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Full text of "Michigan Plumbing Code"

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3 Labor & Economic Growth 



Michigan.gov Home SOAHR Home | Site Map | Contact SOAHR 

DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND ECONOMIC GROWTH 



DIRECTOR'S OFFICE 

CONSTRUCTION CODE 

(By authority conferred on the director of the department of labor and 
economic growth by section 4 of 1972 PA 230, MCL 125.1504, and Executive 
Reorganization Order Nos . 1996-2 and 2003-1, MCL 445.2001 and 445.2011) 

PART 7 . PLUMBING CODE 



R 408.30701 Applicable code. 

Rule 701. Rules governing the installation, replacement, alteration, 
relocation, and use of plumbing systems or plumbing materials shall be those 
contained in the international plumbing code, 2006 edition, including 
appendices B, C, D, F, and G, except for sections 103.2, 103.4, 104.2, 
106.6.1, 106.6.2, 106.6.3, 107.1.2, 107.1.2.1, 107.1.2.2, 107.1.2.3, 109.2 to 
109.7, 312.1.1, 602.3 to 602.3.5.1, 604.11, 608.17 to 608.17.8, 708.3.2, 
708.3.6, 1106.6, and table 1106.6. With the exceptions noted, the code is 
adopted in these rules by reference. All references to the International 
Building Code, International Residential Code, International Energy 
Conservation Code, International Electrical Code, International Mechanical 
Code, and International Plumbing Code mean the Michigan Building Code, 
Michigan Residential Code, Michigan Uniform Energy Code, Michigan Electrical 
Code, Michigan Mechanical Code, and Michigan Plumbing Code respectively. The 
code is available for inspection at the Okemos office of the Michigan 
department of labor & economic growth, bureau of construction codes. The 
code may be purchased from the International Code Council, 500 New Jersey 
Avenue, N.W. , 6th Floor, Washington, D.C. 20001, or from the Michigan 
Department of Labor & Economic Growth, Bureau of Construction Codes, 2501 
Woodlake Circle, Okemos, Michigan 48864, at a cost as of the time of adoption 
of these rules of $50.00 each. 

History: 1979 AC; 1980 AACS; 1982 AACS; 1985 AACS; 1989 AACS; 1992 AACS; 
1998-2000 AACS; 2001 AACS; 2003 AACS; 2007 AACS. 



R 408.30709 Rescission. 

Rule 709. Rules 1 to 141 of the rules of the state plumbing board, being R 
338.901 to R 338.914 of the Michigan Administrative Code and appearing on 
pages 3801 to 3818 of the 1954 volume of the Code, are rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC. 



AMENDMENTS AND ADDITIONS TO BASIC PLUMBING CODE 



are amended to read as 



R 408.30711 Title and scope. 

Rule 711. Sections 101.1 and 101.2 of the code 
follows: 

101.1. Title. This part shall be known as the Michigan plumbing code and 
is hereinafter referred to as "the plumbing code" or "the code." This part 
shall control all matters concerning the installation, replacement, 
alteration, relocation, and use of plumbing systems or plumbing materials as 
herein defined and shall apply to existing or proposed buildings and 
structures in the state. 



101.2. Scope. The design and installation of plumbing systems, including 
sanitary and storm drainage, sanitary facilities, medical gas systems, water 
supplies, storm water and sewage disposal in buildings, shall comply with the 
requirements of the code. The design and installation of gas piping, chilled 
water piping in connection with refrigeration process and comfort cooling, 
and hot water piping in connection with building heating systems shall 
conform to the requirements of the Michigan mechanical code. The design and 
installation of all fire sprinkler systems and standpipe systems shall 
conform to the requirements of the Michigan building code. Water and 
drainage connections to such installations shall be made in accordance with 
the requirements of the code. 

Exception: Plumbing facilities within 1- and 2-family dwellings shall be 
constructed and maintained in accordance with the Michigan residential code 
for 1- and 2-family dwellings. 

History: 1979 AC; 1980 AACS; 1982 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS; 2001 AACS . 

R 408.30712 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1980 AACS; 1982 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS; 2001 AACS. 

R 408.30713 Rescinded. 

History: 1982 AACS; 199-2000 AACS; 2001 AACS. 

R 408.30714 Plumbing official; qualifications. 

Rule 714. Section 103.1 of the code is amended to read as follows: 

103.1. General. The position of plumbing inspector is created. The 

plumbing inspector shall be appointed in accordance with 198 6 PA 54, MCL 

338.2301 et seq. 

History: 1979 AC; 1980 AACS; 1982 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS; 2001 AACS. 



R 408.30715 Permits. 

Rule 715. Sections 106.4, 106.5.3, and 106.5.4 of the code are amended to 
read as follows: 

106.4. By whom application is made. Application for a permit shall be 
made by a plumbing contractor licensed in accordance with 2002 PA 733, MCL 
338.3511 et seq. 

Exceptions : 

1. Water service permits. 

2 . Building sewer and private sewer permits . 

3. Minor repair. 

106.5.3. Expiration. Each permit issued by the code official under the 
provisions of the code shall expire by limitation and become null and void if 
the work authorized by such permit is not commenced within 180 days from the 
date of such permit, or if the work authorized by such permit is suspended or 
abandoned at any time after the work is commenced for a period of 180 days. 
Before such work may be recommenced, a new permit shall be first obtained for 
such work, provided no changes have been made or will be made in the original 
construction document for such work and provided further that such suspension 
or abandonment has not exceeded 1 year. 

106.5.4. Extensions. Any permittee holding an unexpired permit shall have 
the right to apply for an extension of the time within which the permittee 
will commence work under that permit when work is unable to be commenced 
within the time required by this section for good and satisfactory reasons. 
The code official shall extend the time for action by the permittee for a 
period not exceeding 180 days if there is reasonable cause. No permit shall 
be extended more than once . 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1985 AACS; 1992 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS; 
2001 AACS; 2003 AACS. 



R 408.30716 Fees. 

Rule 716. Section 106.6 of the code is amended to read as follows: 
Rule 106.6. Fees. The fees prescribed by the act shall be paid to the 
enforcing agency of the jurisdiction before a permit to begin work for new 
construction, alteration, removal, demolition, or other building operation 
may be issued. In addition, an amendment to a permit necessitating an 
additional fee shall not be approved until the additional fee is paid. 

History: 1982 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS; 2001 AACS; 2003 AACS; 2007 AACS . 

R 408.30717 Duties and powers of code official. 

Rule 717. Sections 104.1 and 104.5 of the code are amended to read as 
follows: 

104.1 General. The code official shall enforce all of the provisions of 
the code and shall act on any question relative to the installation, 
alteration, repair, maintenance, or operation of all plumbing systems, 
devices, and equipment except as specifically provided for by statutory 
requirements or as provided for in sections 104.3 through 104.8. 

104.5. Right of entry. In the discharge of duties, the code official may 
enter any building, structure, or premises in the jurisdiction to enforce the 
provisions of the act and the code. 

History: 1982 AACS; 1985 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS; 2001 AACS; 2003 AACS; 
2007 AACS. 



R 408.30718 Violation penalties. 

Rule 718. Section 108.4 of the code is amended to read as follows: 
108.4. Violation penalties. A person who violates a provision of the 
code, who fails to conform with any of the requirements thereof, or who 
erects, installs, alters, or repairs plumbing work in violation of the 
approved construction documents or directive of the enforcing agency, or a 
permit or certificate issued under the provisions of the code shall be 
assessed a fine in accordance with the act and 2002 PA 733, MCL 338.3511 to 
338.3569. 

History: 1982 AACS; 1985 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS; 2001 AACS; 2003 AACS; 
2007 AACS. 



R 408.30719 Stop work orders. 

Rule 719. Section 108.5 of the code is amended to read as follows: 
108.5. Stop work orders. Upon notice from the enforcing agency of work on 
any plumbing system that is being done contrary to the provisions of the code 
or in a dangerous or unsafe manner, the work shall immediately cease. Notice 
shall be in accordance with the act. A person who is served with a stop work 
order, except for work that the person is directed to perform to remove a 
violation or unsafe condition is subject to the penalty provisions prescribed 
by the act. 

History: 1982 AACS; 1985 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS; 2001 AACS; 2003 AACS; 
2007 AACS. 



R 408.30720 Means of appeal. 

Rule 720. Section 109.1 of the code is amended to read as follows: 
109.1 Means of appeal. An interested person has the right to appeal a 
decision of the enforcing agency to the board of appeals in accordance with 
the act. An application for appeal shall be based on a claim that the true 
intent of the code or the rules governing construction have been incorrectly 
interpreted, the provisions of the code do not apply, or an equal or better 
form of construction is proposed. The decision of a local board of appeals 
may be appealed to the construction code commission in accordance with the 



act and time frames. 

History: 1982 AACS; 1985 AACS; 1989 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS; 2001 AACS; 
2003 AACS; 2007 AACS. 

R 408.30721 Required tests. 

Rule 721. Section 312.1 of the code is amended to read as follows: 

312.1. Required tests. The permit holder shall make the applicable tests 
prescribed in sections 312.2 to 312.9 to determine compliance with the 
provisions of the code. The permit holder shall give reasonable advance 
notice to the code official when the plumbing work is ready for tests. The 
equipment, material, power, and labor necessary for the inspection and test 
shall be furnished by the permit holder and the permit holder shall be 
responsible for determining that the work will withstand the test pressure 
prescribed in this rule. All plumbing system piping shall be tested with 
either water or, for piping systems other than plastic, by air. After the 
plumbing fixtures have been set and their traps filled with water, the entire 
drainage system shall be submitted to final tests. The code official shall 
require the removal of any cleanouts if necessary to ascertain if the 
pressure has reached all parts of the system. 

Exception: Drainage and vent low pressure air tests for plastic piping 
systems shall be acceptable as prescribed in section 312.3 of the code. 

History: 2003 AACS. 

R 408.30722 Separate facilities. 

Rule 722. Section 403.2 of the code is amended to read as follows: 

403.2. Separate facilities. Where plumbing fixtures are required, 
separate facilities shall be provided for each sex. 

Exceptions : 

1. Separate facilities shall not be required for private facilities. 

2. Separate employee facilities shall not be required in occupancies in 
which 15 or fewer people are employed. 

3. Separate facilities shall not be required in structures or tenant 
spaces with a total occupant load, including both employees and customers, of 
15 or fewer. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 2003 AACS. 

R 408.30723 Distance of trap from vent. 

Rule 723. Section 906.1 of the code is amended to read as follows: 

906.1 Distance of trap from vent. Each fixture trap shall have a 

protecting vent located so that the slope and the developed length in the 

fixture drain from the trap weir to the vent fitting are within the 

requirements in table 906.1. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 2003 AACS; 2007 AACS. 

R 408.30724 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1980 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30725 Industrial or commercial wastes. 

Rule 725. Section 302.2 of the code is amended to read as follows: 
302 . 2 . Industrial or commercial wastes. Industrial or commercial wastes 
shall not be introduced into the public sewer or private disposal system 
without receiving prior approval in the following manner: 

(a) Industrial or commercial wastes discharged to a public sewer system are 
subject to review, approval, and regulation by the owner of the sewage 
treatment system under the authority of the federal water pollution control 
act of 1972, as amended, 33 U.S.C.1251 et seq. , and sections 3101 to 3119 of 



Act No. 451 of the Public Acts of 1994, as amended, being 324.3101 to 
32 4.3119 of the Michigan Compiled Laws. 

(b) Industrial or commercial wastes discharged to an on-site disposal system 
are subject to review, approval, and regulation by the Michigan department of 
environmental quality under the authority of sections 3101 to 3119 of Act No. 
451 of the Public Acts of 1994, as amended, being 324.3101 to 324.3119 of the 
Michigan Compiled Laws . 

(c ) Industrial or commercial wastes discharged to an on-site holding tank 
are subject to review, approval, and regulation under sections 3101 to 3119, 
11101 to 11152, and 12101 to 12118 of Act No. 451 of the Public Acts of 1994, 
as amended, being 324.3101 to 324.3119, 324.11101 to 324.11152 and 324.12101 
to 324.12118 of the Michigan Compiled Laws, and the federal resource 
conservation and recovery act of 1976, as amended, 42 U.S.C.6901 et seq. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1985 AACS; 1989 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS . 

R 408.30725a Radioactive material. 

Rule 725a. Section 302.2.1 is added to the code to read as follows: 
302 . 2 . 1 .Radioactive material. Possession of radioactive material is 
regulated by state or federal license. The disposal of radioactive material 
shall not create a hazard to operational or maintenance personnel of the 
institution or to the public. Radioactive waste disposal is controlled by the 
Michigan department of environmental quality by conditions for disposal in a 
radioactive material license issued under the authority of part 135 of Act 
No. 368 of the Public Acts of 1978, as amended, being 333.13501 et seq. of the 
Michigan Compiled Laws, and the ionizing radiation rules, being R 325.5001 et 
seq. 

of the Michigan Administrative Code, or is controlled by the United 
Statesnuclear regulatory commission by conditions for disposal in a license 
issued under the authority of the atomic energy act of 1954, 42 U.S.C.2011 et 
seq. 

History: 1979 AC; 1980 AACS; 1982 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30725b Rescinded. 

History: 1989 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30725c Venting of fixture drains. 

Rule 725c. Section 906.2 of the code is amended to read as follows: 

906.2. Venting of fixture drains. The vent for a fixture drain, except 

where serving a fixture with integral traps, such as water closets, shall 

connect above the weir of the fixture trap being vented. 

History: 1992 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS; 2007 MR 18, Eff. Jan. 24, 2008. 

R 408.30726 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1985 AACS; 1989 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30728 Sewer depth. 

Rule 728. Section 305.6.1 of the code is amended to read as follows: 
305.6.1. Sewer depth. A building sewer that connects to a private 

disposal system shall be a minimum of 8 inches to the top of the pipe below 

finished grade at the point of septic tank connection. Building sewers shall 

be installed a minimum of 42 inches below grade. 
Exception: When permitted by the code official. 

History: 1989 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS; 2001 AACS. 



R 408.30730 Sewer required. 

Rule 7 30. Section 7 01.2 of the code is amended to read as follows: 
701.2. Sewer required. Every building in which plumbing fixtures are 
installed and all premises having drainage piping shall be connected to a 
public sewer, where available, or an approved private sewage disposal system. 

History: 1989 AACS; 1992 AACS; 1997 AACS; 2003 AACS; 2007 AACS. 

R 408.30731. Laundries. 

Rule 731. Section 1003.6 of the code is amended to read as follows: 
1003.6. Laundries. Commercial laundries shall be equipped with an 
interceptor with a wire basket or similar device, removable for cleaning, 
that prevents passage into the drainage system of solids 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) 
or larger in size, string, rags, buttons or other materials detrimental to 
the public sewage system. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1997 AACS; 2007 AACS. 

R 408.30732 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1985 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30733 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1985 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30734 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1985 AACS; 1989 AACS; 1992 AACS; 
1998-2000 AACS. 



R 408.30735 Hot water supply required. 

Rule 735. Section 607.1 of the code is amended to read as follows: 
607.1. Where required. (1) In residential occupancies, hot water shall 
be supplied to all plumbing fixtures and equipment utilized for bathing, 
washing, culinary purposes, cleansing, laundry, or building maintenance. In 
nonresidential occupancies, hot water shall be supplied for culinary 
purposes, cleansing, laundry, or building maintenance purposes. In 
nonresidential occupancies, hot water or tempered water shall be supplied for 
bathing and washing purposes. Tempered water shall be supplied through a 
water temperature limiting device that conforms to ASSE 1070, as referenced 
in chapter 13 of the code, and shall limit the tempered water to a maximum of 
110 degrees Fahrenheit (43 degrees Celsius). This provision shall not 
supersede the requirement for protective shower valves in accordance with 
section 42 4.3 of the code. 

(2) Tempered water shall be supplied to bathing and hand washing 
facilities in the occupancies identified in subdivisions (a) to (h) of this 
subrule by individual water temperature limiting devices to individual 
fixtures . 

(a) Elementary schools. 

(b) Child care centers. 

(c) Day care centers. 

(d) Nurseries. 

(e) Adult group homes. 

(f) Adult congregate homes. 

(g) Children's camps. 

(h) At accessible plumbing fixtures. 

History: 1998-2000 AACS; 2001 AACS; 2007 AACS. 



R 408.30736 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1985 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30737 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30738 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1985 AACS; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30738a Rescinded. 

History: 1989 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30739 Rescinded. 

History: 1989 AACS; 1992 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30740 Rescinded. 

History: 1989 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30740a Rescinded. 

History: 1989 AACS; 1992 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS; 2001 AACS; 2003 AACS. 

R 408.30740b Rescinded. 

History: 1989 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30741 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1985 AACS; 1989 AACS. 

R 408.30741a Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1985 AACS; 1989 AACS. 

R 408.30741b Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1980 AACS; 1982 AACS; 1985 AACS; 1989 AACS. 

R 408.30741c Connections to automatic fire sprinkler systems and standpipe 
systems. 

Rule 741c. Section 608.16.4 of the code is amended to read as follows: 
608.16.4. Connections to automatic fire sprinkler systems and standpipe 
systems. The potable water supply to automatic fire sprinkler systems and 
standpipe systems shall be protected against backflow by a double check-valve 
assembly or a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer. 

Exception: Isolation of the water distribution system is not required for 
deluge, preaction, or dry pipe systems. 

History: 1979 AC; 1985 AACS; 1989 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS; 2001 AACS; 



2003 AACS; 2007 AACS . 

R 408.30742 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30743 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30743a Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1985 AACS; 1998-2000. 

R 408.30743b Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30743c Rescinded. 

History: 1989 AACS; 1992 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30744 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30744a Rescinded. 

History: 1989 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30744b Rescinded. 

History: 1989 AACS; 1992 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30744c Rescinded. 

History: 1989 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30744d Rescinded. 

History: 1989 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30744e Rescinded. 

History: 1992 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS; 2001 AACS; 2003 AACS, 

R 408.30744f Rescinded. 

History: 1992 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30745 Rescinded. 



History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30745a Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30745b Rescinded. 

History: 1982 AACS; 1985 AACS; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30746 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1985 AACS; 1989 AACS; 1992 AACS; 
1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30746a Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1989 AACS; 1992 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30746b Rescinded. 

History: 1982 AACS; 1989 AACS; 1992 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30747 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1989 AACS; 1992 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30747a Rescinded. 

History: 1982 AACS; 1985 AACS; 1992 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30747b Rescinded. 

History: 1982 AACS; 1985 AACS; 1989 AACS; 1992 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS 

R 408.30747c Rescinded. 

History: 1982 AACS; 1985 AACS; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30748 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1985 AACS; 1989 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30748a Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1980 AACS; 1982 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30748b Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1980 AACS; 1982 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30748c Rescinded. 



History: 1979 AC; 1980 AACS; 1982 AACS; 1997 AACS . 

R 408.30749 Special equipment; water supply protection. 

Rule 749. Section 608.3.1 of the code is amended to read as follows: 
608.3.1. The water supply for hospital fixtures shall be protected against 
backflow with a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer, an atmospheric 
or spill-proof vacuum breaker, or an air gap. Vacuum breakers for bedpan 
washer hoses, autopsy tables and hose connections in health care or 
laboratory areas shall not be located less than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the 
floor. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1985 AACS; 1989 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS; 
2001 AACS; 2007 AACS. 

R 408.30749a Rescinded. 

History: 1989 AACS; 1992 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30750 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1980 AACS; 1982 AACS; 1989 AACS; 1992 AACS; 
1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30751 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30751a Rescinded. 

History: 1992 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30752 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1980 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30752a Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30753 Rescinded. 

History: 1954 ACS 81, Eff. May 19, 1975; 1954 ACS 91, Eff. June 16, 
1977. 

R 408.30753a Roof extensions. 

Rule753a. Section 904.1 of the code is amended to read as follows: 
904.1. Roof extension. All open vent pipes that extend through a roof shall 
be terminated at least 1 foot (305 mm) above the roof, except that if a roof 
is to be used for any purpose other than weather protection, then the vent 
extensions shall be run not less than 7 feet (2134 mm) above the roof. 

History: 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30754 Rescinded. 

History: 1954 ACS 81, Eff. May 19, 1975; 1954 ACS 91, Eff. June 16, 



1977 



R 408.30754a Frost closure. 

Rule 754a. Section 904.2 of the code is amended to read as follows: 

904.2. General. To prevent frost closure, every vent extension through a 

roof shall be a minimum of 3 inches in diameter. Any increase in the size of 

the vent shall be made inside the building a minimum of 1 foot below the roof 

or inside the wall. 

History: 1992 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30754b Extensions outside a structure. 

Rule 754b. Section 904.7 of the code is amended to read as follows: 
904.7. Extensions outside a structure. Vent pipes installed on the exterior 
of the structure shall be protected against freezing by insulation or heat, 
or both. 

History: 1998-2000 AACS; 2001 AACS. 

R 408.30754c Rescinded. 

History: 1998-2000 AACS; 2001 AACS. 

R 408.30755 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30756 Rescinded. 

History: 1989 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30756a Rescinded. 

History: 1989 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30757 Horizontal drains within buildings and building sewers. 

Rule 757. Section 708.3.1 of the code is amended to read as follows: 

708.3.1. Horizontal drains within buildings and building sewers. All 
horizontal drains within buildings and building sewers shall be provided with 
cleanouts located not more than 100 feet apart. 

For underground piping that is more than 10 inches in diameter, manholes 
shall be provided and located at every major change of direction, grade, 
elevation, or size of pipe or at intervals of not more than 400 feet. Metal 
covers shall be provided for the manholes and shall be of sufficient weight 
to meet local traffic and loading conditions. 

Within buildings, manhole covers shall be gastight and the manhole shall be 
vented with not less than a 4-inch pipe. 

History: 1979 AC; 1998-2000 AACS; 2001 AACS. 

R 408.30758 Minimum number of fixtures. 

Rule 758. Section 403.1 of the code is amended to read as follows: 
403.1. Minimum number of fixtures. Plumbing fixtures shall be provided 
for the type of occupancy and in the minimum number shown in Table 403.1. 
Types of occupancies not shown in Table 403.1 shall be considered 
individually by the code official. The number of occupants shall be 
determined in accordance with the Michigan building code. Occupancy 
classification shall be determined in accordance with the Michigan building 



code. 

Exceptions : 

1. The actual number of occupants determined by a supporting affidavit 
from the owner or agency. 

2. Hand washing sinks in food service establishments shall be provided in 
accordance with the requirements of regulation no. 553, food establishments, 
R 285.553.1 to R 285.553.26 of the Michigan department of agriculture. 

3. Toilet facilities for public swimming pools shall be provided in 
accordance with the requirements of public swimming pools, R 325.2111 to R 
325.2199 of the Michigan department of environmental quality. 

4. Toilet facilities for child care center, day care center and nursery 
school facilities shall be provided in accordance with the requirements of 
child day care licensing - child care centers, R 400.5101 to R 400.5940 of 
the Michigan department of human services. 

5. Toilet facilities for children's camps shall be provided in accordance 
with the requirements of children's and adult foster care camps, R 400.11101 
to R 400.11319 of the Michigan department of human services. 

History: 1979 AC; 1985 AACS; 1989 AACS; 1992 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS; 
2001 AACS; 2007 AACS. 

R 408.30758a Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1980 AACS; 1985 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30758b Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1980 AACS; 1985 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30758c Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1980 AACS; 1985 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30758d Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1980 AACS; 1985 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30759 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1985 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30759a Rescinded. 

History: 1989 AACS; 1992 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30759b Rescinded. 

History: 1992 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS; 2001 AACS. 

R 408.30760 Rescinded. 

History: 1985 AACS; 1989 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS; 2001 AACS. 

R 408.30761 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 



R 408.30761a Rescinded. 

History: 1989 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30761b Rescinded. 

History: 1989 AACS; 1992 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30761c Rescinded. 

History: 1998-2000 AACS; 2001 AACS. 

R 408.30762 Floor drains; public toilet rooms. 

Rule 7 62. Section 412.5 is added to the code to read as follows: 

412.5. Floor drains; public toilet rooms. In all public toilet rooms that 

contain a combination of 3 or more water closets or urinals, at least 1 

approved floor drain shall be installed connecting to the sanitary system; 

however, stall urinals may serve as floor drains if the entire floor can be 

drained to the urinals. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1985 AACS; 1992 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30762a Rescinded. 

History: 1980 AACS; 1982 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30763 Floor drain; floor area. 

Rule 7 6 3. Section 412.6 is added to the code to read as follows: 

4 12. 6. Floor drains according to floor area. In all toilet rooms in which 

floor drains are required, there shall be at least 1 floor drain for each 400 

square feet of floor area or major fraction thereof. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1989 AACS; 1992 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30763a Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1989 AACS; 1992 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30763b Rescinded. 

History: 1982 AACS; 1989 AACS; 1992 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30763c Rescinded. 

History: 1985 AACS; 1989 AACS; 1992 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30764 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30765 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 



R 408.30765a Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30765b Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30765c Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30765d Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30765e Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS, 

R 408.30766 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30766a Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30766b Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30766c Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30766d Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS, 

R 408.30767 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30767a Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30768 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30768a Rescinded. 



History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30768b Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS, 

R 408.30769 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS, 

R 408.30769a Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS, 

R 408.30769b Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS, 

R 408.30769c Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS, 

R 408.30770 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS, 

R 408.30770a Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS, 

R 408.30770b Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS, 

R 408.30771 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS, 

R 408.30771a Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS, 

R 408.30771b Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS, 

R 408.30771c Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS, 

R 408.30771d Rescinded. 



History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS, 

R 408.30771e Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30772 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30772a Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30772b Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS, 

R 408.30772c Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30772d Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30772e Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30773 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30773a Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS, 

R 408.30773b Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30773c Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30773d Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30774 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS, 



R 408.30774a Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30774b Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS, 

R 408.30774c Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30774d Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30774e Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30774f Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS, 

R 408.30775 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30775a Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30775b Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30775c Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30775d Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30776 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30776a Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 



R 408.30776b Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30776c Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30777 Scope; water service; distance limits; method of installations. 
Rule 777. Section 601.1 of the code is amended to read as follows: 
601.1. Scope. The provisions of this article shall control the design and 
installation of water supply systems, both hot and cold. Refer to 197 6 PA 
399, MCL 325.1001 to 325.1023, for additional requirements on water supply 
systems pertaining to establishments that are subject to regulation or 
licensure, or both, by the department of environmental quality. 

Compliance with the provisions of this article, however, does not relieve 
any person from complying with the additional requirements imposed upon water 
supply systems pursuant to authority vested in the Michigan department of 
environmental quality under 1976 PA 399, MCL 325.1001 to 325.1023, 1978 PA 
368, MCL 333.1101 to 333.25211, and 1987 PA 96, MCL 125.2301 to 125.2350, or 
other applicable provisions of state law. 

History: 1979 AC; 1980 AACS; 1982 AACS; 1985 AACS; 1989 AACS; 
1998-2000 AACS; 2003 AACS; 2007 AACS. 

R 408.30777a Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30777b Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1985 AACS; 1989 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30777c Rescinded. 

History: 1982 AACS; 1992 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30777d Rescinded. 

History: 1982 AACS; 1992 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30777e Rescinded. 

History: 1982 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30778 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30778a Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30778b Rescinded. 



History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1992 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS, 

R 408.30778c Rescinded. 

History: 1982 AACS; 1989 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30779 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1989 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30779a Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1989 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30779b Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1989 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS, 

R 408.30780 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30780a Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30780b Rescinded. 

History: 1982 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30780c Rescinded. 

History: 1985 AACS; 1989 AACS. 

R 408.30781 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30781a Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30781b Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30781c Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1980 AACS; 1982 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30781d Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1997 AACS. 



R 408.30781e Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30782 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30783 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30784 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1997 AACS. 

R 408.30785 Requirements for discharge piping. 

Rule 785. Section 504.6 of the code is amended to read as follows: 

504.6. Requirements for discharge piping. (1) Relief valves shall not 

discharge so as to be a hazard, a potential cause of damage, or a nuisance. 

A relief valve discharge pipe shall be provided for each individual relief 

valve and shall meet all of the following: 

(a) Shall terminate atmospherically not more than 4 inches (1220 mm) from 
the floor with an unthreaded end. 

(b) Shall not be interconnected. 

(c) Valves shall not be connected in the relief valve discharge pipe. 

(d) Shall be rigid pipe approved for water distribution, with a minimum 
temperature rating of 210 degrees Fahrenheit. 

(e) Shall have the same nominal inside diameter as the relief valve outlet 
and shall drain by gravity flow. 

(2) The outlet of a pressure, temperature or other relief valve shall not 
be directly connected to the drainage system. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1989 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS; 2001 AACS; 
2007 AACS. 

R 408.30786 Sizing of secondary drains. 

Rule 786. Section 1107.3 of the code is amended to read as follows: 
1107.3. Sizing of secondary drains. Secondary, or emergency, roof drain 
systems shall be sized in accordance with section 1106 based on the rainfall 
rate for which the primary system is sized in tables 1106.2 and 1106.3. 
Scuppers shall be sized to prevent the depth of ponding water from exceeding 
that for which the roof was designed as determined by section 1101.7. 
Scuppers shall not have an opening dimension of less than 4 inches (102 mm). 
The flow through the primary system shall not be considered when sizing the 
secondary roof drain system. 

History: 1998-2000 AACS; 2001 AACS; 2003 AACS. 

R 408.30788 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1989 AACS; 1998-2000 AACS. 

R 408.30788a Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1997 AACS. 



R 408.30791 Definitions. 

Rule 791. Section 202 of the code is amended to amend the definition of 
code official and add the definitions of the act and plumbing contractor. 

"Act" means 1972 PA 230, MCL 125.1501 and known as the 
Stille-DeRossett-Hale single state construction code act. 

"Code official" means the person appointed and employed by a governmental 
subdivision charged with the administration and enforcement of the state code 
or codes and registered in accordance with the requirements of 1986 PA 54, 
MCL 338.2301 to 338.2313. 

"Plumbing contractor" means a person who is licensed in accordance with 
2002 PA 733, MCL 338.3511 to 338.3569. 

History: 1979 AC; 2001 AACS; 2003 AACS; 2007 AACS . 

R 408.30792 Plumbing contractor. 

Rule 7 92. (1) To obtain plumbing permits, an applicant shall do all of the 
following: 

(a) Be a plumbing contractor in this state. 

(b) Be active in the business of serving the public as a plumbing 
contractor in a county, city, village, or township in this state. 

(c) Operate 1 or more branches in this state bearing the same firm name, 
when a licensed master plumber is in charge and has the responsibility of 
supervision at each branch. The names of the authorized master plumbers 
representing a firm shall be on record with the state plumbing board. 

(2) To become a plumbing contractor, an application shall be made on a form 
furnished by the state plumbing board and filed with the board at Okemos, 
Michigan. An incomplete application will be returned to the applicant. 

History: 1979 AC; 2003 AACS. 

R 408.30793 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 2003 AACS. 

R 408.30795 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 2001 AACS. 

R 408.30795a Rescinded. 

History: 1982 AACS; 2001 AACS. 

R 408.30796 Rescinded. 

History: 1979 AC; 1982 AACS; 1985 AACS; 2001 AACS. 



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INTERNATIONAL 
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2006 



2006 International Plumbing Code 4 



First Printing: January 2006 



ISBN-13: 978-1-58001-259-1 (soft-cover) 

ISBN-10: 1-58001-259-0 (soft-cover) 
ISBN-13: 978-1-58001-258-4 (loose-leaf) 

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COPYRIGHT© 2006 

by 

INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL, INC. 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This 2006 International Plumbing Code® is a copyrighted work owned by the International Code 
Council, Inc. Without advance written permission from the copyright owner, no part of this book may be reproduced, distributed, or 
transmitted in any form or by any means, including, without limitation, electronic, optical or mechanical means (by way of example, 
and not limitation, photocopying, or recording by or in an information storage retrieval system). For information on permission to 
copy material exceeding fair use, please contact: Publications, 4051 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, EL 60478-5795. 
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trademarks of the International Code Council, Inc. 



PRINTED IN THE U.S.A. 



PREFACE 



Introduction 

Internationally, code officials recognize the need for a modern, up-to-date plumbing code addressing the design and installation of 
plumbing systems through requirements emphasizing performance. The International Plumbing Code®, in this 2006 edition, is 
designed to meet these needs through model code regulations that safeguard the public health and safety in all communities, large 
and small. 

This comprehensive plumbing code establishes minimum regulations for plumbing systems using prescriptive and perfor- 
mance-related provisions. It is founded on broad-based principles that make possible the use of new materials and new plumbing 
designs. This 2006 edition is fully compatible with all the International Codes® (I-Codes®) published by the International Code 
Council (ICC)®, including the International Building Code®, ICC Electrical Code®, International Energy Conservation Code®, 
International Existing Building Code®, International Fire Code®, International Fuel Gas Code®, International Mechanical Code®, 
ICC Performance Code®, International Private Sewage Disposal Code®, International Property Maintenance Code®, Interna- 
tional Residential Code®, International Wildland-Urban Interface Code™ and International Zoning Code®. 

The International Plumbing Code provisions provide many benefits, among which is the model code development process that 
offers an international forum for plumbing professionals to discuss performance and prescriptive code requirements. This forum 
provides an excellent arena to debate proposed revisions. This model code also encourages international consistency in the applica- 
tion of provisions. 

Development 

The first edition of the International Plumbing Code (1995) was the culmination of an effort initiated in 1994 by a development 
committee appointed by the ICC and consisting of representatives of the three statutory members of the International Code Council 
at that time, including: Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc. (BOCA), International Conference of Build- 
ing Officials (ICBO) and Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI). The intent was to draft a comprehensive set of 
regulations for plumbing systems consistent with and inclusive of the scope of the existing model codes. Technical content of the 
latest model codes promulgated by BOCA, ICBO and SBCCI was utilized as the basis for the development. This 2006 edition pres- 
ents the code as originally issued, with changes as reflected in the subsequent editions through 2003 ane with changes approved 
through the ICC Code Development Process through 2005. A new edition such as this is promulgated every three years. 

This code is founded on principles intended to establish provisions consistent with the scope of a plumbing code that adequately 
protects public health, safety and welfare; provisions that do not unnecessarily increase construction costs; provisions that do not 
restrict the use of new materials, products or methods of construction; and provisions that do not give preferential treatment to par- 
ticular types or classes of materials, products or methods of construction. 

Adoption 

The International Plumbing Code is available for adoption and use by jurisdictions internationally. Its use within a governmental 
jurisdiction is intended to be accomplished through adoption by reference in accordance with proceedings establishing the jurisdic- 
tion's laws. At the time of adoption, jurisdictions should insert the appropriate information in provisions requiring specific local 
information, such as the name of the adopting jurisdiction. These locations are shown in bracketed words in small capital letters in 
the code and in the sample ordinance. The sample adoption ordinance on page v addresses several key elements of a code adoption 
ordinance, including the information required for insertion into the code text. 

Maintenance 

The International Plumbing Code is kept up to date through the review of proposed changes submitted by code enforcing officials, 
industry representatives, design professionals and other interested parties. Proposed changes are carefully considered through an 
open code development process in which all interested and affected parties may participate. 

The contents of this work are subject to change both through the Code Development Cycles and the governmental body that 
enacts the code into law. For more information regarding the code development process, contact the Code and Standard Develop- 
ment Department of the International Code Council. 

While the development procedure of the International Plumbing Code ensures the highest degree of care, ICC and ICC's mem- 
bers and those participating in the development of this code do not accept any liability resulting from compliance or noncompliance 
with the provisions, since ICC and its members do not have the power or authority to police or enforce compliance with the contents 
of this code. Only the governmental body that enacts the code into law has such authority. 

2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® Hi 



Letter Designations in Front of Section Numbers 

In each code development cycle, proposed changes to the code are considered at the Code Development Hearings by the ICC 
Plumbing Code Development Committee, whose action constitutes a recommendation to the voting membership for final action on 
the proposed change. Proposed changes to a code section that has a number beginning with a letter in brackets are considered by a 
different code development committee. For example, proposed changes to code sections that have [B] in front of them (e.g. [B] 
309.2) are considered by the ICC Building Code Development Committee at the code development hearings. 

The content of sections in this code that begin with a letter designation are maintained by another code development committee in 
accordance with the following: 

[B] = International Building Code Development Committee; 

[E] = International Energy Conservation Code Development Committee; 

[F] = International Fire Code Development Committee; 

[M] = International Mechanical Code Development Committee. 

Marginal Markings 

Solid vertical lines in the margins within the body of the code indicate a technical change from the requirements of the 2003 edition. 
Deletion indicators in the form of an arrow ( ^ ) are provided in the margin where an entire section, paragraph, exception or table 
has been deleted or an item in a list of items or a table has been deleted. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE" 



ORDINANCE 

The International Codes are designed and promulgated to be adopted by reference by ordinance. Jurisdictions wishing to adopt the 
2006 International Plumbing Code as an enforceable regulation governing plumbing systems should ensure that certain factual 
information is included in the adopting ordinance at the time adoption is being considered by the appropriate governmental body. 
The following sample adoption ordinance addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordinance, including the information 
required for insertion into the code text. 

SAMPLE ORDINANCE FOR ADOPTION OF 

THE INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 

ORDINANCE NO. 

An ordinance of the [JURISDICTION] adopting the 2006 edition of the International Plumbing Code, regulating and governing the 
design, construction, quality of materials, erection, installation, alteration, repair, location, relocation, replacement, addition to, use 
or maintenance of plumbing systems in the [JURISDICTION]; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; 
repealing Ordinance No. of the [JURISDICTION] and all other ordinances and parts of the ordinances in conflict therewith. 

The [GOVERNING BODY] of the [JURISDICTION] does ordain as follows: 

Section l.That a certain document, three (3) copies of which are on file in the office of the [TITLE OF JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF 
RECORDS] of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], being marked and designated as the International Plumbing Code, 2006 edition, including 
Appendix Chapters [FILL IN THE APPENDIX CHAPTERS BEING ADOPTED], as published by the International Code Council, be and is 
hereby adopted as the Plumbing Code of the [JURISDICTION], in the State of [STATE NAME] regulating and governing the design, con- 
struction, quality of materials, erection, installation, alteration, repair, location, relocation, replacement, addition to, use or mainte- 
nance of plumbing systems as herein provided; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; and each and all 
of the regulations, provisions, penalties, conditions and terms of said Plumbing Code on file in the office of the [JURISDICTION] are 
hereby referred to, adopted, and made a part hereof, as if fully set out in this ordinance, with the additions, insertions, deletions and 
changes, if any, prescribed in Section 2 of this ordinance. 

Section 2. The following sections are hereby revised: 

Section 101.1. Insert: [NAME OF JURISDICTION] 

Section 106.6.2. Insert: [APPROPRIATE SCHEDULE] 

Section 106.6.3. Insert: [PERCENTAGES IN TWO LOCATIONS] 

Section 108.4. Insert: [OFFENSE, DOLLAR AMOUNT, NUMBER OF DAYS] 

Section 108.5. Insert: [DOLLAR AMOUNT IN TWO LOCATIONS] 

Section 305.6.1. Insert: [NUMBER OF INCHES IN TWO LOCATIONS] 

Section 904.1. Insert: [NUMBER OF INCHES] 

Section 3. That Ordinance No. of [JURISDICTION] entitled [FILL IN HERE THE COMPLETE TITLE OF THE ORDINANCE OR 

ORDINANCES IN EFFECT AT THE PRESENT TIME SO THAT THEY WILL BE REPEALED BY DEFINITE MENTION] and all other ordinances 
or parts of ordinances in conflict herewith are hereby repealed. 

Section 4. That if any section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this ordinance is, for any reason, held to be unconstitutional, 
such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of this ordinance. The [GOVERNING BODY] hereby declares that it 
would have passed this ordinance, and each section, subsection, clause or phrase thereof, irrespective of the fact that any one or more 
sections, subsections, sentences, clauses and phrases be declared unconstitutional. 

Section 5. That nothing in this ordinance or in the Plumbing Code hereby adopted shall be construed to affect any suit or proceeding 
impending in any court, or any rights acquired, or liability incurred, or any cause or causes of action acquired or existing, under any 
act or ordinance hereby repealed as cited in Section 3 of this ordinance; nor shall any just or legal right or remedy of any character be 
lost, impaired or affected by this ordinance. 

Section 6. That the [JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF RECORDS] is hereby ordered and directed to cause this ordinance to be published. 
(An additional provision may be required to direct the number of times the ordinance is to be published and to specify that it is to be 
in a newspaper in general circulation. Posting may also be required.) 

Section 7. That this ordinance and the rules, regulations, provisions, requirements, orders and matters established and adopted 
hereby shall take effect and be in full force and effect [TIME PERIOD] from and after the date of its final passage and adoption. 

2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® v 



vi 2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 1 ADMINISTRATION 1 

Section 

101 General 1 

102 Applicability 1 

103 Department of Plumbing Inspection 2 

104 Duties and Powers of the Code Official 2 

105 Approval 2 

106 Permits 3 

107 Inspections and Testing 5 

108 Violations 6 

109 Means of Appeal 6 

CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS 9 

Section 

201 General 9 

202 General Definitions 9 

CHAPTER 3 GENERAL REGULATIONS 17 

Section 

301 General 17 

302 Exclusion of Materials Detrimental 

to the Sewer System 17 

303 Materials 17 

304 Rodentproofing 17 

305 Protection of Pipes and Plumbing 

System Components 18 

306 Trenching, Excavation and Backfill 18 

307 Structural Safety 19 

308 Piping Support 19 

309 Flood Hazard Resistance 20 

310 Washroom and Toilet Room 

Requirements 20 

311 Toilet Facilities for Workers 21 

312 Tests and Inspections 21 

313 Equipment Efficiencies 22 

314 Condensate Disposal 22 

CHAPTER 4 FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND 

FIXTURE FITTINGS 25 

Section 

401 General 25 

402 Fixture Materials 25 

403 Minimum Plumbing Facilities 25 

404 Accessible Plumbing Facilities 28 

2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



405 Installation of Fixtures 28 

406 Automatic Clothes Washers 29 

407 Bathtubs 29 

408 Bidets 29 

409 Dishwashing Machines 30 

410 Drinking Fountains 30 

411 Emergency Showers and Eyewash 

Stations 30 

412 Floor and Trench Drains 30 

413 Food Waste Grinder Units 30 

414 Garbage Can Washers 30 

415 Laundry Trays 30 

416 Lavatories 30 

417 Showers 31 

418 Sinks 32 

419 Urinals 32 

420 Water Closets 32 

421 Whirlpool Bathtubs 32 

422 Health Care Fixtures and Equipment 32 

423 Specialty Plumbing Fixtures 33 

424 Faucets and Other Fixture Fittings 33 

425 Flushing Devices for Water Closets 

and Urinals 34 

426 Manual Food and Beverage 

Dispensing Equipment 34 

427 Floor Sinks 34 

CHAPTERS WATER HEATERS 35 

Section 

501 General 35 

502 Installation 35 

503 Connections 35 

504 Safety Devices 35 

505 Insulation 36 

CHAPTER 6 WATER SUPPLY AND 

DISTRIBUTION 37 

Section 

601 General 37 

602 Water Required 37 

603 Water Service 37 

604 Design of Building Water Distribution 

System 38 

605 Materials, Joints and Connections 39 



VII 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



606 Installation of the Building Water 

Distribution System 44 

607 Hot Water Supply System 45 

608 Protection of Potable Water Supply 46 

609 Health Care Plumbing 50 

610 Disinfection of Potable Water System 51 

611 Drinking Water Treatment Units 51 

612 Solar Systems 51 

613 Temperature Control Devices and Valves 51 

CHAPTER 7 SANITARY DRAINAGE 53 

Section 

701 General 53 

702 Materials 53 

703 Building Sewer 55 

704 Drainage Piping Installation 55 

705 Joints 55 

706 Connections Between Drainage Piping 

and Fittings 58 

707 Prohibited Joints and Connections 59 

708 Cleanouts 59 

709 Fixture Units 60 

710 Drainage System Sizing 60 

711 Offsets in Drainage Piping in Buildings 

of Five Stories or More 60 

712 Sumps and Ejectors 63 

713 Health Care Plumbing 64 

714 Computerized Drainage Design 65 

715 Backwater Valves 65 

CHAPTER 8 INDIRECT/SPECIAL WASTE 67 

Section 

801 General 67 

802 Indirect Wastes 67 

803 Special Wastes 68 

804 Materials, Joints and Connections 68 

CHAPTER 9 VENTS 69 

Section 

901 General 69 

902 Materials 69 

903 Outdoor Vent Extension 69 

904 Vent Terminals 69 

905 Vent Connections and Grades 70 

906 Fixture Vents 70 

907 Individual Vent 70 



908 Common Vent , 70 

909 Wet Venting 70 

910 Waste Stack Vent : . .71 

911 Circuit Venting 71 

912 Combination Drain And Vent System ......... 72 

913 Island Fixture Venting 72 

914 Relief Vents— Stacks of More Than 

10 Branch Intervals 72 

915 Vents for Stack Offsets 73 

916 Vent Pipe Sizing 73 

917 Air Admittance Valves 74 

918 Engineered Vent Systems 75 

919 Computerized Vent Design .75 

CHAPTER 10 TRAPS, INTERCEPTORS AND 

SEPARATORS 77 

Section 

1001 General 77 

1002 Trap Requirements ., 77 

1003 Interceptors and Separators 77 

1004 Materials, Joints and Connections 79 

CHAPTER 11 STORM DRAINAGE 81 

Section 

1101 General '..'.:. .■ 81 

1102 Materials :...'.' 81 

1103 Traps 82 

1 104 Conductors and Connections 82 

1 105 Roof Drains 82 

1106 Size of Conductors, Leaders and 

Storm Drains ; , . 82 

1107 Secondary (Emergency) Roof Drains 89 

1 108 Combined Sanitary and Storm System .90 

1 109 Values for Continuous Flow 90 

1110 Controlled Flow Roof Drain Systems 90 

1111 Subsoil Drains 90 

1112 Building Subdrains 90 

1113 Sumps and Pumping Systems 90 

CHAPTER 12 SPECIAL PIPING AND 

STORAGE SYSTEMS 91 

Section 

1201 General 91 

1202 Medical Gases 91 

1203 Oxygen Systems 91 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 13 REFERENCED STANDARDS 93 

APPENDIX A PLUMBING PERMIT FEE 

SCHEDULE 101 

Permit Issuance 101 

Unit Fee Schedule 101 

Other Inspections and Fees 101 

APPENDIX B RATES OF RAINFALL FOR 

VARIOUS CITIES 103 

APPENDIX C GRAY WATER RECYCLING 

SYSTEMS 105 

Section 

C101 General 105 

CI 02 Systems for Flushing Water Closets 

and Urinals 105 

CI 03 Subsurface Landscape Irrigation Systems ..... 106 

APPENDIX D DEGREE DAY AND DESIGN 

TEMPERATURES Ill 

APPENDIX E SIZING OF WATER PIPING 

SYSTEM 117 

Section 

E101 General 117 

E102 Information Required 117 

E103 Selection of Pipe Size ,117 

E201 Selection of Pipe Size 134 

APPENDIX F STRUCTURAL SAFETY 137 

Section 

F101 Cutting, Notching and Boring in 

Wood Members 137 

APPENDIX G VACUUM DRAINAGE SYSTEM . . 139 

INDEX 141 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® ix 



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CHAPTER 1 

ADMINISTRATION 



SECTION 101 
GENERAL 

101.1 Title. These regulations shall be known as the Interna- 
tional Plumbing Code of [NAME OF JURISDICTION] hereinafter 
referred to as "this code." 

101.2 Scope. The provisions of this code shall apply to the 
erection, installation, alteration, repairs, relocation, replace- 
ment, addition to, use or maintenance of plumbing systems 
within this jurisdiction. This code shall also regulate nonflam- 
mable medical gas, inhalation anesthetic, vacuum piping, 
nonmedical oxygen systems and sanitary and condensate vac- 
uum collection systems. The installation of fuel gas distribu- 
tion piping and equipment, fuel-gas-fired water heaters and 
water heater venting systems shall be regulated by the Interna- 
tional Fuel Gas Code. Provisions in the appendices shall not 
apply unless specifically adopted. 

Exception: Detached one- and two-family dwellings and 
multiple single-family dwellings (townhouses) not more 
than three stories high with separate means of egress and 
their accessory structures shall comply with the Interna- 
tional Residential Code. 

101.3 Intent. The purpose of this code is to provide minimum 
standards to safeguard life or limb, health, property and public 
welfare by regulating and controlling the design, construction, 
installation, quality of materials, location, operation and main- 
tenance or use of plumbing equipment and systems. 

101.4 Severability. If any section, subsection, sentence, clause 
or phrase of this code is for any reason held to be unconstitu- 
tional, such decision shall not affect the validity of the remain- 
ing portions of this code. 



SECTION 102 
APPLICABILITY 

102.1 General. The provisions of this code shall apply to all 
matters affecting or relating to structures, as set forth in Section 
101 . Where, in any specific case, different sections of this code 
specify different materials, methods of construction or other 
requirements, the most restrictive shall govern. 

102.2 Existing installations. Plumbing systems lawfully in 
existence at the time of the adoption of this code shall be per- 
mitted to have their use and maintenance continued if the use, 
maintenance or repair is in accordance with the original design 
and no hazard to life, health or property is created by such 
plumbing system. 

102.3 Maintenance. All plumbing systems, materials and 
appurtenances, both existing and new, and all parts thereof, 
shall be maintained in proper operating condition in accor- 
dance with the original design in a safe and sanitary condition. 
All devices or safeguards required by this code shall be main- 
tained in compliance with the code edition under which they 
were installed. 



The owner or the owner's designated agent shall be responsi- 
ble for maintenance of plumbing systems. To determine com- 
pliance with this provision, the code official shall have the 
authority to require any plumbing system to be reinspected. 

102.4 Additions, alterations or repairs. Additions, alter- 
ations, renovations or repairs to any plumbing system shall 
conform to that required for a new plumbing system without 
requiring the existing plumbing system to comply with all the 
requirements of this code. Additions, alterations or repairs 
shall not cause an existing system to become unsafe, insanitary 
or overloaded. 

Minor additions, alterations, renovations and repairs to 
existing plumbing systems shall be permitted in the same man- 
ner and arrangement as in the existing system, provided that 
such repairs or replacement are not hazardous and are 
approved. 

102.5 Change in occupancy. It shall be unlawful to make any 
change in the occupancy of any structure that will subject the 
structure to any special provision of this code without approval 
of the code official. The code official shall certify that such 
structure meets the intent of the provisions of law governing 
building construction for the proposed new occupancy and that 
such change of occupancy does not result in any hazard to the 
public health, safety or welfare. 

102.6 Historic buildings. The provisions of this code relating 
to the construction, alteration, repair, enlargement, restoration, 
relocation or moving of buildings or structures shall not be 
mandatory for existing buildings or structures identified and 
classified by the state or local jurisdiction as historic buildings 
when such buildings or structures are judged by the code offi- 
cial to be safe and in the public interest of health, safety and 
welfare regarding any proposed construction, alteration, 
repair, enlargement, restoration, relocation or moving of build- 
ings. 

102.7 Moved buildings. Except as determined by Section 
102.2, plumbing systems that are a part of buildings or struc- 
tures moved into or within the jurisdiction shall comply with 
the provisions of this code for new installations. 

102.8 Referenced codes and standards. The codes and stan- 
dards referenced in this code shall be those that are listed in 
Chapter 13 and such codes and standards shall be considered as 
part of the requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of 
each such reference. Where the differences occur between pro- 
visions of this code and the referenced standards, the provi- 
sions of this code shall be the minimum requirements. 

102.9 Requirements not covered by code. Any requirements 
necessary for the strength, stability or proper operation of an 
existing or proposed plumbing system, or for the public safety, 
health and general welfare, not specifically covered by this 
code shall be determined by the code official. 



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SECTION 103 
DEPARTMENT OF PLUMBING INSPECTION 

103.1 General. The department of plumbing inspection is 
hereby created and the executive official in charge thereof shall 
be known as the code official. 

103.2 Appointment. The code official shall be appointed by 
the chief appointing authority of the jurisdiction, and the code 
official shall not be removed from office except for cause and 
after full opportunity to be heard on specific and relevant 
charges by and before the appointing authority. 

103.3 Deputies. In accordance with the prescribed procedures 
of this jurisdiction and with the concurrence of the appointing 
authority, the code official shall have the authority to appoint a 
deputy code official, other related technical officers, inspectors 
and other employees. 

103.4 Liability. The code official, officer or employee charged 
with the enforcement of this code, while acting for the jurisdic- 
tion, shall not thereby be rendered liable personally, and is 
hereby relieved from all personal liability for any damage 
accruing to persons or property as a result of any act required or 
permitted in the discharge of official duties. 

Any suit instituted against any officer or employee because 
of an act performed by that officer or employee in the lawful 
discharge of duties and under the provisions of this code shall 
be defended by the legal representative of the jurisdiction until 
the final termination of the proceedings. The code official or 
any subordinate shall hot be liable for costs in any action, suit 
or proceeding that is instituted in pursuance of the provisions of 
this code, and any officer of the department of plumbing 
inspection, acting in good faith and without malice, shall be 
free from liability for acts performed under any of its provi- 
sions or by reason of any act or omission in the performance of 
official duties in connection therewith. 



SECTION 104 
DUTIES AND POWERS OF THE CODE OFFICIAL 

104.1 General. The code official shall enforce all of the provi- 
sions of this code and shall act on any question relative to the 
installation, alteration, repair, maintenance or operation of all 
plumbing systems, devices and equipment except as otherwise 
specifically provided for by statutory requirements or as pro- 
vided for in Sections 104.2 through 104.8. 

104.2 Rule-making authority. The code official shall have 
authority as necessary in the interest of public health, safety 
and general welfare to adopt and promulgate rules and regula- 
tions to interpret and implement the provisions of this code to 
secure the intent thereof and to designate requirements applica- 
ble because of local climatic or other conditions. Such rules 
shall not have the effect of waiving structural or fire perfor- 
mance requirements specifically provided for in this code, or of 
violating accepted engineering practice involving public 
safety. 

104.3 Applications and permits. The code official shall 
receive applications and issue permits for the installation and 
alteration of plumbing, inspect the premises for which such 



permits have been issued, and enforce compliance with the pro- 
visions of this code. 

104.4 Inspections. The code official shall make all the 
required inspections, or shall accept reports of inspection by 
approved agencies or individuals. All reports of such inspec- 
tions shall be in writing and be certified by a responsible officer 
of such approved agency or by the responsible individual. The 
code official is authorized to engage such expert opinion as 
deemed necessary to report on unusual technical issues that 
arise, subject to the approval of the appointing authority. 

104.5 Right of entry. Whenever it is necessary to make an 
inspection to enforce the provisions of this code, or whenever 
the code official has reasonable cause to believe that there 
exists in any building or upon any premises any conditions or 
violations of this code that make the building or premises 
unsafe, insanitary, dangerous or hazardous, the code official 
shall have the authority to enter the building or premises at all 
reasonable times to inspect or to perform the duties imposed 
upon the code official by this code. If such building or premises 
is occupied, the code official shall present credentials to the 
occupant and request entry. If such building or premises is 
unoccupied, the code official shall first make a reasonable 
effort to locate the owner or other person having charge or con- 
trol of the building or premises and request entry. If entry is 
refused, the code official shall have recourse to every remedy 
provided by law to secure entry. 

When the code official shall have first obtained a proper 
inspection warrant or other remedy provided by law to secure 
entry, no owner or occupant or person having charge, care or 
control of any building or premises shall fail or neglect, after 
proper request is made as herein provided, to promptly permit 
entry therein by the code official for the purpose of inspection 
and examination pursuant to this code. 

104.6 Identification. The code official shall carry proper iden- 
tification when inspecting structures or premises in the perfor- 
mance of duties under this code. 

104.7 Notices and orders. The code official shall issue all nec- 
essary notices or orders to ensure compliance with this code. 

104.8 Department records. The code official shall keep offi- 
cial records of applications received, permits and certificates 
issued, fees collected, reports of inspections, and notices and 
orders issued. Such records shall be retained in the official 
records as long as the building or structure to which such 
records relate remains in existence unless otherwise provided 
for by other regulations. 



SECTION 105 
APPROVAL 

105.1 Modifications. Whenever there are practical difficulties 
involved in carrying out the provisions of this code, the code 
official shall have the authority to grant modifications for indi- 
vidual cases, provided the code official shall first find that spe- 
cial individual reason makes the strict letter of this code 
impractical and the modification is in conformity with the 
intent and purpose of this code and that such modification does 
not lessen health, life and fire safety requirements. The details 



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of action granting modifications shall be recorded and entered 
in the files of the plumbing inspection department. 

105.2 Alternative materials, methods and equipment. The 

provisions of this code are not intended to prevent the installa- 
tion of any material or to prohibit any method of construction 
not specifically prescribed by this code, provided that any such 
alternative has been approved. An alternative material or 
method of construction shall be approved where the code offi- 
cial finds that the proposed design is satisfactory and complies 
with the intent of the provisions of this code, and that the mate- 
rial, method or work offered is, for the purpose intended, at 
least the equivalent of that prescribed in this code in quality, 
strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, durability and safety. 

105.3 Required testing. Whenever there is insufficient evi- 
dence of compliance with the provisions of this code, or evi- 
dence that a material or method does not conform to the 
requirements of this code, or in order to substantiate claims for 
alternate materials or methods, the code official shall have the 
authority to require tests as evidence of compliance to be made 
at no expense to the jurisdiction. 

105.3.1 Test methods. Test methods shall be as specified in 
this code or by other recognized test standards. In the 
absence of recognized and accepted test methods, the code 
official shall approve the testing procedures. 

105.3.2 Testing agency. All tests shall be performed by an 
approved agency. 

105.3.3 Test reports. Reports of tests shall be retained by 
the code official for the period required for retention of pub- 
lic records. 

105.4 Alternative engineered design. The design, documen- 
tation, inspection, testing and approval of an alternative engi- 
neered design plumbing system shall comply with Sections 
105.4.1 through 105.4.6. 

105.4.1 Design criteria. An alternative engineered design 
shall conform to the intent of the provisions of this code and 
shall provide an equivalent level of quality, strength, effec- 
tiveness, fire resistance, durability and safety. Material, 
equipment or components shall be designed and installed in 
accordance with the manufacturer's installation instruc- 
tions. 

105.4.2 Submittal. The registered design professional shall 
indicate on the permit application that the plumbing system 
is an alternative engineered design. The permit and perma- 
nent permit records shall indicate that an alternative engi- 
neered design was part of the approved installation. 

105.4.3 Technical data. The registered design professional 
shall submit sufficient technical data to substantiate the pro- 
posed alternative engineered design and to prove that the 
performance meets the intent of this code. 

105.4.4 Construction documents. The registered design 
professional shall submit to the code official two complete 
sets of signed and sealed construction documents for the 
alternative engineered design. The construction documents 
shall include floor plans and a riser diagram of the work. 
Where appropriate, the construction documents shall indi- 



cate the direction of flow, all pipe sizes, grade of horizontal 
piping, loading, and location of fixtures and appliances. 

105.4.5 Design approval. Where the code official deter- 
mines that the alternative engineered design conforms to the 
intent of this code, the plumbing system shall be approved. 
If the alternative engineered design is not approved, the 
code official shall notify the registered design professional 
in writing, stating the reasons thereof. 

105.4.6 Inspection and testing. The alternative engineered 
design shall be tested and inspected in accordance with the 
requirements of Sections 107 and 312. 

105.5 Material and equipment reuse. Materials, equipment 
and devices shall not be reused unless such elements have been 
reconditioned, tested, placed in good and proper working con- 
dition and approved. 



SECTION 106 
PERMITS 

106.1 When required. Any owner, authorized agent or con- 
tractor who desires to construct, enlarge, alter, repair, move, 
demolish or change the occupancy of a building or structure, or 
to erect, install, enlarge, alter, repair, remove, convert or 
replace any plumbing system, the installation of which is regu- 
lated by this code, or to cause any such work to be done, shall 
first make application to the code official and obtain the 
required permit for the work. 

106.2 Exempt work. The following work shall be exempt 
from the requirement for a permit: 

1 . The stopping of leaks in drains, water, soil, waste or vent 
pipe provided, however, that if any concealed trap, 
drainpipe, water, soil, waste or vent pipe becomes defec- 
tive and it becomes necessary to remove and replace the 
same with new material, such work shall be considered 
as new work and a permit shall be obtained and inspec- 
tion made as provided in this code. 

2. The clearing of stoppages or the repairing of leaks in 
pipes, valves or fixtures, and the removal and reinstalla- 
tion of water closets, provided such repairs do not 
involve or require the replacement or rearrangement of 
valves, pipes or fixtures. 

Exemption from the permit requirements of this codeshall 
not be deemed to grant authorization for any work to be done in 
violation of the provisions of this code or any other laws or 
ordinances of this jurisdiction. 

106.3 Application for permit. Each application for a permit, 
with the required fee, shall be filed with the code official on a 
form furnished for that purpose and shall contain a general 
description of the proposed work and its location. The applica- 
tion shall be signed by the owner or an authorized agent. The 
permit application shall indicate the proposed occupancy of all 
parts of the building and of that portion of the site or lot, if any, 
not covered by the building or structure and shall contain such 
other information required by the code official. 

106.3.1 Construction documents. Construction docu- 
ments, engineering calculations, diagrams and other such 
data shall be submitted in two or more sets with each appli- 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



ADMINISTRATION 



cation for a permit. The code official shall require construc- 
tion documents, computations and specifications to be 
prepared and designed by a registered design professional 
when required by state law. Construction documents shall 
be drawn to scale and shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate 
the location, nature and extent of the work proposed and 
show in detail that the work conforms to the provisions of 
this code. Construction documents for buildings more than 
two stories in height shall indicate where penetrations will 
be made for pipe, fittings and components and shall indicate 
the materials and methods for maintaining required struc- 
tural safety, fire-resistance rating and fireblocking. 

Exception: The code official shall have the authority to 
waive the submission of construction documents, calcu- 
lations or other data if the nature of the work applied for 
is such that reviewing of construction documents is not 
necessary to determine compliance with this code. 

106.4 By whom application is made. Application for a permit 
shall be made by the person or agent to install all or part of any 
plumbing system. The applicant shall meet all qualifications 
established by statute, or by rules promulgated by this code, or 
by ordinance or by resolution. The full name and address of the 
applicant shall be stated in the application. 

106.5 Permit issuance. The application, construction docu- 
ments and other data filed by an applicant for permit shall be 
reviewed by the code official. If the code official finds that the 
proposed work conforms to the requirements of this code and 
all laws and ordinances applicable thereto, and that the fees 
specified in Section 106.6 have been paid, a permit shall be 
issued to the applicant. 

106.5.1 Approved construction documents. When the 
code official issues the permit where construction docu- 
ments are required, the construction documents shall be 
endorsed in writing and stamped "APPROVED." Such 
approved construction documents shall not be changed, 
modified or altered without authorization from the code 
official. All work shall be done in accordance with the 
approved construction documents. 

The code official shall have the authority to issue a permit 
for the construction of a part of a plumbing system before 
the entire construction documents for the whole system 
have been submitted or approved, provided adequate infor- 
mation and detailed statements have been filed complying 
with all pertinent requirements of this code. The holders of 
such permit shall proceed at their own risk without assur- 
ance that the permit for the entire plumbing system will be 
granted. 

106.5.2 Validity. The issuance of a permit or approval of 
construction documents shall not be construed to be a per- 
mit for, or an approval of, any violation of any of the provi- 
sions of this code or any other ordinance of the jurisdiction. 
No permit presuming to give authority to violate or cancel 
the provisions of this code shall be valid. 

The issuance of a permit based upon construction docu- 
ments and other data shall not prevent the code official from 
thereafter requiring the correction of errors in said construc- 
tion documents and other data or from preventing building 



operations being carried on thereunder when in violation of 
this code or of other ordinances of this jurisdiction. 

106.5.3 Expiration. Every permit issued by the code offi- 
cial under the provisions of this code shall expire by limita- 
tion and become null and void if the work authorized by 
such permit is not commenced within 180 days from the 
date of such permit, or if the work authorized by such permit 
is suspended or abandoned at any time after the work is 
commenced for a period of 1 80 days. Before such work can 
be recommenced, a new permit shall be first obtained and 
the fee therefor shall be one-half the amount required for a 
new permit for such work, provided no changes have been 
made or will be made in the original construction docu- 
ments for such work, and provided further that such suspen- 
sion or abandonment has not exceeded 1 year. 

106.5.4 Extensions. Any permittee holding an unexpired 
permit shall have the right to apply for an extension of the 
time within which the permittee will commence work under 
that permit when work is unable to be commenced within 
the time required by this section for good and satisfactory 
reasons. The code official shall extend the time for action by 
the permittee for a period not exceeding 180 days if there is 
reasonable cause. No permit shall be extended more than 
once. The fee for an extension shall be one-half the amount 
required for a new permit for such work. 

106.5.5 Suspension or revocation of permit. The code 
official shall revoke a permit or approval issued under the 
provisions of this code in case of any false statement or mis- 
representation of fact in the application or on the construc- 
tion documents upon which the permit or approval was 
based. 

106.5.6 Retention of construction documents. One set of 

construction documents shall be retained by the code offi- 
cial until final approval of the work covered therein. One set 
of approved construction documents shall be returned to the 
applicant, and said set shall be kept on the site of the build- 
ing or work at all times during which the work authorized 
thereby is in progress. 

106.6 Fees. A permit shall not be issued until the fees pre- 
scribed in Section 106.6.2 have been paid, and an amendment 
to a permit shall not be released until the additional fee, if any, 
due to an increase of the plumbing systems, has been paid. 

106.6.1 Work commencing before permit issuance. Any 

person who commences any work on a plumbing system 
before obtaining the necessary permits shall be subject to 
100 percent of the usual permit fee in addition to the 
required permit fees. 

106.6.2 Fee schedule. The fees for all plumbing work shall 
be as indicated in the following schedule: 

[JURISDICTION TO INSERT APPROPRIATE SCHEDULE] 

106.6.3 Fee refunds. The code official shall authorize the 
refunding of fees as follows: 

1 . The full amount of any fee paid hereunder that was 
erroneously paid or collected. 



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2. Not more than [SPECIFY PERCENTAGE] percent of the 
permit fee paid when no work has been done under a 
permit issued in accordance with this code. 

3. Not more than [SPECIFY PERCENTAGE] percent of the 
plan review fee paid when an application for a permit 
for which a plan review fee has been paid is with- 
drawn or canceled before any plan review effort has 
been expended. 

The code official shall not authorize the refunding of any 
fee paid except upon written application filed by the original 
permittee not later than 180 days after the date of fee 
payment. 



SECTION 107 
INSPECTIONS AND TESTING 

107.1 Required inspections and testing. The code official, 
upon notification from the permit holder or the permit holder's 
agent, shall make the following inspections and such other 
inspections as necessary, and shall either release that portion of 
the construction or shall notify the permit holder or an agent of 
any violations that must be corrected. The holder of the permit 
shall be responsible for the scheduling of such inspections. 

1. Underground inspection shall be made after trenches or 
ditches are excavated and bedded, piping installed, and 
before any backfill is put in place. 

2. Rough-in inspection shall be made after the roof, fram- 
ing, fireblocking, firestopping, draftstopping and brac- 
ing is in place and all sanitary, storm and water 
distribution piping is roughed-in, and prior to the instal- 
lation of wall or ceiling membranes. 

3. Final inspection shall be made after the building is com- 
plete, all plumbing fixtures are in place and properly con- 
nected, and the structure is ready for occuancy. 

107.1.1 Approved agencies. Test reports submitted to the 
code official for consideration shall be developed by 
approved agencies that have satisfied the requirements as to 
qualifications and reliability. 

107.1.2 Evaluation and follow-up inspection services. 

Prior to the approval of a closed, prefabricated plumbing 
system and the issuance of a plumbing permit, the code offi- 
cial shall require the submittal of an evaluation report on 
each prefabricated plumbing system indicating the com- 
plete details of the plumbing system, including a description 
of the system and its components, the basis upon which the 
plumbing system is being evaluated, test results and similar 
information, and other data as necessary for the code official 
to determine conformance to this code. 

107.1.2.1 Evaluation service. The code official shall 
designate the evaluation service of an approved agency 
as the evaluation agency, and review such agency's eval- 
uation report for adequacy and conformance to this code. 

107.1.2.2 Follow-up inspection. Except where ready 
access is provided to all plumbing systems, service 
equipment and accessories for complete inspection at the 
site without disassembly or dismantling, the code official 
shall conduct the frequency of in-plant inspections nec- 



essary to ensure conformance to the approved evaluation 
report or shall designate an independent, approved 
inspection agency to conduct, such inspections. The 
inspection agency shall furnish the code official with the 
follow-up inspection manual and a report of inspections 
upon request, and the plumbing system shall have an 
identifying label permanently affixed to the system indi- 
cating that factory inspections have been performed. 

107.1.2.3 Test and inspection records. All required test 
and inspection records shall be available to the code offi- 
cial at all times during the fabrication of the plumbing 
system and the erection of the building, or such records 
as the code official designates shall be filed. 

107.2 Special inspections. Special inspections of alternative 
engineered design plumbing systems shall be conducted in 
accordance with Sections 107.2.1 and 107.2.2. 

107.2.1 Periodic inspection. The registered design profes- 
sional or designated inspector shall periodically inspect and 
observe the alternative engineered design to determine that 
the installation is in accordance with the approved construc- 
tion documents. All discrepancies shall be brought to the 
immediate attention of the plumbing contractor for correc- 
tion. Records shall be kept of all inspections. 

107.2.2 Written report. The registered design professional 
shall submit a final report in writing to the code official upon 
completion of the installation, certifying that the alternative 
engineered design conforms to the approved construction 
documents. A notice of approval for the plumbing system 
shall not be issued until a written certification has been sub- 
mitted. 

107.3 Testing. Plumbing work and systems shall be tested as 
required in Section 312 and in accordance with Sections 
107.3.1 through 107.3.3. Tests shall be made by the permit 
holder and observed by the code official. 

107.3.1 New, altered, extended or repaired systems. New 

plumbing systems and parts of existing systems that have 
been altered, extended or repaired shall be tested as pre- 
scribed herein to disclose leaks and defects, except that test- 
ing is not required in the following cases: 

1. In any case that does not include addition to, replace- 
ment, alteration or relocation of any water supply, 
drainage or vent piping. 

2. In any case where plumbing equipment is set up tem- 
porarily for exhibition purposes. 

107.3.2 Equipment, material and labor for tests. All 

equipment, material and labor required for testing a plumb- 
ing system or part thereof shall be furnished by the permit 
holder. 

107.3.3 Reinspection and testing. Where any work or 
installation does not pass any initial test or inspection, the 
necessary corrections shall be made to comply with this 
code. The work or installation shall then be resubmitted to 
the code official for inspection and testing. 

107.4 Approval. After the prescribed tests and inspections 
indicate that the work complies in all respects with this code, a 
notice of approval shall be issued by the code official. 



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107.5 Temporary connection. The code official shall have the 
authority to authorize the temporary connection of the building 
or system to the utility source for the purpose of testing plumb- 
ing systems or for use under a temporary certificate of occu- 
pancy. 



SECTION 108 
VIOLATIONS 

108.1 Unlawful acts. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm 
or corporation to erect, construct, alter, repair, remove, demol- 
ish or utilize any plumbing system, or cause same to be done, in 
conflict with or in violation of any of the provisions of this 
code. 

108.2 Notice of violation. The code official shall serve a notice 
of violation or order to the person responsible for the erection, 
installation, alteration, extension, repair, removal or demoli- 
tion of plumbing work in violation of the provisions of this 
code, or in violation of a detail statement or the approved con- 
struction documents thereunder, or in violation of a permit or 
certificate issued under the provisions of this code. Such order 
shall direct the discontinuance of the illegal action or condition 
and the abatement of the violation. 

108.3 Prosecution of violation. If the notice of violation is not 
complied with promptly, the code official shall request the legal 
counsel of the jurisdiction to institute the appropriate proceed- 
ing at law or in equity to restrain, correct or abate such viola- 
tion, or to require the removal or termination of the unlawful 
occupancy of the structure in violation of the provisions of this 
code or of the order or direction made pursuant thereto. 

108.4 Violation penalties. Any person who shall violate a pro- 
vision of this code or shall fail to comply with any of the 
requirements thereof or who shall erect, install, alter or repair 
plumbing work in violation of the approved construction docu- 
ments or directive of the code official, or of a permit or certifi- 
cate issued under the provisions of this code, shall be guilty of a 
[SPECIFY offense], punishable by a fine of not more than 
[AMOUNT] dollars or by imprisonment not exceeding [NUMBER 
OF DAYS], or both such fine and imprisonment. Each day that a 
violation continues after due notice has been served shall be 
deemed a separate offense. 

108.5 Stop work orders. Upon notice from the code official, 
work on any plumbing system that is being done contrary to the 
provisions of this code or in a dangerous or unsafe manner shall 
immediately cease. Such notice shall be in writing and shall be 
given to the owner of the property, or to the owner's agent, or to 
the person doing the work. The notice shall state the conditions 
under which work is authorized to resume. Where an emer- 
gency exists, the code official shall not be required to give a 
written notice prior to stopping the work. Any person who shall 
continue any work in or about the structure after having been 
served with a stop work order, except such work as that person 
is directed to perform to remove a violation or unsafe condi- 
tion,shall be liable to a fine of not less than [AMOUNT] dollars or 
more than [AMOUNT] dollars. 

108.6 Abatement of violation. The imposition of the penalties 
herein prescribed shall not preclude the legal officer of the 
jurisdiction from instituting appropriate action to prevent 



unlawful construction or to restrain, correct or abate a viola- 
tion, or to prevent illegal occupancy of a building, structure or 
premises, or to stop an illegal act, conduct, business or utiliza- 
tion of the plumbing on or about any premises. 

108.7 Unsafe plumbing. Any plumbing regulated by this code 
that is unsafe or that constitutes a fire or health hazard, insani- 
tary condition, or is otherwise dangerous to human life is 
hereby declared unsafe. Any use of plumbing regulated by this 
code constituting a hazard to safety, health or public welfare by 
reason of inadequate maintenance, dilapidation, obsolescence, 
fire hazard, disaster, damage or abandonment is hereby 
declared an unsafe use. Any such unsafe equipment is hereby 
declared to be a public nuisance and shall be abated by repair, 
rehabilitation, demolition or removal. 

108.7.1 Authority to condemn equipment. Whenever the 
code official determines that any plumbing, or portion 
thereof, regulated by this code has become hazardous to life, 
health or property or has become insanitary, the code offi- 
cial shall order in writing that such plumbing either be 
removed or restored to a safe or sanitary condition. A time 
limit for compliance with such order shall be specified in the 
written notice. No person shall use or maintain defective 
plumbing after receiving such notice. 

When such plumbing is to be disconnected, written 
notice as prescribed in Section 108.2 shall be given. In cases 
of immediate danger to life or property, such disconnection 
shall be made immediately without such notice. 

108.7.2 Authority to disconnect service utilities. The code 
official shall have the authority to authorize disconnection 
of utility service to the building, structure or system regu- 
lated by the technical codes in case of an emergency, where 
necessary, to eliminate an immediate danger to life or prop- 
erty. Where possible, the owner and occupant of the build- 
ing, structure or service system shall be notified of the 
decision to disconnect utility service prior to taking such 
action. If not notified prior to disconnecting, the owner or 
occupant of the building, structure or service systems shall 
be notified in writing, as soon as practical thereafter. 

108.7.3 Connection after order to disconnect. No person 
shall make connections from any energy, fuel, power supply 
or water distribution system or supply energy, fuel or water 
to any equipment regulated by this code that has been dis- 
connected or ordered to be disconnected by the code official 
or the use of which has been ordered to be discontinued by 
the code official until the code official authorizes the 
reconnection and use of such equipment. 

When any plumbing is maintained in violation of this 
code, and in violation of any notice issued pursuant to the 
provisions of this section, the code official shall institute any 
appropriate action to prevent, restrain, correct or abate the 
violation. 



SECTION 109 
MEANS OF APPEAL 

109.1 Application for appeal. Any person shall have the right 
to appeal a decision of the code official to the board of appeals. 
An application for appeal shall be based on a claim that the true 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



ADMINISTRATION 



intent of this code or the rules legally adopted thereunder have 
been incorrectly interpreted, the provisions of this code do not 
fully apply, or an equally good or better form of construction is 
proposed. The application shall be filed on a form obtained 
from the code official within 20 days after the notice was 
served. 

109.2 Membership of board. The board of appeals shall con- 
sist of five members appointed by the chief appointing author- 
ity as follows: one for 5 years, one for 4 years, one for 3 years, 
one for 2 years and one for 1 year. Thereafter, each new mem- 
ber shall serve for 5 years or until a successor has been 
appointed. 

109.2.1 Qualifications. The board of appeals shall consist 
of five individuals, one from each of the following profes- 
sions or disciplines: 

1. Registered design professional who is a registered 
architect; or a builder or superintendent of building 
construction with at least 10 years' experience, 5 
years of which shall have been in responsible charge 
of work. 

2. Registered design professional with structural engi- 
neering or architectural experience. 

3. Registered design professional with mechanical and 
plumbing engineering experience; or a mechanical 
and plumbing contractor with at least 10 years' expe- 
rience, 5 years of which shall have been in responsible 
charge of work. 

4. Registered design professional with electrical engi- 
neering experience; or an electrical contractor with at 
least 10 years' experience, 5 years of which shall have 
been in responsible charge of work. 

5. Registered design professional with fire protection 
engineering experience; or a fire protection contrac- 
tor with at least 10 years' experience, 5 years of which 
shall have been in responsible charge of work. 

109.2.2 Alternate members. The chief appointing author- 
ity shall appoint.two alternate members who shall be called 
by the board chairman to hear appeals during the absence or 
disqualification of a member. Alternate members shall pos- 
sess the qualifications required for board membership, and 
shall be appointed for 5 years or until a successor has been 
appointed. 

109.2.3 Chairman. The board shall annually select one of 
its members to serve as chairman. 

109.2.4 Disqualification of member. A member shall not 
hear an appeal in which that member has any personal, pro- 
fessional or financial interest. 

109.2.5 Secretary. The chief administrative officer shall 
designate a qualified clerk to serve as secretary to the board. 
The secretary shall file a detailed record of all proceedings 
in the office of the chief administrative officer. 

109.2.6 Compensation of members. Compensation of 
members shall be determined by law. 



109.3 Notice of meeting. The board shall meet upon notice 
from the chairman, within 10 days of the filing of an appeal or 
at stated periodic meetings. 

109.4 Open hearing. All hearings before the board shall be 
open to the public. The appellant, the appellant's representa- 
tive, the code official and any person whose interests are 
affected shall be given an opportunity to be heard. 

109.4.1 Procedure. The board shall adopt and make avail- 
able to the public through the secretary procedures under 
which a hearing will be conducted. The procedures shall not 
require compliance with strict rules of evidence, but shall 
mandate that only relevant information be received. 

109.5 Postponed hearing. When five members are not present 
to hear an appeal, either the appellant or the appellant's repre- 
sentative shall have the right to request a postponement of the 
hearing. 

109.6 Board decision. The board shall modify or reverse the 
decision of the code official by a concurring vote of three mem- 
bers. 

109.6.1 Resolution. The decision of the board shall be by 
resolution. Certified copies shall be furnished to the appel- 
lant and to the code official. 

109.6.2 Administration. The code official shall take imme- 
diate action in accordance with the decision of the board. 

109.7 Court review. Any person, whether or not a previous 
party of the appeal, shall have the right to apply to the appropri- 
ate court for a writ of certiorari to correct errors of law. Appli- 
cation for review shall be made in the manner and time required 
by law following the filing of the decision in the office of the 
chief administrative officer. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 2 

DEFINITIONS 



SECTION 201 
GENERAL 

201.1 Scope. Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following 
words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have the 
meanings shown in this chapter. 

201.2 Interchangeability. Words stated in the present tense 
include the future; words stated in the masculine gender 
include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes 
the plural and the plural the singular. 

201.3 Terms defined in other codes. Where terms are not 
defined in this code and are defined in the International Build- 
ing Code, International Fire Code, ICC Electrical Code, Inter- 
national Fuel Gas Code or the International Mechanical Code, 
such terms shall have the meanings ascribed to them as in those 
codes. 

201.4 Terms not defined. Where terms are not defined 
through the methods authorized by this section, such terms 
shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context 
implies. 



SECTION 202 
GENERAL DEFINITIONS 

ACCEPTED ENGINEERING PRACTICE. That which 
conforms to accepted principles, tests or standards of nation- 
ally recognized technical or scientific authorities. 

ACCESS (TO). That which enables a fixture, appliance or 
equipment to be reached by ready access or by a means that first 
requires the removal or movement of a panel, door or similar 
obstruction (see "Ready access"). 

ACCESS COVER. A removable plate, usually secured by 
bolts or screws, to permit access to a pipe or pipe fitting for the 
purposes of inspection, repair or cleaning. 

ADAPTER FITTING. An approved connecting device that 
suitably and properly joins or adjusts pipes and fittings which 
do not otherwise fit together. 

AIR ADMITTANCE VALVE. One-way valve designed to 
allow air to enter the plumbing drainage system when negative 
pressures develop in the piping system. The device shall close 
by gravity and seal the vent terminal at zero differential pres- 
sure (no flow conditions) and under positive internal pressures. 
The purpose of an air admittance valve is to provide a method 
of allowing air to enter the plumbing drainage system without 
the use of a vent extended to open air and to prevent sewer gases 
from escaping into a building. 

AIR BREAK (Drainage System). A piping arrangement in 
which a drain from a fixture, appliance or device discharges 
indirectly into another fixture, receptacle or interceptor at a 
point below the flood level rim and above the trap seal. 

AIR GAP (Drainage System). The unobstructed vertical dis- 
tance through the free atmosphere between the outlet of the 



waste pipe and the flood level rim of the receptacle into which 
the waste pipe is discharging. 

AIR GAP (Water Distribution System). The unobstructed 
vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the low- 
est opening from any pipe or faucet supplying water to a tank, 
plumbing fixture or other device and the flood level rim of the 
receptacle. 

ALTERNATIVE ENGINEERED DESIGN. A plumbing 
system that performs in accordance with the intent of Chapters 
3 through 12 and provides an equivalent level of performance 
for the protection of public health, safety and welfare. The sys- 
tem design is not specifically regulated by Chapters 3 through 
12. 

ANCHORS. See "Supports." 

ANTISIPHON. A term applied to valves or mechanical 
devices that eliminate siphonage. 

APPROVED. Acceptable to the code official or other author- I 
ity having jurisdiction. 

APPROVED AGENCY. An established and recognized 
agency approved by the code official and that is regularly 
engaged in conducting tests or furnishing inspection services. 

AREA DRAIN. A receptacle designed to collect surface or 
storm water from an open area. 

ASPIRATOR. A fitting or device supplied with water or other 
fluid under positive pressure that passes through an integral 
orifice or constriction, causing a vacuum. Aspirators are also 
referred to as suction apparatus, and are similar in operation to 
an ejector. 

BACKFLOW. Pressure created by any means in the water dis- 
tribution system, which by being in excess of the pressure in the 
water supply mains causes a potential backflow condition. 

Backpressure, low head. A pressure less than or equal to 
4.33 psi (29.88 kPa) or the pressure exerted by a 10-foot 
(3048 mm) column of water. 

Backsiphonage. The backflow of potentially contaminated 
water into the potable water system as a result of the pres- 
sure in the potable water system falling below atmospheric 
pressure of the plumbing fixtures, pools, tanks or vats con- 
nected to the potable water distribution piping. 

Backwater valve. A device or valve installed in the build- 
ing drain or sewer pipe where a sewer is subject to backflow, 
and which prevents drainage or waste from backing up into 
a low level or fixtures and causing a flooding condition. 

Drainage. A reversal of flow in the drainage system. 

Water supply system. The flow of water or other liquids, 
mixtures or substances into the distribution pipes of a pota- 
ble water supply from any source except the intended 
source. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



9 



DEFINITIONS 



BACKFLOW CONNECTION. Any arrangement whereby 
backflow is possible. 

BACKFLOW PREVENTER. A device or means to prevent 
backflow. 

BALL COCK. See "Fill valve." 

BASE FLOOD ELEVATION. A reference point, determined 
in accordance with the building code, based on the depth or 
peak elevation of flooding, including wave height, which has a 
1 percent (100-year flood) or greater chance of occurring in 
any given year. 

BATHROOM GROUP. A group of fixtures consisting of a 
water closet, lavatory, bathtub or shower, including or exclud- 
ing a bidet, an emergency floor drain or both. Such fixtures are 
located together on the same floor level. 

BEDPAN STEAMER OR BOILER. A fixture utilized for 
scalding bedpans or urinals by direct application of steam or 
boiling water. 

BEDPAN WASHER AND STERILIZER. A fixture 
designed to wash bedpans and to flush the contents into the san- 
itary drainage system. Included are fixtures of this type that 
provide for disinfecting utensils by scalding with steam or hot 
water. 

BEDPAN WASHER HOSE. A device supplied with hot and 
cold water and located adjacent to a water closet or clinical sink 
to be utilized for cleansing bedpans. 

BRANCH. Any part of the piping system except a riser, main 
or stack. 

BRANCH INTERVAL. A vertical measurement of distance, 
8 feet (2438 mm) or more in developed length, between the 
connections of horizontal branches to a drainage stack. Mea- 
surements are taken down the stack from the highest horizontal 
branch connection. 

BRANCH VENT. A vent connecting one or more individual 
vents with a vent stack or stack vent. 

BUILDING. Any structure occupied or intended for support- 
ing or sheltering any occupancy. 

BUILDING DRAIN. That part of the lowest piping of a drain- 
age system that receives the discharge from soil, waste and 
other drainage pipes inside and that extends 30 inches (762 
mm) in developed length of pipe beyond the exterior walls of 
the building and conveys the drainage to the building sewer. 

Combined. A building drain that conveys both sewage and 
storm water or other drainage. 

Sanitary. A building drain that conveys sewage only. 

Storm. A building drain that conveys storm water or other 
drainage, but not sewage. 

BUILDING SEWER. That part of the drainage system that 
extends from the end of the building drain and conveys the dis- 
charge to a public sewer, private sewer, individual sewage dis- 
posal system or other point of disposal. 

Combined. A building sewer that conveys both sewage and 
storm water or other drainage. 

Sanitary. A building sewer that conveys sewage only. 



Storm. A building sewer that conveys storm water or other 
drainage, but not sewage. 

BUILDING SUBDRAIN. That portion of a drainage system 
that does not drain by gravity into the building sewer. 

BUILDING TRAP. A device, fitting or assembly of fittings 
installed in the building drain to prevent circulation of air 
between the drainage system of the building and the building 
sewer. 

CIRCUIT VENT. A vent that connects to a horizontal drain- 
age branch and vents two traps to a maximum of eight traps or 
trapped fixtures connected into a battery. 

CISTERN. A small covered tank for storing water for a home 
or farm. Generally, this tank stores rainwater to be utilized for 
purposes other than in the potable water supply, and such tank 
is placed underground in most cases. 

CLEANOUT. An access opening in the drainage system uti- 
lized for the removal of obstructions. Types of cleanouts 
include a removable plug or cap, and a removable fixture or fix- 
ture trap. 

CODE. These regulations, subsequent amendments thereto, or 
any emergency rule or regulation that the administrative 
authority having jurisdiction has lawfully adopted. 

CODE OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated authority 
charged with the administration and enforcement of this code, 
or a duly authorized representative. 

COMBINATION FIXTURE. A fixture combining one sink 
and laundry tray or a two- or three-compartment sink or laun- 
dry tray in one unit. 

COMBINATION WASTE AND VENT SYSTEM. A spe 

cially designed system of waste piping embodying the horizon- 
tal wet venting of one or more sinks or floor drains by means of 
a common waste and vent pipe adequately sized to provide free 
movement of air above the flow line of the drain. 

COMBINED BUILDING DRAIN. See "Building drain, 
combined." 

COMBINED BUILDING SEWER. See "Building sewer, 
combined." 

COMMON VENT. A vent connecting at the junction of two 
fixture drains or to a fixture branch and serving as a vent for 
both fixtures. 

CONCEALED FOULING SURFACE. Any surface of a 
plumbing fixture which is not readily visible and is not scoured 
or cleansed with each fixture operation. 

CONDUCTOR. A pipe inside the building that conveys storm 
water from the roof to a storm or combined building drain. 

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. All of the written, 
graphic and pictorial documents prepared or assembled for 
describing the design, location and physical characteristics of 
the elements of the project necessary for obtaining a building 
permit. The construction drawings shall be drawn to an appro- 
priate scale. 

CONTAMINATION. An impairment of the quality of the 
potable water that creates an actual hazard to the public health 



10 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



through poisoning or through the spread of disease by sewage, 
industrial fluids or waste. 

CRITICAL LEVEL (C-L). An elevation (height) reference 
point that determines the minimum height at which a backflow 
preventer or vacuum breaker is installed above the flood level 
rim of the fixture or receptor served by the device. The critical 
level is the elevation level below which there is a potential for 
backflow to occur. If the critical level marking is not indicated 
on the device, the bottom of the device shall constitute the criti- 
cal level. 

CROSS CONNECTION.Any physical connection or 
arrangement between two otherwise separate piping systems, 
one of which contains potable water and the other either water 
of unknown or questionable safety or steam, gas or chemical, 
whereby there exists the possibility for flow from one system to 
the other, with the direction of flow depending on the pressure 
differential between the two systems (see "Backflow"). 

DEAD END. A branch leading from a soil, waste or vent pipe; 
a building drain; or a building sewer, and terminating at a devel- 
oped length of 2 feet (610 mm) or more by means of a plug, cap 
or other closed fitting. 

DEPTH OF WATER SEAL. The depth of water that would 
have to be removed from a full trap before air could pass 
through the trap. 

DESIGN FLOOD ELEVATION. The elevation of the 
"design flood," including wave height, relative to the datum 
specified on the community's legally designated flood hazard 
map. 

DEVELOPED LENGTH. The length of a pipeline measured 
along the centerline of the pipe and fittings. 

DISCHARGE PIPE. A pipe that conveys the discharges from 
plumbing fixtures or appliances. 

DRAIN. Any pipe that carries wastewater or water-borne 
wastes in a building drainage system. 

DRAINAGE FITTINGS. Type of fitting or fittings utilized in 
the drainage system. Drainage fittings are similar to cast-iron 
fittings, except that instead of having a bell and spigot, drainage 
fittings are recessed and tapped to eliminate ridges on the 
inside of the installed pipe. 

DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT 

Drainage (dfu). A measure of the probable discharge into 
the drainage system by various types of plumbing fixtures. 
The drainage fixture-unit value for a particular fixture 
depends on its volume rate of drainage discharge, on the 
time duration of a single drainage operation and on the aver- 
age time between successive operations. 

DRAINAGE SYSTEM. Piping within a public or private 
premise that conveys sewage, rainwater or other liquid wastes 
to a point of disposal. A drainage system does not include the 
mains of a public sewer system or a private or public sewage 
treatment or disposal plant. 

Building gravity. A drainage system that drains by gravity 
into the building sewer. 

Sanitary. A drainage system that carries sewage and 
excludes storm, surface and ground water. 



Storm. A drainage system that carries rainwater, surface 
water, subsurface water and similar liquid wastes. 

EFFECTIVE OPENING. The minimum cross-sectional area 
at the point of water supply discharge, measured or expressed 
in terms of the diameter of a circle or, if the opening is not circu- 
lar, the diameter of a circle of equivalent cross-sectional area. 
For faucets and similar fittings, the effective opening shall be 
measured at the smallest orifice in the fitting body or in the sup- 
ply piping to the fitting. 

EMERGENCY FLOOR DRAIN. A floor drain that does not 
receive the discharge of any drain or indirect waste pipe, and 
that protects against damage from accidental spills, fixture 
overflows and leakage. 

ESSENTIALLY NONTOXIC TRANSFER FLUIDS. 

Fluids having a Gosselin rating of 1, including propylene 
glycol; mineral oil; polydimethylsiloxane; 
hydrochlorofluoro-carbon, chlorofluorocarbon and carbon 
refrigerants; and FDA-approved boiler water additives for 
steam boilers. 

ESSENTIALLY TOXIC TRANSFER FLUIDS. Soil, waste 
or gray water and fluids having a Gosselin rating of 2 or more 
including ethylene glycol, hydrocarbon oils, ammonia refrig- 
erants and hydrazine. 

EXISTING INSTALLATIONS. Any plumbing system regu- 
lated by this code that was legally installed prior to the effective 
date of this code, or for which a permit to install has been 
issued. 

FAUCET. A valve end of a water pipe through which water is 
drawn from or held within the pipe. 

FILL VALVE. A water supply valve, opened or closed by 
means of a float or similar device, utilized to supply water to a 
tank. An antisiphon fill valve contains an antisiphon device in 
the form of an approved air gap or vacuum breaker that is an 
integral part of the fill valve unit and that is positioned on the 
discharge side of the water supply control valve. 

FIXTURE. See "Plumbing fixture." 

FIXTURE BRANCH. A drain serving two or more fixtures 
that discharges to another drain or to a stack. 

FIXTURE DRAIN. The drain from the trap of a fixture to a 
junction with any other drain pipe. 

FIXTURE FITTING 

Supply fitting. A fitting that controls the volume and/or 
directional flow of water and is either attached to or accessi- 
ble from a fixture, or is used with an open or atmospheric 
discharge. 

Waste fitting. A combination of components that conveys 
the sanitary waste from the outlet of a fixture to the connec- 
tion to the sanitary drainage system. 

FIXTURE SUPPLY. The water supply pipe connecting a fix- 
ture to a branch water supply pipe or directly to a main water 
supply pipe. 

FLOOD LEVEL RIM. The edge of the receptacle from which 
water overflows. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



11 



DEFINITIONS 



FLOOD HAZARD AREA. The greater of the following two 
areas: 

1. The area within a flood plain subject to a 1 -percent or 
greater chance of flooding in any given year. 

2. The area designated as a flood hazard area on a commu- 
nity's flood hazard map or as otherwise legally desig- 
nated. 

FLOW CONTROL (Vented). A device installed upstream 
from the interceptor having an orifice that controls the rate of 
flow through the interceptor and an air intake (vent) down- 
stream from the orifice that allows air to be drawn into the flow 
stream. 

FLOW PRESSURE. The pressure in the water supply pipe 
near the faucet or water outlet while the faucet or water outlet is 
wide open and flowing. 

FLUSH TANK. A tank designed with a fill valve and flush 
valve to flush the contents of the bowl or usable portion of the 
fixture. 

FLUSHOMETER TANK. A device integrated within an air 
accumulator vessel that is designed to discharge a predeter- 
mined quantity of water to fixtures for flushing purposes. 

FLUSHOMETER VALVE. A valve attached to a pressurized 
water supply pipe and so designed that when activated it opens 
the line for direct flow into the fixture at a rate and quantity to 
operate the fixture properly, and then gradually closes to reseal 
fixture traps and avoid water hammer. 

GREASE INTERCEPTOR. A plumbing appurtenance that 
is installed in a sanitary drainage system to intercept oily and 
greasy wastes from a wastewater discharge. Such device has 
the ability to intercept free-floating fats and oils. 

GREASE-LADEN WASTE. Effluent discharge that is pro- 
duced from food processing, food preparation or other sources 
where grease, fats and oils enter automatic dishwater prerinse 
stations, sinks or other appurtenances. 

GREASE REMOVAL DEVICE, AUTOMATIC (GRD). A 

plumbing appurtenance that is installed in the sanitary drainage 
system to intercept free-floating fats, oils and grease from 
wastewater discharge. Such a device operates on a time- or 
event-controlled basis and has the ability to remove free-float- 
ing fats, oils and grease automatically without intervention 
from the user except for maintenance. 

GRIDDED WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. A water 
distribution system where every water distribution pipe is inter- 
connected so as to provide two or more paths to each fixture 
supply pipe. 

HANGERS. See "Supports." 

HORIZONTAL BRANCH DRAIN. A drainage branch pipe 
extending laterally from a soil or waste stack or building drain, 
with or without vertical sections or branches, that receives the 
discharge from two or more fixture drains or branches and con- 
ducts the discharge to the soil or waste stack or to the building 
drain. 

HORIZONTAL PIPE. Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle 
of less than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) with the horizontal. 



HOT WATER. Water at a temperature greater than or equal to 
110°F (43°C). 

HOUSE TRAP. See "Building trap." 

INDIRECT WASTE PIPE. A waste pipe that does not con- 
nect directly with the drainage system, but that discharges into 
the drainage system through an air break or air gap into a trap, 
fixture, receptor or interceptor. 

INDIVIDUAL SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM. A system 
for disposal of domestic sewage by means of a septic tank,cess- 
pool or mechanical treatment, designed for utilization apart 
from a public sewer to serve a single establishment or building. 

INDIVIDUAL VENT. A pipe installed to vent a fixture trap 
and connects with the vent system above the fixture served or 
terminates in the open air. 

INDIVIDUAL WATER SUPPLY. A water supply that serves 
one or more families, and that is not an approved public water 
supply. 

INTERCEPTOR. A device designed and installed to separate 
and retain for removal, by automatic or manual means, delete- 
rious, hazardous or undesirable matter from normal wastes, 
while permitting normal sewage or wastes to discharge into the 
drainage system by gravity. 

JOINT 

Expansion. A loop, return bend or return offset that pro- 
vides for the expansion and contraction in a piping system 
and is utilized in tall buildings or where there is a rapid 
change of temperature, as in power plants, steam rooms and 
similar occupancies. 

Flexible. Any joint between two pipes that permits one pipe 
to be deflected or moved without movement or deflection of 
the other pipe. 

Mechanical. See "Mechanical joint." 

Slip. A type of joint made by means of a washer or a special 
type of packing compound in which one pipe is slipped into 
the end of an adjacent pipe. 

LEAD-FREE PIPE AND FITTINGS. Containing not more 
than 8.0-percent lead. 

LEAD-FREE SOLDER AND FLUX. Containing not more 
than 0.2-percent lead. 

LEADER. An exterior drainage pipe for conveying storm 
water from roof or gutter drains to an approved means of dis- 
posal. 

LOCAL VENT STACK. A vertical pipe to which connections 
are made from the fixture side of traps and through which vapor 
or foul air is removed from the fixture or device utilized on bed- 
pan washers. 

MACERATING TOILET SYSTEMS. An assembly consist- 
ing of a water closet and sump with a macerating pump that is 
designed to collect, grind and pump wastes from the water 
closet and up to two other fixtures connected to the sump. 

MAIN. The principal pipe artery to which branches are con- 
nected. 

MANIFOLD. See "Plumbing appurtenance." 



12 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



MECHANICAL JOINT. A connection between pipes, fit- 
tings, or pipes and fittings that is not screwed, caulked, 
threaded, soldered, solvent cemented, brazed or welded. A 
joint in which compression is applied along the centerline of 
the pieces being joined. In some applications, the joint is part of 
a coupling, fitting or adapter. 

MEDICAL GAS SYSTEM. The complete system to convey 
medical gases for direct patient application from central supply 
systems (bulk tanks, manifolds and medical air compressors), 
with pressure and operating controls, alarm warning systems, 
related components and piping networks extending to station 
outlet valves at patient use points. 

MEDICAL VACUUM SYSTEMS. A system consisting of 
central- vacuum-producing equipment with pressure and oper- 
ating controls, shutoff valves, alarm- warning systems, gauges 
and a network of piping extending to and terminating with suit- 
able station inlets at locations where patient suction may be 
required. 

NONPOTABLE WATER. Water not safe for drinking, per- 
sonal or culinary utilization. 

NUISANCE. Public nuisance as known in common law or in 
equity jurisprudence; whatever is dangerous to human life or 
detrimental to health; whatever structure or premises is not suf- 
ficiently ventilated, sewered, drained, cleaned or lighted, with 
respect to its intended occupancy; and whatever renders the air, 
or human food, drink or water supply unwholesome. 

OCCUPANCY. The purpose for which a building or portion 
thereof is utilized or occupied. 

OFFSET. A combination of approved bends that makes two 
changes in direction bringing one section of the pipe out of line 
but into a line parallel with the other section. 

OPEN AIR. Outside the structure. 

PLUMBING. The practice, materials and fixtures utilized in 
the installation, maintenance, extension and alteration of all 
piping, fixtures, plumbing appliances and plumbing appurte- 
nances, within or adjacent to any structure, in connection with 
sanitary drainage or storm drainage facilities; venting systems; 
and public or private water supply systems. 

PLUMBING APPLIANCE. Any one of a special class of 
plumbing fixtures intended to perform a special function. 
Included are fixtures having the operation or control dependent 
on one or more energized components, such as motors, con- 
trols, heating elements, or pressure- or temperature-sensing 
elements. 

Such fixtures are manually adjusted or controlled by the 
owner or operator, or are operated automatically through one or 
more of the following actions: a time cycle, a temperature 
range, a pressure range, a measured volume or weight. 

PLUMBING APPURTENANCE. A manufactured device, 
prefabricated assembly or an on-the-job assembly of compo- 
nent parts that is an adjunct to the basic piping system and 
plumbing fixtures. An appurtenance demands no additional 
water supply and does not add any discharge load to a fixture or 
to the drainage system. 



PLUMBING FIXTURE. A receptacle or device that is either 
permanently or temporarily connected to the water distribution 
system of the premises and demands a supply of water there- 
from; discharges wastewater, liquid-borne waste materials or 
sewage either directly or indirectly to the drainage system of 
the premises; or requires both a water supply connection and a 
discharge to the drainage system of the premises. 

PLUMBING SYSTEM. Includes the water supply and distri- 
bution pipes; plumbing fixtures and traps; water-treating or 
water-using equipment; soil, waste and vent pipes; and sanitary 
and storm sewers and building drains; in addition to their 
respective connections, devices and appurtenances within a 
structure or premises. 

POLLUTION. An impairment of the quality of the potable 
water to a degree that does not create a hazard to the public 
health but that does adversely and unreasonably affect the aes- 
thetic qualities of such potable water for domestic use. 

POTABLE WATER. Water free from impurities present in 
amounts sufficient to cause disease or harmful physiological 
effects and conforming to the bacteriological and chemical 
quality requirements of the Public Health Service Drinking 
Water Standards or the regulations of the public health author- 
ity having jurisdiction. 

PRIVATE. In the classification of plumbing fixtures, "private" 
applies to fixtures in residences and apartments, and to fixtures 
in nonpublic toilet rooms of hotels and motels and similar 
installations in buildings where the plumbing fixtures are 
intended for utilization by a family or an individual. 

PUBLIC OR PUBLIC UTILIZATION. In the classification 
of plumbing fixtures, "public" applies to fixtures in general toi- 
let rooms of schools, gymnasiums, hotels, airports, bus and 
railroad stations, public buildings, bars, public comfort sta- 
tions, office buildings, stadiums, stores, restaurants and other 
installations where a number of fixtures are installed so that 
their utilization is similarly unrestricted. 

PUBLIC WATER MAIN. A water supply pipe for public uti- 
lization controlled by public authority. 

QUICK-CLOSING VALVE. A valve or faucet that closes 
automatically when released manually or that is controlled by a 
mechanical means for fast-action closing. 

READY ACCESS. That which enables a fixture, appliance or 
equipment to be directly reached without requiring the removal 
or movement of any panel, door or similar obstruction and 
without the use of a portable ladder, step stool or similar device. 

REDUCED PRESSURE PRINCIPLE BACKFLOW 
PREVENTER. A backflow prevention device consisting of 
two independently acting check valves, internally force-loaded 
to a normally closed position and separated by an intermediate 
chamber (or zone) in which there is an automatic relief means 
of venting to the atmosphere, internally loaded to a normally 
open position between two tightly closing shutoff valves and 
with a means for testing for tightness of the checks and opening 
of the relief means. 

REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An individual 
who is registered or licensed to practice professional architec- 
ture or engineering as defined by the statutory requirements of 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



13 



DEFINITIONS 



the professional registration laws of the state or jurisdiction in 
which the project is to be constructed. 

RELIEF VALVE 

Pressure relief valve. A pressure-actuated valve held 
closed by a spring or other means and designed to relieve 
pressure automatically at the pressure at which such valve is 
set. 

Temperature and pressure relief (T&P) valve. A combi- 
nation relief valve designed to function as both a tempera- 
ture relief and a pressure relief valve. 

Temperature relief valve. A temperature-actuated valve 
designed to discharge automatically at the temperature at 
which such valve is set. 

RELIEF VENT. A vent whose primary function is to provide 
circulation of air between drainage and vent systems. 

RIM. An unobstructed open edge of a fixture. 

RISER. See "Water pipe, riser." 

ROOF DRAIN. A drain installed to receive water collecting 
on the surface of a roof and to discharge such water into a leader 
or a conductor. 

ROUGH-IN. Parts of the plumbing system that are installed 
prior to the installation of fixtures. This includes drainage, 
water supply, vent piping and the necessary fixture supports 
and any fixtures that are built into the structure. 

SELF-CLOSING FAUCET. A faucet containing a valve that 
automatically closes upon deactivation of the opening means. 

SEPARATOR. See "Interceptor." 

SEWAGE. Any liquid waste containing animal or vegetable 
matter in suspension or solution, including liquids containing 
chemicals in solution. 

SEWAGE EJECTORS. A device for lifting sewage by 
entraining the sewage in a high-velocity jet of steam, air or 
water. 

SEWER 

Building sewer. See "Building sewer." 

Public sewer. A common sewer directly controlled by pub- 
lic authority. 

Sanitary sewer. A sewer that carries sewage and excludes 
storm, surface and ground water. 

Storm sewer. A sewer that conveys rainwater, surface 
water, subsurface water and similar liquid wastes. 

SLOPE. The fall (pitch) of a line of pipe in reference to a hori- 
zontal plane. In drainage, the slope is expressed as the fall in 
units vertical per units horizontal (percent) for a length of pipe. 

SOIL PIPE. A pipe that conveys sewage containing fecal mat- 
ter to the building drain or building sewer. 

SPILLPROOF VACUUM BREAKER. An assembly con- 
sisting of one check valve force-loaded closed and an air-inlet 
vent valve force-loaded open to atmosphere, positioned down- 
stream of the check valve, and located between and including 
two tightly closing shutoff valves and a test cock. 



STACK. A general term for any vertical line of soil, waste, vent 
or inside conductor piping that extends through at least one 
story with or without offsets. 

STACK VENT. The extension of a soil or waste stack above 
the highest horizontal drain connected to the stack. 

STACK VENTING. A method of venting a fixture or fixtures 
through the soil or waste stack. 

STERILIZER 

Boiling type. A boiling-type sterilizer is a fixture of a 
nonpressure type utilized for boiling instruments, utensils 
or other equipment for disinfection. These devices are por- 
table or are connected to the plumbing system. 

Instrument. A device for the sterilization of various instru- 
ments. 

Pressure (autoclave). A pressure vessel fixture designed to 
utilize steam under pressure for sterilizing. 

Pressure instrument washer sterilizer. A pressure instru- 
ment washer sterilizer is a pressure vessel fixture designed 
to both wash and sterilize instruments during the operating 
cycle of the fixture. 

Utensil. A device for the sterilization of utensils as utilized 
in health care services. 

Water. A water sterilizer is a device for sterilizing water and 
storing sterile water. 

STERILIZER VENT. A separate pipe or stack, indirectly 
connected to the building drainage system at the lower termi- 
nal, that receives the vapors from nonpressure sterilizers, or the 
exhaust vapors from pressure sterilizers, and conducts the 
vapors directly to the open air. Also called vapor, steam, atmo- 
spheric or exhaust vent. 

STORM DRAIN. See "Drainage system, storm." 

STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed or a portion 
thereof. 

SUBSOIL DRAIN. A drain that collects subsurface water or 
seepage water and conveys such water to a place of disposal. 

SUMP. A tank or pit that receives sewage or liquid waste, 
located below the normal grade of the gravity system and that 
must be emptied by mechanical means. 

SUMP PUMP. An automatic water pump powered by an elec- 
tric motor for the removal of drainage, except raw sewage, from 
a sump, pit or low point. 

SUMP VENT. A vent from pneumatic sewage ejectors, or sim- 
ilar equipment, that terminates separately to the open air. 

SUPPORTS. Devices for supporting and securing pipe, fix- 
tures and equipment. 

SWIMMING POOL. Any structure, basin, chamber or tank 
containing an artificial body of water for swimming, diving or 
recreational bathing having a depth of 2 feet (610 mm) or more 
at any point. 

TEMPERED WATER. Water having a temperature range 
between 85°F (29°C) and 110°F (43°C). 



14 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



THIRD-PARTY CERTIFICATION AGENCY. An 

approved agency operating a product or material certification 
sytem that incorporates initial product testing, assessment and 
surveillance of a manufacturer's quality control system. 

THIRD-PARTY CERTIFIED. Certification obtained by the 
manufacturer indicating that the function and performance 
characteristics of a product or material have been determined 
by testing and ongoing surveillance by an approved third-party 
certification agency. Assertion of certification is in the form of 
identification in accordance with the requirements of the 
third-party certification agency. 

THIRD-PARTY TESTED. Procedure by which an approved 
testing laboratory provides documentation that a product, 
material or system conforms to specified requirements. 

TRAP. A fitting or device that provides a liquid seal to prevent 
the emission of sewer gases without materially affecting the 
flow of sewage or wastewater through the trap. 

TRAP SEAL. The vertical distance between the weir and the 
top of the dip of the trap. , 

UNSTABLE GROUND. Earth that does not provide a uni- 
form bearing for the barrel of the sewer pipe between the joints 
at the bottom of the pipe trench. 

VACUUM. Any pressure less than that exerted by the atmo- 
sphere. 

VACUUM BREAKER. A type of backflow preventer 
installed on openings subject to normal atmospheric pressure 
that prevents backflow by admitting atmospheric pressure 
through ports to the discharge side of the device. 

VENT PIPE. See "Vent system." 

VENT STACK. A vertical vent pipe installed primarily for the 
purpose of providing circulation of air to and from any part of 
the drainage system. 

VENT SYSTEM. A pipe or pipes installed to provide a flow of 
air to or from a drainage system, or to provide a circulation of 
air within such system to protect trap seals from siphonage and 
backpressure. 

VERTICAL PIPE. Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle of 
45 degrees (0.79 rad) or more with the horizontal. 

WALL-HUNG WATER CLOSET. A wall-mounted water 
closet installed in such a way that the fixture does not touch the 
floor. 

WASTE. The discharge from any fixture, appliance, area or 
appurtenance that does not contain fecal matter. 

WASTE PIPE. A pipe that conveys only waste. 

WATER-HAMMER ARRESTOR. A device utilized to 
absorb the pressure surge (water hammer) that occurs when 
water flow is suddenly stopped in a water supply system. 

WATER HEATER. Any heating appliance or equipment that 
heats potable water and supplies such water to the potable hot 
water distribution system. 

WATER MAIN. A water supply pipe or system of pipes, 
installed and maintained by a city, township, county, public 
utility company or other public entity, on public property, in the 



street or in an approved dedicated easement of public or com- 
munity use. 

WATER OUTLET. A discharge opening through which water 
is supplied to a fixture, into the atmosphere (except into an 
open tank that is part of the water supply system), to a boiler or 
heating system, or to any devices or equipment requiring water 
to operate but which are not part of the plumbing system. 

WATER PIPE 

Riser. A water supply pipe that extends one full story or 
more to convey water to branches or to a group of fixtures. 

Water distribution pipe. A pipe within the structure or on 
the premises that conveys water from the water service pipe, 
or from the meter when the meter is at the structure, to the 
points of utilization. 

Water service pipe. The pipe from the water main or other 
source of potable water supply, or from the meter when the 
meter is at the public right of way, to the water distribution 
system of the building served. 

WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM. The water service pipe, water 
distribution pipes, and the necessary connecting pipes, fittings, 
control valves and all appurtenances in or adjacent to the struc- 
ture or premises. 

WELL 

Bored. A well constructed by boring a hole in the ground 
with an auger and installing a casing. 

Drilled. A well constructed by making a hole in the ground 
with a drilling machine of any type and installing casing and 
screen. 

Driven. A well constructed by driving a pipe in the ground. 
The drive pipe is usually fitted with a well point and screen. 

Dug. A well constructed by excavating a large-diameter 
shaft and installing a casing. 

WHIRLPOOL BATHTUB. A plumbing appliance consist- 
ing of a bathtub fixture that is equipped and fitted with a circu- 
lating piping system designed to accept, circulate and 
discharge bathtub water upon each use. 

YOKE VENT. A pipe connecting upward from a soil or waste 
stack to a vent stack for the purpose of preventing pressure 
changes in the stacks. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



15 



1 6 2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 3 

GENERAL REGULATIONS 



SECTION 301 
GENERAL 

301.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
general regulations regarding the installation of plumbing not 
specific to other chapters. 

301.2 System installation. Plumbing shall be installed with 
due regard to preservation of the strength of structural mem- 
bers and prevention of damage to walls and other surfaces thr- 
ough fixture usage. 

301.3 Connections to the sanitary drainage system. All 

plumbing fixtures, drains, appurtenances and appliances used 
to receive or discharge liquid wastes or sewage shall be directly 
connected to the sanitary drainage system of the building or 
premises, in accordance with the requirements of this code. 
This section shall not be construed to prevent the indirect waste 
systems required by Chapter 8. 

301.4 Connections to water supply. Every plumbing fixture, 
device or appliance requiring or using water for its proper oper- 
ation shall be directly or indirectly connected to the water sup- 
ply system in accordance with the provisions of this code. 

301.5 Pipe, tube and fitting sizes. Unless otherwise specified, 
the pipe, tube and fitting sizes specified in this code are 
expressed in nominal or standard sizes as designated in the ref- 
erenced material standards. 

301.6 Prohibited locations. Plumbing systems shall not be 
located in an elevator shaft or in an elevator equipment room. 

Exception: Floor drains, sumps and sump pumps shall be 
permitted at the base of the shaft provided they are indirectly 
connected to the plumbing system. 

301.7 Conflicts. Where conflicts between this code and the 
conditions of the listing or the manufacturer's installation 
instructions occur, the provisions of this code apply. 

Exception: Where a code provision is less restrictive than 
the conditions of the listing of the equipment or appliance or 
the manufacturer's installation instructions, the conditions 
of the listing and manufacturer's installation instructions 
shall apply. 



SECTION 302 

EXCLUSION OF MATERIALS DETRIMENTAL 

TO THE SEWER SYSTEM 

302.1 Detrimental or dangerous materials. Ashes, cinders or 
rags; flammable, poisonous or explosive liquids or gases; oil, 
grease or any other insoluble material capable of obstructing, 
damaging or overloading the building drainage or sewer sys- 
tem, or capable of interfering with the normal operation of the 
sewage treatment processes, shall not be deposited, by any 
means, into such systems. 

302.2 Industrial wastes. Waste products from manufacturing 
or industrial operations shall not be introduced into the public 



sewer until it has been determined by the code official or other 
authority having jurisdiction that the introduction thereof will 
not damage the public sewer system or interfere with the func- 
tioning of the sewage treatment plant. 



SECTION 303 
MATERIALS 

303.1 Identification. Each length of pipe and each pipe fitting, 
trap, fixture, material and device utilized in a plumbing system 
shall bear the identification of the manufacturer. 

303.2 Installation of materials. All materials used shall be 
installed in strict accordance with the standards under which 
the materials are accepted and approved. In the absence of such 
installation procedures, the manufacturer's installation instruc- 
tions shall be followed. Where the requirements of referenced 
standards or manufacturer's installation instructions do not 
conform to minimum provisions of this code, the provisions of 
this code shall apply. 

303.3 Plastic pipe, fittings and components. All plastic pipe, 
fittings and components shall be third-party certified as con- 
forming to NSF 14. 

303.4 Third-party testing and certification. All plumbing 
products and materials shall comply with the referenced stan- 
dards, specifications and performance criteria of this code and 
shall be identified in accordance with Section 303.1. When 
required by Table 303.4, plumbing products and materials shall 
either be tested by an approved third-party testing agency or 
certified by an approved third-party certification agency. 



SECTION 304 
RODENTPROOFING 

304.1 General. Plumbing systems shall be designed and 
installed in accordance with Sections 304.2 through 304.4 to 
prevent rodents from entering structures. 

304.2 Strainer plates. All strainer plates on drain inlets shall 
be designed and installed so that all openings are not greater 
than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) in least dimension. 

304.3 Meter boxes. Meter boxes shall be constructed in such a 
manner that rodents are prevented from entering a structure by 
way of the water service pipes connecting the meter box and 
the structure. 

304.4 Openings for pipes. In or on structures where openings 
have been made in walls, floors or ceilings for the passage of 
pipes, such openings shall be closed and protected by the 
installation of approved metal collars that are securely fastened 
to the adjoining structure. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



17 



GENERAL REGULATIONS 



TABLE 303.4 
PRODUCTS AND MATERIALS REQUIRING THIRD-PARTY TESTING AND THIRD-PARTY CERTIFICATION 



PRODUCT OR MATERIAL 


THIRD-PARTY CERTIFIED 


THIRD-PARTY TESTED 


Potable water supply system components and potable 
water fixture fittings 


Required 


— 


Sanitary drainage and vent system components 


Plastic pipe, fittings and pipe-related components 


All others 


Waste fixture fittings 


Plastic pipe, fittings and pipe-related components 


All others 


Storm drainage system components 


Plastic pipe, fittings and pipe-related components 


All others 


Plumbing fixtures 


— 


Required 


Plumbing appliances 


Required 


— 


Backflow prevention devices 


Required 


— 


Water distribution system safety devices 


Required 


— 


Special waste system components 


— 


Required 


Subsoil drainage system components 


— 


Required 



SECTION 305 

PROTECTION OF PIPES AND 

PLUMBING SYSTEM COMPONENTS 

305.1 Corrosion. Pipes passing through concrete or cinder 
walls and floors or other corrosive material shall be protected 
against external corrosion by a protective sheathing or wrap- 
ping or other means that will withstand any reaction from the 
lime and acid of concrete, cinder or other corrosive material. 
Sheathing or wrapping shall allow for expansion and contrac- 
tion of piping to prevent any rubbing action. Minimum wall 
thickness of material shall be 0.025 inch (0.64 mm). 

305.2 Breakage. Pipes passing through or under walls shall be 
protected from breakage. 

305.3 Stress and strain. Piping in a plumbing system shall be 
installed so as to prevent strains and stresses that exceed the 
structural strength of the pipe. Where necessary, provisions 
shall be made to protect piping from damage resulting from 
expansion, contraction and structural settlement. 

305.4 Sleeves. Annular spaces between sleeves and pipes shall 
be filled or tightly caulked in an approved manner. Annular 
spaces between sleeves and pipes in fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies shall be filled or tightly caulked in accordance with 
the International Building Code. 

305.5 Pipes through or under footings or foundation walls. 

Any pipe that passes under a footing or through a foundation 
wall shall be provided with a relieving arch, or a pipe sleeve 
pipe shall be built into the foundation wall. The sleeve shall be 
two pipe sizes greater than the pipe passing through the wall. 

305.6 Freezing. Water, soil and waste pipes shall not be 
installed outside of a building, in attics or crawl spaces, con- 
cealed in outside walls, or in any other place subjected to freez- 
ing temperature unless adequate provision is made to protect 
such pipes from freezing by insulation or heat or both. Exterior 
water supply system piping shall be installed not less than 6 
inches (152 mm) below the frost line and not less than 12 
inches (305 mm) below grade. 



305.6.1 Sewer depth. Building sewers that connect to pri- 
vate sewage disposal systems shall be a minimum of [NUM- 
BER] inches (mm) below finished grade at the point of septic 
tank connection. Building sewers shall be a minimum of 
[NUMBER] inches (mm) below grade. 

305.7 Waterproofing of openings. Joints at the roof and 
around vent pipes, shall be made water tight by the use of lead, 
copper, galvanized steel, aluminum, plastic or other approved 
flashings or flashing material. Exterior wall openings shall be 
made water tight. 

305.8 Protection against physical damage. In concealed 
locations where piping, other than cast-iron or galvanized steel, 
is installed through holes or notches in studs, joists, rafters or 
similar members less than 1.5 inches (38 mm) from the nearest 
edge of the member, the pipe shall be protected by shield plates . 
Protective shield plates shall be a minimum of 
0.062-inch-thick (1.6 mm) steel, shall cover the area of the pipe 
where the member is notched or bored, and shall extend a mini- 
mum of 2 inches (51 mm) above sole plates and below top 
plates. 

305.9 Protection of components of plumbing system. Com- 
ponents of a plumbing system installed along alleyways, drive- 
ways, parking garages or other locations exposed to damage 
shall be recessed into the wall or otherwise protected in an 
approved manner. 



SECTION 306 
TRENCHING, EXCAVATION AND BACKFILL 

306.1 Support of piping. Buried piping shall be supported 
throughout its entire length. 

306.2 Trenching and bedding. Where trenches are excavated 
such that the bottom of the trench forms the bed for the pipe, 
solid and continuous load-bearing support shall be provided 
between joints. Bell holes, hub holes and coupling holes shall 
be provided at points where the pipe is joined. Such pipe shall 
not be supported on blocks to grade. In instances where the 



18 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE' 



GENERAL REGULATIONS 



materials manufacturer's installation instructions are more 
restrictive than those prescribed by the code, the material shall 
be installed in accordance with the more restrictive require- 
ment. 

306.2.1 Overexcavation. Where trenches are excavated 
below the installation level of the pipe such that the bottom 
of the trench does not form the bed for the pipe, the trench 
shall be backfilled to the installation level of the bottom of 
the pipe with sand or fine gravel placed in layers of 6 inches 
(152 mm) maximum depth and such backfill shall be com- 
pacted after each placement. 

306.2.2 Rock removal. Where rock is encountered in 
trenching, the rock shall be removed to a minimum of 3 
inches (76 mm) below the installation level of the bottom of 
the pipe, and the trench shall be backfilled to the installation 
level of the bottom of the pipe with sand tamped in place so 
as to provide uniform load-bearing support for the pipe 
between joints. The pipe, including the joints, shall not rest 
on rock at any point. 

306.2.3 Soft load-bearing materials. If soft materials of 
poor load-bearing quality are found at the bottom of the 
trench, stabilization shall be achieved by overexcavating a 
minimum of two pipe diameters and backfilling to the 
installation level of the bottom of the pipe with fine gravel, 
crushed stone or a concrete foundation. The concrete foun- 
dation shall be bedded with sand tamped into place so as to 
provide uniform load-bearing support for the pipe between 
joints. 

306.3 Backfilling. Backfill shall be free from discarded con- 
struction material and debris. Loose earth free from rocks, bro- 
ken concrete and frozen chunks shall be placed in the trench in 
6-inch (152 mm) layers and tamped in place until the crown of 
the pipe is covered by 12 inches (305 mm) of tamped earth. The 
backfill under and beside the pipe shall be compacted for pipe 
support. Backfill shall be brought up evenly on both sides of the 
pipe so that the pipe remains aligned. In instances where the 
manufacturer's installation instructions for materials are more 
restrictive than those prescribed by the code, the material shall 
be installed in accordance with the more restrictive require- 
ment. 

306.4 Tunneling. Where pipe is to be installed by tunneling, 
jacking or a combination of both, the pipe shall be protected 
from damage during installation and from subsequent uneven 
loading. Where earth tunnels are used, adequate supporting 
structures shall be provided to prevent future settling or caving. 



SECTION 307 
STRUCTURAL SAFETY 

307.1 General. In the process of installing or repairing any part 
of a plumbing and drainage installation, the finished floors, 
walls, ceilings, tile work or any other part of the building or pre- 
mises that must be changed or replaced shall be left in a safe 
structural condition in accordance with the requirements of the 
International Building Code. 



307.2 Cutting, notching or bored holes. A framing member 
shall not be cut, notched or bored in excess of limitations speci- 
fied in the International Building Code. 

307.3 Penetrations of floor/ceiling assemblies and 
fire-resistance-rated assemblies. Penetrations of floor/ceil- 
ing assemblies and assemblies required to have a fire-resis- 
tance rating shall be protected in accordance with the 
International Building Code. 

[B] 307.4 Alterations to trusses. Truss members and compo- 
nents shall not be cut, drilled, notched, spliced or otherwise 
altered in any way without written concurrence and approval of 
a registered design professional. Alterations resulting in the 
addition of loads to any member (e.g., HVAC equipment, water 
heater) shall not be permitted without verification that the truss 
is capable of supporting such additional loading. 

307.5 Trench location. Trenches installed parallel to footings 
shall not extend below the 45 -degree (0.79 rad) bearing plane 
of the footing or wall. 

307.6 Piping materials exposed within plenums. All piping 
materials exposed within plenums shall comply with the provi- 
sions of the International Mechanical Code. 



SECTION 308 
PIPING SUPPORT 

308.1 General. All plumbing piping shall be supported in 
accordance with this section. 

308.2 Piping seismic supports. Where earthquake loads are 
applicable in accordance with the building code, plumbing pip- 
ing supports shall be designed and installed for the seismic 
forces in accordance with the International Building Code. 

308.3 Materials. Hangers, anchors and supports shall support 
the piping and the contents of the piping. Hangers and strap- 
ping material shall be of approved material that will not pro- 
mote galvanic action. 

308.4 Structural attachment. Hangers and anchors shall be 
attached to the building construction in an approved manner. 

308.5 Interval of support. Pipe shall be supported in accor- 
dance with Table 308.5. 

Exception: The interval of support for piping systems 
designed to provide for expansion/contraction shall con- 
form to the engineered design in accordance with Section 
105.4. 

308.6 Sway bracing. Rigid support sway bracing shall be pro- 
vided at changes in direction greater than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) 
for pipe sizes 4 inches (102 mm) and larger. 

308.7 Anchorage. Anchorage shall be provided to restrain 
drainage piping from axial movement. 

308.7.1 Location. For pipe sizes greater than 4 inches (102 
mm), restraints shall be provided for drain pipes at all 
changes in direction and at all changes in diameter greater 
than two pipe sizes. Braces, blocks, rodding and other suit- 
able methods as specified by the coupling manufacturer 
shall be utilized. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



19 



GENERAL REGULATIONS 



TABLE 308.5 
HANGER SPACING 



PIPING MATERIAL 


MAXIMUM 
HORIZONTAL 
SPACING (feet) 


MAXIMUM 

VERTICAL 

SPACING 

(feet) 


ABS pipe 


4 


10 b 


Aluminum tubing 


10 


15 


Brass pipe 


10 


10 


Cast-iron pipe 


5 a 


15 


Copper or copper-alloy pipe 


12 


10 


Copper or copper-alloy tubing, 
1 V 4 -inch diameter and smaller 


6 


10 


Copper or copper-alloy tubing, 
1 V 2 -inch diameter and larger 


10 


10 


Cross-linked polyethylene 
(PEX) pipe 


2.67 
(32 inches) 


10 b 


Cross-linked polyethylene/ 
aluminum/cross-linked 
polyethylene (PEX-AL-PEX) 
pipe 


2.67 
(32 inches) 


4 b 


CPVC pipe or tubing, 1 inch 
and smaller 


3 


10 b 


CPVC pipe or tubing, 1V 4 inches 
and larger 


4 


10 b 


Steel pipe 


12 


15 


Lead pipe 


Continuous 


4 


PB pipe or tubing 


2.67 
(32 inches) 


4 


Polyethylene/aluminum/ 

polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) pipe 


2.67 
(32 inches) 


4 b 


Polypropylene (PP) pipe or 
tubing 1 inch and smaller 


2.67 (32 inches) 


10 b 


Polypropylene (PP) pipe or 
tubing, 1 V 4 inches and larger 


4 


10 b 


PVC pipe 


4 


10 b 


Stainless steel drainage systems 


10 


10 b 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. The maximum horizontal spacing of cast-iron pipe hangers shall be 
increased to 10 feet where 10-foot lengths of pipe are installed. 

b. Midstory guide for sizes 2 inches and smaller. 



308.8 Expansion joint fittings. Expansion joint fittings shall 
be used only where necessary to provide for expansion and 
contraction of the pipes. Expansion joint fittings shall be of the 
typical material suitable for use with the type of piping in 
which such fittings are installed. 

308.9 Parallel water distribution systems. Piping bundles for 
manifold systems shall be supported in accordance with Table 
308.5. Support at changes in direction shall be in accordance 



with the manufacturer's installation instructions. Hot and cold 
water piping shall not be grouped in the same bundle. 



SECTION 309 
FLOOD HAZARD RESISTANCE 

309.1 General. Plumbing systems and equipment in structures 
erected in flood hazard areas shall be constructed in accordance 
with the requirements of this section and the International 
Building Code. 

[B] 309.2 Flood hazard. For structures located in flood hazard 
areas, the following systems and equipment shall be located at 
or above the design flood elevation. 

Exception: The following systems are permitted to be 
located below the design flood elevation provided that the 
systems are designed and installed to prevent water from 
entering or accumulating within their components and the 
systems are constructed to resist hydrostatic and hydrody- 
namic loads and stresses, including the effects of buoyancy, 
during the occurrence of flooding to the design flood eleva- 
tion. 

1. All water service pipes. 

2. Pump seals in individual water supply systems where 
the pump is located below the design flood elevation. 

3. Covers on potable water wells shall be sealed, except 
where the top of the casing well or pipe sleeve is ele- 
vated to at least 1 foot (305 mm) above the design 
flood elevation. 

4. All sanitary drainage piping. 

5. All storm drainage piping. 

6. Manhole covers shall be sealed, except where ele- 
vated to or above the design flood elevation. 

7. All other plumbing fixtures, faucets, fixture fittings, 
piping systems and equipment. 

8. Water heaters. 

9. Vents and vent systems. 

[B] 309.3 Flood hazard areas subject to high- velocity wave 
action. Structures located in flood hazard areas subject to 
high- velocity wave action shall meet the requirements of Sec- 
tion 309.2. The plumbing systems, pipes and fixtures shall not 
be mounted on or penetrate through walls intended to break 
away under flood loads. 



SECTION 310 
WASHROOM AND TOILET ROOM REQUIREMENTS 

310.1 Light and ventilation. Washrooms and toilet rooms 
shall be illuminated and ventilated in accordance with the 
International Building Code and International Mechanical 
Code. 

310.2 Location of fixtures and piping. Piping, fixtures or 
equipment shall not be located in such a manner as to interfere 
with the normal operation of windows, doors or other means of 
egress openings. 



20 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE' 



GENERAL REGULATIONS 



310.3 Interior finish. Interior finish surfaces of toilet rooms 
shall comply with the International Building Code. 

310.4 Water closet compartment. Each water closet utilized 
by the public or employees shall occupy a separate compart- 
ment with walls or partitions and a door enclosing the fixtures 
to ensure privacy. 

Exceptions: 

1. Water closet compartments shall not be required in a 
single-occupant toilet room with a lockable door. 

2. Toilet rooms located in day care and child-care facili- 
ties and containing two or more water closets shall be 
permitted to have one water closet without an enclos- 
ing compartment. 

310.5 Urinal partitions. Each urinal utilized by the public or 
employees shall occupy a separate area with walls or partitions 
to provide privacy. The construction of such walls or partitions 
shall incorporate waterproof, smooth, readily cleanable and 
nonabsorbent finish surfaces. The walls or partitions shall 
begin at a height not more than 12 inches (305 mm) from and 
extend not less than 60 inches (1524 mm) above the finished 
floor surface. The walls or partitions shall extend from the wall 
surface at each side of the urinal a minimum of 18 inches (457 
mm) or to a point not less than 6 inches (152 mm) beyond the 
outermost front lip of the urinal measured from the finished 
back wall surface, whichever is greater. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Urinal partitions shall not be required in a single occu- 
pant or unisex toilet room with a lockable door. 

2. Toilet rooms located in day care and child care facili- 
ties and containing two or more urinals shall be per- 
mitted to have one urinal without partitions. 



SECTION 311 
TOILET FACILITIES FOR WORKERS 

311.1 General. Toilet facilities shall be provided for construc- 
tion workers and such facilities shall be maintained in a sani- 
tary condition. Construction worker toilet facilities of the 
nonsewer type shall conform to ANSI Z4.3. 



SECTION 312 
TESTS AND INSPECTIONS 

312.1 Required tests. The permit holder shall make the appli- 
cable tests prescribed in Sections 312.2 through 312.9 to deter- 
mine compliance with the provisions of this code. The permit 
holder shall give reasonable advance notice to the code official 
when the plumbing work is ready for tests. The equipment, 
material, power and labor necessary for the inspection and test 
shall be furnished by the permit holder and the permit holder 
shall be responsible for determining that the work will with- 
stand the test pressure prescribed in the following tests. All 
plumbing system piping shall be tested with either water or, for 
piping systems other than plastic, by air. After the plumbing 
fixtures have been set and their traps filled with water, the entire 
drainage system shall be submitted to final tests. The code offi- 
cial shall require the removal of any cleanouts if necessary to 



ascertain whether the pressure has reached all parts of the sys- 
tem. 

312.1.1 Test gauges. Gauges used for testing shall be as fol- 
lows: 

1. Tests requiring a pressure of 10 pounds per square 
inch (psi) (69 kPa) or less shall utilize a testing gauge 
having increments of 0.10 psi (0.69 kPa) or less. 

2. Tests requiring a pressure of greater than 10 psi (69 
kPa) but less than or equal to 100 psi (689 kPa) shall 
utilize a testing gauge having increments of 1 psi (6.9 
kPa) or less. 

3 . Tests requiring a pressure of greater than 1 00 psi (689 
kPa) shall utilize a testing gauge having increments of 
2 psi (14 kPa) or less. 

312.2 Drainage and vent water test. A water test shall be 
applied to the drainage system either in its entirety or in sec- 
tions. If applied to the entire system, all openings in the piping 
shall be tightly closed, except the highest opening, and the sys- 
tem shall be filled with water to the point of overflow. If the sys- 
tem is tested in sections, each opening shall be tightly plugged 
except the highest openings of the section under test, and each 
section shall be filled with water, but no section shall be tested 
with less than a 10-foot (3048 mm) head of water. In testing 
successive sections, at least the upper 10 feet (3048 mm) of the 
next preceding section shall be tested so that no joint or pipe in 
the building, except the uppermost 10 feet (3048 mm) of the 
system, shall have been submitted to a test of less than a 10-foot 
(3048 mm) head of water. This pressure shall be held for at least 
15 minutes. The system shall then be tight at all points. 

312.3 Drainage and vent air test. An air test shall be made by 
forcing air into the system until there is a uniform gauge pres- 
sure of 5 psi (34.5 kPa) or sufficient to balance a 10-inch (254 
mm) column of mercury. This pressure shall be held for a test 
period of at least 15 minutes. Any adjustments to the test pres- 
sure required because of changes in ambient temperature or the 
seating of gaskets shall be made prior to the beginning of the 
test period. 

312.4 Drainage and vent final test. The final test of the com- 
pleted drainage and vent system shall be visual and insufficient 
detail to determine compliance with the provisions of this code 
except that the plumbing shall be subjected to a smoke test 
where necessary for cause. Where the smoke test is utilized, it 
shall be made by filling all traps with water and then introduc- 
ing into the entire system a pungent, thick smoke produced by 
one or more smoke machines. When the smoke appears at stack 
openings on the roof, the stack openings shall be closed and a 
pressure equivalent to a 1-inch water column (248.8 Pa) shall 
be held for a test period of not less than 15 minutes. 

312.5 Water supply system test. Upon completion of a sec- 
tion of or the entire water supply system, the system, or portion 
completed shall be tested and proved tight under a water pres- 
sure not less than the working pressure of the system; or, for 
piping systems other than plastic, by an air test of not less than 
50 psi (344 kPa). This pressure shall be held for at least 1 5 min- I 
utes. The water utilized for tests shall be obtained from a pota- | 
ble source of supply. The required tests shall be performed in 
accordance with this section and Section 107. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



21 



GENERAL REGULATIONS 



312.6 Gravity sewer test. Gravity sewer tests shall consist of 
plugging the end of the building sewer at the point of connec- 
tion with the public sewer, filling the building sewer with water, 
testing with not less than a 10-foot (3048 mm) head of water 
and maintaining such pressure for 15 minutes. 

312.7 Forced sewer test. Forced sewer tests shall consist of 
plugging the end of the building sewer at the point of connec- 
tion with the public sewer and applying a pressure of 5 psi (34.5 
kPa) greater than the pump rating, and maintaining such pres- 
sure for 15 minutes. 

312.8 Storm drainage system test. Storm drain systems 
within a building shall be tested by water or air in accordance 
with Section 312.2 or 312.3. 

312.9 Inspection and testing of backflow prevention assem- 
blies. Inspection and testing shall comply with Sections 
312.9.1 and 312.9.2. 

312.9.1 Inspections. Annual inspections shall be made of 
all backflow prevention assemblies and air gaps to deter- 
mine whether they are operable. 

312.9.2 Testing. Reduced pressure principle backflow 
preventer assemblies, double check- valve assemblies, pres- 
sure vacuum breaker assemblies, reduced pressure detector 
fire protection backflow prevention assemblies, double 
check detector fire protection backflow prevention assem- 
blies, hose connection backflow preventers, and spill-proof 
vacuum breakers shall be tested at the time of installation, 
immediately after repairs or relocation and at least annually. 
The testing procedure shall be performed in accordance 
with one of the following standards: 

ASSE 5013, ASSE 5015, ASSE 5020, ASSE 5047, 
ASSE 5048, ASSE 5052, ASSE 5056, CSA B64. 10 or CSA 
B64.10.1. 



SECTION 313 
EQUIPMENT EFFICIENCIES 

313.1 General. Equipment efficiencies shall be in accordance 
with the International Energy Conservation Code. 



SECTION 314 
CONDENSATE DISPOSAL 

[M] 314.1 Fuel-burning appliances. Liquid combustion 
byproducts of condensing appliances shall be collected and 
discharged to an approved plumbing fixture or disposal area in 
accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. 
Condensate piping shall be of approved corrosion-resistant 
material and shall not be smaller than the drain connection on 
the appliance. Such piping shall maintain a minimum horizon- 
tal slope in the direction of discharge of not less than 
one-eighth unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (1 -percent 
slope). 

[M] 314.2 Evaporators and cooling coils. Condensate drain 
systems shall be provided for equipment and appliances con- 
taining evaporators or cooling coils. Condensate drain systems 
shall be designed, constructed and installed in accordance with 
Sections 314.2.1 through 314.2.4. 



[M] 314.2.1 Condensate disposal. Condensate from all 
cooling coils and evaporators shall be conveyed from the 
drain pan outlet to an approved place of disposal. Conden- 
sate shall not discharge into a street, alley or other areas so as 
to cause a nuisance. 

[M] 314.2.2 Drain pipe materials and sizes. Components 
of the condensate disposal system shall be cast iron, galva- 
nized steel, copper, cross-linked polyethylene, polybutylene, 
polyethylene, ABS, CPVC, or PVC pipe or tubing. All com- 
ponents shall be selected for the pressure and temperature rat- 
ing of the installation. Condensate waste and drain line size 
shall not be less than 3 / 4 -inch (19 mm) internal diameter and 
shall not decrease in size from the drain pan connection to the 
place of condensate disposal. Where the drain pipes from 
more than one unit are manifolded together for condensate 
drainage, the pipe or tubing shall be sized in accordance with 
an approved method. All horizontal sections of drain piping 
shall be installed in uniform alignment at a uniform slope. 

[M] 314.2.3 Auxiliary and secondary drain systems. In 

addition to the requirements of Section 314.2. 1 , a secondary 
drain or auxiliary drain pan shall be required for each cool- 
ing or evaporator coil or fuel-fired appliance that produces 
condensate, where damage to any building components will 
occur as a result of overflow from the equipment drain pan 
or stoppage in the condensate drain piping. One of the fol- 
lowing methods shall be used: 

1. An auxiliary drain pan with a separate drain shall be 
provided under the coils on which condensation will 
occur. The auxiliary pan drain shall discharge to a 
conspicuous point of disposal to alert occupants in the 
event of a stoppage of the primary drain. The pan shall 
have a minimum depth of 1.5 inches (38 mm), shall 
not be less than 3 inches (76 mm) larger than the unit 
or the coil dimensions in width and length and shall be 
constructed of corrosion-resistant material. Metallic 
pans shall have a minimum thickness of not less than 
0.0276-inch (0.7 mm) galvanized sheet metal. Non- 
metallic pans shall have a minimum thickness of not 
less than 0.0625 inch (1.6 mm). 

2. A separate overflow drain line shall be connected to 
the drain pan provided with the equipment. The over- 
flow drain shall discharge to a conspicuous point of 
disposal to alert occupants in the event of a stoppage 
of the primary drain. The overflow drain line shall 
connect to the drain pan at a higher level than the pri- 
mary drain connection. 

3. An auxiliary drain pan without a separate drain line 
shall be provided under the coils on which condensate 
will occur. The pan shall be equipped with a 
water-level detection device conforming to UL 508 I 



that will shut off the equipment served prior to over- 
flow of the pan. The auxiliary drain pan shall be con- 
structed in accordance with Item 1 of this section. 

4. A water level detection device conforming to UL 508 
shall be provided that will shut off the equipment 
served in the event that the primary drain is blocked. 
The device shall be installed in the primary drain line, 
the overflow drain line or in the equipment-supplied 



r 



22 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



GENERAL REGULATIONS 



drain pan located at a point higher than the primary 
drain line connection and below the overflow rim of 
such pan. 

Exception: Fuel-fired appliances that automati- 
cally shut down operation in the event of a stop- 
page in the condensate drainage system. 

[M] 314.2.3.1 Water level monitoring devices. On 

downflow units and all other coils that have no secondary 
drain and no means to install an auxiliary drain pan, a 
water level monitoring device shall be installed inside the 
primary drain pan. This device shall shut off the equip- 
ment served in the event that the primary drain becomes 
restricted. Externally installed devices and devices 
installed in the drain line shall not be permitted. 

[M] 314.2.4 Traps. Condensate drains shall be trapped as 
required by the equipment or appliance manufacturer. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 23 



24 2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 4 

FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



SECTION 401 
GENERAL 

401.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the materials, design 
and installation of plumbing fixtures, faucets and fixture fit- 
tings in accordance with the type of occupancy, and shall pro- 
vide for the minimum number of fixtures for various types of 
occupancies. 

401.2 Prohibited fixtures and connections. Water closets 
having a concealed trap seal or an unventilated space or having 
walls that are not thoroughly washed at each discharge in 
accordance with ASME Al 12.19.2M shall be prohibited. Any 
water closet that permits siphonage of the contents of the bowl 
back into the tank shall be prohibited. Trough urinals shall be 
prohibited. 

401.3 Water conservation. The maximum water flow rates 
and flush volume for plumbing fixtures and fixture fittings 
shall comply with Section 604.4. 



SECTION 402 
FIXTURE MATERIALS 

402.1 Quality of fixtures. Plumbing fixtures shall be con- 
structed of approved materials, with smooth, impervious sur- 
faces, free from defects and concealed fouling surfaces, and 
shall conform to standards cited in this code. All porcelain 
enameled surfaces on plumbing fixtures shall be acid resistant. 



402.2 Materials for specialty fixtures. Materials for specialty 
fixtures not otherwise covered in this code shall be of stainless 
steel, soapstone, chemical stoneware or plastic, or shall be 
lined with lead, copper-base alloy, nickel-copper alloy, corro- 
sion-resistant steel or other material especially suited to the 
application for which the fixture is intended. 

402.3 Sheet copper. Sheet copper for general applications 
shall conform to ASTM B 152 and shall not weigh less than 12 
ounces per square foot (3.7 kg/m 2 ). 

402.4 Sheet lead. Sheet lead for pans shall not weigh less than 
4 pounds per square foot (19.5 kg/m 2 ) coated with an asphalt 
paint or other approved coating. 



SECTION 403 
MINIMUM PLUMBING FACILITIES 

403.1 Minimum number of fixtures. Plumbing fixtures shall 
be provided for the type of occupancy and in the minimum 
number shown in Table 403. 1 . Types of occupancies not shown 
in Table 403 . 1 shall be considered individually by the code offi- 
cial. The number of occupants shall be determined by the Inter- 
national Building Code. Occupancy classification shall be 
determined in accordance with the International Building 
Code. 



TABLE 403.1 

MINIMUM NUMBER OF REQUIRED PLUMBING FIXTURES 8 

(See Sections 403.2 and 403.3) 



NO. 


CLASSIFICATION 


OCCUPANCY 


DESCRIPTION 


WATER CLOSETS (URINALS 
SEE SECTION 419.2)- 


LAVATORIES 


BATHTUBS/ 
SHOWERS 


DRINKING 
FOUNTAIN 

(SEE 

SECTION 

410.1) 


OTHER 


MALE 


FEMALE 


MALE 


FEMALE 


1 


Assembly (see 
Sections 403.2, 
403.4 and 
403.4.1) 


A-l d 


Theaters and other 
buildings for the 
performing arts and 
motion pictures 


1 per 125 


1 per 65 


1 per 200 


— 


1 per 500 


1 service 
sink 


A-2 d 


Nightclubs, bars, tav- 
erns, dance halls and 
buildings for similar 
purposes 


1 per 40 


1 per 40 


1 per 75 


— 


1 per 500 


1 service 
sink 


Restaurants, banquet 
halls and food courts 


1 per 75 


1 per 75 


1 per 200 


— 


1 per 500 


1 service 
sink 


A-3 d 


Auditoriums without 
permanent seating, 
art galleries, exhibi- 
tion halls, museums, 
lecture halls, librar- 
ies, arcades and gym- 
nasiums 


1 per 125 


1 per 65 


1 per 200 


— 


1 per 500 


1 service 
sink 


Passenger terminals 
and transportation 
facilities 


1 per 500 


1 per 500 


1 per 750 


— 


1 per 1,000 


1 service 
sink 


Places of worship 
and other religious 
services. 


1 per 150 


1 per 75 


1 per 200 


— 


1 per 1,000 


1 service 
sink 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



(continued) 



25 



FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



TABLE 403.1— continued 
MINIMUM NUMBER OF REQUIRED PLUMBING FIXTURES 8 













See Sections 


403.2 and 403.3) 












NO. 


CLASSIFICATION 


OCCUPANCY 


DESCRIPTION 


WATER CLOSETS 

(URINALS SEE SECTION 

419.2) 


LAVATORIES 


BATHTUBS/ 
SHOWERS 


DRINKING 
FOUNTAIN 

(SEE 

SECTION 

410.1) 


OTHER 




MALE 


FEMALE 


MALE 


FEMALE 








A-4 


Coliseums, arenas, 
skating rinks, 
pools and tennis 
courts for indoor 
sporting events and 
activities 


1 per 75 for 
the first 1,500 
and 1 per 120 
for the remain- 
der exceeding 
1,500 


1 per 40 for 
the first 1,500 
and 1 per 60 
for the 
remainder 
exceeding 
1,500 


1 per 200 


1 per 150 


— 


1 per 1,000 


1 service 
sink 




A-5 


Stadiums, 
amusement parks, 
bleachers and 
grandstands for 
outdoor sporting 
events and 
activities 


1 per 75 for 
the first 1,500 
and 1 per 120 
for the 
remainder 
exceeding 
1,500 


1 per 40 for 
the first 1,500 
and 1 per 60 
for the 
remainder 
exceeding 
1,500 


1 per 200 


1 per 150 


— 


1 per 1,000 


1 service 
sink 


I 


2 


Business (see 
Sections 403.2, 
403.4 and 
403.4.1) 


B 


Buildings for the 
transaction of 
business, 
professional 
services, other 
services involving 
merchandise, 
office buildings, 
banks, light 
industrial and 
similar uses 


1 per 25 for the first 50 and 1 

per 50 for the remainder 

exceeding 50 


1 per 40 for the first 80 

and 1 per 80 for the 
remainder exceeding 80 


— 


1 per 100 


1 service 
sink 




3 


Educational 


E 


Educational 
facilities 


1 per 50 


1 per 50 


— 


1 per 100 


1 service 
sink 




4 


Factory and 
industrial 


F-landF-2 


Structures in 
which occupants 
are engaged in 
work fabricating, 
assembly or 
processing of 
products or 
materials 


1 per 100 


1 per 100 


(see Section 
411) 


1 per 400 


1 service 
sink 




5 


Institutional 


1-1 


Residential care 


1 per 10 


1 per 10 


lper8 


1 per 100 


1 service 
sink 




1-2 


Hospitals, 
ambulatory nursing 
home patients b 


1 per room c 


1 per room c 


1 per 15 


1 per 100 


1 service 

sink per 

floor 




Employees, other 
than residential 
care b 


1 per 25 


1 per 35 


— 


1 per 100 


— 




Visitors, other than 
residential care 


1 per 75 


1 per 100 


— 


1 per 500 


— 




1-3 


Prisons b 


1 per cell 


1 per cell 


1 per 15 


1 per 100 


1 service 
sink 




1-3 


Reformitories, 
detention centers, 
and correctional 
centers' 5 


1 per 15 


1 per 15 


1 per 15 


1 per 100 


1 service 
sink 


I 


1-4 


Adult day care and 
child care 


1 per 15 


— 


— 


1 per 100 


1 service 
sink 



(continued) 



26 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE" 



FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



TABLE 403.1— continued 

MINIMUM NUMBER OF REQUIRED PLUMBING FIXTURES 8 

(See Sections 403.2 and 403.3) 











WATER CLOSETS 






DRINKING 












(URINALS SEE SECTION 






FOUNTAIN 












419.2) 


LAVATORIES 




(SEE 




















BATHTUBS/ 


SECTION 




NO. 


CLASSIFICATION 


OCCUPANCY 


DESCRIPTION 


MALE 


FEMALE 


MALE 


FEMALE 


SHOWERS 


410.1) 


OTHER 


6 


Mercantile (see 
Sections 403.2, 




Retail stores, 
service stations, 










1 service 
sink 




403.4,403.4.1 and 


M 


shops, salesrooms, 


1 per 500 


1 per 750 


— 


1 per 1,000 




403.4.2) 




markets and 
















shopping centers 












7 


Residential 


R-l 


Hotels, motels, 
boarding houses 
(transient) 


1 per sleeping unit 


1 per sleeping unit 


1 per 
sleeping unit 


— 


1 service 
sink 




Dormitories, 


















fraternities, 










1 service 
sink 






R-2 


sororities and 


1 per 10 


1 per 10 


lper8 


1 per 100 








boarding houses 
















(not transient) 
























1 kitchen 


















sink per 


















dwelling 


















unit; 1 














1 per 




automatic 






R-2 


Apartment house 


1 per dwelling unit 


1 per dwelling unit 


dwelling 
unit 




clothes 

washer 

connection 

per 20 

dwelling 

units 














1 kitchen 


















sink per 


















dwelling 


















unit; 1 








One- and 






1 per 




automatic 






R-3 


two-family 
dwellings 


1 per dwelling unit 


1 per dwelling unit 


dwelling 
unit 




clothes 

washer 

connection 

per 

dwelling 

unit 




Residential 










1 service 
sink 






R-4 


care/assisted living 


1 per 10 


1 per 10 


lper8 


1 per 100 








facilities 










8 


Storage (see 
Sections 403.2, 




Structures for the 
storage of goods, 














403.4 and 403.4.1) 


S-l 
S-2 


warehouses, 
storehouse and 
freight depots. Low 
and Moderate 
Hazard. 


1 per 100 


1 per 100 


See 
Section 41 1 


1 per 1,000 


1 service 
sink 



a. The fixtures shown are based on one fixture being the minimum required for the number of persons indicated or any fraction of the number of persons indicated. 
The number of occupants shall be determined by the International Building Code. 

b. Toilet facilities for employees shall be separate from facilities for inmates or patients. 

c. A single-occupant toilet room with one water closet and one lavatory serving not more than two adjacent patient sleeping units shall be permitted where such room 
is provided with direct access from each patient room and with provisions for privacy. 

d. The occupant load for seasonal outdoor seating and entertainment areas shall be included when determining the minimum number of iacilities required. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



27 



FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



[B] 403.1.1 Unisex toilet and bath fixtures. Fixtures 
located within unisex toilet and bathing rooms complying 
with Section 404 are permitted to be included in determin- 
ing the minimum required number of fixtures for assembly 
and mercantile occupancies. 

403.2 Separate facilities. Where plumbing fixtures are 
required, separate facilities shall be provided for each sex. 

Exceptions: 

1. Separate facilities shall not be required for dwelling 
units and sleeping units. 

2. Separate facilities shall not be required in structures 
or tenant spaces with a total occupant load, including 
both employees and customers, of 15 or less. 

3. Separate facilities shall not be required in mercantile 
occupancies in which the maximum occupant load is 
50 or less. 

403.3 Number of occupants of each sex. The required water 
closets, lavatories, and showers or bathtubs shall be distributed 
equally between the sexes based on the percentage of each sex 
anticipated in the occupant load. The occupant load shall be 
composed of 50 percent of each sex, unless statistical data 
approved by the code official indicate a different distribution of 
the sexes. 

403.4 Required public toilet facilities. Customers, patrons 
and visitors shall be provided with public toilet facilities in 
structures and tenant spaces intended for public utilization. The 
accessible route to public facilities shall not pass through kitch- 
ens, storage rooms, closets or similar spaces. Employees shall 
be provided with toilet facilities in all occupancies. Employee 
toilet facilities shall be either separate or combined employee 
and public toilet facilities. 

403.4.1 Location of toilet facilities in occupancies other 
than covered malls. In occupancies other than covered 
malls, the required public and employee toilet facilities shall 
be located not more than one story above or below the space 
required to be provided with toilet facilities, and the path of 
travel to such facilities shall not exceed a distance of 500 
feet (152 m). 

Exception: The location and maximum travel distances 
to required employee facilities in factory and industrial 
occupancies are permitted to exceed that required by this 
section, provided that the location and maximum travel 
distance are approved. 

403.4.2 Location of toilet facilities in covered malls. In 

covered mall buildings, the required public and employee 
toilet facilities shall be located not more than one story 
above or below the space required to be provided with toilet 
facilities, and the path of travel to such facilities shall not 
exceed a distance of 300 feet (91 440 mm). In covered mall 
buildings, the required facilities shall be based on total 
square footage, and facilities shall be installed in each indi- 
vidual store or in a central toilet area located in accordance 
with this section. The maximum travel distance to central 
toilet facilities in covered mall buildings shall be measured 
from the main entrance of any store or tenant space. In cov- 
ered mall buildings, where employees' toilet facilities are 



not provided in the individual store, the maximum travel 
distance shall be measured from the employee's work area 
of the store or tenant space. 

403.4.3 Pay facilities. Where pay facilities are installed, 
such facilities shall be in excess of the required minimum 
facilities. Required facilities shall be free of charge. 

403.5 Signage. Required public facilities shall be designated 
by a legible sign for each sex. Signs shall be readily visible and 
located near the entrance to each toilet facility. 



SECTION 404 
ACCESSIBLE PLUMBING FACILITIES 

404.1 Where required. Accessible plumbing facilities and 
fixtures shall be provided in accordance with the International 
Building Code. 



SECTION 405 
INSTALLATION OF FIXTURES 

405.1 Water supply protection. The supply lines and fittings 
for every plumbing fixture shall be installed so as to prevent 
backflow. 

405.2 Access for cleaning. Plumbing fixtures shall be installed 
so as to afford easy access for cleaning both the fixture and the 
area around the fixture. 

405.3 Setting. Fixtures shall be set level and in proper align- 
ment with reference to adjacent walls. 

405.3.1 Water closets, urinals, lavatories and bidets. A 

water closet, urinal, lavatory or bidet shall not be set closer 
than 15 inches (381 mm) from its center to any side wall, 
partition, vanity or other obstruction, or closer than 30 I 
inches (762 mm) center-to-center between adjacent fix- | 
tures . There shall be at least a 2 1 -inch (533 mm) clearance in 
front of the water closet, urinal, lavatory or bidet to any wall, 
fixture or door. Water closet compartments shall not be less 
than 30 inches (762 mm) wide and 60 inches (1524 mm) I 
deep (see Figure 405.3.1). ■ 

405.3.2 Public lavatories. In employee and public toilet 
rooms, the required lavatory shall be located in the same 
room as the required water closet. 

405.4 Floor and wall drainage connections. Connections 
between the drain and floor outlet plumbing fixtures shall be 
made with a floor flange. The flange shall be attached to the 
drain and anchored to the structure. Connections between the 
drain and wall-hung water closets shall be made with an 
approved extension nipple or horn adaptor. The water closet 
shall be bolted to the hanger with corrosion-resistant bolts or 
screws. Joints shall be sealed with an approved elastomeric 
gasket, flange-to-fixture connection complying with ASME 
Al 12.4.3 or an approved setting compound. | 

405.4.1 Floor flanges. Floor flanges for water closets or 
similar fixtures shall not be less than 0.125 inch (3.2 mm) 
thick for brass, 0.25 inch (6.4 mm) thick for plastic, and 0.25 
inch (6.4 mm) thick and not less than a 2-inch (51 mm) 
caulking depth for cast-iron or galvanized malleable iron. 



28 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE" 








21 IN. CLEARANCE 



( TUB 



FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



dimension or other approved arrangement so as to provide 
access to the slip joint connections for inspection and repair. 

405.9 Design and installation of plumbing fixtures. Integral 
fixture fitting mounting surfaces on manufactured plumbing 
fixtures or plumbing fixtures constructed on site, shall meet the 
design requirements of ASME A112.19.2M or ASME 
A112.19.3M. 



-COMPARTMENT 



m m Q Q 



WC WC 21 IN 



c 



FIGURE 405.3.1 
FIXTURE CLEARANCE 

Floor flanges of hard lead shall weigh not less than 1 
pound, 9 ounces (0.7 kg) and shall be composed of lead 
alloy with not less than 7.75-percent antimony by weight. 
Closet screws and bolts shall be of brass. Flanges shall be 
secured to the building structure with corrosion-resistant 
screws or bolts. 

405.4.2 Securing floor outlet fixtures. Floor outlet fixtures 
shall be secured to the floor or floor flanges by screws or 
bolts of corrosion-resistant material. 

405.4.3 Securing wall-hung water closet bowls. 

Wall-hung water closet bowls shall be supported by a con- 
cealed metal carrier that is attached to the building structural 
members so that strain is not transmitted to the closet con- 
nector or any other part of the plumbing system. The carrier 
shall conform to ASME Al 12.6.1M or ASME Al 12.6.2. 

405.5 Water-tight joints. Joints formed where fixtures come 
in contact with walls or floors shall be sealed. 

405.6 Plumbing in mental health centers. In mental health 
centers, pipes or traps shall not be exposed, and fixtures shall 
be bolted through walls. 

405.7 Design of overflows. Where any fixture is provided with 
an overflow, the waste shall be designed and installed so that 
standing water in the fixture will not rise in the overflow when 
the stopper is closed, and no water will remain in the overflow 
when the fixture is empty. 

405.7.1 Connection of overflows. The overflow from any 
fixture shall discharge into the drainage system on the inlet 
or fixture side of the trap. 

Exception: The overflow from a flush tank serving a 
water closet or urinal shall discharge into the fixture 
served. 

405.8 Slip joint connections. Slip joints shall be made with an 
approved elastomeric gasket and shall only be installed on the 
trap outlet, trap inlet and within the trap seal. Fixtures with con- 
cealed slip-joint connections shall be provided with an access 
panel or utility space at least 12 inches (305 mm) in its smallest 



SECTION 406 
AUTOMATIC CLOTHES WASHERS 

406.1 Approval. Domestic automatic clothes washers shall 
conform to ASSE 1007. 

406.2 Water connection. The water supply to an automatic 
clothes washer shall be protected against backflow by an air 
gap installed integrally within the machine conforming to 
ASSE 1007 or with the installation of a backflow preventer in 
accordance with Section 608. 

406.3 Waste connection. The waste from an automatic clothes 
washer shall discharge through an air break into a standpipe in 
accordance with Section 802.4 or into a laundry sink. The trap 
and fixture drain for an automatic clothes washer standpipe 
shall be a minimum of 2 inches (51 mm) in diameter. The auto- 
matic clothes washer fixture drain shall connect to a branch 
drain or drainage stack a minimum of 3 inches (76 mm) in 
diameter. Automatic clothes washers that discharge by gravity 
shall be permitted to drain to a waste receptor or an approved 
trench drain. 



SECTION 407 
BATHTUBS 

407.1 Approval. Bathtubs shall conform to ANSI Z124.1, 
ASME A112.19.1M, ASME A112.19.4M, ASME 
Al 12.19.9M, CSA B45.2, CSA B45.3 or CSA B45.5. 

407.2 Bathtub waste outlets. Bathtubs shall have waste out- 
lets a minimum of 1.5 inches (38 mm) in diameter. The waste 
outlet shall be equipped with an approved stopper. 

407.3 Glazing. Windows and doors within a bathtub enclosure 
shall conform to the safety glazing requirements of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

407.4 Bathtub enclosure. Doors within a bathtub enclosure 
shall conform to ASME Al 12. 19. 15. 



SECTION 408 
BIDETS 

408.1 Approval. Bidets shall conform to ASME Al 12. 19.2M, 
ASME A112.19.9M or CSA B45.1. 

408.2 Water connection. The water supply to a bidet shall be 
protected against backflow by an air gap or backflow preventer 
in accordance with Section 608.13.1, 608.13.2, 608.13.3, 
608.13.5, 608.13.6 or 608.13.8. 

408.3 Bidet water temperature. The discharge water temper- I 
ature from a bidet fitting shall be limited to a maximum temper- I 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



29 



FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



I ature of 1 10°F (43 °C) by a water temperature limiting device 



conforming to ASSE 1070. 



have a minimum outlet of not less than 3 inches (76 mm) in 
diameter. 



SECTION 409 
DISHWASHING MACHINES 

409.1 Approval. Domestic dishwashing machines shall con- 
form to ASSE 1006. Commercial dishwashing machines shall 
conform to ASSE 1 004 and NSF 3 . 

409.2 Water connection. The water supply to a dishwashing 
machine shall be protected against backflow by an air gap or 
backflow preventer in accordance with Section 608. 

409.3 Waste connection. The waste connection of a 
dishwashing machine shall comply with Section 802.1.6 or 
802.1.7, as applicable. 



SECTION 410 
DRINKING FOUNTAINS 

410.1 Approval. Drinking fountains shall conform to ASME 
Al 12.19.1M, ASME Al 12.19.2M or ASME Al 12.19.9M and 
water coolers shall conform to ARI 1010. Drinking fountains 
and water coolers shall conform to NSF 61, Section 9. Where 
water is served in restaurants, drinking fountains shall not be 
required. In other occupancies, where drinking fountains are 
required, water coolers or bottled water dispensers shall be per- 
mitted to be substituted for not more than 50 percent of the 
required drinking fountains. 

410.2 Prohibited location. Drinking fountains shall not be 
installed in public restrooms. 



SECTION 411 

EMERGENCY SHOWERS AND 

EYEWASH STATIONS 

411.1 Approval. Emergency showers and eyewash stations 
shall conform to ISEA Z358.1. 

411.2 Waste connection. Waste connections shall not be 
required for emergency showers and eyewash stations. 



SECTION 412 
FLOOR AND TRENCH DRAINS 

412.1 Approval. Floor drains shall conform to ASME 
Al 12.6.3, ASME Al 12.3.1 or CSA B79. Trench drains shall 
comply with ASME Al 12.6.3. 

412.2 Floor drains. Floor drains shall have removeable strain- 
ers. The floor drain shall be constructed so that the drain is 
capable of being cleaned. Access shall be provided to the drain 
inlet. 

412.3 Size of floor drains. Floor drains shall have a minimum 
2-inch-diameter (51 mm) drain outlet. 

412.4 Public laundries and central washing facilities. In 

public coin-operated laundries and in the central washing facil- 
ities of multiple-family dwellings, the rooms containing auto- 
matic clothes washers shall be provided with floor drains 
located to readily drain the entire floor area. Such drains shall 



SECTION 413 
FOOD WASTE GRINDER UNITS 

413.1 Approval. Domestic food waste grinders shall conform 
to ASSE 1008. Commercial food waste grinders shall conform 
to ASSE 1009. Food waste grinders shall not increase the 
drainage fixture unit load on the sanitary drainage system. 

413.2 Domestic food waste grinder waste outlets. Domestic 
food waste grinders shall be connected to a drain of not less 
than 1.5 inches (38 mm) in diameter. 

413.3 Commercial food waste grinder waste outlets. Com- 
mercial food waste grinders shall be connected to a drain a min- 
imum of 2 inches (5 1 mm) in diameter. Commercial food waste 
grinders shall be connected and trapped separately from any 
other fixtures or sink compartments. 

413.4 Water supply required. All food waste grinders shall be 
provided with a supply of cold water. 



SECTION 414 
GARBAGE CAN WASHERS 

414.1 Water connection. The water supply to a garbage can 
washer shall be protected against backflow by an air gap or a 
backflow preventer in accordance with Section 608.13.1, 
608.13.2, 608.13.3, 608.13.5, 608.13.6 or 608.13.8. 

414.2 Waste connection. Garbage can washers shall be 
trapped separately. The receptacle receiving the waste from the 
washer shall have a removable basket or strainer to prevent the 
discharge of large particles into the drainage system. 



SECTION 415 
LAUNDRY TRAYS 

415.1 Approval. Laundry trays shall conform to ANSI 
Z124.6, ASME A112.19.1M, ASME A112.19.3M, ASME 
Al 12.19.9M, CSA B45.2 or CSA B45.4. 

415.2 Waste outlet. Each compartment of a laundry tray shall 
be provided with a waste outlet a minimum of 1.5 inches (38 
mm) in diameter and a strainer or crossbar to restrict the clear 
opening of the waste outlet. 



SECTION 416 
LAVATORIES 

416.1 Approval. Lavatories shall conform to ANSI Z124.3, 
ASME A112.19.1M, ASME A112.19.2M, ASME 
Al 12. 19.3M, ASME Al 12. 19.4M, ASME Al 12. 19.9M, CSA 
B45 . 1 , CS A B45 .2, CSA B45 .3 or CSA B45 .4. Group wash-up 
equipment shall conform to the requirements of Section 402. 
Every 20 inches (508 mm) of rim space shall be considered as 
one lavatory. 

416.2 Cultured marble lavatories. Cultured marble vanity 
tops with an integral lavatory shall conform to ANSI Z124.3 or 
CSA B45.5. 



30 



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FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



416.3 Lavatory waste outlets. Lavatories shall have waste 
outlets not less than 1.25 inches (32 mm) in diameter. A 
strainer, pop-up stopper, crossbar or other device shall be pro- 
vided to restrict the clear opening of the waste outlet. 

416.4 Moveable lavatory systems. Moveable lavatory sys- 
tems shall comply with ASME Al 12.19.12. 

416.5 Tempered water for public hand-washing facilities. 

Tempered water shall be delivered from public hand- washing 
facilities through an approved water temperature limiting 
device that conforms to ASSE 1070. 



SECTION 417 
SHOWERS 

417.1 Approval. Prefabricated showers and shower compart- 
ments shall conform to ANSI Z124.2, ASME Al 12.19.9M or 
CSA B45.5. Shower valves for individual showers shall con- 
form to the requirements of Section 424.3. 

417.2 Water supply riser. Every water supply riser from the 
shower valve to the shower head outlet, whether exposed or 
not, shall be attached to the structure in an approved manner. 

417.3 Shower waste outlet. Waste outlets serving showers 
shall be at least 1 V 2 inches (38 mm) in diameter and, for other 
than waste outlets in bathtubs, shall have removable strainers 
not less than 3 inches (76 mm) in diameter with strainer open- 
ings not less than 0.25 inch (6.4 mm) in minimum dimension. 
Where each shower space is not provided with an individual 
waste outlet, the waste outlet shall be located and the floor 
pitched so that waste from one shower does not flow over the 
floor area serving another shower. Waste outlets shall be fas- 
tened to the waste pipe in an approved manner. 

417.4 Shower compartments. All shower compartments shall 
have a minimum of 900 square inches (0.58 m 2 ) of interior 
cross-sectional area. Shower compartments shall not be less 
than 30 inches (762 mm) in minimum dimension measured 
from the finished interior dimension of the compartment, 
exclusive of fixture valves, showerheads, soap dishes, and 
safety grab bars or rails. Except as required in Section 404, the 
minimum required area and dimension shall be measured from 
the finished interior dimension at a height equal to the top of the 
threshold and at a point tangent to its centerline and shall be 
continued to a height not less than 70 inches (1778 mm) above 
the shower drain outlet. 

Exception: Shower compartments having not less than 25 
inches (635 mm) in minimum dimension measured from the 
finished interior dimension of the compartment, provided 
that the shower compartment has a minimum of 1,300 
square inches (.838 m 2 ) of cross-sectional area. 

417.4.1 Wall area. The wall area above built-in tubs with 
installed shower heads and in shower compartments shall be 
constructed of smooth, noncorrosive and nonabsorbent 
waterproof materials to a height not less than 6 feet (1829 
mm) above the room floor level, and not less than 70 inches 
(1778 mm) where measured from the compartment floor at 
the drain. Such walls shall form a water-tight joint with each 
other and with either the tub, receptor or shower floor. 



417.4.2 Access. The shower compartment access and egress 
opening shall have a minimum clear and unobstructed fin- 
ished width of 22 inches (559 mm). Shower compartments 
required to be designed in conformance to accessibility pro- 
visions shall comply with Section 404.1. 

417.5 Shower floors or receptors. Floor surfaces shall be con- 
structed of impervious, noncorrosive, nonabsorbent and water- 
proof materials. 

417.5.1 Support. Floors or receptors under shower com- 
partments shall be laid on, and supported by, a smooth and 
structurally sound base. 

417.5.2 Shower lining. Floors under shower compart- 
ments, except where prefabricated receptors have been pro- 
vided, shall be lined and made water tight utilizing material 
complying with Sections 417.5.2.1 through 417.5.2.4. Such 
liners shall turn up on all sides at least 2 inches (51 mm) 
above the finished threshold level. Liners shall be recessed 
and fastened to an approved backing so as not to occupy the 
space required for wall covering, and shall not be nailed or 
perforated at any point less than 1 inch (25 mm) above the 
finished threshold. Liners shall be pitched one-fourth unit 
vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) and shall be 
sloped toward the fixture drains and be securely fastened to 
the waste outlet at the seepage entrance, making a 
water-tight joint between the liner and the outlet. 

Exception: Floor surfaces under shower heads provided 
for rinsing laid directly on the ground are not required to 
comply with this section. 

417.5.2.1 PVC sheets. Plasticized polyvinyl chloride 
(PVC) sheets shall be a minimum of 0.040 inch (1.02 
mm) thick, and shall meet the requirements of ASTM D 
455 1 . Sheets shall be joined by solvent welding in accor- 
dance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. 

417.5.2.2 Chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) sheets. r 

Nonplasticized chlorinated polyethylene sheet shall be a 
minimum 0.040 inch (1 .02 mm) thick, and shall meet the 
requirements of ASTM D 4068. The liner shall be joined 
in accordance with the manufacturer's installation 
instructions. 

417.5.2.3 Sheet lead. Sheet lead shall not weigh less 
than 4 pounds per square foot (19.5 kg/m 2 ) coated with 
an asphalt paint or other approved coating. The lead 
sheet shall be insulated from conducting substances 
other than the connecting drain by 15-pound (6.80 kg) 
asphalt felt or its equivalent. Sheet lead shall be joined by 
burning. 

417.5.2.4 Sheet copper. Sheet copper shall conform to 
ASTM B 152 and shall not weigh less than 12 ounces per 
square foot (3.7 kg/m 2 ). The copper sheet shall be insu- 
lated from conducting substances other than the connect- 
ing drain by 15-pound (6.80 kg) asphalt felt or its 
equivalent. Sheet copper shall be joined by brazing or 
soldering. 

417.6 Glazing. Windows and doors within a shower enclosure 
shall conform to the safety glazing requirements of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



31 



FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



SECTION 418 
SINKS 

418.1 Approval. Sinks shall conform to ANSI Z 124.6, ASME 
A112.19.1M, ASME A112.19.2M, ASME A112.19.3M, 
ASME A112.19.4M, ASME A112.19.9M, CSA B45.1, CSA 
B45.2, CSA B45.3 or CSA B45.4. 

418.2 Sink waste outlets. Sinks shall be provided with waste 
outlets a minimum of 1.5 inches (38 mm) in diameter. A 
strainer or crossbar shall be provided to restrict the clear open- 
ing of the waste outlet. 

418.3 Moveable sink systems. Moveable sink systems shall 
comply with ASME Al 12.19.12. 



SECTION 419 
URINALS 

419.1 Approval. Urinals shall conform to ANSI Z124.9, 
ASME A112.19.2M, CSAB45.1 or CSAB45.5. Urinals shall 
conform to the water consumption requirements of Section 
604.4. Water supplied urinals shall conform to the hydraulic 
performance requirements of ASME Al 12. 19.6, CSA B45.1 
or CSA B45.5. 

419.2 Substitution for water closets. In each bathroom or toi- 
let room, urinals shall not be substituted for more than 67 per- 
cent of the required water closets in assembly and educational 
occupancies. Urinals shall not be substituted for more than 50 
percent of the required water closets in all other occupancies. 

[B] 419.3 Surrounding material. Wall and floor space to a 
point 2 feet (610 mm) in front of a urinal lip and 4 feet (1219 
mm) above the floor and at least 2 feet (610 mm) to each side of 
the urinal shall be waterproofed with a smooth, readily 
cleanable, nonabsorbent material. 



SECTION 420 
WATER CLOSETS 

420.1 Approval. Water closets shall conform to the water con- 
sumption requirements of Section 604.4 and shall conform to 
ANSI Z124.4, ASME A112.19.2M, CSA B45.1, CSA B45.4 
or CSA B45.5. Water closets shall conform to the hydraulic 
performance requirements of ASME Al 12.19.6. Water closet 
tanks shall conform to ANSI Z124.4, ASME Al 12. 19.2, 
ASME A112.19.9M, CSA B45.1, CSA B45.4 or CSA B45.5. 
Electro-hydraulic water closets shall comply with ASME 
A112.19.13. 

420.2 Water closets for public or employee toilet facilities. 

Water closet bowls for public or employee toilet facilities shall 
be of the elongated type. 

420.3 Water closet seats. Water closets shall be equipped with 
seats of smooth, nonabsorbent material. All seats of water clos- 
ets provided for public or employee toilet facilities shall be of 
the hinged open-front type. Integral water closet seats shall be 
of the same material as the fixture. Water closet seats shall be 
sized for the water closet bowl type. 

420.4 Water closet connections. A 4-inch by 3-inch (102 mm 
by 76 mm) closet bend shall be acceptable. Where a 3-inch (76 
mm) bend is utilized on water closets, a 4-inch by 3-inch (102 



mm by 76 mm) flange shall be installed to receive the fixture 
horn. 



SECTION 421 
WHIRLPOOL BATHTUBS 

421.1 Approval. Whirlpool bathtubs shall comply with ASME 
A112.19.7M or with CSA B45.5 and CSA B45 (Supplement 
1). 

421.2 Installation. Whirlpool bathtubs shall be installed and 
tested in accordance with the manufacturer's installation 
instructions. The pump shall be located above the weir of the 
fixture trap. I 

421.3 Drain. The pump drain and circulation piping shall be 
sloped to drain the water in the volute and the circulation piping 
when the whirlpool bathtub is empty. 

421.4 Suction fittings. Suction fittings for whirlpool bathtubs 
shall comply with ASME Al 12.19.8M. 

421.5 Access to pump. Access shall be provided to circulation 
pumps in accordance with the fixture or pump manufacturer's 
installation instructions. Where the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions do not specify the location and minimum size of field-fab- 
ricated access openings, a 12-inch by 12-inch (305 mm by 305 
mm) minimum sized opening shall be installed to provide 
access to the circulation pump. Where pumps are located more 
than 2 feet (609 mm) from the access opening, an 18-inch by 
1 8-inch (457 mm by 457 mm) minimum sized opening shall be 
installed. A door or panel shall be permitted to close the open- 
ing. In all cases, the access opening shall be unobstructed and 
of the size necessary to permit the removal and replacement of 
the circulation pump. 

421.6 Whirlpool enclosure. Doors within a whirlpool enclo- 
sure shall conform to ASME Al 12.19.15. 



SECTION 422 
HEALTH CARE FIXTURES AND EQUIPMENT 

422.1 Scope. This section shall govern those aspects of health 
care plumbing systems that differ from plumbing systems in 
other structures. Health care plumbing systems shall conform 
to the requirements of this section in addition to the other 
requirements of this code. The provisions of this section shall 
apply to the special devices and equipment installed and main- 
tained in the following occupancies: nursing homes, homes for 
the aged, orphanages, infirmaries, first aid stations, psychiatric 
facilities, clinics, professional offices of dentists and doctors, 
mortuaries, educational facilities, surgery, dentistry, research 
and testing laboratories, establishments manufacturing phar- 
maceutical drugs and medicines, and other structures with sim- 
ilar apparatus and equipment classified as plumbing. 

422.2 Approval. All special plumbing fixtures, equipment, 
devices and apparatus shall be of an approved type. 

422.3 Protection. All devices, appurtenances, appliances and 
apparatus intended to serve some special function, such as ster- 
ilization, distillation, processing, cooling, or storage of ice or 
foods, and that connect to either the water supply or drainage 
system, shall be provided with protection against backflow, 



32 



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FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



flooding, fouling, contamination of the water supply system 
and stoppage of the drain. 

422.4 Materials. Fixtures designed for therapy, special cleans- 
ing or disposal of waste materials, combinations of such pur- 
poses, or any other special purpose, shall be of smooth, 
impervious, corrosion-resistant materials and, where subjected 
to temperatures in excess of 180°F (82°C), shall be capable of 
withstanding, without damage, higher temperatures. 

422.5 Access. Access shall be provided to concealed piping in 
connection with special fixtures where such piping contains 
steam traps, valves, relief valves, check valves, vacuum break- 
ers or other similar items that require periodic inspection, ser- 
vicing, maintenance or repair. Access shall be provided to 
concealed piping that requires periodic inspection, mainte- 
nance or repair. 

422.6 Clinical sink. A clinical sink shall have an integral trap 
in which the upper portion of a visible trap seal provides a water 
surface. The fixture shall be designed so as to permit complete 
removal of the contents by siphonic or blowout action and to 
reseal the trap. A flushing rim shall provide water to cleanse the 
interior surface. The fixture shall have the flushing and cleans- 
ing characteristics of a water closet. 

422.7 Prohibited usage of clinical sinks and service sinks. A 

clinical sink serving a soiled utility room shall not be consid- 
ered as a substitute for, or be utilized as, a service sink. A ser- 
vice sink shall not be utilized for the disposal of urine, fecal 
matter or other human waste. 

422.8 Ice prohibited in soiled utility room. Machines for 
manufacturing ice, or any device for the handling or storage of 
ice, shall not be located in a soiled utility room. 

422.9 Sterilizer equipment requirements. The approval and 
installation of all sterilizers shall conform to the requirements 
of the International Mechanical Code. 

422.9.1 Sterilizer piping. Access for the purposes of 
inspection and maintenance shall be provided to all steril- 
izer piping and devices necessary for the operation of steril- 
izers. 

422.9.2 Steam supply. Steam supplies to sterilizers, includ- 
ing those connected by pipes from overhead mains or 
branches, shall be drained to prevent any moisture from 
reaching the sterilizer. The condensate drainage from the 
steam supply shall be discharged by gravity. 

422.9.3 Steam condensate return. Steam condensate 
returns from sterilizers shall be a gravity return system. 

422.9.4 Condensers. Pressure sterilizers shall be equipped 
with a means of condensing and cooling the exhaust steam 
vapors. Nonpressure sterilizers shall be equipped with a 
device that will automatically control the vapor, confining 
the vapors within the vessel. 

422.10 Special elevations. Control valves, vacuum outlets and 
devices protruding from a wall of an operating, emergency, 
recovery, examining or delivery room, or in a corridor or other 
location where patients are transported on a wheeled stretcher, 
shall be located at an elevation that prevents bumping the 
patient or stretcher against the device. 



SECTION 423 
SPECIALTY PLUMBING FIXTURES 

423.1 Water connections. Baptisteries, ornamental and lily 
pools, aquariums, ornamental fountain basins, swimming 
pools, and similar constructions, where provided with water 
supplies, shall be protected against backflow in accordance 
with Section 608. 

423.2 Approval. Specialties requiring water and waste con- 
nections shall be submitted for approval. 



SECTION 424 
FAUCETS AND OTHER FIXTURE FITTINGS 

424.1 Approval. Faucets and fixture fittings shall conform to 
ASME Al 12.18.1 or CSA B125. Faucets and fixture fittings 
that supply drinking water for human ingestion shall conform 
to the requirements of NSF 61, Section 9. Flexible water con- 
nectors exposed to continuous pressure shall conform to the 
requirements of Section 605.6. 

424.1.1 Faucets and supply fittings. Faucets and supply 
fittings shall conform to the water consumption require- 
ments of Section 604.4. 

424.1.2 Waste fittings. Waste fittings shall conform to 
ASME Al 12. 18.2, ASTM F 409, CSA B 125 or to one of the 
standards listed in Tables 702. 1 and 702.4 for above-ground 
drainage and vent pipe and fittings. 

424.2 Hand showers. Hand-held showers shall conform to 
ASME Al 12.18.1 or CSA B125.1. Hand-held showers shall 
provide backflow protection in accordance with ASME 
Al 12.18.1 or CSA B 125.1 or shall be protected against 
backflow by a device complying with ASME Al 12.18.3. 

424.3 Individual shower valves. Individual shower and 
tub-shower combination valves shall be balanced-pressure, 
thermostatic or combination balanced-pressure/thermostatic 
valves that conform to the requirements of ASSE 1016 or CSA 
B125 and shall be installed at the point of use. Shower and | 
tub-shower combination valves required by this section shall 
be equipped with a means to limit the maximum setting of the 
valve to 120°F (49°C), which shall be field adjusted in accor- 
dance with the manufacturer's instructions. In-line thermo- I 
static valves shall not be utilized for compliance with this I 
section. 

424.4 Multiple (gang) showers. Multiple (gang) showers sup- 
plied with a single-tempered water supply pipe shall have the 
water supply for such showers controlled by an approved auto- 
matic temperature control mixing valve that conforms to ASSE 
1069 or CSA B125, or each shower head shall be individually 
controlled by a balanced-pressure, thermostatic or combina- 
tion balanced-pressure/thermostatic valve that conforms to 
ASSE 1016 or CSA B125 and is installed at the point of use. 
Such valves shall be equipped with a means to limit the maxi- 
mum setting of the valve to 120°F (49°C), which shall be field 
adjusted in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

424.5 Bathtub and whirlpool bathtub valves. The hot water 
supplied to bathtubs and whirlpool bathtubs shall be limited to 
a maximum temperature of 120°F (49°C) by a water tempera- 
ture limiting device that conforms to ASSE 1070, except where 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



33 



FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



I such protection is otherwise provided by a combination 
tub/shower valve in accordance with Section 424.3. 

424.6 Hose-connected outlets. Faucets and fixture fittings 
with hose-connected outlets shall conform to ASME 

I A112.18.3MorCSAB125. 

424.7 Temperature-actuated, flow reduction valves for 
individual fixture fittings. Temperature-actuated, flow reduc- 
tion devices, where installed for individual fixture fittings, 
shall conform to ASSE 1062. Such valves shall not be used 
alone as a substitute for the balanced pressure, thermostatic or 
combination shower valves required in Section 424.3. 

424.8 Transfer valves. Deck-mounted bath/shower transfer 
valves containing an integral atmospheric vacuum breaker 
shall conform to the requirements of ASME A112.18.7. 



SECTION 425 

FLUSHING DEVICES FOR WATER CLOSETS AND 

URINALS 

425.1 Flushing devices required. Each water closet, urinal, 
clinical sink and any plumbing fixture that depends on trap 
siphonage to discharge the fixture contents to the drainage sys- 
tem shall be provided with a flushometer valve, flushometer 
tank or a flush tank designed and installed to supply water in 
quantity and rate of flow to flush the contents of the fixture, 
cleanse the fixture and refill the fixture trap. 

425.1.1 Separate for each fixture. A flushing device shall 
not serve more than one fixture. 

425.2 Flushometer valves and tanks. Flushometer valves and 
tanks shall comply with ASSE 1037. Vacuum breakers on 
flushometer valves shall conform to the performance require- 
ments of ASSE 1001 or CSA B64.1.1. Access shall be pro- 
vided to vacuum breakers. Flushometer valves shall be of the 
water-conservation type and shall not be utilized where the 
water pressure is lower than the minimum required for normal 
operation. When operated, the valve shall automatically com- 
plete the cycle of operation, opening fully and closing posi- 
tively under the water supply pressure. Each flushometer valve 
shall be provided with a means for regulating the flow through 
the valve. The trap seal to the fixture shall be automatically 
refilled after each valve flushing cycle. 

425.3 Flush tanks. Flush tanks equipped for manual flushing 
shall be controlled by a device designed to refill the tank after 
each discharge and to shut off completely the water flow to the 
tank when the tank is filled to operational capacity. The trap 
seal to the fixture shall be automatically refilled after each 
flushing. The water supply to flush tanks equipped for auto- 
matic flushing shall be controlled with a timing device or sen- 
sor control devices. 

425.3.1 Fill valves. All flush tanks shall be equipped with 
an antisiphon fill valve conforming to ASSE 1002 or CSA 
B125. The fill valve backflow preventer shall be located at 
least 1 inch (25 mm) above the full opening of the overflow 
pipe. 

425.3.2 Overflows in flush tanks. Flush tanks shall be pro- 
. vided with overflows discharging to the water closet or uri- 
nal connected thereto and shall be sized to prevent flooding 



the tank at the maximum rate at which the tanks are supplied 
with water according to the manufacturer's design condi- 
tions. The opening of the overflow pipe shall be located 
above the flood level rim of the water closet or urinal or 
above a secondary overflow in the flush tank. 

425.3.3 Sheet copper. Sheet copper utilized for flush tank 
linings shall conform to ASTM B 152 and shall not weigh 
less than 10 ounces per square foot (0.03 kg/m 2 ). 

425.3.4 Access required. All parts in a flush tank shall be 
accessible for repair and replacement. 

425.4 Flush pipes and fittings. Flush pipes and fittings shall 
be of nonferrous material and shall conform to ASME 
A112.19.5orCSAB125. 



SECTION 426 

MANUAL FOOD AND BEVERAGE DISPENSING 

EQUIPMENT 

426.1 Approval. Manual food and beverage dispensing equip- 
ment shall conform to the requirements of NSF 18. 



SECTION 427 
FLOOR SINKS 

427.1 Approval. Sanitary floor sinks shall conform to the 
requirements of ASME Al 12.6.7. 



34 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 5 

WATER HEATERS 



SECTION 501 
GENERAL 

501.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
materials, design and installation of water heaters and the 
related safety devices and appurtenances. 

501.2 Water heater as space heater. Where a combination 
potable water heating and space heating system requires water 
for space heating at temperatures higher than 140°F (60°C), a 
master thermostatic mixing valve complying with ASSE 1017 
shall be provided to limit the water supplied to the potable hot 
water distribution system to a temperature of 140°F (60°C) or 
less. The potability of the water shall be maintained throughout 
the system. 

501.3 Drain valves. Drain valves for emptying shall be 
installed at the bottom of each tank-type water heater and hot 
water storage tank. Drain valves shall conform to ASSE 1005. 

501.4 Location. Water heaters and storage tanks shall be 
located and connected so as to provide access for observation, 
maintenance, servicing and replacement. 

501.5 Water heater labeling. All water heaters shall be 
third-party certified. 

501.6 Water temperature control in piping from tankless 
heaters. The temperature of water from tankless water heaters 
shall be a maximum of 140°F (60°C) when intended for 
domestic uses. This provision shall not supersede the require- 
ment for protective shower valves in accordance with Section 
424.3. 

501.7 Pressure marking of storage tanks. Storage tanks and 
water heaters installed for domestic hot water shall have the 
maximum allowable working pressure clearly and indelibly 
stamped in the metal or marked on a plate welded thereto or 
otherwise permanently attached. Such markings shall be in an 
accessible position outside of the tank so as to make inspection 
or reinspection readily possible. 

501.8 Temperature controls. All hot water supply systems 
shall be equipped with automatic temperature controls capable 
of adjustments from the lowest to the highest acceptable tem- 
perature settings for the intended temperature operating range. 



SECTION 502 
INSTALLATION 

502.1 General. Water heaters shall be installed in accordance 
with the manufacturer's installation instructions. Oil-fired 
water heaters shall conform to the requirements of this code 
and the International Mechanical Code. Electric water heaters 
shall conform to the requirements of this code and provisions 
of the ICC Electrical Code. Gas-fired water heaters shall con- 
form to the requirements of the International Fuel Gas Code. 



502.2 Rooms used as a plenum. Water heaters using solid, liq- 
uid or gas fuel shall not be installed in a room containing 
air-handling machinery when such room is used as a plenum. 

502.3 Water heaters installed in attics. Attics containing a 
water heater shall be provided with an opening and unob- 
structed passageway large enough to allow removal of the 
water heater. The passageway shall not be less than 30 inches 
(762 mm) high and 22 inches (559 mm) wide and not more than 
20 feet (6096 mm) in length when measured along the center- 
line of the passageway from the opening to the water heater. 
The passageway shall have continuous solid flooring not less 
than 24 inches (610 mm) wide. A level service space at least 30 
inches (762 mm) deep and 30 inches (762 mm) wide shall be 
present at the front or service side of the water heater. The clear 
access opening dimensions shall be a minimum of 20 inches by 
30 inches (508 mm by 762 mm) where such dimensions are 
large enough to allow removal of the water heater. 

502.4 Seismic supports. Where earthquake loads are applica- 
ble in accordance with the International Building Code, water 
heater supports shall be designed and installed for the seismic 
forces in accordance with the International Building Code. 



SECTION 503 
CONNECTIONS 

503.1 Cold water line valve. The cold water branch line from 
the main water supply line to each hot water storage tank or 
water heater shall be provided with a valve, located near the 
equipment and serving only the hot water storage tank or water 
heater. The valve shall not interfere or cause a disruption of the 
cold water supply to the remainder of the cold water system. 
The valve shall be provided with access on the same floor level 
as the water heater served. 

503.2 Water circulation. The method of connecting a circulat- 
ing water heater to the tank shall provide proper circulation of 
water through the water heater. The pipe or tubes required for 
the installation of appliances that will draw from the water 
heater or storage tank shall comply with the provisions of this 
code for material and installation. 



SECTION 504 
SAFETY DEVICES 

504.1 Antisiphon devices. An approved means, such as a cold 
water "dip" tube with a hole at the top or a vacuum relief valve 
installed in the cold water supply line above the top of the 
heater or tank, shall be provided to prevent siphoning of any 
storage water heater or tank. 

504.2 Vacuum relief valve. Bottom fed water heaters and bot- 
tom fed tanks connected to water heaters shall have a vacuum 
relief valve installed. The vacuum relief valve shall comply 
with ANSI Z21. 22. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



35 



WATER HEATERS 



504.3 Shutdown. A means for disconnecting an electric hot 
water supply system from its energy supply shall be provided 
in accordance with the ICC Electrical Code. A separate valve 
shall be provided to shut off the energy fuel supply to all other 
types of hot water supply systems. 

504.4 Relief valve. All storage water heaters operating above 
atmospheric pressure shall be provided with an approved, 
self-closing (levered) pressure relief valve and temperature 
relief valve or combination thereof. The relief valve shall con- 
form to ANSI Z21.22. The relief valve shall not be used as a 
means of controlling thermal expansion. 

504.4.1 Installation. Such valves shallbe installed in the 
shell of the water heater tank. Temperature relief valves 
shall be so located in the tank as to be actuated by the water 
in the top 6 inches (152 mm) of the tank served. For installa- 
tions with separate storage tanks, the valves shall be 
installed on the tank and there shall not be any type of valve 
installed between the water heater and the storage tank. 
There shall not be a check valve or shutoff valve between a 
relief valve and the heater or tank served. 

504.5 Relief valve approval. Temperature and pressure relief 
valves, or combinations thereof, and energy cutoff devices 
shall bear the label of an approved agency and shall have a tem- 
perature setting of not more than 210°F (99°C) and a pressure 
setting not exceeding the tank or water heater manufacturer's 
rated working pressure or 150 psi (1035 kPa), whichever is 
less. The relieving capacity of each pressure relief valve and 
each temperature relief valve shall equal or exceed the heat 
input to the water heater or storage tank. 

504.6 Requirements for discharge piping. The discharge 
piping serving a pressure relief valve, temperature relief valve 
or combination thereof shall: 

1. Not be directly connected to the drainage system. 

2. Discharge through an air gap located in the same room 
as the water heater. 

3. Not be smaller than the diameter of the outlet of the 
valve served and shall discharge full size to the air gap. 

4. Serve a single relief device and shall not connect to pip- 
ing serving any other relief device or equipment. 

5. Discharge to the floor, to an indirect waste receptor or 
to the outdoors. Where discharging to the outdoors in 
areas subject to freezing, discharge piping shall be first 
piped to an indirect waste receptor through an air gap 
located in a conditioned area. 

6. Discharge in a manner that does not cause personal 
injury or structural damage. 

7. Discharge- to a termination point that is readily observ- 
able by the building occupants. 

8. Not be trapped. 

9. Be installed so as to flow by gravity. 

10. Not terminate more than 6 inches (152 mm) above the 
floor or waste receptor. 

1 1 . Not have a threaded connection at the end of such pip- 
ing. 



12. Not have valves or tee fittings. 

13. Be constructed of those materials listed in Section 
605.4 or materials tested, rated and approved for such 
use in accordance with ASME Al 12.4.1. 

504.7 Required pan. Where water heaters or hot water storage 
tanks are installed in locations where leakage of the tanks or 
connections will cause damage, the tank or water heater shall 
be installed in a galvanized steel pan having a minimum thick- 
ness of 24 gage, or other pans approved for such use. 

504.7.1 Pan size and drain. The pan shall be not less than 
1.5 inches (38 mm) deep and shall be of sufficient size and 
shape to receive all dripping or condensate from the tank or 
water heater. The pan shall be drained by an indirect waste 
pipe having a minimum diameter of 0.75 inch (19 mm). Pip- 
ing for safety pan drains shall be of those materials listed in 
Table 605.4. 

504.7.2 Pan drain termination. The pan drain shall extend 
full-size and terminate over a suitably located indirect waste 
receptor or floor drain or extend to the exterior of the build- 
ing and terminate not less than 6 inches (152 mm) and not 
more than 24 inches (610 mm) above the adjacent ground 
surface. 



SECTION 505 
INSULATION 

[E] 505.1 Unfired vessel insulation. Unfired hot water storage 
tanks shall be insulated so that heat loss is limited to a maxi- 
mum of 15 British thermal units per hour (Btu/h) per square 
foot (47 W/m 2 ) of external tank surface area. For purposes of 
determining this heat loss, the design ambient temperature 
shall not be higher than 65 °F (18°C). 



36 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 6 

WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



SECTION 601 
GENERAL 

601.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the materials, design 
and installation of water supply systems, both hot and cold, for 
utilization in connection with human occupancy and habitation 
and shall govern the installation of individual water supply sys- 
tems. 

601.2 Solar energy utilization. Solar energy systems used for 
heating potable water or using an independent medium for 
heating potable water shall comply with the applicable require- 
ments of this code. The use of solar energy shall not compro- 
mise the requirements for cross connection or protection of the 
potable water supply system required by this code. 

601.3 Existing piping used for grounding. Existing metallic 
water service piping used for electrical grounding shall not be 
replaced with nonmetallic pipe or tubing until other approved 
means of grounding is provided. 

601.4 Tests. The potable water distribution system shall be 
tested in accordance with Section 312.5. 



SECTION 602 
WATER REQUIRED 

602.1 General. Every structure equipped with plumbing fix- 
tures and utilized for human occupancy or habitation shall be 
provided with a potable supply of water in the amounts and at 
the pressures specified in this chapter. 

602.2 Potable water required. Only potable water shall be 
supplied to plumbing fixtures that provide water for drinking, 
bathing or culinary purposes, or for the processing of food, 
medical or pharmaceutical products. Unless otherwise pro- 
vided in this code, potable water shall be supplied to all plumb- 
ing fixtures. 

602.3 Individual water supply. Where a potable public water 
supply is not available, individual sources of potable water sup- 
ply shall be utilized. 

602.3.1 Sources. Dependent on geological and soil condi- 
tions and the amount of rainfall, individual water supplies 
are of the following types: drilled well, driven well, dug 
well, bored well, spring, stream or cistern. Surface bodies of 
water and land cisterns shall not be sources of individual 
water supply unless properly treated by approved means to 
prevent contamination. 

602.3.2 Minimum quantity. The combined capacity of the 
source and storage in an individual water supply system 
shall supply the fixtures with water at rates and pressures as 
required by this chapter. 

602.3.3 Water quality. Water from an individual water sup- 
ply shall be approved as potable by the authority having 
jurisdiction prior to connection to the plumbing system. 



602.3.4 Disinfection of system. After construction or 
major repair, the individual water supply system shall be 
purged of deleterious matter and disinfected in accordance 
with Section 610. 

602.3.5 Pumps. Pumps shall be rated for the transport of 
potable water. Pumps in an individual water supply system 
shall be constructed and installed so as to prevent contami- 
nation from entering a potable water supply through the 
pump units. Pumps shall be sealed to the well casing or cov- 
ered with a water-tight seal. Pumps shall be designed to 
maintain a prime and installed such that ready access is pro- 
vided to the pump parts of the entire assembly for repairs. 

602.3.5.1 Pump enclosure. The pump room or enclo- 
sure around a well pump shall be drained and protected 
from freezing by heating or other approved means. 
Where pumps are installed in basements, such pumps 
shall be mounted on a block or shelf not less than 18 
inches (457 mm) above the basement floor. Well pits 
shall be prohibited. 



SECTION 603 
WATER SERVICE 

603.1 Size of water service pipe. The water service pipe shall 
be sized to supply water to the structure in the quantities and at 
the pressures required in this code. The minimum diameter of 
water service pipe shall be 3 / 4 inch (19.1 mm). 

603.2 Separation of water service and building sewer. Water 
service pipe and the building sewer shall be separated by 5 feet 
(1524 mm) of undisturbed or compacted earth. 

Exceptions: 

1. The required separation distance shall not apply 
where the bottom of the water service pipe within 5 
feet (1524 mm) of the sewer is a minimum of 12 
inches (305 mm) above the top of the highest point of 
the sewer and the pipe materials conform to Table 
702.3. 

2. Water service pipe is permitted to be located in the 
same trench with a building sewer, provided such 
sewer is constructed of materials listed in Table 
702.2. 

3. The required separation distance shall not apply 
where a water service pipe crosses a sewer pipe, pro- 
vided the water service pipe is sleeved to at least 5 feet 
(1524 mm) horizontally from the sewer pipe center- 
line on both sides of such crossing with pipe materials 
listed in Table 605.3, 702.2 or 702.3. 

603.2.1 Water service near sources of pollution. Potable 
water service pipes shall not be located in, under or above 
cesspools, septic tanks, septic tank drainage fields or seepage 
pits (see Section 605. 1 for soil and groundwater conditions). 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE* 



37 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



SECTION 604 

DESIGN OF BUILDING WATER 

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM 

604.1 General. The design of the water distribution system 
shall conform to accepted engineering practice. Methods uti- 
lized to determine pipe sizes shall be approved. 

604.2 System interconnection. At the points of interconnec- 
tion between the hot and cold water supply piping systems and 
the individual fixtures, appliances or devices, provisions shall 
be made to prevent flow between such piping systems. 

604.3 Water distribution system design criteria. The water 
distribution system shall be designed, and pipe sizes shall be 
selected such that under conditions of peak demand, the capac- 
ities at the fixture supply pipe outlets shall not be less than 
shown in Table 604.3. The minimum flow rate and flow pres- 
sure provided to fixtures and appliances not listed in Table 
604.3 shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's installa- 
tion instructions. 

TABLE 604.3 

WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM DESIGN CRITERIA 

REQUIRED CAPACITY AT FIXTURE SUPPLY PIPE OUTLETS 



FIXTURE SUPPLY 
OUTLET SERVING 


FLOW RATE 3 

(gpm) 


FLOW 
PRESSURE (psi) 


Bathtub 


4 


8 


Bidet 


2 


4 


Combination fixture 


4 


8 


Dishwasher, residential 


2.75 


8 


Drinking fountain 


0.75 


8 


Laundry tray 


4 


8 


Lavatory 


2 


8 


Shower 


3 


8 


Shower, temperature controlled 


3 


20 


Sillcock, hose bibb 


5 


8 


Sink, residential 


2.5 


8 


Sink, service 


3 


8 


Urinal, valve 


15 


15 


Water closet, blow out, 
flushometer valve 


35 


25 


Water closet, flushometer tank 


1.6 


15 


Water closet, siphonic, 
flushometer valve 


25 


15 


Water closet, tank, close coupled 


3 


8 


Water closet, tank, one piece 


6 


20 



604.4 Maximum flow and water consumption. The maxi- 
mum water consumption flow rates and quantities for all 
plumbing fixtures and fixture fittings shall be in accordance 
with Table 604.4. 

Exceptions: 

1. Blowout design water closets having a maximum I 
water consumption of 3.5 gallons (13 L) per flushing 
cycle. 

2. Vegetable sprays. 

3. Clinical sinks having a maximum water consumption I 
of 4.5 gallons (17 L) per flushing cycle. . I 

4. Service sinks. 

5. Emergency showers. 

TABLE 604.4 

MAXIMUM FLOW RATES AND CONSUMPTION FOR 

PLUMBING FIXTURES AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



PLUMBING FIXTURE 
OR FIXTURE FITTING 


MAXIMUM FLOW RATE 
OR QUANTITY" 


Lavatory, private 


2.2 gpm at 60 psi 


Lavatory, public, (metering) 


0.25 gallon per metering cycle 


Lavatory, public 

(other than metering) 


0.5 gpm at 60 psi 


Shower head 3 


2.5 gpm at 80 psi 


Sink faucet 


2.2 gpm at 60 psi 


Urinal 


1.0 gallon per flushing cycle 


Water closet 


1 .6 gallons per flushing cycle 



For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m. 
a. For additional requirements for flow rates and quantities, see Section 604.4. 



For SI: 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 
1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. A hand-held shower spray is a shower head. 

b. Consumption tolerances shall be determined from referenced standards. 

604.5 Size of fixture supply. The minimum size of a fixture 
supply pipe shall be as shown in Table 604.5. The fixture sup- 
ply pipe shall not terminate more than 30 inches (762 mm) 
from the point of connection to the fixture. A reduced-size flex- 
ible water connector installed between the supply pipe and the 
fixture shall be of an approved type. The supply pipe shall 
extend to the floor or wall adjacent to the fixture. The minimum 
size of individual distribution lines utilized in gridded or paral- 
lel water distribution systems shall be as shown in Table 604.5. 

604.6 Variable street pressures. Where street water main 
pressures fluctuate, the building water distribution system shall 
be designed for the minimum pressure available. 

604.7 Inadequate water pressure. Wherever water pressure 
from the street main or other source of supply is insufficient to 
provide flow pressures at fixture outlets as required under 
Table 604.3, a water pressure booster system conforming to 
Section 606.5 shall be installed on the building water supply 
system. 



38 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



TABLE 604.5 
MINIMUM SIZES OF FIXTURE WATER SUPPLY PIPES 



FIXTURE 


MINIMUM PIPE SIZE 
(inch) 


Bathtubs 3 (60" x 32" and smaller) 


\ 


Bathtubs 3 (larger than 60" x 32") 


% 


Bidet 


% 


Combination sink and tray 


\ 


Dishwasher, domestic 3 


% 


Drinking fountain 


\ 


Hose bibbs 


\ 


Kitchen sink 3 


v 2 


Laundry, 1, 2 or 3 compartments 3 


% 


Lavatory 


% 


Shower, single head 3 


\ ■■ 


Sinks, flushing rim 


% 


Sinks, service 


% 


Urinal, flush tank 


% 


Urinal, flush valve 


% 


Wali hydrant 


% 


Water closet, flush tank 


3 / 8 


Water closet, flush valve 


1 


Water closet, flushometer tank 


\ 


Water closet, one piece 3 


% 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 ram, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 
1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Where the developed length of the distribution line is 60 feet or less, and the 
available pressure at the meter is a minimum of 35 psi, the minimum size of 
an individual distribution line supplied from a manifold and installed as part 
of a parallel water distribution system shall be one nominal tube size smaller 
than the sizes indicated. 

604.8 Water-pressure reducing valve or regulator. Where 
water pressure within a building exceeds 80 psi (552 kPa) 
static* an approved water-pressure reducing valve conforming 
to ASSE 1003 with strainer shall be installed to reduce the pres- 
sure in the building water distribution piping to 80 psi (552 
kPa) static or less. 

Exception: Service lines to sill cocks and outside hydrants, 
and main supply risers where pressure from the mains is 
reduced to 80 psi (552 kPa) or less at individual fixtures. 

604.8.1 Valve design. The pressure-reducing valve shall be 
designed to remain open to permit uninterrupted water flow 
in case of valve failure. 

604.8.2 Repair and removal. All water-pressure reducing 
valves, regulators and strainers shall be so constructed and 
installed as to permit repair or removal of parts without 
breaking a pipeline or removing the valve and strainer from 
the pipeline. 

604.9 Water hammer. The flow velocity of the water distribu- 
tion system shall be controlled to reduce the possibility of 



water hammer. A water-hammer arrestor shall be installed 
where quick-closing valves are utilized. Water-hammer 
arrestors shall be installed in accordance with the manufac- 
turer's specifications. Water-hammer arrestors shall conform 
to ASSE 1010. 

604.10 Gridded and parallel water distribution system 
manifolds. Hot water and cold water manifolds installed with 
gridded or parallel connected individual distribution lines to 
each fixture or fixture fitting shall be designed in accordance 
with Sections 604.10.1 through 604.10.3. 

604.10.1 Manifold sizing. Hot water and cold water mani- 
folds shall be sized in accordance with Table 604. 10. 1 . The 
total gallons per minute is the demand of all outlets sup- 
plied. 

TABLE 604.10.1 
MANIFOLD SIZING 



NOMINAL SIZE 

INTERNAL DIAMETER 

(inches) 


MAXIMUM DEMAND (gpm) 


Velocity at 4 feet 
per second 


Velocity at 8 feet 
per second 


v 2 


2 


5 


3 / 4 


6 


11 


1 


10 


20 


1% 


15 


31 


1V 2 


22 


44 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 
1 foot per second = 0.305 rri/s. 

604.10.2 Valves. Individual fixture shutoff valves installed 
at the manifold shall be identified as to the fixture being sup- 
plied. 

604.10.3 Access. Access shall be provided to manifolds. 

604.11 Individual pressure balancing in-line valves for 
individual fixture fittings. Where individual pressure balanc- 
ing in-line valves for individual fixture fittings are installed, 
such valves shall comply with ASSE 1066. Such valves shall be 
installed in an accessible location and shall not be utilized 
alone as a substitute for the balanced pressure, thermostatic or 
combination shower valves required in Section 424.3. 



SECTION 605 
MATERIALS, JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 

605.1 Soil and ground water. The installation of a water ser- 
vice or water distribution pipe shall be prohibited in soil and 
ground water contaminated with solvents, fuels, organic com- 
pounds or other detrimental materials causing permeation, cor- 
rosion, degradation or structural failure of the piping material. 
Where detrimental conditions are suspected, a chemical analy- 
sis of the soil and ground water conditions shall be required to 
ascertain the acceptability of the water service or water distri- 
bution piping material for the specific installation. Where detri- 
mental conditions exist, approved alternative materials or 
routing shall be required. 

605.2 Lead content of water supply pipe and fittings. Pipe 
and pipe fittings, including valves and faucets, utilized in the 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



39 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



water supply system shall have a maximum of 8-percent lead 
content. 

605.3 Water service pipe. Water service pipe shall conform to 
NSF 61 and shall conform to one of the standards listed in 
Table 605.3. All water service pipe or tubing, installed under- 
ground and outside of the structure, shall have a minimum 
working pressure rating of 160 psi (1 100 kPa) at 73.4°F (23°C). 
Where the water pressure exceeds 160 psi (1 100 kPa), piping 
material shall have a minimum rated working pressure equal to 
the highest available pressure. Water service piping materials 
not third-party certified for water distribution shall terminate at 
or before the full open valve located at the entrance to the struc- 
ture. All ductile iron water service piping shall be cement mor- 
tar lined in accordance with AWWA CI 04. 

605.3.1 Dual check-valve-type backflow preventer. 

Where a dual check- valve backflow preventer is installed on 
the water supply system, it shall comply with ASSE 1024 or 
CSA B64.6. 

605.4 Water distribution pipe. Water distribution pipe shall 
conform to NSF 61 and shall conform to one of the standards 
listed in Table 605.4. All hot water distribution pipe and tubing 
shall have a minimum pressure rating of 100 psi (690 kPa) at 
180°F (82°C). 

605.5 Fittings. Pipe fittings shall be approved for installation 
with the piping material installed and shall conform to the 



respective pipe standards or one of the standards listed in Table 
605.5. All pipe fittings utilized in water supply systems shall 
also conform to NSF 61. The fittings shall not have ledges, 
shoulders or reductions capable of retarding or obstructing 
flow in the piping. Ductile and gray iron pipe fittings shall be 
cement mortar lined in accordance with AWWA C104. 

605.5.1 Mechanically formed tee fittings. Mechanically 
extracted outlets shall have a height not less than three times 
the thickness of the branch tube wall. 

605.5.1.1 Full flow assurance. Branch tubes shall not 
restrict the flow in the run tube. A dimple/depth stop shall 
be formed in the branch tube to ensure that penetration 
into the collar is of the correct depth. For inspection pur- 
poses, a second dimple shall be placed 0.25 inch (6.4 
mm) above the first dimple. Dimples shall be aligned 
with the tube run. 

605.5.1.2 Brazed joints. Mechanically formed tee fit- 
tings shall be brazed in accordance with Section 
605.14.1. 

605.6 Flexible water connectors. Flexible water connectors 
exposed to continuous pressure shall conform to ASME 
Al 12.18.6. Access shall be provided to all flexible water con- 
nectors. 



TABLE 605.3 
WATER SERVICE PIPE 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic pipe 


ASTM D 1527; ASTM D 2282 


Asbestos-cement pipe 


ASTM C 296 


Brass pipe ' 


ASTM B 43 


Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) plastic pipe 


ASTM D 2846; ASTM F 441; ASTM F 442; CSA B 137.6 


Copper or copper-alloy pipe 


ASTM B 42; ASTM B 302 


Copper or copper-alloy tubing (Type K, WK, L, WL, M or WM) 


ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; ASTM B 251; ASTM B 447 


Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plastic tubing 


ASTM F 876; ASTM F 877; CSA B 137.5 


Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/cross-linked polyethylene 
(PEX-AL-PEX) pipe 


ASTM F 1281; CSA B137.10M 


Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/high-density polyethylene 
(PEX-AL-HDPE) 


ASTM F 1986 


Ductile iron water pipe 


AWWA C151; AWWA CI 15 


Galvanized steel pipe 


ASTM A 53 


Polybutylene (PB) plastic pipe and tubing 


ASTM D 2662; ASTM D 2666; ASTM D 3309; CSA B137.8M 


Polyethylene (PE) plastic pipe 


ASTM D 2239; CSA B137.1 


Polyethylene (PE) plastic tubing 


ASTM D 2737; CSA B 137.1 


Polyethylene/aluminum/polethylene (PE-AL-PE) pipe 


ASTM F 1282; CSA B 137.9 


Polypropylene (PP) plastic pipe or tubing 


ASTM F 2389; CSA B 137. 1 1 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe 


ASTM D 1785; ASTM D 2241; ASTM D 2672; CSA B 137.3 


Stainless steel pipe (Type 304/304L) 


ASTM A 312; ASTM A 778 


Stainless steel pipe (Type 316/316L) 


ASTM A 312; ASTM A 778 



40 



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WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



TABLE 605.4 
WATER DISTRIBUTION PIPE 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Brass pipe 


ASTM B 43 


Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) plastic pipe and tubing 


ASTM D 2846; ASTM F 441; ASTM F 442; CSA B137.6 


Copper or copper-alloy pipe 


ASTM B 42; ASTM B 302 


Copper or copper-alloy tubing (Type K, WK, L, WL, M or WM) 


ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; ASTM B 251; ASTM B 447 


Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plastic tubing 


ASTM F 877; CSA B 137.5 


Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/cross-linked polyethylene 
(PEX-AL-PEX) pipe 


ASTM F 1281; CSAB137.10M 


Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/high-density polyethylene 
(PEX-AL-HDPE) 


ASTM F 1986 


Galvanized steel pipe 


ASTM A 53 


Polybutylene (PB) plastic pipe and tubing 


ASTM D 3309; CSA B137.8M 


Polyethylene/Aluminum/Polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) composite pipe 


ASTM F 1282 


Polypropylene (PP) plastic pipe or tubing 


ASTM F 2389; CSA B137.ll 


Stainless steel pipe (Type 304/304L) 


ASTM A 312; ASTM A 778 


Stainless steel pipe (Type 316/31 6L) 


ASTM A 312; ASTM A 778 



TABLE 605.5 
PIPE FITTINGS 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic 


ASTM D 2468 


Cast-iron 


ASME B16.4; ASME B16.12 


Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) plastic 


ASTM F 437; ASTM F 438; ASTM F 439; CSA B 137.6 


Copper or copper alloy 


ASME B16.15; ASME B16.18; ASME B16.22; ASME B16.23; 
ASME B 16.26; ASME B 16.29 


Cross-linked polyethylene/aluminum/high-density polyethylene 
(PEX-AL-HDPE) 


ASTM F 1986 


Fittings for cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plastic tubing 


ASTM F 877; ASTM F 1807; ASTM F 1960; ASTM F 2080; 
ASTM F 2159; CSA B 137.5 


Gray iron and ductile iron 


AWWA CI 10; AWWA C153 


Malleable iron 


ASMEB16.3 


Metal (brass) insert fittings for 

Polyethylene/ Aluminum/Polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) and Cross-linked 
Polyethylene/ Aluminum/Polyethylene (PEX-AL-PEX) 


ASTM F 1974 


Polybutylene (PB) plastic 


CSAB137.8 


Polyethylene (PE) plastic 


ASTM D 2609; CSA B137.1 


Polypropylene (PP) plastic pipe or tubing 


ASTM F 2389; CSA B137.ll 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic 


ASTM D 2464; ASTM D 2466; ASTM D 2467; CSA B 137.2 


Stainless steel (Type 304/304L) 


ASTM A 312; ASTM A 778 


Stainless steel (Type 316/316L) 


ASTM A 312; ASTM A 778 


Steel 


ASME B16.9; ASME B16.ll; ASME B 16.28 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



41 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



605.7 Valves. All valves shall be of an approved type and com- 
patible with the type of piping material installed in the system. 
Ball valves, gate valves, globe valves and plug valves intended 
to supply drinking water shall meet the requirements of NSF 
61. 

605.8 Manufactured pipe nipples. Manufactured pipe nip- 
ples shall conform to one of the standards listed in Table 605.8. 

TABLE 605.8 
MANUFACTURED PIPE NIPPLES 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Brass-, copper-, chromium-plated 


ASTM B 687 


Steel 


ASTM A 733 



605.9 Prohibited joints and connections. The following 
types of joints and connections shall be prohibited: 

1. Cement or concrete joints. 

2. Joints made with fittings not approved for the specific 
installation. 

3. Solvent-cement joints between different types of plastic 
pipe. 

4. Saddle-type fittings. 

605.10 ABS plastic. Joints between ABS plastic pipe or fit- 
tings shall comply with Sections 605.10.1 through 605.10.3. 

605.10.1 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints on water 
pipes shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to 
ASTM D 3139. Mechanical joints shall only be installed in 
underground systems, unless otherwise approved. Joints 
shall be installed only in accordance with the manufac- 
turer's instructions. 

605.10.2 Solvent cementing. Joint surfaces shall be clean 
and free from moisture. Solvent cement that conforms to 
ASTM D 2235 shall be applied to all joint surfaces. The 
joint shall be made while the cement is wet. Joints shall be 
made in accordance with ASTM D 2235. Solvent-cement 
joints shall be permitted above or below ground. 

605.10.3 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to 
ASME B 1 .20. 1 . Schedule 80 or heavier pipe shall be per- 
mitted to be threaded with dies specifically designed for 
plastic pipe. Approved thread lubricant or tape shall be 
applied on the male threads only. 

605.11 Asbestos-cement. Joints between asbestos-cement 
pipe or fittings shall be made with a sleeve coupling of the same 
composition as the pipe, sealed with an elastomeric ring con- 
forming to ASTM D 1869. 

605.12 Brass. Joints between brass pipe or fittings shall com- 
ply with Sections 605.12.1 through 605.12.4. 

605.12.1 Brazed joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joint 
shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A5 . 8 . 

605.12.2 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 



605.12.3 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to 
ASME B 1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be 
applied on the male threads only. 

605.12.4 Welded joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
The joint shall be welded with an approved filler metal. 

605.13 Gray iron and ductile iron joints. Joints for gray and 
ductile iron pipe and fittings shall comply with AWWA CI 1 1 
and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's 
installation instructions. 

605.14 Copper pipe. Joints between copper or copper-alloy 
pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections 605.14.1 through 
605.14.5. 

605.14.1 Brazed joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joint 
shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A5 . 8 . 

605.14.2 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 

605.14.3 Soldered joints. Solder joints shall be made in 
accordance with the methods of ASTM B 828. All cut tube 
ends shall be reamed to the full inside diameter of the tube 
end. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. A flux conforming 
to ASTM B 813 shall be applied. The joint shall be soldered 
with a solder conforming to ASTM B 32. The joining of 
water supply piping shall be made with lead-free solder and 
fluxes. "Lead free" shall mean a chemical composition 
equal to or less than 0.2-percent lead. 

605.14.4 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to 
ASME B 1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be 
applied on the male threads only. 

605.14.5 Welded joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
The joint shall be welded with an approved filler metal. 

605.15 Copper tubing. Joints between copper or copper-alloy 
tubing or fittings shall comply with Sections 605.15.1 through 
605.15.4. 

605.15.1 Brazed joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joint 
shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A5 .8 . 

605.15.2 Flared joints. Flared joints for water pipe shall be 
made by a tool designed for that operation. 

605.15.3 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 

605.15.4 Soldered joints. Solder joints shall be made in 
accordance with the methods of ASTM B 828. All cut tube 
ends shall be reamed to the full inside diameter of the tube 
end. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. A flux conforming 
to ASTM B 813 shall be applied. The joint shall be soldered 
with a solder conforming to ASTM B 32. The joining of 
water supply piping shall be made with lead-free solders 
and fluxes. "Lead free" shall mean a chemical composition 
equal to or less than 0.2-percent lead. 

605.16 CPVC plastic. Joints between CPVC plastic pipe or fit- 
tings shall comply with Sections 605.16.1 through 605.16.3. 



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605.16.1 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 

605.16.2 Solvent cementing. Joint surfaces shall be clean 
and free from moisture, and an approved primer shall be 
applied. Solvent cement, orange in color and conforming to 
ASTM F 493, shall be applied to all joint surfaces. The joint 
shall be made while the cement is wet, and in accordance 
with ASTM D 2846 or ASTM F 493. Solvent-cement joints 
shall be permitted above or below ground. 

Exception: A primer is not required where all of the fol- 
lowing conditions apply: 

1. The solvent cement used is third-party certified as 
conforming to ASTM F 493. 

2. The solvent cement used is yellow in color. 

3. The solvent cement is used only for joining V 2 inch 
(12.7 mm) through 2 inch (51 mm) diameter 
CPVC pipe and fittings. 

4. The CPVC pipe and fittings are manufactured in 
accordance with ASTM D 2846. 

605.16.3 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to 
ASME B 1.20.1. Schedule 80 or heavier pipe shall be per- 
mitted to be threaded with dies specifically designed for 
plastic pipe, but the pressure rating of the pipe shall be 
reduced by 50 percent. Thread by socket molded fittings 
shall be permitted. Approved thread lubricant or tape shall 
be applied on the male threads only. 

605.17 Cross-linked polyethylene plastic. Joints between 
cross-linked polyethylene plastic tubing or fittings shall com- 
ply with Sections 605.17.1 and 605.17.2. 

605.17.1 Flared joints. Flared pipe ends shall be made by a 
tool designed for that operation. 

605.17.2 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. Fittings for cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plastic 
tubing as described in ASTM F 877, ASTM F 1807, ASTM 
F 1960, and ASTM F 2080 shall be installed in accordance 
with the manufacturer's instructions. 

605.18 Steel. Joints between galvanized steel pipe or fittings 
shall comply with Sections 605.18.1 and 605.18.2. 

605.18.1 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to 
ASME B 1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be 
applied on the male threads only. 

605.18.2 Mechanical joints. Joints shall be made with an 
approved elastomeric seal. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 

605.19 Polybutylene plastic. Joints between polybutylene 
plastic pipe and tubing or fittings shall comply with Sections 
605.19.1 through 605.19.3. 

605.19.1 Flared joints. Flared pipe ends shall be made by a 
tool designed for that operation. 

605.19.2 Heat-fusion joints. Joints shall be of the 
socket-fusion or butt-fusion type. Joint surfaces shall be 



clean and free from moisture. All joint surfaces shall be 
heated to melt temperature and joined. The joint shall be 
undisturbed until cool. Joints shall be made in accordance 
with ASTM D 2657, ASTM D 3309 or CAN3-B137.8M. 

605.19.3 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. Metallic lock rings employed with insert fittings as 
described in ASTM D 3309 or CAN3-B137.8M shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 

605.20 Polyethylene plastic. Joints between polyethylene 
plastic pipe and tubing or fittings shall comply with Sections 
605.20.1 through 605.20.4. 

605.20.1 Flared joints. Flared joints shall be permitted 
where so indicated by the pipe manufacturer. Flared joints 
shall be made by a tool designed for that operation. 

605.20.2 Heat-fusion joints. Joint surfaces shall be clean 
and free from moisture. All joint surfaces shall be heated to 
melt temperature and joined. The joint shall be undisturbed 
until cool. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM D 
2657. 

605.20.3 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 

605.20.4 Installation. Polyethylene pipe shall be cut 
square, with a cutter designed for plastic pipe. Except where 
joined by heat fusion, pipe ends shall be chamfered to 
remove sharp edges. Kinked pipe shall not be installed. The 
minimum pipe bending radius shall not be less than 30 pipe 
diameters, or the minimum coil radius, whichever is greater. 
Piping shall not be bent beyond straightening of the curva- 
ture of the coil. Bends shall not be permitted within 10 pipe 
diameters of any fitting or valve. Stiffener inserts installed 
with compression-type couplings and fittings shall not 
extend beyond the clamp or nut of the coupling or fitting. 

605.21 Polypropylene (PP) plastic. Joints between PP plastic 
pipe and fittings shall comply with Section 605.21.1 or 
605.21.2. 

605.21.1 Heat-fusion joints. Heat-fusion joints for poly- 
propylene pipe and tubing joints shall be installed with 
socket-type heat-fused polypropylene fittings, butt-fusion 
polypropylene fittings or electrofusion polypropylene fit- 
tings. Joint surfaces shall be clean and free from moisture. 
The joint shall be undisturbed until cool. Joints shall be 
made in accordance with ASTM F 2389. 

605.21.2 Mechanical and compression sleeve joints. 

Mechanical and compression sleeve joints shall be installed 
in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

605.22 PVC plastic. Joints between PVC plastic pipe or fit- 
tings shall comply with Sections 605.22.1 through 605.22.3. 

605.22.1 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints on water 
pipe shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to 
ASTM D 3139. Mechanical joints shall not be installed in 
above-ground systems unless otherwise approved. Joints 
shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's 
instructions. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



43 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



605.22.2 Solvent cementing. Joint surfaces shall be clean 
and free from moisture. A purple primer that conforms to 
ASTM F 656 shall be applied. Solvent cement not purple in 
color and conforming to ASTM D 2564 or CSA-B 137.3 
shall be applied to all joint surfaces. The joint shall be made 
while the cement is wet and shall be in accordance with 
ASTM D 2855. Solvent-cement joints shall be permitted 
above or below ground. 

605.22.3 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to 
ASME B 1.20.1. Schedule 80 or heavier pipe shall be per- 
mitted to be threaded with dies specifically designed for 
plastic pipe, but the pressure rating of the pipe shall be 
reduced by 50 percent. Thread by socket molded fittings 
shall be permitted. Approved thread lubricant or tape shall 
be applied on the male threads only. 

605.23 Stainless steel. Joints between stainless steel pipe and 
fittings shall comply with Sections 605.23.1 and 605.23.2. 

605.23.1 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 

605.23.2 Welded joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
The joint shall be welded autogenously or with an approved 
filler metal as referenced in ASTM A 312. 

605.24 Joints between different materials. Joints between 
different piping materials shall be made with a mechanical 
joint of the compression or mechanical-sealing type, or as per- 
mitted in Sections 605.24.1, 605.24.2 and 605.24.3. Connec- 
tors or adapters shall have an elastomeric seal conforming to 
ASTM D 1869 or ASTM F 477. Joints shall be installed in 
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

605.24.1 Copper or copper-alloy tubing to galvanized 
steel pipe. Joints between copper or copper-alloy tubing 
and galvanized steel pipe shall be made with a brass fitting 
or dielectric fitting. The copper tubing shall be soldered to 
the fitting in an approved manner, and the fitting shall be 
screwed to the threaded pipe. 

605.24.2 Plastic pipe or tubing to other piping material. 

Joints between different grades of plastic pipe or between 
plastic pipe and other piping material shall be made with an 
approved adapter fitting. 

605.24.3 Stainless steel. Joints between stainless steel and 
different piping materials shall be made with a mechanical 
joint of the compression or mechanical sealing type or a 
dielectric fitting. 



SECTION 606 

INSTALLATION OF THE BUILDING 

WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM 

606.1 Location of full-open valves. Full-open valves shall be 
installed in the following locations: 

1 . On the building water service pipe from the public water 
supply near the curb. 

2. On the water distribution supply pipe at the entrance into 
the structure. 

3. On the discharge side of every water meter. 



4. On the base of every water riser pipe in occupancies 
other than multiple-family residential occupancies that 
are two stories or less in height and in one- and two-fam- 
ily residential occupancies. 

5 . On the top of every water down-feed pipe in occupancies 
other than one- and two-family residential occupancies. 

6. On the entrance to every water supply pipe to a dwelling 
unit, except where supplying a single fixture equipped 
with individual stops. 

7. On the water supply pipe to a gravity or pressurized 
water tank. 

8. On the water supply pipe to every water heater. 

606.2 Location of shutoff valves. Shutoff valves shall be 
installed in the following locations: 

1 . On the fixture supply to each plumbing fixture other than 
bathtubs and showers in one- and two-family residential 
occupancies, and other than in individual sleeping units 
that are provided with unit shutoff valves in hotels, 
motels, boarding houses and similar occupancies. 

2. On the water supply pipe to each sillcock. 

3. On the water supply pipe to each appliance or mechani- 
cal equipment. 

606.3 Access to valves. Access shall be provided to all 
full-open valves and shutoff valves. 

606.4 Valve identification. Service and hose bibb valves shall 
be identified. All other valves installed in locations that are not 
adjacent to the fixture or appliance shall be identified, indicat- 
ing the fixture or appliance served. 

606.5 Water pressure booster systems. Water pressure 
booster systems shall be provided as required by Sections 
606.5.1 through 606.5.10. 

606.5.1 Water pressure booster systems required. Where 
the water pressure in the public water main or individual 
water supply system is insufficient to supply the minimum 
pressures and quantities specified in this code, the supply 
shall be supplemented by an elevated water tank, a 
hydropneumatic pressure booster system or a water pres- 
sure booster pump installed in accordance with Section 
606.5.5. 

606.5.2 Support. All water supply tanks shall be supported 
in accordance with the International Building Code. 

606.5.3 Covers. All water supply tanks shall be covered to 
keep out unauthorized persons, dirt and vermin. The covers 
of gravity tanks shall be vented with a return bend vent pipe 
with an area not less than the area of the down-feed riser 
pipe, and the vent shall be screened with a corrosion-resis- 
tant screen of not less than 16 by 20 mesh per inch (630 by 
787 mesh per m). 

606.5.4 Overflows for water supply tanks. Each gravity or 
suction water supply tank shall be provided with an over- 
flow with a diameter not less than that shown in Table 
606.5.4. The overflow outlet shall discharge at a point not 
less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the roof or roof drain; 
floor or floor drain; or over an open water-supplied fixture. 



44 



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The overflow outlet shall be covered with a corrosion-resis- 
tant screen of not less than 16 by 20 mesh per inch (630 by 
787 mesh per m) and by 0.25-inch (6.4 mm) hardware cloth 
or shall terminate in a horizontal angle seat check valve. 
Drainage from overflow pipes shall be directed so as not to 
freeze on roof walks. 

TABLE 606.5.4 
SIZES FOR OVERFLOW PIPES FOR WATER SUPPLY TANKS 



MAXIMUM CAPACITY OF WATER 
SUPPLY LINE TO TANK (gpm) 


DIAMETER OF OVERFLOW PIPE 
(inches) 


0-50 


2 


50 - 150 


2V 2 


150 - 200 


3 


200 - 400 


4 


400-700 


5 


700-1,000 


6 


Over 1,000 


8 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m. 

606.5.5 Low-pressure cutoff required on booster pumps. 

A low-pressure cutoff shall be installed on all booster 
pumps in a water pressure booster system to prevent cre- 
ation of a vacuum or negative pressure on the suction side of 
the pump when a positive pressure of 10 psi (68.94 kPa) or 
less occurs on the suction side of the pump. 

606.5.6 Potable water inlet control and location. Potable 
water inlets to gravity tanks shall be controlled by a fill valve 
or other automatic supply valve installed so as to prevent the 
tank from overflowing. The inlet shall be terminated so as to 
provide an air gap not less than 4 inches (102 mm) above the 
overflow. 

606.5.7 Tank drain pipes. A valved pipe shall be provided 
at the lowest point of each tank to permit emptying of the 
tank. The tank drain pipe shall discharge as required for 
overflow pipes and shall not be smaller in size than specified 
in Table 606.5.7. 

TABLE 606.5.7 
SIZE OF DRAIN PIPES FOR WATER TANKS 



TANK CAPACITY (gallons) 


DRAIN PIPE (inches) 


Up to 750 


1 


751 to 1,500 


1V 2 


1,501 to 3,000 


2 


3,001 to 5,000 


2V 2 


5,000 to 7,500 


3 


Over 7,500 


4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

606.5.8 Prohibited location of potable supply tanks. 

Potable water gravity tanks or manholes of potable water 
pressure tanks shall not be located directly under any soil or 
waste piping or any source of contamination. 



606.5.9 Pressure tanks, vacuum relief. All water pressure 
tanks shall be provided with a vacuum relief valve at the top 
of the tank that will operate up to a maximum water pressure 
of 200 psi (1380 kPa) and up to a maximum temperature of 
200°F (93°C). The minimum size of such vacuum relief 
valve shall be 0.50 inch (12.7 mm). 

Exception: This section shall not apply to pressurized 
captive air diaphragm/bladder tanks. 

606.5.10 Pressure relief for tanks. Every pressure tank in a 
hydropneumatic pressure booster system shall be protected 
with a pressure relief valve. The pressure relief valve shall 
be set at a maximum pressure equal to the rating of the tank. 
The relief valve shall be installed on the supply pipe to the 
tank or on the tank. The relief valve shall discharge by grav- 
ity to a safe place of disposal. 

606.6 Water supply system test. Upon completion of a sec- 
tion of or the entire water supply system, the system, or portion 
completed, shall be tested in accordance with Section 312. 



SECTION 607 
HOT WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM 

607.1 Where required. In residential occupancies, hot water 
shall be supplied to all plumbing fixtures and equipment uti- 
lized for bathing, washing, culinary purposes, cleansing, laun- 
dry or building maintenance. In nonresidential occupancies, 
hot water shall be supplied for culinary purposes, cleansing, 
laundry or building maintenance purposes. In nonresidential 
occupancies, hot water or tempered water shall be supplied for 
bathing and washing purposes. Tempered water shall be sup- 
plied through a water temperature limiting device that con- 
forms to ASSE 1070 and shall limit the tempered water to a 
maximum of 1 10°F (43°C). This provision shall not supersede 
the requirement for protective shower valves in accordance 
with Section 424.3. 

607.2 Hot water supply temperature maintenance. Where 
the developed length of hot water piping from the source of hot 
water supply to the farthest fixture exceeds 100 feet (30 480 
mm), the hot water supply system shall be provided with a 
method of maintaining the temperature in accordance with the 
International Energy Conservation Code. 

607.2.1 Piping insulation. Circulating hot water system 
piping shall be insulated in accordance with the Interna- 
tional Energy Conservation Code. 

[E] 607.2.2 Hot water system controls. Automatic circu- 
lating hot water system pumps or heat trace shall be 
arranged to be conveniently turned off, automatically or 
manually, when the hot water system is not in operation. 

607.2.3 Recirculating pump. Where a thermostatic mixing 
valve is used in a system with a hot water recirculating 
pump, the hot water or tempered water return line shall be 
routed to the cold water inlet pipe of the water heater and the 
cold water inlet pipe or the hot water return connection of 
the thermostatic mixing valve. 

607.3 Thermal expansion control. A means of controlling 
increased pressure caused by thermal expansion shall be pro- 



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vided where required in accordance with Sections 607.3.1 and 
607.3.2. 

607.3.1 Pressure-reducing valve. For water service system 
sizes up to and including 2 inches (5 1 mm), a device for con- 
trolling pressure shall be installed where, because of ther- 
mal expansion, the pressure on the downstream side of a 
pressure-reducing valve exceeds the pressure-reducing 
valve setting. 

607.3.2 Backflow prevention device or check valve. 

Where a backflow prevention device, check valve or other 
device is installed on a water supply system utilizing storage 
water heating equipment such that thermal expansion 
causes an increase in pressure, a device for controlling pres- 
sure shall be installed. 

607.4 Flow of hot water to fixtures. Fixture fittings, faucets 
and diverters shall be installed and adjusted so that the flow of 
hot water from the fittings corresponds to the left-hand side of 
the fixture fitting. 

Exception: Shower and tub/shower mixing valves con- 
forming to ASSE 1016 or CSA B 125, where the flow of hot 
water corresponds to the markings on the device. 



SECTION 608 
PROTECTION OF POTABLE WATER SUPPLY 

608.1 General. A potable water supply system shall be 
designed, installed and maintained in such a manner so as to 
prevent contamination from nonpotable liquids, solids or gases 
being introduced into the potable water supply through 
cross-connections or any other piping connections to the sys- 
tem. Backflow preventer applications shall conform to Table 
608.1, except as specifically stated in Sections 608.2 through 
608.16.10. 

608.2 Plumbing fixtures. The supply lines and fittings for 
every plumbing fixture shall be installed so as to prevent 
backflow. Plumbing fixture fittings shall provide backflow 
protection in accordance with ASME Al 12.18.1. 

608.3 Devices, appurtenances, appliances and apparatus. 

All devices, appurtenances, appliances and apparatus intended 
to serve some special function, such as sterilization, distilla- 
tion, processing, cooling, or storage of ice or foods, and that 
connect to the water supply system, shall be provided with pro- 
tection against backflow and contamination of the water supply 
system. Water pumps, filters, softeners, tanks and all other 
appliances and devices that handle or treat potable water shall 
be protected against contamination. 

608.3.1 Special equipment, water supply protection. The 

water supply for hospital fixtures shall be protected against 
backflow with a reduced pressure principle backflow 
preventer, an atmospheric or spill-proof vacuum breaker, or 
an air gap. Vacuum breakers for bedpan washer hoses shall 
not be located less than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor. 
Vacuum breakers for hose connections in health care or lab- 
oratory areas shall not be less than 6 feet (1829 mm) above 
the floor. 

608.4 Water service piping. Water service piping shall be pro- 
tected in accordance with Sections 603.2 and 603.2.1. 



608.5 Chemicals and other substances. Chemicals and other 
substances that produce either toxic conditions, taste, odor or 
discoloration in a potable water system shall not be introduced 
into, or utilized in, such systems. 

608.6 Cross-connection control. Cross connections shall be 
prohibited, except where approved protective devices are 
installed. 

608.6.1 Private water supplies. Cross connections 
between a private water supply and a potable public supply 
shall be prohibited. 

608.7 Stop-and-waste valves prohibited. Combination 
stop-and-waste valves or cocks shall not be installed under- 
ground. 

608.8 Identification of potable and nonpotable water. In all 

buildings where two or more water distribution systems, one 
potable water and the other nonpotable water, are installed, 
each system shall be identified either by color marking or metal 
tags in accordance with Sections 608.8.1 through 608.8.3. 

608.8.1 Information. Pipe identification shall include the 
contents of the piping system and an arrow indicating the 
direction of flow. Hazardous piping systems shall also con- 
tain information addressing the nature of the hazard. Pipe 
identification shall be repeated at maximum intervals of 25 
feet (7620 mm) and at each point where the piping passes 
through a wall, floor or roof. Lettering shall be readily 
observable within the room or space where the piping is 
located. 

608.8.2 Color. The color of the pipe identification shall be 
discernable and consistent throughout the building. 

608.8.3 Size. The size of the background color field and let- 
tering shall comply with Table 608.8.3. 

TABLE 608.8.3 
SIZE OF PIPE IDENTIFICATION 



PIPE DIAMETER 
(inches) 


LENGTH BACKGROUND 

COLOR FIELD 

(inches) 


SIZE OF 
LETTERS 
(inches) 


3 / 4 tolV 


8 


0.5- 


l7 2 to2 


8 


0.75 


27, to 6 


12 


1.25 


8 to 10 


24 


2.5 


over 10 


32 


3.5 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

608.9 Reutilization prohibited. Water utilized for the cooling 
of equipment or other processes shall not be returned to the 
potable water system. Such water shall be discharged into a 
drainage system through an air gap or shall be utilized for non- 
potable purposes. 

608.10 Reuse of piping. Piping that has been utilized for any 
purpose other than conveying potable water shall not be uti- 
lized for conveying potable water. 

608.11 Painting of water tanks. The interior surface of a pota- 
ble water tank shall not be lined, painted or repaired with any 
material that changes the taste, odor, color or potability of the 
water supply when the tank is placed in, or returned to, service. 



46 



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TABLE 608.1 
APPLICATION OF BACKFLOW PREVENTERS 




DEVICE 


DEGREE OF HAZARD 8 


APPLICATION" 


APPLICABLE STANDARDS 


Air gap 


High or low hazard 


Backsiphonage or backpressure 


ASMEA1 12.1.2 


Air gap fittings for use with plumbing 
fixtures, appliances and appurtenances 


High or low hazard 


Backsiphonage or backpressure 


ASMEA112.1.3 


Antisiphon-type fill valves for gravity 
water closet flush tanks 


High hazard 


Backsiphonage only 


ASSE1002,CSAB125 


Backflow preventer for carbonated 
beverage machines , 


Low hazard 


Backpressure or backsiphonage 
Sizes 7 4 "- 3 / 8 " 


ASSE1022,CSAB64.3.1 


Backflow preventer with intermediate 
atmospheric vents 


Low hazard 


Backpressure or backsiphonage 
Sizes V 4 " - 3 / 4 " 


ASSE 1012, CSA B64.3 


Barometric loop 


High or low hazard 


Backsiphonage only 


(See Section 608.13.4) 


Double check backflow prevention 
assembly and double check fire 
protection backflow prevention assembly 


Low hazard 


Backpressure or backsiphonage 
Sizes 3 / 8 " - 16" 


ASSE 1015, AWWAC510, 
CSAB64.5,CSAB64.5.1 


Double check detector fire protection 
backflow prevention assemblies 


Low hazard 


Backpressure or backsiphonage 
(Fire sprinkler systems) 
Sizes 2" - 16" 


ASSE 1048 


Dual-check-valve-type backflow preventer 


Low hazard 


Backpressure or backsiphonage 
Sizes V 4 " - 1" 


ASSE 1024, CSA B64.6 


Hose connection backflow preventer 


High or low hazard 


Low head backpressure, rated 
working pressure, backpressure or 
backsiphonage 
Sizes V 2 "-l" 


ASSE 1052, CSA B64.2. 1.1 


Hose connection vacuum breaker 


High or low hazard 


Low head backpressure or 
backsiphonage 
Sizes V 2 ", %", 1" 


ASSE 1011, CSA B64.2, 
CSAB64.2.1 


Laboratory faucet backflow preventer 


High or low hazard 


Low head backpressure and 
backsiphonage 


ASSE 1035, CSA B64.7 


Pipe-applied atmospheric-type vacuum 
breaker 


High or low hazard 


Backsiphonage only 
Sizes V 4 "- 4" 


ASSE 1001, CSA B64.1.1 


Pressure vacuum breaker assembly 


High or low hazard 


Backsiphonage only 

Sizes 1 //' -2" 


ASSE 1020, CSA B64. 1.2 


Reduced pressure principle backflow 
preventer and reduced pressure principle 
fire protection backflow preventer 


High or low hazard 


Backpressure or backsiphonage 
Sizes 3 / 8 "- 16" 


ASSE 1013, AWWAC511, 
CSAB64.4,CSAB64.4.1 


Reduced pressure detector fire protection 
backflow prevention assemblies 


High or low hazard 


Backsiphonage or backpressure 
(Fire sprinkler systems) 


ASSE 1047 


Spillproof vacuum breaker 


High or low hazard 


Backsiphonage only 
Sizes 1 / 4 "-2" 


ASSE 1056 


Vacuum breaker wall hydrants, 
frost-resistant, automatic draining type 


High or low hazard 


Low head backpressure or 
backsiphonage 
Sizes 3 / 4 ", 1" 


ASSE 1019, CSA B64.2.2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Low hazard-See Pollution (Section 202). 
High hazard-See Contamination (Section 202). 

b. See Backpressure (Section 202). 

See Backpressure, low head (Section 202). 
See Backsiphonage (Section 202). 



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608.12 Pumps and other appliances. Water pumps, filters, 
softeners, tanks and all other devices that handle or treat pota- 
ble water shall be protected against contamination. 

608.13 Backflow protection. Means of protection against 
backflow shall be provided in accordance with Sections 
608.13.1 through 608.13.9. 

608.13.1 Air gap. The minimum required air gap shall be 
measured vertically from the lowest end of a potable water 
outlet to the flood level rim of the fixture or receptacle into 
which such potable water outlet discharges. Air gaps shall 
comply with ASME Al 12. 1 .2 and air gap fittings shall com- 
ply with ASME Al 12. 1.3. 

608.13.2 Reduced pressure principle backflow 
preventers. Reduced pressure principle backflow 
preventers shall conform to ASSE 1013, AWWA C511, 
CSA B64.4 or CSA B64.4.1. Reduced pressure detector 
assembly backflow preventers shall conform to ASSE 1047. 
These devices shall be permitted to be installed where sub- 
ject to continuous pressure conditions. The relief opening 
shall discharge by air gap and shall be prevented from being 
submerged. 

608.13.3 Backflow preventer with intermediate atmo- 
spheric vent. Backflow preventers with intermediate atmo- 
spheric vents shall conform to ASSE 1012 or CSA B64.3. 
These devices shall be permitted to be installed where sub- 
ject to continuous pressure conditions. The relief opening 
shall discharge by air gap and shall be prevented from being 
submerged. 

608.13.4 Barometric loop. Barometric loops shall precede 
the point of connection and shall extend vertically to a 
height of 35 feet (10 668 mm). A barometric loop shall only 
be utilized as an atmospheric-type or pressure-type vacuum 
breaker. 

608.13.5 Pressure-type vacuum breakers. Pressure-type 
vacuum breakers shall conform to ASSE 1020 or CSA 
B64.1.2 and spillproof vacuum breakers shall comply with 
ASSE 1056. These devices are designed for installation 
under continuous pressure conditions when the critical level 
is installed at the required height. Pressure-type vacuum 
breakers shall not be installed in locations where spillage 
could cause damage to the structure. 

608.13.6 Atmospheric-type vacuum breakers. Pipe- 
applied atmospheric-type vacuum breakers shall conform 
to ASSE 1001 or CSA B64.1.1. Hose-connection vacuum 
breakers shall conform to ASSE 1011, ASSE 1019, ASSE 
1035, ASSE 1052, CSA B64.2, CSA B64.2.1, CSA 
B64.2. 1.1, CSA B64.2.2 or CSA B64.7. These devices shall 
operate under normal atmospheric pressure when the criti- 
cal level is installed at the required height. 

608.13.7 Double check-valve assemblies. Double check- 
valve assemblies shall conform to ASSE 1015, CSA B64.5, 
CSA B64.5.1 or AWWA C510. Double-detector 
check- valve assemblies shall conform to ASSE 1048. These 
devices shall be capable of operating under continuous pres- 
sure conditions. 

608.13.8 Spillproof vacuum breakers. Spillproof vacuum 
breakers (SVB) shall conform to ASSE 1056. These devices 



are designed for installation under continuous-pressure 
conditions when the critical level is installed at the required 
height. 

608.13.9 Chemical dispenser backflow devices. Back- 
flow devices for chemical dispensers shall comply with 
ASSE 1055 or shall be equipped with an air gap fitting. 

608.14 Location of backflow preventers. Access shall be pro- 
vided to backflow preventers as specified by the installation 
instructions of the approved manufacturer. 

608.14.1 Outdoor enclosures for backflow prevention 
devices. Outdoor enclosures for backflow prevention 
devices shall comply with ASSE 1060. 

608.15 Protection of potable water outlets. All potable water 
openings and outlets shall be protected against backflow in 
accordance with Section 608.15.1, 608.15.2, 608.15.3, 
608.15.4, 608.15.4.1 or 608.15.4.2. 

608.15.1 Protection by air gap. Openings and outlets shall 
be protected by an air gap between the opening and the fix- 
ture flood level rim as specified in Table 608. 1 5. 1 . Openings 
and outlets equipped for hose connection shall be protected 
by means other than an air gap. 

608.15.2 Protection by a reduced pressure principle 
backflow preventer. Openings and outlets shall be pro- 
tected by a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer. 

608.15.3 Protection by a backflow preventer with inter- 
mediate atmospheric vent. Openings and outlets shall be 
protected by a backflow preventer with an intermediate 
atmospheric vent. 

608.15.4 Protection by a vacuum breaker. Openings and 
outlets shall be protected by atmospheric-type or pres- 
sure-type vacuum breakers. The critical level of the vacuum 
breaker shall be set a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) above 
the flood level rim of the fixture or device. Fill valves shall 
be set in accordance with Section 425 .3 . 1 . Vacuum breakers 
shall not be installed under exhaust hoods or similar loca- 
tions that will contain toxic fumes or vapors. Pipe-applied 
vacuum breakers shall be installed not less than 6 inches 
(152 mm) above the flood level rim of the fixture, receptor 
or device served. 

608.15.4.1 Deck-mounted and integral vacuum 
breakers. Approved deck-mounted or equip- 
ment-mounted vacuum breakers and faucets with inte- 
gral atmospheric or spillproof vacuum breakers shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions and the requirements for labeling with the critical 
level not less than 1 inch (25 mm) above the flood level 
rim. 

608.15.4.2 Hose connections. Sillcocks, hose bibbs, 
wall hydrants and other openings with a hose connection 
shall be protected by an atmospheric-type or pres- 
sure-type vacuum breaker or a permanently attached 
hose connection vacuum breaker. 

Exceptions: 

1. This section shall not apply to water heater and 
boiler drain valves that are provided with hose 



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TABLE 608.15.1 
MINIMUM REQUIRED AIR GAPS 



FIXTURE 


MINIMUM AIR GAP 


Away from a wall 3 (inches) 


Close to a wall (inches) 


Lavatories and other fixtures with effective opening not greater than V 2 inch 
in diameter 


1 


1V 2 


Sink, laundry trays, gooseneck back faucets and other fixtures with effective 
openings not greater than 3 / 4 inch in diameter 


1.5 


2.5 


Over-rim bath fillers and other fixtures with effective openings not greater 
than 1 inch in diameter 


2 


3 


Drinking water fountains, single orifice not greater than 7 / 16 inch in diameter 
or multiple orifices with a total area of 0.150 square inch (area of circle 7 / 16 
inch in diameter) 


1 


1V 2 


Effective openings greater than 1 inch 


Two times the diameter 
of the effective opening 


Three times the diameter 
of the effective opening 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Applicable where walls or obstructions are spaced from the nearest inside-edge of the spout opening a distance greater than three times the diameter of the effective 
opening for a single wall, or a distance greater than four times the diameter of the effective opening for two intersecting walls. 



connection threads and that are intended only for 
tank or vessel draining. 

2. This section shall not apply to water supply valves 
intended for connection of clothes washing 
machines where backflow prevention is otherwise 
provided or is integral with the machine. 

608.16 Connections to the potable water system. Connec- 
tions to the potable water system shall conform to Sections 
608.16.1 through 608.16.10. 

608.16.1 Beverage dispensers. The water supply connec- 
tion to beverage dispensers shall be protected against 
backflow by a backflow preventer conforming to ASSE 
1022, CSA B64.3.1 or by an air gap. The backflow 
preventer device and the piping downstream therefrom shall 
not be affected by carbon dioxide gas. 

608.16.2 Connections to boilers. The potable supply to the 
boiler shall be equipped with a backflow preventer with an 
intermediate atmospheric vent complying with ASSE 1012 
or CSA B64.3. Where conditioning chemicals are intro- 
duced into the system, the potable water connection shall be 
protected by an air gap or a reduced pressure principle 
backflow preventer, complying with ASSE 1013, CSA 
B64.4orAWWAC511. 

608.16.3 Heat exchangers. Heat exchangers utilizing an 
essentially toxic transfer fluid shall be separated from the 
potable water by double- wall construction. An air gap open 
to the atmosphere shall be provided between the two walls. 
Heat exchangers utilizing an essentially nontoxic transfer 
fluid shall be permitted to be of single-wall construction. 

608.16.4 Connections to automatic fire sprinkler sys- 
tems and standpipe systems. The potable water supply to 
automatic fire sprinkler and standpipe systems shall be pro- 
tected against backflow by a double check- valve assembly 
or a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer. 



Exceptions: 

1. Where systems are installed as a portion of the 
water distribution system in accordance with the 
requirements of this code and are not provided 
with a fire department connection, isolation of the 
water supply system shall not be required. 

2. Isolation of the water distribution system is not 
required for deluge, preaction or dry pipe systems. 

608.16.4.1 Additives or nonpotable source. Where 
systems under continuous pressure contain chemical 
additives or antifreeze, or where systems are connected 
to a nonpotable secondary water supply, the potable 
water supply shall be protected against backflow by a 
reduced pressure principle backflow preventer. Where 
chemical additives or antifreeze are added to only a por- 
tion of an automatic fire sprinkler or standpipe system, 
the reduced pressure principle backflow preventer shall 
be permitted to be located so as to isolate that portion of 
the system. Where systems are not under continuous 
pressure, the potable water supply shall be protected 
against backflow by an air gap or a pipe applied atmo- 
spheric vacuum breaker conforming to ASSE 1001 or 
CSAB64.1.1. 

608.16.5 Connections to lawn irrigation systems. The 

potable water supply to lawn irrigation systems shall be pro- 
tected against backflow by an atmospheric-type vacuum 
breaker, a pressure-type vacuum breaker or a reduced pres- 
sure principle backflow preventer. A valve shall not be 
installed downstream from an atmospheric vacuum breaker. 
Where chemicals are introduced into the system, the potable 
water supply shall be protected against backflow by a 
reduced pressure principle backflow preventer. 

608.16.6 Connections subject to backpressure. Where a 
potable water connection is made to a nonpotable line, fix- 
ture, tank, vat, pump or other equipment subject to 



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back-pressure, the potable water connection shall be pro- 
tected by a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer. 

608.16.7 Chemical dispensers. Where chemical dispens- 
ers connect to the potable water distribution system, the 
water supply system shall be protected against backflow in 
accordance with Section 608.13.1, 608.13.2, 608.13.5, 
608.13.6, 608.13.8 or 608.13.9. 

608.16.8 Portable cleaning equipment. Where the porta- 
ble cleaning equipment connects to the water distribution 
system, the water supply system shall be protected against 
backflow in accordance with Section 608.13.1, 608.13.2, 
608.13.3, 608.13.7 or 608.13.8. 

608.16.9 Dental pump equipment. Where dental pumping 
equipment connects to the water distribution system, the 
water supply system shall be protected against backflow in 
accordance with Section 608.13.1, 608.13.2, 608.13.5, 
608.13.6 or 608.13.8. 

608.16.10 Coffee machines and noncarbonated bever- 
age dispensers. The water supply connection to coffee 
machines and noncarbonated beverage dispensers shall be 
protected against backflow by a backflow preventer con- 
forming to ASSE 1022 or by an air gap. 

608.17 Protection of individual water supplies. An individ- 
ual water supply shall be located and constructed so as to be 
safeguarded against contamination in accordance with Sec- 
tions 608.17.1 through 608.17.8. 

608.17.1 Well locations. A potable ground water source or 
pump suction line shall not be located closer to potential 
sources of contamination than the distances shown in Table 
608. 17. 1 . In the event the underlying rock structure is lime- 
stone or fragmented shale, the local or state health depart- 
ment shall be consulted on well site location. The distances 
in Table 608.17.1 constitute minimum separation and shall 
be increased in areas of creviced rock or limestone, or where 
the direction of movement of the ground water is from 
sources of contamination toward the well. 

TABLE 608.17.1 

DISTANCE FROM CONTAMINATION TO 

PRIVATE WATER SUPPLIES AND PUMP SUCTION LINES 



SOURCE OF CONTAMINATION 


DISTANCE (feet) 


Barnyard 


100 


Farm silo 


25 


Pasture 


100 


Pumphouse floor drain of cast iron draining 
to ground surface 


2 


Seepage pits 


50 


Septic tank 


25 


Sewer 


10 


Subsurface disposal fields 


50 


Subsurface pits 


50 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

608.17.2 Elevation. Well sites shall be positively drained 
and shall be at higher elevations than potential sources of 
contamination. 



608.17.3 Depth. Private potable well supplies shall not be 
developed from a water table less than 10 feet (3048 mm) 
below the ground surface. 

608.17.4 Water-tight casings. Each well shall be provided 
with a water-tight casing to a minimum distance of 10 feet 
(3048 mm) below the ground surface. All casings shall 
extend at least 6 inches (152 mm) above the well platform. 
The casing shall be large enough to permit installation of a 
separate drop pipe. Casings shall be sealed at the bottom in 
an impermeable stratum or extend several feet into the 
water-bearing stratum. 

608.17.5 Drilled or driven well casings. Drilled or driven 
well casings shall be of steel or other approved material. 
Where drilled wells extend into a rock formation, the well 
casing shall extend to and set firmly in the formation. The 
annular space between the earth and the outside of the cas- 
ing shall be filled with cement grout to a minimum distance 
of 10 feet (3048 mm) below the ground surface. In an 
instance of casing to rock installation, the grout shall extend 
to the rock surface. 

608.17.6 Dug or bored well casings. Dug or bored well 
casings shall be of water-tight concrete, tile, or galvanized 
or corrugated metal pipe to a minimum distance of 10 feet 
(3048 mm) below the ground surface. Where the water table 
is more than 10 feet (3048 mm) below the ground surface, 
the water-tight casing shall extend below the table surface. 
Well casings for dug wells or bored wells constructed with 
sections of concrete, tile, or galvanized or corrugated metal 
pipe shall be surrounded by 6 inches (152 mm) of grout 
poured into the hole between the outside of the casing and 
the ground to a minimum depth of 10 feet (3048 mm). 

608.17.7 Cover. Every potable water well shall be equipped 
with an overlapping water-tight cover at the top of the well 
casing or pipe sleeve such that contaminated water or other 
substances are prevented from entering the well through the 
annular opening at the top of the well casing, wall or pipe 
sleeve. Covers shall extend downward at least 2 inches (5 1 
mm) over the outside of the well casing or wall. A dug well 
cover shall be provided with a pipe sleeve permitting the 
withdrawal of the pump suction pipe, cylinder or jet body 
without disturbing the cover. Where pump sections or dis- 
charge pipes enter or leave a well through the side of the cas- 
ing, the circle of contact shall be water tight. 

608.17.8 Drainage. All potable water wells and springs 
shall be constructed such that surface drainage will be 
diverted away from the well or spring. 



SECTION 609 
HEALTH CARE PLUMBING 

609.1 Scope. This section shall govern those aspects of health 
care plumbing systems that differ from plumbing systems in 
other structures. Health care plumbing systems shall conform 
to the requirements of this section in addition to the other 
requirements of this code. The provisions of this section shall 
apply to the special devices and equipment installed and main- 
tained in the following occupancies: nursing homes, homes for 
the aged, orphanages, infirmaries, first aid stations, psychiatric 



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facilities, clinics, professional offices of dentists and doctors, 
mortuaries, educational facilities, surgery, dentistry, research 
and testing laboratories, establishments manufacturing phar- 
maceutical drugs and medicines, and other structures with sim- 
ilar apparatus and equipment classified as plumbing. 

609.2 Water service. All hospitals shall have two water service 
pipes installed in such a manner so as to minimize the potential 
for an interruption of the supply of water in the event of a water 
main or water service pipe failure. 

609.3 Hot water. Hot water shall be provided to supply all of 
the hospital fixture, kitchen and laundry requirements. Special 
fixtures and equipment shall have hot water supplied at a tem- 
perature specified by the manufacturer. The hot water system 
shall be installed in accordance with Section 607. 

609.4 Vacuum breaker installation. Vacuum breakers shall 
be installed a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) above the flood 
level rim of the fixture or device in accordance with Section 
608. The flood level rim of hose connections shall be the maxi- 
mum height at which any hose is utilized. 

609.5 Prohibited water closet and clinical sink supply. Jet- 
or water-supplied orifices, except those supplied by the flush 
connections, shall not be located in or connected with a water 
closet bowl or clinical sink. This section shall not prohibit an 
approved bidet installation. 

609.6 Clinical, hydrotherapeutic and radiological equip- 
ment. All clinical, hydrotherapeutic, radiological or any equip- 
ment that is supplied with water or that discharges to the waste 
system shall conform to the requirements of this section and 
Section 608. 

609.7 Condensate drain trap seal. A water supply shall be 
provided for cleaning, flushing and resealing the condensate 
trap, and the trap shall discharge through an air gap in accor- 
dance with Section 608. 

609.8 Valve leakage diverter. Each water sterilizer filled with 
water through directly connected piping shall be equipped with 
an approved leakage diverter or bleed line on the water supply 
control valve to indicate and conduct any leakage of unsterile 
water away from the sterile zone. 



SECTION 610 
DISINFECTION OF POTABLE WATER SYSTEM 

610.1 General. New or repaired potable water systems shall be 
purged of deleterious matter and disinfected prior to utiliza- 
tion. The method to be followed shall be that prescribed by the 
health authority or water purveyor having jurisdiction or, in the 
absence of a prescribed method, the procedure described in 
either AWWA C651 or AWWA C652, or as described in this 
section. This requirement shall apply to "on-site" or "in-plant" 
fabrication of a system or to a modular portion of a system. 

1. The pipe system shall be flushed with clean, potable 
water until dirty water does not appear at the points of 
outlet. 

2. The system or part thereof shall be filled with a 
water/chlorine solution containing at least 50 parts per 
million (50 mg/L) of chlorine, and the system or part 



thereof shall be valved off and allowed to stand for 24 
hours; or the system or part thereof shall be filled with a 
water/chlorine solution containing at least 200 parts per 
million (200 mg/L) of chlorine and allowed to stand for 3 
hours. 

3 . Following the required standing time, the system shall be 
flushed with clean potable water until the chlorine is 
purged from the system. 

4. The procedure shall be repeated where shown by a bacte- 
riological examination that contamination remains pres- 
ent in the system. 



SECTION 611 
DRINKING WATER TREATMENT UNITS 

611.1 Design. Drinking water treatment units shall meet the 
requirements of NSF 42, NSF 44, NSF 53 or NSF 62. 

611.2 Reverse osmosis systems. The discharge from a reverse 
osmosis drinking water treatment unit shall enter the drainage 
system through an air gap or an air gap device that meets the 
requirements of NSF 58. 

611.3 Connection tubing. The tubing to and from drinking 
water treatment units shall be of a size and material as recom- 
mended by the manufacturer. The tubing shall comply with 

NSF 14, NSF 42, NSF 44, NSF 53, NSF 58 or NSF 61. 



SECTION 612 
SOLAR SYSTEMS 

612.1 Solar systems. The construction, installation, alterations 
and repair of systems, equipment and appliances intended to 
utilize solar energy for space heating or cooling, domestic hot 
water heating, swimming pool heating or process heating shall 
be in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. 



SECTION 613 

TEMPERATURE CONTROL 

DEVICES AND VALVES 

613.1 Temperature-actuated mixing valves. Temperature- 
actuated mixing valves, which are installed to reduce water 
temperatures to defined limits, shall comply with ASSE 1017. 



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52 2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE" 



CHAPTER 7 

SANITARY DRAINAGE 



SECTION 701 
GENERAL 

701.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
materials, design, construction and installation of sanitary 
drainage systems. 

701.2 Sewer required. Every building in which plumbing fix- 
tures are installed and all premises having drainage piping shall 
be connected to a public sewer, where available, or an approved 
private sewage disposal system in accordance with the Interna- 
tional Private Sewage Disposal Code. 

701.3 Separate sewer connection. Every building having 
plumbing fixtures installed and intended for human habitation, 
occupancy or use on premises abutting on a street, alley or 
easement in which there is a public sewer shall have a separate 
connection with the sewer. Where located on the same lot, mul- 
tiple buildings shall not be prohibited from connecting to a 
common building sewer that connects to the public sewer. 

701.4 Sewage treatment. Sewage or other waste from a 
plumbing system that is deleterious to surface or subsurface 
waters shall not be discharged into the ground or into any 
waterway unless it has first been rendered innocuous through 
subjection to an approved form of treatment. 

701.5 Damage to drainage system or public sewer. Wastes 
detrimental to the public sewer system or to the functioning of 
the sewage-treatment plant shall be treated and disposed of in 
accordance with Section 1003 as directed by the code official. 

701.6 Tests. The sanitary drainage system shall be tested in 
accordance with Section 312. 

701.7 Connections. Direct connection of a steam exhaust, 
blowoff or drip pipe shall not be made with the building drain- 
age system. Wastewater when discharged into the building 
drainage system shall be at a temperature not higher than 140°F 
(60°C). When higher temperatures exist, approved cooling 
methods shall be provided. 

701.8 Engineered systems. Engineered sanitary drainage sys- 
tems shall conform to the provisions of Sections 1 05 .4 and 714. 

701.9 Drainage piping in food service areas. Exposed soil or 
waste piping shall not be installed above any working, storage 
or eating surfaces in food service establishments. 



SECTION 702 
MATERIALS 

702.1 Above-ground sanitary drainage and vent pipe. 

Above-ground soil, waste and vent pipe shall conform to one of 
the standards listed in Table 702.1. 

702.2 Underground building sanitary drainage and vent 
pipe. Underground building sanitary drainage and vent pipe 
shall conform to one of the standards listed in Table 702.2. 



TABLE 702.1 
ABOVE-GROUND DRAINAGE AND VENT PIPE 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene 
(ABS) plastic pipe 


ASTM D 2661; ASTM F 628; 
CSAB181.1 


Brass pipe 


ASTM B 43 


Cast-iron pipe 


ASTM A 74; ASTM A 888; 
CISPI 301 


Coextruded composite ABS 
DWV schedule 40 IPS pipe 
(solid) 


ASTMF 1488 


Coextruded composite ABS 
DWV schedule 40 IPS pipe 
(cellular core) 


ASTM F 1488 


Coextruded composite PVC 
DWV schedule 40 IPS pipe 
(solid) 


ASTM F 1488 


Coextruded composite PVC 
DWV schedule 40 IPS pipe 
(cellular core) 


ASTM F 891; ASTM F 1488 


Coextruded composite PVC 
IPS-DR, PS 140, PS200DWV 


ASTM F 1488 


Copper or copper-alloy pipe 


ASTM B 42; ASTM B 302 


Copper or copper-alloy tubing 
(TypeK,L,MorDWV) 


ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; 
ASTM B 251; ASTM B 306 


Galvanized steel pipe 


ASTM A 53 


Glass pipe 


ASTM C 1053 


Polyolefin pipe 


CSAB181.3 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 
plastic pipe (Type DWV) 


ASTM D 2665; ASTM D 2949; 
ASTMF1488;CSAB181.2 


Stainless steel drainage 

systems, Types 304 and 316L 


ASMEA1 12.3.1 



702.3 Building sewer pipe. Building sewer pipe shall conform 
to one of the standards listed in Table 702.3. 

702.4 Fittings. Pipe fittings shall be approved for installation 
with the piping material installed and shall conform to the 
respective pipe standards or one of the standards listed in Table 
702.4. 

702.5 Chemical waste system. A chemical waste system shall 
be completely separated from the sanitary drainage system. 
The chemical waste shall be treated in accordance with Section 
803.2 before discharging to the sanitary drainage system. Sep- 
arate drainage systems for chemical wastes and vent pipes shall 
be of an approved material that is resistant to corrosion and 
degradation for the concentrations of chemicals involved. 



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TABLE 702.2 
UNDERGROUND BUILDING DRAINAGE AND VENT PIPE 



TABLE 702.3 
BUILDING SEWER PIPE 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene 
(ABS) plastic pipe 


ASTM D 2661; ASTM F 628; 
CSAB181.1 


Asbestos-cement pipe 


ASTM C 428 


Cast-iron pipe 


ASTM A 74; ASTM A 888; 
CISPI 301 


Coextruded composite ABS 
DWV schedule 40 IPS pipe 
(solid) 


ASTM F 1488 


Coextruded composite ABS 
DWV schedule 40 IPS pipe 
(cellular core) 


ASTM F 1488 


Coextruded composite PVC 
DWV schedule 40 IPS pipe 
(solid) 


ASTM F 1488 


Coextruded composite PVC 
DWV schedule 40 IPS pipe 
(cellular core) 


ASTM F 891; ASTM F 1488 


Coextruded composite PVC 
IPS-DR,PS140,PS200 
DWV 


ASTM F 1488 


Copper or copper-alloy tubing 
(TypeK,L,MorDWV) 


ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; 
ASTM B 251; ASTM B 306 


Polyolefin pipe 


ASTM F 1412; CSAB181.3 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 
plastic pipe (Type DWV) 


ASTM D 2665; ASTM D 2949; 
CSAB181.2 


Stainless steel drainage 
systems, Type 316L 


ASMEA1 12.3.1 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene 
(ABS) plastic pipe 


ASTM D 2661; ASTM D 2751; 
ASTM F 628 


Asbestos-cement pipe 


ASTM C 428 


Cast-iron pipe 


ASTM A 74; ASTM A 888; 
CISPI 301 


Coextruded composite ABS 
DWV schedule 40 IPS pipe 
(solid) 


ASTM F 1488 


Coextruded composite ABS 
DWV schedule 40 IPS pipe 
(cellular core) 


ASTM F 1488 


Coextruded composite PVC 
DWV schedule 40 IPS pipe 
(solid) 


ASTM F 1488 


Coextruded composite PVC 
DWV schedule 40 IPS pipe 
(cellular core) 


ASTM F 891; ASTM F 1488 


Coextruded composite 
PVCIPS-DR,PS140, 
PS200, DWV 


ASTM F 1488 


Coextruded composite ABS 
sewer and drain DR-PS in 
PS35,PS50,PS100,PS140, 
PS200 


ASTM F 1488 


Coextruded composite PVC 
sewer and drain DR-PS in 
PS35,PS50,PS100,PS140, 
PS200 


ASTM F 1488 


Coextruded PVC sewer and 
drain PS25, PS50, PS 100 
(cellular core) 


ASTM F 891 


Concrete pipe 


ASTM C14; ASTM C76; CSA 

A257.1M; CSA A257.2M 


Copper or copper-alloy tubing 
(Type K or L) 


ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; ASTM 
B251 


Polyethylene (PE) plastic pipe 
(SDR-PR) 


ASTM F 714 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 
plastic pipe (Type DWV, 
SDR26, SDR35, SDR41, 
PS50orPS100) 


ASTM D 2665; ASTM D 2949; 
ASTMD 3034; CSA B 182.2; 
CSA B 182.4 


Stainless steel drainage 
systems, Types 304 and 316L 


ASMEA112.3.1 


Vitrified clay pipe 


ASTM C 4; ASTM C 700 



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TABLE 702.4 
PIPE FITTINGS 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Acrylonitrile butadiene 
styrene (ABS) plastic pipe 


ASTM D 2661; ASTM D 3311; 
CSAB181.1 


Cast iron 


ASME B 16.4; ASME B 16.12; 
ASTM A 74; ASTM A 888; 
CISPI 301 


Coextruded composite ABS 

DWV schedule 40 IPS pipe 
(solid or cellular core) 


ASTM D 2661; ASTM D 3311; 
ASTM F 628 


Coextruded composite PVC 
DWV schedule 40 IPS-DR, 
PS140,PS200 (solid or 
cellular core) 


ASTM D 2665; ASTM D 33 1 1 ; 
ASTM F 891 


Coextruded composite ABS 
sewer and drain DR-PS in 
PS35,PS50,PS100,PS140, 
PS200 


ASTM D 2751 


Coextruded composite PVC 
sewer and drain DR-PS in 
PS35,PS50,PS100,PS140, 
PS200 


ASTM D 3034 


Copper or copper alloy 


ASMEB 16.15; ASME B 16.18; 
ASME B 16.22; ASME B 16.23; 
ASME B 16.26; ASME B 16.29 


Glass 


ASTM C 1053 


Gray iron and ductile iron 


AWWAC110 


Malleable iron 


ASME B 16.3 


Polyolefin 


ASTM F 1412; CSA.B181.3 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 
plastic 


ASTM D 2665; ASTM D 3311; 
ASTM F 1866 


Stainless steel drainage 
systems, Types 304 and 
316L 


ASME A 112.3.1 


Steel 


ASME B 16.9; ASME B16.ll; 
ASMEB16.28 



702.6 Lead bends and traps. Lead bends and traps shall not be 
less than 0.125 inch (3.2 mm) wall thickness. 



SECTION 703 
BUILDING SEWER 

703.1 Building sewer pipe near the water service. Where the 
building sewer is installed within 5 feet ( 1 524 mm) of the water 

I service, the installation shall comply with the provisions of 
Section 603.2. 

703.2 Drainage pipe in filled ground. Where a building sewer 
or building drain is installed on filled or unstable ground, the 
drainage pipe shall conform to one of the standards for ABS 
plastic pipe, cast-iron pipe, copper or copper-alloy tubing, or 
PVC plastic pipe listed in Table 702.3. 



703.3 Sanitary and storm sewers. Where separate systems of 
sanitary drainage and storm drainage are installed in the same 
property, the sanitary and storm building sewers or drains shall 
be permitted to be laid side by side in one trench. 

703.4 Existing building sewers and drains. Existing building 
sewers and drains shall connect with new building sewer and 
drainage systems only where found by examination and test to 
conform to the new system in quality of material. The code offi- 
cial shall notify the owner to make the changes necessary to 
conform to this code. 

703.5 Cleanouts on building sewers. Cleanouts on building 
sewers shall be located as set forth in Section 708. 



SECTION 704 
DRAINAGE PIPING INSTALLATION 

704.1 Slope of horizontal drainage piping. Horizontal drain- 
age piping shall be installed in uniform alignment at uniform 
slopes. The minimum slope of a horizontal drainage pipe shall 
be in accordance with Table 704.1. 

TABLE 704.1 
SLOPE OF HORIZONTAL DRAINAGE PIPE 



SIZE 
(inches) 


MINIMUM SLOPE 
(inch per foot) 


2V 2 or less 


l u 


3 to 6 


v. 


8 or larger 


v 16 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 inch per foot = 0.083.3 mm/m. 

704.2 Change in size. The size of the drainage piping shall not 
be reduced in size in the direction of the flow. A 4-inch by 
3-inch (102 mm by 76 mm) water closet connection shall not be 
considered as a reduction in size. 

704.3 Connections to offsets and bases of stacks. Horizontal 
branches shall connect to the bases of stacks at a point located 
not less than 10 times the diameter of the drainage stack down- 
stream from the stack. Except as prohibited by Section 71 1.2, 
horizontal branches shall connect to horizontal stack offsets at 
a point located not less than 10 times the diameter of the drain- 
age stack downstream from the upper stack. 

704.4 Future fixtures. Drainage piping for future fixtures 
shall terminate with an approved cap or plug. 

704.5 Dead ends. In the installation or removal of any part of a 
drainage system, dead ends shall be prohibited. Cleanout 
extensions and approved future fixture drainage piping shall 
not be considered as dead ends. 



SECTION 705 
JOINTS 

705.1 General. This section contains provisions applicable to 
joints specific to sanitary drainage piping. 

705.2 ABS plastic. Joints between ABS plastic pipe or fittings 
shall comply with Sections 705.2.1 through 705.2.3. 



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705.2.1 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints on drainage 
pipes shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to 
ASTM C 1173, ASTM D 3212 or CSA B602. Mechanical 
joints shall be installed only in underground systems unless 
otherwise approved. Joints shall be installed in accordance 
with the manufacturer's instructions. 

705.2.2 Solvent cementing. Joint surfaces shall be clean 
and free from moisture. Solvent cement that conforms to 
ASTM D 2235 or CSA B 181.1 shall be applied to all joint 
surfaces. The joint shall be made while the cement is wet. 
Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM D 2235, 
ASTM D 2661, ASTM F 628 or CSA B181.1. Sol- 
vent-cement joints shall be permitted above or below 
ground. 

705.2.3 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to ASME 
B 1.20.1. Schedule 80 or heavier pipe shall be permitted to 
be threaded with dies specifically designed for plastic pipe. 
Approved thread lubricant or tape shall be applied on the 
male threads only. 

705.3 Asbestos cement. Joints between asbestos-cement pipe 
or fittings shall be made with a sleeve coupling of the same 
composition as the pipe, sealed with an elastomeric ring con- 
forming to ASTM D 1869. 

705.4 Brass. Joints between brass pipe or fittings shall comply 
with Sections 705.4. 1 through 705.4.4. 

705.4.1 Brazed joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joint 
shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A5 . 8 . 

705.4.2 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 

705.4.3 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to ASME 
B 1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be applied on 
the male threads only. 

705.4.4 Welded joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
The joint shall be welded with an approved filler metal. 

705.5 Cast iron. Joints between cast-iron pipe or fittings shall 
comply with Sections 705.5.1 through 705.5.3. 

705.5.1 Caulked joints. Joints for hub and spigot pipe shall 
be firmly packed with oakum or hemp. Molten lead shall be 
poured in one operation to a depth of not less than 1 inch (25 
mm). The lead shall not recede more than 0.125 inch (3.2 
mm) below the rim of the hub and shall be caulked tight. 
Paint, varnish or other coatings shall not be permitted on the 
jointing material until after the joint has been tested and 
approved. Lead shall be run in one pouring and shall be 
caulked tight. Acid-resistant rope and acidproof cement 
shall be permitted. 

705.5.2 Compression gasket joints. Compression gaskets 
for hub and spigot pipe and fittings shall conform to. ASTM 
C 564 and shall be tested to ASTM C 1563. Gaskets shall be 
compressed when the pipe is fully inserted. 



705.5.3 Mechanical joint coupling. Mechanical joint cou- 
plings for hubless pipe and fittings shall comply with CISPI 
310, ASTM C 1277 or ASTM C 1 540. The elastomeric seal- 
ing sleeve shall conform to ASTM C 564 or CSA B602 and 
shall be provided with a center stop. Mechanical joint cou- 
plings shall be installed in accordance with the manufac- 
turer's installation instructions. 

705.6 Concrete joints. Joints between concrete pipe and fit- 
tings shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to 
ASTM C 443, ASTM C 1 173, CSA A257.3M or CSA B602. 

705.7 Coextruded composite ABS pipe, joints. Joints 
between coextruded composite pipe with an ABS outer layer or 
ABS fittings shall comply with Sections 705.7.1 and 705.7.2. 

705.7.1 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints on drainage 
pipe shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to 
ASTM CI 173, ASTM D 3212 or CSA B602. Mechanical 
joints shall not be installed in above-ground systems, unless 
otherwise approved. Joints shall be installed in accordance 
with the manufacturer's instructions. 

705.7.2 Solvent cementing. Joint surfaces shall be clean 
and free from moisture. Solvent cement that conforms to 
ASTM D 2235 or CSA B 181.1 shall be applied to all joint 
surfaces. The joint shall be made while the cement is wet. 
Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM D 2235, 
ASTM D 2661, ASTM F 628 or CSA B 181.1. Sol- 
vent-cement joints shall be permitted aboVe or below 
ground. 

705.8 Coextruded composite PVC pipe. Joints between 
coextruded composite pipe with a PVC outer layer or PVC fit- 
tings shall comply with Sections 705.8.1 and 705.8.2. 

705.8.1 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints on drainage 
pipe shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to 
ASTM D 3212. Mechanical joints shall riot be installed in 
above-ground systems, unless otherwise approved. Joints 
shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's 
instructions. 

705.8.2 Solvent cementing. Joint surfaces shall be clean 
and free from moisture. A purple primer that conforms to 
ASTM F 656 shall be applied. Solvent cement not purple in 
color and conforming to ASTM D 2564, CSA B 137.3, CSA 
B 1 8 1 .2 or CSA B 1 82. 1 shall be applied to all joint surfaces. 
The joint shall be made while the cement is wet and shall be 
in accordance with ASTM D 2855. Solvent-cement joints 
shall be permitted above or below ground. 

705.9 Copper pipe. Joints between copper or copper-alloy 
pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections 705.9.1 through 
705.9.5. . 

705.9.1 Brazed joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joint 
shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A5 . 8 . 

705.9.2 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. ' 



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SANITARY DRAINAGE 



705.9.3 Soldered joints. Solder joints shall be made in 
accordance with the methods of ASTM B 828. All cut tube 
ends shall be reamed to the full inside diameter of the tube 
end. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. A flux conforming 
to ASTM B 813 shall be applied. The joint shall be soldered 
with a solder conforming to ASTM B 32. 

705.9.4 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to ASME 
B 1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be applied on 
the male threads only. 

705.9.5 Welded joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
The joint shall be welded with an approved filler metal. 

705.10 Copper tubing. Joints between copper or copper-alloy 
tubing or fittings shall comply with Sections 705.10.1 through 
705.10.3. 

705.10.1 Brazed joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joint 
shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A5.8. 

705.10.2 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 

705.10.3 Soldered joints. Solder joints shall be made in 
accordance with the methods of ASTM B 828. All cut tube 
ends shall be reamed to the full inside diameter of the tube 
end. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. A flux conforming 
to ASTM B 813 shall be applied. The joint shall be soldered 
with a solder conforming to ASTM B 32. 

705.11 Borosilicate glass joints. Glass-to-glass connections 
shall be made with a bolted compression-type stainless steel 
(300 series) coupling with contoured acid-resistant elastomeric 
compression ring and a fluorocarbon polymer inner seal ring; 
or with cauiked joints in accordance with Section 705.11.1. 

705.11.1 Caulked joints. Every lead-caulked joint for hub 
and spigot soil pipe shall be firmly packed with oakum or 
hemp and filled with molten lead not less than 1 inch (25 
mm) deep and not to extend more than 0. 125 inch (3.2 mm) 
below the rim of the hub. Paint, varnish or other coatings 
shall not be permitted on the jointing material until after the 
joint has been tested and approved. Lead shall be run in one 
pouring and shall be caulked tight. Acid-resistant rope and 
acidproof cement shall be permitted. 

705.12 Steel. Joints between galvanized steel pipe or fittings 
shall comply with Sections 705.12.1 and 705.12.2. 

705.12.1 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to 
ASME B 1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be 
applied on the male threads only. 

705.12.2 Mechanical joints. Joints shall be made with an 
approved elastomeric seal. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 

705.13 Lead. Joints between lead pipe or fittings shall comply 
with Sections 705.13.1 and 705.13.2. 

705.13.1 Burned. Burned joints shall be uniformly fused 
together into one continuous piece. The thickness of the 
joint shall be at least as thick as the lead being joined. The 
filler metal shall be of the same material as the pipe. 



705.13.2 Wiped. Joints shall be fully wiped, with an 
exposed surface on each side of the joint not less than 0.75 
inch (19.1 mm). The joint shall be at least 0.325 inch (9.5 
mm) thick at the thickest point. 

705.14 PVC plastic. Joints between PVC plastic pipe or fit- 
tings shall comply with Sections 705.14.1 through 705.14.3. 

705.14.1 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints on drainage 
pipe shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to 
ASTM C 1 173, ASTM D 3212 or CSA B602. Mechanical 
joints shall not be installed in above-ground systems, unless 
otherwise approved. Joints shall be installed in accordance 
with the manufacturer's instructions. 

705.14.2 Solvent cementing. Joint surfaces shall be clean 
and free from moisture. A purple primer that conforms to 
ASTM F 656 shall be applied. Solvent cement not purple in 
color and conforming to ASTM D 2564, CSA B 137.3, CSA 
B 18 1.2 or CSA B 182.1 shall be applied to all joint surfaces. 
The joint shall be made while the cement is wet and shall be 
in accordance with ASTM D 2855. Solvent-cement joints 
shall be permitted above or below ground. 

705.14.3 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to 
ASME B 1.20.1. Schedule 80 or heavier pipe shall be per- 
mitted to be threaded with dies specifically designed for 
plastic pipe. Approved thread lubricant or tape shall be 
applied on the male threads only. 

705.15 Vitrified clay. Joints between vitrified clay pipe or fit- 
tings shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to 
ASTM C 425, ASTM C 1 173 or CSA B602. 

705.16 Polyethylene plastic pipe. Joints between polyethyl- 
ene plastic pipe and fittings shall be underground and shall 
comply with Section 705.16.1 or 705.16.2. 

705.16.1 Heat-fusion joints. Joint surfaces shall be clean 
and free from moisture. All joint surfaces shall be cut, 
heated to melting temperature and joined using tools specif- 
ically designed for the operation. Joints shall be undisturbed 
until cool. Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM D 
2657 and the manufacturer's instructions. 

705.16.2 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints in drainage 
piping shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to 
ASTM C 1173, ASTM D 3212 or CSA B602. Mechanical 
joints shall be installed in accordance with the manufac- 
turer's instructions. 

705.17 Polyolefin plastic. Joints between polyolefin plastic 
pipe and fittings shall comply with Sections 705.17.1 and 
705.17.2. 

705.17.1 Heat-fusion joints. Heat-fusion joints for 
polyolefin pipe and tubing joints shall be installed with 
socket-type heat-fused polyolefin fittings or electrofusion 
polyolefin fittings. Joint surfaces shall be clean and free 
from moisture. The joint shall be undisturbed until cool. 
Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM F 1412 or 
CSAB181.3. 

705.17.2 Mechanical and compression sleeve joints. 

Mechanical and compression sleeve joints shall be installed 
in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 



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705.18 Joints between different materials. Joints between 
different piping materials shall be made with a mechanical 
joint of the compression or mechanical-sealing type conform- 
ing to ASTM C 1173, ASTM C 1460 or ASTM C 1461. Con- 
nectors and adapters shall be approved for the application and 
such joints shall have an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM 
C 425, ASTM C 443, ASTM C 564, ASTM C 1440, ASTM D 
1869, ASTM F 477, CSA A257.3M or CSA B602, or as 
required in Sections 705.18.1 through 705.18.7. Joints 
between glass pipe and other types of materials shall be made 
with adapters having a TFE seal. Joints shall be installed in 
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

705.18.1 Copper or copper-alloy tubing to cast-iron hub 
pipe. Joints between copper or copper-alloy tubing and 
cast-iron hub pipe shall be made with a brass ferrule or com- 
pression joint. The copper or copper-alloy tubing shall be 
soldered to the ferrule in an approved manner, and the fer- 
rule shall be joined to the cast-iron hub by a caulked joint or 
a mechanical compression joint. 

705.18.2 Copper or copper-alloy tubing to galvanized 
steel pipe. Joints between copper or copper-alloy tubing 
and galvanized steel pipe shall be made with a brass con- 
verter fitting or dielectric fitting. The copper tubing shall be 
soldered to the fitting in an approved manner, and the fitting 
shall be screwed to the threaded pipe. 

705.18.3 Cast-iron pipe to galvanized steel or brass pipe. 

Joints between cast-iron and galvanized steel or brass pipe 
. shall be made by either caulked or threaded joints or with an 
approved adapter fitting. 

705.18.4 Plastic pipe or tubing to other piping material. 

Joints between different types of plastic pipe or between 
plastic pipe and other piping material shall be made with an 
approved adapter fitting. Joints between plastic pipe and 
cast-iron hub pipe shall be made by a caulked joint or a 
mechanical compression joint. 

705.18.5 Lead pipe to other piping material. Joints 
between lead pipe and other piping material shall be made 
by a wiped joint to a caulking ferrule, soldering nipple, or 
bushing or shall be made with an approved adapter fitting. 

705.18.6 Borosilicate glass to other materials. Joints 
between glass pipe and other types of materials shall be 
made with adapters having a TFE seal and shall be installed 
in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

705.18.7 Stainless steel drainage systems to other mate- 
rials. Joints between stainless steel drainage systems and 
other piping materials shall be made with approved 
mechanical couplings. 

705.19 Drainage slip joints. Slip joints shall comply with Sec- 
tion 405.8. 

705.20 Caulking ferrules. Ferrules shall be of red brass and 
shall be in accordance with Table 705.20. 



TABLE 705.20 
CAULKING FERRULE SPECIFICATIONS 



PIPE SIZES 
(inches) 


INSIDE DIAMETER 
(inches) 


LENGTH 
(inches) 


MINIMUM WEIGHT EACH 


2 


91/ 

L 4 


4V 2 


1 pound 


3 


3V 4 


4V 2 


1 pound 12 ounces 


4 


4V 4 


4V 2 


2 pounds 8 ounces 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 ounce = 28.35 g, 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 

705.21 Soldering bushings. Soldering bushings shall be of red 
brass and shall be in accordance with Table 705.21. 

TABLE 705.21 
SOLDERING BUSHING SPECIFICATIONS 



PIPE SIZES 
(inches) 


MINIMUM WEIGHT 
EACH 


1V 4 


6 ounces 


iv 2 


8 ounces 


2 


14 ounces 


2V 2 


1 pound 6 ounces 


3 


2 pounds 


4 


3 pounds 8 ounces 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 ounce = 28.35 g, 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 

705.22 Stainless steel drainage systems. O-ring joints for 
stainless steel drainage systems shall be made with an 
approved elastomeric seal. 



SECTION 706 

CONNECTIONS BETWEEN DRAINAGE 

PIPING AND FITTINGS 

706.1 Connections and changes in direction. All connections 
and changes in direction of the sanitary drainage system shall 
be made with approved drainage fittings. Connections between 
drainage piping and fixtures shall conform to Section 405. 

706.2 Obstructions. The fittings shall not have ledges, shoul- 
ders or reductions capable of retarding or obstructing flow in 
the piping. Threaded drainage pipe fittings shall be of the 
recessed drainage type. 

706.3 Installation of fittings. Fittings shall be installed to 
guide sewage and waste in the direction of flow. Change in 
direction shall be made by fittings installed in accordance with 
Table 706.3. Change in direction by combination fittings, side 
inlets or increasers shall be installed in accordance with Table 
706.3 based on the pattern of flow created by the fitting. Dou- 
ble sanitary tee patterns shall not receive the discharge of 
back-to-back water closets and fixtures or appliances with 
pumping action discharge. 



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Exception: Back-to-back water closet connections to dou- 
ble sanitary tees shall be permitted where the horizontal 
developed length between the outlet of the water closet and 
the connection to the double sanitary tee pattern is 1 8 inches 
(457 mm) or greater. 

TABLE 706.3 
FITTINGS FOR CHANGE IN DIRECTION 



TYPE OF FITTING 
PATTERN 


CHANGE IN DIRECTION 


Horizontal to 
vertical 


Vertical to 
horizontal 


Horizontal to 
horizontal 


Sixteenth bend 


X 


X 


X 


Eighth bend 


X 


X 


X 


Sixth bend 


X 


X 


X 


Quarter bend 


X 


X a 


X a 


Short sweep 


X 


X a,b 


x a 


Long sweep 


X 


X 


X 


Sanitary tee 


X c 


— 


— 


Wye 


X 


X 


X 


Combination wye 
and eighth bend 


X 


X 


X 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. The fittings shall only be permitted for a 2-inch or smaller fixture drain. 

b. Three inches or larger. 

c. For a limitation on double sanitary tees, see Section 706.3. 

706.4 Heel- or side-inlet quarter bends. Heel-inlet quarter 
bends shall be an acceptable means of connection, except 
where the quarter bend serves a water closet. A low-heel inlet 
shall not be used as a wet- vented connection. Side-inlet quarter 
bends shall be an acceptable means of connection for drainage, 
wet venting and stack venting arrangements. 



SECTION 707 
PROHIBITED JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 

707.1 Prohibited joints. The following types of joints and 
connections shall be prohibited: 

1 . Cement or concrete joints. 

2. Mastic or hot-pour bituminous joints. 

3. Joints made with fittings not approved for the specific 
installation. 

4. Joints between different diameter pipes made with 
elastomeric rolling O-rings. 

5. Solvent-cement joints between different types of plastic 
pipe. 

6. Saddle-type fittings. 



SECTION 708 
CLEANOUTS 

708.1 Scope. This section shall govern the size, location, 
installation and maintenance of drainage pipe cleanouts. 



708.2 Cleanout plugs. Cleanout plugs shall be brass or plastic, 
or other approved materials. Brass cleanout plugs shall be uti- 
lized with metallic drain, waste and vent piping only, and shall 
conform to ASTM A 74, ASME Al 12.3.1 or ASME 
Al 12.36.2M. Cleanouts with plate-style access covers shall be 
fitted with corrosion-resisting fasteners. Plastic cleanout plugs 
shall conform to the requirements of Section 702.4. Plugs shall 
have raised square or countersunk square heads. Countersunk 
heads shall be installed where raised heads are a trip hazard. 
Cleanout plugs with borosilicate glass systems shall be of 
borosilicate glass. 

708.3 Where required. Cleanouts shall be located in accor- 
dance with Sections 708.3.1 through 708.3.6. 

708.3.1 Horizontal drains within buildings. All horizon- 
tal drains shall be provided with cleanouts located not more 
than 100 feet (30 480 mm) apart. 

708.3.2 Building sewers. Building sewers shall be pro- 
vided with cleanouts located not more than 100 feet (30 480 
mm) apart measured from the upstream entrance of the 
cleanout. For building sewers 8 inches (203 mm) and larger, 
manholes shall be provided and located not more than 200 
feet (60 960 mm) from the junction of the building drain and 
building sewer, at each change in direction and at intervals 
of not more than 400 feet (122 m) apart. Manholes and man- 
hole covers shall be of an approved type. 

708.3.3 Changes of direction. Cleanouts shall be installed 
at each change of direction greater than 45 degrees (0.79 
rad) in the building sewer, building drain and horizontal 
waste or soil lines. Where more than one change of direction 
occurs in a run of piping, only one cleanout shall be required 
for each 40 feet (12 192 mm) of developed length of the 
drainage piping. 

708.3.4 Base of stack. A cleanout shall be provided at the 
base of each waste or soil stack. 

708.3.5 Building drain and building sewer junction. 

There shall be a cleanout near the junction of the building 
drain and the building sewer. The cleanout shall be either 
inside or outside the building wall and shall be brought up to 
the finished ground level or to the basement floor level. An 
approved two-way cleanout is allowed to be used at this 
location to serve as a required cleanout for both the building 
drain and building sewer. The cleanout at the junction of the 
building drain and building sewer shall not be required if the 
cleanout on a 3-inch (76 mm) or larger diameter soil stack is 
located within a developed length of 10 feet (3048 mm) of 
the building drain and building sewer connection. The mini- 
mum size of the cleanout at the junction of the building drain 
and building sewer shall comply with Section 708.7. 

708.3.6 Manholes. Manholes serving a building drain shall 
have secured gas-tight covers and shall be located in accor- 
dance with Section 708.3.2. 

708.4 Concealed piping. Cleanouts on concealed piping or 
piping under a floor slab or in a crawl space of less than 24 
inches (610 mm) in height or a plenum shall be extended 
through and terminate flush with the finished wall, floor or 
ground surface or shall be extended to the outside of the build- 
ing. Cleanout plugs shall not be covered with cement, plaster or 



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any other permanent finish material. Where it is necessary to 
conceal a cleanout or to terminate a cleanout in an area subject 
to vehicular traffic, the covering plate, access door or cleanout 
shall be of an approved type designed and installed for this pur- 
pose. 

708.5 Opening direction. Every cleanout shall be installed to 
open to allow cleaning in the direction of the flow of the drain- 
age pipe or at right angles thereto. 

708.6 Prohibited installation. Cleanout openings shall not be 
utilized for the installation of new fixtures, except where 
approved and where another cleanout of equal access and 
capacity is provided. 

708.7 Minimum size. Cleanouts shall be the same nominal 
size as the pipe they serve up to 4 inches (102 mm). For pipes 
larger than 4 inches (102 mm) nominal size, the minimum size 
of the cleanout shall be 4 inches (102 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1. "P" trap connections with slip joints or ground joint 
connections, or stack cleanouts that are not more than 
one pipe diameter smaller than the drain served, shall 
be permitted. 

2. Cast-iron cleanout sizing shall be in accordance with 
referenced standards in Table 702.4, ASTM A 74 for 
hub and spigot fittings or ASTM A 888 or CISPI 301 
for hubless fittings. 

708.8 Clearances. Cleanouts on 6-inch (153 mm) and smaller 
pipes shall be provided with a clearance of not less than 18 
inches (457 mm) for rodding. Cleanouts on 8-inch (203 mm) 
and larger pipes shall be provided with a clearance of not less 
than 36 inches (914 mm) for rodding. 

708.9 Access. Access shall be provided to all cleanouts. 



SECTION 709 
FIXTURE UNITS 

709.1 Values for fixtures. Drainage fixture unit values as 
given in Table 709. 1 designate the relative load weight of dif- 
ferent kinds of fixtures that shall be employed in estimating the 
total load carried by a soil or waste pipe, and shall be used in 
connection with Tables 710.1(1) and710.1(2) of sizes for soil, 
waste and vent pipes for which the permissible load is given in 
terms of fixture units. 

709.2 Fixtures not listed in Table 709.1. Fixtures not listed in 
Table 709. 1 shall have a drainage fixture unit load based on the 
outlet size of the fixture in accordance with Table 709.2. The 
minimum trap size for unlisted fixtures shall be the size of the 
drainage outlet but not less than 1.25 inches (32 mm). 

709.3 Values for continuous and semicontinuous flow. 

Drainage fixture unit values for continuous and semicontinu- 
ous flow into a drainage system shall be computed on the basis 
that 1 gpm (0.06 L/s) of flow is equivalent to two fixture units. 

709.4 Values for indirect waste receptor. The drainage fix- 
ture unit load of an indirect waste receptor receiving the dis- 



charge of indirectly connected fixtures shall be the sum of the 
drainage fixture unit values of the fixtures that discharge to the 
receptor, but not less than the drainage fixture unit value given 
for the indirect waste receptor in Table 709.1 or 709.2. 

TABLE 709.2 
DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS FOR FIXTURE DRAINS OR TRAPS 



FIXTURE DRAIN OR TRAP SIZE 
(inches) 


DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT VALUE 


iv 4 


1 


iv 2 


2 


2 


3 


2V 2 


4 


3 


5 


4 


6 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



SECTION 710 
DRAINAGE SYSTEM SIZING 

710.1 Maximum fixture unit load. The maximum number of 
drainage fixture units connected to a given size of building 
sewer, building drain or horizontal branch of the building drain 
shall be determined using Table 710.1(1). The maximum num- 
ber of drainage fixture units connected to a given size of hori- 
zontal branch or vertical soil or waste stack shall be determined 
using Table 710.1(2). 

710.1.1 Horizontal stack offsets. Horizontal stack offsets 
shall be sized as required for building drains in accordance 
with Table 710.1(1), except as required by Section 711.4. 

710.1.2 Vertical stack offsets. Vertical stack offsets shall 
be sized as required for straight stacks in accordance with 
Table 7 10. 1 (2), except where required to be sized as a build- 
ing drain in accordance with Section 711.1.1. 

710.2 Future fixtures. Where provision is made for the future 
installation of fixtures, those provided for shall be considered 
in determining the required sizes of drain pipes. 



SECTION 711 

OFFSETS IN DRAINAGE PIPING IN 

BUILDINGS OF FIVE STORIES OR MORE 

711.1 Horizontal branch connections above or below verti- 
cal stack offsets. If a horizontal branch connects to the stack 
within 2 feet (610 mm) above or below a vertical stack offset, 
and the offset is located more than four branch intervals below 
the top of the stack, the offset shall be vented in accordance 
with Section 915. 

711.1.1 Omission of vents for vertical stack offsets. Vents 
for vertical offsets required by Section 711.1 shall not be 
required where the stack and its offset are sized as a building 
drain [see Table 710.1(1)]. 



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TABLE 709.1 
DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS FOR FIXTURES AND GROUPS 



FIXTURE TYPE 


DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT 
VALUE AS LOAD FACTORS 


MINIMUM SIZE OF TRAP 
(inches) 


Automatic clothes washers, commercial 3 ' 8 


3 


2 


Automatic clothes washers, residential 8 


2 


2 


Bathroom group as defined in Section 202 (1.6 gpf water closet) f 


5 


— 


Bathroom group as defined in Section 202 (water closet flushing 
greater than 1.6 gpf) f 


6 


— 


Bathtub b (with or without overhead shower or whirppol attachments) 


2 


1V 2 


Bidet 


1 


iv 4 


Combination sink and tray 


2 


1V 2 


Dental lavatory 


1 


iv 4 


Dental unit or cuspidor 


1 


iv 4 


Dishwashing machine, domestic 


2 


1V 2 


Drinking fountain 


v 2 


1% 


Emergency floor drain 





2 


Floor drains 


2 


2 


Kitchen sink, domestic 


2 


1V 2 


Kitchen sink, domestic with food waste grinder and/or dishwasher 


2 


1V 2 


Laundry tray (1 or 2 compartments) 


2 


1V 2 


Lavatory 


1 


iv 4 


Shower 


2 


iv 2 


Service sink 


2 


1V 2 


Sink 


2 


iv 2 


Urinal 


4 


Noted 


Urinal, 1 gallon per flush, or less 


2 e 


Note d 


Urinal, nonwater supplied 


0.5 


Noted 


Wash sink (circular or multiple) each set of faucets 


2 


1V 2 


Water closet, flushometer tank, public or private 


4 e 


Noted 


Water closet, private (1.6 gpf) 


3 e 


Noted 


Water closet, private (flushing greater than 1.6 gpf) 


4 e .. 


Note d 


Water closet, public (1.6 gpf) 


4 e 


Noted 


Water closet, public (flushing greater than 1.6 gpf) 


6 e 


Noted 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L (gpf = gallon per flushing cycle). 

a. For traps larger than 3 inches, use Table 709.2. 

b. A showerhead over a bathtub or whirlpool bathtub attachment does not increase the drainage fixture unit value. 

c. See Sections 709.2 through 709.4 for methods of computing unit \alue of fixtures not listed in this table or for rating of devices with intermittent flows. 

d. Trap size shall be consistent with the fixture outlet size. 

e. For the purpose of computing loads on building drains and sewers, water closets and urinals shall not be rated at a lower drainage fixture unit unless the lower val- 
ues are confirmed by testing. 

f . For fixtures added to a dwelling unit bathroom group, add the dfu value of those additional fixtures to the bathroom group fixture count. 

g. See Section 406.3 for sizing requirements for fixture drain, branch drain, and drainage stack for an automatic clothes washer standpipe. 



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TABLE 710.1(1) 
BUILDING DRAINS AND SEWERS 



DIAMETER OF PIPE 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM NUMBER OF DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS CONNECTED TO ANY PORTION OF THE BUILDING DRAIN OR THE 
BUILDING SEWER, INCLUDING BRANCHES OF THE BUILDING DRAIN 3 


Slope per foot 


1 / 16 inch 


1 / 8 inch 


1 / 4 inch 


1 / 2 inch 


1V 4 


— 


— 


1 


1 


iv 2 


— 


— 


3 


3 


2 


— 


— 


21 


26 


2V 2 


— 


— 


24 


31 


3 


— 


36 


42 


50 


4 


— 


180 


216 


250 


5 


— 


390 


480 


575 


6 


• — 


700 


840 


1,000 


8 


1,400 


1,600 


1,920 


2,300 


10 


2,500 


2,900 


3,500 


4,200 


12 


3,900 


4,600 


5,600 


6,700 


15 


7,000 


8,300 


10,000 


12,000 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 
a. The minimum size of any 



1 inch per foot = 83.3 mm/m. 

building drain serving a water closet shall be 3 inches. 



TABLE 710.1(2) 
HORIZONTAL FIXTURE BRANCHES AND STACKS 3 



DIAMETER OF PIPE 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM NUMBER OF DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS (dfu) 


Total for horizontal branch 


Stacks" 


Total discharge into one 
branch interval 


Total for stack of three 
branch Intervals or less 


Total for stack greater than 
three branch intervals 


1V 2 


3 


2 


4 


8 


2 


6 


6 


10 


24 


2V 2 


12 


9 


20 


42 


3 


20 


20 


48 


72 


4 


160 


90 


240 


500 


5 


360 


200 


540 


1,100 


6 


620 


350 


960 


1,900 


8 


1,400 


600 


2,200 


3,600 


10 


2,500 


1,000 


3,800 


5,600 


12 


2,900 


1,500 


6,000 


8,400 


15 


7,000 


Notec 


Note c 


Note c 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Does not include branches of the building drain. Refer to Table 710.1(1). 

b. Stacks shall be sized based on the total accumulated connected load at each story or branch interval. As the total accumulated connected load decreases, stacks are 
permitted to be reduced in size. Stack diameters shall not be reduced to less than one-half of the diameter of the laigest stack size required. 

c. Sizing load based on design criteria. 



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711.2 Horizontal branch connections to horizontal stack 
offsets. Where a horizontal stack offset is located more than 
four branch intervals below the top of the stack, a horizontal 
branch shall not connect within the horizontal stack offset or 
within 2 feet (610 mm) above or below such offset. 

711.3 Horizontal stack offsets. A stack with a horizontal off- 
set located more than four branch intervals below the top of the 
stack shall be vented in accordance with Section 915 and sized 
as follows: 

1 . The portion of the stack above the offset shall be sized as 
for a vertical stack based on the total number of drainage 
fixture units above the offset. 

2. The offset shall be sized in accordance with Section 
710.1.1. 

3. The portion of the stack below the offset shall be sized as 
for the offset or based on the total number of drainage 
fixture units on the entire stack, whichever is larger [see 
Table 710.1(2), Column 5]. 

711.3.1 Omission of vents for horizontal stack offsets. 

Vents for horizontal stack offsets required by Section 711.3 
shall not be required where the stack and its offset are one 
pipe size larger than required for a building drain [see Table 
710.1(1)] and the entire stack and offset are not less in 
cross-sectional area than that required for a straight stack 
plus the area of an offset vent as provided for in Section 915. 
Omission of offset vents in accordance with this section 
shall not constitute approval of horizontal branch connec- 
tions within the offset or within 2 feet (610 mm) above or 
below the offset. 

711.4 Offsets below lowest branch. Where a vertical offset 
occurs in a soil or waste stack below the lowest horizontal 
branch, change in diameter of the stack because of the offset 
shall not be required. If a horizontal offset occurs in a soil or 
waste stack below the lowest horizontal branch, the required 
diameter of the offset and the stack below it shall be determined 
as for a building drain in accordance with Table 710.1(1). 



SECTION 712 
SUMPS AND EJECTORS 

712.1 Building subdrains. Building subdrains that cannot be 
discharged to the sewer by gravity flow shall be discharged into 
a tightly covered and vented sump from which the liquid shall 
be lifted and discharged into the building gravity drainage sys- 
tem by automatic pumping equipment or other approved 
method. In other than existing structures, the sump shall not 
receive drainage from any piping within the building capable of 
being discharged by gravity to the building sewer. 

712.2 Valves required. A check valve and a full open valve 
located on the discharge side of the check valve shall be 
installed in the pump or ejector discharge piping between the 
pump or ejector and the gravity drainage system. Access shall 
be provided to such valves. Such valves shall be located above 
the sump cover required by Section 712.1 or, where the dis- 
charge pipe from the ejector is below grade, the valves shall be 



accessibly located outside the sump below grade in an access 
pit with a removable access cover. 

712.3 Sump design. The sump pump, pit and discharge piping 
shall conform to the requirements of Sections 7 12.3. 1 through 
712.3.5. 

712.3.1 Sump pump. The sump pump capacity and head 
shall be appropriate to anticipated use requirements. 

712.3.2 Sump pit. The sump pit shall be not less than 18 
inches (457 mm) in diameter and 24 inches (610 mm) deep, 
unless otherwise approved. The pit shall be accessible and 
located such that all drainage flows into the pit by gravity. 
The sump pit shall be constructed of tile, concrete, steel, 
plastic or other approved materials. The pit bottom shall be 
solid and provide permanent support for the pump. The 
sump pit shall be fitted with a gas-tight removable cover 
adequate to support anticipated loads in the area of use. The 
sump pit shall be vented in accordance with Chapter 9. 

712.3.3 Discharge piping. Discharge piping shall meet the 
requirements of Section 712.2. 

712.3.4 Maximum effluent level. The effluent level control 
shall be adjusted and maintained to at all times prevent the 
effluent in the sump from rising to within 2 inches (5 1 mm) 
of the invert of the gravity drain inlet into the sump. 

712.3.5 Ejector connection to the drainage system. 

Pumps connected to the drainage system shall connect to the 
building sewer or shall connect to a wye fitting in the build- 
ing drain a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) from the base of 
any soil stack, waste stack or fixture drain. Where the dis- 
charge line connects into horizontal drainage piping, the 
connector shall be made through a wye fitting into the top of 
the drainage piping. 

712.4 Sewage pumps and sewage ejectors. A sewage pump 
or sewage ejector shall automatically discharge the contents of 
the sump to the building drainage system. 

712.4.1 Macerating toilet systems. Macerating toilet sys- 
tems shall comply with CSA B45.9 or ASME Al 12.3.4 and 
shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's 
installation instructions. 

712.4.2 Capacity. A sewage pump or sewage ejector shall 
have the capacity and head for the application requirements. 
Pumps or ejectors that receive the discharge of water closets 
shall be capable of handling spherical solids with a diameter 
of up to and including 2 inches (5 1 mm). Other pumps or 
ejectors shall be capable of handling spherical solids with a 
diameter of up to and including 1 inch (25.4 mm). The mini- 
mum capacity of a pump or ejector based on the diameter of 
the discharge pipe shall be in accordance with Table 
712.4.2. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Grinder pumps or grinder ejectors that receive the 
discharge of water closets shall have a minimum 
discharge opening of 1.25 inches (32 mm). 

2. Macerating toilet assemblies that serve single 
water closets shall have a minimum discharge 

, opening of 0.75 inch (19 mm). 



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TABLE 712.4.2 
MINIMUM CAPACITY OF SEWAGE PUMP OR SEWAGE EJECTOR 



DIAMETER OF THE DISCHARGE 
PIPE (inches) 


CAPACITY OF PUMP OR EJECTOR 

(gpm) 


2 


21 


2V 2 


30 


3 


46 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m. 



SECTION 713 
HEALTH CARE PLUMBING 

713.1 Scope. This section shall govern those aspects of health 
care plumbing systems that differ from plumbing systems in 
other structures. Health care plumbing systems shall conform 
to this section in addition to the other requirements of this code. 
The provisions of this section shall apply to the special devices 
and equipment installed and maintained in the following occu- 
pancies: nursing homes; homes for the aged; orphanages; infir- 
maries; first aid stations; psychiatric facilities; clinics; 
professional offices of dentists and doctors; mortuaries; educa- 
tional facilities; surgery, dentistry, research and testing labora- 
tories; establishments manufacturing pharmaceutical drugs 
and medicines; and other structures with similar apparatus and 
equipment classified as plumbing. 

713.2 Bedpan washers and clinical sinks. Bedpan washers 
and clinical sinks shall connect to the drainage and vent system 
in accordance with the requirements for a water closet. Bedpan 
washers shall also connect to a local vent. 

713.3 Indirect waste. All sterilizers, steamers and condensers 
shall discharge to the drainage through an indirect waste pipe by 
means of an air gap. Where a battery of not more than three ster- 
ilizers discharges to an individual receptor, the distance between 
the receptor and a sterilizer shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm). 
The indirect waste pipe on a bedpan steamer shall be trapped. 

713.4 Vacuum system station. Ready access shall be provided 
to vacuum system station receptacles. Such receptacles shall be 
built into cabinets or recesses and shall be visible. 

713.5 Bottle system. Vacuum (fluid suction) systems intended 
for collecting, removing and disposing of blood, pus or other 
fluids by the bottle system shall be provided with receptacles 
equipped with an overflow prevention device at each vacuum 
outlet station. 

713.6 Central disposal system equipment. All central vac- 
uum (fluid suction) systems shall provide continuous service. 
Systems equipped with collecting or control tanks shall pro- 
vide for draining and cleaning of the tanks while the system is 
in operation. In hospitals, the system shall be connected to the 
emergency power system. The exhausts from a vacuum pump 
serving a vacuum (fluid suction) system shall discharge sepa- 
rately to open air above the roof. 

713.7 Central vacuum or disposal systems. Where the waste 
from a central vacuum (fluid suction) system of the baromet- 
ric-lag, collection-tank or bottle-disposal type is connected to 
the drainage system, the waste shall be directly connected to 
the sanitary drainage system through a trapped waste. 



713.7.1 Piping. The piping of a central vacuum (fluid suc- 
tion) system shall be of corrosion-resistant material with a 
smooth interior surface. A branch shall not be less than 0.5- 
inch (12.7 mm) nominal pipe size for one outlet and shall be 
sized in accordance with the number of vacuum outlets. A 
main shall not be less than 1-inch (25 mm) nominal pipe 
size. The pipe sizing shall be increased in accordance with 
the manufacturer's instructions as stations are increased. 

713.7.2 Velocity. The velocity of airflow in a central vac- 
uum (fluid suction) system shall be less than 5,000 feet per 
minute (25 m/s). 

713.8 Vent connections prohibited. Connections between local 
vents serving bedpan washers or sterilizer vents serving sterilizing 
apparatus and normal sanitary plumbing systems are prohibited. 
Only one type of apparatus shall be served by a local vent. 

713.9 Local vents and stacks for bedpan washers. Bedpan 
washers shall be vented to open air above the roof by means of 
one or more local vents. The local vent for a bedpan washer 
shall not be less than a 2-inch-diameter (5 1 mm) pipe. A local 
vent serving a single bedpan washer is permitted to drain to the 
fixture served. 

713.9.1 Multiple installations. Where bedpan washers are 
located above each other on more than one floor, a local vent 
stack is permitted to be installed to receive the local vent on 
the various floors. Not more than three bedpan washers shall 
be connected to a 2-inch (5 1 mm) local vent stack, not more 
than six to a 3-inch (76 mm) local vent stack and not more 
than 12 to a 4-inch (102 mm) local vent stack. In multiple 
installations, the connections between a bedpan washer 
local vent and a local vent stack shall be made with tee or 
tee-wye sanitary pattern drainage fittings installed in an 
upright position. 

713.9.2 Trap required. The bottom of the local vent stack, 
except where serving only one bedpan washer, shall be 
drained by means of a trapped and vented waste connection 
to the sanitary drainage system. The trap and waste shall be 
the same size as the local vent stack. 

713.9.3 Trap seal maintenance. A water supply pipe not 
less than V 4 inch (6.4 mm) in diameter shall be taken from 
the flush supply of each bedpan washer on the discharge or 
fixture side of the vacuum breaker, shall be trapped to form 
not less than a 3-inch (76 mm) water seal, and shall be con- 
nected to the local vent stack on each floor. The water sup- 
ply shall be installed so as to provide a supply of water to the 
local vent stack for cleansing and drain trap seal mainte- 
nance each time a bedpan washer is flushed. 

713.10 Sterilizer vents and stacks. Multiple installations of 
pressure and nonpressure sterilizers shall have the vent connec- 
tions to the sterilizer vent stack made by means of inverted wye 
fittings. Access shall be provided to vent connections for the 
purpose of inspection and maintenance. 

713.10.1 Drainage. The connection between sterilizer vent 
or exhaust openings and the sterilizer vent stack shall be 
designed and installed to drain to the funnel or basket-type 
waste fitting. In multiple installations, the sterilizer vent 
stack shall be drained separately to the lowest sterilizer fun- 
nel or basket-type waste fitting or receptor. 



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SANITARY DRAINAGE 



713.11 Sterilizer vent stack sizes. Sterilizer vent stack sizes 
shall comply with Sections 713.11.1 through 713.11.4. 

713.11.1 Bedpan steamers. The minimum size of a steril- 
izer vent serving a bedpan steamer shall be 1.50 inches (38 
mm) in diameter. Multiple installations shall be sized in 
accordance with Table 713.11.1. 

TABLE 713.11.1 

STACK SIZES FOR BEDPAN STEAMERS AND 

BOILING-TYPE STERILIZERS 

(Number of Connections of Various Sizes 

Permitted to Various-sized Sterilizer Vent Stacks) 



STACK SIZE 
(inches) 


CONNECTION SIZE 


iv 2 » 




2" 


lV 2 a 


1 


or 





2 a 


2 


or 


1 


2 b 


1 


and 


1 


3 a 


4 


or 


2 


3 b 


2 


and 


2 


4 a 


8 


or 


4 


4 b 


4 


and 


4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Total of each size. 

b. Combination of sizes. 

713.11.2 Boiling-type sterilizers. The minimum size of a 
sterilizer vent stack shall be 2 inches (51 mm) in diameter 
where serving a utensil sterilizer and 1.5 inches (38 mm) in 
diameter where serving an instrument sterilizer. Combina- 
tions of boiling-type sterilizer vent connections shall be 
sized in accordance with Table 713.11.1. 

713.11.3 Pressure sterilizers. Pressure sterilizer vent 
stacks shall be 2.5 inches (64 mm) minimum. Those serving 
combinations of pressure sterilizer exhaust connections 
shall be sized in accordance with Table 713.11.3. 

TABLE 71 3.1 1.3 

STACK SIZES FOR PRESSURE STERILIZERS 

(Number of Connections of Various Sizes Permitted 

To Various-sized Vent Stacks) 



STACK SIZE 
(inches) 


CONNECTION SIZE 


3/ " 
'4 


1" 


iV 


1V 


IV," 


3 or 


2 or 


1 





w 


2 and 


1 








2 a 


6 or 


3 or 


2 or 


1 


2 b 


3 and 


2 


— 





2 b 


2 and 


1 and 


1 





2 b 


1 and 


1 and 


— 


1 


3 a 


15 or 


7 or 


5 or 


3 


3 b 


1 and 


1 and 
5 and 


2 and — 


2 
1 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Total of each size. 

b. Combination of sizes. 



713.11.4 Pressure instrument washer sterilizer sizes. 

The minimum diameter of a sterilizer vent stack serving an 
instrument washer sterilizer shall be 2 inches (51 mm). Not 
more than two sterilizers shall be installed on a 2-inch (51 
mm) stack, and not more than four sterilizers shall be 
installed on a 3-inch (76 mm) stack. 



SECTION 714 
COMPUTERIZED DRAINAGE DESIGN 

714.1 Design of drainage system. The sizing, design and lay- 
out of the drainage system shall be permitted to be designed by 
approved computer design methods. 

714.2 Load on drainage system. The load shall be computed 
from the simultaneous or sequential discharge conditions from 
fixtures, appurtenances and appliances or the peak usage 
design condition. 

714.2.1 Fixture discharge profiles. The discharge profiles 
for flow rates versus time from fixtures and appliances shall 
be in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications. 

714.3 Selections of drainage pipe sizes. Pipe shall be sized to 
prevent full-bore flow. 

714.3.1 Selecting pipe wall roughness. Pipe size calcula- 
tions shall be conducted with the pipe wall roughness factor 
(ks), in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications 
and as modified for aging roughness factors with deposits 
and corrosion. 

714.3.2 Slope of horizontal drainage piping. Horizontal 
drainage piping shall be designed and installed at slopes in 
accordance with Table 704.1. 



SECTION 715 
BACKWATER VALVES 

715.1 Sewage backflow. Where the flood level rims of plumb- 
ing fixtures are below the elevation of the manhole cover of the 
next upstream manhole in the public sewer, such fixtures shall 
be protected by a backwater valve installed in the building 
drain, branch of the building drain or horizontal branch serving 
such fixtures. Plumbing fixtures having flood level rims above 
the elevation of the manhole cover of the next upstream man- 
hole in the public sewer shall not discharge through a back- 
water valve. 

715.2 Material. All bearing parts of backwater valves shall be 
of corrosion-resistant material. Backwater valves shall comply 
with ASME A112.14.1, CSA B181.1 or CSA B181.2. 

715.3 Seal. Backwater valves shall be so constructed as to pro- 
vide a mechanical seal against backflow. 

715.4 Diameter. Backwater valves, when fully opened, shall 
have a capacity not less than that of the pipes in which they are 
installed. 

715.5 Location. Backwater valves shall be installed so that 
access is provided to the working parts for service and repair. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



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66 2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 8 

INDIRECT/SPECIAL WASTE 



SECTION 801 
GENERAL 

801.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern matters concerning 
indirect waste piping and special wastes. This chapter shall fur- 
ther control matters concerning food-handling establishments, 
sterilizers, clear-water wastes, swimming pools, methods of 
providing air breaks or air gaps, and neutralizing devices for 
corrosive wastes. 

801.2 Protection. All devices, appurtenances, appliances and 
apparatus intended to serve some special function, such as ster- 
ilization, distillation, processing, cooling, or storage of ice or 
foods, and that discharge to the drainage system, shall be pro- 
vided with protection against backflow, flooding, fouling, con- 
tamination and stoppage of the drain. 



SECTION 802 
INDIRECT WASTES 

802.1 Where required. Food-handling equipment and 
clear-water waste shall discharge through an indirect waste 
pipe as specified in Sections 802.1.1 through 802.1.7. All 
health-care related fixtures, devices and equipment shall dis- 
charge to the drainage system through an indirect waste pipe by 
means of an air gap in accordance with this chapter and Section 
713.3. Fixtures not required by this section to be indirectly con- 
nected shall be directly connected to the plumbing system in 
accordance with Chapter 7. 

802.1.1 Food handling. Equipment and fixtures utilized for 
the storage, preparation and handling of food shall dis- 
charge through an indirect waste pipe by means of an air 
gap- 

802.1.2 Floor drains in food storage areas. Floor drains 
located within walk-in refrigerators or freezers in food ser- 
vice and food establishments shall be indirectly connected 
to the sanitary drainage system by means of an air gap. 
Where a floor drain is located within an area subject to 
freezing, the waste line serving the floor drain shall not be 
trapped and shall indirectly discharge into a waste receptor 
located outside of the area subject to freezing. 

Exception: Where protected against backflow by a 
backwater valve, such floor drains shall be indirectly 
connected to the sanitary drainage system by means of an 
air break or an air gap. 

802.1.3 Potable clear-water waste. Where devices and 
equipment, such as sterilizers and relief valves, discharge 
potable water to the building drainage system, the discharge 
shall be through an indirect waste pipe by means of an air 
gap- 

802.1.4 Swimming pools. Where wastewater from swim- 
ming pools, backwash from filters and water from pool deck 
drains discharge to the building drainage system, the dis- 



charge shall be through an indirect waste pipe by means of 
an air gap. 

802.1.5 Nonpotable clear-water waste. Where devices 
and equipment such as process tanks, filters, drips and boil- 
ers discharge nonpotable water to the building drainage sys- 
tem, the discharge shall be through an indirect waste pipe by 
means of an air break or an air gap. 

802.1.6 Domestic dishwashing machines. Domestic 
dishwashing machines shall discharge indirectly through an 
air gap or air break into a standpipe or waste receptor in 
accordance with Section 802.2, or discharge into a 
wye-branch fitting on the tailpiece of the kitchen sink or the 
dishwasher connection of a food waste grinder. The waste 
line of a domestic dishwashing machine discharging into a 
kitchen sink tailpiece or food waste grinder shall connect to 
a deck-mounted air gap or the waste line shall rise and be 
securely fastenend to the underside of the sink rim or coun- 
ter. 

802.1.7 Commercial dishwashing machines. The dis- 
charge from a commercial dishwashing machine shall be 
through an air gap or air break into a standpipe or waste 
receptor in accordance with Section 802.2. 

802.2 Installation. All indirect waste piping shall discharge 
through an air gap or air break into a waste receptor or 
standpipe. Waste receptors and standpipes shall be trapped and 
vented and shall connect to the building drainage system. All 
indirect waste piping that exceeds 2 feet (610 mm) in devel- 
oped length measured horizontally, or 4 feet (1219 mm) in total 
developed length, shall be trapped. 

802.2.1 Air gap. The air gap between the indirect waste 
pipe and the flood level rim of the waste receptor shall be a 
minimum of twice the effective opening of the indirect 
waste pipe. 

802.2.2 Air break. An air break shall be provided between 
the indirect waste pipe and the trap seal of the waste receptor 
or standpipe. 

802.3 Waste receptors. Every waste receptor shall be of an 
approved type. A removable strainer or basket shall cover the 
waste outlet of waste receptors. Waste receptors shall be 
installed in ventilated spaces. Waste receptors shall not be 
installed in bathrooms or toilet rooms or in any inaccessible or 
unventilated space such as a closet or storeroom. Ready access 
shall be provided to waste receptors. 

802.3.1 Size of receptors. A waste receptor shall be sized 
for the maximum discharge of all indirect waste pipes 
served by the receptor. Receptors shall be installed to pre- 
vent splashing or flooding. 

802.3.2 Open hub waste receptors. Waste receptors shall 
be permitted in the form of a hub or pipe extending not less 
than 1 inch (25.4 mm) above a water-impervious floor and 
are not required to have a strainer. 



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INDIRECT/SPECIAL WASTE 



802.4 Standpipes. Standpipes shall be individually trapped. 
Standpipes shall extend a minimum of 18 inches (457 mm) and 
a maximum of 42 inches (1066 mm) above the trap weir. 
Access shall be provided to all standpipes and drains for 
rodding. 



SECTION 803 
SPECIAL WASTES 

803.1 Wastewater temperature. Steam pipes shall not con- 
nect to any part of a drainage or plumbing system and water 
above 140°F (60°C) shall not be discharged into any part of a 
drainage system. Such pipes shall discharge into an indirect 
waste receptor connected to the drainage system. 

803.2 Neutralizing device required for corrosive wastes. 

Corrosive liquids, spent acids or other harmful chemicals that 
destroy or injure a drain, sewer, soil or waste pipe, or create 
noxious or toxic fumes or interfere with sewage treatment pro- 
cesses shall not be discharged into the plumbing system with- 
out being thoroughly diluted, neutralized or treated by passing 
through an approved dilution or neutralizing device. Such 
devices shall be automatically provided with a sufficient sup- 
ply of diluting water or neutralizing medium so as to make the 
contents noninjurious before discharge into the drainage sys- 
tem. The nature of the corrosive or harmful waste and the 
method of its treatment or dilution shall be approved prior to 
installation. 

803.3 System design. A chemical drainage and vent system 
shall be designed and installed in accordance with this code. 
Chemical drainage and vent systems shall be completely sepa- 
rated from the sanitary systems. Chemical waste shall not dis- 
charge to a sanitary drainage system until such waste has been 
treated in accordance with Section 803.2. 



SECTION 804 
MATERIALS, JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 

804.1 General. The materials and methods utilized for the con- 
struction and installation of indirect waste pipes and systems 
shall comply with the applicable provisions of Chapter 7. 



68 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 9 

VENTS 



SECTION 901 
GENERAL 

901.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
materials, design, construction and installation of vent sys- 
tems. 

901.2 Trap seal protection. The plumbing system shall be 
provided with a system of vent piping that will permit the 
admission or emission of air so that the seal of any fixture trap 
shall not be subjected to a pneumatic pressure differential of 
more than 1 inch of water column (249 Pa). 

901.2.1 Venting required. Every trap and trapped fixture 
shall be vented in accordance with one of the venting meth- 
ods specified in this chapter. 

901.3 Chemical waste vent system. The vent system for a 
chemical waste system shall be independent of the sanitary 
vent system and shall terminate separately through the roof to 
the open air. 

901.4 Use limitations. The plumbing vent system shall not be 
utilized for purposes other than the venting of the plumbing 
system. 

901.5 Tests. The vent system shall be tested in accordance with 
Section 312. 

901.6 Engineered systems. Engineered venting systems shall 
conform to the provisions of Section 918. 



SECTION 902 
MATERIALS 

902.1 Vents. The materials and methods utilized for the con- 
struction and installation of venting systems shall comply with 
the applicable provisions of Section 702. 

902.2 Sheet copper. Sheet copper for vent pipe flashings shall 
conform to ASTM B 152 and shall weigh not less than 8 ounces 
per square foot (2.5 kg/m 2 ). 

902.3 Sheet lead. Sheet lead for vent pipe flashings shall weigh 
not less than 3 pounds per square foot (15 kg/m 2 ) for field-con- 
structed flashings and not less than 2.5 pounds per square foot 
(12 kg/m 2 ) for prefabricated flashings. 



SECTION 903 
OUTDOOR VENT EXTENSION 

903.1 Required vent extension. The vent system serving each 
building drain shall have at least one vent pipe that extends to 
the outdoors. 

903.1.1 Installation. The required vent shall be a dry vent 
that connects to the building drain or an extension of a drain 
that connects to the building drain. Such vent shall not be an 
island fixture vent as allowed by Section 913. 



903.1.2 Size. The required vent shall be sized in accordance 
with Section 916.2 based on the required size of the building 
drain. 

903.2 Vent stack required. A vent stack shall be required for 
every drainage stack that has five branch intervals or more. 

903.3 Vent termination. Every vent stack or stack vent shall 
terminate outdoors to the open air or to a stack-type air admit- 
tance valve in accordance with Section 917. 

903.4 Vent connection at base. Every vent stack shall connect 
to the base of the drainage stack. The vent stack shall connect at 
or below the lowest horizontal branch. Where the vent stack 
connects to the building drain, the connection shall be located 
downstream of the drainage stack and within a distance of 10 
times the diameter of the drainage stack. 

903.5 Vent headers. Stack vents and vent stacks connected 
into a common vent header at the top of the stacks and extend- 
ing to the open air at one point shall be sized in accordance with 
the requirements of Section 916.1. The number of fixture units 
shall be the sum of all fixture units on all stacks connected 
thereto, and the developed length shall be the longest vent 
length from the intersection at the base of the most distant stack 
to the vent terminal in the open air, as a direct extension of one 
stack. 



SECTION 904 
VENT TERMINALS 

904.1 Roof extension. All open vent pipes that extend through 
a roof shall be terminated at least [number] inches (mm) above 
the roof, except that where a roof is to be used for any purpose 
other than weather protection, the vent extensions shall be run 
at least 7 feet (2134 mm) above the roof. 

904.2 Frost closure. Where the 97.5-percent value for outside 
design temperature is 0°F (-18°C) or less, every vent extension 
through a roof or wall shall be a minimum of 3 inches (76 mm) 
in diameter. Any increase in the size of the vent shall be made 
inside the structure a minimum of 1 foot (305 mm) below the 
roof or inside the wall. 

904.3 Flashings. The juncture of each vent pipe with the roof 
line shall be made water tight by an approved flashing. 

904.4 Prohibited use. Vent terminals shall not be used as a flag 
pole or to support flag poles, television aerials or similar items, 
except when the piping has been anchored in an approved man- 
ner. 

904.5 Location of vent terminal. An open vent terminal from 
a drainage system shall not be located directly beneath any 
door, openable window, or other air intake opening of the 
building or of an adjacent building, and any such vent terminal 
shall not be within 10 feet (3048 mm) horizontally of such an 
opening unless it is at least 2 feet (610 mm) above the top of 
such opening. 



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VENTS 



904.6 Extension through the wall. Vent terminals extending 
through the wall shall terminate a minimum of 10 feet (3048 
mm) from the lot line and 10 feet (3048 mm) above average 
ground level. Vent terminals shall not terminate under the over- 
hang of a structure with soffit vents. Side wall vent terminals 
shall be protected to prevent birds or rodents from entering or 
blocking the vent opening. 

904.7 Extension outside a structure. In climates where the 
97.5-percent value for outside design temperature is less than 
0°F (-18°C), vent pipes installed on the exterior of the structure 
shall be protected against freezing by insulation, heat or both. 



SECTION 905 
VENT CONNECTIONS AND GRADES 

905.1 Connection. All individual, branch and circuit vents shall 
connect to a vent stack, stack vent, air admittance valve or extend 
to the open air. 

905.2 Grade. All vent and branch vent pipes shall be so graded 
and connected as to drain back to the drainage pipe by gravity. 

905.3 Vent connection to drainage system. Every dry vent 
connecting to a horizontal drain shall connect above the center- 
line of the horizontal drain pipe. 

905.4 Vertical rise of vent. Every dry vent shall rise vertically 
to a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) above the flood level rim of 
the highest trap or trapped fixture being vented. 

Exception: Vents for interceptors located outdoors. . 

905.5 Height above fixtures. A connection between a vent 
pipe and a vent stack or stack vent shall be made at least 6 
inches (152 mm) above the flood level rim of the highest fixture 
served by the vent. Horizontal vent pipes forming branch vents, 
relief vents or loop vents shall be at least 6 inches (152 mm) 
above the flood level rim of the highest fixture served. 

905.6 Vent for future fixtures. Where the drainage piping has 
been roughed-in for future fixtures, a rough-in connection for a 
vent shall be installed. The vent size shall be not less than one- 
half the diameter of the rough-in drain to be served. The vent 
rough-in shall connect to the vent system, or shall be vented by 
other means as provided for in this chapter. The connection 
shall be identified to indicate that it is a vent. 



SECTION 906 
FIXTURE VENTS 

906.1 Distance of trap from vent. Each fixture trap shall have 
a protecting vent located so that the slope and the developed 
length in the fixture drain from the trap weir to the vent fitting 
are within the requirements set forth in Table 906.1. 

Exception: The developed length of the fixture drain from 
the trap weir to the vent fitting for self-siphoning fixtures, 
such as water closets, shall not be limited. 

906.2 Venting of fixture drains. The total fall in a fixture drain 
due to pipe slope shall not exceed the diameter of the fixture 
drain, nor shall the vent connection to a fixture drain, except for 
water closets, be below the weir of the trap. 



906.3 Crown vent. A vent shall not be installed within two 
pipe diameters of the trap weir. 

TABLE 906.1 
MAXIMUM DISTANCE OF FIXTURE TRAP FROM VENT 



SIZE OF TRAP 
(inches) 


SLOPE 
(inch per foot) 


DISTANCE FROM TRAP 
(feet) 


1V 4 


X 


5 


1V 2 


% 


6 


2 


% 


8 .. 


3 


\ 


12 


4 


\ 


16 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 
1 inch per foot = 83.3 mm/m. 



SECTION 907 
INDIVIDUAL VENT 

907.1 Individual vent permitted. Each trap and trapped fix- 
ture is permitted to be provided with an individual vent. The 
individual vent shall connect to the fixture drain of the trap or 
trapped fixture being vented. 



SECTION 908 
COMMON VENT 

908.1 Individual vent as common vent. An individual vent is 
permitted to vent two traps or trapped fixtures as a common 
vent. The traps or trapped fixtures being common vented shall 
be located on the same floor level. 

908.2 Connection at the same level. Where the fixture drains 
being common vented connect at the same level, the vent con- 
nection shall be at the interconnection of the fixture drains or 
downstream of the interconnection. 

908.3 Connection at different levels. Where the fixture drains 
connect at different levels, the vent shall connect as a vertical 
extension of the vertical drain. The vertical drain pipe connect- 
ing the two fixture drains shall be considered the vent for the 
lower fixture drain, and shall be sized in accordance with Table 
908.3. The upper fixture shall not be a water closet. 

TABLE 908.3 
COMMON VENT SIZES 



PIPE SIZE 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM DISCHARGE FROM UPPER 
FIXTURE DRAIN (dfu) 


1V 2 


1 


2 


4 


2V 2 to 3 


6 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



SECTION 909 
WET VENTING 

909.1 Horizontal wet vent permitted. Any combination of 
fixtures within two bathroom groups located on the same floor 
level is permitted to be vented by a horizontal wet vent. The wet 



70 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



VENTS 



vent shall be considered the vent for the fixtures and shall 
extend from the connection of the dry vent along the direction 
of the flow in the drain pipe to the most downstream fixture 
drain connection to the horizontal branch drain. Only the fix- 
tures within the bathroom groups shall connect to the 
wet- vented horizontal branch drain. Any additional fixtures 
shall discharge downstream of the horizontal wet vent. 

909.1.1 Vertical wet vent permitted. Any combination of 
fixtures within two bathroom groups located on the same 
floor level is permitted to be vented by a vertical wet vent. 
The vertical wet vent shall be considered the vent for the fix- 
tures and shall extend from the connection of the dry vent 
down to the lowest fixture drain connection. Each 
wet- vented fixture shall connect independently to the verti- 
cal wet vent. Water closet drains shall connect at the same 
elevation. Other fixture drains shall connect above or at the 
same elevation as the water closet fixture drains. The dry- 
vent connection to the vertical wet vent shall be an individ- 
ual or common vent serving one or two fixtures. 

909.2 Vent connection. The dry- vent connection to the wet 
vent shall be an individual vent or common vent to the lavatory, 
bidet, shower or bathtub. In vertical wet- vent systems, the most 
upstream fixture drain connection shall be a dry-vented fixture 
drain connection. In horizontal wet-vent systems, not more 
than one wet- vented fixture drain shall discharge upstream of 
the dry- vented fixture drain connection. 

909.3 Size. The dry vent serving the wet vent shall be sized 
based on the largest required diameter of pipe within the wet- 
vent system served by the dry vent. The wet vent shall be of a 
minimum size as specified in Table 909.3, based on the fixture 
unit discharge to the wet vent. 

TABLE 909.3 
WET VENT SIZE 



WET VENT PIPE SIZE 
(inches) 


DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT LOAD 
(dfu) 


1V 2 


1 


2 


4 


2V 2 


6 


3 


12 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



SECTION 910 
WASTE STACK VENT 

910.1 Waste stack vent permitted. A waste stack shall be con- 
sidered a vent for all of the fixtures discharging to the stack 
where installed in accordance with the requirements of this sec- 
tion. 

910.2 Stack installation. The waste stack shall be vertical, and 
both horizontal and vertical offsets shall be prohibited between 
the lowest fixture drain connection and the highest fixture drain 
connection. Every fixture drain shall connect separately to the 
waste stack. The stack shall not receive the discharge of water 
closets or urinals. 



910.3 Stack vent. A stack vent shall be provided for the waste 
stack. The size of the stack vent shall be not less than the size of 
the waste stack. Offsets shall be permitted in the stack vent, 
shall be located at least 6 inches (152 mm) above the flood level 
of the highest fixture and shall be in accordance with Section 
905.2. The stack vent shall be permitted to connect with other 
stack vents and vent stacks in accordance with Section 903.5. 

910.4 Waste stack size. The waste stack shall be sized based 
on the total discharge to the stack and the discharge within a 
branch interval in accordance with Table 910.4. The waste 
stack shall be the same size throughout its length. 

TABLE 910.4 
WASTE STACK VENT SIZE 



STACK SIZE 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM NUMBER OF DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS 
(dfu) 


Total discharge into one 
branch interval 


Total discharge for 
stack 


1V 2 


1 


2 


2 


2 


4 


2>/ 2 


No limit 


8 


3 


No limit 


24 


4 


No limit 


50 


5 


No limit 


75 


6 


No limit 


100 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



SECTION 911 
CIRCUIT VENTING 

911.1 Circuit vent permitted. A maximum of eight fixtures 
connected to a horizontal branch drain shall be permitted to be 
circuit vented. Each fixture drain shall connect horizontally to 
the horizontal branch being circuit vented. The horizontal 
branch drain shall be classified as a vent from the most down- 
stream fixture drain connection to the most upstream fixture 
drain connection to the horizontal branch. 

911.1.1 Multiple circuit-vented branches. Circuit-vented 
horizontal branch drains are permitted to be connected 
together. Each group of a maximum of eight fixtures shall be 
considered a separate circuit vent and shall conform to the 
requirements of this section. 

911.2 Vent connection. The circuit vent connection shall be 
located between the two most upstream fixture drains. The vent 
shall connect to the horizontal branch and shall be installed in 
accordance with Section 905. The circuit vent pipe shall not 
receive the discharge of any soil or waste. 

911.3 Slope and size of horizontal branch. The maximum 
slope of the vent section of the horizontal branch drain shall be 
one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-percent slope). The 
entire length of the vent section of the horizontal branch drain 
shall be sized for the total drainage discharge to the branch. 

911.3.1 Size of multiple circuit vent. Each separate cir- 
cuit-vented horizontal branch that is interconnected shall be 
sized independently in accordance with Section 91 1.3. The 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE" 



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VENTS 



downstream circuit- vented horizontal branch shall be sized 
for the total discharge into the branch, including the 
upstream branches and the fixtures within the branch. 

911.4 Relief vent. A relief vent shall be provided for circuit- 
vented horizontal branches receiving the discharge of four or 
more water closets and connecting to a drainage stack that 
receives the discharge of soil or waste from upper horizontal 
branches. 

911.4.1 Connection and installation. The relief vent shall 
connect to the horizontal branch drain between the stack and 
the most downstream fixture drain of the circuit vent. The 
relief vent shall be installed in accordance with Section 905. 

911.4.2 Fixture drain or branch. The relief vent is permit- 
ted to be a fixture drain or fixture branch for fixtures located 
within the same branch interval as the circuit- vented hori- 
zontal branch. The maximum discharge to a relief vent shall 
be four fixture units. 

911.5 Additional fixtures. Fixtures, other than the cir- 
cuit-vented fixtures, are permitted to discharge to the horizon- 
tal branch drain. Such fixtures shall be located on the same 
floor as the circuit- vented fixtures and shall be either individu- 
ally or common vented. 



SECTION 912 
COMBINATION DRAIN AND VENT SYSTEM 

912.1 Type of fixtures. A combination drain and vent system 
shall not serve fixtures other than floor drains, sinks, lavatories 
and drinking fountains. Combination drain and vent systems 
shall not receive the discharge from a food waste grinder or 
clinical sink. 

912.2 Installation. The only vertical pipe of a combination 

I drain and vent system shall be the connection between the fix- 
ture drain and the horizontal combination drain and vent pipe. 
The maximum vertical distance shall be 8 feet (2438 mm). 

912.2.1 Slope. The horizontal combination drain and vent 
pipe shall have a maximum slope of one-half unit vertical in 
12 units horizontal (4-percent slope). The minimum slope 
shall be in accordance with Table 704. 1 . 

912.2.2 Connection. The combination drain and vent sys- 
tem shall be provided with a dry vent connected at any point 
within the system or the system shall connect to a horizontal 
drain that is vented in accordance with one of the venting 
methods specified in this chapter. Combination drain and 
vent systems connecting to building drains receiving only 
the discharge from a stack or stacks shall be provided with a 
dry vent. The vent connection to the combination drain and 
vent pipe shall extend vertically a minimum of 6 inches (152 
mm) above the flood level rim of the highest fixture being 
vented before offsetting horizontally. 

912.2.3 Vent size. The vent shall be sized for the total drain- 
age fixture unit load in accordance with Section 916.2. 

912.2.4 Fixture branch or drain. The fixture branch or fix- 
ture drain shall connect to the combination drain and vent 
within a distance specified in Table 906.1. The combination 
drain and vent pipe shall be considered the vent for the fixture. 



912.3 Size. The minimum size of a combination drain and vent 
pipe shall be in accordance with Table 912.3. 

TABLE 912.3 
SIZE OF COMBINATION DRAIN AND VENT PIPE 



DIAMETER 

PIPE 

(inches) 


MAXIMUM NUMBER OF DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS 
(df u) 


Connecting to a horizontal 
branch or stack 


Connecting to a building 
drain or building subdrain 


2 


3 


4 


27 2 


6 


26 


3 


12 


31 


4 


20 


50 . 


5 


160 


250 


6 


360 


575 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



SECTION 913 
ISLAND FIXTURE VENTING 

913.1 Limitation. Island fixture venting shall not be permitted 
for fixtures other than sinks and lavatories. Residential kitchen 
sinks with a dishwasher waste connection, a food waste 
grinder, or both, in combination with the kitchen sink waste, 
shall be permitted to be vented in accordance with this section. 

913.2 Vent connection. The island fixture vent shall connect to 
the fixture drain as required for an individual or common vent. 
The vent shall rise vertically to above the drainage outlet of the 
fixture being vented before offsetting horizontally or vertically 
downward. The vent or branch vent for multiple island fixture 
vents shall extend to a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) above 
the highest island fixture being vented before connecting to the 
outside vent terminal. 

913.3 Vent installation below the fixture flood level rim. The 

vent located below the flood level rim of the fixture being 
vented shall be installed as required for drainage piping in 
accordance with Chapter 7, except for sizing. The vent shall be 
sized in accordance with Section 916.2. The lowest point of the 
island fixture vent shall connect full size to the drainage sys- 
tem. The connection shall be to a vertical drain pipe or to the top 
half of a horizontal drain pipe. Cleanouts shall be provided in 
the island fixture vent to permit rodding of all vent piping 
located below the flood level rim of the fixtures. Rodding in 
both directions shall be permitted through a cleanout. 



SECTION 914 

RELIEF VENTS— STACKS OF MORE THAN 

10 BRANCH INTERVALS 

914.1 Where required. Soil and waste stacks in buildings hav- 
ing more than 1 branch intervals shall be provided with a relief 
vent at each tenth interval installed, beginning with the top 
floor. 

914.2 Size and connection. The size of the relief vent shall be 
equal to the size of the vent stack to which it connects. The 
lower end of each relief vent shall connect to the soil or waste 
stack through a wye below the horizontal branch serving the 



72 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE" 



VENTS 



floor, and the upper end shall connect to the vent stack through 
a wye not less than 3 feet (914 mm) above the floor. 



SECTION 915 
VENTS FOR STACK OFFSETS 

915.1 Vent for horizontal offset of drainage stack. Horizon- 
tal offsets of drainage stacks shall be vented where five or more 
branch intervals are located above the offset. The offset shall be 
vented by venting the upper section of the drainage stack and 
the lower section of the drainage stack. 

915.2 Upper section. The upper section of the drainage stack 
shall be vented as a separate stack with a vent stack connection 
installed in accordance with Section 903.4. The offset shall be 
considered the base of the stack. 

915.3 Lower section. The lower section of the drainage stack 
shall be vented by a yoke vent connecting between the offset 
and the next lower horizontal branch. The yoke vent connec- 
tion shall be permitted to be a vertical extension of the drainage 
stack. The size of the yoke vent and connection shall be a mini- 
mum of the size required for the vent stack of the drainage 
stack. 



SECTION 916 
VENT PIPE SIZING 

916.1 Size of stack vents and vent stacks. The minimum 
required diameter of stack vents and vent stacks shall be deter- 
mined from the developed length and the total of drainage fix- 
ture units connected thereto in accordance with Table 916.1, 
but in no case shall the diameter be less than one-half the diam- 
eter of the drain served or less than 1V 4 inches (32 mm). 

916.2 Vents other than stack vents or vent stacks. The diame- 
ter of individual vents, branch vents, circuit vents and relief vents 
shall be at least one-half the required diameter of the drain 
served. The required size of the drain shall be determined in 
accordance with Table 710.1 (2). Vent pipes shall not be less than 
1V 4 inches (32 mm) in diameter. Vents exceeding 40 feet (12 192 
mm) in developed length shall be increased by one nominal pipe 
size for the entire developed length of the vent pipe. Relief vents 
for soil and waste stacks in buildings having more than 10 
branch intervals shall be sized in accordance with Section 9 14.2. 

916.3 Developed length. The developed length of individual, 
branch, circuit and relief vents shall be measured from the far- 
thest point of vent connection to the drainage system to the 
point of connection to the vent stack, stack vent or termination 
outside of the building. 



TABLE 916.1 
SIZE AND DEVELOPED LENGTH OF STACK VENTS AND VENT STACKS 



DIAMETER OF SOIL OR 

WASTE STACK 

(inches) 


TOTAL FIXTURE 
UNITS BEING 
VENTED (dfu) 


MAXIMUM DEVELOPED LENGTH OF VENT (feet) a 
DIAMETER OF VENT (inches) 


1V 4 


1% 


2 


2\ 


3 


4 


5 


6 


8 


10 


12 


iv 4 

1V 2 
1V 2 


2 
8 
10 


30 
50 
30 


150 
100 




















2 

2 

2V 2 


12 
20 

42 


30 
26 


75 
50 
30 


200 
150 
100 


300 
















3 
3 
3 


10 
21 

53 


— 


42 
32 
27 


150 
110 
94 


360 
270 
230 


1,040 
810 
680 














3 
4 
4 


102 
43 
140 


— 


25 


86 

35 
27 


210 
85 
65 


620 
250 
200 


980 
750 












4 
4 
5 


320 
540 
190 


— 


— 


23 
21 


55 
50 
28 


170 
150 

82 


640 
580 
320 


990 


— 


— 


— 


— 


5 
5 
5 


490 

940 

1,400 


— 


— 


— 


21 
18 
16 


63 

53 
49 


250 
210 
190 


760 
670 
590 


— 


— 


— 


— 


6 
6 
6 


500 
1,100 
2,000 


— 


— 


— 


— 


33 
26 

22 


130 
100 
84 


400 
310 
260 


1,000 
780 
660 


— 


— 


— 


6 
8 
8 


2,900 
1,800 
3,400 


— 


— 


— 


— 


20 


77 
31 

24 


240 
95 

73 


600 
240 
190 


940 
720 


— 


— 



{continued) 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



73 



VENTS 



TABLE 916.1— continued 
SIZE AND DEVELOPED LENGTH OF STACK VENTS AND VENT STACKS 



DIAMETER OF SOIL OR 

WASTE STACK 

(inches) 


TOTAL FIXTURE 

UNITS BEING VENTED 

(dfu) 


MAXIMUM DEVELOPED LENGTH OF VENT (feetf 
DIAMETER OF VENT (inches) 


1V 4 


1V 2 


2 


2\ 


3 


4 


5 


6 


8 


10 


12 


8 
8 
10 


5,600 
7,600 
4,000 












20 
18 


62 
56 
31 


160 
140 
78 


610 
560 
310 


960 


— : 


10 
10 
10 


7,200 
11,000 
15,000 














24 
20 
18 


60 
51 
46 


240 
200 
180 


740 
630 
570 


— 


12 
12 
12 


7,300 
13,000 
20,000 
















31 
24 
20 


120 
94 
79 


380 
300 
250 


940 
720 
610 


12 
15 
15 


26,000 
15,000 
25,000 
















18 


72 
40 
31 


230 
130 
96 


500 
310 
240 


15 
15 


38,000 
50,000 


















26 
24 


81 
74 


200 
180 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. The developed length shall be measured from the vent connection to the open air. 



916.4 Multiple branch vents. Where multiple branch vents 
are connected to a common branch vent, the common branch 
vent shall be sized in accordance with this section based on the 
size of the common horizontal drainage branch that is or would 
be required to serve the total drainage fixture unit (dfu) load 
being vented. 

916.4.1 Branch vents exceeding 40 feet in developed 
length. Branch vents exceeding 40 feet (12 192 mm) in 
developed length shall be increased by one nominal size for 
the entire developed length of the vent pipe. 

916.5 Sump vents. Sump vent sizes shall be determined in 
accordance with Sections 916.5.1 and 916.5.2. 

916.5.1 Sewage pumps and sewage ejectors other than 
pneumatic. Drainage piping below sewer level shall be 
vented in a similar manner to that of a gravity system. Build- 
ing sump vent sizes for sumps with sewage pumps or sew- 
age ejectors, other than pneumatic, shall be determined in 
accordance with Table 916.5.1. 

916.5.2 Pneumatic sewage ejectors. The air pressure relief 
pipe from a pneumatic sewage ejector shall be connected to 
an independent vent stack terminating as required for vent 
extensions through the roof. The relief pipe shall be sized to 
relieve air pressure inside the ejector to atmospheric pres- 
sure, but shall not be less than 1 V 4 inches (32 mm) in size. 



SECTION 917 
AIR ADMITTANCE VALVES 

917.1 General. Vent systems utilizing air admittance valves shall 
comply with this section. Stack-type air admittance valves shall 



conform to ASSE 1050. Individual and branch-type air admit- 
tance valves shall conform to ASSE 1051. 

917.2 Installation. The valves shall be installed in accordance 
with the requirements of this section and the manufacturer's 
installation instructions. Air admittance valves shall be 
installed after the DWV testing required by Section 312.2 or 

312.3 has been performed. 

917.3 Where permitted. Individual, branch and circuit vents 
shall be permitted to terminate with a connection to an individ- 
ual or branch-type air admittance valve. Stack vents and vent 
stacks shall be permitted to terminate to stack-type air admit- 
tance valves. Individual and branch-type air admittance valves 
shall vent only fixtures that are on the same floor level and con- 
nect to a horizontal branch drain. The horizontal branch drain 
having individual and branch-type air admittance valves shall 
conform to Section 917.3.1 or 917.3.2. Stack-type air admit- 
tance valves shall conform to Section 917.3.3. 

917.3.1 Location of branch. The horizontal branch drain 
shall connect to the drainage stack or building drain a maxi- 
mum of four branch intervals from the top of the stack. 

917.3.2 Relief vent. Where the horizontal branch is located 
more than four branch intervals from the top of the stack, the 
horizontal branch shall be provided with a relief vent that 
shall connect to a vent stack or stack vent, or extend out- 
doors to the open air. The relief vent shall connect to the hor- 
izontal branch drain between the stack and the most 
downstream fixture drain connected to the horizontal 
branch drain. The relief vent shall be sized in accordance 
with Section 916.2 and installed in accordance with Section 
905. The relief vent shall be permitted to serve as the vent 
for other fixtures. 



74 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



VENTS 



917.3.3 Stack. Stack-type air admittance valves shall not 
serve as the vent terminal for vent stacks or stack vents that 
serve drainage stacks exceeding six branch intervals. 

917.4 Location. Individual and branch-type air admittance 
valves shall be located a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) above 
the horizontal branch drain or fixture drain being vented. 
Stack-type air admittance valves shall be located not less than 6 
inches (152 mm) above the flood level rim of the highest fixture 
being vented. The air admittance valve shall be located within 
the maximum developed length permitted for the vent. The air 
admittance valve shall be installed a minimum of 6 inches (152 
mm) above insulation materials. 

917.5 Access and ventilation. Access shall be provided to all 
air admittance valves. The valve shall be located within a venti- 
lated space that allows air to enter the valve. 

917.6 Size. The air admittance valve shall be rated in accor- 
dance with the standard for the size of the vent to which the 
valve is connected. 

917.7 Vent required. Within each plumbing system, a mini- 
mum of one stack vent or vent stack shall extend outdoors to the 
open air. 

917.8 Prohibited installations. Air admittance valves shall 
not be installed in nonneutralized special waste systems as 
described in Chapter 8. Valves shall not be located in spaces 
utilized as supply or return air plenums. 



SECTION 918 
ENGINEERED VENT SYSTEMS 

918.1 General. Engineered vent systems shall comply with 
this section and the design, submittal, approval, inspection and 
testing requirements of Section 105.4. 

918.2 Individual branch fixture and individual fixture 
header vents. The maximum developed length of individual 
fixture vents to vent branches and vent headers shall be deter- 
mined in accordance with Table 918.2 for the minimum pipe 
diameters at the indicated vent airflow rates. 

The individual vent airflow rate shall be determined in 
accordance with the following: 

Q h , b = K„Q v (Equation 9-1) 

Fot SI: G w = tf^G w (0.4719 IVs) 

where: 

= Number of fixtures per header (or vent 
branch) ■*■ total number of fixtures connected 
to vent stack. 

= Vent branch or vent header airflow rate 
(cfm). 

= Total vent stack airflow rate (cfm). 

Q v (gpm) =27.8 r, 2/3 (l-r,)D8/3 

Q v (cfm) =0.134 a(gpm) 



N n , b 

Q hb 
Qv 



where: 

D = Drainage stack diameter (inches). 

Q w = Design discharge load (gpm). 

r s = Waste water flow area to total area. 



a 



27.8 D 8 



Individual vent airflow rates are obtained by equally distrib- 
uting Q hb into one-half the total number of fixtures on the 
branch or header for more than two fixtures; for an odd number 
of total fixtures, decrease by one; for one fixture, apply the full 
value of Q hb . 

Individual vent developed length shall be increased by 20 
percent of the distance from the vent stack to the fixture vent 
connection on the vent branch or header. 



SECTION 919 
COMPUTERIZED VENT DESIGN 

919.1 Design of vent system. The sizing, design and layout of 
the vent system shall be permitted to be determined by approved 
computer program design methods. 

919.2 System capacity. The vent system shall be based on the 
air capacity requirements of the drainage system under a peak 
load condition. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



75 



VENTS 



TABLE 916.5.1 
SIZE AND LENGTH OF SUMP VENTS 



DISCHARGE CAPACITY 
OF PUMP 

(gpm) 


MAXIMUM DEVELOPED LENGTH OF VENT (feetf 


Diameter of vent (inches) 


1V 4 


1V 2 


2 


2\ 


3 


4 


10 


No limit b 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


20 


270 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


40 


72 


160 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


60 


31 


75 


270 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


80 


16 


41 


150 


380 


No limit 


No limit 


100 


10 c 


25 


97 


250 


No limit 


No limit 


150 


Not permitted 


10 c 


44 


110 


370 


No limit 


200 


Not permitted 


Not permitted 


20 


60 


210 


No limit 


250 


Not permitted 


Not permitted 


10 


36 


132 


No limit 


300 


Not permitted 


Not permitted 


10 c 


22 


88 


380 


400 


Not permitted 


Not permitted 


Not permitted 


10 c 


44 


210 


500 


Not permitted 


Not permitted 


Not permitted 


Not permitted 


24 


130 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m. 

a. Developed length plus an appropriate allowance for entrance losses and friction due to fittings, changes in direction and diameter. Suggested allowances shall be 
obtained from NSB Monograph 31 or other approved sources. An allowance of 50 percent of the developed length shall be assumed if a more precise value is not 
available. 

b. Actual values greater than 500 feet. 

c. Less than 10 feet. 



TABLE 918.2 

MINIMUM DIAMETER AND MAXIMUM LENGTH OF INDIVIDUAL BRANCH FIXTURE VENTS AND 

INDIVIDUAL FIXTURE HEADER VENTS FOR SMOOTH PIPES 



DIAMETER OF 

VENT PIPE 

(inches) 


INDIVIDUAL VENT AIRFLOW RATE (cubic feet per minute) 


Maximum developed length of vent (feet) 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


\ 


95 


25 


13 


8 


5 


4 


3 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


% 


100 


88 


47 


30 


20 


15 


10 


9 


7 


6 


5 


4 


3 


3 


3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


1 


1 


— 


— 


100 


94 


65 


48 


37 


29 


24 


20 


17 


14 


12 


11 


9 


8 


7 


7 


6 


6 


iv 4 
















100 


87 


73 


62 


53 


46 


40 


36 


32 


29 


26 


23 


21 


iv 2 
























100 


96 


84 


75 


65 


60 


54 


49 


45 


2 








































100 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 cubic foot per minute = 0.4719 L/s, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



76 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 10 

TRAPS, INTERCEPTORS AND SEPARATORS 



SECTION 1001 
GENERAL 

1001.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the material and 
installation of traps, interceptors and separators. 



SECTION 1002 
TRAP REQUIREMENTS 

1002.1 Fixture traps. Each plumbing fixture shall be sepa- 
rately trapped by a water-seal trap, except as otherwise permit- 
ted by this code. The vertical distance from the fixture outlet to 
the trap weir shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm) and the hori- 
zontal distance shall not exceed 30 inches (610 mm) measured 
from the centerline of the fixture outlet to the centerline of the 
inlet of the trap. The height of a clothes washer standpipe above 
a trap shall conform to Section 802.4. A fixture shall not be 
double trapped. 

Exceptions: 

1 . This section shall not apply to fixtures with integral 
traps. 

2. A combination plumbing fixture is permitted to be 
installed on one trap, provided that one compartment 
is not more than 6 inches (152 mm) deeper than the 
other compartment and the waste outlets are not more 
than 30 inches (762 mm) apart. 

3. A grease trap intended to serve as a fixture trap in 
accordance with the manufacturer's installation 
instructions shall be permitted to serve as the trap for a 
single fixture or a combination sink of not more than 
three compartments where the vertical distance from 
the fixture outlet to the inlet of the interceptor does not 
exceed 30 inches (762 mm) and the developed length 
of the waste pipe from the most upstream fixture out- 
let to the inlet of the interceptor does not exceed 60 
inches (1524 mm). 

1002.2 Design of traps. Fixture traps shall be self-scouring. 
Fixture traps shall not have interior partitions, except where 
such traps are integral with the fixture or where such traps are 
constructed of an approved material that is resistant to corro- 
sion and degradation. Slip joints shall be made with an 
approved elastomeric gasket and shall be installed only on the 
trap inlet, trap outlet and within the trap seal. 

1002.3 Prohibited traps. The following types of traps are pro- 
hibited: 

1 . Traps that depend on moving parts to maintain the seal. 

2. Bell traps. 

3. Crown- vented traps. 

4. Traps not integral with a fixture and that depend on inte- 
rior partitions for the seal, except those traps constructed 



of an approved material that is resistant to corrosion and 
degradation. 

5. "S" traps. 

6. Drum traps. 

Exception: Drum traps used as solids interceptors 
and drum traps serving chemical waste systems shall 
not be prohibited. 

1002.4 Trap seals. Each fixture trap shall have a liquid seal of 
not less than 2 inches (5 1 mm) and not more than 4 inches (102 
mm), or deeper for special designs relating to accessible fix- 
tures. Where a trap seal is subject to loss by evaporation, a trap 
seal primer valve shall be installed. A trap seal primer valve 
shall conform to ASSE 1018 or ASSE 1044. 

1002.5 Size of fixture traps. Fixture trap size shall be suffi- 
cient to drain the fixture rapidly and not less than the size indi- 
cated in Table 709. 1 . A trap shall not be larger than the drainage 
pipe into which the trap discharges. 

1002.6 Building traps. Building (house) traps shall be prohib- 
ited, except where local conditions necessitate such traps. 
Building traps shall be provided with a cleanout and a relief 
vent or fresh air intake on the inlet side of the trap. The size of 
the relief vent or fresh air intake shall not be less than one-half 
the diameter of the drain to which the relief vent or air intake 
connects. Such relief vent or fresh air intake shall be carried 
above grade and shall be terminated in a screened outlet located 
outside the building. 

1002.7 Trap setting and protection. Traps shall be set level 
with respect to the trap seal and, where necessary, shall be pro- 
tected from freezing. 

1002.8 Recess for trap connection. A recess provided for con- 
nection of the underground trap, such as one serving a bathtub 
in slab-type construction, shall have sides and a bottom of cor- 
rosion-resistant, insect- and verminproof construction. 

1002.9 Acid-resisting traps. Where a vitrified clay or other 
brittleware, acid-resisting trap is installed underground, such 
trap shall be embedded in concrete extending 6 inches (152 
mm) beyond the bottom and sides of the trap. 

1002.10 Plumbing in mental health centers. In mental health 
centers, pipes and traps shall not be exposed. 



SECTION 1003 
INTERCEPTORS AND SEPARATORS 

1003.1 Where required. Interceptors and separators shall be 
provided to prevent the discharge of oil, grease, sand and other 
substances harmful or hazardous to the building drainage sys- 
tem, the public sewer, the private sewage disposal system or the 
sewage treatment plant or processes. 

1003.2 Approval. The size, type and location of each intercep- 
tor and of each separator shall be designed and installed in 
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and the 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



77 



TRAPS, INTERCEPTORS AND SEPARATORS 



requirements of this section based on the anticipated condi- 
tions of use. Wastes that do not require treatment or separation 
shall not be discharged into any interceptor or separator. 

1003.3 Grease interceptors. Grease interceptors shall comply 
with the requirements of Sections 1003.3.1 through 1003.3.5. 

1003.3.1 Grease interceptors and automatic grease 
removal devices required. A grease interceptor or auto- 
matic grease removal device shall be required to receive the 
drainage from fixtures and equipment with grease-laden 
waste located in food preparation areas, such as in restau- 
rants, hotel kitchens, hospitals, school kitchens, bars, fac- 
tory cafeterias and clubs. Fixtures and equipment shall 
include pot sinks, prerinse sinks; soup kettles or similar 
devices; wok stations; floor drains or sinks into which ket- 
tles are drained; automatic hood wash units and dishwashers 
without prerinse sinks. Grease interceptors and automatic 
grease removal devices shall receive waste only from fix- 
tures and equipment that allow fats, oils or grease to be dis- 
charged. 

1003.3.2 Food waste grinders. Where food waste grinders 
connect to grease interceptors, a solids interceptor shall 
separate the discharge before connecting to the grease inter- 
ceptor. Solids interceptors and grease interceptors shall be 
sized and rated for the discharge of the food waste grinder. 
Emulsifiers, chemicals, enzymes and bacteria shall not dis- 
charge into the food waste grinder. 

1003.3.3 Grease interceptors and automatic grease 
removal devices not required. A grease interceptor or an 
automatic grease removal device shall not be required for 
individual dwelling units or any private living quarters. 

1003.3.4 Grease interceptors and automatic grease 
removal devices. Grease interceptors or automatic grease 
removal devices shall conform to PDI G101, ASME 
Al 12.14.3 or ASME Al 12.14.4 and shall be installed in 
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

1003.3.4.1 Grease interceptor capacity. Grease inter- 
ceptors shall have the grease retention capacity indicated 
in Table 1003.3.4.1 for the flow-through rates indicated. 

1003.3.4.2 Rate of flow controls. Grease interceptors 
shall be equipped with devices to control the rate of water 
flow so that the water flow does not exceed the rated 
flow. The flow-control device shall be vented and termi- 
nate not less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the flood rim 
level or be installed in accordance with the manufac- 
turer's instructions. 

1003.3.5 Automatic grease removal devices. Where auto- 
matic grease removal devices are installed, such devices 
shall be located downstream of each fixture or multiple fix- 
tures in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 
The automatic grease removal device shall be sized to 
pretreat the measured or calculated flows for all connected 
fixtures or equipment. Ready access shall be provided for 
inspection and maintenance. 

1003.4 Oil separators required. At repair garages, car-wash- 
ing facilities, at factories where oily and flammable liquid 

I wastes are produced and in hydraulic elevator pits, separators 
shall be installed into which all oil-bearing, grease-bearing or 



flammable wastes shall be discharged, before emptying into the 
building drainage system or other point of disposal. 

Exception: An oil separator is not required in hydraulic ele- 
vator pits where an approved alarm system is installed. 

TABLE 1003.3.4.1 
CAPACITY OF GREASE INTERCEPTORS a 



TOTAL FLOW-THROUGH RATING 

(gpm) 


GREASE RETENTION CAPACITY 
(pounds) . 


4 


8 


6 


12 


7 


14 


9 


18 


10 


20 


12 


24 


14 


28 


15 


30 


18 


36 


20 


40 


25 


50 


35 


70 


50 


100 


75 


150 


100 


200 



For SI: 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 
a. For total flow-through ratings greater than 100 (gpm) , double the flow- | 
through rating to determine the grease retention capacity (pounds). 

1003.4.1 Separation of liquids. A mixture of treated or 
untreated light and heavy liquids with various specific grav- 
ities shall be separated in an approved receptacle. 

1003.4.2 Oil separator design. Oil separators shall be 
designed in accordance with Sections 1003.4.2.1 and 
1003.4.2.2. 

1003.4.2.1 General design requirements. Oil separa- 
tors shall have a depth of not less than 2 feet (610 mm) 
below the invert of the discharge drain. The outlet open- 
ing of the separator shall have not less than an 18-inch 
(457 mm) water seal. 

1003.4.2.2 Garages and service stations. Where auto- 
mobiles are serviced, greased, repaired or washed or 
where gasoline is dispensed, oil separators shall have a 
minimum capacity of 6 cubic feet (0. 168 m 3 ) for the first 
100 square feet (9.3 m 2 ) of area to be drained, plus 1 
cubic foot (0.28 m 3 ) for each additional 100 square feet 
(9.3 m 2 ) of area to be drained into the separator. Parking 
garages in which servicing, repairing or washing is not 
conducted, and in which gasoline is not dispensed, shall 
not require a separator. Areas'of commercial garages uti- 
lized only for storage of automobiles are not required to 
be drained through a separator. 

1003.5 Sand interceptors in commercial establishments. 

Sand and similar interceptors for heavy solids shall be designed 



78 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



TRAPS, INTERCEPTORS AND SEPARATORS 



and located so as to be provided with ready access for cleaning, 
and shall have a water seal of not less than 6 inches (152 mm). 

1003.6 Laundries. Laundry facilities not installed within an 
individual dwelling unit or intended for individual family use 
shall be equipped with an interceptor with a wire basket or sim- 
ilar device, removable for cleaning, that prevents passage into 
the drainage system of solids 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) or larger in 
size, string, rags, buttons or other materials detrimental to the 
public sewage system. 

1003.7 Bottling establishments. Bottling plants shall dis- 
charge process wastes into an interceptor that will provide for 
the separation of broken glass or other solids before discharg- 
ing waste into the drainage system. 

1003.8 Slaughterhouses. Slaughtering room and dressing 
room drains shall be equipped with approved separators. The 
separator shall prevent the discharge into the drainage system 
of feathers, entrails and other materials that cause clogging. 

1003.9 Venting of interceptors and separators. Interceptors 
and separators shall be designed so as not to become air bound 
where tight covers are utilized. Each interceptor or separator 
shall be vented where subject to a loss of trap seal. 

1003.10 Access and maintenance of interceptors and sepa- 
rators. Access shall be provided to each interceptor and sepa- 
rator for service and maintenance. Interceptors and separators 
shall be maintained by periodic removal of accumulated 
grease, scum, oil, or other floating substances and solids depos- 
ited in the interceptor or separator. 



SECTION 1004 
MATERIALS, JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 

1004.1 General. The materials and methods utilized for the 
construction and installation of traps, interceptors and separa- 
tors shall comply with this chapter and the applicable provi- 
sions of Chapters 4 and 7. The fittings shall not have ledges, 
shoulders or reductions capable of retarding or obstructing 
flow of the piping. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



79 



80 2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 11 

STORM DRAINAGE 



SECTION 1101 
GENERAL 

1101.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
materials, design, construction and installation of storm drain- 
age. 

1101.2 Where required. All roofs, paved areas, yards, courts 
and courtyards shall drain into a separate storm sewer system, 
or a combined sewer system, or to an approved place of dis- 
posal. For one- and two-family dwellings, and where 
approved, storm water is permitted to discharge onto flat areas, 
such as streets or lawns, provided that the storm water flows 
away from the building. 

1101.3 Prohibited drainage. Storm water shall not be drained 
into sewers intended for sewage only. 

1101.4 Tests. The conductors and the building storm drain 
shall be tested in accordance with Section 312. 

1101.5 Change in size. The size of a drainage pipe shall not be 
reduced in the direction of flow. 

1101.6 Fittings and connections. All connections and 
changes in direction of the storm drainage system shall be 
made with approved drainage-type fittings in accordance with 
Table 706.3. The fittings shall not obstruct or retard flow in the 
system. 

1101.7 Roof design. Roofs shall be designed for the maximum 
possible depth of water that will pond thereon as determined by 
the relative levels of roof deck and overflow weirs, scuppers, 
edges or serviceable drains in combination with the deflected 
structural elements. In determining the maximum possible 
depth of water, all primary roof drainage means shall be 
assumed to be blocked. 

1101.8 Cleanouts required. Cleanouts shall be installed in the 
storm drainage system and shall comply with the provisions of 
this code for sanitary drainage pipe cleanouts. 

Exception: Subsurface drainage system. 

1101.9 Backwater valves. Backwater valves installed in a 
storm drainage system shall conform to Section 715. 



SECTION 1102 
MATERIALS 

1102.1 General. The materials and methods utilized for the 
construction and installation of storm drainage systems shall 
comply with this section and the applicable provisions of 
Chapter 7. 

1102.2 Inside storm drainage conductors. Inside storm 
drainage conductors installed above ground shall conform to 
one of the standards listed in Table 702.1. 

1102.3 Underground building storm drain pipe. Under- 
ground building storm drain pipe shall conform to one of the 
standards listed in Table 702.2. 



1102.4 Building storm sewer pipe. Building storm sewer pipe 
shall conform to one of the standards listed in Table 1 102.4. 

TABLE 1102.4 
BUILDING STORM SEWER PIPE 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene 
(ABS) plastic pipe 


ASTM D 2661; ASTM D 2751; 
ASTMF628;CSAB181.1; 
CSAB 182.1 


Asbestos-cement pipe 


ASTM C 428 


Cast-iron pipe 


ASTM A 74; ASTM A 888; 
CISPI 301 


Concrete pipe 


ASTM C 14; ASTM C 76; 

CSAA257.1M; 
CSA A257.2M 


Copper or copper-alloy tubing 
(TypeK,L,MorDWV) 


ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; 
ASTM B 251; ASTM B 306 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 
plastic pipe (Type DWV, 
SDR26, SDR35, SDR41, 
PS50orPS100) 


ASTM D 2665; ASTM D 3034; 
ASTM F 891; CSA B182.4; 
CSAB181.2;CSAB182.2 


Vitrified clay pipe 


ASTM C 4; ASTM C 700 


Stainless steel drainage systems, 
Type316L 


ASMEA1 12.3.1 



1102.5 Subsoil drain pipe. Subsoil drains shall be 
open-jointed, horizontally split or perforated pipe conforming 
to one of the standards listed in Table 1 102.5. 

TABLE 1102.5 
SUBSOIL DRAIN PIPE 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Asbestos-cement pipe 


ASTM C 508 


Cast-iron pipe 


ASTM A 74; ASTM A 888; 
CISPI 301 


Polyethylene (PE) plastic pipe 


ASTM F 405; CSA B182.1; 
CSAB182.6;CSAB182.8 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 
Plastic pipe (type sewer pipe, 
PS25,PS50orPS100) 


ASTM D 2729; ASTM F 891; 
CSAB 182.2; CSAB 182.4 


Stainless steel drainage systems, 
Type316L 


ASMEA1 12.3.1 


Vitrified clay pipe 


ASTM C 4; ASTM C 700 



1102.6 Roof drains. Roof drains shall conform to ASME 
A112.21.2M or ASME Al 12.3.1. 

1102.7 Fittings. Pipe fittings shall be approved for installation 
with the piping material installed, and shall conform to the 
respective pipe standards or one of the standards listed in Table 
1 102.7. The fittings shall not have ledges, shoulders or reduc- 
tions capable of retarding or obstructing flow in the piping. 
Threaded drainage pipe fittings shall be of the recessed drain- 
age type. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



81 



STORM DRAINAGE 



TABLE 1102.7 
PIPE FITTINGS 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene 
(ABS) plastic 


ASTM D 2661; ASTM D 3311; 
CSAB181.1 


Cast-iron 


ASME B16.4; ASME B16.12; 
ASTMA888;CISPI301; 
ASTM A 74 


Coextruded composite ABS 
sewer and drain DR-PS in 
PS35,PS50,PS100,PS140, 
PS200 


ASTM D 2751 


Coextruded composite ABS 
DWV Schedule 40 IPS pipe 
(solid or cellular core) 


ASTM D 2661; ASTM D 3311; 
ASTM F 628 


Coextruded composite PVC 
DWV Schedule 40 IPS-DR, 
PS140,PS200 (solid or 
cellular core) 


ASTM D 2665; ASTM D 331 1; 
ASTM F 891 


Coextruded composite PVC 
sewer and drain DR-PS in 
PS35,PS50,PS100,PS140, 
PS200 


ASTM D 3034 


Copper or copper alloy 


ASME B16.15; ASME B16.18; 
ASME B 16.22; ASME B 16.23; 
ASME B16.26; ASME B16.29 


Gray iron and ductile iron 


AWWAC110 


Malleable iron 


ASME B 16.3 


Plastic, general 


ASTM F 409 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 
plastic 


ASTM D 2665; ASTM D 3311; 
ASTM F 1866 


Steel 


ASME B16.9; ASME B16.ll; 
ASMEB16.28 


Stainless steel drainage 
Systems, Type 316L 


ASME Al 12.3.2 



SECTION 1104 
CONDUCTORS AND CONNECTIONS 

1104.1 Prohibited use. Conductor pipes shall not be used as 
soil, waste or vent pipes, and soil, waste or vent pipes shall not 
be used as conductors. 

1104.2 Combining storm with sanitary drainage. The sani- 
tary and storm drainage systems of a structure shall be entirely 
separate except where combined sewer systems are utilized. 
Where a combined sewer is utilized, the building storm drain 
shall be connected in the same horizontal plane through a sin- 
gle-wye fitting to the combined sewer at least 10 feet (3048 
mm) downstream from any soil stack. 

1104.3 Floor drains. Floor drains shall not be connected to a 
storm drain. 



SECTION 1105 
ROOF DRAINS 

1105.1 Strainers. Roof drains shall have strainers extending 
not less than 4 inches (102 mm) above the surface of the roof 
immediately adjacent to the roof drain. Strainers shall have an 
available inlet area, above roof level, of not less than one and 
one-half times the area of the conductor or leader to which the 
drain is connected. 

1105.2 Flat decks. Roof drain strainers for use on sun decks, 
parking decks and similar areas that are normally serviced and 
maintained shall comply with Section 1 105.1 or shall be of the 
flat-surface type, installed level with the deck, with an available 
inlet area not less than two times the area of the conductor or 
leader to which the drain is connected. 

1105.3 Roof drain flashings. The connection between roofs 
and roof drains which pass through the roof and into the inte- 
rior of the building shall be made water tight by the use of 
approved flashing material. 



SECTION 1103 
TRAPS 

1103.1 Main trap. Leaders and storm drains connected to a 
combined sewer shall be trapped. Individual storm water traps 
shall be installed on the storm water drain branch serving each 
conductor, or a single trap shall be installed in the main storm 
drain just before its connection with the combined building 
sewer or the public sewer. 

1103.2 Material. Storm water traps shall be of the same mate- 
rial as the piping system to which they are attached. 

1103.3 Size. Traps for individual conductors shall be the same 
size as the horizontal drain to which they are connected. 

1103.4 Cleanout. An accessible cleanout shall be installed on 
the building side of the trap. 



SECTION 1106 

SIZE OF CONDUCTORS, LEADERS 

AND STORM DRAINS 

1106.1 General. The size of the vertical conductors and lead- 
ers, building storm drains, building storm sewers, and any hori- 
zontal branches of such drains or sewers shall be based on the 
100-year hourly rainfall rate indicated in Figure 1106.1 or on 
other rainfall rates determined from approved local weather 
data. 

1106.2 Vertical conductors and leaders. Vertical conductors 
and leaders shall be sized for the maximum projected roof area, 
in accordance with Table 1106.2. 

1106.3 Building storm drains and sewers. The size of the 
building storm drain, building storm sewer and their horizontal 
branches having a slope of one-half unit or less vertical in 12 
units horizontal (4-percent slope) shall be based on the maxi- 
mum projected roof area in accordance with Table 1 106.3. The 
minimum slope of horizontal branches shall be one-eighth unit 
vertical in 12 units horizontal (1 -percent slope) unless other- 
wise approved. 



82 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



STORM DRAINAGE 




4.28 -*•' 



FIGURE 1106.1 
100-YEAR, 1-HOUR RAINFALL (INCHES) EASTERN UNITED STATES 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

Source: National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington D.C. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



83 



STORM DRAINAGE 




FIGURE 1106.1— continued 
100-YEAR, 1-HOUR RAINFALL (INCHES) CENTRAL UNITED STATES 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

Source: National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington D.C. 



84 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 1 



STORM DRAINAGE 



1 J .1 




3 « 2 



FIGURE 1106.1— continued 
100-YEAR, 1-HOUR RAINFALL (INCHES) WESTERN UNITED STATES 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

Source: National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington D.C. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



85 



STORM DRAINAGE 



170° 175° 180" 175 



166° 160° 155° 150° 115° 140° 136° 130' 



+4-K- 



.84 
ATTU 



ALASKA 





ilmil i 



-444- 



SHEMMAAFB 
W 



BARTER 



4444- 




AflCHITKA 



170° 175° 



175° 170° 165° 160° 155° 



145° 140° 136° 130 



FIGURE 1106.1— continued 
100-YEAR, 1-HOUR RAINFALL (INCHES) ALASKA 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

Source: National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington D.C. 



86 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE' 



STORM DRAINAGE 





IA> 


f^3) 


_«* 


10 * 




I 3 



< /ijf\\*\ 


\J-^ 



10 


W\ 


" J 
"J 


0} 




< 

o 

_l 

o 



^1 





n*m 


^ 


Vsft£ 


n "N 













FIGURE 1106.1— continued 
100-YEAR, 1-HOUR RAINFALL (INCHES) HAWAII 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

Source: National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington D.C. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



87 



STORM DRAINAGE 









TABLE 1106.2 
SIZE OF VERTICAL CONDUCTORS AND LEADERS 










DIAMETER OF OF 
LEADER 
(inches) 3 


HORIZONTALLY PROJECTED ROOF AREA (square feet) 


Rainfall rate (inches per hour) 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


2 


2,880 


1,440 


960 


720 


575 


480 


410 


360 


320 


290 


260 


240 


3 


8,800 


4,400 


2,930 


2,200 


1,760 


1,470 


1,260 


1,100 


980 


880 


800 


730 


4. 


18,400 


9,200 


6,130 


4,600 


3,680 


3,070 


2,630 


2,300 


2,045 


1,840 


1,675 


1,530 


5 


34,600 


17,300 


11,530 


8,650 


6,920 


5,765 


4,945 


4,325 


3,845 


3,460 


3,145 


2,880 


6 


54,000 


27,000 


17,995 


13,500 


10,800 


9,000 


7,715 


6,750 


6,000 


5,400 


4,910 


4,500 


8 


116,000 


58,000 


38,660 


29,000 


23,200 


19,315 


16,570 


14,500 


12,890 


11,600 


10,545 


9,600 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 . 

a. Sizes indicated are the diameter of circular piping. This table is applicable to piping of other shapes provided the cross-sectional shape fully encloses a circle of the 
diameter indicated in this table. 

TABLE 1106.3 
SIZE OF HORIZONTAL STORM DRAINGE PIPING 



SIZE OF 

HORIZONTAL 

PIPING 

(inches) 


HORIZONTALLY PROJECTED ROOF AREA (square feet) 


Rainfall rate (inches per hour) 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


V 8 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (1 -percent slope) 


3 


3,288 


1,644 


1,096 


822 


657 


548 


4 


7,520 


3,760 


2,506 


1,800 


1,504 


1,253 


5 


13,360 


6,680 


4,453 


3,340 


2,672 


2,227 


6 


21,400 


10,700 


7,133 


5,350 


4,280 


3,566 


8 


46,000 


23,000 


15,330 


11,500 


9,200 


7,600 


10 


82,800 


41,400 


27,600 


20,700 


16,580 


13,800 


12 


133,200 


66,600 


44,400 


33,300 


26,650 


22,200 


15 


218,000 


109,000 


72,800 


59,500 


47,600 


39,650 


V 4 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) 


3 


4,640 


2,320 


1,546 


1,160 


928 


773 


4 


10,600 


5,300 


3,533 


2,650 


2,120 


1,766 


5 


18,8.80 


9,440. 


6,293 


4,720 


3,776 


3,146 


6 


30,200 


15,100 


10,066 


7,550 


6,040 


5,033 


8 


65,200 


32,600 


21,733 


16,300 


13,040 


10,866 


10 


116,800 


58,400 


38,950 


29,200 


23,350 


19,450 


12 


188,000 


94,000 


62,600 


47,000 


37,600 


31,350 


15 


336,000 


168,000 


112,000 


84,000 


67,250 


56,000 


V 2 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (4-percent slope) 


3 ' 


6,576 


3,288 


2,295 


1,644 


1,310 


1,096 


.4 


15,040 


7,520 


5,010 


3,760 


3,010 


2,500 


5 


26,720 


13,360 


8,900 


6,680 


5,320 


4,450 


6 


42,800 


21,400 


13,700 


10,700 . 


8,580 


7,140 


8 


92,000 


46,000 


30,650 


23,000 


18,400 


15,320 


10 


171,600 


85,800 


55,200 


41,400 


33,150 


27,600 


12 


266,400 


133,200 


88,800 


66,600 


53,200 


44,400 


15 


476,000 


238,000 


158,800 


119,000 


95,300 


79,250 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 



88 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



STORM DRAINAGE 



1106.4 Vertical walls. In sizing roof drains and storm drainage 
piping, one-half of the area of any vertical wall that diverts rain- 
water to the roof shall be added to the projected roof area for 
inclusion in calculating the required size of vertical conduc- 
tors, leaders and horizontal storm drainage piping. 

1106.5 Parapet wall scupper location. Parapet wall roof 
drainage scupper and overflow scupper location shall comply 
with the requirements of the International Building Code. 

1106.6 Size of roof gutters. The size of semicircular gutters 
shall be based on the maximum projected roof area in accor- 
dance with Table 1106.6. 



SECTION 1107 
SECONDARY (EMERGENCY) ROOF DRAINS 

1107.1 Secondary drainage required. Secondary (emer- 
gency) roof drains or scuppers shall be provided where the roof 
perimeter construction extends above the roof in such a manner 
that water will be entrapped if the primary drains allow buildup 
for any reason. 

1107.2 Separate systems required. Secondary roof drain sys- 
tems shall have the end point of discharge separate from the pri- 
mary system. Discharge shall be above grade, in a location that 
would normally be observed by the building occupants or 
maintenance personnel. 



TABLE 1106.6 
SIZE OF SEMICIRCULAR ROOF GUTTERS 



DIAMETER OF 
GUTTERS 


HORIZONTALLY PROJECTED ROOF AREA (square feet) 


Rainfall rate (inches per hour) 














(inches) 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


V 16 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (0.5-percent slope) 


3 


680 


340 


226 


170 


136 


113 


4 


1,440 


720 


480 


360 


288 


240 


5 


2,500 


1,250 


834 


625 


500 


416 


6 


3,840 


1,920 


1,280 


960 


768 


640 


7 


5,520 


2,760 


1,840 


1,380 


1,100 


918 


8 


7,960 


3,980 


2,655 


1,990 


1,590 


1,325 


10 


14,400 


7,200 


4,800 


3,600 


2,880 


2,400 


V 8 unit vertical 12 units horizontal (1 -percent slope) 


3 


960 


480 


320 


240 


192 


160 


4 


2,040 


1,020 


681 


510 


408 


340 


5 


3,520 


1,760 


1,172 


880 


704 


587 


6 


5,440 


2,720 


1,815 


1,360 


1,085 


905 


7 


7,800 


3,900 


2,600 


1,950 


1,560 


1,300 


8 


11,200 


5,600 


3,740 


2,800 


2,240 


1,870 


10 


20,400 


10,200 


6,800 


5,100 


4,080 


3,400 


V 4 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) 


3 


1,360 


680 


454 


340 


272 


226 


4 


2,880 


1,440 


960 


720 


576 


480 


5 


5,000 


2,500 


1,668 


1,250 


1,000 


834 


6 


7,680 


3,840 


2,560 


1,920 


1,536 


1,280 


.7 


11,040 


5,520 


3,860 


2,760 


2,205 


1,840 


8 


15,920 


7,960 


5,310 


3,980 


3,180 


2,655 


10 


28,800 


14,400 


9,600 


7,200 


5,750 


4,800 


V 2 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (4-percent slope) 


3 


1,920 


960 


640 


480 


384 


320 


4 


4,080 


2,040 


1,360 


1,020 


816 


680 


5 


7,080 


3,540 


2,360 


1,770 


1,415 


1,180 


6 


11,080 


5,540 


3,695 


2,770 


2,220 


1,850 


7 


15,600 


7,800 


5,200 


3,900 


3,120 


2,600 


8 


22,400 


11,200 


7,460 


5,600 


4,480 


3,730 


10 


40,000 


20,000 


13,330 


10,000 


8,000 


6,660 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 . 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



89 



STORM DRAINAGE 



1107.3 Sizing of secondary drains. Secondary (emergency) 
roof drain systems shall be sized in accordance with Section 
1 106 based on the rainfall rate for which the primary system is 
sized in Tables 1106.2, 1106.3 and 1106.6. Scuppers shall be 
sized to prevent the depth of ponding water from exceeding that 
for which the roof was designed as determined by Section 
1101.7. Scuppers shall not have an opening dimension of less 
than 4 inches (102 mm). The flow through the primary system 
shall not be considered when sizing the secondary roof drain 
system. 



SECTION 1108 
COMBINED SANITARY AND STORM SYSTEM 

1108.1 Size of combined drains and sewers. The size of a 
combination sanitary and storm drain or sewer shall be com- 
puted in accordance with the method in Section 1106.3. The 
fixture units shall be converted into an equivalent projected 
roof or paved area. Where the total fixture load on the com- 
bined drain is less than or equal to 256 fixture units, the equiva- 
lent drainage area in horizontal projection shall be taken as 
4,000 square feet (372 m 2 ). Where the total fixture load exceeds 
256 fixture units, each additional fixture unit shall be consid- 
ered the equivalent of 15.6 square feet (1.5 m 2 ) of drainage 
area. These values are based on a rainfall rate of 1 inch (25 mm) 
per hour. 



(929 m 2 ) or less and not less than four roof drains shall be 
installed in roofs over 10,000 square feet (929 m 2 ) in area. 



SECTION 1111 
SUBSOIL DRAINS 

1111.1 Subsoil drains. Subsoil drains shall be open-jointed, 
horizontally split or perforated pipe conforming to one of the 
standards listed in Table 1 102.5. Such drains shall not be less 
than 4 inches (102 mm) in diameter. Where the building is sub- 
ject to backwater, the subsoil drain shall be protected by an 
accessibly located backwater valve. Subsoil drains shall dis- 
charge to a trapped area drain, sump, dry well or approved loca- 
tion above ground. The subsoil sump shall not be required to 
have either a gas-tight cover or a vent. The sump and pumping 
system shall comply with Section 1113.1. 



SECTION 1112 
BUILDING SUBDRAINS 

1112.1 Building subdrains. Building subdrains located below 
the public sewer level shall discharge into a sump or receiving 
tank, the contents of which shall be automatically lifted and 
discharged into the drainage system as required for building 
sumps. The sump and pumping equipment shall comply with 
Section 1113.1. 



SECTION 1109 
VALUES FOR CONTINUOUS FLOW 

1109.1 Equivalent roof area. Where there is a continuous or 
semicontinuous discharge into the building storm drain or 
building storm sewer, such as from a pump, ejector, air condi- 
tioning plant or similar device, each gallon per minute (L/m) of 
such discharge shall be computed as being equivalent to 96 
square feet (9 m 2 ) of roof area, based on a rainfall rate of 1 inch 
(25.4 mm) per hour. 



SECTION 1110 
CONTROLLED FLOW ROOF DRAIN SYSTEMS 

1110.1 General. The roof of a structure shall be designed for 
the storage of water where the storm drainage system is engi- 
neered for controlled flow. The controlled flow roof drain sys- 
tem shall be an engineered system in accordance with this 
section and the design, submittal, approval, inspection and test- 
ing requirements of Section 105.4. The controlled flow system 
shall be designed based on the required rainfall rate in accor- 
dance with Section 1106.1. 

1110.2 Control devices. The control devices shall be installed 
so that the rate of discharge of water per minute shall not 
exceed the values for continuous flow as indicated in Section 
1109.1. 

1110.3 Installation. Runoff control shall be by control 
devices. Control devices shall be protected by strainers. 

1110.4 Minimum number of roof drains. Not less than two 
roof drains shall be installed in roof areas 10,000 square feet 



SECTION 1113 
SUMPS AND PUMPING SYSTEMS 

1113.1 Pumping system. The sump pump, pit and discharge 
piping shall conform to Sections 1113.1.1 through 1113.1.4. 

1113.1.1 Pump capacity and head. The sump pump shall 
be of a capacity and head appropriate to anticipated use 
requirements. 

1113.1.2 Sump pit. The sump pit shall not be less than 18 
inches (457 mm) in diameter and 24 inches (610 mm) deep, 
unless otherwise approved. The pit shall be accessible and 
located such that all drainage flows into the pit by gravity. 
The sump pit shall be constructed of tile, steel, plastic, 
cast-iron, concrete or other approved material, with a 
removable cover adequate to support anticipated loads in 
the area of use. The pit floor shall be solid and provide per- 
manent support for the pump. 

1113.1.3 Electrical. Electrical service outlets, when 
required, shall meet the requirements of the ICC Electrical 
Code. 

1113.1.4 Piping. Discharge piping shall meet the require- 
ments of Section 1 102.2, 1 102.3 or 1 102.4 and shall include 
a gate valve and a full flow check valve. Pipe and fittings 
shall be the same size as, or larger than, pump discharge tap- 
ping. 

Exception: In one- and two-family dwellings, only a 
check valve shall be required, located on the discharge 
piping from the pump or ejector. 



90 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE" 



CHAPTER 12 

SPECIAL PIPING AND STORAGE SYSTEMS 



SECTION 1201 
GENERAL 

1201.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
design and installation of piping and storage systems for non- 
flammable medical gas systems and nonmedical oxygen sys- 
tems. All maintenance and operations of such systems shall be 
in accordance with the International Fire Code. 



SECTION 1202 
MEDICAL GASES 

[F] 1202.1 Nonflammable medical gases. Nonflammable 
medical gas systems, inhalation anesthetic systems and vac- 
uum piping systems shall be designed and installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 99C. 

Exceptions: 

1 . This section shall not apply to portable systems or cyl- 
inder storage. 

2. Vacuum system exhaust shall comply with the Inter- 
national Mechanical Code. 



SECTION 1203 
OXYGEN SYSTEMS 

[F] 1203.1 Design and installation. Nonmedical oxygen sys- 
tems shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 
50 and NFPA 51. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 91 



92 2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



CHAPTER 13 

REFERENCED STANDARDS 



This chapter lists the standards that are referenced in various sections of this document. The standards are listed herein by the 
promulgating agency of the standard, the standard identification, the effective date and title, and the section or sections of this 
document that reference the standard. The application of the referenced standards shall be as specified in Section 102.8. 



ANSI 



Standard 




Referenced 


Reference 




in code 


Number 


Title 


section number 



Z4.3— 95 

Z21.22— 99(R2003) 
Z124.1— 95 
Z124.2— 95 
Z 124.3— 95 
Z124.4— 96 
Z124.6— 97 
Z124.9-94 



American National Standards Institute 
25 West 43rd Street, Fourth Floor 
New York, NY 10036 

Title 

Minimum Requirements for Nonsewered Waste-Disposal Systems 311.1 

Relief Valves for Hot Water Supply Systems with Addenda Z21.22a-2000(R2003) and Z21.22b-2001(R2003) . . . 504.2, 504.5 

Plastic Bathtub Units .407.1 

Plastic Shower Receptors and Shower Stalls 417.1 

Plastic Lavatories 416.1, 416.2 

Plastic Water Closet Bowls and Tanks 420.1 

Plastic Sinks .415.1, 418.1 

Plastic Urinal Fixtures 419.1 



ARI 



Air-Conditioning & Refrigeration Institute 
4100 North Fairfax Drive, Suite 200 
Arlington, VA 22203 



Standard 
reference 
number 



Tide 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



1010—02 



Self-contained, Mechanically Refrigerated Drinking-water Coolers 410.1 



ASME 



American Society of Mechanical Engineers 

Three Park Avenue 

New York, NY 10016-5990 



Standard 




Referenced 


Reference 




in code 


Number 


Title 


section number 



Al 12.1.2— 1991(R2002) 
Al 12.1.3—2000 
A112.3.1— 1993 



Al 12.3.4— 2000 

Al 12.4.1— 1993(R2002) 

Al 12.4.3— 1999 

A112.6.1M— 1997(R2002) 

Al 12.6.2— 2000 

Al 12.6.3— 2001 

Al 12.6.7— 2001 

Al 12.14.1—2003 

Al 12.14.3—2000 

Al 12.14.4— 2001 

Al 12.18.1— 2003 

Al 12.18.2— 2002 

Al 12.18.3— 2002 

Al 12.18.6— 2003 

A112.18.7— 1999 

Al 12.19.1M— 1994(R1999) 



Air Gaps in Plumbing Systems Table 608. 1 

Air Gap Fittings for Use with Plumbing Fixtures, Appliances and Appurtenances 608.13.1, Table 608.1 

Performance Standard and Installation Procedures for Stainless Steel Drainage Systems for Sanitary, Storm and 

Chemical Applications, Above and Below Ground 412.1, Table 702.1, Table 702.2, Table 702.3, 

Table 702.4, 708.2, Table 1 102.4, Table 1 102.5, 1 102.6, Table 1 102.7 

Macerating Toilet Systems and Related Components 712.4.1 

Water Heater Relief Valve Drain Tubes 504.6.2 

Plastic Fittings for Connecting Water Closets to the Sanitary Drainage System 405.4 

Floor-Affixed Supports for Off-the-floor Plumbing Fixtures for Public Use 405.4.3 

Framing- Affixed Supports for Off-the-floor Water Closets with Concealed Tanks 405.4.3 

Floor and Trench Drains 412.1 

Enameled and Epoxy-coated Cast-iron and PVC Plastic Sanitary Floor Sinks 427.1 

Backwater Valves 715.2 

Grease Interceptors 1003.3.4 

Grease Removal Devices 1003.3.4 

Plumbing Fixture Fittings 424.1, 608.2 

Plumbing Fixture Waste Fittings 424.1.2 

Performance Requirements for Backflow Protection Devices and Systems in Plumbing Fixture Fittings 424.4 

Flexible Water Connectors 605.6 

Deck mounted Bath/Shower Transfer Valves with Integral Backflow Protection 424.6 

Enameled Cast Iron Plumbing Fixtures with 1998 and 2000 supplements 407.1, 410.1, 415.1, 416.1, 418.1 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



93 



REFERENCED STANDARDS 



A112.19.2M— 2003 



A112.19 
A112.19 
A112.19 
A112.19 
A112.19 
A112.19 
A112.19 
Al 12.19 
A112.19 
A112.19 
A112.21 
Al 12.36 
B 1.20.1- 



3—2000 

.4M— 1994(R1999) 

.5—1999 

6—1995 

7M— 1995 

8M— 1987(R1996) 

9M— 1991(R2002) 

12—2000 

13—2001 

15—2001 

2M— 1983 

2M— 1991(R2002) 

-1983(R2001) 



B16.3— 1998 
B 16.4— 1998 
B 16.9— 2003 
B16.ll— 2001 
B16.12— 1998 
B16.15— 1985(R1994) 
B 16. 18^2001 
B 16.22— 2001 
B 16.23— 2002 
B16.26— 1988 
B 16.28— 1994 
B16.29— 2001 



ASM E— conti n ued 

Vitreous China Plumbing Fixtures and Hydraulic Requirements for Water Closets and Urinals .... 401.2, 405.9, 408.1, 410.1, 

416.1,418.1,419.1,420.1 

Stainless Steel Plumbing Fixtures (Designed for Residential Use) with 2002 Supplement 405.9, 415.1, 416.1, 418.1 

Porcelain Enameled Formed Steel Plumbing Fixtures with 1998 and 2000 Supplement 407.1, 416.1, 418.1 

Trim for Water-closet Bowls, Tanks and Urinals 425.4 

Hydraulic Performance Requirements for Water Closets and Urinals 419.1, 420.1 

Whirlpool Bathtub Appliances 421.1 

Suction Fittings for Use in Swimming Pools, Wading Pools, Spas, Hot Tubs and Whirlpool Bathtub Appliances 421.4 

Non- Vitreous Ceramic Plumbing Fixtures with 2002 Supplement 407.1, 408.1, 410.1, 415.1, 416.1, 417.1, 418.1, 420.1 

Wall Mounted and Pedestal Mounted, Adjustable and Pivoting Lavatory and Sink Carrier Systems 416.4, 418.3 

Electrohydraulic Water Closets 420.1 

BathtubAVhirlpool Bathtubs with Pressure Sealed Doors 407.4, 421.5 

Roof Drains 1102.6 

Cleanouts .708.2 

Pipe Threads, General Purpose (inch) 605.10.3, 605.12.3, 605.14.4, 605.16.3, 605.18.1, 

705, 705.2.3, 705.4.3 

Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings Classes 150 and 300 Table 605.5, Table 702.4, Table 1102.7 

Gray Iron Threaded Fittings Classes 125 and 250 Table 605.5, Table 702.4, Table 1102.7 

Factory-made Wrought Steel Buttwelding Fittings Table 605.5, Table 702.4, Table 1102.7 

Forged Fittings, Socket-welding and Threaded Table 605.5, Table 702.4, Table 1102.7 

Cast-iron Threaded Drainage Fittings .Table 605.5, Table 702.4, Table 1102.7 

Cast Bronze Threaded Fittings .Table 605.5, Table 702.4, Table 1102.7 

Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings Table 605.5, Table 702.4, Table 1102.7 

Wrought Copper and Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings Table 605.5, Table 702.4, Table 1102.7 

Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Drainage Fittings DWV Table 605.5, Table 702.4, Table 1 102.7 

Cast Copper Alloy Fittings for Flared Copper Tubes Table 605.5, Table 702.4, Table 1 102.7 

Wrought Steel Buttwelding Short Radius Elbows and Returns Table 605.5, Table 702.4, Table 1102.7 

Wrought Copper and Wrought Copper Alloy Solder Joint Drainage Fittings (DWV) . . . Table 605.5, Table 702.4, Table 1 102.7 



ASSE 



American Society of Sanitary Engineering 
901 Canterbury Road, Suite A 
Westlake, OH 44145 



Standard 




Referenced 


Reference 




in code 


Number 


Title 


section number 



1001—02 
1002—99 

1003—01 
1004—90 
1005—99 
1006—89 
1007—92 
1008—89 
1009—90 
1010—96 
1011—93 
1012—02 

1013—99 

1014-^-90 
1015—99 

1016—96 

1017—99 

1018—01 
1019—97 



Performance Requirements for Atmospheric Type Vacuum Breakers 425.2, Table 608.1, 608.13.6 

Performance Requirements for Antisiphon Fill Valves (Ballcocks) for Gravity 

Water Closet Flush Tanks 425.3.1, Table 608.1 

Performance Requirements for Water Pressure Reducing Valves 604.8 

Performance Requirements for Backflow Prevention Requirements for Commercial Dishwashing Machines 409.1 

Performance Requirements for Water Heater Drain Valves .501.3 

Performance Requirements for Residential Use Dishwashers 409.1 

Performance Requirements for Home Laundry Equipment 406.1, 406.2 

Performance Requirements for Household Food Waste Disposer Units .413.1 

Performance Requirements for Commercial Food Waste Grinder Units 413.1 

Performance Requirements for Water Hammer Arresters .604.9 

Performance Requirements for Hose Connection Vacuum Breakers Table 608.1, 608.13.6 

Performance Requirements for Backflow Preventers with 

Intermediate Atmospheric Vent Table 608.1, 608.13.3, 608.16.2 

Performance Requirements for Reduced Pressure Principle Backflow Preventers and Reduced 

Pressure Fire Protection Principle Backflow Preventers Table 608.1, 608.13.2, 608.16.2 

Performance Requirements for Handheld Showers 424.2 

Performance Requirements for Double Check Backflow Prevention Assemblies 

and Double Check Fire Protection Backflow Prevention Assemblies Table 608.1, 608.13.7 

Performance Requirements for Individual Thermostatic, Pressure Balancing and 

Combination Control Valves for Individual Fixture Fittings 424.3 

Performance Requirements for Temperature Actuated Mixing Valves for Hot Water 

Distribution Systems 424.3, 424.5, 613.1 

Performance Requirements for Trap Seal Primer Valves; Potable Water Supplied 1002.4 

Performance Requirements for Vacuum Breaker Wall Hydrants, Freeze Resistant, 

Automatic Draining Type Table 608.1, 608.13.6 



94 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



REFERENCED STANDARDS 



1020—98 
1022—03 
1024—04 

1035—02 
1037—90 
1044—01 
1047—99 

1048—99 

1050—02 
1051—02 

1052—93 
1055—97 
1056—01 
1060—96 
1062—97 

1066—97 
1069—05 
1070—04 
5013—98 

5015—98 
5020—98 
5047—98 

5048—98 
5052—98 
5056—98 



ASSE — continued 

Performance Requirements for Pressure Vacuum Breaker Assembly Table 608.1, 608.13.5 

Performance Requirements forBackflow Preventer for Carbonated Beverage Machines Table 608.1, 608.16.1, 608.16.10 

Performance Requirements for Dual Check Valve Type Backflow Preventers 

(for Residential Supply Service or Individual Outlets) 605.3.1, Table 608.1 

Performance Requirements for Laboratory Faucet Backflow Preventers * Table 608.1, 608.13.6 

Performance Requirements for Pressurized Flushing Devices for Plumbing Fixtures 425.2 

Performance Requirements for Trap Seal Primer Devices Drainage Types and Electronic Design Types 1002.4 

Performance Requirements for Reduced Pressure Detector Fire Protection Backflow 

Prevention Assemblies , Table 608.1, 608.13.2 

Performance Requirements for Double Check Detector Fire Protection Backflow 

Prevention Assemblies Table 608.1, 608.13.7 

Performance Requirements for Stack Air Admittance Valves for Sanitary Drainage Systems 917.1 

Performance Requirements for Individual and Branch Type Air Admittance Valves for Sanitary Drainage Systems- 
Fixture and Branch Devices 917.1 

Performance Requirements for Hose Connection Backflow Preventers Table 608.1, 608.13.6 

Performance Requirements for Chemical Dispensing Systems 608.13.9 

Performance Requirements for Spill Resistant Vacuum Breaker Table 608.1, 608.13.5, 608.13.8 

Performance Requirements for Outdoor Enclosures forBackflow Prevention Assemblies 608.14.1 

Performance Requirements for Temperature Actuated, Flow Reduction Valves to 
Individual Fixture Fittings 424.5 

Performance Requirements for Individual Pressure Balancing In-line Valves for Individual Fixture Fittings 604. 1 1 

Performance Requirements for Automatic Temperature Control Mixing Valves 424.4 

Performance Requirements for Water-temperature Limiting Devices ■ 408.3, 416.5, 607.1, 424.5 

Performance Requirements for Testing Reduced Pressure Principle Backflow Prevention Assembly (RPA) and 

Reduced Pressure Fire Protection Principle Backflow Preventers (RFP) 312.9.2 

Performance Requirements for Testing Double Check Valve Backflow Prevention Assembly (DCVA) 312.9.2 

Performance Requirements for Testing Pressure Vacuum Breaker Assembly (PVBA) 312.9.2 

Performance Requirements for Testing Reduced Pressure Detector Fire Protection' 

Backflow Prevention Assemblies (RPDA) 312.9.2 

Performance Requirements for Testing Double Check Valve Detector Assembly (DCDA) 312.9.2 

Performance Requirements for Testing Hose Connection Backflow Preventers 312.9.2 

Performance Requirements for Testing Spill Resistant Vacuum Breaker 312.9.2 



ASTM 



ASTM International 

100 Barr Harbor Drive 

West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959 



Standard 




Referenced 


Reference 




in code 


Number 


Title 


section number 



A 53/A 53M— 02 

A 74— 04a 

A312/A312M— 04a 

A 733— 03 
A 778—01 

A 888— 04a 

B 32—03 
B 42— 02e01 
B 43— (2004) 
B75— 02 

B88— 03 

B 152/B 152M— 00 
B251— 02e01 



Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-dipped, Zinc-coated Welded and Seamless. Table 605.3, 

Table 605.4, Table 702.1 

Specification for Cast-iron Soil Pipe and Fittings Table 702.1, Table 702.2, Table 702.3, 

Table 702.4, 708.2, Table 1102.4, Table 1102.5, Table 1102.7 

Specification for Seamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipes Table 605.4, Table 605.5, 

Table 605.6, 605.23.2 

Specification for Welded and Seamless Carbon Steel and Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe Nipples Table 605.8 

Specification for Welded Unannealed Austenitic Stainless Steel Tubular Products Table 605.4, 

Table 605.5, Table 605.6 
Specification for Hubless Cast-iron Soil Pipe and Fittings for Sanitary and Storm Drain, Waste, and 

Vent Piping Application Table 702.1, Table 702.2, Table 702.3, 

Table 702.4, Table 1 102.4, Table 1 102.5, Table 1 102.7 

Specification for Solder Metal 605.14.3, 605.15.4, 705.9.3, 705.10.3 

Specification for Seamless Copper Pipe, Standard Sizes Table 605.3, Table 605.4, Table 702.1 

Specification for Seamless Red Brass Pipe, Standard Sizes Table 605.3, Table 605.4, Table 702.1 

Specification for Seamless Copper Tube Table 605.3, Table 605.4, Table 702.1, Table 702.2, 

Table 702.3, Table 1102.4 

Specification for Seamless Copper Water Tube Table 605.3, Table 605.4, Table 702.1, 

Table 702.2, Table 702.3, Table 1 102.4 
Specification for Copper Sheet, Strip Plate and Rolled Bar .' 402.3, 425.3.3, 417.5.2.4, 902.2 

Specification for General Requirements for Wrought Seamless Copper and Copper-alloy Tube Table 605.3,Table 605.4, 

Table 702. 1, Table 702.2, Table 702.3, Table 1 102.4 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 



,® 



95 



REFERENCED STANDARDS 



B 302—02 
B 306—02 
B 447— 02 
B 687—99 
B 813— OOeOl 

B 828—02 

C4— 03 
C14— 03 
C76-^04a 
C 296—00 
C 425—04 
C 428—97(2002) 
C 443— 03 
C 508—00 
C 564— 04a 
C 700— 02 

C 1053— 00 

C 1173— 02 . 
C 1277—04 
C 1440^-99e01 

C 1460—04 

C 1461—02 

C 1540—02 
C 1563—04 

D 1527— 99e01 
D 1785— 04 ' 
D 1869—95(2000) 
D 2235—01 

D 2239— 03 
D 2241— 04a 
D 2282— 99e01 
D 2464—99 
D 2466— 02 
D 2467—04 
D 2468— 96a 
D 2564—02 
D 2609—02 
D 2657—97 
D 2661—02 

D 2662— 96a 

D 2665— 04ae01 

D 2666— 96a 

D 2672— 96a(2003) 

D 2729— 96a 

D 2737—03 

D 2751— 96a 

D 2846/D 2846M— 99 



ASTM — continued 

Specification for Threadless Copper Pipe, Standard Sizes Table 605.3, Table 605.4, Table 702. 1 

Specification for Copper Drainage Tube (DWV) .Table 702.1, Table 702.2, Table 1102.4 

Specification for Welded Copper Tube Table 605.3, Table 605.4 

Specification for Brass, Copper and Chromium-plated Pipe Nipples. Table 605.8 

Specification' for Liquid and Paste Fluxes for Soldering of Copper and 

Copper Alloy Tube 605.14.3, 605.15.4, 705.9.3, 705.10.3 

Practice for Making Capillary Joints by Soldering of Copper and Copper Alloy Tube and Fittings 605.14.3, 

605.15.4, 705.9.3, 705.10.3 

Specification for Clay Drain Tile and Perforated Clay Drain Tile Table 702.3, Table 1 102.4, Table 1 102.5 

Specification for Concrete Sewer, Storm Drain and Culvert Pipe Table 702.3, Table 1102.4 

Specification for Reinforced Concrete Culvert, Storm Drain and Sewer Pipe Table 702.3, Table 1102.4 

Specification for Asbestos-cement Pressure Pipe Table 605.4 

Specification for Compression Joints for Vitrified Clay Pipe and Fittings 705.15, 705.16 

Specification for Asbestos-cement Nonpressure Sewer Pipe Table 702.2, Table 702.3, Table 1 102.4 

Specification for Joints for Concrete Pipe and Manholes, Using Rubber Gaskets 705.6, 705.16 

Specification for Asbestos-cement Underdrain Pipe Table 1 102.5 

Specification for Rubber Gaskets for Cast-iron Soil Pipe and Fittings 705.5.2, 705.5.3, 705.16 

Specification for Vitrified Clay Pipe, Extra Strength, Standard Strength, and Perforated Table 702.3, Table 1102.4, 

Table 1102.5 
Specification for Borosilicate Glass Pipe and Fittings for Drain, Waste, and 

Vent (DWV) Applications Table 702.1, Table 702.4 

Specification for Flexible Transition Couplings for Underground Piping System 705.7.1, 705.14.1, 705.16 

Specification for Shielded Coupling Joining Hubless Cast-iron Soil Pipe and Fittings 705.5.3 

Specification for Thermoplastic Elastomeric (TPE) Gasket Materials for Drain, Waste, 

and Vent (DWV), Sewer, Sanitary and Storm Plumbing Systems 705.16 

Specification for Shielded Transition Couplings for Use with Dissimilar DWV Pipe 

and Fittings Above Ground 705.16 

Specification for Mechanical Couplings Using Thermoplastic Elastomeric (TPE) Gaskets for 

Joining Drain, Waste and Vent (DWV) Sewer, Sanitary and Storm Plumbing Systems 

for Above and Below Ground Use 705. 16 

Specification for Heavy Duty Shielded Couplings Joining Hubless Cast-iron Soil Pipe and Fittings 705.5.3 

Standard Test Method for Gaskets for Use in Connection with Hub and Spigot Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings for Sanitary 

Drain, Waste, Vent and Storm Piping Applications 705.5.2 

Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40 and 80 Table 605.3 

Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40, 80 and 120 Table 605.3 

Specification for Rubber Rings for Asbestos-cement Pipe 605.1 1, 605.22, 705.3, 705.16 

Specification for Solvent Cement for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe and 

Fittings 605.10.2, 705.2.2, 705.7.2 

Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe (SIDR-PR) Based on Controlled Inside Diameter Table 605.3 

Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pressure-rated Pipe (SDR-Series) Table 605.3 

Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR) Table 605.3 

Specification for Threaded Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80 Table 605.5, Table 1102.7 

Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 40 Table 605.5, Table 1 102.7 

Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80 Table 605.5, Table 1102.7 

Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 40 Table 605.5, Table 1102.7 

Specification for Solvent Cements for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Piping Systems 605.21.2, 705.8.2, 705.14.2 

Specification for Plastic Insert Fittings for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe Table 605.5, Table 1 102.7 

Standard Practice for Heat Fusion-joining of Polyolefin Pipe and Fitting 605.19.2, 605.20.2, 705.16.1 

Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Schedule 

40 Plastic Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe and Fittings Table 702.1, Table 702.2, Table 702.3, Table 702.4, 

. 705.2.2, 705.7.2, Table 1102.4, Table 1102.7 

Specification for Polybutylene (PB) Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR) Based on Controlled 

Inside Diameter : Table 605.3 

Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe and Fittings Table 702.1, 

Table 702.2, Table 702.3, Table 702.4, Table 1 102.4, Table 1 102.7 

Specification for Polybutylene (PB) Plastic Tubing ' Table 605.3 

Specification for Joints for IPS PVC Pipe Using Solvent Cement Table 605.3 

Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Sewer Pipe and Fittings Table 1 102.5 

Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Tubing , .Table 605.3 

Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Sewer Pipe and Fittings Table 702.3, Table 1 102.7 

Specification for Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Hot and Cold Water 

Distribution Systems Table 605.3, Table 605.4, 605.16.2 



96 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



REFERENCED STANDARDS 



D 2855—96(2002) 

D 2949— Ola 

D 3034— 04 

D 3139—98 

D 3212— 96a(2003) 

D 3309— 96a(2002) 

D 3311—02 
D 4068—01 

D 4551—96(2001) 

F 405— 97 
F 409— 02 

F 437— 99 

F 438— 04 

F439— 02e01 

F441/F441M— 02 

F 442/F 442M— 99 

F477— 02e01 
F 493— 04 
F 628—01 

F 656— 02 

F 714—03 
F 876— 04 
F 877— 02e01 

F 891— OOeOl 

F 1281—03 

F 1282— 03 
F 1412—01 
F 1488—03 
F 1807—04 

F 1866—98 

F 1960— 04a 

F 1974— 04 

F 1986— 00a 

F 2080— 04 

F 2159—03 

F 2389—04 



ASTM — conti nued 

Standard Practice for Making Solvent-cemented Joints with 

Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pipe and Fittings 605.21.2, 705.8.2, 705.14.2 

Specification for 3.25-in Outside Diameter Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) 

Plastic Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe and Fittings Table 702.1, Table 702.2, Table 702.3 

Specification for Type PSM Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Sewer Pipe and Fittings Table 702.3, 

Table 702.4, Table 1102.7 

Specification for Joints for Plastic Pressure Pipes Using Flexible Elastomeric Seals 605.10.1, 605.21.1 

Specification for Joints for Drain and Sewer Plastic Pipes Using Flexible Elastomeric Seals 705.2.1, 

705.7.1,705.8.1,705.14.1 

Specification for Polybutylene (PB) Plastic Hot and Cold Water Distribution Systems Table 605.3, Table 605.4, 

605.19.2, 605.19.3 

Specification for Drain, Waste and Vent (DWV) Plastic Fittings Patterns Table 702.4, Table 1 102.7 

Specification for Chlorinated Polyethlene (CPE) Sheeting for Concealed Water- 
Containment Membrane 417.5.2.2 

Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Flexible Concealed Water- 
Containment Membrane 417.5.2. 1 

Specification for Corrugated Polyethylene (PE) Tubing and Fittings Table 1 102.5 

Specification for Thermoplastic Accessible and Replaceable Plastic Tube and 
Tubular Fittings 424.1.2, Table 1102.7 

Specification for Threaded Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, 
Schedule 80 Table 605.5, Table 1102.7 

Specification for Socket-type Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, 
Schedule 40 Table 605.5, Table 1102.7 

Specification for Socket-type Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, 
Schedule 80 Table 605.5, Table 1102.7 

Specification for Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40 and 80 Table 605.3, Table 605.4 

Table 605.5 

Specification for Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR) Table 605.3, 

Table 605.4, Table 605.5 

Specification for Elastomeric Seals (Gaskets) for Joining Plastic Pipe 605.22, 705. 16 

Specification for Solvent Cements for Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe and Fittings 605.16.2 

Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Schedule 40 Plastic Drain, 

Waste, and Vent Pipe with a Cellular Core Table 702.1, Table 702.2, Table 702.3, Table 702.4, 

705.2.2, 705.7.2, Table 1 102.4, Table 1 102.7 
Specification for Primers for Use in Solvent Cement Joints of Poly (Vinyl Chloride) 

(PVC) Plastic Pipe and Fittings 605.21.2, 705.8.2, 705.14.2 

Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR) Based on Outside Diameter Table 702.3 

Specification for Cross-linked Polyethylene (PEX) Tubing Table 605.3 

Specification for Cross-linked Polyethylene (PEX) Plastic Hot and Cold Water 

Distribution Systems Table 605.3, Table 605.4, Table 605.5, Table 605.17.2 

Specification for Coextruded Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe with a Cellular Core Table 702.1, 

Table 702.2, Table 702.3, Table 702.4, Table 1 102.4, Table 1 102.5, Table 1 102.7 
Specification for Cross-linked Polyemylene/Aluminum/Cross-Linked Polyethylene 

(PEX-AL-PEX) Pressure Pipe Table 605.3, Table 605.4 

Specification for Polyethylene/Aluminum/Polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) Composite Pressure Pipe Table 605.3, Table 605.4 

Specification for Polyolefin Pipe and Fittings for Corrosive Waste Drainage Table 702.2, Table 702.4, 705.17.1 

Specification for Coextruded Composite Pipe Table 702.1, Table 702.2, Table 702.3 

Specification for Metal Insert Fittings Utilizing a Copper Crimp Ring for SDR9 Cross-linked 
Polyethylene (PEX) Tubing Table 605.5, 605.17.2 

Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Schedule 40 Drainage and 
DWV Fabricated Fittings Table 702.4 

Specification for Cold Expansion Fittings with PEX Reinforcing Rings for use with 
Cross-linked Polyethylene (PEX) Tubing Table 605.5 

Specification for Metal Insert Fittings for Polyethylene/Aluminum/Polyethylene and Cross-linked 
Polyethylene/Aluminum/Cross-hnked Polyethylene Composite Pressure Pipe Table 605.5 

Specification for Multilayer Pipe, Type 2, Compression Fittings and Compression Joints for Hot and Cold 
Drinking Water Systems Table 605.3, Table 605.4, Table 605.5 

Specifications for Cold-expansion Fittings with Metal Compression-sleeves for 
Cross-linked Polyethylene (PEX) Pipe Table 605.5 

Specification for Plastic Insert Fittings Utilizing a Copper Crimp Ring for SDR9 Cross-linked 
Polyethylene (PEX) Tubing Table 605.5 

Specification for Pressure-rated Polypropylene (PP) Piping Systems Table 605.3, Table 605.4, Table 605.5, 605.21 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



97 



REFERENCED STANDARDS 



AWS 



American Welding Society 
550 N.W. LeJeune Road 
Miami, FL 33126 



Standard 

Reference 

Number 



Title 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



A5.8— 04 



Specifications for Filler Metals for Brazing and Braze Welding 605.12.1, 605.14.1, 605.15.1, 705.4.1, 705.9.1, 705.10.1 



AWWA 



Standard 




Referenced 


Reference 




in code 


Number 


Title 


section number 



C104— 98 

C110— 98 

Clll— 00 

CI 15— 99 
C151/A21.51— 02 
CI 53— 00 
C510— 00 
C511— 00 
C651— 99 
C652— 02 



American Water Works Association 
6666 West Quincy Avenue 
Denver, CO 80235 

Title 

Standard for Cement-mortar Lining for Ductile-Iron 

Pipe and Fittings for Water 605.3, 605.5 

Standard for Ductile-iron and Gray-iron Fittings, 

3 Inches through 48 Inches, for Water Table 605.5, Table 702.4, Table 1102.7 

Standard for Rubber-gasket Joints for Ductile-iron 

Pressure Pipe and Fittings 605.13 

Standard for Flanged Ductile-iron Pipe with Ductile-iron or Gray-iron Threaded Flanges Table 605.3 

Standard for Ductile-iron Pipe, Centrifugally Cast for Water Table 605.3 

Standard for Ductile-iron Compact Fittings for Water Service Table 605.5 

Double Check Valve Backflow Prevention Assembly Table 608.1, 608.13.7 

Reduced-pressure Principle Backflow Prevention Assembly Table 608.1, 608.13.2, 608.16.2 

Disinfecting Water Mains 610.1 

Disinfection of Water-storage Facilities 610.1 



CISPI 



301— 04a 



310—04 



Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute 
5959 Shallowford Road, Suite 419 
Chattanooga, TN 37421 



Standard 




Referenced 


Reference 




in code 


Number 


Title 


section number 



Specification for Hubless Cast-iron Soil Pipe and Fittings for Sanitary and 

Storm Drain, Waste and Vent Piping Applications Table 702.1, Table 702.2, Table 702.3, Table 702.4, 

Table 1102.4, Table 1102.5, Table 1102.7 
Specification for Coupling for Use in Connection with Hubless Cast-iron Soil Pipe and Fittings 

for Sanitary and Storm Drain, Waste and Vent Piping Applications 705.5.3 



CSA 



Canadian Standards Association 

178 Rexdale Blvd. 

Rexdale (Toronto), Ontario, Canada M9W 1R3 



Standard 

Reference 

Number 



Title 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



B45.1— 02 
B45.2— 02 
B45.3— 02 
B45.4— 02 
B45.5— 02 
B45.9— 99 
B45.10— 01 
B64. 1.2—01 
B64.2.1— 01 
B64.2.1.1— 01 
B64.3.1— 01 
B64.4.1— 01 
B64.5— 01 
B64.5.1— 01 
B64.6— 01 



Ceramic Plumbing Fixtures 408. 1, 

Enameled Cast-iron Plumbing Fixtures 

Porcelain Enameled Steel Plumbing Fixtures 

Stainless-steel Plumbing Fixtures 

Plastic Plumbing Fixtures 407.1, 416.2, 

Macerating Systems and Related Components 

Hydromassage Bathtubs 

Vacuum Breakers, Pressure Type (PVB) 

Vacuum Breakers, Hose Connection Type (HCVB) with Manual Draining Feature 

Vacuum Breakers, Hose Connection Dual Check Type (HCDVB) 

Backflow Preventers, Dual Check Valve Type with Atmospheric Port for Carbonators (DCAPC). . . 

Backflow Preventers, Reduced Pressure Principle Type for Fire Sprinklers (RPF) 

Backflow Preventers, Double Check Type (DCVA) 

Backflow Preventers, Double Check Type for Fire Systems (DCVAF) 

Backflow Preventers, Dual Check Valve Type (DuC) 



416.1,418.1,419.1,420.1 
407.1,415.1,416.1,418.1 

407.1,416.1,418.1 

415.1,416.1,418.1,420.1 
417.1,419.1,420.1,421.1 

712.4.1 

421.1 

....Table 608.1, 608.13.5 
....Table 608.1, 608.13.6 
....Table 608.1, 608.13.6 
....Table 608.1, 608.16.1 
....Table 608.1, 608.13.2 
....Table 608.1, 608.13.7 
....Table 608. 1608. 13.7 
605.3.1, Table 608.1 



98 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



REFERENCED STANDARDS 



B64.7— 94 
B64.10/B64.10.1— 01 

B79— 94(2000) 
B 125— 01 
B137.1— 02 
B 137.2— 02 
B137.3— 02 
B 137.5— 02 

B137.6— 02 

B137.ll— 02 
B181.1— 02 

B181.2— 02 

B182.1— 02 
B 182.2—02 
B 182.4— 02 
B 182.6— 02 
B 182.8— 02 
CAN3-B137.8M— 99 

CAN/CSA-A257. 1M— 92 
CAN/CSA-A257.2M— 92 
CAN/CSA-A257.3M— 92 

CAN/CSA-B64.1.1— 01 
CAN/CSA-B64.2— 01 
CAN/CSA-B64.2.2— 01 
CAN/CSA-B64.3— 01 

CAN/CSA-B64.4— 01 
CAN/CSA-B64.10— 01 
CAN/CSA-B137.9— 02 
CAN/CSA-B 137. 10M— 02 
CAN/CSA-B181.3— 02 
CAN/CSA-B 182.4—02 
CAN/CSA-B602— 02 



CSA — continued 

Vacuum Breakers, Laboratory Faucet Type (LFVB) Table 608.1, 608.13.6 

Manual for the Selection and Installation of Backflow Prevention Devices/Manual for the Maintenance 

and Field Testing of Backflow Prevention Devices 312.9.2 

Floor, Area and Shower Drains, and Cleanouts for Residential Construction 412.1 

Plumbing Fittings 424.1, 424.3, 424.4, 425.3.1, 425.5, 607.4, Table 608.1 

Polyethylene Pipe, Tubing and Fittings for Cold Water Pressure Services Table 605.3 

PVC Injection-moulded Gasketed Fittings for Pressure Applications Table 605.5, Table 1 102.7 

Rigid Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pipe for Pressure Applications Table 605.3, 605.21.2, 705.8.2, 705.14.2 

Cross-linked Polyethylene (PEX) Tubing Systems for Pressure Applications — with Revisions through 

September 1992 Table 605.3, Table 605.4 

CPVC Pipe, Tubing and Fittings for Hot and Cold Water Distribution Systems — with Revisions through 

May 1986 Table 605.3, Table 605.4 

Polypropylene (PP-R) Pipe and Fittings for Pressure Applications Table 605.3, Table 605.4, Table 605.5 

ABS Drain, Waste and Vent Pipe and Pipe Fittings Table 702.1, Table 702.2, 

Table 702.4, 705.2.2, 705.7.2, 715.2 

PVC Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe and Pipe Fittings — with Revisions 
through December 1993 Table 702.1, Table 702.2, 705.8.2, 705.14.2, 715.2 

Plastic Drain and Sewer Pipe and Pipe Fittings 705.8.2, 705.14.2, Table 1 102.4 

PVC Sewer Pipe and Fittings (PSM Type) Table 702.3, Table 1 102.4, Table 1 102.5 

Profile PVC Sewer Pipe and Fittings Table 702.3, Table 1102.4, Table 1102.5 

Profile Polyethylene Sewer Pipe and Fittings for Leak-proof Sewer Applications Table 1 102.5 

Profile Polyethylene Storm Sewer and Drainage Pipe and Fittings Table 1102.5 

Polybutylene (PB) Piping for Pressure Applications — with Revisions through 
July 1992 Table 605.3, Table 605.4, 605.19.2, 605.19.3 

Circular Concrete Culvert, Storm Drain, Sewer Pipe and Fittings Table 702.3, Table 1 102.4 

Reinforced Circular Concrete Culvert, Storm Drain, Sewer Pipe and Fittings Table 702.3, Table 1 102.4 

Joints for Circular Concrete Sewer and Culvert Pipe, Manhole Sections and Fittings Using 

Rubber Gaskets 705.6, 705.16 

Vacuum Breakers, Atmospheric Type (AVB) 425.2, Table 608.1, 608.13.6 

Vacuum Breakers, Hose Connection Type (HCVB) Table 608.1, 608.13.6 

Vacuum Breakers, Hose Connection Type (HCVB) with Automatic Draining Feature Table 608.1, 608.13.6 

Backflow Preventers, Dual Check Valve Type with Atmospheric Port (DCAP) Table 608.1, 608.13.3, 

608.16.2 

Backflow Preventers, Reduced Pressure Principle Type (RP) Table 608.1, 608.13.2, 608.16.2 

Manual for the Selection, Installation, Maintenance and Field Testing of Backflow Prevention Devices 312.9.2 

Polyethylene/Aluminum/Polyethylene Composite Pressure Pipe Systems Table 605.3 

Cross-linked Polyethylene/ Aluminum/Polyethylene Composite Pressure Pipe Systems Table 605.3, Table 605.4 

Polyolefin Laboratory Drainage Systems Table 702.1, Table 702.2 

Profile PVC Sewer Pipe and Fittings Table 702.3, Table 1102.4, Table 1102.5 

Mechanical Couplings for Drain, Waste and Vent Pipe and Sewer Pipe 705.2.1, 705.5.3, 705.6, 

705.7.1, 705.14.1, 705.15, 705.16 



ICC 



Standard 




Referenced 


Reference 




in code 


Number 


Title 


section number 



IBC— 06 

ICC EC— 06 
IEBC— 06 
DECC— 06 
IFC— 06 
IFGC— 06 
IMC— 06 
IPSDC— 06 
IRC— 06 



International Code Council, Inc. 
500 New Jersey Ave, NW 
6th Floor 
Washington, DC 20001 

Title 

International Building Code 8 201.3, 305.4, 307.1, 307.2, 307.3, 308.2, 309.1, 310.1, 

310.3, 403.1, Table 403.1, 404.1, 407.3, 417.6, 502.6, 606.5.2, 1106.5 

ICC Electrical Code®— Administrative Provisions 201.3, 502.1, 504.3, 1 1 13.1.3 

International Existing Building Code® 101.2 

International Energy Conservation Code® 313.1, 607.2, 607.2.1 

International Fire Code® 201.3, 1201.1 

International Fuel Gas Code® 101.2, 201.3, 502.1 

International Mechanical Code® 201.3, 307.6, 310.1, 422.9, 502.1, 612.1, 1202.1 

International Private Sewage Disposal Code® 701.2 

International Residential Code® 101.2 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE' 



99 



REFERENCED STANDARDS 



ISEA 



Industry Safety Equipment Association 
1901 N. Moore Street, Suite 808 
Arlington, VA 22209 



Standard 

Reference 

Number 



Title 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



Z358.1— 03 



Emergency Eyewash and Shower Equipment 411.1 



NFPA 



50—01 
51—02 
70—05 
99C— 02 



National Fire Protection Association 
Batterymarch Park 
Quincy, MA 02269 

Title 

Bulk Oxygen Systems at Consumer Sites 1203. 1 

Design and Installation of Oxygen-fuel Gas Systems for Welding, Cutting and Allied Processes 1203.1 

National Electrical Code 502.1, 504.3, 1113.1.3 

Gas and Vacuum Systems 1202.1 



Standard 




Referenced 


Reference 




in code 


Number 


Title 


section number 



NSF 



NSF International 
789 Dixboro Road 
Ann Arbor, MI 48105 

Referenced 

in code 

Title section number 

Commercial Warewashing Equipment 409. 1 

Plastic Piping System Components and Related Materials 303.3, 611.3 

Manual Food and Beverage Dispensing Equipment 426.1 

Drinking Water Treatment Units — Aesthetic Effects 611.1, 611.3 

Residential Cation Exchange Water Softeners 611.1, 611.3 

Drinking Water Treatment Units— Health Effects. 611.1,611.3 

Reverse Osmosis Drinking Water Treatment Systems 61 1.2 

Drinking Water System Components— Health Effects 424.1, 605.3, 605.4, 605.5, 61 1.3 

Drinking Water Distillation Systems 611.1 



Standard 

Reference 

Number 



3—2003 
14—2003 
18—2004 . 
42— 2002e 
44—2004 
53— 2002e 
58—2004 
61— 2003e 
62—2004 



PDI 



Plumbing and Drainage Institute 
800 Turnpike Street, Suite 300 
North Andover, MA 01845 



Standard 

Reference 

Number 



Title 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



G101(2003) 



Testing and Rating Procedure for Grease Interceptors with Appendix of Sizing and Installation Data 1003.3.4 



UL 



Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. 
333 Pfingsten Road 
Northbrook, IL 60062-2096 



Standard 
reference 
number 



Title 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



UL508— 99 



Industrial Control Equipment : 314.2.3 



100 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX A 

PLUMBING PERMIT FEE SCHEDULE 



Permit Issuance 

1. For issuing each permit 

2. For issuing each supplemental permit. 



Unit Fee Schedule 

1 . For each plumbing fixture or trap or set of fixtures on one trap (including water, drainage 

piping andbackflow protection thereof) 

2. For each building sewer and each trailer park sewer 

3. Rainwater systems — per drain (inside building) 

4. For each cesspool (where permitted) 

5. For each private sewage disposal system 

6. For each water heater and/or vent 

7. For each industrial waste pretreatment interceptor including its trap and vent, 

excepting kitchen-type grease interceptors functioning as fixture traps 

8. For installation, alteration or repair of water-piping and/or water-treating equipment, each ..... 

9. For repair or alteration of drainage or vent piping, each fixture .'.... 

10. For each lawn sprinkler system on any one meter including backflow protection devices therefor 

11. For atmospheric-type vacuum breakers not included in Item 2: 

1 to5 ...... 

over 5, each 

12. For each backflow protective device other than atmospheric-type vacuum breakers: 

2 inches (5 1 mm) and smaller 

Over 2inches (51 mm) 



Other Inspections and Fees 

1. Inspections outside ofnormal business hours 7. perhour 

(minimum charge two hours) 

2. Reinspection fee assessed under provisions of Section 107.3.3 each 

3. Inspections for which no fee is specifically indicated ..." perhour 

(minimum charge one-half hour) 

4. Additional plan review required by changes, additions or revisions to approved 

plans (minimum charge one-half hour) perhour 

2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 101 



1 02 2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX B 

RATES OF RAINFALL FOR VARIOUS CITIES 



Rainfall rates, in inches per hour, are based on a storm of one-hour duration and a 100-year return period. The rainfall rates shown in 
the appendix are derived from Figure 1 106.1. 



Alabama: 

Birmingham 3.8 

Huntsville 3.6 

Mobile 4.6 

Montgomery 4.2 

Alaska: 

Fairbanks 1.0 

Juneau 0.6 

Arizona: 

Flagstaff 2.4 

Nogales 3.1 

Phoenix 2.5 

Yuma 1.6 

Arkansas: 

FortSmith.. 3.6 

Little Rock 3.7 

Texarkana 3.8 

California: 

Barstow 1.4 

Crescent City 1.5 

Fresno 1.1 

Los Angeles 2.1 

Needles 1.6 

Placerville 1.5 

San Fernando 2.3 

San Francisco 1.5 

Yreka 1.4 

Colorado: 

Craig 1.5 

Denver 2.4 

Durango 1.8 

Grand Junction 1.7 

Lamar 3.0 

Pueblo 2.5 

Connecticut: 

Hartford 2.7 

New Haven 2.8 

Putnam 2.6 

Delaware: 

Georgetown 3.0 

Wilmington 3.1 



District of Columbia: 

Washington 3.2 

Florida: 

Jacksonville 4.3 

Key West 4.3 

Miami 4.7 

Pensacola 4.6 

Tampa 4.5 

Georgia: 

Atlanta 3.7 

Dalton . . ; : 3.4 

Macon 3.9 

Savannah 4.3 

Thomasville 4.3 

Hawaii: 

Hilo 6.2 

Honolulu 3.0 

Wailuku 3.0 

Idaho: 

Boise 0.9 

Lewiston. 1.1 

Pocatello 1.2 

Illinois: 

Cairo 3.3 

Chicago : ... 3.0 

Peoria 3.3 

Rockford 3.2 

Springfield 3.3 

Indiana: 

Evansville 3.2 

Fort Wayne 2.9 

Indianapolis 3.1 

Iowa: 

Davenport 3.3 

Des Moines 3.4 

Dubuque 3.3 

Sioux City 3.6 



Kansas: 

Atwood 3.3 

Dodge City 3.3 Mississippi: 



Topeka 3.7 

Wichita 3.7 

Kentucky: 

Ashland 3.0 

Lexington 3.1 

Louisville 3.2 

Middlesboro 3.2 

Paducah 3.3 

Louisiana: 

Alexandria 4.2 

Lake Providence 4.0 

New Orleans 4.8 

Shreveport 3.9 

Maine: 

Bangor 2.2 

Houlton 2.1 

Portland 2.4 

Maryland: 

Baltimore .3.2 

Hagerstown 2.8 

Oakland 2.7 

Salisbury .' 3.1 

Massachusetts: 

Boston 2.5 

Pittsfield 2.8 

Worcester 2.7 

Michigan: 

Alpena 2.5 

Detroit 2.7 

Grand Rapids 2.6 

Lansing 2.8 

Marquette 2.4 

SaultSte. Marie 2.2 

Minnesota: 

Duluth 2.8 

Grand Marais 2.3 

Minneapolis 3.1 

Moorhead 3.2 

Worthington 3.5 



Biloxi 4.7 

Columbus 3.9 

Corinth 3.6 

Natchez 4.4 

Vicksburg 4.1 

Missouri: 

Columbia 3.2 

Kansas City 3.6 

Springfield 3.4 

St. Louis 3.2 

Montana: 

Ekalaka 2.5 

Havre 1.6 

Helena 1.5 

Kalispell 1.2 

Missoula. 1.3 

Nebraska: 

NorthPlatte 3.3 

Omaha 3.8 

Scottsbluff 3.1 

Valentine 3.2 

Nevada: 

Elko 1.0 

Ely 1.1 

Las Vegas 1.4 

Reno 1.1 

New Hampshire: 

Berlin 2.5 

Concord 2.5 

Keene 2.4 

New Jersey: 

Atlantic City 2.9 

Newark 3.1 

Trenton 3.1 

New Mexico: 

Albuquerque 2.0 

Hobbs 3.0 

Raton 2.5 

Roswell 2.6 

SilverCity 1.9 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



103 



APPENDIX B 



New York: 

Albany 2.5 

Binghamton 2.3 

Buffalo 2.3 

Kingston 2.7 

New York 3.0 

Rochester 2.2 

North Carolina: 

Asheville 4.1 

Charlotte 3.7 

Greensboro. 3.4 

Wilmington 4.2 

North Dakota: 

Bismarck 2.8 

DevilsLake 2.9 

Fargo 3.1 

Williston. 2.6 

Ohio: 

Cincinnati 2.9 

Cleveland '. 2.6 

Columbus 2.8 

Toledo 2.8 

Oklahoma: 

Altus. 3.7 

Boise City 3.3 

Durant 3.8 

Oklahoma City 3.8 

Oregon: 

Baker 0.9 

Coos Bay 1.5 

Eugene 1.3 

Portland 1.2 



Pennsylvania: 

Erie 2.6 

Harrisburg ...... 2.8 

Philadelphia. 3.1 

Pittsburgh 2.6 

Scranton 2.7 

Rhode Island: 

Block Island 2.75 

Providence 2.6 

South Carolina: 

Charleston 4.3 

Columbia 4.0 

Greenville 4.1 

South Dakota: 

Buffalo ....2.8 

Huron. 3.3 

Pierre 3.1 

RapidCity 2.9 

Yankton 3.6 

Tennessee: 

Chattanooga 0.5 

Knoxville 3.2 

Memphis 3.7 

Nashville 3.3 

Texas: 

Abilene 3.6 

Amarillo 3.5 

Brownsville 4.5 

Dallas 4.0 

DelRio 4.0 

ElPaso 2.3 

Houston 4.6 

Lubbock 3.3 



Odessa 3.2 

Pecos 3.0 

SanAntonio 4.2 

Utah: 

BrighamCity 1.2 

Roosevelt 1.3 

SaltLakeCity 1.3 

St. George 1.7 

Vermont: 

Barre .2.3 

Bratteboro 2.7 

Burlington 2.1 

Rutland 2.5 

Virginia: 

Bristol 2.7 

Charlottesville 2.8 

Lynchburg 3.2 

Norfolk. 3.4 

Richmond 3.3 

Washington: 

Omak 1.1 

Port Angeles. 1.1 

Seattle 1.4 

Spokane .1.0 

Yakima 1.1 

West Virginia: 

Charleston 2.8 

Morgantown 2.7 

Wisconsin: 

Ashland 2.5 

Eau Claire 2.9 

. Green Bay 2.6 



La Crosse 3.1 

Madison 3.0 

Milwaukee 3.0 

Wyoming: 

Cheyenne 2.2 

FortBridger .1.3 

Lander 1.5 

New Castle 2.5 

Sheridan. . '. 1.7 

Yellowstone Park ..... 1.4 



104 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 8 



APPENDIX C 

GRAY WATER RECYCLING SYSTEMS 



Note: Section 30 1 .3 of this code requires all plumbing fixtures that receive water or waste to discharge to the sanitary drainage sys- 
tem of the structure. In order to allow for the utilization of a gray water system, Section 301.3 should be revised to read as follows: 



i 



1 



301.3 Connections to drainage system. All plumbing fix- 
tures, drains, appurtenances and appliances used to receive or 
discharge liquid wastes or sewage shall be directly connected 
to the sanitary drainage system of the building or premises, in 
accordance with the requirements of this code. This section 
shall not be construed to prevent indirect waste systems 
required by Chapter 8. 

Exception: Bathtubs, showers, lavatories, clothes washers 
and laundry trays shall not be required to discharge to the 
sanitary drainage system where such fixtures discharge to 
an approved gray water system for flushing of water closets 
and urinals or for subsurface landscape irrigation. 



SECTION C1 01 
GENERAL 

C101.1 Scope. The provisions of this appendix shall govern 
the materials, design, construction and installation of gray 
water systems for flushing of water closets and urinals and for 
subsurface landscape irrigation (see Figures 1 and 2). 

C101.2 Definition. The following term shall have the meaning 
shown herein. 

GRAY WATER. Waste discharged from lavatories, bathtubs, 
showers, clothes washers and laundry trays. 

C101.3 Permits. Permits shall be required in accordance with 
Section 106. 

C101.4 Installation. In addition to the provisions of Section 
CI 01, systems for flushing of water closets and urinals shall 
comply with Section CI 02 and systems for subsurface land- 
scape irrigation shall comply with Section CI 03. Except as 
provided for in Appendix C, all systems shall comply with the 
provisions of the International Plumbing Code. 

C101.5 Materials. Above-ground drain, waste and vent piping 
for gray water systems shall conform to one of the standards 
listed in Table 702.1. Gray water underground building drain- 
age and vent pipe shall conform to one of the standards listed in 
Table 702.2. 

C101.6 Tests. Drain, waste and vent piping for gray water sys- 
tems shall be tested in accordance with Section 312. 

C101.7 Inspections. Gray water systems shall be inspected in 
accordance with Section 107. 

C 101.8 Potable water connections. Only connections in 
accordance with Section C 102.3 shall be made between a gray 
water recycling system and a potable water system. 

C101.9 Waste water connections. Gray water recycling sys- 
tems shall receive only the waste discharge of bathtubs, show- 
ers, lavatories, clothes washers or laundry trays. 



C101.10 Collection reservoir. Gray water shall be collected in 
an approved reservoir constructed of durable, nonabsorbent 
and corrosion-resistant materials. The reservoir shall be a 
closed and gas-tight vessel. Access openings shall be provided 
to allow inspection and cleaning of the reservoir interior. 

C101.ll Filtration. Gray water entering the reservoir shall 
pass through an approved filter such as a media, sand or 
diatomaceous earth filter. 

C101.11.1 Required valve. A full-open valve shall be 
installed downstream of the last fixture connection to the 
gray water discharge pipe before entering the required filter. 

C101.12 Overflow. The collection reservoir shall be equipped 
with an overflow pipe having the same or larger diameter as the 
influent pipe for the gray water. The overflow pipe shall be 
indirectly connected to the sanitary drainage system. 

C101.13 Drain. A drain shall be located at the lowest point of 
the collection reservoir and shall be indirectly connected to the 
sanitary drainage system. The drain shall be the same diameter 
as the overflow pipe required in Section C101.12. 

C101.14 Vent required. The reservoir shall be provided with a 
vent sized in accordance with Chapter 9 and based on the diam- 
eter of the reservoir influent pipe. 



SECTION C1 02 

SYSTEMS FOR FLUSHING WATER 

CLOSETS AND URINALS 

C102.1 Collection reservoir. The holding capacity of the res- 
ervoir shall be a minimum of twice the volume of water 
required to meet the daily flushing requirements of the fixtures 
supplied with gray water, but not less than 50 gallons (189 L). 
The reservoir shall be sized to limit the retention time of gray 
water to a maximum of 72 hours. 

C102.2 Disinfection. Gray water shall be disinfected by an 
approved method that employs one or more disinfectants such 
as chlorine, iodine or ozone. 

C102.3 Makeup water. Potable water shall be supplied as a 
source of makeup water for the gray water system. The potable 
water supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance 
with Section 608. There shall be a full-open valve located on 
the makeup water supply line to the collection reservoir. 

C102.4 Coloring. The gray water shall be dyed blue or green 
with a food grade vegetable dye before such water is supplied 
to the fixtures. 

C102.5 Materials. Distribution piping shall conform to one of 
the standards listed in Table 605.4. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



105 



APPENDIX C 



C 102.6 Identification. Distribution piping and reservoirs shall 
be identified as containing nonpotable water. Piping identifica- 
tion shall be in accordance with Section 608.8. 



SECTION C1 03 
SUBSURFACE LANDSCAPE IRRIGATION SYSTEMS 

C103.1 Collection reservoir. Reservoirs shall be sized to limit 
the retention time of gray water to a maximum of 24 hours. 

C103.1.1 Identification. The reservoir shall be identified as 
containing nonpotable water. 

C103.2 Valves required. A check valve and a full-open valve 
located on the discharge side of the check valve shall be 
installed on the effluent pipe of the collection reservoir. 

C103.3 Makeup water. Makeup water shall not be required 
for subsurface landscape irrigation systems. Where makeup 
water is provided, the installation shall be in accordance with 
Section C102.3. 

C103.4 Disinfection. Disinfection shall not be required for 
gray water used for subsurface landscape irrigation systems. 

C 103.5 Coloring. Gray water used for subsurface landscape 
irrigation systems shall not be required to be dyed. 

C103.6 Estimating gray water discharge. The system shall 
be sized in accordance with the gallons-per-day-per-occupant 
number based on the type of fixtures connected to the gray 
water system. The discharge shall be calculated by the follow- 
ing equation: 

C = AxB 

A = Number of occupants: 

Residential-Number of occupants shall be determined 
by the actual number of occupants, but not less than two 
occupants for one bedroom and one occupant for each 
additional bedroom. 

Commercial-Number of occupants shall be deter- 
mined by the International Building Code®. 

B = Estimated flow demands for each occupant: 

Residential-25 gallons per day (94.6 lpd) per occupant 
for showers, bathtubs and lavatories and 15 gallons per 
day (56.7 lpd) per occupant for clothes washers or laun- 
dry trays. 

Commercial-Based on type of fixture or water use 
records minus the discharge of fixtures other than those 
discharging gray water. 

C = Estimated gray water discharge based on the total num- 
ber of occupants. 

C 103.7 Percolation tests. The permeability of the soil in the 
proposed absorption system shall be determined by percolation 
tests or permeability evaluation. 

C103.7.1 Percolation tests and procedures. At least three 
percolation tests in each system area shall be conducted. 
The holes shall be spaced uniformly in relation to the bot- 
tom depth of the proposed absorption system. More perco- 
lation tests shall be made where necessary, depending on 
system design. 



C103.7.1.1 Percolation test hole. The test hole shall be 
dug or bored. The test hole shall have vertical sides and a 
horizontal dimension of 4 inches to 8 inches (102 mm to 
203 mm). The bottom and sides of the hole shall be 
scratched with a sharp-pointed instrument to expose the 
natural soil. All loose material shall be removed from the 
hole and the bottom shall be covered with 2 inches (51 
mm) of gravel or coarse sand. 

C 103.7.1. 2 Test procedure, sandy soils. The hole shall 
be filled with clear water to a minimum of 12 inches (305 
rnm) above the bottom of the hole for tests in sandy soils. 
The time for this amount of water to seep away shall be 
determined, and this procedure shall be repeated if the 
water from the second filling of the hole seeps away in 10 
minutes or less. The test shall proceed as follows: Water 
shall be added to a point not more than 6 inches (152 mm) 
above the gravel or coarse sand. Thereupon, from a fixed 
reference point, water levels shall be measured at 
10-minute intervals for a period of 1 hour. Where 6 
inches (152 mm) of water seeps away in less than 10 min- 
utes, a shorter interval between measurements shall be 
used, but in no case shall the water depth exceed 6 inches 
(152 mm). Where 6 inches (152 mm) of water seeps 
away in less than 2 minutes, the test shall be stopped and 
a rate of less than 3 minutes per inch (7.2 s/mm) shall be 
reported. The final water level drop shall be used to cal- 
culate the percolation rate. Soils not meeting the above 
requirements shall be tested in accordance with Section 
C103.7.1.3. 

C 103.7.1.3 Test procedure, other soils. The hole shall 
be filled with clear water, and a minimum water depth of 
12 inches (305 mm) shall be maintained above the bot- 
tom of the hole for a 4-hour period by refilling whenever 
necessary or by use of an automatic siphon. Water 
remaining in the hole after 4 hours shall not be removed. 
Thereafter, the soil shall be allowed to swell not less than 
16 hours or more than 30 hours. Immediately after the 
soil swelling period, the measurements for determining 
the percolation rate shall be made as follows: Any soil 
sloughed into the hole shall be removed and the water 
level shall be adjusted to 6 inches (152 mm) above the 
gravel or coarse sand. Thereupon, from a fixed reference 
point, the water level shall be measured at 30-minute 
intervals for a period of 4 hours, unless two successive 
water level drops do not vary by more than 0.62 inch 
(1.59 mm). At least three water level drops shall be 
observed and recorded. The hole shall be filled with clear 
water to a point not more than 6 inches (152 mm) above 
the gravel or coarse sand whenever it becomes nearly 
empty. Adjustments of the water level shall not be made 
during the three measurement periods except to the lim- 
its of the last measured water level drop. When the first 6 
inches (152 mm) of water seeps away in less than 30 min- 
utes, the time interval between measurements shall be 10 
minutes and the test run for 1 hour. The water depth shall 
not exceed 5 inches (127 mm) at any time during the 
measurement period. The drop that occurs during the 
final measurement period shall be used in calculating the 
percolation rate. 



106 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX C 



C103.7.1.4 Mechanical test equipment. Mechanical 
percolation test equipment shall be of an approved type. 

C103.7.2 Permeability evaluation. Soil shall be evaluated 
for estimated percolation based on structure and texture in 
accordance with accepted soil evaluation practices. Borings 
shall be made in accordance with Section CI 03.7. 1 for eval- 
uating the soil. 

C103.8 Subsurface landscape irrigation site location. The 

surface grade of all soil absorption systems shall be located at a 
point lower than the surface grade of any water well or reser- 
voir on the same or adjoining property. Where this is not possi- 
ble, the site shall be located so surface water drainage from the 
site is not directed toward a well or reservoir. The soil absorp- 
tion system shall be located with a minimum horizontal dis- 
tance between various elements as indicated in Table C103.8. 
Private sewage disposal systems in compacted areas, such as 
parking lots and driveways, are prohibited. Surface water shall 
be diverted away from any soil absorption site on the same or 
neighboring lots. 

TABLE C1 03.8 
LOCATION OF GRAY WATER SYSTEM 



ELEMENT 


MINIMUM HORIZONTAL DISTANCE 


HOLDING TANK 
(feet) 


IRRIGATION 

DISPOSAL FIELD 

(feet) 


Buildings 


5 


2 


Property line adjoining 
private property 


5 


5 


Water wells 


50 


100 


Streams and lakes 


50 


50 


Seepage pits 


5 


5 


Septic tanks 





5 


Water service 


5 


5 


Public water main 


10 


10 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

C103.9 Installation. Absorption systems shall be installed in 
accordance with Sections C103.9.1 through C103.9.5 to pro- 
vide landscape irrigation without surfacing of gray water. 

C103.9.1 Absorption area. The total absorption area 
required shall be computed from the estimated daily gray 
water discharge and the design-loading rate based on the 
percolation rate for the site. The required absorption area 
equals the estimated gray water discharge divided by the 
design-loading rate from Table CI 03. 9.1. 

TABLE C 103.9.1 
DESIGN LOADING RATE 



PERCOLATION RATE 
(minutes per inch) 


DESIGN LOADING FACTOR 
(gallons per square foot per day) 


to less than 10 


1.2 


10 to less than 30 


0.8 


30 to less than 45 


0.72 


45 to 60 


0.4 



C103.9.2 Seepage trench excavations. Seepage trench 
excavations shall be a minimum of 1 foot (304 mm) to a 
maximum of 5 feet (1524 mm) wide. Trench excavations 
shall be spaced a minimum of 2 feet (610 mm) apart. The 
soil absorption area of a seepage trench shall be computed 
by using the bottom of the trench area (width) multiplied by 
the length of pipe. Individual seepage trenches shall be a 
maximum of 100 feet (30 480 mm) in developed length. 

C 103.9.3 Seepage bed excavations. Seepage bed excava- 
tions shall be a minimum of 5 feet (1 524 mm) wide and have 
more than one distribution pipe. The absorption area of a 
seepage bed shall be computed by using the bottom of the 
trench area. Distribution piping in a seepage bed shall be 
uniformly spaced a maximum of 5 feet (1524 mm) and a 
minimum of 3 feet (914 mm) apart, and a maximum of 3 feet 
(914 mm) and a minimum of 1 foot (305 mm) from the side- 
wall or headwall. 

C103.9.4 Excavation and construction. The bottom of a 
trench or bed excavation shall be level. Seepage trenches or 
beds shall not be excavated where the soil is so wet that such 
material rolled between the hands forms a soil wire. All 
smeared or compacted soil surfaces in the sidewalls or bot- 
tom of seepage trench or bed excavations shall be scarified 
to the depth of smearing or compaction and the loose mate- 
rial removed. Where rain falls on an open excavation, the 
soil shall be left until sufficiently dry so a soil wire will not 
form when soil from the excavation bottom is rolled 
between the hands. The bottom area shall then be scarified 
and loose material removed. 

C103.9.5 Aggregate and backfill. A minimum of 6 inches 
of aggregate ranging in size from Vz to IVz inches (12.7 mm 
to 64 mm) shall be laid into the trench below the distribution 
piping elevation. The aggregate shall be evenly distributed a 
minimum of 2 inches (5 1 mm) over the top of the distribu- 
tion pipe. The aggregate shall be covered with approved 
synthetic materials or 9 inches (229 mm) of uncompacted 
marsh hay or straw. Building paper shall not be used to cover 
the aggregate. A minimum of 9 inches (229 mm) of soil 
backfill shall be provided above the covering. 

C103.10 Distribution piping. Distribution piping shall be not 
less than 3 inches (76 mm) in diameter. Materials shall comply 
with Table C103.10. The top of the distribution pipe shall be 
not less than 8 inches (203 mm) below the original surface. The 
slope of the distribution pipes shall be a minimum of 2 inches 
(5 1 mm) and a maximum of 4 inches (102 mm) per 100 feet (30 
480 mm). 

TABLE C1 03.10 
DISTRIBUTION PIPE 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Polyethylene (PE) plastic pipe 


ASTM F 405 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe 


ASTM D 2729 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe 
with pipe stiffness of PS 35 and PS 50 


ASTM F 1488 



For SI: 1 minute per inch = min/25.4 mm, 

1 gallon per square foot = 40.7 L/tn 2 . 



C103.ll Joints. Joints in distribution pipe shall be made in 
accordance with Section 705 of this code. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



107 



> 
-a 
-a 
m 
z 
g 
x 
o 



GRAY WATER 
INFLUENT 

I XH 



FILTER 
SYSTEM 



TANK— v 
DRAIN \ 



ro 

o 
o 



O 

Z 
> 

I - 
■o 
I- 
c 
5 

CD 

Z 

a 
o 
o 
o 
m 



rtxH 



VENT 



OVERFLOW 



GRAY WATER 
RESERVOIR 




INDIRECT DISCHARGE 
TO SANITARY 
DRAINAGE 
SYSTEM 



-KHXl 




z 



CHECK VALVE 




IRRIGATION ZONE 



IRRIGATION ZONE 



INDIRECT DISCHARGE 
TO SANITARY DRAINAGE 
SYSTEM 



FIGURE 1 
GRAY WATER RECYCLING SYSTEM FOR SUBSURFACE LANDSCAPE IRRIGATION 



IRRIGATION ZONE 



POTABLE- 
MAKEUP 
WATER 
SUPPLY 



c 
s 
w 
z 
o 

o 
o 
o 
m 



— iXK 



BACKFLOW 

PREVENTION 

DEVICE 



GRAY WATER 
INFLUENT 

IXH 



FILTER 
SYSTEM 



TANK— v 
DRAIN \ 



rXH 



VENT 



OVERFLOW 



GRAY WATER 
RESERVOIR 



1 



r 



INDIRECT DISCHARGE 
TO SANITARY 
DRAINAGE 
SYSTEM 



-XH 




INDIRECT DISCHARGE 
TO SANITARY DRAINAGE 
SYSTEM 



EFFLUENT TO 
FLUSHING FIXTURES 



DISINFECTION 
UNIT 



COLORING 

DYE INJECTION 

UNIT 



FIGURE 2 
GRAY WATER RECYCLING SYSTEM FOR FLUSHING WATER CLOSETS AND URINALS 



> 
■o 
■o 
m 
z 
g 
x 
o 



1 1 2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX D 

DEGREE DAY AND DESIGN TEMPERATURES 



TABLE D101 
DEGREE DAY AND DESIGN TEMPERATURES 8 FOR CITIES IN THE UNITED STATES 



STATE 


STATION" 


HEATING 

DEGREE DAYS 

(yearly total) 


DESIGN TEMPERATURES 


DEGREES NORTH 
LATITUDE 


Winter 


Summer 


97 1 / 2 % 


Dry bulb 2 1 / 2 % 


Wet bulb 2 1 / 2 % 


AL 


Birmingham 
Huntsville 
Mobile 
Montgomery 


2,551 
3,070 
1,560 
2,291 


21 
16 
29 

25 


94 
96 
93 
95 


77 
77 
79 
79 


33°30' 
34°40' 
30°40' 
32°20' 


AK 


Anchorage 
Fairbanks 
Juneau 
Nome 


10,864 
14,279 
9,075 
14,171 


-18 

-47 

1 

-27 


68 
78 
70 
62 


59 
62 
59 
56 


61°10' 
64°50' 
58°20' 
64°30' 


AZ 


Flagstaff 
Phoenix 
Tuscon 
Yuma 


7,152 
1,765 
1,800 
974 


4 
34 
32 
39 


82 
107 
102 
109 


60 

75 
71 
78 


35° 10' 
33°30' 
33°10' 
32°40' 


AR 


Fort Smith 
Little Rock 
Texarkana 


3,292 
3,219 
2,533 


17 
20 
23 


98 
96 
96 


79 
79 
79 


35°20' 
34°40' 
33°30' 


CA 


Fresno 
Long Beach 
Los Angeles 
Los Angeles d 
Oakland 
Sacramento 
San Diego 
San Francisco 
San Francisco d 


2,611 
1,803 
2,061 
1,349 
2,870 
2,502 
1,458 
3,015 
3,001 


30 
43 
43 
40 
36 
32 
44 
38 
40 


100 
80 
80 
89 
80 
98 
80 
77 
71 


71 
69 
69 
71 
64 
71 
70 
64 
62 


36°50' 
33°50' 
34°00' 
34°00' 
37°40' 
38°30' 
32°40' 
37°40' 
37°50' 


CO 


Alamosa 
Colorado Springs 
Denver 

Grand Junction 
Pueblo 


8,529 
6,423 
6,283 
5,641 
5,462 


-16 

2 
1 
7 



82 
88 
91 
94 
95 


61 
62 
63 
63 
66 


37°30' 
38°50' 
39°50' 
39° 10' 
38°20' 


CT 


Bridgeport 
Hartford 
New Haven 


5,617 
6,235 
5,897 


9 

7 
7 


84 
88 
84 


74 
75 
75 


41°10' 
41°50' 
41°20' 


DE 


Wilmington 


4,930 


14 


89 


76 


39°40' 


DC 


Washington 


4,224 


17 


91 


77 


38°50' 


FL 


Daytona 

Fort Myers 

Jacksonville 

Key West 

Miami 

Orlando 

Pensacola 

Tallahassee 

Tampa 

West Palm Beach 


879 
442 
1,239 
108 
214 
766 
1,463 
1,485 
683 
253 


35 
44 
32 
57 
47 
38 
29 
30 
40 
45 


90 
92 
94 
90 
90 
93 
93 
92 
91 
91 


79 
79 
79 
79 
79 
78 
79 
78 
79 
79 


29° 10' 
26°40' 
30°30' 
24°30' 
25°50' 
28°30' 
30°30' 
30°20' 
28°00' 
26°40' 



(continued) 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



111 



APPENDIX D 



TABLE D101 — continued 
DEGREE DAY AND DESIGN TEMPERATURES 8 FOR CITIES IN THE UNITED STATES 



STATE 


STATION" 


HEATING 

DEGREE DAYS 

(yearly total) 


DESIGN TEMPERATURES 


DEGREES NORTH 
LATITUDE 


Winter 


Summer 


97 1 / 2 % 


Dry bulb 2 1 / 2 % 


Wet bulb 2 1 / 2 % 


GA 


Athens 

Atlanta 

Augusta 

Columbus 

Macon 

Rome 

Savannah 


2,929 
2,961 
2,397 
2,383 
2,136 
3,326 
1,819 


22 
22 
23 
24 
25 
22 
27 


92 
92 
95 
93 
93 
93 
93 


77 
76 
79 
78 
78 
78 
79 


34°00' 
; 33°40' 
33°20' 
32°30' 
32°40' 
34°20' 
32° 10' 


HI 


Hilb 
Honolulu 






62 
63 


83 
86 


74 
75 


19°40' 
21°20' 


ID 


Boise 

Lewiston 

Pocatello 


5,809 

5,542 
7,033 


10 
6 
-1 


94 
93 
91 


66 
66 
63 


43°30' 
46°20' 
43°00' 


IL 


Chicago (Midway) 

Chicago (O'Hare) 

Chicago d 

Moline 

Peoria 

Rockford 

Springfield 


6,155 
6,639 
5,882 
6,408 
6,025 
6,830 
5,429 




-4 
2 
-4 
-4 
-4 
2 


91 
89 
91 
91 
89 
89 
92 


75 
76 
77 
77 
76 
76 
77 


41°50' 
42°00' 
41°50' 
41°30' 
40°40' 
42°10' 
39°50' 


IN 


Evansville 
Fort Wayne 
Indianapolis 
South Bend 


4,435 
6,205 
5,699 
6,439 


9 
1 

2 
1 


93 
89 
90 
89 


78 
75 
76 
75 


38°00' 
41°00' 
39°40' 
4P40' 


IA 


Burlington 
Des Moines 
Dubuque 
Sioux City 
Waterloo 


6,114 
6,588 
7,376 
6,951 
7,320 


-3 
-5 
-7 
-7 
-10 


91 
91 
88 
92 
89 


77 
77 
75 
77 
77 


40°50' 
41°30' 
42°20' 
42°20' 
42°30' 


KS 


Dodge City 
Goodland 
Topeka 
Wichita 


4,986 
6,141 
5,182 
4,620 


5 

4 
7 


97 
96 
96 
98 


73 
70 
78 
76 


37°50' 
39°20' 
39°00' 
37°40' 


KY 


Covington 
Lexington 
Louisville 


5,265 
4,683 
4,660 


6 
8 
10 


90 
91 
93 


75 
76 

77 


39°00' 
38°00' 
38° 10' 


LA 


Alexandria 
Baton Rouge 
Lake Charles 
New Orleans 
Shreveport 


1,921 
1,560 
1,459 
1,385 
2,184 


27 
29 ' 
31 
33 
25 


94 
93 
93 
92 
96 


79 
80 
79 
80 
79 


31°20' 
30°30' 
30° 10' 
30°00' 
32°30' 


ME 


Caribou 
Portland 


9,767 
7,511 


-13 
-1 


81 
84 


69 

72 


46°50' 
43°40' 


MD 


Baltimore 

Baltimore d 

Frederick 


4,654 
4,111 
5,087 


13 
17 
12 


91 
89 
91 


77 
78 
77 


39°10' 
39°20' 
39°20' 



(continued) 



112 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX D 



TABLE D1 01— continued 
DEGREE DAY AND DESIGN TEMPERATURES" FOR CITIES IN THE UNITED STATES 



STATE 


STATION" 


HEATING 

DEGREE DAYS 

(yearly total) 


DESIGN TEMPERATURES 


DEGREES NORTH 
LATITUDE 


Winter 


Summer 


97 1 / 2 % 


Dry bulb 2 1 / 2 % 


Wet bulb 2 1 / 2 % 


MA 


Boston 

Pittsfield 

Worcester 


5,634 
7,578 
6,969 


9 

-3 
4 


88 
84 
84 


74 
72 
72 


42°20' 
42°30' 
42°20' 


MI 


Alpena 

Detroit (City) 

Escanaba d 

Flint 

Grand Rapids 

Lansing 

Marquette d 

Muskegon 

Sault Ste. Marie 


8,506 
6,232 
8,481 
7,377 
6,894 
6,909 
8,393 
6,696 
9,048 


-6 
6 

-7 
1 
5 
1 

-8 
6 
-8 


85 
88 
83 
87 
88 
87 
81 
84 
81 


72 
74 
71 
74 
74 
74 
70 
73 
70 


45°00' 
42°20' 
45°40' 
43°00' 
42°50' 
42°50' 
46°30' 
43° 10' 
46°30' 


MN 


Duluth 

Minneapolis 

Rochester 


10,000 
8,382 
8,295 


-16 

-12 
-12 


82 
89 
87 


70 

5 
75 


46°50' 
44°50' 
44°00' 


MS 


Jackson 

Meridian 

Vicksburg d 


2,239 
2,289 
2,041 


25 
23 
26 


95 
95 
95 


78 
79 
80 


32°20' 
32°20' 
32°20' 


MO 


Columbia 
Kansas City 
St. Joseph 
St. Louis 
St. Louis' 1 
Springfield 


5,046 
4,711 
5,484 
4,900 
4,484 
4,900 


4 
6 
2 
6 
8 
9 


94 
96 
93 
94 
94 
93 


77 
77 
79 
77 
77 
77 


39°00' 
39° 10' 
39°50' 
38°50' 
38°40' 
37° 10' 


MT 


Billings 
Great Falls 
Helena 
Missoula 


7,049 
7,750 
8,129 
8,125 


-10 
-15 
-16 
-6 


91 
88 
88 
88 


66 
62 
62 
63 


45°50' 
47°30' 
46°40' 
46°50' 


NE 


Grand Island 

Lincoln" 1 

Norfolk 

North Platte 

Omaha 

Scottsbluff 


6,530 
5,864 
6,979 
6,684 
6,612 
6,673 


-3 
-2 
-4 
-4 
-3 
-3 


94 
95 
93 
94 
91 
92 


74 
77 
77 
72 
77 
68 


41°00' 
40°50' 
42°00' 
41° 10' 
41°20' 
41°50' 


NV 


Elko 

Ely 

Las Vegas 

Reno 

Winnemucca 


7,433 . 

7,733 

2,709 

6,332 

6,761 


-2 
-4 
28 
10 

3 


92 
87 
106 
92 
94 


62 
59 
70 
62 
62 


40°50' 
39°10' 
36°10' 
39°30' 
40°50' 


NH 


Concord 


7,383 


-3 


87 


73 


43° 10' 


NJ 


Atlantic City 

Newark 

Trenton d 


4,812 
4,589 
4,980 


13 
14 
14 


89 
91 
88 


77 
76 
76 


39°30' 
40°40' 
40°10' 


NM 


Albuquerque 
Raton 
Roswell 
Silver City 


4,348 
6,228 
3,793 
3,705 


16 
1 

18 
10 


94 
89 
98 
94 


65 
64 
70 
64 


35°00' 
36°50' 
33°20' 
32°40' 



(continued) 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



113 



APPENDIX D 



TABLE D1 01— continued 
DEGREE DAY AND DESIGN TEMPERATURES 8 FOR CITIES IN THE UNITED STATES 



STATE 


STATION" 


HEATING 

DEGREE DAYS 

(yearly total) 


DESIGN TEMPERATURES 


DEGREES NORTH 
LATITUDE 


Winter 


Summer 


97V 2 % 


Dry bulb 2V 2 % 


Wet bulb 2 1 / 2 % 


NY 


Albany 

Albany d 

Binghamton 

Buffalo 

NY (Central Park) d 

NY (Kennedy) 

NY(LaGuardia) 

Rochester 

Schenectady d 

Syracuse 


6,875 
6,201 
7,286 
7,062 
4,871 
5,219 
4,811 
6,748 
6,650 
6,756 


-1 
1 
1 
6 
15 
15 
15 
5 
1 
2 


88 
88 
83 
85 
89 
87 
89 
88 
87 
87 


74 
74 
72 
73 
75 
75 
75 
73 
74 
73 


42°50' 
42°50' 
42° 10' 
43°00' 
40°50' 
40°40' 
40°50' 
43° 10' 
42°50' 
43° 10' 


NC 


Charlotte 
Greensboro 
Raleigh 
Winston-Salem 


3,181 
3,805 
3,393 
3,595 


22 
18 
20 
20 


93 
91 
92 
91 


76 
76 

77 
75 


35° 10' 
36° 10' 
35°50' 
36° 10' 


ND 


Bismarck 
Devils Lake d 
Fargo 
Williston 


8,851 
9,901 
9,226 
9,243 


-19 
-21 
-18 
-21 


91 
88 
89 
88 


71 
71 
74 
70 


46°50' 
48° 10' 
46°50' 
48° 10' 


OH 


Akron-Canton 

Cincinnati* 1 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Dayton 

Mansfield 

Sandusky d 

Toledo 

Youngstown 


6,037 
4,410 
6,351 
5,660 
5,622 
6,403 
5,796 
6,494 
6,417 


6 
6 

5 
5 
4 
5 
6 
1 
4 


86 
90 
88 
90 
89 
87 
91 
88 
86 


73 
75 
74 
75 
75 
74 
74 
75 
73 


41°00' 
39° 10' 
41°20' 
40°00' 
39°50' 
40°50' 
41°30' 
41°40' 
41°20' 


OK 


Oklahoma City 
Tulsa 


3,725 
3,860 


13 
13 


97 
98 


77 
78 


35°20' 
36° 10' 


OR 


Eugene 

Medford 

Portland 

Portland d 

Salem 


4,726 
5,008 
4,635 
4,109 
4,754 


22 
23 
23 
24 
23 


89 
94 
85 
86 
88 


67 
68 
67 
67 
68 


44° 10' 
42°20' 
45°40' 
45°30' 
45°00' 


PA 


Allentown 

Erie 

Harrisburg 

Philadelphia 

Pittsburgh 

Pittsburgh 11 

Reading d 

Scranton 

Williamsport 


5,810 
6,451 
5,251 
5,144 
5,987 
5,053 
4,945 
6,254 
5,934 


9 
9 
11 
14 
5 
7 
13 
5 
7 


88 
85 
91 
90 
86 
88 
89 
87 
89 


75 
74 
76 
76 
73 
73 
75 
73 
74 


40°40' 
42° 10' 
40° 10' 
39°50' 
40°30' 
40°30' 
40°20' 
41°20' 
41°10' 


RI 


Providence 


5,954 


9 


86 


74 


41°40' 


SC 


Charleston 

Charleston* 1 

Columbia 


2,033 
1,794 
2,484 


27 
28 
24 


91 
92 
95 


80 
80 

78 


32°50' 
32°50' 
34°00' 



(continued) 



114 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE" 



APPENDIX D 



TABLE D1 01— continued 
DEGREE DAY AND DESIGN TEMPERATURES 8 FOR CITIES IN THE UNITED STATES 



STATE 


STATION" 


HEATING 

DEGREE DAYS 

(yearly total) 


DESIGN TEMPERATURES 


DEGREES NORTH 
LATITUDE 


Winter 


Summer 


97 1 / 2 % 


Dry bulb 2 1 / 2 % 


Wet bulb 2 1 / 2 % 


SD 


Huron 
Rapid City 
Sioux Falls 


8,223 
7,345 
7,839 


-14 
-7 
-11 


93 
92 
91 


75 
69 

75 


44°30' 
44°00' 
43°40' 


TN 


Bristol 

Chattanooga 

Knoxville 

Memphis 

Nashville 


4,143 
3,254 
3,494 
3,232 
3,578 


14 
18 
19 
18 
14 


89 
93 
92 
95 
94 


75 
77 
76 
79 
77 


36°30' 
35°00' 
35°50' 
35°00' 
36° 10' 


TX 


Abilene 
Austin 
Dallas 
El Paso 
Houston 
Midland 
San Angelo 
San Antonio 
Waco 
Wichita Falls 


2,624 
1,711 
2,363 
2,700 
1,396 
2,591 
2,255 
1,546 
2,030 
2,832 


20 

28 
22 
24 
32 
21 
22 
30 
26 
18 


99 
98 
100 
98 
94 
98 
99 
97 
99 
101 


74 
77 
78 
68 
79 
72 
74 
76 
78 
76 


32°30' 
30°20' 
32°50' 
31°50' 
29°40' 
32°00' 
31°20' 
29°30' 
31°40' 
34°00' 


UT 


Salt Lake City 


6,052 


8 


95 


65 


40°50' 


VT 


Burlington 


8,269 


-7 


85 


72 


44°30' 


VA 


Lynchburg 
Norfolk 
Richmond 
Roanoke 


4,166 
3,421 
3,865 
4,150 


16 

22 
17 
16 


90 
91 
92 
91 


76 
78 
78 
74 


37°20' 
36°50' 
37°30' 
37°20' 


WA 


Olympia 
Seattle-Tacoma 
Seattle d 
Spokane 


5,236 
5,145 
4,424 
6,655 


22 
26 

27 
2 


83 
80 
82 
90 


66 
64 
67 
64 


47°00' 
47°30' 
47°40' 
47°40' 


WV 


Charleston 
Elkins 
Huntington 
Parkersburg d 


4,476 
5,675 
4,446 
4,754 


11 
6 
10 
11 


90 
84 
91 
90 


. 75 
72 
77 
76 


38°20' 
38°50' 
38°20' 
39°20' 


WI 


Green Bay 
La Crosse 
Madison 
Milwaukee 


8,029 
7,589 
7,863 
7,635 


-9 
-9 

-7 
-4 


85 
88 
88 
87 


74 
75 
75 
74 


44°30' 
43°50' 
43° 10' 
43°00' 


WY 


Casper 
Cheyenne 
Lander 
Sheridan 


7,410 
7,381 
7,870 
7,680 


-5 
-1 
-11 
-8 


90 
86 
88 
91 


61 
62 
63 
65 


42°50' 
41°10' 
42°50' 
44°50' 



a. All data were extracted from the 1985 ASHRAE Handbook, Fundamentals Volume. 

b. Design data developed from airport temperature observations unless noted. 

c. Latitude is given to the nearest 10 minutes. For example, the latitude for Miami, Florida, is given as 25°50', or 25 degrees 50 minutes. 

d. Design data developed from office locations within an urban area, not from airport temperature observations. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



115 



116 2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX E 

SIZING OF WATER PIPING SYSTEM 



SECTION E101 
GENERAL 



E101.1 Scope. 



E101.1.1 This appendix outlines two procedures for sizing 
a water piping system (see Sections El 03. 3 and E201.1). 
The design procedures are based on the minimum static 
pressure available from the supply source, the head charges 
in the system caused by friction and elevation, and the rates 
of flow necessary for operation of various fixtures. 

E101.1.2 Because of the variable conditions encountered in 
hydraulic design, it is impractical to specify definite and 
detailed rules for sizing of the water piping system. Accord- 
ingly, other sizing or design methods conforming to good 
engineering practice standards are acceptable alternatives to 
those presented herein. 



SECTION E102 
INFORMATION REQUIRED 

E102.1 Preliminary. Obtain the necessary information 
regarding the minimum daily static service pressure in the area 
where the building is to be located. If the building supply is to 
be metered, obtain information regarding friction loss relative 
to the rate of flow for meters in the range of sizes likely to be 
used. Friction loss data can be obtained from most manufactur- 
ers of water meters. 

E102.2 Demand load. 

E102.2.1 Estimate the supply demand of the building main 
and the principal branches and risers of the system by total- 
ing the corresponding demand from the applicable part of 
Table E103.3(3). 

E102.2.2 Estimate continuous supply demands in gallons 
per minute (L/m) for lawn sprinklers, air conditioners, etc., 
and add the sum to the total demand for fixtures. The result 
is the estimated supply demand for the building supply. 



SECTION E1 03 
SELECTION OF PIPE SIZE 

E103.1 General. Decide from Table 604.3 what is the desir- 
able minimum residual pressure that should be maintained at 
the highest fixture in the supply system. If the highest group of 
fixtures contains flush valves, the pressure for the group should 
not be less than 15 pounds per square inch (psi) (103.4 kPa) 
flowing. For flush tank supplies, the available pressure should 
not be less than 8 psi (55.2 kPa) flowing, except blowout action 
fixtures must not be less than 25 psi (172.4 kPa) flowing. 

E103.2 Pipe sizing. 

E103.2.1 Pipe sizes can be selected according to the follow- 
ing procedure or by other design methods conforming to 
acceptable engineering practice and approved by the admin- 



istrative authority. The sizes selected must not be less than 
the minimum required by this code. 

E103.2.2 Water pipe sizing procedures are based on a sys- 
tem of pressure requirements and losses, the sum of which 
must not exceed the minimum pressure available at the sup- 
ply source. These pressures are as follows: 

1 . Pressure required at fixture to produce required flow. 
See Sections 604.3 and 604.5. 

2. Static pressure loss or gain (due to head) is computed 
at 0.433 psi per foot (9.8 kPa/m) of elevation change. 

Example: Assume that the highest fixture supply 
outlet is 20 feet (6096 mm) above or below the sup- 
ply source. This produces a static pressure differ- 
ential of 20 feet by 0.433 psi/foot (2096 mm by 9.8 
kPa/m) and an 8.66 psi (59.8 kPa) loss. 

3. Loss through water meter. The friction or pressure 
loss can be obtained from meter manufacturers. 

4. Loss through taps in water main. 

5. Losses through special devices such as filters, softeners, 
backflow prevention devices and pressure regulators. 
These values must be obtained from the manufacturers. 

6. Loss through valves and fittings. Losses for these 
items are calculated by converting to equivalent 
length of piping and adding to the total pipe length. 

7. Loss due to pipe friction can be calculated when the 
pipe size, the pipe length and the flow through the 
pipe are known. With these three items, the friction 
loss can be determined. For piping flow charts not 
included, use manufacturers' tables and velocity rec- 
ommendations. 

Note: For the purposes of all examples, the following 
metric conversions are applicable: 

1 cubic foot per minute = 0.4719 L/s 

1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 

1 degree = 0.0175 rad 

1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa 

1 inch = 25.4 mm 

1 foot = 304.8 mm 

1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m 

E103.3 Segmented loss method. The size of water service 
mains, branch mains and risers by the segmented loss method, 
must be determined according to water supply demand [gpm 
(L/m)], available water pressure [psi (kPa)] and friction loss 
caused by the water meter and developed length of pipe [feet 
(m)] , including equivalent length of fittings . This design proce- 
dure is based on the following parameters: 

• Calculates the friction loss through each length of the pipe. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



117 



APPENDIX E 



• Based on a system of pressure losses, the sum of which 
must not exceed the minimum pressure available at the 
street main or other source of supply. 

• Pipe sizing based on estimated peak demand, total pressure 
losses caused by difference in elevation, equipment, devel- 
oped length and pressure required at most remote fixture, 
loss through taps in water main, losses through fittings, fil- 
ters, backflow prevention devices, valves and pipe friction. 

Because of the variable conditions encountered in hydraulic 
design, it is impractical to specify definite and detailed rules for 
sizing of the water piping system. Current sizing methods do 
not address the differences in the probability of use and flow 
characteristics of fixtures between types of occupancies. Creat- 
ing an exact model of predicting the demand for a building is 
impossible and final studies assessing the impact of water con- 
servation on demand are not yet complete. The following steps 
are necessary for the segmented loss method. 

1. Preliminary. Obtain the necessary information regard- 
ing the minimum daily static service pressure in the area 
where the building is to be located. If the building supply 
is to be metered, obtain information regarding friction 
loss relative to the rate of flow for meters in the range of 
sizes to be used. Friction loss data can be obtained from 
manufacturers of water meters. It is essential that enough 
pressure be available to overcome all system losses 
caused by friction and elevation so that plumbing fix- 
tures operate properly. Section 604.6 requires the water 
distribution system to be designed for the minimum pres- 
sure available taking into consideration pressure fluctua- 
tions. The lowest pressure must be selected to guarantee 
a continuous, adequate supply of water. The lowest pres- 
sure in the public main usually occurs in the summer 
because of lawn sprinkling and supplying water for 
air-conditioning cooling towers. Future demands placed 
on the public main as a result of large growth or expan- 
sion should also be considered. The available pressure 
will decrease as additional loads are placed on the public 
system. 

, 2. Demand load. Estimate the supply demand of the build- 
ing main and the principal branches and risers of the sys- 
tem by totaling the corresponding demand from the 
applicable part of Table E103.3(3). When estimating 
peak demand sizing methods typically use water supply 
fixture units (w.s.f.u.)[see Table E103.3(2)]. This 
numerical factor measures the load-producing effect of a 
single plumbing fixture of a given kind. The use of such 
fixture units can be applied to a single basic probability 
curve (or table), found in the various sizing methods 
[Table E103.3(3)]. The fixture units are then converted 
into gallons per minute (L/m) flow rate for estimating 
demand. 

2.1. Estimate continuous supply demand in gallons 
per minute (L/m) for lawn sprinklers, air condi- 
tioners, etc., and add the sum to the total demand 
for fixtures. The result is the estimated supply 
demand for the building supply. Fixture units 
cannot be applied to constant use fixtures such as 
hose bibbs, lawn sprinklers and air conditioners. 



These types of fixtures must be assigned the gal- 
lon per minute (L/m) value. 

3. Selection of pipe size. This water pipe sizing procedure 
is based on a system of pressure requirements and losses, 
the sum of which must not exceed the minimum pressure 
available at the supply source. These pressures are as fol- 
lows: 

3.1. Pressure required at the fixture to produce 
required flow. See Section 604.3 and Section 
604.5. 

3.2. Static pressure loss or gain (because of head) is 
computed at 0.433 psi per foot (9.8 kPa/m) of ele- 
vation change. 

3.3. Loss through a water meter. The friction or pres- 
sure loss can be obtained from the manufacturer. 

3.4. Loss through taps in water main [see Table 
E103.3(4)]. 

3.5. Losses through special devices such as filters, 
softeners, backflow prevention devices and pres- 
sure regulators. These values must be obtained 
from the manufacturers. 

3.6. Loss through valves and fittings [see Tables 
E103.3(5) and E103.3(6)]. Losses for these items 
are calculated by converting to equivalent length 
of piping and adding to the total pipe length. 

3.7. Loss caused by pipe friction can be calculated 
when the pipe size, the pipe length and the flow 
through the pipe are known. With these three 
items, the friction loss can be determined using 
Figures E103.3(2) through E103.3(7). When 
using charts, use pipe inside diameters. For pip- 
ing flow charts not included, use manufacturers' 
tables and velocity recommendations. Before 
attempting to size any water supply system, it is 
necessary to gather preliminary information 
which includes available pressure, piping mate- 
rial, select design velocity, elevation differences 
and developed length to most remote fixture. The 
water supply system is divided into sections at 
major changes in elevation or where branches 
lead to fixture groups. The peak demand must be 
determined in each part of the hot and cold water 
supply system which includes the corresponding 
water supply fixture unit and conversion to gal- 
lons per minute (L/m) flow rate to be expected 
through each section. Sizing methods require the 
determination of the "most hydraulically 
remote" fixture to compute the pressure loss 
caused by pipe and fittings. The hydraulically 
remote fixture represents the most downstream 
fixture along the circuit of piping requiring the 
most available pressure to operate properly. Con- 
sideration must be given to all pressure demands 
and losses, such as friction caused by pipe, fit- 
tings and equipment, elevation and the residual 
pressure required by Table 604.3. The two most 
common and frequent complaints about the 



118 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE* 



APPENDIX E 



water supply system operation are lack of ade- 
quate pressure and noise. 

Problem: What size Type L copper water pipe, service and dis- 
tribution will be required to serve a two-story factory building 
having on each floor, back-to-back, two toilet rooms each 
equipped with hot and cold water? The highest fixture is 21 feet 
(6401 mm) above the street main, which is tapped with a 2-inch 
(51 mm) corporation cock at which point the minimum pres- 
sure is 55 psi (379.2 kPa). In the building basement, a 2-inch 
(51 mm) meter with a maximum pressure drop of 1 1 psi (75.8 
kPa) and 3-inch (76 mm) reduced pressure principle backflow 
preventer with a maximum pressure drop of 9 psi (62 1 kPa) are 
to be installed. The system is shown by Figure E103.3(l). To be 
determined are the pipe sizes for the service main and the cold 
and hot water distribution pipes. 

Solution: A tabular arrangement such as shown in Table 
E103.3(l) should first be constructed. The steps to be fol- 
lowed are indicated by the tabular arrangement itself as they 
are in sequence, columns 1 through 10 and lines A through 
L. 

Stepl 

Columns 1 and 2: Divide the system into sections breaking 
at major changes in elevation or where branches lead to fix- 
ture groups. After point B [see Figure E103.3(l)], separate 
consideration will be given to the hot and cold water piping. 
Enter the sections to be considered in the service and cold 
water piping in Column 1 of the tabular arrangement. Col- 
umn 1 of Table El 03.3(1) provides a line-by-line recom- 
mended tabular arrangement for use in solving pipe sizing. 

The objective in designing the water supply system is to 
ensure an adequate water supply and pressure to all fixtures 
and equipment. Column 2 provides the pounds per square 
inch (psi) to be considered separately from the minimum 
pressure available at the main. Losses to take into consider- 
ation are the following: the differences in elevations 
between the water supply source and the highest water sup- 
ply outlet, meter pressure losses, the tap in main loss, special 
fixture devices such as water softeners and backflow pre- 
vention devices and the pressure required at the most remote 
fixture outlet. The difference in elevation can result in an 
increase or decrease in available pressure at the main. 
Where the water supply outlet is located above the source, 
this results in a loss in the available pressure and is sub- 
tracted from the pressure at the water source. Where the 
highest water supply outlet is located below the water sup- 
ply source, there will be an increase in pressure that is added 
to the available pressure of the water source. 

Column 3: According to Table E103.3(3), determine the 
gpm (L/m) of flow to be expected in each section of the sys- 
tem. These flows range from 28.6 to 108 gpm. Load values 
for fixtures must be determined as water supply fixture units 
and then converted to a gallon-per-minute (gpm) rating to 
determine peak demand. When calculating peak demands, 
the water supply fixture units are added and then converted 
to the gallon-per-minute rating. For continuous flow fix- 
tures such as hose bibbs and lawn sprinkler systems, add the 
gallon-per-minute demand to the intermittent demand of 
fixtures. For example, a total of 120 water supply fixture 



units is converted to a demand of 48 gallons per minute. Two 
hose bibbs x 5 gpm demand =10 gpm. Total gpm rating = 
48.0 gpm + 10 gpm = 58.0 gpm demand. 

Step 2 

Line A: Enter the minimum pressure available at the main 
source of supply in Column 2. This is 55 psi (379.2 kPa). 
The local water authorities generally keep records of pres- 
sures at different times of day and year. The available pres- 
sure can also be checked from nearby buildings or from fire 
department "hydrant checks. 

Line B: Determine from Table 604.3 the highest pressure 
required for the fixtures on the system, which is 15 psi 
(103.4 kPa), to operate a flushometer valve. The most 
remote fixture outlet is necessary to compute the pressure 
loss caused by pipe and fittings, and represents the most 
downstream fixture along the circuit of piping requiring the 
available pressure to operate properly as indicated by Table 
604.3. 

Line C: Determine the pressure loss for the meter size given 
or assumed. The total water flow from the main through the 
service as determined in Step 1 will serve to aid in the meter 
selected. There are three common types of water meters; the 
pressure losses are determined by the American Water 
Works Association Standards for displacement type, com- 
pound type and turbine type. The maximum pressure loss of 
such devices takes into consideration the meter size, safe 
operating capacity (gpm) and maximum rates for continu- 
ous operations (gpm). Typically, equipment imparts greater 
pressure losses than piping. 

Line D: Select from Table El 03. 3 (4) and enter the pressure 
loss for the tap size given or assumed. The loss of pressure 
through taps and tees in pounds per square inch (psi) are 
based on the total gallon-per-minute flow rate and size of the 
tap. 

Line E: Determine the difference in elevation between the 
main and source of supply and the highest fixture on the sys- 
tem. Multiply this figure, expressed in feet, by 0.43 psi (2.9 
kPa). Enter the resulting psi loss on Line E. The difference 
in elevation between the water supply source and the highest 
water supply outlet has a significant impact on the sizing of 
the water supply system. The difference in elevation usually 
results in a loss in the available pressure because the water 
supply outlet is generally located above the water supply 
source. The loss is caused by the pressure required to lift the 
water to the outlet. The pressure loss is subtracted from the 
pressure at the water source. Where the highest water supply 
outlet is located below the water source, there will be an 
increase in pressure which is added to the available pressure 
of the water source. 

Lines F, G and H: The pressure losses through filters, 
backflow prevention devices or other special fixtures must 
be obtained from the manufacturer or estimated and entered 
on "these lines. Equipment such as backflow prevention 
devices, check valves, water softeners, instantaneous or 
tankless water heaters, filters and strainers can impart a 
much greater pressure loss than the piping. The pressure 
losses can range from 8 psi to 30 psi. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



119 



APPENDIX E 



Step 3 



Line I: The sum of the pressure requirements and losses that 
affect the overall system (Lines B through H) is entered on 
this line. Summarizing the steps, all of the system losses are 
subtracted from the minimum water pressure. The remain- 
der is the pressure available for friction, defined as the 
energy available to push the water through the pipes to each 
fixture. This force can be used as an average pressure loss, 
as long as the pressure available for friction is not exceeded. 
Saving a certain amount for available water supply pres- 
sures as an area incurs growth, or because of aging of the 
pipe or equipment added to the system is recommended. 



Step 4 



Line J: Subtract Line I from Line A. This gives the pressure 
that remains available from overcoming friction losses in 
the system. This figure is a guide to the pipe size that is cho- 
sen for each section, incorporating the total friction losses to 
the most remote outlet (measured length is called developed 
length). 

Exception: When the main is above the highest fixture, 
the resulting psi must be considered a pressure gain 
(static head gain) and omitted from the sums of Lines B 
through H and added to Line J. 

The maximum friction head loss that can be tolerated in 
the system during peak demand is the difference between 
the static pressure at the highest and most remote outlet at 
no-flow conditions and the minimum flow pressure 
required at that outlet. If the losses are within the required 
limits, then every run of pipe will also be within the required 
friction head loss. Static pressure loss is the most remote 
outlet in feet x 0.433 = loss in psi caused by elevation differ- 
ences. 



Step 5 



Column 4: Enter the length of each section from the main to 
the most remote outlet (at Point E). Divide the water supply 
system into sections breaking at major changes in elevation 
or where branches lead to fixture groups. 



Step 6 



Column 5: When selecting a trial pipe size, the length from 
the water service or meter to the most remote fixture outlet 
must be measured to determine the developed length. How- 
ever, in systems having a flush valve or temperature con- 
trolled shower at the top most floors the developed length 
would be from the water meter to the most remote flush 
valve on the system. A rule of thumb is that size will become 
progressively smaller as the system extends farther from the 



main source of supply. Trial pipe size may be arrived at by 
the following formula: 

Line J: (Pressure available to overcome pipe friction) x 
100/equivalent length of run total developed length to most 
remote fixture x percentage factor of 1 .5 (note: a percentage 
factor is used only as an estimate for friction losses imposed 
for fittings for initial trial pipe size) = psi (average pressure 
drops per 100 feet of pipe). 

For trial pipe size see Figure E 103.3(3) (Type L copper) 
based on 2.77 psi and a 108 gpm = 2V 2 inches. To determine 
the equivalent length of run to the most remote outlet, the 
developed length is determined and added to the friction 
losses for fittings and valves. The developed lengths of the 
designated pipe sections are as follows: 

A - B 54 ft 

B - C 8 ft 

C-D 13 ft 

D-E 150ft 

Total developed length = 225 ft 

The equivalent length of the friction loss in fittings and 
valves must be added to the developed length (most remote 
outlet). Where the size of fittings and valves is not known, 
the added friction loss should be approximated. A general 
rule that has been used is to add 50 percent of the developed 
length to allow for fittings and valves. For example, the 
equivalent length of run equals the developed length of run 
(225 ft x 1.5 = 338 ft). The total equivalent length of run for 
determining a trial pipe size is 338 feet. 

Example: 9.36 (pressure available to overcome pipe 
friction) xl00/ 338 (equivalent length of. run = 225 x 1 .5) 
= 2.77 psi (average pressure drop per 100 feet of pipe). 



Step 7 

Column 6: Select from Table E103.3(6) the equivalent 
lengths for the trial pipe size of fittings and valves on each 
pipe section. Enter the sum for each section in Column 6. 
(The number of fittings to be used in this example must be 
an estimate.) The equivalent length of piping is the devel- 
oped length plus the equivalent lengths of pipe correspond- 
ing to friction head losses for fittings and valves. Where the 
size of fittings and valves is not known, the added friction 
head losses must be approximated. An estimate for this 
example is found in Table E.l. 

Step 8 

Column 7: Add the figures from Column 4 and Column 6, and 
enter in Column 7. Express the sum in hundreds of feet. 



120 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX E 



TABLE E.1 



COLD WATER 
PIPE SECTION 


FITTINGS/VALVES 


PRESSURE LOSS 

EXPRESSED AS 

EQUIVALENT LENGTH 

OF TUBE (feet) 


HOT WATER PIPE 
SECTION 


FITTINGS/VALVES 


PRESSURE LOSS 

EXPRESSED AS 

EQUIVALENT OF TUBE 

(feet) 


A-B 


3-2V 2 " Gate valves 


3 


A-B 


3-2V 2 " Gate valves 


3 


1-2V 2 " Side branch tee 


12 




1-2V 2 " Side branch tee 


12 


B-C 


1-2V 2 " Straight run tee 


0.5 


B-C 


1-2" Straight run tee 


7 








1-2" 90-degree ell 


0.5 


C-F 


I-2V2" Side branch tee 


12 


C-F 


1-1 x l{' Side branch tee 


7 


CD 


1-2V 2 " 90-degree ell 


7 


C-D 


1-V 2 " 90-degree ell 


4 


D-E 


1-2V 2 " Side branch tee 


12 


D-E 


1-1 V 2 " Side branch tee 


7 



Step 9 

Column 8: Select from Figure E103.3(3) the friction loss 
per 100 feet (30 480 mm) of pipe for the gallon-per-minute 
flow in a section (Column 3) and trial pipe size (Column 5). 
Maximum friction head loss per 100 feet is determined on 
the basis of total pressure available for friction head loss and 
the longest equivalent length of run. The selection is based 
on the gallon-per-minute demand, the uniform friction head 
loss, and the maximum design velocity. Where the size indi- 
cated by hydraulic table indicates a velocity in excess of the 
selected velocity, a size must be selected which produces the 
required velocity. 

Step 10 v 

Column 9: Multiply the figures in Columns 7 and 8 for each 
section and enter in Column 9. 

Total friction loss is determined by multiplying the fric- 
tion loss per 100 feet (30 480 mm) for each pipe section in 
the total developed length by the pressure loss in fittings 
expressed as equivalent length in feet. Note: Section C-F 
should be considered in the total pipe friction losses only if 
greater loss occurs in Section C-F than in pipe section D-E. 
Section C-F is not considered in the total developed length. 
Total friction loss in equivalent length is determined in 
Table E.2. 

Step 11 

Line K: Enter the sum of the values in Column 9. The value 
is the total friction loss in equivalent length for each desig- 
nated pipe section. 



Step 12 

Line L: Subtract Line J from Line K and enter in Column 
10. 

The result should always be a positive or plus figure. If it 
is not, repeat the operation using Columns 5, 6, 8 and 9 until 
a balance or near balance is obtained. If the difference 
between Lines J and K is a high positive number, it is an 
indication that the pipe sizes are too large and should be 
reduced, thus saving materials. In such a case, the opera- 
tions using Columns 5, 6, 8 and 9 should again be repeated. 

The total friction losses are determined and subtracted 
from the pressure available to overcome pipe friction for 
trial pipe size. This number is critical as it provides a guide 
to whether the pipe size selected is too large and the process 
should be repeated to obtain an economically designed sys- 
tem. 

Answer: The final figures entered in Column 5 become the 
design pipe size for the respective sections. Repeating this 
operation a second time using the same sketch but consider- 
ing the demand for hot water, it is possible to size the hot 
water distribution piping. This has been worked up as a part 
of the overall problem in the tabular arrangement used for siz- 
ing the service and water distribution piping. Note that con- 
sideration must be given to the pressure losses from the street 
main to the water heater (Section A-B) in determining the hot 
water pipe sizes. 



TABLE E.2 



PIPE SECTIONS 


FRICTION LOSS EQUIVALENT LENGTH (feet) 


Cold Water 


Hot Water 


A-B 


0.69 x 3.2 = 2.21 


0.69 x 3.2 = 2.21 


B-C 


0.085x3.1 = 0.26 


0.16x1.4 = 0.22 


CD 


0.20x1.9 = 0.38 


0.17x3.2 = 0.54 


D-E 


1.62x1.9 = 3.08 


1.57x3.2 = 5.02 


Total pipe friction losses 
(Line K) 


5.93 


7.99 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



121 



APPENDIX E 



A 

O— 
MAIN 



HOT WATER 

COLD WATER 

M = METER 

BFP = BACKFLOW PREVENTER 



S 



= 90 DEGREE ELBOW 
H-T 
H = VALVE 



FLOOR 2 




288 fu, 108 gpm 



1 



D 



132 fu, 
77 gpm 



C- 



FLOOR 1 



264 fu, _ 
104.5 gpm 



^40-KO H B l 






M BFP 



54 FT. 



D' 



T 



i— , 



M 



- B', r 



150 FT. 



132 fu, 77 gpm 



-12 fu, 28.6 gpm 



•132 fu, 77 gpm 



^ 



I2fu, 28.6 gpm 
-24 fu, 38 gpm 



VWER HEATER 



^^ 



E 

,-I 

E' 



F' 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gpm = 3.785 L/m. 



FIGURE E1 03.3(1) 
EXAMPLE-SIZING 



122 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX E 



TABLE E1 03.3(1) 
RECOMMENDED TABULAR ARRANGEMENT FOR USE IN SOLVING PIPE SIZING PROBLEMS 



COLUMN 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


Line 


Description 


Lb 

per 

square 

inch 

(psi) 


Gal. per 

min 
through 
section 


Length 

of 

section 

(feet) 


Trial 

pipe 

size 

(inches) 


Equivalent 

length of 

fittings 

and valves 

(feet) 


Total 
equivalent 

length 
col. 4 and 
col. 6 (100 

feet) 


Friction 
loss per 
100 feet 
of trial 
size pipe 
(psi) 


Friction 

loss in 

equivalent 

length col. 

8 x col. 7 

(psi) 


Excess 
pressure 

over 
friction 
losses 

(psi) 


A 
B 

C 
D 

E 
F 

G 
H 
I 

J 


Service and 
cold water 
distribution 
piping 3 


Minimum pressure available at main . . 55.00 
Highest pressure required at a fixture 
(Table 604.3) 15.00 


















Meter loss 2" m< 
Tap in main loss 
Static head loss 
Special fixture 1< 

preventer . . . 
Special fixture 1< 
Special fixture 1 
Total overall los 

(Sum of Lines 
Pressure availab 

pipe friction 

(Line A minu 


iter 11.00 

2" tap (Table E103A) .1.61 

21x43psi 9.03 

ass backflow 

9.00 

3ss— Filter 0.00 

ass— Other 0.00 

ses and requirements 

> B through H) 45.64 


le to overcome 

s Lines B to H) 9.36 




DESIGNATION 
Pipe section (from diagram) 
Cold water 
Distribution piping 


FU 

AB 288 

BC 264 

CD 132 

CF b 132 

DE b 132 


108.0 
104.5 
77.0 
77.0 
77.0 


54 
8 

13 
150 
150 


2V 2 
2V 2 
2V 2 
2V 2 
2V 2 


15.00 
0.5 
7.00 
12.00 
12.00 


0.69 
0.85 
0.20 
1.62 
1.62 


3.2 
3.1 
1.9 
1.9 
1.9 


2.21 
0.26 
0.38 
3.08 
3.08 





K 
L 


Total pipe friction losses (cold) 
Difference (Line J minus Line K) 














5.93 


3.43 




Pipe section (from diagram) 

Diagram 

Hot water 

Distribution 

Piping 


A'B' 288 

B'C 24 

CD' 12 

C'F' b 12 

DT± /b 12 


108.0 
38.0 
28.6 
28.6 
28.6 


54 
8 
13 
150 
150 


2V 2 . 
2 

1V 2 
1V 2 
1V 2 


12.00 
7.5 
4.0 
7.00 
7.00 


0.69 
0.16 
0.17 
1.57 
1.57 


3.3 
1.4 
3.2 
3.2 

3.2 


2.21 
0.22 
0.54 
5.02 
5.02 


— 


K 
L 


Total pipe friction losses (hot) 
Difference (Line J minus Line K) 














7.99 


1.37 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 psi = 6.895 kPa, 1 gpm = 3.785 L/m. 

a. To be considered as pressure gain for fixtures below main (to consider separately, omit from "I" and add to "J"). 

b. To consider separately, in K use C-F only if greater loss than above. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE* 



123 



APPENDIX E 







TABLE E1 03.3(2) 
LOAD VALUES ASSIGNED TO FIXTURES 8 






FIXTURE 


OCCUPANCY 


TYPE OF SUPPLY 
CONTROL 


LOAD VALUES, 


N WATER SUPPLY FIXTURE UNITS (wsfu) 


Cold 


Hot 


Total 


Bathroom group 


Private 


Flush tank 


2.7 


1.5 


3.6 


Bathroom group 


Private 


Flush valve 


6.0 


3.0 


8.0 


Bathtub 


Private 


Faucet 


1.0 


1.0 


1.4 


Bathtub 


Public 


Faucet 


3.0 


3.0 


4.0 


Bidet 


Private 


Faucet 


1.5 


1.5 


2.0 


Combination fixture 


Private 


Faucet 


2.25 


2.25 


3.0 


Dishwashing machine 


Private 


Automatic 


— 


1.4 


1.4 


Drinking fountain 


Offices, etc. 


3 / g " valve 


0.25 


— 


0.25 


Kitchen sink 


Private 


Faucet 


1.0 


1.0 


1.4 


Kitchen sink 


Hotel, restaurant 


Faucet 


3.0 


3.0 


4.0 


Laundry trays (1 to 3) 


Private 


Faucet 


1.0 


1.0 


1.4 


Lavatory 


Private 


Faucet 


0.5 


0.5 


0.7 


Lavatory 


Public 


Faucet 


1.5 


1.5 


2.0 


Service sink 


Offices, etc. 


Faucet 


2.25 


2.25 


3.0 


Shower head 


Public 


Mixing valve 


3.0 


3.0 


4.0 


Shower head 


Private 


Mixing valve 


1.0 


1.0 


1.4 


Urinal 


Public 


1" flush valve 


10.0 


— 


10.0 


Urinal 


Public 


3 / 4 " flush valve 


5.0 


— 


5.0 


Urinal 


Public 


Flush tank 


3.0 


— 


3.0 


Washing machine (8 lb) 


Private 


Automatic 


1.0 


1.0 


1.4 


Washing machine (8 lb) 


Public 


Automatic 


2.25 


2.25 


3.0 


Washing machine (15 lb) 


Public 


Automatic 


3.0 


3.0 


4.0 


Water closet 


Private 


Flush valve 


6.0 


— 


6.0 


Water closet 


Private 


Flush tank 


2.2 


— 


2.2 


Water closet 


Public 


Flush valve 


10.0 


— 


10.0 


Water closet 


Public 


Flush tank 


5.0 


— 


5.0 


Water closet 


Public or private 


Flushometer tank 


2.0 


— 


2.0 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 

a. For fixtures not listed , loads should be assumed by comparing the fixture to one listed using water in similar quantities and at similar rates. The assigned loads for 

fixtures with both hot and cold water supplies are given for separate hot and cold water loads and for total load. The separate hot and cold water loads being 

three-fourths of the total load for the fixture in each case. 



124 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX E 



TABLE E1 03.3(3) 
TABLE FOR ESTIMATING DEMAND 



SUPPLY SYSTEMS PREDOMINANTLY FOR FLUSH TANKS 


SUPPLY SYSTEMS PREDOMINANTLY FOR FLUSH VALVES 


Load 


Demand 


Load 


Demand 


(Water supply fixture units) 


(Gallons per minute) 


(Cubic feet per minute) 


(Water supply fixture units) 


(Gallons per minute) 


(Cubic feet per minute) 


1 


3.0 


0.04104 











2 


5.0 


0.0684 











3 


6.5 


0.86892 











4 


8.0 


1.06944 











5 


9.4 


1.256592 


5 


15.0 


2.0052 


6 


10.7 


1.430376 


6 


17.4 


2.326032 


7 


11.8 


1.577424 


7 


19.8 


2.646364 


8 


12.8 


1.711104 


8 


22.2 


2.967696 


9 


13.7 


1.831416 


9 


24.6 


3.288528 


10 


14.6 


1.951728 


10 


27.0 


3.60936 


11 


15.4 


2.058672 


11 


27.8 


3.716304 


12 


16.0 


2.13888 


12 


28.6 


3.823248 


13 


16.5 


2.20572 


13 


29.4 


3.930192 


14 


17.0 


2.27256 


14 


30.2 


4.037136 


15 


17.5 


2.3394 


15 


31.0 


4.14408 


16 


18.0 


2.90624 


16 


31.8 


4.241024 


17 


18.4 


2.459712 


17. 


32.6 


4.357968 


18 


18.8 


2.513184 


18 


33.4 


4.464912 


19 


19.2 


2.566656 


19 


34.2 


4.571856 


20 


19.6 


2.620128 


20 


35.0 


4.6788 


25 


21.5 


2.87412 


25 


38.0 


5.07984 


30 


23.3 


3.114744 


30 


42.0 


5.61356 


35 


24.9 


3.328632 


35 


44.0 


5.88192 


40 


26.3 


3.515784 


40 


46.0 


6.14928 


45 


27.7 


3.702936 


45 


48.0 


6.41664 


50 


29.1 


3.890088 


50 


50.0 


6.684 


60 


32.0 


4.27776 


60 


54.0 


7.21872 


70 


35.0 


4.6788 


70 


58.0 


7.75344 


80 


38.0 


5.07984 


80 


61.2 


8.181216 


90 


41.0 


5.48088 


90 


64.3 


8.595624 


100 


43.5 


5.81508 


100 


67.5 


9.0234 


120 


48.0 


6.41664 


120 


73.0 


9.75864 


140 


52.5 


7.0182 


140 


77.0 


10.29336 


160 


57.0 


7.61976 


160 


81.0 


10.82808 


180 


61.0 


8.15448 


180 


85.5 


11.42964 


200 


65.0 


8.6892 


200 


90.0 


12.0312 


225 


70.0 


9.3576 


225 


95.5 


12.76644 


250 


75.0 


10.026 


250 


101.0 


13.50168 



(continued) 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE' 



125 



APPENDIX E 



TABLE E1 03.3(3)— continued 
TABLE FOR ESTIMATING DEMAND 



SUPPLY SYSTEMS PREDOMINANTLY FOR FLUSH TANKS 


SUPPLY SYSTEMS PREDOMINANTLY FOR FLUSH VALVES 


Load 


Demand 


Load 


Demand 


(Water supply fixture units) 


(Gallons per minute) 


(Cubic feet per minute) 


(Water supply fixture units) 


(Gallons per minute) 


(Cubic feet per minute) 


275 


80.0 


10.6944 


275 


104.5 


13.96956 


300 


85.0 


11.3628 


300 


108.0 


14.43744 


400 


105.0 


14.0364 


400 


127.0 


16.97736 


500 


124.0 


16.57632 


500 


143.0 


19.11624 


750 


170.0 


22.7256 


750 


177.0 


23.66136 


1,000 


208.0 


27.80544 


1,000 


208.0 


27.80544 


1,250 


239.0 


31.94952 


1,250 


239.0 


31.94952 


1,500 


269.0 


35.95992 


1,500 


269.0 


35.95992 


1,750 


297.0 


39.70296 


1,750 


297.0 


39.70296 


2,000 


325.0 


43.446 


2,000 


325.0 


43.446 


2,500 


380.0 


50.7984 


2,500 


380.0 


50.7984 


3,000 


433.0 


57.88344 


3,000 


433.0 


57.88344 


4,000 


535.0 


70.182 


4,000 


525.0 


70.182 


5,000 


593.0 


79.27224 


5,000 


593.0 


79.27224 



TABLE E1 03.3(4) 
LOSS OF PRESSURE THROUGH TAPS AND TEES IN POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH (psi) 




GALLONS PER MINUTE 


SIZE OF TAP OR TEE (inches) 


5 / 

'8 


% 


1 


IV 


1V 2 


2 


3 


10 


1.35 


0.64 


0.18 


0.08 





— 


— 


20 


5.38 


2.54 


0.77 


0.31 


0.14 


— 


— 


30 


12.10 


5.72 


1.62 


0.69 


0.33 


0.10 


— 


40 


— 


10.20 


3.07 


1.23 


0.58 


0.18 


— 


50 





15.90 


4.49 


1.92 


0.91 


0.28 


— 


60 





— 


6.46 


2.76 


1.31 


0.40 


— 


70 








8.79 


3.76 


1.78 


0.55 


0.10 


80 








11.50 


4.90 


2.32 


0.72 


0.13 


90 








14.50 


6.21 


2.94 


0.91 


0.16 


100 


— 


— 


17.94 


7.67 


3.63 


1.12 


0.21 


120 





— 


25.80 


11.00 


5.23 


1.61 


0.30 


140 





— 


35.20 


15.00 


7.12 


2.20 


0.41 


150 








— 


17.20 


8.16 


2.52 


0.47 


160 








— 


19.60 


9.30 


2.92 


0.54 


180 








— 


24.80 


11.80 


3.62 


0.68 


200 








— 


30.70 


14.50 


4.48 


0.84 


225 








— 


38.80 


18.40 


5.60 


1.06 


250 








— 


47.90 


22.70 


7.00 


1.31 


275 














27.40 


7.70 


1.59 


300 


■ — 


— 


— 


— 


32.60 


10.10 


1.88 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kpa, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m. 



126 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE" 



APPENDIX E 



TABLE E1 03.3(5) 
ALLOWANCE IN EQUIVALENT LENGTHS OF PIPE FOR FRICTION LOSS IN VALVES AND THREADED FITTINGS (feet) 


FITTING OR VALVE 


PIPE SIZE (inches) 


X 


3 / 

'4 


1 


1% 


1% 


2 


• 2\ 


3 


45-degree elbow 


1.2 


1.5 


1.8 


2.4 ■ 


3.0 


4.0 


5.0 


6.0 


90-degree elbow 


2.0 


2.5 


3.0 


4.0 


5.0 


7.0 


8.0 


10.0 


Tee, run 


0.6 


0.8 


0.9 


1.2 


1.5 


2.0 


2.5 


3.0 


Tee, branch 


3.0 


4.0 


5.0 


6.0 


7.0 


10.0 


12.0 


15.0 


Gate valve 


0.4 


0.5 


0.6 


0.8 


1.0 


1.3 


1.6 


2.0 


Balancing valve 


0.8 


1.1 


1.5 


1.9 


2.2 


3.0 


3.7 


4.5 


Plug-type cock 


0.8 


1.1 


1.5 


1.9 


2.2 


3.0 


3.7 ' . 


4.5 


Check valve, swing 


5.6 


8.4 


11.2 


14.0 


16.8 


22.4 


28.0 


33.6 


Globe valve 


15.0 


20.0 


25.0 


35.0 


45.0 


55.0 


65.0 


80.0 


Angle valve 


8.0 


12.0 


15.0 


18.0 


22.0 


28.0 


34.0 


40.0 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 degree = 0.0175 rad. 



TABLE E1 03.3(6) 
PRESSURE LOSS IN FITTINGS AND VALVES EXPRESSED AS EQUIVALENT LENGTH OF TUBE 8 (feet) 



NOMINAL OR 

STANDARD SIZE 

(inches) 


FITTINGS 


Coupling 


VALVES 


Standard Ell 


90-Degree Tee 


Ball 


Gate 


Butterfly 


Check 


90 Degree 


45 Degree 


Side Branch 


Straight Run 


% 


0.5 


— 


1.5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1.5 


X 


1 


0.5 


2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


5 / 

'8 


1.5 


0.5 


2 


— 


. — 


— 





— 


2.5 


3 / 
'4 


2 


0.5 


3 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3 


1 


2.5 


1 


4.5 


— 


— 


0.5 





— 


4.5 


iV 4 


>• 3 


1 


5.5 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


— 


— 


5.5 


iv 2 


4 


1.5 


7 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 








6.5 


: 2 


5.5 


2 


9 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


7.5 


9 


2V 2 


7 


2.5 


12 


0.5 


0.5 


— 


1 


10 


11.5 


3 


9 


3.5 


15 


1 


1 


— 


1.5 


15.5 


14.5 


3V 2 


9 


3.5 


14 


1 


1 


— 


2 





12.5 


4 


12.5 


5 


21 


1 


1 


— 


2 


16 


18.5 


5 


16 


6 


27 


1.5 


1.5 


— 


3 


11.5 


23.5 


6 


19 


7 


34 


2 


2 


— 


3.5 


13.5 


26.5 


8 


29 


11 


50 


3 


3 


* — 


5 


12.5 


39 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 degree = 0.01745 rad. 

a. Allowances are for streamlined soldered fittings and recessed threaded fittings. For threaded fittings, double the allowances shown in the table. The equivalent 
lengths presented above are based on a G factor of 150 in the Hazen- Williams friction loss formula. The lengths shown are rounded to the nearest half-foot. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



127 



APPENDIX E 




PRESSURE DROP PER 100 FEET OF TUBE, POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH 

Note: Fluid velocities in excess of 5 to 8 feet/second are not usually recommended. 



FIGURE E1 03.3(2) 
FRICTION LOSS IN SMOOTH PIPE 3 (TYPE K, ASTM B 88 COPPER TUBING) 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, lgpm = 3.785 L/m, 1 psi = 6.895 kPa, 

1 foot per second = 0.305 m/s. 
a. This chart applies to smooth new copper tubing with recessed (streamline) soldered joints and to the actual sizes of types indicated on the diagram. 



128 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 1 



APPENDIX E 



nrH- 

p| p| H 5000 
nT |i4000 

litH 3000 




O Q O Q 



PRESSURE DROP PER 100 FEET OF TUBE; POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH 

Note: Fluid velocities in excess of 5 to 8 feet/second are not usually recommended. 



FIGURE E1 03.3(3) 
FRICTION LOSS IN SMOOTH PIPE 8 (TYPE L, ASTM B 88 COPPER TUBING) 



JForSI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gpm = 3.785 L/m, 1 psi = 6.895 kPa, 

1 foot per second = 0.305 m/s. 
a. This chart applies to smooth new copper tubing with recessed (streamline) soldered joints and to the actual sizes of types indicated on the diagram. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE* 



129 



APPENDIX E 



9000 £ 

r 

5000 L- 
4000 

3000 :— 

2000 
1000 





400 \^ 


LU 




3 


300 p\ 


Z 


l \ 


2 

cr 


L_ 


LU 


200 \y/ 


L"L 




CO 




2 




_1 




_J 
< 


100 l^- 


O 


C~ 


£ 


h^ 


tr 




S 


50 >—— , 


Li- 


40 U<- 


tr 




LU 
H 


30 ^w>^ 



-r-r-r-rntH 
T~rTTnn i5000 

rTTnrh 4000 
-i-tttt-itH 3000 

i i i i mi 1 

rTrnrH 2000 

i i i 1 1 
ii. 

f 5IE md1000 
r-rrnrH 

"CTTTI.tM 

TriTh 400 

i — | -f-| -J 300 




20 — 

10 U 
C 

5U 

4 

3 



1 L 



PRESSURE DROP PER 100 FEET OF TUBE, POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH 

Note: Fluid velocities in excess of 5 to 8 feet/second are not usually recommended. 



FIGURE E1 03.3(4) 
FRICTION LOSS IN SMOOTH PIPE 3 (TYPE M, ASTM B 88 COPPER TUBING) 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gpm = 3.785 L/m, 1 psi = 6.895 kPa, 

1 foot per second = 0.305 m/s. 
a. This chart applies to smooth new copper tubing with recessed (streamline) soldered joints and to the actual sizes of types indicated on the diagram. 



130 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE 5 



APPENDIX E 



FRICTION LOSS POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH HEAD PER 100 FEET LENGTH 



10000 
9000 
8000 
7000 
6000 

5000 

4000 

3000 



2000 



1000 
900 
800 
700 
600 

500 
400 
300 



t 200 



100 
90 
80 
70 
60 
50 



d d do do r 



m ■* in tor^coa>T- 



40 



30 _ 



20 







-U4 - -Vd - 4- V ±K-W- -^ V - +- i*^ H 4-1 - 






a n = =X = 13^15^= a^t t cm: 


FAIRLY SMOOTH 


\rt xp^rV^rr irY -^rf r -r r ti^ 






IN" >ATW ITIT yr T V T^nTI" 








V I 


V-v; 


\ 


V^ 




1 \JI -/\ j^o 


f i 1 1 1> 


oj 




n V 


'I^r ^C ' n 


\pn\~ 


v/ 


-^ 


— 


CT 






= J^r 







' 


q n 6 V^-V ^ v^tfc \\ y *rs % j^\-j* T$& 


X 


-^nl 


^ 




~A 


(\\\1 




^?r' 


\~f _ l\^1 





-Vi^Vj 


t*r\ \>^v J\° l ^r\^ ^v "t>f\ti- 


\ 


S\ 1 >T< 




j>^\ 


i JVi 


L^^v \LXV 'JW \>^N 


>n i 


^ ^ 


L j^^iApf 


PI Tvr~ \f " Jf 1 " XO-nK^ ~ \JCT- ~LM 


(pri: 


r- — -^ 


c^> k t — 1 Ji*C 1 




XI III 


~X\ ~~~ 


^V^M 


u> i^>^-t\^ 


r\t + VyA ^r--\\ 


rtliWT 


~\f 


>ic it 


X^^ 3,<r\ 


" ^Xprmzxf^ ~ r\ 


^pri\r 


7* — \> 


"f v>^ 


ma^xj-" 


K>Tvn iJi \ "t ~J^1 


villi; 


~s^^ 


h- — U^rH -h 


mix >**C i Vn i\ i i \ ^S\ i i >**v i i i 


*/^ 


y^y\ n Q^Alx^\ r !3r ^V^f^ T \ r i< 




i\ 


J^N 


\\\/\ Nj^ 






<T\ 


= A= 


-4** 


H±. 








hH±J; 


— ^-v-, 


k^- 


yL^H 


Ty = ^\ + 4^ 




pmT a-jVx^ \^ 


h>W- 


— ~^^\ 


— i*^^ 


n\r 


niy "i al^h 




rim^TT Ati^ 


V\TY 




S^| 


1 "A 


-H^Tl \ lx^\ 1 


\!>H\ \i!i^'i 


\\ \\\ 


~P^ 


v~~ 




xin"Vn~TSj" 


t^iTX^r^Aj" 


r\iri" 


^__ 




-it 


nl\ \ \^\ l\ 


i i jAn \ i \ i i\ 


rt\ri- 
1 1 \ i 


~P^ 


i\ 




inV^VTi^ 


IJ^rKI \ 1 \ 1 1 \ 

knTlX"~\T~TT" 


1 1 \i 
vrirs 




/T 


\ ' 


>r\ AJ-^T l \l 1 1 1 \ \ l\ l 

rfii \ jAi i i i\iii \ i\ i\ 


\i 1 1 

i\ii 



10000 

9000 

8000 

7000 

6000 

5000 

4000 

3000 



2000 



1000 

900 

800 

700 

600 

500 

400 

- 300 



200 



100 

90 

80 

70 

60 

50 

J 40 

30 

20 



PJ ■ <*> ** lO (Oh-OOOO 



FRICTION LOSS POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH HEAD PER 100 FEET LENGTH 



FIGURE E1 03.3(5) 
FRICTION LOSS IN FAIRLY SMOOTH PIPE a 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gpm = 3.785 L/m, 1 psi = 6.895 kPa, 

1 foot per second = 0.305 m/s. 
a. This chart applies to smooth new steel (fairly smooth) pipe and to actual diameters of standard-weight pipe. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE" 



131 



APPENDIX E 



FRICTION LOSS POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH HEAD PER 100 FEET LENGTH 



C0O0 




oo oooo o 
Ti-m coh~coo> o 



FRICTION LOSS POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH HEAD PER 100 FEET LENGTH 



FIGURE E1 03.3(6) 
FRICTION LOSS IN FAIRLY ROUGH PIPE 3 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gpm = 3.785 L/m, 1 psi = 6.895 kPa, 

1 foot per second = 0.305 m/s. 
a. This chart applies to fairly rough pipe and to actual diameters which in general will be less than the actual diameters of the new pipe of the same kind. 



132 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE* 



APPENDIX E 



FRICTION LOSS POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH HEAD PER 100 FEET LENGTH 




oo oooo o 
■+ w cor-- coo) o 



FRICTION LOSS POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH HEAD PER 100 FEET LENGTH 



FIGURE E103.3(7) 
FRICTION LOSS IN FAIRLY ROUGH PIPE 3 



• 



'or SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gpm = 3.785 L/m, 1 psi = 6.895 kPa, 
1 foot per second = 0.305 m/s. 
a. This chart applies to very rough pipe and existing pipe and to their actual diameters. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE' 



133 



APPENDIX E 



SECTION E201 
SELECTION OF PSPE SIZE 

E 201.1 Size of water-service mains, branch mains and ris- 
ers. The minimum size water service pipe shall be 3 / 4 inch (19.1 
mm). The size of water service mains, branch mains and risers 
shall be determined according to water supply demand [gpm 
(L/m)], available water pressure [psi (kPa)] and friction loss 
due to the water meter and developed length of pipe [feet (m)], 
including equivalent length of fittings. The size of each water 
distribution system shall be determined according to the proce- 
dure outlined in this section or by other design methods con- 
forming to acceptable engineering practice and approved by 
the code official: 

1. Supply load in the building water-distribution system 
shall be determined by total load on the pipe being sized, 
in terms of water-supply fixture units (w.s.f.u.), as 
shown in Table E103.3(2). For fixtures not listed, choose 
a w.s.f.u. value of a fixture with similar flow characteris- 
tics. 

2. Obtain the minimum daily static service pressure [psi 
(kPa)] available (as determined by the local water 
authority) at the water meter or other source of supply at 
the installation location. Adjust this minimum daily 
static pressure [psi (kPa)] for the following conditions: 

2.1. Determine the difference in elevation between 
the source of supply and the highest water supply 
outlet. Where the highest water supply outlet is 
located above the source of supply, deduct 0.5 psi 
(3.4 kPa) for each foot (0.3 m) of difference in 
elevation. Where the highest water supply outlet 
is located below the source of supply, add 0.5 psi 
(3.4 kPa) for each foot (0.3 m) of difference in 
elevation. 

2.2. Where a water pressure reducing valve is 
installed in the water distribution system, the 
minimum daily static water pressure available is 
80 percent of the minimum daily static water 
pressure at the source of supply or the set pres- 
sure downstream of the pressure reducing valve, 
whichever is smaller. 

2.3. Deduct all pressure losses due to special equip- 
ment such as a backflow preventer, water filter 
and water softener. Pressure loss data for each 
piece of equipment shall be obtained through the 
manufacturer of such devices. 



2.4. Deduct the pressure in excess of 8 psi (55 kPa) 
due to installation of the special plumbing fix- 
■ ture, such as temperature controlled shower and 
flushometer tank water closet. 

Using the resulting minimum available pres- 
sure, find the corresponding pressure range in 
Table E201.1. 

3. The maximum developed length for water piping is the 
actual length of pipe between the source of supply and 
the most remote fixture, including either hot (through the 
water heater) or cold water branches multiplied by a 
factor of 1.2 to compensate for pressure loss through fit- 
tings. 

Select the appropriate column in Table E201.1 equal 
to or greater than the calculated maximum developed 
length. 

4. To determine the size of water service pipe, meter and 
main distribution pipe to the building using the appropri- 
ate table, follow down the selected "maximum devel- 
oped length" column to a fixture unit equal to, or greater 
than the total installation demand calculated by using the 
"combined" water supply fixture unit column of Table 
E201..1. Read the water service pipe and meter sizes in 
the first left-hand column and the main distribution pipe 
to the building in the second left-hand column on the 
same row. 

5. To determine the size of each water distribution pipe, 
start at the most remote outlet on each branch (either hot 
or cold branch) and, working back toward the main dis- 
tribution pipe to the building, add up the water supply 
fixture unit demand passing through each segment of the 
distribution system using the related hot or cold column 
of Table E20 1.1. Knowing demand, the size of each seg- 
ment shall be read from the second left-hand column of 
the same table and maximum developed length column 
selected in Steps 1 and 2, under the same or next smaller 
size meter row. In no case does the size of any branch or 
main need to be larger that the size of the main distribu- 
tion pipe to the building established in Step 4. 



134 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX E 



TABLE E201.1 

MINIMUM SIZE OF WATER METERS, MAINS AND DISTRIBUTION PIPING 

BASED ON WATER SUPPLY FIXTURE UNIT VALUES (w.s.f.u.) 



METER AND SERVICE PIPE 
(inches) 


DISTRIBUTION PIPE 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM DEVELOPMENT LENGTH (feet) 


Pressure Range 30 to 39 psi 


40 


60 


80 


100 


150 


200 


250 


300 


400 


500 


3 U 


V 


2.5 


2 


1.5 


1.5 


1 


1 


0.5 


0.5 








3 U 


3 / 4 


9.5 


7.5 


6 


5.5 


4 


3.5 


3 


2.5 


2 


1.5 


% 


1 


32 


25 


20 


16.5 


11 


9 


7.8 


6.5 


5.5 


4.5 


1 


1 


32 


32 


27 


21 


13.5 


10 


8 


7 


5.5 


5 


3 / 4 


iv 4 


32 


32 


32 


32 


30 


24 


20 


17 


13 


10.5 


1 


iv 4 


80 


80 


70 


61 . 


45 


34 


27 


22 


16 


12 


17 2 


iv 4 


80 


80 


80 


75 


54 


40 


31 


25 


17.5 


13 


1 


1V 2 


87 


87 


87 


87 


84 


73 


64 


56 


45 


36 


17 2 


1V 2 


151 


151 


151 


151 


117 


92 


79 


69 


54 


43 


2 


1V 2 


151 


151 


151 


151 


128 


99 


83 


72 


56 


45 


1 


2 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


86 


1V 2 


2 


275 


275 


275 


275 


258 


223 


196 


174 


144 


122 


2 


2 


365 


365 


365 


365 


318 


266 


229 


201 


160 


134 


2 


2V 2 


533 


533 


533 


533 


533 


.495 


448 


409 


353 


311 



METER AND SERVICE PIPE 
(inches) 


DISTRIBUTION PIPE 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM DEVELOPMENT LENGTH (feet) 


Pressure Range 40 to 49 psi 


40 


60 


80 


100 


150 


200 


250 


300 


400 


500 


% 


v 2 - 


'3 


2.5 


2 


1.5 


1.5 


1 


1 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


3 U 


3 / 4 


9.5 


9.5 


8.5 


7 


5.5 


4.5 


3.5 


3 


2.5 


2 


% 


1 


32 


32 


32 


26 


18 


13.5 


10.5 


9 


7.5 


6 


1 


1 


32 


32 


32 


32 


21 


15 


11.5 


9.5 


7.5 


6.5 


3 / 4 


iv 4 


32 


32 


32 


32 


32 


32 


32 


27 


21 


16.5 


1 


iv 4 


80 


80 


80 


80 


65 


52 


42 


35 


26 


20 


1V 2 


iv 4 


80 


80 


80 


80 


75 


59 


48 


39 


28 


21 


1 


1V 2 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


78 


65 


55 


iv 2 


iv 2 


151 


151 


151 


151 


151 


130 


109 


93 


75 


63 


2 


1V 2 


151 


151 


151 


151 


151 


139 


115 


98 


77 


64 


1 


2 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


iv 2 


■2 " 


275 


275 


275 


275 


275 


275 


264 


238 


198 


169 


2 


.2 


365 


365 


365 


365 


365 


349 


304 


270 


220 


185 


2 


2V 2 


533 


533 


533 


533 


533 


533 


533 


528 


456 


403 



(continued) 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



135 



APPENDIX E 



TABLE E201.1— continued 

MINIMUM SIZE OF WATER METERS, MAINS AND DISTRIBUTION PIPING 

BASED ON WATER SUPPLY FIXTURE UNIT VALUES (w.s.f.u.) 



METER AND SERVICE PIPE 
(inches) 


DISTRIBUTION PIPE 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM DEVELOPMENT LENGTH (feet) 


Pressure Range 50 to 60 psi 


40 


60 


80 


100 


150 


200 


250 


300 


400 


500 


% 


V/ 


3 


3 


2.5 


2 


1.5 


1 


1 


1 


0.5 


0.5 


3 / 4 


% 


9.5 


9.5 


9.5 


8.5 


6.5 


5 


4.5 


4 


3 


2.5 


3 / 4 


1 


32 


32 


32 


32 


25 


18.5 


14.5 


12 


9.5 


8 


1 


1 


32 


32 


32 


32 


30 


22 


16.5 


13 


10 


8 


% 


iv 4 


32 


32 


32 


32 


32 


32 


32 


32 


29 


24 


1 


iv 4 


80 


80 


80 


80 


80 


68 


57 


48 


35 


28 


1V 2 


iv 4 


80 


80 


80 


80 


80 


75 


63 


53 


39 


29 


1 


17 2 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


82 


70 


iv 2 


1V 2 


151 


151 


151 


151 


151 


151 


139 


120 


94 


79 


2 


1V 2 


151 


151 


151 


151 


151 


151 


146 


• 126 


97 


81 


1 


2 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


iv 2 


2 


275 


275 


275 


275 


275 


275 


275 


275 


247 


213 


2 


2 


365 


365 


365 


365 


365 


365 


365 


329 


272 


232 


2 


2V 2 


533 


533 


533 


533 


533 


533 


533 


533 


353 


486 




METER AND SERVICE PIPE 
(inches) 


DISTRIBUTION PIPE 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM DEVELOPMENT LENGTH (feet) 


Pressure Range Over 60 


40 


60 


80 


100 


150 


200 


250 


300 


400 


500 


% 


V 


3 


• 3 


3 


2.5 


2 


1.5 


1.5 


1 


1 


0.5 


% 


% 


9.5 


9.5 


9.5 


9.5 


7.5 


6 


5 


4,5 


3.5 


3 


% 


1 


32 


32 


32 


32 


32 


24 


19.5 


15.5 


11.5 


9.5 


1 


1 


32 


32 


32 


32 


32 


28 


28 


17 


12 


9.5 


3 / 4 


iv 4 


32 


32 


32 


32 


32 


32 


32 


32 


32 


30 


1 


iv 4 


80 


80 


80 


80 


80 


80 


69 


60 


46 


36 


1V 2 


iv 4 


80 


80 


80 


80 


80 


80 


76 


65 


50 


38 


1 


1V 2 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


84 


1V 2 


1V 2 


151 


151 


151 


151 


151 


151 


151 


144 


114 


94 


2 


1V 2 


151 


151 


151 


151 


151 


151 


151 


151 


118 


97 


1 


2 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


87 


1V 2 


2 


275 


275 


275 


275 


275 


275 


275 


275 


275 


252 


2 


2 


365 


368 


368 


368 


368 


368 


368 


368 


318 


273 


2 


2V 2 


533 


533 


533 


533 


533 


533 


533 


533 


533 


533 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Minimum size for building supply is 3 / 4 -inch pipe. 



136 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX F 

STRUCTURAL SAFETY 



SECTION F1 01 

CUTTING, NOTCHING AND 

BORING IN WOOD MEMBERS 

[B] F101.1 Joist notching. Notches on the ends of joists shall 
not exceed one-fourth the joist depth. Holes bored in joists 
shall not be within 2 inches (51 mm) of the top or bottom of the 
joist, and the diameter of any such hole shall not exceed 
one-third the depth of the joist. Notches in the top or bottom of 
joists shall not exceed one sixth the depth and shall not be 
located in the middle third of the span. 

[B] F101.2 Stud cutting and notching. In exterior walls and 
bearing partitions, any wood stud is permitted to be cut or 
notched to a depth not exceeding 25 percent of its width. Cut- 
ting or notching of studs to a depth not greater than 40 percent 
of the width of the stud is permitted in nonbearing partitions 
supporting no loads other than the weight of the partition. 

[B] F101.3 Bored holes. A hole not greater in diameter than 40 
per-cent of the stud width is permitted to be bored in any wood 
stud. Bored holes not greater than 60 percent of the width of the 
stud is permitted in nonbearing partitions or in any wall where 
each bored stud is doubled, provided not more than two such 
successive doubled studs are so bored. In no case shall the edge 
of the bored hole be nearer than 0.625 inch (15.9 mm) to the 
edge of the stud. Bored holes shall not be located at the same 
section of stud as a cut or notch. 

[B] F101.4 Cutting, notching and boring holes in structural 
steel framing. The cutting, notching and boring of holes in 
structural steel framing members shall be as prescribed by the 
registered design professional. 

[B] F101.5 Cutting, notching and boring holes in 
cold-formed steel framing. Flanges and lips of load-bearing 
cold-formed steel framing members shall not be cut or notched. 
Holes in webs of load-bearing cold-formed steel framing mem- 
bers shall be permitted along the centerline of the web of the 
framing member and shall not exceed the dimensional limita- 
tions, penetration spacing or minimum hole edge distance as 
prescribed by the registered design professional. Cutting, 
notching and boring holes of steel floor/roof decking shall be 
as prescribed by the registered design professional. 

[B] F101.6 Cutting, notching and boring holes in 
nonstructural cold-formed steel wall framing. Flanges and 
lips of nonstructural cold-formed steel wall studs shall not be 
cut or notched. Holes in webs of nonstructural cold-formed 
steel wall studs shall be permitted along the centerline of the 
web of the framing member, shall not exceed 1.5 inches (38 
mm) in width or 4 inches (102 mm) in length, and the holes 
shall not be spaced less than 24 inches (610 mm) center to cen- 
ter from another hole or less than 10 inches (254 mm) from the 
bearing end. 

2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 137 



1 38 2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



APPENDIX G 

VACUUM DRAINAGE SYSTEM 



SECTION G101 
VACUUM DRAINAGE SYSTEM 

G101.1 Scope. This appendix provides general guidelines for 
the requirements for vacuum drainage systems. 

G101.2 General requirements. 

G101.2.1 System design. Vacuum drainage systems shall 
be designed in accordance with manufacturer's recommen- 
dations. The system layout, including piping layout, tank 
assemblies, vacuum pump assembly and other compo- 
nents/designs necessary for proper function of the system 
shall be per manufacturer's recommendations. Plans, speci- 
fications and other data for such systems shall be submitted 
to the local administrative authority for review and approval 
prior to installation. 

G101.2.2 Fixtures. Gravity-type fixtures used in vacuum 
drainage systems shall comply with Chapter 4 of this code. 

G101.2.3 Drainage fixture units. Fixture units for gravity 
drainage systems which discharge into or receive discharge 
from vacuum drainage systems shall be based on values in 
Chapter 7 of this code. 

G101.2.4 Water supply fixture units. Water supply fixture 
units shall be based on values in Chapter 6 of this code with 
the addition that the fixture unit of a vacuum-type water 
closet shall be" 1." 

G101.2.5 Traps and cleanouts. Gravity-type fixtures shall 
be provided with traps and cleanouts in accordance with 
Chapters 7 and 10 of this code. 

G101.2.6 Materials. Vacuum drainage pipe, fitting and 
valve materials shall be as recommended by the vacuum 
drainage system manufacturer and as permitted by this 
code. 

G101.3 Testing and demonstrations. After completion of the 
entire system installation, the system shall be subjected to a 
vacuum test of 19 inches (483 mm) of mercury and shall be 
operated to function as required by the administrative authority 
and the manufacturer. Recorded proof of all tests shall be sub- 
mitted to the administrative authority. 

G101.4 Written instructions. Written instructions for the 
operations, maintenance, safety and emergency procedures 
shall be provided by the building owner as verified by the 
administrative authority. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 1 39 






140 2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



INDEX 



ABS PIPE 

Where permitted Table 605.3, Table 605.5, 

Table 702.1 , Table 702.2, Table 702.3, Table 702.4 

ACCESS TO 

Cleanouts 708 

Fixtures 405.2 

Interceptors and separators 1003.10 

ACCESSIBLE PLUMBING FACILITIES 404 

ADMINISTRATION 

Applicability 102 

Approval 105, 107.4, 106.6 

Inspections 1 07 

Intent 101.3 

Maintenance 102.3 

Means of appeal 1 09 

Scope 101.2 

Validity 106.5.2 

Violations 1 08 

AIR ADMITTANCE VALVES 

Definition 202 

Where permitted 917 

AIR BREAK 

Definition 202 

Method of providing 802.1 .5, 802.1 .6, 

802.1.7,802.2 

Required 802.2.2 

AIR GAP 

Definition 202 

Method of providing 608.15.1, 802.2.1 

Required 608.15.1,802.1,802.1.1,802.1.2 

802.1.3, 802.1.4, 802.1.5, 802.1.6, 802.1.7 

AIR TEST 312.3, 312.5, 312.7 

ALTERATIONS AND REPAIRS 102.4 

ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT. 105.2 
APPROVED 

Definition 202 

ASBESTOS-CEMENT PIPE 
Where permitted Table 702.2, Table 702.3 

ATMOSPHERIC VACUUM BREAKER . . . Table 608.1, 

608.13.6,608.15.4, 

608.15.4.1,608.16.5 

AUTOMATIC CLOTHES WASHER 406 

B 
BACKFILLING 306.3 



BACKFLOW PREVENTER 

Definition 202 

Required 608.1 

Standards Table 608.1 

BACKFLOW PROTECTION 608.1 

BACKWATER VALVES 

Where required 715 

BALL COCK (see FILL VALVE) 

BAROMETRIC LOOP 608.13.4 

BATHTUBS 407 

BEDPAN STEAMERS . . . 202 

BEDPAN WASHERS 202 

BIDETS 408 

BOOSTER SYSTEM 606.5 

BOTTLING ESTABLISHMENT 1003.7 

BRASS PIPE 

Where permitted Table 605.3, Table 605.4, 

Table 605.8, Table 702.1 
BUILDING DRAIN 

Branches of Table 710.1(2) 

Definition 202 

Material Table 702.1 , Table 702.2 

Sizing Table 710.1(1) 

BUILDING DRAINAGE SYSTEMS 

Below sewer level 712.1 

BUILDING SEWER 

Definition 202 

Material Table 702.3 

Sizing Table 710.1(1) 

BUILDING SYSTEMS 

Connection to public water and sewer 701 .2 

BUILDING TRAPS 1002.6 



CAST-IRON PIPE 

Materials Table 702.1 , Table 702.2, 

Table 702.3, Table 702.4 

CAULKING FERRULES 705.18 

CHANGE IN DIRECTION OF DRAINAGE 
PIPING Table 706.3 

CHEMICAL WASTE 

Exclusion from the sewer 803.3 

Neutralizing 803.2 

Requirements 702.5 

CHLORINATED POLYVINYL/PIPE OR TUBING 
Where permitted Table 605.3, Table 605.4 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



141 



INDEX 



CIRCUIT VENT 911 

CLAY PIPE Table 702.3 

CLEANOUTS 

Base of stack 708.3.4 

Building drain 708.3.1 , 708.3.5 

Change of direction. 708.3.3 

Clearances 708.8 

Definition 202 

Direction of flow 708.5 

Horizontal drains 708.3.1 

Location of 708.3 

Manholes 708.3.6 

Plugs, materials for 708.2 

Prohibited installation of 708.6 

Sewers 708.3.2 

Size 708.7,708.8 

CODE OFFICIAL 

Application for permit 1 06.3 

Appointment .103.2 

Definition 202 

Department records 104.8 

Duties and powers 104 

General . .104.1 

Identification 104.6 

Inspections 1 07 

COMBINATION DRAIN AND VENT SYSTEM .... 912 

COMBINED DRAIN 202 

COMMON VENT 202, 908 

CONCRETE PIPE 

Where permitted Table 702.3 

CONDUCTOR 202 

CONNECTION TO PLUMBING SYSTEM 

REQUIRED 701.2 

CONNECTIONS TO SUMPS AND EJECTORS 

Below sewer level 712.1 

CONSERVATION 

Fixtures 604.4 

Flow rates Table 604.3 

Insulation 505, 607.2.1 

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS 106.3.1 

CONTROLLED FLOW STORM DRAINAGE 1110 

COPPER OR COPPER-ALLOY PIPE OR TUBING 

Where permitted Table 605.3, Table 605.4 

CROSS CONNECTIONS 608 

CUTTING OR NOTCHING, STRUCTURAL 
MEMBERS 307.2, Appendix F 



DEAD ENDS IN DRAINAGE SYSTEM 704.5 

DESIGN PROFESSIONAL 105.4.2, 105.4.3, 

105.4.4, 105.4.5, 107.2.2, 109.2 



DETRIMENTAL WASTES 302 

DISHWASHING MACHINE . . . 409 

DISINFECTION OF POTABLE WATER SYSTEM. . 610 
DISTANCE OF TRAP FROM VENT .... Table 906.1 
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM (See WATER) 
DRAIN 

Roof 1105 

Storm .1106 

DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS 

Definition, fixture unit 202 

Values for continuous flow 709.3 

Values for fixtures Table 709.1 

DRAINAGE SYSTEM 
Connection to sewer or private 

disposal system . 701 .2 

Dead ends 704.5 

Determining load and size 710.1 

Fixture units Table 709.1 

Indirect waste 802 

Joints 705 

Materials 702 

Material detrimental to 302 

Offset sizing 71 1 

Provisions for future fixtures 710.2 

Sizing Table 710.1(1), Table 710.1(2) 

Slope of piping Table 704.1 

Sumps and ejectors .712 

Testing .312 

DRINKING FOUNTAINS . . 410 

E 

EJECTORS 712 

EMPLOYEE FACILITIES 403.4 

EXISTING BUILDING PLUMBING SYSTEMS. . . 102.2 

F 

FACILITIES 403 

FAUCETS 424 

FEES 106.6 

FERRULES 705.18 

FILL VALVE . . 425.3.1 

FITTINGS 

Drainage system .........: 706 

Material standards 605.5, Table 605.5, 

702.4, Table 702.4 

FIXTURE FITTINGS 424 

FIXTURE TRAPS 1002 

Acid-resisting 1 002.9 

Building 1002.6 

Design of 1 002.2 

For each fixture 1002.1 



142 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



INDEX 



Prohibited 1002.3 

Seals 1002.4 

Setting and protection .... 1002.7 

Size 1002.5 

FIXTURE UNITS 

Definition 202 

Values for continuous flow 709.3 

Values for fixtures 709.1 , Table 709.1 

FIXTURES (See PLUMBING FIXTURES) 

FLOOD LEVEL RIM 202 

FLOOD-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION 

Design flood elevation 202 

Flood hazard area 202 

Flood hazard resistance 309 

FLOOR DRAINS 412, Table 709.1 

FLOOR DRAINS, EMERGENCY 202 

FLOOR FLANGES 405.4.1 , 405.4.2 

FLOW RATES 604.3, Table 604.3 

Table 604.4, 604.10 
FLUSHING DEVICES 

Flush tanks 425.2, 425.3, 604.3, 604.5 

Flushometer tanks 425.3, 604.3, 604.5 

Flushometer valves 425.3, 604.3 

Required 425 

FOOD HANDLING DRAINAGE 802.1.1 

FOOD WASTE GRINDER 413 

FREEZING, PROTECTION OF PIPES 305.6 

FROST CLOSURE 904.2 

FUTURE FIXTURES 704.4 



GALVANIZED STEEL PIPE Table 605.3, 

Table 605.4, 605.18 

GARBAGE CAN WASHERS 414 

GARBAGE DISPOSALS 413 

GENERAL REGULATIONS 301 

Conflicts 301 .7 

Connection to plumbing system 301 .3 

Connection to public water and sewer . . 301 .3, 301 .4 

Elevator machinery rooms 301.6 

Health and safety. . . 108.7, 108.7.1, 108.7.2, 108.7.3 

Materials detrimental 302, 302.1, 302.2 

Piping measurements 301 .5 

Protection of pipes 305 

Rodentproofing 304, 304.1 , 304.2, 304.3, 304.4 

Sleeves 305.4 

Strains and stresses in pipe 308 

Toilet facilities for workers 311 

Trenching, excavation and backfill 306 

Washroom requirements 310 



GREASE INTERCEPTORS AND TRAPS. . . 202, 1003 

Approval 1 003.3.4 

Capacity Table 1003.3.4.1, 

1003.4.2.1, 1003.4.2.2 

In commercial buildings 1003.5 

Not required 1003.3.3 

Required 1003.1 

GUTTERS 1106.6, Table 1106.6 

H 
HANGERS AND SUPPORTS 

Attachment to buildings 308.4 

Base of stacks 308.9 

Definitions 202 

Material 308.3 

Seismic 308.2 

Spacing Table 308.5 

HEALTH AND SAFETY 101.3 

HEALTH CARE PLUMBING 422, 609, 713 

HEAT EXCHANGER PROTECTION 608.16.3 

HORIZONTAL 
Slope for drainage pipe 704.1 

HOSPITAL PLUMBING FIXTURES 422 

Clinical sinks 422.6 

Height of special controls 422.10 

Sterilizer equipment 422.9 

HOT WATER 

Definition. 202 

Flow of hot water to fixtures 607.4 

Heaters and tanks Chapter 5 

Recirculating pump 607.2.3 

Supply system 607 

HOUSE TRAP 1002.6 

I 

INDIRECT WASTE 802 

Air gap or break 802.2.1 , 802.2.2 

Food handling establishment 802.1.1 

Receptors 802.3 

Special wastes 803 

Waste water temperature 803.1 

Where required 802.1 

INDIVIDUAL VENT 907 

INSPECTION 107.1 

Final 107.1 

Reinspection 107.3.3 

Required 107.3 

Rough-in 107.1 

Scheduling of 1 07.1 

Testing 107.3 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE' 



143 



INDEX 



INSPECTOR (See CODE OFFICIAL) 

INSULATION 505, 607.2.1 

INTERCEPTORS AND SEPARATORS 1003 

Access to 1003.10 

Approval of 1003.2, 1003.4 

Bottling establishments 1003.7 

Capacity of grease interceptors .... Table 1003.3.4.1 

Definition 202 

Laundries 1 003.6 

Not required 1003.3.3 

Oil and flammable liquids separators ........ 1003.4 

Rate of flow control for grease interceptors. . 1003.3.4.2 

Required 1003.1 

Slaughterhouses 1003.8 

Venting 905.4, 1003.9 

IRRIGATION, LAWN ■....' 608.16.5 

ISLAND FIXTURE VENT 913 



JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 605, 705 

ABS plastic pipe 605.10, 705.2 

Asbestos-cement pipe 605.1 1 , 705.3 

Between different materials. . . 605.23, 705.4, 705.16 

Brass pipe 605.12, 705.4 

Brazed joints 605.12.1,605.14.1, 

605.15.1,705.9.1,705.10.1 

Cast-iron pipe 705.5 

Caulked joint 705.5.1, 705.11.1 

Concrete pipe 705.6 

Copper or copper-alloy pipe 605.14, 705.9 

Copper or copper-alloy tubing 605.15, 705.10 

CPVC plastic pipe 605.16 

Expansion joints 308.8 

Galvanized steel pipe 605.18 

Mechanical joints 605, 705 

Polybutylene plastic pipe or tubing 605.19 

Polyethylene plastic pipe or tubing .......... 605.20 

Prohibited 605.9, 707 

PVC plastic pipe 605.21, 705.14 

Slip joints 405.8, 1002.2 

Soldered joints 605.14.3, 605.15.4, 

705.9.3,705.10.3 

Solvent cementing 605, 705 

Stainless steel 605.22 

Threaded 605.10.3, 605.12.3, 605.14.4, 

605.16.3, 605.18.1, 605.21.3, 705.2.3, 
705.9.4,705.12.1,705.14.3 

Vitrified clay pipe 705.15 

Welded 605.12.4, 605.14.5, 703.4.4, 705.9.5 



144 



K 

KITCHEN . .418 

L 

LAUNDRIES .1003.6 

LAUNDRY TRAY 415 

LAVATORIES . . 416 

LEAD PIPE 202 

LEADERS 1106 

LIGHT AND VENTILATION REQUIREMENT . . . 310.1 
LOADING, FIXTURE UNIT VALVE ...... Table 709 

M 

MANHOLES 708.3.6 

MANIFOLDS .604.10 

MATERIAL 

Above-ground drainage and vent pipe. . . Table 702.1 

Alternative . . . ..... .105.2 

Approval 1 07.4 

Building sewer pipe 702.3 

Building storm sewer pipe 1 102.4 

Chemical waste system 702.5 

Fittings Table 605.5, Table 702.4, 

Table 1102.7 

Identification 303.1 

Joints .605, 705 

Roof drains 1 1 05 

Sewer pipe 702.3 

Standards Chapter 1 3 

Storm drainage pipe Table 1 102.4 

Subsoil drain pipe 1102.5 

Underground building drainage and vent pipe. .702.2 

Vent pipe 702.1, 702.2 

Water distribution pipe Table 605.4 

Water service pipe Table 605.3 

MATERIAL, FIXTURES 

Quality 402.1 

Special use 402.2 

MATERIAL, SPECIAL 

Caulking ferrules . .705.18 

Cleanout plugs 708.2 

Sheet copper 402.3 

Sheet lead 402.4 

Soldering bushings 705.19 

MECHANICAL JOINTS . 605, 705 

N 
NONPOTABLE WATER 608.1 , 608.8 

2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



INDEX 



o 

OFFSETS 

Definitions 202 

Drainage 711 

Venting 915.1 

OPENINGS 
Through walls or roofs 305.5, 305.7 

P 

PERMIT 

Application for 1 06.3 

Conditions of 106.5 

Fees 106.6 

Suspension of 106.5.5 

PIPING 

Construction documents 105.4.4 

Drainage, horizontal slope Table 704.1 

Drainage piping installation. 704 

Drainage piping offset, size 71 1 

Joints 605, 705 

PIPING PROTECTION 

Backfilling 306.3 

Breakage 305.2 

Corrosion 305.1 

Footings 305.5 

Freezing 305.6 

Penetration 305.5 

Tunneling 306.4 

PLUMBING FACILITIES 403 

PLUMBING FIXTURES 

Accessible 404 

Automatic clothes washers 406 

Bidet 408 

Clearances 405.3 

Definition 202 

Dishwashing machine 409 

Drainage fixture unit values Table 709.1 

Drinking fountain 410 

Emergency showers 411 

Eyewash stations 411 

Floor sinks 427 

Floor and trench drains 412 

Food waste grinders 413 

Future fixtures 704.4 

Garbage can washer 414 

Garbage disposal 413 

Hospital 422 

Installation 405 

Joints at wall or floor 405.5 

Kitchen sink 418 



Laundry tray 415 

Lavatories 416 

Minimum facilities Table 403.1 

Ornamental pools 423.1 

Quality 402.1 

Separate facilities 403.2 

Settings 405.3 

Showers 417 

Sinks 418 

Slop sinks 418 

Urinals 419 

Water closets 420 

Water coolers 410 

Water supply protection 608 

PLUMBING INSPECTOR (See CODE OFFICIAL) 

PNEUMATIC EJECTORS 712 

POLYBUTYLENE PIPE OR TUBING 

Where permitted Table 605.3, Table 605.4 

POLYETHYLENE PIPE OR TUBING 

Cross-linked Table 605.3, Table 605.4 

PE-AL-PE Table 605.3, Table 605.4 

PEX-AL-PEX Table 605.3, Table 605.4 

POTABLE WATER, PROTECTION OF 608 

PRESSURE OF WATER DISTRIBUTION 604.6 

PROHIBITED 

Joints and connection 605.9, 707 

Traps 1002.3 

PROTECTION OF POTABLE WATER 608 

PUMPING EQUIPMENT 712 

PVC PIPE Table 605.3, Table 605.4, 

Table 702.1 , Table 702.2, Table 702.3 

Q 

QUALITY OF WATER 

General 608.1 

R 

RAINWATER DRAINAGE Chapter 1 1 

REDUCED PRESSURE PRINCIPLE 
BACKFLOW PREVENTER 

Definition 202 

Periodic inspections 312.9 

Standard Table 608.1 , 608.13.2, 608.16.2 

Where required 608.15.2, 608.16.2, 

608.16.4, 608.16.4.1, 608.16.5, 608.16.6 

RELIEF VALVES 504.4, 504.5, 504.6 

Definition 202 

RELIEF VENT 911.4, 914, 916.2 

Definition 202 

ROOF DRAINS 1 102.6, 1 105 

Definition 202 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



145 



INDEX 



ROUGH-IN INSPECTION 107.1 

s 

SANITARY SEWER (See BUILDING SEWER) 

SANITARY TEES 706.3 

SCREWED JOINTS (See JOINTS AND 
CONNECTIONS) 

SEPARATE FACILITIES 403.2 

SERVICE SINKS Table 403.1, 418 

SEWER (See BUILDING SEWER) 

SHEET COPPER 402.3 

SHEET LEAD 402.4 

SHOWERS Table 403.1, 417 

SILL COCK 424, 608.15.4.2 

SINKS 418 

SIZING 

Drainage system 710 

Fixture drain 709 

Fixture water supply 604.5 

Vent system 916 

Water distribution system 604 

Water service 603.1 

SLAUGHTERHOUSES 1003.8 

SLEEVES 305.4 

SLIP JOINTS (See JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS) 

SOLDERING BUSHINGS 705.19 

SOLVENT CEMENTING (See JOINTS AND 
CONNECTIONS) 

SPECIAL PLUMBING FIXTURES 423 

SPECIAL WASTES 803 

STACK VENT 903.1 

STAINLESS STEEL PIPE. . . . Table 605.4, Table 605.5 
STANDARDS 

Material Chapter 1 3 

STANDPIPE DRAIN 802.4 

STEEL PIPE (See also MATERIAL) 

Where permitted Table 605.4, Table 702.1, 

Table 702.2, Table 702.3, 
Table 1102.4, Table 1102.5 

STERILIZER PIPE 422.9 

STORM DRAINS 

Building size 1106.1 

Building subdrains 1 1 12.1 

Building subsoil drains 1111.1 

Conductors and connections 1 104 

Definition 202 

General 1101 

Prohibited drainage 1 101 .3 

Roof drains 1102.6, 1105 

Secondary roof drains 1 107 

Sizing of conductors, leaders and storm drains . 1 106 



Sizing of roof gutters 11 06.6 

Sizing of vertical conductors and leaders .... 1 1 06.2 

Traps 1103 

Values for continuous flow 1 1 09 

Where required 1101.2 

STRAPS (See HANGERS AND SUPPORTS) 

STRUCTURAL SAFETY 307, Appendix F 

SUBDRAIN BUILDING 1112.1 

SUBSOIL DRAIN PIPE 1111.1 

SUMP VENT 916.5 

SUMPS 1113 

SUPPORTS (See also PIPING PROTECTION) ... 308 
SWIMMING POOL 

Definition 202 

SWIMMING POOL DRAINAGE 802.1.4 



TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE RELIEF 
VALVE 504 

TEMPERATURE OF WASTE WATER ........ 803.1 

TEST 

Drainage and vent air test 312.3 

Drainage and vent final test 312.4 

Drainage and vent water test 312.2 

Forced sewer test 312.7 

Gravity sewer test 312.6 

Required tests .312.1 

Test gauges 312.1.1 

Test of backflow prevention devices ......... 312.9 

Test of conductors 312.8 

THERMAL EXPANSION CONTROL 607.3 

THREADED JOINTS (See JOINTS AND 
CONNECTIONS) 

TOILET FACILITIES FOR WORKERS 311 

TOILETS (See WATER CLOSETS) 

TRAPS 

Acid-resisting 1002.9 

Building 1002.6 

Design 1002.2 

Prohibited types .1002.3 

Seal 1002.4 

Separate for each fixture 1002.1 

Size Table 709.1, Table 709.2 

TRENCH DRAINS 412 

TRENCHING, EXCAVATION AND BACKFILL .... 306 

TUNNELING 306.4 

u 

UNDERGROUND DRAINAGE AND VENT PIPE. 702.2 
URINALS 419 



146 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



INDEX 



V 

VACUUM BREAKERS Table 608.1, 608.13.5, 

608.13.6,608.13.8,608.15.4 

VALVES 

Air admittance .202, 917 

Backwater 715 

Definition 202 

Pressure reducing 604.8 

Relief 202, 504.4 

Temperature-actuated flow reduction valves . . . 424.5 
Transfer valves 424.6 

VENT 

Individual 907 

Sizing 904.2, 908.3, 910.4, 

912.3,916.1,916.2 

VENT RELIEF SIZE 914 

VENT STACK 
Definition 202, 903.2 

VENTS AND VENTING 

Branch vents 916.4.1 

Circuit or loop 91 T 

Combination drain 912 

Common 908 

Definition 202 

Distance from trap Table 906.1 

Engineered systems 918 

Island fixture 913 

Stack vents 903.1 

Vent stack 903.2 

Vent terminal 904 

Waste stack 910 

Wet vent 909 

W 

WALL HUNG WATER CLOSETS 420 

WASHING MACHINES 406 

WASTE 

Indirect 802 

Special 803 

WASTE STACK 910 

WASTE WATER TEMPERATURE 803.1 

WATER 

Booster 606.5 

Cross connection 608.6 

Distribution piping material Table 605.4 

Excessive pressure 604.8 

Hammer 604.9 

WATER CLOSETS 420 

WATER CONSERVATION 

Fixtures 604.4 

Flow rates Table 604.4 



WATER HEATERS Chapter5 

WET VENT 909 

WIPED JOINTS 705.13.2 

WORKERS' TOILET FACILITIES 31 1 



2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



147 



148 2006 INTERNATIONAL PLUMBING CODE® 



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2006 International Plumbing Code Errata 



FIRST PRINTING (Updated September 18, 2007) 



CHAPTER 3 
Table 308.5 

Row 10, column 3 now reads... 4 (superscript 'b' removed) 
Row 16, column 3 now reads... 4 (superscript 'b' removed) 
(Posted: January 3, 2008) 



2006 International Plumbing Code Errata Page 1 of 7 



FIRST PRINTING (Updated September 18, 2007) 



CHAPTER 4 
Table 403.1 

Row 14, column 6 now reads... 1 per 15 
(Posted: January 3, 2008) 



2006 International Plumbing Code Errata Page 2 of 7 



SECOND PRINTING (Updated September 18, 2007) 



Appendix C 
Section C 103.7.1.3 

Line 16... "by no more than &£2 1/16 inch (1.59mm) 
(Posted: January 3, 2008) 



2006 International Plumbing Code Errata Page 3 of 7 



SECOND PRINTING (Updated September 18, 2007) 



Appendix E 
Section E 201.1 

Step 4, Line 7... of Table E2Q±^ E103.3(2) 
Step 5, Line 7... of Table E2Q±^ E103.3(2) 
(Posted: January 3, 2008) 



2006 International Plumbing Code Errata Page 4 of 7 



THIRD PRINTING (Updated September 18, 2007) 



Chapter 6 
Table 605.5 

Row 10, Column 1 

Metal (brass) insert fittings for 

Polyethylene/Aluminum/Polyethylene (PE-AL-PE) and Cross-linked P olyethylene/Aluminum/ C ross-linked 

Polyethylene (PEX-AL-PEX) 

(Posted: January 3, 2008) 



2006 International Plumbing Code Errata Page 5 of 7 



THIRD PRINTING (Updated September 18, 2007) 



Chapter 7 
Table 704.1 

For SI: 0.083.3 83.3 mm/m. 

Table 710.1(2) 

Row 12, Column 2, 2000 3900 
(Posted: January 3, 2008) 



2006 International Plumbing Code Errata Page 6 of 7 



THIRD PRINTING (Updated September 18, 2007) 



Chapter 9 
Section 918.2 

Equation 9-1, Line 7... Q v (gpm) =27.8 r s 2/3^(1- r s ) D 8/2 m - 
(Posted: January 3, 2008) 



2006 International Plumbing Code Errata Page 7 of 7