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Full text of "Minnesota Residential Code"

The 2007 Minnesota State Building Code 



Minnesota Rules, Chapter 1309 
Adoption of the 2006 International Residential Code 



1309.0010 adoption OF 

international residential 

code (IRC) BY reference. 

Subpart 1. Generally. The 2006 edition 
of the International Residential Code (IRC) as 
promulgated by the International Code 
Council (ICC), Falls Church, Virginia, is 
incorporated by reference and made part of 
the Minnesota State Building Code except as 
qualified by the applicable provisions in 
Minnesota Rules, chapter 1300, and as 
amended in this chapter. The IRC is not 
subject to frequent change and a copy of the 
IRC, with amendments for use in Minnesota, 
is available in the office of the commissioner 
of labor and industry. Portions of this chapter 
reproduce text and tables from the IRC. The 
IRC is copyright 2006 by the ICC. All rights 
reserved. 

Subp. 2. Mandatory chapters. The 
2006 IRC Chapters 2 through 10 and 43 must 
be administered by any municipality that has 
adopted the code, except as qualified by the 
applicable provisions in Minnesota Rules, 
chapter 1300, and as amended by this chapter. 

Subp. 3. Replacement chapters. The 
following 2006 IRC chapters are being 
deleted and replaced with the provisions listed 
below: 

A. Chapter 1 of the 2006 IRC and any 
references to code administration in this code 
are deleted and replaced with Minnesota 
Rules, chapter 1300, Minnesota 
Administration Code. 

B. Chapter 11 of the 2006 IRC and any 
references to energy in this code are deleted 
and replaced with Minnesota Statutes, section 
16B.617. 



C. Chapters 12 through 24 of the 2006 
IRC and any references to mechanical matters 
in this code are deleted and replaced with 
Minnesota Rules, chapter 1346, Minnesota 
Mechanical Code. 

D. Chapters 25 through 32 of the 2006 
IRC and any references to plumbing in this 
code are deleted and replaced with Minnesota 
Rules, chapter 4715, Minnesota Plumbing 
Code. 

E. Chapters 33 through 42 of the 2006 
IRC and references to electrical matters in this 
code, other than Section R3 13 Smoke Alarms, 
are deleted and replaced with Minnesota 
Rules, chapter 1315, Minnesota Electrical 
Code. 

Subp. 4. Seismic or earthquake 

provisions. Any seismic or earthquake 
provisions and any references to them are 
deleted and are not included in this code. 

Subp. 5. Flood hazard or floodproofing 
provisions. Any flood hazard or 

floodproofing provisions in the IRC, and any 
reference to those provisions, are deleted in 
their entirety. Requirements for 

floodproofing are located in chapter 1335, 
floodproofing regulations. 

Subp. 6. Elevator and platform lift 
provisions. Any elevator and platform lift 
provisions in the IRC and any reference to 
those provisions are deleted in their entirety. 
Requirements for elevators or platform lifts 
are located in chapter 1307, elevators and 
related devices. 

1309.0020 REFERENCES TO OTHER 
ICC CODES. 



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The 2007 Minnesota State Building Code 



Subpart 1. Generally. References to 
other codes and standards promulgated by the 
ICC in the 2006 IRC are modified in subparts 
2to II. 

Subp. 2. Building code. References to 
the International Building Code in this code 
mean the Minnesota Building Code, adopted 
pursuant to Minnesota Rules, chapter 1305, 
and Minnesota Statutes, section I6B.6I, 
subdivision I. 

Subp. 3. Residential code. References to 
the IRC in this code mean the Minnesota 
Residential Code, adopted under Minnesota 
Rules, chapter 1309, and Minnesota Statutes, 
section I6B.6I, subdivision I. 

Subp. 4. Electrical code. References to 
the ICC Electrical Code in this code mean the 
Minnesota Electrical Code, Minnesota Rules, 
chapter 1315, adopted under Minnesota 
Statutes, section 326.243. 

Subp. 5. Fuel gas code. References to 
the International Fuel Gas Code in this code 
mean the Minnesota Mechanical Code, 
Minnesota Rules, chapter 1346, adopted 
under Minnesota Statutes, section I6B.6I, 
subdivision I. 

Subp. 6. Mechanical code. References 
to the International Mechanical Code in this 
code mean the Minnesota Mechanical Code, 
Minnesota Rules, chapter 1346, adopted 
under Minnesota Statutes, section I6B.6I, 
subdivision I. 



Minnesota Pollution Control Agency's 
minimum standards and criteria for individual 
sewage treatment systems in Minnesota 
Rules, chapter 7080, adopted under 
Minnesota Statutes, chapters I03F, I03G, 
115, and 116. 

Subp. 9. Energy conservation code. 

References to the International Energy 
Conservation Code in this code mean the 
Minnesota Energy Code, adopted under 
Minnesota Statutes, section I6B.6I7. 

Subp. 10. Property maintenance code. 

References to the International Property 
Maintenance Code in this code do not apply. 

Subp. II. Accessibility code. References 

to accessibility in this code mean the 

Minnesota Accessibility Code, Minnesota 
Rules, chapter 1 34 1. 

1309.0030 ADMINISTRATIVE 

PROCEDURE CRITERIA. 

Procedures relating to the administration 
and enforcement of this code under 
Minnesota Statutes, section I6B.57, are 
contained in Minnesota Rules, chapter 1300, 
Minnesota Administration Code. Minnesota 
Rules, chapter 1300, governs the application 
of this code. 

1309.0040 VIOLATION. 

A violation of this code is a misdemeanor 
under Minnesota Statutes, section I6B.69. 



Subp. 7. Plumbing code. References to 
the International Plumbing code in this code 
mean the Minnesota Plumbing Code, 
Minnesota Rules, chapter 4715, adopted 
under Minnesota Statutes, section I6B.6I, 
subdivisions I and 2. 

Subp. 8. Private sewage disposal code. 

References to the International Private 
Sewage Disposal Code in this code mean the 



1309.0100 CHAPTER 

ADMINISTRATION. 



1, 



Subpart I. IRC chapter 1. IRC chapter I 
is deleted and replaced with the following: 

CHAPTER I 

ADMINISTRATION 



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The 2007 Minnesota State Building Code 



This code shall be administered according to 
Minnesota Rules, chapter 1300. 

Subp. 2. Existing buildings and 

structures. Additions, alterations, or repairs 
to existing buildings and structures meeting 
the scope of the International Residential 
Code shall be exempt from Minnesota Rules, 
chapter 1311, Minnesota Conservation Code 
for Existing Buildings. 

Additions, alterations, or repairs to 
existing one and two family dwellings 
including townhouses may be made without 
requiring the existing building or structure to 
comply with all the requirements of this code 
provided that any addition or alteration 
conforms to this code. Repairs to existing 
buildings or structures may be made that are 
nonstructural and do not adversely affect any 
structural member or required fire resistive 
element with the same methods and materials 
of which the building or structure is 
constructed. 

Exception: The installation or 

replacement of glass shall be as required 
for new installations in accordance with 
IRC Section R308. 

1309.0201 SECTION R201, GENERAL. 

IRC Section R201.4 is amended to read as 
follows: 

R201.4 Terms not defined. Where terms are 
not defined through the methods authorized 
by this chapter, the Merriam-Webster 
Collegiate Dictionary, available at www.m- 
w.com, shall be considered as providing 
ordinarily accepted meanings. The dictionary 
is incorporated by reference, is subject to 
frequent change, and is available through the 
Minitex interlibrary loan system. 



1309.0202 
DEFINITIONS. 



SECTION 



R202, 



Subpart 1. Modifications. IRC Section 
R202 is amended by modifying the following 
definitions: 

DWELLING. 

SINGLE FAMILY. Any building that 
contains one dwelling unit used, intended, 
or designed to be built, used, rented, 
leased, let or hired out to be occupied, or 
occupied for living purposes. 

TWO FAMILY. Any building that 
contains two separate dwelling units with 
separation either horizontal or vertical on 
one lot that is used, intended, or designed 
to be built, used, rented, leased, let or 
hired out to be occupied, or occupied for 
living purposes. 

TOWNHOUSE. A single family 

dwelling unit constructed in a group of 
two or more attached units in which each 
unit extends from the foundation to the 
roof and having open space on at least two 
sides of each unit. Each single family 
dwelling unit shall be considered to be a 
separate building. Separate building 
service utilities shall be provided to each 
single family dwelling unit when required 
by other chapters of the State Building 
Code. 

Subp. 2. Additional definitions. IRC 
Section R202 is amended by adding the 
following definitions: 

CONNECTOR. A device for fastening 

together two or more pieces, members, or 

parts, including anchors, fasteners, and wall 

ties. 

CRAWL SPACE. Areas or rooms with less 

than 7 feet (2134 mm) ceiling height 

measured to the finished floor or grade below. 

DAMPPROOFING. Treatment of a surface 
or structure located below grade to resist the 



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The 2007 Minnesota State Building Code 



passage of water in liquid form, in the 
absence of hydrostatic pressure. 

FASTENER. A device for holding together 
two or more pieces, parts, or members. 

FLASHING. Approved corrosion resistive 
material provided in such a manner as to 
deflect and resist entry of water into the 
construction assembly. 

KICK OUT FLASHING. Flashing used to 
divert water where the lower portion of a 
sloped roof stops within the plane of an 
intersecting wall cladding. 

OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATIONS 

IRC 1 Single family dwelling 
IRC 2 Two family dwellings 
IRC 3 Townhouses 
IRC 4 Accessory structures: 

a. Garages; 

b. Storage sheds; and 

c. Similar structures. 

PAN FLASHING. A type of corrosion 
resistive flashing that is integrated into the 
building envelope at the base of a window or 
door rough opening that diverts incidental 
water to the exterior surface of a weather 
resistive barrier. 

STAIR. A change in elevation, consisting of 
one or more risers. 

STORY ABOVE GRADE PLANE. Any 

story having its finished floor surface entirely 
above grade plane, except a basement, shall 
be considered as a story above grade where 
the finished surface of the floor above the 
basement is: 

1. more than 6 feet (1829 mm) above 
grade plane; 



2. more than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the 
finished ground level for more than 50 
percent of the total building perimeter; or 

3. more than 12 feet (3658 mm) above 
the finished ground level at any point. 

WATERPROOFING. Treatment of a 
surface or structure located below grade to 
resist the passage of water in liquid form, 
under hydrostatic pressure and bridges 
nonstructural cracks. 



1309.0300 SECTION 

CLASSIFICATION. 



R300, 



IRC Chapter 3 is amended by adding a 
new section to read as follows: 

R300.1 Occupancy classification. Structures 
or portions of structures shall be classified 
with respect to occupancy in one or more of 
the groups in accordance with Table R300.1. 

Table R300.1 

Occupancy Classifications 



IRC-1 
IRC-2 
IRC-3 
IRC-4 



Dwelling, single family 
Dwelling, two family 
Townhouse 
Accessory structures 



1309.0301 SECTION R301, DESIGN 
CRITERIA. 

Subpart 1. IRC Section R301.1.4. IRC 

Section R301.1 is amended by adding a 
section to read as follows: 

R301.1.4 Automatic sprinkler systems 
(general). All IRC 2 and IRC 3 buildings 
shall be provided with an automatic sprinkler 
system. 

Exception: 



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The 2007 Minnesota State Building Code 



IRC 2 and IRC 3 buildings less than or 
equal to 9,250 square feet of floor area. 
Floor area shall include all floors, 
basements, and garages. 

R301.1.4.1 State licensed facilities. IRC 1, 

IRC 2, and IRC 3 buildings containing 
facilities licensed by the state of Minnesota 
shall be provided with a fire suppression 
system as required by the applicable licensing 
provisions or this section, whichever is more 
restrictive. 

R301. 1.4.2 Installation requirements. 

Where an automatic sprinkler system is 
required in an IRC 2 and IRC 3 building, it 
shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 
13D 2002 edition and the following: 

Attached garages are required to have 
automatic sprinklers with a minimum of one 
dry head, located within five lineal feet of 
each door installed in the common wall 



separating the dwelling unit and the attached 
garage. 

Attached covered patios, covered decks, 
covered porches, and similar structures are 
required to have automatic sprinklers with a 
minimum of one dry head for every 20 lineal 
feet of common wall between the dwelling 
unit and the covered patios, covered decks, 
covered porches, and similar structures. 

Exception: 

Attached roofs of covered patios, covered 
decks, covered porches, and similar 
structures that do not exceed 40 square 
feet of floor area. 

For the purposes of this section, fire 
resistance rated floor, wall, or ceiling 
assemblies separating dwelling units of IRC 2 
and IRC 3 buildings shall not constitute 
separate buildings. 



Subp. 2. Table R301.2(l). IRC Table R301.2(l) is amended to read as follows: 

Table R301.2(l) 
Climatic and Geographic Design Criteria 



Roof Snow Wind Speed'^ (mph) Weathering^ 
Load'^ 
p^O.7 X pg 90 Severe 



Subject to Damage From 
Frost Line Depth^ Flood Hazards 

See M.R. chapter See M.R. chapter 
1303 1335 



For SI: I pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa ,1 mile per hour = 1.609 km/h 

a. Weathering may require a higher strength concrete or grade of masonry than necessary to 
satisfy the structural requirement of this code. The grade of masonry units shall be determined 
from ASTM C 34, C 55, C 62, C 73, C 90, C 129, C 145, C 216, or C 652. 

b. The frost line depth may require deeper footings than indicated in Figure R403. 1(1) 

c. Wind exposure category shall be determined on a site specific basis in accordance with 
Section R301.2. 1.4. 

d. The ground snow loads to be used in determining the design snow loads for buildings and 
other structures are given in Minnesota Rules, chapter 1303. 



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The 2007 Minnesota State Building Code 



Subp. 3. Figure R301.2(5). IRC Figure 
R30 1.2(5), Ground Snow Loads, Pg, for the 
United States (Ib/ft^), is deleted in its entirety. 

Subp. 4. Table R301.5. IRC Table 
R301.5 is amended to read as follows: 

Table R30 1.5 

Minimum Uniformly Distributed Live Loads 
(in pounds per square foot) 



Use 
Attics with limited storage^'^'^ 
Attics without storage^ 
Decks' 

Exterior balconies 
Fire escapes 

Guardrails and handrails'^ 
Guardrails in fill components^ 
Passenger vehicle garages^ 
Rooms other than sleeping rooms 
Sleeping rooms 
Stairs 



Live 
Load 

20 

10 

40 

60 

40 
200^ 

50^ 

50' 

40 

30 

40'^ 



For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 
kPa, 1 square inch = 645 mm^ , 1 pound = 

4.45 N. 

a. Elevated garage floors shall be capable of 
supporting a 2,000 pound load applied over a 
20 square inch area. 

b. Attics without storage are those where the 
maximum clear height between joist and 
rafter is less than 42 inches, or where there 
are not two or more adjacent trusses with the 
same web configuration capable of containing 
a rectangle 42 inches high by 2 feet wide, or 
greater, located within the plane of the truss. 
For attics without storage, this live load need 
not be assumed to act concurrently with any 
other live load requirements. 

c. Individual stair treads shall be designed 
for the uniformly distributed live load or a 
300 pound concentrated load acting over an 
area of four square inches, whichever 
produces the greater stresses. 



d. A single concentrated load applied in any 
direction at any point along the top. 

e. See Section R502.2.1 for decks attached 
to exterior walls. 

f Guard in fill components (all those except 
the handrail), balusters and panel fillers shall 
be designed to withstand a horizontally 
applied normal load of 50 pounds on an area 
equal to one square foot. This load need not 
be assumed to act concurrently with any other 
live load requirement. 

g. For attics with limited storage and 
constructed with trusses, this live load need 
be applied only to those portions of the 
bottom chord where there are two or more 
adjacent trusses with the same web 
configuration capable of containing a 
rectangle 42 inches high or greater by 2 feet 
wide or greater, located within the plane of 
the truss. The rectangle shall fit between the 
top of the bottom chord and the bottom of any 
other truss member, provided that each of the 
following criteria is met: 

1. The attic area is accessible by a pull 
down stairway or framed opening in 
accordance with Section R807.1; 

2. The truss has a bottom chord pitch less 
than 2: 12; and 

3. Required insulation depth is less than 
the bottom chord member depth. 

The bottom chords of trusses meeting the 
above criteria for limited storage shall be 
designed for the greater of the actual imposed 
dead load or ten pounds per square foot, 
uniformly distributed over the entire span, 
h. Attic spaces served by a fixed stair shall 
be designed to support the minimum live load 
specified for sleeping rooms, 
i. Glazing used in handrail assemblies and 
guards shall be designed with a safety factor 
of 4. The safety factor shall be applied to 
each of the concentrated loads applied to the 
top of the rail, and to the load on the in fill 
components. These loads shall be determined 
independent of one another, and loads are 
assumed not to occur with any other live load. 



241 



The 2007 Minnesota State Building Code 



1309.0302 SECTION R302, EXTERIOR 
WALL LOCATION. 

IRC Section R302.1 is amended to read as 
follows: 

R302.1 Exterior walls. Construction, 
projections, openings, and penetrations of 
exterior walls of dwellings and accessory 
buildings shall comply with Table 302.1. 
These provisions shall not apply to walls, 
projections, openings, or penetrations in walls 
that are perpendicular to the line used to 
determine the fire separation distance. 



Projections beyond the exterior shall not 
extend more than 12 inches (305 mm) into 
areas where openings are prohibited. 

Exceptions: 

1. Detached garages accessory to a 
dwelling located within 2 feet (610 mm) 
of a lot line are permitted to have eave 
projections not exceeding 4 inches (103 
mm). 

2. Foundation vents installed in 
compliance with this code are permitted. 



Table R302.1 
Exterior Walls 



Walls 



Exterior Wall Element 

(Fire-resistance rated) 

(Not fire-resistance 
rated) 



Minimum Fire- 
Resistance Rating 
1 hour with exposure 
from both sides 



hours 



Minimum Fire 
Separation Distance 

Ofeet 



5 feet 



Projections 



Openings 



Penetrations 



(Fire-resistance rated) 

(Not fire-resistance 
rated) 

Not allowed 
25% Maximum of 
Wall Area 
Unlimited 



All 



1 hour on the 




underside^ 


2 feet ** 


hours 


5 feet 


N/A 


less than 3 feet 


hours 


3 feet 


hours 


5 feet 


Comply with Section 




R317.3 


less than 5 feet 


None required 


5 feet 



N/A= Not Applicable 

^ 1 hour on the underside equates to one layer of 5/8" type X gypsum sheathing. Openings are 

not allowed. 

** ICC Errata, 9-12-2006 



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The 2007 Minnesota State Building Code 



1309.0305 SECTION R305, CEILING 
HEIGHT. 

IRC Section R305.1 is amended to read as 
follows: 



and shall comply with the provisions of this 
section for garages. 

Subp. 3. IRC Section R309.6. IRC 

Section R309.6 is amended to read as follows: 



R305.1 Minimum height. Habitable rooms, 
hallways, corridors, bathrooms, toilet rooms, 
and basements shall have a ceiling height of 
not less than 7 feet (2134 mm). The required 
height shall be measured from the finish floor 
to the lowest projection from the ceiling. 
Areas or rooms with ceiling heights less than 
7 feet (2134 mm) are considered crawl 
spaces. 

Exceptions: 

1. Beams and girders spaced not less 
than 4 feet (1219 mm) on center may 
project not more than 6 inches (152 mm) 
below the required ceiling height. 

2. Not more than 50 percent of the 
required floor area of a room or space is 
permitted to have a sloped ceiling less 
than 7 feet (2134 mm) in height with no 
portion of the required floor area less than 
5 feet (1524 mm) in height. 

1309.0309 SECTION R309, GARAGES 
AND CARPORTS. 

Subpart 1. IRC Section R309.3. IRC 

Section R309.3 is amended to read as follows: 

R309.3 Floor surface. Garage floor surfaces 
may be concrete, asphalt, sand, gravel, 
crushed rock, or natural earth. 

Subp. 2. IRC Section R309.4. IRC 

Section R309.4 is amended to read as follows: 

R309.4 Carports. Carports shall be open on 
at least two sides. Carport floor surfaces may 
be concrete, asphalt, sand, gravel, crushed 
rock, or natural earth. Carports not open on at 
least two sides shall be considered a garage 



R309.6 Automatic garage door opening 
systems. All automatic garage door opening 
systems that are installed, serviced, or 
repaired for garages serving residential 
buildings must comply with the provisions of 
Minnesota Statutes, sections 325F.82 and 
325F.83. 

1309.0310 SECTION R310, EMERGENCY 
ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENINGS. 

IRC Section R3I0.1 is amended to read as 
follows: 

R310.1.5 Replacement windows. 

Replacement windows installed in buildings 
meeting the scope of the International 
Residential Code shall be exempt from the 
requirements of Sections R310.1, R310.1.1, 
R3I0.1.2, and R310.1.3 if the replacement 
window meets the following conditions: 

1. The replacement window is the 
manufacturer's largest standard size window 
that will fit within the existing frame or 
existing rough opening. The replacement 
window shall be permitted to be of the same 
operating style as the existing window or a 
style that provides for a greater window 
opening area than the existing window; 

2. The rooms or areas are not used for 
any Minnesota state licensed purpose 
requiring an egress window; and 

3. The window is not required to be 
replaced pursuant to a locally adopted rental 
housing or rental licensing code. 

1309.0311 SECTION R311, MEANS OF 
EGRESS. 



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The 2007 Minnesota State Building Code 



R31 1.4.3 Landings at doors. Except as 
provided in this section, there shall be a floor 
or landing on each side of each exterior door. 
The width of the landing shall not be less than 
the door served. The landing shall have a 
minimum dimension of 36 inches (9114 mm) 
measured in the direction of travel. 

R31 1.4.3.1 Landings at the exterior exit 
door required by Section R31 1.4.1. 

1. The floor or landing at the exit door 
required by Section R31 1.4.1 shall not be 
more than 1.5 inches (38 mm) below the top 
of the threshold, regardless of door swing. 

2. The exterior landing shall be up to 7 
3/4 inches (196 mm) below the top of the 
threshold, provided the door, other than an 
exterior storm or screen door, does not swing 
over the exterior landing. 

R31 1.4.3.2 Landings or floors at exterior 
doors other than those required by Section 
R311.4.1. 

1 . The exterior landing shall be permitted 
to be no greater than 7 3/4 inches (196 mm) 
below the top of the threshold, provided the 
door, other than an exterior storm or screen 
door, does not swing over the exterior 
landing. 

2. Landings in this subsection are not 
required for the exterior side of a door when a 
stairway that is less than 30 inches (762 mm) 
in height is located on the exterior side of the 
door. The stairway height shall be measured 
vertically from the interior floor surface to the 
finished grade. 

3 . An exterior landing is not required at a 
doorway when only a storm or screen door is 
installed which does not swing over the 
exterior landing. 

1309.0312 Repealed 



1309.0313 SMOKE ALARMS. 

IRC Section R3 13.2.1 is amended as 
follows: 

R313.2.1 Alterations, repairs, or additions. 

When alterations, repairs, or additions 
requiring a permit occur, or when one or more 
sleeping rooms are added or created in 
existing dwellings, the individual dwelling 
unit shall be equipped with smoke alarms 
located as required for new dwellings, and the 
smoke alarms shall be interconnected and 
hardwired. 

Exceptions: 

1. Interconnection and hardwiring of 
smoke alarms in existing areas shall not 
be required to be hardwired where the 
alterations or repairs do not result in the 
removal of interior wall or ceiling finishes 
exposing the structure. 

2. Work on the exterior surfaces of 
dwellings, such as the replacement of 
roofing or siding are exempt from the 
requirements of this section. 

3. Permits involving alterations or 
repairs to plumbing, electrical, and 
mechanical are exempt from the 
requirements of this section. 



1309.0314 
PLASTIC. 



SECTION R314, FOAM 



IRC Section R3 14.5. 11 
read as follows: 



is amended to 



R314.5.11 Sill plate and headers. Foam 
plastic shall be permitted to be spray applied 
to a sill plate and header (rim joist) without 
thermal barrier subject to all of the following: 

1 . The maximum thickness of the foam 
plastic shall not exceed 5 1/2 inches (139.5 
mm). 



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The 2007 Minnesota State Building Code 



2. The foam plastic shall have a flame 
spread index of 25 or less and an 
accompanying smoke developed index of 450 
or less when tested in accordance with ASTM 
E84. 

1309.0315 Repealed 

1309.0316 Repealed 

1309.0317 SECTION R317, DWELLING 
UNIT SEPARATION. 

Subpart 1. IRC Section R317.1. IRC 

Section R317.1 is amended to read as follows: 



R317.1.1 Supporting construction. When 
floor assemblies are required to be fire 
resistance rated by Section R317.1, the 
supporting construction of such assemblies 
shall have an equal or greater fire resistive 
rating. 

Subp. 2. IRC Section 317.2. IRC 

Section 317.2 is amended to read as follows: 

R317.2 Townhouses. Each townhouse shall 
be considered a separate building and shall be 
separated by fire resistance rated wall 
assemblies meeting the requirements of 
Section R302 for exterior walls. 



R317.1 Two family dwellings. Dwelling 
units in two family dwellings shall be 
separated from each other by wall and/or floor 
assemblies having not less than 1 hour fire 
resistance rating when tested in accordance 
with ASTM E 1 19. Fire resistance rated floor 
ceiling and wall assemblies shall extend to 
and be tight against the exterior wall, and wall 
assemblies shall extend to and be tight against 
the exterior wall, and wall assemblies shall 
extend to the underside of the roof sheathing. 

Exceptions: 

1. A fire resistance rating of 1/2 hour 
shall be permitted in buildings equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system installed in accordance with NFPA 
13. 

2. Wall assemblies need not extend 
through attic spaces when the ceiling is 
protected by not less than 5/8 inch (15.9 
mm) type X gypsum board and an attic 
draftstop constructed as specified in 
Section R502.12.I is provided above and 
along the wall assembly separating the 
dwellings. The structural framing 
supporting the ceiling shall also be 
protected by not less than 1/2 inch (12.7 
mm) gypsum board or equivalent. 



Exception: A common 2 hour fire 
resistance rated wall is permitted for 
townhouses if such walls do not contain 
plumbing or mechanical equipment, ducts 
or vents in the cavity of the common wall. 
Electrical installations shall be installed in 
accordance with chapters 33 through 42. 
Penetrations of electrical outlet boxes 
shall be in accordance with Section 
R317.3. 

R3 17.2.1 Continuity. The fire resistance 
rated wall or assembly separating townhouses 
shall be continuous from the foundation to the 
underside of the roof sheathing, roof deck, or 
roof slab and shall extend the full length of 
the wall including wall extensions through 
and separating attached accessory structures. 
Separation shall extend through enclosed 
soffits, overhangs, and similar projections. 

Subp. 3. IRC Section R317.4. IRC 

Section R317 is amended by adding a new 
section to read as follows: 

R317.4 Sound transmission. Wall and floor 
ceiling assemblies separating dwelling units, 
including those separating adjacent 
townhouse units, shall provide airborne sound 
insulation for walls, and both airborne and 
impact sound insulation for floor ceiling 
assemblies. 



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The 2007 Minnesota State Building Code 



R317.4.1 Airborne sound. Airborne sound 
insulation for wall and floor ceiling 
assemblies shall meet a Sound Transmission 
Class (STC) rating of 45 when tested in 
accordance with ASTM E 90. Penetrations or 
openings in construction assemblies for 
piping; electrical devices; recessed cabinets; 
bathtubs; soffits; or heating, ventilating, or 
exhaust ducts shall be sealed, lined, insulated, 
or otherwise treated to maintain the required 
ratings. Dwelling unit entrance doors, which 
share a common space, shall be tight fitting to 
the frame and sill. 

R317.4.2 Structural borne sound. 

Floor/ceiling assemblies between dwelling 
units or between a dwelling unit and a public 
or service area within a structure shall have an 
Impact Insulation Class (IIC) rating of not 
less than 45 when tested in accordance with 
ASTM E 492. 

R317.4.3 Referenced standards. 

R317.4.3.1 ASTM E 90 04 Test Method for 
Laboratory Measurement of Airborne Sound 
Transmission Loss of Building Partitions and 
Elements R317.4.1. 

R317.4.3.2 ASTM E 492 04 (1996)e 
Specification for Laboratory Measurement of 
Impact Sound Transmission through Floor 
Ceiling Assemblies Using the Tapping 
Machine R3 17.4.2. 

1309.0318 SECTION R318, MOISTURE 
VAPOR RETARDERS. 

IRC Section R318.1 is amended to read as 
follows: 



Exception: In construction where 

moisture or freezing will not damage the 
materials. 

1309.0322 Repealed 

1309.0403 SECTION R403, FOOTINGS. 

Subpart 1. IRC Section R403.1.4.1. IRC 

Section R403. 1.4.1 is amended to read as 
follows: 

R403.1.4.1 Frost protection. Except where 
otherwise protected from frost, foundation 
walls, piers, and other permanent supports of 
buildings and structures shall be protected 
from frost by one or more of the following 
methods: 

1. Extended below the frost line 
specified in Table R301.2(l); 

2. Constructing in accordance with 
Section R403. 3; 

3. Constructing in accordance with 
ASCE 32; 

4. Erected on solid rock; or 

5. Constructing in accordance with 
chapter 1303. 

Exception: Decks not supported by a 
dwelling need not be provided with 
footings that extend below the frost line. 

Subp. 2. IRC Section R403.1.6. IRC 

Section R403.1.6 is amended to read as 
follows: 



R318.1 Vapor retarders. In all above grade 
framed walls, floors, and roof/ceilings 
comprising elements of the building thermal 
envelope, a vapor retarder shall be installed 
on the warm side of the insulation. Vapor 
retarders installed under a concrete floor slab 
shall comply with section R506.2.3. 



R403.1.6 Foundation anchorage. When 
braced wall panels are supported directly on 
continuous foundations, the wall wood sill 
plate or cold formed steel bottom track shall 
be anchored to the foundation in accordance 
with this section. 



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The 2007 Minnesota State Building Code 



The wood sole plate at exterior walls on 
monolithic slabs and wood sill plate shall be 
anchored to the foundation with anchor bolts 
spaced a maximum of 6 feet (1829 mm) on 
center. There shall be a minimum of two 
bolts per plate section with one bolt located 
not more than 12 inches (305 mm) or less 
than seven bolt diameters from each end of 
the plate section. Bolts shall be at least 1/2 
inch (12.7 mm) in diameter and shall extend a 
minimum of 7 inches (178 mm) into masonry 
or concrete. Interior bearing wall sole plates 
on monolithic slab foundations shall be 
positively anchored with approved fasteners. 
A nut and washer shall be tightened on each 
bolt to the plate. Sills and sole plates shall be 
protected against decay and termites where 
required by Sections R322 and R323. Cold 
formed steel framing systems shall be 
fastened to the wood sill plates or anchored 
directly to the foundation as required in 
Section R505.3.1 or R603.1.1. When vertical 
reinforcing is required by other sections of 
this code, the foundation anchor bolts shall 
align with the reinforcing. All anchor bolts 
installed in masonry shall be grouted in place 
with at least 1 inch (25 mm) of grout between 
the bolt and the masonry. 

Exceptions: 



3. Walls 12 inches (304.8 mm) total 
length or shorter connecting offset braced 
wall panels shall be permitted to be 
connected to the foundation without 
anchor bolts. The wall shall be attached 
to adjacent braced wall panels according 
to Figure R602.10.5 at corners. 



1309.0404 

FOUNDATION 

WALLS. 



SECTION R404, 

AND RETAINING 



Subpart 1. Section R404.L IRC Section 
R404.1, Items 4 and 5, are amended to read as 
follows: 

4. Floor shall be blocked perpendicular 
to the floor joists. Blocking shall be full 
depth within three joist spaces of the 
foundation wall. 

5. Where foundation walls support 
unbalanced load on opposite sides of the 
building, such as a daylight basement, the rim 
board shall be attached to the sill with a 20 
gage metal angle clip at 24 inches on center, 
with five 8d nails per leg, or an approved 
connector supplying 230 pounds per linear 
foot capacity. 



1. Foundation anchor straps spaced as 
required to provide equivalent anchorage 
to 1/2 inch diameter (12.7 mm) anchor 
bolts. When vertical reinforcing is 
required by other sections of this code, the 
foundation anchor straps shall align with 
the reinforcing. 

2. Walls 24 inches (609.6 mm) total 
length or shorter connecting offset braced 
wall panels shall be anchored to the 
foundation with a minimum of one anchor 
bolt located in the center third of the plate 
section and shall be attached to adjacent 
braced wall panels according to Figure 
R602.10.5 at corners. 



247 



The 2007 Minnesota State Building Code 



Subp. 2. Table R404.1(2). IRC Table R404.1(2) is amended to read as follows: 

Table R404. 1(2) 
Maximum Anchor Bolt Spacing for Supported Foundation Wall 



Max. 
Unbalanced 



1/2" diameter 
Anchor Bolt 



Max. Wall 


Backfill 




Soil Load Top of Wall 


Spacing 


Height 


Height 


Soil Classes 


(pcf/ft) Reaction (plf)^ 


(inches)^ 






GW, GP, SW, & SP 


30 250 


72 


8' - 0" 


T - 4" 


GM, GC, SM-SC, & ML 


45 370 


72 






SC, MH, ML-CL & I-CL 


60 490 


48 



GW, GP, SW, & SP 30 

9'_0" 8' -4" GM, GC, SM-SC, & ML 45 

SC, MR ML-CL, & I-CL 60 



320 


72 


480 


48 


640 


40 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm 
^ Sill plate shall be 2 x 6 minimum. Anchor bolt shall be minimum 0.5" diameter cast in place 
with 7" embed. Anchor bolt shall have a 2" diameter by 0.125" thick washer tightened and 
countersunk 0.25" into the top of the sill plate. 
^ Minimum load to be used for sizing of accepted anchors or fasteners if bolts are not used. 



Subp. 3. Table R404.1(3). IRC Table 
R404.1(3) is deleted in its entirety. 

Subp. 4. Section R404.1.1. IRC Section 
R404.I.1 is amended to read as follows: 

R404.1.1 Masonry foundation walls. 

Concrete masonry and clay masonry 
foundation walls shall be constructed as set 
forth in Table R404.1.1(l), R404.1.1(2), 
R404.1.1(3), or R404. 1.1(4) and shall also 
comply with the provisions of Section R404 
and the applicable provisions of Sections 
R606, R607, and R608. Rubble stone 
masonry foundation walls shall be constructed 
in accordance with Sections R404.1.8 and 
R607.2.2. Cantilevered masonry foundation 
walls shall be constructed as set forth in Table 
R404. 1.1(6), R404. 1.1(7), or R404. 1.1(8). 
Cantilevered means: foundation walls that do 
not have permanent lateral support at the top. 



Subp. 5. Section R404.1.2. IRC Section 
R404.I.2 is amended to read as follows: 

R404.1.2 Concrete foundation walls. 

Concrete foundation walls shall be 
constructed as set forth in Table R404.1.1(5) 
and shall also comply with the provisions of 
Section R404 and the applicable provisions of 
Section R404.2. Cantilevered concrete 
foundation walls shall be constructed as set 
forth in Table R404.1.1(6), R404. 1.1(7), or 
R404. 1.1(8). Cantilevered means: 

foundation walls that do not have permanent 
lateral support at the top. 

Subp. 6. Table R404.1.1(6). IRC Section 
R404 is amended by adding a new table as 
follows: 



248 



The 2007 Minnesota State Building Code 

Table R404. 1.1(6) 
Cantilevered Concrete and Masonry Foundation Walls 





Maximum 


Maximui 


n Unbalanced 


Wall 


Backfill 


Height' 


Height' 


(feet) 


(feet) 



Minimum 

Vertical Reinforcement Size and Spacing for 

8_-JnclLl^minalJWan Thickneis^^'^"'^^^^^ _ 

Soil Classes^ 
GW, GP, SW, & SP GM, GC, SM, SM-CS, 
&ML 



SC, MH, ML-CL, and 
inorganic CL 



3 None required 

_4 None required 



None required 
None required 



None required 
No. 4 @ 72 in. o.c. 



3 None required 

4 No. 4 @ 72 in. o.c. 

5 No. 4 @ 72 in. o.c. 



None required 
No. 4 @ 56 in. o.c. 
No. 4 @ 56 in. o.c. 



None required 
No. 4 @ 40 in. o.c.^ 
No. 4 @ 40 in. o.c.^ 



a. Mortar shall be Type M or S and masonry 
shall be laid in running bond. Minimum unit 
compressive strength is 1,900 psi. 

b. Alternative reinforcing bar sizes and 
spacings having an equivalent cross sectional 
area of reinforcement per lineal foot of wall 
shall be permitted provided the spacing of the 
reinforcement does not exceed 72 inches. 

c. Vertical reinforcement shall be Grade 60 
minimum. The distance from the face of the 
soil side of the wall to the center of vertical 
reinforcement shall be no greater than 2.5 
inches. 

d. Soil classes are in accordance with the 
Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to 
Table R405.1. 

e. Interior concrete floor slab on grade shall 
be placed tight to the wall. The exterior grade 
level shall be 6 inches minimum below the 
top of wall. Maximum height from top of 
slab on grade to bottom of floor joists is 10 
feet inches. Unbalanced backfill height is 
the difference in height of the exterior finish 
ground levels and the top of the interior 
concrete slab on grade. 

f Minimum footing size of 20 inches by 8 
inches shall be placed on soil with a bearing 
capacity of 2,000 psf Minimum concrete 



compressive strength of footing shall be 3,000 

psi. 

g. Provide propped cantilever wall: top of 

footing shall be 16 inches below the bottom 

of the concrete floor slab minimum. 

h. Provide #5 Grade 60 dowels, 1 foot 6 

inches long, to connect footing to wall. 

Embed dowel 5 inches into footing. Place 

dowels in center of wall thickness spaced at 

32 inches o.c. maximum. No dowels are 

required where length of the foundation wall 

between perpendicular walls is two times the 

foundation wall height or less. 

i. This table is applicable where the length 

of the foundation wall between perpendicular 

walls is 35 feet or less, or where the length of 

the foundation laterally supported on only one 

end by a perpendicular wall is 17 feet or less. 

j. Maximum wall height is measured from 

top of the foundation wall to the bottom of the 

interior concrete slab on grade. 

k. Install foundation anchorage per Section 

R403.1.6. 



249 



The 2007 Minnesota State Building Code 



Subp. 7. Table R404.1.1(7). IRC Section 
R404 is amended by adding a new table as 



follows: 



Table R404. 1.1(7) 
Cantilevered Concrete and Masonry Foundation Walls 





Maximum 




Maximui 


n Unbalanced 




Wall 


Backfill 


Minimum 


Height' 


Height' 


Vertical Reinforcement Size and Spacing for 


(feet) 


(feet) 


10 - Inch Nominal Wall Thickness"'^'^'''^''''' 

Soil Classes 
GW, GP, SW, & SP GM, GC, SM, SM-SC. 
&ML 



SC, MH, ML-CL, and 
inorganic CL 



None 
None 



required 
required 



None required 
None required 



None required 
None required 



None 
None 
No. 4 



required 
required 
@ 72 in. o.c. 



None required 
No. 4 @ 72 in. o.c. 
No. 4 @ 72 in. o.c. 



None required 
No. 4 @ 64 in. o.c.^ 
No. 4 @ 56 in. o.c.^ 



3 None required 

4 No. 4 @ 72 in. o.c. 

5 No. 4 @ 64 in. o.c. 

6 No. 4 (d), 64 in. o.c. 



No. 4 @ 72 in. o.c. 
No. 4 @ 72 in. o.c. 
No. 4 @ 40 in. o.c.^'^ 
No. 4 @ 40 in. o.c.^'^ 



No. 4 @ 72 in. o.c. 
No. 4 @ 64 in. o.c.^ 
No. 5 @ 48 in. o.c.^'^ 
No. 5 (a), 48 in. o.c.^'^ 



a. Mortar shall be Type M or S and masonry 
shall be laid in running bond. Minimum unit 
compressive strength is 1,900 psi. 

b. Alternative reinforcing bar sizes and 
spacings having an equivalent cross sectional 
area of reinforcement per lineal foot of wall 
shall be permitted provided the spacing of the 
reinforcement does not exceed 72 inches. 

c. Vertical reinforcement shall be Grade 60 
minimum. The distance from the face of the 
soil side of the wall to the center of vertical 
reinforcement shall be no greater than 2.5 
inches. 

d. Soil classes are in accordance with the 
Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to 
Table R405.1. 

e. Interior concrete slab on grade shall be 
placed tight to the wall. The exterior grade 
level shall be 6 inches minimum below the 
top of wall. Maximum height from top of 
slab on grade to bottom of floor joists is 10 



feet inches. Unbalanced backfill height is 

the difference in height of the exterior finish 

ground levels and the top of the interior 

concrete slab on grade. 

f Minimum footing size of 20 inches by 8 

inches shall be placed on soil with a bearing 

capacity of 2,000 psf Minimum concrete 

compressive strength of footing shall be 3,000 

psi. 

g. Provide propped cantilever wall: top of 

footing shall be 16 inches below the bottom 

of the concrete floor slab minimum. 

h. Provide #5 Grade 60 dowels, 1 foot, 6 

inches long, to connect footing to wall. 

Embed dowel 5 inches into footing. Place 

dowels in center of wall thickness spaced at 

32 inches o.c. maximum. No dowels are 

required where length of the foundation wall 

between perpendicular walls is two times the 

foundation wall height or less. 

i. This table is applicable where the length 

of the foundation wall between perpendicular 



250 



The 2007 Minnesota State Building Code 



walls is 35 feet or less, or where the length of 
the foundation laterally supported on only one 
end by a perpendicular wall is 17 feet or less, 
j. Maximum wall height is measured from 
top of the foundation wall to the bottom of the 
interior concrete slab on grade. 



k. Install foundation anchorage per Section 
R403.1.6. 

Subp. 8. Table R404.1.1(8). IRC Section 
R404 is amended by adding a new table as 
follows: 



Table R404. 1.1(8) 
Cantilevered Concrete and Masonry Foundation Walls 





Maximum 


Maximui 


n Unbalanced 


Wall 


Backfill 


Height' 


Height' 


(feet) 


(feet) 



Minimum 

Vertical Reinforcement Size and Spacing for 

12 - Inch Nominal Wall Thickn^ss"'^"'^^':^ _ 

Soil Classes^ 
GW, GP, SW, & SP GM, GC, SM, SM-SC, 
&ML 



SC, MH, ML-CL, and 
inorganic CL 



None 
None 



required 
required 



None 
None 



required 
required 



None required 
None required 



None 
None 
No. 4 



required 
required 
(a), 72 in. o.c. 



None 
None 
No. 4 



required 
required 
(a), 72 in. o.c. 



None required 
No. 4 @ 72 in. o.c. 
No. 4 (a), 72 in. o.c. 



None 
None 
No. 4 
No. 4 



required 
required 
@ 72 in. o.c. 
@ 72 in. o.c. 



None 
None 
No. 4 
No. 4 



required 
required 
@ 56 in. o.c. 
@ 56 in. o.c. 



None required 
No. 4 @ 72 in. o.c. 
No. 4 @ 40 in. o.c.^ 

No. 4 (a), 32 in. o.c.^^' 



3 None required 

4 None required 

5 No. 4 @ 72 in. o.c. 

6 No. 4 @ 48 in. o.c. 

7 No. 4 (a), 48 in. o.c. 



None required 
No. 4 
No. 4 

No. 5 
No. 5 



@ 72 in. o.c. 
@ 56 in. o.c.*^ 
@ 48 in. o.c.^'^ 
@ 40 in. o.c.^'^ 



None required 
No. 4 @ 72 in. o.c. 
No. 4 @ 40 in. o.c.^ 
No. 6 @ 48 in. o.c.^'^ 
No. 6 @ 48 in. o.c.^'^ 



a. Mortar shall be Type M or S and masonry 
shall be laid in running bond. Minimum unit 
compressive strength is 1,900 psi. 

b. Alternative reinforcing bar sizes and 
spacings having an equivalent cross sectional 
area of reinforcement per lineal foot of wall 
shall be permitted provided the spacing of the 
reinforcement does not exceed 72 inches. 

c. Vertical reinforcement shall be Grade 60 
minimum. The distance from the face of the 
soil side of the wall to the center of vertical 



reinforcement shall be no greater than 3 
inches. 

d. Soil classes are in accordance with the 
Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to 
Table R405.1. 

e. Interior concrete slab on grade shall be 
placed tight to the wall. The exterior grade 
level shall be 6 inches minimum below the 
top of wall. Maximum height from top of 
slab on grade to bottom of floor joists is 10 
feet, inches. Unbalanced backfill height is 
the difference in height of the exterior finish 



251 



The 2007 Minnesota State Building Code 



ground levels and the top of the interior 
concrete slab on grade. 

f. Minimum footing size of 20 inches by 8 
inches shall be placed on soil with a bearing 
capacity of 2,000 psf Minimum concrete 
compressive strength of footing shall be 3,000 
psi. 

g. Provide propped cantilever wall: top of 
footing shall be 16 inches below the bottom 
of the concrete floor slab minimum. 

h. Provide #5 Grade 60 dowels, 1 foot, 6 
inches long, to connect footing to wall. 
Embed dowel 5 inches into footing. Place 
dowels in center of wall thickness spaced at 
32 inches o.c. maximum. No dowels are 
required where length of the foundation wall 
between perpendicular walls is two times the 
foundation wall height or less, 
i. This table is applicable where the length 
of the foundation wall between perpendicular 
walls is 35 feet or less, or where the length of 
the foundation laterally supported on only one 
end by a perpendicular wall is 17 feet or less, 
j. Maximum wall height is measured from 
top of the foundation wall to the bottom of the 
interior concrete slab on grade, 
k. Install foundation anchorage per Section 
R403.1.6. 



foundation walls that retain earth and enclose 
interior spaces and floors below grade shall be 
dampproofed at a minimum from the top of 
the footing to the finished grade. Masonry 
walls shall be parged with not less than 3/8 
inch (9.5 mm) portland cement parging 
applied to the exterior of the wall. The 
parging shall be dampproofed in accordance 
with one of the following: 

1. Bituminous coating. 

2. 3 pounds per square yard (1.63 kg/m^) 
of acrylic modified cement. 

3. 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) coat of surface 
bonding cement complying with ASTM C 
887. 



4. Any material permitted 
waterproofing in Section R406.2. 



for 



5. Other approved methods or materials. 

Exception: Parging of unit masonry 
walls is not required where a material is 
approved for direct application to the 
masonry. 



Subp. 9. IRC Section R404.1.3. IRC 

Section R404.1.3 is amended by adding the 
following exception to condition 2: 

Exception: Cantilevered concrete and 
masonry foundation walls constructed in 
accordance with Table R404. 1.1(6), 
R404.1. 1(7), or R404. 1.1(8). 



Concrete walls shall be dampproofed by 
applying any one of the above listed 
dampproofing materials or any one of the 
waterproofing materials listed in Section 
R406.2 to the exterior of the wall. 

Subp. 2. IRC Section R406.2. IRC 

Section R406.2 is amended to read as follows: 



1309.0406 SECTION R406, 

FOUNDATION WATERPROOFING 

AND DAMPPROOFING. 

Subpart 1. IRC Section R406.1. IRC 

Section R406.1 is amended to read as follows: 

R406.1 Concrete and masonry foundation 
dampproofing. Except where required by 
Section R406.2 to be waterproofed. 



R406.2 Concrete and masonry foundation 
waterproofing. In all soils groups other than 
Group 1 soils in accordance with Table 
R405.1, exterior foundation walls that retain 
earth and enclose interior spaces and floors 
below grade shall be waterproofed at a 
minimum from the top of the footing to the 
finished grade. Walls shall be waterproofed 
in accordance with one of the following: 



252 



The 2007 Minnesota State Building Code 



1 . 2 ply hot mopped felts. 

2. 55 pound (25 kg) roll roofing. 

3. 6 mil (0.15 mm) polyvinyl chloride. 

4. 6 mil (0.15 mm) polyethylene. 

5. 40 mil (1 mm) polymer modified 
asphalt. 

6. 60 mil (1.5 mm) flexible polymer 
cement. 



7. 1/8 inch cement based, 
reinforced, waterproof coating. 



fiber 



8. 60 mil (1.5 mm) solvent free liquid 
applied synthetic rubber. 

Exception: Organic solvent based 
products such as hydrocarbons, 
chlorinated hydrocarbons, ketones, and 
esters shall not be used for ICF walls with 
expanded polystyrene form material. 
Plastic roofing cements, acrylic coatings, 
latex coatings, mortars, and pargings are 
permitted to be used to seal ICF walls. 
Cold setting asphalt or hot asphalt shall 
conform to Type C of ASTMD 449. Hot 
asphalt shall be applied at a temperature 
of less than 200 degrees. 

All joints in membrane waterproofing shall be 
lapped and sealed with an adhesive 
compatible with the membrane. 

1309.0506 Repealed 

1309.0602 SECTION R602, WOOD WALL 
FRAMING. 

Subpart 1. Table R602.3.1. IRC Table 
R602.3.1 is amended to read as follows: 



Table R602.3.1 

Maximum Allowable Length of Wood Wall 

Studs Exposed to 

Wind Speeds of 90 mph or less^"'^'''^'^'*''^ 

Where conditions are not within the 

parameters 

of footnotes b, c, d, e, f, g, h, and i, 

design is required. 

Roof spans up to 22' supporting a roof only 



Maximum 




On-Center Spacing 


Wall 


Exposure 




(inches) 




Height 
(feet) 


Category*"' 
B 


24 


16 


12 


8 


10 


"2x6 


2x4" 


"2x4" 


"2x4" 




C 


2x6 


2x6 


2x4 


2x4 


12 


B 


2x6 


2x6 


2x4 


2x4 




C 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


2x4 


14 


B 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


2x4 




C 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


16 


B 


2x8 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 




C 


2x8 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


18 


B 


2x8 


2x8 


2x6 


2x6 




C 


2x8 


2x8 


2x6 


2x6 


20 


B 


2x8 


2x8 


2x8 


2x6 




C 


NA^ 


2x8 


2x8 


2x6 


24 


B 


NA' 


2x8 


2x8 


2x8 




C 


NA' 


NA' 


2x8 


2x8 


Roof spans greater than 22 


' and 


up tc 


) 26' 


supporting 


a roof only 










Maximum 




On-Center Spacing 


Wall 


Exposure 




(inches) 




Height 
(feet) 


Category*"' 
B 


24 


16 


12 


8 


10 


"2x6 


"2x6" 


""2x4" 


"2"x"4"" 




C 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


2x4 


12 


B 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


2x4 




C 


2x8 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


14 


B 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 




C 


2x8 


2x8 


2x6 


2x6 


16 


B 


2x8 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 




C 


2x8 


2x8 


2x6 


2x6 


18 


B 


2x8 


2x8 


2x6 


2x6 




C 


NA' 


2x8 


2x8 


2x6 


20 


B 


NA^ 


2x8 


2x8 


2x6 




C 


NA' 


NA' 


2x8 


2x8 



253 



The 2007 Minnesota State Building Code 



Maximum 

Wall Exposure 

Height Category 

(feet) 

24 B 

C 



hj 



On-Center Spacing 
(inches) 

24 16 12 8 

NA'"nA'""2x8""2xY 
NA' NA' NA' 2x8 



Roof spans greater than 26' and up to 30' 
supporting a roof only 

Maximum On-Center Spacing 

Wall Exposure (inches) 

Height Category"' ^4 16 12 8 

(feet) 

10 B 2x6""2x6""2x4"'2x4' 

C 2x6 2x6 2x6 2x4 

12 B 2x6 2x6 2x6 2x4 

C 2x8 2x6 2x6 2x6 

14 B 2x8 2x6 2x6 2x6 

C 2x8 2x8 2x6 2x6 

16 B 2x8 2x6 2x6 2x6 

C 2x8 2x8 2x8 2x6 

18 B 2x8 2x8 2x6 2x6 

C NA' 2x8 2x8 2x8 

20 B NA' 2x8 2x8 2x6 

C NA' NA' 2x8 2x8 

24 B NA' NA' 2x8 2x8 

C NA' NA' NA' 2x8 



(inches) 
24 16 12 



Roof spans greater than 30' and up to 34' 

supporting a roof only 

Maximum On-Center Spacing 

Wall Exposure 

Height Category *^'^ 

(feet) 

10 B 2x6 "2x6" 2x4 2x4' 

C 2x6 2x6 2x6 2x4 

12 B 2x6 2x6 2x6 2x4 

C 2x8 2x6 2x6 2x6 

14 B 2x8 2x6 2x6 2x6 

C 2x8 2x8 2x6 2x6 

16 B 2x8 2x8 2x6 2x6 

C NA' 2x8 2x8 2x6 

18 B 2x8 2x8 2x6 2x6 

C NA' NA' 2x8 2x8 

20 B NA' 2x8 2x8 2x6 

C NA' NA' 2x8 2x8 

24 B NA' NA' 2x8 2x8 

C NA' NA' NA' 2x8 



a. Design required. 

b. Applicability of these tables assumes the 
following: SPF#2 or better, Ground snow = 
60 psf, Roof snow = 42 psf, Component and 
Cladding Zone 4 50 square feet (Exposure B 
= 14.3 psf, Exposure C = 18.4 psf), eaves not 
greater than 2.0 feet in dimension. 

c. The exterior of the wall shall be 
continuously sheathed in accordance with one 
of the methods (2-8) listed in Section 
R602.10.3. 

d. Studs shall be continuous full height. 

e. Full depth blocking is required at 10 foot 
spacing maximum. 

f Utility, standard, stud, and No. 3 grade 
lumber of any species are not permitted, 
g. This table is based on a maximum 
allowable deflection limit of L/120. 
h. Exposure B - Urban and suburban areas, 
wooded areas, or other terrain with numerous 
closely spaced obstructions having the size of 
single family dwellings or larger. Exposure B 
shall be assumed unless the site meets the 
definition of another type exposure, 
i. Exposure C - Open terrain with scattered 
obstructions, including surface undulations or 
other irregularities, having heights generally 
less than 30 feet extending more than 1,500 
feet from the building site in any quadrant. 
This category includes flat open country, 
grasslands, and shorelines in hurricane prone 
regions. Exposure C shall also apply to any 
building located within Exposure B type 
terrain where the building is directly adjacent 
to open areas of Exposure C type terrain in 
any quadrant for a distance of more than 600 
feet. 

1309.0613 SECTION R613, EXTERIOR 
WINDOWS AND GLASS DOORS. 

Subpart 1. Section R613.1. IRC Section 
R613.1 is amended to read as follows: 

R613.1 General. This section prescribes 
performance and construction requirements 
for exterior window systems installed in wall 
systems. Windows and doors shall be 



254 



The 2007 Minnesota State Building Code 



installed in accordance with the 
manufacturer's installation instructions. 
Installation instructions shall be provided by 
the manufacturer for each exterior window or 
door type. 



Subp. 2. Section R613.2. 
R613.2 is deleted in its entirety. 



IRC Section 



1309.0703 SECTION R703, EXTERIOR 
COVERING. 

Subpart 1. Repealed 

Subp. 2. Repealed 

Subp. 3. Section R703.6. IRC Section 
R703.6 is amended to read as follows: 

R703.6 Exterior plaster. Installation of 
these materials shall be in compliance with 
ASTM C 926 98a and ASTM C 1063 03 and 
provisions of this code. 

R703.6.1 Lath. All lath and lath attachments 
shall be of corrosion resistant materials. 
Expanded metal or woven wire lath shall be 
attached with 1 1 gage nails having a 7/16 inch 
(11.1 mm) head or 16 gage staples, spaced at 
no more than 6 inches (152 mm) or as 
otherwise approved. Nails or staples shall 
penetrate wood framing support members not 
less than 3/4 inch (19 mm). 

R703.6.2.1 Weep screeds. A minimum 
0.019 inch (No. 26 galvanized sheet gage), 
corrosion resistant weep screed or plastic 
weep screed, with a minimum vertical 
attachment flange of 3 1/2 inches (89 mm) 
shall be provided at or below the foundation 
plate line on exterior stud walls in accordance 
with ASTM C 1063 03. The weep screed 
shall be placed a minimum of 4 inches (102 
mm) above the earth or 2 inches (51 mm) 
above paved areas and shall be of a type that 
will allow trapped water to drain to the 
exterior of the building. The weather resistant 
barrier shall lap the attachment flange. The 



exterior lath shall cover and terminate on the 
attachment flange of the weep screed. 

R703.6.1.3 Control joints and expansion 
joints. Provisions for the control of 
expansion shall be determined by the exterior 
plaster application designer. ASTM C 1063 
03 sections 7.11 4-7.11 4.4 do not apply. 

R703.6.3 Water resistive barriers. Water 
resistive barriers shall be installed as required 
in Section R703.2 and, where applied over 
wood based sheathing, shall include two 
layers of a water resistive vapor permeable 
barrier. Each layer shall meet both of the 
following requirements: 

1 . A water resistance not less than that of 60 
minute Grade D paper; or a minimum 
hydrostatic head of 60.9 cm when tested in 
accordance with hydrostatic pressure test 
method AATCC 127 1998; or a minimum 
water transudation time of 60 minutes when 
tested in accordance with ASTM D 779. 

2. A water vapor permeance not less than 
that of no. 15 felt; or a minimum permeance 
rating of 8.5 gr/h.ft.^ in Hg (US perm) (4.9 x 
10^^ kg/Pa.s.m^) when tested in accordance 
with Procedure B of ASTM E96. 

Exception: One layer of water resistive 
barrier complying with R703.2 is 
permitted when a drainage space that 
allows bulk water to flow freely behind 
the cladding is provided. 

Subp. 3a. Section R703.7. IRC Section 
R703.7 is amended by adding the following 
sentence to the end of Section R703.7: For 
structures in 90 mph wind speed region apply 
Seismic Design Category A limitations and 
requirements of Exception 1 and Table 
R703.7(l). 

Subp. 4. Repealed 

Subp. 5. Repealed 



255 



The 2007 Minnesota State Building Code 



Subp. 6. Repealed 
Subp. 7. Repealed 
Subp. 8. Repealed 

Subp. 8a. Section R703.7.4.2. IRC 

Section R703. 7.4.2 is amended to read as 
follows: 

R703.7.4.2 Air space. The veneer shall be 
separated from the sheathing by an air space 
of a minimum of a nominal 1 inch (25 mm) 
but not more than 4 1/2 inches (114 mm). 

Exception: One layer of water resistive 
barrier complying with Section R703.2 is 
permitted when a drainage space that 
allows bulk water to flow freely behind 
the cladding is provided. 

Subp. 8b. Section R703.7.4.3. IRC 

Section R703.7.4.3 is amended to read as 
follows: 

R703.7.4.3 Mortar or grout fill. As an 

alternate to the air space required by Section 
R703.7.4.2, mortar or grout shall be permitted 
to fill the air space. When the 1 inch (25.4 
mm) space is filled with mortar, a weather 
resistant membrane or building paper as 
described in Section R703.2 or R703.6.3 is 
required over studs or sheathing. When 
filling the air space, it is permitted to replace 
the sheathing and weather resistant membrane 
or asphalt saturated felt paper with a wire 
mesh and approved paper or an approved 
paper backed reinforcement attached directly 
to the studs. 

R703.7.4.4 Masonry veneer on sheathed 
substrates. On sheathed substrates, a 
corrosion resistant, self furring expanded 
metal lath shall be installed over the weather 
resistant membrane or building paper with 
appropriate fasteners as described in Section 
R703.6.1. Fasteners shall penetrate wood 
supports a minimum of one inch. 



Subp. 9. Section R703.8. IRC Section 
R703.8 is amended to read as follows: 

R703.8 Flashing. Approved corrosion 
resistant flashing shall be applied shingle 
fashion in such a manner as to prevent entry 
of water into the wall cavity or penetration of 
water to the building structural framing 
components. The flashing shall extend to the 
surface of the exterior wall finish. Approved 
corrosion resistant flashing shall be installed 
at all of the following locations: 

1. Exterior window and door openings. 
Flashing at exterior window and door 
openings shall extend to the surface of the 
exterior wall finish or to the water resistive 
barrier for subsequent drainage. 

2. At the intersection of chimneys or other 
masonry construction with frame or stucco 
walls, with projecting lips on both sides under 
stucco copings. 

3. Under and at the ends of masonry, wood, 
or metal copings and sills. 

4. Continuously above all projecting wood 
trim. 

5. Where exterior porches, decks, or stairs 
attach to a wall or floor assembly of wood 
frame construction. 

6. At wall and roof intersections. 

7. At built in gutters. 

8. Where exterior material meets in other 
than a vertical line. 

9. Where the lower portion of a sloped roof 
stops within the plane of an intersecting wall 
cladding in such a manner as to divert or kick 
out water away from the assembly. 

R703.8.1 Pan flashing of windows and 
doors. A pan flashing shall be provided 



256 



The 2007 Minnesota State Building Code 



under all exterior windows and doors. Pan 
flashing shall be (a) sloped to drain water to 
the exterior surface of a weather resistive 
barrier or flat with sealed back dam and side 
dams to prevent re entry of water into the wall 
cavity or onto interior finishes, and (b) 
maintain the thermal envelope of the building. 
Pan flashing made from metal must be 
thermally isolated from interior surfaces. 

Exceptions: 

1. Windows or doors installed in 
accordance with the manufacturer's 
installation instructions which include an 
alternate flashing method. 

2. Windows or doors in detached 
accessory structures. 

3 . Skylights, bow or bay windows. 

4. Doors required to meet accessibility 
requirements that would prevent the 
installation of pan flashing. 



1309.0903 SECTION R903, WEATHER 
PROTECTION. 

IRC Section R903.2.2 is amended as 
follows: 

R903.2.2 Kick out flashing/diverter. A kick 
out flashing shall be installed where the lower 
portion of a sloped roof stops within the plane 
of an intersecting wall cladding, in such a 
manner as to divert or kick out water away 
from the assembly. 

1309.0905 SECTION R905, 

REQUIREMENTS FOR ROOF 

COVERINGS. 

IRC Section R905.2.1 is amended as 
follows: 

R905.2.1 Sheathing requirements. Asphalt 
shingles shall be fastened to solidly sheathed 
decks or 1 inch thick nominal wood boards. 



5. Repairs or replacement of existing 
windows and doors. 

6. When a method is provided by a 
registered design professional. 

1309.0802 SECTION 802, WOOD ROOF 
FRAMING. 

IRC Section R802.10.5 is amended to 
read as follows: 

R802.10.5 Truss to wall connection. 

Trusses shall be connected to wall plates by 
the use of approved fasteners or connectors 
having a resistance to uplift of not less than 
the value listed on the truss design drawings. 

1309.0806 SECTION R806, ROOF 
VENTILATION. 

IRC Section R806.4 is deleted in its 
entirety. 



257 



A yVlember of the International Code Family® 

International 

Residential 

Code* 



FOR One- and Two-Family Dwellings 




international 

CODE COUNCIL® 



2006 



2006 International Residential Code® for One- and Two-family Dwellings 



First Printing: Febmary 2006 
Second Printing: November 2006 



ISBN-13: 978-1-58001-253-9 (soft-cover) 

ISBN-10: 1-58001-253-1 (soft-cover 
ISBN-13: 978-1-58001-252-2 (loose-leaf) 

ISBN-10: 1-58001-252-3 (loose-leaf) 

ISBN-13: 978-1-58001-303-1 (e-document) 

ISBN-10: 1-58001-303-1 (e-document) 



COPYRIGHT © 2006 

by 

INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL, INC. 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This 2006 International Residential Code® for One- and Two-family Dwellings is a copyrighted work 
owned by the International Code Council, Inc. Without advance written permission from the copyright owner, no part of this book 
may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, including, without limitation, electronic, optical or 
mechanical means (by way of example and not limitation, photocopying, or recording by or in an information storage retrieval sys- 
tem). For information on permission to copy material exceeding fair use, please contact: Publications, 405 1 West Flossmoor Road, 
Country Club Hills, IL 60478-5795. Phone 1-888-lCC-SAFE (422-7233). 

Trademarks: "International Code Council," the "International Code Council" logo and the "International Residential Code" are 
trademarks of the International Code Council, Inc. 



PRINTED IN THE U.S.A. 



PREFACE 



Introduction 

Internationally, code officials recognize the need for a modern, up-to-date residential code addressing the design and construction 
of one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses. The International Residential Code®, in this 2006 edition, is designed to meet 
these needs through model code regulations that safeguard the public health and safety in all communities, large and small. 

This comprehensive, stand-alone residential code establishes minimum regulations for one- and two-family dwellings and town- 
houses using prescriptive provisions. It is founded on broad-based principles that make possible the use of new materials and new 
building designs. This 2006 edition is fully compatible with all the International Codes® (I-Codes®) published by the International 
Code Council® (ICC)®, including the International Building Code®, ICC Electrical Code®, International Energy Conservation 
Code®, International Existing Building Code®, International Fire Code®, International Fuel Gas Code®, International Mechanical 
Code®, ICC Performance Code®, International Plumbing Code®, International Private Sewage Disposal Code®, International 
Property Maintenance Code®, International Wildland-Urban Interface Code™ and International Zoning Code®. 

The International Residential Code provisions provide many benefits, among which is the model code development process that 
offers an international forum for residential construction professionals to discuss prescriptive code requirements. This forum pro- 
vides an excellent arena to debate proposed revisions. This model code also encourages international consistency in the application 
of provisions. 

Development 

The first edition of the International Residential Code (2000) was the culmination of an effort initiated in 1 996 by the ICC and con- 
sisting of representatives from the three statutory members of the International Code Council at the time, including: Building Offi- 
cials and Code Administrators International, Inc. (BOCA), International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO) and Southern 
Building Code Congress International (SBCCI) and representatives from the National Association of Home Builders (NAHB). The 
intent was to draft a stand-alone residential code consistent with and inclusive of the scope of the existing model codes. Technical 
content of the 1998 International One- and Two-Family Dwelling Code and the latest model codes promulgated by BOCA, ICBO, 
SBCCI and ICC was used as the basis for the development, followed by public hearings in 1998 and 1999 to consider proposed 
changes. This 2006 edition represents the code as originally issued, with changes reflected in the 2003 edition, and further changes 
developed through the ICC Code Development Process through 2005. Residential electrical provisions are based on the 2005 
National Electrical Code® (NFPA-70). A new edition such as this is promulgated every three years. 

Fuel gas provisions have been included through an agreement with the American Gas Association (AG A). Electrical provisions 
have been included through an agreement with the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). 

This code is founded on principles intended to establish provisions consistent with the scope of a residential code that adequately 
protects public health, safety and welfare; provisions that do not unnecessarily increase construction costs; provisions that do not 
restrict the use of new materials, products or methods of construction; and provisions that do not give preferential treatment to par- 
ticular types or classes of materials, products or methods of construction. 

Adoption 

The International Residential Code is available for adoption and use by jurisdictions internationally. Its use within a governmental 
jurisdiction is intended to be accomplished through adoption by reference in accordance with proceedings establishing the jurisdic- 
tion's laws. At the time of adoption, jurisdictions should insert the appropriate information in provisions requiring specific local 
information, such as the name of the adopting jurisdiction. These locations are shown in bracketed words in small capital letters in 
the code and in the sample ordinance. The sample adoption ordinance on page v addresses several key elements of a code adoption 
ordinance, including the information required for insertion into the code text. 

Maintenance 

The International Residential Code is kept up to date through the review of proposed changes submitted by code enforcing officials, 
industry representatives, design professionals and other interested parties. Proposed changes are carefully considered through an 
open code development process in which all interested and affected parties may participate. 

The contents of this work are subject to change both through the Code Development Cycles and the governmental body that enacts 
the code into law. For more information regarding the code development process, contact the Code and Standard Development 
Department of the International Code Council. 

2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® iii 



PREFACE 



The maintenance process for the fuel gas provisions is based upon the process used to maintain the International Fuel Gas Code, in 
conjunction with the American Gas Association. The maintenance process for the electrical provisions is undertaken by the 
National Fire Protection Association. 

While the development procedure of the International Residential Code assures the highest degree of care, ICC and the founding 
members of ICC and its members and those participating in the development of this code do not accept any liability resulting from 
compliance or noncompliance with the provisions because ICC and its founding members do not have the power or authority to 
police or enforce compliance with the contents of this code. Only the governmental body that enacts the code into law has such 
authority. 

Marginal Markings 

Solid vertical lines in the margins within the body of the code indicate a technical change from the requirements of the 2003 edition. 
Deletion indicators in the form of an arrow (^) are provided in the margin where an entire section, paragraph, exception or table has 
been deleted or an item in a list of items or a table has been deleted. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 

i 



ORDINANCE 



The International Codes are designed and promulgated to be adopted by reference by ordinance. Jurisdictions wishing to adopt the 
2006 International Residential Code as an enforceable regulation governing one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses should 
ensure that certain factual information is included in the adopting ordinance at the time adoption is being considered by the appro- 
priate governmental body. The following sample adoption ordinance addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordinance, 
including the information required for insertion into the code text. 

SAMPLE ORDINANCE FOR ADOPTION OF THE 
INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 



ORDINANCE NO. 

An ordinance of the [JURISDICTION] adopting the 2006 edition of the International Residential Code, regulating and governing the 
construction, alteration, movement, enlargement, replacement, repair, equipment, location, removal and demolition of detached 
one and two family dwellings and multiple single family dwellings (townhouses) not more than threes stories in height with separate 
means of egress in the [JURISDICTION]; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; repealing Ordinance 
No. of the [JURISDICTION] and all other ordinances and parts of the ordinances in conflict therewith. 

The [GOVERNING BODY] of the [JURISDICTION] does ordain as follows: 

Section 1. That a certain document, three (3) copies of which are on file in the office of the [TITLE OF JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF 
RECORDS] of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], being marked and designated as the International Residential Code, 2006 edition, includ- 
ing Appendix Chapters [FILL IN THE APPENDIX CHAPTERS BEING ADOPTED] (see International Residential Code Section R102.5, 
2006 edition), as published by the International Code Council, be and is hereby adopted as the Residential Code of the [JURISDIC- 
TION], in the State of [STATE NAME] for regulating and governing the construction, alteration, movement, enlargement, replacement, 
repair, equipment, location, removal and demolition of detached one and two family dwellings and multiple single family dwelhngs 
(townhouses) not more than threes stories in height with separate means of egress as herein provided; providing for the issuance of 
permits and collection of fees therefor; and each and all of the regulations, provisions, penalties, conditions and terms of said Resi- 
dential Code on file in the office of the [JURISDICTION] are hereby referred to, adopted, and made a part hereof, as if fully set out in 
this ordinance, with the additions, insertions, deletions and changes, if any, prescribed in Section 2 of this ordinance. 

Section 2. The following sections are hereby revised: 



Section RlOl.l. Insert: [NAME OF JURISDICTION] 

Table R301.2 (1) Insert: [APPROPRIATE DESIGN CRITERIA] 

Section P2603.6.1 Insert: [NUMBER OF INCHES IN TWO LOCATIONS] 

Section P3 103.1 Insert: [NUMBER OF INCHES IN TWO LOCATIONS] 

Section 3. That Ordinance No. of [JURISDICTION] entitled [FILL IN HERE THE COMPLETE TITLE OF THE ORDINANCE OR 

ORDINANCES IN EFFECT AT THE PRESENT TIME SO THAT THEY WILL BE REPEALED BY DEFINITE MENTION] and all other ordinances 
or parts of ordinances in conflict herewith are hereby repealed. 

Section 4. That if any section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this ordinance is, for any reason, held to be unconstitutional, 
such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of this ordinance. The [GOVERNING BODY] hereby declares that 
it would have passed this ordinance, and each section, subsection, clause or phrase thereof, irrespective of the fact that any one or 
more sections, subsections, sentences, clauses and phrases be declared unconstitutional. 

Section 5. That nothing in this ordinance or in the Residential Code hereby adopted shall be construed to affect any suit or proceed- 
ing impending in any court, or any rights acquired, or hability incurred, or any cause or causes of action acquired or existing, under 
any act or ordinance hereby repealed as cited in Section 3 of this ordinance; nor shall any just or legal right or remedy of any charac- 
ter be lost, impaired or affected by this ordinance. 

Section 6. That the [JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF RECORDS] is hereby ordered and directed to cause this ordinance to be published. 
(An additional provision may be required to direct the number of times the ordinance is to be published and to specify that it is to be 
in a newspaper in general circulation. Posting may also be required.) 

Section 7. That this ordinance and the rules, regulations, provisions, requirements, orders and matters established and adopted 
hereby shall take effect and be in full force and effect [TIME PERIOD] from and after the date of its final passage and adoption. 

2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® v 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Part I — Administrative 1 

CHAPTER 1 ADMINISTRATION 1 

Section 

RlOl Title, Scope and Purpose 1 

R102 Applicability 1 

R103 Department of Building Safety 1 

R104 Duties and Powers of the Building Official 1 

R105 Permits 3 

R106 Construction Documents 4 

R107 Temporary Structures and Uses 5 

R108 Fees 5 

R109 Inspections 6 

RllO Certificate of Occupancy 6 

Rl 1 1 Service Utilities 7 

R112 Board of Appeals 7 

Rl 13 Violations 8 

Rl 14 Stop Work Order 8 

Part II — Definitions 9 

CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS 9 

Section 

R201 General 9 

R202 Definitions 9 

Part III — Building Planning and Construction 23 

CHAPTER 3 BUILDING PLANNING 23 

Section 

R301 Design Criteria 23 

R302 Exterior Wall Location 47 

R303 Light, Ventilation and Heating 47 

R304 Minimum Room Areas 48 

R305 Ceiling Height 48 

R306 Sanitation 49 

R307 Toilet, Bath and Shower Spaces 49 

R308 Glazing 50 

R309 Garages and Carports 52 

R310 Emergency Escape and Rescue Openings 52 

R3 1 1 Means of Egress 53 

R312 Guards 55 

R313 Smoke Alarms 55 



R314 Foam Plastic 56 

R315 Flame Spread and Smoke Density 58 

R316 Insulation 58 

R317 Dwelling Unit Separation 58 

R318 Moisture Vapor Retarders 60 

R319 Protection Against Decay 60 

R320 Protection Against Subterranean Termites 61 

R321 Site Address 62 

R322 Accessibility 62 

R323 Elevators and Platform Lifts 62 

R324 Flood-resistant Construction 62 

CHAPTER 4 FOUNDATIONS 67 

Section 

R401 General 67 

R402 Materials 67 

R403 Footings 68 

R404 Foundation and Retaining Walls 78 

R405 Foundation Drainage 88 

R406 Foundation Waterproofing and 

Dampproofing 90 

R407 Columns 93 

R408 Under-floor Space 93 

CHAPTER 5 FLOORS 97 

Section 

R501 General 97 

R502 Wood Floor Framing 97 

R503 Floor Sheathing 106 

R504 Pressure Preservatively Treated-wood 

Floors (On Ground) 108 

R505 Steel Floor Framing 108 

R506 Concrete Floors (On Ground) 121 

CHAPTER 6 WALL CONSTRUCTION 123 

Section 

R601 General 123 

R602 Wood Wall Framing 123 

R603 Steel Wall Framing 143 

R604 Wood Structural Panels 180 

R605 Particleboard 180 

R606 General Masonry Construction 1 80 

R607 Unit Masonry 188 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



R608 Multiple Wythe Masonry 188 

R609 Grouted Masonry 190 

R610 Glass Unit Masonry 191 

R611 Insulating Concrete Form Wall Construction. . 193 

R612 Conventionally Formed Concrete 

Wall Construction 224 

R613 Exterior Windows and Glass Doors 224 

CHAPTER 7 WALL COVERING 229 

Section 

R701 General 229 

R702 Interior Covering 229 

R703 Exterior Covering 232 

CHAPTER 8 ROOF-CEILING 

CONSTRUCTION 243 

Section 

R801 General 243 

R802 Wood Roof Framing 243 

R803 Roof Sheathing 268 

R804 Steel Roof Framing 268 

R805 Ceiling Finishes 286 

R806 Roof Ventilation 286 

R807 Attic Access 287 

R808 Insulation Clearance 287 

CHAPTER 9 ROOF ASSEMBLIES 289 

Section 

R901 General 289 

R902 Roof Classification 289 

R903 Weather Protection 289 

R904 Materials 289 

R905 Requirements for Roof Coverings 291 

R906 Roof Insulation 298 

R907 Reroofing 299 

CHAPTER 10 CHIMNEYS AND FIREPLACES . . 301 

Section 

RlOOl Masonry Fireplaces 301 

R1002 Masonry Heaters 305 

R1003 Masonry Chimneys 305 

R1004 Factory-built Fireplaces 309 

R1005 Factory-built Chimneys 309 

R 1006 Exterior Air Supply 310 



Part IV — Energy Conservation 311 

CHAPTER 11 ENERGY EFFICIENCY 311 

Section 

NllOl General 311 

N1102 Building Thermal Envelope 318 

N1103 Systems 321 

Part V — Mechanical 323 

CHAPTER 12 MECHANICAL 

ADMINISTRATION 323 

Section 

M1201 General 323 

M1202 Existing Mechanical Systems 323 

CHAPTER 13 GENERAL MECHANICAL SYSTEM 
REQUIREMENTS 325 

Section 

M1301 General 325 

M1302 Approval 325 

M1303 Labeling of Appliances 325 

M1304 Type of Fuel 325 

M1305 Appliance Access 325 

M1306 Clearances from Combustible Construction. . . 326 

Ml 307 Appliance Installation 329 

Ml 308 Mechanical Systems Installation 329 

CHAPTER 14 HEATING AND COOLING 

EQUIPMENT 331 

Section 

M1401 General 331 

M1402 Central Furnaces 331 

M1403 Heat Pump Equipment 331 

Ml 404 Refrigeration Cooling Equipment 331 

M1405 Baseboard Convectors 331 

M1406 Radiant Heating Systems 331 

M1407 Duct Heaters 332 

M1408 Vented Floor Furnaces 332 

M1409 Vented Wall Furnaces 332 

M1410 Vented Room Heaters 333 

M1411 Heating and Cooling Equipment 333 

M1412 Absorption Cooling Equipment 334 

M1413 Evaporative Cooling Equipment 334 

M1414 Fireplace Stoves 334 

M1415 Masonry Heaters 334 



vin 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE' 



.® 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 15 EXHAUST SYSTEMS 335 

Section 

M1501 General 335 

M1502 Clothes Dryer Exhaust 335 

M1503 Range Hoods 335 

M1504 Installation of Microwave Ovens 335 

M1505 Overhead Exhaust Hoods 336 

M1506 Exhaust Ducts 336 

M1507 Mechanical Ventilation 336 

CHAPTER 16 DUCT SYSTEMS 337 

Section 

M1601 Duct Construction 337 

M1602 Return Air 339 

CHAPTER 17 COMBUSTION AIR 341 

Section 

M1701 General 341 

Ml 702 All Air from Inside the Building 341 

M1703 All Air from Outdoors 341 

CHAPTER 18 CHIMNEYS AND VENTS 347 

Section 

M1801 General 347 

M1802 Vent Components 347 

Ml 803 Chimney and Vent Connectors 348 

M1804 Vents 349 

Ml 805 Masonry and Factory-built Chimneys 349 

CHAPTER 19 SPECIAL FUEL-BURNING 

EQUIPMENT 351 

Section 

M1901 Ranges and Ovens 351 

M1902 Sauna Heaters 351 

M1903 Stationary Fuel Cell Power Plants 351 

Ml 904 Gaseous Hydrogen Systems 351 

CHAPTER 20 BOILERS AND 

WATER HEATERS 353 

Section 

M2001 Boilers 353 

M2002 Operating and Safety Controls 353 

M2003 Expansion Tanks 353 

M2004 Water Heaters Used for Space Heating 353 

M2005 Water Heaters 353 

M2006 Pool Heaters 354 



CHAPTER 21 HYDRONIC PIPING 355 

Section 

M2101 Hydronic Piping Systems Installation 355 

M2102 Baseboard Convectors 355 

M2103 Floor Heating Systems 355 

M2104 Low Temperature Piping 355 

M2105 Ground Source Heat Pump System 

Loop Piping 357 

CHAPTER 22 SPECIAL PIPING AND STORAGE 

SYSTEMS 359 

Section 

M2201 Oil Tanks 359 

M2202 Oil Piping, Fitting and Connections 359 

M2203 Installation 359 

M2204 Oil Pumps and Valves 360 

CHAPTER 23 SOLAR SYSTEMS 361 

Section 

M2301 Solar Energy Systems 361 

Part VI— Fuel Gas 363 

CHAPTER 24 FUEL GAS 363 

Section 

G2401 General 363 

G2402 General 363 

G2403 General Definitions 363 

G2404 General 369 

G2405 Structural Safety 369 

G2406 Appliance Location 369 

G2407 Combustion, Ventilation and Dilution Air 370 

G2408 Installation 374 

G2409 Clearance Reduction 374 

G2410 Electrical 376 

G241 1 Electrical Bonding 377 

G2412 General 377 

G2413 Pipe Sizing 378 

G2414 Piping Materials 379 

G2415 Piping System Installation 389 

G2416 Piping Bends and Changes in Direction 391 

G2417 Inspection, Testing and Purging 391 

G2418 Piping Support 392 

G2419 Drips and Sloped Piping 392 

G2420 Gas-shutoff Valves 393 

G2421 Flow Controls 393 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



G2422 Appliance Connections 394 

G2423 CNG Gas-dispensing Systems 394 

G2424 Piping Support Intervals 394 

G2425 General 395 

G2426 Vents 396 

G2427 Venting of Equipment 396 

G2428 Sizing of Category I Appliance 

Venting Systems 406 

G2429 Direct- vent, Integral Vent, Mechanical Vent 

and Ventilation/Exhaust Hood Venting 417 

G2430 Factory-built Chimneys 417 

G2431 General 418 

G2432 Decorative Appliances for Installation 

in Fireplaces 418 

G2433 Log Lighters 418 

G2434 Vented Gas Fireplaces 

(Decorative Fireplaces) 418 

G2435 Vented Gas Fireplace Heaters 418 

G2436 Vented Wall Furnaces 418 

G2437 Floor Furnaces 418 

G2438 Clothes Dryers 419 

G2439 Clothes Dryer Exhaust 419 

G2440 Sauna Heaters 419 

G2441 Pool and Spa Heaters 420 

G2442 Forced-air Warm-air Furnaces 420 

G2443 Conversion Burners 421 

G2444 Unit Heaters 421 

G2445 Unvented Room Heaters 421 

G2446 Vented Room Heaters 421 

G2447 Cooking Appliances 422 

G2448 Water Heaters 422 

G2449 Air Conditioning Equipment 422 

G2450 Illuminating Appliances 422 

G2451 Infrared Radiant Heaters 422 

G2452 Boilers 422 

G2453 Chimney Damper Opening Area 423 

Part Vn— Plumbing 425 

CHAPTER 25 PLUMBING 

ADMINISTRATION 425 

Section 

P2501 General 425 

P2502 Existing Plumbing Systems 425 

P2503 Inspection and Tests 425 



CHAPTER 26 GENERAL PLUMBING 

REQUIREMENTS 427 

Section 

P2601 General 427 

P2602 Individual Water Supply and 

Sewage Disposal 427 

P2603 Structural and Piping Protection 427 

P2604 Trenching and Backfilling 428 

P2605 Support 428 

P2606 Waterproofing of Openings 428 

P2607 Workmanship 428 

P2608 Materials Evaluation and Listing 428 

CHAPTER 27 PLUMBING FIXTURES 431 

Section 

P2701 Fixtures, Faucets and Fixture Fittings 431 

P2702 Fixture Accessories 431 

P2703 Tail Pieces 431 

P2704 Access to Connections 431 

P2705 Installation 431 

P2706 Waste Receptors 431 

P2707 Directional Fittings 433 

P2708 Showers ■ 433 

P2709 Shower Receptors 433 

P2710 Shower Walls 434 

P271 1 Lavatories , . . 434 

P2712 Water Closets 434 

P2713 Bathtubs 434 

P2714 Sinks 435 

P2715 Laundry Tubs 435 

P2716 Food Waste Grinder 435 

P2717 Dishwashing Machines 435 

P2718 Clothes Washing Machine 435 

P2719 Floor Drains 435 

P2720 Whirlpool Bathtubs 435 

P2721 Bidet Installations 435 

P2722 Fixture Fitting 436 

P2723 Macerating Toilet Systems 436 

P2724 Speciality Temperature Control Devices 

and Valves 436 

CHAPTER 28 WATER HEATERS 437 

Section 

P2801 General 437 

P2802 Water Heaters Used for Space Heating 437 

P2803 Relief Valves 437 



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CHAPTER 29 WATER SUPPLY AND 

DISTRIBUTION 439 

Section 

P2901 General 439 

P2902 Protection of Potable Water Supply 439 

P2903 Water-supply System 441 

P2904 Materials, Joints and Connections 447 

P2905 Changes in Direction 451 

P2906 Support 451 

P2907 Drinking Water Treatment Units 451 

CHAPTER 30 SANITARY DRAINAGE 453 

Section 

P3001 General 453 

P3002 Materials 453 

P3003 Joints and Connections 453 

P3004 Determining Drainage Fixture Units 458 

P3005 Drainage System 458 

P3006 Sizing of Drain Pipe Offsets 461 

P3007 Sumps and Ejectors 461 

P3008 Backwater Valves 461 

CHAPTER 31 VENTS 463 

Section 

P3101 Vent Systems 463 

P3102 Vent Stacks and Stack Vents 463 

P3103 Vent Terminals 463 

P3104 Vent Connections and Grades 463 

P3105 Fixture Vents 464 

P3106 Individual Vent 464 

P3107 Common Vent 464 

P3108 Wet Venting 464 

P3109 Waste Stack Vent 465 

P31 10 Circuit Venting 465 

P31 1 1 Combination Waste and Vent System 465 

P3112 Island Fixture Venting 466 

P3113 Vent Pipe Sizing 466 

P31 14 Air Admittance Valves 466 

CHAPTER 32 TRAPS 469 

Section 

P3201 Fixture Traps 469 



Part VIII— Electrical 471 

CHAPTER 33 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS .... 471 

Section 

E3301 General 471 

E3302 Building Structure Protection 471 

E3303 Inspection and Approval 471 

E3304 General Equipment Requirements 471 

E3305 Equipment Location and Clearances 472 

E3306 Electrical Conductors and Connections 474 

E3307 Conductor and Terminal Identification 474 

CHAPTER 34 ELECTRICAL DEFINITIONS .... 477 

Section 

E3401 General 477 

CHAPTER 35 SERVICES 481 

Section 

E3501 General Services 481 

E3502 Service Size and Rating 481 

E3503 Service, Feeder and Grounding Electrode 

Conductor Sizing 482 

E3504 Overhead Service-drop and Service Conductor 

Installation 483 

E3505 Service-entrance Conductors 485 

E3506 Service Equipment — General 485 

E3507 System Grounding 485 

E3508 Grounding Electrode System 486 

E3509 Bonding 487 

E3510 Grounding Electrode Conductors 488 

E35 1 1 Grounding Electrode Conductor Connection to 

the Grounding Electrodes 488 

CHAPTER 36 BRANCH CIRCUIT AND FEEDER 

REQUIREMENTS 491 

Section 

E3601 General 491 

E3602 Branch Circuit Ratings 491 

E3603 Required Branch Circuits 492 

E3604 Feeder Requirements 493 

E3605 Conductor Sizing and Overcurrent 

Protection 494 

E3606 Panelboards 497 



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CHAPTER 37 WIRING METHODS 499 

Section 

E3701 General Requirements 499 

E3702 Above-ground Installation Requirements 499 

E3703 Underground Installation Requirements 502 

CHAPTER 38 POWER AND LIGHTING 

DISTRIBUTION 505 

Section 

E3801 Receptacle Outlets 505 

E3802 Ground-fault and Arc-fault Circuit-interrupter 

Protection 507 

E3803 Lighting Outlets 508 

E3804 General Installation Requirements 508 

E3805 Boxes, Conduit Bodies and Fittings 519 

E3806 Installation of Boxes, Conduit Bodies 

and Fittings 521 

E3807 Cabinets and Panelboards 523 

E3808 Grounding 524 

E3809 Flexible Cords 526 

CHAPTER 39 DEVICES AND LUMINAIRES .... 527 
Section 

E3901 Switches 527 

E3902 Receptacles 528 

E3903 Fixtures 528 

E3904 Luminaire Installation 530 

E3905 Track Lighting 530 

CHAPTER 40 APPLIANCE INSTALLATION .... 533 

Section 

E4001 General 533 

CHAPTER 41 SWIMMING POOLS 535 

Section 

E4101 General 535 

E4102 Wiring Methods for Pools, Spas, Hot Tubs and 

Hydromassage Bathtubs 535 

E4103 Equipment Location and Clearances 537 

E4104 Bonding 538 

E4105 Grounding 540 

E4I06 Equipment Installation 541 

E4107 Storable Swimming Pools 543 

E4108 Spas and Hot Tubs 544 

E4109 Hydromassage Bathtubs 544 



CHAPTER 42 CLASS 2 REMOTE-CONTROL, 

SIGNALING AND POWER-LIMITED 
CIRCUITS 545 

Section 

E4201 General 545 

E4202 Power Sources 545 

E4203 Wiring Methods 545 

E4204 Installation Requirements 545 

Part IX — Referenced Standards 547 

CHAPTER 43 REFERENCED STANDARDS 547 

APPENDIX A SIZING AND CAPACITIES OF GAS 

PIPING 567 

APPENDIX B SIZING OF VENTING SYSTEMS 

SERVING APPLIANCES EQUIPPED 
WITH DRAFT HOODS, CATEGORY I 
APPLIANCES, AND APPLIANCES 
LISTED FOR USE WITH TYPE 
B VENTS 579 

APPENDIX C EXIT TERMINALS OF 

MECHANICAL DRAFT AND DIRECT- 
VENT VENTING SYSTEMS 589 

APPENDIX D RECOMMENDED PROCEDURE FOR 
SAFETY INSPECTION OF AN 
EXISTING APPLIANCE 
INSTALLATION 591 

APPENDIX E MANUFACTURED HOUSING 

USED AS DWELLINGS 593 

Section 

AElOl Scope 593 

AE102 Application to Existing Manufactured Homes 

and Building Service Equipment 593 

AE201 Definitions 594 

AE301 Permits 594 

AE302 Application for Permit 594 

AE303 Permits Issuance 595 

AE304 Fees '. 595 

AE305 Inspections 596 

AE306 Special Inspections 597 

AE307 Utility Service 597 

AE401 Occupancy Classification 597 

AE402 Location on Property 597 

AE501 Design 597 



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AE502 Foundation Systems 598 

AE503 Skirting and Perimeter Enclosures 598 

AE504 Structural Additions 598 

AE505 Building Service Equipment 598 

AE506 Exits 599 

AE507 Occupancy, Fire Safety and Energy 

Conservation Standards 599 

AE600 Special Requirements for 

Foundation Systems 599 

AE601 Footings and Foundations 599 

AE602 Pier Construction 599 

AE603 Height of Piers 599 

AE604 Anchorage Installations 599 

AE605 Ties, Materials and Installation 600 

AE606 Referenced Standards 600 

APPENDIX F RADON CONTROL METHODS. . . 601 

Section 

AFlOl Scope 601 

AF102 Definitions 601 

AF103 Requirements 601 

APPENDIX G SWIMMING POOLS, SPAS AND 

HOT TUBS 609 

Section 

AGlOl General 609 

AG102 Definitions 609 

AGIOS Swimming Pools 609 

AG104 Spas and Hot Tubs 609 

AG105 Barrier Requirements 609 

AG 106 Entrapment Protection for Swimming Pool and 

Spa Suction Outlets 610 

AG107 Abbreviations 611 

AGIOS Standards 611 

APPENDIX H PATIO COVERS 613 

Section 

AHlOl General 613 

AH102 Definition 613 

AH103 Permitted Uses 613 

AH104 Design Loads 613 

AH 105 Light and Ventilation/Emergency Egress 613 

AH106 Footings 613 

AH107 Special Provisions for Aluminum Screen 

Enclosures in Hurricane-prone Regions. ... 613 



APPENDIX I PRIVATE SEWAGE DISPOSAL ... 615 

Section 

AIlOl General 615 

APPENDIX J EXISTING BUILDINGS AND 

STRUCTURES 617 

Section 

AJlOl Purpose and Intent 617 

AJ102 Compliance 617 

AJ103 Preliminary Meeting 617 

AJ104 Evaluation of an Existing Building 617 

AJ105 Permit 618 

AJ201 Definitions 618 

AJ301 Repairs 618 

AJ401 Renovations 619 

AJ501 Alterations 619 

AJ601 Reconstruction 620 

APPENDIX K SOUND TRANSMISSION 621 

Section 

AKIOI General 621 

AK102 Air-borne Sound 621 

AK103 Structural-borne Sound 621 

AK104 Referenced Standards 621 

APPENDIX L PERMIT FEES 623 

APPENDIX M HOME DAY CARE— 

R-3 OCCUPANCY 625 

AMIOI General 625 

AM102 Definitions 625 

AM103 Means of Egress 625 

AM104 Smoke Detection 625 

APPENDIX N VENTING METHODS 627 

APPENDIX O GRAY WATER RECYCLING 

SYSTEMS 635 

AOlOl General 635 

AG 102 Systems for Flushing Water Closets 

and Urinals 635 

AG 103 Subsurface Landscape 

Irrigation Systems 637 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE"^ 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS 



APPENDIX P SPRINKLING 641 

APPENDIX Q ICC INTERNATIONAL 

RESIDENTIAL CODE ELECTRICAL 
PROVISIONS/NATIONAL 
ELECTRICAL CODE CROSS- 
REFERENCE 643 

INDEX 657 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



Part I — Administrative 



CHAPTER 1 

ADMINISTRATION 



SECTION R1 01 
TITLE, SCOPE AND PURPOSE 

RlOl.l Title. These provisions shall be known as the Residen- 
tial Code for One- and Two-family Dwellings of [NAME OF 
JURISDICTION], and shall be cited as such and will be referred to 
herein as "this code." 

R101.2 Scope. The provisions of the International Residen- 
tial Code for One- and Two-family Dwellings shall apply to 
the construction, alteration, movement, enlargement, replace- 
ment, repair, equipment, use and occupancy, location, 
removal and demolition of detached one- and two-family 
dwellings and townhouses not more than three stories 
above-grade in height with a separate means of egress and 
their accessory structures. 

R101.3 Purpose. The purpose of this code is to provide mini- 
mum requirements to safeguard the public safety, health and 
general welfare through affordability, structural strength, 
means of egress facilities, stability, sanitation, light and venti- 
lation, energy conservation and safety to life and property from 
fire and other hazards attributed to the built environment. 



SECTION R102 
APPLICABILITY 

R102.1 GeneraL Where, in any specific case, different sec- 
tions of this code specify different materials, methods of con- 
struction or other requirements, the most restrictive shall 
govern. Where there is a conflict between a general require- 
ment and a specific requirement, the specific requirement shall 
be applicable. 

R102.2 Other laws. The provisions of this code shall not be 
deemed to nullify any provisions of local, state or federal law. 

R102.3 Application of references. References to chapter or 
section numbers, or to provisions not specifically identified by 
number, shall be construed to refer to such chapter, section or 
provision of this code. 

R102.4 Referenced codes and standards. The codes and 
standards referenced in this code shall be considered part of the 
requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of each such 
reference. Where differences occur between provisions of this 
code and referenced codes and standards, the provisions of this 
code shall apply. 

Exception: Where enforcement of a code provision would 
violate the conditions of the listing of the equipment or 
appliance, the conditions of the listing and manufacturer's 
instructions shall apply. 



R102.5 Appendices. Provisions in the appendices shall not 
apply unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance. 

R102.6 Partial invalidity. In the event any part or provision of 
this code is held to be illegal or void, this shall not have the 
effect of making void or illegal any of the other parts or provi- 
sions. 

R102.7 Existing structures. The legal occupancy of any struc- 
ture existing on the date of adoption of this code shall be per- 
mitted to continue without change, except as is specifically 
covered in this code, the International Property Maintenance 
Code or the International Fire Code, or as is deemed necessary 
by the building official for the general safety and welfare of the 
occupants and the public. 

R102.7.1 Additions, alterations or repairs. Additions, 
alterations or repairs to any structure shall conform to the 
requirements for a new structure without requiring the 
existing structure to comply with all of the requirements of 
this code, unless otherwise stated. Additions, alterations or 
repairs shall not cause an existing structure to become 
unsafe or adversely affect the performance of the building. 



SECTION R1 03 
DEPARTMENT OF BUILDING SAFETY 

R103.1 Creation of enforcement agency. The department of 
building safety is hereby created and the official in charge 
thereof shall be known as the building official. 

R103.2 Appointment. The building official shall be appointed 
by the chief appointing authority of the jurisdiction. 

R103.3 Deputies. In accordance with the prescribed proce- 
dures of this jurisdiction and with the concurrence of the 
appointing authority, the building official shall have the author- 
ity to appoint a deputy building official, the related technical 
officers, inspectors, plan examiners and other employees. Such 
employees shall have powers as delegated by the building 
official. 



SECTION R104 

DUTIES AND POWERS OF THE 

BUILDING OFFICIAL 

R104.1 General. The building official is hereby authorized 
and directed to enforce the provisions of this code. The build- 
ing official shall have the authority to render interpretations of 
this code and to adopt policies and procedures in order to clar- 
ify the application of its provisions. Such interpretations, poli- 
cies and procedures shall be in conformance with the intent and 
purpose of this code. Such policies and procedures shall not 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



ADMINISTRATION 



have the effect of waiving requirements specifically provided 
for in this code. 

R104.2 Applications and permits. The building official shall 
receive applications, review construction documents and issue 
permits for the erection and alteration of buildings and struc- 
tures, inspect the premises for which such permits have been 
issued and enforce compliance with the provisions of this code. 

R104.3 Notices and orders. The building official shall issue 
all necessary notices or orders to ensure compliance with this 
code. 

R104.4 Inspections. The building official is authorized to 
make all of the required inspections, or the building official 
shall have the authority to accept reports of inspection by 
approved agencies or individuals. Reports of such inspections 
shall be in writing and be certified by a responsible officer of 
such approved agency or by the responsible individual. The 
building official is authorized to engage such expert opinion as 
deemed necessary to report upon unusual technical issues that 
arise, subject to the approval of the appointing authority. 

R104.5 Identification. The building official shall carry proper 
identification when inspecting structures or premises in the 
performance of duties under this code. 

R104.6 Right of entry. Where it is necessary to make an 
inspection to enforce the provisions of this code, or where the 
building official has reasonable cause to believe that there 
exists in a structure or upon a premises a condition which is 
contrary to or in violation of this code which makes the struc- 
ture or premises unsafe, dangerous or hazardous, the building 
official or designee is authorized to enter the structure or pre- 
mises at reasonable times to inspect or to perform the duties 
imposed by this code, provided that if such structure or pre- 
mises be occupied that credentials be presented to the occupant 
and entry requested. If such structure or premises be unoccu- 
pied, the building official shall first make a reasonable effort to 
locate the owner or other person having charge or control of the 
structure or premises and request entry. If entry is refused, the 
building official shall have recourse to the remedies provided 
by law to secure entry. 

R104.7 Department records. The building official shall keep 
official records of applications received, permits and certifi- 
cates issued, fees collected, reports of inspections, and notices 
and orders issued. Such records shall be retained in the official 
records for the period required for the retention of public 
records. 

R104.8 Liability. The building official, member of the board 
of appeals or employee charged with the enforcement of this 
code, while acting for the jurisdiction in good faith and without 
mahce in the discharge of the duties required by this code or 
other pertinent law or ordinance, shall not thereby be rendered 
liable personally and is hereby relieved from personal liability 
for any damage accruing to persons or property as a result of 
any act or by reason of an act or omission in the discharge of 
official duties. Any suit instituted against an officer or 
employee because of an act performed by that officer or 
employee in the lawful discharge of duties and under the provi- 



sions of this code shall be defended by legal representative of 
the jurisdiction until the final termination of the proceedings. 
The building official or any subordinate shall not be liable for 
cost in any action, suit or proceeding that is instituted in 
pursuance of the provisions of this code. 

R104.9 Approved materials and equipment. Materials, 
equipment and devices approved by the building official shall 
be constructed and installed in accordance with such approval. 

R104.9.1 Used materials and equipment. Used materials, 
equipment and devices shall not be reused unless approved 
by the building official. 

R104.10 Modifications. Wherever there are practical difficul- 
ties involved in carrying out the provisions of this code, the 
building official shall have the authority to grant modifications 
for individual cases, provided the building official shall first 
find that special individual reason makes the strict letter of this 
code impractical and the modification is in compliance with the 
intent and purpose of this code and that such modification does 
not lessen health, life and fire safety requirements or structural. 
The details of action granting modifications shall be recorded 
and entered in the files of the department of building safety. 

R104.10.1 Areas prone to flooding. The building official 
shall not grant modifications to any provision related to 
areas prone to flooding as established by Table R301.2(l) 
without the granting of a variance to such provisions by the 
board of appeals. 

R104.il Alternative materials, design and methods of con- 
struction and equipment. The provisions of this code are not 
intended to prevent the installation of any material or to pro- 
hibit any design or method of construction not specifically pre- 
scribed by this code, provided that any such alternative has 
been approved. An alternative material, design or method of 
construction shall be approved where the building official finds 
that the proposed design is satisfactory and complies with the 
intent of the provisions of this code, and that the material, 
method or work offered is, for the purpose intended, at least the 
equivalent of that prescribed in this code. CompUance with the 
specific performance-based provisions of the International 
Codes in lieu of specific requirements of this code shall also be 
permitted as an alternate. 

R104.11.1 Tests. Whenever there is insufficient evidence of 
compliance with the provisions of this code, or evidence 
that a material or method does not conform to the require- 
ments of this code, or in order to substantiate claims for 
alternative materials or methods, the building official shall 
have the authority to require tests as evidence of pompliance 
to be made at no expense to the jurisdiction. Test methods 
shall be as specified in this code or by other recognized test 
standards. In the absence of recognized and accepted test 
methods, the building official shall approve the .testing pro- 
cedures. Tests shall be performed by an approved agency. 
Reports of such tests shall be retained by the building offi- 
cial for the period required for retention of public records. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE"" 



ADMINISTRATION 



SECTION R1 05 
PERMITS 

R105.1 Required. Any owner or authorized agent who intends 
to construct, enlarge, alter, repair, move, demolish or change 
the occupancy of a building or structure, or to erect, install, 
enlarge, alter, repair, remove, convert or replace any electrical, 
gas, mechanical or plumbing system, the installation of which 
is regulated by this code, or to cause any such work to be done, 
shall first make application to the building official and obtain 
the required permit. 

R105.2 Work exempt from permit. Permits shall not be 
required for the following. Exemption from permit require- 
ments of this code shall not be deemed to grant authorization 
for any work to be done in any manner in violation of the provi- 
sions of this code or any other laws or ordinances of this 
jurisdiction. 

Building: 

II . One-story detached accessory structures used as tool and 
storage sheds, playhouses and similar uses, provided the 
floor area does not exceed 120 square feet (11.15 m^). 

2. Fences not over 6 feet (1829 mm) high. 

3. Retaining walls that are not over 4 feet (1219 mm) in 
height measured from the bottom of the footing to the top 
of the wall, unless supporting a surcharge. 

4. Water tanks supported direcdy upon grade if the capacity 
does not exceed 5,000 gallons (18 927 L) and the ratio of 
height to diameter or width does not exceed 2 to 1 . 

I 5. Sidewalks and driveways. 

6. Painting, papering, tiling, carpeting, cabinets, counter 
tops and similar finish work. 

7. Prefabricated swimming pools that are less than 24 
inches (610 mm) deep. 

I 8. Swings and other playground equipment. 

9. Window awnings supported by an exterior wall which 
do not project more than 54 inches (1372 mm) from the 
exterior wall and do not require additional support. 

Electrical: 

Repairs and maintenance: A permit shall not be required for 
minor repair work, including the replacement of lamps or the 
connection of approved portable electrical equipment to 
approved permanently installed receptacles. 

Gas: 

1. Portable heating, cooking or clothes drying appliances. 

2. Replacement of any minor part that does not alter 
approval of equipment or make such equipment unsafe. 

3. Portable-fuel-cell appHances that are not connected to a 
fixed piping system and are not interconnected to a 
power grid. 

Mechanical: 

1. Portable heating appliances. 

2. Portable ventilation appliances. 

3. Portable cooling units. 



4. Steam, hot or chilled water piping within any heating or 
cooling equipment regulated by this code. 

5. Replacement of any minor part that does not alter 
approval of equipment or make such equipment unsafe. 

6. Portable evaporative coolers. 

7. Self-contained refrigeration systems containing 10 
pounds (4.54 kg) or less of refrigerant or that are actuated 
by motors of 1 horsepower (746 W) or less. 

8. Portable-fuel-cell appliances that are not connected to a 
fixed piping system and are not interconnected to a 
power grid. 

The stopping of leaks in drains, water, soil, waste or vent pipe; 
provided, however, that if any concealed trap, drainpipe, water, 
soil, waste or vent pipe becomes defective and it becomes nec- 
essary to remove and replace the same with new material, such 
work shall be considered as new work and a permit shall be 
obtained and inspection made as provided in this code. 

The clearing of stoppages or the repairing of leaks in pipes, 
valves or fixtures, and the removal and reinstallation of water 
closets, provided such repairs do not involve or require the 
replacement or rearrangement of valves, pipes or fixtures. 

R105.2.1 Emergency repairs. Where equipment replace- 
ments and repairs must be performed in an emergency situa- 
tion, the permit application shall be submitted within the 
next working business day to the building official. 

R105.2.2 Repairs. Application or notice to the building 
official is not required for ordinary repairs to structures, 
replacement of lamps or the connection of approved porta- 
ble electrical equipment to approved permanently installed 
receptacles. Such repairs shall not include the cutting away 
of any wall, partition or portion thereof, the removal or cut- 
ting of any structural beam or load-bearing support, or the 
removal or change of any required means of egress, or rear- 
rangement of parts of a structure affecting the egress 
requirements; nor shall ordinary repairs include addition to, 
alteration of, replacement or relocation of any water supply, 
sewer, drainage, drain leader, gas, soil, waste, vent or simi- 
lar piping, electric wiring or mechanical or other work 
affecting public health or general safety. 

R105.2.3 Public service agencies. A permit shall not be 
required for the installation, alteration or repair of genera- 
tion, transmission, distribution, metering or other related 
equipment that is under the ownership and control of pubhc 
service agencies by established right. 

R105.3 Application for permit. To obtain a permit, the appli- 
cant shall first file an application therefor in writing on a form 
furnished by the department of building safety for that purpose. 
Such application shall: 

1 . Identify and describe the work to be covered by the per- 
mit for which application is made. 

2. Describe the land on which the proposed work is to be 
done by legal description, street address or similar 
description that will readily identify and definitely locate 
the proposed building or work. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*^ 



ADMINISTRATION 



3. Indicate the use and occupancy for which the proposed 
work is intended. 

4. Be accompanied by construction documents and other 
information as required in Section R106.1. 

5. State the valuation of the proposed work. 

6. Be signed by the applicant or the applicant's authorized 
agent. 

7. Give such other data and information as required by the 
building official. 

R105.3.1 Action on application. The building official 
shall examine or cause to be examined applications for per- 
mits and amendments thereto within a reasonable time 
after filing. If the application or the construction docu- 
ments do not conform to the requirements of pertinent 
laws, the building official shall reject such application in 
writing, stating the reasons therefor. If the building official 
is satisfied that the proposed work conforms to the require- 
ments of this code and laws and ordinances applicable 
thereto, the building official shall issue a permit therefor as 
soon as practicable. 

R105.3.1.1 Determination of substantially improved 
or substantially damaged existing buildings in flood 
hazard areas. For applications for reconstruction, reha- 
bilitation, addition or other improvement of existing 
buildings or structures located in an area prone to flood- 
ing as established by Table R301.2(l), the building offi- 
cial shall examine or cause to be examined the 
construction documents and shall prepare a finding with 
regard to the value of the proposed work. For buildings 
that have sustained damage of any origin, the value of the 
proposed work shall include the cost to repair the build- 
ing or structure to its predamage condition. If the build- 
ing official finds that the value of proposed work equals 
or exceeds 50 percent of the market value of the building 
or structure before the damage has occurred or the 
improvement is started, the finding shall be provided to 
the board of appeals for a determination of substantial 
improvement or substantial damage. Applications deter- 
mined by the board of appeals to constitute substantial 
improvement or substantial damage shall meet the 
requirements of Section R324. 

R105.3.2 Time limitation of application. An application 
for a permit for any proposed work shall be deemed to have 
been abandoned 180 days after the date of filing unless such 
application has been pursued in good faith or a permit has 
been issued; except that the building official is authorized to 
grant one or more extensions of time for additional periods 
not exceeding 180 days each. The extension shall be 
requested in writing and justifiable cause demonstrated. 

R105.4 Validity of permit. The issuance or granting of a per- 
mit shall not be construed to be a permit for, or an approval of, 
any violation of any of the provisions of this code or of any 
other ordinance of the jurisdiction. Permits presuming to give 
authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or 
other ordinances of the jurisdiction shall not be valid. The issu- 
ance of a permit based on construction documents and other 
data shall not prevent the building official from requiring the 



correction of errors in the construction documents and other 
data. The building official is also authorized to prevent occu- 
pancy or use of a structure where in violation of this code or of 
any other ordinances of this jurisdiction. 

R105.5 Expiration. Every permit issued shall become 
invalid unless the work authorized by such perrnit is com- 
menced within 180 days after its issuance, or if the work 
authorized by such permit is suspended or abandoned for a 
period of 1 80 days after the time the work is commenced. The 
building official is authorized to grant, in writing, one or more 
extensions of time, for periods not more than 180 days each. 
The extension shall be requested in writing and justifiable 
cause demonstrated. 

R105.6 Suspension or revocation. The building official is 
authorized to suspend or revoke a permit issued under the pro- 
visions of this code wherever the permit is issued in error or on 
the basis of incorrect, inaccurate or incomplete information, or 
in violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of the provi- 
sions of this code. 

R105.7 Placement of permit. The building permit or copy 
thereof shall be kept on the site of the work until the completion 
of the project. 

R105.8 Responsibility. It shall be the duty of every person 
who performs work for the installation or repair of building, 
structure, electrical, gas, mechanical or plumbing systems, for 
which this code is applicable, to comply with this code. 



SECTION R106 
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS 

R106.1 Submittal documents. Construction documents, spe- 
cial inspection and structural observation programs and other 
data shall be submitted in one or more sets with each applica- 
tion for a permit. The construction documents shall be prepared 
by a registered design professional where required by the stat- 
utes of the jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed. 
Where special conditions exist, the building official is autho- 
rized to require additional construction documents to be pre- 
pared by a registered design professional. 

Exception: The building official is authorized to waive the 
submission of construction documents and other data not 
required to be prepared by a registered design professional 
if it is found that the nature of the work applied for is such 
that reviewing of construction documents is not necessary 
to obtain compliance with this code. 

R106.1.1 Information on construction docuiinents. Con- 
struction documents shall be drawn upon suitable material. 

■ Electronic media documents are permitted to tie submitted 
when approved by the building official. Construction docu- 

i ments shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, 

, nature and extent of the work proposed and show in detail 
that it will conform to the provisions of this cdde and rele- 

; vant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations, asi determined 
by the building official. I 

R106.1.2 Manufacturer's installation instructions. Man- 
ufacturer's installation instructions, as required by this 

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ADMINISTRATION 



code, shall be available on the job site at the time of 
inspection. 

R106.1.3 Information for construction in flood hazard 
areas. For buildings and structures located in whole or in 
part in flood hazard areas as established by Table R30 1.2(1), 
construction documents shall include: 

1 . Delineation of flood hazard areas, floodway bound- 
aries and flood zones and the design flood elevation, 
as appropriate; 

2. The elevation of the proposed lowest floor, including 
basement; in areas of shallow flooding (AO zones), 
the height of the proposed lowest floor, including 
basement, above the highest adjacent grade; and 

3. The elevation of the bottom of the lowest horizontal 
structural member in coastal high hazard areas (V 
Zone); and 

4. If design flood elevations are not included on the 
community's Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM), the 
building official and the applicant shall obtain and 
reasonably utilize any design flood elevation and 
floodway data available from other sources. 

R106.2 Site plan. The construction documents submitted with 
the application for permit shall be accompanied by a site plan 
showing the size and location of new construction and existing 
structures on the site and distances from lot lines. In the case of 
demolition, the site plan shall show construction to be demol- 
ished and the location and size of existing structures and con- 
struction that are to remain on the site or plot. 

R106.3 Examination of documents. The building official 
shall examine or cause to be examined construction documents 
for code compliance. 

R106.3.1 Approval of construction documents. When the 
building official issues a permit, the construction documents 
shall be approved, in writing or by a stamp which states 
"APPROVED PLANS PER IRC SECTION R106.3 . 1 ." One 
set of construction documents so reviewed shall be retained 
by the building official. The other set shall be returned to the 
applicant, shall be kept at the site of work and shall be open to 
inspection by the building official or his or her authorized 
representative. 

R106.3.2 Previous approvals. This code shall not require 
changes in the construction documents, construction or des- 
ignated occupancy of a structure for which a lawful permit 
has been heretofore issued or otherwise lawfully autho- 
rized, and the construction of which has been pursued in 
good faith within 180 days after the effective date of this 
code and has not been abandoned. 

R106.3.3 Phased approval. The building official is autho- 
rized to issue a permit for the construction of foundations or 
any other part of a building or structure before the construc- 
tion documents for the whole building or structure have been 
submitted, provided that adequate information and detailed 
statements have been filed complying with pertinent require- 
ments of this code. The holder of such permit for the founda- 
tion or other parts of a building or structure shall proceed at 



the holder's own risk with the building operation and without 
assurance that a permit for the entire structure will be granted. 

R106.4 Amended construction documents. Work shall be 
installed in accordance with the approved construction docu- 
ments, and any changes made during construction that are not 
in compHance with the approved construction documents shall 
be resubmitted for approval as an amended set of construction 
documents. 

R106.5 Retention of construction documents. One set of 

approved construction documents shall be retained by the 
building official for a period of not less than 1 80 days from date 
of completion of the permitted work, or as required by state or 
local laws. 



SECTION R107 
TEMPORARY STRUCTURES AND USES 

R107.1 General. The building official is authorized to issue a 
permit for temporary structures and temporary uses. Such per- 
mits shall be limited as to time of service, but shall not be per- 
mitted for more than 180 days. The building official is 
authorized to grant extensions for demonstrated cause. 

R107.2 Conformance. Temporary structures and uses shall 
conform to the structural strength, fire safety, means of egress, 
light, ventilation and sanitary requirements of this code as nec- 
essary to ensure the public health, safety and general welfare. 

R107.3 Temporary power. The building official is authorized 
to give permission to temporarily supply and use power in part 
of an electric installation before such installation has been fully 
completed and the final certificate of completion has been 
issued. The part covered by the temporary certificate shall 
comply with the requirements specified for temporary lighting, 
heat or power in the ICC Electrical Code. 

R107.4 Termination of approval. The building official is 
authorized to terminate such permit for a temporary structure 
or use and to order the temporary structure or use to be 
discontinued. 



SECTION R108 
FEES 

R108.1 Payment of fees. A permit shall not be vahd undl the 
fees prescribed by law have been paid. Nor shall an amendment 
to a permit be released until the additional fee, if any, has been 
paid. 

R108.2 Schedule of permit fees. On buildings, structures, 
electrical, gas, mechanical and plumbing systems or alterations 
requiring a permit, a fee for each permit shall be paid as 
required, in accordance with the schedule as established by the 
applicable governing authority. 

R108.3 Building permit valuations. Building permit valua- 
tion shall include total value of the work for which a permit is 
being issued, such as electrical, gas, mechanical, plumbing 
equipment and other permanent systems, including materials 
and labor. 

R108.4 Related fees. The payment of the fee for the construc- 
tion, alteration, removal or demolition for work done in con- 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



ADMINISTRATION 



nection with or concurrently with the work authorized by a 
building permit shall not relieve the applicant or holder of the 
permit from the payment of other fees that are prescribed by 
law. 

R108.5 Refunds. The building official is authorized to estab- 
lish a refund policy. 



SECTION R109 
INSPECTIONS 

R109.1 Types of inspections. For onsite construction, from 
time to time the building official, upon notification from the 
permit holder or his agent, shall make or cause to be made any 
necessary inspections and shall either approve that portion of 
the construction as completed or shall notify the permit holder 
or his or her agent wherein the same fails to comply with this 
code. 

R109.1.1 Foundation inspection. Inspection of the foun- 
dation shall be made after poles or piers are set or trenches or 
basement areas are excavated and any required forms 
erected and any required reinforcing steel is in place and 
supported prior to the placing of concrete. The foundation 
inspection shall include excavations for thickened slabs 
intended for the support of bearing walls, partitions, struc- 
tural supports, or equipment and special requirements for 
wood foundations. 

R109.1.2 Plumbing, mechanical, gas and electrical sys- 
tems inspection. Rough inspection of plumbing, mechani- 
cal, gas and electrical systems shall be made prior to 
covering or concealment, before fixtures or appliances are 
set or installed, and prior to framing inspection. 

Exception: Back-filling of ground-source heat pump 
loop systems tested in accordance with Section M2 105.1 
prior to inspection shall be permitted. 

R109.1.3 Floodplain inspections. For construction in 
areas prone to flooding as established by Table R301.2(l), 
upon placement of the lowest floor, including basement, and 
prior to further vertical construction, the building official 
shall require submission of documentation, prepared and 
sealed by a registered design professional, of the elevation 
of the lowest floor, including basement, required in Section 
R324. 

R109.1.4 Frame and masonry inspection. Inspection of 
framing and masonry construction shall be made after the 
roof, masonry, all framing, firestopping, draftstopping and 
bracing are in place and after the plumbing, mechanical and 
electrical rough inspections are approved. 

R109.1.5 Other inspections. In addition to the called 
inspections above, the building official may make or require 
any other inspections to ascertain compliance with this code 
and other laws enforced by the building official. 

R109. 1.5.1 Fire-resistance-rated construction 
inspection. Where fire-resistance-rated construction is 
required between dwelling units or due to location on 
property, the building official shall require an inspection 
of such construction after all lathing and/or wallboard is 



in place, but before any plaster is applied, or before wall- 
board joints and fasteners are taped and finished. 

R109.1.6 Final inspection. Final inspection shall be made 
after the permitted work is complete and prior to occupancy. 

R109.2 Inspection agencies. The building official is authorized 
to accept reports of approved agencies, provided such agencies 
satisfy the requirements as to qualifications and reliability. 

R109.3 Inspection requests. It shall be the duty of the permit 
holder or their agent to notify the building official that such 
work is ready for inspection. It shall be the duty of the person 
requesting any inspections required by this code to provide 
access to and means for inspection of such work. 

R109.4 Approval required. Work shall not be done beyond 
the point indicated in each successive inspection without first 
obtaining the approval of the building official. The building 
official upon notification, shall make the requested inspections 
and shall either indicate the portion of the construction that is 
satisfactory as completed, or shall notify the permit holder or 
an agent of the permit holder wherein the same fails to comply 
with this code. Any portions that do not comply shall be cor- 
rected and such portion shall not be covered or concealed until 
authorized by the building official. 



SECTION R1 10 
CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY 

RllO.l Use and occupancy. No building or structure shall be 
used or occupied, and no change in the existing occupancy 
classification of a building or structure or portion thereof shall 
be made until the building official has issued a certificate of 
occupancy therefor as provided herein. Issuance of a certificate 
of occupancy shall not be construed as an approval of a viola- 
tion of the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the 
jurisdiction. Certificates presuming to give authority to violate 
or cancel the provisions of this code or other ordinances of the 
jurisdiction shall not be valid. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Certificates of occupancy are not required for work 
exempt from permits under Section R105.2. 

2. Accessory buildings or structures. 

RllO.l Change in use. Changes in the character or use of an 
existing structure shall not be made except as specified in Sec- 
tions 3406 and 3407 of the International Building Code. 

R110.3 Certificate issued. After the building official inspects 
the building or structure and finds no violations of the provi- 
sions of this code or other laws that are enforced by the depart- 
ment of building safety, the building official shall issue a 
certificate of occupancy which shall contain the following: 

1. The building permit number. I 

2. The address of the structure. \ 

3. The name and address of the owner. 

4. A description of that portion of the structure for which 
the certificate is issued. 

2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



ADMINISTRATION 



5. A statement that the described portion of the structure 
has been inspected for compliance with the requirements 
of this code. 

6. The name of the building official. 

7. The edition of the code under which the permit was 
issued. 

8. If an automatic sprinkler system is provided and whether 
the sprinkler system is required. 

9. Any special stipulations and conditions of the building 
permit. 

R110.4 Temporary occupancy. The building official is autho- 
rized to issue a temporary certificate of occupancy before the 
completion of the entire work covered by the permit, provided 
that such portion or portions shall be occupied safely. The 
building official shall set a time period during which the tempo- 
rary certificate of occupancy is valid. 

R110.5 Revocation. The building official shall, in writing, 
suspend or revoke a certificate of occupancy issued under the 
provisions of this code wherever the certificate is issued in 
error, or on the basis of incorrect information supplied, or 
where it is determined that the building or structure or portion 
thereof is in violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of 
the provisions of this code. 



SECTION R1 11 
SERVICE UTILITIES 

Rlll.l Connection of service utilities. No person shall make 
connections from a utility, source of energy, fuel or power to 
any building or system that is regulated by this code for which a 
permit is required, until approved by the building official. 

R111.2 Temporary connection. The building official shall 
have the authority to authorize and approve the temporary con- 
nection of the building or system to the utility, source of energy, 
fuel or power. 

R111.3 Authority to disconnect service utilities. The build- 
ing official shall have the authority to authorize disconnection 
of utility service to the building, structure or system regulated 
by this code and the referenced codes and standards set forth in 
Section R102.4 in case of emergency where necessary to elimi- 
nate an immediate hazard to life or property or when such util- 
ity connection has been made without the approval required by 
Section Rl 1 1 . 1 or Rl 11 .2. The building official shall notify the 
serving utility and whenever possible the owner and occupant 
of the building, structure or service system of the decision to 
disconnect prior to taking such action if not notified prior to 
disconnection. The owner or occupant of the building, struc- 
ture or service system shall be notified in writing as soon as 
practical thereafter. 



SECTION Rl 12 
BOARD OF APPEALS 

R112.1 General. In order to hear and decide appeals of orders, 
decisions or determinations made by the building official rela- 
tive to the application and interpretation of this code, there shall 
be and is hereby created a board of appeals. The building offi- 



cial shall be an ex officio member of said board but shall have 
no vote on any matter before the board. The board of appeals 
shall be appointed by the governing body and shall hold office 
at its pleasure. The board shall adopt rules of procedure for 
conducting its business, and shall render all decisions and find- 
ings in writing to the appellant with a duplicate copy to the 
building official. 

R112.2 Limitations on authority. An application for appeal 
shall be based on a claim that the true intent of this code or the 
rules legally adopted thereunder have been incorrectly inter- 
preted, the provisions of this code do not fully apply, or an 
equally good or better form of construction is proposed. The 
board shall have no authority to waive requirements of this 
code. 

Rl 12.2.1 Determination of substantial improvement in 
areas prone to flooding. When the building official pro- 
vides a finding required in Section R 105. 3. 1.1, the board of 
appeals shall determine whether the value of the proposed 
work constitutes a substantial improvement. A substantial 
improvement means any repair, reconstruction, rehabilita- 
tion, addition or improvement of a building or structure, the 
cost of which equals or exceeds 50 percent of the market 
value of the building or structure before the improvement or 
repair is started. If the building or structure has sustained 
substantial damage, all repairs are considered substantial 
improvement regardless of the actual repair work 
performed. The term does not include: 

1 . Improvements of a building or structure required to 
correct existing health, sanitary or safety code viola- 
tions identified by the building official and which are 
the minimum necessary to assure safe living 
conditions; or 

2. Any alteration of an historic building or structure, 
provided that the alteration will not preclude the con- 
tinued designation as an historic building or structure. 
For the purpose of this exclusion, an historic building 
is: 

2.1. Listed or preliminarily determined to be eligi- 
ble for listing in the National Register of His- 
toric Places; or 

2.2. Determined by the Secretary of the U.S. De- 
partment of Interior as contributing to the his- 
torical significance of a registered historic 
district or a district preliminarily determined 
to qualify as an historic district; or 

2.3. Designated as historic under a state or local 
historic preservation program that is ap- 
proved by the Department of Interior. 

Rl 12.2.2 Criteria for issuance of a variance for areas 
prone to flooding. A variance shall only be issued upon: 

1. A showing of good and sufficient cause that the 
unique characteristics of the size, configuration or 
topography of the site render the elevation standards I 
in Section R324 inappropriate. I 



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o 



ADMINISTRATION 



2. A determination that failure to grant the variance 
would result in exceptional hardship by rendering the 
lot undevelopable. 

3. A determination that the granting of a variance will 
not result in increased flood heights, additional 
threats to public safety, extraordinary public expense, 
nor create nuisances, cause fraud on or victimization 
of the public, or conflict with existing local laws or 
ordinances. 

4. A determination that the variance is the minimum 
necessary to afford relief, considering the flood 
hazard. 

5. Submission to the applicant of written notice specify- 
ing the difference between the design flood elevation 
and the elevation to which the building is to be built, 
stating that the cost of flood insurance will be com- 
mensurate with the increased risk resulting from the 
reduced floor elevation, and stating that construction 
below the design flood elevation increases risks to life 
and property. 

R112.3 Qualifications. The board of appeals shall consist of 
members who are qualified by experience and training to pass 
on matters pertaining to building construction and are not 
employees of the jurisdiction. 

R112.4 Administration. The building official shall take 
immediate action in accordance with the decision of the board. 



issued under the provisions of this code, shall be subject to pen- 
alties as prescribed by law. 



SECTION R1 14 
STOP WORK ORDER 

R114.1 Notice to owner. Upon notice from the building offi- 
cial that work on any building or structure is being prosecuted 
contrary to the provisions of this code or in an unsafe and dan- 
gerous manner, such work shall be immediately stopped. The 
stop work order shall be in writing and shall be given to the 
owner of the property involved, or to the owner's agent or to the 
person doing the work and shall state the conditions under 
which work will be permitted to resume. 

R114.2 Unlawful continuance. Any person who shall con- 
tinue any work in or about the structure after having been 
served with a stop work order, except such work as that person 
is directed to perform to remove a violation or unsafe condi- 
tion, shall be subject to penalties as prescribed by law. 



SECTION R1 13 
VIOLATIONS 

R113.1 Unlawful acts. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm 
or corporation to erect, construct, alter, extend, repair, move, 
remove, demolish or occupy any building, structure or equip- 
ment regulated by this code, or cause same to be done, in con- 
flict with or in violation of any of the provisions of this code. 

R113.2 Notice of violation. The building official is authorized 
to serve a notice of violation or order on the person responsible 
for the erection, construction, alteration, extension, repair, 
moving, removal, demolition or occupancy of a building or 
structure in violation of the provisions of this code, or in viola- 
tion of a detail statement or a plan approved thereunder, or in 
violation of a permit or certificate issued under the provisions 
of this code. Such order shall direct the discontinuance of the 
illegal action or condition and the abatement of the violation. 

R113.3 Prosecution of violation. If the notice of violation is 
not complied with in the time prescribed by such notice, the 
building official is authorized to request the legal counsel of the 
jurisdiction to institute the appropriate proceeding at law or in 
equity to restrain, correct or abate such violation, or to require 
the removal or termination of the unlawful occupancy of the 
building or structure in violation of the provisions of this code 
or of the order or direction made pursuant thereto. 

R113.4 Violation penalties. Any person who violates a provi- 
sion of this code or fails to comply with any of the requirements 
thereof or who erects, constructs, alters or repairs a building or 
structure in violation of the approved construction documents 
or directive of the building official, or of a permit or certificate 



8 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'^ 



Part II — Definitions 



CHAPTER 2 

DEFINITIONS 



SECTION R201 
GENERAL 

R201.1 Scope. Unless otherwise expressly stated, the follow- 
ing words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have 
the meanings indicated in this chapter. 

R201.2 Interchangeability. Words used in the present tense 
include the future; words in the masculine gender include the 
feminine and neuter; the singular number includes the plural 
and the plural, the singular. 

R201.3 Terms defined in other codes. Where terms are not 
defined in this code such terms shall have meanings ascribed to 
them as in other code publications of the International Code 
Council. 

R201.4 Terms not defined. Where terms are not defined 
through the methods authorized by this section, such terms 
shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context 
implies. 



SECTION R202 
DEFINITIONS 

ACCESSIBLE. Signifies access that requires the removal of 
an access panel or similar removable obstruction. 

ACCESSIBLE, READILY. Signifies access without the 
necessity for removing a panel or similar obstruction. 

ACCESSORY STRUCTURE. A structure not greater than 
3,000 square feet (279 m^) in floor area, and not over two sto- 
ries in height, the use of which is customarily accessory to and 
incidental to that of the dwelling(s) and which is located on the 
same lot. 

ADDITION. An extension or increase in floor area or height 
of a building or structure. 

AIR ADMITTANCE VALVE. A one-way valve designed to 
allow air into the plumbing drainage system when a negative 
pressure develops in the piping. This device shall close by grav- 
ity and seal the terminal under conditions of zero differential 
pressure (no flow conditions) and under positive internal pres- 
sure. 

AIR BREAK (DRAINAGE SYSTEM). An arrangement in 
which a discharge pipe from a fixture, appliance or device 
drains indirectly into a receptor below the flood-level rim of the 
receptor, and above the trap seal. 

AIR CIRCULATION, FORCED. A means of providing 
space conditioning utilizing movement of air through ducts or 
plenums by mechanical means. 



AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM. A system that consists of 
heat exchangers, blowers, filters, supply, exhaust and return-air 
systems, and shall include any apparatus installed in connec- 
tion therewith. 

AIR GAP, DRAINAGE SYSTEM. The unobstructed vertical 
distance through free atmosphere between the outlet of a waste 
pipe and the flood-level rim of the fixture or receptor into 
which it is discharging. 

AIR GAP, WATER-DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. The unob- 
structed vertical distance through free atmosphere between the 
lowest opening from a water supply discharge to the 
flood-level rim of a plumbing fixture. 

ALTERATION. Any construction or renovation to an existing 
structure other than repair or addition that requires a permit. 
Also, a change in a mechanical system that involves an exten- 
sion, addition or change to the arrangement, type or purpose of 
the original installation that requires a permit. 

ANCHORS. See "Supports." 

ANTISIPHON. A term applied to valves or mechanical 
devices that eliminate siphonage. 

APPLIANCE. A device or apparatus that is manufactured and 
designed to utihze energy and for which this code provides spe- 
cific requirements. 

APPROVED. Acceptable to the building official. 

APPROVED AGENCY. An established and recognized 
agency regularly engaged in conducting tests or furnishing 
inspection services, when such agency has been approved by 
the building official. 

ASPECT RATIO. The ratio of the height to width (h/w) of a 
shear wall. The shear wall height is the maximum clear height 
from top of foundation or diaphragm to bottom of diaphragm 
framing above and the shear wall width is the sheathed dimen- 
sion in the direction of applied force on the shear wall. 

ATTIC. The unfinished space between the ceiling joists of the 
top story and the roof rafters. 

BACKFLOW, DRAINAGE. A reversal of flow in the drain- 
age system. 

BACKFLOW PREVENTER. A device or means to prevent 
backflow. 

BACKFLOW PREVENTER, REDUCED-PRESSURE- 
ZONE TYPE. A backflow-prevention device consisting of 
two independentiy acting check valves, internally force loaded 
to a normally closed position and separated by an intermediate 
chamber (or zone) in which there is an automatic relief means 
of venting to atmosphere internally loaded to a normally open 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



DEFINITIONS 



position between two tightly closing shutoff valves and with 
means for testing for tightness of the checks and opening of 
relief means. 

BACKFLOW, WATER DISTRIBUTION. The flow of water 
or other liquids into the potable water-supply piping from any 
sources other than its intended source. Backsiphonage is one 
type of backflow. 

BACKPRESSURE. Pressure created by any means in the 
water distribution system, which by being in excess of the pres- 
sure in the water supply mains causes a potential backflow con- 
dition. 

BACKPRESSURE, LOW HEAD. A pressure less than or 
equal to 4.33 psi (29.88 kPa) or the pressure exerted by a 
10-foot (3048 mm) column of water. 

BACKSIPHONAGE. The flowing back of used or contami- 
nated water from piping into a potable water-supply pipe due to 
a negative pressure in such pipe. 

BACKWATER VALVE. A device installed in a drain or pipe 
to prevent backflow of sewage. 

BALCONY, EXTERIOR. An exterior floor projecting from 
and supported by a structure without additional independent 
supports. 

BALL COCK. A valve that is used inside a gravity-type water 
closet flush tank to control the supply of water into the tank. It 
may also be called a flush-tank fill valve or water control. 

BASEMENT. That portion of a building that is partiy or com- 
pletely below grade (see "Story above grade"). 

BASEMENT WALL. The opaque portion of a wall that 
encloses one side of a basement and has an average below 
grade wall area that is 50 percent or more of the total opaque 
and non-opaque area of that enclosing side. 

BASIC WIND SPEED. Three-second gust speed at 33 feet 
(10 058 mm) above the ground in Exposure C (see Section 
R301.2.1) as given in Figure R301.2(4). 

BATHROOM GROUP. A group of fixtures, including or 
excluding a bidet, consisting of a water closet, lavatory, and 
bathtub or shower. Such fixtures are located together on the 
same floor level. 

BEND. A drainage fitting, designed to provide a change in 
direction of a drain pipe of less than the angle specified by the 
amount necessary to establish the desired slope of the line (see 
"Elbow" and "Sweep"). 

BOILER. A self-contained appliance from which hot water is 
circulated for heating purposes and then returned to the boiler, 
and which operates at water pressures not exceeding 160 
pounds per square inch gage (psig) (1102 kPa gauge) and at 
water temperatures not exceeding 250°F (121 °C). 

BOND BEAM. A horizontal grouted element within masonry 
in which reinforcement is embedded. 

BRACED WALL LINE. A series of braced wall panels in a 
single story constructed in accordance with Section R602.10 
for wood framing or Section R603.7 or R30 1.1.1 for 
cold-formed steel framing to resist racking from seismic and 
wind forces. 



BRACED WALL PANEL. A section of a braced wall hne 
constructed in accordance with Section R602.10 for wood 
framing or Section R603.7 or R30 1.1.1 for cold-formed steel 
framing, which extend the full height of the wall. : 

BRANCH. Any part of the piping system other than a riser, 
main or stack. 

BRANCH, FIXTURE. See "Fixture branch, drainage." 

BRANCH, HORIZONTAL. See "Horizontal branch, drain- 
age." 

BRANCH INTERVAL. A vertical measurement of distance, 
8 feet (2438 mm) or more in developed length, between the 
connections of horizontal branches to a drainage stack. Mea- 
surements are taken down the stack from the highest horizontal 
branch connection. 

BRANCH, MAIN. A water-distribution pipe that extends hor- 
izontally off a main or riser to convey water to branches or fix- 
ture groups. 

BRANCH, VENT. A vent connecting two or more individual 
vents with a vent stack or stack vent. 

BTU/H. The listed maximum capacity of an appliance, absorp- 
tion unit or burner expressed in British thermal units input per 
hour. I 

BUILDING. Building shall mean any one- and I two-family 
dwelling or portion thereof, including townhouses, that is used, 
or designed or intended to be used for human habitation, for 
living, sleeping, cooking or eating purposes, or any combina- 
tion thereof, and shall include accessory structures thereto. 

BUILDING DRAIN. The lowest piping that collects the dis- 
charge from all other drainage piping inside the house and 
extends 30 inches (762 mm) in developed length of pipe, 
beyond the exterior walls and conveys the drainage to the build- 
ing sewer. 

BUILDING, EXISTING. Existing building is a building 
erected prior to the adoption of this code, or one for which a 
legal building permit has been issued. 

BUILDING LINE. The line estabhshed by law, beyond which 
a building shall not extend, except as specifically provided by 
law. 

BUILDING OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated 
authority charged with the administration and enforcement of 
this code. 

BUILDING SEWER. That part of the drainage ;system that 
extends from the end of the building drain and conveys its dis- 
charge to a public sewer, private sewer, individual isewage-dis- 
posal system or other point of disposal. \ 

BUILDING THERMAL ENVELOPE. The basement walls, 
exterior walls, floor, roof and any other building element that 
enclose conditioned spaces. I 

BUILT-UP ROOF COVERING. Two or more layers of felt 
cemented together and surfaced with a cap sheet, mineral 
aggregate, smooth coating or similar surfacing material. 

CEILING HEIGHT. The clear vertical distance from the fin- 
ished floor to the finished ceiling. \ 



10 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'^ 



DEFINITIONS 



CHIMNEY. A primary vertical structure containing one or 
more flues, for the purpose of carrying gaseous products of 
combustion and air from a fuel-burning appliance to the out- 
side atmosphere. 

CHIMNEY CONNECTOR. A pipe that connects a 
fuel-burning appliance to a chimney. 

CHIMNEY TYPES 

Residential-type appliance. An approved chimney for 
removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning, 
residential-type appliances producing combustion gases not 
in excess of 1 ,000°F (538°C) under normal operating condi- 
tions, but capable of producing combustion gases of 
1,400°F (760°C) during intermittent forces firing for peri- 
ods up to 1 hour. All temperatures shall be measured at the 
appliance flue outlet. Residential-type appliance chimneys 
include masonry and factory-built types. 

CIRCUIT VENT. A vent that connects to a horizontal drain- 
age branch and vents two traps to a maximum of eight traps or 
trapped fixtures connected into a battery. 

CLADDING. The exterior materials that cover the surface of 
the building envelope that is directly loaded by the wind. 

CLEANOUT. An accessible opening in the drainage system 
used for the removal of possible obstruction. 

CLOSET. A small room or chamber used for storage. 

COMBINATION WASTE AND VENT SYSTEM. A spe- 
cially designed system of waste piping embodying the horizon- 
tal wet venting of one or more sinks or floor drains by means of 
a common waste and vent pipe adequately sized to provide free 
movement of air above the flow line of the drain. 

COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL. Any material not defined as 
noncombustible. 

COMBUSTION AIR. The air provided to fuel-burning equip- 
ment including air for fuel combustion, draft hood dilution and 
ventilation of the equipment enclosure. 

COMMON VENT. A single pipe venting two trap arms within 
the same branch interval, either back-to-back or one above the 
other. 

CONDENSATE. The liquid that separates from a gas due to a 
reduction in temperature, e.g., water that condenses from flue 
gases and water that condenses from air circulating through the 
cooling coil in air conditioning equipment. 

CONDENSING APPLIANCE. An appliance that condenses 
water generated by the burning of fuels. 

CONDITIONED AIR. Air treated to control its temperature, 
relative humidity or quahty. 

CONDITIONED AREA. That area within a building pro- 
vided with heating and/or cooling systems or appliances capa- 
ble of maintaining, through design or heat loss/gain, 68 °F 
(20°C) during the heating season and/or 80°F (27°C) during 
the coohng season, or has a fixed opening directly adjacent to a 
conditioned area. 

CONDITIONED FLOOR AREA. The horizontal projection 
of the floors associated with the conditioned space. 



CONDITIONED SPACE. For energy purposes, space within 
a building that is provided with heating and/or cooling equip- 
ment or systems capable of maintaining, through design or heat 
loss/gain, 50°F (10°C) during the heating season and 85°F 
(29°C) during the cooling season, or communicates directly 
with a conditioned space. For mechanical purposes, an area, 
room or space being heated or cooled by any equipment or 
appliance. 

CONFINED SPACE. A room or space having a volume less 
than 50 cubic feet per 1 ,000 Btu/h (4.83 LAV) of the aggregate 
input rating of all fuel-burning appliances installed in that 
space. 

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. Written, graphic and 
pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing the 
design, location and physical characteristics of the elements of 
a project necessary for obtaining a building permit. Construc- 
tion drawings shall be drawn to an appropriate scale. 

CONTAMINATION. An impairment of the quality of the 
potable water that creates an actual hazard to the public health 
through poisoning or through the spread of disease by sewage, 
industrial fluids or waste. 

CONTINUOUS WASTE. A drain from two or more similar 
adjacent fixtures connected to a single trap. 

CONTROL, LIMIT. An automatic control responsive to 
changes in liquid flow or level, pressure, or temperature for 
limiting the operation of an appliance. 

CONTROL, PRIMARY SAFETY. A safety control respon- 
sive directly to flame properties that senses the presence or 
absence of flame and, in event of ignition failure or uninten- 
tional flame extinguishment, automatically causes shutdown 
of mechanical equipment. 

CONVECTOR. A system-incorporating heating element in 
an enclosure in which air enters an opening below the heating 
element, is heated and leaves the enclosure through an opening 
located above the heating element. 

CORROSION RESISTANCE. The ability of a material to 
withstand deterioration of its surface or its properties when 
exposed to its environment. 

COURT. A space, open and unobstructed to the sky, located at 
or above grade level on a lot and bounded on three or more 
sides by walls or a building. 

CRIPPLE WALL. A framed wall extending from the top of 
the foundation to the underside of the floor framing of the first 
story above grade plane. 

CROSS CONNECTION. Any connection between two oth- 
erwise separate piping systems whereby there may be a flow 
from one system to the other. 

DALLE GLASS. A decorative composite glazing material 
made of individual pieces of glass that are embedded in a cast 
matrix of concrete or epoxy. 

DAMPER, VOLUME. A device that will restrict, retard or 
direct the flow of air in any duct, or the products of combustion 
of heat-producing equipment, vent connector, vent or chimney. 

DEAD END. A branch leading from a DWV system terminat- 
ing at a developed length of 2 feet (610 mm) or more. Dead 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE' 



® 



11 



DEFINITIONS 



ends shall be prohibited except as an approved part of a 
rough-in for future connection. 

DEAD LOADS. The weight of all materials of construction 
incorporated into the building, including but not limited to 
walls, floors, roofs, ceilings, stairways, built-in partitions, fin- 
ishes, cladding, and other similarly incorporated architectural 
and structural items, and fixed service equipment. 

DECK. An exterior floor system supported on at least two 
opposing sides by an adjoining structure and/or posts, piers, or 
other independent supports. 

DECORATIVE GLASS. A carved, leaded or Dalle glass or 
glazing material whose purpose is decorative or artistic, not 
functional; whose coloring, texture or other design qualities or 
components cannot be removed without destroying the glazing 
material; and whose surface, or assembly into which it is 
incor-porated, is divided into segments. 

DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. See definition of "Registered 
design professional." 

DEVELOPED LENGTH. The length of a pipeline measured 
along the center line of the pipe and fittings. 

DIAMETER. Unless specifically stated, the term "diameter" 
is the nominal diameter as designated by the approved material 
standard. 

DIAPHRAGM. A horizontal or nearly horizontal system act- 
ing to transmit lateral forces to the vertical resisting elements. 
When the term "diaphragm" is used, it includes horizontal 
bracing systems. 

DILUTION AIR. Air that enters a draft hood or draft regulator 
and mixes with flue gases. 

DIRECT- VENT APPLIANCE. A fuel-burning appliance 
with a sealed combustion system that draws all air for combus- 
tion from the outside atmosphere and discharges all flue gases 
to the outside atmosphere. 

DRAFT. The pressure difference existing between the appli- 
ance or any component part and the atmosphere, that causes a 
continuous flow of air and products of combustion through the 
gas passages of the appliance to the atmosphere. 

Induced draft. The pressure difference created by the 
action of a fan, blower or ejector, that is located between the 
appliance and the chimney or vent termination. 

Natural draft. The pressure difference created by a vent or 
chimney because of its height, and the temperature differ- 
ence between the flue gases and the atmosphere. 

DRAFT HOOD. A device built into an appliance, or a part of 
the vent connector from an appliance, which is designed to pro- 
vide for the ready escape of the flue gases from the appliance in 
the event of no draft, backdraft or stoppage beyond the draft 
hood; prevent a backdraft from entering the appliance; and 
neutralize the effect of stack action of the chimney or gas vent 
on the operation of the appliance. 

DRAFT REGULATOR. A device that functions to maintain a 
desired draft in the appliance by automatically reducing the 
draft to the desired value. 



DRAFT STOP. A material, device or construction installed to 
restrict the movement of air within open spaces of concealed 
areas of building components such as crawl spaces, floor-ceil- 
ing assemblies, roof-ceiling assemblies and attics. 

DRAIN. Any pipe that carries soil and water-borne wastes in a 
building drainage system. 

DRAINAGE FITTING. A pipe fitting designed to provide 
connections in the drainage system that have provisions for 
establishing the desired slope in the system. These fittings are 
made from a variety of both metals and plastics. The methods 
of coupling provide for required slope in the system (see "Dur- 
ham fitting"). 

DUCT SYSTEM. A continuous passageway for the transmis- 
sion of air which, in addition to ducts, includes duct fittings, 
dampers, plenums, fans and accessory air-handling equipment 
and appliances. 

DURHAM FITTING. A special type of drainage fitting for 
use in the durham systems installations in which the joints are 
made with recessed and tapered threaded fittings, as opposed to 
bell and spigot lead/oakum or solvent/cemented or soldered 
joints. The tapping is at an angle (not 90 degrees) to provide for 
proper slope in otherwise rigid connections. 

DURHAM SYSTEM. A term used to describe soil or waste 
systems where all piping is of threaded pipe, tube or other such 
rigid construction using recessed drainage fittings to corre- 
spond to the types of piping. 

DWELLING. Any building that contains one or two dwelling 
units used, intended, or designed to be built, used, rented, 
leased, let or hired out to be occupied, or that are occupied for 
living purposes. 

DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete inde- 
pendent living facilities for one or more persons, including per- 
manent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and 
sanitation. 

DWV. Abbreviated term for drain, waste and vent piping as 
used in common plumbing practice. 

EFFECTIVE OPENING. The minimum cross-sectional area 
at the point of water-supply discharge, measured or expressed 
in terms of diameter of a circle and if the opening is not circular, 
the diameter of a circle of equivalent cross-sectional area. (This 
is applicable to air gap.) 

ELBOW. A pressure pipe fitting designed to provide an exact 
change in direction of a pipe run. An elbow provides a sharp 
turn in the flow path (see "Bend" and "Sweep"). 

EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. An 

operable exterior window, door or similar device that provides | 
for a means of escape and access for rescue in the event of an 
emergency. 

EQUIPMENT. All piping, ducts, vents, control devices and 
other components of systems other than appliances that are 
permanently installed and integrated to provide control of envi- 
ronmental conditions for buildings. This definition shall also 
include other systems specifically regulated in this code. 

EQUIVALENT LENGTH. For determining fiicfion losses in 
a piping system, the effect of a particular fitting equal to the 



12 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE"" 



DEFINITIONS 



friction loss through a straight piping length of the same nomi- 
nal diameter. 

ESSENTIALLY NONTOXIC TRANSFER FLUIDS. Fluids 
having a Gosselin rating of 1, including propylene glycol; min- 
eral oil; polydimenthyoil oxane; hydrochlorofluorocarbon, 
chlorofluorocarbon and hydrofluorocarbon refrigerants; and 
FDA-approved boiler water additives for steam boilers. 

ESSENTIALLY TOXIC TRANSFER FLUIDS. Soil, water 
or gray water and fluids having a Gosselin rating of 2 or more 
including ethylene glycol, hydrocarbon oils, ammonia refrig- 
erants and hydrazine. 

EVAPORATIVE COOLER. A device used for reducing air 
temperature by the process of evaporating water into an 
airstream. 

EXCESS AIR. Air that passes through the combustion cham- 
ber and the appliance flue in excess of that which is theoreti- 
cally required for complete combustion. 

EXHAUST HOOD, FULL OPENING. An exhaust hood 
with an opening at least equal to the diameter of the connecting 
vent. 

EXISTING INSTALLATIONS. Any plumbing system regu- 
lated by this code that was legally installed prior to the effective 
date of this code, or for which a permit to install has been 
issued. 

EXTERIOR INSULATION FINISH SYSTEMS (EIFS). 

Synthetic stucco cladding systems typically consisting of five 
layers: adhesive, insulation board, base coat into which fiber- 
glass reinforcing mesh is embedded, and a finish coat in the 
desired color. 

EXTERIOR WALL. An above-grade wall that defines the 
I exterior boundaries of a building. Includes between-floor 
spandrels, peripheral edges of floors, roof and basement knee 
walls, dormer walls, gable end walls, walls enclosing a man- 
sard roof and basement walls with an average below-grade wall 
area that is less than 50 percent of the total opaque and 
nonopaque area of that enclosing side. 

FACTORY-BUILT CHIMNEY. A listed and labeled chim- 
ney composed of factory-made components assembled in the 
field in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and 
the conditions of the listing. 

FENESTRATION. Skyhghts, roof windows, vertical win- 
dows (whether fixed or moveable); opaque doors; glazed 
doors; glass block; and combination opaque/glazed doors. 

FIBER CEMENT SIDING. A manufactured, fiber-reinforc- 
ing product made with an inorganic hydraulic or calcium sili- 
cate binder formed by chemical reaction and reinforced with 
organic or inorganic non-asbestos fibers, or both. Additives 
which enhance manufacturing or product performance are per- 
mitted. Fiber cement siding products have either smooth or tex- 
tured faces and are intended for exterior wall and related 
applications. 

FIREBLOCKING. Building materials installed to resist the 
free passage of flame to other areas of the building through 
concealed spaces. 



FIREPLACE. An assembly consisting of a hearth and fire 
chamber of noncombustible material and provided with a 
chimney, for use with solid fuels. 

Factory-built fireplace. A listed and labeled fireplace and 
chimney system composed of factory-made components, 
and assembled in the field in accordance with manufacturer's 
instructions and the conditions of the listing. 

Masonry chimney. A field-constructed chimney composed 
of solid masonry units, bricks, stones or concrete. 

Masonry fireplace. A field-constructed fireplace com- 
posed of solid masonry units, bricks, stones or concrete. 

FIREPLACE STOVE. A free-standing, chimney-connected 
solid-fuel-burning heater designed to be operated with the fire 
chamber doors in either the open or closed position. 

FIREPLACE THROAT. The opening between the top of the 

firebox and the smoke chamber. 

FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE. The distance measured 
from the building face to one of the following: 

1. To the closest interior lot line; or 

2. To the centerline of a street, an alley or public way; or 

3. To an imaginary line between two buildings on the lot. 

The distance shall be measured at a right angle from the face of 
the wall. 

FIXTURE. See "Plumbing fixture." 

FIXTURE BRANCH, DRAINAGE. A drain serving two or 
more fixtures that discharges into another portion of the drain- 
age system. 

FIXTURE BRANCH, WATER-SUPPLY. A water supply 
pipe between the fixture supply and a main water-distribution 
pipe or fixture group main. 

FIXTURE DRAIN. The drain from the trap of a fixture to the 
junction of that drain with any other drain pipe. 

FIXTURE FITTING 

Supply fitting. A fitting that controls the volume and/or 
directional flow of water and is either attached to or accessi- 
ble from a fixture or is used with an open or atmospheric dis- 
charge. 

Waste fitting. A combination of components that conveys 
the sanitary waste from the outlet of a fixture to the connec- 
tion of the sanitary drainage system. 

FIXTURE GROUP, MAIN. The main water-distribution 
pipe (or secondary branch) serving a plumbing fixture group- 
ing such as a bath, kitchen or laundry area to which two or more 
individual fixture branch pipes are connected. 

FIXTURE SUPPLY. The water-supply pipe connecting a fix- 
ture or fixture fitting to a fixture branch. 

FIXTURE UNIT, DRAINAGE (d.f.u.). A measure of proba- 
ble discharge into the drainage system by various types of 
plumbing fixtures, used to size DWV piping systems. The 
drainage fixture-unit value for a particular fixture depends on 
its volume rate of drainage discharge, on the time duration of a 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



13 



DEFINITIONS 



single drainage operation and on the average time between suc- 
cessive operations. 

FIXTURE UNIT, WATER-SUPPLY (w.s.f.u.). A measure of 
the probable hydraulic demand on the water supply by various 
types of plumbing fixtures used to size water-piping systems. 
The water-supply fixture-unit value for a particular fixture 
depends on its volume rate of supply, on the time duration of a 
single supply operation and on the average time between suc- 
cessive operations. 

FLAME SPREAD. The propagation of flame over a surface. 

FLAME SPREAD INDEX. The numeric value assigned to a 
material tested in accordance with ASTM E 84. 

FLOOD-LEVEL RIM. The edge of the receptor or fixture 
from which water overflows. 

FLOOR DRAIN. A plumbing fixture for recess in the floor 
having a floor-level strainer intended for the purpose of the col- 
lection and disposal of waste water used in cleaning the floor 
and for the collection and disposal of accidental spillage to the 
floor. 

FLOOR FURNACE. A self-contained furnace suspended 
from the floor of the space being heated, taking air for combus- 
tion from outside such space, and with means for lighting the 
appliance from such space. 

FLOW PRESSURE. The static pressure reading in the 
water-supply pipe near the faucet or water outlet while the fau- 
cet or water outlet is open and flowing at capacity. 

FLUE. See "Vent." 

FLUE, APPLIANCE. The passages within an appliance 
through which combustion products pass from the combustion 
chamber to the flue collar. 

FLUE COLLAR. The portion of a fuel-burning appliance 
designed for the attachment of a draft hood, vent connector or 
venting system. 

FLUE GASES. Products of combustion plus excess air in 

appliance flues or heat exchangers. 

FLUSH VALVE. A device located at the bottom of a flush tank 
that is operated to flush water closets. 

FLUSHOMETER TANK. A device integrated within an air 
accumulator vessel that is designed to discharge a predeter- 
mined quantity of water to fixtures for flushing purposes. 

FLUSHOMETER VALVE. A flushometer valve is a device 
that discharges a predetermined quantity of water to fixtures 
for flushing purposes and is actuated by direct water pressure. 

FOAM BACKER BOARD. Foam plastic used in siding appli- 
cations where the foam plastic is a component of the siding. 

FOAM PLASTIC INSULATION. A plastic that is intention- 
ally expanded by the use of a foaming agent to produce a 
reduced-density plastic containing voids consisting of open or 
closed cells distributed throughout the plastic for thermal insu- 
lating or acoustic purposes and that has a density less than 20 
pounds per cubic foot (320 kg/m^) unless it is used as interior 
trim. 



FOAM PLASTIC INTERIOR TRIM. Exposed foam plastic 
used as picture molds, chair rails, crown moldings, baseboards, 
handrails, ceiling beams, door trim and window trim and simi- 
lar decorative or protective materials used in fixed applications. 

FUEL-PIPING SYSTEM. All piping, tubing, valves and fit- 
tings used to connect fuel utilization equipment to the point of 
fuel delivery. 

FULLWAY VALVE. A valve that in the full open position has 
an opening cross-sectional area equal to a minimum of 85 per- 
cent of the cross-sectional area of the connecting pipe. 

FURNACE. A vented heating appliance designed or arranged 
to discharge heated air into a conditioned space or through a 
duct or ducts. 

GLAZING AREA. The interior surface area of all glazed fen- 
estration, including the area of sash, curbing or other framing 
elements, that enclose conditioned space. Includes the area of 
glazed fenestration assemblies in walls bounding conditioned 
basements. 

GRADE. The finished ground level adjoining the building at 
all exterior walls. 

GRADE FLOOR OPENING. A window or other opening 
located such that the sill height of the opening is not more than 
44 inches (1118 mm) above or below the finished ground level 
adjacent to the opening. 

GRADE, PIPING. See "Slope." 

GRADE PLANE. A reference plane representing the average 
of the finished ground level adjoining the building at all exte- 
rior walls. Where the finished ground level slopes away from 
the exterior walls, the reference plane shall be established by 
the lowest points within the area between the building and the 
lot line or, where the lot line is more than 6 ft (1829 mm) from 
the building between the structure and a point 6 ft (1829 mm) 
from the building. 

GRIDDED WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. A water 
distribution system where every water distribution pipe is inter- 
connected so as to provide two or more paths to each fixture 
supply pipe. 

GROSS AREA OF EXTERIOR WALLS. The normal pro 
jection of all exterior walls, including the area of all windows 
and doors installed therein. 

GROUND-SOURCE HEAT PUMP LOOP SYSTEM. Pip 

ing buried in horizontal or vertical excavations or placed in a 
body of water for the purpose of transporting heat transfer liq- 
uid to and from a heat pump. Included in this definition are 
closed loop systems in which the liquid is recirculated and open 
loop systems in which the liquid is drawn from a well or other 
source. 

GUARD. A building component or a system of building com- 
ponents located near the open sides of elevated walking sur- 
faces that minimizes the possibility of a fall from the walking 
surface to the lower level. 

HABITABLE SPACE. A space in a building for living, sleep- 
ing, eating or cooking. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, closets, halls, 
storage or utility spaces and similar areas are not considered 
habitable spaces. 



14 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



DEFINITIONS 



HANDRAIL. A horizontal or sloping rail intended for grasp- 
ing by the hand for guidance or support. 

HANGERS. See "Supports." 

HAZARDOUS LOCATION. Any location considered to be a 
fire hazard for flammable vapors, dust, combustible fibers or 
other highly combustible substances. 

HEATING DEGREE DAYS (HDD). The sum, on an annual 
basis, of the difference between 65°F (18°C) and the mean tem- 
perature for each day as determined from "NCAA Annual 
Degree Days to Selected Bases Derived from the 1960-1990 
Normals" or other weather data sources acceptable to the code 
official. 

HEAT PUMP. An appliance having heating or heating/cool- 
ing capability and that uses refrigerants to extract heat from air, 
liquid or other sources. 

HEIGHT, BUILDING. The vertical distance from grade 
plane to the average height of the highest roof surface. 

HEIGHT, STORY. The vertical distance from top to top of 
two successive tiers of beams or finished floor surfaces; and, 
for the topmost story, from the top of the floor finish to the top 
of the ceiling joists or, where there is not a ceiling, to the top of 
the roof rafters. 

HIGH-TEMPERATURE (H.T.) CHIMNEY. A high tem- 
perature chimney complying with the requirements of UL 103. 
A Type H.T. chimney is identifiable by the markings "Type 
H.T." on each chimney pipe section. 

HORIZONTAL BRANCH, DRAINAGE. A drain pipe 
extending laterally from a soil or waste stack or building drain, 
that receives the discharge from one or more fixture drains. 

HORIZONTAL PIPE. Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle 
of less than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) with the horizontal. 

HOT WATER. Water at a temperature greater than or equal to 
110°F(43°C). 

HURRICANE-PRONE REGIONS. Areas vulnerable to 
hurricanes, defined as the U.S. Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of 
Mexico coasts where the basic wind speed is greater than 90 
miles per hour (40 m/s), and Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, Vir- 
gin Islands, and America Samoa. 

HYDROGEN GENERATING APPLIANCE. A self con- 
tained package or factory-matched packages of integrated sys- 
tems for generating gaseous hydrogen. Hydrogen generating 
appliances utilize electrolysis, reformation, chemical, or other 
processes to generate hydrogen. 

IGNITION SOURCE. A flame, spark or hot surface capable 
of igniting flammable vapors or fumes. Such sources include 
appliance burners, burner ignitions and electrical switching 
devices. 

INDIRECT WASTE PIPE. A waste pipe that discharges into 
the drainage system through an air gap into a trap, fixture or 
receptor. 

INDIVIDUAL SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM. A system 
for disposal of sewage by means of a septic tank or mechanical 
treatment, designed for use apart from a public sewer to serve a 
single establishment or building. 



INDIVIDUAL VENT. A pipe installed to vent a single-fixture 
drain that connects with the vent system above or terminates 
independently outside the building. 

INDIVIDUAL WATER SUPPLY. A supply other than an 
approved public water supply that serves one or more families. 

INSULATING CONCRETE FORM (ICE). A concrete 
forming system using stay-in-place forms of rigid foam plastic 
insulation, a hybrid of cement and foam insulation, a hybrid of 
cement and wood chips, or other insulating material for con- 
structing cast-in-place concrete walls. 

INSULATING SHEATHING. An insulating board having a 
minimum thermal resistance of R-2 of the core material. 

JURISDICTION. The governmental unit that has adopted 
this code under due legislative authority. 

KITCHEN. Kitchen shall mean an area used, or designated to 
be used, for the preparation of food. 

LABEL. An identification applied on a product by the manu- 
facturer which contains the name of the manufacturer, the func- 
tion and performance characteristics of the product or material, 
and the name and identification of an approved agency and that 
indicates that the representative sample of the product or mate- 
rial has been tested and evaluated by an approved agency. (See 
also "Manufacturer's designation" and "Mark.") 

LABELED. Devices, equipment or materials to which have 
been affixed a label, seal, symbol or other identifying mark of a 
testing laboratory, inspection agency or other organization 
concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic 
inspection of the production of the above labeled items that 
attests to compliance with a specific standard. 

LIGHT-FRAMED CONSTRUCTION. A type of construc- 
tion whose vertical and horizontal structural elements are pri- 
marily formed by a system of repetitive wood or light gage steel 
framing members. 

LISTED AND LISTING. Terms referring to equipment that 
is shown in a list published by an approved testing agency qual- 
ified and equipped for experimental testing and maintaining an 
adequate periodic inspection of current productions and whose 
listing states that the equipment complies with nationally rec- 
ognized standards when installed in accordance with the manu- 
facturer's installation instructions. 

LIVE LOADS. Those loads produced by the use and occu- 
pancy of the building or other structure and do not include con- 
struction or environmental loads such as wind load, snow load, 
rain load, earthquake load, flood load or dead load. 

LIVING SPACE. Space within a dweUing unit utihzed for liv- 
ing, sleeping, eating, cooking, bathing, washing and sanitation 
purposes. 

LOT. A portion or parcel of land considered as a unit. 

LOT LINE. A line dividing one lot from another, or from a 
street or any public place. 

MACERATING TOILET SYSTEMS. A system comprised 
of a sump with macerating pump and with connections for a 
water closet and other plumbing fixtures, that is designed to 
accept, grind and pump wastes to an approved point of dis- 
charge. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*" 



15 



DEFINITIONS 



MAIN. The principal pipe artery to which branches may be 
connected. 

MAIN SEWER. See "Pubhc sewer." 

MANIFOLD WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS. A fab- 
ricated piping arrangement in which a large supply main is fit- 
ted with multiple branches in close proximity in which water is 
distributed separately to fixtures from each branch. 

MANUFACTURED HOME. Manufactured home means a 
structure, transportable in one or more sections, which in the 
traveling mode is 8 body feet (2438 body mm) or more in width 
or 40 body feet (12 192 body mm) or more in length, or, when 
erected on site, is 320 square feet (30 m^) or more, and which is 
built on a permanent chassis and designed to be used as a dwell- 
ing with or without a permanent foundation when connected to 
the required utilities, and includes the plumbing, heating, 
air-conditioning and electrical systems contained therein; 
except that such term shall include any structure that meets all 
the requirements of this paragraph except the size requirements 
and with respect to which the manufacturer voluntarily files a 
certification required by the secretary (HUD) and complies 
with the standards established under this title. For mobile 
homes built prior to June 15, 1976, a label certifying compli- 
ance to the Standard for Mobile Homes, NFPA 501, in effect at 
the time of manufacture is required. For the purpose of these 
provisions, a mobile home shall be considered a manufactured 
home. 

MANUFACTURER'S DESIGNATION. An identification 
applied on a product by the manufacturer indicating that a 
product or material complies with a specified standard or set of 
rules. (See also "Mark" and "Label.") 

MANUFACTURER'S INSTALLATION INSTRUC- 
TIONS. Printed instructions included with equipment as part 
of the conditions of listing and labeling. 

MARK. An identification applied on a product by the manu- 
facturer indicating the name of the manufacturer and the func- 
tion of a product or material. (See also "Manufacturer's 
designation" and "Label.") 

MASONRY CHIMNEY. A field-constructed chimney com- 
posed of solid masonry units, bricks, stones or concrete. 

MASONRY HEATER. A masonry heater is a solid fuel burn- 
ing heating appliance constructed predominantly of concrete or 
solid masonry having a mass of at least 1,100 pounds (500 kg), 
excluding the chimney and foundation. It is designed to absorb 
and store a substantial portion of heat from a fire built in the fire- 
box by routing exhaust gases through internal heat exchange 
channels in which the flow path downstream of the firebox 
includes at least one 1 80-degree (3. 14-rad) change in flow direc- 
tion before entering the chimney and which deliver heat by radi- 
ation through the masonry surface of the heater. 

MASONRY, SOLID. Masonry consisting of solid masonry 
units laid contiguously with the joints between the units filled 
with mortar. 

MASONRY UNIT. Brick, tile, stone, glass block or concrete 
block conforming to the requirements specified in Section 
2103 of the International Building Code. 



Clay. A building unit larger in size than a brick, composed 
of burned clay, shale, fire clay or mixtures thereof 

Concrete. A building unit or block larger in size than 12 
inches by 4 inches by 4 inches (305 mm by 102 mm by 102 
mm) made of cement and suitable aggregates. 

Glass. Nonload-bearing masonry composed of glass units 
bonded by mortar. 

Hollow. A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in 
any plane parallel to the loadbearing surface is less than 75 
percent of its gross cross-sectional area measured in the 
same plane. 

Solid. A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in 
every plane parallel to the loadbearing surface is 75 percent 
or more of its cross-sectional area measured in the same 
plane. 

MASS WALL. Masonry or concrete walls having a mass 
greater than or equal to 30 pounds per square foot (146 kg/m^), 
solid wood walls having a mass greater than or equal to 20 
pounds per square foot (98 kg/m^), and any other walls having a 
heat capacity greater than or equal to 6 Btu/ft^ • °F [266 ]/(m^ ■ 
K)]. 

MEAN ROOF HEIGHT. The average of the roof eave height 
and the height to the highest point on the roof surface, except 
that eave height shall be used for roof angle of less than or equal 
to 10 degrees (0.18 rad). 

MECHANICAL DRAFT SYSTEM. A venting system 
designed to remove flue or vent gases by mechanical means, 
that consists of an induced draft portion under nonpositive 
static pressure or a forced draft portion under positive static 
pressure. 

Forced-draft venting system. A portion of a venting sys- 
tem using a fan or other mechanical means to cause the 
removal of flue or vent gases under positive static pressure. 

Induced draft venting system. A portion of a venting sys- 
tem using a fan or other mechanical means to cause the 
removal of flue or vent gases under nonpositive static vent 
pressure. 

Power venting system. A portion of a venting system using 
a fan or other mechanical means to cause the removal of flue 
or vent gases under positive static vent pressure. 

MECHANICAL EXHAUST SYSTEM. A system for 
removing air from a room or space by mechanical means. 

MECHANICAL SYSTEM. A system specifically addressed 
and regulated in this code and composed of components, 
devices, appliances and equipment. 

METAL ROOF PANEL. An interlocking metal sheet having 
a minimum installed weather exposure of at least 3 square feet 
(0.28 m^) per sheet. 

METAL ROOF SHINGLE. An interlocking metal sheet hav- 
ing an installed weather exposure less than 3 square feet (0.28 
m^) per sheet. 

MEZZANINE, LOFT. An intermediate level or levels 
between the floor and ceiling of any story with an aggregate 



16 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 



® 



DEFINITIONS 



floor area of not more than one-third of the area of the room or 
space in which the level or levels are located. 

MODIFIED BITUMEN ROOF COVERING. One or more 
layers of polymer modified asphalt sheets. The sheet materials 
shall be fully adhered or mechanically attached to the substrate 
or held in place with an approved ballast layer. 

MULTIPLE STATION SMOKE ALARM. Two or more sin 
gle station alarm devices that are capable of interconnection 
such that actuation of one causes all integral or separate audible 
alarms to operate. 

NATURAL DRAFT SYSTEM. A venting system designed to 
remove flue or vent gases under nonpositive static vent pres- 
sure entirely by natural draft. 

NATURALLY DURABLE WOOD. The heartwood of the 
following species: Decay-resistant redwood, cedars, black 
locust and black walnut. 

Note: Comer sap wood is permitted if 90 percent or more of 
the width of each side on which it occurs is heartwood. 

NONCOMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL. Materials that pass the 
test procedure for defining noncombustibility of elementary 
materials set forth in ASTM E 136. 

NONCONDITIONED SPACE. A space that is not a condi- 
tioned space by insulated walls, floors or ceilings. 

OCCUPIED SPACE. The total area of all buildings or struc- 
tures on any lot or parcel of ground projected on a horizontal 
plane, excluding permitted projections as allowed by this code. 

OFFSET. A combination of fittings that makes two changes in 
direction bringing one section of the pipe out of line but into a 
line parallel with the other section. 

OWNER. Any person, agent, firm or corporation having a 
legal or equitable interest in the property. 

PELLET FUEL-BURNING APPLIANCE. A closed com 
bustion, vented appliance equipped with a fuel feed mecha- 
nism for burning processed pellets of solid fuel of a specified 
size and composition. 

PELLET VENT, A vent Hsted and labeled for use with a listed 
pellet fuel-burning appliance. 

PERMIT. An official document or certificate issued by the 
authority having jurisdiction that authorizes performance of a 
specified activity. 

PERSON. An individual, heirs, executors, administrators or 
assigns, and also includes a firm, partnership or corporation, its 
or their successors or assigns, or the agent of any of the afore- 
said. 

PITCH. See "Slope." 

PLATFORM CONSTRUCTION. A method of construction 
by which floor framing bears on load bearing walls that are not 
continuous through the story levels or floor framing. 

PLENUM. A chamber that forms part of an air-circulation sys- 
tem other than the occupied space being conditioned. 

PLUMBING. For the purpose of this code, plumbing refers to 
those installations, repairs, maintenance and alterations regu- 
lated by Chapters 25 through 32. 



PLUMBING APPLIANCE. An energized household appli- 
ance with plumbing connections, such as a dishwasher, 
food-waste grinder, clothes washer or water heater. 

PLUMBING APPURTENANCE. A device or assembly that 
is an adjunct to the basic plumbing system and demands no 
additional water supply nor adds any discharge load to the sys- 
tem. It is presumed that it performs some useful function in the 
operation, maintenance, servicing, economy or safety of the 
plumbing system. Examples include filters, relief valves and 
aerators. 

PLUMBING FIXTURE. A receptor or device that requires 
both a water-supply connection and a discharge to the drainage 
system, such as water closets, lavatories, bathtubs and sinks. 
Plumbing appliances as a special class of fixture are further 
defined. 

PLUMBING SYSTEM. Includes the water supply and distri- 
bution pipes, plumbing fixtures, supports and appurtenances; 
soil, waste and vent pipes; sanitary drains and building sewers 
to an approved point of disposal. 

POLLUTION. An impairment of the quality of the potable 
water to a degree that does not create a hazard to the public 
health but that does adversely and unreasonably affect the aes- 
thetic qualities of such potable water for domestic use. 

PORTABLE FUEL CELL APPLIANCE. A fuel cell gener- 
ator of electricity, which is not fixed in place. A portable fuel 
cell appliance utilizes a cord and plug connection to a grid-iso- 
lated load and has an integral fuel supply. 

POSITIVE ROOF DRAINAGE. The drainage condition in 
which consideration has been made for all loading deflections 
of the roof deck, and additional slope has been provided to 
ensure drainage of the roof within 48 hours of precipitation. 

POTABLE WATER. Water free from impurities present in 
amounts sufficient to cause disease or harmful physiological 
effects and conforming in bacteriological and chemical quality 
to the requirements of the public health authority having juris- 
diction. 

PRECAST CONCRETE. A structural concrete element cast 
elsewhere than its final position in the structure. 

PRESSURE-RELIEF VALVE. A pressure-actuated valve 
held closed by a spring or other means and designed to auto- 
matically relieve pressure at the pressure at which it is set. 

PUBLIC SEWER. A common sewer directiy controlled by 
public authority. 

PUBLIC WATER MAIN. A water-supply pipe for pubhc use 
controlled by public authority. 

PUBLIC WAY. Any street, alley or other parcel of land open to 
the outside air leading to a public street, which has been 
deeded, dedicated or otherwise permanently appropriated to 
the public for public use and that has a clear width and height of 
not less than 10 feet (3048 mm). 

PURGE. To clear of air, gas or other foreign substances. 

QUICK-CLOSING VALVE. A valve or faucet that closes 
automatically when released manually or controlled by 
mechanical means for fast-action closing. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



17 



DEFINITIONS 



R- VALUE, THERMAL RESISTANCE. The inverse of the 
time rate of heat flow through a building thermal envelope ele- 
ment from one of its bounding surfaces to the other for a unit 
temperature difference between the two surfaces, under steady 
state conditions, per unit area (h ■ ft^ • °F/Btu). 

RAMP. A walking surface that has a running slope steeper than 
1 unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5 -percent slope). 

RECEPTOR. A fixture or device that receives the discharge 
from indirect waste pipes. 

REFRIGERANT. A substance used to ^produce refrigeration 
by its expansion or evaporation. 

REFRIGERANT COMPRESSOR. A specific machine, 
with or without accessories, for compressing a given refriger- 
ant vapor. 

REFRIGERATING SYSTEM. A combination of intercon- 
nected parts forming a closed circuit in which refrigerant is cir- 
culated for the purpose of extracting, then rejecting, heat. A 
direct refrigerating system is one in which the evaporator or 
condenser of the refrigerating system is in direct contact with 
the air or other substances to be cooled or heated. An indirect 
refrigerating system is one in which a secondary coolant 
cooled or heated by the refrigerating system is circulated to the 
air or other substance to be cooled or heated. 

REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An individual 
who is registered or licensed to practice their respective design 
profession as defined by the statutory requirements of the pro- 
fessional registration laws of the state or jurisdiction in which 
the project is to be constructed. 

RELIEF VALVE, VACUUM. A device to prevent excessive 
buildup of vacuum in a pressure vessel. 

REPAIR. The reconstruction or renewal of any part of an exist- 
ing building for the purpose of its maintenance. 

REROOFING. The process of recovering or replacing an 
existing roof covering. See "Roof recover." 

RETURN AIR. Air removed from an approved conditioned 
space or location and recirculated or exhausted. 

RISER. A water pipe that extends vertically one full story or 
more to convey water to branches or to a group of fixtures. 

ROOF ASSEMBLY. A system designed to provide weather 
protection and resistance to design loads. The system consists 
of a roof covering and roof deck or a single component serving 
as both the roof covering and the roof deck. A roof assembly 
includes the roof deck, vapor retarder, substrate or thermal bar- 
rier, insulation, vapor retarder, and roof covering. 

ROOF COVERING. The covering applied to the roof deck 
for weather resistance, fire classification or appearance. 

ROOF COVERING SYSTEM. See "Roof assembly." 

ROOF DECK. The flat or sloped surface not including its sup- 
porting members or vertical supports. 

ROOF RECOVER. The process of installing an additional 
roof covering over a prepared existing roof covering without 
removing the existing roof covering. 



ROOF REPAIR. Reconstruction or renewal of any part of an 
existing roof for the purposes of its maintenance. 

ROOFTOP STRUCTURE. An enclosed structure on or 
above the roof of any part of a building. 

ROOM HEATER. A freestanding heating appliance installed 
in the space being heated and not connected to ducts. 

ROUGH-IN. The installation of all parts of the plumbing sys- 
tem that must be completed prior to the installation of fixtures. 
This includes DWV, water supply and built-in fixture supports. 

RUNNING BOND. The placement of masonry units such that 
head joints in successive courses are horizontally offset at least 
one-quarter the unit length. 

SANITARY SEWER. A sewer that carries sewage and 
excludes storm, surface and groundwater. 

SCUPPER. An opening in a wall or parapet that allows water 
to drain from a roof. 

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY. A classification assigned 
to a structure based on its Seismic Group and the severity of the 
design earthquake ground motion at the site. 

SEPTIC TANK. A water-tight receptor that receives the dis- 
charge of a building sanitary drainage system and is con- 
structed so as to separate solids from the liquid, digest organic 
matter through a period of detention, and allovv' the liquids to 
discharge into the soil outside of the tank through a system of 
open joint or perforated piping or a seepage pit. 

SEWAGE. Any liquid waste containing animal matter, vegeta- 
ble matter or other impurity in suspension or solution. 

SEWAGE PUMP. A permanently installed mechanical device 
for removing sewage or liquid waste from a sump. 

SHALL. The term, when used in the code, is construed as man- 
datory. 

SHEAR WALL. A general term for walls that are designed 
and constructed to resist racking from seismic and wind by use 
of masonry, concrete, cold-formed steel or wood framing in 
accordance with Chapter 6 of this code and the associated limi- 
tations in Section R301.2 of this code. 

SIDE VENT. A vent connecting to the drain pipe through a fit- 
ting at an angle less than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) to the horizontal. 

SINGLE PLY MEMBRANE. A roofing membrane that is 
field applied using one layer of membrane material (either 
homogeneous or composite) rather than multiple layers. 

SINGLE STATION SMOKE ALARM. An assembly incor- 
porating the detector, control equipment and alarm sounding 
device in one unit that is operated from a power supply either in 
the unit or obtained at the point of installation. 

SKYLIGHT AND SLOPED GLAZING. See Section 
R308.6.1. 

SKYLIGHT, UNIT. See Section R308.6.1. 

SLIP JOINT. A mechanical-type joint used primarily on fix- 
ture traps. The joint tightness is obtained by compressing a 
friction-type washer such as rubber, nylon, neoprene, lead or 
special packing material against the pipe by the tightening of a 
(slip) nut. 



18 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



DEFINITIONS 



SLOPE. The fall (pitch) of a line of pipe in reference to a 
horizonal plane. In drainage, the slope is expressed as the fall in 
units vertical per units horizontal (percent) for a length of pipe. 

SMOKE-DEVELOPED RATING. A numerical index indi- 
cating the relative density of smoke produced by burning 
assigned to a material tested in accordance with ASTM E 84. 

SOIL STACK OR PIPE. A pipe that conveys sewage contain- 
ing fecal material. 

SOLAR HEAT GAIN COEFFICIENT (SHGC). The solar 
heat gain through a fenestration or glazing assembly relative to 
the incident solar radiation (Btu/h • ft^ ■ °F). 

SOLID MASONRY. Load-bearing or nonload-bearing con- 
struction using masonry units where the net cross-sectional 
area of each unit in any plane parallel to the bearing surface is 
not less than 75 percent of its gross cross-sectional area. Sohd 
masonry units shall conform to ASTM C 55, C 62, C 73, C 145 
or C 216. 

STACK. Any main vertical DWV line, including offsets, that 
extends one or more stories as directly as possible to its vent 
terminal. 

STACK BOND. The placement of masonry units in a bond 
pattern is such that head joints in successive courses are verti- 
cally aligned. For the purpose of this code, requirements for 
stack bond shall apply to all masonry laid in other than running 
bond. 

STACK VENT. The extension of soil or waste stack above the 
highest horizontal drain connected. 

STACK VENTING. A method of venting a fixture or fixtures 
through the soil or waste stack without individual fixture vents. 

STANDARD TRUSS. Any construction that does not permit 
the roof/ceiling insulation to achieve the required /?- value over 
the exterior walls. 

STATIONARY FUEL CELL POWER PLANT. A self con- 
tained package or factory-matched packages which constitute 
an automatically-operated assembly of integrated systems for 
generating useful electrical energy and recoverable thermal 
energy that is permanently connected and fixed in place. 

STORM SEWER, DRAIN. A pipe used for conveying rain- 
water, surface water, subsurface water and similar liquid waste. 

STORY. That portion of a building included between the upper 
surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or roof next 
above. 

STORY ABOVE GRADE. Any story having its finished floor 
surface entirely above grade, except that a basement shall be 
considered as a story above grade where the finished surface of 
the floor above the basement is: 

1. More than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade plane. 

2. More than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the finished ground 
level for more than 50 percent of the total building per- 
imeter. 

3. More than 12 feet (3658 mm) above the finished ground 
level at any point. 



STRUCTURAL INSULATED PANELS (SIPS). Factory 
fabricated panels of solid core insulation with structural skins 
of oriented strand board (OSB) or plywood. 

STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed. 

SUMP. A tank or pit that receives sewage or waste, located 
below the normal grade of the gravity system and that must be 
emptied by mechanical means. 

SUMP PUMP. A pump installed to empty a sump. These 
pumps are used for removing storm water only. The pump is 
selected for the specific head and volume of the load and is usu- 
ally operated by level controllers. 

SUNROOM. A one-story structure attached to a dwelling with | 
a glazing area in excess of 40 percent of the gross area of the 
structure's exterior walls and roof. 

SUPPLY AIR. Air delivered to a conditioned space through 
ducts or plenums from the heat exchanger of a heating, cooling 
or ventilating system. 

SUPPORTS. Devices for supporting, hanging and securing 
pipes, fixtures and equipment. 

SWEEP. A drainage fitting designed to provide a change in 
direction of a drain pipe of less than the angle specified by the 
amount necessary to establish the desired slope of the line. 
Sweeps provide a longer turning radius than bends and a less 
turbulent flow pattern (see "Bend" and "Elbow"). 

TEMPERATURE- AND PRESSURE-RELIEF (T AND P) 
VALVE. A combination relief valve designed to function as 
both a temperature-relief and pressure-relief valve. 

TEMPERATURE-RELIEF VALVE. A temperature-actu- 
ated valve designed to discharge automatically at the tempera- 
ture at which it is set. 

THERMAL ISOLATION. Physical and space conditioning 
separation from conditioned space(s). The conditioned 
space(s) shall be controlled as separate zones for heating and 
cooling or conditioned by separate equipment. 

THERMAL RESISTANCE, /?- VALUE. The inverse of the 
time rate of heat flow through a body from one of its bounding 
surfaces to the other for a unit temperature difference between 
the two surfaces, under steady state conditions, per unit area (h • 
ft2 • °F/Btu). 

THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE, 1/-FACTOR. The coeffi- 
cient of heat transmission (air to air) through a building enve- 
lope component or assembly, equal to the time rate of heat flow 
per unit area and unit temperature difference between the warm 
side and cold side air films (Btu/h • ft^ • °F). 

TOWNHOUSE. A single-family dwelling unit constructed in 
a group of three or more attached units in which each unit 
extends from foundation to roof and with open space on at least 
two sides. 

TRAP. A fitting, either separate or built into a fixture, that pro- 
vides a hquid seal to prevent the emission of sewer gases with- 
out materially affecting the flow of sewage or waste water 
through it. 

TRAP ARM. That portion of a fixture drain between a trap 
weir and the vent fitting. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



19 



DEFINITIONS 



TRAP PRIMER. A device or system of piping to maintain a 
water seal in a trap, typically installed where infrequent use of 
the trap would result in evaporation of the trap seal, such as 
floor drains. 

TRAP SEAL. The trap seal is the maximum vertical depth of 
liquid that a trap will retain, measured between the crown weir 
and the top of the dip of the trap. 

TRIM. Picture molds, chair rails, baseboards, handrails, door 
and window frames, and similar decorative or protective mate- 
rials used in fixed applications. 

TRUSS DESIGN DRAWING. The graphic depiction of an 
individual truss, which describes the design and physical char- 
acteristics of the truss. 

TYPE L VENT. A listed and labeled vent conforming to UL 
641 for venting oil-burning appliances listed for use with Type 
L vents or with gas appliances listed for use with Type B vents. 

{/-FACTOR, THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE. The coeffi- 
cient of heat transmission (air to air) through a building enve- 
lope component or assembly, equal to the time rate of heat flow 
per unit area and unit temperature difference between the warm 
side and cold side air films (Btu/h • ft^ ■ °F). 

UNCONFINED SPACE. A space having a volume not less 
than 50 cubic feet per 1,000 Btu/h (4.8 m^/kW) of the aggregate 
input rating of all appliances installed in that space. Rooms 
communicating directly with the space in which the appliances 
are installed, through openings not furnished with doors, are 
considered a part of the unconfined space. 

UNDERLAYMENT. One or more layers of felt, sheathing 
paper, nonbituminous saturated felt, or other approved material 
over which a roof covering, with a slope of 2 to 12 (17-percent 
slope) or greater, is applied. 

UNUSUALLY TIGHT CONSTRUCTION. Construction in 
which: 

1. Walls and ceilings comprising the building thermal 
envelope have a continuous water vapor retarder with a 
rating of 1 perm (5.7 • 10"^' kg/Pa • s • m^) or less with 
openings therein gasketed or sealed. 

2. Storm windows or weatherstripping is applied around 
the threshold and jambs of opaque doors and openable 
windows. 

3. Caulking or sealants are applied to areas such as joints 
around window and door frames between sole plates and 
floors, between wall-ceiling joints, between wall panels, 
at penetrations for plumbing, electrical and gas lines, and 
at other openings. 

VACUUM BREAKERS. A device which prevents 
backsiphonage of water by admitting atmospheric pressure 
through ports to the discharge side of the device. 

VAPOR PERMEABLE MEMBRANE. A material or cov- 
ering having a permeance rating of 5 perms (2.9 • 10"^ kg/Pa • 
s • m^) or greater, when tested in accordance with the desiccant 
method using Procedure A of ASTM E 96. A vapor permeable 
material permits the passage of moisture vapor. 



VAPOR RETARDER. A vapor resistant material, membrane 
or covering such as foil, plastic sheeting, or insulation facing 
havingapermeanceratingofl perm (5.7 • 1 0"^^ kg/Pa- sm^)or 
less, when tested in accordance with the dessicant method 
using Procedure A of ASTM E 96. Vapor retarders limit the 
amount of moisture vapor that passes through a material or wall 
assembly. 

VEHICULAR ACCESS DOOR. A door that is used primar- 
ily for vehicular traffic at entrances of buildings such as 
garages and parking lots, and that is not generally used for 
pedestrian traffic. 

VENT. A passageway for conveying flue gases from fuel-fired 
appliances, or their vent connectors, to the outside atmosphere. 

VENT COLLAR. See "Flue collar." 

VENT CONNECTOR. That portion of a venting system 
which connects the flue collar or draft hood of an appliance to a 
vent. 

VENT DAMPER DEVICE, AUTOMATIC. A device 
intended for installation in the venting system, in the outlet of 
an individual, automatically operated fuel burning appliance 
and that is designed to open the venting system automatically 
when the appliance is in operation and to close off the venting 
system automatically when the appliance is in a standby or 
shutdown condition. 

VENT GASES. Products of combustion from fuel-burning 
appliances, plus excess air and dilution air, in the venting sys- 
tem above the draft hood or draft regulator. 

VENT STACK. A vertical vent pipe installed to provide circu- 
lation of air to and from the drainage system and which extends 
through one or more stories. 

VENT SYSTEM. Piping installed to equalize pneumatic pres- 
sure in a drainage system to prevent trap seal loss or blow-back 
due to siphonage or back pressure. 

VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of sup- 
plying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such 
air from, any space. 

VENTING. Removal of combustion products to the outdoors. 

VENTING SYSTEM. A continuous open passageway from 
the flue collar of an appliance to the outside atmosphere for the 
purpose of removing flue or vent gases. A venting system is 
usually composed of a vent or a chimney and vent connector, if 
used, assembled to form the open passageway. 

VERTICAL PIPE. Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle of 
45 degrees (0.79 rad) or more with the horizontal. 

VINYL SIDING. A shaped material, made principally from I 
rigid polyvinyl chloride (PVC), that is used to cover exterior I 
walls of buildings. | 

WALL, RETAINING. A wall not laterally supported at the I 
top, that resists lateral soil load and other imposed loads. | 

WALLS. Walls shall be defined as follows: 

Load-bearing wall is a wall supporting any vertical load in 
addition to its own weight. 



20 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



DEFINITIONS 



Nonbearing wall is a wall which does not support vertical 
loads other than its own weight. 

WASTE. Liquid-borne waste that is free of fecal matter. 

WASTE PIPE OR STACK. Piping that conveys only hquid 
sewage not containing fecal material. 

WATER-DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. Piping which conveys 
water from the service to the plumbing fixtures, appliances, 
appurtenances, equipment, devices or other systems served, 
including fittings and control valves. 

WATER HEATER. Any heating appliance or equipment that 
heats potable water and supplies such water to the potable hot 
water distribution system. 

WATER MAIN. A water-supply pipe for public use. 

WATER OUTLET. A valved discharge opening, including a 
hose bibb, through which water is removed from the potable 
water system supplying water to a plumbing fixture or plumb- 
ing appliance that requires either an air gap or backflow 
pre-vention device for protection of the supply system. 

WATER-RESISTIVE BARRIER. A material behind an 
exterior wall covering that is intended to resist liquid water that 
has penetrated behind the exterior covering from further 
intruding into the exterior wall assembly. 

WATER-SERVICE PIPE. The outside pipe from the water 
main or other source of potable water supply to the water-dis- 
tribution system inside the building, terminating at the service 
valve. 

WATER-SUPPLY SYSTEM. The water-service pipe, the 
water-distributing pipes and the necessary connecting pipes, 
fittings, control valves and all appurtenances in or adjacent to 
the building or premises. 

WET VENT. A vent that also receives the discharge of wastes 
from other fixtures. 

WIND BORNE DEBRIS REGION. Areas within hurri- 
cane-prone regions within one mile of the coastal mean high 
water line where the basic wind speed is 110 miles per hour (49 
m/s) or greater; or where the basic wind speed is equal to or 
greater than 120 miles per hour (54 m/s); or Hawaii. 

WINDER. A tread with non-parallel edges. 

WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL. A panel manufactured 
from veneers; or wood strands or wafers; bonded together with 
waterproof synthetic resins or other suitable bonding systems. 
Examples of wood structural panels are plywood, OSB or com- 
posite panels. 

YARD. An open space, other than a court, unobstructed from 
the ground to the sky, except where specifically provided by 
this code, on the lot on which a building is situated. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 21 



22 2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



Part III — Building Planning and Construction 

CHAPTER 3 

BUILDING PLANNING 



SECTION R301 
DESIGN CRITERIA 

R301.1 Application. Buildings and structures, and all parts 
thereof, shall be constructed to safely support all loads, includ- 
ing dead loads, live loads, roof loads, flood loads, snow loads, 
wind loads and seismic loads as prescribed by this code. The 
construction of buildings and structures in accordance with the 
provisions of this code shall result in a system that provides a 
complete load path that meets all requirements for the transfer of 
all loads from their point of origin through the load-resisting ele- 
ments to the foundation. Buildings and structures constructed as 
prescribed by this code are deemed to comply with the require- 
ments of this section. 

R301.1.1 Alternative provisions. As an alternative to the 
requirements in Section R301 . 1 the following standards are 
permitted subject to the limitations of this code and the limi- 
tations therein. Where engineered design is used in conjunc- 
tion with these standards the design shall comply with the 
International Building Code. 

1. American Forest and Paper Association (AF&PA) 
Wood Frame Construction Manual (WFCM). 

2. American fron and Steel Institute (AISI) Standard for 
Cold-Formed Steel Framing — Prescriptive Method 
for One- and Two-Family Dwellings (COFS/PM) with 
Supplement to Standard for Cold-Formed Steel Fram- 
ing-Prescriptive Method for One- and Two-Family 
Dwellings. 

R301.1.2 Construction systems. The requirements of this 
code are based on platform and balloon-frame construction for 
light-frame buildings. The requirements for concrete and 
masonry buildings are based on a balloon framing system. 
Other framing systems must have equivalent detaihng to 
ensure force transfer, continuity and compatible deformations. 

R301.1.3 Engineered design. When a building of otherwise 
conventional construction contains structural elements 
exceeding the limits of Section R301 or otherwise not con- 
forming to this code, these elements shall be designed in accor- 
dance with accepted engineering practice. The extent of such 
design need only demonstrate compUance of nonconventional 
elements with other applicable provisions and shall be compat- 
ible with the performance of the conventional framed system. 
Engineered design in accordance with the International Build- 
ing Code is permitted for all buildings and structures, and parts 
thereof, included in the scope of this code. 



R301.2 Climatic and geographic design criteria. Buildings 
shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of this 
code as limited by the provisions of this section. Additional cri- 
teria shall be established by the local jurisdiction and set forth 
in Table R301. 2(1). 

R301.2.1 Wind limitations. Buildings and portions thereof 
shall be limited by wind speed, as defined in Table R301 .2(1) 
and construction methods in accordance with this code. Basic 
wind speeds shall be determined from Figure R301.2(4). 
Where different construction methods and structural materi- 
als are used for various portions of a building, the applicable 
requirements of this section for each portion shall apply. 
Where loads for wall coverings, curtain walls, roof coverings, 
exterior windows, skylights, garage doors and exterior doors 
are not otherwise specified, the loads listed in Table 
R301.2(2) adjusted for height and exposure using Table 
R301.2(3) shall be used to determine design load perfor- 
mance requirements for wall coverings, curtain walls, roof 
coverings, exterior windows, skyhghts, garage doors and 
exterior doors. Asphalt shingles shall be designed for wind 
speeds in accordance with Section R905.2.6. 

R301.2.1.1 Design criteria. Construction in regions 
where the basic wind speeds from Figure R301 .2(4) equal 
or exceed 100 miles per hour (45 m/s) in hurricane-prone 
regions, or 1 10 miles per hour (49 m/s) elsewhere, shall be 
designed in accordance with one of the following: 

1 . American Forest and Paper Association (AF&PA) 
Wood Frame Construction Manual for One- and 
Two-Family Dwellings (WFCM); or 

2. Southern Building Code Congress International 
Standard for Hurricane Resistant Residential 
Construction (SSTD 10); or 

3. Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other 
Structures (ASCE-7); or 

4. American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), Stan- 
dard for Cold-Formed Steel Framing — Prescrip- 
tive Method For One- and Two-Family Dwellings 
(COFS/PM) with Supplement to Standard for 
Cold-Formed Steel Framing — Prescriptive 
Method For One- and Two-Family Dwellings. 

5. Concrete construction shall be designed in accor- 
dance with the provisions of this code. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



23 



BUILDING PLANNING 



TABLE R301. 2(1) 
CLIMATIC AND GEOGRAPHIC DESIGN CRITERIA 



GROUND 
SNOW 
LOAD 


WIND 

SPEED" 

(mph) 


SEISMIC 

DESIGN 

CATEGORY* 


SUBJECT TO DAMAGE FROM 


WINTER 
DESIGN 
TEMP^ 


ICE BARRIER 

UNDERLAYMENT 

REQUIRED" 


FLOOD 
HAZARDS^ 


AIR 

FREEZING 

INDEX' 


MEAN 

ANNUAL 

TEMP' 


Weathering^ 


Frost line 
depth" 


Termite'' 

























For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Weathering may require a higher strength concrete or grade of masonry than necessary to satisfy the structural requirements of this code. The weathering column 
shall be filled in with the weathering index (i.e., "negligible," "moderate" or "severe") for concrete as determined from the Weathering Probability Map [Figure 
R301 .2(3)]. The grade of masonry units shall be determined from ASTM C 34, C 55, C 62, C 73, C 90, C 129, C 145, C 216 or C 652. 

b. The frost line depth may require deeper footings than indicated in Figure R403.1(l). The jurisdiction shall fill in the frost line depth column with the minimum 
depth of footing below finish grade. 

c. The j urisdiction shall fill in this part of the table to indicate the need for protection depending on whether there has been a history of local subterranean termite dam- 
age. 

d. The jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with the wind speed from the basic wind speed map [FigureR30 1.2(4)]. Wind exposure category shall be deter- 
mined on a site-specific basis in accordance with Section R301.2.1.4. 

e. The outdoor design dry-bulb temperature shall be selected from the columns of 97 V2-percent values for winter from Appendix D of the International Plumbing 
Code. Deviations from the Appendix D temperatures shall be permitted to reflect local climates or local weather experience as determined by the building official. 

f. The jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with the seismic design category determined from Section R301.2.2.1. 

g. The jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with (a) the date of the jurisdiction's entry into the National Flood Insurance Program (date of adoption of the first 
code or ordinance for management of flood hazard areas), (b) the date(s) of the currently effective FIRM and FBFM, or other flood hazard map adopted by the com- 
munity, as may be amended. 

h. In accordance with Sections R905.2.7.1,R905.4.3.1,R905.5.3.1,R905.6.3.1,R905.7.3.1 and R905.8.3.1, where there has beenahistory of local damage from the 
effects of ice damming, the jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with "YES". Otherwise, the jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with "NO". 

i. The jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with the 100-year return period air freezing index (BF-days) from Figure R403.3(2) or from the 100-year (99%) 
value on the National Climatic Data Center data table "Air Freezing Index- USA Method (Base 32°Fahrenheit)" at www.ncdc.noaa.gov/fpsf.html. 

j. The jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with the mean annual temperature from the National Climatic Data Center data table "Air Freezing Index-USA 
Method (Base 32°Fahrenheit)" at www.ncdc.noaa.gov/fpsf.html. 



24 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



BUILDING PLANNING 



TABLE R301. 2(2) 

COMPONENT AND CLADDING LOADS FOR A BUILDING WITH A MEAN 

ROOF HEIGHT OF 30 FEET LOCATED IN EXPOSURE B (psf) 





ZONE 


EFFECTIVE 
WIND 
AREA 
(feet^) 


BASIC WIND SPEED (mph— 3-second gust) 


85 


90 


100 


105 


110 


120 


125 


130 


140 


145 


150 


170 


M 
(U 
0) 

g" 

■o 
o 

o 

o 

A 

O 
O 
CE 


1 


10 


10.0 


-13.0 


10.0 


-14.6 


10.0 


-18.0 


10.0 


-19.8 


10.0 


-21.8 


10.5 


-25.9 


11.4 


-28.1 


12.4 


-30.4 


14.3 


-35.3 


15.4 


-37.8 


16.5 


-40.5 


21.1 


-52.0 


1 


20 


10.0 


-12.7 


10.0 


-14.2 


10.0 


-17.5 


10.0 


-19.3 


10.0 


-21.2 


10.0 


-25.2 


10.7 


-27.4 


11.6 


-29.6 


13.4 


-34.4 


14.4 


-36.9 


15.4 


-39.4 


19.8 


-50.7 


1 


50 


10.0 


-12.2 


10.0 


-13.7 


10.0 


-16.9 


10.0 


-18.7 


10.0 


-20.5 


10.0 


-24.4 


10.0 


-26.4 


10.6 


-28.6 


12.3 


-33.2 


13.1 


-35.6 


14.1 


-38.1 


18.1 


-48.9 


1 


100 


10.0 


-11.9 


10.0 


-13.3 


10.0 


-18.5 


10.0 


-18.2 


10.0 


-19.9 


10.0 


-23.7 


10.0 


-25.7 


10.0 


-27.8 


11.4 


-32.3 


12.2 


-34.6 


13.0 


-37.0 


16.7 


-47.6 


2 


10 


10.0 


-21.8 


10.0 


-24.4 


10.0 


-30.2 


10.0 


-33.3 


10.0 


-36.5 


10.5 


-43.5 


11.4 


-47.2 


12.4 


-51.0 


14.3 


-59.2 


15.4 


-63.5 


16.5 


-67.9 


21.1 


-87.2 


2 


20 


10.0 


-19.5 


10.0 


-21.8 


10.0 


-27.0 


10.0 


-29.7 


10.0 


-32.6 


10.0 


-38.8 


10.7 


-42.1 


11.6 


-45.6 


13.4 


-52.9 


14.4 


-56.7 


15.4 


-60.7 


19.8 


-78.0 


2 


50 


10.0 


-16.4 


10.0 


-18.4 


10.0 


-22.7 


10.0 


-25.1 


10.0 


-27.5 


10.0 


-32.7 


10.0 


-35.5 


10.6 


-38.4 


12.3 


-44.5 


13.1 


-47.8 


14.1 


-51.1 


18.1 


-65.7 


2 


100 


10.0 


-14.1 


10.0 


-15.8 


10.0 


-19.5 


10.0 


-21.5 


10.0 


-23.6 


10.0 


-28.1 


10.0 


-30.5 


10.0 


-33.0 


11.4 


-38.2 


12.2 


-41.0 


13.0 


-43.9 


16.7 


-56.4 


3 


10 


10.0 


-32.8 


10.0 


-36.8 


10.0 


-45.4 


10.0 


-50.1 


10.0 


-55.0 


10.5 


-65.4 


11.4 


-71.0 


12.4 


-76.8 


14.3 


-89.0 


15.4 


-95.5 


16.5 


-102.2 


21.1 


-131.3 


3 


20 


10.0 


-27.2 


10.0 


-30.5 


10.0 


-37.6 


10.0 


-41.5 


10.0 


-45.5 


10.0 


-54.2 


10.7 


-58.8 


11.6 


-63.6 


13.4 


-73.8 


14.4 


-79.1 


15.4 


-84.7 


19.8 


-108.7 


■ 
3 


50 


10.0 


-19.7 


10.0 


-22.1 


10.0 


-27.3 


10.0 


-30.1 


10.0 


-33.1 


10.0 


-39.3 


10.0 


-42.7 


10.6 


-46.2 


12.3 


-53.5 


13.1 


-57.4 


14.1 


-61.5 


18.1 


-78.9 


3 


100 


10.0 


-14.1 


10.0 


-15.8 


10.0 


-19.5 


10.0 


-21.5 


10.0 


-23.6 


10.0 


-28.1 


10.0 


-30.5 


10.0 


-33.0 


11.4 


-38.2 


12.2 


-41.0 


13.0 


-43.9 


16.7 


-56.4 


(0 
0) 
0) 

D) 

0) 

T3 
O 

n 

O 

o 

A 

O 
O 

tc 


1 


10 


10.0 


-11.9 


10.0 


-13.3 


10.4 


-16.5 


11.4 


-18.2 


12.5 


-19.9 


14.9 


-23.7 


16.2 


-25.7 


17.5 


-27.8 


20.3 


-32.3 


21.8 


-34.6 


23.3 


-37.0 


30.0 


-47.6 


I 


20 


10.0 


-11.6 


10.0 


-13.0 


10.0 


-16.0 


10.4 


-17.6 


11.4 


-19.4 


13.6 


-23.0 


14.8 


-25.0 


16.0 


-27.0 


18.5 


-31.4 


19.9 


-33.7 


21.3 


-36.0 


27.3 


-46.3 


1 


50 


10.0 


-11.1 


10.0 


-12.5 


10.0 


-15.4 


10.0 


-17.0 


10.0 


-18.6 


11.9 


-22.2 


12.9 


-24.1 


13.9 


-26.0 


16.1 


-30.2 


17.3 


-32.4 


18.5 


-34.6 


23.8 


-44.5 


1 


100 


10.0 


-10.8 


10.0 


-12.1 


10.0 


-14.9 


10.0 


-16.5 


10.0 


-18.1 


10.5 


-21.5 


11.4 


-23.3 


12.4 


-25.2 


14.3 


-29.3 


15.4 


-31.4 


16.5 


-33.6 


21.1 


-43.2 


2 


10 


10.0 


-25.1 


10.0 


-28.2 


10.4 


-34.8 


11.4 


-38.3 


12.5 


-42.1 


14.9 


-50.1 


16.2 


-54.3 


17.5 


-58.7 


20.3 


-68.1 


21.8 


-73.1 


23.3 


-78.2 


30.0 


-100.5 


2 


20 


10.0 


-22.8 


10.0 


-25.6 


10.0 


-31.5 


10.4 


-34.8 


11.4 


-38.2 


13.6 


-45.4 


14.8 


-49.3 


16.0 


-53.3 


18.5 


-61.8 


19.9 


-66.3 


21.3 


-71.0 


27.3 


-91.2 


2 


50 


10.0 


-19.7 


10.0 


-22.1 


10.0 


-27.3 


10.0 


-30.1 


10.0 


-33.0 


11.9 


-39.3 


12.9 


-42.7 


13.9 


-46.1 


16.1 


-53.5 


17.3 


-57.4 


18.5 


-61.4 


23.8 


-78.9 


2 


100 


10.0 


-17.4 


10.0 


-19.5 


10.0 


-24.1 


10.0 


-26.6 


10.0 


-29.1 


10.5 


-34.7 


11.4 


-37.6 


12.4 


-40.7 


14.3 


-47.2 


15.4 


-50.6 


16.5 


-54.2 


21.1 


-69.6 


3 


10 


10.0 


-25.1 


10.0 


-28.2 


10.4 


-34.8 


11.4 


-38.3 


12.5 


-42.1 


14.9 


-50.1 


16.2 


-54.3 


17.5 


-58.7 


20.3 


-68.1 


21.8 


-73.1 


23.3 


-78.2 


30.0 


-100.5 


3 


20 


10.0 


-22.8 


10.0 


-25.6 


10.0 


-31.5 


10.4 


-34.8 


11.4 


-38.2 


13.6 


-45.4 


14.8 


-49.3 


16.0 


-53.3 


18.5 


-61.8 


19.9 


-66.3 


21.3 


-71.0 


27.3 


-91.2 


3 


50 


10.0 


-19.7 


10.0 


-22.1 


10.0 


-27.3 


10.0 


-30.1 


10.0 


-33.0 


11.9 


-39.3 


12.9 


-42.7 


13.9 


-46.1 


16.1 


-53.5 


17.3 


-57.4 


18.5 


-61.4 


23.8 


-78.9 


3 


100 


10.0 


-17.4 


10.0 


-19.5 


10.0 


-24.1 


10.0 


-26.6 


10.0 


-29.1 


10.5 


-34.7 


11.4 


-37.6 


12.4 


-40.7 


14.3 


-47.2 


15.4 


-50.6 


16.5 


-54.2 


21.1 


-69.6 


0) 

O) 
0) 

■o 

$ 

o 

i 

A 
1 

tc 


1 


10 


11.9 


-13.0 


13.3 


-14.6 


16.5 


-18.0 


18.2 


-19.8 


19.9 


-21.8 


23.7 


-25.9 


25.7 


-28.1 


27.8 


-30.4 


32.3 


-35.3 


34.6 


-37.8 


37.0 


-40.5 


47.6 


-52.0 


1 


20 


11.6 


-12.3 


13.0 


-13.8 


16.0 


-17.1 


17.6 


-18.8 


19.4 


-20.7 


23.0 


-24.6 


25.0 


-26.7 


27.0 


-28.9 


31.4 


-33.5 


33.7 


-35.9 


36.0 


-38.4 


46.3 


-49.3 


1 


50 


11.1 


-11.5 


12.5 


-12.8 


15.4 


-15.9 


17.0 


-17.5 


18.6 


-19.2 


22.2 


-22.8 


24.1 


-24.8 


26.0 


-25.8 


30.2 


-31.1 


32.4 


-33.3 


34.6 


-35.7 


44.5 


-45.8 


1 


100 


10.8 


-10.8 


12.1 


-12.1 


14.9 


-14.9 


16.5 


-16.5 


18.1 


-18.1 


21.5 


-21.5 


23.3 


-23.3 


25.2 


-25.2 


29.3 


-29.3 


31.4 


-31.4 


33.6 


-33.6 


43.2 


-43.2 


2 


10 


11.9 


-15.2 


13.3 


-17.0 


16.5 


-21.0 


18.2 


-23.2 


19.9 


-25.5 


23.7 


-30.3 


25.7 


-32.9 


27.8 


-35.6 


32.3 


-41.2 


34.6 


-44.2 


37.0 


-47.3 


47.6 


-60.8 


2 


20 


11.6 


-14.5 


13.0 


-16.3 


16.0 


-20.1 


17.6 


-22.2 


19.4 


-24.3 


23.0 


-29.0 


25.0 


-31.4 


27.0 


-34.0 


31.4 


-39.4 


33.7 


-42.3 


36.0 


-45.3 


46.3 


-58.1 


2 


50 


11.1 


-13.7 


12.5 


-15.3 


15.4 


-18.9 


17.0 


-20.8 


18.6 


-22.9 


22.2 


-27.2 


24.1 


-29.5 


26.0 


-32.0 


30.2 


-37.1 


32.4 


-39.8 


34.6 


-42.5 


44.5 


-54.6 


2 


100 


10.8 


-13.0 


12.1 


-14.6 


14.9 


-18.0 


16.5 


-19.8 


18.1 


-21.8 


21.5 


-25.9 


23.3 


-28.1 


25.2 


-30.4 


29.3 


-35.3 


31.4 


-37.8 


33.6 


-40.5 


43.2 


-52.0 


3 


10 


11.9 


-15.2 


13.3 


-17.0 


16.5 


-21.0 


18.2 


-23.2 


19.9 


-25.5 


23.7 


-30.3 


25.7 


-32.9 


27.8 


-35.6 


32.3 


-41.2 


34.6 


-44.2 


37.0 


-47.3 


47.6 


-60.8 


3 


20 


11.6 


-14.5 


13.0 


-16.3 


16.0 


-20.1 


17.6 


-22.2 


19.4 


-24.3 


23.0 


-29.0 


25.0 


-31.4 


27.0 


-34.0 


31.4 


-39.4 


33.7 


-42.3 


36.0 


-45.3 


46.3 


-58.1 


3 


50 


11.1 


-13.7 


12.5 


-15.3 


15.4 


-18.9 


17.0 


-20.8 


18.6 


-22.9 


22.2 


-27.2 


24.1 


-29.5 


26.0 


-32.0 


30.2 


-37.1 


32.4 


-39.8 


34.6 


-42.5 


44.5 


-54.5 


3 


100 


10.8 


-13.0 


12.1 


-14.6 


14.9 


-18.0 


16.5 


-19.8 


18.1 


-21.8 


21.5 


-25.9 


23.3 


-28.1 


25.2 


-30.4 


29.3 


-35.3 


31.4 


-37.8 


33.6 


-40.5 


43.2 


-52.0 


i 


4 


10 


13.0 


-14.1 


14.6 


-15.8 


18.0 


-19.5 


19.8 


-21.5 


21.8 


-23.6 


25.9 


-28.1 


28.1 


-30.5 


30.4 


-33.0 


35.3 


-38.2 


37.8 


-41.0 


40.5 


-43.9 


52.0 


-56.4 


4 


20 


12.4 


-13.5 


13.9 


-15.1 


17.2 


-18.7 


18.9 


-20.6 


20.8 


-22.6 


24.7 


-26.9 


26.8 


-29.2 


29.0 


-31.6 


33.7 


-36.7 


36.1 


-39.3 


38.7 


-42.1 


49.6 


-54.1 


4 


50 


11.6 


-12.7 


13.0 


-14.3 


16.1 


-17.6 


17.8 


-19.4 


19.5 


-21.3 


23.2 


-25.4 


25.2 


-27.5 


27.2 


-29.8 


31.6 


-34.6 


33.9 


-37.1 


36.2 


-39.7 


46.6 


-51.0 


4 


100 


11.1 


-12.2 


12.4 


-13.6 


15.3 


-16.8 


16.9 


-18.5 


18.5 


-20.4 


22.0 


-24.2 


23.9 


-26.3 


25.9 


-28.4 


30.0 


-33.0 


32.2 


-35.4 


34.4 


-37.8 


44.2 


-48.6 


5 


10 


13.0 


-17.4 


14.6 


-19.5 


18.0 


-24.1 


19.8 


-26.6 


21.8 


-29.1 


25.9 


-34.7 


28.1 


-37.6 


30.4 


-40.7 


35.3 


-47.2 


37.8 


-50.6 


40.5 


-54.2 


52.0 


-69.6 


5 


20 


12.4 


-16.2 


13.9 


-18.2 


17.2 


-22.5 


18.9 


-24.8 


20.8 


-27.2 


24.7 


-32.4 


26.8 


-35.1 


29.0 


-38.0 


33.7 


-44.0 


36.1 


-47.2 


38.7 


-50.5 


49.6 


-64.9 


5 


50 


11.6 


-14.7 


13.0 


-16.5 


16.1 


-20.3 


17.8 


-22.4 


19.5 


-24.6 


23.2 


-29.3 


25.2 


-31.8 


27.2 


-34.3 


31.6 


-39.8 


33.9 


-42.7 


36.2 


-45.7 


46.6 


-58.7 


5 


100 


11.1 


-13.5 


12.4 


-15.1 


15.3 


-18.7 


16.9 


-20.6 


18.5 


-22.6 


22.0 


-26.9 


23.9 


-29.2 


25.9 


-31.6 


30.0 


-36.7 


32.2 


-39.3 


34.4 


-42.1 


44.2 


-54.1 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

NOTES: For effective areas between those given above the load may be interpolated, otherwise use the load associated with the lower effective area. 

Table values shall be adjusted for height and exposure by multiplying by the adjustment coefficient in Table R301.2(3). 

See Figure R301.2(7) for location of zones. 

Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting toward and away from the building surfaces. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE' 



.® 



25 



BUILDING PLANNING 



TABLE R301. 2(3) 
HEIGHT AND EXPOSURE ADJUSTMENT COEFFICIENTS FOR TABLE R301.2(2) 



MEAN 
ROOF HEIGHT 


EXPOSURE 


B 


C 


D 


15 


1.00 


1.21 


1.47 


20 


1.00 


1.29 


1.55 


25 


1.00 


1.35 


1.61 


30 


1.00 


1.40 


1.66 


35 


1.05 


1.45 


1.70 


40 


1.09 


1.49 


1.74 


45 


1.12 


1.53 


1.78 


50 


1.16 


1.56 


1.81 


55 


1.19 


1.59 


1.84 


60 


1.22 


1.62 


1.87 



20 10 




DESIGN TEMPERATURES IN THIS AREA MUST BE BASED ON 
ANALYSIS OF LOCAL CLIMATE AND TOPOGRAPHY 



For SI: °C = [(°F)-32] /I.8. 



FIGURE R301. 2(1) 
ISOLINES OF THE 97V2 PERCENT WINTER (DECEMBER, JANUARY AND FEBRUARY) DESIGN TEMPERATURES (°F) 



26 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



o 

z 
> 

r- 

33 

m 

U) 

o 
m 

z 

H 

> 

1- 

O 

o 

D 
"I 



Explanation 


Seismic Design 


°^og Category 


^H E 


117 


M|| 






Da 


83 


. ^ ™ - " 








D, 


67 




Do 


50 




c 


33 




B 


17 




A 


^ ' 



165° 160° 135° 



i i-^- 



aV 






^ 



^■f-^>yT 






5->.-^ i 



f\^ 



C„ 



o 



sf^ 



f^. 



fff/" 



-\^^ 



"RIHERENCES 

Wesson, R., Frankel, A., Mueller, C, and Harrasen, S„ 1 999,' 
ProbabiJ istic Seismic Maxatd Maps of A! aska D.S. 
Geolo^cal Survey Open-File Report 99-36, 20 p. 

Wesson, R, Ftania!, A., Mueller, C, aBd Hamiscn, S., 1 999, 
Seismic Hazard MajB for Alaska: and the Aleutian Islands: 
U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investi^tions Series 
1-2679, 2 shBem, scale J : 7,5(X\000 

Map Prepared by US. Geologcal Survey 



250 



SCO KILOiVCreSS 



CD 

C 



For SI: 1 mile = 1.61km. 



FIGURE R301. 2(2) 
SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES— SITE CLASS D 

(continued) 



O 

T3 

|- 
3> 



O 



REFERENCES 

KlL'iii, I'-., l-rankil. A., Muuik-r. C. Wcssoa R., ami Okiilxi, P., 

2001, Seismic Ha/anJ in Hawaii: High Raitc oiLirgi,! 

EirthMiukes vmd Probabilistic Ground Moiion Maps. 

Bulletin of the SeismototLical Societv of America v, 91 . 

Pii 479-498. 
Klein, H., Frankt:!, A., Mut'ller, C, Wcison, R., and Ofcubo, P., 

20()(). Seismic Ha/iiai Maps for Hawaii: l.i.S. Geoiogita! 

Survey Mi-sceiianeoiLS Investigatiojis Series 1-2724. 

2 .shuJts, .scale ! ;2,OOO.CX30 




O 



For SI: 1 mile = 1.61 km. 



O 
O 

o 
m 



FIGURE R301. 2(2)— continued 
SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES— SITE CLASS D 

(continued) 




%g 



Explanation 

Seismic Design 
Category 




Scale l:2,0Oa(X» 



100 KILOMETERS 



REFERENCES 

Mueller, C, Frankel, A., Peteisen, M, and Leyendecker, E, 2003, 
Documentation for 2003 USGS Sdsmic Hazaid Maps for Purato Ricx) 
and the U.S. Ytiffa Islands, U.S. Geological Survey Opesa-FHe 
Report 03-379. 

Mueller, C, Fninkel, A., Petersen, M, and Leyendecker, E, 2004^ 
S^mic-Hazaid Maps for Puerto Rico uid &e U.S. Viipn Island, 
She^ 2 - 2% Probability of Exceedance in 50 Years for Peak 
Horizontal Acceleration and Horizontal Spectral Response Acceleration 
for a 2, 0.3, and 1 .0 Second Pbiiods U.S. Geolo^cal Survey 
Geologic Invratigation Series (in progress). 

Map Prepared by U.S. Geological Survey 



For SI: 1 mile = 1.61 km. 



FIGURE R301. 2(2)— continued 
SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES— SITE CLASS D 



00 

c 
i- 
g 
z 
o 

■0 



(continued) 



O 



BUILDING PLANNING 




FIGURE R301. 2(2)— continued 
SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES— SITE CLASS D 

(continued) 



30 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



BUILDING PLANES!ING 




FJGURE R301. 2(2)— continued 

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES— SITE CLASS D 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



31 




o 
•a 

> 



o 



SEVERE 
MODERATE 

NEGLIGIBLE 



a. Alaska and Hawaii are classified as severe and negligible, respectively. 

b. Lines defining areas are approximate only. Local conditions may be more or less severe than indicated by region classification. A severe classification is where weather conditions result in significant snowfall 
combined with extended periods during which there is little or no natural thawing causing deicing salts to be used extensively. 

FIGURE R301. 2(3) 
WEATHERING PROBABILITY MAP FOR CONCRETE 



BUILDING PLANNING 



Lcx;ation 


Vmph 


(m/s) 


Hawaii 


105 


(47) 


Puerto Rico 


145 


(65) 


Guam 


170 


(76) 


Virgin Islands 


145 


(65) 


American Samoa 


125 


(56) 



Special Wind Region 




-154 



148 -142 



FIGURE R301. 2(4) 
BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL 

(continued) 

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Values are nominal design 3-second gust wind speeds in miles per hour at 33 feet above ground for Exposure C category. 

b. Linear interpolation between wind contours is permitted. 

c. Islands and coastal areas outside the last contour shall use the last wind speed contour of the coastal area. 

d. Mountainous terrain, gorges, ocean promontories and special wind regions shall be examined for unusual wind conditions. 

e. Enlarged view of Eastern and Southern seaboards are on the following pages. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



33 



BUILDING PLANNING 




Location 


Vmph 


Hawaii 


105 


Puerto Rico 


145 


Guam 


170 


Virgin Islands 


145 


American Samoa 


125 



FIGURE R301. 2(4)— continued 
BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL 

(continued) 

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Values are nominal design 3-second gust wind speeds in miles per hour at 33 feet above ground for Exposure C category. 

b. Linear interpolation between wind contours is permitted. 

c. Islands and coastal areas outside the last contour shall use the last wind speed contour of the coastal area. 

d. Mountainous terrain, gorges, ocean promontories and special wind regions shall be examined for unusual wind conditions. 

e. Enlarged view of Eastern and Southern seaboards are on the following pages. 



34 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



BUILDING PLANNING 




FIGURE R301. 2(4)— continued 
BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL 

(continued) 

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Values are nominal design 3-second gust wind speeds in miles per hour at 33 feet above ground for Exposure C category. 

b. Linear interpolation between wind contours is permitted. 

c. Islands and coastal areas outside the last contour shall use the last wind speed contour of the coastal area. 

d. Mountainous terrain, gorges, ocean promontories and special wind r^ions shall be examined for unusual wind conditions. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*" 



35 



BUILDING PLANNING 




100 



Special Wind Region 



FIGURE R301.2(4)^continued 
BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL 

(continued) 

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Values are nominal design 3-second gust wind speeds in miles per hour at 33 feet above ground for Exposure C category. 

b. Linear interpolation between wind contours is permitted. 

c. Islands and coastal areas outside the last contour shall use the last wind speed contour of the coastal area. 

d. Mountainous terrain, gorges, ocean promontories and special wind regions shall be examined for unusual wind conditions. 



36 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 



® 



BUILDING PLANNING 



130 




140 



Special Wind Region 



FIGURE R301. 2(4)— continued 
BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Values are nominal design 3-second gust wind speeds in miles per hour at 33 feet above ground for Exposure C category. 

b. Linear interpolation between wind contours is permitted. 

c. Islands and coastal areas outside the last contour shall use the last wind speed contour of the coastal area. 

d. Mountainous terrain, gorges, ocean promontories and special wind regions shall be examined for unusual wind conditions. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE"" 



37 



BUILDING PLANNING 



|20 




For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 mile = 1.61 km. 

a. In CS areas, site-specific Case Studies are required to establish ground snow loads. Extreme local varia- 
tions in ground snow loads in these areas preclude mapping at this scale. 

b. Numbers in parentheses represent the upper elevation limits in feet for the ground snow load values pre- 
sented below. Site-specific case studies are required to establish ground snow loads at elevations not 
covered. 



J L 



100 



200 



300 miles 



FIGURE R301. 2(5) 
GROUND SNOW LOADS, Pg, FOR THE UNITED STATES (Ib/ft^) 

(continued) 



38 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



BUILDING PLANNING 



(600) 
80 




For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kRi. 



FfGURE R301. 2(5)— continued 
GROUND SNOW LOADS, Pg, FOR THE UNITED STATES (Ib/ft^) 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



39 



m 

3) 

z 
> 

H 
O 

z 
> 

r- 

m 

0) 

5 
m 

z 



o 
o 
o 
rn 




z 
o 



VERY HEAVY 



^^ MODERATE TO HEAVY 
SLIGHT TO MODERATE 
NONE TO SLIGHT 



NOTE: Lines defining areas are approximate only. Local conditions may be more or less severe than indicated by the region classification. 

FIGURE R301. 2(6) 
TERMITE INFESTATION PROBABILITY MAP 



BUILDING PLANNING 




i^ 





® 1® 

r - 

® !® 


®i @ 


~@~1® 



WALLS 



GABLE ROOFS 
0<10° 




< 10° 




GABLE ROOFS 
10°<0 < 45° 



HIP ROOFS 
10° <0 < 30' 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 degree = 0.0175 rad. 
NOTE: a = 4 feet in all cases. 



FIGURE R301. 2(7) 
COMPONENT AND CLADDING PRESSURE ZONES 



R301.2.1.2 Protection of openings. Windows in build- 
ings located in windbome debris regions shall have 
glazed openings protected from windborne debris. 
Glazed opening protection for windbome debris shall 
meet the requirements of the Large Missile Test of an 
approved impact resisting standard or ASTM E 1 996 and 
ASTM E 1886 referenced therein. 

Exception: Wood structural panels with a minimum 
of 7,6 inch (11 mm) and a maximum span of 8 feet 
(2438 mm) shall be permitted for opening protection 
in one- and two-story buildings. Panels shall be precut 



so that they shall be attached to the framing surround- 
ing the opening containing the product with the 
glazed opening. Panels shall be secured with the 
attachment hardware provided. Attachments shall be 
designed to resist the component and cladding loads 
determined in accordance with either Table 
R301.2(2) or Section 1609.6.5 of the International 
Building Code. Attachment in accordance with Table 
R301.2.1.2 is permitted for buildings with a mean 
roof height of 3 3 feet ( 1 05 8 mm) or less where wind 
speeds do not exceed 130 miles per hour (58 m/s). 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



41 



BUILDING PLANNING 



TABLER301.2.1.2 

WINDBORNE DEBRIS PROTECTION FASTENING SCHEDULE 

FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANELS^'' •=•" 



FASTENER 
TYPE 


FASTENER SPACING (inches) 


Panel span 
< 4 feet 


4 feet < 

panel span 

< 6 feet 


6 feet < 

panel span 

< 8 feet 


No. 6 Screws 


16" 


12" 


9" 


No. 8 Screws 


16" 


16" 


12" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.448N, 
I mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. This table is based on 130mphwindspeedsanda33-footmeanroofheight. 

b. Fasteners shall be installed at opposing ends of the wood structural panel. 
Fasteners shall be located a minimum of 1 inch from the edge of the panel. 

c. Fasteners shall be long enough to penetrate through the exterior wall cover- 
ing and a minimum of 1 V4 inches into wood wall framing and a minimum of 
1 '/4 inches into concrete block or concrete, and into steel framing a mini- 
mum of 3 exposed threads. Fasteners shall be located a minimum of 2V2 
inches from the edge of concrete block or concrete. 

d. Where screws are attached to masonry or masonry/stucco, they shall be 
attached using vibration-resistant anchors having a minimum ultimate with- 
drawal capacity of 490 pounds. 

R301.2.1.3 Wind speed conversion. When referenced 
documents are based on fastest mile wind speeds, the 
three-second gust basic wind speeds, V^^, of Figure 
R301 .2(4) shall be converted to fastest mile wind speeds, 
Vf^, using Table R301.2.1.3. 

R301.2.1.4 Exposure category. For each wind direction 
considered, an exposure category that adequately 
reflects the characteristics of ground surface irregulari- 
ties shall be determined for the site at which the building 
or structure is to be constructed. For a site located in the 
transition zone between categories, the category result- 
ing in the largest wind forces shall apply. Account shall 
be taken of variations in ground surface roughness that 
arise from natural topography and vegetation as well as 
from constructed features. For any given wind direction, 
the exposure in which a specific building or other struc- 
ture is sited shall be assessed as being one of the follow- 
ing categories: 

1 . Exposure A. Large city centers with at least 50 per- 
cent of the buildings having a height in excess of 
70 feet (21 336 mm). Use of this exposure category 
shall be limited to those areas for which terrain 
representative of Exposure A prevails in the 
upwind direction for a distance of at least 0.5 mile 
(0.8 km) or 10 times the height of the building or 
other structure, whichever is greater. Possible 
channeling effects or increased velocity pressures 
due to the building or structure being located in the 
wake of adjacent buildings shall be taken into 
account. 



2. Exposure B. Urban and suburban areas, wooded 
areas, or other terrain with numerous closely spaced 
obstructions having the size of single-family dwell- 
ings or larger. Exposure B shall be assumed unless 
the site meets the definition of another type expo- 
sure. 

3. Exposure C. Open terrain with scattered obstruc- 
tions, including surface undulations or other irreg- 
ularities, having heights generally less than 30 feet 
(9144 mm) extending more than 1,500 feet (457 
m) from the building site in any quadrant. This 
exposure shall also apply to any building located 
within Exposure B type terrain where the building 
is directly adjacent to open areas of Exposure C 
type terrain in any quadrant for a distance of more 
than 600 feet (183 m). This category includes flat 
open country, grasslands and shorelines in hurri- 
cane prone regions. 

4. Exposure D. Flat, unobstructed areas exposed to 
wind flowing over open water (excluding shore- 
lines in hurricane prone regions) for a distance of 
at least 1 mile (1 .61 km). Shorelines in Exposure D 
include inland waterways, the Great Lakes and 
coastal areas of California, Oregon, Washington 
and Alaska. This exposure shall apply only to 
those buildings and other structures exposed to the 
wind coming from over the water. Exposure D 
extends inland from the shoreline a distance of 
1,500 feet (457 m) or 10 times the height of the 
building or structure, whichever is greater. 

R301.2.2 Seismic provisions. The seismic provisions of this 
code shall apply to buildings constructed in Seismic Design 
Categories C, Do, Di and Dj, as determined in accordance 
with this section. Buildings in Seismic Design Category E 
shall be designed in accordance with the International Build- 
ing Code, except when the seismic design category is reclas- 
sified to a lower seismic design category in accordance with 
Section R301. 2.2.1. 

Exception: Detached one- and two-family dwellings 
located in Seismic Design Category C are exempt from 
the seismic requirements of this code. 

The weight and irregularity limitations of Section 
R301.2.2.2 shall apply to buildings in all seismic design 
categories regulated by the seismic provisions of this code. 
Buildings in Seismic Design Category C shall be con- 
structed in accordance with the additional requirements of 
Section R301.2.2.3. Buildings in Seismic Design Catego- 
ries Dq, Dj and D2 shall be constructed in accordance with 
the additional requirements of Section R301. 2.2.4 



TABLE R301 2 1 3 
EQUIVALENT BASIC WIND SPEEDS^ 



3-second gust, ¥3^ 


85 


90 


100 


105 


110 


120 


125 


130 


140 


145 


150 


160 


170 


Fastest mile, V^^ 


71 


76 


85 


90 


95 


104 


109 


114 


123 


128 


133 


142 


152 



For SI: 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 
a. Linear interpolation is permitted. 



42 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*^ 



BUILDING PLANNING 



R301.2.2.1 Determination of seismic design category. 

Buildings shall be assigned a seismic design category in 
accordance with Figure 301.2(2). 

R301.2.2.1.1 Alternate determination of seismic 
design category. The Seismic Design Categories and 
corresponding Short Period Design Spectral 
Response Accelerations, Sds shown in Figure 
R301 .2(2) are based on soil Site Class D, as defined in 
Section 1615.1.1 of the International Building Code. 
If soil conditions are other than Site Class D, the Short 
Period Design Spectral Response Acceleration, S^s, 
for a site can be determined according to Section 
1615.1 of the International Building Code. The value 
of Sds determined according to Section 1615.1 of the 
International Building Code is permitted to be used to 
set the seismic design category according to Table 
R301.2.2.1.1, and to interpolate between values in 
Tables R602.10.1, R603.7, and other seismic design 
requirements of this code. 

TABLE R301 .2.2.1 .1 
SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY DETERMINATION 



CALCULATED S^s 


SEISMIC DESIGN 
CATEGORY 


S OS < 0.11% 


A 


0.17g<5o5<0.33g 


B 


0.33g<5o5<0.50g 


C 


0.50g < Sas < 0.67g 


Do 


0.67g<5o5<0.83g 


Di 


0.83g<So5<1.17g 


D2 


1.17g<5^, 


E 



R301.2.2.1.2 Alternative determination of Seismic 
Design Category E. Buildings located in Seismic 
Design Category E in accordance with Figure 
R301.2(2) are permitted to be reclassified as being in 
Seismic Design Category D2 provided one of the fol- 
lowing is done: 

1. A more detailed evaluation of the seismic 
design category is made in accordance with the 
provisions and maps of the International Build- 
ing Code. Buildings located in Seismic Design 
Category E per Table R301 .2.2. 1 . 1 , but located 
in Seismic Design Category D per the Interna- 
tional Building Code, may be designed using 
the Seismic Design Category D2 requirements 
of this code. 

2. Buildings located in Seismic Design Category 
E that conform to the following additional 
restrictions are permitted to be constructed in 
accordance with the provisions for Seismic 
Design Category Dj of this code: 

2. 1 . All exterior shear wall lines or braced 
wall panels are in one plane vertically 
from the foundation to the uppermost 
story. 



2.2. Floors shall not cantilever past the exte- 
rior walls. 

2.3. The building is within all of the require- 
ments of SectionR301.2.2.2.2 for being 
considered as regular. 

R301.2.2.2 Seismic limitations. The following limita- 
tions apply to buildings in all Seismic Design Categories 
regulated by the seismic provisions of this code. 

R301.2.2.2.1 Weights of materials. Average dead 
loads shall not exceed 15 pounds per square foot (720 
Pa) for the combined roof and ceiling assemblies (on a 
horizontal projection) or 10 pounds per square foot 
(480 Pa) for floor assemblies, except as further lim- 
ited by Section R30 1.2.2. Dead loads for walls above 
grade shall not exceed: 

1. Fifteen pounds per square foot (720 Pa) for 
exterior light-frame wood walls. 

2. Fourteen pounds per square foot (670 Pa) for 
exterior light-frame cold-formed steel walls. 

3 . Ten pounds per square foot (480 Pa) for interior 
light-frame wood walls. 

4. Five pounds per square foot (240 Pa) for inte- 
rior light-frame cold-formed steel walls. 

5. Eighty pounds per square foot (3830 Pa) for 
8-inch-thick (203 mm) masonry walls. 

6. Eighty-five pounds per square foot (4070 Pa) 
for 6-inch-thick (152 mm) concrete walls. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Roof and ceiling dead loads not exceeding 
25 pounds per square foot (11 90 Pa) shall be 
permitted provided the wall bracing 
amounts in Chapter 6 are increased in accor- 
dance with Table R301. 2.2.2.1. 

2. Light-frame walls with stone or masonry 
veneer shall be permitted in accordance with 
the provisions of Sections R702.1 andR703. 

3. Fireplaces and chimneys shall be permitted 
in accordance with Chapter 10. 

TABLE R301. 2.2.2.1 

WALL BRACING ADJUSTMENT FACTORS BY 

ROOF COVERING DEAD LOAD^ 



WALL SUPPORTING 


ROOF/CEILING 
DEAD LOAD 


ROOF/CEILING 
DEAD LOAD 


15 psf orless 


25 psf 


Roof only 


1.0 


1.2 


Roof plus one story 


1.0 


1.1 



For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.049 kPa. 
a. Linear interpolation shall be permitted. 

R301.2.2.2.2 Irregular buildings. Prescriptive con- 
struction as regulated by this code shall not be used 
for irregular structures located in Seismic Design Cat- 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*^ 



43 



BUILDING PLANNING 



egories C, Dq, Dj and Dj. Irregular portions of struc- 
tures shall be designed in accordance with accepted 
engineering practice to the extent the irregular fea- 
tures affect the performance of the remaining struc- 
tural system. When the forces associated with the 
irregularity are resisted by a structural system 
designed in accordance with accepted engineering 
practice, design of the remainder of the building shall 
be permitted using the provisions of this code. A 
building or portion of a building shall be considered 
to be irregular when one or more of the following con- 
ditions occur: 

1 . When exterior shear wall lines or braced wall 
panels are not in one plane vertically from the 
foundation to the uppermost story in which they 
are required. 

Exception: For wood Hght- frame construc- 
tion, floors with cantilevers or setbacks not 
exceeding four times the nominal depth of 
the wood floor joists are permitted to sup- 
port braced wall panels that are out of plane 
with braced wall panels below provided that: 

1 . Floor joists are nominal 2 inches by 10 
inches (5 1 mm by 254 mm) or larger 
and spaced not more than 16 inches 
(406 mm) on center. 

2. The ratio of the back span to the canti- 
lever is at least 2 to 1 . 

3. Floor joists at ends of braced wall pan- 
els are doubled. 

4. For wood-frame construction, a con- 
tinuous rim joist is connected to ends 
of all cantilever joists. When spliced, 
the rim joists shall be spliced using a 
galvanized metal tie not less than 
0.058 inch (1 .5 mm) (16 gage) and 1 ^1^ 
inches (38 mm) wide fastened with six 
16d nails on each side of the splice or a 
block of the same size as the rim joist 
of sufficient length to fit securely 
between the joist space at which the 
splice occurs fastened with eight 16d 
nails on each side of the splice; and 

5 . Gravity loads carried at the end of can- 
tilevered joists are limited to uniform 
wall and roof loads and the reactions 
from headers having a span of 8 feet 
(2438 mm) or less. 

2. When a section of floor or roof is not laterally 
supported by shear walls or braced wall lines on 
all edges. 

Exception: Portions of floors that do not 
support shear walls or braced wall panels 
above, or roofs, shall be permitted to extend 
no more than 6 feet (1829 mm) beyond a 
shear wall or braced wall line. 



3. When the end of a braced wall panel occurs 
over an opening in the wall below and ends at a 
horizontal distance greater than 1 foot (305 
mm) from the edge of the opening. This provi- 
sion is applicable to shear walls and braced wall 
panels offset in plane and to braced wall panels 
offset out of plane as permitted by the exception 
to Item 1 above. 

Exception: For wood light-frame wall con- 
struction, one end of a braced wall panel 
shall be permitted to extend more than 1 foot 
(305 mm) over an opening not more than 8 
feet (2438 mm) wide in the wall below pro- 
vided that the opening includes a header in 
accordance with the following: 

1. The building width, loading condition 
and framing member species limitations 
of Table R502.5(l) shall apply and 

2. Not less than one 2X 12 or two 2x 10 
for an opening not more than 4 feet 
(1219 mm) wide or 

3. Not less than two 2x12 or three 2x10 
for an opening not more than 6 feet 
(1829 mm) wide or 

4. Not less than three 2 X 1 2 or four 2x10 
for an opening not more than 8 feet 
(2438 mm) wide and 

5. The entire length of the braced wall 
panel does not occur over an opening 
in the wall below. 

4. When an opening in a floor or roof exceeds the 
lesser of 12 feet (3657 mm) or 50 percent of the 
least floor or roof dimension. 

5 . When portions of a floor level are vertically off- 
set. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Framing supported directly by contin- 
uous foundations at the perimeter of 
the building. 

2. For wood light-frame construction, 
floors shall be permitted to be verti- 
cally offset when the floor framing is 
lapped or tied together as required by 
Section R502.6.1. 

6. When shear walls and braced wall lines do not 
occur in two perpendicular directions. 

7. When stories above-grade partially or com- 
pletely braced by wood wall framing in accor- 
dance with Section R602 or steel wall framing 
in accordance with Section R603 include 
masonry or concrete construction. 

Exception: Fireplaces, chimneys and 
masonry veneer as permitted by this code. 



44 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*' 



BUILDING PLANNING 



I 



When this irregularity applies, the entire 
story shall be designed in accordance with 
accepted engineering practice. 

R301.2.2.3 Seismic Design Category C. Structures 
assigned to Seismic Design Category C shall conform to 
the requirements of this section. 

R301.2.2.3.1 Stone and masonry veneer. Stone and 
masonry veneer shall comply with the requirements 
of Sections R702.1 and R703. 

R301.2.2.3.2 Masonry construction. Masonry con- 
struction shall comply with the requirements of Sec- 
tion R606.il. 2. 

R301.2.2.3.3 Concrete construction. Concrete con- 
struction shall comply with the requirements of Sec- 
tion R611 orR612. 

R301.2.2.4 Seismic Design Categories Dq, D^ and Dj. 

Structures assigned to Seismic Design Categories Dq, Di 
and D2 shall conform to the requirements for Seismic 
Design Category C and the additional requirements of 
this section. 

R301. 2.2.4.1 Height limitations. Wood framed 
buildings shall be limited to three stories above grade 
or the limits given in Table R602.10.1. Cold-formed 
steel framed buildings shall be limited to two stories 
above grade in accordance with COFS/PM. Mezza- 
nines as defined in Section 202 shall not be consid- 
ered as stories. 

R301. 2.2.4.2 Stone and masonry veneer. Stone and 
masonry veneer shall comply with the requirements 
of Sections R702.1 and R703. 

R301. 2.2.4.3 Masonry construction. Masonry con- 
struction in Seismic Design Categories Dq and Dj 
shall comply with the requirements of Section 
R606.11.3. Masonry construction in Seismic Design 
Category Dj shall comply with the requirements of 
Section R606. 11.4. 

R301.2.2.4.4 Concrete construction. Buildings with 
above-grade concrete walls shall be in accordance 
with Section R611, R612, or designed in accordance 
with accepted engineering practice. 

R301.2.2.4.5 Cold-formed steel framing in Seismic 
Design Categories Do, Dj and Dj. In Seismic Design 
Categories Dq, D, and D2 in addition to the require- 
ments of this code, cold-formed steel framing shall 
comply with the requirements of COFS/PM. 

R301.2.3 Snow loads. Wood framed construction, cold- 
formed steel framed construction and masonry and concrete 
construction in regions with ground snow loads 70 pounds 
per square foot (3.35 kPa) or less, shall be in accordance 
with Chapters 5, 6 and 8. Buildings in regions with ground 
snow loads greater than 70 pounds per square foot (3.35 
kPa) shall be designed in accordance with accepted engi- 
neering practice. 

R301.2.4 Floodplain construction. Buildings and struc- 
tures constructed in whole or in part in flood hazard areas 



(including A or V Zones) as estabhshed in Table R301 .2(1) 
shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Sec- I 
tion R324. | 

Exception: Buildings and structures located in whole or 
in part in identified floodways as established in Table 
R301.2(l) shall be designed and constructed as stipu- 
lated in the International Building Code. 

R301.3 Story height. Buildings constructed in accordance 
with these provisions shall be limited to story heights of not 
more than the following: 

1 . For wood wall framing, the laterally unsupported bear- 
ing wall stud height permitted by Table R602.3(5) plus a 
height of floor framing not to exceed 16 inches. 

Exception: For wood framed wall buildings with 
bracing in accordance with Table R602.10.1 , the wall 
stud clear height used to determine the maximum per- 
mitted story height may be increased to 12 feet with- 
out requiring an engineered design for the building 
wind and seismic force resisting systems provided 
that the length of bracing required by Table 
R602.10.1 is increased by mulfiplying by a factor of 
1 .20. Wall studs are still subject to the requirements of 
this section. 

2. For steel wall framing, a stud height of 10 feet, plus a 
height of floor framing not to exceed 16 inches. 

3. For masonry walls, a maximum bearing wall clear height 
of 12 feet plus a height of floor framing not to exceed 16 
inches. 

Exception: An additional 8 feet is permitted for gable 
end walls. 

4. For insulating concrete form walls, the maximum bear- 
ing wall height per story as permitted by Section 611 
tables plus a height of floor framing not to exceed 16 
inches. 

Individual walls or walls studs shall be permitted to exceed 
these limits as permitted by Chapter 6 provisions, provided 
story heights are not exceeded. An engineered design shall be 
provided for the wall or wall framing members when they 
exceed the limits of Chapter 6. Where the story height limits are 
exceeded, an engineered design shall be provided in accor- 
dance with the International Building Code for the overall 
wind and seismic force resisting systems. 

R301.4 Dead load. The actual weights of materials and con- 
struction shall be used for determining dead load with consid- 
eration for the dead load of fixed service equipment. 

R301.5 Live load. The minimum uniformly distributed live 
load shall be as provided in Table R301.5. 

R301.6 Roof load. The roof shall be designed for the live load 
indicated in Table R301.6 or the snow load indicated in Table 
R301.2(l), whichever is greater. 

R301.7 Deflection. The allowable deflection of any structural 
member under the live load listed in Sections R301.5 and 
R301.6 shall not exceed the values in Table R301.7. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



45 



BUILDING PLANNING 



TABLER301.5 

MINIMUM UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LIVE LOADS 

(in pounds per square foot) 



TABLER301.6 

MINIMUM ROOF LIVE LOADS IN POUNDS-FORCE 

PER SQUARE FOOT OF HORIZONTAL PROJECTION 



USE 


LIVE LOAD 


Attics with limited storage'^' §' ^ 


20 


Attics without storage"^ 


10 


Decks^ 


40 


Exterior balconies 


60 


Fire escapes 


40 


Guardrails and handrails'* 


200' 


Guardrails in-fill components^ 


50' 


Passenger vehicle garages'* 


50^ 


Rooms other than sleeping rooms 


40 


Sleeping rooms 


30 


Stairs 


40^ 



For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 square inch = 645 mm^, 
1 pound = 445 N. 

a. Elevated garage floors shall be capable of supporting a 2,000-pound load 
applied over a 20-square-inch area. 

b. Attics without storage are those where the maximum clear height between 
joist and rafter is less than 42 inches, or where there are not two or more adja- 
cent trusses with the same web configuration capable of containing a rectan- 
gle 42 inches high by 2 feet wide, or greater, located within the plane of the 
truss. For attics without storage, this live load need not be assumed to act 
concurrently with any other live load requirements. 

c. Individual stair treads shall be designed for the uniformly distributed live 
load or a 300-pound concentrated load acting over an area of 4 square inches, 
whichever produces the greater stresses. 

d. A single concentrated load applied in any direction at any point along the top. 

e. See Section R502.2.1 for decks attached to exterior walls. 

f. Guard in-fill components (all those except the handrail), balusters and panel 
fillers shall be designed to withstand a horizontally applied normal load of 50 
pounds on an area equal to 1 square foot. This load need not be assumed to act 
concurrently with any other live load requirement. 

g. For attics with limited storage and constructed with trusses, this live load 
need be applied only to those portions of the bottom chord where there are 
two or more adjacent trusses with the same web configuration capable of 
containing a rectangle 42 inches high or greater by 2 feet wide or greater, 
located within the plane of the truss. The rectangle shall fit between the top of 
the bottom chord and the bottom of any other truss member, provided that 
each of the following criteria is met: 

1 . The attic area is accessible by a pull-down stairway or framed opening 
in accordance with Section R807.1; and 

2. The truss has a bottom chord pitch less than 2: 12. 

h. Attic spaces served by a fixed stair shall be designed to support the minimum 
live load specified for sleeping rooms. 

i. Glazing used in handrail assemblies and guards shall be designed with a 
safety factor of 4. The safety factor shall be applied to each of the concen- 
trated loads apphed to the top of the rail, and to the load on the in-fill compo- 
nents. These loads shall be determined independent of one another, and loads 
are assumed not to occur with any other live load. 



ROOF SLOPE 


TRIBUTARY LOADED AREA IN 
SQUARE FEET FOR ANY 
STRUCTURAL MEMBER 


to 200 


201 to 600 


Over 600 


Flat or rise less than 4 inches per 
foot (1:3) 


20 


16 


12 


Rise 4 inches per foot (1:3) to 
less than 12 inches per foot (1:1) 


16 


14 


12 


Rise 12 inches per foot (1:1) 
and greater 


12 


12 


12 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 inch per foot = 83.3 mm/m. 



TABLER301.7 
ALLOWABLE DEFLECTION OF STRUCTURAL MEMBERS^ 



STRUCTURAL MEMBER 


ALLOWABLE 
DEFLECTION 


Rafters having slopes greater than 3/12 with no 
finished ceiling attached to rafters 


L/180 


Interior walls and partitions 


H/180 


Floors and plastered ceilings 


L/360 


AH other structural members 


L/240 


Exterior walls with plaster or stucco finish 


H/360 


Exterior walls — wind loads^ with brittle finishes 


L/240 


Exterior walls — wind loads^ with flexible 
finishes 


L/120 



Note: L = span length, H = span height. 

a. The wind load shall be permitted to be taken as 0.7 times the Component and 
Cladding loads for the purpose of the determining deflection limits herein. 

b. For cantilever members, L shall be taken as twice the length of the cantilever. 

c. For aluminum structural members or panels used in roofs or walls of sun- 
room additions or patio covers, not supporting edge of glass or sandwich 
panels, the total load deflection shall not exceed L /60. For sandwich panels 
used in roofs or walls of sunroom additions or patio covers, the total load 
deflection shall not exceed L/120. 

R301.8 Nominal sizes. For the purposes of this code, where 
dimensions of lumber are specified, they shall be deemed to be 
nominal dimensions unless specifically designated as actual 
dimensions. 



46 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*" 



BUILDING PLANNING 



SECTION R302 
EXTERIOR WALL LOCATION 

R302.1 Exterior walls. Construction, projections, openings 
and penetrations of exterior walls of dwellings and accessory 
buildings shall comply with Table R302.1. These provisions 
shall not apply to walls, projections, openings or penetrations 
in walls that are perpendicular to the line used to determine the 
fire separation distance. Projections beyond the exterior wall 
shall not extend more than 12 inches (305 mm) into the areas 
where openings are prohibited. 

Exceptions: 

1. Detached tool sheds and storage sheds, playhouses 
and similar structures exempted from permits are not 
required to provide wall protection based on location 
on the lot. Projections beyond the exterior wall shall 
not extend over the lot line. 

2. Detached garages accessory to a dwelhng located 
within 2 feet (610 mm) of a lot line are permitted to 
have roof eave projections not exceeding 4 inches 
(102 mm). 

3. Foundation vents installed in compliance with this 
code are permitted. 



SECTION R303 
LIGHT, VENTILATION AND HEATING 

R303.1 Habitable rooms. All habitable rooms shall have an 
aggregate glazing area of not less than 8 percent of the floor 
area of such rooms. Natural ventilation shall be through win- 
dows, doors, louvers or other approved openings to the outdoor 
air. Such openings shall be provided with ready access or shall 
otherwise be readily controllable by the building occupants. 
The minimum openable area to the outdoors shall be 4 percent 
of the floor area being ventilated. 

Exceptions: 

1. The glazed areas need not be openable where the 
opening is not required by Section R310 and an 
approved mechanical ventilation system capable of 
producing 0.35 air change per hour in the room is 



installed or a whole-house mechanical ventilation 
system is installed capable of supplying outdoor ven- 
tilation air of 15 cubic feet per minute (cfm) (78 L/s) 
per occupant computed on the basis of two occupants 
for the first bedroom and one occupant for each addi- 
tional bedroom. 

2. The glazed areas need not be installed in rooms where 
Exception 1 above is satisfied and artificial light is pro- 
vided capable of producing an average illumination of 
6 footcandles (65 lux) over the area of the room at a 
height of 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor level. 

3 . Use of sunroom additions and patio covers, as defined in 
Section R202, shall be permitted for natural ventilation 
if in excess of 40 percent of the exterior sunroom walls 
are open, or are enclosed only by insect screening. 

R303.2 Adjoining rooms. For the purpose of determining 
light and ventilation requirements, any room shall be consid- 
ered as a portion of an adjoining room when at least one-half of 
the area of the common wall is open and unobstructed and pro- 
vides an opening of not less than one-tenth of the floor area of 
the interior room but not less than 25 square feet (2.3 m^). 

Exception: Openings required for light and/or ventilation 
shall be permitted to open into a thermally isolated sunroom 
addition or patio cover, provided that there is an openable 
area between the adjoining room and the sunroom addition 
or patio cover of not less than one-tenth of the floor area of 
the interior room but not less than 20 square feet (2 m^). The 
minimum openable area to the outdoors shall be based upon 
the total floor area being ventilated. 

R303.3 Bathrooms. Bathrooms, water closet compartments 
and other similar rooms shall be provided with aggregate glaz- 
ing area in windows of not less than 3 square feet (0.3 m^), 
one-half of which must be openable. 

Exception: The glazed areas shall not be required where arti- 
ficial light and a mechanical ventilation system are provided. 
The minimum ventilation rates shall be 50 cubic feet per min- 
ute (24 L/s) for intermittent ventilation or 20 cubic feet per 
minute (10 L/s) for continuous ventilation. Ventilation air 
from the space shall be exhausted directly to the outside. 



TABLE R302.1 
EXTERIOR WALLS 



EXTERIOR WALL ELEMENT 


MINIMUM 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING 


MINIMUM FIRE 
SEPARATION DISTANCE 


Walls 


(Fire-resistance rated) 


1 hour with exposure from both sides 


Ofeet 


(Not fire-resistance rated) 


hours 


5 feet 


Projections 


(Fire-resistance rated) 


1 hour on the underside 


2 feet 


(Not fire-resistance rated) 


hours 


5 feet 


Openings 


Not allowed 


N/A 


< 3 feet 


25% Maximum of Wall Area 


hours 


3 feet 


Unlimited 


hours 


5 feet 


Penetrations 


All 


Comply with Section R317.3 


< 5 feet 


None required 


5 feet 



N/A = Not Applicable. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



47 



BUILDING PLANNING 



R303.4 Opening location. Outdoor intake and exhaust open- 
ings shall be located in accordance with Sections R303.4. 1 and 
R303.4.2. 

R303.4.1 Intake openings. Mechanical and gravity out- 
door air intake openings shall be located a minimum of 10 
feet (3048 mm) from any hazardous or noxious contami- 
nant, such as vents, chimneys, plumbing vents, streets, 
alleys, parking lots and loading docks, except as otherwise 
specified in this code. Where a source of contaminant is 
located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of an intake opening, such 
opening shall be located a minimum of 2 feet (610 mm) 
below the contaminant source. 

For the purpose of this section, the exhaust from dwelling 
unit toilet rooms, bathrooms and kitchens shall not be con- 
sidered as hazardous or noxious. 

R303.4.2 Exhaust openings. Outside exhaust openings 
shall be located so as not to create a nuisance. Exhaust air 
shall not be directed onto walkways. 

R303.5 Outside opening protection. Air exhaust and intake 
openings that terminate outdoors shall be protected with 
corrosion-resistant screens, louvers or grilles having a mini- 
mum opening size of V4 inch (6 mm) and a maximum opening 
size of V2 inch (13 mm), in any dimension. Openings shall be 
protected against local weather conditions. Outdoor air exhaust 
and intake openings shall meet the provisions for exterior wall 
opening protectives in accordance with this code. 

R303.6 Stairway illumination. All interior and exterior stair- 
ways shall be provided with a means to illuminate the stairs, 
including the landings and treads. Interior stairways shall be 
provided with an artificial light source located in the immediate 
vicinity of each landing of the stairway. For interior stairs the 
artificial light sources shall be capable of illuminating treads 
and landings to levels not less than 1 foot-candle (11 lux) mea- 
sured at the center of treads and landings. Exterior stairways 
shall be provided with an artificial light source located in the 
immediate vicinity of the top landing of the stairway. Exterior 
stairways providing access to a basement from the outside 
grade level shall be provided with an artificial light source 
located in the immediate vicinity of the bottom landing of the 
stairway. 

Exception: An artificial light source is not required at the 
top and bottom landing, provided an artificial light source is 
located directly over each stairway section. 

R303.6.1 Light activation. Where lighting outlets are 
installed in interior stairways, there shall be a wall switch at 
each floor level to control the lighting outlet where the stair- 
way has six or more risers. The illumination of exterior 
stairways shall be controlled from inside the dwelling unit. 

Exception: Lights that are continuously illuminated or 
automatically controlled. 

R303.7 Required glazed openings. Required glazed openings 
shall open directly onto a street or public alley, or a yard or 
court located on the same lot as the building. 

R303.7.1 Roofed porches. Required glazed openings may 
face into a roofed porch where the porch abuts a street, yard 
or court and the longer side of the porch is at least 65 percent 



48 



open and unobstructed and the ceiling height is not less than 
7 feet (2134 mm). 

R303.7.2 Sunroom additions. Required glazed openings 
shall be permitted to open into sunroom additions or patio 
covers that abut a street, yard or court if in excess of 40 per- 
cent of the exterior sunroom walls are open, or are enclosed 
only by insect screening, and the ceiling height of the sun- 
room is not less than 7 feet (2134 mm). 

R303.8 Required heating. When the winter design tempera- 
ture in Table R301.2(l) is below 60°F (16°C), every dwelling 
unit shall be provided with heating facilities capable of main- 
taining a minimum room temperature of 68°F (20°C) at a point 
3 feet (914 mm) above the floor and 2 feet (610 mm) from exte- 
rior walls in all habitable rooms at the design temperature. The 
installation of one or more portable space heaters shall not be 
used to achieve compliance with this section. 



SECTION R304 
MINIMUM ROOM AREAS 

R304.1 Minimum area. Every dwelling unit shall have at least 
one habitable room that shall have not less than 120 square feet 
(11 m^) of gross floor area. 

R304.2 Other rooms. Other habitable rooms shall have a floor 
area of not less than 70 square feet (6.5 m^). 

Exception: Kitchens. 

R304.3 Minimum dimensions. Habitable rooms shall not be 
less than 7 feet (2134 mm) in any horizontal dimension. 

Exception: Kitchens. 

R304.4 Height effect on room area. Portions of a room with a 
sloping ceiling measuring less than 5 feet (1524 mm) or a 
furred ceiling measuring less than 7 feet (2134 mm) from the 
finished floor to the finished ceiling shall not be considered as 
contributing to the minimum required habitable area for that 
room. 



SECTION R305 
CEILING HEIGHT 

R305.1 Minimum height. Habitable rooms, hallways, corri- 
dors, bathrooms, toilet rooms, laundry rooms and basements 
shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet (2134 mm). 
The required height shall be measured from the finish floor to 
the lowest projection from the ceiling. 

Exceptions: 

1. Beams and girders spaced not less than 4 feet (1219 
mm) on center may project not more than 6 inches 
(152 mm) below the required ceiling height. 

2. Ceilings in basements without habitable spaces may 
project to within 6 feet, 8 inches (2032 ram) of the fin- 
ished floor; and beams, girders, ducts or other 
obstructions may project to within 6 feet 4 inches 
(1931 mm) of the finished floor. 

3. For rooms with sloped ceilings, at least 50 percent of 
the required floor area of the room must have a ceiling 

2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 



height of at least 7 feet (2134 mm) and no portion of 
the required floor area may have a ceiling height of 
less than 5 feet (1524 mm). 

Bathrooms shall have a minimum ceiling height of 6 
feet 8 inches (2036 mm) over the fixture and at the 
front clearance area for fixtures as shown in Figure 
R307. 1 . A shower or tub equipped with a showerhead 
shall have a minimum ceiling height of 6 feet 8 inches 
(2036 mm) above a minimum area 30 inches (762 
mm) by 30 inches (762 mm) at the showerhead. 



R306.2 Kitchen. Each dwelling unit shall be provided with a 
kitchen area and every kitchen area shall be provided with a 
sink. 

R306.3 Sewage disposal. All plumbing fixtures shall be con- 
nected to a sanitary sewer or to an approved private sewage dis- 
posal system. 

R306.4 Water supply to fixtures. All plumbing fixtures shall 
be connected to an approved water supply. Kitchen sinks, lava- 
tories, bathtubs, showers, bidets, laundry tubs and washing 
machine outlets shall be provided with hot and cold water. 



SECTION R306 
SANITATION 

R306.1 Toilet facilities. Every dwelling unit shall be provided 
with a water closet, lavatory, and a bathtub or shower. 



SECTION R307 
TOILET, BATH AND SHOWER SPACES 

R307.1 Space required. Fixtures shall be spaced as per Figure 
R307.1. 

R307.2 Bathtub and shower spaces. Bathtub and shower 
floors and walls above bathtubs with installed shower heads 



/WALL 



/WALL (WALL / 

■4(N. / -^|<-4IN. / 2IN. -^|<- / 




WALL 



WALLi 



LAVATORIES 




24 IN. CLEARANCE IN 
FRONT OF OPENING 



SHOWER 



15 IN. 



-U-^ /WALL 



WATER CLOSET^ 
OR BIDET 



15IN. 



ti 



\ /WALL 



TUB 



21 (N. 
CLEARANCE 



21 IN. 
CLEARANCE 

1 



WALL 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



WATER CLOSETS 



FIGURE R307.1 
MINIMUM FIXTURE CLEARANCES 




WALL 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



49 



BUILDING PLANNING 



and in shower compartments shall be finished with a 
nonabsorbent surface. Such wall surfaces shall extend to a 
height of not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the floor. 



SECTION R308 
GLAZING 

R308.1 Identification. Except as indicated in Section R308. 1 . 1 
each pane of glazing installed in hazardous locations as defined 
in Section R308.4 shall be provided with a manufacturer's desig- 
nation specifying who appUed the designation, designating the 
type of glass and the safety glazing standard with which it com- 
plies, which is visible in the final installation. The designation 
shall be acid etched, sandblasted, ceramic-fired, laser etched, 
embossed, or be of a type which once applied cannot be removed 
without being destroyed. A label shall be permitted in heu of the 
manufacturer's designation. 

Exceptions: 

1. For other than tempered glass, manufacturer's desig- 
nations are not required provided the building official 
approves the use of a certificate, affidavit or other evi- 
dence confirming compliance with this code. 

2. Tempered spandrel glass is permitted to be identified 
by the manufacturer with a removable paper designa- 
tion. 

R308.1.1 Identification of multipane assemblies. Multipane 
assembhes having individual panes not exceeding 1 square 
foot (0.09 m^) in exposed area shall have at least one pane in 
the assembly identified in accordance with Section R308.1. 
All other panes in the assembly shall be labeled "16 CFR 
1201." 

R308.2 Louvered windows or jalousies. Regular, float, wired 
or patterned glass in jalousies and louvered windows shall be 
no thinner than nominal Vis inch (5 mm) and no longer than 48 
inches (1219 mm). Exposed glass edges shall be smooth. 

R308.2.1 Wired glass prohibited. Wired glass with wire 
exposed on longitudinal edges shall not be used in jalousies 
or louvered windows. 

R308.3 Human impact loads. Individual glazed areas, includ- 
ing glass mirrors in hazardous locations such as those indicated 
as defined in Section R308.4, shall pass the test requirements of 
CPSC 16 CFR, Part 1201. Glazing shall comply with CPSC 16 



CFR, Part 1201 criteria for Category I or Category II as indi- 
cated in Table R308.3. 

Exception: Louvered windows and jalousies shall comply 
with Section R308.2. 

R308.4 Hazardous locations. The following shall be consid- 
ered specific hazardous locations for the purposes of glazing: 

1. Glazing in swinging doors except jalousies. 

2. Glazing in fixed and sliding panels of sliding door 
assemblies and panels in sliding and bifold closet door 
assemblies. 

3. Glazing in storm doors. 

4. Glazing in all unframed swinging doors. 

5. Glazing in doors and enclosures for hot tubs, whirl- 
pools, saunas, steam rooms, bathtubs and showers. 
Glazing in any part of a building wall enclosing these 
compartments where the bottom exposed edge of the 
glazing is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) measured ver- 
tically above any standing or walking surface. 

6. Glazing, in an individual fixed or operable panel adja- 
cent to a door where the nearest vertical edge is within a 
24-inch (610 mm) arc of the door in a closed position 
and whose bottom edge is less than 60 inches (1524 
mm) above the floor or walking surface. 

7. Glazing in an individual fixed or operable panel, other 
than those locations described in Items 5 and 6 above, 
that meets all of the following conditions: 

7.1. Exposed area of an individual pane larger than 
9 square feet (0.836 m^). 

7.2. Bottom edge less than 18 inches (457 mm) 
above the floor. 

7.3. Top edge more than 36 inches (914 mm) 
above the floor. 

7.4. One or more walking surfaces within 36 
inches (914 mm) horizontally of the glazing. 

8. All glazing in railings regardless of an area or height 
above a walking surface. Included are structural balus- 
ter panels and nonstructural infill panels. 

9. Glazing in walls and fences enclosing indoor and out- 
door swimming pools, hot tubs and spas where the bot- 
tom edge of the glazing is less than 60 inches (1524 



TABLE R308.3 
MINIMUM CATEGORY CLASSIFICATION OF GLAZING 













GLAZING IN DOORS 










GLAZED PANELS 


GLAZED PANELS 


AND ENCLOSURES 






GLAZING IN STORM 




REGULATED BY 


REGULATED BY 


REGULATED BY 




EXPOSED SURFACE 


OR COMBINATION 


GLAZING IN 


ITEM 7 OF SECTION 


ITEM 6 OF SECTION 


ITEM 5 OF SECTION 


SLIDING GLASS 


AREA OF ONE SIDE 


DOORS 


DOORS 


R308.4 


R308.4 


R308.4 


DOORS PATIO TYPE 


OF ONE LITE 


(Category Class) 


(Category Class) 


(Category Class) 


(Category Class) 


(Category Class) 


(Category Class) 


9 sq ft or less 


I 


I 


NR 


I 


II 


II 


More than 9 sq ft 


II 


II 


II 


II 


II 


II 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 ml 
NR means "No Requirement." 



50 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



BUILDING PLANNING 



mm) above a walking surface and within 60 inches 
(1524 mm) horizontally of the water's edge. This shall 
apply to single glazing and all panes in multiple glaz- 
ing. 

10. Glazing adjacent to stairways, landings and ramps 
within 36 inches (914 mm) horizontally of a walking 
surface when the exposed surface of the glass is less 
than 60 inches (1524 mm) above the plane of the adja- 
cent walking surface. 

11. Glazing adjacent to stairways within 60 inches (1524 
mm) horizontally of the bottom tread of a stairway in 
any direction when the exposed surface of the glass is 
less than 60 inches (1524 mm) above the nose of the 
tread. 

Exception: The following products, materials and uses are 
exempt from the above hazardous locations: 

1 . Openings in doors through which a 3-inch (76 mm) 
sphere is unable to pass. 

2. Decorative glass in Items 1, 6 or 7. 

3. Glazing in Section R308.4, Item 6, when there is an 
intervening wall or other permanent barrier between 
the door and the glazing. 

4. Glazing in Section R308.4, Item 6, in walls perpen- 
dicular to the plane of the door in a closed position, 
other than the wall toward which the door swings 
when opened, or where access through the door is to 
a closet or storage area 3 feet (914 mm) or less in 
depth. Glazing in these applications shall comply 
with Section R308.4, Item 7. 

5. Glazing in Section R308.4, Items 7 and 10, when a 
protective bar is installed on the accessible side(s) of 
the glazing 36 inches ± 2 inches (914 mm ±51 mm) 
above the floor. The bar shall be capable of with- 
standing a horizontal load of 50 pounds per linear 
foot (730 N/m) without contacting the glass and be a 
minimum of 1 Vj inches (38 mm) in height. 

6. Outboard panes in insulating glass units and other 
multiple glazed panels in Section R308.4, Item 7, 
when the bottom edge of the glass is 25 feet (7620 
mm) or more above grade, a roof, walking surfaces, 
or other horizontal [within 45 degrees (0.79 rad) of 
horizontal] surface adjacent to the glass exterior. 

7. Louvered windows and jalousies complying with 
the requirements of Section R308.2. 

8. Mirrors and other glass panels mounted or hung on a 
surface that provides a continuous backing support. 

9. Safety glazing in Section R308.4, Items 10 and 1 1, 
is not required where: 

9.1. The side of a stairway, landing or ramp has a 
guardrail or handrail, including balusters or 
in-fill panels, complying with the provisions 
of Sections 1013 and 1607.7 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code; and 

9.2. The plane of the glass is more than 18 inches 
(457 mm) from the railing; or 



9.3. When a solid wall or panel extends from the 
plane of the adjacent walking surface to 34 
inches (863 mm) to 36 inches (914 mm) above 
the floor and the construction at the top of that 
wall or panel is capable of withstanding the 
same horizontal load as the protective bar. 

10. Glass block panels complying with Section R610. 

R308.5 Site built windows. Site built windows shall comply 
with Section 2404 of the International Building Code. 

R308.6 Skylights and sloped glazing. Skylights and sloped 
glazing shall comply with the following sections. 

R308.6.1 Definitions. 

SKYLIGHTS AND SLOPED GLAZING. Glass or other 
transparent or translucent glazing material installed at a 
slope of 15 degrees (0.26 rad) or more from vertical. Glaz- 
ing materials in skylights, including unit skylights, solari- 
ums, sunrooms, roofs and sloped walls are included in this 
definition. 

UNIT SKYLIGHT. A factory assembled, glazed fenestra- 
tion unit, containing one panel of glazing material, that 
allows for natural daylighting through an opening in the 
roof assembly while preserving the weather-resistant bar- 
rier of the roof. 

R308.6.2 Permitted materials. The following types of 
glazing may be used: 

1. Laminated glass with a minimum 0.015-inch (0.38 
mm) polyvinyl butyral interlay er for glass panes 16 
square feet (1.5 m^) or less in area located such that 
the highest point of the glass is not more than 12 feet 
(3658 mm) above a walldng surface or other accessi- 
ble area; for higher or larger sizes, the minimum 
interlayer thickness shall be 0.030 inch (0.76 mm). 

2. Fully tempered glass. 

3. Heat- strengthened glass. 

4. Wired glass. 

5. Approved rigid plastics. 

R308.6.3 Screens, general. For fully tempered or 
heat-strengthened glass, a retaining screen meeting the 
requirements of Section R308.6.7 shall be installed below 
the glass, except for fully tempered glass that meets either 
condition listed in Section R308.6.5. 

R308.6.4 Screens with multiple glazing. When the 
inboard pane is fully tempered, heat-strengthened or wired 
glass, a retaining screen meeting the requirements of Sec- 
tion R308.6.7 shall be installed below the glass, except for 
either condition listed in Section R308.6.5. All other panes 
in the multiple glazing may be of any type listed in Section 
R308.6.2. 

R308.6.5 Screens not required. Screens shall not be 
required when fully tempered glass is used as single glazing 
or the inboard pane in multiple glazing and either of the fol- 
lowing conditions are met: 

1. Glass area 16 square feet (1.49 m^) or less. Highest 
point of glass not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) above 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



51 



BUILDING PLANNING 



a walking surface or other accessible area, nominal 
glass thickness not more than V,^ inch (4.8 mm), and 
(for multiple glazing only) the other pane or panes 
fully tempered, laminated or wired glass. 

2. Glass area greater than 16 square feet (1 .49 m^). Glass 
sloped 30 degrees (0.52 rad) or less from vertical, and 
highest point of glass not more than 10 feet (3048 
mm) above a walking surface or other accessible area. 

R308.6.6 Glass in greenhouses. Any glazing material is 
permitted to be installed without screening in the sloped 
areas of greenhouses, provided the greenhouse height at the 
ridge does not exceed 20 feet (6096 mm) above grade. 

R308.6.7 Screen characteristics. The screen and its fasten- 
ings shall be capable of supporting twice the weight of the 
glazing, be firmly and substantially fastened to the framing 
members, and have a mesh opening of no more than 1 inch 
by 1 inch (25 mm by 25 mm). 

R308.6.8 Curbs for skylights. All unit skyhghts installed 
in a roof with a pitch flatter than three units vertical in 12 
units horizontal (25 -percent slope) shall be mounted on a 
curb extending at least 4 inches ( 1 02 mm) above the plane of 
the roof unless otherwise specified in the manufacturer's 
installation instructions. 

R308.6.9 Testing and labeling. Unit skyhghts shall be tested 
by an approved independent laboratory, and bear a label iden- 
tifying manufacturer, performance grade rating and approved 
inspection agency to indicate compliance with the require- 
ments of AAMAAVDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440. 



SECTION R309 
GARAGES AND CARPORTS 

R309.1 Opening protection. Openings from a private garage 
directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be per- 
mitted. Other openings between the garage and residence shall 
be equipped with solid wood doors not less than 1% inches (35 
mm) in thickness, solid or honeycomb core steel doors not less 
than P/g inches (35 mm) thick, or 20-minute fire-rated doors. 

R309.1.1 Duct penetration. Ducts in the garage and ducts 
penetrating the walls or ceilings separating the dwelling 
from the garage shall be constructed of a minimum No. 26 
gage (0.48 mm) sheet steel or other approved material and 
shall have no openings into the garage. 

R309.1.2 Other penetrations. Penetrations through the 
separation required in Section R309.2 shall be protected by 
filling the opening around the penetrating item with 
approved material to resist the free passage of flame and 
products of combustion. 

R309.2 Separation required. The garage shall be separated 
from the residence and its attic area by not less than '/2-inch (12.7 
mm) gypsum board applied to the garage side. Garages beneath 
habitable rooms shall be separated from all habitable rooms 
above by not less than Vg-inch (15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board 
or equivalent. Where the separation is a floor-ceiling assembly, 
the structure supporting the separation shall also be protected by 
not less than Vj-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board or equivalent. 
I Garages located less than 3 feet (914 mm) from a dweUing unit 



on the same lot shall be protected with not less than '/2-inch (12.7 
mm) gypsum board applied to the interior side of exterior walls 
that are within this area. Openings in these walls shall be regu- 
lated by Section R309. 1 . This provision does not apply to garage 
walls that are perpendicular to the adjacent dwelling unit wall. 

R309.3 Floor surface. Garage floor surfaces shall be of 
approved noncombustible material. 

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other 
vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to 
a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway. 

R309.4 Carports. Carports shall be open on at least two sides. 
Carport floor surfaces shall be of approved noncombustible 
material. Carports not open on at least two sides shall be con- 
sidered a garage and shall comply with the provisions of this 
section for garages. 

Exception; Asphalt surfaces shall be permitted at ground 
level in carports. 

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other 
vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to 
a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway. 

R309.5 Flood hazard areas. For buildings located in flood 
hazard areas as established by Table R301.2(l), garage floors 
shall be: 

1 . Elevated to or above the design flood elevation as deter- 
mined in Section R324; or 

2. Located below the design flood elevation provided they 
are at or above grade on all sides, are used solely for 
parking, building access, or storage, meet the require- 
ments of Section R324, and are otherwise constructed in 
accordance with this code. 

R309.6 Automatic garage door openers. Automatic garage 
door openers, if provided, shall be listed in accordance with UL 

325. 



SECTION R310 
EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENINGS 

R310.1 Emergency escape and rescue required. Basements 
and every sleeping room shall have at least one operable emer- 
gency escape and rescue opening. Such opening shall open 
directly into a public street, public alley, yard or court. Where 
basements contain one or more sleeping rooms, emergency 
egress and rescue openings shall be required in each sleeping 
room, but shall not be required in adjoining areas of the base- 
ment. Where emergency escape and rescue openings are pro- 
vided they shall have a sill height of not more than 44 inches 
(1118 mm) above the floor. Where a door opening having a 
threshold below the adjacent ground elevation serves as an 
emergency escape and rescue opening and is provided with a 
bulkhead enclosure, the bulkhead enclosure shall comply with 
Section R3 10.3. The net clear opening dimensions required by 
this section shall be obtained by the normal operation of the 
emergency escape and rescue opening from the inside. Emer- 
gency escape and rescue openings with a finished sill height 
below the adjacent ground elevation shall be provided with a 
window well in accordance with Section R310.2. Emergency 



52 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE' 



® 



BUILDING PLANNING 



escape and rescue openings shall open directly into a public 
way, or to a yard or court that opens to a public way. 

I Exception: Basements used only to house mechanical 
equipment and not exceeding total floor area of 200 square 
feet (18.58 m2). 

R310.1.1 Minimum opening area. All emergency escape 
and rescue openings shall have a minimum net clear open- 
ing of 5.7 square feet (0.530 m^). 

Exception: Grade floor openings shall have a minimum 
net clear opening of 5 square feet (0.465 m^). 

R310.1.2 Minimum opening height. The minimum net 
clear opening height shall be 24 inches (610 mm). 

R310.1.3 Minimum opening width. The minimum net 
clear opening width shall be 20 inches (508 mm). 

R310.1.4 Operational constraints. Emergency escape and 

I rescue openings shall be operational from the inside of the 
room without the use of keys, tools or special knowledge. 

R310.2 Window wells. The minimum horizontal area of the 
window well shall be 9 square feet (0.9 m^), with a minimum 
horizontal projection and width of 36 inches (914 mm). The 
area of the window well shall allow the emergency escape and 
rescue opening to be fully opened. 

Exception: The ladder or steps required by Section R3 10.2. 1 
shall be permitted to encroach a maximum of 6 inches (152 
mm) into the required dimensions of the window well. 

R310.2.1 Ladder and steps. Window wells with a vertical 
depth greater than 44 inches (1118 mm) shall be equipped 
with a permanently affixed ladder or steps usable with the 
window in the fully open position. Ladders or steps required 
by this section shall not be required to comply with Sections 
R31 1.5 and R31 1.6. Ladders or rungs shall have an inside 
width of at least 12 inches (305 mm), shall project at least 3 
inches (76 mm) from the wall and shall be spaced not more 
than 18 inches (457 mm) on center vertically for the full 
height of the window well. 

R310.3 BuUihead enclosures. Bulkhead enclosures shall pro- 
vide direct access to the basement. The bulkhead enclosure with 
the door panels in the fully open position shall provide the mini- 
mum net clear opening required by Section R3 10. 1 . 1 . Bulkhead 
enclosures shall also comply with Section R3 11.5.8.2. 

R310.4 Bars, grilles, covers and screens. Bars, grilles, cov- 
ers, screens or similar devices are permitted to be placed over 
emergency escape and rescue openings, bulkhead enclosures, 
or window wells that serve such openings, provided the mini- 
mum net clear opening size complies with Sections R310.1.1 
to R3 10. 1 .3, and such devices shall be releasable or removable 

I from the inside without the use of a key, tool, special knowl- 
edge or force greater than that which is required for normal 
operation of the escape and rescue opening. 

R310.5 Emergency escape windows under decks and 
porches. Emergency escape windows are allowed to be 
installed under decks and porches provided the location of the 
deck allows the emergency escape window to be fully opened 
and provides a path not less than 36 inches (914 mm) in height 
to a yard or court. 



SECTION R311 
MEANS OF EGRESS 

R311.1 General. Stairways, ramps, exterior egress balconies, 
hallways and doors shall comply with this section. 

R311.2 Construction. 

R311.2.1 Attachment. Required exterior egress balconies, 
exterior exit stairways and similar means of egress 
components shall be positively anchored to the primary 
structure to resist both vertical and lateral forces. Such 
attachment shall not be accomplished by use of toenails or 
nails subject to withdrawal. 

R311.2.2 Under stair protection. Enclosed accessible space 
under stairs shall have walls, under stair surface and any sof- 
fits protected on the enclosed side with Vj-inch (13 mm) gyp- 
sum board. 

R311.3 Hallways. The minimum width of a hallway shall be 
not less than 3 feet (914 mm). 

R311.4 Doors. 

R311.4.1 Exit door required. Not less than one exit door 
conforming to this section shall be provided for each dwell- 
ing unit. The required exit door shall provide for direct 
access from the habitable portions of the dwelling to the 
exterior without requiring travel through a garage. Access to 
habitable levels not having an exit in accordance with this 
section shall be by a ramp in accordance with Section 
R31 1.6 or a stairway in accordance with Section R31 1.5. 

R311.4.2 Door type and size. The required exit door shall 
be a side-hinged door not less than 3 feet (914 mm) in width 
and 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm) in height. Other doors shall 
not be required to comply with these minimum dimensions. 

R311.4.3 Landings at doors. There shall be a floor or land- 
ing on each side of each exterior door. The floor or landing 
at the exterior door shall not be more than 1.5 inches (38 
mm) lower than the top of the threshold. The landing shall 
be permitted to have a slope not to exceed 0.25 unit vertical 
in 12 units horizontal (2-percent). 

Exceptions: 

1 . Where a stairway of two or fewer risers is located 
on the exterior side of a door, other than the 
required exit door, a landing is not required for the 
exterior side of the door provided the door, other 
than an exterior storm or screen door does not 
swing over the stairway. 

2. The exterior landing at an exterior doorway shall 
not be more than 7V4 inches (196 mm) below the 
top of the threshold, provided the door, other than 
an exterior storm or screen door does not swing 
over the landing. 

3 . The height of floors at exterior doors other than the 
exit door required by Section R3 11 .4. 1 shall not be 
more than VI ^ inches (186 mm) lower than the top 
of the threshold. 

The width of each landing shall not be less than the door 
served. Every landing shall have a minimum dimension of 
36 inches (914 mm) measured in the direction of travel. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



53 



BUILDING PLANNING 



R311.4.4 Type of lock or latch. All egress doors shall be 
readily openable from the side from which egress is to be 
made without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort. 

R311.5 Stairways. 

R311.5.1 Width. Stairways shall not be less than 36 inches 
(914 mm) in clear width at all points above the permitted 
handrail height and below the required headroom height. 
Handrails shall not project more than 4.5 inches (1 14 mm) 
on either side of the stairway and the minimum clear width 
of the stairway at and below the handrail height, including 
treads and landings, shall not be less than 31.5 inches (787 
mm) where a handrail is installed on one side and 27 inches 
(698 mm) where handrails are provided on both sides. 

Exception: The width of spiral stairways shall be in 
accordance with Section R31 1.5.8. 

R311.5.2 Headroom. The minimum headroom in all parts 
of the stairway shall not be less than 6 feet 8 inches (2036 
mm) measured vertically from the sloped plane adjoining 
the tread nosing or from the floor surface of the landing or 
platform. 

R311.5.3 Stair treads and risers. 

R311.5.3.1 Riser height. The maximum riser height 
shall be VI ^ inches (196 mm). The riser shall be mea- 
sured vertically between leading edges of the adjacent 
treads. The greatest riser height within any flight of stairs 
shall not exceed the smallest by more than ^/g inch (9.5 
mm). 

R31 1.5.3.2 Tread depth. The minimum tread depth 
shall be 10 inches (254 mm). The tread depth shall be 
measured horizontally between the vertical planes of the 
foremost projection of adjacent treads and at a right 
angle to the tread's leading edge. The greatest tread depth 
within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by 
more than Vg inch (9.5 mm). Winder treads shall have a 
minimum tread depth of 10 inches (254 mm) measured 
as above at a point 12 inches (305 mm) from the side 
where the treads are narrower. Winder treads shall have a 
minimum tread depth of 6 inches (152 mm) at any point. 
Within any flight of stairs, the largest winder tread depth 
at the 12 inch (305 mm) walk line shall not exceed the 
smallest by more than Vg inch (9.5 mm). 

R311.5.3.3 Profile. The radius of curvature at the lead- 
ing edge of the tread shall be no greater than 7i6 inch (14 
mm). A nosing not less than V4 inch (19 mm) but not 
more than 1 74 inch (32 mm) shall be provided on stair- 
ways with solid risers. The greatest nosing projection 
shall not exceed the smallest nosing projection by more 
than Vg inch (9.5 mm) between two stories, including 
the nosing at the level of floors and landings. Beveling 
of nosing shall not exceed V2 inch (12.7 mm). Risers 
shall be vertical or sloped from the underside of the 
leading edge of the tread above at an angle not more 
than 30 degrees (0.5 1 rad) from the vertical. Open risers 
are permitted, provided that the opening between treads 
does not permit the passage of a 4-inch diameter (102 
mm) sphere. 



Exceptions: 

1 . A nosing is not required where the tread depth 
is a minimum of 11 inches (279 mm). 

2. The opening between adjacent treads is not lim- 
ited on stairs with a total rise of 30 inches (762 
mm) or less. 

R311.5.4 Landings for stairways. There shall be a floor or 
landing at the top and bottom of each stairway. 

Exception: A floor or landing is not required at the top of 
an interior flight of stairs, including stairs in an enclosed I 
garage, provided a door does not swing over the stairs. | 

A flight of stairs shall not have a vertical rise larger than 
12 feet (3658 mm) between floor levels or landings. 

The width of each landing shall not be less than the width 
of the stairway served. Every landing shall have a minimum 
dimension of 36 inches (914 mm) measured in the direction 
of travel. 

R311.5.5 Stairway walking surface. The walking surface 
of treads and landings of stairways shall be sloped no 
steeper than one unit vertical in 48 inches horizontal (2-per- 
cent slope). 

R311.5.6 Handrails. Handrails shall be provided on at least 
one side of each continuous run of treads or flight with four 
or more risers. 

R3 11.5.6.1 Height. Handrail height, measured verti- 
cally from the sloped plane adjoining the tread nosing, or 
finish surface of ramp slope, shall be not less than 34 
inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 inches (965 mm). 

R311.5.6.2 Continuity. Handrails for stairways shall be 
continuous for the full length of the flight, from a point 
directly above the top riser of the flight to a point directly 
above the lowest riser of the flight. Handrail ends shall be 
returned or shall terminate in newel posts or safety termi- 
nals. Handrails adjacent to a wall shall have a space of not 
less than VI 2 inch (38 mm) between the wall and the 
handrails. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Handrails shall be permitted to be interrupted 
by a newel post at the turn. 

2. The use of a volute, turnout, starting easing or 
starting newel shall be allowed over the lowest 
tread. 

R31 1.5.6.3 Handrail grip size. All required handrails 
shall be of one of the following types or provide equiva- 
lent graspability. 

1. Type I. Handrails with a circular cross section 
shall have an outside diameter of at least 1 V4 inches 
(32 mm) and not greater than 2 inches (5 1 nmi). If 
the handrail is not circular it shall have a perimeter 
dimension of at least 4 inches (102 mm) and not 
greater than 6V4 inches (160 mm) with a maximum 
cross section of dimension of 2V4 inches(57 mm). 

2. Type 11. Handrails with a perimeter greater than 6 74 
inches (160 mm) shall provide a graspable finger 



54 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 



® 



BUILDING PLANNING 



recess area on both sides of the profile. The finger 
recess shall begin within a distance of % inch (19 
mm) measured vertically from the tallest portion of 
the profile and achieve a depth of at least ^/|6 inch (8 
mm) within Vg inch (22 mm) below the widest por- 
tion of the profile. This required depth shall con- 
tinue for at least % inch (10 mm) to a level that is not 
less than IV4 inches (45 mm) below the tallest por- 
tion of the profile. The minimum width of the hand- 
rail above the recess shall be 1 74 inches (32 mm) to 
a maximum of 2V4 inches (70 mm). Edges shall 
have a minimum radius of 0.01 inch (0.25 mm). 

R311.5.7 Illumination. All stairs shall be provided with 
illumination in accordance with Section R303.6. 

R311.5.8 Special stairways. Spiral stairways and bulkhead 
enclosure stairways shall comply with all requirements of 
Section R3 1 1 .5 except as specified below. 

R311.5.8.1 Spiral stairways. Spiral stairways are per- 
mitted, provided the minimum width shall be 26 inches 
(660 mm) with each tread having a TVj-inches (190 mm) 
minimum tread depth at 12 inches from the narrower 
edge. All treads shall be identical, and the rise shall be no 
more than 9V2 inches (241 mm). A minimum headroom 
of 6 feet 6 inches (1982 mm) shall be provided. 

R311.5.8.2 Bulkhead enclosure stairways. Stairways 
serving bulkhead enclosures, not part of the required 
building egress, providing access from the outside grade 
level to the basement shall be exempt from the require- 
ments of Sections R3 1 1 .4.3 and R3 1 1 .5 where the maxi- 
mum height from the basement finished floor level to 
grade adjacent to the stairway does not exceed 8 feet 
(2438 mm), and the grade level opening to the stairway is 
covered by a bulkhead enclosure with hinged doors or 
other approved means. 

R311.6 Ramps. 

R31 1.6.1 Maximum slope. Ramps shall have a maximum 
slope of one unit vertical in twelve units horizontal (8.3-per- 
cent slope). 

Exception: Where it is technically infeasible to comply 
because of site constraints, ramps may have a maximum 
slope of one unit vertical in eight horizontal (12.5 percent 
slope). 

R311.6.2 Landings required. A minimum 3-foot-by-3-foot 
(914 mm by 914 mm) landing shall be provided: 

1. At the top and bottom of ramps. 

2. Where doors open onto ramps. 

3. Where ramps change direction. 

R31 1.6.3 Handrails required. Handrails shall be provided 
on at least one side of all ramps exceeding a slope of one unit 
vertical in 12 units horizontal (8.33-percent slope). 

R311.6.3.1 Height. Handrail height, measured above 
the finished surface of the ramp slope, shall be not less 
than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 inches 
(965 mm). 



R311.6.3.2 Handrail grip size. Handrails on ramps 
shall comply with Section R31 1.5.6.3. 

R311.6.3.3 Continuity. Handrails where required on 
ramps shall be continuous for the full length of the ramp. 
Handrail ends shall be returned or shall terminate in 
newel posts or safety terminals. Handrails adjacent to a 
wall shall have a space of not less than 1.5 inches (38 
mm) between the wall and the handrails. 



SECTION R312 
GUARDS 

R312.1 Guards. Porches, balconies, ramps or raised floor sur- I 
faces located more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor or | 
grade below shall have guards not less than 36 inches (914 mm) 
in height. Open sides of stairs with a total rise of more than 30 
inches (762 mm) above the floor or grade below shall have 
guards not less than 34 inches (864 mm) in height measured 
vertically from the nosing of the treads. 

Porches and decks which are enclosed with insect screening 
shall be equipped with guards where the walking surface is 
located more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor or grade 
below. 

R312.2 Guard opening limitations. Required guards on open 
sides of stairways, raised floor areas, balconies and porches 
shall have intermediate rails or ornamental closures which do 
not allow passage of a sphere 4 inches (102mm) or more in 
diameter. 

Exceptions: 

1 . The triangular openings formed by the riser, tread and 
bottom rail of a guard at the open side of a stairway are 
permitted to be of such a size that a sphere 6 inches 
(152 mm) cannot pass through. 

2. Openings for required guards on the sides of stair 
treads shall not allow a sphere 4 Vg inches (107 mm) to 
pass through. 



SECTION R313 
SMOKE ALARMS 

R313.1 Smoke detection and notification. All smoke alarms 
shall be listed in accordance with UL 217 and installed in 
accordance with the provisions of this code and the household 
fire warning equipment provisions of NFPA 72. 

Household fire alarm systems installed in accordance with 
NFPA 72 that include smoke alarms, or a combination of 
smoke detector and audible notification device installed as 
required by this section for smoke alarms, shall be permitted. 
The household fire alarm system shall provide the same level of 
smoke detection and alarm as required by this section for 
smoke alarms in the event the fire alarm panel is removed or the 
system is not connected to a central station. 

R313.2 Location. Smoke alarms shall be installed in the fol- 
lowing locations: 

1 . In each sleeping room. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



55 



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2. Outside each separate sleeping area in the immediate 
vicinity of the bedrooms. 

3. On each additional story of the dwelling, including base- 
ments but not including crawl spaces and uninhabitable 
attics. In dwellings or dwelling units with split levels and 
without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, 
a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice 
for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level 
is less than one full story below the upper level. 

When more than one smoke alarm is required to be installed 
within an individual dwelling unit the alarm devices shall be 
interconnected in such a manner that the actuation of one alarm 
will activate all of the alarms in the individual unit. 

R313.2.1 Alterations, repairs and additions. When alter- 
ations, repairs or additions requiring a permit occur, or 
when one or more sleeping rooms are added or created in 
existing dwellings, the individual dwelling unit shall be 
equipped with smoke alarms located as required for new 
dwellings; the smoke alarms shall be interconnected and 
hard wired. 

Exceptions: 

1. Interconnection and hard- wiring of smoke alarms 
in existing areas shall not be required where the 
alterations or repairs do not result in the removal of 
interior wall or ceiling finishes exposing the struc- 
ture, unless there is an attic, crawl space or base- 
ment available which could provide access for 
hard wiring and interconnection without the 
removal of interior finishes. 

2. Work involving the exterior surfaces of dwellings, 
such as the replacement of roofing or siding, or the 
addition or replacement of windows or doors, or 
the addition of a porch or deck, are exempt from 
the requirements of this section. 

R313.3 Power source. In new construction, the required 
smoke alarms shall receive their primary power from the build- 
ing wiring when such wiring is served from a commercial 
source, and when primary power is interrupted, shall receive 
power from a battery. Wiring shall be permanent and without a 
disconnecting switch other than those required for overcurrent 
protection. Smoke alarms shall be permitted to be battery oper- 
ated when installed in buildings without commercial power or 
in buildings that undergo alterations, repairs or additions regu- 
lated by Section R313.2.1. 



SECTION R314 
FOAM PLASTIC 

R314.1 General. The provisions of this section shall govern 
the materials, design, application, construction and installation 
of foam plastic materials. 

R314.2 Labeling and identification. Packages and contain- 
ers of foam plastic insulation and foam plastic insulation 
components delivered to the job site shall bear the label of an 
approved agency showing the manufacturer's name, the prod- 
uct listing, product identification and information sufficient 



56 



to determine that the end use will comply with the require- 
ments. 

R314.3 Surface burning characteristics. Unless otherwise 
allowed in Section R314.5 or R314.6, all foam plastic or foam 
plastic cores used as a component in manufactured assemblies 
used in building construction shall have a flame spread index of 
not more than 75 and shall have a smoke-developed index of 
not more than 450 when tested in the maximum thickness 
intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 84. 
Loose-fill-type foam plastic insulation shall be tested as board 
stock for the flame spread index and smoke-developed index. 

Exception: Foam plastic insulation more than 4 inches 
thick shall have a maximum flame spread index of 75 and a 
smoke-developed index of 450 where tested at a minimum 
thickness of 4 inches, provided the end use is approved in 
accordance with Section R314.6 using the thickness and 
density intended for use. 

R314.4 Thermal barrier. Unless otherwise allowed in Section 
R3 14.5 or Section R3 14.6, foam plastic shall be separated from 
the interior of a building by an approved thermal barrier of min- 
imum 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) gypsum wallboard or an approved 
finish material equivalent to a thermal barrier material that will 
limit the average temperature rise of the unexposed surface to 
no more than 250°F (139°C) after 15 minutes of fire exposure 
complying with the ASTM E 119 standard time temperature 
Curve. The thermal barrier shall be installed in such a manner 
that it will remain in place for 15 minutes based on NFPA 286 
with the acceptance criteria of Section R315.4, FM 4880, UL 
1040 or UL 1715. 

R314.5 Specific requirements. The following requirements 
shall apply to these uses of foam plastic unless specifically 
approved in accordance with Section R314.6 or by other sec- 
tions of the code or the requirements of Sections R314.2 
through R314.4 have been met. 

R314.5.1 Masonry or concrete construction. The thermal 
barrier specified in Section R314.4 is not required in a 
masonry or concrete wall, floor or roof when the foam plas- 
tic insulation is separated from the interior of the building 
by a minimum 1-inch (25 mm) thickness of masonry or con- 
crete. 

R314.5.2 Roofing. The thermal barrier specified in Section 
R314.4 is not required when the foam plastic in a roof 
assembly or under a roof covering is installed in accordance 
with the code and the manufacturer's installation instruc- 
tions and is separated from the interior of the building by 
tongue-and-groove wood planks or wood structural panel 
sheathing in accordance with Section R803, not less than 
^^/32 inch (11.9 mm) thick bonded with exterior glue and 
identified as Exposure 1 , with edges supported by blocking 
or tongue-and-groove joints or an equivalent material. The 
smoke-developed index for roof applications shall not be 
hmited. 

; R314.5.3 Attics. The thermal barrier specified in Section 
314.4 is not required where attic access is required by Sec- 
tion R807 . 1 and where the space is entered only for service 
of utilities and when the foam plastic insulation is protected 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



BUILDING PLANNING 



against ignition using one of the following ignition barrier 
materials: 

1. 1.5 -inch-thick (38 mm) mineral fiber insulation; 

2. 0.25-inch-thick (6.4 mm) wood structural panels; 

3. 0.375-inch (9.5 mm) particleboard; 

4. 0.25-inch (6.4 nam) hardboard; 

5. 0.375-inch (9.5 mm) gypsum board; or 

6. Corrosion-resistant steel having a base metal thick- 
ness of 0.016 inch (0.406 mm). 

The above ignition barrier is not required where the foam 
plastic insulation has been tested in accordance with Section 
R314.6. 

R314.5.4 Crawl spaces. The thermal barrier specified in 
Section R314.4 is not required where crawlspace access is 
required by Section R408.3 and where entry is made only 
for service of utilities and the foam plastic insulation is pro- 
tected against ignition using one of the following ignition 
barrier materials: 

1. 1.5-inch-thick (38 mm) mineral fiber insulation; 

2. 0.25-inch-thick (6.4 mm) wood structural panels; 

3. 0.375-inch (9.5 mm) particleboard; 

4. 0.25-inch (6.4 mm) hardboard; 

5. 0.375-inch (9.5 mm) gypsum board; or 

6. Corrosion-resistant steel having a base metal thick- 
ness of 0.016 inch (0.41 mm). 

The above ignition barrier is not required where the foam 
plastic insulation has been tested in accordance with Section 
R314.6. 

R314.5.5 Foam-filled exterior doors. Foam-filled exterior 
doors are exempt from the requirements of Sections R3 14.3 
and R3 14.4. 

R314.5.6 Foam-filled garage doors. Foam-filled garage 
doors in attached or detached garages are exempt from the 
requirements of Sections R314.3 and R314.4. 

R3 14.5.7 Foam backer board. The thermal barrier speci- 
fied in Section R314.4 is not required where siding backer 
board foam plastic insulation has a maximum thickness of 
0.5 inch (12.7 mm) and a potential heat of not more than 
2000 Btu per square foot (22 720 kJ/m^) when tested in 
accordance with NFPA 259 provided that: 

1 . The foam plastic insulation is separated from the inte- 
rior of the building by not less than 2 inches (5 1 mm) 
of mineral fiber insulation or 

2. The foam plastic insulation is installed over existing 
exterior wall finish in conjunction with re-siding or 

3. The foam plastic insulation has been tested in accor- 
dance with Section R314.6. 

R314.5.8 Re-siding. The thermal barrier specified in Sec- 
tion R314.4 is not required where the foam plastic insula- 
tion is installed over existing exterior wall finish in 
conjunction with re-siding provided the foam plastic has a 
maximum thickness of 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) and a potential 



heat of not more than 2000 Btu per square foot (22 720 
kJ/m^) when tested in accordance with NFPA 259. 

R314.5.9 Interior trim. The thermal barrier specified in 
Section R314.4 is not required for exposed foam plastic 
interior trim, provided all of the following are met: 

1. The minimum density is 20 pounds per cubic foot 
(320 kg/m3). 

2. The maximum thickness of the trim is 0.5 inch (12.7 
mm) and the maximum width is 8 inches (204 mm). 

3 . The interior trim shall not constitute more than 1 per- 
cent of the aggregate wall and ceiling area of any 
room or space. 

4. The flame spread index does not exceed 75 when 
tested per ASTM E 84. The smoke-developed index is 
not hmited. 

R314.5.10 Interior finish. Foam plastics shall be permitted 
as interior finish where approved in accordance with 
R314.6. Foam plastics that are used as interior finish shall 
also meet the flame spread and smoke-developed require- 
ments of Section R315. 

R314.5.11 Sill plates and headers. Foam plastic shall be 
permitted to be spray applied to a sill plate and header with- 
out the thermal barrier specified in Section R314.4 subject 
to all of the following: 

1 . The maximum thickness of the foam plastic shall be 
3 V4 inches (83 mm). 

2. The density of the foam plastic shall be in the range of 
1.5 to 2.0 pounds per cubic foot (24 to 32 kg/m^). 

3 . The foam plastic shall have a flame spread index of 25 
or less and an accompanying smoke developed index 
of 450 or less when tested in accordance with ASTM 

E84. 

R3 14.5. 12 Sheathing. Foam plastic insulation used as 
sheathing shall comply with Section R314.3 and Section 
R3 14.4. Where the foam plastic sheathing is exposed to the 
attic space at a gable or kneewall, the provisions of Section 
R314.5.3 shall apply. 

R314.6 Specific approval. Foam plastic not meeting the 
requirements of Sections R314.3 through R314.5 shall be spe- 
cifically approved on the basis of one of the following 
approved tests: NFPA 286 with the acceptance criteria of Sec- 
tion R3 15.4, FM4880, UL 1040 or UL 17 15, or fire tests related 
to actual end-use configurations. The specific approval shall be 
based on the actual end use configuration and shall be per- 
formed on the finished foam plastic assembly in the maximum 
thickness intended for use. Assembhes tested shall include 
seams, joints and other typical details used in the installation of 
the assembly and shall be tested in the manner intended for use. 

R314.7 Termite damage. The use of foam plastics in areas of 
"very heavy" termite infestation probability shall be in accor- 
dance with Section R320.4. 



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57 



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SECTION R31 5 
FLAME SPREAD AND SMOKE DENSITY 

R315.1 Wall and ceiling. Wall and ceiling finishes shall have a 
flame-spread classification of not greater than 200. 

Exception: Hame-spread requirements for finishes shall not 
apply to trim defined as picture molds, chair rails, baseboards 
and handrails; to doors and windows or their frames; or to 
materials that are less than V28 i^^ch (0.91 mm) in thickness 
cemented to the surface of walls or ceilings if these materials 
have a flame-spread characteristic no greater than paper of 
this thickness cemented to a noncombustible backing. 

R315.2 Smoke-developed index. Wall and ceiling finishes 
shall have a smoke-developed index of not greater than 450. 

R315.3 Testing. Tests shall be made in accordance with ASTM 

E84. 

R315.4 Alternate test method. As an alternate to having a 
flame-spread classification of not greater than 200 and a smoke 
developed index of not greater than 450 when tested in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 84, wall and ceiling finishes, other than 
textiles, shall be permitted to be tested in accordance with 
NFPA 286. Materials tested in accordance with NFPA 286 
shall meet the following criteria: 

During the 40 kW exposure, the interior finish shall comply 
with Item 1. During the 160 kW exposure, the interior finish 
shall comply with Item 2. During the entire test, the interior fin- 
ish shall comply with Item 3. ~ 

1 . During the 40 kW exposure, flames shall not spread to 
the ceiling. 

2. During the 160 kW exposure, the interior finish shall 
comply with the following: 

2.1. Flame shall not spread to the outer extremity of 
the sample on any wall or ceiling. 

2.2. Flashover, as defined in NFPA 286, shall not 
occur. 

3. The total smoke released throughout the NFPA 286 test 
shall not exceed 1,000 m^. 



SECTION R31 6 
INSULATION 

R316.1 Insulation. Insulation materials, including facings, 
such as vapor retarders or vapor permeable membranes 
installed within floor-ceiling assemblies, roof-ceiling assem- 
blies, wall assembhes, crawl spaces and attics shall have a 
flame-spread index not to exceed 25 with an accompanying 
smoke-developed index not to exceed 450 when tested in 
accordance with ASTM E 84. 

Exceptions: 

1. When such materials are installed in concealed 
spaces, the flame-spread and smoke-developed limi- 
tations do not apply to the facings, provided that the 
facing is installed in substantial contact with the unex- 
posed surface of the ceiling, floor or wall finish. 

2. Cellulose loose-fill insulation, which is not spray 
applied, complying with the requirements of Section 



R316.3, shall only be required to meet the smoke- 
developed index of not more than 450. 

R316.2 Loose-fill insulation. Loose-fill insulation materials 
that cannot be mounted in the ASTM E 84 apparatus without a 
screen or artificial supports shall comply with the flame spread 
and smoke-developed limits of Sections R316.1 and R316.4 
when tested in accordance with CAN/ULC S 102.2. 

Exception: Cellulose loose-fill insulation shall not be 
required to comply with the flame spread index requirement 
of CAN/ULC S 102.2, provided such insulation complies 
with the requirements of Section R316.3. 

R316.3 Cellulose loose-fill insulation. Cellulose loose-fill 
insulation shall comply with CPSC 16 CFR, Parts 1209 and 
■ 1404. Each package of such insulating material shall be clearly 
labeled in accordance with CPSC 16 CFR, Parts 1209 and 
1404. 

R316.4 Exposed attic insulation. All exposed insulation 
materials installed on attic floors shall have a critical radiant 
flux not less than 0.12 watt per square centimeter. 

R316.5 Testing. Tests for critical radiant flux shall be made in 
accordance with ASTM E 970. 



SECTION R317 
DWELLING UNIT SEPARATION 

R317.1 Two-family dwellings. Dwelling units in two-family 
dwellings shall be separated from each other by wall and/or 
floor assemblies having not less than a 1-hour fire-resistance 
rating when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1 19. Fire-resis- 
tance-rated floor-ceiling and wall assemblies shall extend to 
and be tight against the exterior wall, and wall assemblies shall 
extend to the underside of the roof sheathing. 

Exceptions: 

1 . A fire-resistance rating of Vj hour shall be permitted 
in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system installed in accordance with NFPA 
13. 

2. Wall assemblies need not extend through attic spaces 
when the ceiling is protected by not less than Vg-inch 
(15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board and an attic draft 
stop constructed as specified in Section R502.12.1 is 
provided above and along the wall assembly separat- 
ing the dwellings. The structural framing supporting 
the ceiUng shall also be protected by not less than Vj 
-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board or equivalent. 

R317.1.1 Supporting construction. When floor assem- 
: blies are required to be fire-resistance-rated iby Section 
; R317.1, the supporting construction of such assembhes 

shall have an equal or greater fire-resistive rating. 

R317.2 Townhouses. Each townhouse shall be considered a 
separate building and shall be separated by fire-resis- 
tance-rated wall assemblies meeting the requirements of Sec- 
tion R302 for exterior walls. 

Exception: A common 2-hour fire-resistance-rated wall is 
permitted for townhouses if such walls do not contain 
plumbing or mechanical equipment, ducts or vents in the 



58 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



BUILDING PLANNING 



cavity of the common wall. Electrical installations shall be 
installed in accordance with Chapters 33 through 42. Pene- 
trations of electrical outlet boxes shall be in accordance with 
Section R3 17.3. 

R317.2.1 Continuity. The fire-resistance-rated wall or 
assembly separating townhouses shall be continuous from 
the foundation to the underside of the roof sheathing, deck 
or slab. The fire-resistance rating shall extend the full length 
of the wall or assembly, including wall extensions through 
and separating attached enclosed accessory structures. 

R317.2.2 Parapets. Parapets constructed in accordance 
with Section R3 17.2.3 shall be constructed for townhouses 
as an extension of exterior walls or common walls in accor- 
dance with the following: 

1 . Where roof surfaces adjacent to the wall or walls are 
at the same elevation, the parapet shall extend not 
less than 30 inches (762 mm) above the roof sur- 
faces. 

2. Where roof surfaces adjacent to the wall or walls are 
at different elevations and the higher roof is not more 
than 30 inches (762 mm) above the lower roof, the 
parapet shall extend not less than 30 inches (762 
mm)above the lower roof surface. 

Exception: A parapet is not required in the two 
cases above when the roof is covered with a mini- 
mum class C roof covering, and the roof decking or 
sheathing is of noncombustible materials or 
approved fire-retardant-treated wood for a dis- 
tance of 4 feet (1219 mm) on each side of the wall 
or walls, or one layer of Vg-inch (15.9 mm) Type X 
gypsum board is installed directly beneath the roof 
decking or sheathing, supported by a minimum of 
nominal 2-inch (51 mm) ledgers attached to the 
sides of the roof framing members, for a minimum 
distance of 4 feet (1220 mm) on each side of the 
wall or walls. 

3. A parapet is not required where roof surfaces adja- 
cent to the wall or walls are at different elevations 
and the higher roof is more than 30 inches (762 mm) 
above the lower roof. The common wall construc- 
tion from the lower roof to the underside of the 
higher roof deck shall have not less than a 1-hour 
fire-resistence rating. The wall shall be rated for 
exposure from both sides. 

R317.2.3 Parapet construction. Parapets shall have the 
same fire-resistance rating as that required for the supporting 
wall or walls. On any side adjacent to a roof surface, the para- 
pet shall have noncombustible faces for the uppermost 18 
inches (457 mm), to include counterflashing and coping 
materials. Where the roof slopes toward a parapet at slopes 
greater than two units vertical in 12 units horizontal 
(16.7-percent slope), the parapet shall extend to the same 
height as any portion of the roof within a distance of 3 feet 
(914 mm), but in no case shall the height be less than 30 
inches (762 mm). 



R317.2.4 Structural independence. Each individual town- 
house shall be structurally independent. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Foundations supporting exterior walls or common 
walls. 

2. Structural roof and wall sheathing from each unit 
may fasten to the common wall framing. 

3. Nonstructural wall coverings. 

4. Flashing at termination of roof covering over com- 
mon wall. 

5. Townhouses separated by a common 2-hour 
fire-resistance-rated wall as provided in Section 
R317.2. 

R317.3 Rated penetrations. Penetrations of wall or floor/ceil- 
ing assemblies required to be fire-resistance rated in accor- 
dance with Section R317.1 or R3 17.2 shall be protected in 
accordance with this section. 

R317.3.1 Through penetrations. Through penetrations of 
fire-resistance-rated wall or floor assemblies shall comply 
with Section R317.3. 1.1 or R317.3.1.2. 

Exception: Where the penetrating items are steel, fer- 
rous or copper pipes, tubes or conduits, the annular space 
shall be protected as follows: 

1. In concrete or masonry wall or floor assemblies 
where the penetrating item is a maximum 6 inches 
(152 mm) nominal diameter and the area of the I 
opening through the wall does not exceed 144 | 
square inches (92 900 mm^), concrete, grout or 
mortar is permitted where installed to the full 
thickness of the wall or floor assembly or the thick- 
ness required to maintain the fire-resistance rating. 

2. The material used to fill the annular space shall 
prevent the passage of flame and hot gases suffi- 
cient to ignite cotton waste where subjected to 
ASTM E 119 time temperature fire conditions 
under a minimum positive pressure differential of 
0.01 inch of water (3 Pa) at the location of the pen- 
etration for the time period equivalent to the fire 
resistance rating of the construction penetrated. 

R317.3.1.1 Fire-resistance-rated assembly. Penetra- 
tions shall be installed as tested in the approved fire- 
resistance-rated assembly. 

R317.3.1.2 Penetration firestop system. Penetrations 
shall be protected by an approved penetration firestop 
system installed as tested in accordance with ASTM E 
814 or UL 1479, with a minimum positive pressure dif- 
ferential of 0.01 inch of water (3 Pa) and shall have an F 
rating of not less than the required fire-resistance rating 
of the wall or floor/ceiling assembly penetrated. 

R317.3.2 Membrane penetrations. Membrane penetra- 
tions shall comply with Section R3 17.3.1. Where walls are 
required to have a fire-resistance rating, recessed fixtures | 



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shall be so installed such that the required fire resistance will 
not be reduced. 

Exceptions: 

1. Membrane penetrations of maximum 2-hour 
fire-resistance-rated walls and partitions by steel 
electrical boxes that do not exceed 16 square inches 
(0.0103 m 2) in area provided the aggregate area of 
the openings through the membrane does not 
exceed 100 square inches (0.0645 m^) in any 100 
square feet (9.29 m^) of wall area. The annular 
space between the wall membrane and the box shall 
not exceed Vg inch (3.1 mm). Such boxes on oppo- 
site sides of the wall shall be separated as follows: 

1 . 1 . By a horizontal distance of not less than 24 
inches (610 mm) except at walls or parti- 
tions constructed using parallel rows of 
studs or staggered studs; 

1 .2. By a horizontal distance of not less than the 
depth of the wall cavity when the wall cav- 
ity is filled with cellulose loose-fill, 
rockwool or slag mineral wool insulation; 

1.3. By solid fire blocking in accordance with 
Section R602. 8.1; 

1.4. By protecting both boxes with listed putty 
pads; or 

1.5. By other listed materials and methods. 

2. Membrane penetrations by listed electrical boxes 
of any materials provided the boxes have been 
tested for use in fire-resistance-rated assemblies 
and are installed in accordance with the instruc- 
tions included in the listing. The annular space 
between the wall membrane and the box shall not 
exceed Vg inch (3.1 mm) unless listed otherwise. 
Such boxes on opposite sides of the wall shall be 
separated as follows: 

2. 1 . By a horizontal distance of not less than 24 
inches (610 mm) except at walls or parti- 
tions constructed using parallel rows of 
studs or staggered studs; 

2.2. By solid fire blocking in accordance with 
Section R602.8; 

2.3. By protecting both boxes with listed putty 
pads; or 

2.4. By other hsted materials and methods. 

3. The annular space created by the penetration of a 
fire sprinkler provided it is covered by a metal 
escutcheon plate. 



SECTION R318 
MOISTURE VAPOR RETARDERS 

R318.1 Moisture control. In all framed walls, floors and 
roof/ceilings comprising elements of the building thermal 
envelope, a vapor retarder shall be installed on the warm- 
in- winter side of the insulation. 



Exceptions: 

1 . In construction where moisture or freezing will not 
damage the materials. 

2. Where the framed cavity or space is ventilated to 
allow moisture to escape. 

3. In counties identified as in climate zones 1 through 4 | 
■ in Table Nl 101.2. 



SECTION R319 
PROTECTION AGAINST DECAY 

R319.1 Location required. Protection from decay shall be 
provided in the following locations by the use of naturally 
durable wood or wood that is preservative treated in accor- 
dance with AWPA Ul for the species, product, preservative 
and end use. Preservatives shall be listed in Section 4 of 
AWPAUl. 

1. Wood joists or the bottom of a wood structural floor 
when closer than 18 inches (457 mm) or wood girders 
when closer than 12 inches (305 mm) to the exposed 
ground in crawl spaces or unexcavated area located 
within the periphery of the building foundation. 

2. All wood framing members that rest on concrete or 
masonry exterior foundation walls and are less than 8 
inches (203 mm) from the exposed ground. 

3. Sills and sleepers on a concrete or masoniy slab that is in 
direct contact with the ground unless separated from 
such slab by an impervious moisture bander. 

4. The ends of wood girders entering exterior masonry or con- 
crete walls having clearances of less than 0.5 inch (12.7 
mm) on tops, sides and ends. 

5. Wood siding, sheathing and wall framing on the exterior 
of a building having a clearance of less than 6 inches (152 
mm) from the ground. 

6. Wood structural members supporting moisture-perme- 
able floors or roofs that are exposed to the weather, such 
as concrete or masonry slabs, unless separated from such 
floors or roofs by an impervious moisture barrier. 

7. Wood furring strips or other wood framing members 
attached directly to the interior of exterior masonry walls 
or concrete walls below grade except where an approved 
vapor retarder is applied between the wall and the furring 
strips or framing members. 

R319.1.1 Field treatment. Field-cut ends, notches and 
drilled holes of preservative-treated wood shall be treated in 
the field in accordance with AWPA M4. 

R319.1.2 Ground contact. All wood in contact with the 
ground, embedded in concrete in direct contact with the 
ground or embedded in concrete exposed to the weather that 
supports permanent structures intended for human occu- 
pancy shall be approved pressure-preservative-treated 
wood suitable for ground contact use, except untreated 
wood may be used where entirely below groundwater level 
or continuously submerged in fresh water. 



60 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



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R319.1.3 Geographical areas. In geographical areas 
where experience has demonstrated a speciiic need, 
approved naturally durable or pressure-preservative-treated 
wood shall be used for those portions of wood members that 
form the structural supports of buildings, balconies, porches 
or similar permanent building appurtenances when those 
members are exposed to the weather without adequate pro- 
tection from a roof, eave, overhang or other covering that 
would prevent moisture or water accumulation on the sur- 
face or at joints between members. Depending on local 
experience, such members may include: 

1 . Horizontal members such as girders, joists and deck- 
ing. 

2. Vertical members such as posts, poles and columns. 

3. Both horizontal and vertical members. 

R319.1.4 Wood columns. Wood columns shall be approved 
wood of natural decay resistance or approved pressure-pre- 
servative-treated wood. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Columns exposed to the weather or in basements 
when supported by concrete piers or metal pedes- 
tals projecting 1 inch (25.4 mm) above a concrete 
floor or 6 inches (152 mm) above exposed earth 
and the earth is covered by an approved impervi- 
ous moisture barrier. 

2. Columns in enclosed crawl spaces or unexcavated 
areas located within the periphery of the building 
when supported by a concrete pier or metal pedes- 
tal at a height more than 8 inches (203mm) from 
exposed earth and the earth is covered by an imper- 
vious moisture barrier. 

R319.1.5 Exposed glued-laminated timbers. The portions 
of glued-laminated timbers that form the structural supports 
of a building or other structure and are exposed to weather 
and not properly protected by a roof, eave or similar covering 
shall be pressure treated with preservative, or be manufac- 
tured from naturally durable or preservative-treated wood. 

R319.2 Quality mark. Lumber and plywood required to be 
pressure-preservative-treated in accordance with Section 
R319.1 shall bear the quality mark of an approved inspection 
agency that maintains continuing supervision, testing and 
inspection over the quality of the product and that has been 
approved by an accreditation body that complies with the 
requirements of the American Lumber Standard Committee 
treated wood program. 

R319.2.1 Required information. The required quality 
mark on each piece of pressure-preservative-treated lumber 
or plywood shall contain the following information: 

1. Identification of the treating plant. 

2. Type of preservative. 

3. The minimum preservative retention. 

4. End use for which the product was treated. 

5. Standard to which the product was treated. 

6. Identity of the approved inspection agency. 



7. The designation "Dry," if applicable. 

Exception: Quahty marks on lumber less than 1 
inch (25.4 mm) nominal thickness, or lumber less 
than nominal 1 inch by 5 inches (25.4 mm by 127 
mm) or 2 inches by 4 inches (51 mm by 102 mm) 
or lumber 36 inches (914 mm) or less in length 
shall be applied by stamping the faces of exterior 
pieces or by end labeling not less than 25 percent 
of the pieces of a bundled unit. 

R319.3 Fasteners. Fasteners for pressure-preservative and 
fire-retardant-treated wood shall be of hot-dipped zinc-coated 
galvanized steel, stainless steel, silicon bronze or copper. The 
coating weights for zinc-coated fasteners shall be in accor- 
dance with ASTM A 153. 

Exceptions: 

1. One-half-inch (12.7 mm) diameter or larger steel 
bolts. 

2. Fasteners other than nails and timber rivets shall be 
permitted to be of mechanically deposited zinc- 
coated steel with coating weights in accordance with 
ASTM B 695, Class 55, minimum. 



SECTION R320 

PROTECTION AGAINST 

SUBTERRANEAN TERMITES 

R320.1 Subterranean termite control methods. In areas sub- 
ject to damage from termites as indicated by Table R301 .2(1), 
methods of protection shall be one of the following methods or 
a combination of these methods: 

1 . Chemical termiticide treatment, as provided in Section 
R320.2. 

2. Termite baiting system installed and maintained accord- 
ing to the label. 

3. Pressure-preservative-treated wood in accordance with 
the AWPA standards hsted in Section R319.1. 

4. Naturally termite-resistant wood as provided in Section 
R320.3. 

5. Physical barriers as provided in Section R320.4. 

R320.1.1 Quality mark. Lumber and plywood required to 
be pressure-preservative-treated in accordance with Section 
R320. 1 shall bear the quality mark of an approved inspec- 
tion agency which maintains continuing supervision, test- 
ing and inspection over the quality of the product and which 
has been approved by an accreditation body which complies 
with the requirements of the American Lumber Standard 
Committee treated wood program. 

R320.1.2 Field treatment. Field-cut ends, notches, and 
drilled holes of pressure-preservative-treated wood shall be 
retreated in the field in accordance with AWPA M4. 

R320.2 Chemical termiticide treatment. Chemical 
termiticide treatment shall include soil treatment and/or field 
applied wood treatment. The concentration, rate of application 
and method of treatment of the chemical termiticide shall be in 
strict accordance with the termiticide label. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



61 



BUILDING PLANNING 



R320.3 Naturally resistant wood. Heartwood of redwood and 
eastern red cedar shall be considered termite resistant. 

R320.4 Barriers. Approved physical barriers, such as metal or 
plastic sheeting or collars specifically designed for termite pre- 
vention, shall be installed in a rnanner to prevent termites from 
entering the structure. Shields placed on top of an exterior 
foundation wall are permitted to be used only if in combination 
with another method of protection. 

R320.5 Foam plastic protection. In areas where the probability 
of termite infestation is "very heavy" as indicated in Figure 
R301.2(6), extruded and expanded polystyrene, polyiso- 
cyanurate and other foam plastics shall not be installed on the 
exterior face or under interior or exterior foundation walls or slab 
foundations located below grade. The clearance between foam 
plastics installed above grade and exposed earth shall be at least 
6 inches (152 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1. Buildings where the structural members of walls, 
floors, ceilings and roofs are entirely of noncom- 
bustible materials or pressure-preservative-treated 
wood. 

2. When in addition to the requirements of Section 
R320.1, an approved method of protecting the foam 
plastic and structure from subterranean termite dam- 
age is used. 

3. On the interior side of basement walls. 



SECTION R321 
SITE ADDRESS 

R321.1 Premises identification. Approved numbers or 
addresses shall be provided for all new buildings in such a posi- 
tion as to be plainly visible and legible from the street or road 
fronting the property. 



SECTION R322 
ACCESSIBILITY 

R322.1 Scope. Where there are four or more dwelling units or 
sleeping units in a single structure, the provisions of Chapter 1 1 
of the International Building Code for Group R-3 shall apply. 



SECTION R323 
ELEVATORS AND PLATFORM LIFTS 

R323.1 Elevators. Where provided, passenger elevators, lim- 
ited-use/limited-application elevators or private residence ele- 
vators shall comply with ASME A17.1. 

R323.2 Platform lifts. Where provided, platform lifts shall 
comply with ASME A18.1. 

R323.3 Accessibility. Elevators or platform lifts that are part of 
an accessible route required by Chapter 1 1 of the International 
Building Code, shall comply with ICC A117.1. 



SECTION R324 
FLOOD-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION 

R324.1 General. Buildings and structures constructed in 
whole or in part in flood hazard areas (including A or V Zones) 
as established in Table R301.2(l) shall be designed and con- 
structed in accordance with the provisions contained in this 
section. 

Exception: Buildings and structures located in whole or in 
part in identified floodways as established in Table 
R301 .2(1) shall be designed and constructed as stipulated in 
the International Building Code. 

R324.1.1 Structural systems. All structural systems of all 
buildings and structures shall be designed, connected and 
anchored to resist flotation, collapse or permanent lateral 
movement due to structural loads and stresses from flooding 
equal to the design flood elevation. 

R324.1.2 Flood-resistant construction. All buildings and 
structures erected in areas prone to flooding shall be con- 
structed by methods and practices that minimize flood dam- 
age. 

R324.1.3 Establishing the design flood elevation. The 

design flood elevation shall be used to define areas prone to 
flooding, and shall describe, at a minimum, the base flood 
elevation at the depth of peak elevation of flooding (includ- 
ing wave height) which has a 1 percent (100-year flood) or 
greater chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given 
year. 

R324. 1.3.1 Determination of design flood elevations. 

If design flood elevations are not specified, the building 
official is authorized to require the applicant to: 

1. Obtain and reasonably use data available from a fed- 
eral, state or other source; or 

2. Determine the design flood elevation in accordance 
with accepted hydrologic and hydraulic engineering 
practices used to define special flood hazard areas. 
Determinations shall be undertaken by a registered 
design professional who shall document that the tech- 
nical methods used reflect currently accepted engi- 
neering practice. Studies, analyses and computations 
shall be submitted in sufficient detail to allow thor- 
ough review and approval. 

R324.1.3.2 Determination of impacts. In riverine flood 
hazard areas where design flood elevations are specified 
but floodways have not been designated, the applicant 
shall demonstrate that the effect of the proposed build- 
ings and structures on design flood elevations, including 
fill, when combined with all other existing and antici- 
pated flood hazard area encroachments, will not increase 
the design flood elevation more than 1 foot (305 mm) at 
any point within the jurisdiction. 

R324.1.4 Lowest floor. The lowest floor shall be the floor 
of the lowest enclosed area, including basement, but exclud- 
ing any unfinished flood-resistant enclosure that is useable 
solely for vehicle parking, building access or limited storage 
provided that such enclosure is not built so as to render the 
: building or structure in violation of this section. 



62 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



BUILDING PLANNING 



R324.1.5 Protection of mechanical and electrical sys- 
tems. Electrical systems, equipment and components, and 
heating, ventilating, air conditioning and plumbing appli- 
ances, plumbing fixtures, duct systems, and other service 
equipment shall be located at or above the design flood ele- 
vation. If replaced as part of a substantial improvement, 
electrical systems, equipment and components, and heating, 
ventilating, air conditioning, and plumbing appliances, 
plumbing fixtures, duct systems, and other service equip- 
ment shall meet the requirements of this section. Systems, 
fixtures, and equipment and components shall not be 
mounted on or penetrate through walls intended to break 
away under flood loads. 

Exception: Electrical systems, equipment and compo- 
nents, and heating, ventilating, air conditioning and 
plumbing appliances, plumbing fixtures, duct systems, 
and other service equipment are permitted to be located 
below the design flood elevation provided that they are 
designed and installed to prevent water from entering or 
accumulating within the components and to resist hydro- 
static and hydrodynamic loads and stresses, including 
the effects of buoyancy, during the occurrence of flood- 
ing to the design flood elevation in compliance with the 
flood-resistant construction requirements of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. Electrical wiring systems are per- 
mitted to be located below the design flood elevation 
provided they conform to the provisions of the electrical 
part of this code for wet locations. 

R324.1.6 Protection of water supply and sanitary sew- 
age systems. New and replacement water supply systems 
shall be designed to minimize or eliminate infiltration of 
flood waters into the systems in accordance with the plumb- 
ing provisions of this code. New and replacement sanitary 
sewage systems shall be designed to minimize or eliminate 
infiltration of floodwaters into systems and discharges from 
systems into floodwaters in accordance with the plumbing 
provisions of this code and Chapter 3 of the International 
Private Sewage Disposal Code. 

R324.1.7 Flood-resistant materials. Building materials 
used below the design flood elevation shall comply with the 
following: 

1. All wood, including floor sheathing, shall be pres- 
sure-preservative-treated in accordance with AWPA 
Ul for the species, product, preservative and end use 
or be the decay-resistant heartwood of redwood, 
black locust or cedars. Preservatives shall be listed in 
Section 4 of AWPA Ul. 

2. Materials and installation methods used for flooring 
and interior and exterior walls and wall coverings 
shall conform to the provisions of FEMA/FIA-TB 

R324.1.8 Manufactured housing. New or replacement 
manufactured housing shall be elevated in accordance with 
Section R324.2 and the anchor and tie-down requirements 
of Sections AE604 and AE605 of Appendix E shall apply. 
The foundation and anchorage of manufactured housing to 
be located in identified flood ways as established in Table 
R301.2(l) shall be designed and constructed in accordance 



with the applicable provisions in the International Building 
Code. 

R324.1.9 As-built elevation documentation. A registered 
design professional shall prepare and seal documentation of 
the elevations specified in Section R324.2 or R324.3. 

R324.2 Flood hazard areas (including A Zones). Areas that 
have been determined to be prone to flooding but not subject to 
high velocity wave action shall be designated as flood hazard 
areas. All buildings and structures constructed in whole or in 
part in flood hazard areas shall be designed and constructed in 
accordance with Sections R324.2.1 and R324.2.3. 

R324.2.1 Elevation requirements. 

1 . Buildings and structures shall have the lowest floors 
elevated to or above the design flood elevation. 

2. In areas of shallow flooding (AO Zones), buildings 
and structures shall have the lowest floor (including 
basement) elevated at least as high above the highest 
adjacent grade as the depth number specified in feet 
(mm) on the FIRM, or at least 2 feet (610 mm) if a 
depth number is not specified. 

3 . Basement floors that are below grade on all sides shall 
be elevated to or above the design flood elevation. 

Exception; Enclosed areas below the design flood eleva- 
tion, including basements whose floors are not below 
grade on all sides, shall meet the requirements of Section 
R324.2.2. 

R324.2.2 Enclosed area below design flood elevation. 

Enclosed areas, including crawl spaces, that are below the 
design flood elevation shall: 

1. Be used solely for parking of vehicles, building 
access or storage. 

2. Be provided with flood openings that meet the fol- 
lowing criteria: 

2.1. There shall be a minimum of two openings on 
different sides of each enclosed area; if a 
building has more than one enclosed area be- 
low the design flood elevation, each area shall 
have openings on exterior walls. 

2.2. The total net area of all openings shall be at 
least 1 square inch (645 mm^) for each square 
foot (0.093 m^) of enclosed area, or the open- 
ings shall be designed and the construction 
documents shall include a statement that the 
design and installation will provide for equal- 
ization of hydrostatic flood forces on exterior 
walls by allowing for the automatic entry and 
exit of floodwaters. 

2.3. The bottom of each opening shall be 1 foot 
(305 mm) or less above the adjacent ground 
level. 

2.4. Openings shall be at least 3 inches (76 mm) in 
diameter. 

2.5. Any louvers, screens or other opening covers 
shall allow the automatic flow of floodwaters 
into and out of the enclosed area. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



63 



BUILDING PLANNING 



2.6. Openings installed in doors and windows, that 
meet requirements 2.1 through 2.5, are ac- 
ceptable; however, doors and windows with- 
out installed openings do not meet the 
requirements of this section. 

R324.2.3 Foundation design and construction. Founda- 
tion walls for all buildings and structures erected in flood 
hazard areas shall meet the requirements of Chapter 4. 

Exception: Unless designed in accordance with Section 
R404: 

1. The unsupported height of 6-inch (152 mm) plain 
masonry walls shall be no more than 3 feet (914 
mm). 

2. The unsupported height of 8-inch (203 mm) plain 
masonry walls shall be no more than 4 feet (1219 
mm). 

3. The unsupported height of 8-inch (203 mm) rein- 
forced masonry walls shall be no more than 8 feet 
(2438 mm). 

For the purpose of this exception, unsupported 
height is the distance from the finished grade of the 
under-floor space and the top of the wall. 

R324.3 Coastal high-hazard areas (including V Zones). 

Areas that have been determined to be subject to wave heights 
in excess of 3 feet (914 mm) or subject to high- velocity wave 
action or wave-induced erosion shall be designated as coastal 
high-hazard areas. Buildings and structures constructed in 
whole or in part in coastal high-hazard areas shall be desig- 
nated and constructed in accordance with Sections R324.3.1 
through R324.3.6. 

R324.3.1 Location and site preparation. 

1 . Buildings and structures shall be located landward of 
the reach of mean high tide. 

2. For any alteration of sand dunes and mangrove stands 
the building official shall require submission of an 
engineering analysis which demonstrates that the pro- 
posed alteration will not increase the potential for 
flood damage. 

R324.3.2 Elevation requirements. 

1. All buildings and structures erected within coastal 
high hazard areas shall be elevated so that the lowest 
portion of all structural members supporting the low- 
est floor, with the exception of mat or raft founda- 
tions, pihng, pile caps, columns, grade beams and 
bracing, is located at or above the design flood eleva- 
tion. 

2. Basement floors that are below grade on all sides are 
prohibited. 

3. The use of fill for structural support is prohibited. 

4. The placement of fill beneath buildings and structures 
is prohibited. 

Exception: Walls and partitions enclosing areas below 
the design flood elevation shall meet the requirements of 
Sections R324.3.4 and R324.3.5. 



R324.3.3 Foundations. Buildings and structures erected in 
coastal high-hazard areas shall be supported on pilings or 
columns and shall be adequately anchored to those pilings 
or columns. Pilings shall have adequate soil penetrations to 
resist the combined wave and wind loads (lateral and uplift). 
Water loading values used shall be those associated with the 
design flood. Wind loading values shall be those required by 
this code. Pile embedment shall include consideration of 
decreased resistance capacity caused by scour of soil strata 
surrounding the pihng. Pile systems design and installation 
shall be certified in accordance with Section B1324.3.6. Mat, 
raft or other foundations that support columns shall not be 
permitted where soil investigations that are required in 
accordance with Section R401.4 indicate that soil material 
under the mat, raft or other foundation is subject to scour or 
erosion from wave-velocity flow conditions. Slabs, pools, 
pool decks and walkways shall be located and constructed 
to be structurally independent of buildings and structures 
and their foundations to prevent transfer of flood loads to 
the buildings and structures during conditions of flooding, 
scour or erosion from wave- velocity flow conditions, unless 
the buildings and structures and their foundation are 
designed to resist the additional flood load. 

R324.3.4 Walls below design flood elevation. Walls and 
partitions are permitted below the elevated floor, provided 
that such walls and partitions are not part of the structural 
support of the building or structure and: 

1 . Electrical, mechanical, and plumbing system compo- 
nents are not to be mounted on or penetrate through 
walls that are designed to break away under flood 
loads; and 

2. Are constructed with insect screening or open lattice; 
or 

3. Are designed to break away or collapse without caus- 
ing collapse, displacement or other structural damage 
to the elevated portion of the building or supporting 
foundation system. Such walls, framing and connec- 
tions shall have a design safe loading resistance of not 
less than 10 (479 Pa) and no more than 20 pounds per 
square foot (958 Pa); or 

4. Where wind loading values of this code exceed 20 
pounds per square foot (958 Pa), the construction 
documents shall include documentation prepared and 
sealed by a registered design professional that: 

4.1. The walls and partitions below the design 
flood elevation have been designed to col- 
lapse from a water load less than that which 
would occur during the design flood. 

4.2. The elevated portion of the building and sup- 
porting foundation system have been designed 
to withstand the effects of wind and flood loads 
acting simultaneously on all building compo- 
nents (structural and nonstructural). Water 
loading values used shall be those associated 
with the design flood. Wind loading values 
shall be those required by this code. 



64 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE** 



BUILDING PLANNING 



R324.3.5 Enclosed areas below design flood elevation. 

Enclosed areas below the design flood elevation shall be 
used solely for parking of vehicles, building access or stor- 
age. 

R324.3.6 Construction documents. The construction doc- 
uments shall include documentation that is prepared and 
sealed by a registered design professional that the design 
and methods of construction to be used meet the applicable 
criteria of this section. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 65 



66 2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



CHAPTER 4 

FOUNDATIONS 



SECTION R401 
GENERAL 

R401.1 Application. The provisions of this chapter shall control 
the design and construction of the foundation and foundation 
spaces for all buildings. In addition to the provisions of this 
chapter, the design and construction of foundations in areas 
prone to flooding as established by Table R301.2(l) shall meet 
the provisions of Section R324. Wood foundations shall be 
designed and installed in accordance with AF&PA Report No. 7. 

Exception: The provisions of this chapter shall be permit- 
ted to be used for wood foundations only in the following 
situations: 

1 . In buildings that have no more than two floors and a 
roof. 

2. When interior basement and foundation walls are con- 
structed at intervals not exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm). 

I Wood foundations in Seismic Design Category Dq, Dj or Dj 
shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering 
practice. 

R401.2 Requirements. Foundation construction shall be 
capable of accommodating all loads according to Section R301 
and of transmitting the resulting loads to the supporting soil. 
Fill soils that support footings and foundations shall be 
designed, installed and tested in accordance with accepted 
engineering practice. Gravel fill used as footings for wood and 
precast concrete foundations shall comply with Section R403. 

R401.3 Drainage. Surface drainage shall be diverted to a 
storm sewer conveyance or other approved point of collection 
so as to not create a hazard. Lots shall be graded to drain surface 
water away from foundation walls. The grade shall fall a mini- 
mum of 6 inches (152 mm) within the first 10 feet (3048 mm). 

Exception: Where lot lines, walls, slopes or other physical 
barriers prohibit 6 inches (152 mm) of fall within 10 feet 
(3048 mm), the final grade shall slope away from the foun- 
dation at a minimum slope of 5 percent and the water shall 
be directed to drains or swales to ensure drainage away from 
the structure. Swales shall be sloped a minimum of 2 percent 
when located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the building 
foundation. Impervious surfaces within 10 feet (3048 mm) 
of the building foundation shall be sloped a minimum of 2 
percent away from the building. 

R401.4 Soil tests. In areas likely to have expansive, compress- 
ible, shifting or other unknown soil characteristics, the building 
official shall determine whether to require a soil test to deter- 
mine the soil's characteristics at a particular location. This test 
shall be made by an approved agency using an approved 
method. 

R401.4.1 Geotechnical evaluation. In lieu of a complete 
geotechnical evaluation, the load-bearing values in Table 
R401.4.1 shall be assumed. 



TABLE R401. 4.1 

PRESUMPTIVE LOAD-BEARING VALUES OF 

FOUNDATION MATERIALS^ 



CLASS OF MATERIAL 


LOAD-BEARING 

PRESSURE 

(pounds per square foot) 


Crystalline bedrock 


12,000 


Sedimentary and foliated rock 


4,000 


Sandy gravel and/or gravel (GW and GP) 


3,000 


Sand, silty sand, clayey sand, silty gravel 

and clayey gravel 

(SW, SP, SM, SC, GM and GC) 


2,000 


Clay, sandy clay, silty clay, clayey silt, silt 

and sandy silt 

(CL, ML, MH and CH) 


1,500"^ 



For SI; 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. When soil tests are required by Section R401 .4, the allowable bearing capaci- 

ties of the soil shall be part of the recommendations. 

b. Where the building official determines that in-place soils with an allowable 
bearing capacity of less than 1 ,500 psf are likely to be present at the site, the 
allowable bearing capacity shall be determined by a soils investigation. 

R401.4.2 Compressible or shifting soil. Instead of a complete 
geotechnical evaluation, when top or subsoils are compressible 
or shifting, they shall be removed to a depth and width suffi- 
cient to assure stable moisture content in each active zone and 
shall not be used as fill or stabilized within each active zone by 
chemical, dewatering or presaturation. 

SECTION R402 
MATERIALS 

R402.1 Wood foundations. Wood foundation systems shall be 
designed and installed in accordance with the provisions of this 
code. 

R402.1.1 Fasteners. Fasteners used below grade to attach 
plywood to the exterior side of exterior basement or crawl- 
space wall studs, or fasteners used in knee wall construc- 
tion, shall be of Type 304 or 316 stainless steel. Fasteners 
used above grade to attach plywood and all lumber-to-lum- 
ber fasteners except those used in knee wall construction 
shall be of Type 304 or 316 stainless steel, silicon bronze, 
copper, hot-dipped galvanized (zinc coated) steel nails, or 
hot- tumbled galvanized (zinc coated) steel nails. Electro- 
galvanized steel nails and galvanized (zinc coated) steel sta- 
ples shall not be permitted. 

R402.1.2 Wood treatment. All lumber and plywood shall 
be pressure-preservative treated and dried after treatment in 
accordance with AWPA Ul (Commodity Specification A, 
Use Category 4B and Section 5.2), and shall bear the label of 
an accredited agency. Where lumber and/or plywood is cut 
or drilled after treatment, the treated surface shall be field 
treated with copper naphthenate, the concentration of which 
shall contain a minimum of 2 percent copper metal, by 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



67 



FOUNDATIONS 



repeated brushing, dipping or soaking until the wood 
absorbs no more preservative. 

R402.2 Concrete. Concrete shall have a minimum specified 

(compressive strength of //, as shown in Table R402.2. Con- 
crete subject to moderate or severe weathering as indicated in 
Table R301.2(l) shall be air entrained as specified in Table 
R402.2. The maximum weight of fly ash, other pozzolans, sil- 

Iica fume, slag or blended cements that is included in concrete 
mixtures for garage floor slabs and for exterior porches, carport 
slabs and steps that will be exposed to deicing chemicals shall 
not exceed the percentages of the total weight of cementitious 
I materials specified in Section 4.2.3 of ACI 318. Materials used 
to produce concrete and testing thereof shall comply with the 
applicable standards listed in Chapter 3 of ACI 318. 

R402.3 Precast concrete. Approved precast concrete founda- 
tions shall be designed and installed in accordance with the 
provisions of this code and the manufacturer's installation 
instructions. 



SECTION R403 
FOOTINGS 

R403.1 General. All exterior walls shall be supported on con- 
tinuous sohd or fully grouted masonry or concrete footings, 
wood foundations, or other approved structural systems which 
shall be of sufficient design to accommodate all loads accord- 
ing to Section R301 and to transmit the resulting loads to the 
soil within the limitations as determined from the character of 
the soil. Footings shall be supported on undisturbed natural 
soils or engineered fill. 



TABLE R403.1 

MINIMUM WIDTH OF CONCRETE OR 

MASONRY FOOTINGS 

(inches)^ 





LOAD-BEARING VALUE OF SOIL (psf) 




1,500 


2,000 


3,000 


>4,000 


Conventional light-frame construction 


1 -story 


12 


12 


12 


12 


2-story 


15 


12 


12 


12 


3 -story 


23 


17 


12 


12 


4-inch brick veneer over light frame or 8-inch hollow concrete masonry 


1- story 


12 


12 


12 


12 


2-story 


21 


16 


12 


12 


3-story 


32 


24 


16 


12 


8-inch solid or fully grouted masonry 


1 -story 


16 


12 


12 


12 


2-story 


29 


21 


14 


12 


3 -story 


42 


32 


21 


16 



For Sr. 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 
a. Where minimum footing width is 12 inches, use of a single wythe of solid or 
fully grouted 12-inch nominal concrete masonry units is permitted. 

R403.1.1 Minimum size. Minimum sizes for concrete and 
masonry footings shall be as set forth in Table R403.1 and 
Figure R403.1(l). The footing width, W, shall be based on 
the load-bearing value of the soil in accordance with Table 
R401.4.1. Spread footings shall be at least 6 inches (152 
mm) thick. Footing projections, P, shall be at least 2 inches 



TABLE R402.2 
MINIMUM SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE 



TYPE OR LOCATION OF CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 


MINIMUM SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH^ (f ^) 


Weathering Potential" 


Negligible 


Moderate 


Severe 


Basement walls, foundations and other concrete not 
exposed to the weather 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500'^ 


Basement slabs and interior slabs on grade, except 
garage floor slabs 


2,500 


2,500 


2,500^ 


Basement walls, foundation walls, exterior walls and 
other vertical concrete work exposed to the weather 


2,500 


3,000^1 


3,000'* 


Porches, carport slabs and steps exposed to the weather, 
and garage floor slabs 


2,500 


3,000'^'^'f 


3,500*^='^ 



For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Strength at 28 days psi. 

b. See Table R301 .2(1) for weathering potential. 

c. Concrete in these locations that may be subject to freezing and thawing during construction shall be air-entrained concrete in accordance with Footnote d. 

d. Concrete shall be air-entrained. Total air content (percent by volume of concrete) shall be not less than 5 percent or more than 7 percent. 

e. See Section R402.2 for maximum cementitious materials content. 

f. For garage floors with a steel troweled finish, reduction of the total air content (percent by volume of concrete) to not less than 3 percent is permitted if the specified 
compressive strength of the concrete is increased to not less than 4,000 psi. 



68 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FOUNDATIONS 



3.5 IN. MIN. 



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p 




P 






;- .-- ..■ 


° ' . o 1 


O 






vv 


n 



BASEMENT OR CRAWL SPACE 
WITH CONCRETE WALL AND 
SPREAD FOOTING 



J^ 



INTERIOR 



W 



BASEMENT OR CRAWL SPACE 
WITH FOUNDATION WALL 
BEARING DIRECTLY ON SOIL 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R403.1(1) 
CONCRETE AND MASONRY FOUNDATION DETAILS 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



69 



FOUNDATIONS 



□ PRESSURE-PRESERVATIVE TREATED 



FIELD^APPUED 2 x 6 IN. TOP PLATE 
2x6!N.TOPPLATe 



MIN, 3.5 IN. CONCRETE SLAB WITH 
VAPOR BARRIER AND OPTIONAL 
1 IN. SCREED BOARD 



SIN. — I 



4 IN. GRAVEL OR CRUSHED 
STONE FILL UNDER FLOOR 
(SEE SECTION R403.2) 




4 FT (MAX. BACKFILL) 



2x6 !N. STUD WALL INSULATED 
AS APPROPRIATE AND WARM SIDE 
VAPOR BARRIER 



1 IN. THICK PRESSURE-PRESERVATIVE 
TREATED LUMBER OR PLYWOOD STf^lP 
PROTECTING TOP OF POLYETHYLENE FILM 

ESSURE-PRESERVATiVE 
EATED PLYWOOD 
E TABLE R404.2.3) 

6 MIL POLYETHYLENE FILM 



6 MIL POLYETHYLENE FILM 
ON CRUSHED STONE OR 
GRAVEL BACKFILL 

FINISH GRADE SLOPE Vo IN. 
PER FOOT, MIN. 6 FT FROM 
WALL 



PRESSURE-PRES£F?VATIVE 
TREATED 2x6 IN. BOTTOM PLATE 



PRESSURE-PRESEF?VATIVE 
TREATED 2x8 IN. FOOTING PLATE 



For SL- 1 inch 25.4 = mm, 1 foot =304.8, 1 mil =0.0254 mm. 



FIGURE R403.1 (2) 
PERMANENT WOOD FOUNDATION BASEMENT WALL SECTION 



(51 mm) and shall not exceed the thickness of the footing. 
The size of footings supporting piers and columns shall be 
based on the tributary load and allowable soil pressure in 
accordance with Table R40 1.4.1. Footings for wood foun- 
dations shall be in accordance with the details set forth in 
Section R403.2, and Figures R403.1(2) and R403.1(3). 

R403.1.2 Continuous footing in Seismic Design Catego- 
ries Dq, Dj and Dj. The braced wall panels at exterior walls 
of buildings located in Seismic Design Categories Do, Dj 



and D2 shall be supported by continuous footings. All 
required interior braced wall panels in buildings with plan 
dimensions greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm) shall also be 
supported by continuous footings. 

R403.1.3 Seismic reinforcing. Concrete footings located in 
Seismic Design Categories Dq, Dj and D2, as established in 
Table R301.2(l), shall have minimum reinforcement. Bot- 
tom reinforcement shall be located a minimum of 3 inches 
(76 mm) clear from the bottom of the footing. 



70 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



FOUNDATIONS 



n PRESSURE-PRESERVATIVE TREATED 



FLOOR JO!S 



6 MIL POLYETHYLENE FILM 




6 IN. 



1'7// \\\N '///%\\\ ■;/// s\\\'/// 
|\\\v/;// v\\v<'7/ xw^ ///f ws" 

^v '''*/ -^ \V\'' ////wv //:// \\\^ 

/// \\\! //// ^^\'■ //// \\\'^=~_H 

(S\\ ''/VyA^\^^ /^\\\//^■^^ 



. FIELD-APPLIED 2x6 IN. TOP PLATE 
FLASHING 
. 2 X 6 IN. TOP PLATE 




'/// A Y// 
'Mi 



6 IN. GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE ' 
{SEE SECTION R403.2) 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 




FINISH GRADE SLOPE V, IN. 
PER FOOT. MIN. 6 FT FROM 
WALL 



PRESSURE-PRESERVATIVE 
TREATED 2x6 IN. STUD WALL 

PRESSURE-PRESERVATIVE 
TREATED PLYWOOD 
(SEE TABLE R404.2.3) 



PRESSURE-PRESERVATIVE 
TREATED 2 x 6 IN. BOTTOM PLATE 



PRESSURE-PRESERVATIVE 
TREATED 2 x 8 IN. FOOTING PLATE 



BELOW FROST LINE 



FIGURE R403.1(3) 
PERMANENT WOOD FOUNDATION CRAWL SPACE SECTION 



In Seismic Design Categories Dq, Dj and Dj where a con- 
struction joint is created between a concrete footing and a 
stem wall, a minimum of one No. 4 bar shall be installed at 
not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) on center. The vertical bar 
shall extend to 3 inches (76 mm) clear of the bottom of the 
footing, have a standard hook and extend a minimum of 14 
inches (357 mm) into the stem wall. 

In Seismic Design Categories Dq, Dj and Dj where a 
grouted masonry stem wall is supported on a concrete foot- 
ing and stem wall, a minimum of one No. 4 bar shall be 
installed at not more than 4 feet on center. The vertical bar 
shall extend to 3 inches (76 mm) clear of the bottom of the 
footing and have a standard hook. 

In Seismic Design Categories Dq, Dj and D2 masonry 
stem walls without solid grout and vertical reinforcing are 
not permitted. 

Exception: In detached one- and two-family dwellings 
which are three stories or less in height and constructed 
with stud bearing walls, plain concrete footings without 
longitudinal reinforcement supporting walls and isolated 
plain concrete footings supporting columns or pedestals 
are permitted. 

R403.1.3.1 Foundations with stemwalls. Foundations 
with stem walls shall have installed a minimum of one 
No. 4 bar within 12 inches (305 mm) of the top of the wall 



and one No. 4 bar located 3 inches (76 mm) to 4 inches | 
(102 mm) from the bottom of the footing. 

R403.1.3.2 Slabs-on-ground with turned-down foot- 
ings. Slabs-on-ground with turned-down footings shall 
have a minimum of one No. 4 bar at the top and bottom of 
the footing. 

Exception: For slabs-on-ground cast monolithically 
with a footing, one No. 5 bar or two No. 4 bars shall be 
located in the middle third of the footing depth. 

R403.1.4 Minimum depth. All exterior footings shall be 
placed at least 12 inches (305 mm) below the undisturbed 
ground surface. Where applicable, the depth of footings shall 
also conform to Sections R403. 1.4.1 through R403. 1.4.2. 

R403.1.4.1 Frost protection. Except where otherwise 
protected from frost, foundation walls, piers and other 
permanent supports of buildings and structures shall be 
protected from frost by one or more of the following 
methods: 

1 . Extended below the frost line specified in Table 
R301.2.(l); 

2. Constructing in accordance with Section R403.3; 

3. Constructing in accordance with ASCE 32; or | 

4. Erected on solid rock. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



71 



FOUNDATIONS 



Exceptions: 

1. Protection of freestanding accessory 
structures with an area of 600 square feet 
(56 m^) or less, of light-framed construc- 
tion, with an eave height of 10 feet (3048 
mm) or less shall not be required. 

2. Protection of freestanding accessory 
structures with an area of 400 square feet 
(37 m^) or less, of other than light-framed 
construction, with an eave height of 10 
feet (3048 mm) or less shall not be 
required. 

3. Decks not supported by a dwelling need 
not be provided with footings that extend 
below the frost line. 

Footings shall not bear on frozen soil unless the frozen 
condition is permanent. 

R403.1.4.2 Seismic conditions. In Seismic Design Cat- 
egories Dq, Dj and D2, interior footings supporting bear- 
ing or bracing walls and cast monolithically with a slab 
on grade shall extend to a depth of not less than 12 inches 
(305 mm) below the top of the slab. 

R403.1.5 Slope. The top surface of footings shall be level. 
The bottom surface of footings shall not have a slope 
exceeding one unit vertical in 10 units horizontal (10-per- 
cent slope). Footings shall be stepped where it is necessary 
to change the elevation of the top surface of the footings or 
where the slope of the bottom surface of the footings will 
exceed one unit vertical in ten units horizontal (10-percent 
slope). 

R403.1.6 Foundation anchorage. When braced wall pan- 
els are supported directly on continuous foundations, the 
wall wood sill plate or cold-formed steel bottom track shall 
be anchored to the foundation in accordance with this sec- 
tion. 

The wood sole plate at exterior walls on monolithic 
slabs and wood sill plate shall be anchored to the founda- 
tion with anchor bolts spaced a maximum of 6 feet (1829 
mm) on center. There shall be a minimum of two bolts per 
plate section with one bolt located not more than 12 inches 
(305 mm) or less than seven bolt diameters from each end 
of the plate section. In Seismic Design Categories Dq, Dj 
and D2, anchor bolts shall be spaced at 6 feet ( 1 829 mm) on 
center and located within 12 inches (305 mm) of the ends 
of each plate section at interior braced wall lines when 
required by Section R602. 10.9 to be supported on a contin- 
uous foundation. Bolts shall be at least V2 inch (13 mm) in 
diameter and shall extend a minimum of 7 inches (178 
mm) into masonry or concrete. Interior bearing wall sole 
plates on monolithic slab foundation shall be positively 
anchored with approved fasteners. A nut and washer shall 
be tightened on each bolt of the plate. Sills and sole plates 
shall be protected against decay and termites where 
required by Sections R319 and R320. Cold-formed steel 
framing systems shall be fastened to the wood sill plates or 
anchored directly to the foundation as required in Section 
R505.3.1orR603.1.1. 



Exceptions: 

1. Foundation anchorage, spaced as required to pro- 
vide equivalent anchorage to Vj-inch-diameter (13 
mm) anchor bolts. 

2. Walls 24 inches (610 mm) total length or shorter 
connecting offset braced wall panels shall be 
anchored to the foundation with a minimum of one 
anchor bolt located in the center third of the plate 
section and shall be attached to adjacent braced 
wall panels per Figure R602.10.5 at comers. 

3. Walls 12 inches (305 mm) total length or shorter 
connecting offset braced wall panels shall be per- 
mitted to be connected to the foundation without 
anchor bolts. The wall shall be attached to adjacent 
braced wall panels per Figure R602.10.5 at cor- 
ners. 

R403.1.6.1 Foundation anchorage in Seismic Design 
Categories C, Dq, D^ and Dj. In addition to the require- 
ments of Section R403.1.6, the following requirements 
shall apply to wood light-frame structures in Seismic 
Design Categories Dq, D, and D2 and wood light-frame 
townhouses in Seismic Design Category C. 

1. Plate washers conforming to Section R602.11.1 
shall be provided for all anchor bolts over the full 
length of required braced wall lines. Properly sized 
cut washers shall be permitted for anchor bolts in 
wall lines not containing braced wall panels. 

2. Interior braced wall plates shall have anchor bolts 
spaced at not more than 6 feet (1 829 mm) on center 
and located within 12 inches (305 mm) of the ends 
of each plate section when supported on a continu- 
ous foundation. 

3. Interior bearing wall sole plates shall have anchor 
bolts spaced at not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) on 
center and located within 12 inches (305 mm) of 
the ends of each plate section when supported on a 
continuous foundation. 

4. The maximum anchor bolt spacing shall be 4 feet 
(1219 mm) for buildings over two stories in height. 

5. Stepped cripple walls shall conform to Section 
R602.11.3. 

6. Where continuous wood foundations in accor- 
dance with Section R404.2 are used, the force 
transfer shall have a capacity equal to or greater 
than the connections required by Section 
R602. 11.1 or the braced wall panel shall be con- 
nected to the wood foundations in accordance with 
the braced wall panel-to-floor fastening require- 
ments of Table R602.3(l). 

R403.1.7 Footings on or adjacent to slopes. The place- 
ment of buildings and structures on or adjacent to slopes 
steeper than 1 unit vertical in 3 units horizontal (33.3-per- 
cent slope) shall conform to Sections R403. 1.7.1 through 
R403.1.7.4. 

R403. 1.7.1 Building clearances from ascending 
slopes. In general, buildings below slopes shall be set a 



72 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDEENTIAL CODE^^ 



FOUNDATIONS 




For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



H/2 BUT NEED NOT EXCEED 15 FT MAX 



FIGURE R403.1 .7.1 
FOUNDATION CLEARANCE FROM SLOPES 



sufficient distance from the slope to provide protection 
from slope drainage, erosion and shallow failures. 
Except as provided in Section R403.1.7.4 and Figure 
R403. 1.7.1, the following criteria will be assumed to 
provide this protection. Where the existing slope is 
steeper than one unit vertical in one unit horizontal 
(100-percent slope), the toe of the slope shall be assumed 
to be at the intersection of a horizontal plane drawn from 
the top of the foundation and a plane drawn tangent to the 
slope at an angle of 45 degrees (0.79 rad) to the horizon- 
tal. Where a retaining wall is constructed at the toe of the 
slope, the height of the slope shall be measured from the 
top of the wall to the top of the slope. 

R403.1.7.2 Footing setback from descending slope 
surfaces. Footings on or adjacent to slope surfaces shall 
be founded in material with an embedment and setback 
from the slope surface sufficient to provide vertical and 
lateral support for the footing without detrimental settle- 
ment. Except as provided for in Section R403. 1.7.4 and 
Figure R403 . 1 .7 . 1 , the following setback is deemed ade- 
quate to meet the criteria. Where the slope is steeper than 
one unit vertical in one unit horizontal (100-percent 
slope), the required setback shall be measured from an 
imaginary plane 45 degrees (0.79 rad) to the horizontal, 
projected upward from the toe of the slope. 

R403.1.7.3 Foundation elevation. On graded sites, the 
top of any exterior foundation shall extend above the ele- 
vation of the street gutter at point of discharge or the inlet 
of an approved drainage device a minimum of 12 inches 
(305 mm) plus 2 percent. Alternate elevations are per- 
mitted subject to the approval of the building official, 
provided it can be demonstrated that required drainage to 
the point of discharge and away from the structure is pro- 
vided at all locations on the site. 

R403.1.7.4 Alternate setback and clearances. Alter- 
nate setbacks and clearances are permitted, subject to the 
approval of the building official. The building official is 
permitted to require an investigation and recommenda- 
tion of a qualified engineer to demonstrate that the intent 
of this section has been satisfied. Such an investigation 
shall include consideration of material, height of slope, 
slope gradient, load intensity and erosion characteristics 
of slope material. 



R403.1.8 Foundations on expansive soils. Foundation and 
floor slabs for buildings located on expansive soils shall be 
designed in accordance with Section 1805.8 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

Exception: Slab-on-ground and other foundation sys- 
tems which have performed adequately in soil conditions 
similar to those encountered at the building site are per- 
mitted subject to the approval of the building official. 

R403.1.8.1 Expansive soils classifications. Soils meet- 
ing all four of the following provisions shall be consid- 
ered expansive, except that tests to show compliance 
with Items 1 , 2 and 3 shall not be required if the test pre- 
scribed in Item 4 is conducted: 

1 . Plasticity Index (PI) of 1 5 or greater, determined in 
accordance with ASTM D 4318. 

2. More than 10 percent of the soil particles pass a 
No. 200 sieve (75 mm), determined in accordance 
with ASTM D 422. 

3. More than 10 percent of the soil particles are less 
than 5 micrometers in size, determined in accor- 
dance with ASTM D 422. 

4. Expansion Index greater than 20, determined in 
accordance with ASTM D 4829. 

R403.2 Footings for wood foundations. Footings for wood 
foundations shall be in accordance with Figures R403 . 1 (2) and 
R403.1(3). Gravel shall be washed and well graded. The maxi- 
mum size stone shall not exceed V4 inch (19.1 mm). Gravel 
shall be free from organic, clayey or silty soils. Sand shall be 
coarse, not smaller than Vig-inch (1.6 mm) grains and shall be 
free from organic, clayey or silty soils. Crushed stone shall 
have a maximum size of V2 inch (12.7 mm). 

R403.3 Frost protected shallow foundations. For buildings 
where the monthly mean temperature of the building is main- 
tained at a minimum of 64°F (18°C), footings are not required 
to extend below the frost line when protected from frost by 
insulation in accordance with Figure R403.3(l) and Table 
R403.3. Foundations protected from frost in accordance with 
Figure R403.3(l) and Table R403.3 shall not be used for 
unheated spaces such as porches, utility rooms, garages and 
carports, and shall not be attached to basements or crawl spaces 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*" 



73 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R403.3 
MINIMUM INSULATION REQUIREMENTS FOR FROST-PROTECTED FOOTINGS IN HEATED BUILDINGS^ 



AIR FREEZING 
INDEX ("F-days)" 


VERTICAL 
INSULATION 
ff-VALUE^'" 


HORIZONTAL INSULATION fl-VALUE^'^ 


HORIZONTAL INSULATION DIMENSIONS 
PER FIGURE R403.3(1) (Inches) 


Along walls 


At corners 


A 


B 


C 


1,500 or less 


4.5 


Not required 


Not required 


Not required 


Not required 


Not required 


2,000 


5.6 


Not required 


Not required 


Not required 


Not required 


Not required 


2,500 


6.7 


1.7 


4.9 


12 


24 


40 


3,000 


7.8 


6.5 


8.6 


12 


24 


40 


3,500 


9.0 


8.0 


11.2 


24 


30 


60 


4,000 


10.1 


10.5 


13.1 


24 


36 


60 



a. Insulation requirements are for protection against frost damage in heated buildings: Greater values may be required to meet energy conservation standards. Inter- 
polation between values is permissible. 

b. See Figure R403.3(2) for Air Freezing Index values. 

c. Insulation materials shall provide the stated minimum /?-values under long-term exposure to moist, below-ground conditions in freezing climates. The following 
/?-values shall be used to determine insulation thicknesses required for this application; Type 11 expanded polystyrene — 2.4R per inch; Type IV extruded polysty- 
rene — 4.5R per inch; Type VI extruded polystyrene — 4.57? per inch; Type IX expanded polystyrene — 3 .2/? per inch; Type X extruded polystyrene — 4.5/? per inch. 

d. Vertical insulation shall be expanded polystyrene insulation or extruded polystyrene insulation. 

e. Horizontal insulation shall be extruded polystyrene insulation. 



INSULATION DETAIL 



FLja^SHING PER SECTION R703.8 

INSULATION PROTECTION PER SECTION R403.3.2 
SLOPE FINAL GRADE PER SECTION R403.3.3. 



12 IN. MIN 



NOMINAL 4 IN. SCREENED AND 
WASHED GRAVEL OR CRUSHED 
STONE, DRAINED PER SECTION 
R403.3.3 




( - - \ J o\, o .^ i\v\ 
'?f» 1__X? i_ ° ?.^/A 

^\\\\ '/// \\\\v//%.y// N% y// s\\\v// \\\^ 



^SLAB-ON-GROUND FOUNDATION FLOOR 
PER SECTIONS R403.1 AND R506 



Aw//// 

////\\v 
WW/// 

y//\\v 

WW/// 
y//\\v 
WW/// 



' VERTICAL WALL INSULATIONS 
HORIZONTAL INSULATION^ 



HORIZONTAL INSULATION PLAN 




For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. See Table R403.3 for required dimensions and R-values for vertical and horizontal insulation. 

FIGURE R403.3(1) 
INSULATION PLACEMENT FOR FROST-PROTECTED FOOTINGS IN HEATED BUILDINGS 



74 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE"" 



o 
o 

D 

m 




For SI: °C = [(°F)-32]/l .8. 

NOTE: The air- freezing index is defined as cumulative degree days below 32°F. It is used as a measure of the combined magnitude and duration of air temperature below freezing. The index was computed over a 

12-month period (July-June) for each of the 3,044 stations used in the above analysis. Data from the 1951-80 period were fitted to a Weibull probabihty distribution to produce an estimate of the 100-year return 

period. 

FIGURE R403.3(2) 

AIR-FREEZING INDEX 

AN ESTIMATE OF THE 100-YEAR RETURN PERIOD 



O 

c 
z 
a 

> 

H 
O 

z 

CO 



FOUNDATIONS 



INSULATION DETAIL 



FLASHING PER SECTION R703.8 

INSULATION PROTECTION PER SECTION SECTION R403.3.2 

FINISH GRADE OR CONCRETE- 
SLAB OF ADJACENT UNHEATED 
SLAB-ON-GROUND STRUCTURE 



BEAM LINTEL OR CANTILEVER 
TO CARRY LOAD OVER 
NON LOAD-BEARING 
INSULATION 



CONCRETE MASONRY OR 
PERMANENT WOOD 
FOUNDATION GRADE BEAM 
OR WALL OF ADJACENT 
UNHEATED STRUCTURE 



FOOTING AS REQUIRED 




FROST PROTECTED SHALLOW 
FOUNDATION SLAB-ON-GRADE 
FLOOR PER SECTION 403.3 



NOMINAL 4 IN. SCREEN AND 

WASHED GRAVEL OR CRUSHED STONE, 

DRAINED PER SECTION R403.3.3 

VERTICAL WALL INSULATION ^ 

HORIZONTAL INSULATION ^ 



HORIZONTAL INSULATION PLAN 



ATTACHED SLAB 
FOUNDATION OF UNHEATED 
SLAB-ON-GROUND 
STRUCTURE PER 
SECTION R403.1 
AND R403.2 



-FOUNDATION PERIMETER 



HEATED BUILDING AREA 



t 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. See Table R403.3 for required dimensions and7?-values for vertical and horizontal insulation. 

FIGURE R403.3(3) 

INSULATION PLACEMENT FOR FROST-PROTECTED FOOTINGS 

ADJACENT TO UNHEATED SLAB-ON-GROUND STRUCTURE 



76 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



FOUNDATIONS 



that are not maintained at a minimum monthly mean tempera- 
ture of 64°F (18°C). 

Materials used below grade for the purpose of insulating 
footings against frost shall be labeled as complying with 
ASTM C 578. 

R403.3.1 Foundations adjoining frost protected shallow 
foundations. Foundations that adjoin frost protected shal- 
low foundations shall be protected from frost in accordance 
with Section R403. 1.4. 

R403.3.1.1 Attachment to unheated slab-on-ground 
structure. Vertical wall insulation and horizontal insula- 
tion of frost protected shallow foundations that adjoin a 
slab-on-ground foundation that does not have a monthly 
mean temperature maintained at a minimum of 64°F 
(18°C), shall be in accordance with Figure R403.3(3) 
and Table R403.3. Vertical wall insulation shall extend 
between the frost protected shallow foundation and the 
adjoining slab foundation. Required horizontal insula- 
tion shall be continuous under the adjoining slab founda- 
tion and through any foundation walls adjoining the frost 
protected shallow foundation. Where insulation passes 
through a foundation wall, it shall either be of a type 
complying with this section and having bearing capacity 
equal to or greater than the structural loads imposed by 
the building, or the building shall be designed and con- 
structed using beams, lintels, cantilevers or other means 
of transferring building loads such that the structural 
loads of the building do not bear on the insulation. 

R403.3.1.2 Attachment to heated structure. Where a 
frost protected shallow foundation abuts a structure that 
has a monthly mean temperature maintained at a mini- 



mum of 64°F (18°C), horizontal insulation and vertical 
wall insulation shall not be required between the frost 
protected shallow foundation and the adjoining struc- 
ture. Where the frost protected shallow foundation abuts 
the heated structure, the horizontal insulation and verti- 
cal wall insulation shall extend along the adjoining foun- 
dation in accordance with Figure R403.3(4) a distance of 
not less than Dimension A in Table R403.3. 

Exception: Where the frost protected shallow foun- 
dation abuts the heated structure to form an inside cor- 
ner, vertical insulation extending along the adjoining 
foundation is not required. 

R403.3.2 Protection of horizontal insulation below 
ground. Horizontal insulation placed less than 12 inches 
(305 mm) below the ground surface or that portion of hori- 
zontal insulation extending outward more than 24 inches 
(610 mm) from the foundation edge shall be protected 
against damage by use of a concrete slab or asphalt paving 
on the ground surface directly above the insulation or by 
cementitious board, plywood rated for below-ground use, 
or other approved materials placed below ground, directly 
above the top surface of the insulation. 

R403.3.3 Drainage. Final grade shall be sloped in accor- 
dance with Section R401.3. In other than Group I Soils, as 
detailed in Table R405.1, gravel or crushed stone beneath 
horizontal insulation below ground shall drain to daylight or 
into an approved sewer system. 

R403.3.4 Termite damage. The use of foam plastic in 
areas of "very heavy" termite infestation probability shall 
be in accordance with Section R320.5. 



— — — A 



FOUNDATION OF HEATED 
STRUCTURE PER 
SECTIONS R403.1, 
R403.2,ANDR403,3.2.1 



-FROST-PROTECTION — 
SHALLOW FOUNDATION 



INSIDE CORNER 



FIGURE R403.3(4) 

INSULATION PLACEMENT FOR FROST-PROTECTED 

FOOTINGS ADJACENT TO HEATED STRUCTURE 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



77 



FOUNDATIONS 



SECTION R404 
FOUNDATION AND RETAINING WALLS 

R404,l Concrete and masonry foundation walls. Concrete 
and masonry foundation walls shall be selected and con- 
structed in accordance with the provisions of Section R404 or 
in accordance with ACI 3 1 8, ACI 332, NCMA TR68-A or ACI 
530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 or other approved structural standards. 
When ACI 3 1 8, ACI 332 or ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 or the 
provisions of Section R404 are used to design concrete or 
masonry foundation walls, project drawings, typical details 
and specifications are not required to bear the seal of the archi- 
tect or engineer responsible for design, unless otherwise 
required by the state law of the jurisdiction having authority. 



Foundation walls that meet all of the following shall be con- 
sidered laterally supported: 

1. Full basement floor shall be 3.5 inches (89 mm) thick 
concrete slab poured tight against the bottom of the foun- 
dation wall. 

2. Floor joists and blocking shall be connected to the sill plate 
at the top of wall by the prescriptive method called out in 
Table R404.1(l), or; shall be connected with an approved 
connector with Msted capacity meeting Table R404.1(l). 

3. Bolt spacing for the sill plate shall be no greater than per 
Table R404. 1(2). 

4. Floor shall be blocked perpendicular to the floor joists. 
Blocking shall be full depth within two joist spaces of the 



TABLE R404.1(1) 
TOP REACTIONS AND PRESCRIPTIVE SUPPORT FOR FOUNDATION WALLS^ 



MAXIMUM WALL HEIGHT 
(feet) 


MAXIMUM UNBALANCED 
BACKFILL HEIGHT (feet) 


HORIZONTAL REACTION TO TOP (pif) 


Soil Classes 
(Letter indicates connection types'') 


GW, GP, SW and 
SP soils 


GM, GC, SM-SC 
and ML soils 


SC, MH, ML-CL 
and inorganic CL soils 


7 


4 


45.7 
A 


68.6 

A 


91.4 

A 


5 


89.3 
A 


133.9 
B 


178.6 
B 


6 


154.3 
B 


231.4 
C 


308.6 
C 


7 


245.0 
C 


367.5 
C 


490.0 
D 


8 


4 


40.0 

A 


60.0 

A 


80.0 
A 


5 


78.1 

A 


117.2 
B 


156.3 
B 


6 


135.0 
B 


202.5 
B 


270.0 
C 


7 


214.0 
B 


321.6 
C 


428.8 
C 


8 


320.0 
C 


480.0 
C 


640.0 
D 


9 


4 


35.6 

A 


53.3 

A 


71.1 

A 


5 


69.4 
A 


104.2 
B 


138.9 
B 


6 


120.0 
B 


180.0 
B 


240.0 
C 


7 


190.6 
B 


285.8 
C 


381.1 
C 


8 


284.4 
C 


426.7 
C 


568.9 
D 


9 


405.0 
C 


607.5 
D 


810.0 
D 



For SI: 1 foot - 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 plf = pounds per linear foot = 1.488 kg/m. 

a. Loads are pounds per linear foot of wall. Prescriptive options are limited to maximum joist and blocking spacing of 24 inches on center 

b. Prescriptive Support Requirements: 



Type 

A 
B 
C 

D 



78 



Joist/blocking Attachment Requirement 

3-8d per joist per Table R602.3(l). 

1-20 gage angle clip each joist with 5-8d per leg. 

l-V4-inch thick steel angle. Horizontal leg attached to sill bolt adjacent to joist/blocking, vertical leg attached to joist/blocking with V2-inch 

minimum diameter bolt. ' 

2-V4-inch thick steel, angles, one on each side of joist/blocking. Attach each angle to adjacent sill bolt through horizontal leg. Bolt to joist/blocking 

with V2-inch minimum diameter bolt common to both angles. 

2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE' 



® 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLER404.1(2) 
MAXIMUM PLATE ANCHOR-BOLT SPACING FOR SUPPORTED FOUNDATION WALL^ 



MAXIMUM WALL HEIGHT 
(feet) 


MAXIMUM UNBALANCED 
BACKFILL HEIGHT (feet) 


ANCHOR BOLT SPACING (inches) 


Soil Classes 


GW, GP, SW 
and SP soils 


GM, GC, SM-SC 
and ML soils 


SC, MH, ML-CL 
and inorganic CL soils 


7 


4 

5 
6 
7 


72 
44 
26 
16 


58 
30 
17 
11 


43 
22 
13 
8 


8 


4 
5 
6 

7 
8 


72 
51 
29 
18 
12 


66 

34 
20 
12 
8 


50 
25 
15 
9 
6 


9 


4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 


72 
57 
33 
21 
14 
10 


72 
38 
22 
14 
9 
7 


56 
29 
17 
10 

7 
5 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Spacing is based on V2-inch diameter anchor bolts. For Vg-inch diameter anchor bolts, spacing may be multiplied by 1 .27, with a maximum spacing of 72 inches. 



foundation wall, and be flat-blocked with minimum 
2-inch by 4-inch (5 1 mm by 1 02 mm) blocking elsewhere. 

5. Where foundation walls support unbalanced load on 
opposite sides of the building, such as a daylight base- 
ment, the building aspect ratio, LAV, shall not exceed the 
value specified in Table R404.1(3). For such foundation 
walls, the rim board shall be attached to the sill with a 20 
gage metal angle clip at 24 inches (610 mm) on center, 
with five 8d nails per leg, or an approved connector sup- 
plying 230 pounds per linear foot (3.36 kN/m) capacity. 

R404.1.1 Masonry foundation walls. Concrete masonry 
and clay masonry foundation walls shall be constructed as 
set forth in Table R404. 1.1(1), R404. 1 . 1 (2), R404. 1.1(3) or 
R404.1.1(4) and shall also comply with the provisions of 
Section R404 and the applicable provisions of Sections 
R606, R607 and R608. In Seismic Design Categories Dq, Di 
and Dj, concrete masonry and clay masonry foundation 
walls shall also comply with Section R404.1.4. Rubble 
stone masonry foundation walls shall be constructed in 
accordance with Sections R404.1.8 and R607.2.2. Rubble 
stone masonry walls shall not be used in Seismic Design 
Categories Do, D, and D2. 

R404.1.2 Concrete foundation walls. Concrete founda- 
tion walls shall be constructed as set forth in Table 
R404.1.1(5) and shall also comply with the provisions of 
Section R404 and the apphcable provisions of Section 
R402.2. In Seismic Design Categories Dq, Dj and D2, con- 
crete foundation walls shall also comply with Section 
R404.1.4. 

R4()4.1.3 Design required. Concrete or masonry founda- 
tion walls shall be designed in accordance with accepted 
engineering practice when either of the following condi- 
tions exists; 

1. Walls are subject to hydrostatic pressure from 
groundwater. 



2. Walls supporting more than 48 inches (1219 mm) 
of unbalanced backfill that do not have permanent 
lateral support at the top or bottom. 

R404.1.4 Seismic Design Categories Dq, D^ and Dj. In 

addition to the requirements of Tables R404. 1.1(1) and 
R404.1.1(5), plain concrete and plain masonry foundation 
walls located in Seismic Design Categories Dq, D, and D2, as 
established in Table R301.2(l), shall comply with the fol- 
lowing. 

1. Wall height shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm). 

2. Unbalanced backfill height shall not exceed 4 feet 
(1219 mm). 

3. Minimum reinforcement for plain concrete founda- 
tion walls shall consist of one No. 4 (No. 13) horizon- 
tal bar located in the upper 12 inches (305 mm) of the 
wall. 

4. Minimum thickness for plain concrete foundation 
walls shall be 7.5 inches (191 mm) except that 6 
inches (152 mm) is permitted when the maximum 
height is 4 feet, 6 inches (1372 mm). 

5. Minimum nominal thickness for plain masonry foun- 
dation walls shall be 8 inches (203 mm). 

6. Masonry stem walls shall have a minimum vertical 
reinforcement of one No. 3 (No. 10) bar located a 
maximum of 4 feet (1220 mm) on center in grouted 
cells. Vertical reinforcement shall be tied to the hori- 
zontal reinforcement in the footings. 

Foundation walls located in Seismic Design Categories 
Dq, Dj and D2, as established in Table R301 .2(1), supporting 
more than 4 feet (1219 mm) of unbalanced backfill or 
exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm) in height shall be constructed in 
accordance with Table R404.1.1(2), R404.1.1(3) or 
R404.1.1(4) for masonry, or Table R404.1.1(5) for con- 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



79 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R404.1(3) 
MAXIMUM ASPECT RATIO, L/W FOR UNBALANCED FOUNDATIONS 



MAXIMUM WALL HEIGHT 
(feet) 



MAXIMUM UNBALANCED 
BACKFILL HEIGHT (feet) 



GW, GP, SW 
and SP soils 



SOIL CLASSES 



GM, GC, SM-SC 
and ML soils 



SC, MH, ML-CL 
and inorganic CL soils 



4.0 
4.0 
3.0 
1.9 



4.0 
3.4 
2.0 
1.2 



4.0 
2.6 
1.5 
0.9 



4.0 
4.0 
3.4 
2.1 
1.4 



4.0 
3.9 
2.3 
1.4 
1.0 



4.0 
2.9 
1.7 
1.1 
0.7 



4.0 
4.0 
3.8 
2.4 
1.6 
1.1 



4.0 
4.0 
2.6 
1.6 
1.1 
0.8 



4.0 
3.3 
1.9 
1.2 
0.8 
0.6 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 




UNBALANCED FILL HEIGHT 



Crete. Where Table R404.1.1(5) permits plain concrete 
walls, not less than No. 4 (No. 13) vertical bars at a spacing 
not exceeding 48 inches (1219 mm) shall be provided. Insu- 
lating concrete form foundation walls shall be reinforced as 
required in Table R404.4(l), R404.4(2), R404.4(3), 
R404.4(4) or R404.4(5). Where no vertical reinforcement is 
required by Table R404.4(2), R404.4(3) or R404.4(4) there 
shall be a minimum of one No. 4 (No. 13) bar at 48 inches 
(1220 mm) on center. All concrete and masonry foundation 
walls shall have two No. 4 (No. 13) horizontal bars located 
in the upper 12 inches (305 mm) of the wall. 

R404.1.5 Foundation wall thickness based on walls sup- 
ported. The thickness of concrete and masonry foundation 
walls shall not be less than the thickness of the wall sup- 
ported, except that foundation walls of at least 8-inch (203 
mm) nominal thickness shall be permitted under brick- 
veneered frame walls and under 10-inch- wide (254 mm) cav- 
ity walls where the total height of the wall supported, includ- 
ing gables, is not more than 20 feet (6096 mm), provided the 
requirements of Sections R404.1.1 and R404.1.2 are met. 



R404.1.5.1 Pier and curtain wall foundations. Use of 

Pier and curtain wall foundations shall be permitted to 
support light-frame construction not more than two stories 
in height, provided the following requirements are met: 

1 . All load-bearing walls shall be placed on continu- 
ous concrete footings placed integrally with the 
exterior wall footings. 

2. The minimum actual thickness of a load-bearing 
masonry wall shall be not less than 4 inches (102 
mm) nominal or 3^/^ inches (92 mm) actual thick- 
ness, and shall be bonded integrally with piers 
spaced in accordance with Section R606.9. 

3. Piers shall be constructed in accordance with Sec- 
tion R606.6 and Section R606.6.1, and shall be 
bonded into the load-bearing masonry wall in 
accordance with Section R608.L1 or Section 
R608.1.1.2. 

4. The maximum height of a 4-inch (102 mm) 
load-bearing masonry foundation wall supporting 



80 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R404.1. 1(1) 
PLAIN MASONRY FOUNDATION WALLS 



MAXIMUM WALL HEIGHT 
(feet) 


MAXIMUM 

UNBALANCED 

BACKFILL HEIGHr (feet) 


PLAIN MASONRY^ MINIMUM NOMINAL WALL THICKNESS (inches) 


Soil classes'' 


GW, GP, SW 
andSP 


GM, GC, SM, 
SM-SC and ML 


SC, MH, ML-CL 
and inorganic CL 


5 


4 
5 


6 solid'' or 8 
6 solid'' or 8 


6 solid'' or 8 
8 


6 solid" or 8 
10 


6 


4 
5 
6 


6 solid'' or 8 

6 solid'' or 8 

8 


6 solid'' or 8 
8 
10 


6 solid" or 8 
10 
12 


7 


4 
5 
6 

7 


6 solid'' or 8 
6 solid'' or 8 

10 

12 


8 

10 

12 

10 solid" 


8 

10 
10 solid" 
12 solid" 


8 


4 
5 
6 
7 
8 


6 solid'' or 8 
6 solid'' or 8 

10 

12 
10 solid'' 


6 solid'' or 8 

10 

12 
12 solid'' 
12 solid" 


8 

12 

12 solid" 

Footnote e 

Footnote e 


9 


4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 


6 solid'' or 8 

8 

10 

12 

12 solid'' 

Footnote e 


6 solid" or 8 

10 

12 

12 solid" 

Footnote e 

Footnote e 


8 

12 

12 solid" 

Footnote e 

Footnote e 

Footnote e 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 Fh. 

a. Mortar shall be Type M or S and masonry shall be laid in running bond. Ungrouted hollow masonry units are permitted except where otherwise indicated. 

b. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1. 

c. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height between the exterior finish ground level and the lower of the top of the concrete footing that supports the foun- 
dation wall or the interior finish ground level. Where an interior concrete slab-on-grade is provided and is in contact with the interior surface of the foundation wall, 
measurement of the unbalanced backfill height from the exterior finish ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab is pennitted. 

d. Solid grouted hollow units or solid masonry units. 

e. Wall construction shall be in accordance with Table R404.1.1(2) or a design shall be provided. 



wood-frame walls and floors shall not be more 
than 4 feet (1219 mm). 

5. Anchorage shall be in accordance with Section 
R403.1.6, Figure R404. 1.5(1), or as specified by 
engineered design accepted by the building offi- 
cial. 

6. The unbalanced fill for 4-inch (102 mm) founda- 
tion walls shall not exceed 24 inches (610 nrni) for 
solid masonry or 12 inches (305 mm) for hollow 
masonry. 

7. In Seismic Design Categories Dq, Dj and Dj, pre- 
scriptive reinforcement shall be provided in the hor- 
izontal and vertical direction. Provide minimum 
horizontal joint reinforcement of two No.9 gage 
wires spaced not less than 6 inches (152 mm) or one 
'/4 inch (6.4 mm) diameter wire at 10 inches (254 
mm) on center vertically. Provide minimum verti- 
cal reinforcement of one No. 4 bar at 48 inches 
( 1 220 mm) on center horizontally grouted in place. 



R404.1.6 Height above finished grade. Concrete and 
masonry foundation walls shall extend above the finished 
grade adjacent to the foundation at all points a minimum of 
4 inches (102 mm) where masonry veneer is used and a min- 
imum of 6 inches (152 mm) elsewhere. 

R404.1.7 Backfill placement. Backfill shall not be placed 
against the wall until the wall has sufficient strength and has 
been anchored to the floor above, or has been sufficiently 
braced to prevent damage by the backfill. 

Exception: Bracing is not required for walls supporting 
less than 4 feet (1219 mm) of unbalanced backfill. 

R404.1.8 Rubble stone masonry. Rubble stone masonry 
foundation walls shall have a minimum thickness of 16 
inches (406 mm), shall not support an unbalanced backfill 
exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm) in height, shall not support a 
soil pressure greater than 30 pounds per square foot per foot 
(4.71 kPa/m), and shall not be constructed in Seismic 
Design Categories Dq, Dj, Dj or townhouses in Seismic 
Design Category C, as established in Figure R301.2(2). 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



81 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R404.1. 1(2) 

8-INCH MASONRY FOUNDATION WALLS WITH REINFORCING 

WHERE d > 5 INCHES^ 





HEIGHT OF 
UNBALANCED 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT* •= 


Soil classes and lateral soil load^ (psf per foot below grade) 


GW, GP, SW and SP soils 


GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML soils 


SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL soils 


WALL HEIGHT 


BACKFILL^ 


30 


45 


60 






4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#4 at 48" o.c. 




6 feet 8 inches 


5 feet 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#4 at 48" o.c. 






6 feet 8 inches 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#5 at 48" o.c. 


#6 at 48" o.c. 






4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#4 at 48" o.c. 




7 feet 4 inches 


5 feet 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#4 at 48" o.c. 




6 feet 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#5 at 48" o.c. 


#5 at 48" o.c. 






7 feet 4 inches 


#5 at 48" o.c. 


#6 at 48" o.c. 


#6 at 40" o.c. 






4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#4 at 48" o.c. 






5 feet 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#4 at 48" o.c. 




8 feet 


6 feet 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#5 at 48" o.c. 


#5 at 48" o.c. 






7 feet 


#5 at 48" o.c. 


#6 at 48" o.c. 


#6 at 40" o.c. 






8 feet 


#5 at 48" o.c. 


#6 at 48" o.c. 


#6 at 32" o.c. 






4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#4 at 48" o.c. 






5 feet 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#5 at 48" o.c. 




8 feet 8 inches 


6 feet 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#5 at 48" o.c. 


#6 at 48" o.c. 






7 feet 


#5 at 48" o.c. 


#6 at 48" o.c. 


#6 at 40" o.c. 






8 feet 8 inches 


#6 at 48" o.c. 


#6 at 32" o.c. 


#6 at 24" o.c. 






4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#4 at 48" o.c. 






5 feet 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#5 at 48" o.c. 




9 feet 4 inches 


6 feet 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#5 at 48" o.c. 


#6 at 48" o.c. 




7 feet 


#5 at 48" o.c. 


#6 at 48" o.c. 


#6 at 40" o.c. 






8 feet 


#6 at 48" o.c. 


#6 at 40" o.c. 


#6 at 24" o.c. 






9 feet 4 inches 


#6 at 40" o.c. 


#6 at 24" o.c. 


#6 at 16" o.c. 






4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#4 at 48" o.c. 






5 feet 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#5 at 48" o.c. 






6 feet 


#4 at 48" o.c. 


#5 at 48" o.c. 


#6 at 48" o.c. 




10 feet 


7 feet 


#5 at 48" o.c. 


#6 at 48" o.c. 


#6 at 32" o.c. 






8 feet 


#6 at 48" o.c. 


#6 at 32" o.c. 


#6 at 24" o.c. 






9 feet 


#6 at 40" o.c. 


#6 at 24" o.c. 


#6 at 16" o.c. 






10 feet 


#6 at 32" o.c. 


#6 at 16" o.c. 


#6 at 16" o.c. 





For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.157 kPa/mm. 

a. Mortar shall be Type M or S and masonry shall be laid in running bond. 

b. Alternative reinforcing bar sizes and spacings having an equivalent cross-sectional area of reinforcement per lineal foot of wall shall be permitted provided the 
spacing of the reinforcement does not exceed 72 inches. 

c. Vertical reinforcement shall be Grade 60 minimum. The distance from the face of the soil side of the wall to the center of vertical reinforcement shall be at least 5 
inches. 

d. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System and design lateral soil loads are for moist conditions without hydrostatic pressure. Refer 
to Table R405.1. 

e. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height between the exterior finish ground level and the lower of the top of the concrete footing that supports the foun- 
dation wall or the interior finish ground level. Where an interior concrete slab-on-grade is provided and is in contact with the interior surface of the foundation wall, 
measurement of the unbalanced backfill height from the exterior finish ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab is permitted. 



R404.2 Wood foundation walls. Wood foundation walls shall 
be constructed in accordance with the provisions of Sections 
R404.2.1 through R404.2.6 and with the details shown in Fig- 
ures R403.1(2) and R403.1(3). 

R404.2.1 Identification. All load-bearing lumber shall be 
identified by the grade mark of a lumber grading or inspec- 
tion agency which has been approved by an accreditation 
body that complies with DOC PS 20. In lieu of a grade mark, 
a certificate of inspection issued by a lumber grading or 
inspection agency meeting the requirements of this section 
shall be accepted. Wood structural panels shall conform to 
DOC PS 1 or DOC PS 2 and shall be identified by a grade 



mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved 
agency. 

R404.2.2 Stud size. The studs used in foundation walls 
shall be 2-inch by 6-inch (51 mm by 152 mm) members. 
When spaced 16 inches (406 mm) on center, a wood species 
with an F^ value of not less than 1,250 pounds per square 
inch (8612 kPa) as hsted in AF&PA/NDS shall be used. 
When spaced 12 inches (305 mm) on center, an F,, of not less 
than 875 psi (6029 kPa) shall be required. 

R404.2.3 Height of backfill. For wood foundations that are 
not designed and installed in accordance with i'^&PA Report 



82 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



FOUNDATIONS 



No.7, the height of backfill against a foundation wall shall not 
exceed 4 feet (1219 mm). When the height of fill is more than 
1 2 inches (305 mm) above the interior grade of a crawl space or 
floor of a basement, the thickness of the plywood sheathing 
shall meet the requirements of Table R404.2.3. 

R404.2.4 Backfilling. Wood foundation walls shall not be 
backfilled until the basement floor and first floor have been 
constructed or the walls have been braced. For crawl space 
construction, backfill or bracing shall be installed on the 
interior of the walls prior to placing backfill on the exterior. 



R404.2.5 Drainage and dampproofing. Wood foundation 
basements shall be drained and dampproofed in accordance 
with Sections R405 and R406, respectively. 

R404.2.6 Fastening. Wood structural panel foundation 
wall sheathing shall be attached to framing in accordance 
with Table R602.3(l) and Section R402.1.1. 

R404.3 Wood sill plates. Wood sill plates shall be a minimum 
of 2-inch by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) nominal lumber. Sill 
plate anchorage shall be in accordance with Sections R403.1 .6 
and R602.il. 



TABLE R404.1. 1(3) 

10-INCH MASONRY FOUNDATION WALLS WITH REINFORCING 

WHERE d > 6.75 INCHES^ 





HEIGHT OF 
UNBALANCED 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT^ "^ 


Soil classes and later soil load" (psf per foot below grade) 


GW, GP, SW and SP soils 


GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML soils 


SC, MH, ML-CL and inorganic CL soils 


WALL HEIGHT 


BACKFILL^ 


30 


45 


60 




4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


6 feet 8 inches 


5 feet 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#4 at 56" o.c. 




6 feet 8 inches 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#5 at 56" o.c. 


#5 at 56" o.c. 




4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


7 feet 4 inches 


5 feet 

6 feet 


#4 at 56" o.c. 
#4 at 56" o.c. 


#4 at 56" o.c. 
#4 at 56" o.c. 


#4 at 56" o.c. 
#5 at 56" o.c. 




7 feet 4 inches 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#5 at 56" o.c. 


#6 at 56" o.c. 




4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#4 at 56" o.c. 




5 feet 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


8 feet 


6 feet 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#5 at 56" o.c. 




7 feet 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#5 at 56" o.c. 


#6 at 56" o.c. 




8 feet 


#5 at 56" o.c. 


#6 at 56" o.c. 


#6 at 48" o.c. 




4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#4 at 56" o.c. 




5 feet 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


8 feet 8 inches 


6 feet 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#5 at 56" o.c. 




7 feet 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#5 at 56" o.c. 


#6 at 56" o.c. 




8 feet 8 inches 


#5 at 56" o.c. 


#6 at 48" o.c. 


#6 at 32" o.c. 




4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#4 at 56" o.c. 




5 feet 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


9 feet 4 inches 


6 feet 

7 feet 


#4 at 56" o.c. 
#4 at 56" o.c. 


#5 at 56" o.c. 
#5 at 56" o.c. 


#5 at 56" o.c. 
#6 at 56" o.c. 




8 feet 


#5 at 56" o.c. 


#6 at 56" o.c. 


#6 at 40" o.c. 




9 feet 4 inches 


#6 at 56" o.c. 


#6 at 40" o.c. 


#6 at 24" o.c. 




4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#4 at 56" o.c. 




5 feet 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#4 at 56" o.c. 




6 feet 


#4 at 56" o.c. 


#5 at 56" o.c. 


#5 at 56" o.c. 


10 feet 


7 feet 


#5 at 56" o.c. 


#6 at 56" o.c. 


#6 at 48" o.c. 




8 feet 


#5 at 56" o.c. 


#6 at 48" o.c. 


#6 at 40" o.c. 




9 feet 


#6 at 56" o.c. 


#6 at 40" o.c. 


#6 at 24" o.c. 




10 feet 


#6 at 48" o.c. 


#6 at 32" o.c. 


#6 at 24" o.c. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.157 kPa/mm. 

a. Mortar shall be Type M or S and masonry shall be laid in running bond. 

b. Alternative reinforcing bar sizes and spacings having an equivalent cross-sectional area of reinforcement per lineal foot of wall shall be permitted provided the 
spacing of the reinforcement does not exceed 72 inches. 

c. Vertical reinforcement shall be Grade 60 minimum. The distance from the face of the soil side of the wall to the center of vertical reinforcement shall be at least 6.75 
inches. 

d. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System and design lateral soil loads are for moist conditions without hydrostatic pressure. Refer 
to Table R405.1. 

e. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height between the exterior finish ground level and the lower of the top of the concrete footing that supports the foun- 
dation wall or the interior finish ground level. Where an interior concrete slab-on-grade is provided and is in contact with the interior surface of the foundation wall, 
measurement of the unbalanced backfill height from the exterior finish ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab is permitted. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



83 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R404.1. 1(4) 

12-INCH MASONRY FOUNDATION WALLS WITH REINFORCING 

WHERE d > 8.75 INCHES^ 





HEIGHT OF 
UNBALANCED 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT^' = 


Soil classes and lateral soil load" (psf per foot below grade) 


GW, GP, SW and SP soils 


GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML soils 


SC, ML-CL and inorqanic CL soils 


WALL HEIGHT 


BACKFILL^ 


30 


45 


60 




4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 72 


'o.c. 


#4 at 72" o.c. 


#4 at 72" o.c. 


6 feet 8 inches 


5 feet 


#4 at 72 


'o.c. 


#4 at 72" o.c. 


#4 at 72" o.c. 




6 feet 8 inches 


#4 at 72 


'o.c. 


#4 at 72" o.c. 


#5 at 72" o.c. 




4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 72 


'o.c. 


#4 at 72" o.c. 


#4 at 72" o.c. 


7 feet 4 inches 


5 feet 


#4 at 72 


'o.c. 


#4 at 72" o.c. 


#4 at 72" o.c. 


6 feet 


#4 at 72 


' o.c. 


#4 at 72" o.c. 


#5 at 72" o.c. 




7 feet 4 inches 


#4 at 72 


'o.c. 


#5 at 72" o.c. 


#6 at 72" o.c. 




4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 72 


' o.c. 


#4 at 72" o.c. 


#4 at 72" o.c. 




5 feet 


#4 at 72 


'o.c. 


#4 at 72" o.c. 


#4 at 72" o.c. 


8 feet 


6 feet 


#4 at 72 


'o.c. 


#4 at 72" o.c. 


#5 at 72" o.c. 




7 feet 


#4 at 72 


' o.c. 


#5 at 72" o.c. 


#6 at 72" o.c. 




8 feet 


#5 at 72 


' o.c. 


#6 at 72" o.c. 


#6 at 64" o.c. 




4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 72 


'o.c. 


#4 at 72" o.c. 


#4 at 72" o.c. 




5 feet 


#4 at 72 


'o.c. 


#4 at 72" o.c. 


#4 at 72" o.c. 


8 feet 8 inches 


6 feet 


#4 at 72 


'o.c. 


#4 at 72" o.c. 


#5 at 72" o.c. 




7 feet 


#4 at 72 


'o.c. 


#5 at 72" o.c. 


#6 at 72" o.c. 




8 feet 8 inches 


#5 at 72 


'o.c. 


#7 at 72" o.c. 


#6 at 48" o.c. 




4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 72 


' o.c. 


#4 at 72" o.c. 


#4 at 72" o.c. 




5 feet 


#4 at 72 


' o.c. 


#4 at 72" o.c. 


#4 at 72" o.c. 


9 feet 4 inches 


6 feet 


#4 at 72 


' o.c. 


#5 at 72" o.c. 


#5 at 72" o.c. 


7 feet 


#4 at 72 


' o.c. 


#5 at 72" o.c. 


#6 at 72" o.c. 




8 feet 


#5 at 72 


'o.c. 


#6 at 72" o.c. 


#6 at 56" o.c. 




9 feet 4 inches 


#6 at 72 


' o.c. 


#6 at 48" o.c. 


#6 at 40" o.c. 




4 feet (or less) 


#4 at 72 


'o.c. 


#4 at 72" o.c. 


#4 at 72" o.c. 




5 feet 


#4 at 72 


'o.c. 


#4 at 72" o.c. 


#4 at 72" o.c. 




6 feet 


#4 at 72 


' o.c. 


#5 at 72" o.c. 


#5 at 72" o.c. 


10 feet 


7 feet 


#4 at 72 


' o.c. 


#6 at 72" o.c. 


#6 at 72" o.c. 




8 feet 


#5 at 72 


' o.c. 


#6 at 72" o.c. 


#6 at 48" o.c. 




9 feet 


#6 at 72 


'o.c. 


#6 at 56" o.c. 


#6 at 40" o.c. 




10 feet 


#6 at 64" o.c. 


#6 at 40" o.c. 


#6 at 32" o.c. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.157 kPa/mm. 

a. Mortar shall be Type M or S and masonry shall be laid in running bond. 

b. Alternative reinforcing bar sizes and spacings having an equivalent cross-sectional area of reinforcement per lineal foot of wall shall be permitted provided the 
spacing of the reinforcement does not exceed 72 inches. 

c. Vertical reinforcement shall be Grade 60 minimum. The distance from the face of the soil side of the wall to the center of vertical reinforcement shall be at least 8.75 
inches. 

d. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System and design lateral soil loads are for moist conditions without hydrostatic pressure. Refer 
to Table R405.1. 

e. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height between the exterior finish ground level and the lower of the top of the concrete footing that supports the foun- 
dation wall or the interior finish ground levels. Where an interior concrete slab-on-grade is provided and in contact with the interior surface of the foundation wall, 
measurement of the unbalanced backfill height is permitted to be measured from the exterior finish ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab is permitted. 



R404.4 Insulating concrete form foundation walls. Insulat- 
ing concrete form (ICF) foundation walls shall be designed and 
constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section or 
in accordance with the provisions of ACI 318. When ACI 318 
or the provisions of this section are used to design insulating 
concrete form foundation walls, project drawings, typical 
details and specifications are not required to bear the seal of the 
architect or engineer responsible for design unless otherwise 
required by the state law of the jurisdiction having authority. 

R404.4.1 Applicability limits. The provisions of this sec- 
tion shall apply to the construction of insulating concrete 
form foundation walls for buildings not more than 60 feet 



(18 288 mm) in plan dimensions, and floors not more than 
32 feet (9754 mm) or roofs not more than 40 feet (12 192 
mm) in clear span. Buildings shall not exceed two stories in 
height above grade with each story not more than 10 feet 
(3048 mm) high. Foundation walls constructed in accor- 
dance with the provisions of this section shall be limited to 
buildings subjected to a maximum ground snow load of 70 
psf (3.35 kPa) and located in Seismic Design Category A, B 
or C. In Seismic Design Categories Dq, D] and D2, founda- 
tion walls shall comply with Section R404.1.4. Insulating 
concrete form foundation walls supporting above-grade 
concrete walls shall be reinforced as required for the above- 



84 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R404.1. 1(5) 
CONCRETE FOUNDATION WALLS'^' '■' "^ 



MAXIMUM 

WALL 

HEIGHT 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM 

unbalanced 
backfill 
height" 

(feet) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT SIZE AND SPACINC^' "'«•'■ ' 


Soil classes^ and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth) 


GW, GP, SW and SP 
30 


GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 
45 


SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 
60 


Minimum wall thickness (inches) 


5.5 


7.5 


9.5 


11.5 


5.5 


7.5 


9.5 


11.5 


5.5 


7.5 


9.5 


11.5 


5 


4 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


5 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


6 


4 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


5 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PCS 


PC 


PC 


#4@35" 


peg 


PC 


PC 


6 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


#5@48" 


PC 


PC 


PC 


#5@36" 


PC 


PC 


PC 


7 


4 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


5 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


#5@47" 


PC 


PC 


PC 


6 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


#5@42" 


PC 


PC 


PC 


#6@43" 


#5@48" 


PCS 


PC 


7 


#5@46" 


PC 


PC 


PC 


#6@42" 


#5@46" 


PCS 


PC 


#6@34" 


#6@48" 


PC 


PC 


8 


4 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


5 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


#4@38" 


PCS 


PC 


PC 


#5@43" 


PC 


PC 


PC 


6 


#4@37" 


PCS 


PC 


PC 


#5@37" 


PC 


PC 


PC 


#6@37" 


#5@43" 


PCS 


PC 


7 


#5@40" 


PC 


PC 


PC 


#6@37" 


#5@41" 


PC 


PC 


#6@34" 


#6@43" 


PC 


PC 


8 


#6@43" 


#5@47" 


PCS 


PC 


#6@34" 


#6@43" 


PC 


PC 


#6@27" 


#6@32" 


#6@44" 


PC 


9 


4 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


5 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


#4@35" 


PCS 


PC 


PC 


#5@40" 


PC 


PC^ 


PC 


6 


#4@34" 


PCS 


PC 


PC 


#6@48" 


PC 


PC 


PC 


#6@36" 


#5@39" 


PCS 


PC 


7 


#5@36" 


PC 


PC 


PC 


#6@34" 


#5@37" 


PC 


PC 


#6@33" 


#6@38" 


#5@37" 


peg 


8 


#6@38" 


#5@41" 


PCS 


PC 


#6@33" 


#6@38" 


#5@37" 


PCS 


#6@24" 


#7@39" 


#6@39" 


#4@48"'^ 


9 


#6@34" 


#6@46" 


PC 


PC 


#6@26" 


#7@41" 


#6@41" 


PC 


#6@19" 


#7@31" 


#7@41" 


#6@39" 


10 


4 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


5 


PC 


PC 


PC 


PC 


#4@33" 


PCS 


PC 


PC 


#5@38" 


PC 


PC 


PC 


6 


#5@48" 


PCS 


PC 


PC 


#6@45" 


PC 


PC 


PC 


#6@34" 


#5@37" 


PC 


PC 


7 


#6@47" 


PC 


PC 


PC 


#6@34" 


#6@48" 


PC 


PC 


#6@30" 


#6@35" 


#6@48" 


PCS 


8 


#6@34" 


#5@38" 


PC 


PC 


#6@30" 


#7@47" 


#6@47" 


PCS 


#6@22" 


#7@35" 


#7@48" 


#6@45"'' 


9 


#6@34" 


#6@41" 


#4@48" 


PC8 


#6@23" 


#7@37" 


#7@48" 


#4@48"h 


DR 


#6@22" 


#7@37" 


#7@47" 


10 


#6@28" 


#7@45" 


#6@45" 


PC 


DR 


#7@31" 


#7@40" 


#6@38" 


DR 


#6@22" 


#7@30" 


#7@38" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa; 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.157 kPa/mm. 

a. Soil classes are in accordance with the United Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1 

b. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height of the exterior and interior finish ground levels. Where there is an interior concrete slab, the unbalanced back- 
fill height shall be measured from the exterior finish ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab. 

c. The size and spacing of verfical reinforcement shown in the table is based on the use of reinforcement with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi. Vertical rein- 
forcement with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi or 50,000 psi is permitted, provided the same size bar is used and the spacing shown in the table is reduced 
by multiplying the spacing by 0.67 or 0.83, respectively. 

d. Vertical reinforcement, when required, shall be placed nearest the inside face of the wall a distance d from the outside face (soil side) of the wall. The distance d is 
equal to the wall thickness, t, minus 1 .25 inches plus one-half the bar diameter, db (d = t - (1 .25 + db/2). The reinforcement shall be placed within a tolerance of ± % 
inch where d is less than or equal to 8 inches, or ± V2 inch where d is greater than 8 inches. 

e. In lieu of the reinforcement shown, smaller reinforcing bar sizes and closer spacings resulting in an equivalent cross-sectional area of reinforcement per linear foot 
of wall are permitted. 

f . Concrete cover for reinforcement measured from the inside face of the wall shall not be less than ^/^ inch. Concrete cover for reinforcement measured from the out- 
side face of the wall shall not be less than 1 V2 inches for No. 5 bars and smaller, and not less than 2 inches for larger bars. 

g. The minimum thickness is permitted to be reduced 2 inches, provided the minimum specified compressive strength of concrete //, is 4,000 psi. 

(continued) 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



85 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R404.1. 1(5)— continued 
CONCRETE FOUNDATION WALLS'^ ''•'' 

h. A plain concrete wall with a minimum thickness of 1 1.5 inches is permitted, provided minimum specified compressive strength of concrete, //, is 3,500 psi. 
i. Concrete shall have a specified compressive strength of not less than 2,500 psi at 28 days, unless a higher strength is required by note g or h. 
j. "DR" means design is required in accordance with ACI 318 or ACI 332. 
k. "PC" means plain concrete. 

1. Where vertical reinforcement is required, horizontal reinforcement shall be provided in accordance with the requirements of Section R404.4.6.2 for ICF founda- 
tion walls. 



grade wall immediately above or the requirements in Tables 
R404.4(l), R404.4(2), R404.4(3), R404.4(4) orR404.4(5), 
whichever is greater. 

R404.4.2 Flat insulating concrete form wall systems. Flat 
ICF wall systems shall comply with Figure R611.3, shall 
have a minimum concrete thickness of 5.5 inches (140 mm), 
and shall have reinforcement in accordance with Table 
R404.4(l), R404.4(2) or R404.4(3). Alternatively, for 
7.5-inch (191 mm) and 9.5-inch (241 mm) flat ICF wall sys- 
tems, use of Table R404. 1 . 1 (5) shall be permitted, provided 
the vertical reinforcement is of the grade and located within 
the wall as required by that table. 

R404.4.3 Waffle-grid insulating concrete form wall sys- 
tems. Waffle-grid wall systems shall have a minimum nom- 
inal concrete thickness of 6 inches (152 mm) for the 
horizontal and vertical concrete members (cores) and shall 
be reinforced in accordance with Table R404.4(4). The min- 
imum core dimension shall comply with Table R61 1.2 and 
Figure R6 11.4. 

R404.4.4 Screen-grid insulating concrete form wall sys- 
tems. Screen-grid ICF wall systems shall have a minimum 
nominal concrete thickness of 6 inches (152 mm) for the 
horizontal and vertical concrete members (cores). The mini- 
mum core dimensions shall comply with Table R611 .2 and 
Figure R611.5. Walls shall have reinforcement in accor- 
dance with Table R404.4(5). 

R404.4.5 Concrete material. Ready-mixed concrete for 
insulating concrete form walls shall be in accordance with 
Section R402.2. Maximum slump shall not be greater than 6 
inches (152 mm) as determined in accordance with ASTM 
C 143. Maximum aggregate size shall not be larger than V4 
inch (19.1 mm). 

Exception: Concrete mixes conforming to the ICF man- 
ufacturer's recommendations. 

R404.4.6 Reinforcing steel. 

R404.4.6.1 General. Reinforcing steel shall meet the 
requirements of ASTM A 615, A 706 or A 996. The min- 
imum yield strength of reinforcing steel shall be 40,000 
psi (Grade 40) (276 MPa). Vertical and horizontal wall 
reinforcements shall be placed no closer to the outside 
face of the wall than one-half the wall thickness. Steel 
reinforcement for foundation walls shall have concrete 
cover in accordance with ACI 318. 

Exception: Where insulated concrete forms are used 
and the form remains in place as cover for the con- 
crete, the minimum concrete cover for the reinforcing 
steel is permitted to be reduced to V4 inch (19.1 mm) . 



R404.4.6.2 Horizontal reinforcement. When vertical 
reinforcement is required, ICF foundation walls shall 
have horizontal reinforcement in accordance with this 
section. ICF foundation walls up to 8 feet (2438 mm) in 
height shall have a minimum of one continuous No. 4 
horizontal reinforcing bar placed at 48 inches (1219 mm) 
on center with one bar located within 12 inches (305 
mm) of the top of the wall story. ICF Foundation walls 
greater than 8 feet (2438 mm) in height shall have a mini- 
mum of one continuous No. 4 horizontal reinforcing bar 
placed at 36 inches (914 mm) on center with one bar 
located within 12 inches (305 mm) of the top of the wall 
story. 

R404.4.6.3 Wall openings. Vertical wall reinforcement 
required by Section R404.4.2, R404.4.3 or R404.4.4 that 
is interrupted by wall openings shall have additional ver- 
tical reinforcement of the same size placed within 12 
inches (305 mm) of each side of the opening. 

R404.4.7 Foam plastic insulation. Foam plastic insulation 
in insulating concrete foam construction shall comply with 
this section. 

R404.4.7.1 Material. Insulating concrete form material 
shall meet the surface burning characteristics of Section 
R3 14.3 . A thermal barrier shall be provided on the build- 
ing interior in accordance with Section R314.4. 

R404.4.7.2 Termite hazards. In areas where hazard of 
termite damage is very heavy in accordance with Figure 
R301.2(6), foam plastic insulation shall be permitted 
below grade on foundation walls in accordance with one 
of the following conditions: 

1. When in addition to the requirements in Section 
R320.1, an approved method of protecting the 
foam plastic and structure from subterranean ter- 
mite damage is provided. 

2. The structural members of walls, floors, ceilings 
and roofs are entirely of noncombustible materials 
or pressure preservatively treated wood. 

3. On the interior side of basement walls. 

R404.4.8 Foundation wall thickness based on walls sup- 
ported. The thickness of ICF foundation walls shall not be 
less than the thickness of the wall supported above. 

R404.4.9 Height above finished ground. ICF foundation 
walls shall extend above the finished ground adjacent to the 
foundation at all points a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) 
where masonry veneer is used and a minimum of 6 inches 
(152 mm) elsewhere. 



86 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



FOUNDATIONS 



GALVANIZED OR STAINLESS STEEL STRAPS, 
MIN. 27,,," WIDE BY 1 2 GAGE THICK, 
MIN. 2" FROM EDGE OF PIER, TYP. 



IN. NINE 16d NAILS PER STRAP 




MIN. 8" X 16" MASONRY PIER. TYP. 



N. TWO 9 GAGE BOX TIES OR TWO 
MASONRY HEADERS AT 8" O.C. EACH PIER 



STRAPS ANCHORED WITH 90 DEGREE HOOK, MIN. TWO STRAPS PER PIER, 
MIN. 4" EMBEDMENT INTO FOOTING, MIN. 1.75" HORIZ. LEG EXTENSION 



DOUBLE RIM JOISTS 



MIN. 18 GAGE PLATE 
CONNECTORS AT 
MAX. 12 IN. O.C. (TYP.) 




MIN. 4 IN. MASONRY 
CURTAIN WALL 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 d^ree = 0.0157 rad. 



FIGURE R404.1. 5(1) 
FOUNDATION WALL CLAY MASONRY CURTAIN WALL WITH CONCRETE MASONRY PIERS 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



87 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R404.2.3 

PLYWOOD GRADE AND THICKNESS FOR WOOD FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION 

(30 pcf equivalent-fluid weight soil pressure) 



HEIGHT OF FILL 
(inches) 


STUD SPACING 
(inches) 


FACE GRAIN ACROSS STUDS 


FACE GRAIN PARALLEL TO STUDS 


Grade^ 


Minimum 
thickness 
(inches) 


Span rating 


Grade^ 


Minimum 
thickness 
(inches)'''^ 


Span rating 


24 


12 


B 


'%2 


32/16 


A 


•v., 


32/16 


B 


'^A,^ 


32/16 


16 


B 


'%2 


32/16 


A 


^%,^ 


32/16 


B 


i%2^(4,5ply) 


40/20 


36 


12 


B 


'%2 


32/16 


A 


'%2 


32/16 


B 


^V (4, 5 ply) 


32/16 


B 


1%, (4, 5 ply) 


40/20 


16 


B 


'%2' 


32/16 


A 


'%2 


40/20 


B 


'\2 


48/24 


48 


12 


B 


'%2 


32/16 


A 


'%2' 


32/16 


B 


i%/(4,5ply) 


40/20 


16 


B 


'%2 


40/20 


A 


'%/ 


40/20 


A 


'%2 


48/24 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per cubic foot = 0.1572 kN/n?. 

a. Plywood shall be of the following minimum grades in accordance with DOC PS 1 or DOC PS 2: 

1 . DOC PS 1 Plywood grades marked: 

1.1. Structural I C-D (Exposure 1) 

1.2. C-D (Exposure 1) 

2. DOC PS 2 Plywood grades marked: 

2.1. Structural I Sheathing (Exposure 1) 

2.2. Sheathing (Exposure 1) 

3. Where a major portion of the wall is exposed above ground and abetter appearance is desired, the following plywood grades marked exterior are suitable: 

3.1. Structural I A-C, Structural I B-C or Structural I C-C (Plugged) in accordance with DOC PS 1 

3.2. A-C Group 1, B-C Group 1, C-C (Plugged) Group 1 orMDO Group 1 in accordance with DOC PS 1 

3.3. Single Floor in accordance with DOC PS 1 or DOC PS 2 

b. Minimum thickness ^^l-i2 inch, except crawl space sheathing may be ^/g inch for face grain across studs 16 inches on center and maximum 2-foot depth of unequal 
fill. 

c. For this fill height, thickness and grade combination, panels that are continuous over less than three spans (across less than three stud spacings) require blocking 16 
inches above the bottom plate. Offset adjacent blocks and fasten through studs with two 16d corrosion-resistant nails at each end. 



R404.4.10 Backfill placement. Backfill shall be placed in 
accordance with Section R404.1.7. 

R404.4.11 Drainage and dampproofing/waterproofing. 

ICF foundation basements shall be drained and 
dampproofed/waterproofed in accordance with Sections 
R405 and R406. 

R404.5 Retaining walls. Retaining walls that are not laterally 
supported at the top and that retain in excess of 24 inches (610 
mm) of unbalanced fill shall be designed to ensure stability 
against overturning, sliding, excessive foundation pressure and 
water uplift. Retaining walls shall be designed for a safety fac- 
tor of 1.5 against lateral sliding and overturning. 



SECTION R405 
FOUNDATION DRAINAGE 

R405.1 Concrete or masonry foundations. Drains shall be 
provided around all concrete or masonry foundations that retain 
earth and enclose habitable or usable spaces located below 
grade. Drainage tiles, gravel or crushed stone drains, perforated 
pipe or other approved systems or materials shall be installed at 
or below the area to be protected and shall discharge by gravity 
or mechanical means into an approved drainage system. Gravel 
or crushed stone drains shall extend at least 1 foot (305 mm) 
beyond the outside edge of the footing and 6 inches (152 mm) 
above the top of the footing and be covered with an approved fil- 
ter membrane material. The top of open joints of drain tiles shall 
be protected with strips of building paper, and the drainage tiles 
or perforated pipe shall be placed on a minimum of 2 inches (5 1 
mm) of washed gravel or crushed rock at least one sieve size 



88 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R404.4(1) 
5.5-INCH THICK FLAT ICF FOUNDATION WALLS^ *"=■" 



HEIGHT OF BASEMENT 
WALL 
(feet) 


MAXIMUM UNBALANCED 

BACKFILL HEIGHT 

(feet) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT SIZE AND SPACING 


Soil classes' and design lateral soil load (psf per foot of depth) 


GW, GP, SW and SP 
30 


GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 
45 


SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 
60 


8 


4 


#4@48" 


#4@48" 


#4@48" 


5 


#4@48" 


#3@12";#4@22"; 
#5@32" 


#3@8";#4@14"; 
#5 @ 20"; #6 @ 26" 


6 


#3@12";#4@22"; 
#5@30" 


#3@8";#4@14"; 
#5@20";#6@24" 


#3@6";#4@10": 
#5@14";#6@20" 


7 


#3@8";#4@14"; 
#5@22";#6@26" 


#3@5";#4@10"; 
#5@14";#6@18" 


#3@4";#4@6"; 
#5@10";#6@14" 


9 


4 


#4@48" 


#4@48" 


#4@48" 


5 


#4@48" 


#3@12";#4@20"; 
#5@28";#6@36" 


#3@8";#4@14"; 
#5@20"; #6@22" 


6 


#3@10";#4@20"; 
#5@28";#6@34" 


#3@6";#4@12"; 
#5@18";#6@20" 


#4@8"; 
#5@14";#6@16" 


7 


#3@8";#4@14"; 
#5@20";#6@22" 


#4@8";#5@12";#6@16" 


#4@6"; 
#5@10";#6@12" 


8 


#3@6";#4@10"; 
#5@14";#6@16" 


#4@6";#5@10";#6@12" 


#4@4"; 
#5@6";#6@8" 


10 


4 


#4@48" 


#4@48" 


#4@48" 


5 


#4@48" 


#3@10";#4@18"; 
#5 @ 26"; #6 @ 30" 


#3@6";#4@14"; 
#5@18";#6@20" 


6 


#3@10";#4@18"; 
#5 @ 24"; #6 @ 30" 


#3@6";#4@12"; 
#5@16";#6@18" 


#3@4";#4@8"; 
#5@12";#6@14" 


7 


#3@6";#4@12"; 
#5@16";#6@18" 


#3@4";#4@8";#5@12" 


#4@6"; 
#5@8";#6@10" 


8 


#4@8";#5@12";#6@14" 


#4@6";#5@8";#6@12" 


#4@4"; 
#5@6";#6@8" 


9 


#4@6";#5@10";#6@12" 


#4@4";#5@6";#6@8" 


#5@4";#6@6" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. | 

a. This table is based on concrete with a minimum specified concrete strength of 2500 psi, reinforcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi. When rein- 
forcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi is used, the spacing of the reinforcement shall be increased to 1 .5 times the spacing value in the table but 
in no case greater than 48 inches on center. 

b. This table is not intended to prohibit the use of an ICF manufacturer's tables based on engineering analysis in accordance with ACI 318. 

c. Deflection criteria: L/240. 

d. Interpolation between rebar sizes and spacing is not permitted. 

e. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height of the exterior and interior finished ground. Where an interior concrete slab is provided, the unbalanced back- 
fill height shall be measured from the exterior finished ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab. 

f. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1. 



larger than the tile joint opening or perforation and covered with 
not less than 6 inches (152 mm) of the same material. 

Exception: A drainage system is not required when the 
foundation is installed on well-drained ground or 
sand-gravel mixture soils according to the Unified Soil 
Classification System, Group I Soils, as detailed in Table 
R405.1. 

R405.2 Wood foundations. Wood foundations enclosing hab- 
itable or usable spaces located below grade shall be adequately 
drained in accordance with Sections R405.2.1 through 
R405.2.3. 



R405.2.1 Base. A porous layer of gravel, crushed stone or 
coarse sand shall be placed to a minimum thickness of 4 
inches (102 mm) under the basement floor. Provision shall 
be made for automatic draining of this layer and the gravel 
or crushed stone wall footings. 

R405.2.2 Moisture barrier. A 6-mil-thick (0. 15 mm) poly- 
ethylene moisture barrier shall be applied over the porous 
layer with the basement floor constructed over the polyeth- 
ylene. 

R405.2.3 Drainage system, hi other than Group I soils, a 
sump shall be provided to drain the porous layer and footings. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'^ 



89 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R404.4(2) 
7.5-INCH-THICK FLAT ICF FOUNDATION WALLS^ "■ "= "^ 



HEIGHT OF 

BASEMENT WALL 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM 

UNBALANCED 

BACKFILL height' 

(feet) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT SIZE AND SPACING 


Soil classes^ and design lateral soil load (psf per foot of depth) 


GW, GP, SW and SP 
30 


GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 
45 


SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 
60 


8 


6 


N/R 


N/R 


#3@6";#4@12"; 
#5@18";#6@24" 


7 


N/R 


#3@8";#4@14"; 
#5 @ 20"; #6 @ 28" 


#3@6";#4@10"; 
#5@16";#6@20" 


9 


6 


N/R 


N/R 


#3@8";#4@14"; 
#5@20";#6@28" 


7 


N/R 


#3@6";#4@12"; 
#5@18";#6@26" 


#3@4";#4@8"; 
#5@14";#6@18" 


8 


#3@8";#4@14"; 
#5@22";#6@28" 


#3@4";#4@8"; 
#5@14";#6@18" 


#3@4";#4@6"; 
#5@10";#6@14" 


10 


6 


N/R 


N/R 


#3@6";#4@12"; 
#5@18";#6@26" 


7 


N/R 


#3@6";#4@12"; 
#5@18";#6@24" 


#3@4";#4@8"; 
#5@12";#6@18" 


8 


#3@6";#4@12"; 
#5 @ 20"; #6 @ 26" 


#3@4";#4@8"; 
#5@12";#6@16" 


#3@4";#4@6"; 
#5@8";#6@12" 


9 


#3@6";#4@10"; 
#5@14";#6@20" 


#3@4";#4@6"; 
#5@10";#6@12" 


#4@4";#5@6"; 
#6@10" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch - 6.895 kPa, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. This table is based on concrete with a minimum specified concrete strength of 2500 psi, reinforcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi. When rein- 
forcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi is used, the spacing of the reinforcement shall be increased to 1 .5 times the spacing value in the table. 

b. This table is not intended to prohibit the use of an ICF manuiacturer's tables based on engineering analysis in accordance with ACI 318. 

c. N/R denotes "not required." 

d. Deflection criteria: L/240. 

e. Interpolation between rebar sizes and spacing is not permitted. 

f . Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height of the exterior and interior finished ground. Where an interior concrete slab is provided, the unbalanced back- 
fill height shall be measured from the exterior finished ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab. 



The sump shall be at least 24 inches (610 mm) in diameter or 
20 inches square (0.0129 m^), shall extend at least 24 inches 
(610 mm) below the bottom of the basement floor and shall 
be capable of positive gravity or mechanical drainage to 
remove any accumulated water. The drainage system shall 
discharge into an approved sewer system or to dayhght. 



SECTION R406 

FOUNDATION WATERPROOFING 

AND DAMPPROOFING 

R406.1 Concrete and masonry foundation dampprooflng. 

Except where required by Section R406.2 to be waterproofed, 
foundation walls that retain earth and enclose interior spaces 
and floors below grade shall be dampproofed from the top of 
the footing to the finished grade. Masonry walls shall have not 
less than Vg inch (9.5 mm) portland cement parging applied to 
the exterior of the wall. The parging shall be dampproofed in 
accordance with one of the following: 

1 . Bituminous coating. 

2. 3 pounds per square yard (1.63 kg/m^) of acrylic modi- 
fied cement. 

3. 1/8-inch (3.2 mm) coat of surface-bonding cement com- 
plying with ASTM C 887. 



4. Any material permitted for waterproofing in Section 
R406.2. 

5. Other approved methods or materials. 

Exception: Parging of unit masonry walls is not 
required where a material is approved for direct appli- 
cation to the masonry. 

Concrete walls shall be dampproofed by applying any one of 
the above listed dampprooflng materials or any one of the 
waterproofing materials listed in Section R406.2 to the exterior 
of the wall. 

R406.2 Concrete and masonry foundation waterproofing. 

In areas where a high water table or other severe soil-water con- 
ditions are known to exist, exterior foundation walls that retain 
earth and enclose interior spaces and floors below grade shall 
be waterproofed from the top of the footing to the finished 
grade. Walls shall be waterproofed in accordance with one of 
the following: 

1. 2-ply hot-mopped felts. 

2. 55 pound (25 kg) roll roofing. 

3. 6-mil (0.15 mm) polyvinyl chloride. 

4. 6-mil (0.15 mm) polyethylene. 

5. 40-mil (1 mm) polymer-modified asphalt. 



90 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*" 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R404.4(3) 
9.5-INCH-THICK FLAT ICF FOUNDATION WALLS^ "''■''^ 



HEIGHT OF 

BASEMENT WALL 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM 

UNBALANCED 

BACKFILL HEIGHT* 

(feet) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT SIZE AND SPACING 


Soil classes^ and design lateral soil load (psf per foot of depth) 


GW, GP, SW and SP 
30 


GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 
45 


SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 
60 


8 


7 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


9 


6 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


7 


N/R 


N/R 


#3@6";#4@12"; 
#5@18";#6@26" 


8 


N/R 


#3@6";#4@12"; 
#5@18";#6@26" 


#3@4";#4@8"; 
#5@14";#6@18" 


10 


5 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


6 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


7 


N/R 


N/R 


#3@6";#4@10"; 
#5@18";#6@24" 


8 


N/R 


#3@6";#4@12"; 
#5@16";#6@24" 


#3@4"; #4@8"; 
#5@12";#6@16" 


9 


#3@4";#4@10"; 
#5@14";#6@20" 


#3@4";#4@8"; 
#5@12";#6@18" 


#3@4";#4@6"; 
#5@10";#6@12" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. This table is based on concrete with a minimum specified concrete strength of 2500 psi, reinforcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi. When rein- 
forcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi is used, the spacing of the reinforcement shall be increased to 1 .5 times the spacing value in the table. 

b. This table is not intended to prohibit the use of an ICF manuiacturer's tables based on engineering analysis in accordance with ACI 318. 

c. N/R denotes "not required." 

d. Deflection criteria: L/240. 

e. Interpolation between rebar sizes and spacing is not permitted. 

f. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height of the exterior and interior finished ground. Where an interior concrete slab is provided, the unbalanced back- 
fill height shall be measured from the exterior finished ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab. 

g. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1. 



6. 60-mil (1.5 mm) flexible polymer cement. 

7. Vg inch (3 mm) cement-based, fiber-reinforced, water- 
proof coating. 

8. 60-mil (0.22 mm) solvent-free liquid-applied synthetic 
rubber. 

Exception: Organic-solvent-based products such as hydro- 
carbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, ketones and esters shall 
not be used for ICF walls with expanded polystyrene form 
material. Use of plastic roofing cements, acrylic coatings, 
latex coatings, mortars and pargings to seal ICF walls is 
permitted. Cold-setting asphalt or hot asphalt shall conform 
to type C of ASTM D 449. Hot asphalt shall be applied at a 
temperature of less than 200°F (93°C). 

All joints in membrane waterproofing shall be lapped and 
sealed with an adhesive compatible with the membrane. 

R406.3 Dampproofing for wood foundations. Wood founda- 
tions enclosing habitable or usable spaces located below grade 
shall be dampproofed in accordance with Sections R406.3.1 
through R406.3.4. 

R406.3.1 Panel joint sealed. Plywood panel joints in the 
foundation walls shall be sealed full length with a caulking 
compound capable of producing a moisture-proof seal 
under the conditions of temperature and moisture content at 
which it will be applied and used. 



R406.3.2 Below-grade moisture barrier. A 6-mil-thick 
(0.15 mm) polyethylene film shall be applied over the 
below-grade portion of exterior foundation walls prior to 
backfilling. Joints in the polyethylene film shall be lapped 6 
inches (152 mm) and sealed with adhesive. The top edge of 
the polyethylene film shall be bonded to the sheathing to 
form a seal. Film areas at grade level shall be protected from 
mechanical damage and exposure by a pressure 
preservatively treated lumber or plywood strip attached to 
the wall several inches above finish grade level and extend- 
ing approximately 9 inches (229 mm) below grade. The 
joint between the strip and the wall shall be caulked full 
length prior to fastening the strip to the wall. Other cover- 
ings appropriate to the architectural treatment may also be 
used. The polyethylene film shall extend down to the bot- 
tom of the wood footing plate but shall not overlap or extend 
into the gravel or crushed stone footing. 

R406.3.3 Porous fill. The space between the excavation and 
the foundation wall shall be backfilled with the same mate- 
rial used for footings, up to a height of 1 foot (305 mm) 
above the footing for well-drained sites, or one-half the total 
back-fill height for poorly drained sites. The porous fill shall 
be covered with strips of 30-pound (13.6 kg) asphalt paper 
or 6-mil (0.15 mm) polyethylene to permit water seepage 
while avoiding infiltration of fine soils. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



91 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R404.4(4) 
WAFFLE GRID ICF FOUNDATION WALLS^- " =■ "^ 



MINIMUM NOMINAL 

WALL THICKNESS' 

(inches) 


HEIGHT OF 

BASEMENT WALL 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM 

UNBALANCED 

BACKFILL HEIGHTS 

(feet) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT SIZE AND SPACING 


Soil classes^ and design lateral soil load (psf per foot of depth) 


GW, GP, SW and SP 
30 


GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 
45 


SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 
60 


6 


8 


4 


#4@48" 


#3@12";#4@24" 


#3@12" 


5 


#3@12";#5@24" 


#4@12" 


#7@12" 


6 


#4@12" 


Design required 


Design required 


7 


#7@12" 


Design required 


Design required 


9 


4 


#4@48" 


#3@12";#5@24" 


#3@12" 


5 


#3@12" 


#4@12" 


Design required 


6 


#5@12" 


Design required 


Design required 


7 


Design required 


Design required 


Design required 


10 


4 


#4@48" 


#4@12" 


#;5@12" 


5 


#3@12" 


Design required 


Design required 


6 


Design required 


Design required 


Design required 


7 


Design required 


Design required 


Design required 


8 


8 


4 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


5 


N/R 


#3@12";#4@24"; 
#5@36" 


#3@12";#5@24" 


6 


■#3@12";#4@24"; 
#5@36" 


#4@12";#5@24" 


#4@12" 


7 


#3@12";#6@24" 


#4@12" 


#:5@12" 


9 


4 


N/R 


N/R 


N/R 


5 


N/R 


#3@12";#5@24" 


#3@12";#5@24" 


6 


#3@12";#4@24" 


#4@12" 


#4@12" 


7 


#4@12";#5@24" 


#5@12" 


#5@12" 


8 


#4@12" 


#5@12" 


#8@12" 


10 


4 


N/R 


#3@12";#4@24"; 
#6@36" 


#3@12";#5@24" 


5 


N/R 


#3@12";#4@24"; 
#6@36" 


#4@12";#5@24" 


6 


#3@12";#5@24" 


#4@12" 


#5@12" 


7 


#4@12" 


#5@12" 


#6@12" 


8 


#4@12" 


#6@12" 


Design required 


9 


#5@12" 


Design required 


Design required 



I For Sr. 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. This table is based on concrete with a minimum specified concrete strength of 2500 psi, reinforcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi. When rein- 
forcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi is used, the spacing of the reinforcement shall be increased 12 inches but in no case greater than 48 inches 
on center. 

b. This table is not intended to prohibit the use of an ICF manulacturer's tables based on engineering analysis in accordance with ACI 318. 

c. N/R denotes "not required." 

d. Deflection criteria: L/240. 

e. Inteipolation between rebar sizes and spacing is not permitted. 

f. Refer to Table R611 .4(2) for wall dimensions. , 

g. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height of the exterior and interior finished ground. Where an interior concrete slab is provided, the unbalanced back- 
fill height shall be measured from the exterior finished ground level to the top of ;the interior concrete slab. 

h. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer; to Table R405.I. 



92 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R404.4(5) 
SCREEN-GRID ICF FOUNDATION WALLS^- "=•"■« 



MINIMUM NOMINAL 

WALL THICKNESS* 

(inches) 


HEIGHT OF 

BASEMENT WALL 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM 

UNBALANCED 

BACKFILL HEIGHT^ 

(feet) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT SIZE AND SPACING 


Soil classes^ and design lateral soil load (psf per foot of depth) 


GW, GP, SW and SP 
30 


GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 
45 


SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 
60 


6 


8 


4 


#4@48" 


#3@12";#4@24"; 
#5@36" 


#3@12";#5@24" 


5 


#3@12";#4@24" 


#3@12" 


#4@12" 


6 


#4@12" 


#5@12" 


Design required 


7 


#4@12" 


Design required 


Design required 


9 


4 


#4@48" 


#3@12";#4@24" 


#3@12";#6@24" 


5 


#3@12";#5@24" 


#4@12" 


#7@12" 


6 


#4@12" 


Design required 


Design required 


7 


Design required 


Design required 


Design required 


8 


Design required 


Design required 


Design required 


10 


4 


#4@48" 


#3@12";#5@24" 


#3@12" 


5 


#3@12" 


#4@12" 


#7@12" 


6 


#4@12" 


Design required 


Design required 


7 


Design required 


Design required 


Design required 


8 


Design required 


Design required 


Design required 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. | 

a. This table is based on concrete with a minimum specified concrete strength of 2500 psi, reinforcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi. When rein- 
forcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi is used, the spacing of the reinforcement in the shaded cells shall be increased 12 inches. 

b. This table is not intended to prohibit the use of an ICF manulacturer's tables based on engineering analysis in accordance with ACI 318. 

c. N/R denotes "not required." 

d. Deflection criteria: L/240. 

e. Interpolation between rebar sizes and spacing is not permitted. 

f. Refer to Table R611.4(2) for wall dimensions. 

g. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height of the exterior and interior finished ground. Where an interior concrete slab is provided, the unbalanced bacJi- 
fill height shall be measured from the exterior finished ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab. 

h. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1. 



R406.3.4 Backfill. The remainder of the excavated area 
shall be backfilled with the same type of soil as was removed 
during the excavation. 



or footing are exempt from the bottom end lateral displace- 
ment requirement within underfloor areas enclosed by a 
continuous foundation. 



SECTION R407 
COLUMNS 

R407.1 Wood column protection. Wood columns shall be 
protected against decay as set forth in Section R319. 

R407.2 Steel column protection. All surfaces (inside and out- 
side) of steel columns shall be given a shop coat of 
rust-inhibitive paint, except for corrosion-resistant steel and 
steel treated with coatings to provide corrosion resistance. 

R407.3 Structural requirements. The columns shall be 
restrained to prevent lateral displacement at the bottom end. 
Wood columns shall not be less in nominal size than 4 inches by 
4 inches (102 mm by 102 mm) and steel columns shall not be 
less than 3 -inch-diameter (76 mm) standard pipe or approved 
equivalent. 

Exception: In Seismic Design Categories A, B and C col- 
umns no more than 48 inches (1219 mm) in height on a pier 



SECTION R408 
UNDER-FLOOR SPACE 

R408.1 Ventilation. The under-floor space between the bot- 
tom of the floor joists and the earth under any building (except 
space occupied by a basement) shall have ventilation openings 
through foundation walls or exterior walls. The minimum net 
area of ventilation openings shall not be less than 1 square foot 
(0.0929 m^) for each 150 square feet (14 m^) of under-floor 
space area. One such ventilating opening shall be within 3 feet 
(914 mm) of each corner of the building. 

R408.2 Openings for under-floor ventilation. The minimum 
net area of ventilation openings shall not be less than 1 square 
foot (0.0929 m^) for each 150 square feet (14 m^) of under-floor 
area. One ventilating opening shall be within 3 feet (914 mm) 
of each comer of the building. Ventilation openings shall be 
covered for their height and width with any of the following 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'^ 



93 



FOUNDATIONS 



TABLE R405.1 
PROPERTIES OF SOILS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THE UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 



SOIL 
GROUP 


UNIFIED SOIL 
CLASSIFICATION 
SYSTEM SYMBOL 


SOIL DESCRIPTION 


DRAINAGE 
CHARACTERISTICS^ 


FROST HEAVE 
POTENTIAL 


volume change 
potential 
expansion" 


Group I 


GW 


Well-graded gravels, gravel sand mixtures, 
little or no fines 


Good 


Low 


Low 


GP 


Poorly graded gravels or gravel sand 
mixtures, little or no fines 


Good 


Low 


Low 


sw 


Well-graded sands, gravelly sands, little or 
no fines 


Good 


Low 


Low 


SP 


Poorly graded sands or gravelly sands, little 
or no fines 


Good 


Low 


Low 


GM 


Silty gravels, gravel-sand-silt mixtures 


Good 


Medium 


Low 


SM 


Silty sand, sand-silt mixtures 


Good 


Medium 


Low 


Group II 


GC 


Clayey gravels, gravel-sand-clay mixtures 


Medium 


Medium 


Low 


SC 


Clayey sands, sand-clay mixture 


Medium 


Medium 


Low 


ML 


Inorganic silts and very fine sands, rock 
flour, silty or clayey fine sands or clayey 
silts with slight plasticity 


Medium 


High 


Low 


CL 


Inorganic clays of low to medium plasticity, 
gravelly clays, sandy clays, silty clays, lean 
clays 


Medium 


Medium 


Medium 
to Low 


Group III 


CH 


Inorganic clays of high plasticity, fat clays 


Poor 


Medium 


High 


MH 


Inorganic silts, micaceous or diatomaceous 
fine sandy or silty soils, elastic silts 


Poor 


High 


High 


Group IV 


OL 


Organic silts and organic silty clays of lo\v 
plasticity 


Poor 


Medium 


Medium 


OH 


Organic clays of medium to high plasticity, 
organic silts 


Unsatisfactory 


Medium 


High 


Pt 


Peat and other highly organic soils 


Unsatisfactory 


Medium 


High 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. The percolation rate for good drainage is over 4 inches per hour, medium drainage is 2 inches to 4 inches per hour, and poor is less than 2 inches per hour. 

b. Soils with a low potential expansion typically have a plasticity index (PI) of to 15, soils with a medium potential expansion have a PI of 10 to 35 and soils with a 
high potential expansion have a PI greater than 20. 



materials provided that the least dimension of the covering 
shall not exceed V4 inch (6.4 rrmi): 

1. Perforated sheet metal plates not less than 0.070 inch 
(1.8 mm) thick. 

2. Expanded sheet metal plates not less than 0.047 inch (1.2 
mm) thick. 

3. Cast-iron grill or grating. 

4. Extruded load-bearing brick vents. 

5. Hardware cloth of 0.035 inch (0.89 mm) wire or heavier. 

6. Corrosion-resistant wire mesh, with the least dimension 
being Vg inch (3.2 mm). 

R408.3 Unvented crawl space. Ventilation openings in 
under-floor spaces specified in Sections R408.1 and R408.2 
shall not be required where: 

1. Exposed earth is covered with a continuous vapor 
retarder. Joints of the vapor retarder shall overlap by 6 



inches (152 mm) and shall be sealed or taped. The edges 
of the vapor retarder shall extend at least 6 inches (152 
mm) up the stem wall and shall be attached and sealed to 
the stem wall; and 

2. One of the following is provided for the under-floor 
space: 

2.1. Continuously operated mechanical exhaust ven- 
tilation at a rate equal to 1 cfm (0.47 L/s) for each 
50 ft^ (4.7 m^) of crawlspace floor area, including 
an air pathway to the common area (such as a 
duct or transfer grille), and perimeter walls insu- 
lated in accordance with Section Nl 102.2.8; 

2.2. Conditioned air supply sized to deliver at a rate 
equal to 1 cfm (0.47 L/s) for each 50 ft^ (4.7 m^) 
of under-floor area, including a return air path- 
way to the common area (such as a duct or trans- 
fer grille), and perimeter walls insulated in 
accordance with Section Nl 102.2.8' 



94 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*^ 



FOUNDATIONS 



2.3. Plenum complying with Section M1601.4, if 
under-floor space is used as a plenum. 

R408.4 Access. Access shall be provided to all under-floor 
spaces. Access openings through the floor shall be a minimum 
of 18 inches by 24 inches (457 mm by 610 mm). Openings 
through a perimeter wall shall be not less than 16 inches by 24 
inches (407 mm by 610 mm). When any portion of the 
through- wall access is below grade, an areaway not less than 16 
inches by 24 inches (407 mm by 610 mm) shall be provided. 
The bottom of the areaway shall be below the threshold of the 
access opening. Through wall access openings shall not be 
located under a door to the residence. See Section M1305.1.4 
for access requirements where mechanical equipment is 
located under floors. 

R408.5 Removal of debris. The under-floor grade shall be 
cleaned of all vegetation and organic material. All wood forms 
used for placing concrete shall be removed before a building is 
occupied or used for any purpose. All construction materials 
shall be removed before a building is occupied or used for any 
purpose. 

R408.6 Finished grade. The finished grade of under-floor sur- 
face may be located at the bottom of the footings; however, 
where there is evidence that the groundwater table can rise to 
within 6 inches (152 mm) of the finished floor at the building 
perimeter or where there is evidence that the surface water does 
not readily drain from the building site, the grade in the 
under-floor space shall be as high as the outside finished grade, 
unless an approved drainage system is provided. 

R408.7 Flood resistance. For buildings located in areas prone 
to flooding as established in Table R301.2(l): 

1 . Walls enclosing the under-floor space shall be provided 
with flood openings in accordance with Section 
R324.2.2. 

2. The finished ground level of the under-floor space shall 
be equal to or higher than the outside finished ground 
level. 

Exception: Under-floor spaces that meet the require- 
ments of FEM A/FIA TB 1 1 - 1 . 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 95 



96 2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*' 



CHAPTER 5 

FLOORS 



SECTION R501 
GENERAL 

R501.1 Application. The provisions of this chapter shall con- 
trol the design and construction of the floors for all buildings 
including the floors of attic spaces used to house mechanical or 
plumbing fixtures and equipment. 

R501.2 Requirements. Hoor construction shall be capable of 
accommodating all loads according to Section R301 and of trans- 
mitting the resulting loads to the supporting structural elements. 



SECTION R502 
WOOD FLOOR FRAMING 

R502.1 Identification. Load-bearing dimension lumber for 
joists, beams and girders shall be identified by a grade mark of 
a lumber grading or inspection agency that has been approved 
by an accreditation body that complies with DOC PS 20. In lieu 
of a grade mark, a certificate of inspection issued by a lumber 
grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this 
section shall be accepted. 

R502.1.1 Preservative-treated lumber. Preservative treated 
dimension lumber shall also be identified as required by Sec- 
tion R3 19.1. 

R502.1.2 Blocking and subflooring. Blocking shall be a 
minimum of utility grade lumber. Subflooring may be a mini- 
mum of utility grade lumber or No. 4 common grade boards. 

R502.1.3 End-jointed lumber. Approved end-jointed lum- 
ber identified by a grade mark conforming to Section 
R502. 1 may be used interchangeably with solid-sawn mem- 
bers of the same species and grade. 

R502.1.4 Prefabricated wood I-joists. Structural capaci- 
ties and design provisions for prefabricated wood I-joists 
shall be established and monitored in accordance with 
ASTM D 5055. 

R502.1.5 Structural glued laminated timbers. Glued 
laminated timbers shall be manufactured and identified as 
required in AITC A190.1 and ASTM D 3737. 

R502.1.6 Structural log members. Stress grading of struc- 
tural log members of nonrectangular shape, as typically 
used in log buildings, shall be in accordance with ASTM D 
3957. Such structural log members shall be identified by the 
grade mark of an approved lumber grading or inspection 
agency. In lieu of a grade mark on the material, a certificate 
of inspection as to species and grade issued by a lum- 
ber-grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements 
of this section shall be permitted to be accepted. 

R502.2 Design and construction. Floors shall be designed 
and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this chap- 
ter. Figure R502.2 and Sections R319 and R320 or in accor- 
dance with AF&PA/NDS. 



R502.2.1 Framing at braced wall lines. A load path for 
lateral forces shall be provided between floor framing and 
braced wall panels located above or below a floor, as speci- 
fied in Section R602.10.8. 

R502.2.2 Decks. Where supported by attachment to an 
exterior wall, decks shall be positively anchored to the pri- 
mary structure and designed for both vertical and lateral 
loads as applicable. Such attachment shall not be accom- 
plished by the use of toenails or nails subject to withdrawal. 
Where positive connection to the primary building structure 
cannot be verified during inspection, decks shall be self- 
supporting. For decks with cantilevered framing members, 
connections to exterior walls or other framing members, 
shall be designed and constructed to resist uplift resulting 
from the full live load specified in Table R301.5 acting on 
the cantilevered portion of the deck. 

R502.3 Allowable joist spans. Spans for floor joists shall be in 
accordance with Tables R502.3.1(l) and R502.3.1(2). For 
other grades and species and for other loading conditions, refer 
to the AF&PA Span Tables for Joists and Rafters. 

R502.3.1 Sleeping areas and attic joists. Table 
R502.3 . 1 ( 1 ) shall be used to determine the maximum allow- 
able span of floor joists that support sleeping areas and attics 
that are accessed by means of a fixed stairway in accordance 
with Section R3 1 1 .5 provided that the design live load does 
not exceed 30 psf (1.44 kPa) and the design dead load does 
not exceed 20 psf (0.96 kPa). The allowable span of ceiling 
joists that support attics used for limited storage or no stor- 
age shall be determined in accordance with Section R802.4. 

R502.3.2 Other floor joists. Table R502.3.1(2) shall be 
used to determine the maximum allowable span of floor 
joists that support all other areas of the building, other than 
sleeping rooms and attics, provided that the design live load 
does not exceed 40 psf (1.92 kPa) and the design dead load 
does not exceed 20 psf (0.96 kPa). 

R502.3.3 Floor cantilevers. Floor cantilever spans shall not 
exceed the nominal depth of the wood floor joist. Hoor canti- 
levers constructed in accordance with Table R502.3.3(l) 
shall be permitted when supporting a light-frame bearing 
wall and roof only. Roor cantilevers supporting an exterior 
balcony are permitted to be constructed in accordance with 
Table R502.3.3(2). 

R502.4 Joists under bearing partitions. Joists under parallel 
bearing partitions shall be of adequate size to support the load. 
Double joists, sized to adequately support the load, that are sep- 
arated to permit the installation of piping or vents shall be full 
depth solid blocked with lumber not less than 2 inches (5 1 mm) 
in nominal thickness spaced not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) on 
center. Bearing partitions perpendicular to joists shall not be 
offset from supporting girders, walls or partitions more than 
the joist depth unless such joists are of sufficient size to carry 
the additional load. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



97 



FLOORS 



BOTTOM WALL 
PLATE 



OPTIONAL FINISH 
FLOOR 



STUDS 



2 IN. CLEARANCE- 
SEE SECTION 
R1 003.1 2 



FIREPLACE 




/SUBFLOOROR 
FLOOR SHEATH! NG- 
SEE SECTION R503 



WOOD STRUCTURAL 
PANEL 



N 




JOISTS— SEE TABLES 
R502.3.1 (1) AND R502.3.1 (2) 



^ 



7\ 



HEADER— DOUBLE IF 
MORE THAN 4 FT SPAN 



USE HANGER IF HEADER 

SPANS MORE THAN 

6 FT ,^ 



SOLID 

BLOCKING— SEE 
SECTION R502.7 



\ 



SILLPU\TE> 



FOUNDATION , 



E 



LAPJ0IST3IN. MIN. OR 
SPLICE— SEE SECTION 
R502.6.1 




GIRDER— SEE TABLES 
R502.5(1) ANDR502.5(2) 



\] 



•PIER 



.\ 



/ 



SILL PLATE 



BAND, RIM OR 
HEADER JOIST 



BRIDGING BETWEEN 
JOISTS— SEE SECTION 
R502.7.1 



PROVISION FOR PIPES 
AND VENTS 



DOUBLE JOISTS UNDER BEARING 
PARTITIONS. IF JOISTS ARE 
SEPARATED FOR PIPES, BLOCK 
4 FT ON CENTER MAXIMUM 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



FIGURE R502.2 
FLOOR CONSTRUCTION 



98 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*" 



FLOORS 



TABLE R502.3.1(1) 
FLOOR JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 









Residential 


sleeping areas, live loac 


i = 30 psf, U 


A = 360)^ 








JOIST 
SPACING 
(inches) 






DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x6 , 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


Maximum floor joist spans 


SPECIES AND GRADE 




(ft -in.) 


(ft -in.) 


(ft -in.) 


(ft -in.) 


(ft -in.) 


(ft -in.) 


(ft -in.) 


(ft -in.) 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


12-6 


16-6 


21-0 


25-7 


12-6 


16-6 


21-0 


25-7 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


12-0 


15-10 


20-3 


24-8 


12-0 


15-7 


19-0 


22-0 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


11-10 


15-7 


19-10 


23-0 


11-6 


14-7 


17-9 


20-7 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


9-8 


12-4 


15-0 


17-5 


8-8 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 




Hem-fir 


SS 


11-10 


15-7 


19-10 


24-2 


11-10 


15-7 


19-10 


24-2 




Hem-fir 


#1 


11-7 


15-3 


19-5 


23-7 


11-7 


15-2 


18-6 


21-6 




Hem-fir 


#2 


11-0 


14-6 


18-6 


22-6 


11-0 


14-4 


17-6 


20-4 


12 


Hem-fir 


#3 


9-8 


12-4 


15-0 


17-5 


8-8 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 


Southern pine 


SS 


12-3 


16-2 


20-8 


25-1 


12-3 


16-2 


20-8 


25-1 




Southern pine 


#1 


12-0 


15-10 


20-3 


24-8 


12-0 


15-10 


20-3 


24-8 




Southern pine 


#2 


11-10 


15-7 


19-10 


24-2 


11-10 


15-7 


18-7 


21-9 




Southern pine 


#3 


10-5 


13-3 


15-8 


18-8 


9-4 


11-11 


14-0 


16-8 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


11-7 


15-3 


19-5 


23-7 


11-7 


15-3 


19-5 


23-7 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


11-3 


14-11 


19-0 


23-0 


11-3 


14-7 


17-9 


20-7 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


11-3 


14-11 


19-0 


23-0 


11-3 


14-7 


17-9 


20-7 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


9-8 


12-4 


15-0 


17-5 


8-8 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


11-4 


15-0 


19-1 


23-3 


11-4 


15-0 


19-1 


23-0 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


10-11 


14-5 


18-5 


21-4 


10-8 


13-6 


16-5 


19- 1 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


10-9 


14-1 


17-2 


19-11 


9-11 


12-7 


15-5 


17-10 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


8-5 


10-8 


13-0 


15-1 


7-6 


9-6 


11-8 


13-6 




Hem-fir 


SS 


10-9 


14-2 


18-0 


21-11 


10-9 


14-2 


18-0 


21-11 




Hem-fir 


#1 


10-6 


13-10 


17-8 


20-9 


10-4 


13-1 


16-0 


18-7 




Hem-fir 


#2 


10-0 


13-2 


16-10 


19-8 


9-10 


12-5 


15-2 


17-7 


16 


Hem-fir 


#3 


8-5 


10-8 


13-0 


15-1 


7-6 


9-6 


11-8 


13-6 


Southern pine 


SS 


11-2 


14-8 


18-9 


22-10 


11-2 


14-8 


18-9 


22-10 




Southern pine 


#1 


10-11 


14-5 


18-5 


22-5 


10-11 


14-5 


17-11 


21-4 




Southern pine 


#2 


10-9 


14-2 


18-0 


21- 1 


10-5 


13-6 


16-1 


18-10 




Southern pine 


#3 


9-0 


11-6 


13-7 


16-2 


8-1 


10-3 


12-2 


14-6 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


10-6 


13-10 


17-8 


21-6 


10-6 


13-10 


17-8 


21-4 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


10-3 


13-6 


17-2 


19-11 


9-11 


12-7 


15-5 


17-10 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


10-3 


13-6 


17-2 


19-11 


9-11 


12-7 


15-5 


17-10 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


8-5 


10-8 


13-0 


15-1 


7-6 


9-6 


11-8 


13-6 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


10-8 


14-1 


18-0 


21-10 


10-8 


14-1 


18-0 


21-0 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


10-4 


13-7 


16-9 


19-6 


9-8 


12-4 


15-0 


17-5 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


10-1 


12-10 


15-8 


18-3 


9-1 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


7-8 


9-9 


11-10 


13-9 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 




Hem-fir 


SS 


10- 1 


13-4 


17-0 


20-8 


10-1 


13-4 


17-0 


20-7 




Hem-fir 


#1 


9-10 


13-0 


16-4 


19-0 


9-6 


12-0 


14-8 


17-0 




Hem-fir 


#2 


9-5 


12-5 


15-6 


17-1 


8-11 


11-4 


13-10 


16- 1 


19.2 


Hem-fir 


#3 


7-8 


9-9 


11-10 


13-9 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 


Southern pine 


SS 


10-6 


13-10 


17-8 


21-6 


10-6 


13-10 


17-8 


21-6 




Southern pine 


#1 


10-4 


13-7 


17-4 


21-1 


10-4 


13-7 


16-4 


19-6 




Southern pine 


#2 


10-1 


13-4 


16-5 


19-3 


9-6 


12-4 


14-8 


17-2 




Southern pine 


#3 


8-3 


10-6 


12-5 


14-9 


7-4 


9-5 


11-1 


13-2 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


9- 10 


13-0 


16-7 


20-2 


9-10 


13-0 


16-7 


19-6 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


9-8 


12-9 


15-8 


18-3 


9-1 


11-6 


14- 1 


16-3 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


9-8 


12-9 


15-8 


18-3 


9-1 


11-6 


14- 1 


16-3 




Spmce-pine-fir 


#3 


7-8 


9-9 


11-10 


13-9 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


9-11 


13-1 


16-8 


20-3 


9-11 


13-1 


16-2 


18-9 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


9-7 


12-4 


15-0 


17-5 


8-8 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


9- 1 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 


8-1 


10-3 


12-7 


14-7 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 


6-2 


7-9 


9-6 


11-0 




Hem-fir 


SS 


9-4 


12-4 


15-9 


19-2 


9-4 


12-4 


15-9 


18-5 




Hem-fir 


#1 


9-2 


12-0 


14-8 


17-0 


8-6 


10-9 


13-1 


15-2 




Hem-fir 


#2 


8-9 


11-4 


13-10 


16-1 


8-0 


10-2 


12-5 


14-4 


24 


Hem-fir 


#3 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 


6-2 


7-9 


9-6 


11-0 


Southern pine 


SS 


9-9 


12-10 


16-5 


19-11 


9-9 


12-10 


16-5 


19-11 




Southern pine 


#1 


9-7 


12-7 


16-1 


19-6 


9-7 


12-4 


14-7 


17-5 




Southern pine 


#2 


9-4 


12-4 


14-8 


17-2 


8-6 


11-0 


13-1 


15-5 




Southern pine 


#3 


7-4 


9-5 


11-1 


13-2 


6-7 


8-5 


9-11 


11-10 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


9-2 


12-1 


15-5 


18-9 


9-2 


12- 1 


15-0 


17-5 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


8-11 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 


8-1 


10-3 


12-7 


14-7 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


8-11 


11-6 


14- 1 


16-3 


8-1 


10-3 


12-7 


14-7 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 


6-2 


7-9 


9-6 


11-0 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 

NOTE: Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet. 

a. Dead load limits for townhouses in Seismic Design Category C and all structures in Seismic Design Categories Dg, Dj and D2 shall be determined in accordance I 



with Section R301. 2.2.2.1. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



99 



FLOORS 



TABLER502.3.1(2) 

FLOOR JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 

(Residential living areas, live load = 40 psf, UA = 360)'' 



JOIST 
SPACING 
(inches) 






DEAD LOAD =10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x6 


2x6 


2x10 


2x12 


Maximum floor joist spans 


SPECIES AND GRADE 




(ft- in.) 


(ft -in.) 


(ft -in.) 


(ft -in.) 


(ft -in.) 


(ft -in.) 


(ft -in.) 


(ft -in.) 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


11-4 


15-0 


19-1 


23-3 


11-4 


15-0 


19-1 


23-3 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


10-11 


14-5 


18-5 


22-0 


10-11 


14-2 


17-4 


20- 1 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


10-9 


14-2 


17-9 


20-7 


10-6 


13-3 


16-3 


18-10 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


8-8 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 


7-11 


10-0 


12-3 


14-3 




Hem-fir 


SS 


10-9 


14-2 


18-0 


21-11 


10-9 


14-2 


18-0 


21-11 




Hem-fir 


#1 


10-6 


13-10 


17-8 


21-6 


10-6 


13-10 


16-11 


19-7 




Hem-fir 


#2 


10-0 


13-2 


16-10 


20-4 


10-0 


13-1 


16-0 


18-6 


12 


Hem-fir 


#3 


8-8 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 


7-11 


10-0 


12-3 


14-3 


Southern pine 


SS 


11-2 


14-8 


18-9 


22-10 


11-2 


14-8 


18-9 


22-10 




Southern pine 


#1 


10-11 


14-5 


18-5 


22-5 


10-11 


14-5 


18-5 


22-5 




Southern pine 


#2 


10-9 


14-2 


18-0 


21-9 


10-9 


14-2 


16-11 


19-10 




Southern pine 


#3 


9-4 


11-11 


14-0 


16-8 


8-6 


10-10 


12-10 


15-3 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


10-6 


13-10 


17-8 


21-6 


10-6 


13-10 


17-8 


21-6 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


10-3 


13-6 


17-3 


20-7 


10-3 


13-3 


16-3 


18-10 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


10-3 


13-6 


17-3 


20-7 


10-3 


13-3 


16-3 


18-10 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


8-8 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 


7-11 


10-0 


12-3 


14-3 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


10-4 


13-7 


17-4 


21-1 


10-4 


13-7 


17-4 


21-0 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


9-11 


13-1 


16-5 


19-1 


9-8 


12-4 


15-0 


17-5 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


9-9 


12-7 


15-5 


17-10 


9-1 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


7-6 


9-6 


11-8 


13-6 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 




Hem-fir 


SS 


9-9 


12-10 


16-5 


19-11 


9-9 


12-10 


16-5 


19-11 




Hem-fir 


#1 


9-6 


12-7 


16-0 


18-7 


9-6 


12-0 


14-8 


17-0 




Hem-fir 


#2 


9-1 


12-0 


15-2 


17-7 


8-11 


11-4 


13-10 


16- 1 


16 


Hem-fir 


#3 


7-6 


9-6 


11-8 


13-6 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 


Southern pine 


SS 


10-2 


13-4 


17-0 


20-9 


■ 10-2 


13-4 


17-0 


20-9 




Southern pine 


#1 


9-11 


13-1 


16-9 


20-4 


9-11 


13-1 


16-4 


19-6 




Southern pine 


#2 


9-9 


12-10 


16-1 


18-10 


9-6 


12-4 


14-8 


17-2 




Southern pine 


#3 


8-1 


10-3 


12-2 


14-6 


7-4 


9-5 


11-1 


13-2 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


9-6 


12-7 


16-0 


19-6 


9-6 


12-7 


16-0 


19-6 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


9-4 


12-3 


15-5 


17-10 


9-1 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


9-4 


12-3 


15-5 


17-10 


9-1 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


7-6 


9-6 


11-8 


13-6 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


9-8 


12-10 


16-4' 


19-10 


9-8 


12-10 


16-4 


19-2 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


9-4 


12-4 


15- 0' 


17-5 


8-10 


11-3 


13-8 


15-11 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


9-1 


11-6 


14-1 


16-3 


8-3 


10-6 


12-10 


14-10 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7' 


12-4 


6-3 


7-11 


9-8 


11-3 




Hem-fir 


SS 


9-2 


12-1 


15-5 


18-9 


9-2 


12-1 


15-5 


18-9 




Hem-fir 


#1 


9-0 


11-10 


14- 8^ 


17-0 


8-8 


10-11 


13-4 


15-6 




Hem-fir 


#2 


8-7 


11-3 


13-iq 


16-1 


8-2 


10-4 


12-8 


14-8 


19.2 


Hem-fir 


#3 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 


6-3 


7-11 


9-8 


11-3 


Southern pine 


SS 


9-6 


12-7 


16- 


19-6 


9-6 


12-7 


16-0 


19-6 




Southern pine 


#1 


9-4 


12-4 


15-91 


19-2 


9-4 


12-4 


14-11 


17-9 




Southern pine 


#2 


9-2 


12-1 


14-8 


17-2 


8-8 


11-3 


13-5 


15-8 




Southern pine 


#3 


7-4 


9-5 


11- 1. 


13-2 


6-9 


8-7 


10-1 


12- 1 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


9-0 


11-10 


15- 1 


18-4 


9-0 


11-10 


15-1 


17-9 




Spruce-pine-fir 


# 


8-9 


11-6 


14- 1 


16-3 


8-3 


10-6 


12-10 


14-10 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


8-9 


11-6 


14- 1: 


16-3 


8-3 


10-6 


12-10 


14-10 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


6-10 


8-8 


10-7 


12-4 


6-3 


7-11 


9-8 


11-3 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


9-0 


11-11 


15-2 


18-5 


9-0 


11-11 


14-9 


17-1 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


8-8 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 


7-11 


10-0 


12-3 


14-3 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


8-1 


10-3 


12-7 


14-7 


7-5 


9-5 


11-6 


13-4 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


6-2 


7-9 


9-6 


11-0 


5-7 


7-1 


8-8 


10- 1 




Hem-fir 


SS 


8-6 


11-3 


14-4 


17-5 


8-6 


11-3 


14-4 


16-10' 




Hem-fir 


#1 


8-4 


10-9 


13-1 


15-2 


7-9 


9-9 


11-11 


13-10 




Hem-fir 


#2 


7-11 


10-2 


12-5 


14-4 


7-4 


9-3 


11-4 


13-1 


24 


Hem-fir 


#3 


6-2 


7-9 


9-6, 


11-0 


5-7 


7-1 


8-8 


10-1 


Southern pine 


SS 


8-10 


11-8 


14-11 


18-1 


8-10 


11-8 


14-11 


18-1 




Southern pine 


#1 


8-8 


11-5 


14-7 


17-5 


8-8 


11-3 


13-4 


15-11 




Southern pine 


#2 


8-6 


11-0 


13-1 


15-5 


7-9 


10-0 


12-0 


14-0 




Southern pine 


#3 


6-7 


8-5 


9-11 


11-10 


6-0 


7-8 


9-1 


10-9 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


8-4 


11-0 


14-0 


17-0 


8-4 


11-0 


13-8 


15-11 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


8-1 


10-3 


12-7 


14-7 


7-5 


9-5 


11-6 


13-4 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


8-1 


10-3 


12-7 


14-7 


7-5 


9-5 


11-6 


13-4 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


6-2 


7-9 


9-6 


11-0 


5-7 


7-1 


8-8 


10-1 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 
NOTE: Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet. 

a. End bearing length shall be increased to 2 inches. 

b. Dead load limits for townhouses in Seismic Design Category C and all structures in Seismic Design Categories Dq, D j , and D2 shall be determined in accordance 



with Section R301.2.2.2.1. 



100 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FLOORS 



TABLE R502.3.3(1) 
CANTILEVER SPANS FOR FLOOR JOISTS SUPPORTING LIGHT-FRAME EXTERIOR BEARING WALL AND ROOF ONLY'- "'"='* a*' 

(Floor Live Load < 40 psf, Roof Live Load < 20 psf) 



Member & Spacing 


Maximum Cantilever Span (Uplift Force at Backspan Support In Lbs.)**' ® 


Ground Snow Load 


< 20 psf 


30 psf 


50 psf 


70 psf 


Roof Widtli 


Roof Width 


Roof Width 


Roof Width 


24 ft 


32 ft 


40 ft 


24 ft 


32 ft 


40 ft 


24 ft 


32 ft 


40 ft 


24 ft 


32 ft 


40 ft 


2 X 8 @ 12" 


20" 

(177) 


15" 

(227) 


— 


18" 
(209) 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 X 10 @ 16" 


29" 

(228) 


21" 

(297) 


16" 
(364) 


26" 

(271)' 


18" 
(354) 


— 


20" 
(375) 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 X 10 @ 12" 


36" 
(166) 


26" 
(219) 


20" 
(270) 


34" 
(198) 


22" 
(263) 


16" 

(324) 


26" 

(277) 


— 


— 


19" 

(356) 


— 


— 


2 X 12 @ 16" 


— 


32" 
(287) 


25" 
(356) 


36" 

(263) 


29" 

(345) 


21" 

(428) 


29" 
(367) 


20" 

(484) 


— 


23" 
(471) 




— 


2 X 12 @ 12" 


— 


42" 
(209) 


31" 

(263) 


— 


37" 
(253) 


27" 
(317) 


36" 

(271) 


27" 
(358) 


17" 

(447) 


31" 

(348) 


19" 

(462) 


— 


2 X 12 @ 8" 


— 


48" 
(136) 


45" 
(169) 


— 


48" 
(164) 


38" 
(206) 


— 


40" 

(233) 


26" 
(294) 


36" 

(230) 


29" 
(304) 


18" 

(379) 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. Tabulated values are for clear-span roof supported solely by exterior bearing walls. 

b. Spans are based on No. 2 Grade lumber of Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine, and spruce-pine-fir for repetitive (3 or more) members. 

c. Ratio of backspan to cantilever span shall be at least 3:1. 

d. Connections capable of resisting the indicated uplift force shall be provided at the backspan support. 

e. Uplift force is for a backspan to cantilever span ratio of 3 : 1 . Tabulated uplift values are permitted to be reduced by multiplying by a factor equal to 3 divided by the 
actual backspan ratio provided (3/backspan ratio). 

f. See Section R301.2.2.2.2, Item 1, for additional limitations on cantilevered floor joists for detached one- and two-family dwellings in Seismic Design Category I 
Dq, D] , or Dj and townhouses in Seismic Design Category C, Dg, D^, or D2. I 

g. A full-depth rim joist shall be provided at the cantilevered end of the joists. Solid blocking shall be provided at the cantilever support, 
h. Linear interpolation shall be permitted for building widths and ground snow loads other than shown. 



TABLE R502.3.3(2) 
CANTILEVER SPANS FOR FLOOR JOISTS SUPPORTING EXTERIOR BALCONY^" ^^ 



Member Size 


Spacing 


Maximum Cantilever Span 
(Uplift l=orce at Bacicspan Support in Ibf ■ '' 


Ground Snow Load 


< 30 psf 


50 psf 


70 psf 


2x8 


12" 


42" (139) 


39" (156) 


34" (165) 


2x8 


16" 


36" (151) 


34" (171) 


29" (180) 


2x10 


12" 


61" (164) 


57" (189) 


49" (201) 


2x10 


16" 


53" (180) 


49" (208) 


42" (220) 


2x10 


24" 


43" (212) 


40" (241) 


34" (255) 


2x12 


16" 


72" (228) 


67" (260) 


57" (268) 


2x12 


24" 


58" (279) 


54" (319) 


47" (330) 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. Spans are based on No. 2 Grade lumber of Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine, and spruce-pine-fir for repetitive (3 or more) members. 

b. Ratio of backspan to cantilever span shall be at least 2: 1. 

c. Connections capable of resisting the indicated uplift force shall be provided at the backspan support. 

d. Uplift force is for a backspan to cantilever span ratio of 2: 1 . Tabulated uplift values are permitted to be reduced by multiplying by a factor equal to 2 divided by the 
actual backspan ratio provided (2/backspan ratio). 

e. A full-depth rim joist shall be provided at the cantilevered end of the joists. Solid blocking shall be provided at the cantilevered support. 

f . Linear interpolation shall be permitted for ground snow loads other than shown. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE"" 



101 



FLOORS 



TABLE R502.5(1) 

GIRDER SPANS^ AND HEADER SPANS^FOR EXTERIOR BEARING WALLS 

(Maximum spans for Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine and spruce-pine-fir'^ and required number of jack studs) 



GIRDERS AND 

HEADERS 
SUPPORTING 


SIZE 


GROUND SNOW LOAD (psf)^ 


30 50 


70 


Building width<= (feet) 


20 


28 


36 


20 


28 


36 


20 


28 


36 


Span 


NJ" 


Span 


NJ" 


Span 


NJ" 


Span 


NJ" 


Span 


NJ'' 


Span 


NJ" 


Span 


NJ" 


Span 


NJ'' 


Span 


NJ"* 


Roof and ceiling 


2-2x4 


3-6 


1 


3-2 


1 


2-10 


1 


3-2 


1 


2-9 


1 


2-6 


1 


2-10 


1 


2-6 


1 


2-3 


1 


2-2x6 


5-5 


1 


4-8 


1 


4-2 


1 


4-8 


1 


4-1 


1 


3-8 


2 


4-2 


1 


3-8 


2 


3-3 


2 


2-2x8 


6-10 


1 


5-11 


2 


5-4 


2 


5-11 


2 


5-2 


2 


4-7 


2 


5-4 


2 


4-7 


2 


4-1 


2 


2-2x10 


8-5 


2 


7-3 


2 


6-6 


2 


7-3 


2 


6-3 


2 


5-7 


2 


6-6 


2 


5-7 


2 


5-0 


2 


2-2x12 


9-9 


2 


8-5 


2 


7-6 


2 


8-5 


2 


7-3 


2 


6-6 


2 


7-6 


2 


6-6 


2 


5-10 


3 


3-2x8 


8-4 


1 


7-5 


1 


6-8 


1 


7-5 


1 


6-5 


2 


5-9 


2 


6-8 


1 


5-9 


2 


5-2 


2 


3-2x10 


10-6 


1 


9-1 


2 


8-2 


2 


9-1 


2 


7-10 


2 


7-0 


2 


8-2 


2 


7-0 


2 


6-4 


2 


,3-2x12 


12-2 


2 


10-7 


2 


9-5 


2 


10-7 


2 


9-2 


2 


8-2 


2 


9-5 


2 


8-2 


2 


7-4 


2 


4-2x8 


9-2 


1 


8-4 


1 


7-8 


1 


8-4 


1 


7-5 


1 


6-8 


1 


7-8 


1 


6-8 


1 


5-11 


2 


4-2x10 


11-8 


1 


10-6 


1 


9-5 


2 


10-6 


1 


9-1 


2 


8-2 


2 


9-5 


2 


8-2 


2 


7-3 


2 


4-2x12 


14-1 


1 


12-2 


2 


10-11 


2 


12-2 


2 


10-7 


2 


9-5 


2 


10-11 


2 


9-5 


2 


8-5 


2 


Roof, ceiling and one 
center-bearing floor 


2-2x4 


3-1 


1 


2-9 


1 


2-5 


1 


2-9 


1 


2-5 


1 


2-2 


1 


2-7 


1 


2-3 


1 


2-0 


1 


2-2x6 


4-6 


1 


4-0 


1 


3-7 


2 


4-1 


1 


3-7 


2 


3-3 


2 


3-9 


2 


3-3 


2 


2-11 


2 


2-2x8 


5-9 


2 


5-0 


2 


4-6 


2 


5-2 


2 


4-6 


2 


4-1 


2 


4-9 


2 


4-2 


2 


3-9 


2 


2-2x10 


7-0 


2 


6-2 


2 


5-6 


2 


6-4 


■2 


5-6 


2 


5-0 


2 


5-9 


2 


5-1 


2 


4-7 


3 


2-2x12 


8-1 


2 


7-1 


2 


6-5 


2 


7-4 


2 


6-5 


2 


5-9 


3 


6-8 


2 


5-10 


3 


5-3 


3 


3-2x8 


7-2 


1 


6-3 


2 


5-8 


2 


6-5 


2 


5-8 


2 


5-1 


2 


5-11 


2 


5-2 


2 


4-8 


2 


3-2x10 


8-9 


2 


7-8 


2 


6-11 


2 


7-11 


2 


6-11 


2 


6-3 


2 


7-3 


2 


6-4 


2 


5-8 


2 


3-2x12 


10-2 


2 


8-11 


2 


8-0 


2 


9-2 


2 


8-0 


2 


7-3 


2 


8-5 


2 


7-4 


2 


6-7 


2 


4-2x8 


8-1 


1 


7-3 


1 


6-7 


1 


7-5 


1 


6-6 


1 


5-11 


2 


6-10 


1 


6-0 


2 


5-5 


2 


4-2x10 


10-1 


1 


8-10 


2 


8-0 


2 


9-1 


2 


8-0 


2 


7-2 


2 


8-4 


2 


7-4 


2 


6-7 


2 


4-2x12 


11-9 


2 


10-3 


2 


9-3 


2 


10-7 


2 


9-3 


2 


8-4 


2 


9-8 


2 


8-6 


2 


7-7 


2 


Roof, ceiling and one 
clear span floor 


2-2x4 


2-8 


1 


2-4 


1 


2-1 


1 


2-7 


1 


2-3 


1 


2-0 


1 


2-5 


1 


2-1 


1 


1-10 


1 


2-2x6 


3-11 


1 


3-5 


2 


3-0 


2 


3-10 


2 


3-4 


2 


3-0 


2 


3-6 


2 


3-1 


2 


2-9 


2 


2-2x8 


5-0 


2 


4-4 


2 


3-10 


2 


4-10 


2 


4-2 


2 


3-9 


2 


4-6 


2 


3-11 


2 


3-6 


2 


2-2x10 


6-1 


2 


5-3 


2 


4-8 


2 


5-11 


2 


5-1 


2 


4-7 


3 


5-6 


2 


4-9 


2 


4-3 


3 


2-2x12 


7-1 


2 


6-1 


3 


5-5 


3 


6-10 


2 


5-11 


3 


5-4 


3 


6-4 


2 


5-6 


3 


5-0 


3 


3-2x8 


6-3 


2 


5-5 


2 


4-10 


2 


6-1 


2 


5-3 


2 


4-8 


2 


5-7 


2 


4-11 


2 


4-5 


2 


3-2x10 


7-7 


2 


6-7 


2 


5-11 


2 


7-5 


2 


6-5 


2 


5-9 


2 


6-10 


2 


6-0 


2 


5-4 


2 


3-2x12 


8-10 


2 


7-8 


2 


6-10 


2 


8-7 


2 


7-5 


2 


6-8 


2 


7-11 


2 


6-11 


2 


6-3 


2 


4-2x8 


7-2 


1 


6-3 


2 


5-7 


2 


7-0 


1 


6-1 


2 


5-5 


2 


6-6 


1 


5-8 


2 


5-1 


2 


4-2x10 


8-9 


2 


7-7 


2 


6-10 


2 


8-7 


2 


7-5 


2 


6-7 


2 


7-11 


2 


6-11 


2 


6-2 


2 


4-2x12 


10-2 


2 


8-10 


2 


7-11 


2 


9-11 


2 


8-7 


2 


7-8 


2 


9-2 


2 


8-0 


2 


7-2 


2 


Roof, ceiling and 

two center-bearing 

floors 


2-2x4 


2-7 


1 


2-3 


1 


2-0 


1 


2-6 


1 


2-2 


1 


1-11 


1 


2-4 


1 


2-0 


1 


1-9 


1 


2-2x6 


3-9 


2 


3-3 


2 


2-11 


2 


3-8 


2 


3-2 


2 


2-10 


2 


3-5 


2 


3-0 


2 


2-8 


2 


2-2x8 


4-9 


2 


4-2 


2 


3-9 


2 


4-7 


■2 


4-0 


2 


3-8 


2 


4-4 


2 


3-9 


2 


3-5 


2 


2-2x10 


5-9 


2 


5-1 


2 


4-7 


3 


5-8 


2 


4-11 


2 


4-5 


3 


5-3 


2 


4-7 


3 


4-2 


3 


2-2x12 


6-8 


2 


5-10 


3 


5-3 


3 


6-6 


'2 


5-9 


3 


5-2 


3 


6-1 


3 


5-4 


3 


4-10 


3 


3-2x8 


5-11 


2 


5-2 


2 


4-8 


2 


5-9 


2 


5-1 


2 


4-7 


2 


5-5 


2 


4-9 


2 


4-3 


2 


3-2x10 


7-3 


2 


6-4 


2 


5-8 


2 


7-1 


2 


6-2 


2 


5-7 


2 


6-7 


2 


5-9 


2 ' 


5-3 


2 


3-2x12 


8-5 


2 


7-4 


2 


6-7 


2 


8-2 


2 


7-2 


2 


6-5 


3 


7-8 


2 


6-9 


2 


6-1 


3 


4-2x8 


6-10 


1 


6-0 


2 


5-5 


2 


6-8 


1 


5-10 


2 


5-3 


2 


6-3 


2 


5-6 


2 


4-11 


2 


4-2x10 


8-4 


2 


7-4 


2 


6-7 


2 


8-2 


2 


7-2 


2 


6-5 


2 


7-7 


2 


6-8 


2 


6-0 


2 


4-2x12 


9-8 


2 


8-6 


2 


7-8 


2 


9-5 


2 


8-3 


2 


7-5 


2 


8-10 


2 


7-9 


2 


7-0 


2 



(continued) 



102 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



FLOORS 



TABLE R502.5(1)— continued 

GIRDER SPANS^ AND HEADER SPANS^FOR EXTERIOR BEARING WALLS 

(Maximum spans for Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine and spruce-pine-fir" and required number of jack studs) 



GIRDERS AND 

HEADERS 
SUPPORTING 


SIZE 


GROUND SNOW LOAD (psf)^ 


30 


50 70 


Building width^ (feet) 


20 


28 


36 


20 


28 


36 


20 


28 


36 


Span 


NJ" 


Span 


NJ" 


Span 


NJ" 


Span 


NJ'' 


Span 


NJ-- 


Span 


NJ" 


Span 


NJ'' 


Span 


NJ^ 


Span 


NJ'' 


Roof, ceiling, and 

two clear span 

floors 


2-2x4 


2-1 


1 


1-8 


1 


1-6 


2 


2-0 


1 


1-8 


1 


1-5 


2 


2-0 


1 


1-8 


1 


1-5 


2 


2-2x6 


3-1 


2 


2-8 


2 


2-4 


2 


3-0 


2 


2-7 


2 


2-3 


2 


2-11 


2 


2-7 


2 


2-3 


2 


2-2x8 


3-10 


2 


3-4 


2 


3-0 


3 


3-10 


2 


3-4 


2 


2-11 


3 


3-9 


2 


3-3 


2 


2-11 


3 


2-2x10 


4-9 


2 


4-1 


3 


3-8 


3 


4-8 


2 


4-0 


3 


3-7 


3 


4-7 


3 


4-0 


3 


3-6 


3 


2-2x12 


5-6 


3 


4-9 


3 


4-3 


3 


5-5 


3 


4-8 


3 


4-2 


3 


5-4 


3 


4-7 


3 


4-1 


4 


3-2x8 


4-10 


2 


4-2 


2 


3-9 


2 


4-9 


2 


4-1 


2 


3-8 


2 


4-8 


2 


4-1 


2 


3-8 


2 


3-2x10 


5-11 


2 


5-1 


2 


4-7 


3 


5-10 


2 


5-0 


2 


4-6 


3 


5-9 


2 


4-11 


2 


4-5 


3 


3-2x12 


6-10 


2 


5-11 


3 


5-4 


3 


6-9 


2 


5-10 


3 


5-3 


3 


6-8 


2 


5-9 


3 


5-2 


3 


4-2x8 


5-7 


2 


4-10 


2 


4-4 


2 


'5-6 


2 


4-9 


2 


4-3 


2 


5-5 


2 


4-8 


2 


4-2 


2 


4-2x10 


6-10 


2 


5-11 


2 


5-3 


2 


6-9 


2 


5-10 


2 


5-2 


2 


6-7 


2 


5-9 


2 


5-1 


2 


4-2x12 


7-11 


2 


6-10 


2 


6-2 


3 


7-9 


2 


6-9 


2 


6-0 


3 


7-8 


2 


6-8 


2 


5-11 


3 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. Spans are given in feet and inches. 

b. Tabulated values assume #2 grade lumber 

c. Building width is measured perpendicular to the ridge. Bar widths between those shown, spans are permitted to be interpolated. 

d. NJ - Number of jack studs required to support each end. Where the number of required jack studs equals one, the header is permitted to be supported by an approved 
framing anchor attached to the full-height wall stud and to the header 

e. Use 30 psf ground snow load for cases in which ground snow load is less than 30 psf and the roof live load is equal to or less than 20 psf. 



R502.5 Allowable girder spans. The allowable spans of gird- 
ers fabricated of dimension lumber shall not exceed the values 
set forth in Tables R502.5(l) and R502.5(2). 

R502.6 Bearing. The ends of each joist, beam or girder shall 
have not less than 1.5 inches (38 mm) of bearing on wood or 
metal and not less than 3 inches (76 mm) on masonry or con- 
crete except where supported on a l-inch-by-4-inch (25.4 mm 
by 102 mm) ribbon strip and nailed to the adjacent stud or by 
the use of approved joist hangers. 

R502.6.1 Floor systems. Joists framing from opposite 
sides over a bearing support shall lap a minimum of 3 inches 
(76 mm) and shall be nailed together with a minimum three 
lOd face nails. A wood or metal splice with strength equal to 
or greater than that provided by the nailed lap is permitted. 

R502.6.2 Joist framing. Joists framing into the side of a 
wood girder shall be supported by approved framing 
anchors or on ledger strips not less than nominal 2 inches by 
2 inches (51 mm by 51 mm). 

R502.7 Lateral restraint at supports. Joists shall be sup- 
ported laterally at the ends by full-depth solid blocking not less 
than 2 inches (51 mm) nominal in thickness; or by attachment 
to a full-depth header, band or rim joist, or to an adjoining stud 
or shall be otherwise provided with lateral support to prevent 
rotation. 

Exception: In Seismic Design Categories Dq, Di and Dj, 
lateral restraint shall also be provided at each intermediate 
support. 

R502.7.1 Bridging. Joists exceeding a nominal 2 inches by 
12 inches (51 mm by 305 mm) shall be supported laterally 



by solid blocking, diagonal bridging (wood or metal), or a 
continuous l-inch-by-3-inch (25.4 mm by 76 mm) strip 
nailed across the bottom of joists perpendicular to joists at 
intervals not exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm). 

R502.8 Drilling and notching. Structural floor members shall 
not be cut, bored or notched in excess of the limitations speci- 
fied in this section. See Figure R502.8. 

R502.8.1 Sawn lumber. Notches in soHd lumber joists, raf- 
ters and beams shall not exceed one-sixth of the depth of the 
member, shall not be longer than one-third of the depth of 
the member and shall not be located in the middle one-third 
of the span. Notches at the ends of the member shall not 
exceed one-fourth the depth of the member. The tension 
side of members 4 inches (102 mm) or greater in nominal 
thickness shall not be notched except at the ends of the 
members. The diameter of holes bored or cut into members 
shall not exceed one-third the depth of the member. Holes 
shall not be closer than 2 inches (5 1 mm) to the top or bot- 
tom of the member, or to any other hole located in the mem- 
ber. Where the member is also notched, the hole shall not be 
closer than 2 inches (5 1 mm) to the notch. 

R502.8.2 Engineered wood products. Cuts, notches and 
holes bored in trusses, structural composite lumber, struc- 
tural glue-laminated members or I-joists are prohibited 
except where permitted by the manufacturer's recommen- 
dations or where the effects of such alterations are specifi- 
cally considered in the design of the member by a registered 
design professional. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



103 



FLOORS 



TABLE R502.5(2) 

GIRDER SPANS' AND HEADER SPANS' FOR INTERIOR BEARING WALLS 

(Maximum spans for Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine and spruce-pine-fir'^ and required number of jack studs) 



HEADERS AND GIRDERS SUPPORTING 


SIZE 


BUILDING WIDTH= (feet) 


20 : 


28 


36 


Span 


NJ" 


Span 


NJ" 


Span 


NJ" 


One floor only 


2-2x4 


3-1 


1 


2-8 


1 


2-5 


1 


2-2x6 


4-6 


1 


3-11 


1 


3-6 


1 


2-2x8 


5-9 


1 


5-0 


2 


4-5 


2 


2-2x10 


7-0 


2 


6-1 


2 


5-5 


2 


2-2x12 


8-1 


2 


7-0 


2 


6-3 


2 


3-2x8 


7-2 


1 


6-3 


1 


5-7 


2 


3-2x10 


8-9 


1 


7-7 


2 


6-9 


2 


3-2x12 


10-2 


2 


8-10 


2 


7-10 


2 


4-2x8 


9-0 


1 


7-8 


1 


6-9 


1 


4-2x10 


10-1 


1 


8-9 


1 


7-10 


2 


4-2x12 


11-9 


1 


10-2 


2 


9-1 


2 


Two floors 


2-2x4 


2-2 


1 


1-10 


1 


1-7 


1 


2-2x6 


3-2 


2 


2-9 


2 


2-5 


2 


2-2x8 


4-1 


2 


3-6 


2 


3-2 


2 


2-2x10 


4-11 


2 


4-3 


2 


3-10 


3 


2-2x12 


5-9 


2 


5-0 


3 


4-5 


3 


3-2x8 


5-1 


2 


4-5 


2 


3-11 


2 


3-2x10 


6-2 


2 


5-4 


2 


4-10 


2 


3-2x12 


7-2 


2 


6-3 


2 


5-7 


3 


4-2x8 


6-1 


1 


5-3 


2 


4-8 


2 


4-2x10 


7-2 


2 


6-2 


2 


5-6 


2 


4-2x12 


8-4 


2 


7-2 


2 


6-5 


2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Spans are given in feet and inches. 

b. Tabulated values assume #2 grade lumber. 

c. Building width is measured perpendicular to the ridge. For widths between those shown, spans are permitted to be interpolated. 

d. NJ - Number of jack studs required to support each end. Where the number of required jack studs equals one, the header is permitted to be supported by an approved 
framing anchor attached to the full-height wall stud and to the header. 



R502.9 Fastening. Roor framing shall be nailed in accordance 
with Table R602.3(l). Where posts and beam or girder construc- 
tion is used to support floor framing, positive connections shall 
be provided to ensure against uplift and lateral displacement. 

R502.10 Framing of openings. Openings in floor framing 
shall be framed with a header and trimmer joists. When the 
header joist span does not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm), the header 
joist may be a single member the same size as the floor joist. 
Single trimmer joists may be used to carry a single header joist 
that is located within 3 feet (914 mm) of the trimmer joist bear- 
ing. When the header joist span exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm), the 
trimmer joists and the header joist shall be doubled and of suffi- 
cient cross section to support the floor joists framing into the 
header. Approved hangers shall be used for the header joist to 
trimmer joist connections when the header joist span exceeds 6 
feet (1829 mm). Tail joists over 12 feet (3658 mm) long shall be 
supported at the header by framing anchors or on ledger strips 
not less than 2 inches by 2 inches (51 mm by 51 mm). 



R502.il Wood trusses. 

R502.11.1 Design. Wood trusses shall be designed in accor- 
dance with approved engineering practice. The design and 
manufacture of metal plate connected wood trusses shall 
comply with ANSI/TPI 1 . The truss design drawings shall 
be prepared by a registered professional where required by 
the statutes of the jurisdiction in which the project is to be 
constructed in accordance with Section R106. 1 . 

R502.11.2 Bracing. Trusses shall be braced to prevent rota- 
tion and provide lateral stabihty in accordance with the 
requirements specified in the construction documents for the 
building and on the individual truss design drawings. In the 

' absence of specific bracing requirements, trusses shall be 
braced in accordance with the Building Component Safety 

' Information (BCSI 1-03) Guide to Good Practice for Han- 
dhng, Instalhng & Bracing of Metal Plate Connected Wood 
Trusses. 



104 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*" 



FLOORS 



L/3 



i-*i r 



D/3MAX, 



U3 



T 



D/6 MAX. 






D/4MAX. 



MAX. D FROM 
SUPPORT 



D/3IVIAX.' 



D/3MAX. 



NO NOTCHES 
PERMITTED 



H_t^, 






r~L 



D/3 MAX. 



g 



D/6 MAX. 



1 



FLOOR JOIST— CENTER CUTS 



D/4 MAX. 



1 



:^ 



I 



FLOOR JOIST-^ND CUTS 






m 



1 



RAFTER/CBUNG JOISTS (R802.7.1) 



2 IN. MIN. FROM TOP 
AND BOTTOM OF JOIST 




PIPE OR CONDUIT 



D (ACTUAL DEPTH) 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R502.8 
CUTTING, NOTCHING AND DRILLING 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE<^ 



105 



FLOORS 



R502.11.3 Alterations to trusses. Truss members and com- 
ponents shall not be cut, notched, spliced or otherwise altered 
in any way without the approval of a registered design profes- 
sional. Alterations resulting in the addition of load (e.g., 
HVAC equipment, water heater, etc.), that exceed the design 
load for the truss, shall not be permitted without verification 
that the truss is capable of supporting the additional loading. 

R502.11.4 Truss design drawings. Truss design drawings, 
prepared in compliance with Section R502. 11.1, shall be sub- 
mitted to the building official and approved prior to installa- 
tion. Truss design drawings shall be provided with the 
shipment of trasses deUvered to the job site. Trass design draw- 
ings shall include, at a minimum, the information specified 
below: 

1. Slope or depth, span and spacing. 

2. Location of all joints. 

3. Required bearing widths. 

4. Design loads as applicable: 

4.1. Top chord live load; 

4.2. Top chord dead load; 

4.3. Bottom chord live load; 

4.4. Bottom chord dead load; 

4.5. Concentrated loads and their points of applica- 
tion; and 

4.6. Controlling wind and earthquake loads. 

5. Adjustments to lumber and joint connector design 
values for conditions of use. 

6. Each reaction force and direction. 

7. Joint connector type and description, e.g., size, 
thickness or gauge, and the dimensioned location of 
each joint connector except where symmetrically 
located relative to the joint interface. 

8. Lumber size, species and grade for each member. 

9. Connection requirements for: 

9.1. Trass-to-girder-trass; 

9.2. Trass ply-to-ply; and 

9.3. Field splices. 

10. Calculated deflection ratio and/or maximum 
description for live and total load. 

11. Maximum axial compression forces in the trass 
members to enable the building designer to design the 
size, connections and anchorage of the permanent 
continuous lateral bracing. Forces shall be shown on 
the trass drawing or on supplemental documents. 

12. Required permanent trass member bracing location. 

R502.12 Draftstopping required. When there is usable space 
both above and below the concealed space of a floor/ceiling 
assembly, draftstops shall be installed so that the area of the 
concealed space does not exceed 1,000 square feet (92.9 m^). 
Draftstopping shall divide the concealed space into approxi- 
mately equal areas. Where the assembly is enclosed by a floor 
membrane above and a ceiling membrane below draftstopping 



shall be provided in floor/ceiling assemblies under the follow- 
ing circumstances: 

1 . Ceiling is suspended under the floor franning. 

2. Floor framing is constracted of trass-type open-web or 
perforated members. 

R502.12.1 Materials. Draftstopping materials shall not be 
less than Vj-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board, V^-inch (9.5 mm) 
wood stractural panels, Vg-inch (9.5 mm) Type 2-M-W 
particleboard or other approved materials adequately sup- 
ported. Draftstopping shall be installed parallel to the floor 
framing members unless otherwise approved by the building 
official. The integrity of all draftstops shall be maintained. 

R502.13 Fireblocking required. Fireblocking shall be 
provided in accordance with Section R602.8. 

SECTION R503 
FLOOR SHEATHING 

R503.1 Lumber sheathing. Maximum allowable spans for 
lumber used as floor sheathing shall conform to Tables R503. 1 , 
R503.2.1.1(l) and R503.2.1.1(2). 

R503.1.1 End joints. End joints in lumber used as 
subflooring shall occur over supports unless end-matched 
lumber is used, in which case each piece shall bear on at 
least two joists. Subflooring may be omitted when joist 
spacing does not exceed 16 inches (406 mm) and a 1-inch 
(25.4 mm) nominal tongue-and-groove wood strip flooring 
is applied perpendicular to the joists. 

TABLE R503.1 
MINIMUM THICKNESS OF LUMBER FLOOR SHEATHING 



JOIST OR BEAM 
SPACING (inches) 


MINIMUM NET THICKNESS 


Perpendicular to joist 


Diagonal to joist 


24 


'%6 


% 


16 


% 


\ 


48=' 


IV2T&G 


N/A 


54'' 


60^ 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. For this support spacing, lumber sheathing shall have a minimum F^ of 675 
and minimum E of 1,100,000 (see AF&PA/NDS). 

b. For this support spacing, lumber sheathing shall have a minimum F^ of 765 
and minimum E of 1,400,000 (see AF&PA/NDS). 

c. For this support spacing, lumber sheathing shall have a minimum F^ of 855 
and minimum E of 1,700,000 (see AF&PA/NDS). 

R503.2 Wood structural panel sheathing. 

R503.2.1 Identification and grade. Wood structural panel 
sheathing used for structural purposes shall conform to DOC 
PS 1 , DOC PS 2 or, when manufactured in Canada, CS A 0437 
or CS A 0325 . All panels shall be identified by a grade mark of 
certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency. 

R503.2.1.1 Subfloor and combimed subfloor 
underlayment. Where used as subflooring or combina- 
tion subfloor underlayment, wood structural panels shall 
be of one of the grades specified in Table R503.2.1.1(l). 



106 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



FLOORS 



TABLE R503.2.1. 1(1) 

ALLOWABLE SPANS AND LOADS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANELS FOR ROOF 

AND SUBFLOOR SHEATHING AND COMBINATION SUBFLOOR UNDERLAYMENF'''^ 



SPAN RATING 


MINIMUM 

NOMINAL PANEL 

THICKNESS 

(inch) 


ALLOWABLE LIVE LOAD 
(psf)'-' 


MAXIMUM SPAN 
(inches) 


LOAD (pounds per square foot, 
at maximum span) 


MAXIMUM 

SPAN 
(inches) 


SPAN 
@ 16" o.c. 


SPAN 
@ 24" O.C. 


With edge 
support'' 


Without edge 
support 


Total load 


Live load 


Sheathing^ 






Roof 


Subfloor' 


12/0 


v„ 








12 


12 


40 


30 





16/0 


v„ 


30 





16 


16 


40 


30 





20/0 


v.. 


50 





20 


20 


40 


30 





24/0 


% 


100 


30 


24 


20S 


40 


30 





24/16 


'U 


100 


40 


24 


24 


50 


40 


16 


32/16 


15/ 1/ 
'32. '2 


180 


70 


32 


28 


40 


30 


16" 


40/20 


'32, 'S 


305 


130 


40 


32 


40 


30 


20"'' 


48/24 


^32, ^48 




175 


48 


36 


45 


35 


24 


60/32 


% 





305 


60 


48 


45 


35 


32 


Underlayment, C-C plugged, 
single floor^ 






Roof 


Combination 

subfloor 
underlayment** 


16o.c. 


'32, '8 


100 


40 


24 


24 


50 


40 


16' 


20 o.c. 


^32, ^8 


150 


60 


32 


32 


40 


30 


20'J 


24 o.c. 


'%..'U 


240 


100 


48 


36 


35 


25 


24 


32 o.c. 


■ y. 





185 


48 


40 


50 


40 


32 


48 o.c. 


iV.x 1% 


— 


290 


60 


48 


50 


40 


48 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. The allowable total loads were determined using a dead load of 10 psf. If the dead load exceeds 10 psf, then the live load shall be reduced accordingly. 

b. Panels continuous over two or more spans with long dimension perpendicular to supports. Spans shall be limited to values shown because of possible effect of con- 
centrated loads. 

c. Applies to panels 24 inches or wider. 

d. Lumber blocking, panel edge clips (one midway between each support, except two equally spaced between supports when span is 48 inches), tongue-and-groove 
panel edges, or other approved type of edge support. 

e. Includes Structural 1 panels in these grades. 

f. Uniform load deflection limitation: Vjgg of span under live load plus dead load, V240 of span under live load only. 

g. Maximum span 24 inches for '^/32-and V2-inch panels. 

h. Maximum span 24 inches where ^/4-inch wood finish flooring is installed at right angles to joists. 

i. Maximum span 24 inches where 1 .5 inches of lightweight concrete or approved cellular concrete is placed over the subfloor. 

j. Unsupported edges shall have tongue-and-groove joints or shall be supported with blocking unless minimum nominal V4-inch thick underlayment with end and 
edge joints offset at least 2 inches or 1 .5 inches of lightweight concrete or approved cellular concrete is placed over the subfloor, or ^/4-inch wood finish flooring is 
installed at right angles to the supports. Allowable uniform live load at maximum span, based on deflection of V360 of span, is 100 psf. 

k. Unsupported edges shall have tongue-and-groove joints or shall be supported by blocking unless nominal V4- inch-thick underlayment with end and edge joints 
offset at least 2 inches or ^/4-inch wood finish flooring is installed at right angles to the supports. Allowable uniform live load at maximum span, based on deflection 
of V360 of span, is 100 psf, except panels with a span rating of 48 on center are limited to 65 psf total uniform load at maximum span. 

1. Allowable live load values at spans of 1 6" o.c. and 24" o.c taken from reference standard APA E30, APA Engineered Wood Construction Guide. Refer to reference 
standard for allowable spans not listed in the table. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE"" 



107 



FLOORS 



When sanded plywood is used as combination subfloor 
underlayment, the grade shall be as specified in Table 
R503.2.1.1(2). 

TABLE R503.2.1. 1(2) 
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR SANDED PLYWOOD 
COMBINATION SUBFLOOR UNDERLAYMENT^ 



IDENTIFICATION 


SPACING OF JOISTS (inches) 


16 


20 


24 


Species group'' 








— 


1 


% 


% 


% 


2,3 


% 


% 


% 


4 


'U 


% 


1 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. Plywood continuous over two or more spans and face grain perpendicular to 
supports. Unsupported edges shall be tongue-and-groove or blocked except 
where nominal V4-inch- thick underlayment or ■'/4-inch wood finish floor is 
used. Allowable uniform live load at maximum span based on deflection of 
V360 of span is 100 psf. 

b. Applicable to all grades of sanded exterior-type plywood. 



R503.2.2 Allowable spans. The maximum allowable span 
for wood structural panels used as subfloor or combination 
subfloor underlayment shall be as set forth in Table 
R503.2. 1.1(1), or APA E30. The maximum span for sanded 
plywood combination subfloor underlayment shall be as set 
forth in Table R503.2. 1.1(2). 

R503.2.3 Installation. Wood structural panels used as 
subfloor or combination subfloor underlayment shall be 
attached to wood framing in accordance with Table 
R602.3(l) and shall be attached to cold-formed steel fram- 
ing in accordance with Table R505.3.1(2). 

R503.3 Particleboard. 

R503.3.1 Identification and grade. Particleboard shall con- 
form to ANSI A208.1 and shall be so identified by a grade 
mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved 
agency. 

R503.3.2 Floor underlayment. Particleboard floor 
underlayment shall conform to Type PBU and shall not be 
less than V4 inch (6.4 mm) in thickness. 

R503.3.3 Installation. Particleboard underlayment shall be 
installed in accordance with the reconmiendations of the 
manufacturer and attached to framing in accordance with 
Table R602.3(l). 



SECTION R504 

PRESSURE PRESERVATIVELY TREATED-WOOD 

FLOORS (ON GROUND) 

R504.1 General. Pressure preservatively treated-wood base- 
ment floors and floors on ground shall be designed to withstand 
axial forces and bending moments resulting from lateral soil 
pressures at the base of the exterior walls and floor live and 
dead loads. Floor framing shall be designed to meet joist 
deflection requirements in accordance with Section R301. 

R504.1.1 Unbalanced soil loads. Unless special provision 
is made to resist sliding caused by unbalanced lateral soil 



loads, wood basement floors shall be limited to applications 
where the differential depth of fill on opposite exterior foun- 
dation walls is 2 feet (610 mm) or less. 

R504.1.2 Construction. Joists in wood basement floors 
shall bear tightly against the narrow face of studs in the 
foundation wall or directly against a band joist that bears on 
the studs. Plywood subfloor shall be continuous over lapped 
joists or over butt joints between in-line joists. Sufficient 
blocking shall be provided between joists to transfer lateral 
forces at the base of the end walls into the floor system. 

R504.1.3 Uplift and buckling. Where required, resistance 
to uplift or restraint against buckling shall be provided by 
interior bearing walls or properly designed stub walls 
anchored in the supporting soil below. 

R504.2 Site preparation. The area within the foundation 
walls shall have all vegetation, topsoil and foreign material 
removed, and any fill material that is added shall be free of veg- 
etation and foreign material. The fill shall be compacted to 
assure uniform support of the pressure preservatively treated- 
wood floor sleepers. 

R504.2.1 Base. A minimum 4-inch-thick (102 mm) granu- 
lar base of gravel having a maximum size of % inch (19.1 
mm) or crushed stone having a maximum size of V2 inch 
(12.7 mm) shall be placed over the compacted earth. 

R504.2.2 Moisture barrier. Polyethylene sheeting of minimum 
6-mil (0. 15 mm) thickness shall be placed over the granular base. 
Joints shall be lapped 6 inches (152 mm) and left unsealed. The 
polyethylene membrane shall be placed over the pressure 
preservatively treated-wood sleepers and shall not extend beneath 
the footing plates of the exterior walls. 

R504.3 Materials. All framing materials, including sleepers, 
joists, blocking and plywood subflooring, shall be pressure- 
preservative treated and dried after treatment in accordance 
with AWPA Ul (Commodity Specification A, Use Category 
4B and section 5.2), and shall bear the label of an accredited 
agency. 



SECTION R505 
STEEL FLOOR FRAMING 

R505.1 Cold-formed steel floor framing. Elements shall be 
straight and free of any defects that would significantly affect 
structural performance. Cold-formed steel floor framing mem- 
bers shall comply with the requirements of this section. 

R505.1.1 Applicability limits. The provisions of this sec- 
tion shall control the construction of steel floor framing for 
buildings not greater than 60 feet (18,288 mm) in length 
perpendicular to the joist span, not greater than 40 feet (12 
192 mm) in width parallel to the joist span, and not greater 
than two stories in height. Steel floor framing constructed in 
accordance with the provisions of this section shall be hm- 
ited to sites subjected to a maximum design wind speed of 
110 miles per hour (49 m/s). Exposure A, B, or C, and a 
maximum ground snow load of 70 psf (3.35 kPa). 

R505.1.2 In-line framing. When supported by steel- 
framed walls in accordance with Section R603, steel floor 
framing shall be constructed with floor joists located 



108 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDEENTIAL CODE^ 



FLOORS 



directly in-line with load-bearing studs located below the 
joists with a maximum tolerance of V4 inch (19.1 mm) 
between the center lines of the joist and the stud. 

R505.1.3 Floor trusses. The design, quality assurance, 
installation and testing of cold-formed steel trusses shall be 
in accordance with the AISI Standard for Cold-formed Steel 
Framing-Truss Design (COFS/Truss). Truss members shall 
not be notched, cut or altered in any manner without an 
approved design. 

R505.2 Structural framing. Load-bearing floor framing 
members shall comply with Figure R505.2(l) and with the 
dimensional and minimum thickness requirements specified in 
Tables R505.2(l) and R505.2(2). Tracks shall comply with 
Figure R505.2(2) and shall have a minimum flange width of 
174 inches (32 mm). The maximum inside bend radius for 
members shall be the larger of ^/jj inch (2.4 mm) or twice the 
uncoated steel thickness. Holes in joist webs shall comply with 
all of the following conditions: 

1. Holes shall conform to Figure R505.2(3); 

2. Holes shall be permitted only along the centerline of the 
web of the framing member; 

3. Holes shall have a center-to-center spacing of not less 
than 24 inches (610 mm); 

4. Holes shall have a web hole width not greater than 0.5 
times the member depth, or 2V2 inches (64.5 mm); 

5. Holes shall have a web hole length not exceeding 4V2 
inches (1 14 mm); and 

6. Holes shall have a minimum distance between the edge 
of the bearing surface and the edge of the web hole of not 
less than 10 inches (254 mm). 



Framing members with web holes not conforming to the 
above requirements shall be patched in accordance with Sec- 
tion R505.3.6 or designed in accordance with accepted engi- 
neering practices. 

R505.2.1 Material. Load-bearing members used in steel 
floor construction shall be cold-formed to shape from struc- 
tural quality sheet steel complying with the requirements of 
one of the following: 

1. ASTM A 653: Grades 33, 37, 40 and 50 (Class 1 and 
3). 

2. ASTM A 792: Grades 33, 37, 40 and 50A. 

3. ASTM A 875: Grades 33, 37, 40 and 50 (Class 1 and 
3). 

4. ASTM A 1003: Grades 33, 37, 40 and 50. 

R505.2.2 Identification. Load-bearing steel framing mem- 
bers shall have a legible label, stencil, stamp or embossment 
with the following information as a minimum: 

1. Manufacturer's identification. 

2. Minimum uncoated steel thickness in inches (mm). 

3. Minimum coating designation. 

4. Minimum yield strength, in kips per square inch (ksi) 
(kPa). 

R505.2.3 Corrosion protection. Load-bearing steel fram- 
ing shall have a metallic coating complying with one of the 
following: 

1 . A minimum of G 60 in accordance with ASTM A 
653. 

2. A minimum of AZ 50 in accordance with ASTM A 
792. 



TABLE R505.2(1) 
COLD-FORMED STEEL JOIST SIZES 



MEMBER DESIGNATION^ 


WEB DEPTH 
(inches) 


MINIMUM FLANGE WIDTH 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM FLANGE WIDTH 
(inches) 


MINIMUM LIP SIZE 
(inches) 


550S162-t 


5.5 


1.625 


2 


0.5 


800S162-t 


8 


1.625 


2 


0.5 


1000S162-t 


10 


1.625 


2 


0.5 


1200s 162-t 


12 


1.625 


2 


0.5 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 

a. The member designation is defined by the first number representing the member depth in 0.01 inch, the letter "S" representing a stud or joist member, the second 

number representing the flange width in 0.01 inch, and the letter "t" shall be a number representing the minimum base metal thickness in mils [See Table 

R505.2(2)]. 

TABLE R505.2(2) 
MINIMUM THICKNESS OF COLD-FORMED STEEL MEMBERS 



DESIGNATION 
(mils) 


MINIMUM UNCOATED THICKNESS 
(inches) 


REFERENCE GAGE NUMBER 


33 


0.033 


20 


43 


0.043 


18 


54 


0.054 


16 


68 


0.068 


14 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



109 



FLOORS 



FLANGE 



WEB 



DEPTH OF WEB 
(OUTSIDE TO 
OUTSIDE) 




FLANGE 



WEB 




SIZE OF TRACK 
(INSIDE TO INSIDE) 



FIGURE R505.2(1) 
C-SECTION 



FIGURE R505.2(2) 
TRACK SECTION 



C.L. 



C.L. 



2V;' MAX. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



24" MIN. 



/ 



MAX* 



> 



<1 



^ 



"^ 



^ 



Sim 
MAX. 



10"MtN. 



/ 



CENTERLINE OF WEB 






BEARING CONDITION 



FIGURE R505.2(3) 
FLOOR JOIST WEB HOLES 



3. A minimum of GF 60 in accordance with ASTM A 
875. 

R505.2.4 Fastening requirements. Screws for steel-to- 
steel connections shall be installed with a minimum edge 
distance and center-to-center spacing of 0.5 inch (12.7 
mm), shall be self-drilling tapping, and shall conform to 
SAE J78. Floor sheathing shall be attached to steel joists 
with minimum No. 8 self-drilling tapping screws that con- 
form to SAE J78. Screws attaching floor-sheath- 
ing-to-steel joists shall have a minimum head diameter of 
0.292 inch (7.4 mm) with countersunk heads and shall be 
installed with a minimum edge distance of 0.375 inch (9.5 



mm). Gypsum board ceilings shall be attached to steel 
joists with minimum No. 6 screws conforming to ASTM C 
954 and shall be installed in accordance with Section 
R702. For all connections, screws shall extend through the 
steel a minimum of three exposed threads. All self -drilling 
tapping screws conforming to SAE J78 shall have a Type II 
coating in accordance with ASTMB 633. 

Where No. 8 screws are specified in a steel to steel con- 
nection the required number of screws in the connection is 
permitted to be reduced in accordance with the reduction 
factors in Table R505.2.4 when larger screws are used or 
when one of the sheets of steel being connected is thicker 



110 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



FLOORS 



than 33 mils (0.84 mm). When applying the reduction factor 
the resulting number of screws shall be rounded up. 

TABLE R505.2.4 
SCREW SUBSTITUTION FACTOR 



SCREW SIZE 


THINNEST CONNECTED STEEL SHEET (mils) 


33 


43 


#8 


1.0 


0.67 


#10 


0.93 


0.62 


#12 


0.86 


0.56 



For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 

R505.3 Floor construction. Cold-formed steel floors shall be 
constructed in accordance with this section and Figure R505 .3 . 

R505.3.1 Floor to foundation or bearing wall connections. 

Cold-formed steel floors shall be anchored to foundations, 
wood sills or load-bearing walls in accordance with Table 
R505.3.1(l) and Figure R505.3.1(l), R505.3.1(2), 
R505.3.1(3), R505.3.1(4), R505.3.1(5) orR505.3.1(6). Con- 
tinuous steel joists supported by interior load-bearing walls 
shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R505.3.1(7). 
Lapped steel joists shall be constructed in accordance with 
Figure R505. 3. 1(8). Fastening of steel joists to other framing 
members shall be in accordance with Table R505.3.1(2). 



R505.3.2 Allowable joist spans. The clear span of 
cold-formed steel floor joists shall not exceed the limits set 
forth in Tables R505.3.2(l), R505.3.2(2), and R505.3.2(3). 
Hoor joists shall have a minimum bearing length of 1 .5 inches 
(38 mm). When continuous joists are used, the interior bearing 
supports shall be located within 2 feet (610 nrni) of mid span of 
the steel joists, and the individual spans shall not exceed the 
span in Tables R505.3.2(2) and R505.3.2(3). Bearing stiffen- 
ers shall be installed at each bearing location in accordance 
with Section R505.3.4 and as shown in Figure R505.3. 

Blocking is not required for continuous back-to-back floor 
joists at bearing supports. Blocking shall be installed between 
the joists for single continuous floor joists across bearing sup- 
ports. Blocking shall be spaced at a maximum of 12 feet (3660 
mm) on center. Blocking shall consist of C-shape or track sec- 
tion with a minimum thickness of 33 mils (0.84 mm). Blocking 
shall be fastened to each adjacent joist through a 33-mil (0.84 
mm) clip angle, bent web of blocking or flanges of web stiffen- 
ers with two No. 8 screws on each side. The minimum depth of 
the blocking shall be equal to the depth of the joist minus 2 
inches (51 mm). The minimum length of the angle shall be 
equal to the depth of the joist minus 2 inches (51 mm). 



SUBFLOOR SHEATHING 



8 FT MAX. HEADER SPAN 



MAX. 24 IN. 
CANTILEVER 



40 FT MAX. 
BUILDING WIDTH 



BLOCKING 
12 FT 




BEARING 
STIFFENER 



JOIST SPAN 



HEADER TRIMMER 



USE FLAT STRAP WITH BLOCKING 
OR GYPSUM BOARD TO BRACE 
BOTTOM FLANGE 



GIRDER BEAM OR LOAD-BEARING WALL 



STRAPPING 12 FT 
MAX. (TYP) 



TRACK 



FOUNDATION WALL 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3 
STEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION 

(continued) 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE' 



o 



111 



FLOORS 



BUILT-UP HEADER AND TRIMMER JOISTS SHALL 
CONSIST OF A C-SECTION INSIDE A TRACK 
SECTION, SCREWED TOGETHER 24 IN. O.C. 
MAXIMUM THROUGH THE TOP AND BOTTOM 
FLANGES 



CLIP ANGLE (BOTH SIDES OF CONNECTION) 
MIN. LENGTH = JOIST WEB DEPTH 




FLOOR JOIST INSIDE TRACK 



8 SCREWS (4 PER LEG OF CLIP ANGLE) 



BUILT-UP HEADER OR TRIMMER JOIST 



JOIST 



CLIP ANGLE (BOTH SIDES OF CONNECTION) 
MINIMUM LENGTH = JOIST WEB DEPTH 
MINUS 1/2 IN. 




BUILT-UP HEADER AND TRIMMER JOISTS 
SHALL CONSIST OF A C-SECTION INSIDE A 
TRACK SECTION, SCREWED TOGETHER 24 IN. 
O.C. MAXIMUM THROUGH THE TOP AND 
BOTTOM FLANGES 



BUILT-UP HEADER JOIST 



8 SCREWS (4 PER LEG OF CLIP ANGLE) 



JOIST TO HEADER JOIST 



1 SCREW THROUGH BRACE 
AT EACH FLANGE 




2 SCREWS THROUGH EACH LEG OF 
33 MIL 2 IN. X 2 IN. x BLOCKING 
DEPTH, CLIP ANGLE 



33 MIL TRACK OR C-SECTION 
MINIMUM HEIGHT OF JOIST 
DEPTH MINUS 2 IN. 



OR 




X-BRACING 



For SI: linch = 25.4 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 



SOLID BLOCKING 



BLOCKING OPTIONS 



FIGURE R505.3— continued 
STEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION 



112 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



FLOORS 



TABLE R505.3.1(1) 
FLOOR TO FOUNDATION OR BEARING WALL CONNECTION REQUIREMENTS^' ^ 



FRAMING CONDITION 


WIND SPEED (mph) AND EXPOSURE 


Up to 110 A/B or 85 C or Seismic 
Design Categories A, B, C 


Up to 110 c 


Floor joist to wall track of exterior steel 
load-bearing wall per Figure R505.3.1(l) 


2-No. 8 screws 


3-No. 8 screws 


Floor joist track to wood sill per Figure 
R505.3.U2) 


Steel plate spaced at 3' o.c, with 4-No, 8 
screws and 4-lOd or 6-8d common nails 


Steel plate, spaced at 2' o.c, with 4-No. 8 
screws and 4-lOd or 6-8d common nails 


Floor joist track to foundation per Figure 
R505.3.1(3) 


V2" minimum diameter anchor bolt and clip 
angle spaced at 6' o.c. with 8-No. 8 screws 


V2" minimum diameter anchor bolt and clip 
angle spaced at 4' o.c. with 8-No. 8 screws 


Joist cantilever to wall track per Figure 
R505.3.1('4) 


2-No. 8 screws per stiffener or bent plate 


3-No. 8 screws per stiffener or bent plate 


Joist cantilever to wood sill per Figure 
R505.3.K5) 


Steel plate spaced at 3' o.c, with 4-No. 8 
screws and 4-lOd or 6-8d common nails 


Steel plate spaced at 2' o.c, with 4-No. 8 
screws and 4-lOd or 6-8d common nails 


Joist cantilever to foundation per Figure 
R505.3.1(6) 


V2" minimum diameter anchor bolt and cUp 
angle spaced at 6' o.c. with 8-No. 8 screws 


V2" minimum diameter anchor bolt and clip 
angle spaced at 4' o.c. with 8-No. 8 screws 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Anchor bolts shall be located not more than 1 2 inches from comers or the termination of bottom tracks (e.g., at door openings). Bolts shall extend a minimum of 15 
inches into masonry or 7 inches into concrete. 

b. All screw sizes shown are minimum. 

TABLER505.3.1(2) 
FLOOR FASTENING SCHEDULE^ 



DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING ELEMENTS 


NUMBER AND SIZE OF FASTENERS 


SPACING OF FASTENERS 


Floor joist to track of an interior load-bearing wall 
per Figures R505.3.1(7) and R505.3.1(8) 


2 No. 8 screws 


Each joist 


Floor joist to track at end of joist 


2 No. 8 screws 


One per flange or two per bearing stiffener 


Subfloor to floor joists 


No. 8 screws 


6" o.c. on edges and 12" o.c. at intermediate 
supports 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. All screw sizes shown are minimum. 



R505.3.3 Joist bracing. The top flanges of steel joists shall 
be laterally braced by the application of floor sheathing fas- 
tened to the joists in accordance with Table R505.3.1(2). 
Floor joists with spans that exceed 12 feet (3658 mm) shall 
have the bottom flanges laterally braced in accordance with 
one of the following: 

1 . Gypsum board installed with minimum No. 6 screws 
in accordance with Section R702. 

2. Continuous steel strapping installed in accordance with 
Figure R505.3. Steel straps shall be at least 1.5 inches 
(38 mm) in width and 33 mils (0.84 mm) in thickness. 
Straps shall be fastened to the bottom flange at each joist 
with at least one No. 8 screw and shall be fastened to 
blocking with at least two No. 8 screws. Blocking or 
bridging (X-bracing) shall be installed between joists 
in-hne with straps at a maximum spacing of 12 feet 
(3658 mm) measured perpendicular to the joist run and 
at the termination of all straps. 

R505.3.4 Bearing stiffeners. Bearing stiffeners shall be 
installed at all bearing locations for steel floor joists. A bear- 
ing stiffener shall be fabricated from a minimum 33 mil (0.84 
mm) C-section or 43 mil (1 .09 mm) track section. Each stiff- 
ener shall be fastened to the web of the joist with a minimum 
of four No. 8 screws equally spaced as shown in Figure 
R505.3.4. Stiffeners shall extend across the full depth of the 
web and shall be installed on either side of the web. 



R5053.5 Cutting and notching. Ranges and lips of load-bear- 
ing steel floor framing members shall not be cut or notched. 

R505.3.6 Hole patcliing. Web holes not conforming to the 
requirements in Section R505.2 shall be designed in accor- 
dance with one of the following: 

1. Framing members shall be replaced or designed in 
accordance with accepted engineering practices when 
web holes exceed the following size limits: 

1.1. The depth of the hole, measured across the 
web, exceeds 70 percent of the flat width of 
the web; or 

1.2. The length of the hole measured along the 
web, exceeds 10 inches (254 mm) or the depth 
of the web, whichever is greater. 

2. Web holes not exceeding the dimensional require- 
ments in Section R505.3.6, Item 1, shall be patched 
with a solid steel plate, stud section, or track section in 
accordance with Figure R505.3.6. The steel patch 
shall, as a minimum, be of the same thickness as the 
receiving member and shall extend at least 1 inch (25 
mm) beyond all edges of the hole. The steel patch shall 
be fastened to the web of the receiving member with 
N0.8 screws spaced no greater than 1 inch (25 mm) 
center- to-center along the edges of the patch with mini- 
mum edge distance of V2 inch (13 mm). 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*^ 



113 



FLOORS 



TRACK 



BEARING STIFFENER 



SCREWS THROUGH JOIST 
FLANGE, CLIP ANGLE OR 
BENT STIFFENER 



SCREW FLOOR TRACK 
TO WALL TRACK WITH 
SCREWS AT 24 IN. O.C. 



TRACK 




JOIST 



LOAD-BEARING STUD 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.1(1) 
FLOOR TO LOAD-BEARING WALL STUD CONNECTION 



4 SCREWS 



FOUNDATION 




TRACK 



4 - 1 0d COMMON OR 
6 -8d COMMON 

3 IN. X 4 IN. X 33 MIL PLATE 
(MIN.) 



WOOD SILL AND ANCHOR BOLT 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.1(2) 
FLOOR TO WOOD SILL CONNECTION 



114 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



FLOORS 



BEARING STIFFENER 
TRACK 



8 SCREWS 




JOIST 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.1(3) 
FLOOR TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION 



SCREW AT EACH 
FLANGE 



TRACK 




SCREWS THROUGH JOIST 
FLANGE, CLIP ANGLE OR 
BENT STIFFENER 



TRACK 



JOIST 



LOAD-BEARING STUD 



FIGURE R505.3.1(4) 
FLOOR CANTILEVER TO LOAD-BEARING WALL CONNECTION 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



115 



FLOORS 



BLOCKING CONNECTED TO JOIST 
WITH SCREWS THROUGH WEB 
STIFFENER OR CLIP ANGLE 



BLOCKING EVERY OTHER JOIST 
(MIN. THICKNESS OF TRACK) 




WOOD SILL AND 
ANCHOR BOLT 



SCREW AT 
EACH FLANGE 



TRACK 



'FOUNDATION 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254. 



FIGURE R505.3.1(5) 
FLOOR CANTILEVER TO WOOD SILL CONNECTION 



TRACK 



BLOCKING EVERY OTHER JOIST 
(MIN. THICKNESS AS TRACK) 



SCREW AT EVERY 
FU\NGE 



SHEATHING 



BEARING STIFFENER 




JOIST 



6IN. x6IN. x6IN. X54MIL 
CLIP ANGLE AND 
ANCHOR BOLT 



FOUNDATION 



For Sr. 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254. 



CONNECTION OF BLOCKING TO 
JOIST THROUGH WEB STIFFENER 
OR CLIP ANGLE WITH 4 SCREWS 
THROUGH EACH LEG 



FIGURE R505.3.1 (6) 
FLOOR CANTILEVER TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION 



116 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



FLOORS 



BEARING STIFFENER 



2 SCREWS THROUGH JOIST 
FLANGE, CLIP ANGLE OR 
BENT STIFFENER 




JOIST 



TRACK 



LOAD-BEARING STUD 



FIGURE R505.3.1(7) 
CONTINUOUS JOIST SPAN SUPPORTED ON STUD 



TRACK 




ONE BEARING STIFFENER 
(4 SCREWS THROUGH 
STIFFENER AND BOTH 
JOISTS) 

TWO SCREWS 



LOAD-BEARING' 
STUD 



FIGURE R505.3.1(8) 
LAPPED JOISTS SUPPORTED ON STUD 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



117 



FLOORS 



TABLE R505.3.2(1) 
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR COLD-FORMED STEEL JOISTS— SINGLE SPANS^ " 33 ksi STEEL 



JOIST 
DESIGNATION 


30 PSF LIVE LOAD 


40 PSF LIVE LOAD 


Spacing (inches) 


Spacing (inches) 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


550S 162-33 


11 '-7" 


10'-7" 


9'-6" 


8'-6" 


10'-7" 


9'-3" 


8'-6" 


7'-6" 


550S 162-43 


12'-8" 


ll'-6" 


lO'-lO" 


10'-2" 


11 '-6" 


10'-5" 


9'-10" 


9'-l" 


550S 162-54 


13'-7" 


12'-4" 


11 '-7" 


10'-9" 


12'-4" 


ll'-2" 


10'-6" 


9'-9" 


550S 162-68 


14'-7" 


13'-3" 


12'-6" 


11 '-7" 


13'-3" 


12'-0" 


11 '-4" 


10'-6" 


800S 162-97 


16'-2" 


14'-9" 


13'-10" 


12'-10" 


14'-9" 


13'-4" 


12'-7" 


ll'-8" 


800S 162-33 


15'-8" 


13'- 11" 


12'-9" 


11 '-5" 


14'-3" 


12'-5" 


11 '-3" 


9'-0" 


800S 162-43 


17'-1" 


15'-6" 


14'-7" 


13'-7" 


15'-6" 


14'- 1" 


13'-3" 


12'-4" 


800S 162-54 


18'-4" 


16'-8" 


15 '-8" 


14'-7" 


16'-8" 


15'-2" 


14'-3" 


13'-3" 


800S 162-68 


19'-9" 


17'- 11" 


16'-10" 


15'-8" 


17'- 11" 


16'-3" 


15'-4" 


14'-2" 


800S 162-97 


22'-0" 


20'-0" 


16'-10" 


17'-5" 


20'-0" 


18'-2" 


17'-1" 


15'- 10" 


lOOOS 162-43 


20'-6" 


18'-8" 


17'-6" 


15'-8" 


18'-8" 


16'- 11" 


15'-6" 


13'- 11" 


lOOOS 162-54 


22'-l" 


20'-0" 


18'- 10" 


17'-6" 


20'-0" 


18'-2" 


17'-2" 


15'- 11" 


lOOOS 162-68 


23'- 9" 


21 '-7" 


20'-3" 


18'- 10" 


21'-7" 


19'-7" 


18'-5" 


17'-1" 


lOOOS 162-97 


26'-6" 


24'- 1" 


22'-8" 


21'-0" 


24'- 1" 


21'-10" 


20'-7" 


19'- 1" 


1200S 162-43 


23'-9" 


20'- 10" 


19'-0" 


16'-8" 


21'-5" 


18'-6" 


16'-6" 


13'-2" 


1200S 162-54 


25'-9" 


23'-4" 


22'-0" 


20'- 1" 


23'-4" 


21'-3" 


20'-0" 


17'- 10" 


1200S 162-68 


27'-8" 


25'- 1" 


23'-8" 


21'- 11" 


25'- 1" 


22'- 10" 


21'-6" 


21'-1" 


1200S 162-97 


30'- 11" 


28'- 1" 


26'-5" 


24'-6" 


28'- 1" 


25'-6" 


24'-0" 


22'-3" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 

a. Deflection criteria: L/480 for live 

b. Floor dead load = 10 psf. 



304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot : 
loads, L/240 for total loads. 



: 0.0479 kPa. 



BEARING STIFFENER 




FIGURE R505.3.4 
BEARING STIFFENER 



118 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



FLOORS 



TABLE R505.3.2{2) 
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR COLD-FORMED STEEL JOISTS- 



-MULTIPLE SPANS^" 33 ksi STEEL 



JOIST 
DESIGNATION 


30 PSF LIVE LOAD 


40 PSF LIVE LOAD 


Spacing (inches) 


Spacing (inches) 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


550S 162-33 


12'-1" 


10'-5" 


9'-6" 


8'-6" 


10'-9" 


9'-3" 


8'-6" 


7'-6" 


550S 162-43 


14'-5" 


12'-5" 


ll'-4" 


10'-2" 


12'-9" 


11'- 11" 


10'- 1" 


9'-0" 


550S 162-54 


16'-3" 


14'- 1" 


12'- 10" 


ll'-6" 


14'-5" 


12'-6" 


11 '-5" 


10'-2" 


550S 162-68 


19'-7" 


17'-9" 


16'-9" 


15'-6" 


17'-9" 


16'-2" 


15'-2" 


14'-1" 


800S 162-97 


21 '-9" 


19'-9" 


lB'-7" 


17'-3" 


19'-9" 


17'-11" 


16'-10" 


15'-4" 


BOOS 162-33 


14'-8" 


ll'-lO" 


10'-4" 


8'-B" 


12'-4" 


9'- 11" 


B'-7" 


7'-2" 


BOOS 162-43 


20'-0" 


17'-4" 


15'-9" 


14'-1" 


17'-9" 


15'-4" 


14'-0" 


12'-0" . 


BOOS 162-54 


23'-7" 


20'-5" 


18'-8" 


16'-8" 


21'.0" 


lB'-2" 


16'-7" 


14'- 10" 


B00S162-6B 


26'-5" 


23'- 1" 


21'-0" 


18'- 10" 


23'-8" 


20'-6" 


IB'-B" 


16'-9" 


BOOS 162-97 


29'-6" 


26'- 10" 


25'-3" 


22'-B" 


26'- 10" 


24'-4" 


22'-6" 


20'-2" 


1000S162-43 


22'-2" 


lB'-3" 


16'-0" 


13'-7" 


18'- 11" 


15'-5" 


13'-6" 


ll'-5" 


lOOOS 162-54 


26'-2" 


22'-8" 


20'-8" 


18'-6" 


23'-3" 


20'-2" 


18'-5" 


16'-5" 


lOOOS 162-68 


31'- 5" 


27'-2" 


24'- 10" 


22'-2" 


27'- 11" 


24'-2" 


22'- 1" 


19'-9" 


lOOOS 162-97 


35'-6" 


32'-3" 


29'- 11" 


26'-9" 


32'-3" 


29'-2" 


26'-7" 


23'-9" 


1200S 162-43 


21'-B" 


17'-6" 


15'-3" 


12'- 10" 


18'-3" 


14'-B" 


12'-B" 


10'-62 


1200S 162-54 


28'-5" 


24'-8" 


22'-6" 


19'-6" 


25'-3" 


21'-11" 


19'-4" 


16'-6" 


1200S 162-68 


33'-7" 


29'- 1" 


26'-6" 


23'-9" 


29'- 10" 


25'- 10" 


23'-7" 


21'-1" 


1200S 162-97 


41'-5" 


37'-8" 


34'-6" 


30'- 10" 


37'-B" 


33'-6" 


30'-7" 


27'-5" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 

a. Deflection criteria: L/480 for live 

b. Floor dead load = 10 psf. 



304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa. 
loads, L/240 for total loads. 



■ SOLID STEEL PLATE, C-SECTION 
OR TRACK (MINIMUM THICKNESS 
OF JOIST) 




SCREWS 1 IN. O.C 
(TYP.) 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R505.3.6 
HOLE PATCH 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*" 



119 



FLOORS 



TABLE R505.3.2(3) 
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR COLD-FORMED STEEL JOISTS— MULTIPLE SPANS" " 50 ksi STEEL 



JOIST 
DESIGNATION 


30 PSF LIVE LOAD 


40 PSF LIVE LOAD 


Spacing (inches) 


Spacing (inches) 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


12 


16 


19.2 


24 


550S 162-33 


13'-11" 


12'-0" 


ll'-O" 


9'-3" 


12'-3" 


10'-8" 


9'-7" 


8'-4" 


550S 162-43 


16'-3" 


14'- 1" 


12'- 10" 


ll'-6" 


14'-6" 


12'-6" 


ll'-5" 


10'-3" 


550S 162-54 


18'-2" 


16'-6" 


15'-4" 


13'-8" 


16'-6" 


14'- 11" 


13'-7" 


12'-2" 


550S 162-68 


19'-6" 


17'-9" 


16'-8" 


15'-6" 


17'-9" 


16'-1" 


15'-2" 


14'-0" 


550S 162-97 


21 '-9" 


19'-9" 


18'-6" 


17'-2" 


19'-8" 


17'- 10" 


16'-8" 


15'-8" 


800S 162-33 


15'-6" 


12'-6" 


10'- 10" 


9'-l" 


13'-0" 


10'-5" 


8'- 11" 


6'-9" 


800S 162-43 


22'-0" 


19'-1" 


17'-5" 


15'-0" 


19'-7" 


16'-11" 


14'-10" 


12'-8" 


800S 162-54 


24'-6" 


22'-4" 


20'-6" 


17'- 11" 


22'-5" 


19'-9" 


17'-11" 


15'- 10" 


800S 162-68 


26'-6" 


24'- 1" 


22'-8" 


21'-0" 


24'- 1" 


21'-10" 


20'-7" 


19'-2" 


800S 162-97 


29'-9" 


26'-8" 


25'-2" 


23'-5" 


26'-8" 


24'-3" 


22'- 11" 


21'-4" 


lOOOS 162-43 


23'-6" 


19'-2" 


16'-9" 


14'-2" 


19'-11" 


16'-2" 


14'-0" 


ll'-9" 


1000S162-54 


28'-2" 


23'- 10" 


21'-7" 


18'- 11" 


24'-8" 


20'- 11" 


18'-9" 


18'-4" 


lOOOS 162-68 


31'- 10" 


28'- 11" 


27'-2" 


25'-3" 


28'- 11" 


26'-3" 


24'-9" 


22'-9" 


lOOOS 162-97 


35'-4" 


32'-l" 


30'-3" 


28'- 1" 


32'- 1" 


29'-2" 


27'-6" 


25'-6" 


1200S 162-43 


22'- 11" 


18'-5" 


16'-0" 


13'-4" 


19'-2" 


15'-4" 


13'-2" 


10'-6" 


1200S162-54 


32'-8" 


28'- 1" 


24'-9" 


21'-2" 


29'-0" 


23'-10" 


20'- 11" 


17'-9" 


1200S 162-68 


37'- 1" 


32'-5" 


29'-4" 


25'- 10" 


33'-4" 


28'-6" 


25'-9" 


22'-7" 


1200S162-97 


41'-2" 


37'-6" 


35'-3" 


32'-9" 


37'-6" 


34'- 1" 


32'- 1" 


29'-9" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 

a. Deflection criteria: L/480 for live 

b. Floor dead load =10 psf. 



304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot : 
loads, L/240 for total loads. 



: 0.0479kPa. 



JOIST SECTION INSIDE TRACK 




For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



■TRACK 



FIGURE R5()5.3.8 
TRACK SPLICE 



4 SCREWS ON EACH 
SIDE OF SPLICE 



120 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



FLOORS 



R505.3.7 Floor cantilevers. Floor cantilevers shall not 
exceed 24 inches (610 mm) as illustrated in Figure 
R505.3. The cantilever back-span shall extend a mini- 
mum of 6 feet (1 830 mm) within the building, and shall be 
fastened to a bearing condition in accordance with Sec- 
tion R505.3.1. Floor cantilevers shall be permitted only 
on the second floor of a two-story building or the first 
floor of a one-story building. Floor framing that is canti- 
levered and supports the cantilevered floor only shall 
consist of single joist members in accordance with Sec- 
tion R505.3.2. Floor framing that is cantilevered and sup- 
ports the cantilevered floor and the roof framing load 
above shall consist of double joist members of the same 
size and material thickness as that for single joist mem- 
bers in accordance with Section R505.3.2, and shall be 
fastened web-to-web with minimum No. 8 screws at 24 
inches (610 mm) maximum on-center spacing top and 
bottom. Built-up floor framing consisting of a C-section 
inside a track section, fastened at the top and bottom 
flanges by minimum No. 8 screws at 24 inches (610 mm) 
maximum on center spacing, is permitted in lieu of the 
web-to-web double joist method. 

R505.3.8 Splicing. Joists and other structural members 
shall not be spliced. Splicing of tracks shall conform with 
Figure R505.3.8. 

R505.3.9 Framing of openings. Openings in floor framing 
shall be framed with header and trimmer joists. Header joist 
spans shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm). Header and trim- 
mer joists shall be fabricated from joist and track sections, 
which shall be of a minimum size and thickness as the adja- 
cent floor joists and shall be installed in accordance with 
Figure R505.3. Each header joist shall be connected to trim- 
mer joists with a minimum of four 2-inch-by-2-inch (5 1 mm 
by 51 mm) clip angles. Each clip angle shall be fastened to 
both the header and trimmer joists with four No. 8 screws, 
evenly spaced, through each leg of the clip angle. The clip 
angles shall have a steel thickness not less than that of the 
floor joist. 



shall be placed on the prepared subgrade when the slab is 
below grade. 

Exception: A base course is not required when the 
concrete slab is installed on well-drained or 
sand-gravel mixture soils classified as Group I 
according to the United Soil Classification System in 
accordance with Table R405.1. 

R506.2.3 Vapor retarder. A 6 mil (0.006 inch; 152 fxm) 
polyethylene or approved vapor retarder with joints lapped 
not less than 6 inches (152 mm) shall be placed between the 
concrete floor slab and the base course or the prepared 
subgrade where no base course exists. 

Exception: The vapor retarder may be omitted: 

1 . From garages, utility buildings and other unheated 
accessory structures. 

2. From driveways, walks, patios and other flatwork 
not likely to be enclosed and heated at a later date. 

3. Where approved by the building official, based on 
local site conditions. 

R506.2.4 Reinforcement support. Where provided in 
slabs on ground, reinforcement shall be supported to remain 
in place from the center to upper one third of the slab for the 
duration of the concrete placement. 



SECTION R506 
CONCRETE FLOORS (ON GROUND) 

R506.1 General. Concrete slab-on-ground floors shall be a 
minimum 3.5 inches (89 mm) thick (for expansive soils, see 
Section R403.1.8). The specified compressive strength of con- 
crete shall be as set forth in Section R402.2. 

R506.2 Site preparation. The area within the foundation 
walls shall have all vegetation, top soil and foreign material 
removed. 

R506.2.1 Fill. Fill material shall be free of vegetation and 
foreign material. The fill shall be compacted to assure uni- 
form support of the slab, and except where approved, the fill 
depths shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm) for clean sand 
or gravel and 8 inches (203 mm) for earth. 

R506.2.2 Base. A 4-inch-thick (102 mm) base course con- 
sisting of clean graded sand, gravel, crushed stone or 
crushed blast-furnace slag passing a 2-inch (5 1 mm) sieve 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



121 



122 2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



CHAPTER 6 

WALL CONSTRUCTION 



SECTION R601 
GENERAL 

R601.1 Application. The provisions of this chapter shall con- 
trol the design and construction of all walls and partitions for 
all buildings. 

R601.2 Requirements. Wall construction shall be capable of 
accommodating all loads imposed according to Section R301 
and of transmitting the resulting loads to the supporting struc- 
tural elements. 

R601.2.1 Compressible floor-covering materials. Com- 
pressible floor-covering materials that compress more than 
'/32 inch (0.8 mm) when subjected to 50 pounds (23 kg) 
applied over 1 inch square (645 mm) of material and are 
greater than Vg inch (3 mm) in thickness in the uncom- 
pressed state shall not extend beneath walls, partitions or 
columns, which are fastened to the floor. 



SECTION R602 
WOOD WALL FRAMING 

R602.1 Identification. Load-bearing dimension lumber for 
studs, plates and headers shall be identified by a grade mark of 
a lumber grading or inspection agency that has been approved 
by an accreditation body that complies with DOC PS 20. In lieu 
of a grade mark, a certification of inspection issued by a lumber 
grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this 
section shall be accepted. 

R602.1.1 End-jointed lumber. Approved end-jointed lum- 
ber identified by a grade mark conforming to Section 
R602. 1 may be used interchangeably with solid-sawn mem- 
bers of the same species and grade. 

R602.1.2 Structural glued laminated timbers. Glued 
laminated timbers shall be manufactured and identified as 
required in AITC A190.1 and ASTM D 3737. 

R602.1.3 Structural log members. Stress grading of struc- 
tural log members of nonrectangular shape, as typically 
used in log buildings, shall be in accordance with ASTM D 
3957. Such structural log members shall be identified by the 
grade mark of an approved lumber grading or inspection 
agency. In lieu of a grade mark on the material, a certificate 
of inspection as to species and grade issued by a lum- 
ber-grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements 
of this section shall be permitted to be accepted. 

R602.2 Grade. Studs shall be a minimum No. 3, standard or 
stud grade lumber. 

Exception: Bearing studs not supporting floors and 
nonbearing studs may be utility grade lumber, provided the 
studs are spaced in accordance with Table R602.3(5). 

R602.3 Design and construction. Exterior walls of 
wood-frame construction shall be designed and constructed in 



accordance with the provisions of this chapter and Figures 
R602.3(l) and R602.3(2) or in accordance with AF&PA's 
NDS. Components of exterior walls shall be fastened in accor- 
dance with Tables R602.3(l) through R602.3(4). Exterior 
walls covered with foam plastic sheathing shall be braced in 
accordance with Section R602.10. Structural sheathing shall 
be fastened directly to structural framing members. 

R602.3.1 Stud size,4ieight and spacing. The size, height 
and spacing of studs shall be in accordance with Table 
R602.3.(5). 

Exceptions: 

1 . Utility grade studs shall not be spaced more than 
16 inches (406 mm) on center, shall not support 
more than a roof and ceiling, and shall not exceed 8 
feet (2438 mm) in height for exterior walls and 
load-bearing walls or 10 feet (3048 mm) for inte- 
rior nonload-bearing walls. 

2. Studs more than 10 feet (3048 mm) in height 
which are in accordance with Table R602.3.1. 

R602.3.2 Top plate. Wood stud walls shall be capped with a 
double top plate installed to provide overlapping at comers 
and intersections with bearing partitions. End joints in top 
plates shall be offset at least 24 inches (610 mm). Joints in 
plates need not occur over studs. Plates shall be not less than 
2-inches (51 mm) nominal thickness and have a width at 
least equal to the width of the studs. 

Exception: A single top plate may be installed in stud 
walls, provided the plate is adequately tied at joints, cor- 
ners and intersecting walls by a minimum 3-inch-by- 
6-inch by a 0.036-inch-thick (76 mm by 152 mm by 
0.914 mm) galvanized steel plate that is nailed to each 
wall or segment of wall by six 8d nails on each side, pro- 
vided the rafters or joists are centered over the studs with 
a tolerance of no more than 1 inch (25 mm) . The top plate 
may be omitted over lintels that are adequately tied to 
adjacent wall sections with steel plates or equivalent as 
previously described. 

R602.3.3 Bearing studs. Where joists, trusses or rafters are 
spaced more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center and the 
bearing studs below are spaced 24 inches (610 mm) on cen- 
ter, such members shall bear within 5 inches (127 mm) of 
the studs beneath. 

Exceptions: 

1 . The top plates are two 2-inch by 6-inch (38 mm by 
140 mm) or two 3-inch by 4-inch (64 mm by 89 
mm) members. 

2. A third top plate is installed. 

3 . Solid blocking equal in size to the studs is installed 
to reinforce the double top plate. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



123 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.3(1) 
FASTENER SCHEDULE FOR STRUCTURAL MEMBERS 



DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING ELEMENTS 


NUMBER AND TYPE OF 
FASTENER^''''= 


SPACING OF FASTENERS 


Joist to sill or girder, toe nail 


3-8d (2-V2"x 0.113") 


— 


1" X 6" subfloor or less to each joist, face nail 


2-8d(2V2"x 0.113") 
2 staples, P//' 


— 


2" subfloor to joist or girder, blind and face nail 


2-16d(3V2"x 0.135") 





Sole plate to joist or blocking, face nail 


16d(3V2"x 0.135") 


16" o.c. 


Top or sole plate to stud, end nail 


2-16d(3V2"x 0.135") 





Stud to sole plate, toe nail 


3-8d(2V2"x 0.113") or 
2-16d(3V2"x 0.135") 




Double studs, face nail 


10d(3"x0.128") 


24" o.c. 


Double top plates, face nail 


10d(3"x0.128") 


24" o.c. 


Sole plate to joist or blocking at braced wall panels 


3-16d(3V2"x 0.135") 


16" o.c. 


Double top plates, minimum 24-inch offset of end joints, face nail in 
lapped area 


8-16d(3'/2"x 0.135") 


— 


Blocking between joists or rafters to top plate, toe nail 


3-8d(2V2"x 0.113") 





Rim joist to top plate, toe nail 


8d(2V2"x 0.113") 


6" o.c. 


Top plates, laps at comers and intersections, face nail 


2-10d(3"x0.128") 


— 


Built-up header, two pieces with V2" spacer 


16d(3V2"x 0.135") 


16" o.c. along each edge 


Continued header, two pieces 


16d(3V2"x 0.135") 


16" o.c. along each edge 


Ceiling joists to plate, toe nail 


3-8d(2V2"x 0.113") 





Continuous header to stud, toe nail 


4-8d(2V2"x 0.113") 


, 


Ceiling joist, laps over partitions, face nail 


3-10d(3"x0.128") 





Ceiling joist to parallel rafters, face nail 


3-10d(3"x0.128") 


— 


Rafter to plate, toe nail 


2-16d(3V2"x 0.135") 


— 


1" brace to each stud and plate, face nail 


2-8d(2V2"x 0.113") 
2 staples, IV4" 


— 


1" X 6" sheathing to each bearing, face nail 


2-8d(2V2"x 0.113") 
2 staples, 1%" 


— 


1" X 8" sheathing to each bearing, face nail 


2-8d(2'/2"x 0.113") 
3 staples, 1%" 


— 


Wider than 1" x 8" sheathing to each bearing, face nail 


3-8d(2V2"x0.113") 
4 staples, P//' 


— 


Built-up corner studs 


10d(3"x0.128") 


24"o.c. 


Built-up girders and beams, 2-inch lumber layers 


10d(3"x0.128") 


Nail each layer as follows: 32" o.c. at 
top and bottom and staggered. Two 
nails at ends and at each splice. 


2" planks 


2-16d(3V2"x 0.135") 


At each bearing 


Roof rafters to ridge, valley or hip rafters: 
toe nail 
face nail 


4-16d(3V2"x 0.135") 
3-16d(3V2"x 0.135") 


— 


Rafter ties to rafters, face nail 


3-8d(2V2"x 0.113") 


— 


Collar tie to rafter, face nail, or 1 V4" x 20 gage ridge strap 


3-10d(3"x0.128") 


— 



(continued) 



124 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*" 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.3(1)— continued 
FASTENER SCHEDULE FOR STRUCTURAL MEMBERS 



DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING 
MATERIALS 


DESCRIPTION OF FASTENER"' ='^ 


SPACING OF FASTENERS 


Edges (inches)' Intermediate supports'^'^ (inches) 


Wood structural panels, subfloor, roof and wall sheathing to framing, and partlcleboard wall sheathing to framing 


'i^rii' 


6d common (2" x 0.113") nail (subfloor, wall) 
8d common ilM^' x 0.131") nail (roof)f 


6 


128 


•V-i" 


8d common nail (2V2" x 0.131") 


6 


128 


lVs"-lV4" 


lOd common (3" x 0.148") nail or 
8d (2V2" x 0.131") deformed nail 


6 


12 


other wall sheathing"^ 


V2" structural cellulosic fiberboard 
sheathing 


1 V2" galvanized roofing nail 8d common 
(2V2" X 0.131") nail; staple 16 ga., IV2" long 


3 


6 


^^732" structural cellulosic 
fiberboard sheathing 


1^/4" galvanized roofing nail 8d common 
(2V2" X 0.131") nail; staple 16 ga., IV4" long 


3 


6 


V2" gypsum sheathing'' 


1 V2" galvanized roofing nail; 

6d common (2" x 0.131") nail; staple galvanized 

1 V2" long; 1 V4" screws. Type W or S 


4 


8 


^/g" gypsum sheathing'* 


P/4" galvanized roofing nail; 

8d common (2V2" x 0.131") nail; staple galvanized 

iVg" long; P/g" screws, Type W or S 


4 


8 


Wood structural panels, combination subfloor underlayment to framing 


V4" and less 


6d deformed (2" x 0.120") nail or 
8d common (2V2" x 0.131") nail 


6 


12 


V-1" 


8d common (2V2" x 0.131") nail or 
8d deformed (2V2" x 0.120") nail 


6 


12 


i>V'-iv/ 


lOd common (3" x 0.148") nail or 
8d deformed (2V2" x 0.120") nail 


6 


12 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s; Iksi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. All nails are smooth-common, box or deformed shanks except where otherwise stated. Nails used for framing and sheathing connections shall have minimum aver- 
age bending yield strengths as shown: 80 ksi for shank diameter of 0. 192 inch (20d common nail), 90 ksi for shank diameters larger than 0. 142 inch but not larger 
than 0.177 inch, and 100 ksi for shank diameters of 0.142 inch or less. 

b. Staples are 16 gage wire and have a minimum ^/[5-inch on diameter crown width. 

c. Nails shall be spaced at not more than 6 inches on center at all supports where spans are 48 inches or greater. 

d. Four-foot-by-8-foot or 4-foot-by-9-foot panels shall be applied -vertically. 

e. Spacing of fasteners not included in this table shall be based on Ikble R602.3(2). 

f. For regions having basic wind speed of 110 mph or greater, 8d deformed (2 V2" x 0. 120) nails shall be used for attaching plywood and wood structural panel roof 
sheathing to framing within minimum 48-inch distance from ^ble end walls, if mean roof height is more than 25 feet, up to 35 feet maximum. 

g. For regions having basic wind speed of 1 00 mph or less, nails for attaching wood structural panel roof sheathing to gable end wall framing shall be spaced 6 inches 
on center. When basic wind speed is greater than 100 mph, nails for attaching panel roof sheathing to intermediate supports shall be spaced 6 inches on center for 
minimum 48-inch distance from ridges, eaves and gable end walls; and 4 inches on center to gable end wall framing. 

h. Gypsum sheathing shall conform to ASTM C 79 and shall be installed in accordance with GA 253. Fiberboard sheathing shall conform to ASTM C 208. 

i. Spacing of fasteners on floor sheathing panel edges applies to panel edges supported by framing members and required blocking and at all floor perimeters only. 
Spacing of fasteners on roof sheathing panel edges applies to panel edges supported by framing members and required blocking. Blocking of roof or floor sheath- 
ing panel edges perpendicular to the framing members need not be provided except as required by other provisions of this code. Floor perimeter shall be supported 
by framing members or solid blocking. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*" 



125 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.3(2) 
ALTERNATE ATTACHMENTS 



NOMINAL IVIATERIAL THICKNESS 
(inches) 


DESCRIPTION^'' OF FASTENER AND LENGTH 
(inches) 


SPACING"=OF FASTENERS 


Edges 
(inches) 


Intermediate supports 
(inches) 


Wood structural panels subfloor, roof and wall sheathing to framing and particleboard wall sheathing to framing' 


up to V2 


Staple 15 ga. IV4 


4 


8 


0.097 - 0.099 Nail 2V4 


3 


6 


Staple 16 ga. 1% 


3 


6 


'%2 and 5/3 


0.113 Nail 2 


3 


6 


Staple 15 and 16 ga. 2 


4 


8 


0.097 - 0.099 Nail 2V4 


4 


8 


23/32 and % 


Staple 14 ga. 2 


4 


8 


Staple 15 ga. IV4 


3 


6 


0.097 - 0.099 Nail 2V4 


4 


8 


Staple 16 ga. 2 


4 


8 


1 


Staple 14 ga. 2V4 


4 


8 


0.113 Nail 2 V4 


3 


6 


Staple 15 ga. 2V4 


4 


8 


0.097 - 0.099 Nail 2V2 


4 


8 


NOMINAL MATERIAL THICKNESS 
(inches) 


DESCRIPTION^'" OF FASTENER AND LENGTH 
(inches) 


SPACING'^ OF FASTENERS 


Edges 
(inches) 


Body of panel'' 
(inches) 


Floor underlayment; plywood-hardboard-particleboard' 


Plywood 


V4and5/,6 


1 V4 ring or screw shank nail — minimum 
12V, ga. (0.099") shank diameter 


3 


6 


Staple 18 ga., ^/^, V,f; crown width 


2 


5 


/32» /g' ^32' I2 

and ^9/32 


1 V4 ring or screw shank nail — minimum 
I2V2 ga. (0.099") shank diameter 


6 


8^ 


Vg, 23/32 and V4 


1 V2 ring or screw shank nail — minimum 
I2V2 ga. (0.099") shank diameter 


6 


8 


Staple 16 ga. IV2 


6 


8 


Hard board' 


0.200 


1 '/2 long ring-grooved underlayment nail 


6 


6 


4d cement-coated sinker nail 


6 


6 


Staple 18 ga., %long (plastic coated) 


3 


6 


Particleboard 


'/4 


4d ring-grooved underlayment nail 


3 


6 


Staple 18 ga., % long, Vj^ crown 


3 


6 


% 


6d ring-grooved underlayment nail 


6 


10 


Staple 16 ga., iVg long, % crown 


3 


6 


%% 


6d ring-grooved underlayment nail 


6 


10 


Staple 16 ga., iVglong, Vg crown 


3 


6 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Nail is a general description and may be T-head, modified round head or round head. 

b. Staples shall have a minimum crown width of ^/jg-inch on diameter except as noted. 

c. Nails or staples shall be spaced at not more than 6 inches on center at all supports where spans are 48 inches or greater. Nails or staples shall be spaced at not more 
than 12 inches on center at intermediate supports for floors. 

d. Fasteners shall be placed in a grid pattern throughout the body of the panel. 

e. For 5-ply panels, intermediate nails shall be spaced not more than 12 inches on center each way. 

f. Hardboard underlayment shall conform to ANSI/ AHA A135.4. 



126 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.3(3) 
WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL WALL SHEATHING 



PANEL SPAN RATING 


PANEL NOMINAL THICKNESS 
(inch) 


MAXIMUM STUD SPACING (inches) 


Siding nailed to:^ 


Stud 


Sheathing 


12/0, 16/0, 20/0, or wall —16 o.c. 


'Ue,% 


16 


16" 


24/0, 24/16, 32/16 or wall— 24 o.c. 


/g' /l6' /32' I2 


24 


24'^ 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Blocking of horizontal joints shall not be required. 

b. Plywood sheathing ^/g-inch thick or less shall be applied with long dimension across studs. 

c. Three-ply plywood panels shall be applied with long dimension across studs. 



TABLE R602.3(4) 
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR PARTICLEBOARD WALL SHEATHING^ 



THICKNESS 
(inch) 


GRADE 


STUD SPACING 
(inches) 


When siding is nailed to studs 


When siding is nailed to sheathing 


\ 


M-1 Exterior glue 


16 


— 


% 


M-2 Exterior glue 


16 


16 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Wall sheathing not exposed to the weather. If the panels are appUed horizontally, the end j oints of the panel shall be offset so that four panels comers will not meet. 
All panel edges must be supported. Leave a Vjg-inch gap between panels and nail no closer than^/g inch from panel edges. 



TABLE R602.3(5) 
SIZE, HEIGHT AND SPACING OF WOOD STUDS^ 



STUD SIZE 
(inches) 


BEARING WALLS 


NONBEARING WALLS 


Laterally 

unsupported stud 

height^ 

(feet) 


Maximum spacing 

when supporting 

roof and ceiling 

only 

(inches) 


Maximum spacing 

when supporting 

one floor, roof 

and ceiling 

(inches) 


Maximum spacing 

when supporting 

two floors, roof 

and ceiling 

(inches) 


Maximum spacing 

when supporting 

one floor only 

(inches) 


Laterally 

unsupported stud 

height^ 

(feet) 


Maximum spacing 
(inches) 


2x31^ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


10 


16 


2x4 


10 


24 


16 


— 


24 


14 


24 


3x4 


10 


24 


24 


16 


24 


14 


24 


2x5 


10 


24 


24 


— 


24 


16 


24 


2x6 


10 


24 


24 


16 


24 


20 


24 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Listed heights are distances between points of lateral support placed perpendicular to the plane of the wall. Increases in unsupported height are permitted where 
justified by analysis. 

b. Shall not be used in exterior walls. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



127 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 




TOP PLATE 



BOTTOM PLATE 



TOP PLATE 




BAND JOIST 
OR BLOCKING 

SILL PLATE. 



y//N\\\y// 



RAFTERS AND CEILING 
JOISTS OR APPROVED 
ROOF TRUSS 



SECOND STORY 




FLOOR JOIST- 
SEE DRILLING AND 
NOTCHING PROVISIONS 
SECTION R502.8 



JOIST IS PERMITTED TO 
BE CUT OR NOTCHED 
BETWEEN THESE LIMITS 



\ |//3SPAN^| 



V3 SPAN 



o 



BAND JOIST OR 
BLOCKING 



BOTTOM PLATE 




-/ 



FOR BLOCKING AND 
BRIDGING—SEE 
SECTION R502.7 



BEARING 
WALL 



LAP JOIST 3 IN. MIN. 
OR SPLICE— SEE 
SECTION R502.6.1 



CRAWL SPACE OR 

BASEMENT 

FOUNDATION 



'/// \\\^ //// n\\\ y// v\\V/// \\V 






SUBFLOOR 



TOP PLATE - 
SEE DRILLING AND 
NOTCHING PROVISIONS 
SECTION R602.6.1 



WALL STUD- 
SEE DRILLING AND 
NOTCHING PROVISIONS 
SECTION R602.6 



JOIST NAILED TO 
STUD 



1 IN. X 4 IN. RIBBON 
CUT INTO STUD- 
SEE SECTION R502.,6 



SEE SECTION R602.8 
FOR FIRE BLOCKING 



WW/// 



PLATFORM FRAMING 



INTERMEDIATE 
BEARING WALL 



MONOLITHIC 

SLAB-ON-GRADE 

FOUNDATION 



BALLOON FRAMING 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R602.3(1) 
TYPICAL WALL, FLOOR AND ROOF FRAMING 



128 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



SINGLE OR DOUBLE 
TOP PLATE 



CUT PLATE TIED WITH 
,16 GAGE STEEL STRAP. 
SEE SECTION R602.6.1. 



FIREBLOCK AROUND 
PIPE 



WALL STUDS- 
SEE SECTION R602.3 



SUBFLOOR 



SILL PLATE 





STAGGER JOINTS 24 IN. OR 
USE SPLICE PLATES- 
SEE SECTION R602.3.2 



HEADER- 
SEE TABLES R502.5(1) 
AND R502,5(2) 



BOTTOM 
PUTE 



SOUD BLOCKING 
FLOOR JOISTS 



FOUNDATION 
CRIPPLE WALL- 
SEE SECTION R602.9 



FOUNDATION 
WALL STUDS 



1 IN. BY 4 IN. 
DIAGONAL BRACE 
LET INTO STUDS 



ANCHOR BOLTS EMBEDDED IN 
FOUNDATION 6 FT O.C. MAX. 



CORNER AND PARTITION POSTS 



m^ 



JL 



^ 



M^ 




APPLY APPROVED SHEATHING OR BRACE 
EXTERIOR WALLS WITH 1 IN. BY 4 IN. BRACES LET 
INTO STUDS AND PLATES AND EXTENDING FROM 
BOTTOM PUTE TO TOP PLATE, OR OTHER 
APPROVED METAL STRAP DEVICES INSTALLED IN 
ACCORDANCE WITH THE MANUFACTURER'S 
SPECIFICATIONS. SEE SECTION R602.10. 



NOTE: A THIRD STUD AND/OR PARTITION INTERSECTION 
BACKING STUDS SHALL BE PERMITTED TO BE OMITTED 
THROUGH THE USE OF WOOD BACKUP CLEATS, METAL 
DRYWALL CLIPS OR OTHER APPROVED DEVICES THAT 
WILL SERVE AS ADEQUATE BACKING FOR THE FACING 
MATERIALS. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



FIGURE R602.3(2) 
FRAMING DETAILS 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



129 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.3.1 

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE LENGTH OF WOOD WALL STUDS EXPOSED TO WIND SPEEDS OF 100 mph OR LESS 

IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES A, B, C and Dq, D^ AND Dj" '= 



HEIGHT 
(feet) 


ON-CENTER SPACING (inches) 


24 


16 


12 


8 


Supporting a roof only 


>10 


2x4 


2x4 


2x4 


2x4 


12 


2x6 


2x4 


2x4 


2x4 


14 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


2x4 


16 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


2x4 


18 


NA^ 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


20 


NA^ 


NA" ■ 


2x6 


2x6 


24 


NA^ 


NA^ : 


NA^ 


2x6 


Supporting one floor and a roof 


>10 


2x6 


2x4, 


2x4 


2x4 


12 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


2x4 


14 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


16 


NA^ 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


18 


NA^ 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


20 


NA^ 


NA"* 


2x6 


2x6 


24 


NA^ 


NA^ 


NA^ 


2 X 6 


Supporting two floors and a roof 


>10 


2x6 


2x6 


2x4 


2x4 


12 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


2x6 


14 


2x6 


2x6: 


2x6 


2x6 


16 


NA^ 


NA'' ■ 


2x6 


2x6 


18 


NA^ 


NA'^ ; 


2x6 


2x6 


20 


NA^ 


NA'' 


NA^ 


2x6 


22 


NA^ 


NA'^ , 


NA^ 


NA.^ 


24 


NA^ 


NA'^ , 


NA^ 


NA" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 
1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Design required. 

b. Applicabihty of this table assumes the following: Snow load not exceeding 25 psf ,/^ not less than 1 3 10 psi determined by multiplying the AF&PA NDS tabular 
base design value by the repetitive use factor, and by the size factor for all species except southern pine, E not less than 1 .6 x 1 0^ psi, tributary dimensions for floors 
and roofs not exceeding 6 feet, maximum span for floors and roof not exceeding 1 2 feet, eaves not over 2 feet in dimension and exterior sheathing. Where the condi- 
tions are not within these parameters, design is required. 

c. Utility, standard, stud and No. 3 grade lumber of any species are not permitted. ' 

(continued) 



130 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.3.1— continued 

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE LENGTH OF WOOD WALL STUDS EXPOSED TO WIND SPEEDS OF 100 mph OR LESS 

IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES A, B, C, Dq, D^ and D^ 




H = HEIGHT 



1 ROOF LOAD 



1 ROOF LOAD 
1 FLOOR LOAD 



1 FLOOR 




1 ROOF LOAD 

2 FLOOR LOADS 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE"" 



131 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R602.3.4 Bottom (sole) plate. Studs shall have full bearing 
on a nominal 2-by (38 mm) or larger plate or sill having a 
width at least equal to the width of the studs. 

R602.4 Interior load-bearing walls. Interior load-bearing 
walls shall be constructed, framed and fireblocked as specified 
for exterior walls. 

R602.5 Interior nonbearing walls. Interior nonbearing 
walls shall be permitted to be constructed with 
2-inch-by-3-inch (5 1 mm by 76 mm) studs spaced 24 inches 
(610 mm) on center or, when not part of a braced wall line, 
2-inch-by-4-inch (5 1 mm by 1 02 mm) flat studs spaced at 1 6 
inches (406 mm) on center. Interior nonbearing walls shall 
be capped with at least a single top plate. Interior nonbearing 
walls shall be fireblocked in accordance with Section 
R602.8. 

IR602.6 Drilling and notching-studs. Drilling and notching 
of studs shall be in accordance with the following: 



1. Notching. Any stud in an exterior wall or bearing parti- 
tion may be cut or notched to a depth not exceeding 25 
percent of its width. Studs in nonbearing partitions may 
be notched to a depth not to exceed 40 percent of a single 
stud width. 

2. Drilling. Any stud may be bored or drilled, provided that 
the diameter of the resulting hole is no more than 60 per- 
cent of the stud width, the edge of the hole is no more 
than Vg inch (16 mm) to the edge of the stud, and the hole 
is not located in the same section as a cut or notch. Studs 
located in exterior walls or bearing partitions drilled over 
40 percent and up to 60 percent shall also be doubled 
with no more than two successive doubled studs bored. 
See Figures R602.6(l) and R602.6(2). 

Exception: Use of approved stud shoes is permitted 
when they are installed in accordance with the manu- 
facturer's recommendations. 



TOP PLATES 



BORED HOLE MAX. 
DIAMETER 40 PERCENtX 
OF STUD DEPTH A 



5/8 IN. MIN. TOEDGE 



NOTCH MUST NOT EXCEED 25 
PERCENT OF STUD DEPTH 



BORED HOLES SHALL NOT BE 
LOCATED IN THE SAME CROSS 
SECTION OF CUT OR NOTCH IN 
STUD 




STUD 



% IN. MIN. TO EDGE 



IF HOLE IS BETWEEN 40 PERCENT AND 
60 PERCENT OF STUD DEPTH, THEN STUD 
MUST BE DOUBLE AND NO MORE THAN TWO 
SUCCESSIVE STUDS ARE DOUBLED AND SO 
BORED 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

NOTE: Condition for exterior and bearing walls. 



FIGURE R602.6(1) 
NOTCHING AND BORED HOLE LIMITATIONS FOR EXTERIOR WALLS AND BEARING WALLS 



132 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TOP PLATES 



BORED HOLE MAX. 
DIAMETER 60 PERCENT \ 
OF STUD DEPTH ^ 



5/glN. MIN. TOEDGE 



NOTCH MUST NOT EXCEED 
40 PERCENT OF STUD DEPTH 



BORED HOLES SHALL NOT BE 
LOCATED IN THE SAME CROSS 
SECTION OF CUT OR NOTCH IN 
STUD 




STUD 



5/g IN. MIN. TO EDGE 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R602.6(2) 
NOTCHING AND BORED HOLE LIMITATIONS FOR INTERIOR NONBEARING WALLS 



R602.6.1 Drilling and notching of top plate. When piping 
or ductwork is placed in or pardy in an exterior wall or inte- 
rior load-bearing wall, necessitating cutting, drilling or 
notching of the top plate by more than 50 percent of its 
width, a galvanized metal tie of not less than 0.054 inch 
thick (1.37 mm) (16 ga) and 1 Vj inches (38 mm) wide shall 
be fastened across and to the plate at each side of the open- 
ing with not less than eight 16d nails at each side or equiva- 
lent. See Figure R602.6.1. 

Exception: When the entire side of the wall with the 
notch or cut is covered by wood structural panel sheath- 
ing. 

R602.7 Headers. For header spans see Tables R502.5(l) and 
R502.5(2). 

R602.7.1 Wood structural panel box headers. Wood 
structural panel box headers shall be constructed in accor- 
dance with Figure R602.7.2 and Table R602.7.2. 

R602.7.2 Nonbearing walls. Load-bearing headers are not 
required in interior or exterior nonbearing walls. A single 



flat 2-inch-by-4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) member may be 
used as a header in interior or exterior nonbearing walls for 
openings up to 8 feet (2438 mm) in width if the vertical dis- 
tance to the parallel nailing surface above is not more than 
24 inches (610 mm). For such nonbearing headers, no crip- 
ples or blocking are required above the header. 

R602.8 Fireblocking required. Fireblocking shall be provided 
to cut off all concealed draft openings (both vertical and horizon- 
tal) and to form an effective fire barrier between stories, and 
between a top story and the roof space. Fireblocking shall be 
provided in wood-frame construction in the following locations. 

1 . In concealed spaces of stud walls and partitions, includ- 
ing furred spaces and parallel rows of studs or staggered 
studs; as follows: 

1.1. Vertically at the ceiling and floor levels. 

1.2. Horizontally at intervals not exceeding 10 feet 
(3048 mm). 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



133 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



BCTERIOR OR BEARING WALL, 



NOTCH GREATER THAN 50 
PERCENT OF THE PU^TE WIDTH 




16 GAGE (0.054 IN.) AND 1 .5 IN. WIDE 
METAL TIE FASTENED ACROSS AND 
TO THE PLATE AT EACH SIDE OF THE 
NOTCH WITH 8-16d NAILS EACH SIDE 



TOP PLATES 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R602.6.1 
TOP PLATE FRAMING TO ACCOMMODATE PIPING 



2. At all interconnections between concealed vertical and 
horizontal spaces such as occur at soffits, drop ceilings 
and cove ceilings. 

3 . In concealed spaces between stair stringers at the top and 
bottom of the run. Enclosed spaces under stairs shall 
comply with Section R3 11.2.2. 

4. At openings around vents, pipes, ducts, cables and wires 
at ceiling and floor level, with an approved material to 
resist the free passage of flame and products of combus- 
tion. 

5 . For the fireblocking of chimneys and fireplaces, see Sec- 
tion R1003. 19. 

6. Fireblocking of cornices of a two-family dwelling is 
required at the line of dwelling unit separation. 

R602.8.1 Materials. Except as provided in Section R602.8, 
Item 4, fireblocking shall consist of 2-inch (5 1 mm) nomi- 
nal lumber, or two thicknesses of 1-inch (25.4 mm) nominal 
lumber with broken lap joints, or one thickness of ^Vgj-inch 
(19.8 mm) wood structural panels with joints backed by 
2V32-inch (19.8 mm) wood structural panels or one thickness 
of V4-inch (19.1 mm) particleboard with joints backed by 
V4-inch (19.1 mm) particleboard, V2-inch (12.7 mm) gyp- 
sum board, or V4-inch (6.4 mm) cement-based millboard. 
Batts or blankets of mineral wool or glass fiber or other 
approved materials installed in such a manner as to be 
securely retained in place shall be permitted as an accept- 
able fire block. Batts or blankets of mineral or glass fiber or 
other approved nonrigid materials shall be permitted for 
compliance with the 10 foot horizontal fireblocking in walls 
constructed using parallel rows of studs or staggered studs. 



Loose-fill insulation material shall not be used as a fire 
block unless specifically tested in the form and manner 
intended for use to demonstrate its ability to remain in place 
and to retard the spread of fire and hot gases. 

R602.8.1.1 Unfaced fiberglass. Unfaced fiberglass batt 
insulation used as fireblocking shall fill the entire cross 
section of the wall cavity to a minimum height of 16 
inches (406 mm) measured vertically. When piping, con- 
duit or similar obstructions are encountered, the insula- 
tion shall be packed tightly around the obstruction. 

R602.8.1.2 Fireblocking integrity. The integrity of all 
fireblocks shall be maintained. 

R602.9 Cripple walls. Foundation cripple walls shall be 
framed of studs not smaller than the studding above. When 
exceeding 4 feet (1219 mm) in height, such walls shall be 
framed of studs having the size required for an additional story. 

Cripple walls with a stud height less than 14 inches (356 
mm) shall be sheathed on at least one side with a wood struc- 
tural panel that is fastened to both the top and bottom plates in 
accordance with Table R602.3(l), or the cripple walls shall be 
constructed of solid blocking. Cripple walls shall be supported 
on continuous foundations. ' 

R602.10 Wall bracing. All exterior walls shall be braced in 
accordance with this section. In addition, interior braced wall 
lines shall be provided in accordance with Section R602. 10. 1.1. 
For buildings in Seismic Design Categories Dq, Dj and D2, walls 
shall be constructed in accordance with the additional require- 
ments of Sections R602.10.9, R602.10.il, and R602.il. 



134 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.7.2 
MAXIMUM SPANS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL BOX HEADERS^ 



HEADER 

construction" 


HEADER DEPTH 
(inches) 


HOUSE DEPTH (feet) 


24 


26 


28 


30 


32 


Wood structural 
panel — one side 


9 
15 


4 
5 


4 
5 


3 
4 


3 
3 


3 


Wood structural 
panel — both sides 


9 

15 


7 
8 


5 
8 


5 
7 


4 
7 


3 
6 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Spans are based on single story with clear-span trussed roof or two-story with floor and roof supported by interior-bearing walls. 

b. See Figure R602.7.2 for construction details. 



CRIPPUE* 



TOP PLATE* 



STRENGTH AXIS 




HEADER DEPTH 



STRENGTH AXIS 



WOOD 



9 IN. OR 
tSIN. 



STRUCTURAL 
PANEL* « 



INSULATION AS 
REQUIRED 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 ram, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 
NOTES: 

a. The top plate shall be continuous over header. 

b. Jack studs shall be used for spans over 4 feet. SECTION 

c. Cripple spacing shall be the same as for studs. 

d. Wood structural panel faces shall be single pieces of ' ^732- inch-thick Exposure 1 (exterior glue) or thicker, installed on the interior or exterior or both sides of the 
header 

e. Wood structural panel faces shall be nailed to framing and cripples with 8d common or galvanized box nails spaced 3 inches on center, staggering alternate nails 
V2 inch. Galvanized nails shall be hot-dipped or tumbled. 

FIGURE R602.7.2 
TYPICAL WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL BOX HEADER CONSTRUCTION 




2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE"" 



135 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R602.10.1 Braced wall lines. Braced wall lines shall con- 
sist of braced wall panel construction in accordance with 
Section R602.10.3. The amount and location of bracing 
shall be in accordance with Table R602.10.1 and the 
amount of bracing shall be the greater of that required by 
the seismic design category or the design wind speed. 
Braced wall panels shall begin no more than 12.5 feet 
(3810 mm) from each end of a braced wall line. Braced 
wall panels that are counted as part of a braced wall line 
shall be in line, except that offsets out-of-plane of up to 4 
feet (1219 mm) shall be permitted provided that the total 
out-to-out offset dimension in any braced wall line is not 
more than 8 feet (2438 mm). 

R602.10.1.1 Spacing. Spacing of braced wall lines shall 
not exceed 35 feet (10 668 mm) on center in both the lon- 
gitudinal and transverse directions in each story. 

Exception: Spacing of braced wall lines not exceed- 
ing 50 feet shall be permitted where: 

1 . The wall bracing installed equals or exceeds the 
amount of bracing required by Table R602. 10. 1 
multiplied by a factor equal to the braced wall 
line spacing divided by 35 feet and 

2. The length-to- width ratio for the floor or roof 
diaphragm does not exceed 3:1. 

R602.10.2 Cripple wall bracing. 

R602.10.2.1 Seismic design categories other than D2. 

In Seismic Design Categories other than Dj, cripple 
walls shall be braced with an amount and type of bracing 
as required for the wall above in accordance with Table 
R602.10.1 with the following modifications for cripple 
wall bracing: 

1. The percent bracing amount as determined from 
Table R602.10.1 shall be increased by 15 percent 
and 

2. The wall panel spacing shall be decreased to 18 
feet (5486 mm) instead of 25 feet (7620 mm). 

R602.10.2.2 Seismic Design Category Dj. In Seismic 
Design Category D2, cripple walls shall be braced in 
accordance with Table R602.10.1. 

R602.10.2.3 Redesignation of cripple walls. In any 

seismic design category, cripple walls are permitted to be 
redesignated as the first story walls for purposes of deter- 
mining wall bracing requirements. If the cripple walls 
are redesignated, the stories above the redesignated story 
shall be counted as the second and third stories, respec- 
tively. 

R602.10.3 Braced wall panel construction methods. The 

construction of braced wall panels shall be in accordance 
with one of the following methods: 

1 . Nominal 1 -inch-by-4-inch (25 mm by 102 mm) con- 
tinuous diagonal braces let in to the top and bottom 
plates and the intervening studs or approved metal 
strap devices installed in accordance with the manu- 
facturer's specifications. The let-in bracing shall be 
placed at an angle not more than 60 degrees (1.06 



rad) or less than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) from the hori- 
zontal. 

2. Wood boards of ^/g inch (16 mm) net minimum thick- 
ness applied diagonally on studs spaced a maximum 
of 24 inches (610 mm). Diagonal boards shall be 
attached to studs in accordance with Table R602.3(l). 

3. Wood structural panel sheathing with a thickness not 
less than Vjg inch (8 mm) for 16-inch (406 mm) stud 
spacing and not less than Vg inch (9 mm) for 24-inch 
(610 mm) stud spacing. Wood structural panels shall 
be installed in accordance with Table R602.3(3). 

4. One-half-inch (13 mm) or 25/32-inch (20 mm) thick 
structural fiberboard sheathing applied vertically or 
horizontally on studs spaced a maximum of 16 
inches (406 mm) on center. Structural fiberboard 
sheathing shall be installed in accordance with Table 
R602.3(l). 

5 . Gypsum board with minimum Vj-inch (13 mm) thick- 
ness placed on studs spaced a maximum of 24 inches 
(610 mm) on center and fastened at 7 inches (178 mm) 
on center with the size nails specified in Table 
R602.3(l) for sheathing and Table R702.3.5 for inte- 
rior gypsum board. 

6. Particleboard wall sheathing panels installed in 
accordance with Table R602.3(4). 

7. Portland cement plaster on studs spaced a maximum 
of 16 inches (406 mm) on center and installed in 
accordance with Section R703.6. 

8. Hardboard panel siding when installed in accordance 
with Table R703. 4. 

Exception: Alternate braced wall panels constructed in 
accordance with Section R602. 10.6.1 or R602. 10.6.2 
shall be permitted to replace any of the above methods of 
braced wall panels. 

R602.10.4 Length of braced panels. For Methods 2, 3, 4, 
6, 7 and 8 above, each braced wall panel shall be at least 48 
inches (1219 nrni) in length, covering a minimum of three 
stud spaces where studs are spaced 16 inches (406 mm) on 
center and covering a minimum of two stud spaces where 
studs are spaced 24 inches (610 mm) on center. For Method 
5 above, each braced wall panel shall be at least 96 inches 
(2438 mm) in length where applied to one face of a braced 
wall panel and at least 48 inches (1219 mm) where applied 
to both faces. 

Exceptions: 

1. Lengths of braced wall panels for ^continuous 
wood structural panel sheathing shall be in accor- 
dance with Section R602. 10.5. 

2. Lengths of alternate braced wall panels shall be in 
accordance with Section R602. 10.6.1 or Section 
R602. 10.6.2. 

R602.10.5 Continuous wood structural panel sheathing. 

When continuous wood structural panel sheathing is pro- 
vided in accordance with Method 3 of Section R602. 10.3 on 
all sheathable areas of all exterior walls, and interior braced 



136 



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WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.10.1 
WALL BRACING 



SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY OR 
WIND SPEED 


CONDITION 


TYPE OF BRACE"' = 


AMOUNT OF BRACING^' "' ^ 


Category A and B (S, < 0.35g 
and S^, < 0.33g) or 100 mph or 
less 


One story 
Top of two or three story 


Methodsl,2, 3,4, 5,6,7or8 


Located in accordance with Section R602. 10 and at 
least every 25 feet on center but not less than 16% 
of braced wall line for Methods 2 through 8. 


First story of two story 
Second story of three story 


Methods 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 


Located in accordance with Section R602.10 and 
at least every 25 feet on center but not less than 
16% of braced wall line for Method 3 or 25% of 
braced wall hne for Methods 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8. 


First story of three story 


Methods 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 


Located in accordance with Section R602.10 and 
at least every 25 feet on center but not less than 
25% of braced wall hne for Method 3 or 35% of 
braced wall line for Methods 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8. 


Category C (S, < 0.6g and 
S^,<0.50g) or less than 110 
mph 


One story 
Top of two or three story 


Methods 1,2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 


Located in accordance with Section R602.10 and 
at least every 25 feet on center but not less than 
16% of braced wall Une for Method 3 or 25% of 
braced wall line for Methods 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8. 


First story of two story 
Second story of three story 


Methods 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 


Located in accordance with Section R602.10 and 
at least every 25 feet on center but not less than 
30% of braced wall Une for Method 3 or 45% of 
braced wall Une for Methods 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8. 


First story of three story 


Methods 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 


Located in accordance with Section R602.10 and 
at least every 25 feet on center but not less than 
45% of braced wall Une for Method 3 or 60% of 
braced wall Une for Methods 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8. 


Categories Dq and Dj 
(S,<1.25gandS,,<0.83g) 
or less than 110 mph 


One story 
Top of two or three story 


Methods 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 


Located in accordance with Section R602.10 and 
at least every 25 feet on center but not less than 
20% of braced wall hne for Method 3 or 30% of 
braced waU Une for Methods 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8. 


First story of two story 
Second story of three story 


Methods 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 


Located in accordance with Section R602. 10 and 
at least every 25 feet on center but not less than 
45% of braced wall Une for Method 3 or 60% of 
braced wall Une for Methods 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8. 


First story of three story 


Methods 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 


Located in accordance with Section R602.10 and 
at least every 25 feet on center but not less than 
60% of braced waU Une for Method 3 or 85% of 
braced wall Une for Methods 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8. 


Category Dj or less than 
110 mph 


One story 
Top of two story 


Methods 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 


Located in accordance with Section R602.10 and 
at least every 25 feet on center but not less than 
25% of braced wall Une for Method 3 or 40% of 
braced waU Une for Methods 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8. 


First story of two story 


Methods 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8 


Located in accordance with Section R602.10 and 
at least every 25 feet on center but not less than 
55% of braced waU line for Method 3 or 75% of 
braced waU Une for Methods 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8. 


Cripple walls 


Method 3 


Located in accordance with Section R602.10 
and at least every 25 feet on center but not less 
than 75% of braced wall line. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot - 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 mile per hour = 0.477 m/s. 

a. Wall bracing amounts are based on a soil site class "D." Interpolation of bracing amounts between the S^^ values associated with the seismic design categories shall 
be permitted when a site specific S^^ value is determined in accordance with Section 1613.5 of the International Building Code. 

b. Foundation cripple wall panels shall be braced in accordance with Section R602.10.2. 

c. Methods of bracing shall be as described in Section R602. 10.3. The alternate braced wall panels described in Section R602. 10.6. 1 or R602. 10.6.2 shall also be per- 
mitted. 

d. The bracing amounts for Seismic Design Categories are based on a 15 psf wall dead load. For walls with a dead load of 8 psf or less, the bracing amounts shall be 
permitted to be multiplied by 0.85 provided that the adjusted bracing amount is not less than that required for the site's wind speed. The minimum length of braced 
panel shall not be less than required by Section R602.10.3. 

e. When the dead load of the roof/ceiling exceeds 15 psf, the bracing amounts shall be increased in accordance with Section R301. 2.2.2.1. Bracing required for a 
site's wind speed shall not be adjusted. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE"" 



137 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



wall lines, where required, including areas above and below 
openings, bracing wall panel lengths shall be in accordance 
with Table R602.10.5. Wood structural panel sheathing 
shall be installed at comers in accordance with Figure 
R602.10.5. The bracing amounts in Table R602.10.1 for 
Method 3 shall be permitted to be multiplied by a factor of 
0.9 for wall with a maximum opening height that does not 
exceed 85 percent of the wall height or a factor of 0.8 for 
walls with a maximum opening height that does not exceed 
67 percent of the wall height. 

R602.10.6 Alternate braced wall panel construction 
methods. Alternate braced wall panels shall be constructed 
in accordance with Sections R602. 10.6. 1 and R602. 10.6.2. 

R602.10.6.1 Alternate braced wall panels. Altemate 
braced wall lines constructed in accordance with one of the 
following provisions shall be permitted to replace each 4 
feet (1219 mm) of braced wall panel as required by Section 
R602.10.4. The maximum height and minimum width of 
each panel shall be in accordance with Table R602.10.6: 

1. In one-story buildings, each panel shall be 
sheathed on one face with ^/g-inch-mini- 
mum- thickness (10 mm) wood structural panel 
sheathing nailed with 8d common or galvanized 
box nails in accordance with Table R602.3(l) and 
blocked at all wood structural panel sheathing 
edges. Two anchor bolts installed in accordance 
with Figure R403.1(l) shall be provided in each 
panel. Anchor bolts shall be placed at panel quarter 
points. Each panel end stud shall have a tie-down 
device fastened to the foundation, capable of pro- 
viding an uplift capacity in accordance with Table 
R602.10.6. The tie down device shall be installed 
in accordance with the manufacturer's recommen- 
dations. The panels shall be supported directly on a 



foundation or on floor framing supported directly 
on a foundation which is continuous across the 
entire length of the braced wall line. This founda- 
tion shall be reinforced with not less than one No. 4 
bar top and bottom. When the continuous founda- 
tion is required to have a depth greater than 12 
inches (305 mm), a minimum 12-inch-by- 12-inch 
(305 mm by 305 mm) continuous footing or turned 
down slab edge is permitted at door openings in the 
braced wall line. This continuous footing or turned 
down slab edge shall be reinforced with not less 
than one No. 4 bar top and bottom. This reinforce- 
ment shall be lapped 15 inches (381 mm) with the 
reinforcement required in the continuous founda- 
tion located directly under the braced wall line. 

2. In the first story of two-story buildings, each 
braced wall panel shall be in accordance with Item 
1 above, except that the wood structural panel 
sheathing shall be installed on both faces, sheath- 
ing edge nailing spacing shall not exceed 4 inches 
(102 mm) on center, at least three anchor bolts 
shall be placed at one-fifth points. 

R602.10.6.2 Alternate braced wall panel adjacent to a 
door or window opening. Altemate braced wall panels 
constructed in accordance with one of the following pro- 
visions are also permitted to replace each 4 feet (1219 
mm) of braced wall panel as required by Section 
R602. 10.4 for use adjacent to a window or door opening 
with a full-length header: 

1. In one-story buildings, each panel shall have a 
length of not less than 16 inches (406 mm) and a 
height of not more than 10 feet (3048 mm). Each 
panel shall be sheathed on one face with a single 
layer of Vg-inch-minimum- thickness (10 mm) 



TABLE R602.10.5 
LENGTH REQUIREMENTS FOR BRACED WALL PANELS IN A CONTINUOUSLY SHEATHED WALL^ "> = 



MINIMUM LENGTH OF BRACED WALL PANEL 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM OPENING HEIGHT NEXT TO THE BRACED WALL PANEL 
(% of wall height) 


8-foot wall 


9-foot wall 


10-foot wall 


48 


54 


60 


100 


32 


36 


40 


85 


24 


27 


30 


65 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 305 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa. 

a. Linear interpolation shall be permitted. 

b. Full-height sheathed wall segments to either side of garage openings that support light frame roofs only, with roof covering dead loads of 3 psf or less shall be per- 
mitted to have a 4:1 aspect ratio, i 

c. Walls on either or both sides of openings in garages attached to fully sheathed dwellings shall be permitted to be built in accordance with Section R602. 10.6.2 and 
Figure R602. 10.6.2 except that a single bottom plate shall be permitted and two anchor bolts shall be placed at 1/3 points. In addition, tie-down devices shall not be 
required and the vertical wall segment shall have a maximum 6: 1 height-to-width ratio (with height being measured from top of header to the bottom of the sill 
plate). This option shall be permitted for the first story of two-story applications in Seismic Design Categories A through C. 



138 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE 



® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



16dNAILAT12IN.O.C 




ORIENTATION OF STUD WIAV VARY.SE£ FIGURE R602.3{2) 



GYPSUM WALL BOARD INSTALLED IN 
ACCORDANCE WfTH CHAPTER 7 



1 



X 



ad NAIL AT 6 IN. 0,C. 
(ALL PANEL EDGES) 



8d NAIL AT 12 IN.O.CON ALL 
FRAMING MEMBERS NOT AT 
PANEL EDGES 



WOOD STRUaURAL PANEL 
INSTALLED IN ACCORDANCE 
WITH TABLE R602.3C1) 



fa) OUTSIDE CORNER DETAIL 



16dNAILAT12(N,O.C 




ORIENTATION OF STUD MAY VARY. SEE FIGURE R602.3(2) 



GYPSUM WALL BOARD INSTALLED IN 
ACCORDANCE WITH CHAPTER 7 (INTERIOR) 



I. 



N 



WOOD STRUaURAL PANEL 
INSTALLED (N ACCORDANCE 
WITH TABLE R602.3(1) 



8d NAIL AT6 IN.O.C.ALL FRAMING 
MEMBERS AT PANEL EDGES AND 12 IN. 
O.C.ON ALLFRAMING MEMBERS NOT 
AT PANEL EDGES 



{b| INSIDE CORNER DETAIL 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

Gypsum board nails deleted for clarity. 



FIGURE R602.10.5 

TYPICAL EXTERIOR CORNER FRAMING FOR CONTINUOUS STRUCTURAL 

PANEL SHEATHING; SHOWING REQUIRED STUD-TO-STUD NAILING 



wood structural panel sheathing nailed with 8d 
common or galvanized box nails in accordance 
with Figure R602. 10.6.2. The wood structural 
panel sheathing shall extend up over the solid sawn 
or glued-laminated header and shall be nailed in 
accordance with Figure R602. 10.6.2. Use of a 
built-up header consisting of at least two 2 x 12s 
and fastened in accordance with Table R602.3(l) 
shall be permitted. A spacer, if used, shall be 
placed on the side of the built-up beam opposite 
the wood structural panel sheathing. The header 
shall extend between the inside faces of the first 
full-length outer studs of each panel. The clear 
span of the header between the inner studs of each 
panel shall be not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) and 
not more than 1 8 feet (5486 mm) in length. A strap 



with an uplift capacity of not less than 1000 
pounds (4448 N) shall fasten the header to the side 
of the inner studs opposite the sheathing. One 
anchor bolt not less than %-inch-diameter (16 
mm) and installed in accordance with Section 
R403 .1.6 shall be installed in the center of each sill 
plate. The studs at each end of the panel shall have 
a tie-down device fastened to the foundation with 
an uplift capacity of not less than 4,200 pounds 
(18 683 N). 

Where a panel is located on one side of the open- 
ing, the header shall extend between the inside face 
of the first full-length stud of the panel and the bear- 
ing studs at the other end of the opening. A strap 
with an uplift capacity of not less than 1000 pounds 
(4448 N) shall fasten the header to the bearing 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



139 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R602.10.6 
MINIMUM WIDTHS AND TIE-DOWN FORCES OF ALTERNATE BRACED WALL PANELS 



SEISMIC DESIGN 

CATEGORY AND 

WINDSPEED 


TIE-DOWN 
FORCE (lb) 


HEIGHT OF BRACED WALL PANEL 


Sheathed Width 


8 ft. 

2' - 4 " 


9 ft. 
2' - 8" 


10 ft. 
2' - 8 " 


11ft. 

3' - 2 " 


12 ft. 
3' - 6 " 


SDC A, B, and C 
Windspeed< 110 
mph 


R602. 10.6.1, Item 1 


1800 


1800 


1800 


2000 


2200 


R602.10.6.1,Item2 


3000 


3000 


3000 


3300 


3600 


SDC Do, Di and 
D2 Windspeed < 
110 mph 


R602. 10.6.1, Item 1 


Sheathed Width 


2' - 8" 


2' - 8" 


2' - 8" 


Note a 


Note a 


1800 


1800 


1800 


— 


— 


R602.10.6.1,Item2 


3000 


3000 


3000 


— 


— 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Not permitted because maximum height is 10 feet. 




EXTENT OF HEADER 
"DOUBLE PORTAL FRAME (TWO BRACED WALL PANELS) 



EXTENT OF HEADER 
SINGLE PORTAL FRAME (ONE BRACED WALL PANEL) 



MIN. 3"X11.25" NET HEADER 



-6' TO 18'- 



FASTEN TOP PLATE TO HEADER WITH TWO 
ROWS OF 1 6D SINKER NAILS AT 3" O.C. TYP 

1000 LB STRAP OPPOSITE SHEATHING 



1000 LB 
STRAP 



FASTEN SHEATHING TO HEADER WITH 8D COMMON OR 
GALVANIZED BOX NAILS IN 3" GRID PATTERN AS SHOWN AND 
3" O.C. IN ALL FRAMING (STUDS, BLOCKING, AND SILLS) TYR 

MIN. WIDTH = 16" FOR ONE STORY STRUCTURES 
MIN. WIDTH = 24" FOR USE IN THE FIRST OF TWO 
STORY STRUCTURES 



MIN. 2x4 FRAMING 

3/8" MIN. THICKNESS WOOD 
STRUCTURAL PANEL SHEATHING 



MIN. 

DOUBLE 

2x4 POST 



MIN. 4200 LB TIE-DOWN DEVICE (EMBEDDED INTO 
CONCRETE AND NAILED INTO FRAMING) . 

SEE SECTION R602. 10.6.2 



TYPICAL PORTAL -~- 

FRAME 
CONSTRUCTION 

FOR A PANEL SPLICE 
(IF NEEDED), PANEL 
EDGES SHALL BE 
BLOCKED, AND OCCUR 
WITHIN 24" OF MID- 
HEIGHT ONE ROW OF 
TYP SHEATH I NG-TO- 
FRAMING NAILING IS 
REQUIRED. 
IF 2X4 BLOCKING IS 
USED, THE 2X4'S MUST 
BE NAILED TOGETHER 
WITH 3 16D SINKERS 



MIN. 1000 LB 
TIE DOWN 
DEVICE 




For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 



FIGURE R602.10.6.2 
ALTERNATE BRACED WALL PANEL ADJACENT TO A DOOR OR WINDOW OPENING 



140 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*" 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



Studs. The bearing studs shall also have a tie-down 
device fastened to the foundation with an uplift 
capacity of not less than 1000 pounds (4448 N). 

The tie-down devices shall be an embedded- 
strap type, installed in accordance with the manu- 
facturer's recommendations. The panels shall be 
supported directly on a foundation which is con- 
tinuous across the entire length of the braced wall 
line. The foundation shall be reinforced with not 
less than one No. 4 bar top and bottom. 

Where the continuous foundation is required to 
have a depth greater than 12 inches (305 mm), a 
minimum 12-inch-by- 12-inch (305 mm by 305 
mm) continuous footing or turned down slab edge 
is permitted at door openings in the braced wall 
line. This continuous footing or turned down slab 
edge shall be reinforced with not less than one No. 
4 bar top and bottom. This reinforcement shall be 
lapped not less than 15 inches (381 mm) with the 
reinforcement required in the continuous founda- 
tion located directly under the braced wall line. 

2. In the first story of two-story buildings, each wall 
panel shall be braced in accordance with Item 1 
above, except that each panel shall have a length of 
not less than 24 inches (610 mm). 

R602.10.7 Panel joints. All vertical joints of panel sheath- 
ing shall occur over, and be fastened to, common studs. Hor- 
izontal joints in braced wall panels shall occur over, and be 
fastened to, common blocking of a minimum 1 Vj inch (38 
mm) thickness. 

Exception: Blocking is not required behind horizontal 
joints in Seismic Design Categories A and B and 
detached dwellings in Seismic Design Category C when 
constructed in accordance with Section R602.10.3, 
braced-wall-panel construction method 3 and Table 
R602.10.1, method 3, or where permitted by the manu- 
facturer's installation requirements for the specific 
sheathing material. 

R602.10.8 Connections. Braced wall line sole plates shall 
be fastened to the floor framing and top plates shall be con- 
nected to the framing above in accordance with Table 
R602.3(l). Sills shall be fastened to the foundation or slab in 
accordance with Sections R403.1.6 and R602.il. Where 
joists are perpendicular to the braced wall lines above, 
blocking shall be provided under and in line with the braced 
wall panels. Where joists are perpendicular to braced wall 
lines below, blocking shall be provided over and in line with 
the braced wall panels. Where joists are parallel to braced 
wall lines above or below, a rim joist or other parallel fram- 
ing member shall be provided at the wall to permit fastening 
per Table R602.3(l). 

R602.10.9 Interior braced wall support. In one-story 
buildings located in Seismic Design Category Dj, interior 
braced wall lines shall be supported on continuous founda- 
tions at intervals not exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm). In two- 
story buildings located in Seismic Design Category Dj, all 
interior braced wall panels shall be supported on continuous 
foundations. 



Exception: Two-story buildings shall be permitted to 
have interior braced wall lines supported on continuous 
foundations at intervals not exceeding 50 feet (15 240 
mm) provided that: 

1 . The height of cripple walls does not exceed 4 feet 
(1219 mm). 

2. First-floor braced wall panels are supported on 
doubled floor joists, continuous blocking or floor 
beams. 

3. The distance between bracing lines does not 
exceed twice the building width measured parallel 
to the braced wall line. 

R602.10.10 Design of structural elements. Where a build- 
ing, or portion thereof, does not comply with one or more of 
the bracing requirements in this section, those portions shall 
be designed and constructed in accordance with accepted 
engineering practice. 

R602.10.il Bracing in Seismic Design Categories Dq, 

Di and Dj. Structures located in Seismic Design Catego- 
ries Dq, Di and D2 shall have exterior and interior braced 
wall lines. 

R602.10.il. 1 Braced wall line spacing. Spacing 
between braced wall lines in each story shall not exceed 
25 feet (7620 mm) on center in both the longitudinal and 
transverse directions. 

Exception: In one- and two-story buildings, spacing 
between two adjacent braced wall lines shall not 
exceed 35 feet (10 363 mm) on center in order to 
accommodate one single room not exceeding 900 
square feet (84 m^) in each dwelling unit. Spacing 
between all other braced wall lines shall not exceed 25 
feet (7620 mm). 

R602.10.il. 2 Braced wall panel location. Exterior 
braced wall lines shall have a braced wall panel at each 
end of the braced wall line. 

Exception: For braced wall panel construction 
Method 3 of Section R602. 10.3, the braced wall panel 
shall be permitted to begin no more than 8 feet (2438 
mm) from each end of the braced wall line provided 
the following is satisfied: 

1. A minimum 24-inch- wide (610 mm) panel is 
applied to each side of the building comer and 
the two 24-inch (610 mm) panels at the comer 
shall be attached to framing in accordance with 
Figure R602. 10.5; or 

2. The end of each braced wall panel closest to the 
corner shall have a tie-down device fastened to 
the stud at the edge of the braced wall panel 
closest to the comer and to the foundation or 
framing below. The tie-down device shall be 
capable of providing an uplift allowable design 
value of at least 1,800 pounds (8 kN). The 
tie-down device shall be installed in accordance 
with the manufacturer's recommendations. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE** 



141 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R602.10.11.3 Collectors. A designed collector shall be 
provided if a braced wall panel is not located at each end 
of a braced wall line as indicated in Section 
R602.10.11.2, or, when using the Section R602.10.11.2 
exception, if abraced wall panel is more than 8 feet (2438 
mm) from each end of a braced wall line. 

R602.10.11.4 Cripple wall bracing. In addition to the 
requirements of Section R602.10.2, where interior 
braced wall lines occur without a continuous foundation 
below, the length of parallel exterior cripple wall bracing 
shall be one and one-half times the length required by 
Table R602.10.1. Where cripple walls braced using 
Method 3 of Section R602. 10.3 cannot provide this addi- 
tional length, the capacity of the sheathing shall be 
increased by reducing the spacing of fasteners along the 
perimeter of each piece of sheathing to 4 inches (102 
mm) on center. 

R602.10.11.5 Sheathing attachment. Adhesive attach- 
ment of wall sheathing shall not be permitted in Seismic 
Design Categories C, Dq, Dj and Dj. 

R602.il Framing and connections for Seismic Design Cat- 
egories Do, Dj and D2. The framing and connections details of 
buildings located in Seismic Design Categories Dq, Dj and D2 
shall be in accordance with Sections R602.11.1 through 
R602.11.3. 

R602.11.1 Wall anchorage. Braced wall hne sills shall be 
anchored to concrete or masonry foundations in accordance 
with Sections R403.1.6 and R602.il. For all buildings in 
Seismic Design Categories Dq, D, and Dj and townhouses in 



Seismic Design Category C, plate washers, a minimum of 
0.229 inch by 3 inches by 3 inches (5.8 mm by 76 mm by 76 
mm) in size, shall be installed between the foundation sill 
plate and the nut. The hole in the plate washer is permitted to 
be diagonally slotted with a width of up to Vjg inch (5 mm) 
larger than the bolt diameter and a slot length not to exceed 
IV4 inches (44 mm), provided a standard cut washer is 
placed between the plate washer and the nut. 

R602.11.2 Interior braced wall panel connections. Inte- 
rior braced wall hues shall be fastened to floor and roof 
framing in accordance with Table R602.3(l), to required 
foundations in accordance with Section R602. 11.1, and in 
accordance with the following requirements: 

1 . Floor joists parallel to the top plate shall be toe-nailed 
to the top plate with at least 8d nails spaced a maxi- 
mum of 6 inches (152 mm) on center. 

2. Top plate laps shall be face-nailed with at least eight 
16d nails on each side of the splice. 

R602.11.3 Stepped foundations. Where stepped founda- 
tions occur, the following requirements apply: 

1 . Where the height of a required braced wall panel that 
extends from foundation to floor above varies more 
than 4 feet (1220 mm), the braced wall panel shall be 
constructed in accordance with Figure R602.11.3. 

2. Where the lowest floor framing rests directly on a sill 
bolted to a foundation not less than 8 feet (2440 mm) 
in length along a line of bracing, the line shall be con- 
sidered as braced. The double plate of the cripple stud 



2x SILL PLATE 



CONCRETE 

STEPPED 

FOOTING 




2 FT MIN. 



(^ 



SPLICE 



'//I v\\\ '//I sVWV// \\V '// 






%7 



.WHERE FOOTING SECTION "A" IS MORE THAN 8 FT 
PROVIDE METAL TIE 16 GA BY1,5BY4FT MIN. EACH 
SIDE OF SPLICE W/ 8-1 6d COMMON NAILS. 



. 2- 2x PLATE 



A 



///) 



FOOTING SECTION "A" 




v// n\\v y// v\v\^/// \\v w/ n\\v v// x\\\^/// 




2k CRIPPLE 
STUD WALL 



W A\\ V// s\\\V// \\v 



For SI: 1 inch 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. ; 

Note: Where footing Section "A" is less than 8 feet long in a 25-foot-long wall, install bracing at cripple stud wall. 

FIGURE R602.11. 3 
STEPPED FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION 



142 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*^ 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



wall beyond the segment of footing that extends to the 
lowest framed floor shall be spliced by extending the 
upper top plate a minimum of 4 feet (1219 mm) along 
the foundation. Anchor bolts shall be located a maxi- 
mum of 1 foot and 3 feet (305 and 914 mm) from the 
step in the foundation. 

Where cripple walls occur between the top of the 
foundation and the lowest floor framing, the bracing 
requirements for a story shall apply. 

Where only the bottom of the foundation is stepped 
and the lowest floor framing rests directly on a sill 
bolted to the foundations, the requirements of Section 
R602.11.1 shall apply. 



SECTION R603 
STEEL WALL FRAMING 

R603.1 General. Elements shall be straight and free of any 
defects that would significantly affect structural performance. 
Cold-formed steel wall framing members shall comply with 
the requirements of this section. 

R603.1.1 Applicability limits. The provisions of this section 
shall control the construction of exterior steel wall framing 
and interior load-bearing steel wall framing for buildings not 
more than 60 feet ( 1 8 288 mm) long perpendicular to the joist 
or truss span, not more than 40 feet (12192 mm) wide parallel 
to the joist or truss span, and not more than two stories in 
height. All exterior walls installed in accordance with the pro- 
visions of this section shall be considered as load-bearing 
walls. Steel walls constructed in accordance with the provi- 
sions of this section shall be limited to sites subjected to a 
maximum design wind speed of 1 10 miles per hour (49 m/s) 
Exposure A, B or C and a maximum ground snow load of 70 
psf(3.35kPa). 



R603.1.2 In-line framing. Load-bearing steel studs con- 
structed in accordance with Section R603 shall be located 
direcdy in-line with joists, trusses and rafters with a maxi- 
mum tolerance of V4 inch (19.1 mm) between their center 
lines. Interior load-bearing steel stud walls shall be supported 
on foundations or shall be located directly above load-bear- 
ing walls with a maximum tolerance of V4 inch (19 nmi) 
between the centerline of the studs. 

R603.2 Structural framing. Load-bearing steel wall framing 
members shall comply with Figure R603.2(l) and with the 
dimensional and minimum thickness requirements specified in 
Tables R603.2(l) and R603.2(2). Tracks shall comply with Fig- 
ure R603.2(2) and shall have a minimum flange width of IV4 
inches (32 mm). The maximum inside bend radius for members 
shall be the greater of V32 inch (2.4 mm) or twice the uncoated 
steel thickness. Holes in wall studs and other structural members 
shall comply with all of the following conditions: 

1. Holes shall conform to Figure R603.2(3); 

2. Holes shall be permitted only along the centerline of the 
web of the framing member; 

3. Holes shall have a center-to-center spacing of not less 
than 24 inches (610 mm); 

4. Holes shall have a width not greater than 0.5 times the 
member depth, or 1 V2 inches (38.1 mm); 

5. Holes shall have a length not exceeding 4V2 inches (1 14 
mm); and 

6. Holes shall have a minimum distance between the edge 
of the bearing surface and the edge of the hole of not less 
than 10 inches (254 mm). 

Framing members with web holes violating the above require- 
ments shall be patched in accordance with Section R603.3.5 or 
designed in accordance with accepted engineering practices. 



TABLE R603.2(1) 
LOAD-BEARING COLD-FORMED STEEL STUD SIZES 



MEMBER DESIGNATION^ 


WEB DEPTH 
(inches) 


MINIMUM FLANGE WIDTH 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM FLANGE WIDTH 
(inches) 


MINIMUM LIP SIZE 
(inches) 


350S162-t 


3.5 


L625 


2 


0.5 


550S162-t 


5.5 


1.625 


2 


0.5 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 

a. The member designation is defined by the first number representing the member depth in hundredths of an inch "S" representing a stud or joist member, the second 

number representing the flange width in hundredths of an inch, and the letter "t" shall be a number representing the minimum base metal thickness in mils [See 

Table R603. 2(2)]. 



TABLE R603.2(2) 
MINIMUM THICKNESS OF COLD-FORMED STEEL STUDS 



DESIGNATION (mils) 


MINIMUM UNCOATED THICKNESS (inches) 


REFERENCE GAGE NUMBER 


33 


0.033 


20 


43 


0.043 


18 


54 


0.054 


16 


68 


0.068 


14 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*" 



143 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



FLANGE 



WEB 



DEPTH OF WEB 
(OUTSIDE TO 
OUTSIDE) 




FLANGE 



WEB 




FIGURE R603.2(1) 
C-SECTION 



R603.2.1 Material. Load-bearing steel framing members 
shall be cold-formed to shape from structural quality sheet 
steel complying with the requirements of one of the follow- 
ing: 

1. ASTM A 653: Grades 33, 37, 40 and 50 (Class 1 and 
3). 

2. ASTM A 792: Grades 33, 37, 40 and 50A. 

3 . ASTM A 875 : Grades 33,37, 40 and 50 (Class 1 and 3). 

4. ASTM A 1003: Grades 33, 37, 40 and 50. 

R603.2.2 Identification. Load-bearing steel framing mem- 
bers shall have a legible label, stencil, stamp or embossment 
with the following information as a minimum: 

1. Manufacturer's identification. 

2. Minimum uncoated steel thickness in inches (mm). 

3. Minimum coating designation. 

4. Minimum yield strength, in kips per square inch (ksi) 

(kN). 

R603.2.3 Corrosion protection. Load-bearing steel fram- 
ing shall have a metallic coating complying with one of the 
following: 

1 . A minimum of G 60 in accordance with ASTM A 
653. 

2. A minimum of AZ 50 in accordance with ASTM A 

792. 

3. A minimum of GF 60 in accordance with ASTM A 

875. 

R603.2.4 Fastening requirements. Screws for steel-to-steel 
connections shall be installed with a minimum edge distance 



FIGURE R603.2(2) 
TRACK SECTION 




MAX. 



PENETRATION 
(HOLE. PUNCHOUT) 



r/a" MAX. 



STUD & PUNCHOUT 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R603.2(3) 
WEB HOLES 



and center-to-center spacing of Vj inch (12.7 mm), shall be 
self-drilling tapping and shall conform to S AE J 78. Structural 
sheathing shall be attached to steel studs with minimum No. 8 
self-drilling tapping screws that conform to SAE J 78. Screws 
for attaching structural sheathing to steel wall framing shall 
have a minimum head diameter of 0.292 inch (7.4 mm) with 
countersunk heads and shall be installed with a minimum edge 
distance of Vg inch (9.5 mm). Gypsum board shall be attached 



144 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



to steel wall framing with minimum No. 6 screws conforming 
to ASTM C 954 and shall be installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion R702. For all connections, screws shall extend through the 
steel a minimum of three exposed threads. All self-drilling tap- 
ping screws conforming to S AE J 78 shall have a Type 11 coat- 
ing in accordance with ASTM B 633. 

Where No. 8 screws are specified in a steel-to-steel con- 
nection the required number of screws in the connection is 
permitted to be reduced in accordance with the reduction 
factors in Table R603.2.4, when larger screws are used or 
when one of the sheets of steel being connected is thicker 
than 33 mils (0.84 mm). When applying the reduction factor 
the resulting number of screws shall be rounded up. 

TABLE R603.2.4 
SCREW SUBSTITUTION FACTOR 



SCREW SIZE 


THINNEST CONNECTED STEEL SHEET (mils) 


33 


43 


#8 


1.0 


0.67 


#10 


0.93 


0.62 


#12 


0.86 


0.56 



For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm. 

R603.3 Wall construction. All exterior steel framed walls and 
interior load-bearing steel framed walls shall be constructed in 
accordance with the provisions of this section and Figure R603.3. 

R603.3.1 Wall to foundation or floor connections. Steel 
framed walls shall be anchored to foundations or floors in 
accordance with Table R603.3.1 and Figure R603.3.1(l) or 
R603.3.1(2). 

R603.3.2 Load-bearing walls. Steel studs shall comply 
with Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(21). The tabu- 
lated stud thickness for structural walls shall be used when 
the attic load is 10 psf (0.48 kPa) or less. When an attic stor- 
age load is greater than 10 psf (0.48 kPa) but less than or 
equal to 20 psf (0.96 kPa), the next higher snow load column 
value from Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(21) shall 
be used to select the stud size. The tabulated stud thickness 
for structural walls supporting one floor, roof and ceiling 
shall be used when the second floor live load is 30 psf (1 .44 
kPa). When the second floor live load is greater than 30 psf 
(1.44 kPa) but less than or equal to 40 psf (1.92 kPa) the 
design value in the next higher snow load column from 
Tables R603.2(12) through R603.3.2(21) shall be used to 
select the stud size. 

Fastening requirements shall be in accordance with Section 
R603.2.4 and Table R603.3.2(l). Tracks shall have the same 
minimum thickness as the wall studs. Exterior walls with a 
minimum of '^-inch (13 mm) gypsum board installed in 
accordance with Section R702 on the interior surface and 
wood structural panels of minimum Vi^-inch thick (1 1mm) ori- 
ented-strand board or 'Vjj-inch thick (12 mm) plywood 
installed in accordance with Table R603.3.2(l) on the outside 
surface shall be permitted to use the next thinner stud from 
Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(13) but not less than 33 
mils (0.84 mm). Interior load-bearing walls with a minimum 
Vj-inch (13 mm) gypsum board installed in accordance with 
Section R702 on both sides of the wall shall be permitted to use 



the next thinner stud from Tables R603.3.2(2) through 
R603.3.2(13) but not less than 33 mils (0.84 mm). 

R603.3.3 Stud bracing. The flanges of steel studs shall be 
laterally braced in accordance with one of the following: 

1 . Gypsum board installed with minimum No. 6 screws 
in accordance with Section R702 or structural sheath- 
ing installed in accordance with Table R603. 3.2(1). 

2. Horizontal steel strapping installed in accordance with 
Figure R603.3 at mid-height for 8-foot (2438 mm) 
walls, and one-third points for 9-foot and 10-foot 
(2743 mm and 3048 mm) walls. Steel straps shall be at 
least 1.5 inches in width and 33 mils in thickness (38 
mm by 0.84 mm). Straps shall be attached to the 
flanges of studs with at least one No. 8 screw. In-Une 
blocking shall be installed between studs at the termi- 
nation of all straps. Straps shall be fastened to the 
blocking with at least two No. 8 screws. 

3. Sheathing on one side and strapping on the other side. 
Sheathing shall be installed in accordance with 
Method #1 above. Steel straps shall be installed in 
accordance with Method #2 above. 

R603.3.4 Cutting and notching. Flanges and hps of steel 
studs and headers shall not be cut or notched. 

R603.3.5 Hole patching. Web holes violating the require- 
ments in Section R603.2 shall be designed in accordance 
with one of the following: 

1. Framing members shall be replaced or designed in 
accordance with accepted engineering practices when 
web holes exceed the following size limits: 

1.1. The depth of the hole, measured across the 
web, exceeds 70 percent of the flat width of 
the web; or 

1.2. The length of the hole measured along the 
web exceeds 10 inches (254 mm) or the depth 
of the web, whichever is greater. 

2. Web holes not exceeding the dimensional require- 
ments in R603. 3.5(1) shall be patched with a solid 
steel plate, stud section, or track section in accordance 
with Figure R603.3.5. The steel patch shall be as a 
minimum the same thickness as the receiving mem- 
ber and shall extend at least 1 inch (25 mm) beyond all 
edges of the hole. The steel patch shall be fastened to 
the web of the receiving member with No. 8 screws 
spaced no more than 1 inch (25 mm) center-to-center 
along the edges of the patch with a minimum edge dis- 
tance of V2 inch (13 mm). 

R603.3.6 Splicing. Steel studs and other structural mem- 
bers shall not be spliced. Tracks shall be spliced in accor- 
dance with Figure R603.3.6. 

R603.4 Corner framing. Comer studs and the top tracks shall 
be installed in accordance with Figure R603.4. 

R603.5 Exterior wall covering. The method of attachmelit of 
exterior wall covering materials to cold-formed steel stud wall 
framing shall conform to the manufacturer's installation 
instructions. 



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145 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



STRUCTURAL 
SHEATHING 




TRACK 



FOUNDATION 
ANCHOR 



STRUCTURAL 
SHEATHING 



BLOCKING 



INTERIOR HORIZONTAL STUD BRACING 
(OR ''/2 IN. GYPSUM BOARD) 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



MN-LINE FRAMING 



FIGURE R603.3 
STEEL WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.1 
WALL TO FOUNDATION OR FLOOR CONNECTION REQUIREMENTS^ "' 



FRAMING CONDITION 


BASIC WIND SPEED (mph) AND EXPOSURE 


85 A/B or Seismic Design 
Categories A, B and C 


85 C or less than 110 A/B 


Less than 110 c 


Wall bottom track to floor joist or track 


1-No. 8 screw at 12" o.c. 


1-No. 8 screw at 12"o.c. 


2-No. 8 screw at 12" o.c. 


Wall bottom track to wood sill per Figure 
R603.3.1(2) 


Steel plate spaced at 4' o.c, 
with 4-No. 8 screws and 
4-lOd or 6-8d common nails 


Steel plate spaced at 3' o.c, 
with 4-No. 8 screws and 
4-lOd or 6-8d common nails 


Steel plate spaced at 2' o.c, 
with 4-No. 8 screws and 
4-lOd or 6-8d common nails 


Wall bottom track to foundation per Figure 
R603.3.1(l) 


V2" minimum diameter 
anchor bolt at 6' o.c. 


V2" minimum diameter 
anchor bolt at 6' o.c. 


V2" minimum diameter 
anchor bolt at 4' o.c. 


Wind uplift connector capacity for 16-inch stud 
spacing'^ 


N/R 


N/R 


651b 


Wind uplift connector capacity for 24-inch stud 
spacing'^ 


N/R 


N/R 


1001b 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound = 4.4 N. 

a. Anchor bolts shall be located not more than 1 2 inches from comers or the terminatidn of bottom tracks (e.g., at door openings or comers). Bolts shall extend a mini- 
mum of 7 inches into concrete or masonry. 

b. All screw sizes shown are minimum. 

c. N/R = uplift connector not required. Uplift connectors are in addition to other connection requirements and shall be apphed in accordance with Section R603 .8 . 



146 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



4 SCREWS IN EACH 
FLANGE 



STUD BLOCKING INSIDE WALL 
TRACK (MIN. THICKNESS AS 
WALL STUD) 



TRACK 



FOUNDATION 



fK. 




■ WALL STUD 



SCREWS AT 
EACH FLANGE 



ANCHOR BOLT 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R603.3.1(1) 
WALL TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION 



WALL STUD 




FOUNDATION 



3 IN. X 4 IN. X 33 MIL PLATE (MIN.] 
4 SCREWS 
4-10d OR 6-8d COMMON 



ANCHOR BOLT THROUGH 
WOOD SILL 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R603.3.1 (2) 
WALL TO WOOD SILL CONNECTION 



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147 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(1) 
WALL FASTENING SCHEDULE^ 



DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING ELEMENT 


NUMBER AND SIZE OF FASTENERS^ 


SPACING OF FASTENERS 


Floor joist to track of load-bearing wall 


2-No. 8 screws 


Each joist 


Wall stud to top or bottom track 


2-No. 8 screws 


Each end of stud, one per flange 


Structural sheathing to wall studs 


No. 8 screws 


6" o.c. on edges and 12" o.c. at intermediate 
supports 


Roof framing to wall 


Approved design or tie down in accordance with Section R802. 1 1 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. All screw sizes shown are minimum. 



SCREWS 1 IN. O.C. (TYP.) 




SOLID STEEL PLATE, 
C-SECTION OR TRACK 
MINIMUM THICKNESS 
AS STUD 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R603.3.5 
HOLE PATCH 



R603.6 Headers. Headers shall be installed above wall open- 
ings in all exterior walls and interior load-bearing walls in 
accordance with Figure R603.6 and Tables R603.6(l) through 
R603.6(8), or shall be designed in accordance with the AISI 
Standard for Cold-formed Steel Framing-Header Design 
(COFS/Header Design). 

R603.6.1 Jack and king studs, and head track. The num- 
ber of jack and king studs shall comply with Table 
R603.6(9). King and jack studs shall be of the same dimen- 
sion and thickness as the adjacent wall studs. Headers con- 
structed of C-shape framing members shall be connected to 
king studs in accordance with Table R603.6.(10). One-half 
the total number of screws shall be applied to the header and 
one-half to the king stud by use of a minimum 2-inch by 
2-inch (51 mm by 51 mm) clip angle or 4-inch-wide (102 
mm) steel plate. The clip angle or plate shall extend the 
depth of the header minus Vj inch (13 mm) and shall have a 
minimum thickness of the header members or the wall 
studs, whichever is thicker. 



Head track spans shall comply with Table R603 .6( 11) and 
shall be in accordance with Figures R603.3 and R603.6. 
Increasing the head track tabular value shall not be prohibited 
when in accordance with one of the following: 

1 . For openings less than 4 feet (1219 mm) in height that 
have a top and bottom head track, multiply the tabular 

' value by 1.75; or 

2. For openings less than 6 feet ( 1 829 mm) in height that 
have a top and bottom head track, multiply the tabular 
value by 1.50. 

1R603.7 Structural sheathing. In areas where the basic wind 
speed is less than 1 10 miles per hour (49 m/s), wood structural 
panel sheathing shall be installed on all exterior walls of build- 
ings in accordance with this section. Wood structural panel 
sheathing shall consist of minimum Vig-inch-thick (11 mm) 
oriented-strand board or 'Vgj-inch-thick (12 mm) plywood and 
shall be installed on all exterior wall surfaces in accordance 
with Section R603.7.1 and Figure R603.3. The minimum 
length of full height sheathing on exterior walls shall be deter- 
mined in accordance with Table R603.7, but shall not be less 
than 20 percent of the braced wall length in any case. The mini- 
mum percentage of full height sheathing in Table R603.7 shall 
include only those sheathed wall sections, uninterrupted by 
openings, which are a minimum of 48 inches (1 120 mm) wide. 
The minimum percentage of full-height structural sheathing 
shall be multiplied by 1.10 for 9-foot-high (2743 mm) walls 
and multiplied by 1.20 for 10-foot-high (3048 mm) walls. In 
addition, structural sheathing shall: 

1 . Be installed with the long dimension parallel to the stud 
framing and shall cover the full vertical height of studs, 
from the bottom of the bottom track to the top of the top 
track of each story. 

2. Be applied to each end (comers) of each of the exterior 
walls with a minimum 48-inch-wide (1219 mm) panel. 

R603.7.1 Structural sheathing fastening. All edges and 
interior areas of wood structural panel sheathing shall be | 
fastened to a framing member and tracks in accordance with 
Table R603.3.2(l). 

R603.7.2 Hold-down requirements. Multiplying the per- 
centage of structural sheathing required in Table R603 .7 by 
. 0.6 is permitted where a hold-down anchor with a capacity 
of 4,300 pounds ( 1 9 kN) is provided at each end of exterior 
walls. Installations of a single hold-down anchor at wall cor- 
ners is permitted. 



148 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE"" 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 




4 SCREWS ON EACH 
SIDE OF SPLICE 



'STUD SECTION 
INSIDE TRACK 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



For SI: 1 inch - 25.4 



FIGURE R603.3.6 
TRACK SPLICE 



4 SCREWS AT LAPPED TRACK 




FIGURE R603.4 
CORNER FRAMING 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



149 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(2) 
24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLY^ " 

33 ksl STEEL 



WIND 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


SPEED 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foo1t Studs 


Exp. A/B 


Exp. 
C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85mph 




350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 ■ 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


90 
mph 




350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


^ 33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 ' 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 : 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 1 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 ! 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 : 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


110 
mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 1 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 i 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 ' 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


— 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 i 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 ! 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


— 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 1 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


L__54_ 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
lksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



150 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(3) 
24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLY^'''^ 

50 ksl STEEL 







MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


Vlmu 
SPEED 


8-Fobt Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp. 
A/B 


Exp. C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


90 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


110 
mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


— 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


— 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot - 0.0479 kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



151 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(4) 
28-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLY^ " 

33 ksi STEEL 



WIND 
SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp. 
A/B 


Exp.C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


90 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


110 
mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


'33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


— 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


— 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot - 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic Uve load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



152 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*^ 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(5) 
28-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLY^ "■ = 

50 ksi STEEL 







MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


SPEED 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp. 
A/B 


Exp.C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 




350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


90 
mph 




350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


110 
mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


— 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


— 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



153 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(6) 
32-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLY^"^ 

33 ksi STEEL 







MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


SPEED 


8-Foot Studs 


g-Foot studs 


10-Foot studs 


Exp. 
A/B 


Exp.C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


'33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


90 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


.33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


110 
mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


:33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


■33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


,33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


— 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


■33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


— 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



154 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*" 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(7) 
32-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLY"" 

50 ksi STEEL 







MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


WUHU 

SPEED 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp. 
A/B 


Exp.C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


90 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


110 
mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


• 33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


— 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


— 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE"" 



155 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(8) 
36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLY^ "••= 

33 ksi STEEL 



WIND 
SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp. 
A/B 


Exp. C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


! 20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


: 33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


' 33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


90 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


. 33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


, 33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


I 33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


110 
mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


; 33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


— 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


. 33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


' 33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


— 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot - 0.0479 kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



156 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE"" 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(9) 
36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLY^''^ 

50 ksi STEEL 







MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


SPEED 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp. 
A/B 


Exp. C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


90 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


110 
mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 




100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


L 33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


— 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*" 



157 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(10) 
40-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLY^ "■ = 

33 ksi STEEL 







MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


SPEED 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp. 
A/B 


Exp.C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


90 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


: 33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


.. 33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


110 
mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


, 33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


— 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


' 33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


54 


• 43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


! 33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


— 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


' 33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


33 


43 


43 


54 


33 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


' 33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


i 33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



158 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE"^ 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(11) 
40-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING ONLY^ "■"= 

50 ksi STEEL 







MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(Inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


SPEED 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp. 
A/B 


Exp.C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 J 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


90 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


^33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


110 
mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 . 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


— 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43^ 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


— 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil - 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot - 0.0479 kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE' 



.® 



159 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(12) 
24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILING^" 

33 ksi STEEL 



WIND 
SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp. 
A/B 


Exp.C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


^ 33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


90 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


:33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


:33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


'33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


110 
mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


.43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


:33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


— 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


.33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


— 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


:33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 icPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the \«ill studs. 



160 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE"" 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLER603.3.2(13) 
24-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILING^- "■"= 

50 ksi STEEL 







MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


SPEED 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp. 
A/B 


Exp.C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


90 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


110 
mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


— 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


— 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*" 



161 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLER603.3.2(14) 
28-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILING^' "•= 

33 ksi STEEL 







MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


SPEED 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp. 
A/B 


Exp. C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


90 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


:33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


110 
mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


'43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


— 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


— 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour - 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot - 0.0479 kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



162 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(15) 
28-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILING^- "^ 

50 ksi STEEL 







MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


SPEED 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp. 
A/B 


Exp. C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


90 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33_^ 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


110 
mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


— 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


— 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil - 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



163 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(16) 
32-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILING^ "^ 

33 ksi STEEL 



WIND 
SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp. 
A/B 


Exp. C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


,33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


90 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


110 
mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


— 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


— 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


,33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. ; 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



164 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*^ 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(17) 
32-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILING^- "■'^ 

50 ksi STEEL 







MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(Inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


SPEED 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp. 
A/B 


Exp.C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


90 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


110 
mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


— 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 ^ 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


— 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



165 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(18) 
36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILING^- "•= 

33 ksi STEEL 



WIND 
SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(Inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 1 0-Foot Studs 


Exp. 
A/B 


Exp.C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


. 33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


I43__ 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


90 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


: 33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


l^3_ 


43 


54 


' 43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


, 33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


|43_ 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


. 33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


■ 33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


110 
mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


I 33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


: 33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


:33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


— 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


'43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


! 33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


— 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


: 33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


■ 33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


: 33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the vail studs. 



166 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE"" 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(19) 
36-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILING^- 

50 ksl STEEL 



b,c 







MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(Inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


SPEED 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp. 
A/B 


Exp.C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


90 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


'43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


43 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


110 
mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


— 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 




110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
lksi= 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



167 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(20) 
40-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILING^ "> 

33 ksi STEEL 



WIND 
SPEED 


MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp. 
A/B 


Exp.C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


' 33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


54 


54 


54 


,43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


. 33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


:43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


43 


43 


43 


90 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


43 


43 


43 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


24 


43 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


43 


43 


43 


no 

mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


43 


43^ 


43 


24 


43 


54 


54 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


43 


r 43 


43 


— 


100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


43 


54 


54 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


43 


43 


43 


— 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


43 


43 


43 


24 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


68 


68 


68 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


43 


,43 


43 


43 


43 


33 


43 


43 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour - 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



168 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.3.2(21) 
40-FOOT-WIDE BUILDING SUPPORTING ONE FLOOR, ROOF AND CEILING" " 

50 ksi STEEL 







MEMBER 
SIZE 


STUD 
SPACING 
(inches) 


MINIMUM STUD THICKNESS (mils) 


SPEED 


8-Foot Studs 


9-Foot Studs 


10-Foot Studs 


Exp. 
A/B 


Exp. C 


Ground Snow Load (psf) 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


20 


30 


50 


70 


85 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


90 
mph 


— 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


100 
mph 


85 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


110 
mph 


90 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 




100 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


43 


— 


110 
mph 


350S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


33 


33 


43 


33 


43 


43 


43 


24 


43 


43 


43 


54 


43 


43 


43 


54 


54 


54 


54 


54 


550S162 


16 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


33 


24 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 


33 


33 


43 


43 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 
1 ksi = 1000 psi = 6.895 MPa. 

a. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic live load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the wall studs. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



169 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(1) 

BOX-BEAM HEADER SPANS 

Headers supporting roof and ceiling only (33 ksi steel)^- "' '^ 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(20 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(30 psf) 


Building width*^ 


Building width'^ 


24' 


28' 


32' 


36' 


40' 


24' 


28' 


32' 


36' 


40' 


2-350S 162-33 


3'- 10" 


3'-5" 


3'-0" 


2'-6" 


2'-2" 


3'-3" 


2'-9" 


2'-4" 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-43 


5'-l" 


4'- 8" 


4'-4" 


4'-0" 


3'-7" 


4'-6" 


4'-2" 


3'-8" 


3'-4" 


2'- 11" 


2-350S 162-54 


5'-9" 


5'-4" 


5'-0" 


4'-9" 


4'-5" 


5'-3" 


4'- 10" 


4'-6" 


4'-2" 


3'- 10" 


2-350S 162-68 


6'-7" 


6'-l" 


5'-9" 


5'-5" 


5'-i" 


6'-0" 


5'-6" 


5'-2" 


4'- 10" 


4'-7" 


2-350S 162-97 


8'-0" 


7'-5" 


7'-0" 


6'-6" 


6'-3" 


7'-3" 


6'-9" 


6'-4" 


6'-0" 


5'-7" 


2-550S 162-33 


5'-8" 


5'-0" 


4'-5" 


3'- 11" 


3'-4" 


4'-9" 


4'-l" 


3'-6" 


2'- 11" 


— 


2-550S 162-43 


7'-2" 


6'-8" 


6'-3" 


5'-8" 


5'-2" 


6'-6" 


5'-ll" 


5'-3" 


4'-9" 


4'-3" 


2-550S 162-54 


8'-2" 


I'-l" 


7'-2" 


6'-9" 


6'-5" 


7'-5" 


6'-ll" 


6'-6" 


6'-0" 


5'-6" 


2-550S162-68 


9'-3" 


8'-7" 


8'-0" 


7'-8" 


7'-3" 


8'-5" 


7'-10" 


7'-4" 


7'-0" 


6'-7" 


2-550S 162-97 


ll'-2" 


10'-5" 


9'- 10" 


9'-3" 


8'- 11" 


10'-2" 


9'-6" 


9'-l" 


8'-5" 


8'-0" 


2-800S162-33 


6'-9" 


5'- 11" 


5'-2" 


4'-6" 


3'- lb" 


5'-6" 


4'-6" 


4'-0" 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-43 


9'-0" 


8'-5" 


7'-8" 


7'-0" 


6'-4" 


8'-l" 


7'-3" 


6'-6" 


5'-9" 


5'-2" 


2-800S 162-54 


10'-9" 


lO'-O" 


9'-5" 


8'- 11" 


8'-4" 


9'-9" 


9'-l" 


8'-6" 


7'-9" 


7'-l" 


2- 800S 162-68 


12'-2" 


11 '-4" 


10'-8" 


10'-2" 


9'-7" 


ll'-l" 


10'-4" 


9'-9" 


9'-3" 


8'-9" 


2-800S 162-97 


14'-9" 


13'-9" 


13'-0" 


12'-3" 


11 '-7" 


13'-5" 


12'-6" 


ll'-lO" 


ll'-2" 


10'-7" 


2- lOOOS 162-43 


lO'-O" 


9'-2" 


8'-4" 


7'-6" 


6'-9" 


8'-9" 


7'- 10" 


7'-0" 


6'-2" 


5'-5" 


2-1000S162-54 


12'-0" 


11 '-2" 


10'-6" 


9'- 11" 


9'-2" 


lO'-ll" 


10'-2" 


9'-3" 


8'-6" 


7'-9" 


2- lOOOS 162-68 


14'-5" 


13'-6" 


12'-8" 


12'-0" 


11 '-5" 


13'-2" 


12'-3" 


11 '-6" 


11 '-0" 


10'-4" 


2-1000S162-97 


17'-5" 


16'-4" 


15'-4" 


14'-6" 


13'-11" 


16'-0" 


14'- 11" 


14'-0" 


13'-3" 


12'-7" 


2- 1200S 162-43 


lO'-lO" 


9'-9" 


8'-9" 


7'- 11" 


7'-l" 


9'-3" 


8'-2" 


7'-2" 


6'-4" 


5'-6" 


2-1200S 162-54 


13'-0" 


12'-2" 


ll'-6" 


10'-7" 


9'-^" 


U'-U" 


U'-O" 


lO'-O" 


9'-0" 


8'-2" 


2- 1200S 162-68 


15'-5" 


14'-5" 


13'-6" 


12'-11" 


12'-3" 


14'-0" 


13'-2" 


12'-4" 


ll'-9" 


10'- 11" 


2- 1200S 162-97 


20'- 1" 


18'-9" 


17'-9" 


16'-9" 


16'-b" 


18'-4" 


17'-2" 


16'-2" 


15'-3" 


14'-7" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Deflection criteria: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. ' 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Roof/Ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic dead load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header 



170 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE"" 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(2) 

BOX-BEAM HEADER SPANS 

Headers supporting roof and ceiling only (33 ksi steel)^' "' '^ 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(50 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(70 psf) 


Building width'^ 


Building width'^ 


24' 


28' 


32' 


36' 


40' 


24' 


28' 


32' 


38' 


40' 


2-350S 162-33 











— 





__ 














2-350S 162-43 


3'-2" 


2'-7" 


2'-2" 


— 


— 


2'-0" 







— 


— 


2-350S 162-54 


4'-l" 


3'-6" 


3'-l" 


2'-8" 


2'-3" 


3'-0" 


2'-6" 










2-350S162-68 


4'-9" 


4'-5" 


4'-0" 


3'-7" 


3'-3" 


4'-0" 


3'-4" 


3'-0" 


2'-6" 


2'-l" 


2-350S 162-97 


5'-10" 


5'-5" 


5'-l" 


4'-9" 


4'-6" 


5'-0" 


4'-7" 


4'-4" 


4'-0" 


3'-9" 


2-550S 162-33 


2'-9" 


— 


— 


— 


— 

















2-550S 162-43 


4'-7" 


3'- 11" 


3'-3" 


— 





3'-2" 














2-550S162-54 


5'- 10" 


5'-2" 


4'-6" 


4'-0" 


3'-6" 


4'-5" 


3'-9" 


3'-l" 








2-550S162-68 


6'- 10" 


6'-4" 


5'-9" 


5'-3" 


4'-9" 


5'-7" 


5'-0" 


4'-4" 


3'-9" 


3'-3" 


2-550S 162-97 


8'-4" 


7'-9" 


7'-3" 


6'- 10" 


6'-6" 


7'-2" 


6'-8" 


6'-3" 


5'-ll" 


5'-7" 


2-800S 162-33 





— 





— 




















2-800S 162-43 


5'-7" 


4'-9" 


3'- 11" 


— 




















2-800S 162-54 


7'-7" , 


6'-8" 


5'- 11" 


5'-2" 


4'-6" 


5'-9" 


4'- 10" 











2-800S 162-68 


9'-l" 


8'-4" 


7'-6" 


6'-10" 


6'-3" 


7'-4" 


6'-6" 


5'-9" 


5'-0" 


4'-4" 


2-800S 162-97 


ll'-O" 


10'-4" 


9'-8" 


9'-2" 


8'-9" 


9'-6" 


8'- 11" 


8'-4" 


7'- 11" 


7'-6" 


2-1000S162-43 


6'-0" 


4'- 11" 





— 




















2-1000S162-54 


8'-4" 


7'-4" 


6'-4" 


5'-7" 


4'-9" 


6'-3" 


5'-2" 











2- lOOOS 162-68 


10'-9" 


9'-9" 


8'- 10" 


8'-0" 


7'-3" 


8'-7" 


7-1" 


6'-7" 


5'-9" 


5'-0" 


2-1000S162-97 


13'-1" 


12'-3" 


ir-6" 


lO'-ll" 


10'-4" 


ir-4" 


10'-7" 


lO'-O" 


9'-5" 


8'-ll" 


2- 1200S 162-43 


6'-l" 


— 


— 


— 














— 


— 


2- 1200S 162-54 


8'-9" 


7'-8" 


6'-7" 


5'-9" 





6'-6" 








— 


— 


2- 1200S 162-68 


ll'-6" 


10'-4" 


9'-4" 


8'-4" 


I'-l" 


9'-l" 


8'-0" 


6'- 11" 


6'-0" 





2- 1200S 162-97 


15'-1" 


14'-1" 


13'-3" 


12'-7" 


12'-0" 


13'-1" 


12'-3" 


11 '-6" 


ll'-O" 


10'-2" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Deflection criteria: L/360 for Uve loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Roof/Ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic dead load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



171 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(3) 
BOX-BEAM HEADER SPANS 
Headers supporting one floor, roof and ceiling (33 ksi 



steel)^ 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(20 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(30 psf) 


Building width'^ 


Building width'^ 


24' 


28' 


32' 


36' 


40' 


24' 


28' 


32' 


36' 


40' 


2-350S 162-33 





_ 








, 














— 


2-350S 162-43 


2'-6" 











: 


2'-5" 














2-350S 162-54 


3'-6" 


3'-0" 


2'-6" 


— 


: 


3'-4" 


2'- 10" 


2'-4" 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-68 


4'-4" 


3'- 11" 


3'-5" 


3'-0" 


2'-7" 


4'-3" 


3'-9" 


3'-3" 


2'- 10" 


2'-6" 


2-350S 162-97 


5'-4" 


5'-0" 


4'-7" 


4'-4" 


4'-l" 


5'-4" 


4'- 11" 


4'-6" 


4'-3" 


4'-0" 


2-550S162-33 





___ 








, 

















2-550S 162-43 


3'-9" 


3'-0" 


— 


— 


— . 


3'-7" 


2'-ll" 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-54 


5'-0" 


4'-4" 


3'-9" 


3'-2" 





4'-10" 


4'-2" 


3'-6" 


3'-0" 





2-550S162-68 


6'-3" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


4'-5" 


4'-0" 


6'-l" 


5'-5" 


4'-9" 


4'-3" 


3'-9" 


2-550S 162-97 


7'-8" 


7'-2" 


6'-8" 


6'-4" 


6'-0" 


7'-6" 


7'-0" 


6'-6" 


6'-2" 


5'- 10" 


2-800S 162-33 











— 


— . 


— 








— 


— 


2-800S 162-43 


4'-6" 











; 


4'-4" 








_ 





2-800S162-54 


6'-6" 


5'-7" 


4'-10" 


4'-l" 


. 


6'-4" 


5'-5" 


4'-7" 








2-800S 162-68 


8'-2" 


7'-3" 


6'-6" 


5'- 10" 


5'-2" 


8'-0" 


7'-0" 


6'-4" 


5'-6" 


5'-0" 


2-800S 162-97 


lO'-l" 


9'-6" 


8'- 11" 


8'-6" 


8'-0" 


lO'-O" 


9'-4" 


8'-9" 


8'-3" 


7'- 11" 


2-lOOOS 162-43 


4'-9" 


— 


— 


— 


— . 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-1000S162-54 


7'-l" 


6'-0" 


5'-2" 





- 


6'-10" 


5'- 10" 


4'- 11" 


— 


— 


2-1000S162-68 


9'-7" 


8'-6" 


I'-l" 


6'-9" 


6'-0" 


9'-4" 


8'-4" 


7'-4" 


6'-6" 


5'-9" 


2-1000S162-97 


12'-0" 


11 '-3" 


10'-7" 


lO'-O" 


9'-6" 


ll'-ll" 


11'- 1" 


10'-5" 


9'-ll" 


9'-5" 


2- 1200S 162-43 














— - 


— 











— 


2-1200S162-54 


7'-6" 


6'-4" 





— 


: 


7'-2" 


6'-0" 





— 


— 


2- 1200S 162-68 


10'- 1" 


9'-0" 


8'-0" 


7'-0" 


6'-2" 


9'- 11" 


8'-9" 


7'-9" 


6'-9" 


6'-0" 


2-1200S162-97 


14'-0" 


13'-0" 


12'-3" 


ll'-7" 


11 '-P" 


13'-9" 


12'-10" 


12'-0" 


11 '-6" 


10'- 11" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Deflection criteria: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Roof/Ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic dead load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header 



172 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE"" 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(4) 

BOX-BEAM HEADER SPANS 

Headers supporting one floor, roof and ceiling (33 ksi steel)^'''''^ 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(50 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(70 psf) 


Building width<= 


Building wldth*^ 


24' 


28' 


32' 


36' 


40' 


24' 


28' 


32' 


36' 


40' 


2-350S162-33 





— 


_ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-43 


__ 








— 



















2-350S 162-54 


2'-6" 


2'-l" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-68 


3'-6" 


3'-0" 


2'-6" 


2'-2" 





2'-9" 


2'-2" 





— 





2-350S 162-97 


4'-9" 


4'-5" 


4'-l" 


3'- 10" 


3'-7" 


4'-2" 


3'- 11" 


3'-7" 


3'-4" 


2'- 11" 


2-550S162-33 
































2-550S162-43 
































2-550S162-54 


3'- 11" 


3'-4" 





— 





2'-10" 














2-550S 162-68 


5'-2" 


4'-6" 


3'-ll" 


3'-4" 


2'- 10" 


4'-l" 


3'-5" 


2'-9" 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-97 


6'- 10" 


6'-4" 


6'-0" 


5'-7" 


5'-4" 


6'-l" 


5'-7" 


5'-4" 


4'-9" 


4'-4" 


2-800S 162-33 











— 




















2-800S 162-43 











— 




















2-800S 162-54 


5'-l" 


4'-2" 





— 


— 


— 


— 





— 





2-800S 162-68 


6'-9" 


6'-l" 


5'-2" 


4'-5" 





5'-5" 


4'-6" 











2-800S 162-97 


9'-l" 


8'-6" 


8'-0" 


7'-6" 


r-1" 


8'-2" 


7'-7" 


7'-0" 


6'-5" 


5'- 10" 


2-lOOOS 162-43 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 




— 


— 


2-1000S162-54 


5'-6" 








— 





— 


— 





— 





2-1000S162-68 


7'- 10" 


6'- 11" 


6'-0" 


5'-2" 





6'-4" 


5'-4" 











2- lOOOS 162-97 


10'- 10" 


lO'-l" 


9'-6" 


9'-0" 


8'-4" 


9'-9" 


9'-2" 


8'-4" 


I'-T 


7'-0" 


2- 1200S 162-43 











— _ 





— 


— 





— 





2- 1200S 162-54 


5'-7" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2- 1200S 162-68 


8'-4" 


7'-2" 


6'-2" 


— 





6'-6" 














2- 1200S 162-97 


12'-6" 


ll'-8" 


11 '-0" 


10'-4" 


9'-6" 


ll'-3" 


10'-6" 


9'-6" 


8'-8" 


8'-0" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Deflection criteria: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Roof/Ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic dead load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE"" 



173 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(5) 

BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS 

Headers supporting roof and ceiling only (33 ksi steel)^' "' *= 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(20 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(30 psf) 


Building width'' 


Building width'' 


24' 


28' 


32' 


36' 


40^ 


24' 


28' 


32' 


36' 


40' 


2-350S162-33 


3'-7" 


3'-l" 


2'-8" 


2'-4" 


— '. 


2'- 11" 


2'-6" 


— 





— 


2-350S 162-43 


5'-0" 


4'-8" 


4'-4" 


3'- 10" 


3'-7" 


4'-6" 


4'-0" 


3'-8" 


3'-4" 


2'- 11" 


2-350S 162-54 


5'-9" 


5'-5" 


5'-0" 


4'-9" 


4'-6" 


5'-3" 


4'- 10" 


4'-6" 


4'-4" 


3'- 11" 


2-350S 162-68 


6'-7" 


6'-2" 


5'-9" 


5'-5" 


5'-2" 


5'- 11" 


5'-7" 


5'-2" 


4'-10" 


4'-7" 


2-350S 162-97 


7'- 11" 


7'-6" 


6'- 11" 


6'-7" 


6'-6" 


7'-4" 


6'-9" 


6'-4" 


5'- 11" 


5'-8" 


2-550S 162-33 


5'-5" 


4'-9" 


4'-4" 


3'-9" 


3'-5" 


4'-7" 


3'- 11" 


3'-5" 


2'- 11" 





2-550S 162-43 


7'-3" 


6'-8" 


6'-2" 


5'-8" 


5'-4" 


6'-6" 


5'- 10" 


5'-5" 


4'- 10" 


4'-6" 


2-550S162-54 


8'-2" 


7'-8" 


7'-2" 


6'-9" 


6'-5" 


7'-5" 


6'- 10" 


6'-6" 


6'-l" 


5'-9" 


2-550S 162-68 


9'-4" 


8'-8" 


8'-7" 


7'-8" 


7'-4" 


8'-6" 


7'- 10" 


7'-5" 


6'-ll" 


6'-7" 


2-550S 162-97 


11 '-3" 


10'-6" 


9'- 11" 


9'-4" 


8'- 10" 


10'-3" 


9'-6" 


8'- 11" 


8'-6" 


8'-0" 


2-800S 162-33 


6'-9" 


5'- 11" 


5'-5" 


4'-9" 


4'-4" 


6'-9" 


5'-0" 


4'-5" 


3'-9" 


— 


2-800S 162-43 


9'-l" 


8'-6" 


7'-9" 


7'-3" 


6'-8" 


8'-3" 


7'-6" 


6'-9" 


6'-3" 


5'-8" 


2-800S 162-54 


10'-9" 


10'- 1" 


9'-6" 


8'- 11" 


8'-6" 


9'-9" 


9'-2" 


8'-7" 


8'-2" 


7'-8" 


2-800S 162-68 


12'-3" 


ll'-5" 


10'-9" 


10'-2" 


9'-8"^ 


ll'-2" 


10'-5" 


9'-9" 


9'-4" 


8'-9" 


2-800S 162-97 


14'-9" 


13'-9" 


13'-0" 


12'-4" 


ll'-8" 


13'-6" 


12'-7" 


U'-IO" 


ll'-2" 


10'-8" 


2-1000S162-43 


10'- 1" 


9'-5" 


8'-8" 


8'-0" 


7'-6" 


9'-l" 


8'-4" 


7'-7" 


6'- 11" 


6'-5" 


2- lOOOS 162-54 


12'-0" 


11 '-5" 


10'-7" 


lO'-O" 


9'-6" 


11 '-0" 


10'-3" 


9'-7" 


9'-l" 


8'-6" 


2-1000S162-68 


14'-6" 


13'-6" 


12'-8" 


12'-0" 


11 '-6" 


13'-2" 


12'-4" 


11 '-7" 


10'- 11" 


10'-6" 


2-1000S162-97 


17'-6" 


16'-5" 


15'-5" 


14'-7" 


13'- 10" 


16'-0" 


14'- 10" 


14'-0" 


13'-4" 


12'-8" 


2-1200S162-43 


U'-O" 


10'-4" 


9'-6" 


8'-9" 


8'-2" 


lO'-O" 


9'-l" 


8'-4" 


7'-7" 


7'-0" 


2- 1200S 162-54 


13'-1" 


12'-3" 


11 '-6" 


10'- 10" 


10'-5" 


11'- 10" 


ll'-l" 


10'-6" 


9'- 10" 


9'-4" 


2-1200S162-68 


15'-6" 


14'-6" 


13'-7" 


12'- 10" 


12'-3" 


14'- 1" 


13'-2" 


12'-5" 


ll'-9" 


ll'-2" 


2- 1200S 162-97 


20'-2" 


18'-9" 


17'-9" 


16'-9" 


16'-b" 


18'-4" 


17'-2" 


16'-2" 


15'-5" 


14'-7" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot - 0.0479kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Deflection criteria: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Roof/Ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic dead load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header. 



174 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*^ 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(6) 

BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS 

Headers supporting roof and ceiling only (33 ksi steel)^'''''^ 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(50 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(70 psf) 


Building width<= 


Building width'' 


24' 


28' 


32' 


36' 


40' 


24' 


28' 


32' 


36' 


40' 


2-350S 162-33 
































2-350S 162-43 


3'-2" 


2'-8" 


2'-4" 


— 


— 


2'-3" 


— 





— 





2-350S 162-54 


4'-3" 


3'-8" 


3'-5" 


2'- 11" 


2'-8" 


3'-4" 


2'-9" 


2'-5" 


2'-0" 


l'-7" 


2-350S162-68 


4'-9" 


4'-6" 


4'-2" 


3'- 10" 


3'-7" 


4'-l" 


3'-9" 


3'-5" 


3'-l" 


2'-8" 


2-350S 162-97 


5'- 10" 


5'-6" 


5'-2" 


4'- 10" 


4'-7" 


5'-0" 


4'-8" 


4'-5" 


4'-2" 


3'- 10" 


2-550S 162-33 


2'-9" 


— 











— 














2-550S 162-43 


4'-9" 


4'-2" 


3'-8" 


3'-3" 


2'-8" 


3'-6" 


2'- 10" 











2-550S 162-54 


6'-0" 


5'-6" 


4'- 11" 


4'-6" 


4'-l" 


4'- 10" 


4'-4" 


3'- 10" 


3'-6" 


2'- 11" 


2-550S162-68 


6'- 10" 


6'-5" 


5'-ll" 


5'-8" 


5'-4" 


5'-ll" 


5'-6" 


4'- 11" 


4'-7" 


4'-3" 


2-550S 162-97 


8'-5" 


7'-7" 


4'-4" 


6'- 10" 


6'-7" 


7'-3" 


6'-8" 


6'-4" 


5'- 11" 


5'-8" 


2-800S 162-33 


3'-8" 




























2-800S 162-43 


6'-l" 


5'-5" 


4'-9" 


4'-2" 


3'-8" 


4'-7" 


3'-9" 










2-800S 162-54 


8'-0" 


7'-4" 


6'-8" 


6'-l" 


5'-7" 


6'-6" 


5'-8" 


5'-3" 


4'-8" 


4'-3" 


2-800S 162-68 


9'-l" 


8'-6" 


7'- 11" 


7'-7" 


r-1" 


7'- 10" 


7'-5" 


6'-9" 


6'-3" 


5'-9" 


2-800S 162-97 


ll'-l" 


10'-4" 


9'-8" 


9'-2" 


8'-9" 


9'-8" 


8'- 11" 


8'-5" 


7'- 11" 


7'-7" 


2-1000S162-43 


6'-9" 


6'-0" 


5'-5" 


4'-9" 


4'-2" 


5'-2" 


4'-5" 











2- lOOOS 162-54 


8'- 11" 


8'-2" 


7-6" 


6'- 10" 


6'-6" 


7'-4" 


6'-7" 


5'- 10" 


5'-4" 


4'-9" 


2-1000S162-68 


10'-9" 


lO'-l" 


9'-6" 


8'- 11" 


8'-6" 


9'-5" 


8'-9" 


8'-l" 


7'-6" 


6'- 10" 


2-1000S162-97 


13'-1" 


12'-4" 


ll'-6" 


lO'-lO" 


10'-5" 


ll'-5" 


10'-7" 


9'-ll" 


9'-6" 


8'- 11" 


2-1200S162-43 


7'-6" 


6'-7" 


5'- 10" 


5'-2" 


4'-7" 


5'-8" 


4'- 10" 











2- 1200S 162-54 


9'-9" 


8'- 10" 


8'-l" 


7'-6" 


6'- 10" 


7'- 11" 


7'-2" 


6'-6" 


5'-9" 


5'-3" 


2-1200S162-68 


ir-7" 


10'-9" 


10'-2" 


9'-7" 


9'-l" 


10'-2" 


9'-6" 


8'-7" 


7'- 11" 


7'-5" 


2-1200S162-97 


15'-1" 


14'- 1" 


13'-4" 


12'-7" 


12'-0" 


13'-2" 


12'-4" 


11 '-7" 


lO'-ll" 


10'-6" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Deflection criteria: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Roof/Ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic dead load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by theheader. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE" 



175 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(7) 
BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS 
Headers supporting one floor, roof and ceiling (33 ksi 



steel)' 



,3, b, c 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(20 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(30 psf) 


Building width'^ 


Building wldth<= 


24' 


28' 


32' 


36' 


40' 


24' 


28' 


32' 


36' 


40' 


2-350S162-33 

















— 


— 





— 


— 


2-350S 162-43 


2'-7" 


2'-l" 


— 


— 


— 


2'-6" 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-350S 162-54 


3'-8" 


3'-3" 


2'-9" 


2'-6" 


2'-l" 


3'-7" 


3'-l" 


2'-8" 


2'-5" 


I'-ll" 


2-350S 162-68 


4'-5" 


4'-0" 


3'-9" 


3'-6" 


3'-l" 


4'-4" 


3'- 11" 


3'-8" 


3'-5" 


3'-0" 


2-350S 162-97 


5'-5" 


4'- 11" 


4'-8" 


4'-5" 


4'-l" 


5'-4" 


4'- 10" 


4'-7" 


4'-4" 


4'-0" 


2-550S 162-33 





— 


— 


— 


— - 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-43 


4'-l" 


3'-6" 


2'- 10" 


2'-5" 


— , 


3'- 11" 


3'-5" 


2'-9" 


— 


— 


2-550S 162-54 


5'-5" 


4'-9" 


4'-4" 


3'- 10" 


3'-6" 


5'-3" 


4'-8" 


4'-3" 


3'-9" 


3'-5" 


2-550S 162-68 


6'-6" 


5'- 10" 


5'-6" 


5'-l" 


4'-8" 


6'-2" 


5'-9" 


5'-5" 


4'- 11" 


4'-7" 


2-550S 162-97 


7'-8" 


7'-2" 


6'-8" 


6'-5" 


5'- 11" 


7'-7" 


7'-0" 


6'-7" 


6'-3" 


5'- 10" 


2-800S162-33 











— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2-800S 162-43 


5'-4" 


4'-7" 


3'- 10" 


3'-4" 





5'-l" 


4'-5" 


3'-9" 


. 





2-800S 162-54 


7'-3" 


6'-6" 


5'-10" 


5'-4" 


4'-9" 


6'- 11" 


6'-4" 


5'-8" 


5'-3" 


4'-8" 


2-800S 162-68 


8'-5" 


7'-9" 


7'-5" 


6'-9" 


6'-5" 


8'-4" 


7'-8" 


7'-3" 


6'-8" 


6'-3" 


2-800S 162-97 


10'-2" 


9'-6" 


8'- 11" 


8'-6" 


8'-l" 


lO'-O" 


9'-5" 


8'-9" 


8'-5" 


7'- 10" 


2- lOOOS 162-43 


5'-9" 


5'-l" 


4'-5" 


3'-9" 


— " 


5'-8" 


4'- 11" 


4'-4" 


— 


— 


2-1000S162-54 


7'- 11" 


7'-3" 


6'-7" 


5'- 11" 


5'-5" 


7'-9" 


7'-l" 


6'-5" 


5'-9" 


5'-4" 


2-1000S162-68 


9'-ll" 


9'-4" 


8'-9" 


8'-l" 


I'-T 


9'- 10" 


9'-2" 


8'-7" 


7'- 11" 


7'-5" 


2-1000S162-97 


12'-1" 


11 '-4" 


10'-8" 


lO'-O" 


9'-7" 


ll'-ll" 


ll'-l" 


10'-6" 


9'- 10" 


9'-6" 


2-1200S162-43 


6'-6" 


5'-8" 


4'- 10" 


4'-2" 





6'-4" 


5'-6" 


4'-8" 








2- 1200S 162-54 


8'-8" 


7'- 10" 


7'-2" 


6'-6" 


5'- 11" 


8'-6" 


7'-8" 


6'- 11" 


6'-5" 


5'-9" 


2- 1200S 162-68 


10'-8" 


9'- 11" 


9'-5" 


8'-8" 


8'-l" 


10'-6" 


9'-9" 


9'-3" 


8'-6" 


7'- 11" 


2- 1200S 162-97 


13'- 11" 


13'-0" 


12'-4" 


11 '-7" 


ii'-i" 


13'-9" 


12'-10" 


12'- 1" 


11 '-6" 


lO'-lO" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot - 0.0479 kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Deflection criteria: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Roof/Ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling load is 12 psf. 
Attic dead load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by th'e header. 



176 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(8) 
BACK-TO-BACK HEADER SPANS 
Headers supporting one floor, roof and ceiling (33 ksi 



steel)^ 



MEMBER 
DESIGNATION 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(50 psf) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD 
(70 psf) 


Building width'^ 


Building width*^ 


24' 


28' 


32' 


36' 


40' 


24' 


28' 


32' 


36' 


40' 


2-350S 162-33 





— 


— 


— 


. — . 











— 


— 


2-350S 162-43 








— 


— 


— 














— 


2-350S162-54 


2'- 11" 


2'-6" 


2'-2" 








2'-4" 














2-350S 162-68 


3'- 10" 


3'-6" 


3'-2" 


2'-9" 


2'-6" 


3'-4" 


2'- 10" 


2'-6" 


2'-3" 


I'-IO" 


2-350S 162-97 


4'-9" 


4'-5" 


4'-2" 


3'- 10" 


3'-8" 


4'-3" 


3'- 10" 


3'-8" 


3'-5" 


3'-2" 


2-550S 162-33 








— 


— 


— 














— 


2-550S 162-43 


3'-l" 


2'-5" 


— 


— 


— 













— 


2-550S162-54 


4'-6" 


3'-10" 


3'-6" 


3'-0" 


2'-7" 


3'-8" 


3'-l" 


2'-7" 


2'-l" 


— 


2-550S 162-68 


5'-7" 


5'-l" 


4'-8" 


4'-4" 


3'-ll" 


4'-10" . 


4'-5" 


3'- 10" 


3'-6" 


3'-3" 


2-550S 162-97 


6'- 10" 


6'-5" 


5'- 11" 


5'-8" 


5'-5" 


6'-2" 


5'-8" 


5'-.5" 


3'-l" 


4'-9" 


2-800S162-33 
































2-800S 162-43 


4'-l" 


3'-5" 


— 


— 

















— 


2-800S 162-54 


6'-0" 


5'-5" 


4'-9" 


4'-4" 


3'-9" 


4'- 11" 


4'-5" 


3'-9" 


3'-2" 


— 


2-800S 162-68 


7'-6" 


6'- 10" 


e-5" 


5'- 10" 


5'-5" 


6'-7" 


5'-10" 


5'-5" 


4'-10" 


4'-6" 


2-800S 162-97 


9'-l" 


8'-6" 


8'-0" 


r-T 


7'-4" 


8'-3" 


7'-8" 


7'-3" 


6'-9" 


6'-6" 


2-1000S162-43 


4'-8" 


3'- 10" 


— 


— 














— 


— 


2-1000S162-54 


6'-9" 


6'-0" 


5'-5" 


4'-10" 


4'-4" 


5'-8" 


4'-10" 


4'-4" 


3'-8" 





2-1000S162-68 


8'-10" 


8'-3" 


7'-7" 


6'- 11" 


6'-6" 


7'-9" 


7'-l" 


6'-6" 


5'- 10" 


5'-5" 


2- lOOOS 162-97 


lO'-lO" 


10'-3" 


9'-7" 


9'-l" 


8'-8" 


9'-9" 


9'-3" 


8'-7" 


8'-3" 


7'-9" 


2-1200S162-43 


5'-l" 


4'_42 


— 


— 


— 








— 


— 


— 


2- 1200S 162-54 


r-5" 


6'-6" 


5'-10" 


5'-4" 


4'-9" 


6'-3" 


5'-5" 


4'-8" 


4'-l" 


— 


2-1200S162-68 


9'-7" 


8'-9" 


8'-l" 


7'-6" 


6'- 11" 


8'-8" 


7'-7" 


6'- 11" 


6'-4" 


5'-9" 


2-1200S162-97 


12'-6" 


11 '-8" 


11'- 1" 


10'-6" 


9'- 11" 


11 '-4" 


10'-7" 


lO'-O" 


9'-6" 


9'-0" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Deflection criteria: L/360 for live loads, L/240 for total loads. 

b. Design load assumptions: 

Second floor dead load is 10 psf. 
Roof/Ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Second floor live load is 30 psf. 
Roof/ceiling dead load is 12 psf. 
Attic dead load is 10 psf. 

c. Building width is in the direction of horizontal framing members supported by the header. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE"" 



177 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.6(9) 
TOTAL NUMBER OF JACK AND KING STUDS REQUIRED AT EACH END OF AN OPENING 



SIZE OF OPENING 
(feet-inches) 


24" O.C. STUD SPACING 


16" O.C. STUD SPACING 


No. of jack studs 


No. of king studs 


No. of jack studs 


No. of king studs 


Up to 3'-6" 


1 


1 


1 


1 


> 3'-6" to 5'-0" 


1 


2 


1 


2 


> 5'-0" to 5'-6" 


1 


2 


2 


2 


> 5'-6" to 8'-0" 


1 


2 


2 


2 


> 8'-0" to 10'-6" 


2 


2 . 


2 


3 


> 10'-6" to 12'-0" 


2 


2 : 


3 


3 


>12'-0"tol3'-0" 


2 


3 


3 


3 


>13'-0"tol4'-0" 


2 


3 , 


3 


4 


> 14'-0" to 16'-0" 


2 


3 ' 


3 


4 


>16'-0"tol8'-0" 


3 


3 ■ 


4 


4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



TABLE R603.6(10) 
HEADER TO KING STUD CONNECTION REQUIREMENTS^ "^^ 



HEADER SPAN 
(feet) 


BASIC WIND SPEED (mph), EXPOSURE 


85 A/B or Seismic Design 
Categories A, B, C, Dq, D., and Dj 


85 Cor less than 110 A/B 


Less than HOC 


<4' 


4-No. 8 screws 


4-No. 8 screws 


6-No. 8 screws 


> 4' to 8' 


4-No. 8 screws 


4-No. 8 screws 


8 -No. 8 screws 


> 8' to 12' 


4-No. 8 screws 


6-No. 8 screws 


10-No. 8 screws 


> 12'to 16' 


4-No. 8 screws 


8-No. 8 screws 


12-No. 8 screws 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s, 1 pound = 4.448 N. 

a. All screw sizes shown are minimum. 

b. For headers located on the first floor of a two-story building, the total number of screws may be reduced by two screws, but the total number of screws shall be no 
less than four. 

c. For roof slopes of 6: 12 or greater, the required number of screws may be reduced 'by half, but the total number of screws shall be no less than four. 

d. Screwscanbereplacedbyanupliftconnectorwhichhasacapacityof the number of screws multiplied by 164 pounds (e.g., 12-No. 8 screws can be replaced by an 
uplift connector whose capacity exceeds 12 X 164 pounds = 1,968 pounds). 



TABLE R603.6(11) 
HEAD TRACK SPAN (33 ksi Steel) 



BASIC WIND 
SPEED (mph) 


ALLOWABLE HEAD TRACK SPAN^' " 
(ft-in) 


Exposure 


Track Designation 


A/B 


c 


350T1 25-33 


350T1 25-43 


350T1 25-54 


550T1 25-33 


550T1 25-43 


550T1 25-54 


85 




5'-0" 


5'-7" 


6'-2" 


5'- 10" 


6'-8" 


7'-0" 


90 




4'-10" 


5'-5" 


6'-0" 


5'-8" 


6'-3" 


6'-10" 


100 


85 


4'-6" 


5'-l" 


5'-8" 


5'-4" 


5'- 11" 


6'-5" 


110 


90 


4'-2" 


4'-9" 


5^-4" 


5'-l" 


5'-7" 


6'-l" 




100 


3'- 11" 


4'-6" 


5'-0" 


4'- 10" 


5'-4" 


5'- 10" 




110 


3'-8" 


4'-2" 


4^-9" 


4'-l" 


5'-l" 


5'-7" 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 nrni, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Deflection Limit: L/240 

b. Head track spans are based on components and cladding wind speeds and a 49-inch tributary span. 



178 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



2 SCREWS AT 24 IN. O.C. 
(ONE PER HEADER FLANGE) 



2SCREWSAT24IN. O.C. 




(SEE ALTERNATE DETAIL) 



CLIP ANGLE ATTACHED WITH SCREWS 
IN EACH LEG OF CLIP ANGLE, 
MINIMUM ANGLE LENGTH = HEADER 
DEPTH MINUS V2 IN. 



JACKSTUD(S) 
KINGSTUD(S) 



STRUCTURAL 
SHEATHING EXTERIOR 



SCREW AT 24 IN. O.C. THROUGH EXTERIOR 
SHEATHING TO EACH JACK AND KING STUD 



2 SCREWS AT 24" O.C 
ONE PER FLANGE 



C-SHAPES 



TRACK 



TRACK 




TRACK 



CRIPPLE STUD 



TRACK OR C-SHAPE 
ATTACH WITH SCREWS 
(MmmUM DEPTH = HEADER 
DEPTH MINUS H INCH) 



KING STUD{S) 



JACKSTUD(S) 



SCREWS TO SHEATHING TO 
EACH JACK AND KING STUD 
AT 12" ON CENTER 



For SI; 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



ALTERNATE DETAIL 
(BOX BEAM HEADER) 



FIGURE R603.6 
HEADER DETAIL 



STRUCTURAL SHEATHING 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE"" 



179 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R603.7 
MINIMUM PERCENTAGE OF FULL HEIGHT STRUCTURAL SHEATHING ON EXTERIOR WALLS"- *"= ''^ 



WALL SUPPORTING 


ROOF 
SLOPE 


WIND SPEED (mph) AND EXPOSURE 


85A/B 


100A/B 


110A/Bor85C 


100 c 


110C 


Roof and ceiling only 


3:12 


8 


9 


12 


16 


20 


6:12 


12 


15 


20 


26 


35 


9:12 


21 


25 


30 


50 


58 


12:12 


30 


35 


40 


66 


75 


One story, roof and ceiling 


3:12 


24 


30 


35 


50 


66 


6:12 


25 


30 


40 


58 


74 


9:12 


35 


40 


55 


74 


91 


12:12 


40 


50 


65 


100 


115 



For SI: 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Linear interpolation shall be permitted. 

b. Bracing amount shall not be less than 20 percent of the wall length after all applicable adjustments are made. 

c. Minimum percentages are based on a building aspect ratio of 1 : 1 . Minimum percentages for the shorter walls of a building shall be multiplied by a factor of 1 . 5 and 
2.0 for building aspect ratios of 1.5:1 and 2:1 respectively. 

d. For hip roofed homes with continuous structural sheathing, the amount of bracing shall be permitted to be multiplied by a factor of 0.95 for roof slopes not exceed- 
ing 7:12 and a factor of 0.9 for roof slopes greater than 7:12. 

e. Sheathing percentages are permitted to be reduced in accordance with Section R603.7.2. 



SECTION R604 
WOOD STRUCTURAL PANELS 

R604.1 Identification and grade. Wood structural panels 
shall conform to DOC PS 1 or DOC PS 2. All panels shall be 
identified by a grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by 
an approved agency. 

R604.2 Allowable spans. The maximum allowable spans for 
wood structural panel wall sheathing shall not exceed the val- 
ues set forth in Table R602.3(3). 

R604.3 Installation. Wood structural panel wall sheathing 
shall be attached to framing in accordance with Table 
R602.3(l). Wood structural panels marked Exposure 1 or 
Exterior are considered water-repellent sheathing under the 
code. 



SECTION R605 
PARTICLEBOARD 

R605.1 Identification and grade. Particleboard shall conform 
to ANSI A208.1 and shall be so identified by a grade mark or 
certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency. 
Particleboard shall comply with the grades specified in Table 
R602.3(4). 



SECTION R606 
GENERAL MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 

R606.1 General. Masonry construction shall be designed and 
constructed in accordance with the provisions of this secdon or 
in accordance with the provisions of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 
402. 

R606.1.1 Professional registration not required. When 
the empirical design provisions of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 
402 Chapter 5 or the provisions of this section are used to 
design masonry, project drawings, typical details and speci- 
fications are not required to bear the seal of the architect or 



engineer responsible for design, unless otherwise required 
by the state law of the jurisdiction having authority. 

R606.2 Thickness of masonry. The nominal thickness of 
masonry walls shall conform to the requirements of Sections 
R606.2.1 through R606.2.4. 

R606.2.1 Minimum thickness. The minimum thickness of 
masonry bearing walls more than one story high shall be 8 
inches (203 mm). Solid masonry walls of one-story dwell- 
ings and garages shall not be less than 6 inches (152 mm) in 
thickness when not greater than 9 feet (2743 mm) in height, 
provided that when gable construction is used, an additional 6 
feet (1 829 mm) is permitted to the peak of the gable. Masonry 
walls shall be laterally supported in either the horizontal or 
vertical direction at intervals as required by Section R606.9. 

R606.2.2 Rubble stone masonry wall. The minimum 
thickness of rough, random or coursed rubble stone 
masonry walls shall be 16 inches (406 mm). 

R606.2.3 Change in thickness. Where walls of masonry of 
hollow units or masonry-bonded hollow walls are decreased 
in thickness, a course of solid masonry shall be constructed 
between the wall below and the thinner wall above, or spe- 
cial units or construction shall be used to transmit the loads 
from face shells or wythes above to those below. 

R606.2.4 Parapet walls. Unreinforced solid masonry para- 
pet walls shall not be less than 8 inches (203 mrn) thick and 
their height shall not exceed four times their thickness. 
Unreinforced hollow unit masonry parapet walls shall be 
not less than 8 inches (203 mm) thick, and their height shall 
not exceed three times their thickness. Masonry parapet 
walls in areas subject to wind loads of 30 pounds per square 
foot (1.44 kPa) located in Seismic Design Category Dg, Dj 
\ or D2, or on townhouses in Seismic Design Category C shall 
' be reinforced in accordance with Section R606.12. 

R606.3 Corbeled masonry. Solid masonry units shall be used 
for corbeling. The maximum corbeled projection beyond the 



180 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



face of the wall shall not be more than one-half of the wall 
thickness or one-half the wythe thickness for hollow walls; the 
maximum projection of one unit shall not exceed one-half the 
height of the unit or one-third the thickness at right angles to the 
wall. When corbeled masonry is used to support floor or 
roof-framing members, the top course of the corbel shall be a 
header course or the top course bed joint shall have ties to the 
vertical wall. The hollow space behind the corbeled masonry 
shall be filled with mortar or grout. 

R606.4 Support conditions. Bearing and support conditions 
shall be in accordance with Sections R606.4.1 and R606.4.2. 

R606.4.1 Bearing on support. Each masonry wythe shall 
be supported by at least two-thirds of the wythe thickness. 

R606.4.2 Support at foundation. Cavity wall or masonry 
veneer construction may be supported on an 8-inch (203 
mm) foundation wall, provided the 8-inch (203 mm) wall is 
corbeled with solid masonry to the width of the wall system 
above. The total horizontal projection of the corbel shall not 
exceed 2 inches (51 mm) with individual corbels projecting 
not more than one-third the thickness of the unit or one-half 
the height of the unit. 

R606.5 Allowable stresses. Allowable compressive stresses in 
masonry shall not exceed the values prescribed in Table 
R606.5. In determining the stresses in masonry, the effects of 
all loads and conditions of loading and the influence of all 
forces affecting the design and strength of the several parts 
shall be taken into account. 

R606.5.1 Combined units. In walls or other structural 
members composed of different kinds or grades of units, 
materials or mortars, the maximum stress shall not exceed 
the allowable stress for the weakest of the combination of 
units, materials and mortars of which the member is com- 
posed. The net thickness of any facing unit that is used to 
resist stress shall not be less than 1.5 inches (38 mm). 

R606.6 Piers. The unsupported height of masonry piers shall 
not exceed ten times their least dimension. When structural 
clay tile or hollow concrete masonry units are used for isolated 
piers to support beams and girders, the cellular spaces shall be 
filled solidly with concrete or Type M or S mortar, except that 
unfilled hollow piers may be used if their unsupported height is 
not more than four times their least dimension. Where hollow 
masonry units are solidly filled with concrete or Type M, S or N 
mortar, the allowable compressive stress shall be permitted to 
be increased as provided in Table R606.5. 

R606.6.1 Pier cap. Hollow piers shall be capped with 4 
inches (102 mm) of solid masonry or concrete or shall have 
cavities of the top course filled with concrete or grout or 
other approved methods. 

R606.7 Chases. Chases and recesses in masonry walls shall 
not be deeper than one-third the wall thickness, and the maxi- 
mum length of a horizontal chase or horizontal projection shall 
not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm), and shall have at least 8 inches 
(203 mm) of masonry in back of the chases and recesses and 
between adjacent chases or recesses and the jambs of openings. 
Chases and recesses in masonry walls shall be designed and 
constructed so as not to reduce the required strength or required 
fire resistance of the wall and in no case shall a chase or recess 



be permitted within the required area of a pier. Masonry 
directly above chases or recesses wider than 12 inches (305 
mm) shall be supported on noncombustible lintels. 

TABLE R606.5 

ALLOWABLE COMPRESSIVE STRESSES FOR 

EMPIRICAL DESIGN OF MASONRY 



CONSTRUCTION; COMPRESSIVE 
STRENGTH OF UNIT, GROSS AREA 


ALLOWABLE COMPRESSIVE 

STRESSES' GROSS 
CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA" 


Type M or S 
mortar 


Type N 
mortar 


Solid masonry of brick and other 
solid units of clay or shale; sand-lime 
or concrete brick: 

8,000 + psi 

4,500 psi 

2,500 psi 

1,500 psi 


350 
225 
160 
115 


300 
200 
140 
100 


Grouted'^ masonry, of clay or shale; 
sand-lime or concrete: 

4,500+ psi 

2,500 psi 

1,500 psi 


225 
160 
115 


200 
140 
100 


SoHd masonry of soUd concrete 
masonry units: 

3,000+ psi 

2,000 psi 

1,200 psi 


225 
160 
115 


200 
140 
100 


Masonry of hollow load-bearing 
units: 

2,000+ psi 

1,500 psi 

1,000 psi 

700 psi 


140 
115 
75 
60 


120 
100 
70 
55 


Hollow walls (cavity or masonry 
bonded'') solid units: 

2,500+ psi 

1,500 psi 

Hollow units 


160 
115 

75 


140 
100 
70 


Stone ashlar masonry: 
Granite 

Limestone or marble 
Sandstone or cast stone 


720 
450 
360 


640 
400 
320 


Rubble stone masonry: 
Coarse, rough or random 


120 


100 



For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Linear interpolation shall be used for determining allowable stresses for 
masonry units having compressive strengths that are intermediate between 
those given in the table. 

b. Gross cross-sectional area shall be calculated on the actual rather than nomi- 
nal dimensions. 

c. See Section R608. 

d. Where floor and roof loads are carried upon one wythe, the gross cross-sec- 
tional area is that of the wythe under load; if both wythes are loaded, the 
gross cross-sectional area is that of the wall minus the area of the cavity 
between the wythes. Walls bonded with metal ties shall be considered as 
cavity walls unless the collar joints are filled with mortar or grout. 

R606.8 Stack bond. In unreinforced masonry where masonry 
units are laid in stack bond, longitudinal reinforcement consist- 
ing of not less than two continuous wires each with a minimum 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



181 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



aggregate cross-sectional area of 0.017 square inch (11 mm^) 
shall be provided in horizontal bed joints spaced not more than 
16 inches (406 mm) on center vertically. 

R606.9 Lateral support. Masonry walls shall be laterally sup- 
ported in either the horizontal or the vertical direction. The 
maximum spacing between lateral supports shall not exceed 
the distances in Table R606.9. Lateral support shall be pro- 
vided by cross walls, pilasters, buttresses or structural frame 
members when the limiting distance is taken horizontally, or by 
floors or roofs when the limiting distance is taken vertically. 

TABLE R606.9 
SPACING OF LATERAL SUPPORT FOR MASONRY WALLS 



CONSTRUCTION 


MAXIMUM WALL LENGTH TO THICKNESS 
OR WALL HEIGHT TO THICKNESS^" 


Bearing walls: 

Solid or solid grouted 
All other 


20 
18 


Nonbearing walls: 
Exterior 
Interior 


18 
36 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Except for cavity walls and cantilevered walls, the thickness of a wall shall 
be its nominal thiciaiess measured perpendicular to the face of the wall. For 
cavity walls, the thickness shall be determined as the sum of the nominal 
thicknesses of the individual wythes. For cantilever walls, except for para- 
pets, the ratio of height to nominal thickness shall not exceed 6 for solid 
masonry, or 4 for hollow masonry. For parapets, see Section R606.2.4. 

b. An additional unsupported height of 6 feet is permitted for gable end walls. 

R606.9.1 Horizontal lateral support. Lateral support in 
the horizontal direction provided by intersecting masonry 
walls shall be provided by one of the methods in Section 
R606.9.1.1 or Section R606.9. 1.2. 

R606.9.1.1 Bonding pattern. Fifty percent of the units at 
the intersection shall be laid in an overlapping masonry 
bonding pattern, with alternate units having a bearing of 
not less than 3 inches (76 mm) on the unit below. 

R606.9.1.2 Metal reinforcement. Interior nonload- bear- 
ing walls shall be anchored at their intersections, at vertical 
intervals of not more than 16 inches (406 mm) with joint 
reinforcement of at least 9 gage [0.148 in. (4mm)], or V4 
inch (6 mm) galvanized mesh hardware cloth. Litersecting 
masonry walls, other than interior nonloadbearing walls, 
shall be anchored at vertical intervals of not more than 8 
inches (203 mm) with joint reinforcement of at least 9 gage 
and shall extend at least 30 inches (762 mm) in each direc- 
tion at the intersection. Other metal ties, joint reinforcement 
or anchors, if used, shall be spaced to provide equivalent 
area of anchorage to that required by this section. 

R606.9.2 Vertical lateral support. Vertical lateral support 
of masonry walls in Seismic Design Category A, B or C 
shall be provided in accordance with one of the methods in 
Section R606.9.2.1 or Section R606.9.2.2. 

R606.9.2.1 Roof structures. Masonry walls shall be 
anchored to roof structures with metal strap anchors 
spaced in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions, '/2-inch (13 mm) bolts spaced not more than 6 feet 
(1829 mm) on center, or other approved anchors. 
Anchors shall be embedded at least 16 inches (406 mm) 



into the masonry, or be hooked or welded to bond beam 
reinforcement placed not less than 6 inches (152 mm) 
from the top of the wall. 

R606.9.2.2 Floor diaphragms. Masonry walls shall be 
anchored to floor diaphragm framing by melal strap anchors 
spaced in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, 
Vj-inch-diameter (13 mm) bolts spaced at intervals not to 
exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) and installed as shown in Figure 
R606. 1 1 ( 1), or by other approved methods. 

R606.10 Lintels. Masonry over openings shall be supported 
by steel lintels, reinforced concrete or masonry lintels or 
masonry arches, designed to support load imposed. 

R606.il Anchorage. Masonry walls shall be anchored to floor 
and roof systems in accordance with the details shown in Fig- 
ure R606.11(l), R606.11(2) or R606.11(3). Footings may be 
considered as points of lateral support. 

R606.12 Seismic requirements. The seismic requirements of 
this section shall apply to the design of masonry and the con- 
struction of masonry building elements located in Seismic 
Design Category Dq, D, or Dj. Townhouses in Seismic Design 
Category C shall comply with the requirements of Section 
R606.12.2. These requirements shall not apply to glass unit 
masonry conforming to Section R610 or masonry veneer con- 
forming to Section R703.7. 

R606.12.1 General. Masonry structures and masonry ele- 
ments shall comply with the requirements of Sections 
R606. 12.2 through R606. 12.4 based on the seismic design 
category established in Table R301.2(l). Masonry struc- 
tures and masonry elements shall comply with the require- 
■ ments of Section R606.12 and Figures R606.11(l), 
R606.11(2) and R606.il (3) or shall be designed in accor- 
dance with ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402. 

R606.12.1.1 Floor and roof diaphragm construction. 

Floor and roof diaphragms shall be constructed of wood 
structural panels attached to wood framing in accordance 
with Table R602.3(l) or to cold-formed steel floor fram- 
ing in accordance with Table R505.3.1(2) or to 
cold-formed steel roof framing in accordance with Table 
R804.3. Additionally, sheathing panel edges perpendic- 
ular to framing members shall be backed by blocking, 
and sheathing shall be connected to the blocking with 
fasteners at the edge spacing. For Seismic Design Cate- 
gories C, Dq, Dj and D2, where the width-to-thickness 
dimension of the diaphragm exceeds 2-to-l, edge spac- 
ing of fasteners shall be 4 inches (102 mm) on center. 

R606.12.2 Seismic Design Category C» Townhouses 
I located in Seismic Design Category C shall comply with the 
requirements of this section. 

R606. 12.2. 1 Design of elements not part of the lateral 
force-resisting system. 

R606,12.2.1.1 Load-bearing frames or columns. 

Elements not part of the lateral-force-resisting system 
shall be analyzed to determine their effect on the 
response of the system. The frames or columns shall 
be adequate for vertical load carrying capacity and 
; induced moment caused by the design story drift. 



182 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'^ 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



SHEATHING NAILED IN 
ACCORDANCE WITH 
TABLE R602.3(1) 



RAFTER 




BLOCKING 



2 IN. NOMINAL 
PUVTE 



SHEATHING NAILED IN 
ACCORDANCE WITH 
TABLE R602.3(1) 



1/2 IN. BOLT AT 8 FT O.C. 
EMBEDDED4IN. MIN. 




I/2 IN. BOLT AT 8 FT O.C. 
EMBEDDED 4 IN. MIN. 



BOLT EMBEDDED, 
4 IN. 



SEE TABLE FOR BOLT 
SIZE AND SPACING 




LEDGER BOLT 
SIZE AND SPACING 



JOIST 



? 



APPROVED METAL CONNECTOR 
SIN. NOMINAL LEDGER 



JOIST SPAN 


BOLT SIZE AND SPACING 


ROOF 


FLOOR 


10 FT 


1/2 AT 2 FT 6 IN. 
7/aAT3FT6IN. 


V2 AT 2 FT IN. 
7/gAT2FT9IN. 


10-15 FT 


V2ATI FT 9 IN, 
7/8 AT 2 FT 6 IN. 


V2ATI FT 4 IN. 
7/8 AT 2 FT IN. 


1 5-20 FT 


1/2 ATI FT 3 IN. 
7/8AT2FT0IN. 


V2 AT 1 FT IN. 
7/8 ATI FT 6 IN. 



SHEATHING NAILED IN 
ACCORDANCE WITH 
TABLE R602.3(1) 



JOISTS 

PERPENDICULAR 
TO WALL 



SEE TABLE 
ABOVE FOR BOLT 
AND SIZE 
SPACING 




3-1 6d PER JOIST 
SPACING 



3 IN. NOMINAL 
END JOIST 



V2IN. BOLT AT 8 FT O.C, 
EMBEDDED AT 4 IN. MIN 



'EMBEDDED 4 IN. MIN 




JOISTS 
PARALLEL TO 
WALL 



NOTE: Where bolts are located in hollow masonry, the cells in the courses receiving the bolt shall be grouted solid. 
For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, Ifoot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kR. 

FIGURE R606.1 1(1) 

ANCHORAGE REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY WALLS LOCATED IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY 

A, B OR C AND WHERE WIND LOADS ARE LESS THAN 30 PSF 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



183 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



ROOF CONNECTORS AT 
48 IN, MAX. O.C. 



#4 BARS AROUND 
OPENINGS 

DETAIL B 



#4 BARS WITHIN 8 IN. OF ENDS 
OF WALLS AND AT CORNERS 




#4BARSAT10FTO.C 



24 IN. OR 
40 db 



#4BARS(MIN.)AT 
DIAPHRAGMS 
CONT THRU C.J. 



#4BARS(IVttN,) 
WITHIN 8 IN. OF 
ALLC.J.'S 



CONTROL JOINT 
(C.J.) 



#4 BARS AT 10 FT O.C. OR W1 ,7 
JOINT REINFORCED AT 16 IN. O.C. 



MINIMUM reinforcement; FOR MASONRY WALLS 



ANCHOR BOLTS 



2 m. PLATE WITH V, IN. ^ BOLTS 
NOT MORE THAN 4TT O.C. 
EMBEDDED 4 IN. MIN 




BOND BEAM STEEL H|; 
TWO Va IN. BARS 



LINTEL STEEL- 
SEE SECTION R606.10 



REINFORCEMENT- 
SEE SECTIONS 
R606.12.2,1.3ancl 
R606. 12.2.2.3 

NOT HEADER^ 
COURSE 



LAP 40 OIA. 

i 



'DOWEL 




3 IN. X 3 IN. X 1/4 IN. CLIP 
ANGLE 4 FT O.C. 
ONE i/g IN. BOLT 



TWO #4 LATERAL TIES WITHIN 
TOP 5 IN. OF COLUMN THAT 
ENCLOSE ANCHOR BOLTS AND 
VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT 



VERTICAL COLUMN 
REINFORCEMENT 



REINFORCEMENT SHALL 
HAVE MIN. 1/4 IN. 
CLEARANCE - 




5 IN. MAX 



COLUMN TIES 



12 IN, MAX. 

BEFORE 

GROUTING 



METAL TIES- 
SEE SECTION R608 



HEADER COURSES 
NOT PERMITTED 



MIN. % IN. GROUT 





WHERE INTERIOR 
STUD PARTITION 
MEETS WALL BOLT 
END STUD WITH 1/2 IN. 
(J! BOLTS 3 FT O.C. 



S 







LAP 40 OIA. 



SECTION 1 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. \ 

FIGURE R606.11 (2) 
REQUIREMENTS FOR REINFORCED GROUTED MASONRY CONSTRUCTION IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY C 



184 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



ROOF CONNECTORS AT 
48 IN. MAX. O.C. 



#4 BARS AROUND 
OPENINGS 

DETAILS 



#4 BARS WITHIN 8 IN. OF ENDS 
OF WALLS AND AT CORNERS 




#4BARSAT48IN. O.C, 



24 IN. OR 
40 dj, 



#4 8ARS(WlfN.)AT 
DIAPHRAGMS 
CONT THRU C.J. 



#4 BARS {WIN.) 
WITHIN 8 IN. OF 

ALL c.j;s 



CONTROL JOINT 
(C.J.) 



#4 BARS AT 48 IN. O.C. 



MINIMUM REINFORCEMENT FOR MASONRY WALLS 



3 IN, X 31/4 IN. CLIP ANGLE 4 FT O.C, 
ONE 1/2 <|» IN. BOLT, 




BOND BEAM TWO Vg i> IN. 
BARS STEEL 



1/5 IN. BOLTS NOT MORE 
THAN 4 FT O.C. IN CELLS 
WITH VERTICAL ROD 
WHERE POSSIBLE 
EMBEDDED 4 IN, MIN. 



ANCHOR BOLTS 



TWO #4 LATERAL TIES WITHIN 
TOP 5 IN. OF COLUMN WHICH >,. 
ENCLOSE ANCHOR BOLTS AND Z 
VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT 



VERTICAL COLUMN 
REINFORCEMENT 



I 



TIE COURSE 

REINFORCEMENTS- 
SEE SECTIONS R606.12;2.1,3. 
R6D6,12,3.2andR606.12.4 



DOWEL2FT6IN. 
LONG 



I 



I 



SECTION C 



.^iv.^„ 



LINTEL BAR OR 
BARS—SEE 
SECTION R606.10 




SIN. MAX, 



#3 COLUMN 
TIES AT 8 IN. 
MAX. 



% IN. 4) DOWEL 



a/g IN. ^ ROD 



6 IN. 



6 IN. MIN. 



FT- 



6 IN. 



14 IN. 




DETAIL "A" 



FOUNDATION 



INSPECTION OPENING 
NOT REQUIRED IF 
INSPECTED AT THE 
COURSE 



FOUNDATION FOR 
WOOD FLOOR 



FOUNDATION FOR 
CONCRETE FLOOR 



Note: A full bed joint must be provided. All cells containing vertical bars are to be filled to the top of wall and provide inspection opening as shown 
on detail "A," Horizontal bare are to be laid as shown on detail "B." Lintel bars are to be laid as shown on Section C, 

NOTE: A full bed joint must be provided. All cells containing vertical bars are to be filled to the top of wall and provide inspection opening as shown on detail "A." 

Horizontal bars are to be laid as shown on detail "B." Lintel bars are to be laid as shown on Section C. 
For SL 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

FIGURE R606.1 1(3) 
REQUIREMENTS FOR REINFORCED MASONRY CONSTRUCTION IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY Do, Di OR D2 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



185 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R606.12.2.1.2 Masonry partition walls. Masonry 
partition walls, masonry screen walls and other 
masonry elements that are not designed to resist verti- 
cal or lateral loads, other than those induced by their 
own weight, shall be isolated from the structure so 
that vertical and lateral forces are not imparted to 
these elements. Isolation joints and connectors 
between these elements and the structure shall be 
designed to accommodate the design story drift. 

R606.12.2.1.3 Reinforcement requirements for 
masonry elements. Masonry elements listed in Sec- 
tion R606. 12.2. 1.2 shall be reinforced in either the 
horizontal or vertical direction as shown in Figure 
R606.il (2) and in accordance with the following: 

1. Horizontal reinforcement. Horizontal joint 
reinforcement shall consist of at least two lon- 
gitudinal W1.7 wires spaced not more than 16 
inches (406 mm) for walls greater than 4 inches 
(102 mm) in width and at least one longitudinal 
Wl .7 wire spaced not more than 16 inches (406 
mm) for walls not exceeding 4 inches (102 nmi) 
in width; or at least one No. 4 bar spaced not 
more than 48 inches (1219 mm). Where two 
longitudinal wires of joint reinforcement are 
used, the space between these wires shall be the 
widest that the mortar joint will accommodate. 
Horizontal reinforcement shall be provided 
within 16 inches (406 mm) of the top and bot- 
tom of these masonry elements. 

2. Vertical reinforcement. Vertical reinforcement 
shall consist of at least one No. 4 bar spaced not 
more than 48 inches (1219 mm). Vertical rein- 
forcement shall be located within 16 inches 
(406 mm) of the ends of masonry walls. 

R606.12.2.2 Design of elements part of the lat- 
eral-force-resisting system. 

R606.12.2.2.1 Connections to masonry shear 
walls. Connectors shall be provided to transfer forces 
between masonry walls and horizontal elements in 
accordance with the requirements of Section 2.1.8 of 
ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402. Connectors shall be 
designed to transfer horizontal design forces acting 
either perpendicular or parallel to the wall, but not less 
than 200 pounds per linear foot (2919 N/m) of wall. 
The maximum spacing between connectors shall be 4 
feet (1219 mm). Such anchorage mechanisms shall 
not induce tension stresses perpendicular to grain in 
ledgers or nailers. 

R606.12.2.2.2 Connections to masonry columns. 

Connectors shall be provided to transfer forces 
between masonry columns and horizontal elements in 
accordance with the requirements of Section 2.1.8 of 
ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402. Where anchor bolts are 
used to connect horizontal elements to the tops of col- 
umns, the bolts shall be placed within lateral ties. Lat- 
eral ties shall enclose both the vertical bars in the 
column and the anchor bolts. There shall be a mini- 



mum of two No. 4 lateral ties provided in the top 5 
inches (127 mm) of the column. 

R606. 12.2.2.3 Minimum reinforcement require- 
ments for masonry shear walls. Vertical reinforce- 
ment of at least one No. 4 bar shall be provided at 
comers, within 16 inches (406 mm) of each side of 
openings, within 8 inches (203 mm) of each side of 
movement joints, within 8 inches (203 mm) of the 
ends of walls, and at a maximum spacing of 10 feet 
(3048 mm). 

Horizontal joint reinforcement shall consist of at 
leasttwo wiresofWl.7 spaced not more than 16inches 
(406 mm); or bond beam reinforcement of at least one 
No. 4 bar spaced not more than 10 feet (3048 mm) shall 
be provided. Horizontal reinforcement shall also be 
provided at the bottom and top of wall openings and 
shall extend not less than 24 inches (610 mm) nor less 
than 40 bar diameters past the opening; continuously at 
structurally connected roof and floor levels; and within 
16 inches (406 mm) of the top of walls. 

R606.12.3 Seismic Design Category Do or Dj. Structures I 
in Seismic Design Category Dq or Dj shall comply with the I 
requirements of Seismic Design Category C and the addi- 
tional requirements of this section. 

R606. 12.3.1 Design requirements. Masonry elements 
other than those covered by Section R606. 12.2. 1.2 shall 
be designed in accordance with the requirements of 
Chapter 1 and Sections 2.1 and 2.3 of ACI 530/ASCE 
5/TMS 402 and shall meet the minimum reinforcement 
requirements contained in Sections R606. 12.3.2 and 
R606.12.3.2.1. 

Exception: Masonry walls limited to one story in 
height and 9 feet (2743 mm) between lateral supports 
need not be designed provided they comply with the 
minimum reinforcement requirements of Sections 
R606.12.3.2 and R606.12.3.2.1. 

R606. 12.3.2 Minimum reinforcement requirements for 
masonry walls. Masonry walls other than those covered by 
Section R606. 12.2. 1 .3 shall be reinforced in both the verti- 
cal and horizontal direction. The sum of the cross-sectional 
area of horizontal and vertical reinforcement shall be at 
least 0.002 times the gross cross-sectional .area of the wall, 
and the minimum cross-sectional area in each direction 
shall be not less than 0.0007 times the gross cross-sectional 
area of the wall. Reinforcement shall be uniformly distrib- 
uted. Table R606. 12.3.2 shows the mininium reinforcing 
bar sizes required for varying thicknesses of masonry walls. 
The maximum spacing of reinforcement shall be 48 inches 
(1219 mm) provided that the walls are solid grouted and 
constructed of hoUow open-end units, hollow units laid 
with full head joints or two wythes of soUd units. The maxi- 
mum spacing of reinforcement shall be 24 inches (610 mm) 
for all other masonry. 

R606. 12.3.2.1 Shear wall reinforcement require- 
ments. The maximum spacing of vertical and hori- 
zontal reinforcement shall be the smaller of one-third 
the length of the shear wall, one-third the height of the 



186 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R606.1 2.3.2 
MINIMUM DISTRIBUTED WALL REINFORCEMENT FOR BUILDING ASSIGNED TO SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY Dq or D, 







MINIMUM REINFORCEMENT AS 






MINIMUM SUM OF THE VERTICAL 


DISTRIBUTED IN BOTH 






AND HORIZONTAL 


HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL 


MINIMUM BAR SIZE FOR 


NOMINAL WALL THICKNESS 


REINFORCEMENT AREAS^ 


DIRECTIONS" 


REINFORCEMENT SPACED AT 48 


(Inches) 


(square inches per foot) 


(square Inches per foot) 


INCHES 


6 


0.135 


0.047 


#4 


8 


0.183 


0.064 


#5 


10 


0.231 


0.081 


#6 


12 


0.279 


0.098 


#6 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square inch per foot = 2064 mrr?/m. 

a. Based on the minimum reinforcing ratio of 0.002 times the gross cross-sectional area of the \\all. 

b. Based on the minimum reinforcing ratio each direction of 0.0007 times the gross cross-sectional area of the wall. 



shear wall, or 48 inches (1219 mm). The minimum 
cross-sectional area of vertical reinforcement shall be 
one-third of the required shear reinforcement. Shear 
reinforcement shall be anchored around vertical rein- 
forcing bars with a standard hook. 

R606.12.3.3 Minimum reinforcement for masonry 
columns. Lateral ties in masonry columns shall be 
spaced not more than 8 inches (203 mm) on center and 
shall be at least Vg inch (9.5 mm) diameter. Lateral ties 
shall be embedded in grout. 

R606. 12.3.4 Material restrictions. Type N mortar or 
masonry cement shall not be used as part of the 
lateral-force-resisting system. 

R606.12.3.5 Lateral tie anchorage. Standard hooks for 
lateral tie anchorage shall be either a 135-degree (2.4 rad) 
standard hook or a 180-degree (3.2 rad) standard hook. 

R606.12.4 Seismic Design Category Dj. All structures in 
Seismic Design Category D2 shall comply with the require- 
ments of Seismic Design Category Dj and to the additional 
requirements of this section. 

R606.12.4.1 Design of elements not part of the 
lateral-force-resisting system. Stack bond masonry that 
is not part of the lateral-force-resisting system shall have a 
horizontal cross-sectional area of reinforcement of at least 
0.0015 times the gross cross-sectional area of masonry. 
Table R606. 12.4.1 shows minimum reinforcing bar sizes 
for masonry walls. The maximum spacing of horizontal 
reinforcement shall be 24 inches (610 mm). These ele- 
ments shall be solidly grouted and shall be constructed of 
hollow open-end units or two wythes of solid units. 

TABLE R606.1 2.4.1 

MINIMUM REINFORCING FOR STACKED BONDED 

MASONRY WALLS IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY D, 



NOMINAL WALL THICKNESS 
(inches) 


MINIMUM BAR SIZE 
SPACED AT 24 INCHES 


6 

8 

10 
12 


#4 
#5 
#5 
#6 



is part of the lateral-force-resisting system shall have a 
horizontal cross-sectional area of reinforcement of at least 
0.0025 times the gross cross-sectional area of masonry. 
Table R606. 12.4.2 shows minimum reinforcing bar sizes 
for masonry walls. The maximum spacing of horizontal 
reinforcement shall be 16 inches (406 mm). These ele- 
ments shall be soUdly grouted and shall be constructed of 
hollow open-end units or two wythes of solid units. 



TABLE R606.1 2.4.2 

MINIMUM REINFORCING FOR STACKED BONDED MASONRY 

WALLS IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY D, 



NOMINAL WALL THICKNESS 
(Inches) 


MINIMUM BAR SIZE 
SPACED AT 16 INCHES 


6 
8 

10 
12 


#4 
#5 
#5 
#6 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm. 

R606. 12.4.2 Design of elements part of the 
lateral-force-resisting system. Stack bond masonry that 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

R606.13 Protection for reinforcement. Bars shall be com- 
pletely embedded in mortar or grout. Joint reinforcement 
embedded in horizontal mortar joints shall not have less than 
Vg-inch (15.9 mm) mortar coverage from the exposed face. All 
other reinforcement shall have a minimum coverage of one bar 
diameter over all bars, but not less than '^/^ inch (19 mm), except 
where exposed to weather or soil, in which case the minimum 
coverage shall be 2 inches (51 mm). 

R606.14 Beam supports. Beams, girders or other concen- 
trated loads supported by a wall or column shall have a bearing 
of at least 3 inches (76 mm) in length measured parallel to the 
beam upon solid masonry not less than 4 inches (102 mm) in 
thickness, or upon a metal bearing plate of adequate design and 
dimensions to distribute the load safely, or upon a continuous 
reinforced masonry member projecting not less than 4 inches 
(102 mm) from the face of the wall. 

R606.14.1 Joist bearing. Joists shall have a bearing of not 
less than 1 V2 inches (38 mm), except as provided in Section 
R606.14, and shall be supported in accordance with Figure 
R606.11(l). 

R606.15 Metal accessories. Joint reinforcement, anchors, ties 
and wire fabric shall conform to the following: ASTM A 82 for 
wire anchors and ties; ASTM A 36 for plate, headed and 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE"" 



187 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



bent-bar anchors; ASTM A 510 for corrugated sheet metal 
anchors and ties; ASTM A 951 for joint reinforcement; ASTM 
B 227 for copper-clad steel wire ties; or ASTM A 167 for stain- 
less steel hardware. 

R606.15.1 Corrosion protection. Minimum corrosion 
protection of joint reinforcement, anchor ties and wire fab- 
ric for use in masonry wall construction shall conform to 
Table R606. 15.1. 

TABLE R606.15.1 
MINIMUM CORROSION PROTECTION 



MASONRY METAL ACCESSORY 


STANDARD 


Joint reinforcement, interior walls 


ASTM A 641, Class 1 


Wire ties or anchors in exterior walls 
completely embedded in mortar or 
grout 


ASTM A 641, Class 3 


Wire ties or anchors in exterior walls 
not completely embedded in mortar 
or grout 


ASTM A 153, Class B-2 


Joint reinforcement in exterior walls 
or interior walls exposed to moist 
environment 


ASTM A 153, Class B-2 


Sheet metal ties or anchors exposed 
to weather 


ASTM A 153, Class B-2 


Sheet metal ties or anchors completely 
embedded in mortar or grout 


ASTM A 653, Coating 
Designation G60 


Stainless steel hardware for any 
exposure 


ASTM A 167, Type 304 



SECTION R607 
UNIT MASONRY 

R607.1 Mortar. Mortar for use in masonry construction shall 
comply with ASTM C 270. The type of mortar shall be in 
accordance with Sections R607.1.1, R607.1.2 and R607.1.3 
and shall meet the proportion specifications of Table R607. 1 or 
the property specifications of ASTM C 270. 

R607.1.1 Foundation walls. Masonry foundation walls 
constructed as set forth in Tables R404. 1.1(1) through 
R404.1.1(4) and mortar shall be Type M or S. 

R607.1.2 Masonry in Seismic Design Categories A, B 

and C. Mortar for masonry serving as the lateral-force- 
resisting system in Seismic Design Categories A, B and C 
shall be Type M, S or N mortar. 

R607.1.3 Masonry in Seismic Design Categories Do, Di and 

Dj. Mortar for masonry serving as the lateral-force- resisting 
system in Seismic Design Categories Dg, Dy and D2 shall be 
Type M or S portland cement-lime or mortar cement mortar. 

R607.2 Placing mortar and masonry units. 

R607.2.1 Bed and head joints. Unless otherwise required 
or indicated on the project drawings, head and bed joints 
shall be ^/g inch (10 mm) thick, except that the thickness of 
the bed joint of the starting course placed over foundations 
shall not be less than V4 inch (7 mm) and not more than V4 
inch (19 mm). 



R607.2.1.1 Mortar joint thickness tolerance. Mortar 
joint thickness shall be within the following tolerances 
from the specified dimensions: 

1. Bed joint: + Vg inch (3 mm). 

2. Head joint: 74 inch (7 mm), -f- Vg inch (10 mm). 

3. Collar joints: V4 inch (7 mm), + Vg inch (10 mm). 

Exception: Nonload-bearing masonry elements and 
masonry veneers designed and constructed in accor- 
dance with Section R703.7 are not required to meet 
these tolerances. 

R607.2.2 Masonry unit placement. The mortar shall be 
sufficiently plastic and units shall be placed with sufficient 
pressure to extrude mortar from the joint and produce a tight 
joint. Deep furrowing of bed joints that produces voids shall 
not be permitted. Any units disturbed to the extent that ini- 
tial bond is broken after initial placement shall be removed 
and relaid in fresh mortar. Surfaces to be in contact with 
, mortar shall be clean and free of deleterious materials. 

R607.2.2.1 Solid masonry. Solid masonry units shall be 
laid with full head and bed joints and all interior vertical 
joints that are designed to receive mortar shall be filled. 

R607.2.2.2 Hollow masonry. For hollow masonry units, 
head and bed joints shall be filled solidly with mortar for 
a distance in from the face of the unit not less than the 
thickness of the face shell. 

R607.3 Installation of wall ties. The installation of wall ties 
shall be as follows: 

1 . The ends of wall ties shall be embedded in mortar joints. 
! Wall tie ends shall engage outer face shells of hollow 

units by at least Vj inch (13 mm). Wire wall ties shall be 
embedded at least IV2 inches (38 mm) into the mortar 
bed of solid masonry units or solid grouted hollow units . 

2. Wall ties shall not be bent after being embedded in grout 
or mortar. 



SECTION R608 
MULTIPLE WYTHE MASONRY 

R608.1 General. The facing and backing of multiple wythe 
masonry walls shall be bonded in accordance with Section 
R608.1.1, R608.1.2 or R608.1.3. In cavity walls, neither the 
facing nor the backing shall be less than 3 inches (76 mm) nom- 
inal in thickness and the cavity shall not be more than 4 inches 
(102 mm) nominal in width. The backing shall be at least as 
thick as the facing. 

Exception: Cavities shall be permitted to exceed the 4-inch 
( 1 02 mm) nominal dimension provided tie size and tie spac- 
ing have been established by calculation. 

R608.1.1 Bonding with masonry headers. Bonding with 
solid or hollow masonry headers shall comply with Sections 
i R608.1.1.1andR608.1.1.2. 

R608.1.1.1 Solid units. Where the facing and backing 
(adjacent wythes) of solid masonry construction are 
bonded by means of masonry headers, no less than 4 per- 
cent of the wall surface of each face shall be composed of 



188 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 













TABLE R607.1 












MORTAR PROPORTIONS^ " 








PROPORTIONS BY VOLUME (cementitious materials) 








Mortar cement 


Masonry cement 


Hydrated lime'' or 
lime puttv 


Aggregate ratio (measured in 
damp, loose conditions) 


MORTAR 


TYPE 


blended cement 


M 


S 


N 


M 


S 


N 




M 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


V4 




Cement-lime 


S 
N 



1 
1 

1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


over V4 to V2 
over V2to IV4 
over lV^to2Vo 






M 


1 


_ 


_ 


1 


— 


— 


— 






M 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 






Mortar cement 


S 
S 


\ 


~ 


1 


1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Not less than 2V4 and not 
more than 3 times the sum 




N 


— 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 




of separate volumes of 
















1 













lime, if used, and cement 




M 


1 








— 




1 






M 


— 








1 




— 






Masonry 


S 


\ 








— 


~- 


1 






cement 


S 
N 
O 


— 








— 


1 


1 
1 







For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.0283 m^, 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 

a. For the purpose of these specifications, the weight of 1 cubic foot of the respective materials shall be considered to be as follows: 

Portland Cement 94 pounds Masonry Cement Weight printed on bag 

Mortar Cement Weight printed on bag Hydrated Lime 40 pounds 

Lime Putty (Quicklime) 80 pounds Sand, damp and loose 80 pounds of dry sand 

b. Two air-entraining materials shall not be combined in mortar 

c. Hydrated lime conforming to the requirements of ASTM C 207. 



headers extending not less than 3 inches (76 mm) into the 
backing. The distance between adjacent full-length 
headers shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm) either verti- 
cally or horizontally. In walls in which a single header 
does not extend through the wall, headers from the oppo- 
site sides shall overlap at least 3 inches (76 mm), or head- 
ers from opposite sides shall be covered with another 
header course overlapping the header below at least 3 
inches (76 mm). 

R608.1.1.2 Hollow units. Where two or more hollow 
units are used to make up the thickness of a wall, the 
stretcher courses shall be bonded at vertical intervals not 
exceeding 34 inches (864 mm) by lapping at least 3 
inches (76 mm) over the unit below, or by lapping at ver- 
tical intervals not exceeding 17 inches (432 mm) with 
units that are at least 50 percent thicker than the units 
below. 

R608.1.2 Bonding with wall ties or joint reinforcement. 

Bonding with wall ties or joint reinforcement shall comply 
with Sections R608.1.2.1 through R608.1.2.3. 

R608.1.2.1 Bonding with wall ties. Bonding with wall 
ties, except as required by Section R610, where the facing 
and backing (adjacent wythes) of masonry walls are 
bonded with Vig-inch-diameter (5 mm) wall ties embed- 
ded in the horizontal mortar joints, there shall be at least 
one metal tie for each 4.5 square feet (0.418 m^) of wall 
area. Ties in alternate courses shall be staggered. The 
maximum vertical distance between ties shall not exceed 
24 inches (610 mm), and the maximum horizontal dis- 



tance shall not exceed 36 inches (914 mm). Rods or ties 
bent to rectangular shape shall be used with hollow 
masonry units laid with the cells vertical. In other walls, 
the ends of ties shall be bent to 90-degree (0.79 rad) angles 
to provide hooks no less than 2 inches (51 mm) long. 
Additional bonding ties shall be provided at aU openings, 
spaced not more than 3 feet (914 mm) apart around the 
perimeter and within 12 inches (305 mm) of the opening. 

R608.1.2.2 Bonding with adjustable wall ties. Where 
the facing and backing (adjacent wythes) of masonry are 
bonded with adjustable wall ties, there shall be at least 
one tie for each 2.67 square feet (0.248 m^) of wall area. 
Neither the vertical nor the horizontal spacing of the 
adjustable wall ties shall exceed 24 inches (610 mm). 
The maximum vertical offset of bed joints from one 
wythe to the other shall be 1.25 inches (32 mm). The 
maximum clearance between connecting parts of the ties 
shall be Vjg inch (2 mm). When pintle legs are used, ties 
shall have at least two Vig-inch-diameter (5 mm) legs. 

R608. 1.2.3 Bonding with prefabricated joint rein- 
forcement. Where the facing and backing (adjacent 
wythes) of masonry are bonded with prefabricated joint 
reinforcement, there shall be at least one cross wire serv- 
ing as a tie for each 2.67 square feet (0.248 m^) of wall 
area. The vertical spacing of the joint reinforcement shall 
not exceed 16 inches (406 mm). Cross wires on prefabri- 
cated joint reinforcement shall not be smaller than No. 9 
gage. The longitudinal wires shall be embedded in the 
mortar. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



189 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R608.1.3 Bonding with natural or cast stone. Bonding 
with natural and cast stone shall conform to Sections 
R608.1.3.1andR608.1.3.2. 

R608.1.3.1 Ashlar masonry. In ashlar masonry, bonder 
units, uniformly distributed, shall be provided to the 
extent of not less than 10 percent of the wall area. Such 
bonder units shall extend not less than 4 inches (102 mm) 
into the backing wall. 

R608.1.3.2 Rubble stone masonry. Rubble stone 
masonry 24 inches (610 mm) or less in thickness shall 
have bonder units with a maximum spacing of 3 feet (914 
mm) vertically and 3 feet (914 mm) horizontally, and if 
the masonry is of greater thickness than 24 inches (610 
nmn), shall have one bonder unit for each 6 square feet 
(0.557 m^) of wall surface on both sides. 

R608.2 Masonry bonding pattern. Masonry laid in running 
and stack bond shall conform to Sections R608.2.1 and 
R608.2.2. 

R608.2.1 Masonry laid in running bond. In each wythe of 
masonry laid in running bond, head joints in successive 
courses shall be offset by not less than one-fourth the unit 
length, or the masonry walls shall be reinforced longitudi- 
nally as required in Section R608.2.2. 

R608.2.2 Masonry laid in stack bond. Where unit 
masonry is laid with less head joint offset than in Section 



R607.2.1, the minimum area of horizontal reinforcement 
placed in mortar bed joints or in bond beams spaced not 
more than 48 inches (1219 mm) apart, shall be 0.0007 times 
the vertical cross-sectional area of the wall. 



SECTION R609 
GROUTED MASONRY 

R609.1 General. Grouted multiple-wythe masonry is a form 
of construction in which the space between the wythes is sol- 
idly filled with grout. It is not necessary for the cores of 
masonry units to be filled with grout. Grouted hollow unit 
masonry is a form of construction in which certain cells of hol- 
low units are continuously filled with grout. 

R609.1.1 Grout. Grout shall consist of cementitious mate- 
rial and aggregate in accordance with ASTM C 476 and the 
proportion specifications of Table R609.1.1. Type M or 
Type S mortar to which sufficient water has been added to 
produce pouring consistency can be used as grout. 

R609. 1 .2 Grouting requirements. Maximum pour heights 
and the minimum dimensions of spaces provided for grout 
placement shall conform to Table R609.1.2. If the work is 
stopped for one hour or longer, the horizontal construction 
; joints shall be formed by stopping all tiers at the same eleva- 
tion and with the grout 1 inch (25 mm) below the top. 



TABLE R609.1.1 
GROUT PROPORTIONS BY VOLUME FOR MASONRY CONSTRUCTION 



TYPE 


PORTLAND CEMENT 

OR BLENDED CEMENT 

SLAG CEMENT 


HYDRATED LIME 
OR LIME PUTTY 


' AGGREGATE MEASURED IN A DAMP, LOOSE CONDITION 


Fine 


Coarse 


Fine 


1 


to 1/10 


2 V4 to 3 times the sum of the volume 
of the cementitious materials 


— 


Coarse 


1 


to 1/10 


2 V4 to 3 times the sum of the volume 
of the cementitious materials 


1 to 2 times the sum of the volumes of 
the cementitious materials 



TABLER609.1.2 
GROUT SPACE DIMENSIONS AND POUR HEIGHTS 



GROUT TYPE 


GROUT POUR MAXIMUM HEIGHT 
(feet) 


MINIMUM WIDTH OF 

GROUT SPACES^'" 

(inches) 


MINIMUM GROUT''''^ SPACE DIMENSIONS FOR 

GROUTING CELLS OF HOLLOW UNITS 

(inches x inches) 


Fine 


1 


0.75 


1.5x2 


5 


2 


2x3 


12 


2.5 


2.5 X 3 


24 


3 


3x3 


Coarse 


1 


1.5 


1.5x3 


5 


2 


2.5 X 3 


12 


' 2.5 


3x3 


24 


: 3 


3x4 


For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot 


= 304.8 mm. 


' 





a. For grouting between masonry wythes. 

b. Grout space dimension is the clear dimension between any masonry protmsion and shall be increased by the horizontal projection of the diameters of the horizontal 
bars within the cross section of the grout space. ! 

c. Area of vertical reinforcement shall not exceed 6 percent of the area of the grout space. 



190 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



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R609.1.3 Grout space (cleaning). Provision shall be made 
for cleaning grout space. Mortar projections that project 
more than 0.5 inch (13 mm) into grout space and any other 
foreign matter shall be removed from grout space prior to 
inspection and grouting. 

R609.1.4 Grout placement. Grout shall be a plastic mix 
suitable for pumping without segregation of the constituents 
and shall be mixed thoroughly. Grout shall be placed by 
pumping or by an approved alternate method and shall be 
placed before any initial set occurs and in no case more than 
172 hours after water has been added. Grouting shall be 
done in a continuous pour, in lifts not exceeding 5 feet (1524 
mm). It shall be consolidated by puddling or mechanical 
vibrating during placing and reconsolidated after excess 
moisture has been absorbed but before plasticity is lost. 

R609.1.4.1 Grout pumped through aluminum pipes. 

Grout shall not be pumped through aluminum pipes. 

R609.1.5 Cleanouts. Where required by the building offi- 
cial, cleanouts shall be provided as specified in this section. 
The cleanouts shall be sealed before grouting and after 
inspection. 

R609. 1.5.1 Grouted multiple-wythe masonry. 

Cleanouts shall be provided at the bottom course of the 
exterior wythe at each pour of grout where such pour 
exceeds 5 feet (1524 mm) in height. 

R609.1.5.2 Grouted hollow unit masonry. Cleanouts 
shall be provided at the bottom course of each cell to be 
grouted at each pour of grout, where such pour exceeds 4 
feet (1219 mm) in height. 

R609.2 Grouted multiple-wythe masonry. Grouted multi- 
ple-wythe masonry shall conform to all the requirements speci- 
fied in Section R609.1 and the requirements of this section. 

R609.2.1 Bonding of backup wythe. Where all interior 
vertical spaces are filled with grout in multiple-wythe con- 
struction, masonry headers shall not be permitted. Metal 
wall ties shall be used in accordance with Section R608. 1 .2 
to prevent spreading of the wythes and to maintain the verti- 
cal alignment of the wall. Wall ties shall be installed in 
accordance with Section R608.1.2 when the backup wythe 
in multiple-wythe construction is fully grouted. 

R609.2.2 Grout spaces. Fine grout shall be used when inte- 
rior vertical space to receive grout does not exceed 2 inches 
(51 mm) in thickness. Interior vertical spaces exceeding 2 
inches (5 1 mm) in thickness shall use coarse or fine grout. 

R609.2.3 Grout barriers. Vertical grout barriers or dams 
shall be built of solid masonry across the grout space the 
entire height of the wall to control the flow of the grout hori- 
zontally. Grout barriers shall not be more than 25 feet (7620 
mm) apart. The grouting of any section of a wall between 
control barriers shall be completed in one day with no inter- 
ruptions greater than one hour. 

R609.3 Reinforced grouted multiple-wythe masonry. Rein- 
forced grouted multiple-wythe masonry shall conform to all 
the requirements specified in Sections R609.1 and R609.2 and 
the requirements of this section. 



R609.3.1 Construction. The thickness of grout or mortar 
between masonry units and reinforcement shall not be less 
than V4 inch (7 mm), except that V4-inch (7 mm) bars may be 
laid in horizontal mortar joints at least V2 inch (13 mm) 
thick, and steel wire reinforcement may be laid in horizontal 
mortar joints at least twice the thickness of the wire diame- 
ter. 

R609.4 Reinforced hollow unit masonry. Reinforced hollow 
unit masonry shall conform to all the requirements of Section 
R609.1 and the requirements of this section. 

R609.4.1 Construction. Requirements for construction 
shall be as follows: 

1 . Reinforced hollow-unit masonry shall be built to pre- 
serve the unobstructed vertical continuity of the cells 
to be filled. Walls and cross webs forming cells to be 
filled shall be full-bedded in mortar to prevent leak- 
age of grout. Head and end joints shall be solidly 
filled with mortar for a distance in from the face of the 
wall or unit not less than the thickness of the longitu- 
dinal face shells. Bond shall be provided by lapping 
units in successive vertical courses. 

2. Cells to be filled shall have vertical alignment suffi- 
cient to maintain a clear, unobstructed continuous 
vertical cell of dimensions prescribed in Table 
R609.1.2. 

3. Vertical reinforcement shall be held in position at top 
and bottom and at intervals not exceeding 200 diame- 
ters of the reinforcement. 

4. Cells containing reinforcement shall be filled solidly 
with grout. Grout shall be poured in lifts of 8-foot 
(2438 mm) maximum height. When a total grout pour 
exceeds 8 feet (2438 mm) in height, the grout shall be 
placed in lifts not exceeding 5 feet (1524 mm) and 
special inspection during grouting shall be required. 

5. Horizontal steel shall be fully embedded by grout in 
an uninterrupted pour. 



SECTION R610 
GLASS UNIT MASONRY 

R610.1 General. Panels of glass unit masonry located in 
load-bearing and nonload-bearing exterior and interior walls 
shall be constructed in accordance with this section. 

R610.2 Materials. Hollow glass units shall be partially evacu- 
ated and have a minimum average glass face thickness of Vjs 
inch (5 mm). The surface of units in contact with mortar shall 
be treated with a polyvinyl butyral coating or latex-based paint. 
The use of reclaimed units is prohibited. 

R610.3 Units. Hollow or solid glass block units shall be stan- 
dard or thin units. 

R610.3.1 Standard units. The specified thickness of stan- 
dard units shall be at least 378 inches (98 mm). 

R610.3.2 Thin units. The specified thickness of thin units 
shall be at least 378 inches (79 mm) for hollow units and at 
least 3 inches (76 mm) for solid units. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE** 



191 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R610.4 Isolated panels. Isolated panels of glass unit masonry 
shall conform to the requirements of this section. 

R610.4.1 Exterior standard-unit panels. The maximum 
area of each individual standard-unit panel shall be 144 
square feet (13.4 m^) when the design wind pressure is 20 
psf (958 Pa) . The maximum area of such panels subjected to 
design wind pressures other than 20 psf (958 Pa) shall be in 
accordance with Figure R610.4.1. The maximum panel 
dimension between structural supports shall be 25 feet 
(7620 mm) in width or 20 feet (6096 mm) in height. 

R610.4.2 Exterior thin-unit panels. The maximum area of 
each individual thin-unit panel shall be 85 square feet (7.9 
m^). The maximum dimension between structural supports 
shall be 15 feet (4572 mm) in width or 10 feet (3048 mm) in 
height. Thin units shall not be used in applications where the 
design wind pressure as stated in Table R301.2(l) exceeds 
20 psf (958 Pa). 

R610.4.3 Interior panels. The maximum area of each indi- 
vidual standard-unit panel shall be 250 square feet (23.2 
m^). The maximum area of each thin-unit panel shall be 150 
square feet (13.9 m^). The maximum dimension between 
structural supports shall be 25 feet (7620 mm) in width or 20 
feet (6096 mm) in height. 

R610.4.4 Curved panels. The width of curved panels shall 
conform to the requirements of Sections R610.4.1, R610.4.2 
and R610.4.3, except additional structural supports shall be 
provided at locations where a curved section joins a straight 
section, and at inflection points in multicurved walls. 

R610.5 Panel support. Glass unit masonry panels shall con- 
form to the support requirements of this section. 



R610.5.1 Deflection. The maximum total deflection of 
structural members that support glass unit masonry shall not 
exceed V^oo- 

R610.5.2 Lateral support. Glass unit masonry panels shall 
be laterally supported along the top and sides of the panel. 
Lateral supports for glass unit masonry panels shall be 
designed to resist a minimum of 200 pounds per lineal feet 
(2918 N/m) of panel, or the actual apphed loads, whichever 
is greater. Except for single unit panels, latei^al Support shall 
be provided by panel anchors along the top and sides spaced 
a maximum of 16 inches (406 mm) on center or by 
channel-type restraints. Single unit panels shall be sup- 
ported by channel-type restraints. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Lateral support is not required at the top of panels 
that are one unit wide. 

2. Lateral support is not required at the sides of pan- 
els that are one unit high. 

R610.5.2.1 Panel anchor restraints. Panel anchors 
shall be spaced a maximum of 16 inches (406 mm) on 
center in both jambs and across the head. Panel anchors 
shall be embedded a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) 
and shall be provided with two fasteners so as to resist the 
loads specified in Section R610.5.2. 

R610. 5.2.2 Channel-type restraints. Glass unit 
masonry panels shall be recessed at least 1 inch (25 
mm) within channels and chases. Channel-type 
restraints shall be oversized to accommodate expansion 
material in the opening, packing and sealant between 




MAXIMUM AREA OF PANEL (SQUARE FEET) 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kP^. 



FIGURE R610.4.1 
GLASS UNIT MASONRY DESIGN WIND LOAD RESISTANCE 



192 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*" 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



the framing restraints, and the glass unit masonry per- 
imeter units. 

R610.6 Sills. Before bedding of glass units, the sill area shall 
be covered with a water base asphaltic emulsion coating. The 
coating shall shall be a minimum of Vg inch (3 mm) thick. 

R610.7 Expansion joints. Glass unit masonry panels shall be 
provided with expansion joints along the top and sides at all 
structural supports. Expansion joints shall be a minimum of Vg 
inch (10 mm) in thickness and shall have sufficient thickness to 
accommodate displacements of the supporting structure. 
Expansion joints shall be entirely free of mortar and other 
debris and shall be filled with resilient material. 

R610.8 Mortar. Glass unit masonry shall be laid with Type S 
or N mortar. Mortar shall not be retempered after initial set. 
Mortar unused within 1 '^ hours after initial mixing shall be 
discarded. 

R610.9 Reinforcement. Glass unit masonry panels shall have 
horizontal joint reinforcement spaced a maximum of 16 inches 
(406 mm) on center located in the mortar bed joint. Horizontal 
joint reinforcement shall extend the entire length of the panel 
but shall not extend across expansion joints. Longitudinal 
wires shall be lapped a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) at 
splices. Joint reinforcement shall be placed in the bed joint 
immediately below and above openings in the panel. The rein- 
forcement shall have not less than two parallel longitudinal 
wires of size W1.7 or greater, and have welded cross wires of 
size W 1.7 or greater. 

R610.10 Placement. Glass units shall be placed so head and 
bed joints are filled solidly. Mortar shall not be furrowed. Head 
and bed joints of glass unit masonry shall be V4 inch (6.4 mm) 
thick, except that vertical joint thickness of radial panels shall 
not be less than Vg inch (3 mm) or greater than Vg inch (16 mm). 
The bed joint thickness tolerance shall be minus V,6 inch (1.6 
mm) and plus Vg inch (3 mm). The head joint thickness toler- 
ance shall be plus or minus Vg inch (3 mm). 



SECTION R611 

INSULATING CONCRETE FORM 

WALL CONSTRUCTION 

R611.1 General. Insulating Concrete Form (IPC) walls shall 
be designed and constructed in accordance with the provi- 
sions of this section or in accordance with the provisions of 
ACI 318. When ACI 318 or the provisions of this section are 
used to design insulating concrete form walls, project draw- 
ings, typical details and specifications are not required to bear 
the seal of the architect or engineer responsible for design, 
unless otherwise required by the state law of the jurisdiction 
having authority. 

R611.2 Applicability limits. The provisions of this section 
shall apply to the construction of insulating concrete form 
walls for buildings not greater than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in plan 
dimensions, and floors not greater than 32 feet (9754 mm) or 
roofs not greater than 40 feet (12 192 mm) in clear span. Build- 
ings shall not exceed two stories in height above-grade. ICF 
walls shall comply with the requirements in Table R611.2. 
Walls constructed in accordance with the provisions of this sec- 
tion shall be limited to buildings subjected to a maximum 
design wind speed of 150 miles per hour (67 m/s), and Seismic 
Design Categories A, B, C, Dq, Dj and D2. The provisions of | 
this section shall not apply to the construction of ICF walls for 
buildings or portions of buildings considered irregular as 
defined in Section R301. 2.2.2.2. 

For townhouses in Seismic Design Category C and all build- 
ings in Seismic Design Category Dq, Dj or D2, the provisions of | 
this section shall apply only to buildings meeting the following 
requirements. 

1 . Rectangular buildings with a maximum building aspect 
ratio of 2: 1 .The building aspect ratio shall be determined 
by dividing the longest dimension of the building by the 
shortest dimension of the building. 

2. Walls are aligned vertically with the walls below. 



TABLER611.2 
REQUIREMENTS FOR ICF WALLS" 



WALL TYPE AND 
NOMINAL SIZE 


MAXIMUM WALL 
WEIGHT (psf)'= 


MINIMUM WIDTH 

OF VERTICAL 

CORE (inches)^ 


MINIMUM 
THICKNESS OF 
VERTICAL CORE 

(inches)^ 


MAXIMUM SPACING 

OF VERTICAL 

CORES 

(Inches) 


MAXIMUM SPACING 

OF HORIZONTAL 

CORES 

(inches) 


MINIMUM WEB 

THICKNESS 

(inches) 


3.5" Flat" 


44d 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


5.5" Flat 


69 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


7.5" Flat 


94 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


9.5" Flat 


119 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


6" Waffle-Grid 


56 


6.25 


5 


12 


16 


2 


8" Waffle-Grid 


76 


7 


7 


12 


16 


2 


6" Screen-Grid 


53 


5.5 


5.5 


12 


12 


N/A 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per cubic foot = 16.018 kg/m?; 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. For width "W", thickness "T", spacing, and web thickness, refer to Figures R611.4 and R611.5. 

b. N/A indicates not applicable. 

c. Wall weight is based on a unit weight of concrete of 150 pcf. The tabulated values do not include any allowance for interior and exterior finishes. 

d. For all buildings in Seismic Design Category A or B, and detached one- and two-family dwellings in Seismic Design Category C the actual wall thickness is per- 
mitted to be up to 1 inch thicker than shown and the maximum wall weight to be 56 psf. Construction requirements and other limitations within Section R61 1 for 
3.5-inch flat ICF walls shall apply. Interpolation between provisions for 3.5-inch and 5.5-inch flat ICF walls is not permitted. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*^ 



193 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



3. Cantilever and setback construction shall not be permit- 
ted. 

4. The weight of interior and exterior finishes applied to 
ICF walls shall not exceed 8 psf (380 Pa). 

5. The gable portion of ICF walls shall be constructed of 
light-frame construction. 

R611.3 Flat insulating concrete form wall systems. Flat ICF 
wall systems shall comply with Figure R61 1.3 and shall have 
reinforcement in accordance with Tables R61 1.3(1) and 
R611.3(2) and Section R611.7. 

R611.4 Waffle-grid insulating concrete form wall systems. 

Waffle-grid wall systems shall comply with Figure R611 .4 and 
shall have reinforcement in accordance with Tables R611.3(l) 



and R61 1.4(1) and Section R611.7. The minimum core 
dimensions shall comply with Table R611.2. 

R611.5 Screen-grid insulating concrete form wall systems. 

Screen-grid ICF wall systems shall comply with Figure R611 .5 
and shall have reinforcement in accordance with Tables 
;R61 1 .3(1) and R61 1 .5 and Section R61 1 .7. The minimum core 
dimensions shall comply with Table R611.2. 

R611.6 Material. Insulating concrete form wall materials 
shall comply with this section. 

R611.6.1 Concrete material. Ready-mixed concrete for 
insulating concrete form walls shall be in accordance with 
Section R402.2. Maximum slump shall not be greater than 6 
inches (152 mm) as determined in accordance with ASTM 



• 



ACTUAL WALL 
THICKNESS 

^INSUUTING FORM 



VERTICAL 
REINFORCEMENT 
IF REQUIRED 



CONCRETE 



PLAN VIEW 




NSULATING FORM 



ISOMETRIC VIEW 



FIGURE R61 1.3 
FLAT ICF WALL SYSTEM 



TABLE R61 1.3(1) 
DESIGN WIND PRESSURE FOR USE WITH TABLES R61 1.3(2), R611 


.4(1), AND R611.5 FOR ABOVE GRADE WALLS^ 


WIND SPEED 
(mphf 


DESIGN WIND PRESSURE (psf) 


Enclosed" 


Partially Enclosed'' 


Exposure*^ 


Exposure"^ 


B 


C 


D i 


B 


C 


D 


85 


18 


24 


29 


23 


31 


37 


90 


20 


27 


32 ■ 


25 


35 


41 


100 


24 


34 


39 ' 


31 


43 


51 


110 


29 


41 


48 ' 


38 


52 


61 


120 


35 


48 


57 


45 


62 


73 


130 


41 


56 


66 


53 


73 


85" 


140 


47 


65 


77 


61 


84^ 


99" 


150 


54 


75 


88'' 


70 


96'' 


114" . 



For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa; 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s; I foot = 304.8 mm; 1 square foot = 0.0929 n?. 

a. This table is based on ASCE 7-98 components and cladding wind pressures using a mean roof height of 35 ft and a trihitary area of 10 ft-^. 

b. Buildings in wind-borne debris regions as defined in Section R202 shall be considered as "Partially Enclosed" unless glazed openings are protected in accordance 
with Section R301.2.1.2, in which case the building shall be considered as "Enclosed." All other buildings shall be classified as "Enclosed." 

c. Exposure Categories shall be determined in accordance with Section R301.2.1.4. 

d. For wind pressures greater than 80 psf, design is required in accordance with ACI 318 and approved manufacturer guidehnes. 

e. Interpolation is permitted between wind speeds. 



194 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



C 143. Maximum aggregate size shall not be larger than V4 
inch (19 mm). 

Exception: Concrete mixes conforming to the ICF man- 
ufacturer's recommendations. 

In Seismic Design Categories Dq, D, and Dj, the mini- 
mum concrete compressive strength shall be 3,000 psi (20.5 
MPa). 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R61 1.6.2 Reinforcing steel. Reinforcing steel shall 
meet the requirements of ASTM A 615, A 706, or A 996. 
Except in Seismic Design Categories Dq, D, and D2, the 
minimum yield strength of reinforcing steel shall be 
40,000 psi (Grade 40) (276 MPa). In Seismic Design 
Categories Dq, Dj and D2, reinforcing steel shall meet the 
requirements of ASTM A 706 for low-alloy steel with a 
minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi (Grade 60) (414 
Mpa). 



TABLE R61 1.3(2) 
MINIMUM VERTICAL WALL REINFORCEMENT FOR FLAT ICF ABOVE-GRADE WALLS^" = " 



Design Wind 
Pressure [Table 
R611.3(1)](psf) 


Maximum 

Unsupported 

Wall Height 

(feet) 


Minimum Vertical Reinforcement'^' ®' * 


Nonload-Bearing Wall 
or Supporting Roof 


Supporting Light-Framed 
Second Story and Roof 


Supporting ICF Second 
Story and Roof 


Minimum Wall Thickness (inches) 


3.59 


5.5 


3.59 


5.5 


3.59 


5.5 


20 


8 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


9 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


10 


#4@38 


#4@48 


#4@40 


#4@48 


#4@42 


#4@48 


30 


8 


#4@42 


#4@48 


#4@46 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


9 


#4@32; #5@48 


#4@48 


#4@34; #5@48 


#4@48 


#4@34;#5@48 


#4@48 


10 


Design Required 


#4@48 


Design Required 


#4@48 


Design Required 


#4@48 


40 


8 


#4@30;#5@48 


#4@48 


#4@30;#5@48 


#4@48 


#4@32;#5@48 


#4@48 


9 


Design Required 


#4@42 


Design Required 


#4@46 


Design Required 


#4@48 


10 


Design Required 


#4@32; #5@48 


Design Required 


#4@34; #5@48 


Design Required 


#4@38 


50 


8 


#4 @ 20; #5 @ 30 


#4@42 


#4 @ 22; #5 @ 34 


#4@46 


#4@24;#5@36 


#4@48 


9 


Design Required 


#4@34;#5@48 


Design Required 


#4@34;#5@48 


Design Required 


#4@38 


10 


Design Required 


#4@26;#5@38 


Design Required 


#4@26;#5@38 


Design Required 


#4@28;#5@46 


60 


8 


Design Required 


#4@34;#5@48 


Design Required 


#4@36 


Design Required 


#4@40 


9 


Design Required 


#4@26;#5@38 


Design Required 


#4@28;#5@46 


Design Required 


#4@34;#5@48 


10 


Design Required 


#4@22;#5@34 


Design Required 


#4@22;#5@34 


Design Required 


#4@26;#5@38 


70 


8 


Design Required 


#4@28;#5@46 


Design Required 


#4@30;#5@48 


Design Required 


#4@34;#5@48 


9 


Design Required 


#4@22;#5@34 


Design Required 


#4@22;#5@34 


Design Required 


#4@24;#5@36 


10 


Design Required 


#4@16;#5@26 


Design Required 


#4@18;#5@28 


Design Required 


#4 @ 20; #5 @ 30 


80 


8 


Design Required 


#4@26;#5@38 


Design Required 


#4@26;#5@38 


Design Required 


#4@28; #5@46 


9 


Design Required 


#4@20;#5@30 


Design Required 


#4@20;#5@30 


Design Required 


#4@21;#5@34 


10 


Design Required 


#4 @ 14; #5 @ 24 


Design Required 


#4 @ 14; #5 @ 24 


Design Required 


#4@16;#5@26 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s; 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. This table is based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi and concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi. For 
Seismic Design Categories Dq, Dj and D2, reinforcing bars shall have a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi. See Section R611.6.2. 

b. Deflection criterion is L/240, where L is the height of the wall story in inches. 

c. Interpolation shall not be permitted. 

d. Reinforcement spacing for 3.5 inch walls shall be permitted to be multiplied by 1 .6 when reinforcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi is used. 
Reinforcement shall not be less than one #4 bar at 48 inches (1.2 m) on center 

e. Reinforcement spacing for 5.5 inch (139.7 mm) walls shall be permitted to be multiplied by 1 .5 when reinforcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi 
is used. Reinforcement shall not be less than one #4 bar at 48 inches on center 

f. See Section R61 1 .7. 1 .2 for limitations on maximum spacing of \ertical reinforcement in Seismic Design Categories C, Dq, Dj and D2. 

g. A 3.5-inch wall shall not be permitted if wood ledgers are used to support floor or roof loads. See Section R61 1.8. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



195 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R61 1.4(1) 
MINIMUM VERTICAL WALL REINFORCEMENT FOR WAFFLE-GRID ICF ABOVE-GRADE WALLS^" = 



Design Wind 
Pressure [Table 
R611.3(1)](psf) 


Maximum 

Unsupported Wall 

Height (feet) 


MINIMUIVI VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT^' ^ 


Nonload-Bearing Wall or 
Supporting Roof 


Supporting Light-Framed Second 
Story and Roof 


Supporting ICF Second 
Story and Roof 


Minimum Wall Thickness (inches) 


6 


8 


6 


8 


6 


8 


20 


8 


#4@48 


#4@48 


: #4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


9 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


10 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


30 


8 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


9 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


10 


#4@36;#5@48 


#4@48 


#4@36;#5@48 


#4@48 


#4@36;#5@48 


#4@48 


40 


8 


#4@36;#5@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


9 


#4@36;#5@48 


#4@48 


#4@36;#5@48 


#4@48 


#4@36;#5@48 


#4@48 


10 


#4 @ 24; #5 @ 36 


#4@36;#5@48 


#4@24;#5@36 


#4@48 


#4@24; #5@36 


#4@48 


50 


8 


#4@36;#5@48 


#4@48 


#4@36;#5@48 


#4@48 


#4@36;#5@48 


#4@48 


9 


#4@24;#5@36 


#4@36;#5@48 


#4@24;#5@36 


#4@48 


#4@24;#5@48 


#4@48 


10 


Design Required 


#4@36;#5@48 


Design Required 


#4@36;#5@48 


Design Required 


#4@36;#5@48 


60 


8 


#4@24;#5@36 


#4@48 


#4@24;#5@36 


#4@48 


#4@24;#5@48 


#4@48 


9 


Design Required 


#4@36;#5@48 


Design Required 


#4@36;#5@48 


Design Required 


#4@36;#5@48 


10 


Design Required 


#4@24;#5@36 


Design Required 


#4 @ 24; #5 @ 36 


Design Required 


#4@24;#5@48 


70 


8 


#4@24;#5@36 


#4@36;#5@48 


#4@24;#5@36 


#4@36;#5@48 


#4@24;#5@36 


#4@48 


9 


Design Required 


#4@24;#5@36 


Design Required 


#4@24;#5@48 


Design Required 


#4@24;#5@48 


10 


Design Required 


#4@12;#5@36 


Design Required 


#4 @ 24; #5 @ 36 


Design Required 


#4 @ 24; #5 @ 36 


80 


8 


#4@12;#5@24 


#4@24; #5@48 


#4@12;#5@24 


#4@24;#5@48 


#4@12;#5@24 


#4@36;#5@48 


9 


Design Required 


#4@24;#5@36 


Design Required 


#4@24;#5@36 


Design Required 


#4@24; #5@36 


10 


Design Required 


#4@12;#5@24 


Design Required 


#4@12;#5@24 


Design Required 


#4@12;#5@24 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s; 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 MPa. 

I a. This table is based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi and concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi. For 
Seismic Design Categories Dg, Dj and D2, reinforcing bars shall have a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi. See Section R61 1.6.2. 

b. Deflection criterion is L/240, where L is the height of the wall story in inches. 

c. Interpolation shall not be permitted. 

d. Increasing reinforcement spacing by 1 2 inches shall be permitted when reinforcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi is used or substitution of No. 
4 reinforcing bars for #5 bars shall be permitted when reinforcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi is used at the same spacing required for #5 bars. 
Reinforcement shall not be less than one #4 bar at 48 inches on center 

I e. See Section R61 1 .7. 1 .2 for limitations on maximum spacing of \ertical reinforceihent in Seismic Design Categories C, Dq, D, and D2. 



^L^ 2IN. MIN. 

tP concrete web 



INSULATING 
FORM 




VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT 
IF REQUIRED 



HORIZONTAL CONCRETE CORE 
(HIDDEN) AT 16 IN. O.C. MAX. 



VERTICAL 
CONCRETE CORE 




INSUUVTING FORM 



PLAN VIEW 



ISOMETRIC VIEW 
WAFFLE ICF WALL SYSTEM 



FIGURE R6il1. 4 
WAFFLE-GRID ICF WALL SYSTEM 



196 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE' 



.® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R61 1.5 
MINIMUM VERTICAL WALL REINFORCEMENT FOR SCREEN-GRID ICF ABOVE-GRADE WALLS^"'' 



DESIGN WIND PRESSURE 

[TABLE R61 1.3(1)] 

(psf) 


MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTED 

WALL HEIGHT 

(feet) 


MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENr''^ 


Nonload-Bearing Wall or 
Supporting Roof 


Supporting Light-Framed 
Second Story and Roof 


Supporting ICF Second 
Story and Roof 


20 


8 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


9 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


10 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


30 


8 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


9 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


10 


#4@36; #5@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


40 


8 


#4@48 


#4@48 


#4@48 


9 


#4@36;#5@48 


#4@36;#5@48 


#4@48 


10 


#4@24;#5@48 


#4@24;#5@48 


#4@24;#5@48 


50 


8 


#4@36;#5@48 


#4@36;#5@48 


#4@48 


9 


#4@24;#5@48 


#4@24;#5@48 


#4@24;#5@48 


10 


Design Required 


Design Required 


Design Required 


60 


8 


#4@24;#5@48 


#4@24;#5@48 


#4@36;#5@48 


9 


#4 @ 24; #5 @ 36 


#4 @ 24; #5 @ 36 


#4@24;#5@36 


10 


Design Required 


Design Required 


Design Required 


70 


8 


#4 @ 24; #5 @ 36 


#4 @ 24; #5 @ 36 


#4 @ 24; #5 @ 36 


9 


Design Required 


Design Required 


Design Required 


10 


Design Required 


Design Required 


Design Required 


080 


8 


#4@12;#5@36 


#4@24; #5@36 


#4@24;#5@36 


9 


Design Required 


Design Required 


Design Required 


10 


Design Required 


Design Required 


Design Required 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s; 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. This table is based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi and concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi . For I 
Seismic Design Categories Dq, D, and D2, reinforcing bars shall have a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi. See Section R61 1.6.2. I 

b. Deflection criterion is L/240, where L is the height of the wall story in inches. 

c. Interpolation shall not be permitted. 

d. Increasing reinforcement spacing by 1 2 inches shall be permitted when reinforcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi is used. Reinforcement shall 
not be less than one #4 bar at 48 inches on center 

e. See Section R61 1.7.1.2 for limitations on maximum spacing of vertical reinforcement in Seismic Design Categories C, Dg, Dj and D2. I 



INSULATING 
FORM 



\^^ 




12 IN. MAX 



VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT 
F REQUIRED 

HORIZONTAL CONCRETE CORE 
(HIDDEN) AT 12 IN. O.C. MAX. 



VERTICAL 
CONCRETE CORE 



VOIDS 




INSULATING FORM 



PLAN VIEW 



ISOMETRIC VIEW 
SCREEN-GRID IFC WALL SYSTEM 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FIGURE R611. 5 
SCREEN-GRID IFC WALL SYSTEM 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



197 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R61 1.6.3 Insulation materials. Insulating concrete 
forms material shall meet the surface burning character- 
istics of Section R314.3. A thermal barrier shall be pro- 
vided on the building interior in accordance with Section 
R314.4 or Section R702.3.4. 

R611.7 Wall construction. Insulating concrete form walls 
shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of this 
section and Figure R61 1.7(1). 

R611.7.1 Reinforcement. 

R611.7.1.1 Location. Vertical and horizontal wall rein- 
forcement shall be placed within the middle third of the 
wall. Steel reinforcement shall have a minimum con- 
crete cover in accordance with ACI 318. 

Exception: Where insulated concrete forms are used 
and the form remains in place as cover for the concrete, 
the minimum concrete cover for the reinforcing steel is 
permitted to be reduced to '^1^ inch (19 mm). 

R61 1.7.1.2 Vertical steel. Above-grade concrete walls 
shall have reinforcement in accordance with Sections 
R611.3, R611.4, or R611.5 and R61 1.7.2. Where the 
design wind pressure exceeds 40 psf (1.92 kPa) in accor- 
dance with Table R61 1.3(1) or for townhouses in Seismic 
Design Category C and all buildings in Seismic Design 
Categories Dq, Dj and Dj, vertical wall reinforcement in 
the top-most ICF story shall terminate with a 90-degree 
(1.57 rad) standard hook in accordance with Section 
R6 11.7.1.5. The free end of the hook shall be within 4 
inches (102 mm) of the top of the ICF wall and shall be ori- 
ented parallel to the horizontal steel in the top of the wall. 

For townhouses in Seismic Design Category C, the 
minimum vertical reinforcement shall be one No. 5 bar at 
24 inches (610 mm) on center or one No. 4 at 16 inches 
(407 mm) on center. For all buildings in Seismic Design 
Categories Dq, D, and D2, the minimum vertical rein- 
forcement shall be one No. 5 bar at 18 inches (457 mm) 
on center or one No. 4 at 12 inches (305 mm) on center. 

Above-grade ICF walls shall be supported on concrete 
foundations reinforced as required for the above-grade 
wall immediately above, or in accordance with Tables 
R404.4(l) through R404.4(5), whichever requires the 
greater amount of reinforcement. 

Vertical reinforcement shall be continuous from the 
bottom of the foundation wall to the roof. Lap splices, if 
required, shall comply with Section R61 1.7.1.4. Where 
vertical reinforcement in the above-grade wall is not con- 
tinuous with the foundation wall reinforcement, dowel 
bars with a size and spacing to match the vertical ICF 
wall reinforcement shall be embedded 40 d^ into the 
foundation wall and shall be lap spliced with the 
above-grade wall reinforcement. Alternatively, for No. 6 
and larger bars, the portion of the bar embedded in the 
foundation wall shall be embedded 24 inches in the foun- 
dation wall and shall have a standard hook. 

R611.7.1.3 Horizontal reinforcement. Concrete walls 
with a minimum thickness of 4 inches (102 mm) shall 
have a minimum of one continuous No. 4 horizontal rein- 
forcing bar placed at 32 inches (812 mm) on center with 



one bar within 12 inches (305 mm) of the top of the wall 
story. Concrete walls 5.5 inches (140 mm) thick or more 
shall have a minimum of one continuous No. 4 horizontal 
reinforcing bar placed at 48 inches (1219 mm) on center 
with one bar located within 12 inches (305 mm) of the 
top of the wall story. 

For townhouses in Seismic Design Category C, the 
minimum horizontal reinforcement shall be one No. 5 
bar at 24 inches (610 mm) on center or one No. 4 at 16 
inches (407 mm) on center. For all buildings in Seismic 
Design Categories D,,, D, and D2, the minimum horizon- | 
tal reinforcement shall be one No. 5 bar at 1 8 inches (457 
mm) on center or one No. 4 at 12 inches (305 mm) on 
center. 

Horizontal reinforcement shall be continuous around 
building comers using comer bars or by bending the 
bars. In either case, the minimum lap splice shall be 24 
inches (610 mm). For townhouses in Seismic Design 
Category C and for all buildings in Seismic Design Cate- 
gories Dq, D 1 and D2, each end of all horizontal reinforce- | 
ment shall terminate with a standard hook or lap splice. 

R611.7.1.4 Lap splices. Where lap splicing of vertical 
or horizontal reinforcing steel is necessary, the lap 
splice shall be in accordance with Figure R61 1.7.1.4 
and a minimum of 40 d^, where d^ is the diameter of the 
smaller bar. The maximum distance between 
noncontact parallel bars at a lap splice shall not exceed 
8db. 

R611.7.1.5 Standard hook. Where the free end of a 
reinforcing bar is required to have a standard hook, the 
hook shall be a 1 80-degree bend plus 4 d^, extension but 
not less than 2V2 inches, or a 90-degree bend plus 12 d^ 
extension. 

R611.7.2 Wall openings. Wall openings shall have a mini- 
mum of 8 inches (203 mm) of depth of concrete for flat and 
waffle-grid ICF walls and 12 inches (305 mm) for 
screen-grid walls over the length of the opening. When the 
depth of concrete above the opening is less than 12 inches for 
flat or waffle-grid walls, lintels in accordance with Section 
R61 1 .7.3 shall be provided. Reinforcement around openings 
shaU be provided in accordance with Table R6 11.7(1) and 
Figure R61 1.7(2). Reinforcement placed horizontally above 
or below an opening shall extend a minimum of 24 inches 
(610 mm) beyond the limits of the opening. Wall opening 
reinforcement shall be provided in addition to the reinforce- 
ment required by Sections R611.3, R611.4, R611.5 and 
R61 1 .7. 1 . The perimeter of all wall openings shall be framed 
with a minimum 2-inch by 4-inch plate, anchored to the wall 
with 72-inch (13 mm) diameter anchor bolts spated a maxi- 
mum of 24 inches (610 mm) on center. The bolts shall be 
embedded into the concrete a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) 
and have a minimum of 1 Vj inches (38 mm) of concrete cover 
to the face of the wall. 

Exception: The 2-inch by 4-inch plate is not required 
where the wall is formed to provide soUd concrete around 
the perimeter of the opening with a minimum depth of 4 
inches (102 mm) for the full thickness of the wall. 



198 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R61 1.7(1) 
MINIMUM WALL OPENING REINFORCEMENT REQUIREMENTS IN ICF WALLS' 



WALL TYPE AND 
OPENING WIDTH (L) (feet) 


MINIMUM HORIZONTAL 
OPENING REINFORCEMENT 


MINIMUM VERTICAL 
OPENING REINFORCEMENT 


Flat, Waffle-, and 

Screen-Grid: 

L<2 


None required 


None required 


Flat, Waffle-, and 

Screen-Grid: 

L>2 


Provide lintels in accordance with Section R61 1.7.3. 
Provide one No. 4 bar within 12 inches from the 
bottom of the opening. Top and bottom lintel 
reinforcement shall extend a minimum of 24 inches 
beyond the Umits of the opening. 


In locations with wind speeds less than or equal to 110 mph 
or in Seismic Design Categories A and B, provide one No. 4 
bar for the full height of the wall story within 12 inches of 
each side of the opening. 

In locations with wind speeds greater than 110 mph, 
townhouses in Seismic Design Category C, or all buildings 
in Seismic Design Categories Dq, Dj and Dj, provide two 
No. 4 bars or one No. 5 bar for the full height of the wall 
story within 12 inches of each side of the opening. 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mJs; 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. This table is based on concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi, reinforcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi and an 
assumed equivalent rectangular cross section. This table is not intended to prohibit the use of ICF manufacturer's tables based on engineering analysis in accor- 
dance with ACI 31 8. 



SEE FIGURE 
R611.9 




LIGHT-FRAME ROOF 



SEE FIGURES 
R611.8(1) 
THROUGH 
R611.8(7) 




ICF OR LIGHT-FRAME 
WALL 



SEE FIGURES" 
R611.8(1) 
THROUGH 
R611.8(7) 



/" 




2ND STORY 
WALL HEIGHT 
10 FT MAX. 



i^^ 



LIGHT-FRAME FLOOR 



1ST STORY 
WALL HEIGHT 
10 FT MAX. 



LIGHT-FRAME FLOOR 

(OR CONCRETE SLAB-ON-GRADE) 



BASEMENT, CRAWL SPACE, OR 
SLAB-ON-GRADE FOUNDATION 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

NOTE: Section cut through flat wall or vertical core of waffle- or screen-grid walls. 



FIGURE R61 1.7(1) 
ICF WALL CONSTRUCTION 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



199 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



R61 1.7.3 Lintels. 

R611.7.3.1 General requirements. Lintels shall be 
provided over all openings greater than or equal to 2 feet 
(610 mm) in width. Lintels for flat ICF walls shall be 
constructed in accordance with Figure R61 1.7(3) and 
Table R61 1.7(2) or R61 1.7(3). Lintels for waffle-grid 
ICF walls shall be constructed in accordance with Fig- 
ure R61 1.7(4) or Figure R61 1.7(5) and Table 
R611.7(4) or R611.7(5). Lintels for screen-grid ICF 
walls shall be constructed in accordance with Figure 
R611.7(6) or Figure R611.7(7). Lintel construction in 
accordance with Figure R611.7(3) shall be permitted 
with waffle-grid and screen-grid ICF wall construction. 
Lintel depths are permitted to be increased by the height 
of the ICF wall located directly above the opening, pro- 
vided that the lintel depth spans the entire length of the 
opening. 

R611.7.3.2 Stirrups. Where required, No. 3 stirrups 
shall be installed in flat, waffle-grid and screen-grid 
wall lintels in accordance with the following: 

1 . For flat walls the stirrups shall be spaced at a max- 
imum spacing of d/1 where d equals the depth of 
the lintel (D) minus the bottom cover of concrete 
as shown in Figure R6 11.7(3). Stirrups shall not 
be required in the middle portion of the span (A) 
per Figure R61 1.7(2), for flat walls for a length 
not to exceed the values shown in parenthesis in 
Tables R6 11.7(2) and R6 11.7(3) or for spans in 
accordance with Table R61 1.7(8). 

2. For waffle-grid walls a minimum of two No. 3 
stirrups shall be placed in each vertical core of 
waffle-grid lintels. Stirrups shall not be required 
in the middle portion of the span (A) per Figure 
R61 1.7(2), for waffle-grid walls for a length not 
to exceed the values shown in parenthesis in 
Tables R61 1.7(4) and R61 1.7(5) or for spans in 
accordance with Table R61 1 .7(8). 

3. For screen-grid walls one No. 3 stirrup shall be 
placed in each vertical core of screen-grid lintels. 

Exception: Stirrups are not required in 
screen-grid lintels meeting the following 
requirements: 

1 . Lintel Depth (D) = 12 inches (305 mm) - 
spans less than or equal 3 feet 7 inches. 

2. Lintel Depth (D) = 24 inches (610 mm) - 
spans less than or equal 4 feet 4 inches. 

R611.7.3.3 Horizontal reinforcement. One No. 4 hor- 
izontal bar shall be provided in the top of the lintel. Hor- 
izontal reinforcement placed within 12 inches (305 
mm) of the top of the wall in accordance with Section 
R61 1 .7. 1 .3 shall be permitted to serve as the top or bot- 
tom reinforcement in the lintel provided the reinforce- 
ment meets the location requirements in Figure 
R611.7(2), R611.7(3), R611.7(4), R611.7(5), 



R61 1.7(6), or R61 1.7(7), and the size requirements in 
Tables R61 1.7(2), R61 1.7(3), R61 1.7(4), R611.7(5), 
R611.7(6), R611.7(7), orR611.7(8). 

R611.7.3.4 Load-bearing walls. Lintels in flat ICF 
load-bearing walls shall comply with Table R61 1.7(2), 
Table RR611.7(3) or Table R61 1.7(8). Lintels in waf- 
fle-grid ICF load-bearing walls shall comply with Table 
R6 1 1 .7(4), Table R6 1 1 .7(5) or Table R6 1 1 .7(8). Lintels 
in screen-grid ICF load-bearing walls shall comply 
with Table R61 1.7(6) or Table R61 1.7(7). 

Where spans larger than those permitted in Table 
R6 11.7(2), Table R6 11.7(3), Table R6 11.7(4), Table 
R61 1.7(5), R61 1.7(6), R61 1.7(7) or R61 1.7(8) are 
required, the hntels shaU comply with Table R6 1 1 .7 (9). 

R611.7.3.5 Nonload-bearing walls. Lintels in 
nonload-bearing flat, waffle-grid and screen-grid ICF 
walls shall comply with Table R61 1.7 (10). Stirrups are 
not required. 

R61 1.7.4 Minimum length of wall without openings. The 

wind velocity pressures of Table R611.7.4 shall be used to 
determine the minimum amount of solid wall length in 
accordance with Tables R611.7(9A) through R611.7(10B) 
and Figure R611.7.4. Table R611.7(ll) shall be used to 
determine the minimum amount of solid wall length for 
townhouses in Seismic Design Category C, and all build- 
ings in Seismic Design Categories Dq, Dj and Dj for all | 
types of ICF walls. The greater amount of solid wall length 
required by wind loading or seismic loading shall apply. 
The minimum percentage of solid wall length shall include 
only those solid wall segments that are a minimum of 24 
inches (610 mm) in length. The maximum distance between 
wall segments included in determining solid wall length 
shall not exceed 18 feet (5486 mm). A minimum length of 
24 inches (610 mm) of solid wall segment, extending the 
full height of each wall story, shall occur at all interior and 
exterior comers of exterior walls. 

R611.8 ICF wall-to-floor connections. 

R611.8.1 Top bearing. Floors bearing on the top of ICF 

foundation walls in accordance with Figure R6 11.8(1) 
shall have the wood sill plate anchored to the ICF wall with 
minimum Vj-inch (13 mm) diameter bolts embedded a 
minimum of 7 inches (178 mm) and placed at a maximum 
spacing of 6 feet (1829 mm) on center and not more than 1 2 
I inches (305 mm) from corners. Anchor bolts for waf- 
fle-grid and screen-grid walls shall be located in the cores. 
In conditions where wind speeds are in excess of 90 miles 
per hour (40 m/s), the V2"inch (13 mm) diameter anchor 
bolts shall be placed at a maximum spacing of 4 feet (1219 
mm) on center. Bolts shall extend a minimum of 7 inches 
(178 mm) into concrete. Sill plates shall be protected 
against decay where required by Section R319. 
Cold-formed steel framing systems shall be anchored to 
the concrete in accordance with Section R505.3.1 or Sec- 
tion R603. 3.1. 



200 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*^ 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R61 1.7(2) 
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CLEAR SPANS FOR ICF LINTELS FOR FLAT LOAD-BEARING WALLS"'' ^'" 

NO. 4 BOTTOM BAR SIZE 



MINIMUM LINTEL 

THICKNESS, T 

(inches) 


LINTEL DEPTH, D 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM CLEAR SPAN, (feet-inches) 
(Number is Middle of Span, A)^ 


Supporting Roof Only 


Supporting Light-Framed 
2nd Story and Roof 


Supporting ICF Second Story 
and Roof 


Ground Snow Load 


30psf 


70psf 


30psf 


70psf 


30psf 


70psf 


3.5 


8 


4-9 
(1-2) 


4-2 
(0-9) 


3-10 
(0-8) 


3-4 
(0-6) 


3-5 
(0-6) 


3-1 
(0-5) 


12 


6-8 
(1-11) 


5-5 
(1-3) 


5-0 
(1-1) 


4-5 
(0-10) 


4-6 
(0-10) 


4-0 
(0-8) 


16 


7-11 
(2-9) 


6-5 
(1-9) 


6-0 
(1-6) 


5-3 
(1-2) 


5-4 
(1-2) 


4-10 
(1-0) 


20 


8-11 
(3-5) 


7-4 
(2-3) 


6-9 
(1-11) 


6-0 
(1-6) 


6-1 

(1-7) 


5-6 

(1-3) 


24 


9-10 
(4-1) 


8-1 
(2-9) 


7-6 
(2-4) 


6-7 
(1-10) 


6-9 
(1-11) 


6-1 
(1-6) 


5.5 


8 


5-2 
(1-10) 


4-2 
(1-2) 


3-10 
(1-0) 


3-5 
(0-9) 


3-5 
(0-10) 


3-1 
(0-8) 


12 


6-8 

(3-0) 


5-5 
(2-0) 


5-0 
(1-9) 


4-5 
(1-4) 


4-6 
(1-4) 


4-1 
(1-1) 


16 


7-10 
(4-1) 


6-5 

(2-9) 


6-0 

(2-5) 


5-3 
(1-10) 


5-4 
(1-11) 


4-10 
(1-7) 


20 


8-10 

(5-3) 


7-3 
(3-6) 


6-9 

(3-1) 


6-0 

(2-4) 


6-1 

(2-5) 


5-6 

(2-0) 


24 


9-8 
(6-3) 


8-0 

(4-3) 


7-5 
(3-8) 


6-7 
(2-11) 


6-8 
(3-0) 


6-0 

(2-5) 


7.5 


8 


5-2 
(2-6) 


4-2 
(1-8) 


3-11 
(1-5) 


3-5 
(1-1) 


3-6 

(1-1) 


3-2 
(0-11) 


12 


6-7 
(4-0) 


5-5 
(2-8) 


5-0 

(2-4) 


4-5 
(1-10) 


4-6 
(1-10) 


4-1 
(1-6) 


16 


7-9 

(5-5) 


6-5 
(3-8) 


5-11 

(3-3) 


5-3 
(2-6) 


5-4 
(2-7) 


4-10 

(2-2) 


20 


8-8 
(6-10) 


7-2 
(4-8) 


6-8 

(4-2) 


5-11 
(3-3) 


6-0 

(3-4) 


5-5 
(2-9) 


24 


9-6 

(8-2) 


7-11 
(5-8) 


7-4 
(5-1) 


6-6 

(3-11) 


6-7 
(4-1) 


6-0 

(3-4) 


9.5 


8 


5-2 
(3-1) 


4-2 
(2-1) 


3-11 
(1-9) 


3-5 
(1-5) 


3-6 

(1-5) 


3-2 
(1-2) 


12 


6-7 
(5-0) 


5-5 
(3-4) 


5-0 
(3-0) 


4-5 
(2-4) 


4-6 

(2-5) 


4-1 
(1-11) 


16 


7-8 
(6-9) 


6-4 

(4-7) 


5-11 

(4-2) 


5-3 
(3-3) 


5-4 
(3-4) 


4-10 
(2-8) 



igth of 40,000 psi and an 
; in the shaded cells shall 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895kPa, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. This table is based on concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi, reinforcing steel with a minimum yield stren^ 
assumed equivalent rectangular cross section. When reinforcement with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi is used, the span lengths i 
be increased by 1.2 times the table values. 

b. This table is not intended to prohibit the use of ICF manufacturer's tables based on engineering analysis in accordance with ACI 318. 

c. Deflection criterion: L/IAO. 

d. Design load assumptions: 

Floor dead load is 10 psf Attic live load is 20 psf 

Floor live load is 30 psf Roof dead load is 15 psf 

Building width is 32 feet ICF wall dead load is 69 psf 

Light-framed wall dead load is 10 psf 

e. No. 3 stirrups are required at d/2 spacing except no stirrups are required for the distance, (A), shown in the middle portion of the span in accordance with Figure 
R61 1.7(2) and Section R61 1.7 .3.2. 

f. Interpolation is permitted between ground snow loads and between lintel depths. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'^ 



201 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R61 1.7(3) 
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CLEAR SPANS FOR ICF LINTELS FOR FLAT LOAD-BEARING WALLS"- "'=''•* 

NO. 5 BOTTOM BAR SIZE 



MINIMUM LINTEL 

THICKNESS, T 

(inches) 


LINTEL DEPTH, D 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM CLEAR iSPAN, (feet-Inches) (Number is Middle of Span, A)^ 


Supporting Roof 


Supporting Light-Framed 2nd Story 
and Roof 


Supporting ICF Second Story and 
Roof 


Ground Snow Load 


30psf 


70psf 


30psf 


70psf 


30psf 


70psf 


3.5 


8 


4-9 
(1-2) 


4-2 
(0-9) 


3-11 
(0-8) 


3-7 
(0-6) 


3-7 
(0-6) 


3-5 
(0-5) 


12 


7-2 
(1-11) 


6-3 

(1-3) 


5-11 

(1-1) 


5-5 
(0-10) 


5-5 
(0-10) 


5-0 
(0-8) 


16 


9-6 

(2-9) 


8-0 
(1-9) 


7-4 
(1-6) 


6-6 

(1-2) 


6-7 
(1-2) 


5-11 
(1-0) 


20 


11-1 

(3-5) 


9-1 

(2-3) 


8-4 
(1-11) 


I 7-5 
i(l-6) 


7-6 
(1-7) 


6-9 

(1-3) 


24 


12-2 
(4-1) 


10-0 
(2-9) 


9-3 

(2-4) 


i 8-2 
1(1-10) 


8-4 
(1-11) 


7-6 
(1-6) 


5.5 


8 


5-6 
(MO) 


4-10 
(1-2) 


4-7 
(1-0) 


4-2 
(0-9) 


4-2 
(0-10) 


3-10 
(0-8) 


12 


8-3 
(3-0) 


6-9 

(2-0) 


6-3 
(1-9) 


5-6 

(1-4) 


5-7- 
(1-4) 


5-0 
(1-1) 


16 


9-9 

(4-1) 


8-0 
(2-9) 


7-5 
(2-5) 


'■ 6-6 

!(i-io) 


6-7 
(1-11) 


6-0 

(1-7) 


20 


10-11 

(5-3) 


9-0 

(3-6) 


8-4 
(3-1) 


; 7-5 

K2-4) 


7-6 
(2-5) 


6-9 

(2-0) 


24 


12-0 
(6-3) 


9-11 

(4-3) 


9-3 

(3-8) 


! 8-2 
1(2-11) 


8-3 
(3-0) 


7-6 

(2-5) 


7.5 


8 


6-1 

(2-6) 


5-2 
(1-8) 


4-9 
: (1-5) 


4-3 
(1-1) 


4-3 
(1-1) 


3-10 
(0-11) 


12 


8-2 
(4-0) 


6-9 

(2-8) 


6-3 

(2-4) 


:5-6 

id-lO) 


5-7 
(1-10) 


5-0 
(1-6) 


16 


9-7 
(5-5) 


7-11 
(3-8) 


7-4 
(3-3) 


= 6-6 
k2-6) 


6-7 
(2-7) 


6-0 

(2-2) 


20 


10-10 
(6-10) 


8-11 
(4-8) 


8-4 
(4-2) 


\ 7-4 
1(3-3) 


7-6 
(3-4) 


6-9 

(2-9) 


24 


11-10 
(8-2) 


9-10 

(5-8) 


9-2 
(5-1) 


: 8-1 

=(3-11) 


8-3 
(4-1) 


7-5 
(3-4) 


9.5 


8 


6-4 
(3-1) 


5-2 
(2-1) 


4-10 
(1-9) 


■ 4-3 
(1-5) 


4-4 
(1-5) 


3-11 
(1-2) 


12 


8-2 
(5-0) 


6-8 

(3-4) 


6-2 
(3-0) 


5-6 

:(2-4) 


5-7 
(2-5) 


5-0 
(1-11) 


16 


9-6 
(6-9) 


7-11 
(4-7) 


7-4 
(4-2) 


\ 6-6 
! (3-3) 


6-7 

(3-4) 


5-11 
(2-8) 


20 


10-8 

(8-4) 


8-10 
(5-10) 


8-3 
(5-4) 


] 7-4 
!(4-2) 


7-5 
(4-3) 


6-9 

(3-6) 


24 


11-7 
(10-0) 


9-9 

(6-11) 


9-0 

(6-5) 


\ 8-1 
■(5-0) 


8-2 
(5-2) 


7-5 
(4-3) 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. This table is based on concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi, reinforcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi and an 
assumed equivalent rectangular cross section. When reinforcement with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi is used the span lengths in the shaded cells shall be 
increased by 1.2 times the table values. 

b. This table is not intended to prohibit the use of ICF manufacturer's tables based on engineering analysis in accordance with ACI 318. 

c. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

d. Design load assumptions: 

Floor dead load is 10 psf Attic live load is 20 psf 

Floor live load is 30 psf Roof dead load is 15 psf ' 

Building width is 32 feet ICF wall dead load is 69 psf 

Light-framed wall dead load is 10 psf j 

e. No. 3 stirrups are required at d/2 spacing except no stirrups are required for the distance, (A), shown in the middle portion of the span in accordance with Figure 
R611.7(2) and Section R61 1.7.3.2. I 

{. Interpolation is permitted between ground snow loads and between lintel depths.; 



202 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R61 1.7(4) 
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CLEAR SPANS FOR WAFFLE-GRID ICF WALL LINTELS^' "■=■"■' 

NO. 4 BOTTOM BAR SIZE 



NOMINAL LINTEL 

THICKNESS TS" 

(Inches) 


LINTEL 
DEPTH D 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM CLEAR SPAN (feet-lnches) 
(Number is Middle of Span, Af 


Supporting Roof 


Supporting Light-Framed 2nd Story 
and Roof 


Supporting ICF Second Story and 
Roof 


Ground Snow Load 


30psf 


70psf 


30psf 


70psf 


30psf 


70psf 


6 


8 


5-2 
(0-10) 


4-2 
(0-7) 


3-10 
(0-6) 


3-5 
(0-4) 


3-6 
(0-5) 


3-2 
(0-4) 


12 


6-8 

(1-5) 


5-5 
(0-11) 


5-0 
(0-9) 


4-5 
(0-7) 


4-7 
(0-8) 


4-2 
(0-6) 


16 


7-11 
(1-11) 


6-6 

(1-4) 


6-0 
(1-1) 


5-3 
(0-10) 


5-6 
(0-11) 


4-11 
(0-9) 


20 


8-11 
(2-6) 


7-4 
(1-8) 


6-9 

(1-5) 


6-0 
(1-1) 


6-3 

(1-2) 


5-7 
(0-11) 


24 


9-10 

(3-0) 


8-1 
(2-0) 


7-6 
(1-9) 


6-7 
(1-4) 


6-10 
(1-5) 


6-2 

(1-2) 


8 


8 


5-2 
(0-10) 


4-3 
(0-7) 


3-11 
(0-6) 


3-5 
(0-4) 


3-7 
(0-5) 


3-2 
(0-4) 


12 


6-8 

(1-5) 


5-5 
(0-11) 


5-1 
(0-9) 


4-5 
(0-7) 


4-8 
(0-8) 


4-2 
(0-6) 


16 


7-10 
(1-11) 


6-5 

(1-4) 


6-0 

(1-1) 


5-3 
(0-10) 


5-6 
(0-11) 


4-11 
(0-9) 


20 


8-10 
(2-6) 


7-3 
(1-8) 


6-9 

(1-5) 


6-0 
(1-1) 


6-2 

(1-2) 


5-7 
(0-11) 


24 


9-8 
(3-0) 


8-0 
(2-0) 


7-5 
(1-9) 


6-7 

(1-4) 


6-10 

(1-5) 


6-2 
(1-2) 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 psi = 6.895 kPa, 1 psf = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. This table is based on concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi, reinforcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi and an 
assumed equivalent rectangular cross section. When reinforcement with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi is used the span lengths in the shaded cells shall be 
increased by 1.2 times the table values. 

b. This table is not intended to prohibit the use of ICF manufacturer's tables based on engineering analysis in accordance with ACI 318. 

c. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

d. Design load assumptions: 

Floor dead load is 10 psf Attic live load is 20 psf 

Floor live load is 30 psf Roof dead load is 15 psf 

Building width is 32 feet ICF wall dead load is 55 psf 

Light-framed wall dead load is 10 psf 

e. No. 3 stirrups are required at d/2 spacing except no stirrups are required for the distance, (A), shown in the middle portion of the span in accordance with Figure 
R611.7(2) and Section R611. 7.3.2. 

f. Interpolation is permitted between ground snow loads and between lintel depths. 

g. For actual wall lintel width, refer to Table R61 1.2. | 
h. Lintel width corresponds to the nominal waffle-grid ICF wall thickness with a minimum thickness of 2 inches. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*^ 



203 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R61 1.7(5) 
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CLEAR SPANS FOR WAFFLE-GRID ICF WALL LINTELS"" = "' 

NO. 5 BOTTOM BAR SIZE 



NOMINAL LINTEL 

THICKNESS, T9'' 

(Inches) 


LINTEL DEPTH D 
(Inches) 


MAXIMUM CLEAR SPAN (feet-inches) 
(Number is Middle of Span, A)^ 


Supporting Roof 


Supporting Light-Framed 2nd Story Supporting ICF Second Story and 
and Roof Roof 


Ground Snow Load 


30psf 


70psf 


30psf 


70psf 


30psf 


70psf 


6 


8 


5-4 
(0-10) 


4-8 
(0-7) 


4-5 
' (0-6) 


4-1 
(0-4) 


4-5 
(0-5) 


3-10 
(0-4) 


12 


8-0 
(1-5) 


6-9 

(0-11) 


6-3 

; (0-9) 


5-6 

(0-7) 


6-3 
(0-8) 


5-1 
(0-6) 


16 


9-9 
(1-11) 


8-0 
(1-4) 


7-5 
(1-1) 


}6-6 
(0-10) 


7-5 
(0-11) 


6-1 
(0-9) 


20 


11-0 
(2-6) 


9-1 
(1-8) 


8-5 
(1-5) 


1 
i7-5 

h-1) 


8-5 
(1-2) 


6-11 
(0-11) 


24 


12-2 
(3-0) 


10-0 
(2-0) 


9-3 
(1-9) 


lS-2 

;(i-4) 


9-3 

(1-5) 


7-8 
(1-2) 


8 


8 


6-0 
(0-10) 


5-2 
(0-7) 


4-9 
(0-6) 


4-3 
(0-4) 


4-9 
(0-5) 


3-11 
(0-4) 


12 


8-3 
(1-5) 


6-9 
(0-11) 


6-3 
(0-9) 


. l5-6 
^0-7) 


6-3 

(0-8) 


5-2 
(0-6) 


16 


9-9 
(1-11) 


8-0 
(1-4) 


7-5 
(1-1) 


?6-6 
(0-10) 


7-5 
(0-11) 


6-1 

(0-9) 


20 


10-11 

(2-6) 


9-0 
(1-8) 


8-4 7-5 
(1-5) : (1-1) 


8-4 
(1-2) 


6-11 
(0-11) 


24 


12-0 
(3-0) 


9-11 

(2-0) 


9-2 ! 8-2 
: (1-9) i 11-4) 


9-2 
(1-5) 


7-8 
(1-2) 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 psi = 6.895 kPa, 1 psf = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. This table is based on concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi, reinforcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi and an 
assumed equivalent rectangular cross section. When reinforcement with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi is used the span lengths in the shaded cells shall be 
increased by 1.2 times the table values. 

b. This table is not intended to prohibit the use of ICF manufacturer's tables based on engineering analysis in accordance with ACI 318. 

c. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

d. Design load assumptions: 

Floor dead load is 10 psf Attic live load is 20 psf 

Floor live load is 30 psf Roof dead load is 15 psf 

Building width is 32 feet ICF wall dead load is 53 psf 

Light-framed wall dead load is 10 psf 

e. No. 3 stirrups are required at d/2 spacing except no stirrups are required for the distance, (A), shown in the middle portion of the span in accordance with Figure 
R61 1.7(2) and Section R61 1.7.3.2. 

f Interpolation is permitted between ground snow loads and between lintel depths. ■ 

g. For actual wall lintel width, refer to Table R61 1.2. 

h. Lintel width corresponds to the nominal waffle-grid ICF wall thickness with a minimum thickness of 2 inches. 



204 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE"" 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R61 1.7(6) 
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CLEAR SPANS FOR SCREEN-GRID ICF LINTELS IN LOAD-BEARING WALLS'- "'=' *^' '■ ^ 

NO. 4 BOTTOM BAR SIZE 



MINIMUM LINTEL 

THICKNESS, T 

(inches)'^' 


MINIMUM LINTEL 
DEPTH, D 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM CLEAR SPAN (feet-inches) 


Supporting Roof 


Supporting Light-Framed Second 
Story and Roof 


Supporting ICF Second Story and 
Roof 


Maximum Ground Snow Load (psf) 


30 


70 


30 


70 


30 


70 


6 


12 


3-7 


2-10 


2-5 


2-0 


2-0 


NA 


24 


9-10 


8-1 


7-6 


6-7 


6-11 


6-2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 psi = 6.895 kPa, 1 psf = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. This table is based on concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi, reinforcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi and an 
assumed equivalent rectangular cross section. When reinforcement with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi is used the span lengths in the shaded cells shall be 
increased by 1.2 times the table values. 

b. This table is not intended to prohibit the use of ICF manufacturer's tables based on engineering analysis in accordance with ACI 318. 

c. Deflection criterion: L/240. 
d Design load assumptions: 

Floor dead load is 10 psf 
Floor live load is 30 psf 
Maximum floor clear span is 32 ft 
Light- frame wall dead load is 10 psf 

e. Stirrup requirements: 
Stirrups are not required for lintels 12 inches deep. 
One No. 3 stirrup is required in each vertical core for lintels 24 inches deep. 

f. Interpolation is permitted between ground snow loads. 

g. Flat ICF lintels may be used in lieu of screen-grid lintels, 
h. For actual wall lintel width, refer to Table R61 1.2. 
i. Lintel width corresponds to the nominal screen-grid ICF wall thickness. 



Attic live load is 20 psf 
Roof dead load is 15 psf 
ICF wall dead load is 53 psf 



TABLE R61 1.7(7) 
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CLEAR SPANS FOR SCREEN-GRID ICF LINTELS IN LOAD-BEARING WALLS'' "•=•"■ ^' '• ^ 

NO. 5 BOTTOM BAR SIZE 



MINIMUM LINTEL 

THICKNESS, T 

(inches)''' 


MINIMUM LINTEL 
DEPTH, D 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM CLEAR SPAN (feet-inches) 


Supporting Roof 


Supporting Light-Framed Second 
Story and Roof 


Supporting ICF Second Story and 
Roof 


Maximum Ground Snow Load (psf) 


30 


70 


30 


70 


30 


70 


6 


12 


3-7 


2-10 


2-5 


2-0 


2-0 


NA 


24 


12-3 


10-0 


9-3 


8-3 


8-7 


7-8 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895kPa, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. This table is based on concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi, reinforcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi and an 
assumed equivalent rectangular cross section. When reinforcement with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi is used the span lengths in the shaded cells shall be 
increased by 1.2 times the table values. 

b. This table is not intended to prohibit the use of ICF manufacturer's tables based on engineering analysis in accordance with ACI 318. 

c. Deflection criterion: L/240. 
d. 



Attic live load is 20 psf 
Roof dead load is 15 psf 
ICF wall dead load is 53 psf 



Design load assumptions: 
Floor dead load is 10 psf 
Floor live load is 30 psf 
Maximum floor clear span is 32 ft 
Light-frame wall dead load is 10 psf 

e. Stirrup requirements: 

Stirrups are not required for lintels 12 inches deep. 

One No. 3 stirrup is required in each vertical core for lintels 24 inches deep 

f. Interpolation is permitted between ground snow loads. 

g. Flat ICF lintels may be used in Ueu of screen-grid Untels. 
h. For actual wall lintel width, refer to Table R61 1.2. 

i. Lintel width corresponds to the nominal screen-grid ICF wall thickness. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*" 



205 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R61 1.7(8) 
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CLEAR SPANS FOR ICF LINTELS WITHOUT STIRRUPS IN LOAD-BEARING WALLS^ ""= "'^ * a" 

(NO. 4 OR NO. 5) BOTTOM BAR SIZE 



MINIMUM LINTEL 

THICKNESS, T 

(inches) 


MINIMUM LINTEL 
DEPTH, D 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM CLEAR SPAN (feet-inches) 


Supporting Roof Only 


Sjupporting Light-Framed Second 
Story and Roof 


Supporting ICF Second Story and 
RoolF 


MAXIMUM GROUND SNOW LOAD (psf) 


30 


70 


30 


70 


30 


70 


Flat ICF Lintel 


3.5 


8 


2-6 


2-6 


2-6 


2-4 


2-5 


2-2 


12 


4-2 


4-2 


4-1 


3-10 


3-10 


3-7 


16 


4-11 


4-8 


4-6 


4-2 


4-2 


3-11 


20 


6-3 


5-3 


' 4-11 


4-6 


4-6 


4-3 


24 


7-7 


6-4 


, 6-0 


5-6 


5-6 


5-2 


5.5 


8 


2-10 


2-6 


; 2-6 


2-5 


2-6 


2-2 


12 


4-8 


4-4 


' 4-3 


3-11 


3-10 


3-7 


16 


6-5 


5-1 


4-8 


4-2 


4-3 


3-11 


20 


8-2 


6-6 


6-0 


5-4 


5-5 


5-0 


24 


9-8 


7-11 


7-4 


6-6 


6-7 


6-1 


7.5 


8 


3-6 


2-8 


2-7 


2-5 


2-5 


2-2 


12 


5-9 


4-5 


4-4 


4-0 


3-10 


3-7 


16 


7-9 


6-1 


5-7 


4-10 


4-11 


4-5 


20 


8-8 


7-2 


6-8 


5-11 


6-0 


5-5 


24 


9-6 


7-11 


'■ 7-4 


6-6 


6-7 


6-0 


9.5 


8 


4-2 


3-1 


: 2-9 


2-5 


2-5 


2-2 


12 


6-7 


5-1 


i 4-7 


3-11 


4-0 


3-7 


16 


7-10 


6-4 


' 5-11 


5-3 


5-4 


4-10 


20 


8-7 


7-2 


: 6-8 


5-11 


6-0 


5-5 


24 


9-4 


7-10 


' 7-3 


6-6 


6-7 


6-0 


Waffle-Grid ICF Lintel 


6 or 8 


8 


2-6 


2-6 


! 2-6 


2-4 


2-4 


, 2-2 


12 


4-2 


4-2 


1 4-1 


3-8 


3-9 


3-7 


16 


5-9 


5-8 


; 5-7 


5-1 


5-2 


4-8 


20 


7-6 


7-4 


1 6-9 


6-0 


6-3 


5-7 


24 


9-2 


8-1 


1 7-6 


6-7 


6-10 


6-2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa; 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Table values are based on tensile reinforcement with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi (276 MPa), concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength 
of 2,500 psi, and a building width (clear span) of 32 feet. , 

b. Spans located in shaded cells shall be permitted to be multiplied by 1 .05 when concrete with a minimum compressive strength of 3,000 psi is used or by 1 . 1 when 
concrete with a minimum compressive strength of 4,000 psi is used. 

c. Deflection criterion is L/240, where L is the clear span of the lintel in inches. ' 

d. Linear interpolation shall be permitted between ground snow loads and between lintel depths. 

e. Lintel depth, D, shall be permitted to include the available height of ICF wall located directly above the lintel, provided that the increased lintel depth spans the 
entirelength of the opening. 

f. Spans shall be permitted to be multiplied by 1.05 for a building width (clear span) of 28 feet. 

g. Spans shall be permitted to be multiphed by 1.1 for a building width (clear span) bf 24 feet or less, 
h. ICF wall dead load is 69 psf. 



206 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R61 1.7(9) 
MINIMUM BOTTOM BAR ICF LINTEL REINFORCEMENT FOR LARGE CLEAR SPANS IN LOAD-BEARING WALLS^ "■'=•'' ^' '■ '^ 


MINIMUM LINTEL 

THICKNESS, T*'9 

(inches) 


MINIMUM LINTEL 
DEPTH, D 
(inches) 


MINIMUM BOTTOM LINTEL REINFORCEMENT 


Supporting Light-Frame Roof Only 


Supporting Light-Framed Second 
Story and Roof 


Supporting ICF Second Story and 
Light-Frame Roof 


Maximum Ground Snow Load (psf) 


30 


70 


30 


70 


30 


70 


Flat ICF Lintel, 12 feet- 3 inches Maximum Clear Span 


3.5 


24 


1#5 


1#7 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


5.5 


20 


1#6 


1#7 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


24 


1#5 


1#7 


1#7 


1#8 


1#8 


D/R 


7.5 


16 


1#7;2#5 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


20 


1 #6; 2 #4 


1#7; 2 #5 


1 #8; 2 #6 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


24 


1 #6; 2 #4 


1 #7; 2 #5 


1 #7; 2 #5 


1 #8; 2 #6 


1 #8; 2 #6 


1 #8; 2 #6 


9.5 


16 


1 #7; 2 #5 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


20 


1 #6; 2 #4 


1 #7; 2 #5 


1 #8; 2 #6 


1 #8; 2 #6 


1 #8; 2 #6 


1 #9; 2 #6 


24 


1 #6; 2 #4 


1 #7; 2 #5 


1 #7; 2 #5 


1 #7; 2 #6 


1 #8; 2 #6 


1 #9; 2 #6 


Flat ICF Lintel, 16 feet-3 inches Maximum Clear Span 


5.5 


24 


1#7 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


7.5 


24 


1 #7; 2 #5 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


9.5 


24 


1 #7; 2 #5 


1 #9; 2 #6 


1 #9; 2 #6 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


Waffle-Grid ICF Lintel, 12 feet-3 inches Maximum Clear Span 


6 


20 


1#6 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


24 


1#5 


1 #7; 2 #5 


1 #7; 2 #5 


1 #8; 2 #6 


1 #8; 2 #6 


D/R 


8 


16 


1 #7; 2 #5 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


20 


1 #6; 2 #4 


1 #7; 2 #5 


1 #8; 2 #6 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


24 


1#5 


1 #7; 2 #5 


1 #7; 2 #5 


1 #8; 2 #6 


1 #8; 2 #6 


1 #8; 2 #6 


Screen-Grid ICF Lintel, 12 feet-3 inches Maximum Clear Span 


6 


24 


1#5 


1#7 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 


D/R 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 psi = 6.895 kPa, 1 psf = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. This table is based on concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi, reinforcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi and an 
assumed equivalent rectangular cross section. When reinforcement with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi is used the span lengths in the shaded cells shall be 
increased by 1.2 times the table values. 

b. This table is not intended to prohibit the use of ICF manufacturers tables based on engineering analysis in accordance with ACI 318. 

c. D/R indicates design is required. 

d. Deflection criterion: L/240. 

e. Interpolation is permitted between ground snow loads and between lintel depths. 

f. No. 3 stirrups are required a maximum d/2 spacing for spans greater than 4 feet. 

g. Actual thickness is shown for flat hntels; nominal thickness is given for waffle-grid and screen-grid lintels. Lintel thickness corresponds to the nominal waffle-grid 
and screen-grid ICF wall thickness. Refer to Table R61 1.2 for actual wall thickness. 

h. ICF wall dead load varies based on wall thickness using 150 pcf concrete density. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*" 



207 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R61i.7(9A) 
MINIMUM SOLID END WALL LENGTH REQUIREMENTS FOR FLAT ICF WALLS (WIND PERPENDICULAR TO RIDGE)^ 



WALL CATEGORY 


BUILDING 

SIDE WALL 

LENGTH, L 

(feet) 


Roof 
Slope 


WIND VELOCITY PRESSURE FROM TABLE R61 1.7.4 (psf) 


20 


25 


30 


35 


40 


45 


50 


60 


Minimum Solid Wall Length on Building End Wall (feet) 


One-Story or Top Story 
of Two-Story 


16 


<1:12 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


5:12 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


4.25 


4.50 


7:12'* 


4.00 


4.25 


'4.25 


4.50 


4.75 


4.75 


5.00 


5.50 


12:12'' 


4.25 


4.50 


4.75 


5.00 


5.25 


5.50 


5.75 


6.25 


24 


<1:12 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


4.25 


4.50 


5:12 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


4.25 


4.25 


4.50 


4.50 


4.75 


7:12'' 


4.25 


4.50 


4.75 


5.00 


5.25 


5.50 


5.75 


6.25 


12:12'' 


4.75 


5.00 


5.25 


5.75 


6.00 


6.50 


6.75 


7.50 


32 


< 1:12 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


4.25 


4.25 


4.50 


4.75 


5:12 


4.00 


4.00 


^4.25 


4.50 


4.50 


4.75 


5.00 


5.25 


7:12" 


4.50 


5.00 


,5.25 


5.50 


6.00 


6.25 


6.50 


7.25 


12:12'' 


5.00 


5.50 


'6.00 


6.50 


7.00 


7.25 


7.75 


8.75 


40 


<1:12 


4.00 


4.00 


'4.25 


4.25 


4.50 


4.50 


4.75 


5.00 


5:12 


4.00 


4.25 


4.50 


4.75 


4.75 


5.00 


5.25 


5.50 


7:12'' 


4.75 


5.25 


:5.75 


6.00 


6.50 


7.00 


7.25 


8.00 


12:12'' 


5.50 


6.00 


'■6.50 


7.25 


7.75 


8.25 


8.75 


10.0 


50 


<1:12 


4.00 


4.25 


■4.25 


4.50 


4.75 


4.75 


5.00 


5.50 


5:12 


4.25 


4.50 


^4.75 


5.00 


5.25 


5.50 


5.75 


6.00 


7:12'' 


5.25 


5.75 


:6.25 


6.75 


7.25 


7.75 


8.25 


9.25 


12:12'' 


6.00 


6.75 


7.50 


8.00 


8.75 


9.50 


10.25 


11.5 


60 


<1:12 


4.00 


4.25 


i4.50 


4.75 


5.00 


5.25 


5.25 


5.75 


5:12 


4.50 


4.75 


:5.oo 


5.25 


5.50 


5.75 


6.00 


6.75 


7:12'' 


5.50 


6.25 


6.75 


7.50 


8.00 


8.50 


9.25 


10.25 


12:12'' 


6.50 


7.25 


,8.25 


9.00 


9.75 


10.5 


11.5 


13.0 


First Story of 
Two-Story 


16 


<1:12 


4.00 


4.25 


4.50 


4.75 


5.00 


5.25 


5.25 


5.75 


5:12 


4.50 


4.75 


:5.00 


5.25 


5.50 


5.75 


6.00 


6.75 


7:12" 


4.50 


5.00 


i5.25 


5.75 


6.00 


6.25 


6.75 


7.25 


12:12'' 


5.00 


5.25 


;5.75 


6.25 


6.50 


7.00 


7.25 


8.25 


24 


<1:12 


4.50 


4.75 


5.00 


5.25 


5.50 


5.75 


6.00 


6.75 


5:12 


4.75 


5.25 


'5.50 


6.00 


6.25 


6.75 


7.00 


7.75 


7:12'' 


5.25 


5.75 


6.25 


6.75 


7.00 


7.50 


8.00 


9.00 


12:12'' 


5.50 


6.25 


i6.75 


7.25 


8.00 


8.50 


9.00 


10.25 


32 


<1:12 


4.75 


5.00 


i5.50 


5.75 


6.25 


6.50 


6.75 


7.50 


5:12 


5.25 


5.75 


!6.25 


6.75 


7.25 


7.50 


8.00 


9.00 


7:12'' 


5.75 


6.50 


7.00 


7.75 


8.25 


9.00 


9.50 


10.75 


12:12'' 


6.25 


7.00 


7.75 


8.50 


9.25 


10.0 


10.75 ; 


12.25 


40 


<1:12 


5.00 


5.50 


:5.75 


6.25 


6.75 


7.25 


7.50 


8.50 


5:12 


5.50 


6.25 


6.75 


7.25 


8.00 


8.50 


9.00 


10.25 


7:12'' 


6.25 


7.00 


7.75 


8.75 


9.50 


10.25 


11.0 


12.5 


12:12'' 


7.00 


8.00 


■8.75 


9.75 


10.75 


11.5 


12.5 


14.25 


50 


<1:12 


5.50 


6.00 


6.50 


7.00 


7.50 


8.00 


8.50 


9.50 


5:12 


6.00 


6.75 


7.50 


8.25 


9.00 


9.75 


10.5 I 


11.75 


7:12" 


7.00 


8.00 


9.00 


10.0 


10.75 


11.75 


12.75 


14.5 


12:12" 


7.75 


9.00 


10.0 


11.25 


12.25 


13.50 


14.75 


17.0 


60 


<1:12 


5.75 


6.50 


7.00 


7.50 


8.25 


8.75 


9.50 


10.75 


5:12 


6.75 


7.50 


,8.25 


9.25 


10.0 


10.75 


11.75 : 


13.25 


7:12" 


7.75 


9.00 


iio.o 


11.0 


12.25 


13.25 


14.5 : 


16.75 


12:12" 


8.75 


10.0 


111.5 


12.75 


14.0 


15.5 


16.75 


19.5 



(continued) 



208 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



Footnotes to Table R61 1.7 (9A) 

For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa. 

a. Table values are based on a 3.5 in thick flat wall. For a 5.5 in thick flat wall, multiply the table values by 0.9. The adjusted values shall not result in solid wall lengths 
less than 4ft. 

b. Table values are based on a maximum unsupported wall height of 10 ft. 

c. Linear interpolation shall be permitted. 

d. The minimum solid wall lengths shown in the table are based on a building with an end wall length "W" of 60 feet and a roof slope of less than 7:12. For roof slopes 
of 7:12 or greater and end wall length "W" greater than 30 feet, the minimum solid wall length determined from the table shall be multiplied by: 

l + 0.4[(W-30)/30]. 



TABLE R611.7(9B) 
MINIMUM SOLID SIDEWALL LENGTH REQUIREMENTS FOR FLAT ICF WALLS (WIND PARALLEL TO RIDGE) ^ "'=''' 



WALL CATEGORY 


BUILDING END WALL 
WIDTH, W(feet) 


WIND VELOCITY PRESSURE FROM TABLE R61 1.7.4 (psf) 


20 


25 


30 


35 


40 


45 


50 


60 


One-Story or Top 
Story of Two-Story 




Minimum Solid Wall Length on Building Side Wall (feet) 


16 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


4.25 


4.25 


4.50 


4.75 


24 


4.00 


4.25 


4.50 


4.75 


4.75 


5.00 


5.25 


5.50 


32 


4.50 


4.75 


5.00 


5.25 


5.50 


6.00 


6.25 


6.75 


40 


5.00 


5.50 


5.75 


6.25 


6.75 


7.00 


7.50 


8.25 


50 


5.75 


6.25 


7.00 


7.50 


8.25 


8.75 


9.50 


10.75 


60 


6.50 


7.50 


8.25 


9.25 


10.0 


10.75 


11.75 


13.25 


First Story of 
Two-Story 


16 


4.25 


4.50 


4.75 


5.00 


5.25 


5.50 


5.75 


6.50 


24 


4.75 


5.25 


5.50 


6.00 


6.25 


6.75 


7.00 


8.00 


32 


5.50 


6.00 


6.50 


7.00 


7.50 


8.00 


8.75 


9.75 


40 


6.25 


7.00 


7.50 


8.25 


9.00 


9.75 


10.5 


12.0 


50 


7.25 


8.25 


9.25 


10.25 


11.25 


12.25 


13.25 


15.25 


60 


8.50 


9.75 


11.0 


12.25 


13.5 


15.0 


16.25 


18.75 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa. 

a. Table values are based on a 3.5 in thick flat wall. For a 5.5 in thick flat wall, multiply the table values by 0.9. The adjusted values shall not result in solid wall lengths 
less than 4ft. 

b. Table values are based on a maximum unsupported wall height of 10 ft. 

c. Table values are based on a maximum 12:12 roof pitch. 

d. Linear interpolation shall be permitted. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE"" 



209 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R611. 7(10) 
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE CLEAR SPANS FOR ICF LINTELS IN NONLOAD-BEARING WALLS WITHOUT STIRRUPS^""" 

NO. 4 BOTTOM BAR 



MINIMUM LINTEL THICKNESS, T 
(inches) 


MINIMUM LINTEL DEPTH, D 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM CLEAR SPAN 


Supporting 

Light-Framed Nonbearing Wall 

(feet-inches) 


Supporting ICF 

Second Story and Nonbearing Wall 

(feet-inches) 


Flat ICF Lintel 


3.5 


8 


11-1 


3-1 


12 


15-11 


5-1 


16 


16-3 


6-11 


20 


: 16-3 


8-8 


24 


16-3 


10-5 


5.5 


8 


16-3 


4-4 


12 


16-3 


7-0 


16 


16-3 


9-7 


20 


16-3 


12-0 


24 


16-3 


14-3 


7.5 


8 


16-3 


5-6 


12 


16-3 


8-11 


16 


I 16-3 


12-2 


20 


16-3 


15-3 


24 


16-3 


16-3 


9.5 


8 


16-3 


6-9 


12 


16-3 


10-11 


16 


16-3 


14-10 


20 


16-3 


16-3 


24 


16-3 


16-3 


Waffle-Grid ICF Lintel 


6 or 8 


8 


9-1 


2-11 


12 


13-4 


4-10 


16 


16-3 


6-7 


20 


16-3 


8-4 


24 


16-3 


9-11 


Screen-Grid Lintel 


6 


12 


5-8 


4-1 


24 


16-3 


9-1 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pounds per square foot = 0.0479kPa. 

a. This table is based on concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi, reinforcing steel with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi and an 
assumed equivalent rectangular cross section. 

b. This table is not intended to prohibit the use of ICF manufacturers tables based on engineering analysis in accordance with ACI 318. 

c. Deflection criterion is L/240, where L is the clear span of the hntel in inches. ■ 

d. Linear interpolation is permitted between lintel depths. 



210 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R611. 7(1 OA) 

MINIMUM SOLID END WALL LENGTH REQUIREMENTS FOR WAFFLE AND 

SCREEN-GRID ICF WALLS (WIND PERPENDICULAR TO RIDGE)^'"= 



WALL 
CATEGORY 


BUILDING SIDE 

WALL LENGTH, L 

(feet) 


ROOF SLOPE 


WIND VELOCITY PRESSURE FROM TABLE R61 1.7.4 


20 


25 


30 


35 


40 


45 


50 


60 


Minimum Solid Wall Length on Building End Wall (feet) 


One-Story or 

Top Story of 

Two-Story 


16 


<1:12 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


4.25 


5:12 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


4.25 


4.25 


4.50 


7:12'^ 


4.00 


4.25 


4.50 


4.75 


5.00 


5.25 


5.50 


6.00 


12:12" 


4.25 


4.75 


5.00 


5.50 


5.75 


6.00 


6.50 


7.00 


24 


<1:12 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


4.25 


4.25 


4.50 


5:12 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


4.25 


4.50 


4.50 


4.75 


5.00 


7:12^^ 


4.50 


4.75 


5.00 


5.50 


5.75 


6.25 


6.50 


7.25 


12:12'' 


5.00 


5.50 


6.00 


6.50 


7.00 


7.25 


7.75 


8.75 


32 


<1:12 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


4.25 


4.25 


4.50 


4.75 


5.00 


5:12 


4.00 


4.00 


4.25 


4.50 


4.75 


5.00 


5.25 


5.75 


7:12*^ 


4.75 


5.25 


5.75 


6.25 


6.50 


7.00 


7.50 


8.50 


12:12'' 


5.50 


6.25 


6.75 


7.50 


8.00 


8.75 


9.25 


10.5 


40 


<1:12 


4.00 


4.00 


4.25 


4.50 


4.50 


4.75 


5.00 


5.50 


5:12 


4.00 


4.25 


4.50 


5.00 


5.25 


5.50 


5.75 


6.25 


7:12'' 


5.25 


5.75 


6.25 


7.00 


7.50 


8.00 


8.50 


9.75 


12:12" 


6.00 


6.75 


7.75 


8.50 


9.25 


10.0 


10.75 


12.25 


50 


<1:12 


4.00 


4.25 


4.50 


4.75 


5.00 


5.25 


5.50 


6.00 


5:12 


4.25 


4.75 


5.00 


5.25 


5.50 


6.00 


6.25 


7.00 


7:12" 


5.75 


6.50 


7.00 


7.75 


8.50 


9.25 


9.75 


11.25 


12:12" 


6.75 


7.75 


8.75 


9.75 


10.75 


11.5 


12.5 


14.5 


60 


<1:12 


4.25 


4.50 


4.75 


5.00 


5.25 


5.50 


5.75 


6.50 


5:12 


4.50 


5.00 


5.25 


5.75 


6.00 


6.50 


6.75 


7.75 


7:12" 


6.25 


7.00 


8.00 


8.75 


9.50 


10.25 


11.25 


12.75 


12:12" 


7.50 


8.75 


9.75 


11.0 


12.0 


13.25 


14.25 


16.5 


First Story of 
Two-Story 


16 


<1:12 


4.25 


4.50 


4.75 


5.00 


5.25 


5.50 


5.75 


6.50 


5:12 


4.50 


5.00 


5.25 


5.75 


6.00 


6.50 


6.75 


7.75 


7:12" 


4.75 


5.25 


5.75 


6.25 


6.75 


7.25 


7.75 


8.75 


12:12" 


5.25 


5.75 


6.50 


7.00 


7.50 


8.00 


8.75 


9.75 


24 


<1:12 


4.50 


5.00 


5.25 


5.75 


6.25 


6.50 


7.00 


7.75 


5:12 


5.00 


5.75 


6.25 


6.75 


7.25 


7.75 


8.25 


9.25 


7:12" 


5.75 


6.25 


7.00 


7.75 


8.25 


9.00 


9.75 


11.0 


12:12" 


6.25 


7.00 


7.75 


8.50 


9.50 


10.25 


11.0 


12.75 


32 


<1:12 


5.00 


5.50 


6.00 


6.50 


7.00 


7.50 


8.00 


9.00 


5:12 


5.75 


6.25 


7.00 


7.75 


8.25 


9.00 


9.75 


11.0 


7:12" 


6.50 


7.25 


8.25 


9.00 


10.0 


10.75 


11.75 


13.5 


12:12" 


7.25 


8.25 


9.25 


10.25 


11.25 


12.5 


13.5 


15.5 


40 


<1:12 


5.50 


6.00 


6.50 


7.25 


7.75 


8.50 


9.00 


10.25 


5:12 


6.25 


7.00 


7.75 


8.75 


9.50 


10.25 


11.0 


12.75 


7:12" 


7.25 


8.25 


9.25 


10.5 


11.5 


12.5 


13.75 


15.75 


12:12" 


8.00 


9.50 


10.75 


12.0 


13.25 


14.5 


15.75 


18.25 



(continued) 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



211 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R61 1. 7(1 OA)— continued 

MINIMUM SOLID END WALL LENGTH REQUIREMENTS FOR WAFFLE AND 

SCREEN-GRID ICF WALLS (WIND PERPENDICULAR TO RIDGE)^ "«= 



WALL CATEGORY 


BUILDING SIDE 

WALL LENGTH, L 

(feet) 


ROOF SLOPE 


WIND VELOCITY PRESSURE FROM TABLE R61 1.7.4 


20 


25 


30 


35 


40 


45 


50 


60 


Minimum Solid Wall Length on Building End Wall (feet) 


First Story of 
Two-Story 


50 


< 1:12 


6.00 


6.75 


7.50 


8.00 


8.75 


9.50 


10.25 


11.75 


5:12 


7.00 


8.00 


9.00 


10.0 


11.0 


12.0 


13.0 


14.75 


7:12'' 


8.25 


9.50 


10.75 


12.25 


13.5 


14.75 


16.0 


18.75 


12:12^ 


9.25 


11.0 


12.5 


14.0 


15.5 


17.25 


18.75 


22.0 


60 


<1:12 


6.50 


7.25 


8.25 


9.00 


10.0 


10.75 


11.75 


13.25 


5:12 


7.75 


8.75 ' 


10.0 


11.25 


12.25 


13.5 


14.75 


17.0 


7:12^ 


9.25 


10.75 ' 


12.25 


14.0 


15.5 


17.0 


18.5 


21.75 


12:12'^ 


10.5 


12.25, 


14.25 


16.25 


18.0 


20.0 


21.75 


■ 25.5 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa. 

a. Table values are based on a 6 in (152.4 mm) thick nominal waffle-grid wall. For a 8 in thick nominal waffle-grid wall, multiply the table values by 0.90. 

b. Table values are based on a maximum unsupported wall height of 10 ft. , 

c. Linear interpolation is permitted. 

d. The minimum solid wall lengths shown in the table are based on a building with an end wall length "W" of 60 feet and a roof slope of less than 7:12. For roof 
slopes of 7: 12 or greater and end wall length "W" greater than 30 feet, the minimum solid wall length determined from the table shall be multiplied by: 1 + 0.4 
[(W-30)/30]. 



TABLE R61 1.7(1 OB) 

MINIMUM SOLID SIDE WALL LENGTH REQUIREMENTS FOR 6-INCH WAFFLE AND 

SCREEN-GRID ICF WALLS (WIND PARALLEL TO RIDGE)^ ""= " 



WALL CATEGORY 


BUILDING END WALL 
WIDTH, W(feet) 


WIND VELOCITY PRESSURE FROM TABLE R61 1 .7.4 (psf) 


20 


25 


■ 
30 


35 


40 


45 


50 60 


Minimum Solid Wall Length on Building Side Wall (feet) 


One-Story or Top 
Story of Two-Story 


16 


4.00 


4.00 


4.00 


4.25 


4.25 


4.50 


4.75 


5.00 


24 


4.00 


4.25 


4.50 


5.00 


5.25 


5.50 


5.75 


6.25 


32 


4.50 


5.00 


5.50 


5.75 


6.25 


6.75 


7.00 


8.00 


40 


5.25 


6.00 


6.50 


7.00 


7.75 


8.25 


8.75 


10.0 


50 


6.50 


7.25 


8.00 


9.00 


9.75 


10.75 


11.5 


13.25 


60 


7.75 


8.75 


10.0 


11.25 


12.25 


13.5 


14.5 


17.0 


First Story of 
Two-Story 


16 


4.50 


4.75 


5.25 


5.50 


5.75 


6.25 


6.50 


7.25 


24 


5.00 


5.75 


6.25 


6.75 


7.25 


7.75 


8.25 


9.50 


32 


6.00 


6.75 


7.50 


8.25 


9.00 


9.75 


10.5 


12.0 


40 


7.00 


8.00 


9.00 


10.0 


11.0 


12.0 


13.0 


15.0 


50 


8.50 


9.75 


11.25 


12.5 


14.0 


15.25 


16.75 


19.5 


60 


10.25 


12.0 


13.75 


15.5 


17.25 


19.0 


21.0 


24.5 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa. 

a. Table values are based on a 6 in thick nominal waffle-grid wall. For a 8 in thick nominal waffle-grid wall, multiply the table values by 

b. Table values are based on a maximum unsupported wall height of 10 ft. 

c. Table values are based on a maximum 12:12 roof pitch. 

d. Linear interpolation shall be permitted. 



0.90. 



212 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*" 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R61 1.7(11) 

MINIMUM PERCENTAGE OF SOLID WALL LENGTH ALONG EXTERIOR WALL LINES FOR TOWNHOUSES IN SEISMIC DESIGN 

CATEGORY C AND ALL BUILDINGS IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES Dq, D^ AND Dg^" 



SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY (SDC) 


MINIMUM SOLID WALL LENGTH (percent) 


One-Story or Top Story of Two-Story 


Wall Supporting Light-Framed 
Second Story and Roof 


Wall Supporting ICF Second Story 
and Roof 


Townhouses in SDC C^ 


20 percent 


25 percent 


35 percent 


D,^ 


25 percent 


30 percent 


40 percent 


D/ 


30 percent 


35 percent 


45 percent 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Base percentages are applicable for maximum unsupported wall height of 10-feet, light-frame gable construction, and all ICF wall types. These percentages 
assume that the maximum weight of the interior and exterior wall finishes applied to ICF walls do not exceed 8 psf. 

b. For all walls, the minimum required length of solid walls shall be based on the table percent value multiplied by the minimum dimension of a rectangle inscribing 
the overall building plan. 

c. Walls shall be reinforced with a minimum No. 5 bar (Grade 40 or 60) spaced a maximum of 24 inches on center each way or a No. 4 bar spaced a maximum of 1 6 
inches on center each way. (Grade 40 or 60) spaced at a maximum of 16 inches on center each vway. 

d. Walls shall be constructed with a minimum concrete compressive strength of 3,000 psi and reinforced with minimum #5 rebar (Grade 60 ASTM A 706) spaced a 
maximum of 1 8 inches on center each way or No. 4 rebar (Grade 60 ASTM A706) spaced at a maximum of 1 2 inches (304.8 mm) on center each way. The mini- 
mum thickness of flat ICF walls shall be 5.5 inches. 



TABLE R61 1.7.4 

WIND VELOCITY PRESSURE FOR DETERMINATION OF 

MINIMUM SOLID WALL LENGTH^ 



WIND SPEED 
(mph) " 


VELOCITY PRESSURE (psf) 


Exposure '' 


B 


C 


D 


85 


14 


19 


23 


90 


16 


21 


25 


100 


19 


26 


31 


110 


23 


32 


37 


120 


27 


38 


44 


130 


32 


44 


52 


140 


37 


51 


60 


150 


43 


59 


69'= 



For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa; 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s. 

a. Table values are based on ASCE 7-98 Figure 6-4 using a mean roof height of 
35 ft. 

b. Exposure Categories shall be determined in accordance with Section 
R301.2.1.4. 

c. Design is required in accordance with ACT 318 and approved manufacturer 
guidelines. 

d. Interpolation is permitted between wind speeds. 



R611.8.1.1 Top bearing requirements for Seismic 
Design Categories C, Dq, Dj and Dj. For townhouses in 
Seismic Design Category C, wood sill plates attached to 
ICF walls shall be anchored with Grade A 307, 
Vg-inch-diameter (10 mm) headed anchor bolts embed- 
ded a minimum of 7 inches (178 mm) and placed at a 
maximum spacing of 36 inches (914 mm) on center. For 
all buildings in Seismic Design Category Dq or Dj, wood 
sill plates attached to ICF walls shall be anchored with 
ASTM A 307, Grade A, Vg-inch-diameter (10 mm) 
headed anchor bolts embedded a minimum of 7 inches 
(178 nrni) and placed at a maximum spacing of 24 inches 
(610 mm) on center. For all buildings in Seismic Design 
Category D2, wood sill plates attached to ICF walls shall 



be anchored with ASTM A 307, Grade A, Vg-inch-diam- 
eter (10 mm) headed anchor bolts embedded a minimum 
of 7 inches (178 mm) and placed at a maximum spacing 
of 16 inches (406 mm) on center. Larger diameter bolts 
than specified herein shall not be used. 

For townhouses in Seismic Design Category C, each 
floor joist perpendicular to an ICF wall shall be attached 
to the sill plate with an 18-gage [(0.0478 in.) (1.2 mm)] 
angle bracket using 3 - 8d common nails per leg in accor- 
dance with Figure R611.8(l). For all buildings in Seis- 
mic Design Category Dq or D,, each floor joist 
perpendicular to an ICF wall shall be attached to the sill 
plate with an 18-gage [(0.0478 in.) (1.2 mm)] angle 
bracket using 4 - 8d common nails per leg in accordance 
with Figure R61 1.8(1). For all buildings in Seismic 
Design Category Dj, each floor joist perpendicular to an 
ICF wall shall be attached to the sill plate with an 1 8-gage 
[(0.0478 in.) (1.2 mm)] angle bracket using 6 - 8d com- 
mon nails per leg in accordance with Figure R61 1.8(1). 

For ICF walls parallel to floor framing in townhouses 
in Seismic Design Category C, full depth blocking shall 
be placed at 24 inches (610 mm) on center and shall be 
attached to the sill plate with an 18-gage [(0.0478 in.) 
(1.2 mm)] angle bracket using 5 - 8d conamon nails per 
leg in accordance with Figure R61 1.8(6). For ICF walls 
parallel to floor framing for all buildings in Seismic 
Design Category Dq or D,, full depth blocking shall be 
placed at 24 inches (610 mm) on center and shall be 
attached to the sill plate with an 18-gage [(0.0478 in.) 
(1.2 mm)] angle bracket using 6 - 8d common nails per 
leg in accordance with Figure R61 1 .8(6). For ICF walls 
parallel to floor framing for all buildings in Seismic 
Design Category D2, full depth blocking shall be placed 
at 24 inches (610 mm) on center and shall be attached to 
the sill plate with an 18-gage [(0.0478 in.) (1.2 mm)] 
angle bracket using 9 - 8d common nails per leg in accor- 
dance with Figure R61 1 .8(6). 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*' 



213 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



NO. 4 CONTINUOUS BAR 
AS REQUIRED IN 
SECTION R61 1.7.1 

TOP OF WALL STORY 




MIDDLE OF SPAN, A. 
NOT REQUIRING STIRRUPS _ 
SEE TABLE R611.7(2). R6t1.7{3), 
R611.7{4). R611.7{5), OR R611.7(8) 

LINTEL REINFORCEMENT 
AS REQUIRED 



-WALL REINFORCEMENT 
AS REQUIRED 



OPEN REINFORCEMENT 
AS REQUIRED PER 
TABLE R611J{1) 



^ 



FIGURE R611 .7(2) 
REINFORCEMENT OF OPERNINGS 



SEE TABLE R61 1.7(2), 

R611J{3).R611JC8). 

R611.7(9)ORR611.7(10). 



1.51N.MIN, 
2.5 IN. MAX 




1.5IN, MIN. I 

2.5 IN. MAX. 



NO. 4 BAR LINTEL 
REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED 



MINIfyiUM NO. 3 STIRRUP 
AS REQUIRED 



NSULATIN6 FORM 



HORIZONTAL LINTEL 
REINFORCEMENT AS REQUIRED 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 
NOTE: Section cut through flat walL 



FIGURE R611. 7(3) 
ICF LINTELS FOR FLAT AND SCREEN-GRID WALLS 



214 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



SEE TABLE R611J(4). . 
R611. 7(5). R61 1.7(8), 
R611.7(9)OR 
R611.7(10). 




1.5IN. MIN. 
2.5 IN. MAX. 



MINIMUM NO. 3 STIRRUP AS 
REQUIRED 

NO. 4 BAR LINTEL 
REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED 



CONCRETE WEB (HIDDEN) 



VERTICAL CONCRETE 
CORE 



INSUUTING FORM 



HORIZONTAL LINTEL 
REINFORCEMENT AS REQUIRED 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

NOTE: Section cut through vertical core of a waffle-grid lintel. 



FIGURE R61 1.7(4) 
SINGLE FORM HEIGHT WAFFLE-GRID LINTEL 



1,5 IN. MIN. 
2.5 IN. MAX 



SEE TABLE R611.7{4), 
R611.7(5), R611.7(8). 
R611.7(9)ORR611.7(10). 




NO. 4 BAR LINTEL REQUIREMENT 
REQUIRED 



CONCRETE WEB (HIDDEN) 



MINIMUM NO, 3 STIRRUP AS 
REQUIRED 



VERTICAL CONCRETE 
CORE 



INSULATING FORM 



HORIZONTAL LINTEL 
REINFORCEMENT AS REQUIRED 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

NOTE: Section cut through vertical core of a waffle-grid lintel. 



FIGURE R61 1.7(5) 
DOUBLE FORM HEIGHT WAFFLE-GRID LINTEL 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



215 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



1-1/2" (36 mm) MINIMUM 
2-1/2" (64 mm) MAXIMUM 



SEE TABLE R61 1.7(6), 
R611.7(7), R611(9), 
ORR611.7(10) 



D 



1-1/2" (36 mm) MINIMUM 
2-1/2" (64 mm) MAXIMUM 



•S^- : ■ ■■•. ^ ^* 



v: .m. 



No. 4 BAR LINTEL REINFORCEMENT 



VERTICAL CONCRETE CORE 



INSULATING FORM 

HORIZONTAL LINTEL REINFORCEMENT 
AS REQUIRED 



FIGURE R611. 7(6) 
SINGLE FORM HEIGHT SCREEN-GRID LINTEL 



t-1/2" (36 mm) MINIMUM \ 7 

2-1/2" (64 mm) MAXIMUM J 



SEE TABLE R611 .7(6), 
R611.7(7), R611(9). 
ORR611.7(10) 



1-1/2" (36 mm) MINIMUM \ 
2-1/2" (64 mm) M/U<IMUM J 




No. 4 BAR LINTEL REINFORCEMENT 

MINIMUM No, 3 STIRRUP AS REQUIRED 

VERTICAL CONCRETE CORE \ 

i 

INSULATING FORM i 



HORIZONTAL LINTEL REINFORCEMENT 
AS REQUIRED 



FIGURE R611. 7(7) 
DOUBLE FORM HEIGHT SCREEN-GRID LINTEL 



R611.8.2 Ledger bearing. Wood ledger boards supporting 
bearing ends of joists or trusses shall be anchored to flat ICF 
walls with minimum thickness of 5.5 inches (140 mm) and 
to waffle- or screen-grid ICF walls with minimum nominal 
thickness of 6 inches (152 mm) in accordance with Figure 
R611.8(2), R611.8(3), R611.8(4) or R611.8(5) and Table 
R61 1.8(1). Wood ledger boards supporting bearing ends of 
joists or trusses shall be anchored to flat ICF walls with min- 
imum thickness of 3.5 inches (140 mm) in accordance with 
Figure R61 1.8(5) and Table R61 1.8(1). The ledger shall be 
a minimum 2 by 8, No. 2 Southern Yellow Pine or No. 2 
Douglas Fir. Ledgers anchored to nonload-bearing walls to 
support floor or roof sheathing shall be attached with '/2 inch 
(12.7 mm) diameter or headed anchor bolts spaced a maxi- 



216 



mum of 6 feet (1829 mm) on center. Anchor bolts shall be 
embedded a minimum of 4 inches (102 nrnii) into the con- 
crete measured from the inside face of the insulating form. 
For insulating forms with a face shell thickness of 1 .5 inches 
(38 mm) or less, the hole in the form shall be a minimum of 4 
inches (102 mm) in diameter. For insulating forms with a 
face shell thicker than 1.5 inches (38 mm), theidiameter of 
the hole in the form shall be increased by 1 inch (25 mm) for 
each V2 inch (13 nmi) of additional insulating form face 
shell thickness. The ledger board shall be in direct contact 
with the concrete at each bolt location. 1 

R611.8.2.1 Ledger bearing requirements for Seismic 
Design Categories C, Do, D^ and Dj. Additional anchor- | 
age mechanisms connecting the wall to the floor system 

2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 




CONCRETE 



REINFORCEMENT AS REQUIRED 



MAXIMUM 8d,3 



REINFORCEMENT AS REQUIRED 



LAP SPLICE 



FIGURE R61 1.7.1 .4 
LAP SPLICES 



shall be installed at a maximum spacing of 6 feet (1829 
mm) on center for townhouses in Seismic Design Category 
C and 4 feet (1220 mm) on center for all buildings in Seis- 
mic Design Categories Dq, Dj and Dj. The additional 
anchorage mechanisms shall be attached to the ICF wall 
reinforcement and joist rafters or blocking in accordance 
with Figures R611.8(l) through R61 1.8(7). The additional 
anchorage shall be installed through an oversized hole in 
the ledger board that is Vj inch (13 mm) larger than the 
anchorage mechanism diameter to prevent combined ten- 
sion and shear in the mechanism. The blocking shall be 
attached to floor or roof sheathing in accordance with edge 
fastener spacing. Such additional anchorage shall not be 
accomplished by the use of toe nails or nails subject to with- 
drawal nor shall such anchorage mechanisms induce ten- 
sion stresses perpendicular to grain in ledgers or nailers. 
The capacity of such anchors shall result in connections 
capable of resisting the design values listed in Table 
R611.8(2).The diaphragm sheathing fasteners apphed 
directly to a ledger shall not be considered effective in pro- 
viding the additional anchorage required by this section. 

Where the additional anchorage mechanisms consist of 
threaded rods with hex nuts or headed bolts complying 
with ASTM A 307, Grade A or ASTM F 1554, Grade 36, 
the design tensile strengths shown in Table R611.9 shall 
be equal to or greater than the product of the design values 
hsted in Table R611.8(2) and the spacing of the bolts in 
feet (mm). Anchor bolts shall be embedded as indicated in 
Table R611 .9. Bolts with hooks shall not be used. 

R611.8.3 Floor and roof diaphragm construction. Floor 
and roof diaphragms shall be constructed of wood structural 
panel sheathing attached to wood framing in accordance with 
Table R602.3(l) or Table R602.3(2) or to cold-formed steel 
floor framing in accordance with Table R505.3.1(2) or to 
cold-formed steel roof framing in accordance with Table 
R804.3. 

R611.8.3.1 Floor and roof diaphragm construction 
requirements in Seismic Design Categories Dq, D^ and 

D2. The requirements of this section shall apply in addi- 



tion to those required by Section R61 1.8.3. Edge spacing 
of fasteners in floor and roof sheathing shall be 4 inches 
( 1 02 mm) on center for Seismic Design Category Dg or D 1 | 
and 3 inches (76 mm) on center for Seismic Design Cate- 
gory D2. In Seismic Design Categories Dq, D, and D2, all | 
sheathing edges shall be attached to framing or blocking. 
Minimum sheathing fastener size shall be 0.113 inch (3 
mm) diameter with a minimum penetration of P/g-inches 
(35 mm) into framing members supporting the sheathing. 
Minimum wood structural panel thickness shall be V,6 
inch (11 mm) for roof sheathing and ^V32 inch (18 mm) for 
floor sheathing. Vertical offsets in floor framing shall not 
be permitted. 

R611.9 ICF wall to top sill plate (roof) connections. Wood 
sill plates attaching roof framing to ICF walls shall be anchored 
with minimum V2 inch (13 mm) diameter anchor bolt embed- 
ded a minimum of 7 inches (178 mm) and placed at 6 feet (1 829 
mm) on center in accordance with Figure R6 1 1 .9. Anchor bolts 
shall be located in the cores of waffle-grid and screen-grid ICF 
walls. Roof assemblies subject to wind uplift pressure of 20 
pounds per square foot (1.44 kPa) or greater as established in 
Table R30 1.2(2) shall have rafter or truss ties provided in 
accordance with Table R802. 1 1 . 

R611.9.1 ICF wall to top sill plate (roof) connections for 
Seismic Design Categories C, Do, Dj and Dj. The require- | 
ments of this section shall apply in addition to those required 
by Section R61 1 .9. The top of an ICF wall at a gable shall be 
attached to an attic floor in accordance with Section 
R61 1.8.1.1. For townhouses in Seismic Design Category C, 
attic floor diaphragms shall be constructed of structural wood 
sheathing panels attached to wood framing in accordance 
with Table R602.3(l) or Table R602.3(2). Edge spacing of 
fasteners in attic floor sheathing shall be 4 inches (102 mm) 
on center for Seismic Design Category Dq or Di and 3 inches | 
(76 mm) on center for Seismic Design Category D2. In Seis- 
mic Design Categories Dq, Dj and D2, all sheathing edges | 
shall be attached to framing or blocking. Minimum sheathing 
fastener size shall be 0.113 inch (2.8 mm) diameter with a 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



217 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 




WIND 

PERPENDICULAR "^\ 
TO RIDGE 



ONE-STORY OR TOP STORY OF 

TWO-STORY 

[TABLE R611.7(9A)ORR611.7(10A)] 

MIN. SOLID WALL LENGTH < A + B + C 

FIRST STORY OF TWO-STORY 
[TABLE R611.7(9A) OR R 611. 7(1 OA)] 
MIN. SOLID WALL LENGTH < D + E 




WIND 
PARALLEL 
TO RIDGE 

L 



ONE-STORY OR TOP STORY OF 
TWO-STORY ! 

[TABLE R611.7(9B) OR R 611.7(108)1 ': 
MIN. SOLID WALL LENGTH < A + B + C 

FIRST STORY OF TWO-STORY ! 

[TABLE R611.7(9B) OR R611.7(10B)] ,' 
MIN. SOLID WALL LENGTH < D + E + F 



NOTE: EACH WALL SEGMENT (A, B, C, D AND F) 
MUST MEET THE MINIMUM SOLID WALL SEGMENT LENGTH 
IN ORDER TO APPLICABLE TO THE MINIMUM SOLID 
WALL LENGTH EQUATIONS ABOVE. 



FIGURE R61 1.7.4 
MINIMUM SOLID WALL LENGTH 



218 



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WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R61 1.8(1) 
FLOOR LEDGER-ICF WALL CONNECTION (SIDE-BEARING CONNECTION) REQUIREMENTS^"- 



MAXIMUM FLOOR CLEAR SPAN" 
(feet) 


MAXIMUM ANCHOR BOLT SPACING^ (inches) 


Staggered 

Va-inch-diameter 

anchor bolts 


Staggered 

%-inch-diameter 

anchor bolts 


Two 

Vj-inch-diameter 

anchor bolts' 


Two 

%-inch-diameter 

anchor bolts* 


8 


18 


20 


36 


40 


10 


16 


18 


32 


36 


12 


14 


18 


28 


36 


14 


12 


16 


24 


32 


16 


10 


14 


20 


28 


18 


9 


13 


18 


26 


20 


8 


11 


16 


22 


22 


7 


10 


14 


20 


24 


7 


9 


14 


18 


26 


6 


9 


12 


18 


28 


6 


8 


12 


16 


30 


5 


8 


10 


16 


32 


5 


7 


10 


14 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Minimum ledger board nominal depth shall be 8 inches. The thickness of the ledger board shall be a minimum of 2 inches. Thickness of ledger board is in nominal 
lumber dimensions. Ledger board shall be minimum No. 2 Grade. 

b. Minimum edge distance shall be 2 inches for V2-inch-diameter anchor bolts and 2.5 inches for ^/g-inch-diameter anchor bolts. 

c. Interpolation is permitted between floor spans. 

d. Floor span corresponds to the clear span of the floor structure (i.e., joists or trusses) spanning between load-bearing walls or beams. 

e. Anchor bolts shall extend through the ledger to the center of the flat ICF wall thickness or the center of the horizontal or vertical core thickness of the waffle-grid or 
screen-grid ICF wall system. 

f. Minimum vertical distance between bolts shall be 1.5 inches for V2-inch-diameter anchor bolts and 2 inches for ^/g-inch-diameter anchor bolts. 



minimum penetration of 1% inches (35 mm) into framing 
members supporting the sheathing. Minimum wood struc- 
tural panel thickness shall be 7ig inch (11 mm) for the attic 
floor sheathing. Where hipped roof construction is used, the 
use of a structural attic floor is not required. 

For townhouses in Seismic Design Category C, wood sill 
plates attached to ICF walls shall be anchored with ASTM A 
307, Grade A, Vg-inch (10 mm) diameter anchor bolts 
embedded a minimum of 7 inches (178 mm) and placed at a 
maximum spacing of 36 inches (914 mm) on center. For all 
buildings in Seismic Design Category Dq or Dj, wood sill 
plates attached to ICF walls shall be anchored with ASTM A 
307, Grade A, Vg-inch (10 mm) diameter anchor bolts 
embedded a minimum of 7 inches (178 mm) and placed at a 
maximum spacing of 16 inches (406 mm) on center. For all 
buildings in Seismic Design Category D2, wood sill plates 
attached to ICF walls shall be anchored with ASTM A 307, 
Grade A, Vg-inch (10 mm) diameter anchor bolts embedded 
a minimum of 7 inches (1 78 mm) and placed at a maximum 
spacing of 16 inches (406 mm) on center. 

For townhouses in Seismic Design Category C, each 
floor joist shall be attached to the sill plate with an 18-gage 
[(0.0478 in.) (1.2 mm)] angle bracket using 3 - 8d common 
nails per leg in accordance with Figure R61 1.8(1). For all 



buildings in Seismic Design Category Do or Dj, each floor 
joist shall be attached to the sill plate with an 18-gage 
[(0.0478 in.) (1.2 mm)] angle bracket using 4 - 8d common 
nails per leg in accordance with Figure R6 11.8(1). For all 
buildings in Seismic Design Category D2, each floor joist 
shall be attached to the sill plate with an 18-gage [(0.0478 
in.) (1.2 mm)] angle bracket using 6-8d common nails per 
leg in accordance with Figure R611.8(l). 

Where hipped roof construction is used without an attic 
floor, the following shall apply. For townhouses in Seismic 
Design Category C, each rafter shall be attached to the sill 
plate with an 18-gage [(0.0478 in.) (1.2 mm)] angle bracket 
using 3 - 8d common nails per leg in accordance with Figure 
R61 1 .9. For all buildings in Seismic Design Category Dq or 
Di, each rafter shall be attached to the sill plate with an 
18-gage [(0.0478 in.) (1.2 mm)] angle bracket using 4 - 8d 
common nails per leg in accordance with Figure R611.9. 
For all buildings in Seismic Design Category D2, each rafter 
shall be attached to the sill plate with an 18-gage [(0.0478 
in.) (1.2 mm)] angle bracket using 6-8d common nails per 
leg in accordance with Figure R61 1.9. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



219 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R61 1.8(2) 

DESIGN VALUES (PLF) FOR FLOOR JOIST-TO-WALL ANCHORS REQUIRED FOR TOWNHOUSES 

IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY C AND ALL BUILDINGS IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES Dq, D, AND D/ " 



WALL TYPE 


SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY 


C 


Do or Di 


D. 


Flat 3.5 


193 


NP 


NP 


Flat 5.5 


303 


502 


708 


Flat 7.5 


413 


685 


965 


Flat 9.5 


523 


867 


1,223 


Waffle 6 


246 


409 


577 


Waffle 8 


334 


555 


782 : 


Screen 6 


233 


387 


546 ; 



For SI: Ipound per linear foot = 1.488 kg/m. 
NP = Not Permitted 

a. Table values are based on IBC Equation 16-64 using a tributary wall height of 1 1 feet. Table values shall be permitted to be reduced for tributary wall heights less 
than 1 1 feet by multiplying the table values by X/1 1, where X is the tributary wall height. ! 

b. Values may be reduced by 30 percent when used for ASD. ; 



SILL PLATE 



MIN. 7 IN. 
(178 mm) 




LIGHT-FRAME 
CONSTRUCTION ABOVE 



CUP ANGLE M EACH JOIST 
IN SEISMIC DESIGN 
CATEGORIES C, Dq, D^, AND D^ 
PER SECTION R611. 8. 1.1 



ANCHOR BOO" 
AS REQUIRED 

VERTICAL WALL 
REINFORCEMENT 
AS REQUIRED 



ICFWALL 



MIN. NO. 4 BAR 
(CONTINUOUS) 



FIGURE R611. 8(1) 

SECTION CUT THROUGH FLAT WALL OR VERTICAL CORE 

OF WAFFLE- OR SCREEN-GRID WALL 



220 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE"" 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



DOUBLE (SHOWN) OR 
STAGGERED ANCHOR 
BOLT AS REQUIRED 



LAP SPLICE AS 
REQUIRED 



MIN.N0.4BAR 
(CONTINUOUS; 




INSULATING FORM 



LEDGER BOARD 



JOIST 




V— JOIST HANGER 



WALL OUT-OF-PLANE 
ANCHOR IN SEISMIC 
DESIGN CATEGORIES C, 
Do, Di AND D2 
(SEE SECTION R6II.8.2.I; 



Mm. 4-INCH-DIAMETER HOLE 
THROUGH FORM AT EACH 
BOLT LOCATION 



ICFWALL 



VERTICAL WALL REINFORCEMENT 
AS REQUIRED 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

NOTE: Section cut through flat wall or vertical core of a waffle- or screen-grid wall. 



FIGURE R61 1.8(2) 
FLOOR LEDGER— ICF WALL CONNECTION (SIDE-BEARING CONNECTION) 



DOUBLE (SHOWN) OR 
STAGGERED ANCHOR 
BOLT AS REQUIRED 



LAP SPLICE AS 
REQUIRED 



MJN. NO. 4 BAR 
(CONTINUOUS) 




WALL OUT-OF-PLANE 
ANCHOR IN SEISMIC 
DESIGN CATEGORIES C, 
Do, Dt AND Dg 
(SEE SECTION R611. 8.2.1) 



i < 3 IN. (76 mm) 

-^^^^ ICF WALL 

VERTICAL WALL REINFORCEMENT 
AS REQUIRED 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

NOTE: Section cut through flat wall or vertical core of a waffle- or screen-grid wall. 



FIGURE R61 1.8(3) 
FLOOR LEDGER— ICF WALL CONNECTION (LEDGE-BEARING CONNECTION) 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE"" 



221 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



LAP SPLICE AS 
REQUIRED 



DOUBLE (SHOWN) OR 
STAGGERED ANCHOR 
BOLT AS REQUIRED 



INSULATING FORM 



MlN.4!N.x4IN.xV4lN 
(102 mm X 102 mm x 6 mm) 
STEEL PUTE FOR 
EACH BOLT 




/- WALL OUT-OF-PLANE 
/ ANCHOR IN SEISMIC 



MIN. NO. 4 BAR 
(CONTINUOUS) 



JOIST HANGER 



DESIGN CATEGORIES C. 

Do, Di. AND Dg 

(SEE SECTION FI61 1.8.2.1) 



MIN. 4-INCH-DIAMETER HOLE 
THROUGH FORM AT EACH 
BOLT LOCATION 



:::^ICFWALL 

•VERTICAL WALL REINFORCEMENT 
AS REQUIRED 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 nun. 

NOTE: Section cut through flat wall. 



FIGURE R61 1.8(4) 

WOOD FLOOR LEDGER— ICF WALL SYSTEM CONNECTION 

(THROUGH-BOLT SIDE-BEARING CONNECTION) 



VERTICAL WALL REINFORCEMENT 
AS REQUIRED 



LAP SPLICE AS 
REQUIRED 



DOUBLE (SHOWN) OR 
STAGGERED ANCHOR t i 
BOLT AS REQUIRED"-^^! i^ 



MIN. 4 IN. X 4 IN. X 1/4 IN 
(102 mm X 102 mm x 6 mm) 
STEEL PLATE FOR 
EACH BOLT 



MIN, # 4 BAR 
(CONTINUOUS) 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

NOTE: Section cut through flat wall. 



INSULATING FORM 




WALL OUT-OF-PLANE 
ANCHOR IN SEISMIC 
DESIGN CATEGORIES C. 
Do, Di, AND Da 
SEE SECTION R611 .8.2.1) 



CFWALL 



VERTICAL WALL REINFORCEMENT 
AS REQUIRED 



FIGURE R6l 1.8(5) 
FLOOR LEDGER— ICF WALL CONNECTION 



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CLIP ANGLE AT EACH FULL 
DEPTH BLOCKING SEISMIC 
DESIGN CATEGORIES C, 
Do, Di AND Da 



SILL PLATE 



LIGHT-FRAME ABOVE 
~-A/ 



MIN.7iiN. 
(178 mm) 



BLOCKING SHALL RECEIVE 
SHEATHING EDGE NAILING 




r FLOOR JOIST 



STRAP ACROSS WIDTH OF 
BUILDING WITH {4}-8d NAILS 
PER JOIST SPACING 



MIN. NO. 4 BAR 
(CONTINUOUS) 



FIGURE R611. 8(6) 
ANCHORAGE REQUIREMENTS FOR TOP BEARING WALLS FOR TOWNHOUSES IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY C 
AND ALL BUILDINGS IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES Do, Di, AND Da FOR FLOOR FRAMING PARALLEL TO WALL 



BLOCKING SHALL EXTEND THE WIDTH 
OF THE BUILDING AND SHALL RECEIVE 
SHEATHING EDGE NAILING 



DOUBLE (SHOWN) OR 
STAGGERED ANCHOR 
BOOT AS REQUIRED 



LAP SPLICE AS 
REQUIRED 



VERTICAL WALL 
REINFORCEMENT 
AS REQUIRED 




NSULATINQ FORM 



FLOOR JOIST 



BLOCWNG IN LINE WITH WALL 
OUT-OF-PLANE ANCHOR IN SEISMIC 
DESIGN CATEGORIES 0, Dq, D, AND Dg 
PER R61 1.9(2) ~\ 



BLOCKING 







BLOCKING^ 




MIN. NO. 4 BAR 
(CONTINUOUS) 



MIN. 4-INCH-DfAMETER HOLE, 
THROUGH FORM AT EACH 
BOLT LOCATION 

; ICF WALL 

STRAP ACROSS THE WIDTH OF 
BUILDING WITH (5)-16d NAILS 
PER FLOOR JOIST SPACING 



FIGURE R611 .8(7) 

ANCHORAGE REQUIREMENTS FOR LEDGER BEARING WALLS FOR TOWNHOUSES IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY C AND ALL 

BUILDINGS IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES Do, Di AND D2 FOR FLOOR FRAMING PARALLEL TO WALL 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*' 



223 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R61 1.9 
DESIGN TENSILE STRENGTH OF HEADED BOLTS CAST IN CONCRETE^ 



DIAMETER OF BOLT 
(inches) 


MINIMUM EMBEDMENT DEPTH 
(inches) 


DESIGN TENSILE STRENGTH" 
(pounds) 


'U 


2 


1040 


^/g with washer^ 


2V/ 


2540 


V2 with washer^ 


4" ; 


4630 



For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. Applicable to concrete of all strengths. See Notes (c) and (d). 

b. Values are based on ASTM F 1554, Grade 36 bolts. Where ASTM A 307, Grade A headed bolts are used, the strength shall be increased b\/ 1.034. 

c. A hardened washer shall be installed at the nut embedded in the concrete or head of the bolt to increase the bearing area. The washer is not required where the con- 
crete strength is 4000 psi or more. 

d. Embedment depth shall be permitted to be reduced V4-inch where 4000 psi concrete is used. 



CUP ANGLE M EACH ROOF 
FRAMING MEMBER IN SEISMIC 
DESIGN CATEGORIES C, Dq, 
Di AND D2 



PER SECTION R61 1.9.1 




LIGHT-FRAME 
ROOF 



ANCHOR SOU 

(SEE SECTION R61 1.9) 



MINIMUM NO. 4 BAR 
(CONTINUOUS) 



VERTICAL WALL REINFORCEMENT 
AS REQUIRED 



NOTE: Section cut through flat wall or vertical core of a waffle- or screen-grid wall. 



FIGURE R611. 9 
ROOF SILL PLATE— ICF WALL CONNECTION 



SECTION R612 

CONVENTIONALLY FORMED CONCRETE WALL 

CONSTRUCTION 

R612.1 GeneraL Conventionally formed concrete walls with 
flat surfaces shall be designed and constructed in accordance 
with the provisions of Section R61 1 for Flat ICF walls or in 
accordance with the provisions of ACT 318. 



SECTION R613 
EXTERIOR WINDOWS AND GLASS DOORS 

R613.1 GeneraL This section prescribes performance and 
construction requirements for exterior window systems 
installed in wall systems. Windows shall be installed and 
flashed in accordance with the manufacturer's written installa- 
tion instructions. Written installation instructions shall be pro- 
vided by the manufacturer for each window. 

R613.2 Window sills. In dwelling units, where the opening of 
an operable window is located more than 72 inches (1829 mm) 
above the finished grade or surface below, the lowest part of the 



clear opening of the window shall be a minimum of 24 inches 
(610 mm) above the finished floor of the room in which the 
window is located. Glazing between the floor and 24 inches 
(610 mm) shall be fixed or have openings through which a 
4-inch-diameter (102 mm) sphere cannot pass. 

Exceptions: 

1. Windows whose openings will not allow a 
4-inch-diameter ( 1 02 mm) sphere to pass through the 
opening when the opening is in its largest opened 
position. I 

2. Openings that are provided with window I guards that 
comply with ASTM F 2006 or F 2090. \ 

R613.3 Performance. Exterior windows and doors shall be 

I 

designed to resist the design wind loads specified in Table 
R301.2(2) adjusted for height and exposure! per Table 
R301.2(3). ; 

R613.4 Testing and labeling. Exterior windows land shding 
doors shall be tested by an approved independent laboratory, and 
bear a label identifying manufacturer, performance characteris- 



224 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*" 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 



tics and approved inspection agency to indicate compliance with 
AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440. Exterior side-hinged 
doors shall be tested and labeled as conforming to AAMA/ 
WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440 or comply with Section R613.6. 

Exception: Decorative glazed openings. 

R613.4.1 Comparative analysis. Structural wind load 
design pressures for window and door units smaller than the 
size tested in accordance with Section R613.4 shall be per- 
mitted to be higher than the design value of the tested unit 
provided such higher pressures are determined by accepted 
engineering analysis. All components of the small unit shall 
be the same as those of the tested unit. Where such calcu- 
lated design pressures are used, they shall be validated by an 
additional test of the window or door unit having the highest 
allowable design pressure. 

R613.5 Vehicular access doors. Vehicular access doors shall 
be tested in accordance with either ASTM E 330 or ANSI/ 
DASMA 108, and shall meet the acceptance criteria of 
ANSI/DASMA 108. 

R613.6 Other exterior window and door assemblies. Exte- 
rior windows and door assemblies not included within the 
scope of Section R613.4 or Section R613.5 shall be tested in 
accordance with ASTM E 330. Glass in assemblies covered by 
this exception shall comply with Section R308.5. 

R613.7 Wind-borne debris protection. Protection of exterior 
windows and glass doors in buildings located in wind-borne 
debris regions shall be in accordance with Section R301 .2. 1 .2. 

R613.7.1 Fenestration testing and labeling. Fenestration 
shall be tested by an approved independent laboratory, listed 
by an approved entity, and bear a label identifying manufac- 
turer, performance characteristics, and approved inspection 
agency to indicate compliance with the requirements of the 
following specification: 

1. ASTM E 1886 and ASTM E 1996; or 

2. AAMA 506. 

R613.8 Anchorage methods. The methods cited in this sec- 
tion apply only to anchorage of window and glass door assem- 
blies to the main force-resisting system. 



SHIM OR WOOD BUCK 
THICKNESS 




R613.8.1 Anchoring requirements. Window and glass 
door assemblies shall be anchored in accordance with the 
published manufacturer's recommendations to achieve the 
design pressure specified. Substitute anchoring systems 
used for substrates not specified by the fenestration manu- 
facturer shall provide equal or greater anchoring perfor- 
mance as demonstrated by accepted engineering practice. 

R613.8.2 Anchorage details. Products shall be anchored in 
accordance with the minimum requirements illustrated in 
Figures R613.8(l), R613.8(2), R613.8(3), R613.8(4), 
R613.8(5), R613.8(6), R613.8(7) and R613.8(8). 

R613.8.2.1 Masonry, concrete or other structural 
substrate. Where the wood shim or buck thickness is 
less than IV2 inches (38 mm), window and glass door 
assemblies shall be anchored through the jamb, or by 
jamb clip and anchors shall be embedded directly into 
the masonry, concrete or other substantial substrate 
material. Anchors shall adequately transfer load from the 
window or door frame into the rough opening substrate 
[see Figures R613.8(l) and R613.8(2).] 

Where the wood shim or buck thickness is 1 V2 inches 
(38 mm) or more, the buck is securely fastened to the 
masonry, concrete or other substantial substrate, and the 
buck extends beyond the interior face of the window or 
door frame, window and glass door assemblies shall be 
anchored through the jamb, or by jamb clip, or through 
the flange to the secured wood buck. Anchors shall be 
embedded into the secured wood buck to adequately 
transfer load from the window or door frame assembly 
[Figures R613.8(3), R613.8(4) and R613.8(5)]. 

R613.8.2.2 Wood or other approved framing mate- 
rial. Where the framing material is wood or other 
approved framing material, window and glass door 
assemblies shall be anchored through the frame, or by 
frame clip, or through the flange. Anchors shall be 
embedded into the frame construction to adequately 




FRAME CLIP 
INSTALLATION 



FIGURE R61 3.8(1) 
THROUGH THE FRAME 



APPLY FRAME CLIP TO WINDOW OR DOOR IN ACCORDANCE 
WITH PUBLISHED MANUFACTURER'S RECOMMENDATIONS. 

FIGURE R61 3.8(2) 
FRAME CLIP 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



225 



WALL CONSTRUCTION 




TAPERED 
BUCKS ARE 
NOT ALLOWED 




THROUGH THE FRAME ANCHORING METHOD. ANCHORS SHALL 
BE PROVIDED TO TRANSFER LOAD FROM THE WINDOW OR 
DOOR FRAME INTO THE ROUGH OPENING SUBSTRATE. 

FIGURE R613.8(3) 
THROUGH THE FRAME 



Apply anchors through flange in accordance with 
published manufacturer's recommendations. 

FIGURE R61 3.8(5) 
THROUGH THE FLANGE 




FRAME CLIP 
INSTALLATION 



<> 



7> 



FIGURE R61 3.8(6) 
THROUGH THE FRAME 



APPLY FRAME CLIP TO WINDOW OR DOOR FRAME IN ACCOR- 
DANCE WITH PUBLISHED MANUFACTURER'S RECOMMENDA 
TIONS. ANCHORS SHALL BE PROVIDED TO TRANSFER LOAD 
FROM THE FRAME CLIP INTO THE ROUGH OPENING SUB- 
STRATE. 

FIGURE R61 3.8(4) 
FRAME CLIP 

transfer load [Figures R613.8(6), R613.8(7) and 
R613.8(8)]. 

R613.9 Mullions occurring between individual window 
and glass door assemblies. 

R613.9.1 Mullions. Mullions shall be tested by an 
approved testing laboratory in accordance with AAMA 
450, or be engineered in accordance with accepted engi- 
neering practice. Mullions tested as stand-alone units or 
qualified by engineering shall use performance criteria cited 
in Sections R613.9.2, R613.9.3 and R613.9.4. Mullions 



qualified by an actual test of an entire assembly shall com- I 
ply with Sections R613.9.2 and R613.9.4. | 

R613.9.2 Load transfer. MulHons shall be designed to 

transfer the design pressure loads applied by the window 

and door assemblies to the rough opening substrate. 

i 
R613.9.3 Deflection. Mullions shall be capable of resisting 

the design pressure loads applied by the window and door 

assemblies to be supported without deflecting more than 

LI 115, where L is the span of the mullion in inches. 

R613.9.4 Structural safety factor. Mullions shall be capa- 
ble of resisting a load of 1.5 times the design pressure loads 
apphed by the window and door assembhes to be supported 
without exceeding the appropriate material stress levels. If 
tested by an approved laboratory, the 1.5 times the design 
pressure load shall be sustained for 10 seconds, and the per- 



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manent deformation shall not exceed 0.4 percent of the mul- 
hon span after the 1 .5 tunes design pressure load is removed. 



<* 



e 



T> 



e 



FIGURE R61 3.8(8) 
THROUGH THE FLANGE 



FIGURE R61 3.8(7) 
FRAME CLIP 



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227 



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CHAPTER 7 

WALL COVERING 



SECTION R701 
GENERAL 

R701.1 Application. The provisions of this chapter shall con- 
trol the design and construction of the interior and exterior wall 
covering for all buildings. 

R701.2 Installation. Products sensitive to adverse weather 
shall not be installed until adequate weather protection for the 
installation is provided. Exterior sheathing shall be dry before 
applying exterior cover. 



SECTION R702 
INTERIOR COVERING 

R702.1 General. Interior coverings or wall finishes shall be 
installed in accordance with this chapter and Table R702.1(l), 
Table R702. 1(2), Table R702. 1(3) and Table R702.3.5. Interior 
masonry veneer shall comply with the requirements of Section 
R703.7.1 for support and Section R703.7.4 for anchorage, 
except an air space is not required. Interior finishes and materi- 
als shall conform to the flame spread and smoke-density 
requirements of Section R315. 



TABLE R702.1(1) 
THICKNESS OF PLASTER 



PLASTER BASE 


FINISHED THICKNESS OF PLASTER FROM FACE OF LATH, MASONRY, CONCRETE (inches) 


Gypsum plaster 


Portland cement mortar 


Expanded metal lath 


%, minimum^ 


^/g, minimum'' 


Wire lath 


^/g, minimum'* 


V4, minimum (interior)'' 
%, minimum (exterior)'' 


Gypsum lath^ 


V2, minimum 


^1^, minimum (interior)'' 


Masonry walls'^ 


V2, minimum 


V2, minimum 


Monolithic concrete walls'^'' 


Vg, maximum 


Vg, maximum 


Monolithic concrete ceilings'^'' 


^/g, maximum^ 


V2, maximum 


Gypsum veneer base^'^ 


'/16, minimum 


%, minimum (interior)'' 


Gypsum sheathing^ 


— 


^/4, minimum (interior)'' 
Vg, minimum (exterior)'' 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. When measured from back plane of expanded metal lath, exclusive of ribs, or self-furring lath, plaster thickness 

b. When measured from face of support or backing. 

c. Because masonry and concrete surfaces may vary in plane, thickness of plaster need not be uniform. 

d. When applied over a liquid bonding agent, finish coat may be applied directly to concrete surface. 

e. Approved acoustical plaster may be applied directly to concrete or over base coat plaster, beyond the maximum 

f. Attachment shall be in accordance with Table R702.3.5. 

g. Where gypsum board is used as a base for portland cement plaster, weather-resistant sheathing paper complying 



shall be ^1^ inch minimum. 



plaster thickness shown, 
with Section R703.2 shall be provided. 



TABLE R702.1(2) 
GYPSUM PLASTER PROPORTIONS^ 



NUMBER 


COAT 


PLASTER BASE OR LATH 


MAXIMUM VOLUME AGGREGATE PER 100 POUNDS 
NEAT PLASTER" (cubic feet) 


Damp loose sand^ 


Perllte or vermiculite*^ 


Two-coat work 


Base coat 


Gypsum lath 


2.5 


2 


Base coat 


Masonry 


3 


3 


Three-coat work 


First coat 


Lath 


1" 


2 


Second coat 


Lath 


3'' 


2^ 


First and second coats 


Masonry 


3 


3 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 cubic foot = 0.0283 m^ 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 

a. Wood-fibered gypsum plaster may be mixed in the proportions of 100 pounds of gypsum to not more than 1 cubic foot of sand where applied on masonry or concrete. 

b. When determining the amount of aggr^ate in set plaster, a tolerance of 10 percent shall be allowed. 

c. Combinations of sand and lightweight aggregate may be used, provided the volume and weight relationship of the combined aggregate to gypsum plaster is maintained. 

d. If used for both first and second coats, the volume of aggregate may be 2.5 cubic feet. 

e. Where plaster is 1 inch or more in total thickness, the proportions for the second coat may be increased to 3 cubic feet. 



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TABLER702.1(3) 
PORTLAND CEMENT PLASTER 



MAXIMUM VOLUME AGGREGATE PER VOLUME CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL^ 


MINIMUM PERIOD 
MOIST COATS 


MINIMUM INTERVAL 
BETWEEN 


Coat 


Portland cement 

plaster'' maximum 

volume aggregate per 

volume cement 


Portland cement-lime plaster"^ 


Maximum volume 

lime per volume 

cement 


Maximum volume 
sand per volume 
cement and lime 


Approximate 

minimum thickness" 

curing (inches) 


First 


4 


% 


4 


3/ e 


48 Hours*^ 


48 Hourss 


Second 


5 


'U 


5 


First and second 
coats 


48 Hours 


7 Days'' 


Finish 


3* 


— 


3' 


% 


— 


Notch 



For SI: 1 inch - 25 A mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 

a. When determining the amount of aggregate in set plaster, a tolerance of 10 percent may be allowed. 

b. From 10 to 20 pounds of dry hydrated lime (or an equivalent amount of lime putty) may be added as a plasticizing agent to each sack of Type I and Type II standard 
Portland cement in base coat plaster. 

c. No plasticizing agents shall be added. 

d. See Table R702.1(l). 

e. Measured from face of support or backing to crest of scored plaster 

f. Twenty-four-hour minimum period for moist curing of interior portland cement plaster 

g. Twenty-four hour minimum interval between coats of interior portland cement plaster. 

h. Finish coat plaster may be applied to interior portland cement base coats after a 48-hour period. 

i. For finish coat, plaster up to an equal part of dry hydrated lime by weight (or an equivalent volume of lime putty) may be added to Type I, Type 11 and Type III stan- 
dard Portland cement. 



R702.2 Interior plaster. Gypsum plaster or portland cement 
plastering materials shall conform to ASTM C 5, C 28, C 35, C 
37, C 59, C 61, C 587, C 588, C 631, C 847, C 897, C 933, C 
1032 and C 1047, and shall be installed or applied in confor- 
mance with ASTM C 843, C 844 and C 1063. Plaster shall not 
be less than three coats when applied over metal lath and not 
less than two coats when applied over other bases permitted by 
this section, except that veneer plaster may be applied in one 
coat not to exceed Vi^ inch (5 mm) thickness, provided the total 
thickness is as set forth in Table R702.1(l). 

R702.2.1 Support. Support spacing for gypsum or metal 
lath on walls or ceilings shall not exceed 16 inches (406 
mm) for Vg inch thick (10 mm) or 24 inches (610 mm) for 
72-inch-thick (13 mm) plain gypsum lath. Gypsum lath 
shall be installed at right angles to support framing with end 
joints in adjacent courses staggered by at least one framing 
space. 

R702.3 Gypsum board. 

R702.3.1 Materials. All gypsum board materials and 
accessories shall conform to ASTM C 36, C 79, C 475, C 
514, C 630, C 931, C 960, C 1002, C 1047, C 1 177, C 1178, 
C 1278, C 1395 or C 1396 and shall be installed in accor- 
dance with the provisions of this section. Adhesives for the 
installation of gypsum board shall conform to ASTM C 557 . 

R702.3.2 Wood framing. Wood framing supporting gyp- 
sum board shall not be less than 2 inches (5 1 mm) nomi- 
nal thickness in the least dimension except that wood 
furring strips not less than 1 -inch-by-2 inch (25 mm by 5 1 
mm) nominal dimension may be used over solid backing 
or framing spaced not more than 24 inches (610 mm) on 
center. 



R702.3.3 Steel framing. Steel framing supporting gypsum 
board shall not be less than 1 .25 inches (32 mm) wide in the 
least dimension. Light-gage nonload-bearing steel framing 
shall comply with ASTM C 645. Load-bearing steel fram- 
ing and steel framing from 0.033 inch to 0.1 12 inch (1 mm 
to 3 mm) thick shall comply with ASTMC 955. 

R702.3.4 Insulating concrete form walls. Foam plastics 
for insulating concrete form walls constructed in accor- 
dance with Sections R404.4 and R61 1 on the interior of hab- 
itable spaces shall be covered in accordance with Section 
R314.4. Use of adhesives in conjunction with; mechanical 
fasteners is permitted. Adhesives used for interior and exte- 
rior finishes shall be compatible with the insulating form 
materials. 

R702.3.5 Application. Maximum spacing of supports and 
the size and spacing of fasteners used to attach gypsum 
board shall comply with Table R702.3.5. Gypsum sheathing 
shall be attached to exterior walls in accordance with Table 
R602.3(l). Gypsum board shall be applied at right angles or 
parallel to framing members. All edges and ends of gypsum 
board shall occur on the framing members, except those 
edges and ends that are perpendicular to the framing mem- 
bers. Interior gypsum board shall not be installed where it is 
directly exposed to the weather or to water. 

R702.3.6 Fastening. Screws for attaching gypsum board to 
wood framing shall be Type W or Type S in accordance with 
ASTM C 1002 and shall penetrate the wood not less than ^/g 
inch (16 mm). Screws for attaching gypsum board to 
light-gage steel framing shall be Type S in accordance with 
ASTM C 1002 and shall penetrate the steel not less than Vg 
inch (10 mm). Screws for attaching gypsum board to steel 
framing 0.033 inch to 0. 1 12 inch (1 mm to 3 mm) thick shall 
comply with ASTM C 954. '; 



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TABLE R702.3.5 
MINIMUM THICKNESS AND APPLICATION OF GYPSUM BOARD 



THICKNESS 

OF GYPSUM 

BOARD 

(inches) 


APPLICATION 


ORIENTATION OF 

GYPSUM BOARD 

TO FRAMING 


MAXIMUM 

SPACING OF 

FRAMING 

MEMBERS 

(inches o.c.) 


MAXIMUM 

SPACING OF 

FASTENERS 

(inches) 


SIZE OF NAILS FOR APPLICATION 
TO WOOD FRAMING^ 


Nails^ 


Screws" 


Application without adhesive 


% 


Ceiling^ 


Perpendicular 


16 


7 


12 


13 gage, 1'// long, ^V^" head; 0.098" diameter, 1'// 
long, annular-ringed; or 4d cooler nail, 0.080" 
diameter, 1^/j," long, V^," head. 


Wall 


Either direction 


16 


8 


16 


% 


Ceiling 


Either direction 


16 


7 


12 


13 gage, l%"long, '9/54" head; 0.098" diameter, 1'//' 
long, annular-ringed; 5d cooler nail, 0.086" 
diameter, l^/g" long, '^/g/' head; or gypsum board 
nail, 0.086" diameter, 1%" long, ^2" head. 


Ceiling'' 


Perpendicular 


24 


7 


12 


Wall 


Either direction 


24 


8 


12 


Wall 


Either direction 


16 


8 


16 


% 


Ceiling 


Either direction 


16 


7 


12 


13 gage, iVg" long, 'V' head; 0.098" diameter, 1%" 
long, annular-ringed; 6d cooler nail, 0.092" 
diameter, 1^/g" long, ^f/' head; or gypsum board 
nail, 0.0915" diameter, 1%" long, ^^/^" head. 


Ceiling^ 


Perpendicular 


24 


7 


12 


Wall 


Either direction 


24 


8 


12 


Wall 


Either direction 


16 


8 


16 


Application with adtiesive 


% 


Ceiling'' 


Perpendicular 


16 


16 


16 


Same as above for ^/g" gypsum board 


Wall 


Either direction 


16 


16 


24 


%0T% 


Ceiling 


Either direction 


16 


16 


16 


Same as above for ^/j" and Vg" gypsum board, 
respectively 


Ceiling'' 


Perpendicular 


24 


12 


16 


Wall 


Either direction 


24 


16 


24 


Two 
Vg layers 


Ceiling 


Perpendicular 


16 


16 


16 


Base ply nailed as above for '/2" gypsum board; face 
ply installed with adhesive 


Wall 


Either direction 


24 


24 


24 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. For application without adhesive, a pair of nails spaced not less than 2 inches apart or more than 2 ' /j inches apart may be used with the pair of nails spaced 1 2 inches 
on center. 

b. Screws shall be Type S or W per ASTM C 1002 and shall be sufficiently long to penetrate wood framing not less than ^/g inch and metal framing not less than ■'/g 
inch. 

c. Where metal framing is used with a clinching design to receive nails by two edges of metal, the nails shall be not less than ^/g inch longer than the gypsum board 
thickness and shall have ringed shanks. Where the metal framing has a nailing groove formed to receive the nails, the nails shall have barbed shanks or be 5d, 1 3 '/2 
gage, 1% inches long, 1%4-inch head for '/2-inch gypsum board; and 6d, 13 gage, 1% inches long, '^/g4-inch head for %-inch gypsum board. 

d. Three-eighths-inch-thick single-ply gypsum board shall not be used on a ceiling where a water-based textured finish is to be applied, or where it will be required to 
support insulation above a ceiling. On ceiling applications to receive a water-based texture material, either hand or spray applied, the gypsum board shall be applied 
perpendicular to framing. When applying a water-based texture material, the minimum gypsum board thickness shall be increased from ^/g inch to '/2 inch for 
16-inch on center framing, and from /j inch to ^/g inch for 24-inch on center framing or 72- inch sag-resistant gypsum ceiling board shall be used. 

e. Type X gypsum board for garage ceilings beneath habitable rooms shall be installed perpendicular to the ceiling framing and shall be fastened at maximum 6 
inches o.c. by minimum 1 Vg inches 6d coated nails or equivalent drywall screws. 



R702.3.7 Horizontal gypsum board diaphragm ceilings. 

Use of gypsum board shall be permitted on wood joists to 
create a horizontal diaphragm in accordance with Table 
R702.3.7. Gypsum board shall be installed perpendicular to 
ceiling framing members. End joints of adjacent courses of 
board shall not occur on the same joist. The maximum 
allowable diaphragm proportions shall be l'/2:l between 
shear resisting elements. Rotation or cantilever conditions 
shall not be permitted. Gypsum board shall not be used in 
diaphragm ceilings to resist lateral forces imposed by 
masonry or concrete construction. All perimeter edges shall 
be blocked using wood members not less than 2-inch (5 1 
mm) by 6-inch (152 mm) nominal dimension. Blocking 
material shall be installed flat over the top plate of the wall to 
provide a nailing surface not less than 2 inches (5 1 mm) in 
width for the attachment of the gypsum board. 



R702.3.8 Water-resistant gypsum backing board. Gyp- 
sum board used as the base or backer for adhesive applica- 
tion of ceramic tile or other required nonabsorbent finish 
material shall conform to ASTM C 630 or C 1 178. Use of 
water-resistant gypsum backing board shall be permitted on 
ceilings where framing spacing does not exceed 12 inches 
(305 mm) on center for '/2-inch-thick (13 mm) or 16 inches 
(406 mm) for Vg-inch-thick (16 mm) gypsum board. 
Water-resistant gypsum board shall not be installed over a 
vapor retarder in a shower or tub compartment. Cut or 
exposed edges, including those at wall intersections, shall 
be sealed as recommended by the manufacturer. 

R702.3.8.1 Limitations. Water resistant gypsum back- 
ing board shall not be used where there will be direct 
exposure to water, or in areas subject to continuous high 
humidity. 



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TABLE R702.3.7 
SHEAR CAPACITY FOR HORIZONTAL WOOD-FRAMED 
GYPSUM BOARD DIAPHRAGM CEILING ASSEMBLIES 



MATERIAL 


THICKNESS OF 
MATERIAL 
(min.) (in.) 


SPACING OF FRAMING 
MEMBERS 
(max.) (in.) 


SHEAR VALUE^' " 
(pif of ceiling) 


MINIMUM FASTENER 
S,2EC,d 


Gypsum Board 


'/2 


I60.C. 


90 


5d cooler or wallboard 
nail; iVg-inch long; 0.086- 
inch shank; •V64-inch head 


Gypsum Board 


'/2 


24 o.c. 


70 


5d cooler or wallboard 
nail; iVg-inch long; 0.086- 
inch shank; 'V64-inch head 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per linear foot = 1.488 kg/m. 

a. Values are not cumulative with other horizontal diaphragm values and are for short-term loading caused by wind or seismic loading. Values shall be reduced 25 per- 
cent for normal loading. 

b. Values shall be reduced 50 percent in Seismic Design Categories Dq, Dj, D2 and E. 

c. 1'//', #6 Type S or W screws may be substituted for the listed nails. 

d. Fasteners shall be spaced not more than 7 inches on center at all supports, including perimeter blocking, and not less than ^/g inch from the edges and ends of the 
gypsum board. 



R702.4 Ceramic tile. 

R702.4.1 General. Ceramic tile surfaces shall be installed in 
accordance with ANSI A108.1, A108.4, A108.5, A108.6, 
A108.il, A118.1, A118.3, A136.1 and A137.1. 

R702.4.2 Cement, fiber-cement and glass mat gypsum 
backers. Cement, fiber-cement or glass mat gypsum back- 
ers in compliance with ASTM C 1288, C 1325 or C 1178 
and installed in accordance with manufacturers' recom- 
mendations shall be used as backers for wall tile in tub and 
shower areas and wall panels in shower areas. 

R702.5 Other finishes. Wood veneer paneling and hardboard 
paneling shall be placed on wood or cold-formed steel fram- 
ing spaced not more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center. Wood 
veneer and hard board paneling less than ^1^ inch (6 mm) nom- 
inal thickness shall not have less than a Vg-inch (10 mm) gyp- 
sum board backer. Wood veneer paneling not less than 
74-inch (6 mm) nominal thickness shall conform to ANSI/ 
HPVA HP-1. Hardboard paneling shall conform to ANSI/ 
AHAA135.5. 

R702.6 Wood shakes and shingles. Wood shakes and shingles 
shall conform to CSSB Grading Rules for Wood Shakes and 
Shingles and shall be permitted to be installed directly to the 
studs with maximum 24 inches (610 mm) on-center spacing. 

R702.6.1 Attachment. Nails, staples or glue are permitted 
for attaching shakes or shingles to the wall, and attachment 
of the shakes or shingles directly to the surface shall be per- 
mitted provided the fasteners are appropriate for the type of 
wall surface material. When nails or staples are used, two 
fasteners shall be provided and shall be placed so that they 
are covered by the course above. 

R702.6.2 Furring strips. Where furring strips are used, they 
shall be 1 inch by 2 inches or 1 inch by 3 inches (25 mm by 5 1 
mm or 25 mm by 76 mm), spaced a distance on center equal 
to the desired exposure, and shall be attached to the wall by 
nailing through other wall material into the studs. 



SECTION R703 
EXTERIOR COVERING 

R703.1 General. Exterior walls shall provide the building 
with a weather-resistant exterior wall envelope. The exterior 
wall envelope shall include flashing as described in Section 
R703.8. The exterior wall envelope shall be designed and 
constructed in a manner that prevents the accumulation of 
water within the wall assembly by providing a water-resistant 
barrier behind the exterior veneer as required by Section 
R703.2. and a means of draining water that enters the assem- 
bly to the exterior. Protection against condensation in the 
exterior wall assembly shall be provided in accordance with 
Chapter 1 1 of this code. 

Exceptions: 

1. A weather-resistant exterior wall envelope shall not 
be required over concrete or masonry walls designed 
in accordance with Chapter 6 and flashed according 
to Section R703.7 or R703.8. 

2. Compliance with the requirements for a means of 
drainage, and the requirements of Section R703.2 and 
Section R703.8, shall not be required for an exterior 
wall envelope that has been demonstrated to resist 
wind-driven rain through testing of the exterior wall 
envelope, including joints, penetrations and intersec- 
tions with dissimilar materials, in accordance with 
ASTM E 331 under the following conditions: 

2.1. Exterior wall envelope test assemblies shall 
include at least one opening, one control joint, 
one wall/eave interface and one wall sill. All 
tested openings and penetrations sjhall be rep- 
resentative of the intended end-use configura- 
tion. I 

2.2. Exterior wall envelope test assemblies shall 
be at least 4 feet (1219 mm) by 8 feet (2438 
mm) in size. ' 

2.3. Exterior wall assemblies shall be tested at a 
minimum differential pressure of 6.24 pounds 
per square foot (299 Pa). 



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2.4. Exterior wall envelope assemblies shall be 
subjected to a minimum test exposure dura- 
tion of 2 hours. 

The exterior wall envelope design shall be consid- 
ered to resist wind-driven rain where the results of 
testing indicate that water did not penetrate: control 
joints in the exterior wall envelope; joints at the per- 
imeter of openings penetration; or intersections of ter- 
minations with dissimilar materials. 

R703.2 Water-resistive barrier. One layer of No. 15 asphalt 
felt, free from holes and breaks, complying with ASTM D 226 
for Type 1 felt or other approved water-resistive barrier shall be 
applied over studs or sheathing of all exterior walls. Such felt or 
material shall be applied horizontally, with the upper layer 
lapped over the lower layer not less than 2 inches (51 mm). 
Where joints occur, felt shall be lapped not less than 6 inches 
(152 mm). The felt or other approved material shall be continu- 
ous to the top of walls and terminated at penetrations and build- 
ing appendages in a manner to meet the requirements of the 
exterior wall envelope as described in Section R703.1. 

Exception: Omission of the water-resistive barrier is per- 
mitted in the following situations: 

1. In detached accessory buildings. 

2. Under exterior wall finish materials as permitted in 
Table R703.4. 

3. Under paperbacked stucco lath when the paper back- 
ing is an approved weather-resistive sheathing paper. 

R703.3 Wood, hardboard and wood structural panel siding. 

R703.3.1 Panel siding. Joints in wood, hardboard or wood 
structural panel siding shall be made as follows unless other- 
wise approved. Vertical joints in panel siding shall occur over 
framing members, unless wood or wood structural panel 
sheathing is used, and shall be shiplapped or covered with a 
batten. Horizontal joints in panel siding shall be lapped a 
minimum of 1 inch (25 mm) or shall be shiplapped or shall be 
flashed with Z-flashing and occur over solid blocking, wood 
or wood structural panel sheathing. 

R703.3.2 Horizontal siding. Horizontal lap siding shall be 
lapped a minimum of 1 inch (25 mm), or 0.5 inch (13 mm) if 
rabbeted, and shall have the ends caulked, covered with a 
batten, or sealed and installed over a strip of flashing. 

R703.4 Attachments. Unless specified otherwise, all wall 
coverings shall be securely fastened in accordance with Table 
R703.4 or with other approved aluminum, stainless steel, 
zinc-coated or other approved corrosion-resistive fasteners. 
Where the basic wind speed per Figure R301 .2(4) is 1 10 miles 
per hour (49 m/s) or higher, the attachment of wall coverings 
shall be designed to resist the component and cladding loads 
specified in Table R301 .2(2), adjusted for height and exposure 
in accordance with Table R30 1.2(3). 

R703.5 Wood shakes and shingles. Wood shakes and shingles 
shall conform to CSSB Grading Rules for Wood Shakes and 
Shingles. 

R703.5.1 Application. Wood shakes or shingles shall be 
applied either single-course or double-course over nominal 
Vj-inch (13 mm) wood-based sheathing or to furring strips 



over V2-inch (13 mm) nominal nonwood sheathing . A per- 
meable water-resistive barrier shall be provided over all I 
sheathing, with horizontal overlaps in the membrane of not | 
less than 2 inches (51mm) and vertical overlaps of not less 
than 6 inches (152 mm). Where furring strips are used, they 
shall be 1 inch by 3 inches or 1 inch by 4 inches (25 mm by 76 
mm or 25 mm by 102 mm) and shall be fastened horizontally 
to the studs with 7d or 8d box nails and shall be spaced a dis- 
tance on center equal to the actual weather exposure of the 
shakes or shingles, not to exceed the maximum exposure 
specified in Table R703.5.2. The spacing between adjacent 
shingles to allow for expansion shall not exceed 74 inch (6 
mm), and between adjacent shakes, it shall not exceed Vj inch 
(13 mm). The offset spacing between joints in adjacent 
courses shall be a minimum of V/2 inches (38 mm). 

R703.5.2 Weather exposure. The maximum weather 
exposure for shakes and shingles shall not exceed that speci- 
fied in Table R703.5.2. 

R703.5.3 Attachment. Each shake or shingle shall be held 
in place by two hot-dipped zinc-coated, stainless steel, or 
aluminum nails or staples. The fasteners shall be long 
enough to penetrate the sheathing or furring strips by a mini- 
mum of V2 inch (13 mm) and shall not be overdriven. 

R703.5.3.1 Staple attachment. Staples shall not be less 
than 16 gage and shall have a crown width of not less than 
7i6 inch (11 mm), and the crown of the staples shall be par- 
allel with the butt of the shake or shingle. In single-course 
application, the fasteners shall be concealed by the course 
above and shall be driven approximately 1 inch (25 mm) 
above the butt line of the succeeding course and V4 inch (19 
mm) from the edge. In double-course apphcations, the 
exposed shake or shingle shall be face-nailed with two cas- 
ing nails, driven approximately 2 inches (5 1 mm) above the 
butt hne and V4 inch (19 mm) from each edge. In all apphca- 
tions, staples shall be concealed by the course above. With 
shingles wider than 8 inches (203 mm) two additional nails 
shall be required and shaU be naUed approximately 1 inch 
(25 mm) apart near the center of the shingle. 

R703.5.4 Bottom courses. The bottom courses shall be dou- 
bled. 

R703.6 Exterior plaster. Installation of these materials shall I 
be in compUance with ASTM C 926 and ASTM C 1063 and the I 
provisions of this code. | 

R703.6.1 Lath. All lath and lath attachments shall be of cor- 
rosion-resistant materials. Expanded metal or woven wire 
lath shall be attached with 1 Vj-inch-long (38 mm), 11 gage 
nails having a Vig-inch (11.1 mm) head, or 7g-inch-long 
(22.2 mm), 16 gage staples, spaced at no more than 6 inches 
(152 mm), or as otherwise approved. 

R703.6.2 Plaster. Plastering with portland cement plaster 
shall be not less than three coats when applied over metal lath 
or wire lath and shall be not less than two coats when applied 
over masonry, concrete, pressure-preservative treated wood I 
or decay-resistant wood as specified in Section R319.i or | 
gypsum backing. If the plaster surface is completely covered 
by veneer or other facing material or is completely concealed, 
plaster application need be only two coats, provided the total 
thickness is as set forth in Table R702.1(l). 



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TABLE R703.4 
WEATHER-RESISTANT SIDING ATTACHMENT AND MINIMUM THICKNESS 






SIDING MATERIAL 


NOMINAL 

THICKNES^ 

(inches) 


JOINT 
TREATMENT 


WATER- 
RESISTIVE 

BARRIER 
REQUIRED 


TYPE OF SUPPORTS FOR THE SIDING MATERIAL AND FASTENERS""'," 


Wood or wood 
structural 

panel 
sheathing 


Fiberboard 

sheathing into 

stud 


Gypsum 
sheathing 
into stud 


Foam 

plastic 

sheathing 

into stud 


Direct to 
studs 


Number or 
spacing of 
fasteners 


Horizontal 
aluminum^ 


Without 
insulation 


0.0 19f 
0.024 


Lap 


Yes 


0.120 nail 
1 V2" long 


0.120 nail 
1" long 


0.120 nail 
2" long 


0.120 naily 


Not 
allowed 


Same as stud 
spacing 


Lap 


Yes 


0.120 nail 
1 1/2" long 


0.120 nail 
2" long 


0.120 nail 
2" long 


0.120 naily 


Not 
allowed 


With 
insulation 


0.019 


Lap 


Yes 


0.120 nail 
1 V2" long 


0.120 nail 
21/2" long 


0.120 nail 
2V2" long 


0.120 naily 


0.120 nail 
1 1/2" long 


Brick veneer^ 
Concrete masonry 
veneer^ 


2 
2 


Section R703 


Yes 
(Note 1) 


See Section R703 and Figure R703.78 


Hardboard'^ 

Panel siding-vertical 


V,6 


— 


Yes 


Note n 


Noten 


Noten 


Noten 


Noten 


6" panel edges 
12" inter. sup.° 


Hardboard*^ 

Lap-siding-horizontal 


V,6 


Noteq 


Yes 


Notep 


Notep 


Notep 


Notep 


Notep 


Same as stud 

spacing 
2 per bearing 


Steel'' 


29 ga. 


Lap 


Yes 


0.113 nail IV 
Staple-13/4" 


0. 113 nail 2 V 
Staple-21/2" 


0.113 nail 

2'/2" 

Staple-2V4" 


0.113 naily 
Staple^ 


Not allowed 


Same as stud 
spacing 


Stone veneer 


2 


Section R703 


Yes 

(Note 1) 


See Section R703 and Figure R703 .78 


Particleboard panels 


V8-'/2 


— 


Yes 


6d box nail 
(2" X 0.099") 


6d box nail 
(2" X 0.099") 


6d box nail 
(2" X 0.099") 


box nailv 


6d box nail 
(2" X 0.099"), 
Vg not allowed 


6" panel edge, 
12" inter, sup. 


Vs 


— 


Yes 


6d box nail 
(2" X 0.099") 


8d box nail 
(21/2" X 0.1 13") 


8d box nail 
(21/2" X 0.113") 


box naily 


6d box nail 
(2" X 0.099") 


Plywood panel' 
(exterior grade) 


Vg 


— 


Yes 


0.099 nail-2" 


0.113 nail-2V2" 


0.099 nail-2" 


0.113 naily 


0.099 nail-2" 


6" on edges, 
12" inter, sup. 


Vinyl siding"" 


0.035 


Lap 


Yes 


0.120 nail IV2" 
Staple-13/4" 


0.120 nail 2" 
Staple-2'/2" , 


0.120 nail 2" 
Staple-2'/2" 


0.120 naily 
Staple^ 


Not allowed 


Same as stud 
spacing 


Wood) rustic, drop 


^/g Min 


Lap 


Yes 


Fastener penetration into stud-1" 


0.113 nail- 

2V2" 
Staple-2" 


Face nailing up 

' to 6" widths, 

1 nail per 

bearing; 

8" widths 

and over, 

2 nails per 

bearing 


Shiplap 


'%2 Average 


Lap 


Yes 


Bevel 


^/l6 


Butt tip 


Vi6 


Lap 


Yes 


Fiber cement panel 
siding'' 


Vl6 


Notes 


Yes 
Notex 


6d corrosion- 
resistant naiF 


6d corrosion- 
resistant nail' 


6d corrosion- 
resistant nail' 


6d corrosion- 
resistant 
nail'- y 


4d corrosion- 
resistant nail" 


6" o.c. on 

edges, 12" o.c. 

on intermed. 

studs 


Fiber cement lap siding'' 


V,6 


Note V 


Yes 
Notex 


6d corrosion- 
resistant nail' 


6d corrosion- 
resistant nail' 


6d corrosion- 
resistant nail' 


6d corrosion- 
resistant 
nail'- y 


6d corrosion- 
resistant nail* 


Note w 



ForSL 1 inch = 25.4 mm. '; 

a. Based on stud spacing of 16 inches on center where studs are spaced 24 inches, siding shall be applied to sheathing approved for that spacing. : 

b. Nail is a general description and shall be T-head, modified round head, or round head with smooth or deformed shanks. 

c. Staples shall have a minimum crown width of ^/jg-inch outside diameter and be rhanufactured of minimum 16 gage wire. ! 

d. Nails or staples shall be aluminum, galvanized, or rust-preventative coated and shall be driven into the studs for fiberboard or gypsum backing. | 

e. Aluminum nails shall be used to attach aluminum siding. j 

f. Aluminum (0.019 inch) shall be unbacked only when the maximum panel width is 10 inches and the maximum flat area is 8 inches. The tolerance for aluminum 
siding shall be 4-0.002 inch of the nominal dimension. j 

Ig. All attachments shall be coated with a corrosion-resistant coating. ■ 

h. Shall be of approved type. 

{continued) j 



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Footnotes to Table R703.4 — continued 

i. Three-eighths-inch plywood shall not be applied directly to studs spaced more than 1 6 inches on center when long dimension is parallel to studs. Plywood '/2-inch 
or thinner shall not be applied directly to studs spaced more than 24 inches on center. The stud spacing shall not exceed the panel span rating provided by the manu- 
facturer unless the panels are installed with the face grain perpendicular to the studs or over sheathing approved for that stud spacing. 

j. Wood board sidings appUed vertically shall be nailed to horizontal nailing strips or blocking set 24 inches on center. Nails shall penetrate 1 V2 inches into studs, 
studs and wood sheathing combined, or blocking. A weather-resistive membrane shall be installed weatherboard fashion under the vertical siding unless the siding 
boards are lapped or battens are used. 

k. Hardboard siding shall comply with AHA A135.6. 

1. For masonry veneer, a weather-resistive sheathing paper is not required over a sheathing that performs as a weather-resistive barrier when a 1 -inch air space is pro- 
vided between the veneer and the sheathing. When the 1 -inch space is filled with mortar, a weather-resistive sheathing paper is required over studs or sheathing. 

m. Vinyl siding shall comply with ASTM D 3679. 

n. Minimum shank diameter of 0.092 inch, minimum head diameter of 0.225 inch, and nail length must accommodate sheathing and penetrate framing 1 '/2 inches. 

o. When used to resist shear forces, the spacing must be 4 inches at panel edges and 8 inches on interior supports. 

p. Minimum shankdiameter of 0.099 inch, minimum head diameter of 0.240 inch, and nail length must accommodate sheathing and penetrate framing 1 '/2 inches. 

q. Vertical end joints shall occur at studs and shall be covered with a joint cover or shall be caulked. 

r. Fiber cement siding shall comply with the requirements of ASTM C 1186. 

s. See Section R703. 10.1. 

t. Minimum 0.102" smooth shank, 0.255" round head. 

u. Minimum 0.099" smooth shank, 0.250" round head. 

V. See Section R703. 10.2. 

w. Face nailing: 2 nails at each stud. Concealed nailing: one 1 1 gage 1 V2 galv. roofing nail (0.37 1" head diameter, 0. 120" shank) or 6d galv. box nail at each stud. 

X. See Section R703.2 exceptions. 

y. Minimum nail length must accommodate sheathing and penetrate framing 1V2 inches. 

z. Adhered masonry veneer shall comply with the requirements in Sections 6.1 and 6.3 of ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS-402. 



TABLE R703.5.2 
MAXIMUM WEATHER EXPOSURE FOR WOOD SHAKES AND SHINGLES ON EXTERIOR WALLS^'"^ 

(Dimensions are in inches) 



LENGTH 


EXPOSURE FOR SINGLE COURSE 


EXPOSURE FOR DOUBLE COURSE 


Shingles'' 
16 
18 

24 


7V2 
8V2 
IIV2 


12'' 
14c 

16 


Shakes'* 
18 

24 


8V2 
IIV2 


14 
18 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Dimensions given are for No. 1 grade. 

b. A maximum 10-inch exposure is permitted for No. 2 grade. 

c. A maximum 1 1 -inch exposure is permitted for No. 2 grade. 



On wood-frame construction with an on-grade floor slab 
system, exterior plaster shall be applied to cover, but not 
extend below, lath, paper and screed. 

The proportion of aggregate to cementitious materials 
shall be as set forth in Table R702.1(3). 

R703.6.2.1 Weep screeds. A minimum 0.019-inch (0.5 
mm) (No. 26 galvanized sheet gage), corrosion-resistant 
weep screed or plastic weep screed, with a minimum ver- 
tical attachment flange of 3V2 inches (89 mm) shall be 
provided at or below the foundation plate line on exterior 
stud walls in accordance with ASTM C 926. The weep 
screed shall be placed a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) 
above the earth or 2 inches (51 mm) above paved areas 
and shall be of a type that will allow trapped water to 
drain to the exterior of the building. The weather-resis- 



tant barrier shall lap the attachment flange. The exterior 
lath shall cover and terminate on the attachment flange of 
the weep screed. 

R703.6.3 Water-resistive barriers. Water-resistive barri- 
ers shall be installed as required in Section R703.2 and, 
where appHed over wood-based sheathing, shall include a 
water-resistive vapor-permeable barrier with a performance 
at least equivalent to two layers of Grade D paper. 

Exception: Where the water-resistive barrier that is 
applied over wood-based sheathing has a water resis- 
tance equal to or greater than that of 60 minute Grade D 
paper and is separated from the stucco by an intervening, 
substantially nonwater-absorbing layer or designed 
drainage space. 



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SEALANT 



FLASHING AND WEEPHOLES 
VENEER 




WALLBOARD 



WATER-RESISTIVE BARRIER OR 
APPROVED WATER-REPELLANT 
SHEATHING 



MASONRY VENEER 



1 IN. AIR SPACE OR 

1 IN. MORTARED SPACE' 



WATER-RESISTIVE BARRIER OR 
APPROVED WATER-REPELLANT 
SHEATHING 



METAL TIE" 
FLASHING 

WEEPHOLE 



«vx////\V^^//// 
////\\>\V//\\V 

x-^A\V//\\\- 
\\V- 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



WALLBOARD 



SHEATHING 




A/- 



• ANCHOR BOLT 
GROUTED FULL 



FIGURE R703.7 
MASONRY VENEER WALL DETAILS 

(continued) 



236 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE' 



WALL COVERING 



ROORNG 



MIN. CLEARANCE OF 
3/4-IN. (19 mm) 

METAL T!Eb 



WATER-RESISTIVE BARRIER OR 
APPROVED VyATER-REPELLANT ^ 
SHEATHING 

MASONRY VENEER 



METAL TIEb 




1 IN. AIR SPACE OR 

1 IN. MORTARED SPACES 



WATER-RESISTIVE BARRIER OR 
APPROVED WATER-REPELLANT 
SHEATHING ^^ 

METAL TIE& 



FUSHINGa 
STEEL LINTELd ~-^ ^^ 

WEEPHOLEa 
SEAUNT 

MASONRY VENEER 




WALLBOARD 

INSUUTION BETWEEN STUDS 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. See Sections R703.7.5, R703.7.6 and R703.8. 

b. See Sections R703.2 and R703.7,4. 

c. See Sections R703.7.4.2 and R703.7.4.3. 

d. See Section R703.7.3. 



FIGURE R703.7— continued 
MASONRY VENEER WALL DETAILS 



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R703.7 Stone and masonry veneer, general. Stone and 
masonry veneer shall be installed in accordance with this chap- 
ter, Table R703.4 and Figure R703.7. These veneers installed 
over a backing of wood or cold-formed steel shall be limited to 
the first story above-grade and shall not exceed 5 inches (127 
mm) in thickness. 

Exceptions: 

1 . For all buildings in Seismic Design Categories A, B 
and C, exterior stone or masonry veneer, as specified 
in Table R703.7(l), with a backing of wood or steel 
framing shall be permitted to the height specified in 
Table R703. 7(1) above a noncombustible foundation. 
Wall bracing at exterior and interior braced wall lines 
shall be in accordance with Section R602.10 or 
R603.7, and the additional requirements of Table 
R703.7(l). 

2. For detached one- or two-family dwellings in Seismic 
Design Categories Dq, Di and Dj, exterior stone or 
masonry veneer, as specified in Table R703.7(2), 
with a backing of wood framing shall be permitted to 
the height specified in Table R703.7(2) above a 
noncombustible foundation. Wall bracing and hold 
downs at exterior and interior braced wall lines shall 
be in accordance with Sections R602. 10 and R602. 1 1 
and the additional requirements of Table R703.7(2). 
In Seismic Design Categories Dq, D, and D2, cripple 
walls shall not be permitted, and required interior 



braced wall lines shall be supported on continuous l| 
foundations. | 

R703.7.1 Interior veneer support. Veneers used as interior 
wall finishes shall be permitted to be supported on wood or 
cold-formed steel floors that are designed to support the 
loads imposed. 

R703.7.2 Exterior veneer support. Except in Seismic 
Design Categories Dq, Dj and Dj, exterior masonry veneers | 
having an installed weight of 40 pounds per square foot ( 1 95 
kg/m^) or less shall be permitted to be supported on wood or 
cold-formed steel construction. When masonry veneer sup- 
ported by wood or cold-formed steel construction adjoins 
masonry veneer supported by the foundation, there shall be 
a movement joint between the veneer supported by the 
wood or cold-formed steel construction and the veneer sup- 
ported by the foundation. The wood or cold-formed steel 
construction supporting the masonry veneer shall be 
designed to limit the deflection to Vgoo of the span for the 
supporting members. The design of the wood or 
cold-formed steel construction shall consider the weight of 
the veneer and any other loads. 

R703.7.2.1 Support by steel angle. A minimum 6 inches 
by 4 inches by Vj^ inch (152 mm by 102 mm by 8 mm) 
steel angle, with the long leg placed vertically, shall be 
anchored to double 2 inches by 4 inches (51 mm by 102 
mm) wood studs at a maximum on-center spacing of 16 
inches (406 mm). Anchorage of the steel angle at every 
double stud spacing shall be a minimum of two 7,6 inch 



TABLE R703.7(1) 

STONE OR MASONRY VENEER LIMITATIONS AND REQUIREMENTS, WOOD 

OR STEEL FRAMING, SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES A, B AND C 



SEISMIC DESIGN 
CATEGORY 


NUMBER OF 
WOOD OR STEEL 
FRAMED STORIES 


MAXIMUM HEIGHT 
OF VENEER ABOVE 
NONCOMBUSTIBLE 
FOUNDATION^ (feet) 


MAXIMUM NOMINAL 
THICKNESS OF 
VENEER (inches) 


MAXIMUM WEIGHT 
OF VENEER (psf)" 


WOOD OR STEEL 
FRAMED STORY 


MINIMUM SHEATHING 

AMOUNT (percent of 

braced wall line 

length)'^ 


AorB 


Steel: 1 or 2 
Wood: 1,2 or 3 


30 


5 


50 


all 


Table R602. 10. lor Table 
R603.7 


C 


1 


30 


5 


50 


1 only 


Table R602. 10. lor Table 
R603.7 


2 


30 


5 


50 


top 


Table R602. 10. lor Table 
R603.7 


bottom 


1.5 times length required 
by Table R602. 10. lor 
1.5 times length required 
by Table R603.7 


Wood only: 3 


30 


5 


50 


top 


Table R602. 10. 1 


middle 


1.5 times length required 
by Table R602. 10.1 


bottom 


1.5 times length required 
by Table R602. 10.1 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.479 kPa. ! 

a. An Additional 8 feet is permitted for gable end walls. See also story height limitations of Section R301.3. 

b. Maximum weight is installed weight and includes weight of mortar, grout, lath and other materials used for installation. Where veneer is placed oii both faces of a 



wall, the combined weight shall not exceed that specified in this table. 
Applies to exterior and interior braced wall lines. 



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TABLE R703.7(2) 
STONE OR MASONRY VENEER LIMITATIONS AND REQUIREMENTS, ONE- AND TWO-FAMILY DETACHED DWELLINGS, WOOD 

FRAMING, SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES Dq, D^ AND D^ 



SEISMIC 

DESIGN 

CATEGORY 


NUMBER 

OF 

WOOD 

FRAMED 

STORIES^ 


MAXIMUM HEIGHT 
OF VENEER ABOVE 
NONCOMBUSTIBLE 

FOUNDATION OR 

FOUNDATION WALL 

(feet) 


MAXIMUM 

NOMINAL 

THICKNESS 

OF VENEER 

(inches) 


MAXIMUM 

WEIGHT OF 

VENEER 

(psf)" 


WOOD 
FRAMED 
STORY 


MINIMUM 

SHEATHING 

AMOUNT (percent 

of braced wall line 

length)^ 


MINIMUM 

SHEATHING 

THICKNESS AND 

FASTENING 


SINGLE 

STORY 

HOLD DOWN 

FORCE (lb)" 


CUMULATIVE 
HOLD DOWN 
FORCE (Ib)^ 


Do 


1 


20^ 


4 


40 


1 only 


35 


Vig-inch wood 
structural panel 
sheathing with 8d 
common nails 
spaced at 4 inches 
on center at panel 
edges, 12 inches 
on center at 
intermediate 
supports. 8d 
common nails at 4 
inches on center at 
braced wall panel 
end posts with 
hold down 
attached. 


N/A 





2 


20f 


4 


40 


top 


35 


1900 





bottom 


45 


3200 


5100 


3 


308 


4 


40 


top 


40 


1900 





middle 


45 


3500 


5400 


bottom 


60 


3500 


8900 


D, 


1 


20f 


4 


40 


1 only 


45 


2100 





2 


20^ 


4 


40 


top 


45 


2100 





bottom 


45 


3700 


5800 


3 


20f 


4 


40 


top 


45 


2100 





middle 


45 


3700 


5800 


bottom 


60 


3700 


9500 


D2 


1 


20f 


3 


30 


1 only 


55 


2300 





2 


20^ 


3 


30 


top 


55 


2300 





bottom 


55 


3900 


6200 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.479 kPa, 1 pound-force = 4.448 N. 

a. Cripple walls are not permitted in Seismic Design Categories Dq, Di and D2. 

b. Maximum weight is installed weight and includes weight of mortar, grout and lath, and other materials used for installation. 

c. Applies to exterior and interior braced wall lines. 

d. Hold down force is minimum allowable stress design load for connector providing uplift tie from wall framing at end of braced wall panel at the noted story to wall 
framing at end of braced wall panel at the story below, or to foundation or foundation wall. Use single story hold down force where edges of braced wall panels do 
not align; a continuous load path to the foundation shall be maintained. [See Figure R703.7(l)(b)]. 

e. Where hold down connectors from stories above align with stories below, use cumulative hold down force to size middle and bottom story hold down connectors. 
[See Figure R703.7(l)(a)]. 

f . The veneer shall not exceed 20 feet in height above a noncombustible foundation, with an additional 8 feet permitted for gable end walls, or 30 feet in height with an 
additional 8 feet for gable end walls where the lower 10 feet has a backing of concrete or masonry wall. See also story height limitations of Section R301.3. 

g. The veneer shall not exceed 30 feet in height above a noncombustible foundation, with an additional 8 feet permitted for gable end walls. See also story height limi- 
tations of Section R301.3. 



(11 mm) diameter by 4 inch (102 mm) lag screws. The 
steel angle shall have a minimum clearance to underlying 
construction of V,6 inch (2 mm). A minimum of two-thirds 
the width of the masonry veneer thickness shall bear on 
the steel angle. Flashing and weep holes shall be located in 
the masonry veneer wythe in accordance with Figure 
R703.7.2.1. The maximum height of masonry veneer 
above the steel angle support shall be 12 feet, 8 inches 
(3861 mm). The air space separating the masonry veneer 
from the wood backing shall be in accordance with Sec- 
tions R703.7.4 and R703 .7.4.2. The method of supportfor 
the masonry veneer on wood construction shall be con- 
structed in accordance with Figure R703.7.2.1. 

The maximum slope of the roof construction without 
stops shall be 7: 12. Roof construction with slopes greater 
than 7:12 but not more than 12:12 shall have stops of a 
minimum 3 inch x 3 inch x 74 inch (76 mm x 76 mm x 6 
mm) steel plate welded to the angle at 24 inches (610 
mm) on center along the angle or as approved by the 
building official. 



R703.7.2.2 Support by roof construction. A steel angle 
shall be placed directly on top of the roof construction. 
The roof supporting construction for the steel angle shall 
consist of a minimum of three 2-inch by 6-inch (5 1 mm by 
152 nun) wood members. The wood member abutting the 
vertical wall stud construction shall be anchored with a 
minimum of three Vg-inch (16 mm) diameter by 5-inch 
(127 mm) lag screws to every wood stud spacing. Each 
additional roof member shall be anchored by the use of 
two lOd nails at every wood stud spacing. A minimum of 
two-thirds the width of the masonry veneer thickness shall 
bear on the steel angle. Flashing and weep holes shall be 
located in the masonry veneer wythe in accordance with 
Figure R703.7.2.2. The maximum height of the masonry 
veneer above the steel angle support shall be 12 feet, 8 
inches (3861 mm). The air space separating the masonry 
veneer from the wood backing shall be in accordance with 
Sections R703.7.4 and R703.7.4.2. The support for the 
masonry veneer on wood construction shall be con- 
structed in accordance with Figure R703.7.2.2. 



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239 



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EDGES OF 

BFRACED 

WALL PANELS 

ALIGN. 

HOLD DOWNS 

ALIGN. 



SINGLE STORY 

HOLD DOWN 

FORCE 

-TOP STORY 



BRACED WALL 
PANEL 



CUMULATIVE 

HOLD DOWN 

FORCE 

-MIDDLE STORY 

BRACED WALL 
PANEL 



CUMULATIVE 

HOLD DOWN 

FORCE 

-BOTTOM STORY 




(a) 



(b) 



EDGES OF 

BRACED WALL 

PANELS 

DO NOT ALIGN. 

USE (a) WHERE 

THEY ALIGN. 



BRACED WALL 
PANEL 



SINGLE STORY 
HOLD DOWN 
FORCE - TOP 
STORY 

BRACED WALL 
PANEL 



SINGLE STORY 
HOLD DOWN 
FORCE 
-MIDDLE STORY 



BRACED WALL 
PANEL 

SINGLE STORY 
HOLD DOWN 
FORCE 
-BOTTOM STORY 



(a) Braced wall panels stacked (aligned story to story). Use cumulative hold down force. 

(b) Braced wall panels not stacked. Use single story hold down force. 



FIGURE R703.7(1) 

HOLD DOWNS AT EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR BRACED WALL PANELS 

WHEN USING STONE OR MASONRY VENEER 



SHEATHING 



STUD 



STEEL ANGLE 
ATTACHED TO STUD 
WITH FASTENERS 



FASTENERS 




BRICK VENEER 
VENEER TIE 

FLASHING 
WEEP HOLE 
COUNTERFLASHiNG 
BASE FLASHING 



ROOF SHEATHING 



ROOF FRAMING 



SUPPORT BY STEEL ANGLE 

FIGURE R703.7.2.1 
EXTERIOR MASONRY VENEER SUPPORT BY STEEL ANGLES 



240 



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SHEATHING 



STUD 



STEEL ANGLE 
ATTACHED TO STUD 
WITH FASTENERS 



FASTENERS 




BRICK VENEER 
VENEER TIE 

FLASHING 
WEEP HOLE 

COUNTERFLASHING 
BASE FLASHING 



TRIPLE RAFTERS 
ATTACHED TO STUDS 



SUPPORT BY ROOF MEMBERS 

FIGURE R703.7.2.2 
EXTERIOR MASONRY VENEER SUPPORT BY ROOF MEMBERS 



The maximum slope of the roof construction without 
stops shall be 7:12. Roof construction with slopes greater 
than 7:12 but not more than 12:12 shall have stops of a 
minimum 3 inch x 3 inch x V4 inch (76 mm x 76 mm x 6 
mm) steel plate welded to the angle at 24 inches (610 nmi) 
on center along the angle or as approved by the building 
official. 

R703.7.3 Lintels. Masonry veneer shall not support any ver- 
tical load other than the dead load of the veneer above. Veneer 
above openings shall be supported on hntels of 
noncombustible materials and the allowable span shall not 
exceed the value set forth in Table R703.7.3. The lintels shall 
have a length of bearing not less than 4 inches (102 mm). 

R703.7.4 Anchorage. Masonry veneer shall be anchored to 
the supporting wall with corrosion-resistant metal ties. 
Where veneer is anchored to wood backings by corrugated 
sheet metal ties, the distance separating the veneer from the 
sheathing material shall be a maximum of a nominal 1 inch 
(25 mm). Where the veneer is anchored to wood backings 
using metal strand wire ties, the distance separating the 
veneer from the sheathing material shall be a maximum of 
4V2 inches (114 mm). Where the veneer is anchored to 
cold-formed steel backings, adjustable metal strand wire ties 
shall be used. Where veneer is anchored to cold-formed steel 
backings, the distance separating the veneer from the sheath- 
ing material shall be a maximum of 4V2 inches (114 mm). 

R703.7.4.1 Size and spacing. Veneer ties, if strand wire, 
shall not be less in thickness than No. 9 U.S. gage [(0. 148 
in.) (4 mm)] wire and shall have a hook embedded in the 
mortar joint, or if sheet metal, shall be not less than No. 



22 U.S. gage by [(0.0299 in.)(0.76 mm)] % inch (22 mm) 
corrugated. Each tie shall be spaced not more than 24 
inches (610 mm) on center horizontally and vertically 
and shall support not more than 2.67 square feet (0.25 
m^) of wall area. 

Exception: In Seismic Design Category Dq, D, or Dj | 
or townhouses in Seismic Design Category C or in 
wind areas of more than 30 pounds per square foot 
pressure (1.44 kPa), each tie shall support not more 
than 2 square feet (0.2 m^) of wall area. 

R703.7.4.1.1 Veneer ties around wall openings. 

Veneer ties around wall openings. Additional metal 
ties shall be provided around all wall openings greater 
than 16 inches (406 mm) in either dimension. Metal 
ties around the perimeter of openings shall be spaced 
not more than 3 feet (9144 mm) on center and placed 
within 12 inches (305 mm) of the wall opening. 

R703.7.4.2 Air space. The veneer shall be separated 
from the sheathing by an air space of a minimum of a 
nominal 1 inch (25 mm) but not more than 4V2 inches I 
(114 mm). I 

R703.7.4. 3 Mortar or grout fill. As an alternate to the 
air space required by Section R703 .7 .4.2, mortar or grout 
shall be permitted to fill the air space .When the air space I 
is filled with mortar, a water-resistive barrier is required | 
over studs or sheathing. When filling the air space, 
replacing the sheathing and water-resistive barrier with a 
wire mesh and approved water-resistive barrier or an 
approved water-resistive barrier-backed reinforcement 
attached directly to the studs is permitted. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*^ 



241 



WALL COVERING 





TABLE R703.7.3 
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR LINTELS SUPPORTING MASONRY VENEERS "•<= 




SIZE OF STEEL ANGLE^^ 
(inches) 


NO STORY ABOVE 


ONE STORY ABOVE 


TWO STORIES ABOVE 


NO. OF V/ OR EQUIVALENT 
REINFORCING BARS'" 


3 X 3 X V4 


6'-0" 


4'-6" 


3'-0" 


1 


4 X 3 X V4 


8'-0" 


6'-0" 


4'-6" 


1 


5x3V2xVi6 


lO'-O" 


8'-0", 


6'-0" 


2 


6x3V2x5/i6 


14'-0" 


9'-6" 


7'-0" 


2 


2-6 X 3V2 X 5/16 


20'-0" 


12'-0" 


9'-6" 


4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot =304.8 mm. 

a. Long leg of the angle shall be placed in a vertical position. 

b. Depth of reinforced lintels shall not be less than 8 inches and all cells of hollow masonry lintels shall be grouted solid. Reinforcing bars shall extend not less than i 
inches into the support. 

c. Steel members indicated are adequate typical examples; other steel members meeting structural design requirements may be used. 



R703.7.5 Flashing. Flashing shall be located beneath the 
first course of masonry above finished ground level above 
the foundation wall or slab and at other points of support, 
including structural floors, shelf angles and lintels when 
masonry veneers are designed in accordance with Section 
R703.7. See Section R703.8 for additional requirements. 

R703.7.6 Weepholes. Weepholes shall be provided in the 
outside wythe of masonry walls at a maximum spacing of 33 
inches (838 mm) on center. Weepholes shall not be less than 
^/i6 inch (5 mm) in diameter. Weepholes shall be located 
immediately above the flashing. 

R703.8 Flashing. Approved corrosion-resistant flashing shall 
be applied shingle-fashion in such a manner to prevent entry of 
water into the wall cavity or penetration of water to the building 
structural framing components. The flashing shall extend to the 
surface of the exterior wall finish. Approved corrosion-resis- 
tant flashings shall be installed at all of the following locations: 

1 . Exterior window and door openings. Flashing at exterior 
window and door openings shall extend to the surface of 
the exterior wall finish or to the water-resistive barrier 
for subsequent drainage. 

2. At the intersection of chimneys or other masonry con- 
struction with frame or stucco walls, with projecting lips 
on both sides under stucco copings. 

3 . Under and at the ends of masonry , wood or metal copings 
and sills. 

4. Continuously above all projecting wood trim. 

5. Where exterior porches, decks or stairs attach to a wall or 
floor assembly of wood-frame construction. 

6. At wall and roof intersections. 

7. At built-in gutters. 

R703.9 Exterior insulation finish systems, general. All 

Exterior Insulation Finish Systems (EIFS) shall be installed in 
accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions 
and the requirements of this section. Decorative trim shall not 
be face nailed through the EIFS. The EIFS shall terminate not 
less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the finished ground level. 

R703.9.1 Water-resistive barrier. All EIFS shall have a 
water-resistive barrier applied between the underlying 



water-sensitive building components and the exterior insula- 
tion, and a means of draining water to the exterior of the 
veneer. A water-resistive barrier shall be compliant with 
ASTM D 226 Type I asphalt saturated felt or equivalent, shall 
be apphed horizontally with the upper layer lapped over the 
lower layer not less than 2 inches (5 1 mm), and shall have all 
vertical joints lapped not less than 6 inches (152 mm). 

R703.9.2 Flashing, general. Flashing of EIFS shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with the requirements of Section 
R703.8. 

R703.10 Fiber cement siding. 

R703.10.1 Panel siding. Panels shall be installed with the 
long dimension parallel to framing. Vertical joints shall 
occur over framing members and shall be sealed with caulk- 
ing or covered with battens. Horizontal joints shall be 
flashed with Z-flashing and blocked with solid wood fram- 
ing. 

R703.10.2 Horizontal lap siding. Lap siding shall be 
lapped a minimum of 1 V4 inches (32 mm) and shall have the 
ends sealed with caulking, covered with an H-section joint 
cover, or located over a strip of flashing. Lap siding courses 
may be installed with the fastener heads exposed or con- 
cealed, according to approved manufacturers' installation 
instructions. 

R703.il Vinyl siding. Vinyl siding shall be certified and 
labeled as conforming to the requirements of ASTM D 3679 
by an approved quality control agency. 

R703.il. 1 Installation. Vinyl siding, soffit and accessories 
shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's 
installation instructions. 



242 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



CHAPTER 8 

ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



SECTION R801 
GENERAL 

R801.1 Application. The provisions of this chapter shall con- 
trol the design and construction of the roof-ceiling system for 
all buildings. 

R801.2 Requirements. Roof and ceiling construction shall be 
capable of accommodating all loads imposed according to Sec- 
tion R301 and of transmitting the resulting loads to the support- 
ing structural elements. 

R801.3 Roof drainage. In areas where expansive or collaps- 
ible soils are known to exist, all dwellings shall have a con- 
trolled method of water disposal from roofs that will collect 
and discharge roof drainage to the ground surface at least 5 feet 
(1524 mm) from foundation walls or to an approved drainage 
system. 



SECTION R802 
WOOD ROOF FRAMING 

R802.1 Identification. Load-bearing dimension lumber for 
rafters, trusses and ceiling joists shall be identified by a grade 
mark of a lumber grading or inspection agency that has been 
approved by an accreditation body that complies with DOC PS 
20. In lieu of a grade mark, a certificate of inspection issued by 
a lumber grading or inspection agency meeting the require- 
ments of this section shall be accepted. 

R802.1.1 Blocking. Blocking shall be a minimum of utility 
grade lumber. 

R802.1.2 End-jointed lumber. Approved end-jointed lum- 
ber identified by a grade mark conforming to Section 
R802. 1 may be used interchangeably with solid-sawn mem- 
bers of the same species and grade. 

R802.1.3 Fire-retardant-treated wood. Fire-retardant- 
treated wood (FRTW) is any wood product which, when 
impregnated with chemicals by a pressure process or other 
means during manufacture, shall have, when tested in 
accordance with ASTM E 84, a listed flame spread index of 
25 or less and shows no evidence of significant progressive 
combustion when the test is continued for an additional 
20-minute period. In addition, the flame front shall not 
progress more than 10.5 feet (3200 mm) beyond the center 
line of the burners at any time during the test. 

R802.1.3.1 Labeling. Fire-retardant-treated lumber and 
wood structural panels shall be labeled. The label shall 
contain: 

1 . The identification mark of an approved agency in 
accordance with Section 1703.5 of the Interna- 
tional Building Code. 

2. Identification of the treating manufacturer. 

3. The name of the fire-retardant treatment. 



4. The species of wood treated. 

5. Flame spread and smoke-developed rating. 

6. Method of drying after treatment. 

7. Conformance to appropriate standards in accor- 
dance with Sections R802.1.3.2 through 
R802. 1.3.5. 

8. For FRTW exposed to weather, or a damp or wet 
location, the words "No increase in the listed clas- 
sification when subjected to the Standard Rain 
Test" (ASTM D 2898). 

R802.1.3.2 Strength adjustments. Design values for 
untreated lumber and wood structural panels as specified 
in Section R802.1 shall be adjusted for fire-retardant- 
treated wood. Adjustments to design values shall be 
based upon an approved method of investigation which 
takes into consideration the effects of the anticipated 
temperature and humidity to which the fire-retar- 
dant-treated wood will be subjected, the type of treat- 
ment and redrying procedures. 

R802.1.3.2.1 Wood structural panels. The effect of 
treatment and the method of redrying after treatment, 
and exposure to high temperatures and high 
humidities on the flexure properties of fire-retar- 
dant-treated softwood plywood shall be determined 
in accordance with ASTM D 5516. The test data 
developed by ASTM D 5516 shall be used to develop 
adjustment factors, maximum loads and spans, or 
both for untreated plywood design values in accor- 
dance with ASTM D 6305. Each manufacturer shall 
publish the allowable maximum loads and spans for 
service as floor and roof sheathing for their treatment. 

R802.1.3.2.2 Lumber. For each species of wood 
treated, the effect of the treatment and the method of 
redrying after treatment and exposure to high tempera- 
tures and high humidities on the allowable design 
properties of fire-retardant-treated lumber shall be 
determined in accordance with ASTM D 5664. The 
test data developed by ASTM D 5664 shall be used to 
develop modification factors for use at or near room 
temperature and at elevated temperatures and humidity I 
in accordance with ASTM D 684 1 . Each manufacturer | 
shall publish the modification factors for service at 
temperatures of not less than 80°F (27°C) and for roof 
framing. The roof framing modification factors shall 
take into consideration the climatological location. 

R802.1.3.3 Exposure to weather. Where fire-retar- 
dant-treated wood is exposed to weather or damp or wet 
locations, it shall be identified as "Exterior" to indicate 
there is no increase in the listed flame spread index as 
defined in Section R802. 1 .3 when subjected to ASTM D 
2898. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE" 



243 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



R802.1.3.4 Interior applications. Interior fire-retar- 
dant-treated wood shall have a moisture content of not 
over 28 percent when tested in accordance with ASTM D 
3201 procedures at 92 percent relative humidity. Interior 
fire-retardant-treated wood shall be tested in accordance 
with Section R802. 1.3.2.1 or R802. 1.3.2.2. Interior 
fire-retardant-treated wood designated as Type A shall 
be tested in accordance with the provisions of this sec- 
tion. 

R802. 1.3.5 Moisture content. Fire-retardant-treated 
wood shall be dried to a moisture content of 1 9 percent or 
less for lumber and 15 percent or less for wood structural 
panels before use. For wood kiln dried after treatment 
(KDAT) the kiln temperatures shall not exceed those 
used in kiln drying the lumber and plywood submitted 
for the tests described in Section R802.1.3.2.1 for ply- 
wood and R802.1.3.2.2 for lumber. 

R802.1.4 Structural glued laminated timbers. Glued 
laminated timbers shall be manufactured and identified as 
required in AITC A 190.1 and ASTM D 3737. 

R802.1.5 Structural log members. Stress grading of struc- 
tural log members of nonrectangular shape, as typically 
used in log buildings, shall be in accordance with ASTM D 
3957. Such structural log members shall be identified by the 
grade mark of an approved lumber grading or inspection 
agency. In lieu of a grade mark on the material, a certificate 
of inspection as to species and grade issued by a lum- 
ber-grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements 
of this section shall be permitted to be accepted. 

R802.2 Design and construction. The framing details 
required in Section R802 apply to roofs having a minimum 
slope of three units vertical in 12 units horizontal (25 -percent 
slope) or greater. Roof-ceilings shall be designed and con- 
structed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and 
Figures R606.11(l), R606.11(2) and R606.11(3) or in accor- 
dance with AFPA/NDS. Components of roof-ceilings shall be 
fastened in accordance with Table R602.3(l). 

R802.3 Framing details. Rafters shall be framed to ridge 
board or to each other with a gusset plate as a tie. Ridge board 
shall be at least 1-inch (25 mm) nominal thickness and not less 
in depth than the cut end of the rafter. At all valleys and hips 
there shall be a valley or hip rafter not less than 2-inch (5 1 mm) 
nominal thickness and not less in depth than the cut end of the 
rafter. Hip and valley rafters shall be supported at the ridge by a 
brace to a bearing partition or be designed to carry and distrib- 
ute the specific load at that point. Where the roof pitch is less 
than three units vertical in 12 units horizontal (25-percent 
slope), structural members that support rafters and ceiling 
joists, such as ridge beams, hips and valleys, shall be designed 
as beams. 

R802.3.1 Ceiling joist and rafter connections. Ceiling 
joists and rafters shall be nailed to each other in accordance 
with Table R802.5.1(9), and the rafter shall be nailed to the 
top wall plate in accordance with Table R602.3(l). Ceiling 
joists shall be continuous or securely joined in accordance 
with Table R802.5. 1(9) where they meet over interior parti- 
tions and are nailed to adjacent rafters to provide a continu- 



ous tie across the building when such joists are parallel to 
the rafters. 

Where ceiling joists are not connected to the rafters at the 
top wall plate, joists connected higher in the attic shall be 
installed as rafter ties, or rafter ties shall be installed to pro- 
vide a continuous tie. Where ceiling joists are not parallel to 
' rafters, rafter ties shall be installed. Rafter ties shall be a 
minimum of 2-inch by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) (nomi- 
nal), installed in accordance with the connection require- 
ments in Table R802.5.1(9), or connections of equivalent 
capacities shall be provided. Where ceiling joists or rafter 
ties are not provided, the ridge formed by these, rafters shall 
be supported by a wall or girder designed in; accordance 
with accepted engineering practice. 

Collar ties or ridge straps to resist wind uplift shall be 
connected in the upper third of the attic space in accordance 
with Table R602.3(l). 

Collar ties shall be a minimum of 1-inch by 4-inch (25 
mm by 102 mm) (nominal), spaced not more than 4 feet 
(1219 mm) on center. 

R802.3.2 Ceiling joists lapped. Ends of ceiling joists shall 
be lapped a minimum of 3 inches (76 mm) or butted over 
bearing partitions or beams and toenailed to the bearing 
member. When ceiling joists are used to provide resistance 
to rafter thrust, lapped joists shall be nailed together in 
accordance with Table R602.3(l) and butted joists shall be 
tied together in a manner to resist such thrust. : 

R802.4 Allowable ceiling joist spans. Spans for ceiling joists 
shall be in accordance with Tables R802.4(l) and R802.4(2). 
For other grades and species and for other loading conditions, 
refer to the AF&PA Span Tables for Joists and Rafters. 

R802.5 Allowable rafter spans. Spans for rafters shall be in 
accordance with Tables R802.5.1(l) through R802.5.1(8). For 
other grades and species and for other loading conditions, refer 
to the AF&PA Span Tables for Joists and Rafters. The span of 
each rafter shall be measured along the horizontal projection of 
the rafter. ' 

R802.5.1 Purlins. Installation of purlins to reduce the span 
of rafters is permitted as shown in Figure R802.5 . 1 . Purlins 
shall be sized no less than the required size of the rafters that 
they support. Purlins shall be continuous and shall be sup- 
ported by 2-inch by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) braces 
installed to bearing walls at a slope not less than 45 degrees 
from the horizontal. The braces shall be spaced not more 
than 4 feet (1219 mm) on center and the unbraced length of 
braces shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm). 

R802.6 Bearing. The ends of each rafter or ceilinig joist shall 
have not less than 1 V2 inches (38 mm) of bearing jon wood or 
metal and not less than 3 inches (76 mm) on masonry or con- 
crete. I 

R802.6.1 Finished ceiling material. If the finished ceiling 
material is installed on the ceiling prior to the attachment of 
the ceiling to the walls, such as in construction at a factory, a 
compression strip of the same thickness as the finish ceiling 
I material shall be installed directly above the top plate of 
bearing walls if the compressive strength of the; finish ceil- 
ing material is less than the loads it will be required to with- 



244 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



Stand. The compression strip shall cover the entire length of 
such top plate and shall be at least one-half the width of the 
top plate. It shall be of material capable of transmitting the 
loads transferred through it. 

R802.7 Cutting and notching. Structural roof members shall 
not be cut, bored or notched in excess of the limitations speci- 
fied in this section. 

R802.7.1 Sawn lumber. Notches in solid lumber joists, raf- 
ters and beams shall not exceed one- sixth of the depth of the 
member, shall not be longer than one-third of the depth of 
the member and shall not be located in the middle one-third 
of the span. Notches at the ends of the member shall not 
exceed one-fourth the depth of the member. The tension 
side of members 4 inches (102 mm) or greater in nominal 
thickness shall not be notched except at the ends of the 
members. The diameter of the holes bored or cut into mem- 
bers shall not exceed one-third the depth of the member. 
Holes shall not be closer than 2 inches (5 1 mm) to the top or 
bottom of the member, or to any other hole located in the 
member. Where the member is also notched, the hole shall 
not be closer than 2 inches (5 1 mm) to the notch. 

Exception: Notches on cantilevered portions of rafters 
are permitted provided the dimension of the remaining 
portion of the rafter is not less than 4-inch nominal (102 
mm) and the length of the cantilever does not exceed 24 
inches (610 mm). 

R802.7.2 Engineered wood products. Cuts, notches and 
holes bored in trusses, structural composite lumber, struc- 
tural glue-laminated members or I-joists are prohibited 
except where permitted by the manufacturer's recommen- 
dations or where the effects of such alterations are specifi- 
cally considered in the design of the member by a registered 
design professional. 

R802.8 Lateral support. Rafters and ceiling joists having a 
depth-to-thickness ratio exceeding 5 to 1 based on nominal 
dimensions shall be provided with lateral support at points of 
bearing to prevent rotation. 

R802.8.1 Bridging. Rafters and ceihng joists having a depth- 
to-thickness ratio exceeding 6 to 1 based on nominal dimen- 
sions shall be supported laterally by solid blocking, diagonal 
bridging (wood or metal) or a continuous 1-inch by 3 -inch 
(25 mm by 76 mm) wood strip nailed across the rafters or 
ceiling joists at intervals not exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm). 

R802.9 Framing of openings. Openings in roof and ceiling 
framing shall be framed with header and trimmer joists. When 
the header joist span does not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm), the 
header joist may be a single member the same size as the ceiling 
joist or rafter. Single trimmer joists may be used to carry a sin- 
gle header joist that is located within 3 feet (914 mm) of the 
trimmer joist bearing. When the header joist span exceeds 4 
feet (1219 mm), the trimmer joists and the header joist shall be 
doubled and of sufficient cross section to support the ceiling 
joists or rafter framing into the header. Approved hangers shall 
be used for the header joist to trimmer joist connections when 
the header joist span exceeds 6 feet (1829 mm). Tail joists over 
12 feet (3658 mm) long shall be supported at the header by 



framing anchors or on ledger strips not less than 2 inches by 2 
inches (51 mm by 51 mm). 

R802.10 Wood trusses. 

R802.10.1 Truss design drawings. Truss design drawings, 
prepared in conformance to Section R802.10.1, shall be 
provided to the building official and approved prior to 
installation. Truss design drawings shall include, at a mini- 
mum, the information specified below. Truss design draw- 
ing shall be provided with the shipment of trusses delivered 
to the jobsite. 

1 . Slope or depth, span and spacing. 

2. Location of all joints. 

3. Required bearing widths. 

4. Design loads as applicable. 

4. 1 . Top chord live load (as determined from Sec- I 
tionR301.6). | 

4.2. Top chord dead load. 

4.3. Bottom chord live load. 

4.4. Bottom chord dead load. 

4.5. Concentrated loads and their points of appli- 
cation. 

4.6. Controlling wind and earthquake loads. 

5. Adjustments to lumber and joint connector design 
values for conditions of use. 

6. Each reaction force and direction. 

7. Joint connector type and description (e.g., size, 
thickness or gage) and the dimensioned location of 
each joint connector except where symmetrically 
located relative to the joint interface. 

8. Lumber size, species and grade for each member. 

9. Connection requirements for: 

9.1. Truss to girder-truss. | 

9.2. Truss ply to ply. 

9.3. Field splices. 

10. Calculated deflection ratio and/or maximum 
description for live and total load. 

11. Maximum axial compression forces in the truss 
members to enable the building designer to design 
the size, connections and anchorage of the perma- 
nent continuous lateral bracing. Forces shall be 
shown on the truss design drawing or on supplemen- 
tal documents. 

1 2. Required permanent truss member bracing location. 

R802.10.2 Design. Wood trusses shall be designed in accor- 
dance with accepted engineering practice. The design and 
manufacture of metal-plate-connected wood trusses shall 
comply with ANSI/TPI 1. The truss design drawings shall 
be prepared by a registered professional where required by 
the statutes of the jurisdiction in which the project is to be 
constructed in accordance with Section R 106.1. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



245 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.4(1) 

CEILING JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 

(Uninhabitable attics without storage, live load = 10 psf, L/A = 240) 



CEILING JOIST 
SPACING 
(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


DEAD LOAD = 5 psf 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


Maximum ceiling joist spans 


(feet - inches) 


(feet - inches) 


(feet - inches) 


(feet - inches) 


12 


Douglas fir-larch SS 
Douglas fir-larch #1 
Douglas fir-larch #2 
Douglas fir-larch #3 
Hem-fir SS 
Hem-fir #1 
Hem-fir #2 
Hem-fu- #3 
Southern pine SS 
Southern pine #1 
Southern pine #2 
Southern pine #3 
Spruce-pine-fir SS 
Spruce-pine-fir #1 
Spruce-pine-fir #2 
Spruce-pine-fir #3 


13-2 
12-8 
12-5 
10-10 
12-5 
12-2 
11-7 
10-10 
12-11 
12-8 
12-5 
11-6 
12-2 
11-10 
11-10 
10-10 


20-8 
19-11 
19-6 
15-10 
19-6 
19-1 
18-2 
15-10 
20-3 
19-11 
19-6 
17-0 
19-1 
18-8 
18-8 
15-10 


Note a 
Note a 
25-8 
20-1 
25-8 
25-2 
24-0 
20-1 
Note a 
Note a 
25-8 
21-8 
25-2 
24-7 
24-7 
20-1 


Note a 
Note a 
Note a 

24-6 
Note a 
Note a 
Note a 

24-6 
Note a 
Note a 
Note a 

25-7 
Note a 
Note a 
Note a 

24-6 


16 


Douglas fir-larch SS 
Douglas fir-larch #1 
Douglas fir-larch #2 
Douglas fir-larch #3 
Hem-fir SS 
Hem-fir #1 
Hem-fir #2 
Hem-fir #3 
Southern pine SS 
Southern pine #1 
Southern pine #2 
Southern pine #3 
Spruce-pine-fir SS 
Spruce-pine-fir #1 
Spruce-pine-fir #2 
Spruce-pine-fir #3 


11-11 

11-6 

11-3 

9-5 

11-3 

11-0 

10-6 

9-5 

11-9 

11-6 

11-3 

10-0 

11-0 

10-9 

10-9 

9-5 


18-9 
18-1 
17-8 
13-9 
17-8 
17-4 
16-6 
13-9 
18-5 
18-1 
17-8 
14-9 
17-4 
16-11 
16-11 
13-9 


24-8 
23-10 
23-0 
17-5 
23-4 
22-10 
21-9 
17-5 
24-3 
23-1 
23-4 
18-9 
22-10 
22-4 
22-4 
17-5 


Note a 
Note a 
Note a 

21-3 
Note a 
Note a 
Note a 

21-3 
Note a 
Note a 
Note a 

22-2 
Note a 

Note a 

1 

Note a 
21-3 


19.2 


Douglas fir-larch SS 
Douglas fir-larch #1 
Douglas fir-larch #2 
Douglas fir-larch #3 
Hem-fir SS 
Hem-fir #1 
Hem-fir #2 
Hem-fir #3 
Southern -pine SS 
Southern pine #1 
Southern pine #2 
Southern pine #3 
Spruce-pine-fir SS 
Spruce-pine-fir #1 
Spruce-pine-fir #2 
Spruce-pine-fir #3 


11-3 
10-10 
10-7 
8-7 
10-7 
10-4 
9-11 
8-7 
11-0 
10-10 
10-7 
9-1 
10-4 
10-2 
10-2 
8-7 


17-8 
17-0 
16-7 
12-6 
16-8 
16-4 
15-7 
12-6 
17-4 
17-0 
16-8 
13-6 
16-4 
15-11 
15-11 
12-6 


23-3 
22-5 
21-0 
15-10 
21-11 
21-6 
20-6 
15-10 
22-10 
22-5 
21-11 
17-2 
21-6 
21-0 
21-0 
15-10 


Note a 

Note a 

25-8 

19-5 

Note a 

Note a 

25-3 

19-5 

Note a 

Note a 

Note a 

20-3 

Note a 

25-8 

25-8 

19-5 



(continued) 



246 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.4(1)— continued 

CEILING JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 

(Uninhabitable attics without storage, live load = 10 psf, L/A = 240) 



CEILING JOIST 
SPACING 
(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


DEAD LOAD = 5 psf 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


Maximum ceiling joist spans 


(feet - inches) 


(feet - inches) 


(feet - inches) 


(feet - inches) 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


10-5 


16-4 


21-7 


Note a 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


10-0 


15-9 


20-1 


24-6 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


9-10 


14-10 


18-9 


22-11 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


7-8 


11-2 


14-2 


17-4 




Hem-fir 


SS 


9-10 


15-6 


20-5 


Note a 




Hem-fir 


#1 


9-8 


15-2 


19-7 


23-11 




Hem-fir 


#2 


9-2 


14-5 


18-6 


22-7 


24 


Hem-fir 


#3 


7-8 


11-2 


14-2 


17-4 


Southern pine 


SS 


10-3 


16-1 


21-2 


Note a 




Southern pine 


#1 


10-0 


15-9 


20-10 


Note a 




Southern pine 


#2 


9-10 


15-6 


20-1 


23-11 




Southern pine 


#3 


8-2 


12-0 


15-4 


18-1 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


9-8 


15-2 


19-11 


25-5 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


9-5 


14-9 


18-9 


22-11 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


9-5 


14-9 


18-9 


22-11 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


7-8 


11-2 


14-2 


17-4 



Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet. 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa. 

a. Span exceeds 26 feet in length. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE"^ 



247 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.4(2) 

CEILING JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 

(Uninhabitable attics with limited storage, live load = 20 psf, L/A = 240) 



CEILING JOIST 
SPACING 
(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 2x10 


Maximum ceiling joist spans 


(feet - inches) 


(feet - inches) 


(feet - inches) 


(feet - inches) 


12 


Douglas fir-larch SS 
Douglas fir-larch #1 
Douglas fir-larch #2 
Douglas fir-larch #3 
Hem-fir SS 
Hem-fir #1 
Hem-fir #2 
Hem-fir #3 
Southern pine SS 
Southern pine #1 
Southern pine #2 
Southern pine #3 
Spruce-pine-fir SS 
Spruce-pine-fir #1 
Spruce-pine-fir #2 
Spruce-pine-fir #3 


10-5 
10-0 
9-10 
7-8 
9-10 
9-8 
9-2 
7-8 
10-3 
10-0 
9-10 
8-2 
9-8 
9-5 
9-5 
7-8 


16-4 
15-9 
14-10 
11-2 
15-6 
15-2 
14-5 
11-2 
16-1 
15-9 
15-6 
12-0 
15-2 
14-9 
14-9 
11-2 


21-7 
20-1 
18-9 
14-2 
20-5 
19-7 
18-6 
14-2 
21-2 
20-10 
20-1 
15-4 
19-11 
18-9 
18-9 
14-2 


Note a 

24-6 

22-11 

17-4 

Note a 

23-11 

22-7 

17-4 

Note a 

Note a 

23-11 

18-1 

25-5 

22-11 

22-11 

17-4 


16 


Douglas fir-larch SS 
Douglas fir- larch #1 
Douglas fir-larch #2 
Douglas fir-larch #3 
Hem-fir SS 
Hem-fir #1 
Hem-fir #2 
Hem-fir #3 
Southern pine SS 
Southern pine #1 
Southern pine #2 
Southern pine #3 
Spruce-pine-fir SS 
Spruce-pine-fir #1 
Spruce-pine-fir #2 
Spruce-pine-fir #3 


9-6 
9-1 
8-9 
6-8 
8-11 
8-9 
8-4 
6-8 
9-4 
9-1 
8-11 
7-1 
8-9 
8-7 
8-7 
6-8 


14-11 
13-9 
12-10 
9-8 
14-1 
13-5 
12-8 
9-8 
14-7 
14-4 
13-6 
10-5 
13-9 
12-10 
12-10 
9-8 


19-7 
17-5 
16-3 
12-4 
18-6 
16-10 
16-0 
12-4 
19-3 
18-11 
17-5 
13-3 
18-1 
16-3 
16-3 
12-4 


25-0 
21-3 
19-10 

;15-0 

23-8 
20-8 
19-7 
15-0 
24-7 
23-1 
20-9 
15-8 
23-1 
19-10 
19-10 
15-0 


19.2 


Douglas fir-larch SS 
Douglas fir-larch #1 
Douglas fir-larch #2 
Douglas fir-larch #3 
Hem-fir SS 
Hem-fir #1 
Hem-fir #2 
Hem-fir #3 
Southern pine SS 
Southern pine #1 
Southern pine #2 
Southern pine #3 
Spruce-pine-fir SS 
Spruce-pine-fir #1 
Spruce-pine-fir #2 
Spruce-pine-fir #3 


8-11 
8-7 
8-0 
6-1 
8-5 
8-3 
7-10 
6-1 
8-9 
8-7 
8-5 
6-5 
8-3 
8-0 
8-0 
6-1 


14-0 
12-6 
11-9 
8-10 
13-3 
12-3 
11-7 
8-10 
13-9 
13-6 
12-3 
9-6 
12-11 
11-9 
11-9 
8-10 


18-5 
15-10 
14-10 
11-3 
17-5 
15-6 
14-8 
11-3 
18-1 
17-9 
15-10 
12-1 
17-1 
14-10 
14-10 
11-3 


23-4 

19-5 

18-2 

13-8 

22-3 

18-11 

17-10 

,13-8 

23-1 

21-1 

18-11 

il4-4 

21-8 

il8-2 

|l8-2 

13-8 



(continued) 



248 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.4(2)— continued 
CEILING JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 
(Uninhabitable attics with limited storage, live load = 20 psf, L/A 



= 240) 



CEILING JOIST 
SPACING 
(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


Maximum Ceiling Joist Spans 


(feet - inches) 


(feet - inches) 


(feet - inches) 


(feet - inches) 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


8-3 


13-0 


17-1 


20-11 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


7-8 


11-2 


14-2 


17-4 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


7-2 


10-6 


13-3 


16-3 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


5-5 


7-11 


10-0 


12-3 




Hem-fir 


SS 


7-10 


12-3 


16-2 


20-6 




Hem-fir 


#1 


7-6 


10-11 


13-10 


16-11 




Hem-fir 


#2 


7-1 


10-4 


13-1 


16-0 


24 


Hem-fir 


#3 


5-5 


7-11 


10-0 


12-3 


Southern pine 


SS 


8-1 


12-9 


16-10 


21-6 




Southern pine 


#1 


8-0 


12-6 


15-10 


18-10 




Southern pine 


#2 


7-8 


11-0 


14-2 


16-11 




Southern pine 


#3 


5-9 


8-6 


10-10 


12-10 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


7-8 


12-0 


15-10 


19-5 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


7-2 


10-6 


13-3 


16-3 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


7-2 


10-6 


13-3 


16-3 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


5-5 


7-11 


10-0 


12-3 



Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet. 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa. 

a. Span exceeds 26 feet in length. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*^ 



249 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.5.1(1) 

RAFTER SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 

(Roof live load=20 psf, ceiling not attached to rafters, L/A = 180) 



RAFTER 
SPACING 
(inches) 






DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 








Maximum rafter spans 


a 








SPECIES AND GRADE 




(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


11-6 


18-0 


23-9 


Noteb 


Noteb 


11-6 


18-0 


23-5 


Note b 


Noteb 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


1-1 


17-4 


22-5 


Noteb 


Noteb 


10-6 


15-4 


19-5 


23-9 


Noteb 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


1-10 


16-7 


21-0 


25-8 


Noteb 


9-10 


14-4 


18-2 


22-3 


25-9 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


8-7 


12-6 


15-10 


19-5 


22-6 


7-5 


10-10 


13-9 


16-9 


19-6 




Hem-fir 


SS 


10-10 


17-0 


22-5 


Noteb 


Noteb 


10-10 


17-0 


22-5 


Note b 


Noteb 




Hem-fir 


#1 


10-7 


16-8 


21-10 


Noteb 


Noteb 


10-3 


14-11 


18-11 


23-2 


Noteb 




Hem-fir 


#2 


10-1 


15-11 


20-8 


25-3 


Noteb 


9-8 


14-2 


17-11 


21-11 


25-5 


12 


Hem-fir 


#3 


8-7 


12-6 


15-10 


19-5 


22-6 


7-5 


10-10 


13-9 


16-9 


19-6 


Southern pine 


SS 


11-3 


17-8 


23-4 


Noteb 


Noteb 


11-3 


17-8 


23-4 


Note b 


Noteb 




Southern pine 


#1 


11-1 


17-4 


22-11 


Noteb 


Noteb 


11-1 


17-3 


21-9 


25-10 


Noteb 




Southern pine 


#2 


10-10 


17-0 


22-5 


Noteb 


Noteb 


10-6 


15-1 


19-5 


23-2 


Noteb 




Southern pine 


#3 


9-1 


13-6 


17-2 


20-3 


24-1 


7-11 


11-8 


14-10 


17-6 


20-11 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


10-7 


16-8 


21-11 


Noteb 


Noteb 


10-7 


16-8 


21-9 


Note b 


Noteb 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


10-4 


16-3 


21-0 


25-8 


Noteb 


9-10 


14-4 


18-2 


22-3 


25-9 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


10-4 


16-3 


21-0 


25-8 


Noteb 


9-10 


14-4 


18-2 


22-3 


25-9 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


8-7 


12-6 


15-10 


19-5 


22-6 


7-5 


10-10 


13-9 


16-9 


19-6 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


10-5 


16-4 


21-7 


Noteb 


Noteb 


10-5 


16-0 


20-3 


24-9 


Noteb 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


10-0 


15-4 


19-5 


23-9 


Noteb 


9-1 


13-3 


16-10 


20-7 


23-10 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


9-10 


14-4 


18-2 


22-3 


25-9 


8-6 


12-5 


15-9 


19-3 


22-4 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


7-5 


10-10 


13-9 


16-9 


19-6 


6-5 


9-5 


11-11 


14-6 


16-10 




Hem-fir 


SS 


9-10 


15-6 


20-5 


Noteb 


Noteb 


9-10 


15-6 


19-11 


24-4 


Noteb 




Hem-fir 


#1 


9-8 


14-11 


18-11 


23-2 


Noteb 


8-10 


12-11 


16-5 


20-0 


23-3 




Hem-fir 


#2 


9-2 


14-2 


17-11 


21-11 


25-5 


8-5 


12-3 


15-6 


18-11 


22-0 


16 


Hem-fir 


#3 


7-5 


10-10 


13-9 


16-9 


19-6 


6-5 


9-5 


11-11 


14-6 


16-10 


Southern pine 


SS 


10-3 


16-1 


21-2 


Noteb 


Noteb 


10-3 


16-1 


21-2 


Note b 


Noteb 




Southern pine 


#1 


10-0 


15-9 


20-10 


25-10 


Noteb 


10-0 


15-0 


18-10 


22-4 


Noteb 




Southern pine 


#2 


9-10 


15-1 


19-5 


23-2 


Noteb 


9-1 


13-0 


16-10 


20-1 


23-7 




Southern pine 


#3 


7-11 


11-8 


14-10 


17-6 


20-11 


6-10 


10-1 


12-10 


15-2 


18-1 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


9-8 


15-2 


19-11 


25-5 


Noteb 


9-8 


14-10 


18-10 


23-0 


Noteb 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


9-5 


14-4 


18-2 


22-3 


25-9 


8-6 


12-5 


15-9 


19-3 


22-4 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


9-5 


14-4 


18-2 


22-3 


25-9 


8-6 


12-5 


15-9 


19-3 


22-4 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


7-5 


10-10 


13-9 


16-9 


19-6 


6-5 


9-5 


11-11 


14-6 


16-10 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


9-10 


15-5 


20-4 


25-11 


Noteb 


9-10 


14-7 


18-6 


22-7 


Noteb 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


9-5 


14-0 


17-9 


21-8 


25-2' 


8-4 


12-2 


15-4 


18-9 


21-9 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


8-11 


13-1 


16-7 


20-3 


23-6 


7-9 


11-4 


14-4 


17-7 


20-4 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


6-9 


9-11 


12-7 


15-4 


17-9 


5-10 


8-7 


10-10 


13-3 


15-5 




Hem-fir 


SS 


9-3 


14-7 


19-2 


24-6 


Noteb 


9-3 


14-4 


18-2 


22-3 


25-9 




Hem-fir 


#1 


9-1 


13-8 


17-4 


21-1 


24-6 


8-1 


11-10 


15-0 


18-4 


21-3 




Hem-fir 


#2 


8-8 


12-11 


16-4 


20-0 


23-2 


7-8 


11-2 


14-2 


17-4 


20-1 


19.2 


Hem-fir 


#3 


6-9 


9-11 


12-7 


15-4 


17-9 


5-10 


8-7 


10-10 


13-3 


15-5 


Southern pine 


SS 


9-8 


15-2 


19-11 


25-5 


Noteb 


9-8 


15-2 


19-11 


25-5 


Noteb 




Southern pine 


#1 


9-5 


14-10 


19-7 


23-7 


Noteb 


9-3 


13-8 


17-2 


20-5 


24-4 




Southern pine 


#2 


9-3 


13-9 


17-9 


21-2 


24-10 


8-4 


11-11 


15-4 


18-4 


21-6 




Southern pine 


#3 


7-3 


10-8 


13-7 


16-0 


19-1 


6-3 


9-3 


11-9 


13-110 


16-6 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


9-1 


14-3 


18-9 


23-11 


Noteb 


9-1 


13-7 


17-2 


21-0 


24-4 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


8-10 


13-1 


16-7 


20-3 


23-6 


7-9 


11-4 


14-4 


17-7 


20-4 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


8-10 


13-1 


16-7 


20-3 


23-6 


7-9 


11-4 


14-4 


17-7 


20-4 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


6-9 


9-11 


12-7 


15-4 


17-9 


5-10 


8-7 


10-10 


13-3 


15-5 



(continued) 



250 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.5.1(1)— continued 

RAFTER SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 

(Roof live load=20 psf, ceiling not attached to rafters, L/A = 180) 



RAFTER 
SPACING 
(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 








lUlaximum rafter spans 


a 








(feet- 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


9-1 


14-4 


18-10 


23-4 


Noteb 


8-11 


13-1 


16-7 


20-3 


23-5 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


8-7 


12-6 


15-10 


19-5 


22-6 


7-5 


10-10 


13-9 


16-9 


19-6 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


8-0 


11-9 


14-10 


18-2 


21-0 


6-11 


10-2 


12-10 


15-8 


18-3 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


6-1 


8-10 


11-3 


13-8 


15-11 


5-3 


7-8 


9-9 


11-10 


13-9 




Hem-fir 


SS 


8-7 


13-6 


17-10 


22-9 


Noteb 


8-7 


12-10 


16-3 


19-10 


23-0 




Hem-fir 


#1 


8-4 


12-3 


15-6 


18-11 


21-11 


7-3 


10-7 


13-5 


16-4 


19-0 




Hem-fir 


#2 


7-11 


11-7 


14-8 


17-10 


20-9 


6-10 


10-0 


12-8 


15-6 


17-11 


24 


Hem-fir 


#3 


6-1 


8-10 


11-3 


13-8 


15-11 


5-3 


7-8 


9-9 


11-10 


13-9 


Southern pine 


SS 


8-11 


14-1 


18-6 


23-8 


Noteb 


8-11 


14-1 


18-6 


22-11 


Noteb 




Southern pine 


#1 


8-9 


13-9 


17-9 


21-1 


25-2 


8-3 


12-3 


15-4 


18-3 


21-9 




Southern pine 


#2 


8-7 


12-3 


15-10 


18-11 


22-2 


7-5 


10-8 


13-9 


16-5 


19-3 




Southern pine 


#3 


6-5 


9-6 


12-1 


14-4 


17-1 


5-7 


8-3 


10-6 


12-5 


14-9 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


8-5 


13-3 


17-5 


21-8 


25-2 


8-4 


12-2 


15-4 


18-9 


21-9 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


8-0 


11-9 


14-10 


18-2 


21-0 


6-11 


10-2 


12-10 


15-8 


18-3 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


8-0 


11-9 


14-10 


18-2 


21-0 


6-11 


10-2 


12-10 


15-8 


18-3 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


6-1 


8-10 


11-3 


13-8 


15-11 


5-3 


7-8 


9-9 


11-10 


13-9 



Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet. 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa. 

a. The tabulated rafter spans assume that ceiling joists are located at the bottom of the attic space or that some other method of resisting the outward push of the rafters 

on the bearing wahs, such as rafter ties, is provided at that location. When ceiling joists or rafter ties are located higher in the attic space, the rafter spans shall be 

multiplied by the factors given below: 



Hc/«« 


Rafter Span Adjustment Factor 


1/3 


0.67 


1/4 


0.76 


1/5 


0.83 


1/6 


0.90 


1/7.5 or less 


1.00 



where: 

Hq = Height of ceiling joists or rafter ties measured verticaUy above the top of the rafter support walls. 
)f = Height of roof ridge measured vertically above the top of the rafter support walls. 



H, 



b. Span exceeds 26 feet in length. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE"" 



251 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLER802.5.1(2) 

RAFTER SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 

(Roof live load=20 psf, ceiling attached to rafters, L/A = 240) 



RAFTER 
SPACING 
(inches) 






DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 








Maximum rafter spans 


a 








SPECIES AND GRADE 




(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
iriches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


10-5 


16-4 


21-7 


Noteb 


Noteb 


10-5 


16-4 


21-7 


Note b 


Noteb 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


10-0 


15-9 


20-10 


Noteb 


Noteb 


10-0 


15-4 


19-5 


23-9 


Noteb 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


9-10 


15-6 


20-5 


25-8 


Noteb 


9-10 


14-4 


18-2 


22-3 


25-9 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


8-7 


12-6 


15-10 


19-5 


22-6 


7-5 


10-10 


13-9 


16-9 


19-6 




Hem-fir 


SS 


9-10 


15-6 


20-5 


Noteb 


Noteb 


9-10 


15-6 


20-5 


Noteb 


Noteb 




Hem-fir 


#1 


9-8 


15-2 


19-11 


25-5 


Noteb 


9-8 


14-11 


18-11 


23-2 


Noteb 




Hem-fir 


#2 


9-2 


14-5 


19-0 


24-3 


Noteb 


9-2 


14-2 


17-11 


21-11 


25-5 


12 


Hem-fir 


#3 


8-7 


12-6 


15-10 


19-5 


22-6 


7-5 


10-10 


13-9 


16-9 


19-6 


Southern pine 


SS 


10-3 


16-1 


21-2 


Noteb 


Noteb 


10-3 


16-1 


21-2 


Noteb 


Noteb 




Southern pine 


#1 


10-0 


15-9 


20-10 


Noteb 


Noteb 


10-0 


15-9 


20-10 


25-10 


Noteb 




Southern pine 


#2 


9-10 


15-6 


20-5 


Noteb 


Noteb 


9-10 


15-1 


19-5 


23-2 


Noteb 




Southern pine 


#3 


9-1 


13-6 


17-2 


20-3 


24-1 


7-11 


11-8 


14-10 


17-6 


20-11 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


9-8 


15-2 


19-11 


25-5 


Noteb 


9-8 


15-2 


19-11 


25-5 


Noteb 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


9-5 


14-9 


19-6 


24-10 


Noteb 


9-5 


14-4 


18-2 


22-3 


25-9 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


9-5 


14-9 


19-6 


24-10 


Noteb 


9-5 


14-4 


18-2 


22-3 


25-9 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


8-7 


12-6 


15-10 


19-5 


22-6 


7-5 


10-10 


13-9 


16-9 


19-6 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


9-6 


14-11 


19-7 


25-0 


Noteb 


9-6 


14-11 


19-7 


24-9 


Noteb 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


9-1 


14-4 


18-11 


23-9 


Noteb 


9-1 


13-3 


16-10 


20-7 


23-10 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


8-11 


14-1 


18-2 


22-3 


25-9 


8-6 


12-5 


15-9 


19-3 


22-4 


, 


Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


7-5 


10-10 


13-9 


16-9 


19-6 


6-5 


9-5 


11-11 


14-6 


16-10 




Hem-fir 


SS 


8-11 


14-1 


18-6 


23-8 


Noteb 


8-11 


14-1 


18-6 


23-8 


Noteb 




Hem-fir 


#1 


8-9 


13-9 


18-1 


23-1 


Noteb 


8-9 


12-11 


16-5 


20-0 


23-3 




Hem-fir 


#2 


8-4 


13-1 


17-3 


21-11 


25-5 


8-4 


12-3 


15-6 


18-11 


22-0 


16 


Hem-fir 


#3 


7-5 


10-10 


13-9 


16-9 


19-6 


6-5 


9-5 


11-11 


14-6 


16-10 


Southern pine 


SS 


9-4 


14-7 


19-3 


24-7 


Noteb 


9-4 


14-7 


19-3 


24-7 


Noteb 




Southern pine 


#1 


9-1 


14-4 


18-11 


24-1 


Noteb 


9-1 


14-4 


18-10 


22-4 


Noteb 




Southern pine 


#2 


8-11 


14-1 


18-6 


23-2 


Noteb 


8-11 


13-0 


16-10 


20-1 


23-7 




Southern pine 


#3 


7-11 


11-8 


14-10 


17-6 


20-11 


6-10 


10-1 


12-10 


15-2 


18-1 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


8-9 


13-9 


18-1 


23-1 


Noteb 


8-9 


13-9 


18-1 


23-0 


Noteb 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


8-7 


13-5 


17-9 


22-3 


25-9 


8-6 


12-5 


15-9 


19-3 


22-4 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


8-7 


13-5 


17-9 


22-3 


25-9 


8-6 


12-5 


15-9 


19-3 


22-4 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


7-5 


10-10 


13-9 


16-9 


19-6 


6-5 


9-5 


11-11 


14-6 


16-10 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


8-11 


14-0 


18-5 


23-7 


Noteb 


8-11 


14-0 


18-5 


22-7 


Noteb 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


8-7 


13-6 


17-9 


21-8 


25-2 


8-4 


12-2 


15-4 


18-9 


21-9 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


8-5 


13-1 


16-7 


20-3 


23-6 


7-9 


11-4 


14-4 


17-7 


20-4 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


6-9 


9-11 


12-7 


15-4 


17-9 


5-10 


8-7 


10-10 


13-3 


15-5 




Hem-fir 


SS 


8-5 


13-3 


17-5 


22-3 


Noteb 


8-5 


13-3 


17-5 


22-3 


25-9 




Hem-fir 


#1 


8-3 


12-11 


17-1 


21-1 


24-6 


8-1 


11-10 


15-0 


18-4 


21-3 




Hem-fir 


#2 


7-10 


12-4 


16-3 


20-0 


23-2 


7-8 


11-2 


14-2 


17-4 


20-1 


19.2 


Hem-fir 


#3 


6-9 


9-11 


12-7 


15-4 


17-9 


5-10 


8-7 


10-10 


13-3 


15-5 


Southern pine 


SS 


8-9 


13-9 


18-1 


23-1 


Noteb 


8-9 


13-9 


18-1 


23- i 


Noteb 




Southern pine 


#1 


8-7 


13-6 


17-9 


' 22-8 


Noteb 


8-7 


13-6 


17-2 


20-5 


24-4 




Southern pine 


#2 


8-5 


13-3 


17-5 


21-2 


24-10 


8-4 


11-11 


15-4 


18-4 


21-6 




Southern pine 


#3 


7-3 


10-8 


13-7 


16-0 


19-1 


6-3 


9-3 


11-9 


13- lb 


16-6 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


8-3 


12-11 


17-1 


21-9 


Noteb 


8-3 


12-11 


17-1 


21-(} 


24-4 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


8-1 


12-8 


16-7 


20-3 


23-6 


7-9 


11-4 


14-4 


17-7 


20-4 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


8-1 


12-8 


16-7 


20-3 


23-6 


7-9 


11-4 


14-4 


17-7 


20-4 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


6-9 


9-11 


12-7 


15-4 


17-9 


5-10 


8-7 


10-10 


13-i 


15-5 



(continued) 



252 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE"^ 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.5.1 (2)— continued 

RAFTER SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 

(Roof live load=20 psf, ceiling attached to rafters, L/A = 240) 



RAFTER 
SPACING 
(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 








Maximum rafter spans 


a 








(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


8-3 


13-0 


17-2 


21-10 


Noteb 


8-3 


13-0 


16-7 


20-3 


23-5 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


8-0 


12-6 


15-10 


19-5 


22-6 


7-5 


10-10 


13-9 


16-9 


19-6 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


7-10 


11-9 


14-10 


18-2 


21-0 


6-11 


10-2 


12-10 


15-8 


18-3 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


6-1 


8-10 


11-3 


13-8 


15-11 


5-3 


7-8 


9-9 


11-10 


13-9 




Hem-fir 


SS 


7-10 


12-3 


16-2 


20-8 


25-1 


7-10 


12-3 


16-2 


19-10 


23-0 




Hem-fir 


#1 


7-8 


12-0 


15-6 


18-11 


21-11 


7-3 


10-7 


13-5 


16-4 


19-0 




Hem-fir 


#2 


7-3 


11-5 


14-8 


17-10 


20-9 


6-10 


10-0 


12-8 


15-6 


17-11 


24 


Hem-fir 


#3 


6-1 


8-10 


11-3 


13-8 


15-11 


5-3 


7-8 


9-9 


11-10 


13-9 


Southern pine 


SS 


8-1 


12-9 


16-10 


21-6 


Note b 


8-1 


12-9 


16-10 


21-6 


Noteb 




Southern pine 


#1 


8-0 


12-6 


16-6 


21-1 


25-2 


8-0 


12-3 


15-4 


18-3 


21-9 




Southern pine 


#2 


7-10 


12-3 


15-10 


18-11 


22-2 


7-5 


10-8 


13-9 


16-5 


19-3 




Southern pine 


#3 


6-5 


9-6 


12-1 


14-4 


17-1 


5-7 


8-3 


10-6 


12-5 


14-9 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


7-8 


12-0 


15-10 


20-2 


24-7 


7-8 


12-0 


15-4 


18-9 


21-9 




Spruce-pine-fir 
Spruce-pine-fir 
Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 

#2 
#3 


7-6 
7-6 
6-1 


11-9 
11-9 
8-10 


14-10 
14-10 
11-3 


18-2 
18-2 
13-8 


21-0 
21-0 
15-11 


6-11 
6-11 

5-3 


10-2 
10-2 
7-8 


12-10 

12-10 

9-9 


15-8 
15-8 
11-10 


18-3 
18-3 
13-9 



Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet. 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa. 

a. The tabulated rafter spans assume that ceihng joists are located at the bottom of the attic space or that some other method of resisting the outward push of the rafters 

on the bearing walls, such as rafter ties, is provided at that location. When ceihng joists or rafter ties are located higher in the attic space, the rafter spans shall be 

multiphed by the factors given below: 



Hc/Hr 


Rafter Span Adjustment Factor 


1/3 


0.67 


1/4 


0.76 


1/5 


0.83 


1/6 


0.90 


1/7.5 or less 


1.00 



where: 

//(- = Height of ceihng joists or rafter ties measured vertically above the top of the rafter support walls. 
Hji - Height of roof ridge measured vertically above the top of the rafter support walls. 
Span exceeds 26 feet in length. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*" 



253 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.5.1(3) 

RAFTER SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 

(Ground snow load=30 psf, ceiling not attached to rafters, L/A = 180) 



RAFTER 
SPACING 
(inches) 






DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 








Maximum rafter spans 


a 








SPECIES AND GRADE 




(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


10-0 


15-9 


20-9 


Noteb 


Noteb 


10-0 


15-9 


20-1 


24-6 


Noteb 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


9-8 


14-9 


18-8 


22-9 


Noteb 


9-0 


13-2 


16-8 


20-4 


23-7 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


9-5 


13-9 


17-5 


21-4 


24-8 


8-5 


12-4 


15-7 


19-1 


22-1 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


7-1 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 


6-4 


9-4 


11-9 


14-5 


16-8 




Hem-fir 


SS 


9-6 


14-10 


19-7 


25-0 


Noteb 


9-6 


14-10 


19-7 


24-1 


Noteb 




Hem-fir 


#1 


9-3 


14-4 


18-2 


22-2 


25-9 


8-9 


12-10 


16-3 


19-10 


23-0 




Hem-fir 


#2 


8-10 


13-7 


17-2 


21-0 


24-4 


8-4 


12-2 


15-4 


18-9 


21-9 


12 


Hem-fir 


#3 


7-1 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 


6-4 


9-4 


11-9 


14-5 


16-8 


Southern pine 


SS 


9-10 


15-6 


20-5 


Noteb 


Noteb 


9-10 


15-6 


20-5 


Noteb 


Noteb 




Southern pine 


#1 


9-8 


15-2 


20-0 


24-9 


Noteb 


9-8 


14-10 


18-8 


22-2 


Noteb 




Southern pine 


#2 


9-6 


14-5 


18-8 


22-3 


Noteb 


9-0 


12-11 


16-8 


19-11 


23-4 




Southern pine 


#3 


7-7 


11-2 


14-3 


16-10 


20-0 


6-9 


10-0 


12-9 


15-1 


17-11 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


9-3 


14-7 


19-2 


24-6 


Noteb 


9-3 


14-7 


18-8 


22-9 


Noteb 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


9-1 


13-9 


17-5 


21-4 


24-8 


8-5 


12-4 


15-7 


19-1 


22-1 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


9-1 


13-9 


17-5 


21-4 


24-8 


8-5 


12-4 


15-7 


19-1 


22-1 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


7-1 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 


6-4 


9-4 


11-9 


14-5 


16-8 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


9-1 


14-4 


18-10 


23-9 


Noteb 


9-1 


13-9 


17-5 


21-3 


24-8 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


8-9 


12-9 


16-2 


19-9 


22-10 


7-10 


11-5 


14-5 


17-8 


20-5 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


8-2 


11-11 


15-1 


18-5 


21-5 


7-3 


10-8 


13-6 


16-6 


19-2 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


6-2 


9-0 


11-5 


13-11 


16-2 


5-6 


8-1 


10-3 


12-6 


14-6 




Hem-fir 


SS 


8-7 


13-6 


17-10 


22-9 


Noteb 


8-7 


13-6 


17-1 


20-10 


24-2 




Hem-fir 


#1 


8-5 


12-5 


15-9 


19-3 


22-3 


7-7 


11-1 


14-1 


17-2 


19-11 




Hem-fir 


#2 


8-0 


11-9 


14-11 


18-2 


21-1 


7-2 


10-6 


13-4 


16-3 


18-10 


16 


Hem-fir 


#3 


6-2 


9-0 


11-5 


13-11 


16-2 


5-6 


8-1 


10-3 


12-6 


14-6 


Southern pine 


SS 


8-11 


14-1 


18-6 


: 23-8 


Noteb 


8-11 


14-1 


18-6 


23-8 


Noteb 




Southern pine 


#1 


8-9 


13-9 


18-1 


21-5 


25-7 


8-8 


12-10 


16-2 


19-2 


22-10 




Southern pine 


#2 


8-7 


12-6 


16-2 


19-3 


22-7 


7-10 


11-2 


14-5 


17-3 


20-2 




Southern pine 


#3 


6-7 


9-8 


12-4 


14-7 


17-4 


5-10 


8-8 


11-0 


13-0 


15-6 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


8-5 


13-3 


17-5 


22-1 


25-7 


8-5 


12-9 


16-2 


19-9 


22-10 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


8-2 


11-11 


15-1 


18-5 


21-5 


7-3 


10-8 


13-6 


16-6 


19-2 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


8-2 


11-11 


15-1 


18-5 


21-5 


7-3 


10-8 


13-6 


16-6 


19-2 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


6-2 


9-0 


11-5 


13-11 


16-2 


5-6 


8-1 


10-3 


12-6 


14-6 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


8-7 


13-6 


17-9 


21-8 


25-2 


8-7 


12-6 


15-10 


19-5 


22-6 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


7-11 


11-8 


14-9 


18-0 


20-11 


7-1 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


7-5 


10-11 


13-9 


16-10 


19-6 


6-8 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


5-7 


8-3 


10-5 


12-9 


14-9 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 




Hem-fir 


SS 


8-1 


12-9 


16-9 


21-4 


24-8 


8-1 


12-4 


15-7 


19-1 


22-1 




Hem-fir 


#1 


7-9 


11-4 


14-4 


17-7 


20-4 


6-11 


10-2 


12-10 


15-8 


18-2 




Hem-fir 


#2 


7-4 


10-9 


13-7 


16-7 


19-3 


6-7 


9-7 


12-2 


14-10 


17-3 


19.2 


Hem-fir 


#3 


5-7 


8-3 


10-5 


12-9 


14-9 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


Southern pine 


SS 


8-5 


13-3 


17-5 


22-3 


Noteb 


8-5 


13-3 


17-5 


22-(j 


25-9 




Southern pine 


#1 


8-3 


13-0 


16-6 


19-7 


23-4 


7-11 


11-9 


14-9 


17-6 


20-11 




Southern pine 


#2 


7-11 


11-5 


14-9 


17-7 


20-7 


7-1 


10-2 


13-2 


15-9 


18-5 




Southern pine 


#3 


6-0 


8-10 


11-3 


13-4 


15-10 


5-4 


7-11 


10-1 


11-11 


14-2 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


7-11 


12-5 


16-5 


20-2 


23-4 


7-11 


11-8 


14-9 


18-0 


20-11 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


7-5 


10-11 


13-9 


16-10 


19-6 


6-8 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


7-5 


10-11 


13-9 


16-10 


19-6 


6-8 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


5-7 


8-3 


10-5 


12-9 


14-9 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 



(continued) 



254 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 

i 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.5.1 (3)— continued 

RAFTER SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 

(Ground snow load=30 psf, ceiling not attached to rafters, L/A = 180) 



RAFTER 
SPACING 
(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 








Maximum rafter spans 


a 








(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


7-11 


12-6 


15-10 


19-5 


22-6 


7-8 


11-3 


14-2 


17-4 


20-1 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


7-1 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 


6-4 


9-4 


11-9 


14-5 


16-8 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


6-8 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 


5-11 


8-8 


11-0 


13-6 


15-7 




Douglas fir-larch 
Hem-fir 


#3 
SS 


5-0 
7-6 


7-4 
11-10 


9-4 
15-7 


11-5 
19-1 


13-2 
22-1 


4-6 

7-6 


6-7 
11-0 


8-4 
13-11 


10-2 
17-0 


11-10 
19-9 




Hem-fir 


#1 


6-11 


10-2 


12-10 


15-8 


18-2 


6-2 


9-1 


11-6 


14-0 


16-3 




Hem-fir 


#2 


6-7 


9-7 


12-2 


14-10 


17-3 


5-10 


8-7 


10-10 


13-3 


15-5 


24 


Hem-fir 


#3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


4-6 


6-7 


8-4 


10-2 


11-10 


Southern pine 


SS 


7-10 


12-3 


16-2 


20-8 


25-1 


7-10 


12-3 


16-2 


19-8 


23-0 




Southern pine 


#1 


7-8 


11-9 


14-9 


17-6 


20-11 


7-1 


10-6 


13-2 


15-8 


18-8 




Southern pine 


#2 


7-1 


10-2 


13-2 


15-9 


18-5 


6-4 


9-2 


11-9 


14-1 


16-6 




Southern pine 


#3 


5-4 


7-11 


10-1 


11-11 


14-2 


4-9 


7-1 


9-0 


10-8 


12-8 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


7-4 


11-7 


14-9 


18-0 


20-11 


7-1 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 




Spruce-pine-fir 
Spruce-pine-fir 
Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 

#2 
#3 


6-8 
6-8 
5-0 


9-9 
9-9 

7-4 


12-4 
12-4 
9-4 


15-1 
15-1 
11-5 


17-6 
17-6 
13-2 


5-11 
5-11 
4-6 


8-8 
8-8 
6-7 


11-0 
11-0 
8-4 


13-6 
13-6 
10-2 


15-7 
15-7 
11-10 



Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet. 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa. 

a. The tabulated rafter spans assume that ceiling joists are located at the bottom of the attic space or that some other method of resisting the outward push of the rafters 

on the bearing walls, such as rafter ties, is provided at that location. When ceiling joists or rafter ties are located higher in the attic space, the rafter spans shall be 

multiplied by the factors given below: 



Mc/Hn 


Rafter Span Adjustment Factor 


1/3 


0.67 


1/4 


0.76 


1/5 


0.83 


1/6 


0.90 


1/7.5 or less 


1.00 



where: 

//(- = Height of ceiling joists or rafter ties measured vertically above the top of the rafter support walls. 
Hif = Height of roof ridge measured vertically above the top of the rafter support walls. 
b. Span exceeds 26 feet in length. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*^ 



255 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.5.1(4) 

RAFTER SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 

(Ground snow load=50 psf, ceiling not attached to rafters, L/A = 180) 



RAFTER 






DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 








IVIaximum rafter spans 


a 








SPACING 
(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 




(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


8-5 


13-3 


17-6 


22-4 


26-0 


8-5 


13-3 


17-0 


20-9 


24-0 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


8-2 


12-0 


15-3 


18-7 


21-7 


7-7 


11-2 


14-1 


17-3 


20-0 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


7-8 


11-3 


14-3 


17-5 


20-2 


7-1 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


5-10 


8-6 


10-9 


13-2 


15-3 


5-5 


7-10 


10-0 


12-2 


14-1 




Hem-fir 


SS 


8-0 


12-6 


16-6 


21-1 


25-6 


8-0 


12-6 


16-6 


20-4 


23-7 




Hem-fir 


#1 


7-10 


11-9 


14-10 


18-1 


21-0 


7-5 


10-10 


13-9 


16-9 


19-5 




Hem-fir 


#2 


7-5 


11-1 


14-0 


17-2 


19-11 


7-0 


10-3 


13-0 


15-10 


18-5 


12 


Hem-fir 


#3 


5-10 


8-6 


10-9 


13-2 


15-3 


5-5 


7-10 


10-0 


12-2 


14-1 


Southern pine 


SS 


8-4 


13-0 


17-2 


21-11 


Noteb 


8-4 


13-0 


17-2 


21-11 


Noteb 




Southern pine 


#1 


8-2 


12-10 


16-10 


20-3 


24-1 


8-2 


12-6 


15-9 


18-9 


22-4 




Southern pine 


#2 


8-0 


11-9 


15-3 


18-2 


21-3 


7-7 


10-11 


14-1 


16-10 


19-9 




Southern pine 


#3 


6-2 


9-2 


11-8 


13-9 


16-4 


5-9 


8-5 


10-9 


12-9 


15-2 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


7-10 


12-3 


16-2 


20-8 


24-1 


7-10 


12-3 


15-9 


19-3 


22-4 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


7-8 


11-3 


14-3 


17-5 


20-2 


7-1 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


7-8 


11-3 


14-3 


17-5 


15-2 


7-1 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


5-10 


8-6 


10-9 


13-2 


20-3 


5-5 


7-10 


10-0 


12-2 


14-1 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


7-8 


12-1 


15-10 


19-5 


22-6 


7-8 


11-7 


14-8 


17-11 


20-10 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


7-1 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 


6-7 


9-8 


12-2 


14-11 


17-3 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


6-8 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 


6-2 


9-0 


11-5 


13-11 


16-2 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


4-8 


6-10 


8-8 


10-6 


12-3 




Hem-fir 


SS 


7-3 


11-5 


15-0 


19-1 


22-1 


7-3 


11-5 


14-5 


17-8 


20-5 




Hem-fir 


#1 


6-11 


10-2 


12-10 


15-8 


18-2 


6-5 


9-5 


11-11 


14-6 


16-10 




Hem-fir 


#2 


6-7 


9-7 


12-2 


14-10 


17-3 


6-1 


8-11 


11-3 


13-9 


15-11 


16 


Hem-fir 


#3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


4-8 


6-10 


8-8 


10-6 


12-3 


Southern pine 


SS 


7-6 


11-10 


15-7 


19-11 


24-3 


7-6 


11-10 


15-7 


19-11 


23-10 




Southern pine 


#1 


7-5 


11-7 


14-9 


17-6 


20-11 


7-4 


10-10 


13-8 


16-2 


19-4 




Southern pine 


#2 


7-1 


10-2 


13-2 


15-9 


18-5 


6-7 


9-5 


12-2 


14-7 


17-1 




Southern pine 


#3 


5-4 


7-11 


10-1 


11-11 


14-2 


4-11 


7-4 


9-4 


11-0 


13-1 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


7-1 


11-2 


14-8 


18-0 


20-11 


7-1 


10-9 


13-8 


15-11 


19-4 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


6-8 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 


6-2 


9-0 


11-5 


13-11 


16-2 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


6-8 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 


6-2 


9-0 


11-5 


13-11 


16-2 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


4-8 


6-10 


8-8 


10-6 


12-3 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


7-3 


11-4 


14-6 


17-8 


20-6 


7-3 


10-7 


13-5 


16-5 


19-0 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


6-6 


9-6 


12-0 


14-8 


17-1 


6-0 


8-10 


11-2 


13-7 


15-9 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


6-1 


8-11 


11-3 


13-9 


15-11 


5-7 


8-3 


10-5 


12-9 


14-9 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


4-7 


6-9 


8-6 


10-5 


12-1 


4-3 


6-3 


7-11 


9-7 


11-2 




Hem-fir 


SS 


6-10 


10-9 


14-2 


17-5 


20-2 


6-10 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 




Hem-fir 


#1 


6-4 


9-3 


11-9 


14-4 


16-7 


5-10 


8-7 


10-10 


13-3 


15-5 




Hem-fir 


#2 


6-0 


8-9 


11-1 


13-7 


15-9 


5-7 


8-1 


10-3 


12-7 


14-7 


19.2 


Hem-fir 


#3 


4-7 


6-9 


8-6 


10-5 


12-1 


4-3 


6-3 


7-11 


9-7 


11-2 


Southern pine 


SS 


7-1 


11-2 


14-8 


18-9 


22-10 


7-1 


11-2 


14-8 


18 7 


21-9 




Southern pine 


#1 


7-0 


10-8 


13-5 


16-0 


19-1 


6-8 


9-11 


12-5 


14-10 


17-8 




Southern pine 


#2 


6-6 


9-4 


12-0 


14-4 


16-10 


6-0 


8-8 


11-2 


13-4 


15-7 




Southern pine 


#3 


4-11 


7-3 


9-2 


10-10 


12-11 


4-6 


6-8 


8-6 


10- i 


12-0 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


6-8 


10-6 


13-5 


16-5 


19-1 


6-8 


9-10 


12-5 


15-3 


17-8 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


6-1 


8-11 


11-3 


13-9 


15-11 


5-7 


8-3 


10-5 


12-9 


14-9 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


6-1 


8-11 


11-3 


13-9 


15-11 


5-7 


8-3 


10-5 


12-9 


14-9 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


4-7 


6-9 


8-6 


10-5 


12-1 


4-3 


6-3 


7-11 


9-7 


11-2 



(continued) 



256 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*^ 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.5.1 (4)— continued 

RAFTER SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 

(Ground snow load=50 psf, ceiling not attached to rafters, L/A = 180) 



RAFTER 
SPACING 
(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 




DEAD LOAD = 


20 psf 




2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


Maximum rafter spans^ 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


6-8 


10- 


13-0 


15-10 


18-4 


6-6 


9-6 


12-0 


14-8 


17-0 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


5-10 


8-6 


10-9 


13-2 


15-3 


5-5 


7-10 


10-0 


12-2 


14-1 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


5-5 


7-11 


10-1 


12-4 


14-3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


4-1 


6-0 


7-7 


9-4 


10-9 


3-10 


5-7 


7-1 


8-7 


10-0 




Hem-fir 


SS 


6-4 


9-11 


12-9 


15-7 


18-0 


6-4 


9-4 


11-9 


14-5 


16-8 




Hem-fir 


#1 


5-8 


8-3 


10-6 


12-10 


14-10 


5-3 


7-8 


9-9 


11-10 


13-9 




Hem-fir 


#2 


5-4 


7-10 


9-11 


12-1 


14-1 


4-11 


7-3 


9-2 


11-3 


13-0 


24 


Hem-fir 


#3 


4-1 


6-0 


7-7 


9-4 


10-9 


3-10 


5-7 


7-1 


8-7 


10-0 


Southern pine 


SS 


6-7 


10-4 


13-8 


17-5 


21-0 


6-7 


10-4 


13-8 


16-7 


19-5 




Southern pine 


#1 


6-5 


9-7 


12-0 


14-4 


17-1 


6-0 


8-10 


11-2 


13-3 


15-9 




Southern pine 


#2 


5-10 


8-4 


10-9 


12-10 


15-1 


5-5 


7-9 


10-0 


11-11 


13-11 




Southern pine 


#3 


4-4 


6-5 


8-3 


9-9 


11-7 


4-1 


6-0 


7-7 


9-0 


10-8 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


6-2 


9-6 


12-0 


14-8 


17-1 


6-0 


8-10 


11-2 


13-7 


15-9 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


5-5 


7-11 


10-1 


12-4 


14-3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


5-5 


7-11 


10-1 


12-4 


14-3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


4-1 


6-0 


7-7 


9-4 


10-9 


3-10 


5-7 


7-1 


8-7 


10-0 



Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet. 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa. 

a. The tabulated rafter spans assume that ceiling joists are located at the bottom of the attic space or that some other method of resisting the outward push of the rafters 

on the bearing walls, such as rafter ties, is provided at that location. When ceiling joists or rafter ties are located higher in the attic space, the rafter spans shall be 

multiplied by the factors given below: 



Hc/Hf, 


Rafter Span Adjustment Factor 


1/3 


0.67 


1/4 


0.76 


1/5 


0.83 


1/6 


0.90 


1/7.5 or less 


1.00 



where: 

H(^ = Height of ceiling joists or rafter ties measured vertically above the top of the rafter support walls. 
H[{ = Height of roof ridge measured vertically above the top of the rafter support walls, 
b. Span exceeds 26 feet in length. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE"" 



257 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.5.1(5) 

RAFTER SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 

(Ground snow load=30 psf, ceiling aHached to rafters, L/A = 240) 



RAFTFR 






DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 








Maximum rafter spans 


a 








nMr 1 tn 
SPACING 
(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 




(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


9-1 


14-4 


18-10 


24-1 


Noteb 


9-1 


14-4 


18-10 


24-1 


Noteb 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


8-9 


13-9 


18-2 


22-9 


Noteb 


8-9 


13-2 


16-8 


20-4 


23-7 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


8-7 


13-6 


17-5 


21-4 


24-8 


8-5 


12-4 


15-7 


19-1 


22-1 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


7-1 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 


6-4 


9-4 


11-9 


14-5 


16-8 




Hem-fir 


SS 


8-7 


13-6 


17-10 


22-9 


Noteb 


8-7 


13-6 


17-10 


22-9 


Noteb 




Hem-fir 


#1 


8-5 


13-3 


17-5 


22-2 


25-9 


8-5 


12-10 


16-3 


19-10 


23-0 




Hem-fir 


#2 


8-0 


12-7 


16-7 


21-0 


24-4 


8-0 


12-2 


15-4 


18-9 


21-9 


12 


Hem-fir 


#3 


7-1 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 


6-4 


9-4 


11-9 


14-5 


16-8 


Southern pine 


SS 


8-11 


14-1 


18-6 


23-8 


Noteb 


8-11 


14-1 


18-6 


23-8 


Noteb 




Southern pine 


#1 


8-9 


13-9 


18-2 


23-2 


Noteb 


8-9 


13-9 


18-2 


22-2 


Noteb 




Southern pine 


#2 


8-7 


13-6 


17-10 


22-3 


Noteb 


8-7 


12-11 


16-8 


19-11 


23-4 




Southern pine 


#3 


7-7 


11-2 


14-3 


16-10 


20-0 


6-9 


10-0 


12-9 


15-1 


17-11 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


8-5 


13-3 


17-5 


22-3 


Noteb 


8-5 


13-3 


17-5 


22-3 


Noteb 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


8-3 


12-11 


17-0 


21-4 


24-8 


8-3 


12-4 


15-7 


19-1 


22-1 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


8-3 


12-11 


17-0 


21-4 


24-8 


8-3 


12-4 


15-7 


19-1 


22-1 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


7-1 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 


6-4 


9-4 


11-9 


14-5 


16-8 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


8-3 


13-0 


17-2 


21-10 


Noteb 


8-3 


13-0 


■ 17-2 


21-3 


24-8 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


8-0 


12-6 


16-2 


19-9 


22-10 


7-10 


11-5 


14-5 


17-8 


20-5 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


7-10 


11-11 


15-1 


18-5 


21-5 


7-3 


10-8 


13-6 


16-6 


19-2 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


6-2 


9-0 


11-5 


13-11 


16-2 


5-6 


8-1 


10-3 


12-6 


14-6 




Hem-fir 


SS 


7-10 


12-3 


16-2 


20-8 


25-1 


7-10 


12-3 


16-2 


20-8 


24-2 




Hem-fir 


#1 


7-8 


12-0 


15-9 


19-3 


22-3 


7-7 


11-1 


14-1 


17-2 


19-11 




Hem-fir 


#2 


7-3 


11-5 


14-11 


18-2 


21-1 


7-2 


10-6 


13-4 


16-3 


18-10 


16 


Hem-fir 


#3 


6-2 


9-0 


11-5 


13-11 


16-2 


5-6 


8-1 


10-3 


12-6 


14-6 


Southern pine 


SS 


8-1 


12-9 


16-10 


21-6 


Noteb 


8-1 


12-9 


16-10 


21-6 


Noteb 




Southern pine 


#1 


8-0 


12-6 


16-6 


21-1 


25-7 


8-0 


12-6 


16-2 


19-2 


22-10 




Southern pine 


#2 


7-10 


12-3 


16-2 


19-3 


22-7 


7-10 


11-2 


14-5 


17-3 


20-2 




Southern pine 


#3 


6-7 


9-8 


12-4 


14-7 


17-4 


5-10 


8-8 


11-0 


13-0 


15-6 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


7-8 


12-0 


15-10 


20-2 


24-7 


7-8 


12-0 


15-10 


19-9 


22-10 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


7-6 


11-9 


15-1 


18-5 


21-5 


7-3 


10-8 


13-6 


16-6 


19-2 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


7-6 


11-9 


15-1 


18-5 


21-5 


7-3 


10-8 


13-6 


16-6 


19-2 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


6-2 


9-0 


11-5 


13-11 


16-2 


5-6 


8-1 


10-3 


12-6 


14-6 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


7-9 


12-3 


16-1 


20-7 


25-0 


7-9 


12-3 


15-10 


19-5 


22-6 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


7-6 


11-8 


14-9 


18-0 


20-11 


7-1 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


7-4 


10-11 


13-9 


16-10 


19-6 


6-8 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


5-7 


8-3 


10-5 


12-9 


14-9 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 




Hem-fir 


SS 


7-4 


11-7 


15-3 


19-5 


23-7 


7-4 


11-7 


15-3 


19-1 


22-1 




Hem-fir 


#1 


7-2 


11-4 


14-4 


17-7 


20-4 


6-11 


10-2 


12-10 


15-8 


18-2 




Hem-fir 


#2 


6-10 


10-9 


13-7 


16-7 


19-3 


6-7 


9-7 


12-2 


14-10 


17-3 


19.2 


Hem-fir 


#3 


5-7 


8-3 


10-5 


12-9 


14-9 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


Southern pine 


SS 


7-8 


12-0 


15-10 


20-2 


24-7 


7-8 


12-0 


15-10 


20-2 


24-7 




Southern pine 


#1 


7-6 


11-9 


15-6 


19-7 


23-4 


7-6 


11-9 


14-9 


17-6 


20-11 




Southern pine 


#2 


7-4 


11-5 


14-9 


17-7 


20-7 


7-1 


10-2 


13-2 


15-9 


18-5 




Southern pine 


#3 


6-0 


8-10 


11-3 


13-4 


15-10 


5-4 


7-11 


10-1 


11-11 


14-2 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


7-2 


11-4 


14-11 


19-0 


23-1 


7-2 


11-4 


14-9 


18-0 


20-11 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


7-0 


10-11 


13-9 


16-10 


19-6 


6-8 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


7-0 


10-11 


13-9 


16-10 


19-6 


6-8 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


5-7 


8-3 


10-5 


12-9 


14-9 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 



(continued) 



258 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*^ 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.5.1 (5)— continued 

RAFTER SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 

(Ground snow load=30 psf, ceiling attaclied to rafters, L/A = 240) 



RAFTER 
SPACING 
(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 








Maximum rafter spans 


a 








(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 




Douglas fir-larch 
Douglas fir-larch 


SS 

#1 


7-3 
7-0 


11-4 
10-5 


15-0 
13-2 


19-1 
16-1 


22-6 
18-8 


7-3 
6-4 


11-3 
9-4 


14-2 
11-9 


17-4 
14-5 


20-1 
16-8 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


6-8 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 


5-11 


8-8 


11-0 


13-6 


15-7 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


4-6 


6-7 


8-4 


10-2 


11-10 




Hem-fir 


SS 


6-10 


10-9 


14-2 


18-0 


21-11 


6-10 


10-9 


13-11 


17-0 


19-9 




Hem-fir 


#1 


6-8 


10-2 


12-10 


15-8 


18-2 


6-2 


9-1 


11-6 


14-0 


16-3 




Hem-fir 


#2 


6-4 


9-7 


12-2 


14-10 


17-3 


5-10 


8-7 


10-10 


13-3 


15-5 


24 


Hem-fir 


#3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


4-6 


6-7 


8-4 


10-2 


11-10 


Southern pine 


SS 


7-1 


11-2 


14-8 


18-9 


22-10 


7-1 


11-2 


14-8 


18-9 


22-10 




Southern pine 


#1 


7-0 


10-11 


14-5 


17-6 


20-11 


7-0 


10-6 


13-2 


15-8 


18-8 




Southern pine 


#2 


6-10 


10-2 


13-2 


15-9 


18-5 


6-4 


9-2 


11-9 


14-1 


16-6 




Southern pine 


#3 


5-4 


7-11 


10-1 


11-11 


14-2 


4-9 


7-1 


9-0 


10-8 


12-8 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


6-8 


10-6 


13-10 


17-8 


20-11 


6-8 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


6-6 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 


5-11 


8-8 


11-0 


13-6 


15-7 




Spruce-pine-fir 
Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 
#3 


6-6 
5-0 


9-9 

7-4 


12-4 
9-4 


15-1 
11-5 


17-6 
13-2 


5-11 
4-6 


8-8 
6-7 


11-0 

8-4 


13-6 
10-2 


15-7 
11-10 



Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet. 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot - 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa. 

a. The tabulated rafter spans assume that ceiling joists are located at the bottom of the attic space or that some other method of resisting the outward push of the rafters 

on the bearing walls, such as rafter ties, is provided at that location. When ceiling joists or rafter ties are located higher in the attic space, the rafter spans shall be 

multiplied by the factors given below: 



»CJ»R 


Rafter Span Adjustment Factor 


1/3 


0.67 


1/4 


0.76 


1/5 


0.83 


1/6 


0.90 


1/7.5 or less 


1.00 



where: 

Hq = Height of ceiling joists or rafter ties measured vertically above the top of the rafter support walls. 
Hjf = Height of roof ridge measured vertically above the top of the rafter support walls, 
b. Span exceeds 26 feet in length. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*^ 



259 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.5.1(6) 

RAFTER SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 

(Ground snow load=50 psf, ceiling attached to rafters, L/A = 240) 



RAFTFR 






DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 








IVIaximum rafter spans 


a 








riMi 1 en 

SPACING 
(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 




(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


7-8 


12-1 


15-11 


: 20-3 


24-8 


7-8 


12-1 


15-11 


20-3 


24-0 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


7-5 


11-7 


15-3 


18-7 


21-7 


7-5 


11-2 


14-1 


17-3 


20-0 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


7-3 


11-3 


14-3 


17-5 


20-2 


7-1 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


5-10 


8-6 


10-9 


13-2 


15-3 


5-5 


7-10 


10-0 


12-2 


14-1 




Hem-fir 


SS 


7-3 


11-5 


15-0 


19-2 


23-4 


7-3 


11-5 


15-0 


19-2 


23-4 




Hem-fir 


#1 


7-1 


11-2 


14-8 


18-1 


21-0 


7-1 


10-10 


13-9 


16-9 


19-5 




Hem-fir 


#2 


6-9 


10-8 


14-0 


17-2 


19-11 


6-9 


10-3 


13-0 


15-10 


18-5 


12 


Hem-fir 


#3 


5-10 


8-6 


10-9 


13-2 


15-3 


5-5 


7-10 


10-0 


12-2 


14-1 


Southern pine 


SS 


7-6 


11-10 


15-7 


19-11 


24-3 


7-6 


11-10 


15-7 


19-11 


24-3 




Southern pine 


#1 


7-5 


11-7 


15-4 


19-7 


23-9 


7-5 


11-7 


15-4 


18-9 


22-4 




Southern pine 


#2 


7-3 


11-5 


15-0 


18-2 


21-3 


7-3 


10-11 


14-1 


16-10 


19-9 




Southern pine 


#3 


6-2 


9-2 


11-8 


13-9 


16-4 


5-9 


8-5 


10-9 


12-9 


15-2 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


7-1 


11-2 


14-8 


18-9 


22-10 


7-1 


11-2 


14-8 


18-9 


22-4 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


6-11 


10-11 


14-3 


, 17-5 


20-2 


6-11 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


6-11 


10-11 


14-3 


17-5 


20-2 


6-11 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


5-10 


8-6 


10-9 


13-2 


15-3 


5-5 


7-10 


10-0 


12-2 


14-1 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


7-0 


11-0 


14-5 


18-5 


22-5 


7-0 


11-0 


14-5 


17-11 


20-10 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


6-9 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 


6-7 


9-8 


12-2 


14-11 


17-3 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


6-7 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 


6-2 


9-0 


11-5 


13-11 


16-2 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


4-8 


6-10 


8-8 


10-6 


12-3 




Hem-fir 


SS 


6-7 


10-4 


13-8 


17-5 


21-2 


6-7 


10-4 


13-8 


17-5 


20-5 




Hem-fir 


#1 


6-5 


10-2 


12-10 


15-8 


18-2 


6-5 


9-5 


11-11 


14-6 


16-10 




Hem-fir 


#2 


6-2 


9-7 


12-2 


14-10 


17-3 


6-1 


8-11 


11-3 


13-9 


15-11 


16 


Hem-fir 


#3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


4-8 


6-10 


8-8 


10-6 


12-3 


Southern pine 


SS 


6-10 


10-9 


14-2 


18-1 


22-0 


6-10 


10-9 


14-2 


18-1 


22-0 




Southern pine 


#1 


6-9 


10-7 


13-11 


17-6 


20-11 


6-9 


10-7 


13-8 


16-2 


19-4 




Southern pine 


#2 


6-7 


10-2 


13-2 


15-9 


18-5 


6-7 


9-5 


12-2 


14-7 


17-1 




Southern pine 


#3 


5-4 


7-11 


10-1 


11-11 


14-2 


4-11 


7-4 


9-4 


11-0 


13-1 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


6-5 


10-2 


13-4 


17-0 


20-9 


6-5 


10-2 


13-4 


16-8 


19-4 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


6-4 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 


6-2 


9-0 


11-5 


13-11 


16-2 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


6-4 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 


6-2 


9-0 


11-5 


13-11 


16-2 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


4-8 


6-10 


8-8 


10-6 


12-3 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


6-7 


10-4 


13-7 


17-4 


20-6 


6-7 


10-4 


13-5 


16-5 


19-0 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


6-4 


9-6 


12-0 


14-8 


17-1 


6-0 


8-10 


11-2 


13-7 


15-9 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


6-1 


8-11 


11-3 


13-9 


15-11 


5-7 


8-3 


10-5 


12-9 


14-9 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


4-7 


6-9 


8-6 


. 10-5 


12-1 


4-3 


6-3 


7-11 


9-7 


11-2 




Hem-fir 


SS 


6-2 


9-9 


12-10 


16-5 


19-11 


6-2 


9-9 


12-10 


16-1 


18-8 




Hem-fir 


#1 


6-1 


9-3 


11-9 


14-4 


16-7 


5-10 


8-7 


10-10 


13-3 


15-5 




Hem-fir 


#2 


5-9 


8-9 


11-1 


13-7 


15-9 


5-7 


8-1 


10-3 


12-7 


14-7 


19.2 


Hem-fir 


#3 


4-7 


6-9 


8-6 


10-5 


12-1 


4-3 


6-3 


7-11 


9-7 


11-2 


Southern pine 


SS 


6-5 


10-2 


13-4 


17-0 


20-9 


6-5 


10-2 


13-4 


17-0 


20-9 




Southern pine 


#1 


6-4 


9-11 


13-1 


16-0 


19-1 


6-4 


9-11 


12-5 


14-10 


17-8 




Southern pine 


#2 


6-2 


9-4 


12-0 


14-4 


16-10 


6-0 


8-8 


11-2 


13-4 


15-7 




Southern pine 


#3 


4-11 


7-3 


9-2 


10-10 


12-11 


4-6 


6-8 


8-6 


10-1 


12-0 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


6-1 


9-6 


12-7 


16-0 


19-1 


6-1 


9-6 


12-5 


15-3 


17-8 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


5-11 


8-11 


11-3 


13-9 


15-11 


5-7 


8-3 


10-5 


12-9 


14-9 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


5-11 


8-11 


11-3 


13-9 


15-11 


5-7 


8-3 


10-5 


12-9 


14-9 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


4-7 


6-9 


8-6 


10-5 


12-1 


4-3 


6-3 


7-11 


9-7 


11-2 



(continued) 



260 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.5.1 (6)— continued 

RAFTER SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES 

(Ground snow load=50 psf, ceiling attached to rafters, L/A = 240) 



RAFTER 
SPACING 
(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 








Maximum rafter spans 


a 








(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


6-1 


9-7 


12-7 


15-10 


18-4 


6-1 


9-6 


12-0 


14-8 


17-0 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


5-10 


8-6 


10-9 


13-2 


15-3 


5-5 


7-10 


10-0 


12-2 


14-1 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


5-5 


7-11 


10-1 


12-4 


14-3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


4-1 


6-0 


7-7 


9-4 


10-9 


3-10 


5-7 


7-1 


8-7 


10-0 




Hem-fir 


SS 


5-9 


9-1 


11-11 


15-2 


18-0 


5-9 


9-1 


11-9 


14-5 


15-11 




Hera-fir 


#1 


5-8 


8-3 


10-6 


12-10 


14-10 


5-3 


7-8 


9-9 


11-10 


13-9 




Hem-fir 


#2 


5-4 


7-10 


9-11 


12-1 


14-1 


4-11 


7-3 


9-2 


11-3 


13-0 


24 


Hera-fir 


#3 


4-1 


6-0 


7-7 


9-4 


10-9 


3-10 


5-7 


7-1 


8-7 


10-0 


Southern pine 


SS 


6-0 


9-5 


12-5 


15-10 


19-3 


6-0 


9-5 


12-5 


15-10 


19-3 




Southern pine 


#1 


5-10 


9-3 


12-0 


14-4 


17-1 


5-10 


8-10 


11-2 


13-3 


15-9 




Southern pine 


#2 


5-9 


8-4 


10-9 


12-10 


15-1 


5-5 


7-9 


10-0 


11-11 


13-11 




Southern pine 


#3 


4-4 


6-5 


8-3 


9-9 


11-7 


4-1 


6-0 


7-7 


9-0 


10-8 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


5-8 


8-10 


11-8 


14-8 


17-1 


5-8 


8-10 


11-2 


13-7 


15-9 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


5-5 


7-11 


10-1 


12-4 


14-3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


5-5 


7-11 


10-1 


12-4 


14-3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


4-1 


6-0 


7-7 


9-4 


10-9 


3-10 


5-7 


7-1 


8-7 


10-0 



Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet. 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa. 

a. The tabulated rafter spans assume that ceiling joists are located at the bottom of the attic space or that some other method of resisting the outward push of the rafters 

on the bearing walls, such as rafter ties, is provided at that location. When ceiling joists or rafter ties are located higher in the attic space, the rafter spans shall be 

multiplied by the factors given below: 



Hc/H„ 


Rafter Span Adjustment Factor 


1/3 


0.67 


1/4 


0.76 


1/5 


0.83 


1/6 


0.90 


1/7.5 or less 


1.00 



where: 

//(^ = Height of ceiling joists or rafter ties measured vertically above the top of the rafter support walls. 

///; = Height of roof ridge measured vertically above the top of the rafter support walls. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE® 



261 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.5.1(7) 

RAFTER SPANS FOR 70 PSF GROUND SNOW LOAD 

(Ceiling not attached to rafters, L/A = 180) 



RAFTER 
SPACING 
(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 




DEAD LOAD = 1 


Opsf 




DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


2x4 


2x6 ^ 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


Maximum Rafter Spans^ 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 


(feet- 
inches) 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


7-7 


11-10 


15-8 


19-5 


22-6 


7-7 


11-10 


15-0 


18-3 


21-2 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


7-1 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 


6-8 


9-10 


12-5 


15-2 


17-7 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


6-8 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 


6-3 


9-2 


11-8 


14-2 


16-6 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


4-9 


6-11 


8-9 


10-9 


12-5 




Hem-fir 


SS 


7-2 


11-3 


14-9 


18-10 


22-1 


7-2 


11-3 


14-8 


18-0 


20-10 




Hem-fir 


#1 


6-11 


10-2 


12-10 


15-8 


18-2 


6-6 


9-7 


12-1 


14-10 


17-2 




Hem-fir 


#2 


6-7 


9-7 


12-2 


14-10 


17-3 


6-2 


9-1 


11-5 


14-0 


16-3 


12 


Hem-fir 


#3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


4-9 


6-11 


8-9 


10-9 


12-5 


Southern pine 


SS 


7-5 


11-8 


15-4 


19-7 


23-10 


7-5 


11-8 


15-4 


19-7 


23-10 




Southern pine 


#1 


7-3 


11-5 


14-9 


17-6 


20-11 


7-3 


11-1 


13-11 


16-6 


19-8 




Southern pine 


#2 


7-1 


10-2 


13-2 


15-9 


18-5 


6-8 


9-7 


12-5 


14-10 


17-5 




Southern pine 


#3 


5-4 


7-11 


10-1 


11-11 


14-2 


5-1 


7-5 


9-6 


11-3 


13-4 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


7-0 


11-0 


14-6 


18-0 


20-11 


7-0 


11-0 


13-11 


17-0 


19-8 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


6-8 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 


6-3 


9-2 


11-8 


14-2 


16-6 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


6-8 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 


6-3 


9-2 


11-8 


14-2 


16-6 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


4-9 


6-11 


8-9 


10-9 


12-5 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


6-10 


10-9 


13-9 


16-10 


19-6 


6-10 


10-3 


13-0 


15-10 


18-4 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


6-2 


9-0 


11-5 


13-11 


16-2 


5-10 


8-6 


10-9 


13-2 


15-3 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


5-9 


8-5 


10-8 


13-1 


15-2 


5-5 


7-11 


10-1 


12-4 


14-3 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


4-4 


6-4 


8-1 


9-10 


11-5 


4-1 


6-0 


7-7 


9-4 


10-9 




Hem-fir 


SS 


6-6 


10-2 


13-5 


16-6 


19-2 


6-6 


10-1 


12-9 


15-7 


18-0 




Hem-fir 


#1 


6-0 


8-9 


11-2 


13-7 


15-9 


5-8 


8-3 


10-6 


12-10 


14-10 




Hem-fir 


#2 


5-8 


8-4 


10-6 


12-10 


14-11 


5-4 


7-10 


9-11 


12-1 


14-1 


16 


Hem-fir 


#3 


4-4 


6-4 


8-1 


9-10 


11-5 


4-1 


6-0 


7-7 


9-4 


10-9 


Southern pine 


SS 


6-9 


10-7 


14-0 


17-10 


21-8 


6-9 


10-7 


14-0 


17-10 


21-0 




Southern pine 


#1 


6-7 


10-2 


12-9 


15-2 


18-1 


6-5 


9-7 


12-0 


14-4 


17-1 




Southern pine 


#2 


6-2 


8-10 


11-5 


13-7 


16-0 


5-10 


8-4 


10-9 


12-10 


15-1 




Southern pine 


#3 


4-8 


6-10 


8-9 


10-4 


12-3 


4-4 


6-5 


8-3 


9-9 


11-7 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


6-4 


10-0 


12-9 


15-7 


18-1 


6-4 


9-6 


12-0 


14-8 


17-1 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


5-9 


8-5 


10-8 


13-1 


15-2 


5-5 


7-11 


10-1 


12-4 


14-3 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


5-9 


8-5 


10-8 


13-1 


15-2 


5-5 


7-11 


10-1 


12-4 


14-3 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


4-4 


6-4 


8-1 


9-10 


11-5 


4-1 


6-0 


7-7 


9-4 


10-9 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


6-5 


9-11 


12-7 


15-4 


17-9 


6-5 


9-4 


11-10 


14-5 


16-9 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


5-7 


8-3 


10-5 


12-9 


14-9 


5-4 


7-9 


9-10 


12-0 


13-11 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


5-3 


7-8 


9-9 


11-11 


13-10 


5-0 


7-3 


9-2 


11-3 


13-0 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


4-0 


5-10 


7-4 


9-0 


10-5 


3-9 


5-6 


6-11 


8-6 


9-10 




Hem-fir 


SS 


6-1 


9-7 


12-4 


15-1 


17-4 


6-1 


9-2 


11-8 


14-2 


15-5 




Hem-fir 


#1 


5-6 


8-0 


10-2 


12-5 


14-5 


5-2 


7-7 


9-7 


11-8 


13-7 




Hem-fir 


#2 


5-2 


7-7 


9-7 


11-9 


13-7 


4-11 


7-2 


9-1 


11-1 


12-10 


19.2 


Hem-fir 


#3 


4-0 


5-10 


7-4 


9-0 


10-5 


3-9 


5-6 


6-11 


8-6 


9-10 


Southern pine 


SS 


6-4 


10-0 


13-2 


16-9 


20-4 


6-4 


10-0 


13-2 


16-5 


19-2 




Southern pine 


#1 


6-3 


9-3 


11-8 


13-10 


16-6 


5-11 


8-9 


11-0 


13-1 


15-7 




Southern pine 


#2 


5-7 


8-1 


10-5 


12-5 


14-7 


5-4 


7-7 


9-10 


11-9 


13-9 




Southern pine 


#3 


4-3 


6-3 


8-0 


9-5 


11-2 


4-0 


5-11 


7-6 


8-10 


10-7 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


6-0 


9-2 


11-8 


14-3 


16-6 


5-11 


8-8 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


5-3 


7-8 


9-9 


11-11 


13-10 


5-0 


7-3 


•9-2 


11-3 


13-0 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


5-3 


7-8 


9-9 


11-11 


13-10 


5-0 


7-3 


9-2 


11-3 


13-0 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


4-0 


5-10 


7-4 


9-0 


10-5 


3-9 


5-6 


6-11 


8-6 


9-10 



(continued) 



262 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE*" 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.5.1 (7)— continued 

RAFTER SPANS FOR 70 PSF GROUND SNOW LOAD 

(Ceiling not attached to rafters, L/A = 180) 



RAFTER 
SPACING 
(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 








lUlaximum rafter spans 


a 








(feet- 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


6-0 


8-10 


11-3 


13-9 


15-11 


5-9 


8-4 


10-7 


12-11 


15-0 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


4-9 


6-11 


8-9 


10-9 


12-5 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


4-8 


6-11 


8-9 


10-8 


12-4 


4-5 


6-6 


8-3 


10-0 


11-8 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


3-7 


5-2 


6-7 


8-1 


9-4 


3-4 


4-11 


6-3 


7-7 


8-10 




Hem-fir 


SS 


5-8 


8-8 


11-0 


13-6 


13-11 


5-7 


8-3 


10-5 


12-4 


12-4 




Hem-fir 


#1 


4-11 


7-2 


9-1 


11-1 


12-10 


4-7 


6-9 


8-7 


10-6 


12-2 




Hem-fir 


#2 


4-8 


6-9 


8-7 


10-6 


12-2 


4-4 


6-5 


8-1 


9-11 


11-6 


24 


Hem-fir 


#3 


3-7 


5-2 


6-7 


8-1 


9-4 


3-4 


4-11 


6-3 


7-7 


8-10 


Southern pine 


SS 


5-11 


9-3 


12-2 


15-7 


18-2 


5-11 


9-3 


12-2 


14-8 


17-2 




Southern pine 


#1 


5-7 


8-3 


10-5 


12-5 


14-9 


5-3 


7-10 


9-10 


11-8 


13-11 




Southern pine 


#2 


5-0 


7-3 


9-4 


11-1 


13-0 


4-9 


6-10 


8-9 


10-6 


12-4 




Southern pine 


#3 


3-9 


5-7 


7-1 


8-5 


10-0 


3-7 


5-3 


6-9 


7-11 


9-5 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


5-6 


8-3 


10-5 


12-9 


14-9 


5-4 


7-9 


9-10 


12-0 


12-11 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


4-8 


6-11 


8-9 


10-8 


12-4 


4-5 


6-6 


8-3 


10-0 


11-8 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


4-8 


6-11 


8-9 


10-8 


12-4 


4-5 


6-6 


8-3 


10-0 


11-8 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


3-7 


5-2 


6-7 


8-1 


9-4 


3-4 


4-11 


6-3 


7-7 


8-10 



Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet. 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa. 

a. The tabulated rafter spans assume that ceiling joists are located at the bottom of the attic space or that some other method of resisting the outward push of the rafters 

on the bearing walls, such as rafter ties, is provided at that location. When ceiling joists or rafter ties are located higher in the attic space, the rafter spans shall be 

multiplied by the factors given below: 



«c/H« 


Rafter Span Adjustment Factor 


1/3 


0.67 


1/4 


0.76 


1/5 


0.83 


1/6 


0.90 


1/7.5 or less 


1.00 



where: 

H(2 = Height of ceiling joists or rafter ties measured vertically above the top of the rafter support walls. 

Hk - Height of roof ridge measured vertically above the top of the rafter support walls. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE'' 



263 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.5.1(8) 

RAFTER SPANS FOR 70 PSF GROUND SNOW LOAD 

(Ceiling attached to rafters, L/A = 240) 



RAFTER 
SPACING 
(inches) 






DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 








Maximum rafter spans 


a 








SPECIES AND GRADE 




(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
Inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


6-10 


10-9 


14-3 


18-2 


22-1 


6-10 


10-9 


14-3 


18-2 


21-2 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


6-7 


10-5 


13-2 


16-1 


18-8 


6-7 


9-10 


12-5 


15-2 


17-7 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


6-6 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 


6-3 


9-2 


11-8 


14-2 


16-6 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


4-9 


6-11 


8-9 


10-9 


12-5 




Hem-fir 


SS 


6-6 


10-2 


13-5 


17-2 


20-10 


6-6 


10-2 


13-5 


17-2 


20-10 




Hem-fir 


#1 


6-4 


10-0 


12-10 


15-8 


18-2 


6-4 


9-7 


12-1 


14-10 


17-2 




Hem-fir 


#2 


6-1 


9-6 


12-2 


14-10 


17-3 


6-1 


9-1 


11-5 


14-0 


16-3 


12 


Hem-fir 


#3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


4-9 


6-11 


8-9 


10-9 


12-5 


Southern pine 


SS 


6-9 


10-7 


14-0 


17-10 


21-8 


6-9 


10-7 


14-0 


17-10 


21-8 




Southern pine 


#1 


6-7 


10-5 


13-8 


17-6 


20-11 


6-7 


10-5 


13-8 


16-6 


19-8 




Southern pine 


#2 


6-6 


10-2 


13-2 


15-9 


18-5 


6-6 


9-7 


12-5 


14-10 


17-5 




Southern pine 


#3 


5-4 


7-11 


10-1 


11-11 


14-2 


5-1 


7-5 


9-6 


11-3 


13-4 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


6-4 


10-0 


13-2 


16-9 


20-5 


6-4 


10-0 


13-2 


16-9 


19-8 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


6-2 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 


6-2 


9-2 


11-8 


14-2 


16-6 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


6-2 


9-9 


12-4 


15-1 


17-6 


6-2 


9-2 


11-8 


14-2 


16-6 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


4-9 


6-11 


8-9 


10-9 


12-5 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


6-3 


9-10 


12-11 


16-6 


19-6 


6-3 


9-10 


12-11 


15-10 


18-4 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


6-0 


9-0 


11-5 


13-11 


16-2 


5-10 


8-6 


10-9 


13-2 


15-3 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


5-9 


8-5 


10-8 


13-1 


15-2 


5-5 


7-11 


10-1 


12-4 


14-3 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


4-4 


6-4 


8-1 


9-10 


U-5 


4-1 


6-0 


7-7 


9-4 


10-9 




Hem-fir 


SS 


5-11 


9-3 


12-2 


15-7 


18-11 


5-11 


9-3 


12-2 


15-7 


18-0 




Hem-fir 


#1 


5-9 


8-9 


11-2 


13-7 


15-9 


5-8 


8-3 


10-6 


12-10 


14-10 




Hem-fir 


#2 


5-6 


8-4 


10-6 


12-10 


14-11 


5-4 


7-10 


9-11 


12-1 


14-1 


16 


Hem-fir 


#3 


4-4 


6-4 


8-1 


9-10 


11-5 


4-1 


6-0 


7-7 


9-4 


10-9 


Southern pine 


SS 


6-1 


9-7 


12-8 


16-2 


19-8 


6-1 


9-7 


12-8 


16-2 


19-8 




Southern pine 


#1 


6-0 


9-5 


12-5 


15-2 


18-1 


6-0 


9-5 


12-0 


14-4 


17-1 




Southern pine 


#2 


5-11 


8-10 


11-5 


13-7 


16-0 


5-10 


8-4 


10-9 


12-10 


15-1 




Southern pine 


#3 


4-8 


6-10 


8-9 


10-4 


12-3 


4-4 


6-5 


8-3 


9-9 


11-7 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


5-9 


9-1 


11-11 


15-3 


18-1 


5-9 


9-1 


11-11 


14-8 


17-1 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


5-8 


8-5 


10-8 


13-1 


15-2 


5-5 


7-11 


10-1 


12-4 


14-3 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


5-8 


8-5 


10-8 


13-1 


15-2 


5-5 


7-11 


10-1 


12-4 


14-3 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


4-4 


6-4 


8-1 


9-10 


11-5 


4-1 


6-0 


7-7 


9-4 


10-9 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


5-10 


9-3 


12-2 


15-4 


17-9 


5-10 


9-3 


11-10 


14-5 


16-9 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


5-7 


8-3 


10-5 


12-9 


14-9 


5-4 


7-9 


9-10 


12-0 


13-11 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


5-3 


7-8 


9-9 


11-11 


13-10 


5-0 


7-3 


9-2 


11-3 


13-0 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


4-0 


5-10 


7-4 


9-0 


10-5 


3-9 


5-6 


6-11 


8-6 


9-10 




Hem-fir 


SS 


5-6 


8-8 


11-6 


14-8 


17-4 


5-6 


8-8 


11-6 


14-2 


15-5 




Hem-fir 


#1 


5-5 


8-0 


10-2 


12-5 


14-5 


5-2 


7-7 


9-7 


11-8 


13-7 




Hem-fir 


#2 


5-2 


7-7 


9-7 


11-9 


13-7 


4-11 


7-2 


9-1 


11-1 


12-10 


19.2 


Hem-fir 


#3 


4-0 


5-10 


7-4 


9-0 


10-5 


3-9 


5-6 


6-11 


8-6 


9-10 


Southern pine 


SS 


5-9 


9-1 


11-11 


15-3 


18-6 


5-9 


9-1 


11-11 


15-3 


18-6 




Southern pine 


#1 


5-8 


8-11 


11-8 


13-10 


16-6 


5-8 


8-9 


11-0 


13-1 


15-7 




Southern pine 


#2 


5-6 


8-1 


10-5 


12-5 


14-7 


5-4 


7-7 


9-10 


11-9 


13-9 




Southern pine 


#3 


4-3 


6-3 


8-0 


9-5 


11-2 


4-0 


5-11 


7-6 


8-10 


10-7 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


5-5 


8-6 


11-3 


14-3 


16-6 


5-5 


8-6 


11-0 


13-5 


15-7 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


5-3 


7-8 


9-9 


11-11 


13-10 


5-0 


7-3 


9-2 


11-3 


13-0 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


5-3 


7-8 


9-9 


11-11 


13-10 


5-0 


7-3 


9-2 


11-3 


13-0 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


4-0 


5-10 


7-4 


9-0 


10-5 


3-9 


5-6 


6-11 


8-6 


9-10 



(continued) 



264 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.5.1 (8)— continued 

RAFTER SPANS FOR 70 PSF GROUND SNOW LOAD^ 

(Ceiling attached to rafters, L/A = 240) 



RAFTER 
SPACING 
(inches) 


SPECIES AND GRADE 


DEAD LOAD = 10 psf 


DEAD LOAD = 20 psf 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 


2x4 


2x6 


2x8 


2x10 


2x12 








Maximum rafter spans 


a 








(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 


(feet - 
inches) 




Douglas fir-larch 


SS 


5-5 


8-7 


11-3 


13-9 


15-11 


5-5 


8-4 


10-7 


12-11 


15-0 




Douglas fir-larch 


#1 


5-0 


7-4 


9-4 


11-5 


13-2 


4-9 


6-11 


8-9 


10-9 


12-5 




Douglas fir-larch 


#2 


4-8 


6-11 


8-9 


10-8 


12-4 


4-5 


6-6 


8-3 


10-0 


11-8 




Douglas fir-larch 


#3 


3-7 


5-2 


6-7 


8-1 


9-4 


3-4 


4-11 


6-3 


7-7 


8-10 




Hem-fir 


SS 


5-2 


8-1 


10-8 


13-6 


13-11 


5-2 


8-1 


10-5 


12-4 


12-4 




Hem-fir 


#1 


4-11 


7-2 


9-1 


11-1 


12-10 


4-7 


6-9 


8-7 


10-6 


12-2 




Hem-fir 


#2 


4-8 


6-9 


8-7 


10-6 


12-2 


4-4 


6-5 


8-1 


9-11 


11-6 


24 


Hem-fir 


#3 


3-7 


5-2 


6-7 


8-1 


9-4 


3-4 


4-11 


6-3 


7-7 


8-10 


Southern pine 


SS 


5-4 


8-5 


11-1 


14-2 


17-2 


5-4 


8-5 


11-1 


14-2 


17-2 




Southern pine 


#1 


5-3 


8-3 


10-5 


12-5 


14-9 


5-3 


7-10 


9-10 


11-8 


13-11 




Southern pine 


#2 


5-0 


7-3 


9-4 


11-1 


13-0 


4-9 


6-10 


8-9 


10-6 


12-4 




Southern pine 


#3 


3-9 


5-7 


7-1 


8-5 


10-0 


3-7 


5-3 


6-9 


7-11 


9-5 




Spruce-pine-fir 


SS 


5-0 


7-11 


10-5 


12-9 


14-9 


5-0 


7-9 


9-10 


12-0 


12-11 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#1 


4-8 


6-11 


8-9 


10-8 


12-4 


4-5 


6-6 


8-3 


10-0 


11-8 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#2 


4-8 


6-11 


8-9 


10-8 


12-4 


4-5 


6-6 


8-3 


10-0 


11-8 




Spruce-pine-fir 


#3 


3-7 


5-2 


6-7 


8-1 


9-4 


3-4 


4-11 


6-3 


7-7 


8-10 



Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet. 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa. 

a. The tabulated rafter spans assume that ceiling joists are located at the bottom of the attic space or that some other method of resisting 

on the bearing walls, such as rafter ties, is provided at that location. When ceiling joists or rafter ties are located higher in the attic 

multiplied by the factors given below: 



: the outward push of the rafters 
space, the rafter spans shall be 



Mc/H, 


Rafter Span Adjustment Factor 


1/3 


0.67 


1/4 


0.76 


1/5 


0.83 


1/6 


0.90 


1/7.5 or less 


1.00 



where: 

7/^ = Height of ceiling joists or rafter ties measured vertically above the top of the rafter support walls. 

H[{ = Height of roof ridge measured vertically above the top of the rafter support walls. 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE^ 



265 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE R802.5.1(9) 
RAFTER/CEILING JOIST HEEL JOINT CONNECTIONS^"'' ''^'a 



RAFTER 
SLOPE 


RAFTER 
SPACING 
(inches) 


GROUND SNOW LOAD (psf) 


30 


50 


70 


Roof span (feet) 


12 


20 


28 


36 


12 20 


28 


36 


12 


20 


28 


36 


Required number of 16d common nails^''' per heel joint splices''''''^'' 




12 


4 


6 


8 


11 


5 


8 


12 


15 


6 


11 


15 


20 


3:12 


16 


5 


8 


11 


14 


6 


11 


15 


20 


8 


14 


20 


26 




24 


7 


11 


16 


21 


9 


16 


23 


30 


12 


21 


30 


39 




12 


3 


5 


6 


8 


4 


6 


9 


11 


5 


8 


12 


15 


4:12 


16 


4 


6 


8 


11 


5 


8 


12 


15 


6 


11 


15 


20 




24 


5 


9 


12 


16 


7 


12 


17 


22 


9 


16 


23 


29 




12 


3 


4 


5 


7 


3 


5 


7 


9 


4 


7 


9 


12 


5:12 


16 


3 


5 


7 


9 


4 


7 


9 


12 


5 


9 


12 


16 




24 


4 


7 


10 


13 


6 


10 


14 


18 


7 


13 


18 


23 




12 


3 


3 


4 


5 


3 


4 


5 


7 


3 


5 


7 


9 


7:12 


16 


3 


4 


5 


6 


3 


5 


7 


9 


4 


6 


9 


11 




24 


3 


5 


7 


9 


4 


7 


10 


13 


5 


9 


13 


17 




12 


3 


3 


3 


4 


3 


3 


4 


5 


3 


4 


5' 


7 


9:12 


16 


3 


3 


4 


5 


3 


4 


5 


7 


3 


5 


7 


9 




24 


3 


4 


6 


7 


3 


6 


8 


10 


4 


7 


10 


13 




12 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


■ 3 


3 


4 


3 


3 


4 


5 


12:12 


16 


3 


3 


3 


4 


3 


3 


4 


5 


3 


4 


5 


7 




24 


3 


3 


4 


6 


3 


4 


6 


8 


3 


6 


8 


10 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa. 

a. 40d box nails shall be permitted to be substituted for 16d common nails. 

b. Nailing requirements shall be permitted to be reduced 25 percent if nails are clinched. 

c. Heel joint connections are not required when the ridge is supported by a load-bearing vaW, header or ridge beam. 

d. When intermediate support of the rafter is provided by vertical struts or purlins to a loadbearing wall, the tabulated heel joint connection requirements shall be per- 
mitted to be reduced proportionally to the reduction in span. 

e. Equivalent nailing patterns are required for ceiling joist to ceiling joist lap splices. 

f. When rafter ties are substituted for ceiling joists, the heel joint connection requirement shall be taken as the tabulated heel joint connection requirement for 
two-thirds of the actual rafter-slope. 

g. Tabulated heel joint connection requirements assume that ceiling joists or rafter ties are located at the bottom of the attic space. When ceiling joists or rafter ties are 
located higher in the attic, heel joint connection requirements shall be increased by the following factors: 



Wc/«fl 


Heel Joint Connection 
Adjustment Factor 


1/3 


1.5 


1/4 


1.33 


1/5 


1.25 


1/6 


1.2 


1/10 or less 


1.11 



where: 

H(^ = Height of ceiling joists or rafter ties measured vertically above the top of the rafter support walls. 

Hif - Height of roof ridge measured vertically above the top of the rafter support walls. 



266 



2006 INTERNATIONAL RESIDElilTIAL CODE 



ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



RAFTER SPAN- 
SEE TABLES R802.5. 1(1) 
THROUGH R802.5.1(8) 




RIDGE BOARD 



PURLIN CONTINUOUS 
BETWEEN SUPPORT, 
BRACES 



TOP PLATE- 



NAIL TO JOIST 



V- 



i^ 



2 IN. X 4 IN. PURLIN 

SUPPORT BRACE 

AT4FT. O.C. 



BEARING 
PARTITIONS 



V- 



CEILING JOIST*- 
SEE TABLES R802.4(1) 
AND R802.4(2) 



N- 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 d^ree = 0.018 rad. 

NOTE: Where ceihng joints run perpendicular to the rafters, rafter ties shall be nailed to each rafter near the top of the ceiling joist. 

FIGURE R802.5.1 
BRACED RAFTER CONSTRUCTION 



R802. 10.2.1 Applicability limits. The provisions of this 
section shall control the design of truss roof framing 
when snow controls for buildings not greater than 60 feet 
(1 8 288 mm) in length perpendicular to the joist, rafter or 
truss span, not greater than 36 feet (10 973 mm) in width 
parallel to the joist span or truss, not greater than two sto- 
ries in height with each story not greater than 10 feet 
(3048 mm) high, and roof slopes not smaller than 3:12 
(25-percent slope) or greater than 12:12 (100-percent 
slope). Truss roof framing constructed in accordance 
with the provisions of this section shall be limited to sites 
subjected to a maximum design wind speed of 1 10 miles 
per hour (49 m/s). Exposure A, B or C, and a maximum 
ground snow load of 70 psf (3352 Pa). Roof snow load is 
to be computed as: 0.7 p^. 

R802.10.3 Bracing. Trusses shall be braced to prevent rota- 
tion and provide lateral stability in accordance with the 
requirements specified in the construction documents for 
the building and on the individual truss design drawings. In 
the absence of specific bracing requirements, trusses shall 
be braced in accordance with the Building Component 
Safety Information (BCSI 1-03) Guide to Good Practice for 
Handling, Installing & Bracing of Metal Plate Connected 
Wood Trusses. 

R802.10.4 Alterations to trusses. Truss members shall not 
be cut, notched, drilled, spliced or otherwise altered in any 



way without the approval of a registered design professional. 
Alterations resulting in the addition of load (e.g., HVAC 
equipment, water heater) that exceeds the design load for the 
truss shall not be permitted without verification that the truss 
is capable of supporting such additional loading. 

R802.10.5 Truss to wall connection. Trusses shall be con- 
nected to wall plates by the use of approved connectors having 
a resistance to uplift of not less than 175 pounds (779 N) and 
shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's speci- 
fications. For roof assemblies subject to wind uplift pressures 
of 20 pounds per square foot (960 Pa) or greater, as estabUshed 
in Table R301 .2(2), adjusted for height and exposure per Table 
R301.2(3), see section R802.il. 

R802.il Roof tie-down. 

R802.11.1 Uplift resistance. Roof assembUes which are sub- 
ject to wind uplift pressures of 20 pounds per square foot (960 
Pa) or greater