceilings of fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling and roof/ceil- 
ing assemblies provided such doors are tested in accordance 
with ASTM E 1 19 as horizontal assemblies and labeled by 
an approved agency for such purpose. 

711.3.3 Unusable space. In 1-hour fire-resistance-rated 
floor construction, the ceiling membrane is not required to 
be installed over unusable crawl spaces. In 1-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated roof construction, the floor rnembrane is not 
required to be installed where unusable attic space occurs 
above. 

711.4 Continuity. Assemblies shall be continuous without 
openings, penetrations or joints except as permitted by this sec- 
tion and Sections 707.2, 712.4, 713 and 1020.1. Skylights and 
other penetrations through a fire-resistance-rated roof deck or 
slab are permitted to be unprotected, provided that the struc- 
tural integrity of the fire-resistance-rated roof construction is 
maintained. Unprotected skylights shall not be permitted in 
roof construction required to be fire-resistance rated in accor- 
dance with Section 704.10. The supporting construction shall 
be protected to afford the required fire-resistance rating of the 
horizontal assembly supported. 

711.5 Penetrations. Penetrations of fire-resistance-rated hori- 
zontal assemblies shall comply with Section 712. 



711.6 Joints. Joints made in or between fire-resistance-rated 
horizontal assemblies shall comply with Section 713. The void 
created at the intersection of a floor/ceiling assembly and an 
exterior curtain wall assembly shall be protected in accordance 
vvithSection713.4. 

711.7 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations in hori- 
zontal assemblies by ducts and air transfer openings shall com- 
ply with Sections 716. 

711.8 Floor fire door assemblies. Floor fire door assemblies 
used to protect openings in fire-resistance-rated floors shall be 
tested in accordance with NFPA 288, and shall achieve a 
fire-resistance rating not less than the assembly being pene- 
trated. Floor fire door assemblies shall be labeled by an 
approved agency. The label shall be permanently affixed and 
shall specify the manufacturer, the test standard and the 
fire-resistance rating. 



SECTION 71 2 
PENETRATIONS 

712.1 Scope. The provisions of this section shall govern the 
materials and methods of construction used to protect through 
penetrations and membrane penetrations of horizontal assem- I 
blies and fire-resistance-rated wall assemblies. I 

712.2 Installation details. Where sleeves are used, they shall 
be securely fastened to the assembly penetrated. The space 
between the item contained in the sleeve and the sleeve itself 
and any space between the sleeve and the assembly penetrated 
shall be protected in accordance with this section. Insulation 
and coverings on or in the penetrating item shall not penetrate 
the assembly unless the specific material used has been tested 
as part of the assembly in accordance with this section. 

712.3 Fire-resistance-rated walls. Penetrations into or 
through fire walls, fire-barrier walls, smoke-barrier walls and I 
fire partitions shall comply with Sections 712.3.1 through I 
712.3.4. 

712.3.1 Through penetrations. Through penetrations of 
fire-resistance-rated walls shall comply with Section 
712.3.1.1 or 712.3.1.2. 

Exception: Where the penetrating items are steel, fer- 
rous or copper pipes, tubes or conduits, the annular space I 
between the penetrating item and the fire-resis- 
tance-rated wall is permitted to be protected as follows: 

1. In concrete or masonry walls where the penetrat- 
ing item is a maximum 6-inch (152 mm) nominal 
diameter aiid the area of the opening through the I 
wall does not exceed 144 square inches (0.0929 I 
m^), concrete, grout or mortar is permitted where it I 
is installed the full thickness of the wall or the 
thickness required to maintain the fire-resistance 
rating; or 

2. The material used to fill the annular space shall 
prevent the passage of flame and hot gases suffi- 
cient to ignite cotton waste when subjected to 
ASTM E 119 time- temperature fire conditions 
under a minimum positive pressure differential of 
0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) of water at the location of the 



102 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



penetration for the time period equivalent to the 
fire-resistance rating of the construction pene- 
trated. 

712.3.1.1 Fire-resistance-rated assemblies. Penetra- 
tions shall be installed as tested in an approved fire-resis- 
tance-rated assembly. 

712.3.1.2 Through-penetration Hrestop system. 

Through penetrations shall be protected by an approved 
penetration firestop system installed as tested in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 814 or UL 1479, with a minimum 
positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) of 
water and shall have an F rating of not less than the 
required fire-resistance rating of the wall penetrated. 

712.3.2 Membrane penetrations. Membrane penetrations 
shall comply with Section 712.3.1. Where walls or parti- 
tions are required to have a fire-resistance rating, recessed 
fixtures shall be installed such that the required fire resis- 
tance will not be reduced. 

Exceptions: 

1. Membrane penetrations of maximum two-hour 
fire-resistance-rated walls and partitions by steel 
electrical boxes that do not exceed 16 square 
inches (0.0103 m^) in area, provided the aggregate 
area of the openings through the membrane does 
not exceed 100 square inches (0.0645 m^) in any 
100 square feet (9.29 m^) of wall area. The annular 
space between the wall membrane and the box 
shall not exceed Vg inch (3.1 mm). Such boxes on 
opposite sides of the wall or partition shall be sepa- 
rated by one of the following: 

1.1. By a horizontal distance of not less than 24 
inches (610 mm); 

1 .2., By a horizontal distance of not less than the 
depth of the wall cavity where the wall cav- 
ity is filled with cellulose loose-fill, 
rockwool or slag mineral wool insulation; 

1.3. By solid fireblocking in accordance with 
Section 717.2.1; 

1.4. By protecting both outlet boxes with listed 
putty pads; or 

1.5. By other listed materials and methods. 

2. Membrane penetrations by listed electrical boxes 
of any material, provided such boxes have been 
tested for use in fire-resistance-rated assemblies 
and are installed in accordance with the instruc- 
tions included in the listing. The annular space 
between the wall membrane and the box shall not 
exceed Vg inch (3.1 mm) unless listed otherwise. 
Such boxes on opposite sides of the wall or 
partition shall be separated as follows: 

2. 1 . By a horizontal distance of not less than 24 
inches (610 mm); 

2.2. By soUd fireblocking in accordance with 
Section 717.2.1; 



2.3. By protecting both boxes with listed putty 
pads; or 

2.4. By other listed materials and methods. 

3. The annular space created by the penetration of a 
fire sprinkler, provided it is covered by a metal 
escutcheon plate. 

712.3.3 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations of 
fire-resistance-rated walls by ducts that are not protected 
with dampers shall comply with Sections 712.2 through 
712.3.1. Ducts and air transfer openings that are protected 
with dampers shall comply with Section 716. 

712.3.4 Dissimilar materials. Noncombustible penetrating 
items shall not connect to combustible items beyond the 
point of firestopping unless it can be demonstrated that the 
fire-resistance integrity of the wall is maintained. 

712.4 Horizontal assemblies. Penetrations of a floor, 
floor/ceiling assembly or the ceiling membrane of a roof/ceil- 
ing assembly shall be protected in accordance with Section 
707. 

712.4.1 Fire-resistance rated assemblies. Penetrations of 
the fire-resistance rated floor, floor/ceiling assembly or the 
ceiling membrane of a roof/ceiling assembly shall comply 
with Sections 712.4.1.1 through 714.4.1.5 

712.4.1.1 Through penetrations. Through penetrations 
of fire-resistance-rated horizontal assemblies shall com- 
ply with Section 712.4.1.1.1 or 712.4.1.1.2. 

Exceptions: 

1. Penetrations by steel, ferrous or copper con- 
duits, pipes, tubes or vents or concrete or 
masonry items through a single fire-resis- 
tance-rated floor assembly where the annular 
space is protected with materials that prevent 
the passage of flame and hot gases sufficient to 

,- . ■ ignite cotton waste when subjected to ASTM E 

119 time-temperature fire conditions under a 
minimum positive pressure differential of 0.01 
inch (2.49 Pa) of water at the location of the 
penetration for the time period equivalent to the 
fire-resistance rating of the construction pene- 
trated. Penetrating items with a maximum 
6-inch (152 mm) nominal diameter shall not be 
limited to the penetration of a single fire-resis- 
tance-rated floor assembly, provided the aggre- 
gate area of the openings through the assembly 
does not exceed 144 square inches (92 900 
mm^) in any 100 square feet (9.3 m^) of floor 
area. 

2. Penetrations in a single concrete floor by steel, 
ferrous or copper conduits, pipes, tubes or vents 
with a maximum 6-inch (152 mm) nominal 
diameter, provided the concrete, grout or mor- 
tar is installed the full thickness of the floor or 
the thickness required to maintain the fire-resis- 
tance rating. The penetrating items shall not be 
Umited to the penetration of a single concrete 
floor, provided the area of the opening through 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



103 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



each floor does not exceed 144 square inches 
(92 900 mm2). 

3. Penetrations by hsted electrical boxes of any 
material, provided such boxes have been tested 
for use in fire-resistance-rated assemblies and 
installed in accordance with the instructions 
included in the listing. 

712.4.1.1.1 Installation. Through penetrations shall 
be installed as tested in the approved fire-resis- 
tance-rated assembly. 

712.4.1.1.2 Through-penetration firestop system. 

Through penetrations shall be protected by an 
approved through-penetration firestop system 
installed and tested in accordance with ASTM E 814 
or UL 1479, with a minimum positive pressure differ- 
ential of 0.01 inch of water (2.49 Pa). The system shall 
have an F-rating and a T-rating of not less than 1 hour 
but not less than the required rating of the floor pene- 
trated. 

Exception: Floor penetrations contained and 
located within the cavity of a wall do not require a 
T- rating. 

712.4.1.2 Membrane penetrations. Penetrations of 
membranes that are part of a fire-resistance-rated hori- 
zontal assembly shall comply with Section 712.4.1.1.1 
or 712.4.1.1.2. Where floor/ceiling assemblies are 
required to have a minimum 1-hour fire-resistance rat- 
ing, recessed fixtures shall be installed such that the 
required fire resistance will not be reduced. 

Exceptions: 

1. Membrane penetrations of maximum 2-hour 
fire-resistance-rated walls and partitions by 
steel, ferrous or copper conduits, pipes, tubes or 
vents, or concrete or masonry items where the 
annular space is protected either in accordance 
with Section 712.4.1.1 or to prevent the free 
passage of flame and the products of combus- 
tion. The aggregate area of the openings 
through the membrane shall not exceed 100 
square inches (64 500 mm^) in any 100 square 
feet (9.3 m^) of ceiling area in assemblies tested 
without penetrations. 

2. Ceiling membrane penetrations of maximum 
2-hour fire-resistance-rated horizontal assem- 
blies by steel electrical boxes that do not exceed 
16 square inches (10 323 mm^) in area, pro- 
vided the aggregate area of such penetrations 
does not exceed 100 square inches (44 500 
mm^) in any 100 square feet (9.29 m^) of ceihng 
area, and the annular space between the ceiling 
membrane and the box does not exceed Vg inch 
(3.12 mm). 

3. Membrane penetrations by listed electrical 
boxes of any material, provided such boxes 
have been tested for use in fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies and are installed in accordance with 
the instructions included in the listing. The 



annular space between the ceiling membrane 
and the box shall not exceed Vg inch (3.1 mm) 
unless listed otherwise. 

4. The annular space created by the penetration of 
a fire sprinkler, provided it is covered by a 
metal eschutcheon plate. 

712.4.1.3 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetra- 
tions of horizontal assemblies by ducts and air transfer 
openings shall comply with Section 716. 

712.4.1.4 Dissimilar materials. Noncombustible pene- 
trating items shall not connect to combustible materials 
beyond the point of firestopping unless it can be demon- 
strated that the fire-resistance integrity of the horizontal 
assembly is maintained. 

712.4.1.5 Floor fire doors. Floor fire doors used to pro- 
tect openings in fire-resistance-rated floors shall be 
tested in accordance with NFPA 288, and shall achieve a 
fire-resistance rating not less than the assembly being 
penetrated. Floor fire doors shall be labeled by an 
approved agency. 

712.4.2 Nonfire-resistance-rated assemblies. Penetra- 
tions of horizontal assemblies without a required fire-resis- 
tance rating shall meet the requirements of Section 707 or 
shall comply with Section 712.4.2.1 or 712.4.2.2. 

712.4.2.1 Noncombustible penetrating items. 

Noncombustible penetrating items that connect not more 
than three stories are permitted, provided that the annular 
space is filled with an approved noncombustible material 
to resist the free passage of flame and the products of 
combustion. 

712.4.2.2 Penetrating items. Penetrating items that con- 
nect not more than two stories are permitted, provided 
that the annular space is filled with an approved material 
to resist the free passage of flame and the products of 
combustion. 

712.4.3 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations of 
horizontal assemblies by ducts that are not protected with 
dampers shall comply with Section 712.2 and Sections 
712.4 through 712.4.2.2. Ducts and air transfer openings 
that are protected with dampers shall comply with Section 
716. 

712.4.4 Dissimilar materials. Noncombustible penetrating 
items shall not connect to combustible materials beyond the 
point of firestopping unless it can be demonstrated that the 
fire-resistance integrity of the horizontal assembly is main- 
tained. 

712.5 Penetrations in smoke barriers. Penetrations in smoke 
barriers shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of 
UL 1479 for air leakage. The air leakage rate of the penetration 
assembly shall not exceed 5.0 cfm per square foot (0.025 m^ / s • 
m^ ) of penetration opening at 0.30 inch ( 7.47 Pa) of water for 
both the ambient temperature and elevated temperature tests. 



104 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



SECTION 713 
FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEMS 

713.1 General. Joints installed in or between fire-resis- 
tance-rated walls, floor or floor/ceiling assemblies and roofs or 
roof/ceiling assemblies shall be protected by an approved 
fire-resistant joint system designed to resist the passage of fire 
for a time period not less than the required fire-resistance rating 
of the wall, floor or roof in or between which it is installed. 
Fire-resistant joint systems shall be tested in accordance with 
Section 713.3. The void created at the intersection of a 
floor/ceiling assembly and an exterior curtain wall assembly 
shall be protected in accordance with Section 713.4. 

Exception: Fire-resistant joint systems shall not be 
required for joints in all of the following locations: 

1 . Floors within a single dwelling unit. 

2. Floors where the joint is protected by a shaft enclo- 
sure in accordance with Section 707. 

3. Floors within atriums where the space adjacent to the 
atrium is included in the volume of the atrium for 
smoke control purposes. 

4. Floors within malls. 

5. Floors within open parking structures. 

6. Mezzanine floors. 

7. Walls that are permitted to have unprotected open- 
ings. 

8. Roofs where openings are permitted. 

9. Control joints not exceeding a maximum width of 
0.625 inch (15.9 mm) and tested in accordance with 
ASTME119. 

713.2 Installation. Fire-resistant joint systems shall be 
securely installed in or on the joint for its entire length so as not 
to dislodge, loosen or otherwise impair its ability to accommo- 
date expected building movements and to resist the passage of 
fire and hot gases. 

713.3 Fire test criteria. Fire-resistant joint systems shall be 
tested in accordance with the requirements of either ASTM E 
1966 or UL 2079. Nonsymmetrical wall joint systems shall be 
tested with both faces exposed to the furnace, and the assigned 
fire-resistance rating shall be the shortest duration obtained 
from the two tests. When evidence is furnished to show that the 
wall was tested with the least fire-resistant side exposed to the 
furnace, subject to acceptance of the building official, the wall 
need not be subjected to tests from the opposite side. 

Exception: For exterior walls with a horizontal fire separa- 
tion distance greater than 5 feet (1524 mm), the joint system 
shall be required to be tested for interior fire exposure only. 

713.4 Exterior curtain wall/floor intersection. Where fire 
resistance-rated floor or floor/ceiling assemblies are required, 
voids created at the intersection of the exterior curtain wall 
assemblies and such floor assemblies shall be sealed with an 
approved material or system to prevent the interior spread of 
fire. Such material or systems shall be securely installed and 
capable of preventing the passage of flame and hot gases suffi- 
cient to ignite cotton waste where subjected either to ASTM E 
119 time-temperature fire conditions under a minimum posi- 



tive pressure differential of 0.01 inch (0.254 mm) of water col- 
umn (2.5 Pa) or installed as tested in accordance with ASTM E 
2307 for the time period at least equal to the fire-resistance rat- 
ing of the floor assembly. Height and fire-resistance require- 
ments for curtain wall spandrels shall comply with Section 
704.9. 

713.5 Spandrel wall. Height and fire-resistance requirements 
for curtain wall spandrels shall comply with Section 704.9. 
Where Section 704.9 does not require a fire-resistance-rated 
spandrel wall, the requirements of Section 713.4 shall still 
apply to the intersection between the spandrel wall and the 
floor. 

713.6 Fire-resistant joint systems in smoke barriers. 

Fire-resistant joint systems in smoke barriers shall be tested in 
accordance with the requirements of UL 2079 for air leakage. 
The air leakage rate of the j oint shall not exceed 5 cf m per lineal 
foot (0.00775 mVskn ) of joint at 0.30 inch (7.47 Pa ) of water 
for. both the ambient temperature and elevated temperature 
tests. 



SECTION 714 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING OF 

STRUCTURAL MEMBERS 

714.1 Requirements. The fire-resistance rating of structural 
members and assemblies shall comply with the requirements 
for the type of construction and shall not be less than the rating 
required for the fire-resistance-rated assemblies supported. 

Exception: Fire barriers, fire partitions and smoke barriers 
as provided in Sections 706.5, 708.4 and 709.4, respec- 
tively. 

714.2 Protection of structural members. Protection of col- 
umns, girders, trusses, beams, lintels or other structural mem- 
bers that are required to have a fire-resistance rating shall 
comply with this section. 

714.2.1 Individual protection. Columns, girders, trusses, 
beams, lintels or other structural members that are required 
to have a fire-resistance rating and that support more than 
two floors or one floor and roof, or support a load-bearing 
wall or a nonload-bearing wall more than two stories high, 
shallbe individually protected on all sides for the full length 
with materials having the required fire-resistance rating. 
Other structural members required to have a fire-resistance 
rating shall be protected by individual encasement, by a 
membrane or ceiling protection as specified in Section 711, 
or by a combination of both. Columns shall also comply 
with Section 714.2.2. 

714.2.1.1 Membrane protection. King studs and 
boundary elements that are integral elements in 
load-bearing walls of light-framed construction shall be 
permitted to have required fire-resistance ratings pro- 
vided by the membrane protection provided for the 
load-bearing wall. 

714.2.2 Column protection above ceilings. Where col- 
umns require a fire-resistance rating, the entire column, 
including its connections to beams or girders, shall be pro- 
tected. Where the column extends through a ceiling, fire 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



105 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



resistance of the column shall be continuous from the top of 
the foundation or floor/ceiling assembly below through the 
ceiling space to the top of the column. 

714.2.3 Truss protection. The required thickness and con- 
struction of fire-resistance-rated assemblies enclosing 
trusses shall be based on the results of full-scale tests or 
combinations of tests on truss components or on approved 
calculations based on such tests that satisfactorily demon- 
strate that the assembly has the required fire resistance. 

714.2.4 Attachments to structural members. The edges 
of lugs, brackets, rivets and bolt heads attached to structural 
members shall be permitted to extend to within 1 inch (25 
mm) of the surface of the fire protection. 

714.2.5 Reinforcing. Thickness of protection for concrete 
or masonry reinforcement shall be measured to the outside 
of the reinforcement except that stirrups and spiral rein- 
forcement ties are permitted to project not more than 
0.5-inch (12.7 mm) into the protection. 

714.3 Embedments and enclosures. Pipes, wires, conduits, 
ducts or other service facilities shall not be embedded in the 
required fire protective covering of a structural member that is 
required to be individually encased. 

714.4 Impact protection. Where the fire protective covering 
of a structural member is subject to impact damage from mov- 
ing vehicles, the handling of merchandise or other activity, the 
fire protective covering shall be protected by comer guards or 
by a substantial jacket of metal or other noncombustible mate- 
rial to a height adequate to provide full protection, but not less 
than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the finished floor. 

714.5 Exterior structural members. Load-bearing structural 
members located within the exterior walls or on the outside of a 
building or structure shall be provided with the highest 
fire-resistance rating as determined in accordance with the fol- 
lowing: 

1. As required by Table 601 for the type of building ele- 
ment based on the type of construction of the building; 

2. As required by Table 601 for exterior bearing walls 
based on the type of construction; and 

3. As required by Table 602 for exterior walls based on the 
fire separation distance. 

714.6 Bottom flange protection. Fire protection is not 
required at the bottom flange of lintels, shelf angles and plates, 
spanning not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) whether part of the 
structural frame or not, and from the bottom flange of lintels, 
shelf angles and plates not part of the structural frame, regard- 
less of span. 

714.7 Seismic isolation systems. Fire-resistance ratings for 
the isolation system shall meet the fire-resistance rating 
required for the columns, walls or other structural elements in 
which the isolation system is installed in accordance with Table 
601. 

Isolation systems required to have a fire-resistance rating 
shall be protected with approved materials or construction 
assemblies designed to provide the same degree of fire resis- 
tance as the structural element in which it is installed when 
tested in accordance with ASTM E 1 19 (see Section 703.2). 



Such isolation system protection applied to isolator units 
shall be capable of retarding the transfer of heat to the isolator 
unit in such a manner that the required gravity load-carrying 
capacity of the isolator unit will not be impaired after exposure 
to the standard time-temperature curve fire test prescribed in 
ASTM E 1 19 for a duration not less than that required for the 
fire-resistance rating of the structure element in which it is 
installed. 

Such isolation system protection applied to isolator units 
shall be suitably designed and securely installed so as not to 
dislodge, loosen, sustain damage or otherwise impair its ability 
to accommodate the seismic movements for which the isolator 
unit is designed and to maintain its integrity for the purpose of 
providing the required fire-resistance protection; 



SECTION 715 
OPENING PROTECTIVES 

715.1 General. Opening protectives required by other sections 
of this code shall comply with the provisions of this section. 

715.2 Fire-resistance-rated glazing. Labeled fire-resis- 
tance-rated glazing tested as part of a fire-resistance-rated wall 
assembly in accordance with ASTM E 119 shall not be 
required to comply with this section. 

715.3 Alternative methods for determining fire protection 
ratings. The application of any of the alternative methods 
listed in this section shall be based on the fire exposure and 
acceptance criteria specified in NFPA 252 or NFPA 257. The 
required fire resistance of an opening protective shall be per- 
mitted to be established by any of the following methods or 
procedures: 

1. Designs documented in approved sources. 

2. Calculations performed in an approved manner. 

3. Engineering analysis based on a comparison of opening 
protective designs having fire-protection ratings as 
determined by the test procedures set forth in NFPA 252 
or NFPA 257. 

4. Alternative protection methods as allowed by Section 
104.11. 

715.4 Fire door and shutter assemblies. Approved fire door 
and fire shutter assemblies shall be constructed of any material 
or assembly of component materials that conforms to the test 
requirements of Section 715.4.1, 715.4.2 or 715.4.3 and the 
fire-protection rating indicated in Table 715.4. Fire door 
assemblies and shutters shall be installed in accordance with 
the provisions of this section and NFPA 80. 

Exceptions: 

1. Labeled protective assemblies that conform to the 
requirements of this section or UL 10 A, UL 14B and 
UL 14C for tin-clad fire door assemblies. 

2. Floor fire door assemblies in accordance with Section 
711.8. 

715.4.1 Side-hinged or pivoted swinging doors. 

Side-hinged and pivoted swinging doors shall be tested in 
accordance with NFPA 252 or UL IOC. After 5 minutes into 



106 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE" 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



the NFPA 252 test, the neutral pressure level in the furnace 
shall be established at 40 inches (1016 mm) or less above the 
sill. 

715.4.2 Other types of doors. Other types of doors, includ- 
ing swinging elevator doors, shall be tested in accordance 
with NFPA 252 or UL lOB . The pressure in the furnace shall 
be maintained as nearly equal to the atmospheric pressure as 
possible. Once established, the pressure shall be maintained 
during the entire test period. 

715.4.3 Door assemblies in corridors and smoke barri- 
ers. Fire door assemblies required to have a minimum fire 
protection rating of 20 minutes where located in corridor 
walls or smoke-barrier walls having a fire-resistance rating 
in accordance with Table 715.4 shall be tested in accordance 
with NFPA 252 or UL IOC without the hose stream test. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Viewports that require a hole not larger than 1 inch 
(25 mm) in diameter through the door, have at least 
a 0.25-inch-thick (6.4 mm) glass disc and the 
holder is of metal that will not melt out where sub- 
ject to temperatures of 1,700°F (927°C). 

2. Corridor door assemblies in occupancies of Group 
1-2 shall be in accordance with Section 407.3.1. 

3. Unprotected openings shall be permitted for corri- 
dors in multitheater complexes where each motion 
picture auditorium has at least one-half of its 
required exit or exit access doorways opening 
directly to the exterior or into an exit passageway. 

715.4.3.1 Smoke and draft control. Fire door assem- 
blies shall also meet the requirements for a smoke and 
draft control door assembly tested in accordance with 
UL 1784. Louvers shall be prohibited. Installation of 
smoke doors shall be in accordance with NFPA 105. 



715.4.3.2 Glazing in door assemblies. In a 20-minute 
fire door assembly, the glazing material in the door itself 
shall have a minimum fire-protection rating of 20 min- 
utes and shall be exempt from the hose stream test. Glaz- 
ing material in any other part of the door assembly, 
including transom lites and sidelites, shall be tested in 
accordance with NFPA 257, including the hose stream 
test, in accordance with Section 715.5. 

715.4.4 Doors in exit enclosures and exit passageways. 

Fire door assemblies in exit enclosures and exit passage- 
ways shall have a maximum transmitted temperature end 
point of not more than 450°F (250° C) above ambient at the 
end of 30 minutes of standard fire test exposure. 

Exception: The maximum transmitted temperature rise I 
is not limited in buildings equipped throughout with an I 
automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

715.4.4.1 Glazing in doors. Fire-protection-rated glaz- 
ing in excess of 100 square inches (0.065 m^) shall be 
permitted in fire door assemblies when tested in accor- 
dance with NFPA 252 as components of the door assem- 
blies and not as glass lights, and shall have a maximum 
transmitted temperature rise of 450°F (250°C) in accor- I 
dance with Section 715.4.4. 

Exception: The maximum transmitted temperature 
end point is not required in buildings equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 
903.3.1.2. 

715.4.5 Labeled protective assemblies. Fire door assem- 
bhes shall be labeled by an approved agency. The labels 
shall comply with NFPA 80, and shall be permanently 
affixed to the door or frame. 



TABLE 715.4 
FIRE DOOR AND FIRE SHUTTER FIRE PROTECTION RATINGS 



TYPE OF ASSEMBLY 


REQUIRED ASSEMBLY RATING 
(hours) 


MINIMUM FIRE DOOR AND FIRE 
SHUTTER ASSEMBLY RATING (hours) 


Fire walls and fire barriers having a required fire-resistance 
rating greater than 1 hour 


4 

3 

2 

IV, 


3 
3^ 
l\ 
IV, 


Fire barriers having a required fire-resistance rating of 1 hour: 
Shaft, exit enclosure and exit passageway walls 
Other fu:e barriers 


1 
1 


1 


Fire partitions: 
Corridor walls 

Other fire partitions 


1 
0.5 

1 
0.5 


Va" 
Vb" 

V, 


Exterior walls 


3 
2 
1 


IV2 
IV2 


Smoke barriers 


1 


v,^ 



a. Two doors, each with a fire protection rating of 1 V2 hours, installed on opposite sides of the same opening in a fire wall, shall be deemed equivalent in fire protection 
rating to one 3-hour fire door. 

b. For testing requirements, see Section 715.3.3. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE" 



107 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



715.4.5.1 Fire door labeling requirements. Fire doors 
shall be labeled showing the name of the manufacturer, 
the name of the third-party inspection agency, the fire 
protection rating and, where required for fire doors in 
exit enclosures and exit passageways by Section 7 1 5.4.4, 
the maximum transmitted temperature end point. Smoke 
and draft control doors complying with UL 1784 shall be 
labeled as such. Labels shall be approved and perma- 
nently affixed. The label shall be applied at the factory or 
location where fabrication and assembly are performed. 

715.4.5.2 Oversized doors. Oversized fire doors shall 
bear an oversized fire door label by an approved agency 
or shall be provided with a certificate of inspection fur- 
nished by an approved testing agency. When a certificate 
of inspection is furnished by an approved testing agency, 
the certificate shall state that the door conforms to the 
requirements of design, materials and construction, but 
has not been subjected to the fire test. 

715.4.5.3 Smoke and draft control door labeling 
requirements. Smoke and draft control doors comply- 
ing with UL 1784 shall be labeled in accordance with 
Section 7 1 5 .4.5 . 1 and shall show the letter "S" on the fire 
rating label of the door. This marking shall indicate that 
the door and frame assembly are in compliance when 
listed or labeled gasketing is also installed. 

715.4.5.4 Fire door frame labeling requirements. Fire 
door frames shall be labeled showing the names of the 
manufacturer and the third-party inspection agency. 

715.4.6 Glazing material. Fire-protection-rated glazing 
conforming to the opening protection requirements in Sec- 
tion 715.4 shall be permitted in fire door assemblies. 

715.4.6.1 Size limitations. Wired glass used in fire doors 
shall comply with Table 715.5.3. Other fire-protec- 
tion-rated glazing shall comply with the size limitations 
ofNFPABO. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fire-protection-rated glazing in fire doors 
located in fire walls shall be prohibited except 
that where serving as a horizontal exit, a 
self-closing swinging door shall be permitted to 
have a vision panel of not more than 100 square 
inches (0.065 m^) without a dimension exceed- 
ing 10 inches (254 mm). 

2. Fire-protection-rated glazing shall not be 
installed in fire doors having a IVj-hour fire 
protection rating intended for installation in fire 
barriers, unless the glazing is not more than 100 
square inches (0.065 m^) in area. 

715.4.6.2 Exit and elevator protectives. Approved 
fire-protection-rated glazing used in fire door assemblies 
in elevator and exit enclosures shall be so located as to 
furnish clear vision of the passageway or approach to the 
elevator, ramp or stairway. 

715.4.6.3 Labeling. Fire-protection-rated glazing shall 
bear a label or other identification showing the name of 
the manufacturer, the test standard and information 



required in Section 715.5.8.1 that shall be issued by an 
approved agency and shall be permanently affixed to the 
glazing. 

715.4.6.3.1 Identification. For fire-protection-rated 
glazing, the label shall bear the following four-part 
identification: "D - H or NH - T or NT- XXX." "D" 
indicates that the glazing shall be used in fire door 
assemblies and that the glazing meets the fire resis- 
tance requirements of the test standard. "H" shall 
indicate that the glazing meets the hose stream 
requirements of the test standard. "NH" shall indicate 
that the glazing does not meet the hose stream require- 
ments of the test. "T" shall indicate that the glazing 
meets the temperature requirements of Section 
715.4.4.1. "NT" shall indicate that the glazing does 
not meet the temperature requirements of Section 
715.4.4.1. The placeholder "XXX" shall specify the 
fire-protection-rating period, in minutes. 

■■ 715.4.6.4 Safety glazing. Fire-protection-rated glazing 
installed in fire doors or fire window assemblies in areas 
subject to human impact in hazardous locations shall 
comply with Chapter 24. 

715.4.7 Door closing. Fire doors shall be self- or automatic 
closing in accordance with this section. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fire doors located in common walls separating 
sleeping units in Group R-1 shall be permitted 
without automatic- or self-closing devices. 

2. The elevator car doors and the associated hoistway 
enclosure doors at the floor level designated for 
recall in accordance with Section 3003.2 shall be 
permitted to remain open during Phase I emer- 
gency recall operation. ;, 

715.4.7.1 Latch required. Unless otherwise specifically 
permitted, single fire doors and both leaves of pairs of 
side-hinged swinging fire doors shall be provided with 
an active latch bolt that will secure the door when it is 
closed. 

715.4.7.2 Automatic-closing fire door assemblies. 

Automatic-closing fire door assemblies shall be 
self-closing in accordance with NFPA 80. 

715.4.7.3 Smoke-activated doors. Automatic-closing 
doors installed in the following locations shall be auto- 
matic closing by the actuation of smoke detectors 
installed in accordance with Section 907. 10 or by loss of 
power to the smoke detector or hold-open device. Doors 
that are automatic closing by smoke detection shall not 
have more than a 10-second delay before the door starts 
to close after the smoke detector is actuated: 

1. Doors installed across a corridor. 

2. Doors that protect openings in exits or corridors 
required to be of fire-resistance-rated construc- 
tion. 



108 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



3. Doors that protect openings in walls that are 
capable of resisting the passage of smoke in 
accordance with Section 508.2.2.1. 

4. Doors installed in smoke barriers in accordance 
with Section 709.5. 

5. Doors installed in fire partitions in accordance 
with Section 708.6. 

6. Doors installed in a fire wall in accordance with 
Section 705.8. 

7. Doors installed in shaft enclosures in accordance 
with Section 707.7. 

8. Doors installed in refuse and laundry chutes and 
access and termination rooms in accordance with 
Section 707.13. 

9. Doors installed in the walls for 
compartmentatioh of underground buildings in 
accordance with Section 405.4.2. 

10. Doors installed in the elevator lobby walls of 
underground buildings in accordance with Sec- 
tion 405.4.3. 

1 1 . Doors installed in smoke partitions in accordance 
with Section 710.5.3. 

715.4.7.4 Doors in pedestrian ways. Vertical shding or 
vertical rolling steel fire doors in openings through 
which pedestrians travel shall be heat activated or acti- 
vated by smoke detectors with alarm verification. 

715.4.8 Swinging fire shutters. Where fire shutters of the 
swinging type are installed in exterior openings, not less 
than one row in every three vertical rows shall be arranged to 
be readily opened from the outside, and shall be identified 
by distinguishing marks or letters not less than 6 inches (152 
mm) high. 

715.4.9 Rolling fire shutters. Where fire shutters of the 
rolling type are installed, such shutters shall include 
approved automatic-closing devices. 

715.5 Fire-protection-rated glazing. Glazing in fire window 
assemblies shall be fire-protection rated in accordance with 
this section and Table 715.5. Glazing in fire door assemblies 
shall comply with Section 715.4.6. Fire-protection-rated glaz- 
ing shall be tested in accordance with and shall meet the accep- 
tance criteria of NFPA 257. Fire-protection-rated glazing shall 
also comply with NFPA 80. Openings in nonfire-resis- 
tance-rated exterior wall assemblies that require protection in 
accordance with Section 704.3, 704.8, 704.9 or 704.10 shall 
have a fire-protection rating of not less than V4 hour. 

Exceptions: 

1. Wired glass in accordance with Section 715.5.3. 

2. Fire-protection-rated glazing in 0.5-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated partitions is permitted to have an 
0.33-hour fire-protection rating. 

715.5.1Testing under positive pressure. NFPA 257 shall 
evaluate fire-protection-rated glazing under positive pres- 
sure. Within the first 10 minutes of a test, the pressure in the 
furnace shall be adjusted so at least two-thirds of the test 



specimen is above the neutral pressure plane, and the neutral 
pressure plane shall be maintained at that height for the bal- 
ance of the test. 

TABLE 715.5 
FIRE WINDOW ASSEMBLY FIRE PROTECTION RATINGS 



TYPE OF ASSEMBLY 


REQUIRED ASSEMBLY 
RATING (hours) 


MINIMUM FIRE 

WINDOW 

ASSEMBLY RATINg 

(hours) 


Interior walls: 
Fire walls 
Fire barriers 
Smoke barriers 
and fire partitions 


All 
>1 

1 

1 


NP« 

Npa 

V4 


Exterior walls 


>1 
1 




Party wall 


All 


NP 



NP = Not Permitted. 

a. Not permitted except as specified in Section 715.2. 

715.5.2 Nonsymmetrical glazing systems. Nonsymmetrical 
fire-protection-rated glazing systems in fire partitions, fire 
barriers or in exterior walls with a fire separation distance of 
5 feet (1524 mm) or less pursuant to Section 704 shall be 
tested with both faces exposed to the furnace, and the 
assigned fire protection rating shall be the shortest duration 
obtained from the two tests conducted in compliance with 
NFPA 257. 

715.5.3 Wired glass. Steel window frame assemblies of 
0.125-inch (3.2 mm) minimum solid section or of not less 
than nominal 0.048-inch-thick (1.2 mm) formed sheet steel 
members fabricated by pressing, mitering, riveting, inter- 
locking or welding and having provision for glazing with 
V4-inch (6.4 mm) wired glass where securely installed in the 
building construction and glazed with V4-inch (6.4 mm) 
labeled wired glass shall be deemed to meet the require- 
ments for a V4-hour fire window assembly. Wired glass pan- 
els shall conform to the size limitations set forth in Table 
715.5.3. 

TABLE 715.5.3 
LIMITING SIZES OF WIRED GLASS PANELS 



OPENING FIRE 

PROTECTION 

RATING 


MAXIMUM 

AREA 

(square Inches) 


MAXIMUM 
HEIGHT 
(Inches) 


MAXIMUM 
WIDTH 
(inches) 


3 hours 











iVj-hour doors in 
exterior walls 











1 and IV2 hours 


100 


33 


10 


V4hour 


1,296 


54 


54 


20 minutes 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Fire window 
assemblies 


1,296 


54 


.54 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.2 ran?. 

715.5.4 Nonwired glass. Glazing other than wired glass in 
fire window assemblies shall be fire-protection-rated glaz- 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



109 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



ing installed in accordance with and complying with the size 
limitations set forth in NFPA 80. 

715.5.5 Installation. Fire-protection-rated glazing shall be 
in the fixed position or be automatic-closing and shall be 
installed in approved frames. 

715.5.6 Window muUions. Metal mulhons that exceed a 
nominal height of 12 feet (3658 mm) shall be protected with 
materials to afford the same fire-resistance rating as 
required for the wall construction in which the protective is 
located. 

715.5.7 Interior fire window assemblies. Fire-protec- 
tion-rated glazing used in fire window assemblies located in 
fire partitions and fire barriers shall be limited to use in 
assemblies with a maximum fire-resistance rating of 1 hour 
in accordance with this section. 

715.5.7.1 Where permitted. Fire-protection-rated glaz- 
ing shall be limited to fire partitions designed in accor- 
dance with Section 708 and fire barriers utilized in the 
applications set forth in Sections 706.3.6 and 706.3.8 
where the fire-resistance rating does not exceed 1 hour. 

715.5.7.2 Size limitations. The total area of windows 
shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of a common wall 
with any room. 

715.5.8 Labeling requirements. Fire-protection-rated 
glazing shall bear a label or other identification showing the 
name of the manufacturer, the test standard and information 
required in Section 715.5.8.1 that shall be issued by an 
approved agency and shall be permanently affixed to the 
glazing. 

715.5.8.1 Identification. For fire-protection-rated glaz- 
ing, the label shall bear the following two-part identifica- 
tion: "OH - XXX." "OH" indicates that the glazing 
meets both the fire-resistance and the hose-stream 
requirements of NFPA 257 and is permitted to be used in 
openings. "XXX" represents the fire-protection rating 
period, in minutes, that was tested. 



SECTION 716 
DUCTS AND AIR TRANSFER OPENINGS 

716.1 General. The provisions of this section shall govern the 
protection of duct penetrations and air transfer openings in 
assemblies required to be protected. 

716.1.1 Ducts without dampers. Ducts that penetrate 
fire-resistance-rated assemblies and are not required by this 
section to have dampers shall comply with the requirements 
of Section 712. 

716.2 Installation. Fire dampers, smoke dampers, combina- 
tion fire/smoke dampers and ceiling radiation dampers located 
within air distribution and smoke control systems shall be 
installed in accordance with the requirements of this section, 
the manufacturer's installation instructions and the dampers' 
listing. 

716.2.1 Smoke control system. Where the installation of a 
fire damper will interfere with the operation of a required 



smoke control system in accordance with Section 909, 
approved alternative protection shall be utilized. 

716.2.2 Hazardous exhaust ducts. Fire dampers for haz- 
ardous exhaust duct systems shall comply with the Interna- 
tional Mechanical Code. 

716.3 Damper testing and ratings. Dampers shall be listed 
and bear the label of an approved testing agency indicating 
compliance with the standards in this section. Fire dampers 
shall comply with the requirements of UL 555. Only fire damp- 
ers labeled for use in dynamic systems shall be installed in 
heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems designed to 
operate with fans on during a fire. Smoke dampers shall com- 
ply with the requirements of UL 555S.. Combination 
fire/smoke dampers shall comply with the requirements of both 
UL 555 and UL 555S. Ceiling radiation dampers shall comply 
with the requirements of UL 555C. 

716.3.1 Fire protection rating. Fire dampers shall have the 
minimum fire protection rating specified in Table 716.3.1 
for the type of penetration. 

TABLE 716.3.1 
FIRE DAMPER RATING 



TYPE OF 
PENETRATION 


MINIMUM DAMPER RATING 
(hours) 


Less than 3-hour fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies 


1.5 


3-hour or greater fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies 


3 



716.3.1.1 Fire damper actuating device. The fire 
damper actuating device shall meet one of the following 
requirements: 

1 . The operating temperature shall be approximately 
50°F (10°C) above the normal temperature within 
the duct system, but not less than 160°F (71°C). 

2. The operating temperature shall be not more than 
286°F (141°C) where located in a smoke control 
system complying with Section 909. 

3. Where a combination fire/smoke damper is 
located in a smoke control system complying with 
Section 909, the operating temperature rating shall 
be approximately 50°F (10°C) above the maxi- 
mum smoke control system designed operating 
temperature, or a maximum temperature of 350°F 
(177°C). The temperature shall not exceed the UL 
555S degradation test temperature rating for a 
combination fire/smoke damper. 

716.3.2 Smoke damper ratings. Smoke damper leakage 
ratings shall not be less than Class IL Elevated temperature 
ratings shall not be less than 250°F (121°C). 

716.3.2.1 Smoke damper actuation methods. The 

smoke damper shall close upon actuation of a listed 
smoke detector or detectors installed in accordance with 
Section 907.10 and one of the following methods, as 
applicable: 

1 . Where a damper is installed within a duct, a smoke 
detector shall be installed in the duct within 5 feet 
(1524 mm) of the damper with no air outlets or 



110 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



inlets between the detector and the damper. The 
detector shall be listed for the air velocity, temper- 
ature and humidity anticipated at the point where it 
is installed. Other than in mechanical smoke con- 
trol systems, dampers shall be closed upon fan 
shutdown where local smoke detectors require a 
minimum velocity to operate. 

2. Where a damper is installed above smoke barrier 
doors in a smoke barrier, a spot-type detector listed 
for releasing service shall be installed on either 
side of the smoke barrier door opening. 

3. Where a damper is installed within an unducted 
opening in a wall, a spot-type detector listed for 
releasing service shall be installed within 5 feet 
(1524 mm) horizontally of the damper. 

4. Where a damper is installed in a corridor wall or 
ceiling, the damper shall be permitted to be con- 
trolled by a smoke detection system installed in the 
corridor. 

5. Where a total-coverage smoke detector system is 
provided within areas served by a heating, ventila- 
tion and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, damp- 
ers shall be permitted to be controlled by the 
smoke detection system. 

716.4 Access and identification. Fire and smoke dampers 
shall be provided with an approved means of access, which is 
large enough to permit inspection and maintenance of the 
damper and its operating partS; The access shall not affect the 
integrity of fire-resistance-rated assemblies. The access open- 
ings shall not reduce the fire-resistance rating of the assembly. 
Access points shall be permanently identified on the exterior 
by a label having letters not less than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) in 
height reading: FIRE/SMOKE DAMPER, SMOKE DAMPER 
or FIRE DAMPER. Access doors in ducts shall be tight fitting 
and suitable for the required duct construction. 

716.5 Where required. Fire dampers, smoke dampers, combi- 
nation fire/smoke dampers and ceiling radiation dampers shall 
be provided at the locations prescribed in Sections 716.5.1 
through 716.5.5. Where an assembly is required to have both 
fire dampers and smoke dampers, combination fire/smoke 
dampers or a fire damper and a smoke damper shall be 
required. 

716.5.1 Fire walls. Ducts and air transfer openings permit- 
ted in fire walls in accordance with Section 705.1 1 shall be 
protected with listed fire dampers installed in accordance 
with their listing. 

716.5.2 Fire barriers. Ducts and air transfer openings of 
fire barriers shall be protected with approved fire dampers 
installed in accordance with their listing. Ducts and air 
transfer openings shall not penetrate exit enclosures and exit 
passageways except as permitted by Sections 1020.1.2 and 
1 02 1 .5 , respectively. 

Exception: Fire dampers are not required at penetrations 
of fire barriers where any of the following apply: 

1. Penetrations are tested in accordance with ASTM 
E 1 19 as part of the fire-resistance rated assembly. 



2. Ducts are used as part of an approved smoke con- 
trol system in accordance with Section 909 and 
where the use of a fire damper would interfere with 
the operation of a smoke control system. 

3. Such walls are penetrated by ducted HVAC sys- 
tems, have a required fire-resistance rating of 1 
hour or less, are in areas of other than Group H and 
are in buildings equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. For the purposes of this 
exception, a ducted HVAC system shall be a duct 
system for conveying supply, return or exhaust air 
as part of the structure's HVAC system. Such a 
duct system shall be constructed of sheet steel not 
less than 26 gage thickness and shall be continuous 
from the air-handling appliance or equipment to 
the air outlet and inlet terminals. 

716.5.3 Shaft enclosures. Shaft enclosures that are permit- 
ted to be penetrated by ducts and air transi'er openings shall 
be protected with approved fire and smoke dampers 
installed in accordance with their listing. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fire dampers are not required at penetrations of 
shafts where: 

1.1. Steel exhaust subducts are extended at least 
22 inches (559 mm) vertically in exhaust 
shafts, provided there is a continuous airflow 
upward to the outside; or 

1.2. Penetrations are tested in accordance with 
ASTM E 1 19 as part of the rated assembly; or 

1.3. Ducts are used as part of an approved smoke 
control system designed and installed in ac- 
cordance with Section 909 and where the fire 
damper will interfere with the operation of the 
smoke control system; or 

1.4. The penetrations are in parking garage ex- 
haust or supply shafts that are separated from 
other building shafts by not less than 2-hour 
fire-resistarice-rated construction. 

2. In Group B and R occupancies, equipped through- 
out with an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1, smoke dampers are 
not required at penetrations of shafts where: 

2.1. Kitchen, clothes dryer, bathroom and toilet 
room exhaust openings are installed with steel 
exhaust subducts, having a wall thickness of 
at least 0.019 inch (0.48 mm); and 

2.2. That extend at least 22 inches (559 nmi) verti- 
cally; and 

2.3. An exhaust fan is installed at the upper termi- 
nus of the shaft that is, powered continuously 
in accordance with the provisions of Section 
909 . 1 1 , so as to maintain a continuous upward 
airflow to the outside. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



111 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



3. Smoke dampers are not required at penetration of 
exhaust or supply shafts in parking garages that are 
separated from other building shafts by not less 
than 2-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. 

4. Smoke dampers are not required at penetrations of 
shafts where ducts are used as part of an approved 
mechanical smoke control system designed in 
accordance with Section 909 and where the smoke 
damper will interfere with the operation of the 
smoke control system. 

716.5.4 Fire partitions. Ducts and air transfer openings 
that penetrate foe partitions shall be protected with listed 
fire dampers installed in accordance with their listing. 

Exceptions: In occupancies other than Group H, fire 
dampers are not required where any of the following 
apply: 

1. The partitions are tenant separation or corridor 
walls in buildings equipped throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and the duct is pro- 
tected as a through penetration in accordance with 
Section 712. 

2. Tenant partitions in covered mall buildings where 
the walls are not required by provisions elsewhere 
in the code to extend to the underside of the floor or 
roof deck above. 

3. The duct system is constructed of approved mate- 
rials in accordance with the International Mechan- 
ical Code and the duct penetrating the wall 
complies with all of the following requirements: 

3.1. The duct shall not exceed 100 square 
inches (0.06 m^). 

3.2. The duct shall be constructed of steel a 
minimum of 0.0217 inch (0.55 mm) in 
thickness. 

3.3. The duct shall not have openings that com- 
municate the corridor with adjacent spaces 
or rooms. 

3.4. The duct shall be installed above a ceiling. 

3.5. The duct shall not terminate at a wall regis- 
ter in the fire-resistance-rated wall. 

3.6. A minimum 12-inch-long (305 mm) by 
0.060-inch-thick (1.52 mm) steel sleeve 
shall be centered in each duct opening. The 
sleeve shall be secured to both sides of the 
wall and all four sides of the sleeve with 
minimum lV2-inch by lV2-inch by 
0.060-inch (38 mm by 38 mm by 1 .52 mm) 
steel retaining angles. The retaining angles 
shall be secured to the sleeve and the wall 
with No. 10 (M5) screws. The annular 
space between the steel sleeve and the wall 
opening shall be filled with mineral wool 
batting on all sides. 



716.5.4.1 Corridors. A listed smoke damper designed 
to resist the passage of smoke shall be provided at each 
point a duct or air transfer opening penetrates a corridor 
enclosure required to have smoke and draft control doors 
in accordance with Section 715.4.3. 

Exceptions: 

1. Smoke dampers are not required where the 
building is equipped throughout with an 
approved smoke control system in accordance 
with Section 909, and smoke dampers are not 
necessary for the operation and control of the 
system. 

2. Smoke dampers are not required in corridor 
penetrations where the duct is constructed of 
steel not less than 0.019 inch (0.48 mm) in 
thickness and there are no openings serving the 
corridor. 

716.5.5 Smoke barriers. A listed smoke damper designed 
to resist the passage of smoke shall be provided at each point 
a duct or air transfer opening penetrates a smoke barrier. 
Smoke dampers and smoke damper actuation methods shall 
comply with Section 716.3.2.1. 

Exception: Smoke dampers are not required where the 
openings in ducts are limited to a single smoke compart- 
ment and the ducts are constructed of steel. 

716.6 Horizontal assemblies., Penetrations by ducts and air 
transfer openings of a floor, floor/ceiling assembly or the ceil- 
ing membrane of a roof/ceiling assembly shall be protected by 
a shaft enclosure that complies with Section 707 or shall com- 
ply with Sections 716.6.1 through 716.6.3. 

716.6.1 Through penetrations. In occupancies other than 
Groups 1-2 and 1-3, a duct constructed of approved materials 
in accordance with the International Mechanical Code that 
penetrates a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling assembly 
that connects not more than two stories is permitted without 
shaft enclosure protection, provided a listed fire damper is 
installed at the floor line or the duct is protected in accor- 
dance with Section 712.4. For air transfer openings, see 
Exception 7 to Section 707.2. 

Exception: A duct is permitted to penetrate three floors 
or less without a fire damper at each floor, provided it 
meets all of the following requirements: 

1 . The duct shall be contained and located within the 
cavity of a wall and shall be constructed of steel not 
less than 0.019 inch (0.48 mm) (26 gage) in thick- 
ness. 

2. The duct shall open into only one dwelling or 
sleeping unit and the duct system shall be continu- 
ous from the unit to the exterior of the building. 

3. The duct shall not exceed 4-inch (102 mm) nonu- 
nal diameter and the total area of such ducts shall 
not exceed 100 square inches (0.065 m^) in any 
100 square feet (9.3 m^) of floor area. 

4. The annular space around the duct is protected 
with materials that prevent the passage of flame 
and hot gases sufficient to ignite cotton waste 



112 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



where subjected to ASTM E 1 19 time-temperature 
conditions under a minimum positive pressure dif- 
ferential of OiO 1 inch (2.49 Pa) of water at the loca- 
tion of the penetration for the time period 
equivalent to the fire-resistance rating of the con- 
struction penetrated. 

5. Grille openings located in a ceiling of a fire-resis- 
tance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly 
shall be protected with a listed ceiling radiation 
damper installed in accordance with Section 
716.6.2.1. 

716.6.2 Membrane penetrations. Ducts and air transfer 
openings constructed of approved materials in accordance 
with the International Mechanical Code that penetrate the 
ceiling membrane of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or 
roof/ceiling assembly shall be protected with one of the fol- 
lowing: 

- 1. A shaft enclosure in accordance with Section 707. 

2. A listed ceiling radiation damper installed at the ceil- 
ing line where a duct penetrates the ceiling of a 
fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling 
assembly. 

3. A listed ceiling radiation damper installed at the ceil- 
ing line where a diffuser with no duct attached pene- 
trates the ceiling of a fire-resistance-rated 
floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly. 

716.6.2.1 Ceiling radiation dampers. Ceiling radiation 
dampers shall be tested in accordance with UL 555C and 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installa- 
tion instructions and listing. Ceiling radiation dampers 
are not required where either of the following applies: 

1 . Tests in accordance with ASTM E 1 1 9 have shown 
that ceiling radiation dampers are not necessary in 
order to maintain the fire-resistance rating of the 
assembly. 

2. Where exhaust duct penetrations are protected in 
accordance with Section 712.4.1.2, are located 
within the cavity of a wall and do not pass through 
another dwelling unit or tenant space. 

716.6.3 Nonfire-resistance-rated floor assemblies. Duct 
systems constructed of approved materials in accordance 
with the International Mechanical Code that penetrate 
nonfire-resistance-rated floor assemblies shall be protected 
by any of the following methods: 

1. A shaft enclosure in accordance with Section 707. 

2. The duct connects not more than two stories, the 
annular space around the penetrating duct is protected 
with an approved noncombustible material that 
resists the free passage of flame and the products of 
combustion. 

3. The duct connects not more than three stories, the 
annular space around the penetrating duct is protected 
with an approved noncombustible material that 
resists the free passage of flame and the products of 



combustion and a fire damper is installed at each floor 
line. 

Exception: Fire dampers are not required in ducts 
within individual residential dwelling units. 

716.7 Flexible ducts and air connectors. Flexible ducts and 
air connectors shall not pass through any fire-resistance-rated 
assembly. Flexible air connectors shall not pass through any 
wall, floor or ceiling. 



SECTION 717 
CONCEALED SPACES 

717.1 General. Fireblocking and draftstopping shall be 
installed in combustible concealed locations in accordance 
with this section. Fireblocking shall comply with Section 
717.2. Draftstopping in floor/ceiling spaces and attic spaces 
shall comply with Sections 717.3 and 717.4, respectively. The 
permitted use of combustible materials in concealed spaces of 
buildings of Type I or II construction shall be limited to the 
applications indicated in Section 717.5. 

717.2 Fireblocking. In combustible construction, fireblocking 
shall be installed to cut off concealed draft openings (both ver- 
tical and horizontal) and shall form an effective barrier between 
floors, between a top story and a roof or attic space. 
Fireblocking shall be installed in the locations specified in Sec- 
tions 717.2.2 through 717.2.7. 

717.2.1 Fireblocking materials. Fireblocking shall consist 
of 2-inch (51 mm) nominal lumber or two thicknesses of 
1-inch (25 mm) nominal lumber with broken lap joints or 
one thickness of 0.719-inch (18.3 mm) wood structural 
panel with joints backed by 0.719-inch (18.3 mm) wood 
structural panel or one thickness of 0.75-inch (19 mm) 
particleboard with joints backed by 0.75-inch (19 mm) 
particleboard. Gypsum board, cement fiber board, batts or 
blankets of mineral wool, glass fiber or other approved 
materials installed in such a manner as to be securely 
retained in place shall be permitted as an acceptable 
fireblock. Batts or blankets of mineral or glass fiber or other 
approved honrigid materials shall be permitted for compU- 
ance with the 10-foot (3048 mm) horizontal fireblocking in 
walls constructed using parallel rows of studs or staggered 
studs. Loose-fill insulation material shall not be used as a 
fireblock unless specifically tested in the form and manner 
intended for use to demonstrate its ability to remain in place 
and to retard the spread of fire and hot gases. The integrity of 
fireblocks shall be maintained. 

717.2.1.1 Double stud walls. Batts or blankets of min- 
eral or glass fiber or other approved nonrigid materials 
shall be allowed as fireblocking in walls constructed 
using parallel rows of studs or staggered studs. 

717.2.2 Concealed wall spaces. Fireblocking shall be pro- 
vided in concealed spaces of stud walls and partitions, 
including furred spaces, and parallel rows of studs or stag- 
gered studs, as follows: 

1. Vertically at the ceiling and floor levels. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE*" 



113 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



2. Horizontally at intervals not exceeding 10 feet (3048 
mm). 

717.2.3 Connections between horizontal and vertical 
spaces. Fireblocking shall be provided at interconnections 
between concealed vertical stud wall or partition spaces and 
concealed horizontal spaces created by an assembly of floor 
joists or trusses, and between concealed vertical and hori- 
zontal spaces such as occur at soffits, drop ceilings, cove 
ceilings and similar locations. 

717.2.4 Stairways. Fireblocking shall be provided in con- 
cealed spaces between stair stringers at the top and bottom 
of the run. Enclosed spaces under stairs shall also comply 
with Section 1009.5.3. 

717.2.5 Ceiling and floor openings. Where annular space 
protection is provided in accordance with Exception 6 of 
Section 707.2, Exception 1 of Section 712.4.1.2, or Section 
712.4.2, fireblocking shall be installed at openings around 
vents, pipes, ducts, chimneys and fireplaces at ceiling and 
floor levels, with an approved material to resist the free pas- 
sage of flame and the products of combustion. Factory-built 
chimneys and fireplaces shall be fireblocked in accordance 
with UL 103 and UL 127. 

717.2.6 Architectural trim. Fireblocking shall be installed 
within concealed spaces of exterior wall finish and other 
exterior architectural elements where permitted to be of 
combustible construction as specified in Section 1406 or 
where erected with combustible frames, at maximum inter- 
vals of 20 feet (6096 mm), so that there will be no open 
space exceeding 100 square feet (9.3 m^). Where wood fur- 
ring strips are used, they shall be of approved wood of natu- 
ral decay resistance or preservative-treated wood. If 
noncontinuous, such elements shall have closed ends, with 
at least 4 inches (102 mm) of separation between sections. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fireblocking of cornices is not required in sin- 
gle-family dwellings. Fireblocking of cornices of a 
two-family dwelling is required only at the line of 
dwelling unit separation. 

2. Fireblocking shall not be required where installed 
on noncombustible framing and the face of the 
exterior wall finish exposed to the concealed space 
is covered by one of the following materials: 

2. 1 . Aluminum having a minimum thickness of 
0.019 inch (0.5 mm). 

2.2. Corrosion-resistant steel having a base 
metal thickness not less than 0.016 inch 
(0.4 mm) at any point. 

2.3. Other approved noncombustible materials. 

717.2.7 Concealed sleeper spaces. Where wood sleepers 
are used for laying wood flooring on masonry or concrete 
fire-resistance-rated floors, the space between the floor slab 
and the underside of the wood flooring shall be filled with an 
approved material to resist the free passage of flame and 
products of combustion or fireblocked in such a manner that 
there will be no open spaces under the flooring that will 
exceed 100 square feet (9.3 m^) in area and such space shall 



be filled solidly under permanent partitions so that there is 
no communication under the flooring between adjoining 
rooms. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fireblocking is not required for slab-on-grade 
floors in gymnasiums. 

2. Fireblocking is required only at the juncture of 
each alternate lane and at the ends of each lane in a 
bowling facility. 

717.3 Draftstopping in floors. In combustible construction, 
draftstopping shall be installed to subdivide floor/ceiling 
assemblies in the locations prescribed in Sections 717.3.2 
through 717.3.3. 

717.3.1 Draftstopping materials. Draftstopping materials 
shall not be less than 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board, 
0.375-inch (9.5 mm) wood structural panel, 0.375-inch (9.5 
mm) particleboard, 1-inch (25 -mm) nominal lumber, 
cement fiberboard, batts or blankets of mineral wool or 
glass fiber, or other approved materials adequately sup- 
ported. The integrity of draftstops shall be maintained. 

717.3.2 Groups R-1, R-2, R-3 and R-4. Draftstopping 
shall be provided in floor/ceiling spaces in Group R- 1 build- 
ings, in Group R-2 buildings with three or more dwelling 
units, in Group R-3 buildings with two dwelling units and in 
Group R-4 buildings. Draftstopping shall be located above 
and in line with the dwelling unit and sleeping unit separa- 
tions. 

Exceptions: 

1. Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2, pro- 
vided that automatic sprinklers are also installed in 
the combustible concealed spaces. 

717.3.3 Other groups. In other groups, draftstopping shall 
be installed so that horizontal floor areas do not exceed 
1,000 square feet (93 m2). 

Exception: Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system 
in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

717.4 Draftstopping in attics. In combustible construction, 
draftstopping shall be installed to subdivide attic spaces and 
concealed roof spaces in the locations prescribed in Sections 
717.4.2 and717.4.3. Ventilationof concealed roof spaces shall 
be maintained in accordance with Section 1203.2. 

717.4.1 Draftstopping materials. Materials utilized for 
draftstopping of attic spaces shall comply with Section 
717.3.1. 

717.4.1.1 Openings. Openings in the partitions shall be 
protected by self-closing doors with automatic latches 
constructed as required for the partitions. 



114 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



717.4.2 Groups R-1 and R-2. Draftstopping shall be pro- 
vided in attics, mansards, overhangs or other concealed roof 
spaces of Group R-2 buildings with three or more dwelling 
units and in all Group R-1 buildings. Draftstopping shall be 
installed above, and in line with, sleeping unit and dwelling 
unit separation walls that do not extend to the underside of 
the roof sheathing above. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where corridor walls provide a sleeping unit or 
dwelling unit separation, draftstopping shall only 
be required above one of the corridor walls. 

2. Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

3. In occupancies in Group R-2 that do not exceed 
four stories in height, the attic space shall be subdi- 
vided by draftstops into areas not exceeding 3,000 
square feet (279 m^) or above every two dwelling 
units, whichever is smaller. 

4. Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2, pro- 
vided that automatic sprinklers are also installed in 
the combustible concealed spaces. 

717.4.3 Other groups. Draftstopping shall be installed in 
attics and concealed roof spaces, such that any horizontal 
area does not exceed 3,000 square feet (279 m^). 

Exception: Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system 
in accordance with Section 903.3. 1 . 1 . 

1717.5 Combustible materials in concealed spaces in Type I 
or II construction. Combustible materials shall not be permit- 
ted in concealed spaces of buildings of Type I or II construc- 
tion. 

Exceptions: 

1. Combustible materials in accordance with Section 
603. 

■ 2. Combustible materials exposed within plenums com- 

plying with Section 602 of the International Mechan- 
ical Code. 

13. Class A interior finish materials classified in accor- 
dance with Section 803. 
4. Combustible piping within partitions or shaft enclo- 
sures installed in accordance with the provisions of 
this code. 

I 5. Combustible piping within concealed ceiling spaces 

installed in accordance with the International 
Mechanical Code and the International Plumbing 
Code. 

6. Combustible insulation and covering on pipe and tub- 
ing, installed in concealed spaces other than plenums, 
complying with Section 719.7. 



SECTION 718 

FIRE-RESISTANCE REQUIREMENTS 

FOR PLASTER 

718.1 Thickness of plaster. The minimum thickness of gyp- 
sum plaster or portland cement plaster used in a fire-resis- 
tance-rated system shall be determined by the prescribed fire 
tests. The plaster thickness shall be measured from the face of 
the lath where applied to gypsum lath or metal lath. 

718.2 Plaster equivalents. For fire-resistance purposes, 0.5 
inch (12.7 mm) of unsanded gypsum plaster shall be deemed 
equivalent to 0.75 inch (19. 1 mm) of one-to-three gypsum sand 
plaster or 1 inch (25 mm) of portland cement sand plaster. 

718.3 Noncombustible furring. In buildings of Type I and II 
construction, plaster shall be applied directly on concrete or 
masonry or on approved noncombustible plastering base and 
furring. 

718.4 Double reinforcement. Plaster protection more than 1 
inch (25 mm) in thickness shall be reinforced with an addi- 
tional layer of approved lath embedded at least 0.75 inch (19. 1 
mm) from the outer surface and fixed securely in place. 

Exception: Solid plaster partitions or where otherwise 
determined by fire tests. 

718.5 Plaster alternatives for concrete. In reinforced con- 
crete construction, gypsum plaster or portland cement plaster is 
permitted to be substituted for 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) of the 
required poured concrete protection, except that a minimum 
thickness of 0.375 inch (9.5 mm) of poured concrete shall be 
provided in reinforced concrete floors and 1 inch (25 mm) in 
reinforced concrete columns in addition to the plaster finish. 
The concrete base shall be prepared in accordance with Section 
2510.7. 



SECTION 719 
THERMAL- AND SOUND-INSULATING MATERIALS 

719.1 General. Insulating materials, including facings such as 
vapor retarders and vapor-permeable membranes, similar cov- 
erings, and all layers of single and multilayer reflective foil 
insulations, shall comply with the requirements of this section. 
Where a flame spread index or a smoke-developed index is 
specified in this section, such index shall be determined in 
accordance with ASTM E 84. Any material that is subject to an 
increase in flame spread index or smoke-developed index 
beyond the limits herein established through the effects of age, 
moisture, or other atmospheric conditions shall not be permit- 
ted. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fiberboard insulation shall comply with Chapter 23. 

2. Foam plastic insulation shall comply with Chapter 26. 

3. Duct and pipe insulation and duct and pipe coverings 
and hnings in plenums shall comply with the Interna- 
tional Mechanical Code. 

719.2 Concealed installation. Insulating materials, where 
concealed as installed in buildings of any type of construction. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



115 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



shall have a flame spread index of not more than 25 and a 
smoke-developed index of not more than 450. 

Exception: Cellulose loose-fill insulation that is not spray 
applied, complying with the requirements of Section 719.6, 
shall only be required to meet the smoke-developed index of 
not more than 450. 

719.2.1 Facings. Where such materials are installed in con- 
cealed spaces in buildings of Type III, IV or V construction, 
the flame spread and smoke-developed limitations do not 
apply to facings, coverings, and layers of reflective foil 
insulation that are installed behind and in substantial contact 
with the unexposed surface of the ceiling, wall or floor fin- 
ish. 

719.3 Exposed installation. Insulating materials, where 
exposed as installed in buildings of any type of construction, 
shall have a flame spread index of not more than 25 and a 
smoke-developed index of not more than 450. 

Exception: Cellulose loose-fill insulation that is not spray 
applied complying with the requirements of Section 719.6 
shall only be required to meet the smoke-developed index of 
not more than 450. 

719.3.1 Attic floors. Exposed insulation materials installed 
on attic floors shall have a critical radiant flux of not less 
than 0.12 watt per square centimeter when tested in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 970. 

719.4 Loose-fill insulation. Loose-fill insulation materials 
that cannot be mounted in the ASTM E 84 apparatus without a 
screen or artificial supports shall comply with the flame spread 
and smoke-developed limits of Sections 719.2 and 719.3 when 
tested in accordance with CAN/ULC S 102.2. 

Exception: Cellulose loose-fill insulation shall not be 
required to comply with the flame spread index requirement 
of CAN/ULC S 102.2, provided such insulation complies 
with the requirements of Section 719.6. 

719.5 Roof insulation. The use of combustible roof insulation 
not complying with Sections 719.2 and 719.3 shall be permit- 
ted in any type of constiuction provided it is covered with 
approved roof coverings directly applied thereto. 

719.6 Cellulose loose-fill insulation. Cellulose loose-fill insu- 
lation shall comply with CPSC 16 CFR, Part 1209 and CPSC 
16 CFR, Part 1404. Each package of such insulating material 
shall be clearly labeled in accordance with CPSC 16 CFR, Part 
1209 and CPSC 16 CFR, Part 1404. 

719.7 Insulation and covering on pipe and tubing. Insula- 
tion and covering on pipe and tubing shall have a flame spread 
index of not more than 25 and a smoke-developed index of not 
more than 450. 

Exception: Insulation and covering on pipe and tubing 
installed in plenums shall comply with the International 
Mechanical Code. 



SECTION 720 
PRESCRIPTIVE FIRE RESISTANCE 

720.1 General. The provisions of this section contain prescrip- 
tive details of fire-resistance-rated building elements. The 



materials of construction Usted in Tables 720.1(1), 720.1(2), 
and 720.1(3) shall be assumed to have the fire-resistance rat- 
ings prescribed therein. Where materials that change the capac- 
ity for heat dissipation are incorporated into a 
fire-resistance-rated assembly, fire test results or other substan- 
tiating data shall be made available to the building official to 
show that the required fire-resistance-rating time period is not 
reduced. 

720.1.1 Thickness of protective coverings. The thickness 
of fire-resistant materials required for protection of struc- 
tural members shall be not less than set forth in Table 
720.1(1), except as modified in this section. The figures 
shown shall be the net thickness of the protecting materials 
and shall not include any hollow space in back of the protec- 
tion. 

720.1.2 Unit masonry protection. Where required, metal 
ties shall be embedded in bed joints of unit masonry for pro- 
tection of steel columns. Such ties shall be as set forth in 
Table 720.1(1) or be equivalent thereto. 

720.1.3 Reinforcement for cast-in-place concrete col- 
umn protection. Cast-in-place concrete protection for steel 
columns shall be reinforced at the edges of such members 
with wire ties of not less than 0. 1 8 inch (4.6 mm) in diameter 
wound spirally around the columns on a pitch of not more 
than 8 inches (203 mm) or by equivalent reinforcement. 

720.1.4 Plaster application. The finish coat is not required 
for plaster protective coatings where they comply with the 
design mix and thickness requirements of Tables 720.1(1), 
720.1(2) and 720.1(3). 

720.1.5 Bonded prestressed concrete tendons. For mem- 
bers having a single tendon or more than one tendon 
installed with equal concrete cover measured from the near- 
est surface, the cover shall not be less than that set forth in 
Table 720.1(1). For members having multiple tendons 
installed with variable concrete cover, the average tendon 
cover shall not be less than that set forth in Table 720.1(1), 
provided: 

1. The clearance from each tendon to the nearest 
exposed surface is used to determine the average 
cover. 

2. In no case can the clear cover for individual tendons 
be less than one-half of that set forth in Table 
720.1(1). A minimum cover of 0.75 inch (19.1 mm) 
for slabs and 1 inch (25 mm) for beams is required for 
any aggregate concrete. 

3. For the purpose of establishing a fire-resistance rat- 
ing, tendons having a clear covering less than that set 
forth in Table 720. 1(1) shall not contribute more than 
50 percent of the required ultimate moment capacity 
for members less than 350 square inches (0.226 m^) in 
cross-sectional area and 65 percent for larger mem- 
bers. For structural design purposes, however, ten- 
dons having a reduced cover are assumed to be fully 
effective. 



116 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(1) 

MINIMUM PROTECTION OF STRUCTURAL PARTS BASED ON TIME PERIODS 

FOR VARIOUS NONCOMBUSTIBLE INSULATING MATERIALS'" 



STRUCTURAL 
PARTS TO BE 
PROTECTED 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


INSULATING MATERIAL USED 


MINIMUM THICKNESS OF 

INSULATING MATERIAL 

FOR THE FOLLOWING 

FIRE-RESISTANCE 

PERIODS (Inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


hour 


1. Steel columns 
and all of primary 
trusses 


1-1.1 


Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete, members 6" x 6" or 
greater (not including sandstone, granite and siUceous gravel).^ 


1\ 


2 


\\ 




1-1.2 


Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete, members 8" x 8" or 
greater (not including sandstone, granite and siliceous gravel).^ 


2 


\\ 


1 




1-1.3 


Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete, members 
12" X 12" or greater (not including sandstone, granite and siliceous gravel)." 


IV2 


1 


1 




1-1.4 


Siliceous aggregate concrete and concrete excluded in Item 1:1.1, members 6" x 6" 
or greater.^ 


3 


2 


IV2 




1-1.5 


Siliceous aggregate concrete and concrete excluded in Item 1-1.1, members 8" x 8" 
or greater." 


1\ 


2 


1 




1-1.6 


Siliceous aggregate concrete and concrete excluded in Item 1-1.1, members 
12" X 12" or greater." 


2 


1 


1 




1-.2.1 


Clay or shale brick with brick and mortar fill." 


3% 


— 


— 


2V4 


1-3.1 


4" hollow clay tile in two 2" layers; Vj" mortar between tile and column; %" metal 
mesh 0.046" wire diameter in horizontal joints; tile fill." 


4 


— 


— 




1-3.2 


2" hollow clay tile; V/' mortar between tile and column; ^/g" metal mesh 0.046" wire 
diameter in horizontal joints; Umestone concrete fill;" plastered with '^1^' gypsum 
plaster. 


3 


— 


— 


. — 


■ 
1-3.3 


2" hollow clay tile with outside wire ties 0.08" diameter at each course of tile or Vg" 
metal mesh 0.046" diameter wire in horizontal joints; limestone or trap-rock 
concrete fill" extending 1" outside column on all sides. 


— 


— 


3 


— 


1-3.4 


2" hollow clay tile with outside wire ties 0.08" diameter at each course of tile with or 
without concrete fill; ^1^' mortar between tile and column. 


— 


— 


— 


2 


1-4.1 


Cement plaster over metal lath wire tied to ^Z/' cold-rolled vertical channels with 
0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 3" to 6" on center. Plaster mixed 
1 :2 V2 by volume, cement to sand. 


— 


— 


272" 


% 


1-5.1 


Vermiculite concrete, 1:4 mix by volume over paperbacked wire fabric lath wrapped 
directly around column with additional 2" x 2" 0.06570.065" (No. 16/16 B.W. gage) 
wire fabric placed %" from outer concrete surface. Wire fabric tied with 0.049" (No. 
18 B.W. gage) wire spaced 6" on center for inner layer and 2" on center for outer 
layer. 


2 


— 


— 


— 


1-6.1 


Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster over metal lath wrapped around column and 
furred 1 V4" from column flanges. Sheets lapped at ends and tied at 6" intervals with 
0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) tie wire. Plaster pushed through to flanges. 


\\ 


1 


■ — 


— 


1-6.2 


Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster over self-furring metal lath wrapped directly 
around column, lapped 1" and tied at 6" intervals with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) 
wire. 


IV4 


1% 


1 


— 


1-6.3 


Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster on metal lath applied to V/' cold-rolled 
channels spaced 24" apart vertically and wrapped flatwise around column. 


IV2 


— 


— 


— 


1-6.4 


Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster over two layers of V2" plain full-length gypsum 
lath applied tight to column flanges. Lath wrapped with 1" hexagonal mesh of No. 
20 gage wire and tied with doubled 0.035" diameter (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire ties 
spaced 23" on center. For three-coat work, the plaster mix for the second coat shall 
not exceed 100 pounds of gypsum to 2V2 cubic feet of aggregate for the 3-hour 
system. 


2V2 


2 


— 





{continued) 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



117 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(1)— continued 

MINIMUM PROTECTION OF STRUCTURAL PARTS BASED ON TIME PERIODS 

FOR VARIOUS NONCOMBUSTIBLE INSULATING MATERIALS'" 



STRUCTURAL 
PARTS TO BE 
PROTECTED 



ITEM 
NUMBER 



INSULATING MATERIAL USED 



MINIMUM THICKNESS OF 

INSULATING MATERIAL 

FOR THE FOLLOWING 

FIRE-RESISTANCE 

PERIODS (inches) 



4 
hour 



3 
hour 



2 
hour 



1 
hour 



1-6.5 



Perlite or vermiculate gypsum plaster over one layer of V2" plain full-length gypsum 
lath applied tight to column flanges. Lath tied with doubled 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. 
gage) wire ties spaced 23" on center and scratch coat wrapped with 1" hexagonal 
mesh 0.035" (No. 20 B.W. gage) wire fabric. For three-coat work, the plaster mix for 
the second coat shall not exceed 100 pounds of gypsum to 2V2 cubic feet of 
aggregate. 



1-7.1 



Multiple layers of V2" gypsum wallboard*^ adhesively'^ secured to column flanges and 
successive layers. Wallboard applied without horizontal joints. Comer edges of each 
layer staggered. Wallboard layer below outer layer secured to column with doubled 
0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) steel wire ties spaced 15" on center. Exposed corners 
taped and treated. 



1-7.2 



Three layers of ^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard.'^ First and second layer held in place 
by Vg" diameter by l^/g" long ring shank nails with ^/j/' diameter heads spaced 24" 
on center at comers. Middle layer also secured with metal straps at mid-height and 
18" from each end, and by metal comer bead at each comer held by the metal straps. 
Third layer attached to comer bead with 1" long gypsum wallboard screws spaced 
12" on center. 



I'U 



1 . Steel columns 
and all of 
primary trusses 
(continued) 



1-7.3 



Three layers of ^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard,'^ each layer screw attached to P/g" 
steel studs 0.018" thick (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) at each comer of column. 
Middle layer also secured with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) double-strand steel wire 
ties, 24" on center. Screws are No. 6 by 1" spaced 24" on center for inner layer. No. 
6 by 1^/g" spaced 12" on center for middle layer and No. 8 by 2V4" spaced 12" on 
center for outer layer. . 



\y. 



1-8.1 



Wood-fibered gypsum plaster mixed 1:1 by weight gypsum-to-sand aggregate 
applied over metal lath. Lath lapped 1" and tied 6" on center at all end, edges and 
spacers with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) steel tie wires. Lath applied over V2" spacers 
made of ^Z/' furring channel with 2" legs bent around each comer. Spacers located 1" 
from top and bottom of member and a maximum of 40" on center and wire tied with 
a single strand of 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) steel tie wires. Comer bead tied to the 
lath at 6" on center along each comer to provide plaster thickness. 



1V« 



1-9.1 



Minimum W8x35 wide flange steel column (w/d > 0.75) with each web cavity filled 
even with the flange tip with normal weight carbonate or siliceous aggregate 
concrete (3,000 psi minimum compressive strength with 145 pcf ± 3 pcf unit 
weight). Reinforce the concrete in each web cavity with a minimum No. 4 deformed 
reinforcing bar installed vertically and centered in the cavity, and secured to the 
column web with a minimum No. 2 horizontal deformed reinforcing bar welded to 
the web every 18" on center vertically. As an altemative to the No. 4 rebar, ^1^' 
diameter by 3" long headed studs, spaced at 12" on center vertically, shall be welded 
on each side of the web midway between the colunm flanges. 



See 

Note 

n 



2-1.1 



2. Webs or 
flanges of 
steel beams and 
girders 



Carbonate, Ughtweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete (not including 
sandstone, granite and siHceous gravel) with 3" or finer metal mesh placed 1" from 
the finished surface anchored to the top flange and providing not less than 0.025 
square inch of steel area per foot in each direction. 



2-1.2 



Siliceous aggregate concrete and concrete excluded in Item 2-1.1 with 3" or finer 
metal mesh placed 1" from the finished surface anchored to the top flange and 
providing not less than 0.025 square inch of steel area per foot in each direction. 



2V, 



2-2.1 



Cement plaster on metal lath attached to ^1^" cold-rolled channels with 0.04" (No. 18 
B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 3" to 6" on center. Plaster mixed 1:2 V2 by volume, 
cement to sand. 



21/2" 



(continued) 



118 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE*^ 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(1)— continued 

MINIMUM PROTECTION OF STRUCTURAL PARTS BASED ON TIME PERIODS 

FOR VARIOUS NONCOMBUSTIBLE INSULATING MATERIALS"" 









MINIMUM THICKNESS OF 








INSULATING MATERIAL 








FOR THE FOLLOWING 








FIRE-RESISTANCE 


STRUCTURAL 
PARTS TO BE 






PERIODS (inches) 


ITEM 




4 


3 


2 


1 


PROTECTED 


NUMBER 


INSULATING MATERIAL USED 


hour 


hour 


hour 


hour 






Vermiculite gypsum plaster on a metal lath cage, wire tied to 0.165" diameter (No. 8 












2-3.1 


B.W. gage) steel wire hangers wrapped around beam and spaced 16" on center. 
Metal lath ties spaced approximately 5" on center at cage sides and bottom. 


— 


% 


— 


— 




Two layers of ^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard'^ are attached to U-shaped brackets 














spaced 24" on center. 0.018" thick (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) 1%" deep by 1" 














galvanized steel runner channels are first installed parallel to and on each side of the 














top beam flange to provide a ^l{' clearance to the flange. The channel runners are 














attached to steel deck or concrete floor construction with approved fasteners spaced 














12" on center. U-shaped brackets are formed from members identical to the channel 














runners. At the bent portion of the U-shaped bracket, the flanges of the channel are 














cut out so that iVg" deep comer channels can be inserted without attachment parallel 














to each side of the lower flange. 












2-4.1 


As an alternate, 0.021" thick (No. 24 carbon sheet steel gage) T'x 2" runner and 
comer angles may be used in Ueu of channels, and the web cutouts in the U-shaped 
brackets may be omitted. Each angle is attached to the bracket with V2"-long No. 8 


— 


— 


IV4 


— 


2. Webs or 




self -drilling screws. The vertical legs of the U-shaped bracket are attached to the 










flanges of steel 




mnners with one Vj" long No. 8 self-driUing screw. The completed steel framing 










beams and 




provides a 2V8" and 1 Vj" space between the inner layer of wallboard and the sides 










girders 




and bottom of the steel beam, respectively. The inner layer of wallboard is attached 










(continued) 




to the top mnners and bottom comer channels or comer angles with 1 V4"-long No. 6 
self-drilling screws spaced 16" on center. The outer layer of wallboard is applied 
with iV/'-long No. 6 self-drilling screws spaced 8" on center. The bottom comers 
are reinforced with metal comer beads. 












Three layers of %" Type X gypsum wallboard"^ attached to a steel suspension system 














as described immediately above utilizing the 0.018" thick (No. 25 carbon sheet steel 














gage) 1" X 2" lower comer angles. The framing is located so that a 2V8" and 2" space 














is provided between the inner layer of wallboard and the sides and bottom of the 














beam, respectively. The first two layers of wallboard are attached as described 












2-4.2 


immediately above. A layer of 0.035" thick (No. 20 B.W. gage) 1" hexagonal 
galvanized wire mesh is applied under the soffit of the middle layer and up the sides 
approximately 2". The mesh is held in position with the No. 6 lV8"-long screws 
installed in the vertical leg of the bottom comer angles. The outer layer of wallboard 
is attached with No. 6 2V4"-long screws spaced 8" on center. One screw is also 
installed at the mid-depth of the bracket in each layer. Bottom comers are finished as 
described above. 




1% 






3. Bonded 




Carbonate, lightweight, sand-lightweight and siUceous^ aggregate concrete 


A.% 


'X% 


2V, 


1'/ 


pretensioned 




Beams or girders 


T" 


J 


i. '2 


X /2 


reinforcement in 


3-1.1 












prestressed 








2 


I'A 


1 


concrete^ 




Solid slabs^ 




^ 


± /2 


1 






Carbonate, Ughtweight, sand-lightweight and siliceous^ aggregate concrete 














Unrestrained members: 












4-1.1 


SoUd slabs^ 


— 


2 


\\ 


— 


4. Bonded or 




Beams and girders' 










unbonded 




8" wide 




^\ 


2% 


1^4 


post-tensioned 




greater than 12" wide 


3 


1% 


2 


IV, 


Jr 

tendons in 




Carbonate, lightweight, sand-lightweight and siliceous aggregate 










prestressed 




Restrained members:'' 










concrete^' ' 


4-1.2 


Solid slabs'" 
Beams and girders' 


IV4 


1 


V4 









8" wide 


1\ 


2 


1% 









greater than 12" wide 


2 


1% 


IV, 






(continued) 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE'' 



119 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(1)— continued 

MINIMUM PROTECTION OF STRUCTURAL PARTS BASED ON TIME PERIODS 

FOR VARIOUS NONCOMBUSTIBLE INSULATING MATERIALS'" 



STRUCTURAL 
PARTS TO BE 
PROTECTED 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


INSULATING MATERIAL USED 


MINIMUM THICKNESS OF 

INSULATING MATERIAL 

FOR THE FOLLOWING 

FIRE-RESISTANCE 

PERIODS (inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


5. Reinforcing 
steel in reinforced 
concrete columns, 
beams girders and 
trusses 


5-1.1 


Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete, members 12" or 
larger, square or round. (Size limit does not apply to beams and girders monolithic 
with floors.) 

Siliceous aggregate concrete, members 12" or larger, square or round. (Size limit 
does not apply to beams and girders monolithic with floors.) 


1'/, 

2 


1\ 


1% 


IV2 
IV2 


6. Reinforcing 
steel in reinforced 
concrete joists' 


6-1.1 
6-1.2 


Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete. 
Siliceous aggregate concrete. 


IV4 
1% 


IV4 
1% 


1 
1 


V4 
V4 


7. Reinforcing and 
tie rods in floor 
and roof slabs' 


7-1.1 
7-1.2 


Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete. 
Siliceous aggregate concrete. 


1 
I.V4 


1 
1 


1 


% 
% 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.2 mm?, 1 cubic foot = 0.0283 m^. 

a. Reentrant parts of protected members to be filled solidly. 

b. Two layers of equal thickness with a %-inch airspace between. 

c. For all of the construction with gypsum wallboard described in Table 720. 1(1), gypsum base for veneer plaster of the same size, thickness and core type shall be 
permitted to be substituted for gypsum wallboard, provided attachment is identical to that specified for the wallboard and the joints on the face layer are reinforced, 
and the entire surface is covered with a minimum of V,g-inch gypsum veneer plaster. 

d. An approved adhesive qualified under ASTM E 1 19. 

e. Where Ughtweight or sand-lightweight concrete having an oven-dry weight of 1 10 pounds per cubic foot or less is used, the tabulated minimum cover shall be per- 
niitted to be reduced 25 percent, except that in no case shall the cover be less than % inch in slabs or IV2 inches in beams or girders. 

f. For solid slabs of siliceous aggregate concrete, increase tendon cover 20 percent. 

g. Adequate provisions against spalUng shall be provided by U-shaped or hooped stirrups spaced not to exceed the depth of the member with a clear cover of 1 inch, 
h. Prestressed slabs shall have a thickness not less than that required in Table 720.1(3) for the respective fire resistance time period. 

i. Fire coverage and end anchorages shall be as follows: Cover to the prestressing steel at the anchor shall be Vj inch greater than that required away from the anchor. 
Minimum cover to steel-bearing plate shall be 1 inch in beams and % inch in slabs. 

j. For beam widths between 8 inches and 12 inches, cover thickness shall be permitted to be determined by interpolation. 

k. Interior spans of continuous slabs, beams and girders shall be permitted to be considered restrained. 

1. For use with concrete slabs having a comparable fire endurance where members are framed into the structure in such a manner as to provide equivalent perfor- 
mance to that of monohthic concrete construction. 

m. Generic fire-resistance ratings (those not designated as PROPRIETARY* in the listing) in GA 600 shall be accepted as if herein listed. 

n. No additional insulating material is required on the exposed outside face of the column flange to achieve a 1-hour fire-resistance rating. 



120 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(2) 
RATED FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS °-'"' 



MATERIAL 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CONSTRUCTION 


MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO-FACE" 

(inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


1. Brick of clay or 
shale 


1-1.1 


Solid brick of clay or shale*^ 


6 


4.9 


3.8 


2.7 


1-1.2 


Hollow brick, not filled. 


5.0 


4.3 


3.4 


2.3 


1-1.3 


Hollow brick unit wall, grout or filled with perlite vermiculite or expanded shale 
aggregate. 


6.6 


5.5 


4.4 


3.0 


1-2.1 


4" nominal thick units at least 75 percent solid backed with, a hat-shaped metal 
furring channel ^Z/' thick formed from 0.021" sheet metal attached to the brick 
wall on 24" centers with approved fasteners, and V2" Type X gypsum wallboard 
attached to the metal furring strips with l"-long Type S screws spaced 8" on 
center. 


— 


— 


5'^ 


— 


2. Combination of 
clay brick and 
load-bearing 
hollow clay tile 


2-1.1 


4" solid brick and 4" tile (at least 40 percent solid). 





8 







2-1.2 


4" soUd brick and 8" tile (at least 40 percent soUd). 


12 


— 




— 


3. Concrete 
masonry units 


3-l.lf>g 


Expanded slag or pumice. 


4.7 


4.0 


3.2 


2.1 


3-1.2f>e 


Expanded clay, shale or slate. 


5.1 


4.4 


3.6 


2.6 


3-1.3^ 


Limestone, cinders or air-cooled slag. 


5.9 


5.0 


4.0 


2.7 


3-1.4^-8 


Calcareous or siliceous gravel. 


6.2 


5.3 


4.2 • 


2.8 


4. Solid concrete^' ' 


4-1.1 


SiUceous aggregate concrete. 


7.0 


6.2 


5.0 


3.5 


Carbonate aggregate concrete. 


6.6 


5.7 


4.6 


3.2 


Sand-lightweight concrete. 


5.4 


4.6 


3.8 


2.7 


Lightweight concrete. 


5.1 


4.4 


3.6 


2.5 


5. Glazed or 
unglazed facing 
tile, nonload- 
bearing 


5-1.1 


One 2" unit cored 15 percent maximum and one 4" unit cored 25 percent 
maximum with '^1^' mortar-filled collar joint. Unit positions reversed in alternate 
courses. 


— 


63/8 


— 


— 


5-1.2 


One 2" unit cored 15 percent maximum and one 4" unit cored 40 percent 
maximum with %" mortar-filled collar joint. Unit positions side with '^1^' gypsum 
plaster. Two wythes tied together every fourth course with No. 22 gage 
corrugated metal ties. 


— 


63/4 


— 


— 


5-1.3 


One unit with three cells in wall thickness, cored 29 percent maximum. 








6 





5-1.4 


One 2" unit cored 22 percent maximum and one 4" unit cored 41 percent 
maximum with V4" mortar-filled collar joint. Two wythes tied together every 
third course with 0.030" (No. 22 galvanized sheet steel gage) corrugated metal 
ties. 


— 


— 


6 


— 


5-1.5 


One 4" unit cored 25 percent maximum with V/' gypsum plaster on one side. 








4% 





5-1.6 


One 4" unit with two cells in wall thickness, cored 22 percent maximum. 










4 


5-1.7 


One 4" unit cored 30 percent maximum with V4" vermiculite gypsum plaster on 
one side. 


— 


— 


A% 


— 


5-1.8 


One 4" unit cored 39 percent maximum with '^1^" gypsum plaster on one side. 


— 


— 


— 


4V,, 



(continued) 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



121 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(2)— continued 
RATED FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS "•"•^ 



MATERIAL 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CONSTRUCTION 


MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS 

FACE-TO-FACE" 

(inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


6. Solid gypsum 
plaster 


6-1.1 


%" by 0.055" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) vertical cold-rolled channels, 16" 
on center with 2.6-pound flat metal lath appUed to one face and tied with 0.049" 
(No. 18 B.W. Gage) wire at 6" spacing. Gypsum plaster each side mixed 1:2 by 
weight, gypsum to sand aggregate. 


— 


— , 


— 


2" 


6-1.2 


^Z/' by 0.05" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) cold-rolled channels 16" on center 
with metal lath applied to one face and tied with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire 
at 6" spacing. Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster each side. For three-coat 
work, the plaster mix for the second coat shall not exceed 100 pounds of gypsum 
to 2V2 cubic feet of aggregate for the 1-hour system. 


— 


— 


21/2" 


2" 


6-1.3 


^//' by 0.055" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) vertical cold-rolled channels, 16" 
on center with ^/g" gypsum lath applied to one face and attached with sheet metal 
cUps. Gypsum plaster each side mixed 1:2 by weight, gypsum to sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


2" 


6-2.1 


Smdless with V2" full-length plain gypsum lath and gypsum plaster each side. 
Plaster mixed 1:1 for scratch coat and 1:2 for brown coat, by weight, gypsum to 
sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


2^ 


6-2.2 


Studless with V2" full-length plain gypsum lath and perUte or vermiculite gypsum 
plaster each side. 


— 


— 


21/2'* 


2^ 


6-2.3 


Studless partition with %" rib metal lath installed vertically adjacent edges tied 
6" on center with No. 18 gage wire ties, gypsum plaster each side mixed 1:2 by 
weight, gypsum to sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


2" 


7. Solid perlite 
and Portland 
cement 


7-1.1 


Perlite mixed in the ratio of 3 cubic feet to 100 pounds of portland cement and 
machine appUed to stud side of 1 V2" mesh by 0.058-inch (No. 17 B.W. gage) 
paper-backed woven wire fabric lath wire-tied to 4"-deep steel trussed wire) studs 
16" on center. Wire ties of 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) galvanized steel wire 6" on 
center vertically. 


— 


— 


3V 


— 


8. Solid neat wood 
fibered gypsum 
plaster 


8-1.1 


%" by 0.055-inch (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) cold-rolled channels, 12" on 
center with 2.5-pound flat metal lath applied to one face and tied with 0.049" 
(No. 18 B.W. gage) wire at 6" spacing. Neat gypsum plaster applied each side. 


— 


— 


2" 


— 


9. Solid wallboard 
partition 


9-1.1 


One full-length layer Vj" Type X gypsum wallboard® laminated to each side of 1" 
full-length V-edge gypsum coreboard with approved laminating compound. 
Vertical joints of face layer and coreboard staggered at least 3". 


— 


— ■ 


1^ 


— 


10. Hollow 
(studless) gypsum 
wallboard 
partition 


10-1.1 


One full-length layer of ^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard® attached to both sides of 
wood or metal top and bottom runners laminated to each side of 1" x 6" 
full-length gypsum coreboard ribs spaced 2" on center with approved laminating 
compound. Ribs centered at vertical joints of face plies and joints staggered 24" 
in opposing faces. Ribs may be recessed 6" from the top and bottom. 


— 


— 


— 


274" 


10-1.2 


1" regular gypsum V-edge full-length backing board attached to both sides of 
wood or metal top and bottom runners with nails or iVg" dry wall screws at 24" 
on center. Minimum width of rumors l^/g". Face layer of V2" regular full-length 
gypsum wallboard laminated to outer faces of backing board with approved 
laminating compound. 


— 


— 


4V 


— 



(continued) 



122 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(2)— continued 
RATED FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS »<"' 



MATERIAL 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CONSTRUCTION 


MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO-FACE" 

(inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


11. Noncombustible 
studs — interior 
partition with plaster 
each side 


11-1.1 


3'//' X 0.044" (No. 18 carbon sheet steel gage) steel studs spaced 24" on center, 
^/g" gypsum plaster on metal lath each side mixed 1:2 by weight, gypsum to 
sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


43/4" 


11-1.2 


3%" X 0.055" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) approved nailable*^ studs spaced 
24" on center. %" neat gypsum wood-fibered plaster each side over %" rib 
metal lath nailed to studs with 6d common nails, 8" on center. Nails driven 1 V4" 
and bent over. 


— 


— 


5Vg 


— 


11-1.3 


4" X 0.044" (No. 18 carbon sheet steel gage) channel-shaped steel studs at 16" 
on center. On each side approved resilient cUps pressed onto stud flange at 16" 
vertical spacing, '//' pencil rods snapped into or wire tied onto outer loop of 
cUps, metal lath wire-tied to pencil rods at 6" intervals, 1" perlite gypsum 
plaster, each side. 


— 


1\' 


— 


— 


11-1.4 


l^l{' X 0.044" (No. 18 carbon sheet steel gage) steel studs spaced 16" on center. 
Wood fibered gypsum plaster mixed 1:1 by weight gypsum to sand aggregate 
appUed on %-pound metal lath wire tied to studs, each side. %" plaster appUed 
over each face, including finish coat. 


— 


— 


4'// 


— 


12. Wood studs 
interior partition 
with plaster each 
side 


12-1.1'-'" 


2" X 4" wood studs 16" on center with Vg" gypsum plaster on metal lath. Lath 
attached by 4d common nails bent over or No. 14 gage by \^l^' by V/ crown 
width staples spaced 6" on center. Plaster mixed 1:1 '/2 for scratch coat and 1:3 
for brown coat, by weight, gypsum to sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


5Vg 


12-1.2' 


2" X 4" wood studs 16" on center with metal lath and %" neat wood-fibered 
gypsum plaster each side. Lath attached by 6d common nails, 7" on center. 
Nails driven 1 '// and bent over. 


— 


— 


5'/2'' 


— 


12-1.3' 


2" X 4" wood studs 16" on center with %" perforated or plain gypsum lath and 
V2" gypsum plaster each side. Lath nailed with I'/g" by No. 13 gage by '^^4" 
head plasterboard blued nails, 4" on center. Plaster mixed 1:2 by weight, 
gypsum to sand aggregate. 


— 


~ 


— 


5V4 


12-1.4' 


2" X 4" wood studs 16" on center with Vg" Type X gypsum lath and '/j" 
gypsum plaster each side. Lath nailed with 1 '/g" by No. 13 gage by '^64" head 
plasterboard blued nails, 5" on center. Plaster mixed 1:2 by weight, gypsum to 
sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


5V4 


1 3 .Noncombustible 
studs — interior 
partition with 
gypsum wallboard 
each side 


13-1.1 


0.018" (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) channel-shaped studs 24" on center 
with one full-length layer of ^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard^ applied vertically 
attached with 1" long No. 6 dry wall screws to each stud. Screws are 8" on 
center around the perimeter and 12" on center on the intermediate stud. The 
wallboard may be applied horizontally when attached to 3^/g" studs and the 
horizontal joints are staggered with those on the opposite side. Screws for the 
horizontal application shall be 8" on center at vertical edges and 12" on center 
at intermediate studs. 


— 


— 


— 


2V 


13-1.2 


0.018" (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) channel-shaped studs 25" on center 
with two full-length layers of '/j" Type X gypsum wallboard^ applied vertically 
each side. First layer attached with l"-long, No. 6 dry wall screws, 8" on center 
around the perimeter and 12" on center on the intermediate stud. Second layer 
applied with vertical joints offset one stud space from first layer using iVg" 
long. No. 6 dry wall screws spaced 9" on center along vertical joints, 12" on 
center at intermediate studs and 24" on center along top and bottom runners. 


— 


— 


SVg" 


— 


13-1.3 


0.055" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) approved nailable metal studs^ 24" on 
center with full-length ^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard^ apphed vertically and 
nailed 7" on center with 6d cement-coated common nails. Approved metal 
fastener grips used with nails at vertical butt joints along studs. 


— 


— 


— 


4% 



{continued) 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



123 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(2)— continued 
RATED FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS ^'"-p 



MATERIAL 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CONSTRUCTION 


MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO-FACE" 

(Inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


14.Wood 
studs — interior 
partition with 
gypsum wallboard 
each side 


14.1.lh,m 


2" X 4" wood studs 16" on center with two layers of ^/g" regular gypsum 
wallboard^ each side, 4d cooler" or wallboard" nails at 8" on center first layer, 5d 
cooler" or wallboard" nails at 8" on center second layer with laminating 
compound between layers, joints staggered. First layer applied full length 
vertically, second layer applied horizontally or vertically 


— 


— 


— 


5 


14-1.2''-" 


2" X 4" wood studs 16" on center with two layers V2" regular gypsum wallboard^ 
applied vertically or horizontally each side'', joints staggered. Nail base layer 
with 5d cooler" or wallboard" nails at 8" on center face layer with 8d cooler" or 
wallboard" nails at 8" on center. 


— 


— 


— 


5'/, 


14-1.3''™ 


2" X 4" wood studs 24" on center with ^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard^ applied 
vertically or horizontally nailed with 6d cooler" or wallboard" nails at 7" on 
center with end joints on nailing members. Stagger joints each side. 


— 


— 


— 


4% 


14-1.4' 


2" X 4" fire-retardant-treated wood studs spaced 24" on center with one layer of 
Vg" Type X gypsum wallboard^ appUed with face paper grain (long dimension) 
parallel to studs. Wallboard attached with 6d cooler" or wallboard" nails at 7" on 
center. 


— 


— 


— 


43/4" 


14-1.5''™ 


2" X 4" wood studs 1" on center with two layers ^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard* 
each side. Base layers applied vertically and nailed with 6d cooler" or 
wallboard" nails at 9" on center. Face layer appUed vertically or horizontally and 
nailed with 8d cooler" or wallboard" nails at 7" on center. For nail-adhesive 
application, base layers are nailed 6" on center. Face layers applied with coating 
of approved wallboard adhesive and nailed 12" on center. 


— 


— 


6 


— 


14-1.6' 


2" X 3" fire-retardant-treated wood studs spaced 24" on center with one layer of 
Vg" Type X gypsum wallboard* appUed with face paper grain (long dimension) 
at right angles to studs. Wallboard attached with 6d cement-coated box nails 
spaced 7" on center. 


— 


— 


— 


3V 


15. Exterior or 
interior walls 


15-1.1''™ 


Exterior surface with '^1^' drop siding over '/j" gypsum sheathing on 2" x 4" 
wood studs at 16" on center, interior surface treatment as required for 
1 -hour-rated exterior or interior 2" x 4" wood stud partitions. Gypsum sheathing 
nailed with 1^/4" by No. 11 gage by "^/jg" head galvanized nails at 8" on center. 
Siding nailed with 7d galvanized smooth box nails. 


— 


— 


— 


Varies 


15-1.2''™ 


2" X 4" wood studs 16" on center with metal lath and V/' cement plaster on each 
side. Lath attached with 6d common nails 7" on center driven to 1" minimum 
penetration and bent over. Plaster mix 1:4 for scratch coat and 1:5 for brown 
coat, by volume, cement to sand. 


— 


— 


— 


5% 


15-1.3''™ 


2" X 4" wood studs 16" on center with %" cement plaster (measured from the 
face of studs) on the exterior surface with interior surface treatment as required 
for interior wood stud partitions in this table. Plaster mix 1 :4 for scratch coat and 
1:5 for brown coat, by volume, cement to sand. 


— 


— 





Varies 


15-1.4 


3^/g" No. 16 gage noncombustible studs 16" on center with%" cement plaster 
(measured from the face of the studs) on the exterior surface with interior 
surface treatment as required for interior, nonbearing, noncombustible stud 
partitions in this table. Plaster mix 1:4 for scratch coat and 1:5 for brown coat, 
by volume, cement to sand. 


— 


— 


— 


Varies"^ 



(continued) 



124 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(2)— continued 
RATED FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS °-°" 



MATERIAL 



ITEM 
NUMBER 



CONSTRUCTION 



MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO-FACE" 

(inches) 



4 
hour 



3 
hour 



2 
hour 



1 
hour 



IS-LS-" 



2V4" X 3^/4" clay face brick with cored holes over V2" gypsum sheathing on 
exterior surface of 2" x 4" wood studs at 16" on center and two layers Vg" Type 
X gypsum wallboard® on interior surface. Sheathing placed horizontally or 
vertically with vertical joints over studs nailed 6" on center with 1%" x No. 1 1 
gage by ^/jg" head galvanized nails. Inner layer of wallboard placed horizontally 
or vertically and nailed 8" on center with 6d cooler" or wallboard" nails. Outer 
layer of wallboard placed horizontally or vertically and nailed 8" on center with 
8d cooler" or wallboard" nails. All joints staggered with vertical joints over 
studs. Outer layer joints taped and finished with compound. Nail heads covered 
with joint compound. 0.035 inch (No. 20 galvanized sheet gage) corrugated 
galvanized steel wall ties V4" by 6^1^' attached to each stud with two 8d cooler" 
or wallboard" nails every sixth course of bricks. ^^^ 



10 



15-1.6'-™ 



2" X 6" fire-retardant-treated wood studs 16" on center. Interior face has two 
layers of ^/g" Type X gypsum with the base layer placed vertically and attached 
with 6d box nails 12" on center. The face layer is placed horizontally and 
attached with 8d box nails 8" on center at joints and 12" on center elsewhere. 
The exterior face has a base layer of Vg" Type X gypsum sheathing placed 
vertically with 6d box nails 8" on center at joints and 12" on center elsewhere. 
An approved building paper is next applied, followed by self-furred exterior lath 
attached with 2V2", No. 12 gage galvanized roofing nails with a ^/g" diameter 
head and spaced 6" on center along each stud. Cement plaster consisting of a V2" 
brown coat is then applied. The scratch coat is mixed in the proportion of 1:3 by 
weight, cement to sand with 10 pounds of hydrated Ume and 3 pounds of 
approved additives or admixtures per sack of cement. The brown coat is mixed 
in the proportion of 1 :4 by weight, cement to sand with the same amounts of 
hydrated lime and approved additives or admixtures used in the scratch coat. 



15. Exterior or 
interior walls 
(continued) 



15-1.7'-"' 



2" X 6" wood studs 16" on center. The exterior face has a layer of Vg" Type X 
gypsum sheathing placed vertically with 6d box nails 8" on center at joints and 
12" on center elsewhere. An approved building paper is next applied, followed 
by 1" by No. 18 gage self -furred exterior lath attached with 8d by 2V2" long 
galvanized roofing nails spaced 6" on center along each stud. Cement plaster 
consisting of a V2" scratch coat, a bonding agent and a V2" brown coat and a 
finish coat is then applied. The scratch coat is mixed in the proportion of 1:3 by 
weight, cement to sand with 10 pounds of hydrated lime and 3 pounds of 
approved additives or admixtures per sack of cement. The brown coat is mixed 
in the proportion of 1 :4 by weight, cement to sand with the same amounts of 
hydrated lime and approved additives or admixtures used in the scratch coat. 
The interior is covered with %" gypsum lath with 1" hexagonal mesh of 0.035 
inch (No. 20 B.W. gage) woven wire lath furred out ^/j/' and 1" perlite or 
vermiculite gypsum plaster. Lath nailed with 1 Vg" by No. 13 gage by '^^4" head 
plasterboard glued nails spaced 5" on center. Mesh attached by 1^/4" by No. 12 
gage by ^/g" head nails with Vg" furrings, spaced 8" on center. The plaster mix 
shall not exceed 100 pounds of gypsum to 2V9 cubic feet of aggregate. 



8V« 



15-1.8'-™ 



2" X 6" wood studs 16" on center. The exterior face has a layer of ^/g" Type X 
gypsum sheathing placed vertically with 6d box nails 8" on center at joints and 
12" on center elsewhere. An approved building paper is next applied, followed 
by I'/j" by No. 17 gage self-furred exterior lath attached with 8d by 2'/2" long 
galvanized roofing nails spaced 6" on center along each stud. Cement plaster 
consisting of a '72" scratch coat, and a '72" brown coat is then applied. The 
plaster may be placed by machine. The scratch coat is mixed in the proportion of 
1 :4 by weight, plastic cement to sand. The brown coat is mixed in the proportion 
of 1:5 by weight, plastic cement to sand. The interior is covered with %" 
gypsum lath with 1" hexagonal mesh of No. 20 gage woven wire lath furred out 
^7i6" and 1" perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster. Lath nailed with 1 '7g" by No. 
13 gage by '^^4" head plasterboard glued nails spaced 5" on center. Mesh 
attached by 1%" by No. 12 gage by Vg" head nails with '^1^' furrings, spaced 8" 
on center. The plaster mix shall not exceed 100 pounds of gypsum to 2V2 cubic 
feet of aggregate. 



8V« 



(continued) 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



125 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(2)— continued 
RATED FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS °'°-p 



MATERIAL 



ITEM 
NUMBER 



CONSTRUCTION 



MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO-FACE" 

(inches) 



4 hour 3 hour 2 hour 1 hour 



15-1.9 



4" No. 18 gage, nonload-bearing metal studs, 16" on center, with 1" portland 
cement lime plaster [measured from the back side of the ^-pound expanded 
metal lath] on the exterior surface. Interior surface to be covered with 1" of 
gypsum plaster on ^/4-pound expanded metal lath proportioned by weight — 1:2 
for scratch coat, 1:3 for brown, gypsum to sand. Lath on one side of the partition 
fastened to V/' diameter pencil rods supported by No. 20 gage metal clips, 
located 16" on center vertically, on each stud. 3" thick mineral fiber insulating 
batts friction fitted between the studs. 



15-1.10 



Steel studs 0.060" thick, 4" deep or 6" at 16" or 24" centers, with Vj" Glass Fiber 
Reinforced Concrete (GFRC) on the exterior surface. GFRC is attached with flex 
anchors at 24" on center, with 5" leg welded to studs with two V2"-long 
flare-bevel welds, and 4" foot attached to the GFRC skin with %" thick GFRC 
bonding pads that extend 2'/2" beyond the flex anchor foot on both sides. Interior 
surface to have two layers of V2" Type X gypsum wallboard.* The first layer of 
wallboard to be attached with l"-long Type S buglehead screws spaced 24" on 
center and the second layer is attached with lVg"-long Type S screws spaced at 
12" on center. Cavity is to be filled with 5" of 4 pcf (nominal) mineral fiber batts. 
GFRC has 1 V2" returns packed with mineral fiber and caulked on the exterior. 



6V, 



15-1.11 



15. Exterior or 
interior walls 
(continued) 



Steel studs 0.060" thick, 4" deep or 6" at 16" or 24" centers, respectively, with 
V2" Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete (GFRC) on the exterior surface. GFRC is 
attached with flex anchors at 24" on center, with 5" leg welded to studs with two 
V2"-long flare-bevel welds, and 4" foot attached to the GFRC skin with V8"-thick 
GFRC bonding pads that extend 2V2" beyond the flex anchor foot on both sides. 
Interior surface to have one layer of ^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard*, attached 
with 1 V/'-long Type S buglehead screws spaced 12" on center. Cavity is to be 
filled with 5" of 4 pcf (nominal) mineral fiber batts. GFRC has 1 V2" returns 
packed with mineral fiber and caulked on the exterior. 



6V« 



15-1.121 



2" X 6" wood studs at 16" with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior and 
exterior sides covered with ^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4' wide, applied 
horizontally or vertically with vertical joints over studs, and fastened with 2V4" 
Type S dry wall screws, spaced 12" on center. 



(y'L 



15-1.13" 



2" X 6" wood studs at 16" with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior and 
exterior sides covered with ^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4' wide, applied 
vertically with all joints over framing or blocking and fastened with 2 V4" Type S 
dry wall screws, spaced 12" on center. R-19 fiberglass insulation installed in stud 
cavity. 



6V. 



15-1.141 



2" X 6" wood studs at 16" with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior and 
exterior sides covered with ^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4' wide, applied 
horizontally or vertically with vertical joints over studs, and fastened with 2V4" 
Type S drywall screws, spaced 1" on center. 



6V. 



15-1.151 



2" X 4" wood studs at 16" with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior and 
exterior sides covered with ^l{ Type X gypsum wallboard and sheathing, 
respectively, 4' wide, apphed horizontally or vertically with vertical joints over 
studs, and fastened with 2V4" Type S drywall screws, spaced 12" on center. 
Cavity to be filled with 3V2" mineral wool insulation. 



4V. 



15-1.161 



2" X 4" wood studs at 16" with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior 
sides covered with ^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4' wide, applied horizontally 
unblocked, and fastened with 2V4" Type S drywall screws, spaced 12" on center, 
wallboard joints covered with paper tape and joint compound, fastener heads 
covered with joint compound. Exterior covered with ^/g" wood structural panels 
applied vertically, horizontal joints blocked and fastened with 6d common nails 
(bright) — 12" on center in the field, 6" on center panel edges. Cavity to be filled 
with 3V2" mineral wool insulation. Rating estabUshed for exposure from interior 
side only. 



(continued) 



126 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE<^ 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(2)— continued 
RATED FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS "'•"•" 


MATERIAL 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CONSTRUCTION 


MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO-FACE" 

(inches) 


4 hour 


3 hour 


2 hour 


1 hour 


16. Exterior walls 
rated for fire 
resistance from 
the inside only in 
accordance with 
Section 704.5. 


16-1.1" 


2" X 4" wood studs at 16" centers with double top plates, single bottom plate; 
interior side covered with ^/{ Type X gypsum wallboard, 4' wide, applied 
horizontally unblocked, and fastened with 2V4" Type S dry wall screws, spaced 
12" on center, wallboard joints covered with paper tape and joint compound, 
fastener heads covered with joint compound. Exterior covered with %" wood 
structural panels (oriented strand board), applied vertically, horizontal joints 
blocked and fastened with 6d conmion nails (bright) — 12" on center in the field, 
and 6" on center panel edges. Cavity to be filled with 37/ mineral wool 
insulation. Rating established for exposure from interior side only. 


— 


— 


— 


4% 


16-1.21 


2" X 6" (51mm x 152 mm) wood studs at 16 " centers with double top plates, single 
bottom plate; interior side covered with %" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4' wide, 
applied horizontally or vertically with vertical joints over studs and fastened with 
2V4" Type S drywall screws, spaced 12" on center, wallboard joints covered with 
paper tape and joint compound, fastener heads covered with joint compound, exterior 
side covered with ^/jg" wood structural panels (oriented strand board) fastened with 
6d common nails (bright) spaced 12" on center in the field and 6" on center along the 
panel edges. Cavity to be filled with 5 Vj" mineral wool insulation. Rating estabhshed 
from the gypsum-covered side only. 


— 


— 


— 


6^/,6 


16-1.3 


2" X 6" wood studs at 16" centers with double top plates, single bottom plates; 
interior side covered with ^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4" wide, applied 
vertically with all joints over framing or blocking and fastened with 2V4" Type S 
drywall screws spaced 7" on center. Joints to be covered with tape and joint 
compound. Exterior covered with ^/g" wood structural panels (oriented strand 
board), applied vertically with edges over framing or blocking and fastened with 
6d common nails (bright) at 12" on center in the field and 6" on center on panel 
edges. R-19 fiberglass insulation installed in stud cavity. 


— 


— 


— 


6V2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.2 mm?, 1 cubic foot = 0.0283 m^. 

a. Staples with equivalent holding power and penetration shall be permitted to be used as alternate festeners to nails for attachment to wood framing. 

b. Thickness shown for brick and clay tile is nominal thicknesses unless plastered, in which case thicknesses are net. Thickness shown for concrete masonry and clay 
masonry is equivalent thickness defined in Section 72 1 .3. 1 for concrete masonry and Section 72 1 .4. 1 . 1 for clay masonry. Where all cells are soUd grouted or filled 
with siUcone-treated perlite loose-fill insulation; vermiculite loose-fill insulation; or expanded clay, shale or slate lightweight aggregate, the equivalent thickness 
shall be the thickness of the block or brick using specified dimensions as defined in Chapter 21. Equivalent thickness may also include the thickness of applied 
plaster and lath or gypsum wallboard, where specified. 

c. For units in which the net cross-sectional area of cored brick in any plane parallel to the surface containing the cores is at least 75 percent of the gross cross-sec- 
tional area measured in the same plane. 

d. Shall be used for nonbearing purposes only. 

e. For all of the construction with gypsum wallboard described in this table, gypsum base for veneer plaster of the same size, thickness and core type shall be permit- 
ted to be substituted for gypsum wallboard, provided attachment is identical to that specified for the wallboard, and the joints on the face layer are reinforced and 
the entire surface is covered with a minimum of Vig-inch gypsum veneer plaster. 

f. The fire-resistance time period for concrete masonry units meeting the equivalent thicknesses required for a 2-hour fire-resistance rating in Item 3, and having a 
thickness of not less than 7% inches is 4 hours when cores which are not grouted are filled with silicone-treated perlite loose-fill insulation; vermiculite loose-fill 
insulation; or expanded clay, shale or slate lightweight aggregate, sand or slag having a maximum particle size of % inch. 

g. The fiffe-resistance rating of concrete masonry units composed of a combination of aggregate types or where plaster is applied directly to the concrete masoruy 
shall be determined in accordance with ACI 216.1/TMS 0216. Lightweight aggregates shall have a maximum combined density of 65 pounds per cubic foot. 

h. See also Note b. The equivalent thickness shall be permitted to include the thickness of cement plaster or 1 .5 times the thickness of gypsum plaster appUed in accor- 
dance with the requirements of Chapter 25. 

i. Concrete walls shall be reinforced with horizontal and vertical temperature reinforcement as required by Chapter 19. 

j. Studs are welded truss wire studs with 0.18 inch (No. 7 B.W. gage) flange wire and 0.18 inch (No. 7 B.W. gage) truss wires. 

k. Nailable metal studs consist of two channel studs spot welded back to back with a crimped web forming a nailing groove. 

1. Wood structural panels shall be permitted to be installed between the fire protection and the wood studs on either the interior or exterior side of the wood frame 
assembhes in this table, provided the length of the fasteners used to attach the fire protection is increased by an amount at least equal to the thickness of the wood 
structural panel. 

m. The design stress of studs shall be reduced to 78 percent of allowable f^ with the maximum not greater than 78 percent of the calculated stress with studs having a 
slendemess ratio l/d of 33. . 

n. For properties of cooler or wallboard nails, see ASTM C 5 14, ASTM C 547 or ASTM F 1667. 

0. Generic fire-resistance ratings (those not designated as PROPRIETARY* in the listing) in the GA 600 shall be accepted as if herein fisted. 

p. NCMA TEK 5-8A shall be permitted for the design of fire walls. 

q. The design stress of studs shall be equal to a maximum of 100 percent of the allowable F^ calculated in accordance with Section 2306. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



127 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(3) 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEMS^ " 



FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CEILING CONSTRUCTION 


THICKNESS OF FLOOR 

OR ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 


MINIMUM THICKNESS 

OF CEILING 

(inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


1. Siliceous 
aggregate concrete 


1-1.1 


Slab (no ceiling required). Minimum cover over 
nonprestressed reinforcement shall not be less than 


7.0 


6.2 


5.0 


3.5 


— . 


— 


— 


— 


2. Carbonate 
aggregate concrete 


2-1.1 


6.6 


5.7 


4.6 


3.2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3. Sand-lightweight concrete 


3-1.1 


5.4 


4.6 


3.8 


2.7 














4. Lightweight concrete 


4-1.1 


5.1 


4.4 


3.6 


2.5 





' 








5. Reinforced 
concrete 


5-1.1 


Slab with suspended ceiling of vermiculite gypsum 
plaster over metal lath attached to ^Z/' cold-rolled 
channels spaced 12" on center. Ceiling located 6" 
minimum below joists. 


3 


2 


— 


— 


1 


V4 


— 


— 


5-2.1 


^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard'^ attached to 0.018 
inch (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) by %" deep by 
2^/3" hat-shaped galvanized steel channels with 
r'-long No. 6 screws. The charmels are spaced 24" 
on center, span 35" and are supported along their 
length at 35" intervals by 0.033" (No. 21 galvanized 
sheet gage) galvanized steel flat strap hangers 
having formed edges that engage the lips of the 
channel. The strap hangers are attached to the side 
of the concrete joists with ^732" by 1 V4" long 
power-driven fasteners. The wallboard is installed 
with the long dimension perpendicular to the 
channels. All end joints occur on channels and 
supplementary channels are installed parallel to the 
main channels, 12" each side, at end joint 
occurrences. The finished ceiling is located 
approximately 12" below the soffit of the floor slab. 


— 


— 


2V2 


— 


— 


— 


% 


— 


6. Steel joists constructed with 
a poured reinforced concrete 
slab on metal lath forms or 
steel form units'*' ^ 


6-1.1 


Gypsum plaster on metal lath attached to the bottom 
cord with single No. 16 gage or doubled No. 18 
gage wire ties spaced 6" on center. Plaster mixed 1:2 
for scratch coat, 1 :3 for brown coat, by weight, 
gypsum-to-sand aggregate for 2-hour system. For 
3-hour system plaster is neat. 


— 


— 


2V2 


2V4 


— 


— ■ 


% 


% 


6-2.1 


VermicuUte gypsum plaster on metal lath attached to 
the bottom chord with single No. 16 gage or doubled 
0.049-inch (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire ties 6" on center. 


— 


2 


— 


— 


— 


% 


— 


— 


6-3.1 


Cement plaster over metal lath attached to the 
bottom chord of joists with single No. 16 gage or 
doubled 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 
6" on center. Plaster mixed 1:2 for scratch coat, 1:3 
for brown coat for 1-hour system and 1:1 for scratch 
coat, 1:1 V2 for brown coat for 2-hour system, by 
weight, cement to sand. 


— 


— 


— 


2 


— 


— 


— 


V 


6-4.1 


Ceiling of Vg" Type X wallboard^ attached to ^l{ 
deep by 2%" by 0.021 inch (No. 25 carbon sheet 
steel gage) hat- shaped furring channels 12" on 
center with 1" long No. 6 wallboard screws at 8" on 
center. Channels wire tied to bottom chord of joists 
with doubled 0.049 inch (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire or 
suspended below joists on wire hangers.^ 


— 


— 


2V2 


— 


— 


— 


% 


— 


6-5.1 


Wood-fibered gypsum plaster mixed 1:1 by weight 
gypsum to sand aggregate applied over metal lath. 
Lath tied 6" on center to '^1^' channels spaced I3V2" 
on center. Channels secured to joists at each 
intersection with two strands of 0.049 inch (No. 18 
B.W. gage) galvanized wire. 


' — 


— 


2V2 


— 


— 


— 


■V4 


— 



(continued) 



128 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 





TABLE 720.1(3)— continued 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEMS' 


q 














FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CEILING CONSTRUCTION 


THICKNESS OF FLOOR 

OR ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 


MINIMUM THICKNESS 

OF CEIUNG 

(inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 

hour 


7. Reinforced concrete slabs 
and joists with hollow clay tile 
fillers laid end to end in rows 
2 V2 " or more apart; 
reinforcement placed between 
rows and concrete cast around 
and over tile. 


7-1.1 


Vg" gypsum plaster on bottom of floor or roof 
construction. 


— 


— 


8" 


— 


— 


— . 


\ 


— 


7-1.2 


None 


— 


— 


— 


5V2' 


— , 


— 


— 


— 


8. Steel joists constructed with 
a reinforced concrete slab on 
top poured on a Vj" deep steel 
deck.^ 


8-1.1 


Vermiculite gypsum plaster on metal lath attached 
to V cold-rolled channels with 0.049" (No. 18 
B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 6" on center. 


I'l^ 


— 


— 


— 


% 


— 


— 


— 


9. 3" deep cellular steel deck 
with concrete slab on top. Slab 
thickness measured to top. 


9-1.1 


Suspended ceiling of vermiculite gypsum plaster 
base coat and vermiculite acoustical plaster on metal 
lath attached at 6" intervals to "^l^ cold-rolled 
channels spaced 12" on center and secured to 1 V2" 
cold-rolled channels spaced 36" on center with 
0.065" (No. 16 B.W. gage) wire. 1 V2" channels 
supported by No. 8 gage wire hangers at 36" on 
center. Beams within envelope and with a 2V2" 
airspace between beam soffit and lath have a 4-hour 
rating. 


2V2 


— 


— 


— 


\%^ 


— 


— 


— 


10. lV2"-deep steel roof deck 
on steel framing. Insulation 
board, 30 pcf density, 
composed of wood fibers with 
cement binders of thickness 
shown bonded to deck with 
unified asphalt adhesive. 
Covered with a Class A or B 
roof covering. 


10-1.1 


Ceiling of gypsum plaster on metal lath. Lath 
attached to ^Z^" furring channels with 0.049" (No. 18 
B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 6" on center. ^Z/' 
channel saddle tied to 2" channels with doubled 
0.065" (No. 16 B.W. gage) wire ties. 2" channels 
spaced 36" on center suspended 2" below steel 
framing and saddle-tied with 0.165" (No. 8 B.W. 
gage) wire. Plaster mixed 1:2 by weight, 
gypsum-to-sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


1% 


1 


— 


— 


%' 


%' 


11.1 V2"-deep steel roof deck 
on steel-framing wood fiber 
insulation board, 17.5 pcf 
density on top applied over a 
15-lb asphalt-saturated felt. 
Class A or B roof covering. 


11-1.1 


Ceiling of gypsum plaster on metal lath. Lath 
attached to V4" furring channels with 0.049" (No. 18 
B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 6" on center. ^Z/' 
channels saddle tied to 2" channels with doubled 
0.065" (No. 16 B.W. gage) wire ties. 2" channels 
spaced 36" on center suspended 2" below steel 
framing and saddle tied with 0. 1 65" (No. 8 B .W. 
gage) wire. Plaster mixed 1 :2 for scratch coat and 
1:3 for brown coat, by weight, gypsum-to-sand 
aggregate for 1-hour system. For 2-hour system, 
plaster mix is 1 :2 by weight, gypsum-to-sand 
aggregate. 


— 


— 


IV2 


1 


— 


— 


V 


%' 



(continued) 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



129 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(3)— continued 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEMS^" 



FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CEILING CONSTRUCTION 


THICKNESS OF FLOOR 

OR ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 


MINIMUM THICKNESS 

OF CEILING 

(Inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 

hour 


1 
hour 


12. 1 V2" deep steel roof deck 
on steel-framing insulation of 
rigid board consisting of 
expanded perlite and fibers 
impregnated with integral 
asphalt waterproofing; density 
9 to 12 pcf secured to metal 
roof deck by V2" wide ribbons 
of waterproof, cold-process 
liquid adhesive spaced 6" 
apart. Steel joist or light steel 
construction with metal roof 
deck, insulation, and Class A 
or B built-up roof covering.^ 


12-1.1 


Gypsum- vermicuUte plaster on metal lath wire tied 
at 6" intervals to ^Z/' furring channels spaced 12" on 
center and wire tied to 2" runner channels spaced 
32" on center. Runners wire tied to bottom chord of 
steel joists. 




— 


1 


-^ 


— 


— 


% 


1 


13. Double wood floor over 
wood joists spaced 16" on 
center.™'" 


13-1.1 


Gypsum plaster over ^/g" Type X gypsum lath. Lath 
initially applied with not less than four 1 Vg" by No. 
13 gage by ^'^l(^' head plasterboard blued nails per 
bearing. Continuous stripping over lath along all 
joist lines. Stripping consists of 3" wide strips of 
metal lath attached by 1 V2" by No. 1 1 gage by V2" 
head roofing nails spaced 6" on center. Alternate 
stripping consists of 3" wide 0.049" diameter wire 
stripping weighing 1 pound per square yard and 
attached by No. 16 gage by 1 V2" by ^1^' crown width 
staples, spaced 4" on center. Where alternate 
stripping is used, the lath nailing may consist of two 
nails at each end and one hail at each intermediate 
bearing. Plaster mixed 1:2 by weight, 
gypsum-to-sand aggregate. 






— ■ 


■ — 


, 


— 


— 


% 


13-1.2 


Cement or gypsum plaster on metal lath. Lath 
fastened with 1 Vj" by No. 1 1 gage by V^^' head 
barbed shank roofing nails spaced 5" on center. 
Plaster mixed 1:2 for scratch coat and 1:3 for brown 
coat, by weight, cement to sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


— 




— 


. — 


\ 


13-1.3 


PerHte or vermicuUte gypsum plaster on metal lath 
secured to joists with 1 V2" by No. 11 gage by ^jg" 
head barbed shank roofing nails spaced 5" on center. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


■ 


-^ 


— 


\ 


13-1.4 


V2" Type X gypsum wallboard'^ nailed to joists with 
5d cooler" or wallboard" nails at 6" on center. End 
joints of wallboard centered on joists. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


% 


14. Plywood stressed skin 
panels consisting of ^/^''-thick 
interior C-D (exterior glue) 
top stressed skin on 2" x 6" 
nominal (minimum) stringers. 
Adjacent panel edges joined 
with 8d common wire nails 
spaced 6" on center. Stringers 
spaced 12" maximum on 
center. 


14-1.1 


V2"- thick wood fiberboard weighing 15 to 18 
pounds per cubic foot installed with long dimension 
parallel to stringers or ^/g" C-D (exterior glue) 
plywood glued and/or nailed to stringers. Nailing to 
be with 5d cooler" or wallboard" nails at 12" on 
center. Second layer of V2" Type X gypsum 
wallboard'^ applied with long dimension 
perpendicular to joists and attached with 8d cooler" 
or wallboard" nails at 6" on center at end joints and 
8" on center elsewhere. Wallboard joints staggered 
with respect to fiberboard joints. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 



{continued) 



130 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE"" 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(3)— continued 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEMS"" 



FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CEILING CONSTRUCTION 


THICKNESS OF FLOOR 

OR ROOF SLAB 

(Inches) 


MINIMUM THICKNESS 

OF CEILING 

(inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 

hour 


1 
hour 


15. Vermiculite concrete slab 
proportioned 1 :4 (portland 
cement to vermiculite 
aggregate) on a 1 V2"-deep 
steel deck supported on 
individually protected steel 
framing. Maximum span of 
deck 6'- 10" where deck is less 
than 0.019 inch (No. 26 
carbon steel sheet gage) or 
greater. Slab reinforced with 
4" X 8" 0.109/0.083" (No. '^/^^ 
B.W. gage) welded wire mesh. 


15-1.1 


None 


— 


— 


— 


3J 


— 


— 


— 


— 


16. Perlite concrete slab 
proportioned 1:6 (portland 
cement to perUte aggregate) 
on a iV/'-deep steel deck 
supported on individually 
protected steel framing. Slab 
reinforced with 4" x 8" 
0.109/0.083" (No. 12/j^ B.W. 
gage) welded wire mesh. 


16-1.1 


None 


— 


— 


— 


3V2J 


— 




— 


— 


17. Perlite concrete slab 
proportioned 1:6 (portland 
cement to perlite aggregate) 
on a ^/i6"-deep steel deck 
supported by steel joists 4' on 
center. Class A or B roof 
covering on top. 


17-1.1 


Perlite gypsum plaster on metal lath wire tied to %" 
furring channels attached with 0.065" (No. 16 B.W. 
gage) wire ties to lower chord of joists. 


— 


2P 


2P 


— 


— 


% 


% 


— 


18. Perlite concrete slab 
proportioned 1:6 (portland 
cement to perlite aggregate) 
on iV/'-deep steel deck 
supported on individually 
protected steel framing. 
Maximum span of deck 6'- 10" 
where deck is less than 0.019" 
(No. 26 carbon sheet steel 
gage) and 8'-0" where deck is 
0.019" (No. 26 carbon sheet 
steel gage) or greater. Slab 
reinforced with 0.042" (No. 19 
B.W. gage) hexagonal wire 
mesh. Class A or B roof 
covering on top. 


18-1.1 


None 


— 


2V4P 


2V4P 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 



(continued) 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



131 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(3)— continued 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEMS^** 



FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CEILING CONSTRUCTION 


THICKNESS OF FLOOR OR 

ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 


MINIMUM THICKNESS 

OF CEILING 

(Inches) 


4 hour 


3 hour 


2 hour 


1 hour 


4 hour 


3 hour 


2 hour 


1 hour 


19. Floor and beam 
construction consisting of 
3"-deep cellular steel floor 
unit mounted on steel 
members with 1:4 
(proportion of portland 
cement to periite 
aggregate) periite-concrete 
floor slab on top. 


19-1.1 


Suspended envelope ceiling of perlite 
gypsum plaster on metal lath attached to 
%" cold-rolled channels, secured to 1 V2" 
cold-rolled channels spaced 42" on center 
supported by 0.203 inch (No. 6 B.W. gage) 
wire 36" on center. Beams in envelope with 
3" minimum airspace between beam soffit 
and lath have a 4-hour rating. 


2P 




— 


— 


1' 


— . 


.. — 


— 


20. PerUte concrete 
proportioned 1:6 (portland 
cement to perlite 
aggregate) poured to Vg" 
thickness above top of 
corrugations of l^/ig"-deep 
galvanized steel deck 
maximum span 8'-0" for 
0.024" (No. 24 galvanized 
sheet gage) or 6' 0" for 
0.019" (No. 26 galvanized 
sheet gage) with deck 
supported by individually 
protected steel framing. 
Approved polystyrene 
foam plastic insulation 
board having a flame 
spread not exceeding 75 
(1" to 4" thickness) with 
vent holes that 
approximate 3 percent of 
the board surface area 
placed on top of perlite 
slurry. A 2' by 4' insulation 
board contains six 2^//' 
diameter holes. Board 
covered with 2V4" 
minimum perlite concrete 
slab. 


20-1.1 


None 


— 


— 


Varies 


— 


— 


— . 


— 


— 



(continued) 



132 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(3)— continued 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF.SYSTEMS^" 



FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CEILING CONSTRUCTION 


THICKNESS OF FLOOR OR 

ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 


MINIMUM THICKNESS 

OF CEILING 

(Inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


(continued) 
20. Slab reinforced with mesh 
consisting of 0.042" (No. 19 
B.W. gage) galvanized steel 
wire twisted together to form 
2" hexagons with straight 
0.065" (No. 16 B.W. gage) 
galvanized steel wire woven 
into mesh and spaced 3". 
Alternate slab reinforcement 
shall be permitted to consist of 
4" X 8", 0.109/0.238" (No. 12/4 
B.W. gage), or 2" X 2", 
0.083/0.083" (No. 14/14 B.W. 
gage) welded wire fabric. Class 
A or B roof covering on top. 


20-1.1 


None 




— 


Varies 


— 


— 


— 




— 


21. Wood joists, floor trusses 
and flat or pitched roof trusses 
spaced a maximum 24" o.c. 
with V2" wood structural panels 
with exterior glue applied at 
right angles to top of joist or 
top chord of trusses with 8d 
nails. The "wood structural 
panel thickness shall not be less 
than nominal Vj" less than 
required by Chapter 23. 


21-1.1 


Base layer ^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard applied 
at right angles to joist or truss 24" o.c. with 1 V/' 
Type S or Type W drywall screws 24" o.c. Face 
layer ^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard or veneer 
base appUed at right angles to joist or truss 
through base layer with 1%" Type S or Type W 
drywall screws 12" o.c. at joints and intermediate 
joist or truss. Face layer Type G drywall screws 
placed 2" back on either side of face layer end 
joints, 12" o.c. 


— ' 


— 


— 


Varies 


— 


— 




IV4 


22.Wood joists, wood I-joists, 
floor trusses and flat or pitched 
roof trusses spaced a maximum 
24" o.c. with V2" wood 
structural panels with exterior 
glue applied at right angles to 
top of joist or top chord of 
trusses with 8d nails. The wood 
structural panel thickness shall 
not be less than nominal Vj" 
less than required by Chapter 
23. 


22-1.1 


Base layer ^/g" Type X gypsum board applied at 
right angles to steel framing 24" on center with 1" 
Type S drywall screws spaced 24" on center. Face 
layer ^/g" Type X gypsum board applied at right 
angles to steel framing attached through base 
layer with 1^/g" Type S drywall screws 12" on 
center at end joints and intermediate joints and 
1 V2" Type G drywall screws 12 inches on center 
placed 2" back on either side of face layer end 
joints. Joints of the face layer are offset 24" from 
the joints of the base layer. 


— 


— 


— 


Varies 


— 


— 


— 


IV4 


23. Wood I-joist (minimum joist 
depth 9 V4" with a minimum 
flange depth of iVig" and a 
minimum flange cross- sectional 
area of 2.3 square inches) at 24" 
o.c. spacing with 1x4 
(nominal) wood furring strip 
spacer applied parallel to and 
covering the bottom of the 
bottom flange of each member, 
tacked in place. 2" mineral fiber 
insulation, 3.5 pcf (nominal) 
installed adjacent to the bottom 
flange of the I-joist and 
supported by the 1 x 4 furring 
strip spacer. 


23-1.1 


V2" deep single leg resilient channel 16" on center 
(channels doubled at wallboard end joints), placed 
perpendicular to the furring strip and joist and 
attached to each joist by 1^/g" Type S drywall 
screws, ^/g" Type C gypsum wallboard applied 
perpendicular to the channel with end joints ' 
staggered at least 4' and fastened with 1 Vg" Type 
S drywall screws spaced 7" on center. Wallboard 
joints to be taped and covered with joint 
compound. 




— 


— 


Varies 


— 


— 


— 


— 



(continued) 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



133 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(3)— continued 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEMS^" 



FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CEILING CONSTRUCTION 


THICKNESS OF FLOOR OR 

ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 


MINIMUM THICKNESS 

OF CEILING 

(inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


4 
hoiir 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


24. Wood I-joist (minimum 
joist depth 9'//' with a 
minimum flange depth of '^/js" 
and a minimum flange cross 
sectional area of 2.3 square 
inches) at 24"o.c. spacing with 
1x4 (nominal) wood furring 
strip spacer applied parallel to 
and covering the bottom of the 
bottom flange of each member, 
tacked in place. 2" mineral 
wool insulation, 3.5 pcf 
(nominal) installed adjacent to 
the bottom flange of the I-joist 
and supported by the Ix 4 
furring strip spacer. 


24-1.1 


V2" deep single-leg resiUent channel 16" o.c. 
(channels doubled at wallboard end joints), 
placed perpendicular to the furring strip and 
joist and attached to each joist by 1%" Type S 
drywall screws, ^/g" Type C gypsum wallboard 
applied perpendicular to the channel with end 
joints staggered at least 4' and fastened with 
1 Vg" Type S drywall screws spaced 7" o.c. 
Wallboard joints to be taped and covered with 
joint compound. 


— 


— 


Varies 


— 


— 


— 


3% 


— 


25. Wood I-joist (niinimum 
I-joist depth 97/' with a 
minimum flange depth of 1 V2" 
and a minimum flange 
cross-sectional area of 5.25 
square inches; minimum web 
thickness of Vg") @ 24" o.c, 
1 V2" mineral fiber insulation 
(2.5 pcf - nominal) resting on 
hat-shaped channels. 


25-1.1 


Minimum 0.026" thick hat-shaped channel 16" 
o.c. (channels doubled at wallboard end joints), 
placed perpendicular to the joist and attached to 
each joist by iVg" Type S drywall screws. Vg" 
Type C gypsum wallboard applied 
perpendicular to the channel with end joints 
staggered and fastened with 1 Vg" Type S 
drywall screws spaced 12" o.c. in the field and 
8" o.c. at the wallboard ends. Wallboard joints 
to be taped and covered with joint compound. 






— 


Varies 




— 




Varies 


26. Wood I-joist (minimum 
I-joist depth 9V4" with a 
minimum flange depth of 1 V2" 
and a minimum flange 
cross-sectional area of 5.25 
square inches; minimum web 
thickness oVl^^') @ 24" o.c, 
1 V2" mineral fiber insulation 
(2.5 pcf - nominal) resting on 
resiUent channels. 


26-1.1 


Minimum 0.019" thick resilient channel 16" o.c. 
(channels doubled at wallboard end joints), 
placed perpendicular to the joist and attached to 
each joist by iVg" Type S drywall screws. Vg" 
Type C gypsum wallboard applied 
perpendicular to the channel with end joints 
staggered and fastened with 1" Type S drywall 
screws spaced 12" o.c. in the field and 8" o.c. at 
the wallboard ends. Wallboard joints to be taped 
and covered with joint compound. 


— 


— 


— 


Varies 


— 




— 


Varies 


27. Wood I-joist (minimum 
I-joist depth 9V4" with a 
minimum flange thickness of 
1 V2" and a minimum flange 
cross-sectional area of 2.25 
square inches; minimum web 
thickness of %") @ 24" o.c. 


27-1.1 


Two layers of V2" Type X gypsum wallboard 
applied with the long dimension perpendicular 
to the I-joists with end joints staggered. The 
base layer is fastened with 1^/g" Type S drywall 
screws spaced 12" o.c. and the face layer is 
fastened with 2" Type S drywall screws spaced 
12" o.c. in the field and 8" o.c. on the edges. 
Face layer end joints shall not occur on the same 
I-joist as base layer end joints and edge joints 
shall be offset 24" from base layer joints. Face 
layer to also be attached to base layer with 1 V2" 
Type G drywall screws spaced 8" o.c. placed 6" 
from face layer end joints. Face layer wallboard 
joints to be taped and covered with joint 
compound. 


— 


— 




Varies 


— . 


— 




Varies 



(continued) 



134 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(3)— continued 
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEMS^" 



FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CEILING CONSTRUCTION 


THICKNESS OF FLOOR OR 

ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 


MINIMUM THICKNESS 

OF CEILING 

(inches) 


1 
hour 


1 
hour 


1 
hour 


1 
hour 


1 
hour 


1 
hour 


1 
hour 


1 
hour 


28. Wood I-joist (minimum 
I-joist depth 9V2" with a 
minimum flange depth of 
iVjg" and a minimum flange 
cross-sectional area of 1.95 
square inches; minimum web 
thickness of %") @ 24" o.c. 


28-1.1 


Minimum 0.019" thick resilient channel 16" 
o.c.(channels doubled at wallboard end joints), 
placed perpendicular to the joist and attached to 
each joist by iVg" Type S dry wall screws. Two 
layers of V2" Type X gypsum wallboard applied 
with the long dimension perpendicular to the 
I-joists with end joints staggered. The base layer 
is fastened with 1 V4" Type S dry wall screws 
spaced 12" o.c. and the face layer is fastened 
with iVg" Type S dry wall screws spaced 12" 
o.c. Face layer end joints shall not occur on the 
same I- Joist as base layer end joints and edge 
joints shall be offset 24" from base layer joints. 
Face layer to also be attached to base layer with 
1 V2" Type G drywall screws spaced 8" o.c. 
placed 6" from face layer end joints. Face layer 
wallboard joints to be taped and covered witii 
joint compound. 


— 


— 


— 


Varies 


— 


— 


— 


Varies 


29. Wood I-joist (minimum 
I-joist depth 9 V4" with a 
minimum flange depth of 
1 V2" and a minimum flange 
cross-sectional area of 2.25 
square inches; minimum web 
thickness of %") @ 24" o.c, 
with hat-shaped channels 
supporting the middle and 
face layers of gypsum 
wallboard. Unfaced 
fiberglass insulation is 
installed between the I-joists 
supported on the upper 
surface of the flange by stay 
wires spaced 12" o.c. 


29-1.1 


Base layer of ^/g" Type C gypsum wallboard 
attached directly to I-joists with l^/g" Type S 
drywall screws spaced 12" o.c. with ends 
staggered. Minimum 0.0179" thick resilient 
channel 16" o.c. (channels doubled at wallboard 
end joints), placed perpendicular to the joist and 
attached to each joist by iVg" Type S drywall 
screws after the base layer of gypsum wall 
board has been appUed. The middle and face 
layers of %" Type C gypsum wallboard appUed 
perpendicular to the channel with end joints 
staggered. The middle layer is fastened with 1" 
Type S drywall screws spaced 12" o.c. The face 
layer is applied parallel to the middle layer but 
with the edge joints offset 24" from those of the 
middle layer and fastened with 1^/g" Type S 
drywall screws 8" o.c. The joints shall be taped 
and covered with joint compound. 


— 


— 


— 


Varies 


— 


— 


— 


Varies 


30. Channel-shaped 18 gauge 
steel joists (minimum depth 
8") spaced a maximum 24" 
o.c. supporting 
tongue-and-groove wood 
structural panels (iiominal 
minimum %" thick) applied 
perpendicular to framing 
members. Structural panels 
attached with 1 ^/g" Type 
S-12 screws spaced 12" o.c. 


30-1.1 


Base layer Vg" Type X gypsum board applied 
perpendicular to bottom of framing members 
with lV8"Type S-12 screws spaced 12" o.c. 
Second layer Vg" Type X gypsum board 
attached perpendicular to framing members with 
1 V'Type S-12 screws spaced 12" o.c. Second 
layer joints offset 24" from base layer. Third 
layer Vg" Type X gypsum board attached 
perpendicular to framing members with 2^/g" 
Type S-12 screws spaced 12" o.c. Third layer 
joints offset 12" from second layer joints. 
Hat-shaped rigid fiirring channels applied at 
right angles to framing members over third layer 
with two 2%" Type S-12 screws at each framing 
member. Face layer Vg" Type X gypsum board 
applied at right angles to furring channels with 
1 Vg" Type S screws spaced 12" o.c. 


— 


— 


Varies 


— 


— 


— 


3Vg 


— 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



135 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



Table 720.1(3) Notes. 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 cubic foot = 0.0283m3, 
1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 pound per hneal foot = 1.4882 kg/m. 

a. Staples with equivalent holding power and penetration shall be permitted to be used as alternate festeners to nails for attachment to wood framing. 

b. When the slab is in an unrestrained condition, minimum reinforcement cover shall not be less than l^/g inches for 4-hour (sihceous aggregate only); 1 V4 inches for 
4- and 3-hour; 1 inch for 2-hour (siliceous aggr^ate only); and ^1^ inch for all other restrained and unrestrained conditions. 

c. For all of the construction with gypsum wallboard described in this table, gypsum base for veneer plaster of the same size, thickness and core type shall be permit- 
ted to be substituted for gypsum wallboard, provided attachment is identical to that specified for the wallboard, and the joints on the face layer are reinforced and 
the entire surface is covered with a minimum of Vi^-inch gypsum veneer plaster. 

d. Slab thickness over steel joists measured at the joists for metal lath form and at the top of the form for steel form units. 

e. (a) The maximum allowable stress level for H-Series joists shall not exceed 22,000 psi. 

(b) The allowable stress for K-Series joists shall not exceed 26,000 psi, the nominal depth of such joist shall not be less than 10 inches and the nominal joist weight 
shall not be less than 5 pounds per lineal foot. 

f. Cement plaster with 15 pounds of hydrated lime and 3 pounds of approved additives or admixtures per bag of cement. 

g. Gypsum wallboard ceilings attached to steel framing shall be permitted to be suspended with 1 Vj-inch cold-formed carrying channels spaced 48 inches on center, 
which are suspended with No. 8 SWG galvanized wire hangers spaced 48 inches on center. Cross-furring channels are tied to the carrying channels with No. 18 
SWG galvanized wire hangers spaced 48 inches on center. Cross-furring channels are tied to the carrying channels with No. 18 SWG galvanized wire (double 
strand) and spaced as required for direct attachment to the framing. This alternative is also apphcable to those steel framing assemblies recognized under 
Note q. 

h. Six-inch hollow clay tile with 2-inch concrete slab above. 

i. Four-inch hollow clay tile with iVj-inch concrete slab above. 

j. Thickness measured to bottom of steel form units. 

k. Five-eighths inch of vermiculite gypsum plaster plus Vj inch of approved vermicuUte acoustical plastic. 

1. Furring channels spaced 12 inches on center. 

m. Double wood floor shall be permitted to be either of the following: 

(a) Subfloor of l-inch nominal boarding, a layer of asbestos paper weighing not less than 14 pounds per 100 square feet and a layer of 1-inch nominal 
tongue-and-groove finished flooring; or 

(b) Subfloor of 1-inch nominal tongue-and-groove boarding or 'V32-inch wood structural panels with exterior glue and a layer of 1-inch nominal 
tongue-and-groove finished flooring or '%2-inch wood structural panel finish flooring or a layer of Type I Grade M- 1 particleboard not less than%-inch thick. 

n. The ceiling shall be permitted to be omitted over unusable space, and flooring shall be permitted to be omitted where unusable space occurs above. 

o. For properties of cooler or wallboard nails, see ASTM C 5 14, ASTM C 547 or ASTM F 1667. 

p. Thickness measured on top of steel deck unit. 

q. Generic fire-resistance ratings (those not designated as PROPRIETARY* in the Usting) in the GA 600 shall be accepted as if herein listed. 



SECTION 721 
CALCULATED FIRE RESISTANCE 

721.1 General. The provisions of this section contain proce- 
dures by which the fire resistance of specific materials or com- 
binations of materials is established by calculations. These 
procedures apply only to the information contained in this sec- 
tion and shall not be otherwise used. The calculated fire resis- 
tance of concrete, concrete masonry, and clay masonry 
assemblies shall be permitted in accordance with ACI 
216. 1/TMS 0216. The calculated fire resistance of steel assem- 
blies shall be permitted in accordance with Chapter 5 of ASCE 
29. 

721.1.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, 
for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meanings shown herein. 

CERAMIC FIBER BLANKET. A mineral wool insula- 
tion material made of alumina-silica fibers and weighing 4 
to 10 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) (64 to 160 kg/m^). 

CONCRETE, CARBONATE AGGREGATE. Concrete 
made with aggregates consisting mainly of calcium or mag- 
nesium carbonate, such as limestone or dolomite, and con- 
taining 40 percent or less quartz, chert, or flint. 

CONCRETE, CELLULAR. A Ughtweight insulating 
concrete made by mixing a preformed foam with portland 
cement slurry and having a dry unit weight of approxi- 
mately 30 pcf (480 kg/m^). 

CONCRETE, LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE. Con- 
crete made with aggregates of expanded clay, shale, slag or 



slate or sintered fly ash or any natural lightweight aggregate 
meeting ASTM C 330 and possessing equivalent fire-resis- 
tance properties and weighing 85 to 1 15 pcf (1360 to 1840 
kg/m^). 

CONCRETE, PERLITE. A lightweight insulating con- 
crete having a dry unit weight of approximately 30 pcf (480 
kg/m^) made with perlite concrete aggregate. Perlite aggre- 
gate is produced from a volcanic rock which, when heated, 
expands to form a glass-like material of cellular structure. 

CONCRETE, SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT. Concrete made 
with a combination of expanded clay, shale, slag, slate, 
sintered fly ash, or any natural lightweight aggregate meet- 
ing ASTM C 330 and possessing equivalent fire-resistance 
properties and natural sand. Its unit weight is generally 
between 105 and 120 pcf (1680 and 1920 kg/m^). 

CONCRETE, SILICEOUS AGGREGATE. Concrete 
made with normal-weight aggregates consisting mainly of 
silica or compounds other than calcium or magnesium car- 
bonate, which contains more than 40-percent quartz, chert, 
or flint. 

CONCRETE, VERMICULITE. A lightweight insulating 
concrete made with vermiculite concrete aggregate which is 
laminated micaceous material produced by expanding the 
ore at high temperatures. When added to a portland cement 
slurry the resulting concrete has a dry unit weight of approx- 
imately 30 pcf (480 kg/m^). 

GLASS FIBERBOARD. Fibrous glass roof insulation 
consisting of inorganic glass fibers formed into rigid boards 



136 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



using a binder. The board has a top surface faced with 
asphalt and kraft reinforced with glass fiber. 

MINERAL BOARD. A rigid felted thermal insulation 
board consisting of either felted mineral fiber or cellular 
beads of expanded aggregate formed into flat rectangular 
units. 

721.2 Concrete assemblies. The provisions of this section 
contain procedures by which the fire-resistance ratings of con- 
crete assemblies are established by calculations. 

721.2.1 Concrete walls. Cast-in-place and precast concrete 
walls shall comply with Section 721 .2. 1 . 1 . Multiwythe con- 
crete walls shall comply with Section 721.2.1.2. Joints 
between precast panels shall comply with Section 
721.2.1.3. Concrete walls with gypsum wallboard or plaster 
finish shall comply with Section 721.2.1.4. 

721.2.1.1 Cast-in-place or precast walls. The mini- 
mum equivalent thicknesses of cast-in-place or precast 
concrete walls for fire-resistance ratings of 1 hour to 4 
hours are shown in Table 721.2.1.1. For solid walls with 
flat vertical surfaces, the equivalent thickness is the same 
as the actual thickness. The values in Table 721.2.1.1 
apply to plain, reinforced or prestressed concrete walls. 

TABLE 721 .2.1.1 

MINIMUM EQUIVALENT THICKNESS OF CAST-IN-PLACE OR 

PRECAST CONCRETE WALLS, LOAD-BEARING OR 

NONLOAD-BEARING 



CONCRETE 
TYPE 


MINIMUM SLAB THICKNESS (inches) 
FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING OF 


1-hour 


iVa-hour 


2-hour 


3-hour 


4-hour 


Siliceous 


3.5 


4.3 


5.0 


6.2 


7.0 


Carbonate 


3.2 


4.0 


4.6 


5.7 


6.6 


Sand-Lightweight 


2.7 


3.3 


3.8 


4.6 


5.4 


Lightweight 


2.5 


3.1 


3.6 


4.4 


5.1 



For SI: 1 inch = .25.4 mm. 



721.2.1.1.1 Hollow-core precast wall panels. For 

hollow-core precast concrete wall panels in which the 
cores are of constant cross section throughout the 
length, calculation of the equivalent thickness by 
dividing the net cross-sectional area (the gross cross 
section minus the area of the cores) of the panel by its 
width shall be permitted. 

721.2.1.1.2 Core spaces filled. Where all of the core 
spaces of hollow-core wall panels are filled with 
loose-fill material, such as expanded shale, clay, or 
slag, or vermiculite or perlite, the fire-resistance rat- 
ing of the wall is the same as that of a solid wall of the 
same concrete type and of the same overall thickness. 

721.2.1.1.3 Tapered cross sections. The thickness of 
panels with tapered cross sections shall be that deter- 
mined at a distance It or 6 inches (152 mm), which- 
ever is less, from the point of minimum thickness, 
where t is the minimum thickness. 

11\.1.\.\A Ribbed or undulating surfaces. The 

equivalent thickness of panels with ribbed or undulat- 



ing surfaces shall be determined by one of the 
following expressions: 

For s > At, the thickness to be used shall be / 

For s < It, the thickness to be used shall be t^ 

For At> s> 2t, the thickness to be used shall be 



t + 



4r 
s 



\ 



t -t 
e 



(Equation 7-3) 



where: 



s = Spacing of ribs or undulations. 

t = Minimum thickness. 

t^ = Equivalent thickness of the panel calculated as 
the net cross-sectional area of the panel divided 
by the width, in which the maximum thickness 
used in the calculation shall not exceed 2t. 

721.2.1.2 Multiwythe walls. For walls that consist of 
two wythes of different types of concrete, the fire-resis- 
tance ratings shall be permitted to be determined from 
Figure 721.2.1.2. 



ujS2 

m 

OqUJ 



INSIDE WYTHE 
CARBONATE 



INSIDE WYTHE 
SILICEOUS 




THICKNESS OF INSIDE WYTHE, INCHES 



OUTSIDE WYTHE 
CARBONATE 



OUTSIDE WYTHE 
SILICEOUS 




THICKNESS OF INSIDE WYTHE OF SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE, INCHES 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

FIGURE 721 .2.1 .2 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS OF 
TWO-WYTHE CONCRETE WALLS 



721.2.1.2.1 Two or more wythes. The fire-resistance 
rating for wall panels consisting of two or more wythes 
shall be permitted to be determined by the formula: 



R = iR,' 



'-h/?2°-59+. 



+R„^'y 



(Equation 7-4) 



where: 

R = The fire endurance of the assembly, minutes. 

/?!, R2, and /?n = The fire endurances of the individual 
wythes, minutes. Values of /?„°^^ for use in Equation 7-4 
are given in Table 721.2.1.2(1). Calculated fire-resis- 
tance ratings are shown in Table 721 .2. 1 .2(2). 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



137 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 721 .2.1 .2(1) 
VALUES OF A? "9 FOR USE IN EQUATION 7-4 



TYPE OF MATERIAL 


Thickness OF MATERIAL (inches) 


1% 


2 


2% 


3 


z\ 


4 


4V, 


5 


5V2 


6 


6V3 


7 


Siliceous aggregate 
concrete 


5.3 


6.5 


8.1 


9.5 


11.3 


13.0 


14.9 


16.9 


18.8 


20.7 


22.8 


25.1 


Carbonate aggregate 
concrete 


5.5 


7.1 


8.9 


10.4 


12.0 


14.0 


16.2 


18.1 


20.3 


21.9 


24.7 


27.2= 


Sand-lightweight 
concrete 


6.5 


8.2 


10.5 


12.8 


15.5 


18.1 


20.7 


23.3 


26.0= 


Notec 


Note c 


Notec 


Lightweight concrete 


6.6 


8.8 


11.2 


13.7 


16.5 


19.1 


21.9 


24.7 


27.8= 


Notec 


Notec 


Notec 


Insulating concrete^ 


9.3 


13.3 


16.6 


18.3 


23.1 


26.5^= 


Notec 


Note c 


Notec 


Notec 


Notec 


Notec 


Airspace'' 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per cubic foot = 16.02 kgAn^. 

a. Dry unit weight of 35 pcf or less and consisting of cellular, perlite or vermiculite concrete. 

b. The /?„°^' value for one ^1" to 3 V2" airspace is 3.3. The R^^^ value for two Vj" to 3 V2" airspaces is 6.7. 

c. The fire-resistance rating for this thickness exceeds 4 hours. 



TABLE 721.2.1.2(2) 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS BASED ON R°-^^ 



fl=, MINUTES 


no.59 


60 
120 
180 
240 


11.20 
16.85 
21.41 
25.37 



a. Based on Equation 7-4. 

721.2.1.2.2 Foam plastic insulation. The fire-resis- 
tance ratings of precast concrete wall panels consist- 
ing of a layer of foam plastic insulation sandwiched 
between two wythes of concrete shall be permitted to 
be determined by use of Equation 7-4. Foam plastic 
insulation with a total thickness of less than 1 inch (25 
mm) shall be disregarded. The /?„ value for thickness 
of foam plastic insulation of 1 inch (25 mm) or 
greater, for use in the calculation, is 5 minutes; there- 
fore /?„059 = 2.5. 

721.2.1.3 Joints between precast wall panels. Joints 
between precast concrete wall panels which are not insu- 
lated as required by this section shall be considered as 
openings in walls. Uninsulated joints shall be included in 
determining the percentage of openings permitted by 
Table 704.8. Where openings are not permitted or are 
required by this code to be protected, the provisions of 
this section shall be used to determine the amount of joint 
insulation required. Insulated joints shall not be consid- 
ered openings for purposes of determining compliance 
with the allowable percentage of openings in Table 
704.8. 

721.2.1.3.1 Ceramic fiber joint protection. Figure 
721.2.1.3.1 shows thicknesses of ceramic fiber blan- 
kets to be used to insulate joints between precast con- 
crete wall panels for various panel thicknesses and for 
joint widths of % inch (9.5 mm) and 1 inch (25 mm) 



for fire-resistance ratings of 1 hour to 4 hours. For 
joint widths between Vg inch (9.5 mm) and 1 inch (25 
mm), the thickness of Ceramic fiber blanket is allowed 
to be determined by direct interpolation. Other tested 
and labeled materials are acceptable in place of 
ceramic fiber blankets. 

721.2.1.4 Walls with gypsum wallboard or plaster JBn- 
ishes. The fire-resistance rating of cast-in-place or pre- 
cast concrete walls with finishes of gypsum wallboard or 
plaster applied to one or both sides shall be permitted to 
be calculated in accordance with the provisions of this 
section. 

721.2.1.4.1 Nonfire-exposed side. Where the finish 
of gypsum wallboard or plaster is applied to the side 
of the wall not exposed to fire, the contribution of the 
finish to the total fire-resistance rating shall be deter- 
mined as follows: The thickness of the finish shall 
first be corrected by multiplying the actual thickness 
of the finish by the applicable factor determined from 
Table 721.2.1.4(1) based on the type of aggregate in 
the concrete. The corrected thickness of finish shall 
then be added to the actual or equivalent thickness of 
concrete and fire-resistance rating of the concrete and 
finish determined from Table 721.2.1.1, Figure 
721.2.1.2 or Table 721.2.1.2(1). 

721.2.1.4.2 Fire-exposed side. Where gypsum wall- 
board or plaster is applied to the fire-exposed side of 
the wall, the contribution of the finish to the total 
fire-resistance rating shall be determined as follows: 
The time assigned to the finish as estabUshed by Table 
721.2.1 .4(2) shall be added to the fire-resistance rating 
determined from Table 721.2.1.1 or Figure 721.2.1.2, 
or Table 721.2.1.2(1) for the concrete alone, or to the 
rating determined in Section 721.2.1.4.1 for the con- 
crete and finish on the nonfire-exposed side. 



138 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



1 INCH JOlKlT WIDTH > 

\ '4 


\ 


\ 
\ 


,\ 


'% 




\ 


V 


^^A."^ 




^ 


v 


JiL. 









4 5 6 7 

PANEL THICKNESS, INCHES 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 




4 5 6 7 

PANEL THICKNESS, INCHES 



1 INCH MAXIMUM REGARDLESS 
OF OPENING RATING 



r CERAMIC FIBER 
BLANKET 



L|3 






^ 



JOINT 
WIDTH 

CARBONATE OR 

SILICEOUS AGGREGATE 

CONCRETE 

SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT 

OR LIGHTWEIGHT 

CONCRETE 



FIGURE 721 .2.1 .3.1 
CERAMIC FIBER JOINT PROTECTION 

TABLE 721 .2.1 .4(1) 
MULTIPLYING FACTOR FOR FINISHES ON NONFIRE-EXPOSED SIDE OF WALL 



TYPE OF FINISH APPLIED 
to MASONRY WALL 


TYPE OF AGGREGATE USED IN CONCRETE OR CONCRETE MASONRY 


Concrete: siliceous 

or carbonate 

Masonry: siliceous or 

calcareous gravel 


Concrete: sand 

lightweight concrete 

Masonry: limestone, 

cinders or unexpanded slag 


Concrete: lightweight 

concrete 
Masonry: expanded 
shale, clay or slate 


Concrete: pumice, or 
expanded slag 


Portland cement-sand plaster 


1.00 


0.75^ 


0.75^ 


0.50^ 


Gypsum-sand plaster or gypsum wallboard 


1.25 


1.00 


1.00 


1.00 


Gypsum- vermiculite or perlite plaster 


1.75 


1.50 


1.50 


1.25 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. For Portland cement-sand plaster % inch or less in thickness and applied direcdy to the masonry on the nonfire-exposed side of the wall, the multiplying factor shall 
be 1.00. 

TABLE 721 .2.1 .4(2) 
TIME ASSIGNED TO FINISH MATERIALS ON FIRE-EXPOSED SIDE OF WALL 



FINISH DESCRIPTION 


TIME (minute) 


Gypsum wallboard 
^/g inch 
V2 inch 
^/g inch 
2 layers of % inch 

1 layer % inch, 1 layer Vj inch 

2 layers V, inch 


10 
15 
20 
25 
35 
40 


Type X gypsum wallboard 
V2 inch 
^/g inch 


25 
40 


Portland cement-sand piaster applied directly to concrete masonry 


See Note a 


Portland cement-sand plaster on metal lath 
^/4 inch 
%inch 
1 inch 


20 
25 
"30 


Gypsum sand plaster on ^/g-inch gypsum lath 
V2inch 
Vg inch 
^/a inch 


35 
40 
50 


Gypsum sand plaster on metal lath 
^/4 inch 
% inch 
1 inch 


50 
60 
80 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. The actual thickness of portland cement-sand plaster, provided it is % inch or less in thickness, shall be permitted to be included in determining the equivalent 
thickness of the masonry for use in Table 721 .3.2. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



139 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



721.2.1.4.3 Nonsymmetrical assemblies. For a wall 
having no finish on one side or different types or 
thicknesses of finish on each side, the calculation pro- 
cedures of Sections 721.2.1.4.1 and 721.2.1.4.2 shall 
be performed twice, assuming either side of the wall 
to be the fire-exposed side. The fire-restance rating of 
the wall shall not exceed the lower of the two values. 

Exception: For an exterior wall with more than 5 
feet (1524 mm) of horizontal separation, the fire 
shall be assumed to occur on the interior side only. 

721.2.1.4.4 Minimmn concrete fire-resistaiice rat- 
ing. Where finishes apphed to one or both sides of a 
concrete wall contribute to the fire-resistance rating, 
the concrete alone shall provide not less than one-half 
of the total required fire-resistance rating. Addition- 
ally, the contribution to the fire resistance of the finish 
on the nonfire-exposed side of a load-bearing wall shall 
not exceed one-half the contribution of the concrete 
alone. 

721.2.1.4.5 Concrete finishes. Finishes on concrete 
walls that are assumed to contribute to the total 
fire-resistance rating of the wall shall comply with the 
installation requirements of Section 721.3.2.5. 

721.2.2 Concrete floor and roof slabs. Reinforced and 
prestressed floors and roofs shall comply with Section 
721.2.2.1. Multicourse floors and roofs shall comply with 
Sections 721.2.2.2 and 721.2.2.3, respectively. 

721.2.2.1 Reinforced and prestressed floors and 
roofs. The minimum thicknesses of reinforced and pre- 
stressed concrete floor or roof slabs for fire-resistance 
ratings of 1 hour to 4 hours are shown in Table 72 1 .2.2. 1 . 

TABLE 721 .2.2.1 
MINIMUM SLAB THICKNESS (Inches) 



DETERMINE THICKNESS HERE 



CONCRETE TYPE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hour) 


1 


1% 


2 


3 


4 


Siliceous 


3.5 


4.3 


5.0 


6.2 


7.0 


Carbonate 


3.2 


4.0. 


4.6 


57 


6.6 


Sand-lightweight 


2.7 


3.3 


3.8 


4.6 


5.4 


Lightweight 


.2:5 . 


3.1 


3.6 


4.4 


5.1 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



721.2.2.1.1 Hollow-core prestressed slabs. For hol- 
low-core prestressed concrete slabs in which the cores 
are of constant cross section throughout the length, 
the equivalent thickness shall be permitted to be 
obtained by dividing the net cross-sectional area of 
the slab including grout in the joints, by its width. 

721.2.2.1.2 Slabs with sloping soffits. The thickness 
of slabs with sloping soffits (see Figure 721.2.2.1.2) 
shall be determined at a distance 2t or 6 inches (152 
mm), whichever is less, from the point of minimum 
thickness, where t is the minimum thickness. 




2f OR 6 INCHES, 
WHICHEVER IS LESS 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. ■ 



FIGURE 721 .2.2.1 .2 

DETERMINATION OF SLAB THICKNESS 

FOR SLOPING SOFFITS 

721.2.2.1.3 Slabs with ribbed soffits. The thickness 
of slabs with ribbed or undulating soffits (see Figure 
72 1 .2.2. 1 .3) shall be determined by one of the follow- 
ing expressions, whichever is applicable: 

For s > At, the thickness to be used shall be t 

For s < It, the thickness to be used shall be t^ 

Vox At > s>2t, the thickness to be used shall be 



(Equation 7-5) 



t + 


( \ 

S 


t -t 
e 




V ■ J 


\ • ) 


where: 


s = Spacing of ribs or undulations. 


t 


= Minimum thickness. 



tg = Equivalent thickness of the slab calculated as 
the net area of the slab divided by the width, in 
which the maximum thickness used in the cal- 
culatibn sha:ll not exceed 2t. 




NEGLECT SHADED AREA IN CALCULATION OF EQUIVALENT THICKNESS 




For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

FIGURE 721 .2.2.1 .3 
SLABS WITH RIBBED OR UNDULATING SOFFITS 



721.2.2.2 Multicourse floors. The fire-resistance rat- 
ings of floors that consist of a base slab of concrete with a 
topping (overlay) of a different type of concrete shall 
comply with Figure 721.2.2.2. 



140 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



CARBONATE BASE 



SILICEOUS BASE 



3 - 







—I — 




^S^J^N^hr. 


" 


S 


^\^nN 


' 




^^^vS 


\ 


- 


. ^N 


\ 



12345 123 4 5 

THICKNESS OF NORMAL-WEIGHT CONCRETE BASE SLAB. INCHES 





T T— 1 1 


-T- 


- S. 


^S. V^hr. 


" 


\^ 




V 


- ^ 


Njhr. >^,^ Ny 


N 


■ 


1 J X 1 


\ 
Si 



CARBONATE OVERLAY 



SILICEOUS OVERLAY 




N 


c\ 




\ 


\ \3hr. 


■ 




\V\\ 


- 




1 1 \ 1 \ 1 > 


\" 



12345 12345 

THICKNESS OF SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE BASE SLAB. INCHES 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

FIGURE 721 .2.2.2 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS FOR TWO-COURSE 

CONCRETE FLOORS 



721.2.2.3 Multicourse roofs. The fire-resistance ratings 
of roofs which consist of a base slab of concrete with a 
topping (overlay) of an insulating concrete or with an 
insulating board and built-up roofing shall comply with 
Figures 721.2.2.3(1) and 721.2.2.3(2). 

721.2.2.3.1 Heat transfer. For the transfer of heat, 
three-ply built-up roofing contributes 10 minutes to 
the fire-resistance rating. The fire-resistance rating 
for concrete assemblies such as those shown in Figure 
721.2.2.3(1) shall be increased by 10 minutes. This 
increase is not applicable to those shown in Figure 
721.2.2.3(2). 

721.2.2.4 Joints in precast slabs. Joints between adja- 
cent precast concrete slabs need not be considered in cal- 
culating the slab thickness provided that a concrete 
topping at least 1 inch (25 mm) thick is used. Where no 
concrete topping is used, joints must be grouted to a 
depth of at least one-third the slab thickness at the joint, 
but not less than 1 inch (25 mm), or the joints must be 
made fixe resistant by other approved methods. 

721.2.3 Concrete cover over reinforcement. The mini- 
mum thickness of concrete cover over reinforcement in con- 
crete slabs, reinforced beams and prestressed beams shall 
comply with this section. 



721.2.3.1 Slab cover. The minimum thickness of con- 
crete cover to the positive moment reinforcement shall 
comply with Table 721.2.3(1) for reinforced concrete 
and Table 721.2.3(2) for prestressed concrete. These 
tables are applicable for solid or hollow-core one-way or 
two-way slabs with flat undersurfaces. These tables are 
applicable to slabs that are either cast in place or precast. 
For precast prestressed concrete not covered elsewhere, 
the procedures contained in PCI MNL 124 shall be 
acceptable. 

721.2.3.2 Reinforced beam cover. The minimum thick- 
ness of concrete cover to the positive moment reinforce- 
ment (bottom steel) for reinforced concrete beams is 
shown in Table 721.2.3(3) for fire-resistance ratings of 1 
hour to 4 hours. 

721.2.3.3 Prestressed beam cover. The minimum thick- 
ness of concrete cover to the positive moment 
prestressing tendons (bottom steel) for restrained and 
unrestrained prestressed concrete beams and stemmed 
units shall comply with the values shown in Tables 
721.2.3(4) and 721.2.3(5) for fire-resistance ratings of 1 
hour to 4 hours. Values in Table 721.2.3(4) apply to 
beams 8 inches (203 mm) or greater in width. Values in 
Table 721.2.3(5) apply to beams or stems of any width, 
provided the cross-section area is not less than 40 square 
inches (25 806 mm^). In case of differences between the 
values determined from Table 721.2.3(4) or 721.2.3(5), 
it is permitted to use the smaller value. The concrete 
cover shall be calculated in accordance with Section 
721.2.3.3.1. The minimum concrete cover for 
nonprestressed reinforcement in prestressed concrete 
beams shall comply with Section 721.2.3.2. 

721.2.3.3.1 Calculating concrete cover. The con- 
crete cover for an individual tendon is the minimum 
thickness of concrete between the surface of the ten- 
don and the fire-exposed surface of the beam, except 
that for ungrouped ducts, the assumed cover thick- 
ness is the minimum thickness of concrete between 
the surface of the duct and the fire-exposed surface 
of the beam. For beams in which two or more ten- 
dons are used, the cover is assumed to be the average 
of the minimum cover of the individual tendons. For 
corner tendons (tendons equal distance from the bot- 
tom and side), the minimum cover used in the calcu- 
lation shall be one-half the actual value. For 
stemmed members with two or more prestressing 
tendons located along the vertical centerline of the 
stem, the average cover shall be the distance from the 
bottom of the member to the centroid of the tendons. 
The actual cover for any individual tendon shall not 
be less than one-half the smaller value shown in 
Tables 721 .2.3(4) and 72 1 .2.3(5), or 1 inch (25 mm), 
whichever is greater. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



141 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 




CELLULAR CONCRETE 



SILICEOUS BASE 



r|*''"~>C^4hr. 
^•»>^ 3hr. — sC 




THICKNESS OF CONCRETE BASE SLAB, INCHES 



SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT BASE 
4 




THICKNESS OF CONCRETE BASE SLAB, INCHES 



VERMICULITE CONCRETE 



CARBONATE BASE 



SILICEOUS BASE SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT BASE 

4 




THICKNESS OF CONCRETE BASE SLAB, INCHES 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE 721 .2.2.3(1) 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS FOR CONCRETE 

ROOF ASSEMBLIES 



UJ 

X 

o 

z 

OQ 

ujO 
(e) zoj 

O Ui 

xS 

HU. 
(0 

CD 



- STANDARD 3-PLY 
BUILT-UP ROOFING 



sm 



MINERAL BOARD 



^XW^ 



4 CONCRETE •» • < 



SILICEOUS BASE 



SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT BASE 
3 




THICKNESS OF CONCRETE BASE SLAB. INCHES 



-STANDARD 3-PLY 
BUILD-UP ROOFING 



177777;? 



GLASS FIBER BOARD 



zzzzz 



»- CONCRETE 



CARBONATE BASE SILICEOUS BASE SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT BASE 

3 1 W V I 1 1 3|. II I I I I 3 



\ 3hr.\. 2 \ Shr.N. ^ \ 3hr.\ 

2hr. N^v 2hr.\N^ h 2hr.W 

Hj^s v:^ vv^ 



3 5 1 3 5 1 3 

THICKNESS OF CONCRETE BASE SLAB, INCHES 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE 721 .2.2.3(2) 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS FOR CONCRETE 



TABLE 721.2.3(1) 
COVER THICKNESS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE FLOOR OR ROOF SLABS (inches) 



CONCRETE AGGREGATE TYPE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


Restrained 


Unrestrained 


1 


^\ 


2 


3 


4 


1 


^\ 


2 


3 


4 


Siliceous 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


1 


IV4 


1% 


Carbonate 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


IV4 


IV4 


Sand-lightweight or lightweight 


'U 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


IV4 


IV4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



TABLE 721.2.3(2) 
COVER THICKNESS FOR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE FLOOR OR ROOF SLABS (Inches) 



CONCRETE AGGREGATE TYPE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


Restrained 


Unrestrained 


1 


1% 


2 


3 


4 


1 


1V3 


2 


3 


4 


Siliceous 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


iVg 


1V2 


1% 


2\ 


2^/4 


Carbonate 


V4 


. V4 


% 


% 


V4 


1 


iVs 


1% 


2Vs 


2V4 


Sand-lightweight or lightweight 


'U 


% 


% . 


% 


% 


1 


1% 


1% 


2 


2V4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



142 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE^ 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 721 .2.3(3) 

MINIMUM COVER FOR MAIN REINFORCING BARS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS'^ 

(APPLICABLE TO ALL TYPES OF STRUCTURAL CONCRETE) 



RESTRAINED OR 
UNRESTRAINED" 


BEAM WIDTH" 
(inches) 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


1V, 


2 


3 


4 


Restrained 


5 

7 

>10 






.^4 


P 


I'V 

V4 


Unrestrained 


5 

7 

>10 




1 


IV4 


IV4 
1 


3 
1% 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Tabulated values for restrained assemblies apply to beams spaced more than 4 feet on center. For restrained beams spaced 4 feet or less on center, minimum cover 
of ^/^ inch is adequate for ratings of 4 hours or less. 

b. For beam widths between the tabulated values, the minimum cover thickness can be determined by direct interpolation. 

c. The cover for an individual reinforcing bar is the minimum thickness of concrete between the surface of the bar and the fire-exposed surface of the beam. For beams 
in which several bars are used, the cover for comer bars used in the calculation shall be reduced to one-half of the actual value. The cover for an individual bar must 
be not less than one-half of the value given in Table 721 .2.3(3) nor less than % inch. 



TABLE 721 .2.3(4) 
MINIMUM COVER FOR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BEAMS 8 INCHES OR GREATER IN WIDTH 



RESTRAINED OR 
UNRESTRAINED" 


CONCRETE 
AGGREGATE TYPE 


BEAM WIDTH" 
(inches) 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 




1% 


2 


3 


4 


Restrained 


Carbonate or siliceous 

Carbonate or siliceous 

Sand lightweight 

Sand lightweight 


8 
>12 

8 
>12 


IV2 
IV2 
IV2 
1% 


IV2 
IV2 
IV2 
IV2 


IV2 
IV2 
IV2 
IV2 


IV/ 

1V2 
1V2 
1V2 


2V2* 
1%^ 

2« 
1%^ 


Unrestrained 


Carbonate or siliceous 

Carbonate or siliceous 

Sand lightweight 

Sand lightweight 


8 
>12 

8 
>12 


IV2 
IV2 
IV2 


1% 
IV2 
IV2 
IV2 


2V2 
1%« 

2 
1% 


5= 
2V2 
3V4 

2 


3 
2V2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Tabulated values for restrained assemblies apply to beams spaced more than 4 feet on center. For restrained beams spaced 4 feet or less on center, minimum cover 
of % inch is adequate for 4-hour ratings or less. 

b. For beam widths between 8 inches and 12 inches, minimum cover thickness can be determined by direct interpolation. 

c. Not practical for 8-inch-wide beam but shown for purposes of interpolation. 



TABLE 721.2.3(5) 
MINIMUM COVER FOR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BEAMS OF ALL WIDTHS 



RESTRAINED OR 
UNRESTRAINED" 


CONCRETE 
AGGREGATE TYPE 


BEAM AREA" 
A (square inches) 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


1% 


2 


3 


4 


Restrained 


All 


40 < A < 150 


IV2 


IV2 


2 


2% 





Carbonate or 
siliceous 


150 < A < 300 


IV2 


IV2 


IV, 


IV4 


2V, 


300 < A 


IV2 


IV2 


IV2 


IV2 


2 


Sand lightweight 


150 < A 


. IV2 


IV2 


IV2 


IV, 


2 


Unrestrained 


All 


40<A<150 


. 2 


2% 









Carbonate or 
siliceous 


150 < A < 300 


IV2 


IV4 


2% 








300 < A 


IV2 


IV2 


2 


3<^ 


4c 


Sand lightweight 


150 < A 


IV2 


IV2 


2 


3= 


4c 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Tabulated values for restrained assemblies apply to beams spaced more than 4 feet on center. For restrained beams spaced 4 feet or less on center, minimum cover 
of V4 inch is adequate for 4-hour ratings or less. 

b. The cross-sectional area of a stem is permitted to include a portion of the area in the flange, provided the width of the flange used in the calculation does not exceed 
three times the average width of the stem. 

c. U-shaped or hooped stirrups spaced not to ©cceed the depth of the member and haying a minimum cover of 1 inch shall be provided. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE"" 



143 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



721.2.4 Concrete columns. Concrete columns shall com- 
ply with this section. 

TABLE 721 .2.4 
MINIMUM DIMENSION OF CONCRETE COLUMNS (inches) 



TYPES OF 
CONCRETE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


^\ 


ga 


3^ 


4" 


Siliceous 


8 


9 


10 


12 


14 


Carbonate 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


Sand-lightweight 


8 


87, 


9 


IOV2 


12 



For SI: 1 inch = 25 mm. 

a. The minimum dimension is permitted to be reduced to 8 inches for rectangu- 
lar columns with two parallel sides at least 36 inches in length. 

b. The minimum dimension is permitted to be reduced to 10 inches for rectan- 
gular columns with two parallel sides at least 36 inches in length. 

721.2.4.1 Minimum size. The minimum overall dimen- 
sions of reinforced concrete columns for fire-resistance 
ratings of 1 hour to 4 hours shall comply with Table 

721.2.4. 

721.2.4.2 Minimum cover for R/C columns. The mini- 
mum thickness of concrete cover to the main longitudi- 
nal reinforcement in columns, regardless of the type of 
aggregate used in the concrete, shall not be less than 1 
inch (25 mm) times the number of hours of required fire 
resistance or 2 inches (5 1 mm), whichever is less. 

721.2.4.3 Columns built into walls. The minimum 
dimensions of Table 72 1 .2.4 do not apply to a reinforced 
concrete column that is built into a concrete or masonry 
wall provided all of the following are met: 

1 . The fire-resistance rating for the wall is equal to or 
greater than the required rating of the column; 

2. The main longitudinal reinforcing in the column 
has cover not less than that required by Section 
721.2.4.2; and 

3. Openings in the wall are protected in accordance 
with Table 715.4. 

Where openings in the wall are not protected as 
required by Section 715.4, the minimum dimension of 
columns required to have a fire-resistance rating of 3 
hours or less shall be 8 inches (203 mm), and 10 inches 
(254 mm) for columns required to have a fire-resistance 
rating of 4 hours, regardless of the type of aggregate used 
in the concrete. 

721.2.4.4 Precast cover units for steel columns. See 

Section 721.5.1.4. 

721.3 Concrete masonry. The provisions of this section con- 
tain procedures by which the fire-resistance ratings of concrete 
masonry are established by calculations. 

721.3.1 Equivalent thickness. The equivalent thickness of 
concrete masonry construction shall be determined in 
accordance with the provisions of this section. 

721.3.1.1 Concrete masonry unit plus finishes. The 

equivalent thickness of concrete masonry assemblies. 



r^a, shall be computed as the sum of the equivalent thick- 
ness of the concrete masonry unit, T^, as determined by 
Section 721.3.1.2, 721.3.1.3, or 721.3.1.4, plus the 
equivalent thickness of finishes, T^p determined in accor- 
dance with Section 721.3.2: 

T,„ = T, + T,f (Equation 7-6) 

T^=V„/LH= Equivalent thickness of concrete 
masonry unit (inch) (mm). 

where: 

V„ = Net volume of masonry unit (inch^) (mm^). 

L = Specified length of masonry unit (inch) (mm). 

H = Specified height of masonry unit (inch) (mm). 

721.3.1.2 Ungrouted or partially grouted construc- 
tion. T^ shall be the value obtained for the concrete 
masonry unit determined in accordance with ASTM C 
140. 

721.3.1.3 Solid grouted construction. The equivalent 
thickness, T^, of solid grouted concrete masonry units is 
the actual thickness of the unit. 

721.3.1.4 Airspaces and cells filled with loose-fill 
material. The equivalent thickness of completely filled 
hollow concrete masonry is the actual thickness of the 
unit when loose-fill materials are: sand, pea gravel, 
crushed stone, or slag that meet ASTM C 33 require- 
ments; pumice, scoria, expanded shale, expanded clay, 
expanded slate, expanded slag, expanded fly ash, or cin- 
ders that comply with ASTM C 33 1 ; or perlite or vermic- 
ulite meeting the requirements of ASTM C 549 and 
ASTM C 516, respectively. 

721.3.2 Concrete masonry walls. The fire-resistance rat- 
ing of walls and partitions constructed of concrete masonry 
units shall be determined from Table 721.3.2. The rating 
shall be based on the equivalent thickness of the masonry 
and type of aggregate used. 

721.3.2.1 Finish on nonfire-exposed side. Where plas- 
ter or gypsum wallboard is applied to the side of the wall 
not exposed to fire, the contribution of the finish to the 
total fire-resistance rating shall be determined as fol- 
lows: The thickness of gypsum wallboard or plaster shall 
be corrected by multiplying the actual thickness of the 
finish by applicable factor determined from Table 
721.2.1.4(1). This corrected thickness of finish shall be 
added to the equivalent thickness of masonry and the 
fire-resistance rating of the masonry and finish deter- 
mined from Table 721.3.2. 

721.3.2.2 Finish on fire-exposed side. Where plaster or 
gypsum wallboard is applied to the fire-exposed side of 
the wall, the contribution of the finish to the total 
fire-resistance rating shall be determined as follows: The 
time assigned to the finish as established by Table 
721.2.1.4(2) shall be added to the fire-resistance rating 
determined in Section 721.3.2 for the masonry alone, or 
in Section 721.3.2.1 for the masonry and finish on the 
nonfire-exposed side. 



144 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 721 .3.2 
MINIMUM EQUIVALENT THICKNESS (Inches) OF BEARING OR NONBEARING CONCRETE MASONRY WALLS^"''''' 



TYPE OF AGGREGATE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


\ 


3/ 
'4 


1 


1% 


^% 


1% 


2 


2% 


2% 


2% 


3 


3V, 


3% 


3% 


4 


Pumice or expanded slag 


1.5 


1.9 


2.1 


2.5 


1.1 


3.0 


3.2. 


3.4 


3.6 


3.8 


4.0 


4.2 


4.4 


4.5 


4.7 


Expanded shale, clay or slate 


1.8 


2.2 


2.6 


2.9 


3.3 


3.4 


3.6 


3.8 


4.0 


4.2 


4.4 


4.6 


4.8' 


4.9 


5.1 


Limestone, cinders or unexpanded slag 


1.9 


2.3 


2.7 


3.1 


3.4 


3.7 


4.0 


4.3 


4.5 


4.8 


5.0 


5.2 


5.5 


5.7 


5.9 


Calcareous or siliceous gravel 


2.0 


2.4 


2.8 


3.2 


3.6 


3.9 


4.2 


4.5 


4.8 


5.0 


5.3 


5.5 


5.8 


6.0 


6.2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Values between those shown in the table can be determined by direct interpolation. 

b. Where combustible members are framed into the wall, the thickness of solid material between the end of each member and the opposite face of the wall, or between 
members set in from opposite sides, shall not be less than 93 percent of the thickness shovn in the table. 

c. Requirements of ASTM C 55, ASTM C 73 or ASTM C 90 shall apply 

d. Minimum required equivalent thickness corresponding to the hourly fire-resistance rating for units with a combination of aggregate shall be determined by linear 
interpolation based on the percent by volume of each aggregate used in manufacture. 



721.3.2.3 Nonsymmetrical assemblies. For a wall hav- 
ing no finish on one side or having different types or 
thicknesses of finish on each side, the calculation proce- 
dures of this section shall be performed twice, assuming 
either side of the wall to be the fire-exposed side. The 
fire-resistance rating of the wall shall not exceed the 
lower of the two values calculated. 

Exception: For exterior walls with more than 5 feet 
(1524 mm) of horizontal separation, the fire shall be 
assumed to occur on the interior side only. 

721.3.2.4 Minimum concrete masonry fire-resistance 
rating. Where the finish applied to a concrete masonry 
wall contributes toils fire-resistance rating, the masonry 
alone shall provide not less than one-half the total 
required fire-resistance rating. 

721.3.2.5 Attachment of finishes. Installation of fin- 
ishes shall be as follows: 

1. Gypsum wallboard and gypsum lath applied to 
concrete masonry or concrete walls shall be 
secured to wood or steel furring members spaced 
not more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center (o.c). 

2. Gypsum wallboard shall be installed with the long 
dimension parallel to the furring members and 
shall have all joints finished. 

3. Other aspects of the installation of finishes shall 
comply with the applicable provisions of Chapters 
7 and 25. 

721.3.3 Multiwythe masonry walls. The fire-resistance 
rating of wall assemblies constructed of multiple wythes of 
masonry materials shall be permitted to be based on the 
fire-resistance rating period of each wythe and the continu- 
ous airspace between each wythe in accordance with the fol- 
lowing formula: 



Rj, = (/?iO-59 + R^o-59 + 



-l-i?„o-59-HAi-i-A2 + ... +A„)i 



(Equation 7-7) 



where: 

Ra = Fire-resistance rating of the assembly (hours). 



R,, R2, ..., Rn = Fire-resistance rating of wythes for 1,2, n 
(hours), respectively. 

A], A2, ...., A„ = 0.30, factor for each continuous airspace 
for 1, 2, ...72, respectively, having a depth of 
V2 inch (12.7 mm) or more between 
wythes. 

721.3.4 Concrete masonry lintels. Fire-resistance ratings for 
concrete masonry lintels shall be determined based upon the 
nominal thickness of the Hntel and the minimum thickness of 
concrete masonry or concrete, or any combination thereof, 
covering the main reinforcing bars, as determined accord- 
ing to Table 721.3.4, or by approved alternate methods. 

TABLE 721 .3.4 

MINIMUM COVER OF LONGITUDINAL 

REINFORCEMENT IN FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED 

REINFORCED CONCRETE MASONRY LINTELS (Inches) 



NOMINAL WIDTH 
OF LINTEL (inches) 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


2 


3 


4 


6 


IV2 


2 


— 


— 


8 


IV, 


IV, 


1% 


3 


10 or greater 


IV, 


IV, 


IV, 


IV4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

721.3.5 Concrete masonry columns. The fire-resistance 
rating of concrete masonry columns shall be determined 
based upon the least plan dimension of the column in accor- 
dance with Table 72 1 .3 .5 or by approved alternate methods. 

TABLE 721 .3.5 

MINIMUM DIMENSION OF 

CONCRETE MASONRY COLUMNS (Inches) 



FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


2 


3 


4 


8 inches 


10 inches 


12 inches 


14 inches 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



721.4 Clay brick and tile masonry. The provisions of this sec- 
tion contain procedures by which' the fire-resistance ratings of 
clay brick and tile masonry are established by calculations. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



145 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



721.4.1 Masonry walls. The fire-resistance rating of 
masonry walls shall be based upon the equivalent thickness 
as calculated in accordance with this section. The calcula- 
tion shall take into account finishes applied to the wall and 
airspaces between wythes in multiwythe construction. 

721.4.1.1 Equivalent thickness. The fire-resistance rat- 
ings of walls or partitions constructed of solid or hollow 
clay masonry units shall be determined from Table 
721.4.1(1) or 721.4. 1(2). The equivalent thickness of the 
clay masonry unit shall be determined by Equation 7-8 
when using Table 721.4.1(1). The fire-resistance rating 
determined from Table 721.4.1(1) shall be permitted to 
be used in the calculated fire-resistance rating procedure 
in Section 721.4.2. 



Te=V„/LH 
where: 



(Equation 7-8) 



= The equivalent thickness of the clay masonry unit 
(inches). 

V„ = The net volume of the clay masonry unit (inch^). 

L = The specified length of the clay masonry unit 
(inches). 

H = The specified height of the clay masonry unit 
(inches). 

721.4.1.1.1 Hollow clay units. The equivalent thick- 
ness, Tg, shall be the value obtained for hollow clay 
units as determined in accordance with ASTM C 67. 

721.4.1.1.2 Solid grouted clay units. The equivalent 
thickness of solid grouted clay masonry units shall be 
taken as the actual thickness of the units. 

721.4.1.1.3 Units with filled cores. The equivalent 
thickness of the hollow clay masonry units is the 
actual thickness of the unit when completely filled 
with loose-fill materials of: sand, pea gravel, crushed 
stone, or slag that meet ASTM C 33 requirements; 
pumice, scoria, expanded shale, expanded clay. 



expanded slate, expanded slag, expanded fly ash, or 
cinders in compliance with ASTM C 33 1 ; or perlite or 
vermiculite meeting the requirements of ASTM C 
549 and ASTM C 516, respectively. 

721.4.1.2 Plaster finishes. Where plaster is applied to 
the wall, the total fire-resistance rating shall be deter- 
mined by the formula: 



where: 



(Equation 7-9) 



R = The fire-resistance rating of the assembly (hours) . 

R„ = The fire-resistance rating of the individual wall 
(hours). 

pi = Coefficient for thickness of plaster. 

Values for /?„°^^ for use in Equation 7-9 are given in 
Table 721.4.1(3). Coefficients for thickness of plaster 
shall be selected from Table 721.4.1(4) based on the 
actual thickness of plaster applied to the wall or partition 
and whether one or two sides of the wall are plastered. 

721.4.1.3 Multiwythe walls with airspace. Where a 
continuous airspace separates multiple wythes of the 
wall or partition, the total fire-resistance rating shall be 
determined by the formula: 



where: 
R 



(Equation 7-10) 



= The fire-resistance rating of the assembly 
(hours). 

/?,, /?2 3nd R„= The fire-resistance rating of the individ- 
ual wythes (hours). 

as = Coefficient for continuous airspace. 

Values for iR„°^^ for use in Equation 7-10 are given in 
Table 721.4.1(3). The coefficient for each continuous 
airspace of Vj inch to 3 Vj inches (12.7 to 89 mm) separat- 
ing two individual wythes shall be 0.3. 



TABLE 721 .4.1(1) 
FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS OF CLAY MASONRY WALLS 



MATERIAL TYPE 


MINIMUM REQUIRED EQUIVALENT THICKNESS FOR FIRE RESISTANCE^-"'' (inches) 


1 hour 


2 hour 


3 hour 


4 hour 


Solid brick of clay or shale'' 


2.7 


3.8 


4.9 


6.0 


Hollow brick or tile of clay or shale, unfilled 


2.3 


3.4 


4.3 


5.0 


Hollow brick or tile of clay or shale, grouted or filled with 
materials specified in Section 721.4.1.1.3 


3.0 


4.4 


5.5 


6.6 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Equivalent thickness as determined from Section 72 1 .4. 1 . 1 . 

b. Calculated fire resistance between the hourly increments listed shall be determined by Unear interpolation. 

c. Where combustible members are framed in the wall, the thickness of solid material between the end of each member and the opposite face of the wall, or between 
members set in from opposite sides, shall not be less than 93 percent of the thickness shewn. 

d. For units in which the net cross-sectional area of cored brick in any plane parallel to the surface containing the cores is at least 75 percent of the gross cross-sec- 
tional area measured in the same plane. 



146 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 721 .4.1 (2) 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS FOR BEARING STEEL FRAME 

BRICK VENEER WALLS OR PARTITIONS 



WALL OR PARTITION ASSEMBLY 


PLASTER SIDE 
EXPOSED (hours) 


BRICK FACED SIDE 
EXPOSED (hours) 


Outside facing of steel studs: 

V2" wood fiberboard sheathing next to studs, ^Z/' airspace formed with 

%" X 1 ^/g" wood strips placed over the fiberboard and secured to the studs; 

metal or wire lath nailed to such strips, 3^/4" brick veneer held in place by filling V4" 

airspace between the brick and lath with mortar. Inside facing of studs: ^1^' unsanded 

gypsum plaster on metal or wire lath attached to Vig" wood strips secured to edges of the 

studs. 


1.5 


4 


Outside facing of steel studs: 

1" insulation board sheathing attached to studs, 1" airspace, and 3^/4" brick veneer 

attached to steel frame with metal ties every 5th course. Inside facing of studs: ^/g" 

sanded gypsum plaster (1:2 mix) applied on metal or wire lath attached directly to the 

studs. 


1.5 


4 


Same as above except use ^/g" vermiculite — gypsum plaster or 1" sanded gypsum plaster 
(1:2 mix) appUed to metal or wire. 


2 


4 


Outside facing of steel studs: 

V2" gypsum sheathing board, attached to studs, and 3%" brick veneer attached to steel 
frame with metal ties every 5th course. Inside facing of studs: V2" sanded gypsum plaster 
(1:2 mix) apphed to V2" perforated gypsum lath securely attached to studs and having 
strips of metal lath 3 inches wide apphed to all horizontal joints of gypsum lath. 


2 


4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



TABLE 721 .4.1 (3) 
VALUES OF R°-^^ 



^,^0.59 


R (hours) 


1 


1.0 


2 


1.50 


3 


1.91 


4 


2.27 



TABLE 721 .4.1 (4) 
COEFFICIENTS FOR PLASTER, pi" 



THICKNESS OF 
PLASTER (inch) 


ONE SIDE 


TWO SIDE 


% 


0.3 


0.6 


% 


0.37 


0.75 


% 


0.45 


0.90 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Values listed in table are for 1:3 sanded gypsum plaster. 

TABLE 721 .4.1 (5) 
REINFORCED MASONRY LINTELS 



NOMINAL 

LINTEL WIDTH 

(Inches) 


MINIMUM LONGITUDINAL REINFORCEMENT COVER 
FOR FIRE RESISTANCE (inch) 


1 hour 


2 hour 


3 hour 


4 hour 


6 


IV2 


2 


NP 


NP 


8 


IV2 


IV2 


1% 


3 


10 or more 


IV2 


l'/2 


IV2 


1% 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 
NP = Not permitted. 



TABLE 721 .4.1 (6) 
REINFORCED CLAY MASONRY COLUMNS 



COLUMN SIZE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING 
(hour) 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Minimum colunm dimension (inches) 


8 


10 


12 


14 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

721.4.1.4 Nonsymmetrical assemblies. For a wall hav- 
ing no finish on one side or having different types or 
thicknesses of finish on each side, the calculation proce- 
dures of this section shall be performed twice, assuming 
either side to be the fire-exposed side of the wall. The fire 
resistance of the wall shall not exceed the lower of the 
two values determined. 

Exception: For exterior walls with more than 5 feet 
(1524 mm) of horizontal separation, the fire shall be 
assumed to occur on the interior side only. 

721.4.2 Multiwythe walls. The fixe-resistance rating for 
wails or partitions consisting of two or more dissimilar 
wythes shall be permitted to be determined by the formula: 



i? = (/?j0.59 + /J^0.59+_ +1^^0.59) 1.7 

where: 
R 



(Equation 7-11) 



= The fire-resistance rating of the assembly 
(hours). 

Rj, R2 and /?„ = The fire-resistance rating of the individual 
wythes (hours). 

Values for /?„°^^ for use in Equation 7-11 are given in 
Table 721.4.1(3). 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



147 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



721.4.2.1 Multiwythe walls of different material. For 

walls that consist of two or more wythes of different 
materials (concrete or concrete masonry units) in combi- 
nation with clay masonry units, the fire-resistance rating 
of the different materials shall be permitted to be deter- 
mined from Table 721.2.1.1 for concrete; Table 721.3.2 
for concrete masonry units or Table 721.4.1(1) or 
72 1 .4. 1 (2) for clay and tile masonry units. 

721.4.3 Reinforced clay masonry lintels. Fire-resistance 
ratings for clay masonry lintels shall be determined based 
on the nominal width of the lintel and the minimum cover- 
ing for the longitudinal reinforcement in accordance with 
Table 721.4.1(5). 

721.4.4 Reinforced clay masonry columns. The fire-resis- 
tance ratings shall be determined based on the last plan 
dimension of the column in accordance with Table 
721.4.1(6). The minimum cover for longitudinal reinforce- 
ment shall be 2 inches (51 mm). 

721.5 Steel assemblies. The provisions of this section contain 
procedures by which the fire-resistance ratings of steel assem- 
blies are established by calculations. 

721.5.1 Structural steel columns. The fire-resistance rat- 
ings of steel columns shall be based on the size of the ele- 
ment and the type of protection provided in accordance with 
this section. 

721.5.1.1 General. These procedures establish a basis 
for determining the fire resistance of column assemblies 
as a function of the thickness of fire-resistant material 
arid, the weight, W, and heated perimeter, D, of steel col- 
umns. As used in these sections. Wis the average weight 
of a structural steel column in pounds per linear foot. The 
heated perimeter, D, is the inside perimeter of the 
fire-resistant material in inches as illustrated in Figure 
721.5.1(1). 




t.-'.::,»--Ar.>^.'.^.'J.'W 



D=4bf+2d-2tv, 



D=2(a+cl) 



D=2(bf + d) 



FIGURE 721 .5.1(1) 

DETERMINATION OF THE HEATED PERIMETER 

OF STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMNS 



721.5.1.1.1 Nonload-bearing protection. The appli- 
cation of these procedures shall be limited to column 
assemblies in which the fire-resistant material is not 



designed to carry any of the load acting on the col- 
umn. 

721.5.1.1.2 Embedments. In the absence of substan- 
tiating fire-endurance test results, ducts, conduit, pip- 
ing, and similar mechanical, electrical, and plumbing 
installations shall not be embedded in any required 
fire-resistant materials. 

721.5.1.1.3 Weight-to-perimeter ratio. Table 
721.5.1(1) contains weight-to-heated-perimeter ratios 
(W/D) for both contour and box fire-resistant profiles, 
for the wide flange shapes most often used as columns. 
For different fire-resistant protection profiles or col- 
umn cross sections, the weight-to-heated-perimeter 
ratios (W/D) shall be determined in accordance with 
the definitions given in this section. 

721.5.1.2 Gypsum wallboard protection. The fire 
resistance of structural steel columns with weight- 
to-heated-perimeter ratios (W/D) less than or equal to 
3.65 and which are protected with Type X gypsum wall- 
board shall be permitted to be determined from the fol- 
lowing expression: 



R=130 

where: 
R = 

h = 
D = 



h(W'/D) 



(Equation 7-12) 



r = 



Fire resistance (minutes). 

Total thickness of gypsum wallboard (inches). 

Heated perimeter of the structural steel column 
(inches). 

Total weight of the structural steel column and 
gypsum wallboard protection (pounds per linear 
foot). 

W+56hD/U4. , 



721.5.1.2.1 Attachment. The gypsum wallboard 
shall be supported as illustrated in either Figure 
721.5.1(2) for fire-resistance ratings of 4 hours or 
less, or Figure 72 1 .5 . 1 (3) for fire-resistance ratings of 
3 hours or less. 

721.5.1.2.2 Gypsum wallboard equivalent to con- 
crete. The determination of the fire resistance of 
structural steel columns from Figure 721.5.1(4) is 
permitted for various thicknesses of gypsum wall- 
board as a function of the weight-to-heated-perimeter 
ratio (W/D) of the column. For structural steel col- 
umns with weight-to-heated-perimeter ratios (W/D) 
greater than 3.65, the thickness of gypsum wallboard 
required for specified fire-resistance ratings shall be 
the same as the thickness determined for a W14 x 233 
wide flange shape. 

721.5.1.3 Spray-applied fire-resistant materials. The 

fire resistance of wide-flange structural steel columns 
protected with spray-applied fire-resistant materials, as 
illustrated in Figure 721.5.1(5), shall be permitted to be 
determined from the following expression: 



148 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



R = [C^{W/D) + C2]h 



(Equation 7-13) 



where: 



R = Fire resistance (minutes). 

h = Thickness of spray-appHed fire-resistant material 
(inches). 

D = Heated perimeter of the structural steel column 
(inches). 

Q and C2 = Material-dependent constants. 

W = Weight of structural steel columns (pounds per lin- 
ear foot). 

The fire resistance of structural steel columns pro- 
tected with intumescent or mastic fire-resistant coatings 
shall be determined on the basis of fire-resistance tests in 
accordance with Section 703.2. 




. -<D 



^S_ m_ 



5/16" 
MIN. 



■No.8x1/2" SHEET STEEL 
SCREWS SPACED 12"o.c. 



SNAP-LOCK PITTSBURGH SEAM 

CORNER JOINT DETAILS (A) 



FIGURE 721.5.1(2) 

GYPSUM WALLBOARD PROTECTED STRUCTURAL STEEL 

COLUMNS WITH SHEET STEEL COLUMN COVERS 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 305 mm. 

1. Structural steel column, either wide flange or tubular shapes. 

2. Type X gypsum wallboard in accordance with ASTM C 36. For single-layer 
applications, the wallboard shall be applied vertically with no horizontal 
joints. For multiple-layer appUcations, horizontal joints are permitted at a 
minimum spacing of 8 feet, provided that the joints in successive layers are 
staggered at least 12 inches. The total required thickness of wallboard shall 
be determined on the basis of the specified fire-resistance rating and the 
weight-to-heated-perimeter ratio (W/D) of the column. For fire-resistance 
ratings of 2 hours or less, one of the required layers of gypsum wallboard 
may be appUed to the exterior of the sheet steel column covers with 1 -inch- 
long Type S screws spaced 1 inch from the wallboard edge and 8 inches on 
center. For such installations, 0.0149-inch minimum thickness galvanized 
steel comer beads with 1 Vj-inch legs shall be attached to the wallboard with 
Type S screws spaced 12 inches on center. 

3. For fire-resistance ratings of 3 hours or less, the column covers shall be fabri- 
cated from 0.0239-inch minimum thickness galvanized or stainless steel. 
For 4-hour fire-resistance ratings, the column covers shall be fabricated from 
0.0239-inch minimum thickness stainless steel. The column covers shall be 
erected with the Snap Lock or Pittsburgh joint details. 

For fire-resistance ratings of 2 hours or less, column covers fabricated from 
0.0269-inch minimum thickness galvanized or stainless steel shall be permit- 
ted to be erected with lap joints. The lap joints shall be permitted to be located 
anywhere around the perimeter of the column cover. The lap joints shall be 
secured with '^-inch-long No. 8 sheet metal screws spaced 12 inches on cen- 
ter. 

The column covers shall be provided with a minimum expansion clearance 
of Vg inch per linear foot between the ends of the cover and any restraining 
construction. 



721.5.1.3.1 Material-dependent constants. The 

material-dependent constants, Cj and C2, shall be 
determined for specific fire-resistant materials on the 
basis of standard fire endurance tests in accordance 
with Section 703.2. Unless evidence is submitted to 
the building official substantiating a broader applica- 
tion, this expression shall be limited to determining 
the fire resistance of structural steel columns with 
weight-to-heated-perimeter ratios (W/D) between the 
largest and smallest columns for which standard 
fire-resistance test results are available. 

721.5.1.3.2 Spray-applied identification. 

Spray-applied fire-resistant materials shall be identi- 
fied by density and thickness required for a given 
fire-resistance rating. 





1 LAYER = 5/8" OR 1/2" 



2 LAYERS = 1 1/4" OR 1" 





3 LAYERS = 1 7/8" OR 1 1/2" 



4 LAYERS = 2 1/2" OR 2" 



FIGURE 721 .5.1 (3) 

GYPSUM WALLBOARD PROTECTED STRUCTURAL STEEL 

COLUMNS WITH STEEL STUD/SCREW ATTACHMENT SYSTEM 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = -305 mm. 

1 . Structural steel column, either wide flange or tubular shapes. 

2. 1^/g-inch deep studs fabricated from 0.0179-inch minimum thickness galva- 
nized steel with l^/,g or I'/jg-inch legs. The length of the steel studs shall be 
V2 inch less than the height of the assembly. 

3. Type X gypsum wallboard in accordance with ASTM C 36. For single-layer 
applications, the wallboard shall be applied vertically with no horizontal 
joints. For multiple-layer applications, horizontal joints are permitted at a 
minimum spacing of 8 feet, provided that the joints in successive layers are 
staggered at least 12 inches. The total required thickness of wallboard shall 
be determined on the basis of the specified fire-resistance rating and the 
weight-to-heated-perimeter ratio (W/D) of the column. 

4. Galvanized 0.0149-inch minimum thickness steel corner beads with 
1 '/2-inch legs attached to the wallboard with 1 -inch-long Type S screws 
spaced 12 inches on center 

5. No. 18 SWG steel tie wires spaced 24 inches on center 

6. Sheet metal angles with 2-inch legs fabricated from 0.0221 -inch minimum 
thickness galvanized steel. 

7. Type S screws, 1 inch long, shall be used for attaching the first layer of wall- 
board to the steel studs and the third layer to the sheet metal angles at 24 inches 
on center. Type S screws P/4-inch long shall be used for attaching the second 
layer of wallboard to the steel studs and the fourth layer to the sheet metal 
angles at 12 inches on center. Type S screws 2^^ inches long shall be used for 
attaching the third lay er of wallboard to the steel studs at 1 2 inches on center. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE'' 



149 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



721.5.1.4 Concrete-protected columns. The fire resis- 
tance of structural steel columns protected with concrete, 
as illustrated in Figure 721.5.1(6) (a) and (b), shall be 
permitted to be determined from the following expres- 
sion: 

R=R,(l+ 0.03 J (Equation 7-14) 

where: 

R, = 10 (W/D) 0^ + 17 (/zi 6/it^o 2) X (1 + 26 (H/p,c^ (L + h)f-^) 

As used in these expressions: 

R = Fire endurance at equilibrium moisture conditions 
(minutes). 

Rg = Fire endurance at zero moisture content (minutes) . 

m = Equilibrium moisture content of the concrete by 
volume (percent). 

W = Average weight of the steel column (pounds per 
linear foot). 

D = Heated perimeter of the steel column (inches). 

h = Thickness of the concrete cover (inches). 

k^ = Ambient temperature thermal conductivity of the 
concrete (Btu/hr ft °F). 

H = Ambient temperature thermal capacity of the steel 
column = 0.1 IW (Btu/ ft °F). 

p^ = Concrete density (pounds per cubic foot). 

c^ = Ambient temperature specific heat of concrete 
(Btu/lb °F). 

L = Interior dimension of one side of a square concrete 
box protection (inches). 



4 


21 

/ 


rz' : 


!• 17/8" 

/ 


1 1 


/2" 


11/4" 

7 


3 
2 


^ 




/ 


/ 


^ 

^ 


^ 


11/2 


^ 




^^.. 


^^^^y„-r< 








^ 


^•^ 











WEIGHT-TO-HEATED-PERIMETER RATIO (WD)* 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per linear foot/inch = 0.059 kg/m/mm. 

FIGURE 721 .5.1 (4) 

FIRE RESISTANCE OF STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMNS 

PROTECTED WITH VARIOUS THICKNESSES OF 

TYPE X GYPSUM WALLBOARD 

a. The W/D ratios for typical wide flange columns are listed in Table 
721.5.1(1). For other column shapes, the Vf/D ratios shall be determined in 
accordance with Section 720.5.1.1. 




mmm 



FIGURE 721 .5.1 (5) 

WIDE FLANGE STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMNS WITH 

SPRAY-APPLIED FIRE-RESISTANT MATERIALS 



1 



^ . i ,J|.T] 



^. 



(a) 


(b) 


(c) 


PRECAST 


CONCRETE 


CONCRETE 


CONCRETE 


ENCASED 


ENCASED 


COLUMN 


STRUCTURAL 


WIDE-FLANGE 


COVERS 


TUBE 


SHAPE 



FIGURE 721 .5.1 (6) 
CONCRETE PROTECTED STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMNS^" 

a. When the inside perimeter of the concrete protection is not square, L shall be 
taken as the average of L, and L-^. When the thickness of concrete cover is not 
constant, h shall be taken as the average of /i, and h^. 

b. Joints shall be protected with a minimum 1 inch thickness of ceramic fiber 
blanket but in no case less than one-half the thickness of the column cover 
(see Section 720.2.1.3). 

721.5.1.4.1 Reentrant space filled. For wide-flange 
steel columns completely encased in concrete with all 
reentrant spaces filled [Figure 721.5.1(6)(c)], the 
thermal capacity of the concrete within the reentrant 
spaces shall be permitted to be added to the thermal 
capacity of the steel column, as follows: 



//= 0. 1 1 W+ (p,cy 144) (^// -A,) 
where: 



(Equation 7-15) 



d = 

A = 



Flange width of the steel column (inches). 

Depth of the steel column (inches). 

Cross-sectional area of the steel column (square 
inches). 



721.5.1.4.2 Concrete properties unknown. If spe- 
cific data on the properties of concrete are not avail- 
able, the values given in Table 721.5.1(2) are 
permitted. 

721.5.1.4.3 Minimum concrete cover. For structural 
steel column encased in concrete with all reentrant 
spaces filled. Figure 721.5.1(6)(c) and Tables 
721.5.1(7) and 721.5.1(8) indicate the thickness of 
concrete cover required for various fire-resistance rat- 
ings for typical wide-flange sections. The thicknesses 
of concrete indicated in these tables also apply to 
structural steel columns larger than those listed. 



150 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE" 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



721.5.1.4.4 Minimum precast concrete cover. For 

structural steel columns protected with precast con- 
crete column covers as shown in Figure 
721.5. l(6)(a), Tables 721.5.1(9) and 721.5.1(10) 
indicate the thickness of the column covers required 
for various fire-resistance ratings for typical 
wide-flange shapes. The thicknesses of concrete 
given in these tables also apply to structural steel col- 
umns larger than those listed. 

721.5.1.4.5 Masonry protection. The fire resistance 
of structural steel columns protected with concrete 
masonry units or clay masonry units as illustrated in 
Figure 721.5.1(7), shall be permitted to be deter- 
mined from the following expression: 

R = 0.ll (W/D)^' + [0.285 (T,'-^/K^-^) ] 

[1.0 -H 42.7 { (A A T,) I (0.25/7 + TJ } »« ] 

(Equation 7-16) 

where: 

R = Fire-resistance rating of column assembly 
(hours). 

W = Average weight of steel column (pounds per 
foot). 

D = Heated perimeter of steel column (inches) [see 
Figure 721.5.1(7)]. 

Tg = Equivalent thickness of concrete or clay 
masonry unit (inches) (see Table 721 .3.2 Note a 
or Section 721.4.1). 

K = Thermal conductivity of concrete or clay 
masonry unit (Btu/hr ft °F) [see Table 
721.5.1(3)]. 

A^ = Cross-sectional area of steel column (square 
inches). 

d^ = Density of the concrete or clay masonry unit 
(pounds per cubic foot). 

p = Inner perimeter of concrete or clay masonry 
protection (inches) [see Figure 721.5.1(7)]. 



721.5.1.4.6 Equivalent concrete masonry thick- 
ness. For structural steel columns protected with con- 
crete masonry, Table 721.5.1(5) gives the equivalent 
thickness of concrete masonry required for various 
fire-resistance ratings for typical column shapes. For 
structural steel columns protected with clay masonry. 
Table 721.5.1(6) gives the equivalent thickness of 
concrete masonry required for various fire-resistance 
ratings for typical column shapes. 

721.5.2 Structural steel beams and girders. The 

fire-resistance ratings of steel beams and girders shall be 
based upon the size of the element and the type of protection 
provided in accordance with this section. 

721.5.2.1 Determination of fire resistance. These pro- 
cedures establish a basis for determining resistance of 
structural steel beams and girders which differ in size 
from that specified in approved fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies as a function of the thickness of fire-resistant 
material and the weight (W) and heated perimeter (D) of 
the beam or girder. As used in these sections, W is the 
average weight of a structural steel member in pounds 
per linear foot (plf). The heated perimeter, D, is the inside 
perimeter of the fire-resistant material in inches as illus- 
trated in Figure 721.5.2. 




bf 



D = % + 2d-2tjy 



D = 2d + bf 



FIGURE 721 .5.2 
DETERMINATION OF THE HEATED PERIMETER 
OF STRUCTURAL STEEL BEAMS AND GIRDERS 



D=2(w-K/)+2(w-U) 



D = 7td 



D = 2w + 2cf 



D|a[3D 



hi 



ID 
ID 



DDD P 



W SHAPE COLUMN 



D DDD 



DDD 



D 




r " 

STEEL PIPE COLUMN STRUCTURAL TUBE COLUMN 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

FIGURE 721.5.1(7) 

CONCRETE OR CLAY MASONRY PROTECTED 

STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMNS 

d = Depth of a wide flange column, outside diameter of pipe column, or 

outside dimension of structural tubing column (inches). 
t^^= Thickness of web of wide flange column (inches). 
w = Width of flange of wide flange column (inches). 



721.5.2.1.1 Weight-to-heated perimeter. The 

weight-to-heated-perimeter ratios (W/D), for both 
contour and box fire-resistant protection profiles, for 
the wide flange shapes most often used as beams or 
girders are given in Table 721.5.1(4). For different 
shapes, the weight-to-heated-perimeter ratios (W/D) 
shall be determined in accordance with the definitions 
given in this section. 

721.5.2.1.2 Beam and girder substitutions. Except 
as provided for in Section 721.5.2.2, structural steel 
beams in approved fire-resistance-rated assemblies 
shall be considered the minimum permissible size. 
Other beam or girder shapes shall be permitted to be 
substituted provided that the weight-to-heated-perim- 
eter ratio (W/D) of the substitute beam is equal to or 
greater than that of the beam specified in the approved 
assembly. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



151 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 721 .5.1(1) 
\NID RATIOS FOR STEEL COLUMNS 



STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


CONTOUR 
PROFILE 


BOX 
PROFILE 


STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


CONTOUR 
PROFILE 


BOX 
PROFILE 


W14X233 


2.49 


3.65 


W10X112 


1.78 


2.57 


X211 


2.28 


3.35 


xlOO 


1.61 


2.33 


X193 


2.10 


3.09 


X 88 


1.43 


2.08 


X176 


1.93 


2.85 


X 77 


1.26 


1.85 


X159 


1.75 


2.60 


X 68 


1.13 


1.66 


X145 


1.61 


2.39 


X 60 


1.00 


1.48 


X132 


1.52 


2.25 


X 54 


0.91 


1.34 


X120 


1.39 


2.06 


X 49 


0.83 


1.23 


X109 


1.27 


1.88 


X 45 


0.87 


1.24 


X 99 


1.16 


1.72 


X 39 


0.76 


1.09 


X 90 


1.06 


1.58 


X 33 


0.65 


0.93 


X 82 


1.20 


1.68 




X 74 


1.09 


1.53 


W8x67 


1.34 


1.94 


X 68 


1.01 


1.41 


x58 


1.18 


1.71 


X 61 


0.91 


1.28 


x48 


0.99S 


1.44 


X 53 


0.89 


1.21 


x40 


0.83 


1.23 


X 48 


0.81 


1.10 


X 35 


0.73 


1.08 


X 43 


0.73 


0.99 


X 31 


0.65 


0.97 




X 28 


0.67 


0.96 


W12X190 


2.46 


3.51 


X 24 


0.58 


0.83 


X170 


2.22 


3.20 


X 21 


0.57 


0.77 


X152 


2.01 


2.90 


X 18 


0.49 


0.67 


X136 


1.82 


2.63 




X120 


1.62 


2.36 


W6x25 


0.69 


1.00 


X106 


1.44 


2.11 


x20 


0.56 


0.82 


X 96 


1.32 


1.93 


xl6 


0.57 


0.78 


X 87 


1.20 


1.76 


xl5 


0.42 


0.63 


X 79 


1.10 


1.61 


xl2 


0.43 


0.60 


X 72 


1.00 


1.48 


X 9 


0.33 


0.46 


X 65 


0.91 


1.35 




X 58 


0.91 


1.31 


W5xl9 


0.64 


0.93 


X 53 


0.84 


1.20 


xl6 


0.54 


0.80 


X 50 


0.89 


1.23 




X 45 


0.81 


1.12 


W4xl3 


0.54 


0.79 


X 40 


0.72 


1.00 





For SI: 1 pound per linear foot per inch = 0.059 kg/m/mm. 



152 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 721 .5.1 (2) 
PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE 



PROPERTY 


NORMAL-WEIGHT CONCRETE 


STRUCTURAL LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE 


Thermal conductivity (k^) 


0.95 Btu/hr ft °F 


0.35 Btu/hr ft °F 


Specific heat (q) 


0.20 Btu/lb °F 


0.20 Btu/lb °F 


Density {PJ 


145 Ib/ft^ 


1101b/ft3 


Equihbrium (free) moisture 
content (m) by volume 


4% 


5% 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304:8 mm, 1 Ib/f^ = 16.0185 kg/m^, Btu/hr ft °F = 1.731 W/(m • K). 



TABLE 721.5.1(3) 

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF CONCRETE OR CLAY 

MASONRY UNITS 



DENSITY (dj OF UNITS (Ib/ff") 


THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY (K) OF UNITS (Btu/hr ft "F) 


Concrete Masonry Units 


80 


0.207 


85 


0.228 


90 


0.252 


95 


0.278 


100 


0.308 


105 


0.340 


110 


0.376 


115 


0.416 


120 


0.459 


125 


0.508 


130 


0.561 


135 


0.620 


140 


0.685 


145 


0.758 


150 


0.837 


Clay Masonry Units 


120 


1.25 


130 


2.25 



For SI: 1 pound per cubic foot = 1 6.0 1 85 kgAn^ Btu per hour foot °F = 1 .73 1 W/(m ■ K). 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



153 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 721.5.1(4) 

WEIGHT-TO-HEATED-PERIMETER RATIOS (W/D) 

FOR TYPICAL WIDE FLANGE BEAM AND GIRDER SHAPES 



STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


CONTOUR 
PROFILE 


BOX 
PROFILE 


STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


CONTOUR 
PROFILE 


BOX 
PROFILE 


W36 X 300 


2.47 


3.33 


X 68 


0.92 


1.21 


x280 


2.31 


3.12 


X 62 


0.92 


1.14 


x260 


2.16 


2.92 


X 55 


0.82 


1.02 


x245 


2.04 


2.76 








x230 


1.92 


2.61 


W21 X 147 


1.83 


2.60 


x210 


1.94 


2.45 


X132 


1.66 


2.35 


xl94 


1.80 


2.28 


X122 


1.54 


2.19 


X182 


1.69 


2.15 


xlll 


1.41 


2.01 


xl70 


1.59 


2.01 


xlOl 


1.29 


1.84 


xl60 


1.50 


1.90 


X 93 


1.38 


1.80 


xl50 


1.41 


1.79 


X 83 


1.24 


1.62 


xl35 


1.28 


1.63 


X 73 


1.10 


1.44 




X 68 


1.03 


1.35 


W33 x241 


2.11 


2.86 


X 62 


0.94 


1.23 


x221 


1.94 


2.64 


X 57 


0.93 


1.17 


x201 


1.78 


2.42 


X 50 


0.83 


1.04 


xl52 


1.51 


1.94 


X 44 


0.73 


0.92 


xl41 


1.41 


1.80 




xl30 


1.31 


1.67 


W18X119 


1.69 


2.42 


xll8 


1.19 


1.53 


X106 


1.52 


2.18 




X 97 


1.39 


2.01 


W30X211 


2.00 


2.74 


X 86 


1.24 


1.80 


X191 


1.82 


2.50 


X 76 


1.11 


1.60 


xl73 


1.66 


2.28 


X 71 


1.21 


1.59 


xl32 


1.45 


1.85 


X 65 


1.11 


1.47 


xl24 


1.37 


1.75 


X 60 


1.03 


1.36 


xll6 


1.28 


1.65 


X 55 


0.95 


1.26 


xlOS 


1.20 


1.54 


X 50 


0.87 


1.15 


X 99 


1.10 


1.42 


X 46 


0.86 


1.09 




X 40 


0.75 


0.96 


W27 X 178 


1.85 


2.55 


X 35 


0.66 


0.85 


xl61 


1.68 


2.33 




xl46 


1.53 


2.12 


W16 X 100 


1.56 


2.25 


xll4 


1.36 


1.76 


X 89 


1.40 


2.03 


xl02 


1.23 


1.59 


X 77 


1.22 


1.78 


X 94 


1.13 


1.47 


X 67 


1.07 


1.56 


X 84 


1.02 


1.33 


X 57 


1.07 


1.43 




X 50 


0.94 


1.26 




X 45 


0.85 


1.15 


W24 X 162 


1.85 


2.57 


X 40 


0.76 


1.03 


xl46 


1.68 


2.34 


X 36 


0.69 


0.93 


xl31 


1.52 


2.12 


X 31 


0.65 


0.83 


xll7 


1.36 


1.91 


X 26 


0.55 


0.70 


xl04 


1.22 


1.71 




X 94 


1.26 


1.63 


W14X132 


1.83 


3.00 


X 84 


1.13 


1.47 


X120 


1.67 


2.75 


X 76 


1.03 


1.34 


X109 


1.53 


2.52 



(continued) 



154 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 721.5.1(4)— continued 

WEIGHT-TO-HEATED-PERIMETER RATIOS (IV/D) 

FOR TYPICAL WIDE FLANGE BEAM AND GIRDER SHAPES 



STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


CONTOUR 
PROFILE 


BOX 
PROFILE 


STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


CONTOUR 
PROFILE 


BOX 
PROFILE 


X 99 


1.39 


2.31 


X 30 


0.79 


1.12 


X 90 


1.27 


2.11 


X 26 


0.69 


0.98 


X 82 


1.41 


2.12 


X 22 


0.59 


0.84 


X 74 


1.28 


1.93 


X 19 


0.59 


0.78 


X 68 


1.19 


1.78 


X 17 


0.54 


0.70 


X 61 


1.07 


1.61 


X 15 


0.48 


0.63 


X 53 


1.03 


1.48 


X 12 


0.38 


0.51 


X 48 


0.94 


1.35 




X 43 


0.85 


1.22 


W8 X 67 


1.61 


2.55 


X 38 


0.79 


1.09 


X 58 


1.41 


2.26 


X 34 


0.71 


0.98 


X 48 


1.18 


1.91 


X 30 


0.63 


0.87 


X 40 


1.00 


1.63 


X 26 


0.61 


0.79 


X 35 


0.88 


1.44 


X 22 


0.52 


0.68 


X 31 


0.79 


1.29 




X 28 


0.80 


1.24 


W12X 87 


1.44 


2.34 


X 24 


0.69 


1.07 


X 79 


1.32 


2.14 


X 21 


0.66 


0.96 


X 72 


1.20 


1.97 


X 18 


0.57 


0.84 


X 65 


1.09 


1.79 


X 15 


0.54 


0.74 


X 58 


1.08 


1.69 


X 13 


0.47 


0.65 


X 53 


0.99 


1.55 


X 10 


0.37 


0.51 


X 50 


1.04 


1.54 




X 45 


0.95 


1.40 


W6 X 25 


0.82 


1.33 


X 40 


0.85 


1.25 


X 20 


0.67 


1.09 


X 35 


0.79 


1.11 


X 16 


0.66 


0.96 


X 30 


0.69 


0.96 


X 15 


0.51 


0.83 


X . 26 


0.60 


0.84 


X 12 


0.51 


0.75 


X 22 


0.61 


0.77 


X 9 


0.39 


0.57 


X 19 


0.53 


0.67 




X 16 


0.45 


0.57 


W5 X 19 


0.76 


1.24 


X 14 


0.40 


0.50 


X 16 


0.65 


1.07 






W10X112 


2.14 


3.38 


W4 X 13 


0.65 


1.05 


xlOO 


1.93 


3.07 




X 88 


1.70 


2.75 


X 77 


1.52 


2.45 


X 68 


1.35 


2.20 


X 60 


1.20 


1.97 


X 54 


1.09 


1.79 


X 49 


0.99 


1.64 


X 45 


1.03 


1.59 


X 39 


0.94 


1.40 


X 33 


0.77 


1.20 









For SI: Pounds per linear foot per inch = 0.059 kg/m/mm. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



155 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 721 .5.1 (5) 
FIRE RESISTANCE OF CONCRETE MASONRY PROTECTED STEEL COLUMNS 



COLUMN 
SIZE 


CONCRETE 

MASONRY DENSITY 

POUNDS PER 

CUBIC FOOT 


MINIMUM REQUIRED EQUIVALENT 
THICKNESS FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE 

RATING OF CONCRETE MASONRY 
PROTECTION ASSEMBLY, T^ (inches) 


COLUMN 
SIZE 


CONCRETE 

MASONRY DENSITY 

POUNDS PER 

CUBIC FOOT 


MINIMUM REQUIRED EQUIVALENT 
THICKNESS FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE 

RATING OF CONCRETE MASONRY 
PROTECTION ASSEMBLY, T^ (Inches) 


1-hour 


2-hour 


3-hour 


4-h6ur 


1-hour 


2-hour 


3-hour 


4-hour 


W14x82 


80 


0.74 


1.61 


2.36 


3.04 


W10X68 


80 


0.72 


1.58 


2.33 


3.01 


100 


0.89 


1.85 


2.67 


3.40 


100 


0.87 


1.83 


2.65 


3.38 


110 


0.96 


1.97 


2.81 


3.57 


110 


0.94 


1.95 


2.79 


3.55 


120 


1.03 


2.08 


2.95 


3.73 


120 


1.01 


2.06 


2.94 


3.72 


W14x68 


80 


0.83 


1.70 


2.45 


3.13 


W10X54 


80 


0.88 


1.76 


2.53 


3.21 


100 


0.99 


1.95 


2.76 


3.49 


100 


1.04 


2.01 


2.83 


3.57 


110 


1.06 


2.06 


2.91 


3.66 


110 


1.11 


2.12 


2.98 


3.73 


120 


1.14 


2.18 


3.05 


3.82 


120 


1.19 


2.24 


3.12 


3.90 


W14X53 


80 


0.91 


1.81 


2.58 


3.27 


W10X45 


80 


0.92 


1.83 


2.60 


3.30 


100 


1.07 


2.05 


2.88 


3.62 


100 


1.08 


2.07 


2.90 


3.64 


110 


1.15 


2.17 


3.02 


3.78 


110 


1.16 


2.18 


3.04 


3.80 


120 


1.22 


2.28 


3.16 


3.94 


120 


1.23 


2.29 


3.18 


3.96 


W14x43 


80 


1.01 


1.93 


2.71 


3.41 


W10X33 


80 


1.06 


2.00 


2.79 


3.49 


100 


1.17 


2.17 


3.00 


3.74 


100 


1.22 


2.23 


3.07 


3.81 


110 


1.25 


2.28 


3.14 


3.90 


110 


1.30 


2.34 


3.20 


3.96 


120 


1.32 


2.38 


3.27 


4.05 


120 


1.37 


2.44 


3.33 


4.12 


W12X72 


80. 


0.81 


1.66 


2.41 


3.09 


W8x40 


80 


0.94 


1.85 


2.63 


3.33 


100 


0.91 


1.88 


2.70 


3.43 


100 


1.10 


2.10 


2.93 


3.67 


110 


0.99 


1.99 


2.84 


3.60 


110 


1.18 


2.21 


3.07 


3.83 


120 


1.06 


2.10 


2.98 


3.76 


120 


1.25 


2.32 


3.20 


3.99 


W12x58 


80 


0.88 


1.76 


2.52 


3.21 


W8x31 


80 


1.06 


2.00 


2.78 


3.49 


100 


1.04 


2.01 


2.83 


3.56 


100 


1.22 


2.23 


3.07 


3.81 


110 


1.11 


2.12 


2.97 


3.73 


110 


1.29 


2.33 


3.20 


3.97 


120 


1.19 


2.23 


3.11 


3.89 


120 


1.36 


2.44 


3.33 


4.12 


W12X50 


80 


0.91 


1.81 


2.58 


3.27 


W8x24 


80 


1.14 


2.09 


2.89 


3.59 


100 


1.07 


2.05 


2.88 


3.62 


100 


1.29 


2.31 


3.16 


3.90 


110 


1.15 


2.17 


3.02 


3.78 


110 


1.36 


2.42 


3.28 


4.05 


120 


1.22 


2.28 


3.16 


3.94 


120 


1.43 


2.52 


3.41 


4.20 


W12x40 


80 


1.01 


1.94 


2.72 


3.41 


W8xl8 


110 


1.22 


2.20 


3.01 


3.72 


100 


1.17 


2.17 


3.01 


3.75 


100 


1.36 


2.40 


3.25 


4.01 


110 


1.25 


2.28 


3.14 


3.90 


110 


1.42 


2.50 


3.37 


4.14 


120 


1.32 


2.39 


3.27 


4.06 


120 


1.48 


2.59 


3.49 


4.28 



(continued) 



156 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 721.5.1(5)— continued 
FIRE RESISTANCE OF CONCRETE MASONRY PROTECTED STEEL COLUMNS 



NOMINAL TUBE 

SIZE 

(inches) 


CONCRETE MASONRY 

DENSITY, POUNDS PER 

CUBIC FOOT 


MINIMUM REQUIRED 
EQUIVALENT THICKNESS 
FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE 
RATING OF CONCRETE 
MASONRY PROTECTION 
ASSEMBLY, T^ (inches) 


NOMINAL PIPE 

SIZE 

(inches) 


CONCRETE MASONRY 
DENSITY, POUNDS 
PER CUBIC FOOT 


MINIMUM REQUIRED 
EQUIVALENT THICKNESS 
FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE 
RATING OF CONCRETE 
MASONRY PROTECTION 
ASSEMBLY, T^ (inches) 


1-hour 


2-hour 


3-hour 


4-hour 


1-hour 


2-hour 


3-hour 


4-hour 


4 X 4 X V2 wall 
thickness 


80 


0.93 


1.90 


2.71 


3.43 


4 double extra 

strong 0.674 

wall thickness 


80 


0.80 


1.75 


2.56 


3.28 


100 


1.08 


2.13 


2.99 


3.76 


100 


0.95 


1.99 


2.85 


3.62 


110 


1.16 


2.24 


3.13 


3.91 


110 


1.02 


2.10 


2.99 


3.78 


120 


1.22 


2.34 


3.26 


4.06 


120 


1.09 


2.20 


3.12 


3.93 


4 X 4 X % wall 
thickness 


80 


1.05 


2.03 


2.84 


3.57 


4 extra strong 
0.337 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.12 


2.11 


2.93 


3.65 


100 


1.20 


2.25 


3.11 


3.88 


100 


1.26 


2.32 


3.19 


3.95 


110 


1.27 


2.35 


3.24 


4.02 


110 


1.33 


2.42 


3.31 


4.09 


120 


1.34 


2.45 


3.37 


4.17 


120 


1.40 


2.52 


3.43 


4.23 


4 X 4 X V4 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.21 


2.20 


3.01 


3.73 


4 standard 
0.237 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.26 


2.25 


3.07 


3.79 


100 


1.35 


2.40 


3.26 


4.02 


100 


1.40 


2.45 


3.31 


4.07 


110 


1.41 


2.50 


3.38 


4.16 


110 


1.46 


2.55 


3.43 


4.21 


120 


1.48 


2.59 


3.50 


4.30 


120 


1.53 


2.64 


3.54 


4.34 


6 X 6 X V2 wall 
thickness 


80 


0.82 


1.75 


2.54 


3.25 


5 double extra 

strong 0.750 

wall thickness 


80 


0.70 


1.61 


2.40 


3.12 


100 


0.98 


1.99 


2.84 


3.59 


100 


0.85 


1.86 


2.71 


3.47 


110 


1.05 


2.10 


2.98 


3.75 


110 


0.91 


1.97 


2.85 


3.63 


120 


1.12 


2.21 


3.11 


3.91 


120 


0.98 


2.02 


2.99 


3.79 


6 X 6 X Vg wall 
thickness 


80 


0.96 


1.91 


2.71 


3.42 


5 extra strong 
0.375 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.04 


2.01 


2.83 


3.54 


100 


1.12 


2.14 


3.00 


3.75 


100 


1.19 


2.23 


3.09 


3.85 


110 


1.19 


2.25 


3.13 


3.90 


110 


1.26 


2.34 


3.22 


4.00 


120 


1.26 


2.35 


3.26 


4.05 


120 


1.32 


2.44 


3.34 


4.14 


6 X 6 X V4 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.14 


2.11 


2.92 


3.63 


5 standard 
0.258 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.20 


2.19 


3.00 


3.72 


100 


1.29 


2.32 


3.18 


3.93 


100 


1.34 


2.39 


3.25 


4.00 


110 


1.36 


2.43 


3.30 


4.08 


110 


1.41 


2.49 


3.37 


4.14 


120 


1.42 


2.52 


3.43 


4.22 


120 


1.47 


2.58 


3.49 


4.28 


8 X 8 X V2 wall 
thickness 


80 


0.77 


1.66 


2.44 


3.13 


6 double extra 

strong 0.864 

wall thickness 


80 


0.59 


1.46 


2.23 


2.92 


100 


0.92 


1.91 


2.75 


3.49 


100 


0.73 


1.71 


2.54 


3.29 


110 


1.00 


2.02 


2.89 


3.66 


110 


0.80 


1.82 


2.69 


3.47 


120 


1.07 


2.14 


3.03 


3.82 


120 


0.86 


1.93 


2.83 


3.63 


8 X 8 X Vg wall 
thickness 


80 


0.91 


1.84 


2.63 


3.33 


6 extra strong 
0.432 wall 
thickness 


80 


0.94 


1.90 


2.70 


3.42 


100 


1.07 


2.08 


2.92 


3.67 


100 


1.10 


2.13 


2.98 


3.74 


110 


1.14 


2.19 


3.06 


3.83 


110 


1.17 


2.23 


3.11 


3.89 


120 


1.21 


2.29 


3.19 


3.98 


120 


1.24 


2.34 


3.24 


4.04 


8 X 8 X V4 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.10 


2.06 


2.86 


3.57 


6 standard 
0.280 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.14 


2.12 


2.93 


3.64 


100 


1.25 


2.28 


3.13 


3.87 


100 


1.29 


2.33 


3.19 


3.94 


110 


1.32 


2.38 


3.25 


4.02 


110 


1.36 


2.43 


3.31 


4.08 


120 


1.39 


2.48 


3.38 


4.17 


120 


1.42 


2.53 


3.43 


4.22 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per cubic feet = 16.02 kgka^. 

Note: Tabulated values assume 1-inch air gap between masonry and steel section. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



157 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 721 .5.1 (6) 
FIRE RESISTANCE OF CLAY MASONRY PROTECTED STEEL COLUMNS 



COLUMN SIZE 


CLAY 

MASONRY 

DENSITY, 

POUNDS PER 

CUBIC FOOT 


MINIMUM REQUIRED EQUIVALENT 
THICKNESS FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE 

RATING OF CLAY MASONRY 
PROTECTION ASSEMBLY, T^ (Inches) 


COLUMN SIZE 


CLAY 

MASONRY 

DENSITY, 

POUNDS PER 

CUBIC FOOT 


MINIMUM REQUIRED EQUIVALENT 
THICKNESS FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE 

RATING OF CLAY MASONRY 
PROTECTION ASSEMBLY, T^ (inches) 


1-hour 


2-hour 


3-hour 


4-hour 


1-hour 


2-hour 


3-hour 


4-hour 


W14x82 


120 


1.23 


2.42 


3.41 


4.29 


W10x68 


120 


1.27 


2.46 


3.26 


4.35 


130 


1.40 


2.70 


3.78 


4.74 


130 


1.44 


2.75 


3.83 


4.80 


W14x68 


120 


1.34 


2.54 


3.54 


4.43 


W10X54 


120 


1.40 


2.61 


3.62 


4.51 


130 


1.51 


2.82 


3.91 


4.87 


130 


1.58 


2.89 


3.98 


4.95 


W14X53 


120 


1.43 


2.65 


3.65 


4.54 


W10X45 


120 


1.44 


2.66 


3.67 


4.57 


130 


1.61 


2.93 


4.02 


4.98 


130 


1.62 


2.95 


4.04 


5.01 


W14X43 


120 


1.54 


2.76 


3.77 


4.66 


W10X33 


120 


1.59 


2.82 


3.84 


4.73 


130 


1.72 


3.04 


4.13 


5.09 


130 


1.77 


3.10 


4.20 


5.13 


W12X72 


120 


1.32 


2.52 


3.51 


4.40 


W8x40 


120 


1.47 


2.70 


3.71 


4.61 


130 


1.50 


2.80 


3.88 


4.84 


130 


1.65 


2.98 


4.08 


5.04 


W12X58 


120 


1.40 


2.61 


3.61 


4.50 


W8x31 


120 


1.59 


2.82 


3.84 


4.73 


130 


1.57 


2.89 


3.98 


4.94 


130 


1.77 


3.10 


4.20 


5.17 


W12x50 


120 


1.43 


2.65 


3.66 


4.55 


W8x24 


120 


1.66 


2.90 


3.92 


4.82 


130 


1.61 


2.93 


4.02 


4.99 


130 


1.84 


3.18 


4.28 


5.25 


W12X40 


120 


1.54 


2.77 


3.78 


4.67 


W8xl8 


120 


1.75 


3.00 


4.01 


4.91 


130 


1.72 


3.05 


4.14 


5.10 


130 


1.93 


3.27 


4.37 


5.34 


STEEL TUBING 


STEEL PIPE 


NOMINAL TUBE 
SIZE (Inches) 


CLAY 

MASONRY 

DENSITY, 

POUNDS PER 

CUBIC FOOT 


MINIMUM REQUIRED EQUIVALENT 
THICKNESS FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE 

RATING OF CLAY MASONRY 
PROTECTION ASSEMBLY, 7; (inches) 


NOMINAL PIPE 
SIZE (inches) 


CLAY 

MASONRY 

DENSITY, 

POUNDS PER 

CUBIC FOOT 


MINIMUM REQUIRED EQUIVALENT 
THICKNESS FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE 

RATING OF CLAY MASONRY 
PROTECTION ASSEMBLY, T^ (inches) 


1-hour 


2-hour 


3-hour 


4-hour 


1-hour 


2-hour 


3-hour 


4-hour 


4 X 4 X V2 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.44 


2.72 


3.76 


4.68 


4 double extra 

strong 0.674 

wall thickness 


120 


1.26 


2.55 


3.60 


4.52 


130 


1.62 


3.00 


4.12 


5.11 


130 


1.42 


2.82 


3.96 


4.95 


4x4x^/8 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.56 


2.84 


3.88 


4.78 


4 extra strong 

0.337 
wall thickness 


120 


1.60 


2.89 


3.92 


4.83 


130 


1.74 


3.12 


4.23 


5.21 


130 


1.77 


3.16 


4.28 


5.25 


4 X 4 X V4 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.72 


2.99 


4.02 


4.92 


4 standard 

0.237 

wall thickness 


120 


1.74 


3.02 


4.05 


4.95 


130 


1.89 


3.26 


4.37 


5.34 


130 


1.92 


3.29 


4.40 


5.37 


6 X 6 X V2 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.33 


2.58 


3.62 


4.52 


5 double extra 

strong 0.750 

wall thickness 


120 


1.17 


2.44 


3.48 


4.40 


130 


1.50 


2.86 


3.98 


4.96 


130 


1.33 


2.72 


3.84 


4.83 


6 X 6 X % wall 
thickness 


120 


1.48 


2.74 


3.76 


4.67 


5 extra strong 

0.375 
wall thickness 


120 


1.55 


2.82 


3.85 


4.76 


130 


1.65 


3.01 


4.13 


5.10 


130 


1.72 


3.09 


4.21 


5.18 


6 X 6 X V4 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.66 


2.91 


3.94 


4.84 


5 standard 

0.258 

wall thickness 


120 


1.71 


2.97 


4.00 


4.90 


130 


1.83 


3.19 


4.30 


5.27 


130 


1.88 


3.24 


4.35 


5.32 


8 X 8 X V2 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.27 


2.50 


3.52 


4.42 


6 double extra 

strong 0.864 

wall thickness 


120 


1.04 


2.28 


3.32 


4.23 


130 


1.44 


2.78 


3.89 


4.86 


130 


1.19 


2.60 


3.68 


4.67 


8 X 8 X Vg wall 
thickness 


120 


1.43 


2.67 


3.69 


4.59 


6 extra strong 

0.432 
wall thickness 


120 


1.45 


2.71 


3.75 


4.65 


130 


1.60 


2.95 


4.05 


5.02 


130 


1.62 


2.99 


4.10 


5.08 


8 X 8 X V4 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.62 


2.87 


3.89 


4.78 


6 standard 

0.280 

wall thickness 


120 


1.65 


2.91 


3.94 


4.84 


130 


1.79 


3.14 


4.24 


5.21 


130 


1.82 


3.19 


4.30 


5.27 



158 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE"" 



TABLE 721 .5.1 (7) 

MINIMUM COVER (Inch) FOR STEEL COLUMNS 

ENCASED IN NORMAL-WEIGHT CONCRETE** 

[FIGURE 721 .5.1 (6)(c)] 



STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


1% 


2 


3 


4 


W14 X 233 


1 


1 


1 


IV, 


2 


xl76 


2V, 


xl32 


2 


X 90 


IV, 


X 61 


3 


X 48 


\\ 


2V, 


X 43 


W12X152 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2V, 


X 96 


X 65 


IV, 


IV, 


3 


X 50 


2V, 


X 40 


WlOx 88 


1 


IV, 


IV, 


2 


3 


X 49 


1 


2V, 


X 45 


X 39 


3V, 


X 33 


2 


W8 X 67 


1 


1 


IV, 


2V, 


3 


X 58 


X 48 


IV, 


3V, 


X 31 


2 


3 


X 21 


X 18 


4 


W6 X 25 


1 


IV, 


2 


3 
3V, 


3V, 


X 20 


2 


2V, 


4 


X 16 


X 15 


1% 


X 9 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 721.5.1(8) 

MINIMUM COVER (inch) FOR STEEL COLUMNS 

ENCASED IN STRUCTURAL LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE^ 

[FIGURE 721 .5.1 (6)(c)] 



STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (HOURS) 


1 


1V, 


2 


3 


4 


W14 X 233 


1 


1 


1 


1 


IV, 


X193 


IV, 


X 74 


2 


X 61 


2V, 


X 43 


IV, 


2 


W12x 65 


1 


1 


1 


IV, 


2 


X 53 


2 


2V, 


X 40 


IV, 


W10X112 


1 


1 


1 


IV, 


2 


X 88 


X 60 


2 


2V, 


X 33 


IV, 


W8 X 35 


1 


1 


IV, 


2 


2V, 


X 28 


3 


X 24 


2V, 


X 18 


IV, 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 nun. 

a. The tabulated thicknesses are based upon the assumed properties of struc- 
turallightweight concrete given in Table 721.5.1(2). 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. The tabulated thicknesses are based upon the assumed properties of nor- 
mal-weight concrete given in Table 721.5.1(2). 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



159 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 721 .5.1 (9) 

MINIMUM COVER (Inch) FOR STEEL COLUMNS 

IN NORMAL-WEIGHT PRECAST COVERS" 

[FIGURE 721 .5.1 (6)(a)] 



STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


1% 


2 


3 


4 


W14X233 


IV, 


IV, 


IV, 


2V, 


3 


x211 


3V, 


X176 


2 


X145 


3 


X109 


2 


2V, 


X 99 


4 


X 61 


3V, 


X 43 


4V, 


W12X190 


IV, 


IV, 


IV, 


2V, 


3V, 


xl52 


2 


xl20 


3 


4 


X 96 


X 87 


2 


2V, 


3V, 


X 58 


4V, 


X 40 


W10X112 


IV, 


IV, 


2 


3 


3V, 


X 88 


4 


X 77 


2 


2V, 


X 54 


3V, 


X 33 


4V, 


W8 X 67 


iv. 


IV, 


2 


3 


4 


X 58 


2 


2V, 


3V, 


X 48 


X 28 


4V, 


X 21 


2V, 


3 


X 18 


4 


W6 X 25 


IV,. 


2 


2V, 


3V, 


4V, 


X 20 


2V, 


3 


X 16 


4 


X 12 


2 


X 9 


5 



TABLE 721 .5.1 (10) 

MINIMUM COVER (inch) FOR STEEL COLUMNS 

IN STRUCTURAL LIGHTWEIGHT PRECAST COVERS" 

[FIGURE 721. 5.1 (6)(a)] 



STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


1% 


2 


3 


4 


W14 X 233 


IV, 


IV, 


IV, 


2 


2V, 


xl76 


3 


xl45 


2V, 


xl32 


xl09 


X 99 


2 


X 68 


3V, 


X 43 


3 


W12X190 


IV, 


IV, 


IV, 


2 


2V, 


xl52 


X136 


3 


xl06 


:2 V, 


X 96 


3V, 


X 87 


X 65 


2 


X 40 


3 


W10X112 


IV, 


IV, 


IV, 


2 . 


3 


xlOO 


2V, 


X 88 


X 77 


2 


3V, 


X 60 


X 39 


3 


X 33 


2 


W8 X 67 


IV, 


IV, 


IV, 


2V, 


. 3 


X 48 


2 


3 


3V, 


X 35 


X 28 


2 


X 18 . 


2V, 


4 


W6 X 25 


IV, 


2 


2 


3 


3V, 


X 15 


2V,- 


4 


X 9 


3V, 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. The tabulated thicknesses are based upon the assumed properties of nor- 
mal-weight concrete given in Table 721 .5. 1(2). 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. The tabulated thicknesses are based upon the assumed properties of struc- 
tural Ughtweight concrete given in Table 721 .5. 1(2). 



160 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



721.5.2.2 Spray-applied fire-resistant materials. The 

provisions in this section apply to structural steel beams 
and girders protected with spray-applied fire-resistant 
materials. Larger or smaller beam and girder shapes shall 
be permitted to be substituted for beams specified in 
approved unrestrained or restrained fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies, provided the thickness of the fire-resistant 
material is adjusted in accordance with the following 
expression: 

hi = K [(^1 / ^1 ) + 0-60] / [(^2 / £>2 ) + 0-60] 



(Equation 7-17) 



where: 



h = Thickness of spray-applied fire-resistant material 
in inches. 

W = Weight of the structural steel beam or girder in 
pounds per linear foot. 

D = Heated perimeter of the structural steel beam in 
inches. 

Subscript 1 refers to the beam and fire-resistant mate- 
rial thickness in the approved assembly. 

Subscript 2 refers to the substitute beam or girder and 
the required thickness of fire-resistant material. 

The fire resistance of structural steel beams and gird- 
ers protected with intumescent or mastic fire-resistant 
coatings shall be determined on the basis of fire-resis- 
tance tests in accordance with Section 703.2. 

721.5.2.2.1 Minimum thicl^ness. The use of Equa- 
tion 7-17 is subject to the following conditions: 

1. The weight-to-heated-perimeter ratio for the 
substitute beam or girder (Wj/Dj) shall not be 
less than 0.37. 

2. The thickness of fire protection materials calcu- 
lated for the substitute beam or girder (Tj) shall 
not be less than Vg inch (9.5 mm). 

3. The unrestrained or restrained beam rating shall 
not be less than 1 hour. 

4i When used to adjust the material thickness for a 
restrained beam, the use of this procedure is 
limited to steel sections classified as compact in 
accordance with the AISC Specification for 
Structural Steel Buildings, (AISC-LRFD). 

721.5.2.3 Structural steel trusses. The fire resistance of 
structural steel trusses protected with fire-resistant mate- 
rials spray-applied to each of the individual truss ele- 
ments shall be permitted to be determined in accordance 
with this section. The thickness of the fire-resistant mate- 
rial shall be determined in accordance with Section 
721.5.1.3. The weight-to-heated-perimeter ratio (W/D) 
of truss elements that can be simultaneously exposed to 
fire on all sides shall be determined on the same basis as 



columns, as specified in Section 721.5.1.1. The 
weight- to-heated-perimeter ratio (WZ)) of truss ele- 
ments that directly support floor or roof construction 
shall be determined on the same basis as beams and gird- 
ers, as specified in Section 721.5.2.1. 

The fire resistance of structural steel trusses protected 
with intumescent or mastic fire-resistant coatings shall 
be determined on the basis of fire-resistance tests in 
accordance with Section 703.2. 

721.6 Wood assemblies. The provisions of this section contain 
procedures by which the fire-resistance ratings of wood assem- 
blies are established by calculations. 

721.6.1 General. This section contains procedures for cal- 
culating the fire-resistance ratings of walls, floor/ceiling 
and roof/ceiling assemblies based in part on the standard 
method of testing referenced in Section 703.2. 

721.6.1.1 Maximum fire-resistance rating. Fire-resis- 
tance ratings calculated using the procedures in this sec- 
tion shall be used only for 1-hour rated assemblies. 

721.6.1.2 Dissimilar membranes. Where dissimilar 
membranes are used on a wall assembly, the calculation 
shall be made from the least fire-resistant (weaker) side. 

721.6.2 Walls, floors and roofs. These procedures apply to 
both load-bearing and nonload-bearing assemblies. 

721.6.2.1 Fire-resistance rating of wood frame assem- 
blies. The fire-resistance rating of a wood frame assem- 
bly is equal to the sum of the time assigned to the 
membrane on the fire-exposed side, the time assigned to 
the framing members and the time assigned for addi- 
tional contribution by other protective measures such as 
insulation. The membrane on the unexposed side shall 
not be included in determining the fire resistance of the 
assembly. 

721.6.2.2 Time assigned to membranes. Table 
721.6.2(1) indicates the time assigned to membranes on 
the fire-exposed side. 

721.6.2.3 Exterior walls. For an exterior wall having 
more than 5 feet ( 1 524 mm) of horizontal separation, the 
wall is assigned a rating dependent on the interior mem- 
brane and the framing as described in Tables 721.6.2(1) 
and 721.6.2(2). The membrane on the outside of the 
nonfire-exposed side of exterior walls having more than 
5 feet (1524 mm) of horizontal separation may consist of 
sheathing, sheathing paper, and siding as described in 
Table 721.6.2(3). 

721.6.2.4 Floors and roofs. In the case of a floor or roof, 
the standard test provides only for testing for fire expo- 
sure from below. Except as noted in Section 703.3, Item 
5, floor or roof assemblies of wood framing shall have an 
upper membrane consisting of a subfloor and finished 
floor conforming to Table 721 .6.2(4) or any other mem- 
brane that has a contribution to fire resistance of at least 
15 minutes in Table 721.6.2(1). 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



161 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 721.6.2(1) 
TIME ASSIGNED TO WALLBOARD MEMBRANES^^'^" 



DESCRIPTION OF FINISH 


TIME^ (minutes) 


^/g-inch wood structural panel bonded with 
exterior glue 


5 


'^/32-inch wood structural panel bonded with 
exterior glue 


10 


'%2-inch wood structural panel bonded with 
exterior glue 


15 


^/g-inch gypsum wallboard 


10 


V2-inch gypsum wallboard 


15 


^/g-inch gypsum wallboard 


30 


V2-inch Type X gypsum wallboard 


25 


^/g-inch Type X gypsum wallboard 


40 


Double %-inch gypsum wallboard 


25 


V2- + ^/g-inch gypsum wallboard 


35 


Double V2-inch gypsum wallboard 


40 



For SI: 1 inch - 25 A mm. 

a. These values apply only when membranes are installed on framing members 
which are spaced 16 inches o.c. 

b. Gypsum wallboard installed over framing or furring shall be installed so that 
all edges are supported, except Vg-inch Type X gypsum wallboard shall be 
permitted to be installed horizontally with the horizontal joints staggered 24 
inches each side and unsupported but finished. 

c. On wood frame floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assemblies, gypsurh board shall 
be installed with the long dimension perpendicular to framing members and 
shall have all joints finished. 

d. The membrane on the unexposed side shaU not be included in determining the fire 
resistance of tiie assembly. When dissimilar membranes are used on a wall assem- 
bly, the calculation shall be made from the least fire-resistant (weaker) side. 

e. The time assigned is not a finished rating. 



721.6.2.5 Additional protection. Table 721.6.2(5) indi- 
cates the time increments to be added to the fire resis- 
tance where glass fiber; rockwool, slag mineral wool, or 
cellulose insulation is incorporated in the assembly. 

721.6.2.6 Fastening. Fastening of wood frame assemblies 
and the fastening of membranes to the wood framing 
members shall be done in accordance with Chapter 23. 

721.6.3 Design of fire-resistant exposed wood members. 

The fire-resistance rating, in minutes, of timber beams and 
columns with a minimum nominal dimension of 6 inches 
(152 mm) is equal to: 

Beatns: 2.5AZb [4 -2{b/dy\ for beams which may be 
exposed to fire on four sides. 

(Equation 7-18) 

2.54Z^ [4 -{b/d}] for beams which may be exposed 
to fire on three sides. 

(Equation 7-19) 

Columns: 2.54Z!i [3 -{d/b)] for columns which may be 
exposed to fire on four sides 

(Equation 7-20) 

2.54Zd [3 -(d/2b)] for columns which may be 
exposed to fire on three sides. 

(Equation 7-21) 

where: 

b = The breadth (width) of a beam or larger side of a 
column before exposure to fire (inches). 

d = The depth of a beam or smaller side of a colunm 
before exposure to fire (inches). 

Z = Load factor, based on Figure 721.6.3(1). 



TABLE 721 .6.2(2) 
TIME ASSIGNED FOR CONTRIBUTION OF WOOD FRAME "'"•" 



DESCRIPTION 


TIME ASSIGNED TO FRAME (minutes) 


Wood studs 16 inches o.c. 


20 


Wood floor and roof joists 16 inches o.c. 


10 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. This table does not apply to studs or joists spaced more than 16 inches o.c. 

b. All studs shall be nominal 2x4 and all joists shaU have a nominal thickness of at least 2 inches. 

c. Allowable spans for joists shall be determined in accordance with Sections 2308.8, 2308.10.2 and 2308.10.3. 

TABLE 721.6.2(3) 
MEMBRANE^ON EXTERIOR FACE OF WOOD STUD WALLS 



SHEATHING 


PAPER 


EXTERIOR FINISH 


Vg-inch T «& G lumber 




Lumber siding 


^/i6-inch exterior glue wood structural panel 


Sheathing paper 


Wood shingles and shakes 


V2-inch gypsum wallboard 




V4-'inch wood structural panels — exterior type 


^/g-inch gypsum wallboard 




V4-inch hardboard 


V2-inch fiberboard 




Metal siding . 
Stucco on metal lath 
Masonry veneer 


None 


— 


^/g-inch exterior-grade wood structural panels 



For SI: 1 pound/cubic foot = 16.0185 kgAn^. 

a. Any combination of sheathing, paper and exterior finish is permitted. 



162 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



721.6.3.1 Equation 7-21. Equation 7-21 applies only 
where the unexposed face represents the smaller side of 
the column. If a column is recessed into a wall, its full 
dimension shall be used for the purpose of these calcula- 
tions. 

721.6.3.2 Allowable loads. Allowable loads on beams 
and columns are determined using design values given in 
AF&PANDS. 

721.6.3.3 Fastener protection. Where minimum 1-hour 
fire resistance is required, connectors and fasteners shall 
be protected from fire exposure by 1 '/2 inches (38 mm) of 
wood, or other approved covering or coating for a 1-hour 
rating. Typical details for commonly used fasteners and 
connectors are shown in AITC Technical Note 7. 

721.6.3.4 Minimum size. Wood members are limited to 
dimensions of 6 inches (152 mm) nominal or greater. 
Glued-laminated timber beams utilize standard laminat- 
ing combinations except that a core lamination is 
removed. The tension zone is moved inward and the 
equivalent of an extra nominal 2-inch-thick (51 nrni) 
outer tension lamination is added. 



1.60 



1.50 



1.40 



Z 1.30 



1.20 















COLUMNS Kgi/d <s.11 










\ 


fc. 








BEAMS 
Kgl/d> 


-COLUMNS > 
11 


\^ 








\ 


s_ 


^v 










\ 


\^ 












^N 




..^^^ 



1.10 



^'%0 50 60 70 80 90 100 

LOAD ON MEMBERS AS A PERCENT OF DESIGN LOAD 

FIGURE 721.6.3(1) 
LOAD FIGURE 

K^ = The efifective length factor as noted in Figure 721.6.3(2). 
/ = The unsupported length of columns (inches). 



TABLE 721.6.2(4) 
FLOORING OR ROOFING OVER WOOD FRAMING^ 



ASSEMBLY 


STRUCTURAL 
MEMBERS 


SUBFLOOR OR ROOF DECK 


FINISHED FLOORING OR ROOFING 


Floor 


Wood 


'Vgj-inch wood structural panels or 
'Vi6 inch T &.G softwood 


Hardwood or softwood flooring on building paper resilient 
flooring, parquet floor felted-synthetic fiber floor coverings, 
carpeting, or ceramic tile on ^/g-inch-thick panel-type underlay 

Ceramic tile on 1 V4-inch mortar bed 


Roof 


Wood 


^ ^/32-inch wood structural panels or 
' V16 inch T & G softwood 


Finished roofing material with or without insulation 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. This table applies only to wood joist construction. It is not applicable to wood truss consttuction. 



TABLE 721.6.2(5) 
TIME ASSIGNED FOR ADDITIONAL PROTECTION 



DESCRIPTION OF ADDITIONAL PROTECTION 


FIRE RESISTANCE (minutes) 


Add to the fire-resistance rating of wood stud walls if the spaces between the studs are completely filled 
with glass fiber mineral wool batts weighing not less than 2 pounds per cubic foot (0.6 pound per square 
foot of wall surface) or rockwool or slag material wool batts weighing not less than 3.3 pounds per cubic 
foot (1 pound per square foot of wall surface), or cellulose insulation having a nominal density not less 
than 2.6 pounds per cubic foot. 


15 



For SI: 1 pound/cubic foot = 1 6.0 1 85 kg/m^ 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



163 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



BUCKLING MODES 



77", 



f 



W, 



\ \ 



* 



^ 



* 



U 



* 



k 



* 



THEORETICAL Kg VALUE 



0.5 



0.7 



1.0 



1.0 



2.0 



2.0 



RECOMMENDED DESIGN Kq 
WHEN IDEAL CONDITIONS 
APPROXIMATED 



o;65 



0.80 



1.2 



1.0 



2.10 



2.4 



END CONDITION CODE 






ROTATION FIXED. TRANSLATION FIXED 
ROTATION FREE, TRANSLATION FIXED 

ROTATION FIXED, TRANSLATION FREE 
ROTATION FREE, TRANSLATION FREE 



FIGURE 721 .6.3(2) 
EFFECTIVE LENGTH FACTORS 



164 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 8 

INTERIOR FINISHES 



SECTION 801 
GENERAL 

801.1 Scope. Provisions of this chapter shall govern the use of 
materials used as interior finishes, trim and decorative materi- 
als. 

801.1.1 Interior finishes. These provisions shall limit the 
allowable flame spread and smoke development based on 
location and occupancy classification. 

Exceptions: 

1. Materials having a thickness less than 0.036 inch 
(0.9 mm) applied directly to the surface of walls or 
ceilings. 

2. Exposed portions of structural members comply- 
ing with the requirements for buildings of Type IV 
construction in Section 602.4 shall not be subject 
to interior finish requirements. 

801.1.2 Decorative materials and trim. Decorative mate- 
rials and trim shall be restricted by combustibility and the 
flame propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701, in 
accordance with Section 806. 

801.1.3 Applicability. For buildings in flood hazard areas 
as established in Section 1612.3, interior finishes, trim and 
decorative materials below the design flood elevation shall 
be flood-damage-resistant materials. 

801.2 Application. Combustible materials shall be permitted 
to be used as finish for walls, ceilings, floors and other interior 
surfaces of buildings. 

801.2.1 Windows. Show windows in the exterior walls of 
the first story above grade shall be permitted to be of wood 
or of unprotected metal framing. 

801.2.2 Foam plastics. Foam plastics shall not be used as 
interior finish or trim except as provided in Section 2603.9 
or 2604. This section shall apply both to exposed foam plas- 
tics and to foam plastics used in conjunction with a textile or 
vinyl facing or cover. 



SECTION 802 
DEFINITIONS 

802.1 General. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

EXPANDED VINYL WALL COVERING. Wall covering 
consisting of a woven textile backing, an expanded vinyl base 
coat layer and a nonexpanded vinyl skin coat. The expanded 
base coat layer is a homogeneous vinyl layer that contains a 
blowing agent. During processing, the blowing agent decom- 
poses, causing this layer to expand by forming closed cells. The 
total thickness of the wall covering is approximately 0.055 inch 
to 0.070 inch (1.4 mm to 1.78 mm). 



FLAME SPREAD. The propagation of flame over a surface. 

FLAME SPREAD INDEX. A comparadve measure, 
expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from visual 
measurements of the spread of flame versus time for a material 
tested in accordance with ASTM E 84. 

INTERIOR FINISH. Interior finish includes interior wall and 
ceiling finish and interior floor finish. 

INTERIOR FLOOR FINISH. The exposed floor surfaces of 
buildings including coverings applied over a finished floor or 
stair, including risers. 

INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH. The exposed 
interior surfaces of buildings, including but not limited to: 
fixed or movable walls and partitions; toilet room privacy parti- 
tions; columns; ceilings; and interior wainscoting, paneling or 
other finish applied structurally or for decoration, acoustical 
correction, surface insulation, structural fire resistance or simi- 
lar purposes, but not including trim. 

SMOKE-DEVELOPED INDEX. A comparative measure, 
expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from measure- 
ments of smoke obscuration versus time for a material tested in 
accordance with ASTM E 84. 

TRIM. Picture molds, chair rails, baseboards, handrails, door 
and window frames and similar decorative or protective mate- 
rials used in fixed applications. 



SECTION 803 
WALL AND CEILING FINISHES 

803.1 General. Interior wall and ceiling finishes shall be clas- 
sified in accordance with ASTM E 84. Such interior finish 
materials shall be grouped in the following classes in accor- 
dance with their flame spread and smoke-developed indexes. 

Class A: Flame spread 0-25; smoke-developed 0-450. 

Class B: Flame spread 26-75; smoke-developed 0-450. 

Class C: Flame spread 76-200; smoke-developed 0-450. 

Exception: Materials, other than textiles, tested in accor- 
dance with Section 803.2. 

803.2. Interior wall or ceiling finishes other than textiles. 

Interior wall or ceiling finishes, other than textiles, shall be per- 
mitted to be tested in accordance with NFPA 286. Finishes 
tested in accordance with NFPA 286 shall comply with Section 
803.2.1. 

803.2.1 Acceptance criteria. During the 40 kW exposure, 
the interior finish shall comply with Item 1. During the 160 
kW exposure, the interior finish shall comply with Item 2. 
During the entire test, the interior finish shall comply with 
Items 3 and 4. 

1 . During the 40kW exposure, flames shall not spread to 
the ceiling. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



165 



INTERIOR FINISHES 



2. During the 160 kW exposure, the interior finish shall 
comply with the following: 

2. 1 . Flame shall not spread to the outer extremity 
of the sample on any wall or ceiling. 

2.2. Flashover, as defined in NFPA 286, shall not 
occur. 

13. The peak rate of heat release throughout the NFPA 
286 test shall not exceed 800 kW. 

4. The total smoke released throughout the NFPA 286 
test shall not exceed 1,000 m^. 

803.3 Stability. Interior finish materials regulated by this chap- 
ter shall be applied or otherwise fastened in such a manner that 
such materials will not readily become detached where sub- 
jected to room temperatures of 200°F (93°C) for not less than 
30 minutes. 

803.4 Application. Where these materials are applied on 
walls, ceilings or structural elements required to have a 
fire-resistance rating or to be of noncombustible construction, 
they shall comply with the provisions of this section. 

803.4.1 Direct attachment and furred construction. 

Where walls and ceilings are required by any provision in 
this code to be of fire-resistance-rated or noncombustible 
construction, the interior finish material shall be applied 
directly against such construction or to furring strips not 
exceeding 1.75 inches (44 mm) applied directly against 
such surfaces. The intervening spaces between such furring 
strips shall be filled with inorganic or Class A material or 
shall be fireblocked at a maximum of 8 feet (2438 mm) in 
any direction in accordance with Section 717. 

803.4.2 Set-out construction. Where walls and ceilings are 
required to be of fire-resistance-rated or noncombustible 
construction and walls are set out or ceilings are dropped 
distances greater than specified in Section 803.4.1, Class A 
finish materials shall be used except where interior finish 
materials are protected on both sides by an automatic sprin- 
kler system or attached to noncombustible backing or fur- 
ring strips installed as specified in Section 803.4.1. The 
hangers and assembly members of such dropped ceilings 
that are below the main ceiling line shall be of 
noncombustible materials, except that in Type III and V 
construction, fire-retardant-treated wood shall be permit- 
ted. The construction of each set-out wall shall be of 
fire-resistance-rated construction as required elsewhere in 
this code. 

803.4.3 Heavy timber construction. Wall and ceiling fin- 
ishes of all classes as permitted in this chapter that are 
installed directly against the wood decking or planking of 
Type IV construction or to wood furring strips applied 
directly to the wood decking or planking shall be 
fireblocked as specified in Section 803.4.1. 

803.4.4 Materials. An interior wall or ceiling finish that is 
not more than 0.25 inch (6.4 mm) thick shall be applied 
directly against a noncombustible backing. 

Exceptions: 

1. Class A materials. 



2. Materials where the qualifying tests were made 
with the material suspended or furred out from the 
noncombustible backing. 

803.5 Interior finish requirements based on group. Interior 
wall and ceiling finish shall have a flame spread index not 
greater than that specified in Table 803.5 for the group and 
location designated. Interior wall and ceiling finish materials, 
other than textiles, tested in accordance with NFPA 286 and 
meeting the acceptance criteria of Section 803 .2.1, shall be per- 
mitted to be used where a Class A classification in accordance 
with ASTM E 84 is required. 

803.6 Textiles. Where used as interior wall or ceiling finish 
materials, textiles, including materials having woven or 
nonwoven, napped, tufted, looped or similar surface and carpet 
and similar textile materials, shall comply with the require- 
ments of Section 803.6.1, 803.6.2 or 803.6.3. 

803.6.1 Surface burning characteristic test. Textile wall 
and ceiling coverings shall have a Class A flame spread 
index in accordance with ASTM E 84 and be protected by 
automatic sprinklers installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

803.6.2 Room comer test, textiles. Textile wall coverings 
shall meet the criteria of Section 803.6.2.1 when tested in 
the manner intended for use in accordance with the Method 
B protocol of NFPA 265 using the product-mounting sys- 
tem, including adhesive. 

803.6.2.1 Method B test protocol. During the 40 kW 
exposure, the interior finish shall comply with Item 1 . 
During the 150 kW exposure, the interior finish shall 
comply with Item 2. During the entire test, the interior 
finish shall comply with Item 3. 

1. During the 40 kW exposure, flames shall not 
spread to the ceiling. 

2. During the 150 kW exposure, the interior finish 
shall comply with the following: 

2. 1 . Flame shall not spread to the outer extremi- 
ties of the samples on the 8-foot by 1 2-foot 
(203 mm by 305 mm) walls. 

2.2. Flashover, as described in NFPA 265, shall 
not occur. 

3. The total smoke released throughout the NFPA 
265 test shall not exceed 1000 m^. 

803.6.3 Room comer test, ceiling and wall finish. Textile 
wall and ceiling coverings shall meet the criteria of Section 
803.2. 1 when tested in the manner intended for use in accor- 
dance with NFPA 286 using the product-mounting system, 
including adhesive. 

803.7 Expanded vinyl wall coverings. Expanded vinyl wall 
coverings shall comply with the requirements for textile wall 
and ceiling materials and their use shall comply with Section 
803.6. 

Exception: Expanded vinyl wall or ceiling coverings com- 
plying with Section 803.2 shall not be required to comply 
with Section 803.1 or 803.6. 



166 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE*" 



INTERIOR FINISHES 



803.8 Insulation. Thermal and acoustical insulation shall 
comply with Section 719. 

803.9 Acoustical ceiling systems. The quality, design, fabrica- 
tion and erection of metal suspension systems for acoustical 
tile and lay-in panel ceilings in buildings or structures shall 
conform with generally accepted engineering practice, the pro- 
visions of this chapter and other applicable requirements of this 
code. 

803.9.1 Materials and installation. Acoustical materials 
complying with the interior finish requirements of Section 
803 shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's 
recommendations and applicable provisions for applying 
interior finish. 

803.9.1.1 Suspended acoustical ceilings. Suspended 
acoustical ceiling systems shall be installed in accor- 
dance with the provisions of ASTM C 635 and ASTM C 
636. 



803.9.1.2 Fire-resistance-rated construction. Acousti- 
cal ceiling systems that are part of fire-resistance-rated 
construction shall be installed in the same manner used 
in the assembly tested and shall comply with the provi- 
sions of Chapter 7. 



SECTION 804 
INTERIOR FLOOR FINISH 

804.1 General. Interior floor finish and floor covering materi- 
als shall comply with Section 804.2 through 804.4.1. 

Exception: Floor finishes and coverings of a traditional 
type, such as wood, vinyl, linoleum or terrazzo, and resihent 
floor covering materials that are not comprised of fibers. 

804.2 Classification. Interior floor finish and floor covering 
materials required by Section 804.4. 1 to be of Class I or II 
materials shall be classified in accordance with NFPA 253. The 
classification referred to herein corresponds to the classifica- 



TABLE 803.5 
INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH REQUIREMENTS BY OCCUPANCY'' 



GROUP 


SPRINKLERED' 


NONSPRINKLERED 


Exit enclosures and 
exit passageways"-*' 


Corridors 


Rooms and 
enclosed spaces'^ 


Exit enclosures and 
exit passageways"'*' 


Corridors 


Rooms and 
enclosed spaces'^ 


A-1 & A-2 


B 


B 


G 


A 


A'^ 


B^ 


A-3f, A-4, A-5 


B 


B 


C 


■ A ^ 


A'' 


C 


B,E,M,R-l,R-4 


B 


C 


C 


A 


B 


C 


F 


C 


C 


C 


B 


C 


C 


H 


B 


B 


eg 


A 


A 


B 


I-l 


B 


C 


C 


A 


B 


B 


1-2 


B 


B 


Bh,i 


A 


A 


B 


1-3 


A 


AJ 


C 


. A 


A 


B 


1-4 


B 


B 


Bh,i 


A 


A 


B 


R-2 


C 


C 


C 


B 


B 


C 


R-3 


C 


C 


c 


C 


C 


C 


S 


C 


C 


c 


B 


B 


C 


U 


No restrictions 


No restrictions 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^. 

a. Class C interior finish materials shall be permitted for wainscotting or paneling of not more than 1 ,000 square feet of applied surface area in the grade lobby where 
applied directly to a noncbmbustible base or over furring strips applied to a noncpmbustible base and fireblocked as required by Section 803.4.1. 

b. In exit enclosures of buildings less than three stories in height of other than Group 1-3, Class B interior finish for nonsprinklered buildings and Class C interior fin- 
ish for sprinklered buildings shall be permitted. 

c. Requirements for rooms and enclosed spaces shall be based upon spaces enclosed by partitions. Where a fire-resistance rating is required for structural elements, 
the enclosing partitions shall extend from the floor to the ceiling. Partitions that do not comply with this shall be considered enclosing spaces and the rooms or 
spaces on both sides shall be considered one. In deterinining the applicable requireriients for rooms and enclosed spaces, the specific occupancy thereof shall be the 
governing factor regardless of the group classification of the building or structure. 

d. Lobby areas in Group A-1, A-2 and A-3 occupancies shall not be less than Class B materials. 

e. Class C interior finish materials shall be permitted in places of assembly with an occupant load of 300 persons or less. 

f. For places of religious worship, wood used for ornamental purposes, trusses, paneUng or chancel furnishing shall be permitted. 

g. Class B material is required where the building exceeds two stories. 

h. Class C interior finish materials shall be permitted in administrative spaces, 
i. Class C interior finish materials shall be permitted in rooms with a capacity of four persons or less. 

j. Class B materials shall be permitted as wainscotting extending not more than 48 inches above the finished floor in corridors, 
k. Finish materials as provided for in other sections of this code. . , 

1. Applies when the exit enclosures, exit passageways, corridors or rooms and enclosed spaces are protected by a sprinkler system installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



167 



INTERIOR FINISHES 



tions determined by NFPA 253 as follows: Class I, 0.45 
watts/cm^ or greater; Class 11, 0.22 watts/cm^ or greater. 

804.3 Testing and identification. Interior floor finish and 
floor covering materials shall be tested by an approved agency 
in accordance with NFPA 253 and identified by a hang tag or 
other suitable method so as to identify the manufacturer or sup- 
plier and style, and shall indicate the interior floor finish or 
floor covering classification according to Section 804.2. Car- 
pet-type floor coverings shall be tested as proposed for use, 
including underlayment. Test reports confirming the informa- 
tion provided in the manufacturer's product identification shall 
be furnished to the building official upon request. 

804.4 Interior floor finish requirements. In all occupancies, 
interior floor finish and floor covering materials in exit enclo- 
sures, exit passageways, corridors and rooms or spaces not sep- 
arated from corridors by full-height partitions extending from 
the floor to the underside of the ceiling shall withstand a mini- 
mum critical radiant flux as specified in Section 804.4.1. 

804.4.1 Minimum critical radiant flux. Interior floor fin- 
ish and floor covering materials in exit enclosures, exit pas- 
sageways and corridors shall not be less than Class I in 
Groups 1-2 and 1-3 and not less than Class II in Groups A, B, 
E, H, 1-4, M, R-1, R-2 and S. In all areas, floor covering 
materials shall comply with the DOC FF- 1 "pill test" (CPSC 
16 CFR, Part 1630). 

Exception: Where a building is equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, Class II materials are 
permitted in any area where Class I materials are 
required, and materials complying with the DOC FF-1 
"pill test" (CPSC 16 CFR, Part 1630) are permitted in 
any area where Class 11 materials are required. 



SECTION 805 

COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS IN TYPE I AND II 

CONSTRUCTION 

805.1 Application. Combustible materials installed on or 
embedded in floors of buildings of Type I or II construction 
shall comply with Sections 805.1.1 through 805.1.3. 

Exception: Stages and platforms constructed in accordance 
with Sections 410.3 and 410.4, respectively. 

805.1.1 Subfloor construction. Floor sleepers, bucks and 
nailing blocks shall not be constructed of combustible mate- 
rials, unless the space between the fire-resistance-rated 
floor construction and the flooring is either solidly filled 
with approved noncombustible materials or fireblocked in 
accordance with Section 717, and provided that such open 
spaces shall not extend under or through permanent parti- 
tions or walls. 

805.1.2 Wood finish flooring. Wood finish flooring is per- 
mitted to be attached directly to the embedded or 
fireblocked wood sleepers and shall be permitted where 
cemented directly to the top surface of approved fire-resis- 
tance-rated floor construction or directly to a wood subfloor 
attached to sleepers as provided for in Section 805.1.1. 



805.1.3 Insulating boards. Combustible insulating boards 
not more than V2 inch (12.7 mm) thick and covered with 
approved finish flooring are permitted where attached 
directly to a noncombustible floor assembly or to wood 
subflooring attached to sleepers as provided for in Section 
805.1.1. 



[F] SECTION 806 
DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND TRIM 

[F] 806.1 General requirements. In occupancies in Groups A, 
E, I and R-1 and dormitories in Group R-2, curtains, draperies, 
hangings and other decorative materials suspended from walls 
or ceilings shall meet the flame propagation performance crite- 
ria of NFPA 701 in accordance with Section 806.2 or be 
noncombustible. 

In Groups I-l and 1-2, combustible decorative materials shall 
meet the flame propagation criteria of NFPA 701 unless the 
decorative materials, including, but not limited to, photographs 
and paintings, are of such limited quantities that a hazard of fire 
development or spread is not present. In Group 1-3, combusti- 
ble decorative materials are prohibited. 

Fixed or movable walls and partitions, paneling, wall pads 
and crash pads applied structurally or for decoration, acoustical 
correction, surface insulation or other purposes shall be consid- 
ered interior finish if they cover 10 percent or more of the wall 
or of the ceiling area, and shall not be considered decorative 
materials or furnishings. 

In Group B and M occupancies, fabric partitions suspended 
from the ceiling and not supported by the floor shall meet the 
flame propagation performance criteria in accordance with 
Section 806.2 and NFPA 701 or shall be noncombustible. 

[F] 806.1.1 Noncombustible materials. The permissible 
amount of noncombustible decorative material shall not be 
limited. 

[F] 806.1.2 Combustible decorative materials. The per- 
missible amount of decorative materials meeting the flame 
propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701 shall not 
exceed 10 percent of the aggregate area of walls and ceil- 
ings. 

Exceptions: 

1. In auditoriums in Group A, the permissible 
amount of decorative material meeting the flame 
propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701 
shall not exceed 50 percent of the aggregate area of 
walls and ceiling where the building is equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and where the 
material is installed in accordance with Section 
803.4. 

2. The amount of fabric partitions suspended from 
the ceiling and not supported by the floor in Group 
B and M occupancies shall not be limited. 

[F] 806.2 Acceptance criteria and reports. Where required 
by Section 806.1, decorative materials shall be tested by an 
approved agency and meet the flame propagation performance 
criteria of NFPA 701 or such materials shall be 



168 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



INTERIOR FINISHES 



noncombustible. Reports of test results shall be prepared in 
accordance with NFPA 701 and furnished to the building offi- 
cial upon request. 

[F] 806.3 Foam plastic. Foam plastic used as trim in any occu- 
pancy shall comply with Section 2604.2. 

[F] 806.4 Pyroxylin plastic. Imitation leather or other material 
consisting of or coated with a pyroxylin or similarly hazardous 
base shall not be used in Group A occupancies. 

[F] 806.5 Interior trim. Material, other than foam plastic used 
as interior trim shall have a minimum Class C flame spread and 
smoke-developed index when tested in accordance with 
ASTM E 84, as described in Section 803.1. Combustible trim, 
excluding handrails and guardrails, shall not exceed 10 percent 
of the aggregate wall or ceiling area in which it is located. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 1 69 



170 2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 9 

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



SECTION 901 
GENERAL 

901.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall specify where 
fire protection systems are required and shall apply to the 
design, installation and operation of fire protection systems. 

901.2 Fire protection systems. Fire protection systems shall 
be installed, repaired, operated and maintained in accordance 
with this code and the International Fire Code. 

Any fire protection system for which an exception or reduc- 
tion to the provisions of this code has been granted shall be con- 
sidered to be a required system. 

Exception: Any fire protection system or portion thereof 
not required by this code shall be permitted to be installed 
for partial or complete protection provided that such system 
meets the requirements of this code. 

901.3 Modifications. No person shall remove or modify any 
fire protection system installed or maintained under the provi- 
sions of this code or the International Fire Code without 
approval by the building official. 

901.4 Threads. Threads provided for fire department connec- 
tions to sprinkler systems, standpipes, yard hydrants or any 
other fire hose connection shall be compatible with the connec- 
tions used by the local fire department. 

901.5 Acceptance tests. Fire protection systems shall be tested 
in accordance with the requirements of this code and the Inter- 
national Fire Code. When required, the tests shall be con- 
ducted in the presence of the building official. Tests required by 
this code, the International Fire Code and the standards Usted 
in this code shall be conducted at the expense of the owner or 
the owner's representative. It shall be unlawful to occupy por- 
tions of a structure until the required fire protection systems 
within that portion of the structure have been tested and 
approved. 

901.6 Supervisory service. Where required, fire protection 
systems shall be monitored by an approved supervising station 
in accordance with NFPA 72. 

901.6.1 Automatic sprinkler systems. Automatic sprin- 
kler systems shall be monitored by an approved supervising 
station. 

Exceptions: 

1 . A supervising station is not required for automatic 
sprinkler systems protecting one- and two-family 
dwellings. 

2. Limited area systems serving fewer than 20 sprin- 
klers. 

901.6.2 Fire alarm systems. Fire alarm systems required 
by the provisions of Section 907.2 of this code and Section 
907.2 of the International Fire Code shall be monitored by 



an approved supervising station in accordance with Section 
907.14. 

Exceptions: 

1. Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms 
required by Section 907.2.10. 

2. Smoke detectors in Group 1-3 occupancies. 

3. Supervisory service is not requiied for automatic 
sprinkler systems in one- and two-family dwell- 
ings. 

901.6.3 Group H. Manual fire alarm, automatic fire-extin- 
guishing and emergency alarm systems in Group H occu- 
pancies shall be monitored by an approved supervising 
station. 

Exception: When approved by the building official, 
on-site monitoring at a constantly attended location shall 
be permitted provided that notifications to the fire 
department will be equal to those provided by an 
approved supervising station. 

901.7 Fire areas. Where buildings, or portions thereof, are 
divided into fire areas so as not to exceed the limits established 
for requiring a fire protection system in accordance with this 
chapter, such fire areas shall be separated by fire barriers hav- 
ing a fire-resistance rating of not less than that determined in 
accordance with Section 706.3.9. 

SECTION 902 
DEFINITIONS 

902.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter, and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

[F] ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A fire alarm 
system component such as a bell, horn, speaker, light or text 
display that provides audible, tactile or visible outputs, or any 
combination thereof. 

[F] ALARM SIGNAL. A signal indicating an emergency 
requiring immediate action, such as a signal indicative of fire. 

[F] ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. A feature of 
automatic fire detection and alarm systems to reduce unwanted 
alarms wherein smoke detectors report alarm conditions for a 
minimum period of time, or confirm alarm conditions within a 
given time period, after being automatically reset, in order to be 
accepted as a valid alarm-initiation signal. 

[F] ANNUNCIATOR. A unit containing one or more indica- 
tor lamps, alphanumeric displays or other equivalent means in 
which each indication provides status infonnation about a cir- 
cuit, condition or location. 

[F] AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A 

notification appliance that alerts by the sense of hearing. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



171 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



[F] AUTOMATIC. As applied to fire protection devices, is a 
device or system providing an emergency function witliout the 
necessity for human intervention and activated as a result of a 
predetermined temperature rise, rate of temperature rise or 
combustion products. 

[F] AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. 

An approved system of devices and equipment which automat- 
ically detects a fire and discharges an approved fire-extinguish- 
ing agent onto or in the area of a fire. 

[F] AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. A sprinkler sys- 
tem, for fire protection purposes, is an integrated system of 
underground and overhead piping designed in accordance with 
fire protection engineering standards. The system includes a 
suitable water supply. The portion of the system above the 
ground is a network of specially sized or hydraulically 
designed piping installed in a structure or area, generally over- 
head, and to which automatic sprinklers are connected in a sys- 
tematic pattern. The system is usually activated by heat from a 
fire and discharges water over the fire area. 

[F] AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL. The root mean 
square, A-weighted sound pressure level measured over a 
24-hour period. 

[F] CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. 

A system supplying carbon dioxide (CO2) from a pressurized 
vessel through fixed pipes and nozzles. The system includes a 
manual- or automatic-actuating mechanism. 

[F] CEILING LIMIT. The maximum concentration of an 
air-borne contaminant to which one may be exposed, as pub- 
lished in DDL 29 CFR Part 1910.1000. 

[F] CLEAN AGENT. Electrically nonconducting, volatile or 
gaseous fire extinguishant that does not leave a residue upon 
evaporation. 

[F] CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. A desig 
nated location at a facility staffed by trained personnel on a 
continuous basis where alarm or supervisory signals are moni- 
tored and facilities are provided for notification of the fire 
department or other emergency services. 

[F] DELUGE SYSTEM. A sprinkler system employing open 
sprinklers attached to a piping system connected to a water sup- 
ply through a valve that is opened by the operation of a detec- 
tion system installed in the same areas as the sprinklers. When 
this valve opens, water flows into the piping system and dis- 
charges from all sprinklers attached thereto. 

[F] DETECTOR, HEAT. A fire detector that senses heat pro- 
duced by burning substances. Heat is the energy produced by 
combustion that causes substances to rise in temperature. 

[F] DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. A 

powder composed of small particles, usually of sodium bicar- 
bonate, potassium bicarbonate, urea-potassium-based bicar- 
bonate, potassium chloride or monoammonium phosphate, 
with added particulate material supplemented by special treat- 
ment to pi:ovide resistance to packing, resistance to moisture 
absorption (caking) and the proper flow capabilities. 

[F] EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. A system to provide 
indication and warning of emergency situations involving haz- 
ardous materials. 



[F] EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICA- 
TIONS. Dedicated manual or automatic facilities for originat- 
ing and distributing voice instructions, as well as alert and 
evacuation signals pertaining to a fire emergency, to the occu- 
pants of a building. 

[F] EXPLOSION. An effect produced by the sudden violent 
expansion of gases, that is accompanied by a shock wave or 
disruption of enclosing materials or structures, or both. 

[F] FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. See "Manual Fire 
Alarm Box." 

[F] FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. A system component 
that receives inputs from automatic and manual fire alarm 
devices and is capable of supplying power to detection devices 
and transponder(s) or off-premises transmitter(s). The control 
unit is capable of providing a transfer of power to the notifica- 
tion appliances and transfer of condition to relays or devices. 

[F] FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. A signal initiated by a fire 
alarm-initiating device such as a manual fire alarm box, auto- 
matic fire detector, water flow switch, or other device whose 
activation is indicative of the presence of a fire or fire signature. 

[F] FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. A system or portion of a com- 
bination system consisting of components and circuits 
arranged to monitor and annunciate the status of fire alarm or 
supervisory signal-initiating devices and to initiate the appro- 
priate response to those signals. 

[F] FIRE COMMAND CENTER. The principal attended or 
unattended location where the status of detection, alarm com- 
munications and control systems is displayed, and from which 
the system(s) can be manually controlled. 

[F] FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. A device designed 
to detect the presence of a fire signature and to initiate action. 

[F] FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. Approved devices, 
equipment and systems or combinations of systems used to 
detect a fire, activate an alarm, extinguish or control a fire, con- 
trol or manage smoke and products of a fire or any combination 
thereof. 

[F] FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS. Building and fire control 
functions that are intended to increase the level of life safety for 
occupants or to control the spread of harmful effects of fire. 

[F] FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A special system 
discharging a foam made from concentrates, either mechani- 
cally or chemically, over the area to be protected. 

[F] HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A 

fire-extinguishing system using one or more atoms of an ele- 
ment from the halogen chemical series: fluorine, chlorine, bro- 
mine and iodine. 

[F] INITIATING DEVICE. A system component that origi- 
nates transmission of a change-of-state condition, such as in a 
smoke detector, manual fire alarm box or supervisory switch. 

LISTED. Equipment, niaterials or services included in a list 
published by an organization acceptable to the building official 
and concerned with evaluation of products or services that 
maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equip- 
ment or materials or periodic evaluation of services and whose 
listing states either that the equipment, material or service 



172 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable 
for a specified purpose. 

[F] MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX. A manually operated 
device used to initiate an alarm signal. 

[F] MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. Two or 

more single-station alarm devices that are capable of intercon- 
nection such that actuation of one causes all integral or separate 
audible alarms to operate. It also can consist of one single-sta- 
tion alarm device having connections to other detectors or to a 
manual fire alarm box. 

[F] MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. Two or more 
single-station alarm devices that are capable of interconnection 
such that actuation of one causes all integral or separate audible 
alarms to operate. 

[F] NUISANCE ALARM. An alarm caused by mechanical 
failure, malfunction, improper installation or lack of proper 
maintenance, or an alarm activated by a cause that cannot be 
determined. 

[F] RECORD DRAWINGS. Drawings ("as builts") that doc- 
ument the location of all devices, appliances, wiring 
sequences, wiring methods and connections of the components 
of a fire alarm system as installed. 

[F] SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. An assembly 
incorporating the detector, the control equipment and the 
alarm-sounding device in one unit, operated from a power sup- 
ply either in the unit or obtained at the point of installation. 

[F] SMOKE ALARM. A single- or multiple-station alarm 
responsive to smoke and not connected to a system. 

[F] SMOKE DETECTOR. A hsted device that senses visible 
or invisible particles of combustion. 

SMOKEPROOF ENCLOSURE. An exit stairway designed 
and constructed so that the movement of the products of com- 
bustion produced by a fire occurring in any part of the building 
into the enclosure is limited. 

[F] STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF. Standpipe 
classes are as follows: 

Class I system. A system providing 2 Vj-inch (64 mm) hose 
connections to supply water for use by fire departments and 
those trained in handling heavy fire streams. 

Class II system. A system providing IVj-inch (38 mm) 
hose stations to supply water for use primarily by the build- 
ing occupants or by the fire department during initial 
response. 

Class III system. A system providing lV2-inch (38 mm) 
hose stations to supply water for use by building occupants 
and 2.5-inch (64 mm) hose connections to supply a larger 
volume of water for use by fire departments and those 
trained in handling heavy fire streams. 

[F] STANDPIPE, TYPES OF. Standpipe types are as follows: 

Automatic dry. A dry standpipe system, normally filled 
with pressurized air, that is arranged through the use of a 
device, such as dry pipe valve, to admit water into the sys- 
tem piping automatically upon the opening of a hose valve. 



The water supply for an automatic dry standpipe system 
shall be capable of supplying the system demand. 

Automatic wet. A wet standpipe system that has a water 
supply that is capable of supplying the system demand auto- 
matically. 

Manual dry. A dry standpipe system that does not have a 
permanent water supply attached to the system. Manual dry 
standpipe systems require water from a fire department 
pumper to be pumped into the system through the fire 
department connection in order to meet the system demand. 

Manual wet. A wet standpipe system connected to a water 
supply for the purpose of maintaining water within the sys- 
tem but does not have a water supply capable of delivering 
the system demand attached to the system. Manual-wet 
standpipe systems require water from a fire department 
pumper (or the like) to be pumped into the system in order to 
meet the system demand. 

Semiautomatic dry. A dry standpipe system that is 
arranged through the use of a device, such as a deluge valve, 
to admit water into the system piping upon activation of a 
remote control device located at a hose connection. A 
remote control activation device shall be provided at each 
hose connection. The water supply for a semiautomatic dry 
standpipe system shall be capable of supplying the system 
demand. 

[F] SUPERVISING STATION. A facility that receives sig- 
nals and at which personnel are in attendance at all times to 
respond to these signals. 

[F] SUPERVISORY SERVICE. The service required to 
monitor performance of guard tours and the operative condi- 
tion of fixed suppression systems or other systems for the pro- 
tection of life and property. 

[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. A signal indicating the need 
of action in connection with the supervision of guard tours, the 
fire suppression systems or equipment or the maintenance fea- 
tures of related systems. 

[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. An 

initiation device, such as a valve supervisory switch, 
water-level indicator or low-air pressure switch on a dry-pipe 
sprinkler system, whose change of state signals an off-normal 
condition and its restoration to normal of a fire protection or 
life safety system, or a need for action in connection with guard 
tours, fire suppression systems or equipment or maintenance 
features of related systems. 

[F] TIRES, BULK STORAGE OR Storage of tires where the 
area available for storage exceeds 20,000 cubic feet (566 m^). 

[F] TROUBLE SIGNAL. A signal initiated by the fire alarm 
system or device indicative of a fault in a monitored circuit or 
component. 

[F] VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A 

notification appliance that alerts by the sense of sight. 

[F] WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A 

solution of water and potassium-carbonate-based chemical, 
potassium-acetate-based chemical or a combination thereof, 
forming an extinguishing agent. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



173 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



[F] WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM. A system or a 
part of a system that can transmit and receive signals without 
the aid of wire. 

[F] ZONE. A defined area within the protected premises. A 
zone can define an area from which a signal can be received, an 
area to which a signal can be sent or an area in which a form of 
control can be executed. 



SECTION 903 
AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 

[F] 903.1 General. Automatic sprinkler systems shall comply 
with this section. 

[F] 903.1.1 Alternative protection. Alternative automatic 
fire-extinguishing systems complying with Section 904 
shall be permitted in lieu of automatic sprinkler protection 
where recognized by the applicable standard and approved 
by the fire code official. 

[F] 903.2 Where required. Approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems in new buildings and structures shall be provided in the 
locations described in this section. 

Exception: Spaces or areas in telecommunications build- 
ings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, 
associated electrical power distribution equipment, batter- 
ies and standby engines, provided those spaces or areas are 
equipped throughout with an automatic fire alarm system 
and are separated from the remainder of the building by fire 
barriers consisting of not less than 1-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated walls and 2-hour fire-resistance-rated floor/ 
ceiling assemblies. 

[F] 903.2.1 Group A. An automatic sprinkler system shall 
be provided throughout buildings and portions thereof used 
as Group A occupancies as provided in this section. For 
Group A-1, A-2, A-3 and A-4 occupancies, the automatic 
sprinkler system shall be provided throughout the floor area 
where the Group A-1, A-2, A-3 or A-4 occupancy is 
located, and in all floors between the Group A occupancy 
and the level of exit discharge. For Group A-5 occupancies, 
the automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in the 
spaces indicated in Section 903.2.1.5. 

[F] 903.2.1.1 Group A-1. An automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be provided for Group A-1 occupancies where 
one of the following conditions exists: 

1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 
m2). 

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more. 

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than the 
level of exit discharge. 

4. The fire area contains a multitheater complex. 

[F] 903.2.1.2 Group A-2. An automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be provided for Group A-2 occupancies where 
one of the following conditions exists: 

1. The fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (465 m^); 

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 100 or more; 
or 



3. The fire area is located on a floor other than the 
level of exit discharge. 

[F] 903.2.1.3 Group A-3. An automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be provided for Group A-3 occupancies where 
one of the following conditions exists: 

1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 
m2). 

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more. 

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than the 
level of exit discharge. 

Exception: Areas used exclusively as participant 
sports areas where the main floor area is located at the 
same level as the level of exit discharge of the main 
entrance and exit. 

[F] 903.2.1.4 Group A-4. An automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be provided for Group A-4 occupancies where 
one of the following conditions exists: 

1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 
m2). 

2. The fire area has an occupant load of 300 or more. 

3. The fire area is located on a floor other than the 
level of exit discharge. 

Exception: Areas used exclusively as participant 
sports areas where the main floor area is located at the 
same level as the level of exit discharge of the main 
entrance and exit. 

[F] 903.2.1.5 Group A-5. An automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be provided for Group A-5 occupancies in the 
following areas: concession stands, retail areas, press 
boxes and other accessory use areas in excess of 1,000 
square feet (93 m^). 

[F] 903.2.2 Group E. An automatic sprinkler system shall 
be provided for Group E occupancies as follows: 

1 . Throughout all Group E fire areas greater than 20,000 
square feet (1858 m^) in area. 

2. Throughout every portion of educational buildings 
below the level of exit discharge. 

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system is not 
required in any fire area or area below the level of exit 
discharge where every classroom throughout the build- 
ing has at least one exterior exit door at ground level. 

[F] 903.2.3 Group F-1. An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be provided throughout all buildings containing a 
Group F-1 occupancy where one of the following condi- 
tions exists: 

1. Where a Group F-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square 
feet (11 15 m2); 

2. Where a Group F- 1 fire area is located more than three 
stories above grade plane; or 

3. Where the combined area of all Group F-1 fire areas 
on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 
24,000 square feet (2230 m^). 



174 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE*" 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



[F] 903.2.3.1 Woodworking operations. An automatic 
sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all Group 
F-1 occupancy fire areas that contain woodworking 
operations in excess of 2,500 square feet (232 m^) in area 
which generate finely divided combustible waste or use 
finely divided combustible materials. 

[F] 903.2.4 Group H. Automatic sprinkler systems shall be 
provided in high-hazard occupancies as required in Sec- 
tions 903.2.4.1 through 903.2.4.3. 

[F] 903.2.4.1 General. An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be installed in Group H occupancies. 

[F] 903.2.4.2 Group H-5. An automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem shall be installed throughout buildings containing 
Group H-5 occupancies. The design of the sprinkler sys- 
tem shall not be less than that required by this code for 
the occupancy hazard classifications in accordance with 
Table 903.2.4.2. Where the design area of the sprinkler 
system consists of a corridor protected by one row of 
sprinklers, the maximum number of sprinklers required 
to be calculated is 13. 

[F] TABLE 903.2.4.2 
GROUP H-5 SPRINKLER DESIGN CRITERIA 



LOCATION 


OCCUPANCY HAZARD 
CLASSIFICATION 


Fabrication areas 


Ordinary Hazard Group 2 


Service corridors 


Ordinary Hazard Group 2 


Storage rooms without dispensing 


Ordinary Hazard Group 2 


Storage rooms with dispensing 


Extra Hazard Group 2 


Corridors 


Ordinary Hazard Group 2 



[F] 903.2.4.3 Pyroxylin plastics. An automatic sprin- 
kler system shall be provided in buildings, or portions 
thereof, where cellulose nitrate film or pyroxylin plastics 
are manufactured, stored or handled in quantities 
exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg). 

[F] 903.2.5 Group I. An automatic sprinkler system shall 
be provided throughout buildings with a Group I fire area. 

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3 shall be 
allowed in Group I-l facilities. 

[F] 903.2.6 Group M. An automatic sprinkler system shall 
be provided throughout buildings containing a Group M 
occupancy where one of the following conditions exists: 

1. Where a Group M fire area exceeds 12,000 square 
feet (1115 m2); 

2. Where a Group M fire area is located more than three 
stories above grade plane; or 

3 . Where the combined area of all Group M fire areas on 
all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 
square feet (2230 m^). 

[F] 903.2.6.1 High-piled storage. An automatic sprin- 
kler system shall be provided in accordance with the 
International Fire Code in all buildings of Group M 
where storage of merchandise is in high-piled or rack 
storage arrays. 



[F] 903.2.7 Group R. An automatic sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with Section 903.3 shall be provided 
throughout all buildings with a Group R fire area. 

[F] 903.2.8 Group S-1. An automatic sprinkler system shall 
be provided throughout all buildings containing a Group 
S-1 occupancy where one of the following conditions 
exists: 

1. A Group S-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet 
(1115 m2); 

2. A Group S-1 fire area is located more than three sto- 
ries above grade plane; or 

3. The combined area of all Group S-1 fire areas on all 
floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 
square feet (2230 m^). 

[F] 903.2.8.1 Repair garages. An automatic sprinkler 
system shall be provided throughout all buildings used as 
repair garages in accordance with Section 406, as shown: 

1. Buildings two or more stories in height, including 
basements, with a fire area containing a repair 
garage exceeding 10,000 square feet (929 m^). 

2. One-story buildings with a fire area containing a 
repair garage exceeding 12,000 square feet (1115 
m2). 

3. Buildings with a repair garage servicing vehicles 
parked in the basement. 

[F] 903.2.8.2 Bulk storage of tires. Buildings and struc- 
tures where the area for the storage of tires exceeds 
20,000 cubic feet (566 m^) shall be equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 

[F] 903.2.9 Group S-2. An automatic sprinkler system shall 
be provided throughout buildings classified as enclosed 
parking garages in accordance with Section 406.4 or where 
located beneath other groups. 

Exception: Enclosed parking garages located beneath 
Group R-3 occupancies. 

[F] 903.2.9.1 Commercial parking garages. An auto- 
matic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout 
buildings used for storage of commercial trucks or buses 
where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m^). 

[F] 903.2.10 Windowless stories in all occupancies. An 

automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in the locations 
set forth in Sections 903.2.10.1 through 903.2.10.1.3. 

Exception: Group R-3 and Group U. 

[F] 903.2.10.1 Stories and basements without open- 
ings. An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed 
throughout every story or basement of all buildings 
where the floor area exceeds 1,500 square feet (1 39.4 m^) 
and where there is not provided at least one of the follow- 
ing types of exterior wall openings: 

1 . Openings below grade that lead directly to ground 
level by an exterior stairway complying with Sec- 
tion 1009 or an outside ramp complying with Sec- 
tion 1010. Openings shall be located in each 50 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



175 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, of 
exterior wall in the story on at least one side. 

2. Openings entirely above the adjoining ground 
level totaling at least 20 square feet (1.86 m^) in 
each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction 
thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one 
side. 

[F] 903.2.10.1.1 Opening dimensions and access. 

Openings shall have a minimum dimension of not less 
than 30 inches (762 mm). Such openings shall be 
accessible to the fire department from the exterior and 
shall not be obstructed in a manner that fire fighting or 
rescue cannot be accomplished from the exterior. 

[F] 903.2.10.1.2 Openings on one side only. Where 
openings in a story are provided on only one side and 
the opposite wall of such story is more than 75 feet (22 
860 mm) from such openings, the story shall be 
equipped throughout with an approved automatic 
sprinkler system, or openings as specified above shall 
be provided on at least two sides of the story. 

[F] 903.2.10.1.3 Basements. Where any portion of a 
basement is located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) 
from openings required by Section 903.2.10.1, the 
basement shall be equipped throughout with an 
approved automatic sprinkler system. 

[F] 903.2.10.2 Rubbish and linen chutes. An automatic 
sprinkler system shall be installed at the top of rubbish 
and linen chutes and in their terminal rooms. Chutes 
extending through three or more floors shall have addi- 
tional sprinkler heads installed within such chutes at 
alternate floors. Chute sprinklers shall be accessible for 
servicing. 

[F] 903.2.10.3 Buildings 55 feet or more in height. An 

automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout 
buildings with a floor level having an occupant load of 30 
or more that is located 55 feet (16 764 mm) or more 
above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access. 

Exceptions: 

1. Airport control towers. 

2. Open parking structures. 

3. Occupancies in Group F-2. 

[F] 903.2.11 During construction. Automatic sprinkler 
systems required during construction, alteration and demo- 
lition operations shall be provided in accordance with the 
International Fire Code. 

[F] 903.2.12 Other hazards. Automatic sprinkler protec- 
tion shall be provided for the hazards indicated in Sections 
903.2.12.1 and 903.2.12.2. 

[F] 903.2.12.1 Ducts conveying hazardous exhausts. 

Where required by the International Mechanical Code, 
automatic sprinklers shall be provided in ducts convey- 
ing hazardous exhaust, or flammable or combustible 
materials. 

Exception: Ducts in which the largest cross-sectional 
diameter of the duct is less than 10 inches (254 mm). 



[F] 903.2.12.2 Commercial cooking operations. An 

automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in commer- 
cial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system where an 
automatic sprinkler system is used to comply with Sec- 
tion 904. 

[F] 903.2.13 Other required suppression systems. In 

addition to the requirements of Section 903.2, the provi- 
sions indicated in Table 903.2.13 also require the installa- 
tion of a suppression system for certain buildings and areas. 

[F] TABLE 903.2.13 
ADDITIONAL REQUIRED SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS 



SECTION 


SUBJECT 


402.8 


Covered malls 


403.2, 403.3 


High-rise buildings 


404.3 


Atriums 


405.3 


Underground structures 


407.5 


Group 1-2 


410.6 


Stages 


411.4 


Special amusement buildings 


412.2.5,412.2.6 


Aircraft hangars 


415.6.2.4 


Group H-2 


416.4 


Flammable finishes 


417.4 


Drying rooms 


507 


Unlimited area buildings 


508.2 


Incidental use areas 


1025.6.2.3 


Smoke-protected assembly seating 


IFC 


Sprinkler system requirements as set forth in 

Section 903.2.13 of the International Fire 

Code 



[F] 903.3 Installation requirements. Automatic sprinkler 
systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sec- 
tions 903.3. 1 through 903.3.7. 

[F] 903.3.1 Standards. Sprinkler systems shall be designed 
and installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 
903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3. 

[F] 903.3.1.1 NFPA 13 sprinkler systems. Where the 
provisions of this code require that a building or portion 
thereof be equipped throughout with an automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with this section, sprinklers 
shall be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 
13 except as provided in Section. 

[F] 903.3.1.1.1 Exempt locations. Automatic sprin- 
klers shall not be required in the following rooms or 
areas where such rooms or areas are protected with an 
approved automatic fire detection system, in accor- 
dance with Section 907.2, that will respond to visible 
or invisible particles of combustion. Sprinklers shall 
not be omitted from any room merely because it is 
damp, of fire-resistance-rated construction or con- 
tains electrical equipment. 



176 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



1. Any room where the application of water, or 
flame and water, constitutes a serious life or fire 
hazard. 

2. Any room or space where sprinklers are consid- 
ered undesirable because of the nature of the 
contents, when approved by the fire code offi- 
cial. 

3. Generator and transformer rooms separated 
from the remainder of the building by walls and 
floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assemblies having 
a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours. 

4. In rooms or areas that are of noncombustible 
construction with wholly noncombustible con- 
tents. 

[F] 903.3.1.2 NFPA 13R sprinkler systems. Where 
allowed in buildings of Group R, up to and including four 
stories in height, automatic sprinkler systems shall be 
installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13R. 

[F] 903.3.1.2.1 Balconies and decks. Sprinkler protec- 
tion shall be provided for exterior balconies, decks and 
ground floor patios of dwelling units where the building 
is of Type V construction. Sidewall sprinklers that are 
used to protect such areas shall be permitted to be 
located such that their deflectors are within 1 inch (25 
mm) to 6 inches (152 mm) below the structural mem- 
bers and a maximum distance of 14 inches (356 mm) 
below the deck of the exterior balconies and decks that 
are constructed of open wood joist construction. 

[F] 903.3.1.3 NFPA 13D sprinkler systems. Where 
allowed, automatic sprinkler systems in one- and 
two-family dwellings shall be installed throughout in 
accordance with NFPA 13D. 

[F] 903.3.2 Quick-response and residential sprinklers. 

Where automatic sprinkler systems are required by this 
code, quick-response or residential automatic sprinklers 
shall be installed in the following areas in accordance with 
Section 903 .3.1 and their listings : 

1. Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment 
containing patient sleeping units in Group 1-2 in 
accordance with this code. 

2. Dwelling units, and sleeping units in Group R and I-l 
occupancies. 

3. Light-hazard occupancies as defined in NFPA 13. 

[F] 903.3.3 Obstructed locations. Automatic sprinklers 
shall be installed with due regard to obstructions that will 
delay activation or obstruct the water distribution pattern. 
Automatic sprinklers shall be installed in or under covered 
kiosks, displays, booths, concession stands, or equipment 
that exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm) in width. Not less than a 3-foot 
(914 mm) clearance shall be maintained between automatic 
sprinklers and the top of piles of combustible fibers. 



Exception: Kitchen equipment under exhaust hoods 
protected with a fire-extinguishing system in accordance 
with Section 904. 

[F] 903.3.4 Actuation. Automatic sprinkler systems shall 
be automatically actuated unless specifically provided for in 
this code. 

[F] 903.3.5 Water supplies. Water supplies for automatic 
sprinkler systems shall comply with this section and the 
standards referenced in Section 903.3.1. The potable water 
supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance 
with the requirements of this section and the International 
Plumbing Code. 

[F] 903.3.5.1 Domestic services. Where the domestic 
service provides the water supply for the automatic 
sprinkler system, the supply shall be in accordance with 
this section. 

[F] 903.3.5.1.1 Limited area sprinkler systems. 

Limited area sprinkler systems serving fewer than 20 
sprinklers on any single connection are permitted to 
be connected to the domestic service where a wet 
automatic standpipe is not available. Limited area 
sprinkler systems connected to domestic water sup- 
plies shall comply with each of the following require- 
ments: 

1. Valves shall not be installed between the 
domestic water riser control valve and the 
sprinklers. 

Exception: An approved indicating control 
valve supervised in the open position in 
accordance with Section 903.4. 

2. The domestic service shall be capable of sup- 
plying the simultaneous domestic demand and 
the sprinkler demand required to be hydrauli- 
cally calculated by NFPA 13, NFPA 13R or 
NFPA13D. 

[F] 903.3.5.1.2 Residential combination services. A 

single combination water supply shall be allowed pro- 
vided that the domestic demand is added to the sprin- 
kler demand as required by NFPA 13R. 

[F] 903.3.5.2 Secondary water supply. A secondary 
on-site water supply equal to the hydraulically calculated 
sprinkler demand, including the hose stream require- 
ment, shall be provided for high-rise buildings in Seis- 
mic Design Category C, D, E or F as determined by this 
code. The secondary water supply shall have a duration 
of not less than 30 minutes as determined by the occu- 
pancy hazard classification in accordance with NFPA 1 3. 

Exception: Existing buildings. 

[F] 903.3.6 Hose threads. Fire hose threads and fittings 
used in connection with automatic sprinkler systems shall I 
be as prescribed by the fire code official. I 

[F] 903.4 Sprinkler system monitoring and alarms. All 

valves controlling the water supply for automatic sprinkler sys- 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



177 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



terns, pumps, tanks, water levels and temperatures, critical air 
pressures and water-flow switches on all sprinkler systems 
shall be electrically supervised. 

Exceptions: 

1. Automatic sprinkler systems protecting one- and 
two-family dwellings. 

2. Limited area systems serving fewer than 20 sprin- 
klers. 

3. Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance 
with NFPA 1 3R where a common supply main is used 
to supply both domestic water and the automatic 
sprinkler systems and a separate shutoff valve for the 
automatic sprinkler system is not provided. 

4. Jockey pump control valves that are sealed or locked 
in the open position. 

5. Control valves to commercial kitchen hoods, paint 
spray booths or dip tanks that are sealed or locked in 
the open position. 

6. Valves controlling the fuel supply to fire pump 
engines that are sealed or locked in the open position. 

7. Trim valves to pressure switches in dry, preaction and 
deluge sprinkler systems that are sealed or locked in 
the open position. 

[F] 903.4.1 Signals. Alarm, supervisory and trouble signals 
shall be distinctly different and automatically transmitted to 
an approved central station, remote supervising station or 
proprietary supervising station as defined in NFPA 72 or, 
when approved by the fire code official, shall sound an audi- 
ble signal at a constantly attended location. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes 
provided by the municipality or public utility are 
not required to be monitored. 

2. Backflow prevention device test valves located in 
limited area sprinkler system supply piping shall 
be locked in the open position. In occupancies 
required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, 
the backflow preventer valves shall be electrically 
supervised by a tamper switch installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 72 and separately annunciated. 

[F] 903.4.2 Alarms. Approved audible devices shall be 
connected to every automatic sprinkler system. Such sprin- 
kler water-flow alarm devices shall be activated by water 
flow equivalent to the flow of a single sprinkler of the small- 
est orifice size installed in the system. Alarm devices shall 
be provided on the exterior of the building in an approved 
location. Where a fire alarm system is installed, actuation of 
the automatic sprinkler system shall actuate the building fire 
alarm system. 

[F] 903.4.3 Floor control valves. Approved supervised 
indicating control valves shall be provided at the point of 
connection to the riser on each floor in high-rise buildings. 

[F] 903.5 Testing and maintenance. Sprinkler systems shall 
be tested and maintained in accordance with the International 
Fire Code. 



SECTION 904 

ALTERNATIVE AUTOMATIC 

FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 

[F] 904.1 General. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems, 
other than automatic sprinkler systems, shall be designed, 
installed, inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with 
the provisions of this section and the applicable referenced 
standards. 

[F] 904.2 Where required. Automatic fire-extinguishing sys- 
tems installed as an alternative to the required automatic sprin- 
kler systems of Section 903 shall be approved by the fire code I 
official. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall not be con- I 
sidered alternatives for the purposes of exceptions or reduc- 
tions allowed by other requirements of this code. 

[F] 904.2.1 Commercial hood and duct systems. Each 
required commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system 
required by the International Fire Code or the Interriational 
Mechanical Code to have a Type I hood shall be protected 
with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system 
installed in accordance with this code. 

[F] 904.3 Installation. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems 
shall be installed in accordance with this section. 

[F] 904.3.1 Electrical wiring. Electrical wiring shall be in 
accordance with the ICC Electrical Code. 

[F] 904.3.2 Actuation. Automatic fire-extinguishing sys- 
tems shall be automatically actuated and provided with a 
manual means of actuation in accordance with Section 
904.11.1. 

[F] 904.3.3 System interlocking. Automatic equipment 
interlocks with fuel shutoffs, ventilation controls, door 
closers, window shutters, conveyor openings, smoke and 
heat vents and other features necessary for proper operation 
of the fire-extinguishing system shall be provided as 
required by the design and installation standard utilized for 
the hazard. 

[F] 904.3.4 Alarms and warning signs. Where alarms are 
required to indicate the operation of automatic fire-extin- 
guishing systems, distinctive audible and visible alarms and 
warning signs shall be provided to warn of pending agent 
discharge. Where exposure to automatic-extinguishing 
agents poses a hazard to persons and a delay is required to 
ensure the evacuation of occupants before agent discharge, 
a separate warning signal shall be provided to alert occu- 
pants once agent discharge has begun. Audible signals shall 
be in accordance with Section 907.9.2. 

[F] 904.3.5 Monitoring. Where a building fire alarm sys- 
tem is installed, automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall 
be monitored by the building fire alarm system in accor- 
dance with NFPA 72. 

[F] 904.4 Inspection and testing. Automatic fire-extinguish- 
ing systems shall be inspected and tested in accordance with 
the provisions of this section prior to acceptance. 

[F] 904.4.1 Inspection. Prior to conducting final accep- 
tance tests, the following items shall be inspected: 

1 . Hazard specification for consistency with design haz- 
ard. 



178 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



2. Type, location and spacing of automatic- and man- 
ual-initiating devices. 

3. Size, placement and position of nozzles or discharge 
orifices. 

4. Location and identification of audible and visible 
alarm devices. 

5. Identification of devices with proper designations. 

6. Operating instructions. 

[F] 904.4.2 Alarm testing. Notification appliances, con- 
nections to fire alarm systems and connections to approved 
supervising stations shall be tested in accordance with this 
section and Section 907 to verify proper operation. 

[F] 904.4.2.1 Audible and visible signals. The audibil- 
ity and visibility of notification appliances signaling 
agent discharge or system operation, where required, 
shall be verified. 

[F] 904.4.3 Monitor testing. Connections to protected pre- 
mises and supervising station fire alarm systems shall be 
tested to verify proper identification and retransmission of 
alarms from automatic fire-extinguishing systems. 

[F] 904.5 Wet-chemical systems. Wet-chemical extinguish- 
ing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically 
inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 17 A and their 
listing. 

[F] 904.6 Dry-chemical systems. Dry-chemical extinguishing 
systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected 
and tested in accordance with NFPA 17 and their listing. 

[F] 904.7 Foam systems. Foam-extinguishing systems shall be 
installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in 
accordance with NFPA 1 1 and NFPA 16 and their listing. 

[F] 904.8 Carbon dioxide systems. Carbon dioxide extin- 
guishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically 
inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 12 and their list- 
ing. 

[F] 904.9 Halon systems. Halogenated extinguishing systems 
shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested 
in accordance with NFPA 12A and their listing. 

[F] 904.10 Clean-agent systems. Clean-agent fire-extinguish- 
ing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically 
inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 2001 and their 
listing. 

[F] 904.11 Commercial cooking systems. The automatic 
fire-extinguishing system for commercial cooking systems 
shall be of a type recognized for protection of commercial 
cooking equipment and exhaust systems of the type and 
arrangement protected. Preengineered automatic dry- and 
wet-chemical extinguishing systems shall be tested in accor- 
dance with UL 300 and listed and labeled for the intended 
application. Other types of automatic fire-extinguishing sys- 
tems shall be listed and labeled for specific use as protection for 
commercial cooking operations. The system shall be installed 
in accordance with this code, its listing and the manufacturer's 
installation instructions. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems 



of the following types shall be installed in accordance with the 
referenced standard indicated, as follows: 

1. Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems, NFPA 12. 

2. Automatic sprinkler systems, NFPA 13. 

3. Foam- water sprinkler system or foam- water spray sys- 
tems, NFPA 16. 

4. Dry-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17. 

5. Wet-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17 A. 

Exception: Factory-built commercial cooking recirculat- 
ing systems that are tested in accordance with UL 710B and 
listed, labeled and installed in accordance with Section 
304.1 of the International Mechanical Code. 

[F] 904.11.1 Manual system operation. A manual actua- 
tion device shall be located at or near a means of egress from 
the cooking area a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) and a 
maximum of 20 feet (6096 mm) from the kitchen exhaust 
system. The manual actuation device shall be installed not 
more than 48 inches (1200 mm) or less than 42 inches (1067 
mm) above the floor and shall clearly identify the hazard 
protected. The manual actuation shall require a maximum 
force of 40 pounds ( 1 78 N) and a maximum movement of 1 4 
inches (356 mm) to actuate the fire suppression system. 

Exception: Automatic sprinkler systems shall not be 
required to be equipped with manual actuation means. 

[F] 904.11.2 System interconnection. The actuation of the 
fire suppression system shall automatically shut down the 
fuel or electrical power supply to the cooking equipment. 
The fuel and electrical supply reset shall be manual. 

[F] 904.11.3 Carbon dioxide systems. When carbon diox- 
ide systems are used, there shall be a nozzle at the top of the 
ventilating duct. Additional nozzles that are symmetrically 
arranged to give uniform distribution shall be installed 
within vertical ducts exceeding 20 feet (6096 mm) and hori- 
zontal ducts exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm). Dampers shall 
be installed at either the top or the bottom of the duct and 
shall be arranged to operate automatically upon activation 
of the fire-extinguishing system. Where the damper is 
installed at the top of the duct, the top nozzle shall be imme- 
diately below the damper. Automatic carbon dioxide 
fire-extinguishing systems shall be sufficiently sized to pro- 
tect against all hazards venting through a common duct 
simultaneously. 

[F] 904.11.3.1 Ventilation system. Commercial-type 
cooking equipment protected by an automatic carbon 
dioxide-extinguishing system shall be arranged to shut 
off the ventilation system upon activation. 

[F] 904.11.4 Special provisions for automatic sprinkler 
systems. Automatic sprinkler systems protecting conmier- 
cial-type cooking equipment shall be supplied from a sepa- 
rate, readily accessible, indicating-type control valve that is 
identified. 

[F] 904.11.4.1 Listed sprinklers. Sprinklers used for 
the protection of fryers shall be tested in accordance with 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



179 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



UL 199E, listed for that application and installed in 
accordance with their listing. 



SECTION 905 
STANDPIPE SYSTEMS 

[F] 905.1 General. Standpipe systems shall be provided in new 
buildings and structures in accordance with this section. Fire 
hose threads used in connection with standpipe systems shall 
be approved and shall be compatible with fire department hose 
threads. The location of fire department hose connections shall 
be approved. In buildings used for high-piled combustible stor- 
age, fire protection shall be in accordance with the Interna- 
tional Fire Code. 

[F] 905.2 Installation standard. Standpipe systems shall be 
installed in accordance with this section and NFPA 14. 

[F] 905.3 Required installations. Standpipe systems shall be 
installed where required by Sections 905.3.1 through 905.3.7 
and in the locations indicated in Sections 905.4, 905.5 and 
905.6. Standpipe systems are allowed to be combined with 
automatic sprinkler systems. 

Exception: Standpipe systems are not required in Group 
R-3 occupancies. 

[F] 905.3.1 Building height. Class III standpipe systems 
shall be installed throughout buildings where the floor level 
of the highest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) 
above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, or 
where the floor level of the lowest story is located more than 
,30 feet (9144 mm) below the highest level of fire depart- 
. ment vehicle access. 

Exceptions: 

1. Class I standpipes are allowed in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 
903.3.1.2. 

2. Class I manual standpipes are allowed in open 
parking garages where the highest floor is located 
not more than 1 50 feet (45 720 mm) above the low- 
est level of fire department vehicle access. 

3 . Class I manual dry standpipes are allowed in open 
parking garages that are subject to freezing tem- 
peratures, provided that the hose connections are 
located as required for Class II standpipes in accor- 
dance with Section 905.5. 

4. Class I standpipes are allowed in basements 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system. 

5. In determining the lowest level of fire department 
vehicle access, it shall not be required to consider: 

5.1. Recessed loading docks for four vehicles 
or less; and 



5.2. Conditions where topography makes 
access from the fire department vehicle to 
the building impractical or impossible. 

[F] 905.3.2 Group A. Class I automatic wet standpipes 
shall be provided in nonsprinklered Group A buildings hav- 
ing an occupant load exceeding 1,000 persons. 

Exceptions: 

1. Open-air-seating spaces without enclosed spaces. 

2. Class I automatic dry and semiautomatic dry 
standpipes or manual wet standpipes are allowed 
in buildings where the highest floor surface used 
for human occupancy is 75 feet (22 860 mm) or 
less above the lowest level of fire department vehi- 
cle access. 

[F] 905.3.3 Covered mall buildings. A covered mall build- 
ing shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system 
where required by Section 905.3.1. Covered mall buildings 
not required to be equipped with a standpipe system by Sec- 
tion 905.3. 1 shall be equipped with Class I hose connections 
connected to a system sized to deliver water at 250 gallons 
per minute (946.4 L/min) at the most hydraulically remote 
outlet. Hose connections shall be provided at each of the fol- 
lowing locations: 

1 . Within the mall at the entrance to each exit passage- 
way or corridor. 

2. At each floor-level landing within enclosed stairways 
opening directly on the mall. 

3. At exterior public entrances to the mall. 

[F] 905.3.4 Stages. Stages greater than 1,000 square feet in 
area (93 m^) shall be equipped with a Class III wet standpipe 
system with lV2-inch and 2V2-inch (38 mm and 64 mm) 
hose connections on each side of the stage. 

Exception: Where the building or area is equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system, a 
lV2-inch (38 mm) hose connection shall be installed in 
accordance with NFPA 13 or in accordance with NFPA 
14 for Class II or III standpipes. 

[F] 905.3.4.1 Hose and cabinet. The lV2-inch (38 mm) 
hose connections shall be equipped with sufficient 
lengths of 172-inch (38 mm) hose to provide fire protec- 
tion for the stage area. Hose connections shall be 
equipped with an approved adjustable fog nozzle and be 
mounted in a cabinet or on a rack. 

[F] 905.3.5 Underground buildings. Underground build- 
ings shall be equipped throughout with a Class I automatic 
wet or manual wet standpipe system. 

[F] 905.3.6 Helistops and heliports. Buildings with a 
helistop or heliport that are equipped with a standpipe shall 
extend the standpipe to the roof level on which the helistop 
or heliport is located in accordance with Section 1 107.5 of 
the International Fire Code. 



180 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



[F] 905.3.7 Marinas and boatyards. Marinas and 
boatyards shall be equipped throughout with standpipe sys- 
tems in accordance with NFPA 303. 

[F] 905.4 Location of Class I standpipe hose connections. 

Class I standpipe hose connections shall be provided in all of 
the following locations: 

1. In every required stairway, a hose connection shall be 
provided for each floor level above or below grade. Hose 
connections shall be located at an intermediate floor 
level landing between floors, unless otherwise approved 
by the fire code official. 

2. On each side of the wall adjacent to the exit opening of a 
horizontal exit. 

Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to a horizontal 
exit are reachable from exit stairway hose connec- 
tions by a 30-foot (9 144 mm) hose stream from a noz- 
zle attached to 100 feet (30480 mm) of hose, a hose 
connection shall not be required at the horizontal exit. 

3. In every exit passageway at the entrance from the exit 
passageway to other areas of a building. 

4. In covered mall buildings, adjacent to each exterior pub- 
lic entrance to the mall and adjacent to each entrance 
from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall. 

5. Where the roof has a slope less than four units vertical in 
12 units horizontal (33.3-percent slope), each standpipe 
shall be provided with a hose connection located either 
on the roof or at the highest landing of stairways with 
stair access to the roof. An additional hose connection 
shall be provided at the top of the most hydraulically 
remote standpipe for testing purposes. 

6. Where the most remote portion of a nonsprinklered floor 
or story is more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) from a hose 
connection or the most remote portion of a sprinklered 
floor or story is more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a 
hose connection, the fire code official is authorized to 
require that additional hose connections be provided in 
approved locations. 

[F] 905.4.1 Protection. Risers and laterals of Class I 
standpipe systems not located within an enclosed stairway 
or pressurized enclosure shall be protected by a degree of 
fire resistance equal to that required for vertical enclosures 
in the building in which they are located. 

Exception: In buildings equipped throughout with an 
approved automatic sprinkler system, laterals that are not 
located within an enclosed stairway or pressurized 
enclosure are not required to be enclosed within 
fire-resistance-rated construction. 

[F] 905.4.2 Interconnection. In buildings where more than 
one standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be intercon- 
nected in accordance with NFPA 14. 

[F] 905.5 Location of Class II standpipe hose connections. 

Class II standpipe hose connections shall be accessible and 
located so that all portions of the building are within 30 feet 
(9144 mm) of a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of 
hose. 



[F] 905.5.1 Groups A-1 and A-2. In Group A-1 and A-2 
occupancies with occupant loads of more than 1,000, hose 
connections shall be located on each side of any stage, on 
each side of the rear of the auditorium, on each side of the 
balcony and on each tier of dressing rooms. 

[F] 905.5.2 Protection. Fire-resistance-rated protection of 
risers and laterals of Class II standpipe systems is not 
required. 

[F] 905.5.3 Class II system 1-inch hose. A minimum 
1-inch (25 mm) hose shall be permitted to be used for hose 
stations in light-hazard occupancies where investigated and 
listed for this service and where approved by the fire code I 
olBcial. I 

[F] 905.6 Location of Class III standpipe hose connections. 

Class III standpipe systems shall have hose connections 
located as required for Class I standpipes in Section 905.4 and 
shall have Class II hose connections as required in Section 
905.5. 

[F] 905.6.1 Protection. Risers and laterals of Class III 
standpipe systems shall be protected as required for Class I 
systems in accordance with Section 905.4.1. 

[F] 905.6.2 Interconnection. In buildings where more than 
one Class III standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be 
interconnected at the bottom. 

[F] 905.7 Cabinets. Cabinets containing fire-fighting equip- 
ment such as standpipes, fire hoses, fire extinguishers or fire 
department valves shall not be blocked from use or obscured 
from view. 

[F] 905.7.1 Cabinet equipment identification. Cabinets 
shall be identified in an approved manner by a permanently 
attached sign with letters not less than 2 inches (51 mm) 
high in a color that contrasts with the background color, 
indicating the equipment contained therein. 

Exceptions: 

1. Doors not large enough to accommodate a written 
sign shall be marked with a permanently attached 
pictogram of the equipment contained therein. 

2. Doors that have either an approved visual identifi- 
cation clear glass panel or a complete glass door 
panel are not required to be marked. 

[F] 905.7.2 Locking cabinet doors. Cabinets shall be 
unlocked. 

Exceptions: 

1. Visual identification panels of glass or other 
approved transparent frangible material that is eas- 
ily broken and allows access. 

2. Approved locking arrangements. 

3. Group 1-3. 

[F] 905.8 Dry standpipes. Dry standpipes shall not be 
installed. 

Exception: Where subject to freezing and in accordance 
with NFPA 14. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



181 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



[F] 905.9 Valve supervision. Valves controlling water sup- 
plies shall be supervised in the open position so that a change in 
the normal position of the valve will generate a supervisory sig- 
nal at the supervising station required by Section 903.4. Where 
a fire alarm system is provided, a signal shall also be transmit- 
ted to the control unit. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Valves to underground key or hub valves in roadway 
boxes provided by the municipality or public utility 
do not require supervision. 

2. Valves locked in the normal position and inspected as 
provided in this code in buildings not equipped with a 
fire alarm system. 

[F] 905.10 During construction. Standpipe systems required 
during construction and demolition operations shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Section 331 1. 



SECTION 906 
PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 

[F] 906.1 General. Portable fire extinguishers shall be pro- 
vided in occupancies and locations as required by the Interna- 
tional Fire Code. 



SECTION 907 
FIRE ALARM AND DETECTION SYSTEMS 

[F] 907.1 General. This section covers the application, instal- 
lation, performance and maintenance of fire alarm systems and 
their components. 

[F] 907.1.1 Construction documents. Construction docu- 
ments for fire alarm systems shall be submitted for review 
and approval prior to system installation. Construction doc- 
uments shall include, but not be limited to, all of the follow- 
ing: 

1. A floor plan which indicates the use of all rooms. 

2. Locations of alarm-initiating and notification appli- 
ances. 

3. Alarm control and trouble signaling equipment. 

4. Annunciation. 

5. Power connection. 

6. Battery calculations. 

7. Conductor type and sizes. 

8. Voltage drop calculations. 

9. Manufacturers, model numbers and listing informa- 
tion for equipment, devices and materials. 

10. Details of ceiling height and construction. 

1 1 . The interface of fire safety control functions. 

[F] 907.1.2 Equipment. Systems and their components 
shall be listed and approved for the purpose for which they 
are installed. 

[FJ907.2 Where required. An approved manual, automatic or 
manual and automatic fire alarm system installed in accor- 



dance with the provisions of this code and NFPA 72 shall be 
provided in new buildings and structures in accordance with 
Sections 907.2.1 through 907.2.23 and provide occupant noti- 
fication in accordance with Section 907.9, unless other require- 
ments are provided by another section of this code. Where 
automatic sprinkler protection installed in accordance with 
Section 903 . 3 . 1 . 1 or 903 . 3 . 1 . 2 is provided and connected to the 
building fire alarm system, automatic heat detection required 
by this section shall not be required. 

The automatic fire detectors shall be smoke detectors. 
Where ambient conditions prohibit installation of automatic 
smoke detection, other automatic fire detection shall be 
allowed. 

[F]907.2.1 Group A. A manual fire alarm system shall be I 
installed in Group A occupancies having an occupant load I 
of 300 or more. Portions of Group E occupancies occupied 
for assembly purposes shall be provided with a fire alarm 
system as required for the Group E occupancy. 

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
where the building is equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system and the alarm notification appli- 
ances will activate upon sprinkler water flow. 

[F] 907.2.1.1 System initiation in Group A occupan- 
cies with an occupant load of 1,000 or more. Activa- 
tion of the fire alarm in Group A occupancies with an 
occupant load of 1,000 or more shall initiate a signal 
using an emergency voice/alarm communications sys- 
tem in accordance with NFPA 72. 

Exception: Where approved, the prerecorded 
announcement is allowed to be manually deactivated 
for a period of time, not to exceed 3 minutes, for the 
sole purpose of allowing a live voice announcement 
from an approved, constantly attended location. 

[F] 907.2.1.2 Emergency power. Emergency 
voice/alarm communications systems shall be provided 
with an approved emergency power source. 

[F] 907.2.2 Group B. A manual fire alarm system shall be 
installed in Group B occupancies having an occupant load 
of 500 or more persons or more than 100 persons above or 
below the lowest level of exit discharge. 

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
where the building is equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system and the alarm notification appli- 
ances will activate upon sprinkler water flow. 

[F] 907.2.3 Group E. A manual fire alarm system shall be 
installed in Group E occupancies. When automatic sprin- 
kler systems or smoke detectors are installed, such systems 
or detectors shall be connected to the building fire alarm 
system. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Group E occupancies with an occupant load of less 
than 50. 

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required in Group 
E occupancies where all the following apply: 



182 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



•l 



2.1. Interior corridors are protected by smoke 
detectors with alarm verification. 

2.2. Auditoriums, cafeterias, gymnasiums and 
the like are protected by heat detectors or 
other approved detection devices. 

2.3. Shops and laboratories involving dusts or 
vapors are protected by heat detectors or 
other approved detection devices. 

2.4. Off-premises monitoring is provided. 

2.5. The capability to activate the evacuation 
signal from a central point is provided. 

2.6. In buildings where normally occupied 
spaces are provided with a two-way com- 
munication system between such spaces 
and a constantly attended receiving station 
from where a general evacuation alarm can 
be sounded, except in locations specifi- 
cally designated by the fire code official. 

3. Manual fire alarm boxes shall not be required in 
Group E occupancies where the building is 
equipped throughout with an approved automatic 
sprinkler system, the notification appliances will 
activate on sprinkler water flow and manual acti- 
vation is provided from a normally occupied loca- 
tion. 

[F] 907.2.4 Group F. A manual fire alarm system shall be 
installed in Group F occupancies that are two or more sto- 
ries in height and have an occupant load of 500 or more 
above or below the lowest level of exit discharge. 

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
when the building is equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system and the notification appliances 
will activate upon sprinkler water flow. 

[F] 907.2.5 Group H. A manual fire alarm system shall be 
installed in Group H-5 occupancies and in occupancies used 
for the manufacture of organic coatings. An automatic 
smoke detection system shall be installed for highly toxic 
gases, organic peroxides and oxidizers in accordance with 
Chapters 37, 39 and 40, respectively, of the International 
Fire Code. 

[F] 907.2.6 Group I. A manual fire alarm system shall be 
installed in Group I occupancies. An electrically super- 
vised, automatic smoke detection system shall be provided 
in accordance with Sections 907.2.6.1 and 907.2.6.2. 

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes in resident or 
patient sleeping areas of Group I-l and 1-2 occupancies 
shall not be required at exits if located at all nurses' con- 
trol stations or other constantly attended staff locations, 
provided such stations are visible and continuously 
accessible and that travel distances required in Section 
907 .3.1 are not exceeded. 

IF] 907.2.6.1 Group I-l. Corridors, habitable spaces 
other than sleeping units and kitchens and waiting areas 



that are open to corridors shall be equipped with an auto- 
matic smoke detection system. 

Exceptions: 

1. Smoke detection in habitable spaces is not 
required where the facility is equipped through- 
out with an automatic sprinkler system. 

2. Smoke detection is not required for exterior 
balconies. 

[F] 907.2.6.2 Group 1-2. Corridors in nursing homes (both 
intermediate care and skilled nursing faciUties), detoxifica- 
tion faciUties and spaces permitted to be open to the corri- 
dors by Section 407.2 shall be equipped with an automatic 
fire detection system. Hospitals shall be equipped with 
smoke detection as required in Section 407.2. 

Exceptions: 

1. Corridor smoke detection is not required in 
smoke compartments that contain patient sleep- 
ing units where patient sleeping units are pro- 
vided with smoke detectors that comply with 
UL 268. Such detectors shall provide a visual 
display on the corridor side of each patient 
sleeping unit and an audible and visual alarm at 
the nursing station attending each unit. 

2. Corridor smoke detection is not required in 
smoke compartments that contain patient sleep- 
ing units where patient sleeping unit doors are 
equipped with automatic door-closing devices 
with integral smoke detectors on the unit sides 
installed in accordance with their listing, pro- 
vided that the integral detectors perform the 
required alerting function. 

[F] 907.2.6.3 Group 1-3. Group 1-3 occupancies shall be 
equipped with a manual and automatic fire alarm system 
installed for alerting staff. 

[F] 907.2.6.3.1 System initiation. Actuation of an 
automatic fire-extinguishing system, a manual fire 
alarm box or a fire detector shall initiate an approved 
fire alarm signal which automatically notifies staff. 
Presignal systems shall not be used. 

[F] 907.2.6.3.2 Manual fire alarm boxes. Manual 
fire alarm boxes are not required to be located in 
accordance with Section 907.3 where the fire alarm 
boxes are provided at staff- attended locations having 
direct supervision over areas where manual fire alarm 
boxes have been omitted. 

Manual fire alarm boxes shall be permitted to be 
locked in areas occupied by detainees, provided that 
staff members are present within the subject area and 
have keys readily available to operate the manual fire 
alarm boxes. 

[F] 907.2.6.3.3 Smoke detectors. An approved auto- 
matic smoke detection system shall be installed 
throughout resident housing areas, including sleeping 
units and contiguous day rooms, group activity spaces 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



183 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



and other common spaces normally accessible to resi- 
dents. 

Exceptions: 

1. Other approved smoke detection arrange- 
ments providing equivalent protection 
including, but not limited to, placing detec- 
tors in exhaust ducts from cells or behind 
protective guards listed for the purpose are 
allowed when necessary to prevent damage 
or tampering. 

2. Sleeping units in Use Conditions 2 and 3. 

3. Smoke detectors are not required in sleeping 
units with four or fewer occupants in smoke 
compartments that are equipped throughout 
with an approved automatic sprinkler system. 

[F] 907.2.7 Group M. A manual fire alarm system shall be 
installed in Group M occupancies having an occupant load 
of 500 or more persons or more than 100 persons above or 
below the lowest level of exit discharge. The initiation of a 
signal from a manual fire alarm box shall initiate alarm noti- 
fication appliances as required by Section 907.9. 

Exceptions: 

1. Covered mall buildings complying with Section 
402. 

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the 
building is equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system and the alarm notification appli- 
ances will automatically activate upon sprinkler 
water flow. 

[F] 907.2.7.1 Occupant notification. During times that 
the building is occupied, the initiation of a signal from a 
manual fire alarm box or from a water flow switch shall 
not be required to activate the alarm notification appli- 
ances when an alarm signal is activated at a constantly 
attended location from which evacuation instructions 
shall be initiated over an emergency voice/alarm com- 
munication system installed in accordance with Section 
907.2.12.2. 

The emergency voice/alarm communication system 
shall be allowed to be used for other announcements pro- 
vided the manual fire alarm use takes precedence over 
any other use. 

[F] 907.2.8 Group R-1. Fire alarm systems shall be 
installed in Group R-1 occupancies as required in Sections 
907.2.8.1 through 907.2.8.3. 

[F] 907.2.8.1 Manual fire alarm system. A manual fire 
alarm system shall be installed in Group R-1 occupan- 



cies. 



Exceptions: 

1 . A manual fire alarm system is not required in 
buildings not more than two stories in height 
where all individual sleeping units and contigu- 
ous attic and crawl spaces are separated from 
each other and public or common areas by at 
least 1-hour fire partitions and each individual 



sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public 
way, exit court or yard. 

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
throughout the building when the following 
conditions are met: 

2.1. The building is equipped throughout with 
an automatic sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 
903.3.1.2; 

2.2. The notification appliances will activate 
upon sprinkler water flow; and 

2.3. At least one manual fire alarm box is 
installed at an approved location. 

[F] 907.2.8.2 Automatic fire alarm system. An auto- 
matic fire alarm system shall be installed throughout all 
interior corridors serving sleeping units. 

Exception: An automatic fire detection system is not 
required in buildings that do not have interior corri- 
dors serving sleeping units and where each sleeping 
unit has a means of egress door opening directly to an 
exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit. 

[F] 907.2.8.3 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms shall be 
installed as required by Section 907.2.10. In buildings 
that are not equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the smoke alarms in sleeping 
units shall be connected to an emergency electrical sys- 
tem and shall be annunciated by sleeping unit at a con- 
stantly attended location from which the fire alarm 
system is capable of being manually activated. 

[F] 907.2.9 Group R-2. A manual fire alarm system shall be 
installed in Group R-2 occupancies where: 

1 . Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located three or 
more stories above the lowest level of exit discharge; 

2. Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located more 
than one story below the highest level of exit dis- 
charge of exits serving the dwelling unit or sleeping 
unit; or 

3. The building contains more than 16 dwelling units or 
sleeping units. 

Exceptions: 

1 . A fire alarm system is not required in build- 
ings not more than two stories in height 
where all dwelling units or sleeping units 
and contiguous attic and crawl spaces are 
separated from each other and public or 
common areas by at least 1-hour fire parti- 
tions and each dwelling unit or sleeping unit 
has an exit directly to a public way, exit court 
or yard. 

2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required 
throughout the building when the following 
conditions are met: 



184 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



2. 1 . The building is equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system 
in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or Section 903.3.1.2; and 

2.2. The notification appliances will acti- 
vate upon sprinkler flow. 

3. A fire alarm system is not required in build- 
ings that do not have interior corridors serv- 
ing dwelling units and are protected by an 
approved automatic sprinkler system 
installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, provided that dwell- 
ing units either have a means of egress door 
opening directly to an exterior exit access 
that leads directly to the exits or are served 
by open-ended corridors designed in accor- 
dance with Section 1023.6, Exception 4. 

[F] 907.2.10 Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms. 

Listed single- and multiple-station smoke alarms comply- 
ing with UL 217 shall be installed in accordance with the 
provisions of this code and the household fire-warning 
equipment provisions of NFPA 72. 

[F] 907.2.10.1 Where required. Single- or multiple-sta- 
tion smoke alarms shall be installed in the locations 
described in Sections 907. 2. 10. 1.1 through 907.2.10.1.3. 

[F] 907.2.10.1.1 Group R-1. Single- or multiple-sta- 
tion smoke alarms shall be installed in all of the fol- 
lowing locations in Group R-1: 

1. In sleeping areas. 

2. In every room in the path of the means of egress 
from the sleeping area to the door leading from 
the sleeping unit. 

3. In each story within the sleeping unit, including 
basements. For sleeping units with split levels 
and without an intervening door between the 
adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the 
upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower 
level provided that the lower level is less than 
one full story below the upper level. 

[F] 907.2.10.1.2 Groups R-2, R-3, R-4 and I-l. Sin- 
gle- or multiple-station smoke alarms shall be 
installed and maintained in Groups R-2, R-3, R-4 and 
I- 1 , regardless of occupant load at all of the following 
locations: 

1 . On the ceiling or wall outside of each separate 
sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of bed- 
rooms. 

2. In each room used for sleeping purposes. 

3. In each story within a dwelling unit, including 
basements but not including crawl spaces and 
uninhabitable attics. In dwellings or dwelling 
units with split levels and without an interven- 
ing door between the adjacent levels, a smoke 
alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice 
for the adjacent lower level provided that the 



lower level is less than one full story below the 
upper level. 

[F] 907.2.10.1.3 Group I-l. Single- or hiultiple-sta- 
tion smoke alarms shall be installed and maintained in 
sleeping areas in Group I-l occupancies. 

Exception: Single- or multiple-station smoke 
alarms shall not be required where the building is 
equipped throughout with an automatic fire detec- 
tion system in accordance with Section 907.2.6. 

[F] 907.2.10.2 Power source. In new construction, 
required smoke alarms shall receive their primary power 
from the building wiring where such wiring is served 
from a commercial source and shall be equipped with a 
battery backup. Smoke alanns shall emit a signal when 
the batteries are low. Wiring shall be permanent and 
without a disconnecting switch other than as required for 
. overcurrent protection. 

Exception: Smoke alarms are not required to be 
equipped with battery backup in Group R7I where 
they are connected to an emergency electrical system. 

[F] 907.2.10.3 Interconnection. Where more than one 
smoke alarm is required to be installed within an individ- 
ual dwelling unit in Group R-2, R-3 or R-4, or within an 
individual dwelling unit or sleeping unit in Group R-1, 
the smoke alarms shall be interconnected in such a man- 
ner that the activation of one alarm will activate all of the 
alarms in the individual unit. The alarm shall be clearly 
audible in all bedrooms over background noise levels 
with all intervening doors closed. 

[F] 907.2.10.4 Acceptance testing. When the installa- 
tion of the alarm devices is complete, each detector and 
interconnecting wiring for multiple-station alarm 
devices shall be tested in accordance with the household 
fire warning equipment provisions of NFR\ 72. 

[F] 907.2.11 Special amusement buildings. An approved 
automatic smoke detection system shall be provided in spe- 
cial amusement buildings in accordance with this section. 

Exception: In areas where ambient conditions will cause 
a smoke detection system to alarm, an approved alterna- 
tive type of automatic detector shall be installed. 

[F] 907.2.11.1 Alarm. Activation of any single smoke 
detector, the automatic sprinkler system or any other 
automatic fire detection device shall immediately sound 
an alarm at the building at a constantly attended location 
from which emergency action can be initiated, including 
the capability of manual initiation of requirements in 
Section 907.2. 11.2. 

[F] 907.2.11.2 System response. The activation of two 
or more smoke detectors, a single smoke detector with 
alarm verification, the automatic sprinkler system or 
other approved fire detection device shall automatically : 

1. Cause illumination of the means of egress with 
light of not less than 1 foot-candle (11 lux) at the 
walking surface level; 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



185 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



2. Stop any conflicting or confusing sounds and 
visual distractions; and 

3. Activate an approved directional exit marking that 
will become apparent in an emergency. 

Such system response shall also include activa- 
tion of a prerecorded message, clearly audible 
throughout the special amusement building, 
instructing patrons to proceed to the nearest exit. 
Alarm signals used in conjunction with the prere- 
corded message shall produce a sound which is 
distinctive from other sounds used during normal 
operation. 

The wiring to the auxiliary devices and equip- 
ment used to accomplish the above fire safety 
functions shall be monitored for integrity in accor- 
dance with NFPA 72. 

[F] 907.2.11.3 Emergency voice/alarm communica- 
tion system. An emergency voice/alarm communication 
system, which is also allowed to serve as a public address 
system, shall be installed in accordance with NPPA 72, 
and shall be audible throughout the entire special amuse- 
ment building. 

[F] 907.2.12 High-rise buildings. Buildings with a floor 
used for human occupancy located more than 75 feet (22 
860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle 
access shall be provided with an automatic fire alarm system 
and an emergency voice/alarm communication system in 
accordance with Section 907.2. 12.2. 

Exceptions: 

1. Airport traffic control towers in accordance with 
Sections 412 and 907.2.22. 

2. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 
406.3. 

3. Buildings with an occupancy in Group A-5. 

4. Low-hazard special occupancies in accordance 
with Section 503.1.1. 

5 . Buildings with an occupancy in Group H- 1 , H-2 or 
H-3 in accordance with Section 415. 

[F] 907.2.12.1 Automatic fire detection. Smoke detec- 
tors shall be provided in accordance with this section. 
Smoke detectors shall be connected to an automatic fire 
alarm system. The activation of any detector required by 
this section shall operate the emergency voice/alarm 
communication system. Smoke detectors shall be 
located as follows: 

1. In each mechanical equipment, electrical, trans- 
former, telephone equipment or similar room 
which is not provided with sprinkler protection, 
elevator machine rooms and in elevator lobbies. 

2. In the main return air and exhaust air plenum of 
each air-conditioning system having a capacity 
greater than 2,000 cubic feet per minute (cfm) 
(0.94 mVs). Such detectors shall be located in a 
serviceable area downstream of the last duct inlet. 



3. At each connection to a vertical duct or riser serv- 
ing two or more stories from a return air duct or 
plenum of an air-conditioning system. In Group 
R- 1 and R-2 occupancies a hsted smoke detector is 
allowed to be used in each return air riser carrying 
not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 mVs) and serving not 
more than 10 air inlet openings. 

[F] 907.2.12.2 Emergency voice/alarm communica- 
tion system. The operation of any automatic fire detec- 
tor, sprinkler water-flow device or manual fire alarm box 
shall automatically sound an alert tone followed by voice 
instructions giving approved information and directions 
for a general or staged evacuation on a minimum of the 
alarming floor, the floor above and the floor below in 
accordance with the building's fire safety and evacuation 
plans required by Section 404 of the International Fire 
Code. Speakers shall be provided throughout the build- 
ing by paging zones. As a minimum, paging zones shall 
be provided as follows: 

1. Elevator groups. 

2. Exit stairways. 

3. Each floor. 

4. Areas of refuge as defined in Section 1002.1. 

Exception: In Group I-l and 1-2 occupancies, the 
alarm shall sound in a constantly attended area and a 
general occupant notification shall be broadcast over 
the overhead page. 

[F] 907.2.12.2.1 Manual override. A manual over- 
ride for emergency voice communication shall be 
provided on a selective and all-call basis for all paging I 
zones. I 

[F] 907.2.12.2.2 Live voice messages. The emer- 
gency voice/alarm communication system shall also 
have the capability to broadcast live voice messages 
through paging zones on a selective and all-call basis . I 

[F] 907.2.12.2.3 Standard. The emergency voice/ 
alarm communication system shall be designed and 
installed in accordance with NFPA 72. 

[F] 907.2.12.3 Fire department communication sys- 
tem. An approved two-way, fire department communi- 
cation system designed and installed in accordance with 
NFPA 72 shall be provided for fire department use. It 
shall operate between a fire command center complying 
with Section 911 and elevators, elevator lobbies, emer- 
gency and standby power rooms, fire pump rooms, areas 
of refuge and inside enclosed exit stairways. The fire 
department communication device shall be provided at 
each floor level within the enclosed stairway. 

Exception: Fire department radio systems where 
approved by the fire department. 

[F] 907.2.13 Atriums connecting more than two stories. 

A fire alarm system shall be installed in occupancies with an 
atrium that connects more than two stories. The system shall 
be activated in accordance with Section 907.6. Such occu- 
pancies in Group A, E or M shall be provided with an emer- 



186 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



gency voice/alarm communication system complying with 
the requirements of Section 907.2.12.2. 

[F] 907.2.14 High-piled combustible storage areas. An 

automatic fire detection system shall be installed through- 
out high-piled combustible storage areas where required by 
the International Fire Code. 

[F] 907.2.15 Delayed egress locks. Where delayed egress 
locks are installed on means of egress doors in accordance 
with Section 1008.1.8.6, an automatic smoke or heat detec- 
tion system shall be installed as required by that section. 

[F] 907.2.16 Aerosol storage uses. Aerosol storage rooms 
and general-purpose warehouses containing aerosols shall 
be provided with an approved manual fire alarm system 
where required by the International Fire Code. 

[F] 907.2.17 Lumber, wood structural panel and veneer 
mills. Lumber, wood structural panel and veneer mills shall 
be provided with a manual fire alarm system. 

[F] 907.2.18 Underground buildings with smoke exhaust 
system. Where a smoke exhaust system is installed in an 
underground building in accordance with this code, auto- 
matic fire detectors shall be provided in accordance with 
this section. 

[F] 907.2.18.1 Smoke detectors. A minimum of one 
smoke detector listed for the intended purpose shall be 
installed in the following areas: 

1. Mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, 
telephone equipment, elevator machine or similar 
rooms. 

2. Elevator lobbies. 

3. The main return and exhaust air plenum of each 
air-conditioning system serving more than one 
story and located in a serviceable area downstream 
of the last duct inlet. 

4. Each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving 
two or more floors from return air ducts or ple- 
nums of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning 
systems, except that in Group R occupancies, a 
Msted smoke detector is allowed to be used in each 
return air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm 
(2.4 mVs) and serving not more than 10 air inlet 
openings. 

[F] 907.2.18.2 Alarm required. Activation of the smoke 
exhaust system shall activate an audible alarm at a con- 
stantly attended location. 

[F] 907.2.19 Underground buildings. Where the lowest 
level of a structure is more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) below 
the lowest level of exit discharge, the structure shall be 
equipped throughout with a manual fire alarm system, 
including an emergency voice/alarm communication sys- 
tem installed in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2. 

[F] 907.2.19.1 Public address system. Where a fire 
alarm system is not required by Section 907.2, a public 
address system shall be provided that shall be capable of 
transmitting voice communications to the highest level 



of exit discharge serving the underground portions of the 
structure and all levels below. 

[F] 907.2.20 Covered mall buildings. Covered mall build- 
ings exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m^) in total floor 
area shall be provided with an emergency voice/alarm com- 
munication system. An emergency voice/alarm communi- 
cation system serving a mall, required or otherwise, shall be 
accessible to the fire department. The system shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2. 

[F] 907.2.21 Residential aircraft hangars. A minimum of 
one listed smoke alarm shall be installed within a residential 
aircraft hangar as defined in Section 412.3.1 and shall be 
interconnected into the residential smoke alarm or other 
sounding device to provide an alarm that will be audible in 
all sleeping areas of the dwelling. 

[F] 907.2.22 Airport traffic control towers. An automatic 
fire detection system shall be provided in airport traffic con- 
trol towers. 

[F] 907.2.23 Battery rooms. An approved automatic 
smoke detection system shall be installed in areas contain- 
ing stationary storage battery systems having a liquid capac- 
ity of more than 50 gallons (189.3 L). The detection system 
shall be supervised by an approved central, proprietary or 
remote station service or a local alarm that will sound an 
audible signal at a constantly attended location. 

[F] 907.3 Manual fire alarm boxes. Manual fire alarm boxes 
shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.3.1 through 
907.3.5. 

[F] 907.3.1 Location. Manual fire alarm boxes shall be 
located not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the entrance to 
each exit. Additional manual fire alarm boxes shall be 
located so that travel distance to the nearest box does not 
exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). 

[F] 907.3.2 Height. The height of the manual fire alarm 
boxes shall be a minimum of 42 inches (1067 mm) and a 
maximum of 48 inches (1219 rom), measured vertically, 
from the floor level to the activating handle or lever of the 
box. 

[F] 907.3.3 Color. Manual fire alarm boxes shall be red in 
color. 

[F] 907.3.4 Signs. Where fire alarm systems are not moni- 
tored by a supervising station, an approved permanent sign 
shall be installed adjacent to each manual fire alarm box that 
reads: WHEN ALARM SOUNDS— CALL FIRE 
DEPARTMENT. 

Exception: Where the manufacturer has permanently 
provided this information on the manual fire alarm box. 

[F] 907.3.5 Protective covers. The fire code official is 
authorized to require the installation of listed manual fire 
alarm box protective covers to prevent maUcious false 
alarms or to provide the manual fire alarm box with protec- 
tion from physical damage. The protective cover shall be 
transparent or red in color with a transparent face to permit 
visibility of the manual fire alarm box. Each cover shall 
include proper operating instructions. A protective cover 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



187 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



that emits a local alarm signal shall not be installed unless 
approved. 

[F] 907.4 Power supply. The primary and secondary power 
supplies for the fire alarm system shall be provided in accor- 
dance with NFPA 72. 

[F] 907.5 Wiring. Wiring shall comply with the requirements 
of the ICC Electrical Code and NFPA 72. Wireless protection 
systems utilizing radio-frequency transmitting devices shall 
comply with the special requirements for supervision of 
low-power wireless systems in NFPA 72. 

[F] 907.6 Activation. Where an alarm notification system is 
required by another section of this code, it shall be activated by: 

1. A required automatic fire alarm system. 

2. Sprinkler water-flow devices. 

3. Required manual fire alarm boxes. 

[F] 907.7 Presignal system. Presignal systems shall not be 
installed unless approved by the fire code official and the fire 
department. Where a presignal system is installed, 24-hour 
personnel supervision shall be provided at a location approved 
by the fire department, in order that the alarm signal can be 
actuated inthe event of fire or other emergency. 

[F] 907.8 Zones. Each floor shall be zoned separately and a 
zone shall not exceed 22,500 square feet (2090 m^). The length 
of any zone shall not exceed 300 feet (9 1 440 mm) in any direc- 
tion. 

Exception: Automatic sprinkler system zones shall not 
exceed the area permitted by NFPA 13. 

[F] 907.8.1 Zoning indicator panel. A zoning indicator 
panel and the associated controls shall be provided in an 
approved location. The visual zone indication shall lock in 
until the system is reset and shall not be canceled by the 
operation of an audible alarm-silencing switch. 

[F] 907.8.2 High-rise buildings. In buildings with a floor 
used for human occupancy that is located more than 75 feet 
(22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehi- 
cle access, a separate zone by floor shall be provided for all 
of the following types of alarm-initiating devices where pro- 
vided: 

1. Smoke detectors. 

2. Sprinkler water-flow devices. 

3. Manual fire alarm boxes. 

4. Other approved types of automatic fire detection 
devices or suppression systems. 

[F] 907.9 Alarm notification appliances. Alarm notification 
appliances shall be provided and shall be listed for their pur- 
pose. 

[F] 907.9.1 Visible alarms. Visible alarm notification 
appliances shall be provided in accordance with Sections 
907.9.1.1 through 907.9.1.4. 

Exceptions: 

1. Visible alarm notification appliances are not 
required in alterations, except where an existing 



fire alarm system is upgraded or replaced, or a new 
fire alarm system is installed. 

2. Visible alarm notification appliances shall not be 
required in exits as defined in Section 1002.1. 

[F] 907.9.1.1 Public and common areas. Visible alarm 
notification appliances shall be provided in public areas 
and common areas. 

[F] 907.9.1.2 Employee work areas. Where employee 
work areas have audible alarm coverage, the notification 
appliance circuits serving the employee work areas shall 
be initially designed with a minimum of 20 percent spare 
capacity to account for the potential of adding visible 
notification appliances in the future to accommodate 
hearing impaired employees. 

[F] 907.9.1.3 Groups I-l and R-1. Group I-l and R-1 
sleeping units in accordance with Table 907.9.1.3 shall 
be provided with a visible alarm notification appliance, 
activated by both the in-room smoke alarm and the build- 
ing fire alarm system. 

[F] TABLE 907.9.1 .3 
VISIBLE AND AUDIBLE ALARMS 



NUMBER OF 
SLEEPING UNITS 


SLEEPING UNITS WITH 
VISIBLE AND AUDIBLE ALARMS 


6 to 25 


2 


26 to 50 


4 


51 to 75 


7 


76 to 100 


9 


101 to 150 


12 


151 to 200 


14 


201 to 300 


17 


301 to 400 


20 


401 to 500 


22 


501 to 1,000 


5% of total 


1,001 and over 


50 plus 3 for each 100 over 1,000 



[F] 907.9.1.4 Group R-2. In Group R-2 occupancies 
required by Section 907 to have a fire alarm system, all 
dwelling units and sleeping units shall be provided with 
the capability to support visible alarm notification appli- 
ances in accordance with ICC Al 17 . 1 . 

[F] 907.9.2 Audible alarms. Audible alarm notification 
appliances shall be provided and shall sound a distinctive 
sound that is not to be used for any purpose other than that of 
a fire alarm. The audible alarm notification appliances shall 
provide a sound pressure level of 15 decibels (dBA) above 
the average ambient sound level or 5 dBA above the maxi- 
mum sound level having a duration of at least 60 seconds, 
whichever is greater, in every occupied space within the 
building. The minimum sound pressure levels shall be: 70 
dBA in occupancies in Groups R and I-l; 90 dBA in 
mechanical equipment rooms and 60 dBA in other occupan- 
cies. The maximum sound pressure level for audible alarm 
notification appliances shall be 120 dBA at the minimum 
hearing distance from the audible appliance. Where the 



188 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



average ambient noise is greater than 105 dBA, visible 
alarm notification appliances shall be provided in accor- 
dance with NFPA 72 and audible alarm notification appli- 
ances shall not be required. 

Exception: Visible alarm notification apphances shall 
be allowed in lieu of audible alarm notification appli- 
ances in critical-care areas of Group 1-2 occupancies. 

[F] 907.10 Fire safety functions. Automatic fire detectors uti- 
lized for the purpose of performing fire safety functions shall 
be connected to the building's fire alarm control panel where a 
fire alarm system is required by Section 907.2. Detectors shall, 
upon actuation, perform the intended function and activate the 
alarm notification appliances or a visible and audible supervi- 
sory signal at a constantly attended location. In buildings not 
required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, the automatic 
fire detector shall be powered by normal electrical service and, 
upon actuation, perform the intended function. The detectors 
shall be located in accordance with NFPA 72. 

[F] 907.11 Duct smoke detectors. Duct smoke detectors shall 
be connected to the building's fire alarm control panel when a 
fire alarm system is provided. Activation of a duct smoke 
detector shall initiate a visible and audible supervisory signal at 
a constantly attended location. Duct smoke detectors shall not 
be used as a substitute for required open-area detection. 

Exceptions: 

1 . The supervisory signal at a constantly attended loca- 
tion is not required where duct smoke detectors acti- 
vate the building's alarm notification appliances. 

2. In occupancies not required to be equipped with a fire 
alarm system, actuation of a smoke detector shall acti- 
vate a visible and audible signal in an approved loca- 
tion. Smoke detector trouble conditions shall activate 
a visible or audible signal in an approved location and 
shall be identified as air duct detector trouble. 

[F] 907.12 Access. Access shall be provided to each detector 
for periodic inspection, maintenance and testing. 

[F] 907.13 Fire-extinguishing systems. Automatic fire-extin- 
guishing systems shall be connected to the building fire alarm 
system where a fire alarm system is required by another section 
of this code or is otherwise installed. 

[F] 907.14 Monitoring. Fire alarm systems required by this 
chapter or the International Fire Code shall be monitored by an 
approved supervising station in accordance with NFPA 72. 

Exception: Supervisory service is not required for: 

1. Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms required 
by Section 907.2.10. 

2. Smoke detectors in Group 1-3 occupancies. 

3. Automatic sprinkler systems in one- and two-family 
dwellings. 

[F] 907.15 Automatic telephone-dialing devices. Automatic 
telephone-dialing devices used to transmit an emergency alarm 



shall not be connected to any fire department telephone number 
unless approved by the fire chief. 

[F] 907.16 Acceptance tests. Upon completion of the installa- 
tion of the fire alarm system, alarm notification appliances and 
circuits, alarm-initiating devices and circuits, supervisory-sig- 
nal initiating devices and circuits, signaling line circuits, and 
primary and secondary power supplies shall be tested in accor- 
dance with NFPA 72. 

[F] 907.17 Record of completion. A record of completion in 
accordance with NFPA 72 verifying that the system has been 
installed in accordance with the approved plans and specifica- 
tions shall be provided. 

[F] 907.18 Instructions. Operating, testing and maintenance 
instructions, and record drawings ("as builts") and equipment 
specifications shall be provided at an approved location. 

[F] 907.19 Inspection, testing and maintenance. The mainte- 
nance and testing schedules and procedures for fire alarm and 
fire detection systems shall be in accordance with the Interna- 
tional Fire Code. 



SECTION 908 
EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEMS 

[F] 908.1 Group H occupancies. Emergency alarms for the 
detection and notification of an emergency condition in Group 
H occupancies shall be provided in accordance with Section 
414.7. 

[F] 908.2 Group H-5 occupancy. Emergency alarms for noti- 
fication of an emergency condition in an HPM faciUty shall be 
provided as required in Section 415.8.4.6. A continuous 
gas-detection system shall be provided for HPM gases in 
accordance with Section 415.8.7. 

[F] 908.3 Highly toxic and toxic materials. A gas detection 
system shall be provided to detect the presence of gas at or 
below the permissible exposure limit (PEL) or ceiling limit of 
the gas for which detection is provided. The system shall be 
capable of monitoring the discharge from the treatment system 
at or below one-half the immediately dangerous to life and 
health (IDLH) hmit. 

Exception: A gas-detection system is not required for toxic 
gases when the physiological warning threshold level for 
the gas is at a level below the accepted PEL for the gas. 

[F] 908.3.1 Alarms. The gas detection system shall initiate 
a local alarm and transmit a signal to a constantly attended 
control station when a short-term hazard condition is 
detected. The alarm shall be both visible and audible and 
shall provide warning both inside and outside the area 
where gas is detected. The audible alarm shall be distinct 
from all other alarms. 

Exception: Signal transmission to a constantiy attended 
control station is not required when not more than one 
cylinder of highly toxic or toxic gas is stored. 

[F] 908.3.2 Shutoff of gas supply. The gas detection sys- 
tem shall automatically close the shutoff valve at the source 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



189 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



on gas supply piping and tubing related to the system being 
monitored for whichever gas is detected. 

Exception: Automatic shutdown is not required for 
reactors utilized for the production of highly toxic or 
toxic compressed gases where such reactors are: 

1. Operated at pressures less than 15 pounds per 
square inch gauge (psig) (103.4 kPa). 

2. Constantly attended. 

3. Provided with readily accessible emergency shut- 
off valves. 

[F] 908.3.3 Valve closure. The automatic closure of shutoff 
valves shall be in accordance with the following: 

1 . When the gas-detection sampling point initiating the 
gas detection system alarm is within a gas cabinet or 
exhausted enclosure, the shutoff valve in the gas cabi- 
net or exhausted enclosure for the specific gas 
detected shall automatically close. 

2. Where the gas-detection sampling point initiating the 
gas detection system alarm is within a gas room and 
compressed gas containers are not in gas cabinets or 
exhausted enclosures, the shutoff valves on all gas 
lines for the specific gas detected shall automatically 
close. 

3. Where the gas-detection sampling point initiating the 
gas detection system alarm is within a piping distribu- 
tion manifold enclosure, the shutoff valve for the 
compressed container of specific gas detected supply- 
ing the manifold shall automatically close. 

Exception: When the gas-detection sampling point initi- 
ating the gas-detection system alarm is at a use location 
or within a gas valve enclosure of a branch line down- 
stream of a piping distribution manifold, the shutoff 
valve in the gas valve enclosure for the branch line 
located in the piping distribution manifold enclosure 
shall automatically close. 

[F] 908.4 Ozone gas-generator rooms. Ozone gas-generator 
rooms shall be equipped with a continuous gas-detection sys- 
tem that will shut off the generator and sound a local alarm 
when concentrations above the PEL occur. 

[F] 908.5 Repair garages. A flammable-gas detection system 
shall be provided in repair garages for vehicles fueled by 
nonodorized gases in accordance with Section 406.6.6. 

[F] 908.6 Refrigerant detector. Machinery rooms shall con- 
tain a refrigerant detector with an audible and visual alarm. The 
detector, or a sampling tube that draws air to the detector, shall 
be located in an area where refrigerant from a leak will concen- 
trate. The alarm shall be actuated at a value not greater than the 
corresponding TLV-TWA values for the refrigerant classifica- 
tion indicated in the International Mechanical Code. Detectors 
and alarms shall be placed in approved locations. 



SECTION 909 
SMOKE CONTROL SYSTEMS 

[F] 909.1 Scope and purpose. This section applies to mechan- 
ical or passive smoke control systems when they are required 
by other provisions of this code. The purpose of this section is 
to establish minimum requirements for the design, installation 
and acceptance testing of smoke control systems that are 
intended to provide a tenable environment for the evacuation or 
relocation of occupants. These provisions are not intended for 
the preservation of contents, the timely restoration of opera- 
tions or for assistance in fire suppression or overhaul activities. 
Smoke control systems regulated by this section serve a differ- 
ent purpose than the smoke- and heat- venting provisions found 
in Section 910. Mechanical smoke control systems shall not be 
considered exhaust systems under Chapter 5 of the Interna- 
tional Mechanical Code. 

[F] 909.2 General design requirements. Buildings, structures 
or parts thereof required by this code to have a smoke control 
system or systems shall have such systems designed in accor- 
dance with the applicable requirements of Section 909 and the 
generally accepted and well-established principles of engi- 
neering relevant to the design. The construction documents 
shall include sufficient information and detail to adequately 
describe the elements of the design necessary for the proper 
implementation of the smoke control systems. These docu- 
ments shall be accompanied by sufficient information and 
analysis to demonstrate compliance with these provisions. 

[F] 909.3 Special inspection and test requirements. In addi- 
tion to the ordinary inspection and test requirements which 
buildings, structures and parts thereof are required to undergo, 
smoke control systems subject to the provisions of Section 909 
shall undergo special inspections and tests sufficient to verify 
the proper commissioning of the smoke control design in its 
final installed condition. The design submission accompany- 
ing the construction documents shall clearly detail procedures 
and methods to be used and the items subject to such inspec- 
tions and tests. Such commissioning shall be in accordance 
with generally accepted engineering practice and, where possi- 
ble, based on published standards for the particular testing 
involved. The special inspections and tests required by this sec- 
tion shall be conducted under the same terms in Section 1704. 

[F] 909.4 Analysis. A rational analysis supporting the types of 
smoke control systems to be employed, their methods of opera- 
tion, the systems supporting them and the methods of construc- 
tion to be utilized shall accompany the submitted construction 
documents and shall include, but not be limited to, the items 
indicated in Sections 909.4.1 through 909.4.6. 

[F] 909.4.1 Stack effect. The system shall be designed such 
that the maximum probable normal or reverse stack effect 
will not adversely interfere with the system's capabilities. In 
determining the maximum probable stack effect, altitude, 
elevation, weather history and interior temperatures shall be 
used. 

[F] 909.4.2 Temperature effect of fire. Buoyancy and 
expansion caused by the design fire in accordance with Sec- 
tion 909.9 shall be analyzed. The system shall be designed 



190 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



such that these effects do not adversely interfere with the 
system's capabilities. 

[F] 909.4.3 Wind effect. The design shall consider the 
adverse effects of wind. Such consideration shall be consis- 
tent with the wind-loading provisions of Chapter 16. 

[F] 909.4.4 HVAC systems. The design shall consider the 
effects of the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning 
(HVAC) systems on both smoke and fire transport. The 
analysis shall include all permutations of systems status. 
The design shall consider the effects of the fire on the HVAC 
systems. 

[F] 909.4.5 Climate. The design shall consider the effects 
of low temperatures on systems, property and occupants. 
Air inlets and exhausts shall be located so as to prevent snow 
or ice blockage. 

[F] 909.4.6 Duration of operation. All portions of active or 
passive smoke control systems shall be capable of continued 
operation after detection of the fire event for a period of not 
less than either 20 minutes or 1 .5 times the calculated egress 
time, whichever is less. 

[F] 909.5 Smoke barrier construction. Smoke barriers shall 
comply with Section 709, and shall be constructed and sealed 
to limit leakage areas exclusive of protected openings. The 
maximum allowable leakage area shall be the aggregate area 
calculated using the following leakage area ratios: 



1. Walls: 

2. Exit enclosures: 

3. All other shafts: 

4. Floors and roofs: 
where: 



A/A^ = 0.00100 
A/A^ = 0.00035 
A/A^ = 0.00150 
A/A^ = 0.00050 



A = Total leakage area, square feet (m^). 

Ap = Unit floor or roof area of barrier, square feet (m^). 

A„ = Unit wall area of barrier, square feet (m^). 

The leakage area ratios shown do not include openings due 
to doors, operable windows or similar gaps. These shall be 
included in calculating the total leakage area. 

[F] 909.5.1 Leakage area. The total leakage area of the bar- 
rier is the product of the smoke barrier gross area multiplied 
by the allowable leakage area ratio, plus the area of other 
openings such as gaps and operable windows. Compliance 
shall be determined by achieving the minimum air pressure 
difference across the barrier with the system in the smoke 
control mode for mechanical smoke control systems. Pas- 
sive smoke control systems tested using other approved 
means such as door fan testing shall be as approved by the 
fire code official. 

[F] 909.5.2 Opening protection. Openings in smoke barri- 
ers shall be protected by automatic-closing devices actuated 
by the required controls for the mechanical smoke control 



system. Door openings shall be protected by fire door 
assemblies complying with Section 715.4.3. 

Exceptions: 

1. Passive smoke control systems with auto- 
matic-closing devices actuated by spot-type 
smoke detectors listed for releasing service 
installed in accordance with Section 907.10. 

2. Fixed openings between smoke zones that are pro- 
tected utilizing the airflow method. 

3. In Group 1-2, where such doors are installed across 
corridors, a pair of opposite-swinging doors with- 
out a center mullion shall be installed having 
vision panels with fire protection-rated glazing 
materials in fire protection-rated frames, the area 
of which shall not exceed that tested. The doors 
shall be close-fitting within operational tolerances 
and shall not have undercuts, louvers or grilles. 
The doors shall have head and jamb stops, astra- 
gals or rabbets at meeting edges and shall be auto- 
matic-closing by smoke detection in accordance 
with Section 715.4.7.3. Positive-latching devices 
are not required. 

4. Group 1-3. 

5. Openings between smoke zones with clear ceiling 
heights of 14 feet (4267 mm) or greater and 
bank-down capacity of greater than 20 minutes as 
determined by the design fire size. 

[F] 909.5.2.1 Ducts and air transfer openings. Ducts 
and air transfer openings are required to be protected 
with a minimum Class II, 250°F (121 °C) smoke damper 
complying with Section 716. 

[F] 909.6 Pressurization method. The primary mechanical 
means of controlling smoke shall be by pressure differences 
across smoke barriers. Maintenance of a tenable environment 
is not required in the smoke control zone of fire origin. 

[F] 909.6.1 Minimum pressure difference. The minimum 
pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be 
0.05-inch water gage (0.0124 kPa) in fully sprinklered 
buildings. 

In buildings permitted to be other than fully sprinklered, 
the smoke control system shall be designed to achieve pres- 
sure differences at least two times the maximum calculated 
pressure difference produced by the design fire. 

[F] 909.6.2 Maximum pressure difference. The maxi- 
mum air pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be 
determined by required door-opening or closing forces. The 
actual force required to open exit doors when the system is 
in the smoke control mode shall be in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1008.1.2. Opening and closing forces for other doors 
shall be determined by standard engineering methods for 
the resolution of forces and reactions. The calculated force 
to set a side-hinged, swinging door in motion shall be deter- 
mined by: 



F=F^,+ K(WAAP)/2(W- d) 



(Equation 9-1) 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



191 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



where: 

A = Door area, square feet (m^). 

d = Distance from door handle to latch edge of door, 
feet (m). 

F = Total door opening force, pounds (N). 

F^^ = Force required to overcome closing device, pounds 

(N). 

K = Coefficient 5.2 (1.0). 

W = Door width, feet (m). 

AP = Design pressure difference, inches of water (Pa). 

[F] 909.7 Airflow design method. When approved by the fire 
code official, smoke migration through openings fixed in a per- 
manently open position, which are located between smoke 
control zones by the use of the airflow method, shall be permit- 
ted. The design airflow shall be in accordance with this section. 
Airflow shall be directed to limit smoke migration from the fire 
zone. The geometry of openings shall be considered to prevent 
flow reversal from turbulent effects. 

[F] 909.7.1 Velocity. The minimum average velocity 
through a fixed opening shall not be less than: 

V = 217.2 [/i (Tf- TMTf+ 460)] "^ (Equation 9-2) 
For SI: v = 119.9 [h (Tf- T,)IT^"^ 

where: 

h = Height of opening, feet (m). 

7} = Temperature of smoke, °F (K). 

r„ = Temperature of ambient air, °F (K). 

V = Air velocity, feet per minute (m/minute). 

[F] 909.7.2 Prohibited conditions. This method shall not 
be employed where either the quantity of air or the velocity 
of the airflow will adversely affect other portions of the 
smoke control system, unduly intensify the fire, disrupt 
plume dynamics or interfere with exiting. In no case shall 
airflow toward the fire exceed 200 feet per minute (1.02 
m/s). Where the formula in Section 909.7. 1 requires airflow 
to exceed this limit, the airflow method shall not be used. 

[F] 909.8 Exhaust method. When approved by the fire code 
official, mechanical smoke control for large enclosed volumes, 
such as in atriums or malls, shall be permitted to utilize the 
exhaust method. Smoke control systems using the exhaust 
method shall be designed in accordance with NFPA 92B. 

[F] 909.8.1 Smoke layer. The height of the lowest horizon- 
tal surface of the accumulating smoke layer shall be main- 
tained at least 6 feet (1829 mm) above any walking surface 
that forms a portion of a required egress system within the 
smoke zone. 

[F] 909.9 Design fire. The design fire shall be based on a ratio- 
nal analysis performed by the registered design professional 
and approved by the fire code official. The design fire shall be 
based on the analysis in accordance with Section 909.4 and this 
section. 



[F] 909.9.1 Factors considered. The engineering analysis 
shall include the characteristics of the fuel, fuel load, effects 
included by the fire and whether the fire is likely to be steady 
or unsteady. 

[F] 909.9.2 Separation distance. Determination of the 
design fire shall include consideration of the type of fuel, 
fuel spacing and configuration. 



R = [QI{nnq")V 
where: 



(Equation 9-8) 



q" = Incident radiant heat flux required for nonpiloted 
ignition, Btu/ft^ • s (W/m^). 

Q = Heat release from fire, Btu/s (kW). 

R = Separation distance from target to center of fuel 
package, feet (m). 

[F] 909.9.3 Heat-release assumptions. The analysis shall 
make use of best available data from approved sources and 
shall not be based on excessively stringent limitations of 
combustible material. 

[F] 909.9.4 Sprinkler effectiveness assumptions. A docu- 
mented engineering analysis shall be provided for condi- 
tions that assume fire growth is halted at the time of 
sprinkler activation. 

[F] 909.10 Equipment. Equipment including, but not limited 
to, fans, ducts, automatic dampers and balance dampers, shall 
be suitable for its intended use, suitable for the probable expo- 
sure temperatures that the rational analysis indicates and as 
approved by the fire code official. 

[F] 909.10.1 Exhaust fans. Components of exhaust fans 
shall be rated and certified by the manufacturer for the prob- 
able temperature rise to which the components will be 
exposed. This temperature rise shall be computed by: 



T, = (QJmc) + m 
where: 



(Equation 9-9) 



c = Specific heat of smoke at smoke layer temperature, 
Btu/lb°F (kJ/kg • K). 

m = Exhaust rate, pounds per second (kg/s). 

Q^ = Convective heat output of fire, Btu/s (kW). 

r„ = Ambient temperature, °F (K). 

T^ = Smoke temperature, °F (K). 

Exception: Reduced T^as calculated based on the assur- 
ance of adequate dilution air. 

[F] 909.10.2 Ducts. Duct materials and joints shall be capa- 
ble of withstanding the probable temperatures and pressures 
to which they are exposed as determined in accordance with 
Section 909.10.1. Ducts shall be constructed and supported 
in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. 
Ducts shall be leak tested to 1 .5 times the maximum design 
pressure in accordance with nationally accepted practices. 
Measured leakage shall not exceed 5 percent of design flow. 
Results of such testing shall be a part of the documentation 
procedure. Ducts shall be supported directly from fire-resis- 



192 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



tance-rated structural elements of the building by substan- 
tial, noncombustible supports. 

Exception: Flexible connections (for the purpose of 
vibration isolation) complying with the International 
Mechanical Code, that are constructed of approved 
fire-resistance-rated materials. 

[F] 909.10.3 Equipment, inlets and outlets. Equipment 
shall be located so as to not expose uninvolved portions of 
the building to an additional fire hazard. Outside air inlets 
shall be located so as to minimize the potential for introduc- 
ing smoke or flame into the building. Exhaust outlets shall 
be so located as to minimize reintroduction of smoke into 
the building and to limit exposure of the building or adjacent 
buildings to an additional fire hazard. 

[F] 909.10.4 Automatic dampers. Automatic dampers, 
regardless of the purpose for which they are installed within 
the smoke control system, shall be listed and conform to the 
requirements of approved, recognized standards. 

[F] 909.10.5 Fans. In addition to other requirements, 
belt-driven fans shall have 1.5 times the number of belts 
required for the design duty, with the minimum number of 
belts being two. Fans shall be selected for stable perfor- 
mance based on normal temperature and, where applicable, 
elevated temperature. Calculations and manufacturer's fan 
curves shall be part of the documentation procedures. Fans 
shall be supported and restrained by noncombustible 
devices in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 16. 
Motors driving fans shall not be operated beyond their 
nameplate horsepower (kilowatts), as determined from 
measurement of actual current draw, and shall have a mini- 
mum service factor of 1 . 1 5 . 

[F] 909.11 Power systems. The smoke control system shall be 
supplied with two sources of power. Primary power shall be 
from the normal building power system. Secondary power 
shall be from an approved standby source complying with the 
ICC Electrical Code. The standby power source and its transfer 
switches shall be in a separate room from the normal power 
transformers and switch gear and shall be enclosed in a room 
constructed of not less than 1-hour fire barriers ventilated 
directly to and from the exterior. Power distribution from the 
two sources shall be by independent routes. Transfer to full 
standby power shall be automatic and within 60 seconds of fail- 
ure of the primary power. The systems shall comply with this 
code or the ICC Electrical Code. 

[F] 909.11.1 Power sources and power surges. Elements 
of the smoke management system relying on volatile mem- 
ories or the like shall be supplied with uninterruptable 
power sources of sufficient duration to span a 15-minute pri- 
mary power interruption. Elements of the smoke manage- 
ment system susceptible to power surges shall be suitably 
protected by conditioners, suppressors or other approved 
means. 

[F] 909.12 Detection and control systems. Fire detection sys- 
tems providing control input or output signals to mechanical 
smoke control systems or elements thereof shall comply with 
the requirements of Section 907. Such systems shall be 
equipped with a control unit complying with UL 864 and listed 



as smoke control equipment. 

Control systems for mechanical smoke control systems shall 
include provisions for verification. Verification shall include 
positive confirmation of actuation, testing, manual override, 
the presence of power downstream of all disconnects and, 
through a preprogrammed weekly test sequence, report abnor- 
mal conditions audibly, visually and by printed report. 

[F] 909.12.1 Wiring. In addition to meeting requirements 
of the ICC Electrical Code, all wiring, regardless of voltage, 
shall be fully enclosed within continuous raceways. 

[F] 909.12.2 Activation. Smoke control systems shall be 
activated in accordance with this section. 

[F] 909.12.2.1 Pressurization, airflow or exhaust 
method. Mechanical smoke control systems using the 
pressurization, airflow or exhaust method shall have 
completely automatic control. 

[F] 909.12.2.2 Passive method. Passive smoke control 
systems actuated by approved spot-type detectors listed 
for releasing service shall be permitted. 

[F] 909.12.3 Automatic control. Where completely auto- 
matic control is required or used, the automatic-control 
sequences shall be initiated from an appropriately zoned 
automatic sprinkler system complying with Section 
903.3.1.1, manual controls that are readily accessible to the 
fire department and any smoke detectors required by engi- 
neering analysis. 

[F] 909.13 Control air tubing. Control air tubing shall be of 
sufficient size to meet the required response times. Tubing shall 
be flushed clean and dry prior to final connections and shall be 
adequately supported and protected from damage. Tubing 
passing through concrete or masonry shall be sleeved and pro- 
tected from abrasion and electrolytic action. 

[F] 909.13.1 Materials. Control air tubing shall be hard 
drawn copper, Type L, ACR in accordance with ASTM B 
42, ASTM B 43, ASTM B 68, ASTM B 88, ASTM B 251 
and ASTM B 280. Fittings shall be wrought copper or brass, 
solder type, in accordance with ASME B 16. 18 or ASME B 
16.22. Changes in direction shall be made with appropriate 
tool bends. Brass compression-type fittings shall be used at 
final connection to devices; other joints shall be brazed 
using a BCuP5 brazing alloy with solidus above 1,100°F 
(593°C) and liquids below 1,500°F (816°C). Brazing flux 
shall be used on copper-to-brass joints only. 

Exception: Nonmetallic tubing used within control pan- 
els and at the final connection to devices, provided that 
all of the following conditions are met: 

1. Tubing shall be listed by an approved agency for 
flame and smoke characteristics. 

2. Tubing and connected devices shall be completely 
enclosed within galvanized or paint-grade steel 
enclosure of not less than 0.030 inch (0.76 mm) 
(No. 22 galvanized sheet gage) thickness. Entry to 
the enclosure shall be by copper tubing with a pro- 
tective grommet of neoprene or teflon or by suit- 
able brass compression to male-barbed adapter. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



193 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



3. Tubing shall be identified by appropriately docu- 
mented coding. 

4. Tubing shall be neatly tied and supported within 
enclosure. Tubing bridging cabinet and door or 
moveable device shall be of sufficient length to 
avoid tension and excessive stress . Tubing shall be 
protected against abrasion. Tubing serving 
devices on doors shall be fastened along hinges. 

[F] 909.13.2 Isolation from other functions. Control tub- 
ing serving other than smoke control functions shall be iso- 
lated by automatic isolation valves or shall be an 
independent system. 

[F] 909.13.3 Testing. Control air tubing shall be tested at 
three times the operating pressure for not less than 30 min- 
utes without any noticeable loss in gauge pressure prior to 
final connection to devices. 

[F] 909.14 Marlcing and identification. The detection and 
control systems shall be clearly marked at all junctions, 
accesses and terminations. 

[F] 909.15 Control diagrams. Identical control diagrams 
showing all devices in the system and identifying their location 
and function shall be maintained current and kept on file with 
the fire code official, the fire department and in the fire com- 
mand center in a format and manner approved by the fire chief. 

[F] 909.16 Fire-fighter's smoke control panel. A 

fire-fighter's smoke control panel for fire department emer- 
gency response purposes only shall be provided and shall 
include manual control or override of automatic control for 
mechanical smoke control systems. The panel shall be located 
in a fire command center complying with Section 91 1 in high- 
rise buildings or buildings with smoke-protected assembly 
seating. In all other buildings, the fire-fighter's smoke control 
panel shall be installed in an approved location adjacent to the 
fire alarm control panel. The fire-fighter's smoke control panel 
shall comply with Sections 909.16.1 through 909.16.3. 

[F] 909.16.1 Smoke control systems. Fans within the 
building shall be shown on the fire-fighter's control panel. A 
clear indication of the direction of airflow and the relation- 
ship of components shall be displayed. Status indicators 
shall be provided for all smoke control equipment, annunci- 
ated by fan and zone, and by pilot-lamp-type indicators as 
follows: 

1 . Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their 
normal status — WHITE. 

2. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their 
off or closed status — RED. 

3. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their 
on or open status — GREEN. 

4. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in a 
fault status— YELLOW/AMBER. 

[F] 909.16.2 Smoke control panel. The fire-fighter's con- 
trol panel shall provide control capability over the complete 
smoke-control system equipment within the building as fol- 
lows: 



1. ON-AUTO-OFF control over each individual piece 
of operating smoke control equipment that can also be 
controlled from other sources within the building. 
This includes stairway pressurization fans; smoke 
exhaust fans; supply, return and exhaust fans; eleva- 
tor shaft fans and other operating equipment used or 
intended for smoke control purposes. 

2. OPEN-AUTO-CLOSE control over individual 
dampers relating to smoke control and that are also 
controlled from other sources within the building. 

3. ON-OFF or OPEN-CLOSE control over smoke con- 
trol and other critical equipment associated with a fire 
or smoke emergency and that can only be controlled 
from the fire-fighter's control panel. 

Exceptions: 

1. Complex systems, where approved, where the 
controls and indicators are combined to control 
and indicate all elements of a single smoke zone as 
a unit. 

2. Complex systems, where approved, where the 
control is accomplished by computer interface 
using approved, plain English commands. 

[F] 909.16.3 Control action and priorities. The fire- 
fighter's control panel actions shall be as follows: 

1. ON-OFF and OPEN-CLOSE control actions shall 
have the highest priority of any control point within 
the building. Once issued from the fire-fighter' s con- 
trol panel, no automatic or manual control from any 
other control point within the building shall contra- 
dict the control action. Where automatic means are 
provided to interrupt normal, nonemergency equip- 
ment operation or produce a specific result to safe- 
guard the building or equipment (i.e., duct freezestats, 
duct smoke detectors, high-temperature cutouts, tem- 
perature-actuated linkage and similar devices), such 
means shall be capable of being overridden by the 
fire-fighter's control panel. The last control action as 
indicated by each fire-fighter's control panel switch 
position shall prevail. In no case shall control actions 
require the smoke control system to assume more 
than one configuration at any one time. 

Exception: Power disconnects required by the 
ICC Electrical Code. 

2. Only the AUTO position of each three-position 
fire-fighter's control panel switch shall allow auto- 
matic or manual control action from other control 
points within the building. The AUTO position shall 
be the NORMAL, nonemergency, building control 
position. Where a fire-fighter's control panel is in the 
AUTO position, the actual status of the device (on, 
off, open, closed) shall continue to be indicated by the 
status indicator described above. When directed by an 
automatic signal to assume an emergency condition, 
the NORMAL position shall become the emergency 
condition for that device or group of devices within 



194 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



the zone. In no case shall control actions require the 
smoke control system to assume more than one con- 
figuration at any one time. 

[F] 909.17 System response time. Smoke-control system acti- 
vation shall be initiated immediately after receipt of an appro- 
priate automatic or manual activation command. Smoke 
control systems shall activate individual components (such as 
dampers and fans) in the sequence necessary to prevent physi- 
cal damage to the fans, dampers, ducts and other equipment. 
For purposes of smoke control, the fire-fighter's control panel 
response time shall be the same for automatic or manual smoke 
control action initiated from any other building control point. 
The total response time, including that necessary for detection, 
shutdown of operating equipment and smoke control system 
startup, shall allow for full operational mode to be achieved 
before the conditions in the space exceed the design smoke 
condition. The system response time for each component and 
their sequential relationships shall be detailed in the required 
rational analysis and verification of their installed condition 
reported in the required final report. 

[F] 909.18 Acceptance testing. Devices, equipment, compo- 
nents and sequences shall be individually tested. These tests, in 
addition to those required by other provisions of this code, shall 
consist of determination of function, sequence and, where 
applicable, capacity of their installed condition. 

[F] 909.18.1 Detection devices. Smoke or fire detectors 
that are a part of a smoke control system shall be tested in 
accordance with Chapter 9 in their installed condition. 
When applicable, this testing shall include verification of 
airflow in both minimum and maximum conditions. 

[F] 909.18.2 Ducts. Ducts that are part of a smoke control 
system shall be traversed using generally accepted practices 
to determine actual air quantities. 

[F] 909.18.3 Dampers. Dampers shall be tested for func- 
tion in their installed condition. 

[F] 909.18.4 Inlets and outlets. Inlets and outlets shall be 
read using generally accepted practices to determine air 
quantities. 

[F] 909.18.5 Fans. Fans shall be examined for correct rota- 
tion. Measurements of voltage, amperage, revolutions per 
minute (rpm) and belt tension shall be made. 

[F] 909.18.6 Smoke barriers. Measurements using 
inclined manometers or other approved calibrated measur- 
ing devices shall be made of the pressure differences across 
smoke barriers. Such measurements shall be conducted for 
each possible smoke control condition. 

[F] 909.18.7 Controls. Each smoke zone, equipped with an 
automatic-initiation device, shall be put into operation by 
the actuation of one such device. Each additional device 
within the zone shall be verified to cause the same sequence 
without requiring the operation of fan motors in order to 
prevent damage. Control sequences shall be verified 
throughout the system, including verification of override 
from the fire-fighter's control panel and simulation of 
standby power conditions. 



[F] 909.18.8 Special inspections for smoke control. 

Smoke control systems shall be tested by a special inspector. 

[F] 909.18.8.1 Scope of testing. Special inspections 
shall be conducted in accordance with the following: 

1 . During erection of ductwork and prior to conceal- 
ment for the purposes of leakage testing and 
recording of device location. 

2. Prior to occupancy and after sufficient completion 
for the purposes of pressure-difference testing, 
flow measurements, and detection and control ver- 
ification. 

[F] 909.18.8.2 Qualifications. Special inspection agen- 
cies for smoke control shall have expertise in fire protec- 
tion engineering, mechanical engineering and 
certification as air balancers. 

[F] 909.18.8.3 Reports. A complete report of testing 
shall be prepared by the special inspector or special 
inspection agency. The report shall include identification 
of all devices by manufacturer, nameplate data, design 
values, measured values and identification tag or mark. 
The report shall be reviewed by the responsible regis- 
tered design professional and, when satisfied that the 
design intent has been achieved, the responsible regis- 
tered design professional shall seal, sign and date the 
report. 

[F] 909.18.8.3.1 Report filing. A copy of the final 
report shall be filed with the fire code official and an I 
identical copy shall be maintained in an approved | 
location at the building. 

[F] 909.18.9 Identification and documentation. Charts, 
drawings and other documents identifying and locating 
each component of the smoke control system, and describ- 
ing its proper function and maintenance requirements, shall 
be maintained on file at the building as an attachment to the 
report required by Section 909. 1 8.8.3. Devices shall have an 
approved identifying tag or mark on them consistent with 
the other required documentation and shall be dated indicat- 
ing the last time they were successfully tested and by whom. 

[F] 909.19 System acceptance. Buildings, or portions thereof, 
required by this code to comply with this section shall not be 
issued a certificate of occupancy until such time that the fire I 
code official determines that the provisions of this section have I 
been fully complied with and that the fire department has 
received satisfactory instruction on the operation, both auto- 
matic and manual, of the system. 

Exception: In buildings of phased construction, a tempo- 
rary certificate of occupancy, as approved by the fire code 
official, shall be allowed provided that those portions of the 
building to be occupied meet the requirements of this sec- 
tion and that the remainder does not pose a significant haz- 
ard to the safety of the proposed occupants or adjacent 
buildings. 

909.20 Smokeproof enclosures. Where required by Section 
1020.1.7, a smokeproof enclosure shall be constructed in 
accordance with this section. A smokeproof enclosure shall 
consist of an enclosed interior exit stairway that conforms to 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



195 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



Section 1020. 1 and an open exterior balcony or ventilated ves- 
tibule meeting the requirements of this section. Where access 
to the roof is required by the International Fire Code, such 
access shall be from the smokeproof enclosure where a 
smokeproof enclosure is required. 

909.20.1 Access. Access to the stair shall be by way of a ves- 
tibule or an open exterior balcony. The minimum dimension 
of the vestibule shall not be less than the required width of 
the corridor leading to the vestibule but shall not have a 
width of less than 44 inches (1118 mm) and shall not have a 
length of less than 72 inches (1829 mm) in the direction of 
egress travel. 

909.20.2 Construction. The smokeproof enclosure shall be 
separated from the remainder of the building by not less 
than a 2-hour fire barrier without openings other than the 
required means of egress doors. The vestibule shall be sepa- 
rated from the stairway by not less than a 2-hour fire barrier. 
The open exterior balcony shall be constructed in accor- 
dance with the fire-resistance-rating requirements for floor 
construction. 

909.20.2.1 Door closers. Doors in a smokeproof enclo- 
sure shall be self- or automatic closing by actuation of a 
smoke detector installed at the floor-side entrance to the 
smokeproof enclosure. The actuation of the smoke 
detector on any door shall activate the closing devices on 
all doors in the smokeproof enclosure at all levels. 
Smoke detectors shall be installed in accordance with 
Section 907.10. 

909.20.3 Natural ventilation alternative. The provisions 
of Sections 909.20.3.1 through 909.20.3.3 shall apply to 
ventilation of smokeproof enclosures by natural means. 

909.20.3.1 Balcony doors. Where access to the stairway 
is by way of an open exterior balcony, the door assembly 
into the enclosure shall be a fire door assembly in accor- 
dance with Section 715.4. 

909.20.3.2 Vestibule doors. Where access to the stair- 
way is by way of a vestibule, the door assembly into the 
vestibule shall be a fire door complying with Section 
715.4. The door assembly from the vestibule to the stair- 
way shall have not less than a 20-minute fire protection 
rating complying with Section 715.4. 

909.20.3.3 Vestibule ventilation. Each vestibule shall 
have a minimum net area of 16 square feet (1.5 m^) of 
opening in a wall facing an outer court, yard or public 
way that is at least 20 feet (6096 mm) in width. 

909.20.4 Mechanical ventilation alternative. The provi- 
sions of Sections 909.20.4.1 through 909.20.4.4 shall apply 
to ventilation of smokeproof enclosures by mechanical 
means. 

909.20.4.1 Vestibule doors. The door assembly from the 
building into the vestibule shall be a fire door assembly 
complying with Section 715.4.3. The door assembly 
from the vestibule to the stairway shall not have less than 
a 20-minute fire protection rating and meet the require- 
ments for a smoke door assembly in accordance with 



Section 715.4.3. The door shall be installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 105. 

909.20.4.2 Vestibule ventilation. The vestibule shall be 
supplied with not less than one air change per minute and 
the exhaust shall not be less than 150 percent of supply. 
Supply air shall enter and exhaust air shall discharge 
from the vestibule through separate, tightly constructed 
ducts used only for that purpose. Supply air shall enter 
the vestibule within 6 inches (152 mm) of the floor level. 
The top of the exhaust register shall be located at the top 
of the smoke trap but not more than 6 inches (152 mm) 
down from the top of the trap, and shall be entirely within 
the smoke trap area. Doors in the open position shall not 
obstruct duct openings. Duct openings with controlling 
dampers are permitted where necessary to meet the 
design requirements, but dampers are not otherwise 
required. 

909.20.4.2.1 Engineered ventilation system. Where 
a specially engineered system is used, the system 
shall exhaust a quantity of air equal to not less than 90 
air changes per hour from any vestibule in the emer- 
gency operation mode and shall be sized to handle 
three vestibules simultaneously. Smoke detectors 
shall be located at the floor-side entrance to each ves- 
tibule and shall activate the system for the affected 
vestibule. Smoke detectors shall be installed in accor- 
dance with Section 907. 10. 

909.20.4.3 Smoke trap. The vestibule ceiling shall be at 
least 20 inches (508 mm) higher than the door opening 
into the vestibule to serve as a smoke and heat trap and to 
provide an upward-moving air column. The height shall 
not be decreased unless approved and justified by design 
and test. 

909.20.4.4 Stair shaft air movement system. The stair 
shaft shall be provided with a dampered relief opening 
and supplied with sufficient air to maintain a minimum 
positive pressure of 0. 10 inch of water (25 Pa) in the shaft 
relative to the vestibule with all doors closed. 

909.20.5 Stair pressurization alternative. Where the 
building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the vestibule 
is not required, provided that interior exit stairways are pres- 
surized to a minimum of 0.15 inch of water (37 Pa) and a 
maximum of 0.35 inch of water (87 Pa) in the shaft relative 
to the building measured with all stairway doors closed 
under maximum anticipated stack pressures. 

909.20.6 Ventilating equipment. The activation of venti- 
lating equipment required by the alternatives in Sections 
909.20.4 and 909.20.5 shall be by smoke detectors installed 
at each floor level at an approved location at the entrance to 
the smokeproof enclosure. When the closing device for the 
stair shaft and vestibule doors is activated by smoke detec- 
tion or power failure, the mechanical equipment shall acti- 
vate and operate at the required performance levels. Smoke 
detectors shall be installed in accordance with Section 
907.10. 



196 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE*" 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



909.20.6.1 Ventilation systems. Smokeproof enclosure 
ventilation systems shall be independent of other build- 
ing ventilation systems. The equipment and ductwork 
shall comply with one of the following: 

1. Equipment and ductwork shall be located exterior 
to the building and directly connected to the 
smokeproof enclosure or connected to the 
smokeproof enclosure by ductwork enclosed by 
2-hour fire barriers. 

2. Equipment and ductwork shall be located within 
the smokeproof enclosure with intake or exhaust 
directly from and to the outside or through 
ductwork enclosed by 2-hour fire barriers. 

3. Equipment and ductwork shall be located within 
the building if separated from the remainder of the 
building, including other mechanical equipment, 
by 2-hour fire barriers. 

909.20.6.2 Standby power. Mechanical vestibule and 
stair shaft ventilation systems and automatic fire detec- 
tion systems shall be powered by an approved standby 
power system conforming to Section 403.10.1 and 
Chapter 27. 

909.20.6.3 Acceptance and testing. Before the mechan- 
ical equipment is approved, the system shall be tested in 
the presence of the building official to confirm that the 
system is operating in compliance with these require- 
ments. 



SECTION 910 
SMOKE AND HEAT VENTS 

[F] 910.1 General. Where required by this code or otherwise 
installed, smoke and heat vents, or mechanical smoke exhaust 
systems, and draft curtains shall conform to the requirements 
of this section. 

Exceptions: 

1. Frozen food warehouses used solely for storage of 
Class I and II commodities where protected by an 
approved automatic sprinkler system. 

2. Where areas ofbuildings are equipped with early sup- 
pression fast-response (ESFR) sprinklers, automatic 
smoke and heat vents shall not be required within 
these areas. 

[F] 910.2 Where required. Smoke and heat vents shall be 
installed in the roofs of one-story buildings or portions thereof 
occupied for the uses set forth in Sections 910.2.1 through 
910.2.3. 

[F] 910.2.1 Group F-1 or S-1. Buildings and portions 
thereof used as a Group F-1 or S-1 occupancy having more 
than 50,000 square feet (4645 m^) in undivided area. 

Exception: Group S-1 aircraft repair hangars. 

[F] 910.2.2 High-piled combustible storage. Buildings 
and portions thereof containing high-piled combustible 



stock or rack storage in any occupancy group in accordance 
with Section 413 and the International Fire Code. 

[F] 910.2.3 Exit access travel distance increase. Buildings 
and portions thereof used as a Group F-1 or S-1 occupancy 
where the maximum exit access travel distance is increased 
in accordance with Section 1016.2. 

[F] 910.3 Design and installation. The design and installation 
of smoke and heat vents and draft curtains shall be as specified 
in Sections 910.3.1 through 910.3.5.2 and Table 910.3. 

[F] 910.3.1 Design. Smoke and heat vents shall be listed and 
labeled to indicate compliance with UL 793. 

[F] 910.3.2 Vent operation. Smoke and heat vents shall be 
capable of being operated by approved automatic and man- 
ual means. Automatic operation of smoke and heat vents 
shall conform to the provisions of Sections 910.3.2.1 
through 910.3.2.3. 

[F] 910.3.2.1 Gravity-operated drop-out vents. Auto- 
matic smoke and heat vents containing heat-sensitive 
glazing designed to shrink and drop out of the vent open- 
ing when exposed to fire shall fully open within 5 min- 
utes after the vent cavity is exposed to a simulated fire, 
represented by a time-temperature gradient that reaches 
an air temperature of 500°F (260°C) within 5 minutes. 

[F] 910.3.2.2 Sprinklered buildings. Where installed in 
buildings provided with an approved automatic sprinkler 
system, smoke and heat vents shall be designed to oper- 
ate automatically. 

[F] 910.3.2.3 Nonsprinklered buildings. Where 
installed in buildings not provided with an approved 
automatic sprinkler system, smoke and heat vents shall 
operate automatically by actuation of a heat-responsive 
device rated at between 100°F (38°C) and 220°F 
(104°C) above ambient. 

Exception: Gravity-operated drop-out vents comply- 
ing with Section 910.3.2.1 

[F] 910.3.3 Vent dimensions. The effective venting area 
shall not be less than 16 square feet (1 .5 m^) with no dimen- 
sion less than 4 feet (1219 mm), excluding ribs or gutters 
having a total width not exceeding 6 inches (152 mm). 

[F] 910.3.4 Vent locations. Smoke and heat vents shall be 
located 20 feet (6096 mm) or more from adjacent lot lines 
and fire walls and 10 feet (3048 mm) or more from fire bar- 
rier walls. Vents shall be uniformly located within the roof 
area above high-piled storage areas, with consideration 
given to roof pitch, draft curtain location, sprinkler location 
and structural members. 

[F] 910.3.5 Draft curtains. Where required by Table 910.3, 
draft curtains shall be provided in accordance with this sec- 
tion. 

Exception: Where areas of buildings are equipped with 
ESFR sprinklers, draft curtains shall not be provided 
within these areas. Draft curtains shall only be provided 
at the separation between the ESFR sprinklers and the 
conventional sprinklers. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



197 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



[F] TABLE 910.3 
REQUIREMENTS FOR DRAFT CURTAINS AND SMOKE AND HEAT VENTS^ 



OCCUPANCY GROUP AND 

COMMODITY 

CLASSIFICATION 


DESIGNATED 

STORAGE HEIGHT 

(feet) 


MINIMUM DRAFT 

CURTAIN DEPTH 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM AREA 

FORMED BY DRAFT 

CURTAINS 

(square feet) 


VENT-AREA- 
TO-FLOOR-AREA 
RATION 


MAXIMUM 

SPACING OF 

VENT CENTERS 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM 

DISTANCE TO 

VENTS FROM 

WALL OR DRAFT 

CURTAINS" 

(feet) 


Group F-1 andS-1 


— 


0.2 X H'' 
but>4 


50,000 


1:100 


120 


60 


High-piled Storage 

(see Section 910.2.3) 

MV 

(Option 1) 


<20 


6 


10,000 


1:100 


100 


60 


> 20 < 40 


6 


8,000 


1:75 


100 


55 


High-piled Storage 

(see Section 910.2.3) 

I-IV 

(Option 2) 


<20 


4 


3,000 


1:75 


100 


55 


> 20 < 40 


4 


3,000 


1:50 


100 


50 


High-piled Storage 

(see Section 910.2.3) 

High hazard 

(Option 1) 


<20 


6 


6,000 


1:50 


100 


50 


> 20 < 30 


6 


6,000 


1:40 


90 


45 


High-piled Storage 

(see Section 910.2.3) 

High hazard 

(Option 2) 


<20 


4 


4,000 


1:50 


100 


50 


> 20 < 30 


4 


2,000 


1:30 


75 


40 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^. 

a. Requirements for rack storage heights in excess of those indicated shall be in accordance with Chapter 23 of the International Fire Code. For soHd-piled storage 
heights in excess of those indicated, an approved engineered design shall be used. 

b. The distance specified is the maximum distance from any vent in a particular draft curtained area to walls or draft curtains which form the perimeter of the draft cur- 
tained area. 

Ic. Where draft curtains are not required, the vent-area-to-floor-area ratio shall be calculated based on a minimum draft curtain depth of 6 feet (Option 1). 
d. "H" is the height of the vent, in feet, above the floor. 



[F] 910.3.5.1 Construction. Draft curtains shall be con- 
structed of sheet metal, lath and plaster, gypsum board or 
other approved materials which provide equivalent per- 
formance to resist the passage of smoke. Joints and con- 
nections shall be smoke tight. 

[F] 910.3.5.2 Location and depth. The location and 
minimum depth of draft curtains shall be in accordance 
with Table 910.3. 

[F] 910.4 Mechanical smoke exhaust. Where approved by the 
fire code official, engineered mechanical smoke exhaust shall 
be an acceptable alternate to smoke and heat vents. 

[F] 910.4.1 Location. Exhaust fans shall be uniformly 
spaced within each draft-curtained area and the maximum 
distance between fans shall not be greater than 100 feet (30 
480 mm). 

[F] 910.4.2 Size. Fans shall have a maximum individual 
capacity of 30,000 cfm (14.2 mVs). The aggregate capacity 
of smoke exhaust fans shall be determined by the equation: 



C=Ax 300 
where: 



(Equation 9-10) 



C = Capacity of mechanical ventilation required, in 
cubic feet per minute (m^/s). 



A = Area of roof vents provided in square feet (m^) in 
accordance with Table 910.3. 

[F] 910.4.3 Operation. Mechanical smoke exhaust fans 
shall be automatically activated by the automatic sprinkler 
system or by heat detectors having operating characteris- 
tics equivalent to those described in Section 910.3.2. Indi- 
vidual manual controls of each fan unit shall also be 
provided. 

[F] 910.4.4 Wiring and control. Wiring for operation and 
control of smoke exhaust fans shall be connected ahead of 
the main disconnect and protected against exposure to tem- 
peratures in excess of 1,000°F (538°C) for a period of not 
less than 15 minutes. Controls shall be located so as to be 
immediately accessible to the fire service from the exterior 
of the building and protected against interior fire exposure 
by fire barriers having a fire-resistance rating not less than 1 
hour. 

[F] 910.4.5 Supply air. Supply air for exhaust fans shall be 
provided at or near the floor level and shall be sized to pro- 
vide a minimum of 50 percent of required exhaust. Open- 
ings for supply air shall be uniformly distributed around the 
periphery of the area served. 

[F] 910.4.6 Interloclis. In combination comfort air-han- 
dling/smoke removal systems or independent comfort 



198 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



air-handling systems, fans shall be controlled to shut down 
in accordance with the approved smoke control sequence. 



SECTION 911 
FIRE COMMAND CENTER 

[F] 911.1 Features. Where required by other sections of this 
code, a fire command center for fire department operations 
shall be provided. The location and accessibility of the fire 
command center shall be approved by the fire department. The 
fire command center shall be separated from the remainder of 
the building by not less than a 1-hour fire barrier constructed in 
accordance with Section 706 or horizontal assembly con- 
structed in accordance with Section 711, or both. The room 
shall be a minimum of 96 square feet (9 m^) with a minimum 
dimension of 8 feet (2438 mm). A layout of the fire command 
center and all features required by the section to be contained 
therein shall be submitted for approval prior to installation. The 
fire command center shall comply with NFPA 72 and shall con- 
tain the following features: 

1. The emergency voice/alarm communication system 
unit. 

2. The fire department communications unit. 

3. Fire detection and alarm system annunciator unit. 

4. Annunciator unit visually indicating the location of the 
elevators and whether they are operational. 

5 . Status indicators and controls for air-handling systems. 

6. The fire-fighter's control panel required by Section 
909. 16 for smoke control systems installed in the build- 
ing. 

7 . Controls for unlocking stairway doors simultaneously. 

8. Sprinkler valve and water-flow detector display panels. 

9. Emergency and standby power status indicators. 

10. A telephone for fire department use with controlled 
access to the public telephone system. 

1 1 . Fire pump status indicators. 

12. Schematic building plans indicating the typical floor 
plan and detailing the building core, means of egress, 
fire protection systems, fire-fighting equipment and 
fire department access. 

13. Worktable. 

14. Generator supervision devices, manual start and trans- 
fer features. 

15. PubUc address system, where specifically required by 
other sections of this code. 



[F] 912.2 Location. With respect to hydrants, driveways, 
buildings and landscaping, fire department connections shall 
be so located that fire apparatus and hose connected to supply 
the system will not obstruct access to the buildings for other fire 
apparatus. The location of fire department connections shall be 
approved. 

[F] 912.2.1 Visible location. Fire department connections 
shall be located on the street side of buildings, fully visible 
and recognizable from the street or nearest point of fire 
department vehicle access or as otherwise approved by the 
fire code official. 

[F] 912.2.2 Existing buildings. On existing buildings, 
wherever the fire department connection is not visible to 
approaching fire apparatus, the fire department connection 
shall be indicated by an approved sign mounted on the street 
front or on the side of the building. Such sign shall have the 
letters "FDC" at least 6 inches (152 mm) high and words in 
letters at least 2 inches (5 1 mm) high or an arrow to indicate 
the location. All such signs shall be subject to the approval 
of the fire code official. 

[Fl 912.3 Access. Immediate access to fire department connec- 
tions shall be maintained at all times and without obstruction 
by fences, bushes, trees, walls or any other object for a mini- 
mum of 3 feet (914 mm). 

[F] 912.3.1 Locking fire department connection caps. 

The fire code official is authorized to require locking caps 
on fire department connections for water-based fire protec- 
tion systems where the responding fire department carries 
appropriate key wrenches for removal. 

[F] 912.4 Signs. A metal sign with raised letters at least 1 inch 
(25 mm) in size shall be mounted on all fire department con- 
nections serving automatic sprinklers, standpipes or fire pump 
connections. Such signs shall read: AUTOMATIC SPRIN- 
KLERS, STANDPIPES or TEST CONNECTION, or a combi- 
nation thereof as applicable. 

[P] 912.5 Backflow protection. The potable water supply to 
automatic sprinkler and standpipe systems shall be protected 
against backflow as required by the International Plumbing 
Code. 



SECTION 912 
FIRE DEPARTMENT CONNECTIONS 

[F] 912.1 Installation. Fire department connections shall be 
installed in accordance with the NFPA standard applicable to 
the system design and shall comply with Sections 912.2 
through 912.5. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



199 



200 2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 10 

MEANS OF EGRESS 



SECTION 1001 
ADMINISTRATION 

1001.1 General. Buildings or portions thereof shall be pro- 
vided with a means of egress system as required by this chapter. 
The provisions of this chapter shall control the design, con- 
struction and arrangement of means of egress components 
required to provide an approved means of egress from struc- 
tures and portions thereof. 

1001.2 Minimum requirements. It shall be unlawful to alter a 
building or structure in a manner that will reduce the number of 
exits or the capacity of the means of egress to less than required 
by this code. 

[F] 1001.3 Maintenance. Means of egress shall be maintained 
in accordance with the International Fire Code. 



SECTION 1002 
DEFINITIONS 

1002.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS. A continuous and 
unobstructed way of egress travel from any accessible point in 
a building or facility to a public way. 

AISLE. An exit access component that defines and provides a 
path of egress travel. 

AISLE ACCESSWAY. That portion of an exit access that 
leads to an aisle. 

ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE. A device that has a 
series of steps between 50 and 70 degrees (0.87 and 1.22 rad) 
from horizontal, usually attached to a center support rail in an 
alternating manner so that the user does not have both feet on 
the same level at the same time. 

AREA OF REFUGE. An area where persons unable to use 
stairways can remain temporarily to await instructions or assis- 
tance during emergency evacuation. 

BLEACHERS. Tiered seating facihties. 

COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL. That portion of 
exit access which the occupants are required to traverse before 
two separate and distinct paths of egress travel to two exits are 
available. Paths that merge are conraion paths of travel. Com- 
mon paths of egress travel shall be included within the permit- 
ted travel distance. 

CORRIDOR. An enclosed exit access component that defines 
and provides a path of egress travel to an exit. 

DOOR, BALANCED. A door equipped with double-pivoted 
hardware so designed as to cause a semicounterbalanced swing 
action when opening. 



EGRESS COURT. A court or yard which provides access to a 
public way for one or more exits. 

EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. An 

operable window, door or other similar device that provides for 
a means of escape and access for rescue in the event of an emer- 
gency. 

EXIT. That portion of a means of egress system which is sepa- 
rated from other interior spaces of a building or structure by 
fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives as 
required to provide a protected path of egress travel between 
the exit access and the exit discharge. Exits include exterior exit 
doors at ground level, exit enclosures, exit passageways, exte- 
rior exit stairs, exterior exit ramps and horizontal exits. 

EXIT, HORIZONTAL. A path of egress travel from one 
building to an area in another building on approximately the 
same level, or a path of egress travel through or around a wall or 
partition to an area on approximately the same level in the same 
building, which affords safety from fire and smoke from the 
area of incidence and areas communicating therewith. 

EXIT ACCESS. That portion of a means of egress system that 
leads from any occupied portion of a building or structure to an 
exit. 

EXIT DISCHARGE. That portion of a means of egress sys- 
tem between the termination of an exit and a public way. 

EXIT DISCHARGE, LEVEL OF. The horizontal plane 
located at the point at which an exit terminates and an exit dis- 
charge begins. 

EXIT ENCLOSURE. An exit component that is separated 
from other interior spaces of a building or structure by 
fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives, and 
provides for a protected path of egress travel in a vertical or hor- 
izontal direction to the exit discharge or the public way. 

EXIT PASSAGEWAY. An exit component that is separated 
from all other interior spaces of a building or structure by 
fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives, and 
provides for a protected path of egress travel in a horizontal 
direction to the exit discharge or the public way. 

FIRE EXIT HARDWARE. Panic hardware that is listed for 
use on fire door assemblies. 

FLOOR AREA, GROSS. The floor area within the inside per- 
imeter of the exterior walls of the building under consideration, 
exclusive of vent shafts and courts, without deduction for corri- 
dors, stairways, closets, the thickness of interior walls, col- 
umns or other features. The floor area of a building, or portion 
thereof, not provided with surrounding exterior walls shall be 
the usable area under the horizontal projection of the roof or 
floor above. The gross floor area shall not include shafts with 
no openings or interior courts. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE*^ 



201 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



FLOOR AREA, NET. The actual occupied area not including 
unoccupied accessory areas such as corridors, stairways, toilet 
rooms, mechanical rooms and closets. 

FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING. Tiered seating 
facilities having an overall shape and size that are capable of 
being reduced for purposes of moving or storing. 

GRANDSTAND. Tiered seating facilities. 

GUARD. A building component or a system of building com- 
ponents located at or near the open sides of elevated walking 
surfaces that minimizes the possibility of a fall from the walk- 
ing surface to a lower level. 

HANDRAIL. A horizontal or sloping rail intended for grasp- 
ing by the hand for guidance or support. 

MEANS OF EGRESS. A continuous and unobstructed path 
of vertical and horizontal egress travel from any occupied por- 
tion of a building or structure to a public way. A means of 
egress consists of three separate and distinct parts: the exit 
access, the exit and the exit discharge. 

MERCHANDISE PAD. A merchandise pad is an area for dis- 
play of merchandise surrounded by aisles, permanent fixtures 
or walls. Merchandise pads contain elements such as nonfixed 
and moveable fixtures, cases, racks, counters and partitions as 
indicated in Section 105.2 from which customers browse or 
shop. 

NOSING. The leading edge of treads of stairs and of landings 
at the top of stairway flights. 

OCCUPANT LOAD. The number of persons for which the 
means of egress of a building or portion thereof is designed. 

PANIC HARDWARE. A door-latching assembly incorporat- 
ing a device that releases the latch upon the application of a 
force in the direction of egress travel. 

PUBLIC WAY. A street, alley or other parcel of land open to 
the outside air leading to a street, that has been deeded, dedi- 
cated or otherwise permanently appropriated to the public for 
public use and which has a clear width and height of not less 
than 10 feet (3048 mm). 

RAMP. A walking surface that has a running slope steeper than 
one unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5 -percent slope). 

SCISSOR STAIR. Two interlocking stairways providing two 
separate paths of egress located within one stairwell enclosure. 

SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY SEATING. Seating 
served by means of egress that is not subject to smoke accumu- 
lation within or under a structure. 

STAIR. A change in elevation, consisting of one or more ris- 
ers. 

STAIRWAY. One or more flights of stairs, either exterior or 
interior, with the necessary landings and platforms connecting 
them, to form a continuous and uninterrupted passage from one 
level to another. 

STAIRWAY, EXTERIOR. A stairway that is open on at least 
one side, except for required structural columns, beams, hand- 



rails and guards. The adjoining open areas shall be either yards, 
courts or pubUc ways. The other sides of the exterior stairway 
need not be open. 

STAIRWAY, INTERIOR. A stairway not meeting the defini- 
tion of an exterior stairway. 

STAIRWAY, SPIRAL. A stairway having a closed circular 
form in its plan view with uniform section-shaped treads 
attached to and radiating from a minimum-diameter supporting 
column. 

WINDER. A tread with nonparallel edges. 



SECTION 1003 
GENERAL MEANS OF EGRESS 

1003.1 Applicability. The general requirements specified in 
Sections 1003 through 1013 shall apply to all three elements of 
the means of egress system, in addition to those specific 
requirements for the exit access, the exit and the exit discharge 
detailed elsewhere in this chapter. 

1003.2 Ceiling height. The means of egress shall have a ceiling 
height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches (2286 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1. Sloped ceilings in accordance with Section 1208.2. 

2. Ceilings of dwelling units and sleeping units within 
residential occupancies in accordance with Section 
1208.2. 

3. Allowable projections in accordance with Section 
1003.3. 

4. Stair headroom in accordance with. Section 1009.2. 

5. Door height in accordance with Section 1008.1.1. 

1003.3 Protruding objects. Protruding objects shall comply 
with the requirements of Sections 1003.3.1 through 1003.3.4. 

1003.3.1 Headroom. Protruding objects are permitted to 
extend below the minimum ceiling height required by Sec- 
tion 1003.2 provided a minimum headroom of 80 inches 
(2032 mm) shall be provided for any walking surface, 
including walks, corridors, aisles and passageways. Not 
more than 50 percent of the ceiUng area of a means of egress 
shall be reduced in height by protruding objects. 

Exception: Door closers and stops shall not reduce 
headroom to less than 78 inches (1981 mm). 

A barrier shall be provided where the vertical clearance is 
less than 80 inches (2032 mm) high. The leading edge of 
such a barrier shall be located 27 inches (686 mm) maxi- 
mum above the floor. 

1003.3.2 Free-standing objects. A free-standing object 
mounted on a post or pylon shall not overhang that post or 
pylon more than 4 inches (102 mm) where the lowest point 
of the leading edge is more than 27 inches (686 mm) and 
less than 80 inches (2032 mm) above the walking surface. 
Where a sign or other obstruction is mounted between posts 
or pylons and the clear distance between the posts or pylons 



202 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



is greater than 12 inches (305 mm), the lowest edge of such 
sign or obstruction shall be 27 inches (685 mm) maximum 
or 80 inches (2030 mm) minimum above the finished floor 
or ground. 

Exception: This requirement shall not apply to sloping 
portions of handrails serving stairs and ramps. 

1003.3.3 Horizontal projections. Structural elements, fix- 
tures or furnishings shall not project horizontally from 
either side more than 4 inches (102 mm) over any walking 
surface between the heights of 27 inches (686 mm) and 80 
inches (2032 mm) above the walking surface. 

Exception: Handrails serving stairs and ramps are per- 
mitted to protrude 4.5 inches (1 14 mm) from the wall. 

1003.3.4 Clear width. Protruding objects shall not reduce 
the minimum clear width of accessible routes as required in 
Section 1104. 

1003.4 Floor surface. Walking surfaces of the means of egress 
shall have a slip-resistant surface and be securely attached. 

1003.5 Elevation change. Where changes in elevation of less 
than 12 inches (305 mm) exist in the means of egress, sloped 
surfaces shall be used. Where the slope is greater than one unit 
vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope), ramps comply- 
ing with Section 1010 shall be used. Where the difference in 
elevation is 6 inches (152 nrni) or less, the ramp shall be 
equipped with either handrails or floor finish materials that 
contrast with adjacent floor finish materials. 

Exceptions: 

1 . A single step with a maximum riser height of 7 inches 
(178 mm) is permitted for buildings with occupancies 
in Groups F, H, R-2 and R-3 and Groups S and U at 
exterior doors not required to be accessible by Chap- 
ter 11. 

2. A stair with a single riser or with two risers and a tread 
is permitted at locations not required to be accessible 
by Chapter 11, provided that the risers and treads 
comply with Section 1009.3, the minimum depth of 
the tread is 13 inches (330 mm) and at least one hand- 
rail complying with Section 1012 is provided within 
30 inches (762 nmi) of the centerline of the normal 
path of egress travel on the stair. 

3. A step is permitted in aisles serving seating that has a 
difference in elevation less than 12 inches (305 mm) 
at locations not required to be accessible by Chapter 
11, provided that the risers and treads comply with 
Section 1025. 1 1 and the aisle is provided with a hand- 
rail complying with Section 1025.13. 

Any change in elevation in a corridor serving 
nonambulatory persons in a Group 1-2 occupancy shall be by 
means of a ramp or sloped walkway. 

1003.6 Means of egress continuity. The path of egress travel 
along a means of egress shall not be interrupted by any building 
element other than a means of egress component as specified in 
this chapter. Obstructions shall not be placed in the required 
width of a means of egress except projections permitted by this 
chapter. The required capacity of a means of egress system 
shall not be diminished along the path of egress travel. 



1003.7 Elevators, escalators and moving walks. Elevators, 
escalators and moving walks shall not be used as a component of 
a required means of egress from any other part of the building. 

Exception: Elevators used as an accessible means of egress 
in accordance with Section 1007.4. 



SECTION 1004 
OCCUPANT LOAD 

1004.1 Design occupant load. In determining means of egress 
requirements, the number of occupants for whom means of 
egress facilities shall be provided shall be determined in accor- 
dance with this section. Where occupants from accessory areas 
egress through a primary space, the calculated occupant load 
for the primary space shall include the total occupant load of 
the primary space plus the number of occupants egressing 
through it from the accessory area. 

1004.1.1 Areas without fixed seating. The number of 
occupants shall be computed at the rate of one occupant per 
unit of area as prescribed in Table 1004. 1.1. For areas with- 
out fixed seating, the occupant load shall not be less than 
that number determined by dividing the floor area under 
consideration by the occupant per unit of area factor 
assigned to the occupancy as set forth in Table 1004.1.1. 
Where an intended use is not Usted in Table 1004.1.1, the 
building official shall establish a use based on a listed use 
that most nearly resembles the intended use. 

Exception: Where approved by the building official, the 
actual number of occupants for whom each occupied 
space, floor or building is designed, although less than 
those determined by calculation, shall be permitted to be 
used in the determination of the design occupant load. 

1004.2 Increased occupant load. The occupant load permitted in 
any building, or portion thereof, is permitted to be increased from 
that number established for the occupancies in Table 1004.1.1, 
provided that all other requirements of the code are also met 
based on such modified number and the occupant load does not 
exceed one occupant per 7 square feet (0.65 m^) of occupiable 
floor space. Where required by the building official, an approved 
aisle, seating or fixed equipment diagram substantiating any 
increase in occupant load shall be submitted. Where required by 
the building official, such diagram shall be posted. 

1004.3 Posting of occupant load. Every room or space that is 
an assembly occupancy shall have the occupant load of the 
room or space posted in a conspicuous place, near the main exit 
or exit access doorway from the room or space. Posted signs 
shall be of an approved legible permanent design and shall be 
maintained by the owner or authorized agent. 

1004.4 Exiting from multiple levels. Where exits serve more 
than one floor, only the occupant load of each floor considered 
individually shall be used in computing the required capacity 
of the exits at that floor, provided that the exit capacity shall not 
decrease in the direction of egress travel. 

1004.5 Egress convergence. Where means of egress from 
floors above and below converge at an intermediate level, the 
capacity of the means of egress from the point of convergence 
shall not be less than the sum of the two floors. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



203 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



TABLE 1004.1.1 
MAXIMUM FLOOR AREA ALLOWANCES PER OCCUPANT 



FUNCTION OF SPACE 


FLOOR AREA IN SO. 
FT. PER OCCUPANT 


Accessory storage areas, mechanical 
equipment room 


300 gross 


Agricultural building 


300 gross 


Aircraft hangars 


500 gross 


Airport terminal 
Baggage claim 
Baggage handling 
Concourse 
Waiting areas 


20 gross 
300 gross 
100 gross 

15 gross 


Assembly 
Gaming floors (keno, slots, etc.) 


11 gross 


Assembly with fixed seats 


See Section 1004.7 


Assembly without fixed seats 

Concentrated (chairs only — not fixed) 

Standing space 

Unconcentrated (tables and chairs) 


7 net 
5 net 
15 net 


Bowling centers, allow 5 persons for each 
lane including 15 feet of runway, and for 
additional areas 


7 net 


Business areas 


100 gross 


Courtrooms — other than fixed seating areas 


40 net 


Day care 


35 net 


Dormitories 


50 gross 


Educational 
Classroom area 
Shops and other vocational room areas 


20 net 
50 net 


Exercise rooms 


50 gross 


H-5 Fabrication and manufa:cturing areas 


200 gross 


Industrial areas 


100 gross 


Institutional areas 

Inpatient treatment areas 
Outpatient areas 
Sleeping areas 


240 gross 
100 gross 
120 gross 


Kitchens, commercial 


200 gross 


Library 

Reading rooms 
Stack area 


50 net 
100 gross 


Locker rooms 


50 gross 


Mercantile 
Areas on other floors 
Basement and grade floor areas 
Storage, stock, shipping areas 


60 gross 
30 gross 
300 gross 


Parking garages 


200 gross 


Residential 


200 gross 


Skating rinks, swimming pools 
Rink and pool 
Decks 


50 gross 
15 gross 


Stages and platforms 


15 net 


Warehouses 


500 gross 



1004.6 Mezzanine levels. The occupant load of a mezzanine 
level with egress onto a room or area below shall be added to 
that room or area's occupant load, and the capacity of the exits 
shall be designed for the total occupant load thus established. 

1004.7 Fixed seating. For areas having fixed seats and aisles, 
the occupant load shall be determined by the number of fixed 
seats installed therein. The occupant load for areas in which 
fixed seating is not installed, such as waiting spaces and wheel- 
chair spaces, shall be determined in accordance with Section 
1004.1.1 and added to the number of fixed seats. 

For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms, the 
occupant load shall not be less than the number of seats based 
on one person for each 1 8 inches (457 mm) of seating length. 

The occupant load of seating booths shall be based on one 
person for each 24 inches (610 mm) of booth seat length mea- 
sured at the backrest of the seating booth. 

1004.8 Outdoor areas. Yards, patios, courts and similar out- 
door areas accessible to and usable by the building occupants 
shall be provided with means of egress as required by this chap- 
ter. The occupant load of such outdoor areas shall be assigned 
by the building official in accordance with the anticipated use. 
Where outdoor areas are to be used by persons in addition to the 
occupants of the building, and the path of egress travel from the 
outdoor areas passes through the building, means of egress 
requirements for the building shall be based on the sum of the 
occupant loads of the building plus the outdoor areas. 

Exceptions: 

1. Outdoor areas used exclusively for service of the 
building need only have one means of egress. 

2. Both outdoor areas associated with Group R-3 and 
individual dwelling units of Group R-2. 

1004.9 Multiple occupancies. Where a building contains two 
or more occupancies, the means of egress requirements shall 
apply to each portion of the building based on the occupancy of 
that space. Where two or more occupancies utilize portions of 
the same means of egress system, those egress components 
shall meet the more stringent requirements of all occupancies 
that are served. 



SECTION 1005 
EGRESS WIDTH 

1005.1 Minimum required egress width. The means of 
egress width shall not be less than required by this section. The 
total width of means of egress in inches (mm) shall not be less 
than the total occupant load served by the means of egress mul- 
tiplied by the factors in Table 1005. 1 and not less than specified 
elsewhere in this code. Multiple means of egress shall be sized 
such that the loss of any one means of egress shall not reduce 
the available capacity to less than 50 percent of the required 
capacity. The maximum capacity required from any story of a 
building shall be maintained to the termination of the means of 
egress. 

Exception: Means of egress complying with Section 1025. 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^. 



204 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE'' 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



TABLE 1005.1 
EGRESS WIDTH PER OCCUPANT SERVED 



OCCUPANCY 


WiTHOUT 
SPRINKLER SYSTEIVI 


WiTH 
SPRINKLER SYSTEIVI" 


Stairways 
(inches per 
occupant) 


Other egress 

components 

(inches per 

occupant) 


Stairways 
(inches per 
occupant) 


Other egress 

components 

(inches per 

occupant) 


Occupancies 
other than those 
Usted below 


0.3 


0.2 


0.2 


0.15 


Hazardous: H-1, 
H-2, H-3 and H-4 


0.7 


0.4 


0.3 


0.2 


Institutional: 1-2 


NA 


NA 


0.3 


0.2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. NA = Not apphcable. 

a. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

1005.2 Door encroachment. Doors opening into the path of 
egress travel shall not reduce the required width to less than 
one-half during the course of the swing. When fully open, the 
door shall not project more than 7 inches (178 mm) into the 
required width. 

Exception: The restrictions on a door swing shall not apply 
to doors within individual dwelling units and sleeping units 
of Group R-2 and dwelling units of Group R-3. 



2. Corridors, exit enclosures and exit passageways in build- 
ings required to have two or more exits. 

3. Exterior egress components at other than the level of exit 
discharge until exit discharge is accomplished for build- 
ings required to have two or more exits. 

4. Interior exit discharge elements, as permitted in Section 
1 024. 1 , in buildings required to have two or more exits. 

5. Exterior landings, as required by Section 1008.1.5, for 
exit discharge doorways in buildings required to have 
two or more exits. 

The emergency power system shall provide power for a 
duration of not less than 90 minutes and shall consist of storage 
batteries, unit equipment or an on-site generator. The installa- 
tion of the emergency power system shall be in accordance 
with Section 2702. 

1006.4 Performance of system. Emergency lighting facilities 
shall be arranged to provide initial illumination that is at least 
an average of 1 foot-candle (11 lux) and a minimum at any 
point of 0.1 foot-candle (1 lux) measured along the path of 
egress at floor level. Illumination levels shall be permitted to 
decline to 0.6 foot-candle (6 lux) average and a minimum at 
any point of 0.06 foot-candle (0.6 lux) at the end of the emer- 
gency lighting time duration. A maximum-to-minimum illu- 
mination uniformity ratio of 40 to 1 shall not be exceeded. 



SECTION 1006 
MEANS OF EGRESS ILLUMINATION 

1006.1 Illumination required. The means of egress, including 
the exit discharge, shall be illuminated at all times the building 
space served by the means of egress is occupied. 

Exceptions: 

1. Occupancies in Group U. 

2. Aisle accessways in Group A. 

3. Dwelling units and sleeping units in Groups R-1, R-2 
and R-3. 

4. Sleeping units of Group I occupancies. 

1006.2 Illumination level. The means of egress illumination 
level shall not be less than 1 foot-candle (11 lux) at the walking 
surface level. 

Exception: For auditoriums, theaters, concert or opera halls 
and similar assembly occupancies, the illumination at the 
walking surface level is permitted to be reduced during per- 
formances to not less than 0.2 foot-candle (2.15 lux), pro- 
vided that the required illumination is automatically 
restored upon activation of a premises' fire alarm system 
where such system is provided. 

1006.3 Illumination emergency power. The power supply for 
means of egress illumination shall normally be provided by the 
premises' electrical supply. 

In the event of power supply failure, an emergency electrical 
system shall automatically illuminate the following areas: 

1. Aisles and unenclosed egress stairways in rooms and 
spaces that require two or more means of egress. 



SECTION 1007 
ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS 

1007.1 Accessible means of egress required. Accessible 
means of egress shall comply with this section. Accessible 
spaces shall be provided with not less than one accessible 
means of egress. Where more than one means of egress is 
required by Section 1015.1 or 1019.1 from any accessible 
space, each accessible portion of the space shall be served by 
not less than two accessible means of egress. 

Exceptions: 

1. Accessible means of egress are not required in alter- 
ations to existing buildings. 

2. One accessible means of egress is required from an 
accessible mezzanine level in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1007.3, 1007.4 or 1007.5. 

3. In assembly spaces with sloped floors, one accessible 
means of egress is required from a space where the 
common path of travel of the accessible route for 
access to the wheelchair spaces meets the require- 
ments in Section 1025.8. 

1007.2 Continuity and components. Each required accessi- 
ble means of egress shall be continuous to a public way and 
shall consist of one or more of the following components: 

1. Accessible routes complying with Section 1104. 

2. Stairways within vertical exit enclosures complying with 
Sections 1007.3 and 1020. 

3. Exterior exit stairways complying with Sections 1007.3 
and 1023. 

4. Elevators complying with Section 1007.4. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



205 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



5. Platform lifts complying with Section 1007.5. 

6. Horizontal exits complying with Section 1021. 

7. Ramps complying with Section 1010. 

8. Areas of refuge complying with Section 1007.6. 
Exceptions: 

1 . Where the exit discharge is not accessible, an exterior 
area for assisted rescue must be provided in accor- 
dance with Section 1007.8. 

2. Where the exit stairway is open to the exterior, the 
accessible means of egress shall include either an area 
of refuge in accordance with Section 1007.6 or an 
exterior area for assisted rescue in accordance with 
Section 1007.8. 

1007.2.1 Elevators required. In buildings where a required 
accessible floor is four or more stories above or below a 
level of exit discharge, at least one required accessible 
means of egress shall be an elevator complying with Section 
1007.4. 

Exceptions: 

1. In buildings equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the elevator 
shall not be required on floors provided with a hor- 
izontal exit and located at or above the level of exit 
discharge. 

2. In buildings equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the elevator 
shall not be required on floors provided with a 
ramp conforming to the provisions of Section 
1010. 

11007.3 Exit stairways. In order to be considered part of an 
accessible means of egress, an exit stairway shall have a clear 
width of 48 inches (1219 mm) minimum between handrails 
and shall either incorporate an area of refuge within an 
enlarged floor-level landing or shall be accessed from either an 
area of refuge complying with Section 1007.6 or a horizontal 
exit. 

Exceptions: 

1. Unenclosed exit stairways as permitted by Section 
1020.1 are permitted to be considered part of an 
accessible means of egress. 

2. The area of refuge is not required at unenclosed exit 
stairways as permitted by Section 1020. 1 in buildings 
or facilities that are equipped throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1. 

3. The clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) between 
handrails is not required at exit stairways in buildings 
or facilities equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 



4. The clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) between 
handrails is not required for exit stairways accessed 
from a horizontal exit. 

5 . Areas of refuge are not required at exit stairways serv- 
ing open parking garages. 

1007.4 Elevators. In order to be considered part of an accessi- 
ble means of egress, an elevator shall comply with the emer- 
gency operation and signaling device requirements of Section 
2.27 of ASME A17.1. Standby power shall be provided in 
accordance with Sections 2702 and 3003. The elevator shall be 
accessed from either an area of refuge complying with Section 
1007.6 or a horizontal exit. 

Exception: Elevators are not required to be accessed from 
an area of refuge or horizontal exit in open parking garages. 

1007.5 Platform lifts. Platform (wheelchair) lifts shall not 
serve as part of an accessible means of egress, except where 
allowed as part of a required accessible route in Section 1 109.7, 
Items 1 through 9. Standby power shall be provided in accor- I 
dance with Section 2702.2.6 for platform lifts permitted to 
serve as part of a means of egress. 

1007.5.1 Openness. Platform lifts on an accessible means I 
of egress shall not be installed in a fully enclosed or fire- I 
rated shaft. I 

1007.6 Areas of refuge. Every required area of refuge shall be 
accessible from the space it serves by an accessible means of 
egress. The maximum travel distance from any accessible 
space to an area of refuge shall not exceed the travel distance 
permitted for the occupancy in accordance with Section 
1016.1. Every required area of refuge shall have direct access 
to an enclosed stairway complying with Sections 1007.3 and 
1020.1 or an elevator complying with Section 1007.4. Where 
an elevator lobby is used as an area of refuge, the shaft and 
lobby shall comply with Section 1020.1.7 for smokeproof 
enclosures except where the elevators are in an area of refuge 
formed by a horizontal exit or smoke barrier. 

1007.6.1 Size. Each area of refuge shall be sized to accom- 
modate one wheelchair space of 30 inches by 48 inches (762 
mm by 1219 mm) for each 200 occupants or portion thereof, 
based on the occupant load of the area of refuge and areas 
served by the area of refuge. Such wheelchair spaces shall 
not reduce the required means of egress width. Access to 
any of the required wheelchair spaces in an area of refuge 
shall not be obstructed by more than one adjoining wheel- 
chair space. 

1007.6.2 Separation. Each area of refuge shall be separated 
from the remainder of the story by a smoke barrier comply- 
ing with Section 709 or a horizontal exit complying with I 
Section 1 02 1 . Each area of refuge shall be designed to mini- | 
mize the intrusion of smoke. 

Exception: Areas of refuge located within a vertical I 
exit enclosure. I 

1007.6.3 Two-way communication. Areas of refuge shall 
be provided with a two-way communication system 
between the area of refuge and a central control point. If the 
central control point is not constantly attended, the area of 
refuge shall also have controlled access to a public tele- 



206 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



phone system. Location of the central control point shall be 
approved by the fire department. The two-way communica- 
tion system shall include both audible and visible signals. 

1007.6.4 Instructions. In areas of refuge that have a 
two-way emergency communications system, instructions 
on the use of the area under emergency conditions shall be 
posted adjoining the communications system. The instruc- 
tions shall include all of the following: 

1. Directions to find other means of egress. 

2. Persons able to use the exit stairway do so as soon as 
possible, unless they are assisting others. 

3. Information on planned availability of assistance in 
the use of stairs or supervised operation of elevators 
and how to summon such assistance. 

4. Directions for use of the emergency communications 
system. 

1007.6.5 Identification. Each door providing access to an 
area of refuge from an adjacent floor area shall be identified 
by a sign complying with ICC A117.1, stating: AREA OF 
REFUGE, and including the International Symbol of 
Accessibility. Where exit sign illumination is required by 
Section 101 1 .2, the area of refuge sign shall be illuminated. 
Additionally, tactile signage complying with ICC A 117.1 
shall be located at each door to an area of refuge. 

1007.7 Signage. At exits and elevators serving a required 
accessible space but not providing an approved accessible 
means of egress, signage shall be installed indicating the loca- 
tion of accessible means of egress. 

1007.8 Exterior area for assisted rescue. The exterior area for 
assisted rescue must be open to the outside air and meet the 
requirements of Section 1007.6.1. Separation walls shall com- 
ply with the requirements of Section 704 for exterior walls. 
Where walls or openings are between the area for assisted res- 
cue and the interior of the building, the building exterior walls 
within 10 feet (3048 mm) horizontally of a nonrated wall or 
unprotected opening shall have a fire-resistance rating of not 
less than 1 hour. Openings within such exterior walls shall be 
protected by opening protectives having a fire protection rating 
of not less than V4 hour. This construction shall extend verti- 
cally from the ground to a point 10 feet (3048 mm) above the 
floor level of the area for assisted rescue or to the roof line, 
whichever is lower. 

1007.8.1 Openness. The exterior area for assisted rescue 
shall be at least 50 percent open, and the open area above the 
guards shall be so distributed as to minimize the accumula- 
tion of smoke or toxic gases. 

1007.8.2 Exterior exit stairway. Exterior exit stairways 
that are part of the means of egress for the exterior area for 
assisted rescue shall provide a clear width of 48 inches 
(1219 nrni) between handrails. 

1007.8.3 Identification. Exterior areas for assisted rescue 
shall have identification as required for area of refuge that 
complies with Section 1007.6.5. 



SECTION 1008 
DOORS, GATES AND TURNSTILES 

1008.1 Doors. Means of egress doors shall meet the require- 
ments of this section. Doors serving a means of egress system 
shall meet the requirements of this section and Section 1017.2. 
Doors provided for egress purposes in numbers greater than 
required by this code shall meet the requirements of this sec- 
tion. 

Means of egress doors shall be readily distinguishable from 
the adjacent construction and finishes such that the doors are 
easily recognizable as doors. Mirrors or similar reflecting 
materials shall not be used on means of egress doors. Means of 
egress doors shall not be concealed by curtains, drapes, decora- 
tions or similar materials. 

1008.1.1 Size of doors. The minimum width of each door 
opening shall be sufficient for the occupant load thereof and 
shall provide a clear width of not less than 32 inches (813 
mm). Clear openings of doorways with swinging doors 
shall be measured between the face of the door and the stop, 
with the door open 90 degrees (1 .57 rad). Where this section 
requires a minimum clear width of 32 inches (813 mm) and 
a door opening includes two door leaves without a mullion, 
one leaf shall provide a clear opening width of 32 inches 
(813 mm). The maximum width of a swinging door leaf 
shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) nominal. Means of egress 
doors in a Group 1-2 occupancy used for the movement of 
beds shall provide a clear width not less than 41.5 inches 
(1054 mm). The height of doors shall not be less than 80 
inches (2032 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1 . The minimum and maximum width shall not apply 
to door openings that are not part of the required 
means of egress in Group R-2 and R-3 occupan- 
cies. 

2. Door openings to resident sleeping units in Group 
1-3 occupancies shall have a clear width of not less 
than 28 inches (711 nun). 

3. Door openings to storage closets less than 10 
square feet (0.93 m^) in area shall not be limited by 
the minimum width. 

4. Width of door leafs in revolving doors that comply 
with Section 1008.1.3.1 shall not be limited. 

5. Door openings within a dwelling unit or sleeping 
unit shall not be less than 78 inches (1981 mm) in 
height. 

6. Exterior door openings in dwelling units and 
sleeping units, other than the required exit door, 
shall not be less than 76 inches (1930 mm) in 
height. 

7. In other than Group R-1 occupancies, the mini- 
mum widths shall not apply to interior egress doors 
within a dwelling unit or sleeping unit that is not 
required to be an Accessible unit. Type A unit or 
Type B unit. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



207 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



8. Door openings required to be accessible within 
Type B units shall have a minimum clear width of 
31.75 inches (806 mm). 

1008.1.1.1 Projections into clear width. There shall not 
be projections into the required clear width lower than 34 
inches (864 mm) above the floor or ground. Projections 
into the clear opening width between 34 inches (864 
mm) and 80 inches (2032 mm) above the floor or ground 
shall not exceed 4 inches (102 mm). 

1008.1.2 Door swing. Egress doors shall be side-hinged 
swinging. 

Exceptions: 

1. Private garages, office areas, factory and storage 
areas with an occupant load of 10 or less. 

2. Group 1-3 occupancies used as a place of deten- 
tion. 

3. Critical or intensive care patient rooms within 
suites of health care facilities. 

4. Doors within or serving a single dwelling unit in 
Groups R-2 and R-3. 

5. In other than Group H occupancies, revolving 
doors complying with Section 1008.1.3.1. 

6. In other than Group H occupancies, horizontal 
sliding doors complying with Section 1008.1.3.3 
are permitted in a means of egress. 

7. Power-operated doors in accordance with Section 
1008.1.3.2. 

8. Doors serving a bathroom within an individual 
sleeping unit in Group R-1. 

Doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel where 
serving an occupant load of 50 or more persons or a Group 
H occupancy. 

The opening force for interior side- swinging doors with- 
out closers shall not exceed a 5-pound (22 N) force. For 
other side-swinging, sliding and folding doors, the door 
latch shall release when subjected to a 15-pound (67 N) 
force. The door shall be set in motion when subjected to a 
30-pound (133 N) force. The door shall swing to a full-open 
position when subjected to a 15-pound (67 N) force. Forces 
shall be applied to the latch side. 

1008.1.3 Special doors. Special doors and security grilles 
shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1008.1.3.1 
through 1008.1.3.5. 

1008.1.3.1 Revolving doors. Revolving doors shall 
comply with the following: 

1 . Each revolving door shall be capable of collapsing 
into a bookfold position with parallel egress paths 
providing an aggregate width of 36 inches (914 
mm). 

2. A revolving door shall not be located within 10 
feet (3048 mm) of the foot of or top of stairs or 
escalators. A dispersal area shall be provided 
between the stairs or escalators and the revolving 
doors. 



3. The revolutions per minute (rpm) for a revolving 
door shall not exceed those shown in Table 
1008.1.3.1. 

4. Each revolving door shall have a side-hinged 
swinging door which complies with Section 
1008.1 in the same wall and within 10 feet (3048 
mm) of the revolving door. 

TABLE 1008.1.3.1 
REVOLVING DOOR SPEEDS 



INSIDE DIAMETER 
(feet-inches) 


POWER-DRIVEN-TYPE 

SPEED CONTROL 

(rpm) 


MANUAL-TYPE 

SPEED CONTROL 

(rpm) 


6-6 


11 


12 


7-0 


10 


11 


7-6 


9 


11 


8-0 


9 


10 


8-6 


8 


9 


9-0 


8 


9 


9-6 


7 


8 


10-0 


7 


8 



For SI: 1 inch = 25 .4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

1008.1.3.1.1 Egress component. A revolving door 
used as a component of a means of egress shall com- 
ply with Section 1008.1.3.1 and the following three 
conditions: 

1. Revolving doors shall not be given credit for 
more than 50 percent of the required egress 
capacity. 

2. Each revolving door shall be credited with no 
more than a 50-person capacity. 

3. Each revolving door shall be capable of being 
collapsed when a force of not more than 130 
pounds (572) is applied within 3 inches (76 
mm) of the outer edge of a wing. 

1008.1.3.1.2 Other than egress component. A 

revolving door used as other than a component of a 
means of egress shall comply with Section 
1008.1.3.1. The collapsing force of a revolving door 
not used as a component of a means of egress shall not 
be more than 180 pounds (801 N). 

Exception: A collapsing force in excess of 180 
pounds (801 N) is permitted if the collapsing force 
is reduced to not more than 130 pounds (572) 
when at least one of the following conditions is sat- 
isfied: 

1 . There is a power failure or power is removed 
to the device holding the door wings in posi- 
tion. 

2. There is an actuation of the automatic sprin- 
kler system where such system is provided. 

3. There is an actuation of a smoke detection 
system which is installed in accordance with 
Section 907 to provide coverage in areas 



208 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



within the building which are within 75 feet 
(22 860 mm) of the revolving doors. 

4. There is an actuation of a manual control 
switch, in an approved location and clearly 
defined, which reduces the holding force to 
below the 130-pound (572) force level. 

1008.1.3.2 Power-operated doors. Where means of 
egress doors are operated by power, such as doors with a 
photoelectric-actuated mechanism to open the door upon 
the approach of a person, or doors with power-assisted 
manual operation, the design shall be such that in the 
event of power failure, the door is capable of being 
opened manually to permit means of egress travel or 
closed where necessary to safeguard means of egress. 
The forces required to open these doors manually shall 
not exceed those specified in Section 1008.1.2, except 
that the force to set the door in motion shall not exceed 50 
pounds (220 N). The door shall be capable of swinging 
from any position to the full width of the opening in 
which such door is installed when a force is applied to the 
door on the side from which egress is made. 
Full-power-operated doors shall comply with BHMA 
A 156. 10. Power-assisted and low-energy doors shall 
comply with BHMA A156.19. 

Exceptions: 

1. Occupancies in Group 1-3. 

2. Horizontal sliding doors complying with Sec- 
tion 1008.1.3.3. 

3. For a biparting door in the emergency breakout 
mode, a door leaf located within a multiple-leaf 
opening shall be exempt fi-om the minimum 
32-inch (813 mm) single-leaf requirement of 
Section 1008. 1 . 1 , provided a minimum 32-inch 
(813 mm) clear opening is provided when the 
two biparting leaves meeting in the center are 
broken out. 

1008.1.3.3 Horizontal sliding doors. In other than 
Group H occupancies, horizontal sliding doors permitted 
to be a component of a means of egress in accordance 
with Exception 5 to Section 1008.1.2 shall comply with 
all of the following criteria: 

1. The doors shall be power operated and shall be 
capable of being operated manually in the event of 
power failure. 

2. The doors shall be openable by a simple method 
from both sides without special knowledge or 
effort. 

3. The force required to operate the door shall not 
exceed 30 pounds ( 1 33 N) to set the door in motion 
and 15 pounds (67 N) to close the door or open it to 
the minimum required width. 

4. The door shall be openable with a force not to 
exceed 15 pounds (67 N) when a force of 250 
pounds (1100 N) is applied perpendicular to the 
door adjacent to the operating device. 



5. The door assembly shall comply with the applica- 
ble fire protection rating and, where rated, shall be 
self-closing or automatic closing by smoke detec- 
tion in accordance with Section 7 15.4.7.3, shall be 
installed in. accordance with NFPA 80 and shall 
comply with Section 715. 

6. The door assembly shall have an integrated 
standby power supply. 

7. The door assembly power supply shall be electri- 
cally supervised. 

8. The door shall open to the minimum required 
width within 10 seconds after activation of the 
operating device. 

1008.1.3.4 Access-controlled egress doors. The 
entrance doors in a means of egress in buildings with an 
occupancy in Group A, B, E, M, R-1 or R-2 and entrance 
doors to tenant spaces in occupancies in Groups A, B, E, 
M, R-1 and R-2 are permitted to be equipped with an 
approved entrance and egress access control system 
which shall be installed in accordance with all of the fol- 
lowing criteria: 

1. A sensor shall be provided on the egress side 
arranged to detect an occupant approaching the 
doors. The doors shall be arranged to unlock by a 
signal from or loss of power to the sensor. 

2. Loss of power to that part of the access control sys- 
tem which locks the doors shall automatically 
unlock the doors. 

3. The doors shall be arranged to unlock from a man- 
ual unlocking device located 40 inches to 48 
inches (1016 mm to 1 2 1 9 mm) vertically above the 
floor and within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the secured 
doors. Ready access shall be provided to the man- 
ual unlocking device and the device shall be 
clearly identified by a sign that reads "PUSH TO 
EXIT." When operated, the manual unlocking 
device shall result in direct interruption of power 
to the lock — independent of the access control sys- 
tem electronics — and the doors shall remain 
unlocked for a minimum of 30 seconds. 

4. Activation of the building fire alarm system, if 
provided, shall automatically unlock the doors, 
and the doors shall remain unlocked until the fire 
alarm system has been reset. 

5. Activation of the building automatic sprinkler or 
fire detection system, if provided, shall automati- 
cally unlock the doors. The doors shall remain 
unlocked until the fire alarm system has been reset. 

6. Entrance doors in buildings with an occupancy in 
Group A, B, E or M shall not be secured from the 
egress side during periods that the building is open 
to the general public. 

1008.1.3.5 Security grilles. In Groups B, F, M and S, 
horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles are permit- 
ted at the main exit and shall be openable from the inside 
without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



209 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



during periods that the space is occupied. The grilles 
shall remain secured in the full-open position during the 
period of occupancy by the general public. Where two or 
more means of egress are required, not more than 
one-half of the exits or exit access doorways shall be 
equipped with horizontal sliding or vertical security 
grilles. 

1008.1.4 Floor elevation. There shall be a floor or landing 
on each side of a door. Such floor or landing shall be at the 
same elevation on each side of the door. Landings shall be 
level except for exterior landings, which are permitted to 
have a slope not to exceed 0.25 unit vertical in 12 units hori- 
zontal (2-percent slope). 

Exceptions: 

1 . Doors serving individual dwelling units in Groups 
R-2 and R-3 where the following apply: 

1 . 1 . A door is permitted to open at the top step 
of an interior flight of stairs, provided the 
door does not swing over the top step. 

1 .2. Screen doors and storm doors are permit- 
ted to swing over stairs or landings. 

2. Exterior doors as provided for in Section 1003.5, 
Exception 1, and Section 1018.2, which are not on 
an accessible route. 

3. In Group R-3 occupancies not required to be 
Accessible units, Type A units or Type B units, the 
landing at an exterior doorway shall not be more 
than 7.75 inches (197 mm) below the top of the 
threshold, provided the door, other than an exterior 
storm or screen door, does not swing over the land- 
ing. 

4. Variations in elevation due to differences in finish 
materials, but not more than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm). 

5. Exterior decks, patios or balconies that are part of 
Type B dwelling units, have impervious surfaces 
and that are not more than 4 inches (102 mm) 
below the finished floor level of the adjacent inte- 
rior space of the dwelling unit. 

1008.1.5 Landings at doors. Landings shall have a width 
not less than the width of the stairway or the door, whichever 
is greater. Doors in the fully open position shall not reduce a 
required dimension by more than 7 inches (178 mm). When 
a landing serves an occupant load of 50 or more, doors in 
any position shall not reduce the landing to less than 
one-half its required width. Landings shall have a length 
measured in the direction of travel of not less than 44 inches 
(1118 mm). 

Exception: Landing length in the direction of travel in 
Groups R-3 and U and within individual units of Group 
R-2 need not exceed 36 inches (914 mm). 

1008.1.6 Thresholds. Thresholds at doorways shall not 
exceed 0.75 inch (19.1 mm) in height for sliding doors serv- 
ing dwelling units or 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) for other doors. 
Raised thresholds and floor level changes greater than 0.25 
inch (6.4 mm) at doorways shall be beveled with a slope not 



greater than one unit vertical in two units horizontal 
(50-percent slope). 

Exception: The threshold height shall be hmited to 7.75 
inches (197 mm) where the occupancy is Group R-2 or 
R-3; the door is an exterior door that is not a component 
of the required means of egress; the door, other than an 
exterior storm or screen door does not swing over the 
landing or step; and the doorway is not on an accessible 
route as required by Chapter 1 1 and is not part of an 
Accessible unit. Type A unit or Type B unit. 

1008.1.7 Door arrangement. Space between two doors in a 
series shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) minimum plus the 
width of a door swinging into the space. Doors in a series 
shall swing either in the same direction or away from the 
space between the doors. 

Exceptions: 

1 . The minimum distance between horizontal sliding 
power-operated doors in a series shall be 48 inches 
(1219 mm). 

2. Storm and screen doors serving individual dwell- 
ing units in Groups R-2 and R-3 need not be spaced 
48 inches (1219 mm) from the other door. 

3. Doors within individual dwelling units in Groups 
R-2 and R-3 other than within Type A dwelling 
units. 

1008.1.8 Door operations. Except as specifically permitted 
by this section egress doors shall be readily openable from 
the egress side without the use of a key or special knowledge 
or effort. 

1008.1.8.1 Hardware. Door handles, pulls, latches, 
locks and other operating devices on doors required to be 
accessible by Chapter 1 1 shall not require tight grasping, 
tight pinching or twisting of the wrist to operate. 

1008.1.8.2 Hardware height. Door handles, pulls, 
latches, locks and other operating devices shall be 
installed 34 inches (864 mm) minimum and 48 inches 
(1219 mm) maximum above the finished floor. Locks 
used only for security purposes and not used for normal 
operation are permitted at any height. 

Exception: Access doors or gates in barrier walls and 
fences protecting pools, spas and hot tubs shall be per- 
mitted to have operable parts of the release of latch on 
self-latching devices at 54 inches (1370 mm) maxi- 
mum above the finished floor or ground, provided the 
self-latching devices are not also self-locking devices 
operated by means of a key, electronic opener or inte- 
gral combination lock. 

1008.1.8.3 Locks and latches. Locks and latches shall 
be permitted to prevent operation of doors where any of 
the following exists: 

1 . Places of detention or restraint. 

2. In buildings in occupancy Group A having an 
occupant load of 300 or less. Groups B, F, M and S, 
and in places of religious worship, the main exte- 
rior door or doors are permitted to be equipped 



210 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



with key-operated locking devices from the egress 
side provided: 

2.1. The locking device is readily distinguish- 
able as locked, 

2.2. A readily visible durable sign is posted on 
the egress side on or adjacent to the door 
stating: THIS DOOR TO REMAIN 
UNLOCKED WHEN BUILDING IS 
OCCUPIED. The sign shall be in letters 1 
inch (25 mm) high on a contrasting back- 
ground, 

2.3. The use of the key-operated locking device 
is revokable by the building official for due 
cause. 

3. Where egress doors are used in pairs, approved 
automatic flush bolts shall be permitted to be used, 
provided that the door leaf having the automatic 
flush bolts has no doorknob or surface-mounted 
hardware. 

4. Doors from individual dwelling or sleeping units 
of Group R occupancies having an occupant load 
of 10 or less are permitted to be equipped with a 
night latch, dead bolt or security chain, provided 
such devices are openable from the inside without 
the use of a key or tool. 

1008.1.8.4 Bolt locks. Manually operated flush bolts or 
surface bolts are not permitted. 

Exceptions: 

1 . On doors not required for egress in individual 
dwelling units or sleeping units. 

2. Where a pair of doors serves a storage or equip- 
ment room, manually operated edge- or sur- 
face-mounted bolts are permitted on the 
inactive leaf. 

1008.1.8.5 Unlatching. The unlatching of any door or 
leaf shall not require more than one operation. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Places of detention or restraint. 

2. Where manually operated bolt locks are permit- 
ted by Section 1008. 1.8. 4. 

3. Doors with automatic flush bolts as permitted 
by Section 1008.1.8.3, Exception 3. 

4. Doors from individual dwelling units and 
sleeping units of Group R occupancies as per- 
mitted by Section 1008.1.8.3, Exception 4. 

1008.1.8.6 Delayed egress locks. Approved, hsted, 
delayed egress locks shall be permitted to be installed on 
doors serving any occupancy except Group A, E and H 
occupancies in buildings that are equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1 or an approved automatic smoke or 
heat detection system installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 907, provided that the doors unlock in accordance 
with Items 1 through 6 below. A building occupant shall 



not be required to pass through more than one door 
equipped with a delayed egress lock before entering an 
exit. 

1. The doors unlock upon actuation of the automatic 
sprinkler system or automatic fire detection sys- 
tem. 

2. The doors unlock upon loss of power controlling 
the lock or lock mechanism. 

3. The door locks shall have the capability of being 
unlocked by a signal from the fire command cen- 
ter. 

4. The initiation of an irreversible process which will 
release the latch in not more than 15 seconds when 
a force of not more than 15 pounds (67 N) is 
applied for 1 second to the release device. Initia- 
tion of the irreversible process shall activate an 
audible signal in the vicinity of the door. Once the 
door lock has been released by the application of 
force to the releasing device, relocking shall be by 
manual means only. 

Exception: Where approved, a delay of not 
more than 30 seconds is permitted. 

5 . A sign shall be provided on the door located above 
and within 12 inches (305 mm) of the release 
device reading: PUSH UNTIL ALARM 
SOUNDS. DOOR CAN BE OPENED IN 15 [30] 
SECONDS. 

6. Emergency lighting shall be provided at the door. 

1008.1.8.7 Stairway doors. Interior stairway means of 
egress doors shall be openable from both sides without 
the use of a key or special knowledge or effort. 

Exceptions: 

1. Stairway discharge doors shall be openable 
from the egress side and shall only be locked 
from the opposite side. 

2. This section shall not apply to doors arranged in 
accordance with Section 403.12. 

3. In stairways serving not more than four stories, 
doors are permitted to be locked from the side 
opposite the egress side, provided they are 
openable from the egress side and capable of 
being unlocked simultaneously without 
unlatching upon a signal from the fire com- 
mand center, if present, or a signal by emer- 
gency personnel from a single location inside 
the main entrance to the building. 

1008.1.9 Panic and fire exit hardware. Where panic and 
fire exit hardware is installed, it shall comply with the fol- 
lowing: 

1. The actuating portion of the releasing device shall 
extend at least one-half of the door leaf width. 

2. The maximum unlatching force shall not exceed 15 
pounds (67 N). 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



211 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



Each door in a means of egress from a Group A or E occu- 
pancy having an occupant load of 50 or more and any Group 
H occupancy shall not be provided with a latch or lock 
unless it is panic hardware or fire exit hardware. 

Exception: A main exit of a Group A occupancy in com- 
pliance with Section 1008.1.8.3, Item 2. 

Electrical rooms with equipment rated 1,200 amperes or 
more and over 6 feet (1829 mm) wide that contain 
overcurrent devices, switching devices or control devices 
with exit access doors must be equipped with panic hard- 
ware and doors must swing in the direction of egress. 

If balanced doors are used and panic hardware is 
required, the panic hardware shall be the push-pad type and 
the pad shall not extend more then one-half the width of the 
door measured from the latch side. 

1008.2 Gates. Gates serving the means of egress system shall 
comply with the requirements of this section. Gates used as a 
component in a means of egress shall conform to the applicable 
requirements for doors. 

Exception: Horizontal sliding or swinging gates exceeding 
the 4-foot (1219 mm) maximum leaf width limitation are 
permitted in fences and walls surrounding a stadium. 

1008.2.1 Stadiums. Panic hardware is not required on gates 
surrounding stadiums where such gates are under constant 
immediate supervision while the public is present, and 
where safe dispersal areas based on 3 square feet (0.28 m^) 
per occupant are located between the fence and enclosed 
space. Such required safe dispersal areas shall not be 
located less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the enclosed 
space. See Section 1024.6 for means of egress from safe dis- 
persal areas. 

1008.3 Tlirnstiles. Turnstiles or similar devices that restrict 
travel to one direction shall not be placed so as to obstruct any 
required means of egress. 

Exception: Each turnstile or similar device shall be credited 
with no more than a SO-person capacity where all of the fol- 
lowing provisions are met: 

n ■ 1 . Each device shall turn free in the direction of egress 
travel when primary power is lost, and upon the man- 
ual release by an employee in the area. 

2. Such devices are not given credit for more than 50 
percent of the required egress capacity. 

3. Each device is not more than 39 inches (991 mm) 
high. 

4. Each device has at least 16.5 inches (419 mm) clear 
width at and below a height of 39 inches (991 nmi) 
and at least 22 inches (559 mm) clear width at heights 
above 39 inches (991 mm). 

Where located as part of an accessible route, turnstiles shall 
have at least 36 inches (914 mm) clear at and below a height of 
34 inches (864 mm), at least 32 inches (813 mm) clear width 
between 34 inches (864 mm) and 80 inches (2032 mm) and 
shall consist of a mechanism other than a revolving device. 



1008.3.1 High turnstile. Turnstiles more than 39 inches 
(991 mm) high shall meet the requirements for revolving 
doors. 

1008.3.2 Additional door. Where serving an occupant load 
greater than 300, each turnstile that is not portable shall have 
a side-hinged swinging door which conforms to Section 
1008.1 within 50 feet (15 240 mm). 



SECTION 1009 
STAIRWAYS 

1009.1 Stairway width. The width of stairways shall be deter- 
mined as specified in Section 1005.1, but such width shall not 
be less than 44 inches (1118 mm). See Section 1007.3 for 
accessible means of egress stairways. 

Exceptions: 

1. Stairways serving an occupant load of less than 50 
shall have a width of not less than 36 inches (914 
mm). 

2. Spiral stairways as provided for in Section 1009.8. 

3. Aisle stairs complying with Section 1025. 

4. Where an incline platform lift or stairway chairlift is 
installed on stairways serving occupancies in Group 
R-3, or within dwelling units in occupancies in Group 
R-2, a clear passage width not less than 20 inches (508 
irmi) shall be provided. If the seat and platform can be 
folded when not in use, the distance shall be measured 
from the folded position. 

1009.2 Headroom. Stairways shall have a minimum head- 
room clearance of 80 inches (2032 mm) measured vertically 
from a line connecting the edge of the nosings. Such headroom 
shall be continuous above the stairway to the point where the 
line intersects the landing below, one tread depth beyond the 
bottom riser. The minimum clearance shall be maintained the 
full width of the stairway and landing. 

Exception: Spiral stairways complying with Section 
1009.8 are permitted a 78-inch (1981 mm) headroom clear- 
ance. 

1009.3 Stair treads and risers. Stair riser heights shall be 7 
inches (178 mm) maximum and 4 inches (102 mm) minimum. 
Stair tread depths shall be 1 1 inches (279 nmi) minimum. The 
riser height shall be measured vertically between the leading 
edges of adjacent treads. The tread depth shall be measured 
horizontally between the vertical planes of the foremost projec- 
tion of adjacent treads and at a right angle to the tread's leading 
edge. Winder treads shall have a minimum tread depth of 1 1 
inches (279 mm) measured at a right angle to the tread's lead- 
ing edge at a point 12 inches (305 mm) from the side where the 
treads are narrower and a minimum tread depth of 10 inches 
(254 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1 . Alternating tread devices in accordance with Section 
1009.9. 

2. Spiral stairways in accordance with Section 1009.8. 



212 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



3. Aisle stairs in assembly seating areas where the stair 
pitch or slope is set, for sightline reasons, by the slope 
of the adjacent seating area in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1025.11.2. 

4. In Group R-3 occupancies; within dwelling units in 
Group R-2 occupancies; and in Group U occupancies 
that are accessory to a Group R-3 occupancy or acces- 
sory to individual dwelling units in Group R-2 occu- 
pancies; the maximum riser height shall be 7.75 
inches (197 mm); the minimum tread depth shall be 
10 inches (254 mm); the minimum winder tread depth 
at the walk line shall be 10 inches (254 mm); and the 
minimum winder tread depth shall be 6 inches (152 
mm). A nosing not less than 0.75 inch (19.1 mm) but 
not more than 1.25 inches (32 mm) shall be provided 
on stairways with solid risers where the tread depth is 
less than 11 inches (279 mm). 

5 . See the Section 3403 .4 for the replacement of existing 
stairways. 

1009.3.1 Winder treads. Winder treads are not permitted in 
means of egress stairways except within a dwelling unit. 

Exceptions: 

1. Curved stairways in accordance with Section 
1009.7. 

2. Spiral stairways in accordance with Section 
1009.8. 

1009.3.2 Dimensional uniformity. Stair treads and risers 
shall be of uniform size and shape. The tolerance between 
the largest and smallest riser height or between the largest 
and smallest tread depth shall not exceed 0.375 inch (9.5 
mm) in any flight of stairs. The greatest winder tread depth 
at the 12-inch (305 mm) walk line within any flight of stairs 
shall not exceed the smallest by more than 0.375 inch (9.5 
mm) measured at a right angle to the tread's leading edge. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Nonuniform riser dimensions of aisle stairs com- 
plying with Section 1025.11.2. 

2. Consistently shaped winders, complying with 
Section 1009.3, differing from rectangular treads 
in the same stairway flight. 

Where the bottom or top riser adjoins a sloping public 
way, walkway or driveway having an established grade and 
serving as a landing, the bottom or top riser is permitted to 
be reduced along the slope to less than 4 inches (102 mm) in 
height, with the variation in height of the bottom or top riser 
not to exceed one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal 
(8-percent slope) of stairway width. The nosings or leading 
edges of treads at such nonuniform height risers shall have a 
distinctive marking stripe, different from any other nosing 
marking provided on the stair flight. The distinctive mark- 
ing stripe shall be visible in descent of the stair and shall 
have a slip-resistant surface. Marking stripes shall have a 
width of at least 1 inch (25 mm) but not more than 2 inches 
(51 mm). 



1009.3.3 Profile. The radius of curvature at the leading edge 
of the tread shall be not greater than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm). 
Beveling of nosings shall not exceed 0.5 inch (12.7 mm). 
Risers shall be solid and vertical or sloped from the under- 
side of the leading edge of the tread above at an angle not 
more than 30 degrees (0.52 rad) from the vertical. The lead- 
ing edge (nosings) of treads shall project not more than 1.25 
inches (32 mm) beyond the tread below and all projections 
of the leading edges shall be of uniform size, including the 
leading edge of the floor at the top of a flight. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Solid risers are not required for stairways that are 
not required to comply with Section 1007.3, pro- 
vided that the opening between treads does not 
permit the passage of a sphere with a diameter of 4 
inches (102 mm). 

2. Solid risers are not required for occupancies in 
Group 1-3. 

1009.4 Stairway landings. There shall be a floor or landing at 
the top and bottom of each stairway. The width of landings 
shall not be less than the width of stairways they serve. Every 
landing shall have a minimum dimension measured in the 
direction of travel equal to the width of the stairway. Such 
dimension need not exceed 48 inches (1219 mm) where the 
stairway has a straight run. 

Exceptions: 

1. Aisle stairs complying with Section 1025. 

2. Doors opening onto a landing shall not reduce the 
landing to less than one-half the required width. 
When fully open, the door shall not project more than 
7 inches (178 mm) into a landing. 

1009.5 Stairway construction. All stairways shall be built of 
materials consistent with the types permitted for the type of 
construction of the building, except that wood handrails shall 
be permitted for all types of construction. 

1009.5.1 Stairway walking surface. The walking surface 
of treads and landings of a stairway shall not be sloped 
steeper than one unit vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-per- 
cent slope) in any direction. Stairway treads and landings 
shall have a solid surface. Finish floor surfaces shall be 
securely attached. 

Exception: In Group F, H and S occupancies, other than 
areas of parking structures accessible to the public, open- 
ings in treads and landings shall not be prohibited pro- 
vided a sphere with a diameter of 1.125 inches (29 mm) 
cannot pass through the opening. 

1009.5.2 Outdoor conditions. Outdoor stairways and out- 
door approaches to stairways shall be designed so that water 
will not accumulate on walking surfaces. 

1009.5.3 Enclosures under stairways. The walls and soffits 
within enclosed usable spaces under enclosed and unen- 
closed stairways shall be protected by 1-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction or the fire-resistance rating of the 
stairway enclosure, whichever is greater. Access to the 



2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



213 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



enclosed space shall not be directly from within the stair 
enclosure. 

Exception: Spaces under stairways serving and con- 
tained within a single residential dwelling unit in Group 
R-2 or R-3 shall be permitted to be protected on the 
enclosed side with 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board. 

There shall be no enclosed usable space under exterior 
exit stairways unless the space is completely enclosed in 
1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. The open space 
under exterior stairways shall not be used for any purpose. 

1009.6 Vertical rise. A flight of stairs shall not have a vertical 
rise greater than 12 feet (3658 mm) between floor levels or 
landings. 

Exception: Aisle stairs complying with Section 1025. 

1009.7 Curved stairways. Curved stairways with winder 
treads shall have treads and risers in accordance with Section 
1009.3 and the smallest radius shall not be less than twice the 
required width of the stairway. 

Exception: The radius restriction shall not apply to curved 
stairways for occupancies in Group R-3 and within individ- 
ual dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2. 

1009.8 Spiral stairways. Spiral stairways are permitted to be 
used as a component in the means of egress only within dwell- 
ing units or from a space not more than 250 square feet (23 m^) 
in area and serving not more than five occupants, or from gal- 
leries, catwalks and gridirons in accordance with Section 
1015.6. 

A spiral stairway shall have a 7.5 inch (191 mm) minimum 
clear tread depth at a point 12 inches (305 mm) fi'om the narrow 
edge. The risers shall be sufficient to provide a headroom of 78 
inches (1981 mm) minimum, but riser height shall not be more 
than 9.5 inches (241 mm). The minimum stairway width shall 
be 26 inches (660 mm). 

1009.9 Alternating tread devices. Alternating tread devices 
are limited to an element of a means of egress in buildings of 
Groups F, H and S from a mezzanine not more than 250 square 
feet (23 m^) in area and which serves not more than five occu- 
pants; in buildings of Group 1-3 from a guard tower, observa- 
tion station or control room not more than 250 square feet (23 
m^) in area and for access to unoccupied roofs. 

1009.9.1 Handrails of alternating tread devices. Hand- 
rails shall be provided on both sides of alternating tread 
devices and shall comply with Section 1012. 

1009.9.2 Treads of alternating tread devices. Alternating 
tread devices shall have a minimum projected tread of 5 
inches (127 mm), a minimum tread depth of 8.5 inches (216 
mm), a minimum tread width of 7 inches (178 mm) and a 
maximum riser height of 9.5 inches (241 mm). The initial 
tread of the device shall begin at the same elevation as the 
platform, landing or floor surface. 

Exception: Alternating tread devices used as an element 
of a means of egress in buildings from a mezzanine area 
not more than 250 square feet (23 m^) in area which 
serves not more than five occupants shall have a mini- 
mum projected tread of 8 . 5 inches (216 mm) with a mini- 



mum tread depth of 10.5 inches (267 mm). The rise to the 
next alternating tread surface should not be more than 8 
inches (203 mm). 

1009.10 Handrails. Stairways shall have handrails on each 
side and shall comply with Section 1012. Where glass is used 
to provide the handrail, the handrail shall also comply with 
Section 2407. 

Exceptions: 

1. Aisle stairs complying with Section 1025 provided 
with a center handrail need not have additional hand- 
rails. 

2. Stairways within dwelling units, spiral stairways and 
aisle stairs serving seating only on one side are per- 
mitted to have a handrail on one side only. 

3. Decks, patios and walkways that have a single change 
in elevation where the landing depth on each side of 
the change of elevation is greater than what is 
required for a landing do not require handrails. 

4. In Group R-3 occupancies, a change in elevation con- 
sisting of a single riser at an entrance or egress door 
does not require handrails. 

5. Changes in room elevations of only one riser within 
dwelling units and sleeping units in Group R-2 and 
R-3 occupancies do not require handrails. 

1009.11 Stairway to roof. In buildings located four or more 
stories in height above grade plane, one stairway shall extend to 
the roof surface, unless the roof has a slope steeper than four 
units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33-percent slope). In 
buildings without an occupied roof, access to the roof from the 
top story shall be permitted to be by an alternating tread device. 

1009.11.1 Roof access. Where a stairway is provided to a 
roof, access to the roof shall be provided through a