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Full text of "City of St. Louis Building Code"

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w 5"^. Low/5 City Revised Code Chapter 25.01 



St. Louis City Revised Code (annotated) has been converted to electronic format by the staff 
of the St. Louis Pubhc Library. This electronic version has been done for the interest and 
convenience of the user. These are unofficial versions and should be used as unofficial copies. 

Official printed copies of St. Louis City Revised Code may be obtained from the Register's 
Office at the St. Louis City Hall. 



Chapter 25.01 
BUILDING CODE 

Sections: 

25.01.010 Adopted. 

25 .01 .020 Amendments. 

25.01.030 Chapter 1-Deleted and replaced. 

25.01.040 Section 202.0-Amended. 

25.01.050 Section 203.0- Added. 

25.01.060 Section 301.2-Added. 

25.01.070 Section 305 .2- Amended. 

25.01.080 Section 308.2-Amended. 

25.01.090 Sections 308.3 and 3 08 .3.1 -Amended. 

25.01.100 Sections 308.5 through 3 08 .5 .2- Amended. 

25.01.110 Section 3 10.1 -Amended. 

25.01.120 Section 310.3-Added. 

25.01.130 Section 4 15. 7 .2- Amended. 

25.01.140 Section 419-Added. 

25.01.150 Section 420-Added. 

25.01.160 Table 704. 8 -Amended. 

25.01.170 Section 90 1.2- Amended. 

25.01.180 Section 90 1.2.1 -Added. 

25.01.190 Section 903 .2- Amended. 

25.01.200 Section 903 .3 .5. 1.1 -Amended. 



25.01.210 Section 907 .9. 1.3 -Added. 

25.01.220 Section 1009.1 --Amended. 

25.01.230 Section 1009. 3 -Amended. 

25.01.240 Section 1009.11 -Amended. 

25.01.250 Section 1009. 11.1 -Amended. 

25.01.260 Section 1009. 12- Amended. 

25.01.270 Section 1012.6-Added. 

25.01.280 Section 1016.1 -Amended. 

25.01.290 Section 1025.1 -Amended. 

25.01.300 Section 1102-Amended. 

25.01.310 Section 1103.1.1-Added. 

25.01.320 Sections 1103.3 and 1103.4-Added. 

25.01.330 Section 11 04.1 -Amended. 

25.01.340 Section 11 07 .4- Amended. 

25.01.350 Section 1109.2-Amended. 

25.01.360 Section 1009. 2. 1.6- Amended. 

25.01.370 Section 1205 .2 .3 -Added. 

25.01.380 Section 1406. 3 -Amended. 

25.01.390 Section 15 10.1 -Amended. 

25.01.400 Sections 1510.4.1 and 15 10. 4. 2- Added. 

25.01.410 Section 1603. 1.3.1 -Added. 

25.01.420 Section 1603. 1.4.1 -Added. 

25.01.430 Section 1603. 1.5.1 -Added. 

25.01.440 Section 1607. 14- Added. 

25.01.450 Section 1614.6-Added. 

25.01.460 Section 1615.1 -Amended. 

25.01.470 Section 1615. 1.4- Amended. 

25.01.480 Section 1617. 6. 1.1 -Amended. 

25.01.490 Section 161 3. 1.3- Amended. 

25.01.500 Section 1703 .7 .2- Amended. 

25.01.510 Section 1703 .7 .3 -Added. 

25.01.520 Sections 1803.7 and 1803 .7.1 -Added. 

25.01.530 Section 1804. 1.2- Added. 

25.01.540 Section 1805 .2.1 -Amended. 

25.01.550 Section 1806.2-Added. 

25.01.560 Chapter 27-Deleted. 

25.01.570 Chapter 29-Deleted. 

25.01.580 Section 3 003 .2.1 -Amended. 

25.01.590 Sections 3007 and 3008-Added. 

25.01.600 Sections 3108.6 and 3 108 .6.1 -Added. 

25.01.610 Sections 3109.1.1 and 3 109. 1.2- Added. 

25.01.620 Sections 3110 and 3111-Added. 

25.01.630 Section 3112-Added. 

25.01.640 Section 3 202. 1.1 -Amended. 

25.01.650 Section 3 202 .3. 1.1 -Added. 

25.01.660 Section 3202.3.2 amended-Section 3202.3.2.1 added. 

25.01.670 Sections 3205.1 through 3206.1-Added. 

25.01.680 Chapter 34-Deleted. 



25.01 .690 Chapter 35-Amended. ---v--"--:r ^- --"-■ :— :r ^- —- 

25.01.700 Section G 103 .9-- Added. 

25.01.710 Section G201.2-Added. 

25.01.720 Section HI 01. 2- Amended. 

25.01.730 Sections H101.3 through H101.5-Added. 

25.01.740 Section HI 14.1 -Amended. 

25.01 .750 Penalty for violation. 

* Prior ordinance history: 

Ords. 50502, 56797, 57023, 57236, 57245, 57301, 57551, 57680, 57857, 58032, 60604, 
63610, 63703, 63908, 64178, 64655, 64677-64681, 64771, 65204, 65481 and 65925. 

25.01.010 Adopted. 

The International Building Code, 2003, third printing, as published by the International 
Code Council, Inc., three copies of which are filed on record in the Office of the 
Register of the City of Saint Louis, being marked and designated as the International 
Building Code, including Appendix Chapters E, F, G, H, I and J be and is hereby 
adopted as "The Building Code of the City of Saint Louis, in the State of Missouri" 
pursuant to the ordinance codified in this chapter and in conformity with Section 71.943 
RSMo for the control of buildings and structures as herein provided; and that each and 
all of the regulations, provisions, penalties, conditions and terms of said International 
Building Code are hereby referred to, adopted and made a part hereto, as if fully set out 
in this chapter with the additions, insertions, deletions and changes prescribed in this 
chapter. (Ord. 66790 § 2, 2005.) 

25.01 .020 Amendments. 

The International Building Code, 2003, third printing, is amended and changed in the 
following respects as set out in this chapter. (Ord. 66790 § 3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.030 Chapter 1--Deleted and replaced. 

Delete Chapter 1 as published in its entirety. Add new Chapter 1 to read as follows: 

CHAPTER 1 
ADMINISTRATION 

SECTION 101 
GENERAL 

101.1 Title. These regulations shall be known as the Building Code of the City of Saint 
Louis, hereinafter referred to as "this code." 

101.2 Scope. The provisions of this code shall control matters concerning grading, 
excavation, new construction, or the alteration, addition, repair, replacement, removal, 
demolition, location, change of occupancy, use and maintenance of all buildings, 
structures or premises, including floating structures (which are supported partially or 
entirely by water and are permanently moored at one location) in the City of Saint 
Louis; except as such matters are otherwise provided for in the Charter of the City of 



Saint Louis, or other ordinances, or statutes, or in the rules and regulations authorized 
for promulgation under the provisions of this code. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Detached one- and twoB family dwellings and multiple family dwellings 
(townhouses) not more than three stories above grade plane in height with a 
separate means of egress and their accessory struc- tures shall comply with 
the International Residential Code. 

2. Existing buildings undergoing repair, alterations or additions and change 
of occupancy shall be permitted to comply with the International Existing 
Building Code. 

101.2.1 Appendices. Provisions in the appendices shall not apply unless specifically 
adopted. 

101.3 Intent. The purpose of this code is to establish the minimum requirements to 
safeguard the public health, safety and general welfare through structural strength, 
means of egress facilities, stability, sanitation, adequate light and ventilation, energy 
conservation, and safety to life and property from fire and other hazards attributed to the 
built environment and to provide a reasonable level of safety to fire fighters and 
emergency responders during emergency operations. 

101.4 Referenced codes. The other codes listed in Sections 101.4.1 through 101.4.6 and 
referenced elsewhere in this code shall be considered part of the requirements of this 
code to the prescribed extent of each such reference. 

101.4.1 Electrical. The provisions of the National Electrical Code as adopted by the City 
of Saint Louis shall apply to the installation of electrical systems, including alterations, 
repairs, replacement, equipment, appliances, fixtures, fittings and appurtenances thereto. 

101.4.2 Gas. The provisions of the International Fuel Gas Code shall apply to the 
installation of gas piping from the point of delivery, gas appliances and related 
accessories as covered in this code. These requirements apply to gas piping systems 
extending from the point of delivery to the inlet connections of appliances and the 
installation and operation of residential and commercial gas appliances and related 
accessories. 

101.4.3 Mechanical. The provisions of the International Mechanical Code shall apply to 
the installation, alteration, repair, and replacement of mechanical systems, including 
equipment, appliances, fixtures, fittings and/or appurtenances, including ventilating, 
heating, cooling, air-conditioning and refrigeration systems, incinerators, and other 
energy-related systems. 

101.4.4 Plumbing. The provisions of the Uniform Plumbing Code as adopted by the 
City of Saint Louis shall apply to the installation, alteration, repair and replacement of 
plumbing systems, including equipment, appliances, fixtures, fittings and appurtenances, 
and where connected to a water or sewage system and all aspects of a medical gas 
system. 



101.4.5 Property maintenance. The provisions of the International Property Maintenance 
Code shall apply to existing structures and premises; equipment and facilities; light, 
ventilation, space heating, sanitation, life and fire safety, hazards; responsibility of 
owners, operators and occupants; and occupancy of existing premises and structures. 

101.4.6 Fire prevention. The provisions of the International Fire Code shall apply to 
matters affecting or relating to structures, processes and premises from the hazard of fire 
and explosion arising from the storage, handling or use of structures, materials or 
devices; from conditions hazardous to life, property of public welfare in the occupancy 
of structures or premises; and from the construction, extension, repair, alteration or 
removal of fire suppression and alarm systems or fire hazards in the structure or on the 
premises from occupancy or operation. 

SECTION 102 
APPLICABILITY 

102.1 General. Where, in any specific case, different sections of this code specify 
different materials, methods of construction or other requirements, the most restrictive 
shall govern. Where there is a conflict between a general requirement and a specific 
requirement, the specific requirement shall be applicable. 

102.2 Other laws. The provisions of this code shall not be deemed to nullify any 
provisions of local, state or federal law. 

102.3 Application of references. References to chapter or section numbers, or to 
provisions not specifically identified by number, shall be construed to refer to such 
chapter, section or provision of this code. 

102.4 Referenced codes and standards. The codes and standards referenced in this code 
shall be considered part of the requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of each 
such reference. Where differences occur between provisions of this code and referenced 
standards, the provisions of this code shall apply. Reference standards shall be permitted 
to be updated by rule making authority of the code official. 

102.4.1 Appendices. Provisions in the appendices shall not apply unless specifically 
referenced in the adopting ordinance. 

102.5 Partial invalidity. In the event any part or provision of this code is held to be 
illegal or void, this shall not have the effect of making void or illegal any of the other 
parts or provisions. 

102.6 Existing structures. The legal occupancy of any structure existing on the date of 
the adoption of this code shall be permitted to continue without change, except as is 
specifically covered in this code, the International Property Maintenance Code or the 
International Fire Code, or as deemed necessary by the code official for the general 
safety and welfare of the occupants and the public. 

No building or structure shall be constructed, extended, repaired, removed, altered or 
occupied in violation of these provisions, except for repairs as defined in Section 
105.2.2, and except further that the raising, lowering or moving of a building or 



structure as a unit necessitated by a change in legal grade or widening of a street shall be 
permitted, provided the building or structure is not otherwise altered or its occupancy 
changed. Political subdivisions of the State of Missouri, including but not limited to, the 
Board of Education, Metropolitan Sewer District, the Saint Louis Housing Authority, 
Saint Louis Police Department, Metro, Planned Industrial Expansion, Land Clearance 
Redevelopment Authority, Land Reutilization Authority, Saint Louis Development 
Corporation and the Regional Convention and Sports Complex Authority are covered 
under the provisions of this code for all property within the city limits. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Structures owned and occupied by the United States of America or the 
State of Missouri. 

2. City of Saint Louis owned property located outside of the City Limits. 

3. Existing building occupancies that are licensed by the State of Missouri as 
family child care homes providing home day care, as specified in Section 
310.3. 

4. Structures located within cemetery boundaries which are less than one 
thousand square feet in area and less than twenty feet in height, measured 
from grade to the highest point. 

5. Laying or relaying of railroad trackage sidings and their appurtenant 
signals, culverts and structures. 

102.7 Matters not provided for. Any requirements that are essential for structural, fire or 
sanitary safety of an existing or proposed building or structure, or for the safety of the 
occupants thereof, and which are not specifically provided for by this code, shall be 
determined by the code official. 

The code official shall be permitted to delegate to the Department of the President, 
Board of Public Service, responsibility for code compliance inspections on projects 
within the City Limits let by the Board of Public Service or let as an Emergency 
Agreement. If such delegation is made, that office shall certify in writing to the code 
official at the completion of the project that they did inspect and believe the project to 
comply with the code. 

102.7.1 Additions, alterations or repairs. Additions, alterations or repairs to any structure 
shall conform to that required for a new structure without requiring the existing structure 
to comply with all of the requirements of this code, unless otherwise stated. Additions, 
alterations or repairs shall not cause an existing structure to become unsafe or adversely 
affect the performance of the building. 

102.8 Other regulations. When the provisions specified herein for public safety, health 
and welfare are in conflict with other regulations, the most rigid requirements of either 
the Building Code or other regulations shall apply whenever they conflict. However, the 
code official shall not be the enforcement officer for such other ordinances or 
regulations unless specified in said ordinances or regulations. 



102.9 Buildings, structures or premises partly within city limits. When a building, 
structure or premises is constructed partly within the City and partly within County 
Limits, the Building Commissioner shall be authorized to enter into agreements with the 
adjoining code jurisdictions to avoid duplications of inspections, fees and permits. 

SECTION 103 

DIVISION OF BUILDING AND INSPECTION 

103.1 Creation of enforcement agency. There is hereby created the Division of Building 
and Inspection. The Division shall consist of the following sections to include, but not 
be limited to: Administration Section, Building Inspection Section, Central File Section, 
Court Section. Electrical Inspection Section, Mechanical Inspection Section, Permit 
Section, Plan Exam Section, Plumbing Inspection Section and Zoning Section. 

103.2 Building commissioner. The head of the Division of Building and Inspection shall 
be known as the Building Commissioner, in accordance with Section 15, Article 13 of 
the Charter of the City of Saint Louis. 

103.2.1 Appointment; qualifications. The Building Commissioner, also herein referred 
to as the code official, shall be a Missouri licensed professional architect or engineer, 
and shall be appointed by the Director of Public Safety, and shall possess the necessary 
qualifications established by the Department of Personnel of the City of Saint Louis. 

103.3 Organization. The code official shall appoint such numbers of architects, 
engineers, technical assistants, inspectors and other employees such as clerks, typists 
and cashiers, as shall be necessary for the administration of the codes governed by this 
ordinance, and as authorized by the code official in conformance with Civil Service 
qualifications and regulations. The code official shall be permitted to delegate 
appropriate subordinates to act in the exercise of the duties of this code, and they also 
shall be designated as code officials. The code official is authorized to designate 
employees as needed who shall exercise all the powers of the code official during the 
temporary absence or disability of the code official. 

103.4 Restriction of employees. An official or employee connected with the Division of 
Building and Inspection, except one whose only connection is that of a member of the 
Board of Appeals, established under the provisions of Section 112, shall not be engaged 
in or directly or indirectly connected with the furnishing of labor, materials or 
appliances for the construction, alteration or maintenance of a building, or the 
preparation of construction documents thereof, unless that person is the owner of the 
building, or a first degree relative of the owner of the building; nor shall such officer or 
employee engage in any work which conflicts with official duties or with the interests of 
the Division of Building and Inspection. 

Further, no Building Division employee shall be employed by or serve as an employee 
of any other division within the city service unless a formal request is made by the 
Building Commissioner to and approved by the appointing authority of that division. 

103.5 Relief from personal responsibility. The code official or employee charged with 
the enforcement of this code, while acting for the jurisdiction, shall not thereby be 
rendered liable personally, and is hereby relieved from all personal liability for any 



damage accruing to persons or property as a result of any act required or permitted in the 
discharge of official duties. Any suit instituted against any employee because of an act 
performed by that person in the lawful discharge of duties and under the provisions of 
this code shall be defended by the City of Saint Louis City Counselor= s Office until the 
final termination of the proceedings. The code official or any subordinates shall not be 
liable for costs or judgement in any action, suit or proceeding that is instituted in 
pursuance of the provisions of this code; and any employee of the Division of Building 
and Inspection, acting in good faith and without malice, shall be free from liability for 
acts performed under any of its provisions or by reason of any act or omission in the 
performance of official duties in connection therewith. 

The above protection shall also extend to former employees for work performed during 
their period of employment with the City of Saint Louis. 

103.6 Official records. An official record shall be kept of all business and activities of 
the department specified in the provisions of this code, and all such records shall be 
open to public inspection at all appropriate times. 

A reasonable charge shall be established for making copies of documents. If staff time is 
required to assemble requested data, an estimate shall be made of personnel charges, 
including fringe benefits, and a signed agreement made prior to undertaking such 
projects. The Division of Building and Inspection is not obligated to assemble data into 
formats that it does not use or need in the ordinary prosecution of its work. 

Further, whenever any person, firm or corporation requests a comprehensive historical 
investigation of the Division of Building and Inspection records relating to building or 
occupancy permits, an application fee of twenty-five dollars shall be charged, as 
specified in Section 108.2.1, in addition to all other fees as provided in other sections of 
this code. 

SECTION 104 

DUTIES AND POWERS OF CODE OFFICIAL 

104.1 General. The code official is hereby authorized and directed to enforce the 
provisions of this code. The code official shall have the authority to render 
interpretations of this code and adopt policies and procedures in order to clarify the 
application of its provisions. Such interpretations, policies and procedures shall be in 
compliance with the intent and purpose of this code. Such policies and procedures shall 
not have the effect of waiving requirements specifically provided for in this code. 

104.1.1 Rule making authority. The code official shall have authority as necessary in the 
interest of public health, safety and general welfare, to adopt and promulgate rules and 
regulations to interpret and implement the provisions of this code to secure the intent 
thereof, and to designate requirements applicable because of local climatic or other 
conditions. Such rules shall not have the effect of waiving structural or fire performance 
requirements specifically provided for in this code or violating accepted engineering 
practice involving public safety. 

104.1.2 Accepted engineering practice. In the absence of provisions not specifically 
contained in this code or approved rules, the regulations, specifications and standards 



listed in Chapter 35, Referenced Standards, shall be deemed to represent accepted 
engineering practice in respect to the material, equipment, system or method of 
construction therein specified. 

104.2 Applications and permits. The code official shall receive applications, review 
construction documents, issue or deny permits for the erection, alteration, demolition, 
moving or occupancy of buildings, structures or premises, inspect the premises for 
which such permits have been issued, and enforce compliance with the provisions of this 
code. 

104.2.1 Preliminary meeting. When requested by the permit applicant, the code official 
shall meet with the permit applicant to discuss plans for the proposed work or change of 
occupancy prior to the application for a permit in order to establish the specific 
applicability of the provisions of this code. 

104.2.1.1 Building evaluation. The code official is authorized to require an existing 
building to be investigated and evaluated by a licensed design professional to determine 
the existence of any potential nonconformance with the provisions of this code. 

104.3 Notices and orders. The code official shall issue all necessary notices or orders to 
insure compliance with this code. 

104.4 Inspections. The code official shall make all of the required inspections, or the 
code official shall have the authority to accept reports of inspection by approved 
agencies or individuals. Reports of such inspections shall be in writing and certified by a 
responsible officer of such approved agency or by the responsible individual. The code 
official is authorized to engage such expert opinion as deemed necessary to report upon 
unusual technical issues that arise, subject to the approval of the appointing authority. 
The owner shall provide such special inspections as are required by the code official. 

104.5 Identification. The code official shall carry proper identification when inspecting 
buildings, structures or premises in the performance of duties under this code. 

104.6 Right of entry. Where it is necessary to make an inspection to enforce the 
provisions of this code, or where the code official has reasonable cause to believe that 
there exists in a structure or upon a premises a condition which is contrary to or in 
violation of this code which makes the structure or premises unsafe, dangerous or 
hazardous, the code official is authorized to enter the structure or premises at reasonable 
times to inspect or perform the duties imposed by this code, provided that if such 
structure be occupied that credentials be presented to the occupant and entry requested. 
If such structure or premises be unoccupied, the code official shall first make a 
reasonable effort to locate the owner or other person having charge or control of the 
structure or premises and request entry. If entry is refused, the code official shall 
recourse to the remedies provided by law to secure entry. 

104.6.1 Disasters. In the event of a disaster such as windstorm, tornado, flood, fire 
earthquake, bomb blast or explosion, the code official is hereby authorized to enter and 
inspect structures within the affected area, subject to constitutional restrictions on 
unreasonable searches and seizures. When, in the opinion of the code official, there is 
imminent danger to an unsafe condition, the code official shall take emergency measures 



in accordance with this code. If the code official determines, after inspection, that a 
structure is unfit, the code official shall declare it a public nuisance, cause a report to be 
prepared and notify the affected parties in accordance with this code. 

104.6.1.1 Post-disaster inspections. The code official is authorized to deputize Missouri 
Structural Assessment and Visual Evaluation (SAVE) Volunteer Inspectors certified by 
the Missouri State Emergency Management Agency (SEMA) to conduct emergency 
post-disaster safety evaluations of buildings. 

104.7 Liability. The code official, member of the Board of Appeals or employee charged 
with the enforcement of this code, while acting for the jurisdiction in good faith and 
without malice in the discharge of the duties required by this code or other pertinent law 
or ordinance, shall not thereby be rendered liable personally, and is hereby relieved from 
personal liability for any damage accruing to persons or property as a result of any act or 
by reason of an act or omission in the discharge of official duties. Any suit instituted 
against an officer or employee because of an act performed by that officer or employee 
in the lawful discharge of duties and under the provisions of this code shall be defended 
by the City of Saint Louis City Counselor= s Office until the final termination of the 
proceedings. The code official or any subordinates shall not be liable for costs or 
judgement in any action, suit or proceeding that is instituted in pursuance of the 
provisions of this code; and any employee of the Division of Building and Inspection, 
acting in good faith and without malice, shall be free from liability for acts performed 
under any of its provisions or by reason of any act or omission in the performance of 
official duties in connection therewith. 

The above protection shall also extend to former employees for work performed during 
their period of employment with the City of Saint Louis. 

104.8 Approved materials and equipment. Materials, equipment and devices approved 
by the code official shall be constructed and installed in accordance with such approval. 

104.8.1 Used materials and equipment. The use of used materials which meet the 
requirements of this code for new materials is permitted. Used equipment and devices 
shall not be reused unless they have been reconditioned, tested and placed in good and 
proper working condition and approved by the code official. 

104.9 Modifications. Wherever there are practical difficulties involved in carrying out 
provisions of this code, the code official shall have the authority to grant modifications 
for individual cases, upon application of the owner or owner= s representative, provided 
the code official shall first find that special individual reason makes the strict letter of 
this code impractical and the modification is in compliance with the intent and purpose 
of this code and that such modification does not lessen health, accessibility, life and fire 
safety, or structural requirements. The details of action granting modifications shall be 
recorded and entered in the files of the Department of Public Safety. 

104.9.1 Areas prone to flooding. The code official shall not grant modifications related 
to areas prone to flooding without the granting of a variance to such provisions by the 
Board of Building Appeals. 

104.10 Alternative materials, design and methods of construction and equipment. The 



provisions of this code are not intended to prevent the installation of any material or to 
prohibit any design or method of construction not specifically prescribed by this code, 
provided any such alternative has been approved. An alternative material, design or 
method of construction shall be approved where the code official finds that the proposed 
design is satisfactory and complies with the intent of the provisions of this code, and that 
the material, method or work offered is, for the purpose intended, at least the equivalent 
of that prescribed in this code in quality, strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, 
durability and safety. 

104.10.1 Research reports. Supporting data, where necessary to assist in the approval of 
materials or assemblies not specifically provided for in this code, shall consist of valid 
research reports from approved sources. 

104.10.2 Tests. Whenever there is insufficient evidence of compliance with the 
provisions of this code, or evidence that a material or method does not conform to the 
requirements of this code, or in order to substantiate claims for alternative materials or 
methods, the code official shall have the authority to require tests as evidence of 
compliance to be made at no expense to the jurisdiction. Test methods shall be as 
specified in this code or by other recognized test standards. In the absence of recognized 
and accepted test methods, the code official shall approve the testing procedures. Tests 
shall be performed by an approved agency. Reports of such tests shall be retained by the 
code official for the period required for the retention of public records. 

104.10.3 Research and investigations. The code official shall require that sufficient 
technical data be submitted to substantiate the proposed use of any material or assembly, 
and if it is determined that the evidence submitted is satisfactory proof of performance 
for the use intended, the code official shall approve its use subject to the requirements of 
this code. The costs of all tests, reports and investigations required under these 
provisions shall be paid by the applicant or owner. 

104.11 Annual report. The Building Commissioner shall submit to the Director of Public 
Safety a written annual report. 

SECTION 105 
PERMITS 

105.1 Required. Any owner who intends to perform site grading, excavate, construct, 
enlarge, alter, make non-ordinary repairs to, move or demolish a building, or structure; 
or change the occupancy of a building, structure or premises from one use group to 
another; or to change to a prohibited use; or to cause any such work to be done, or to use 
explosives for blasting in connection with demolition, excavation, construction or other 
building operation, shall first make application to the code official and obtain the 
required permit. 

Exception: No permit shall be issued to repair any building or structure condemned in 
accordance with Section 118 or Section 119 if such building or structure is included in 
an executed contract for demolition between the City of Saint Louis and a demolition 
contractor. 

105.1.1 Preservation Board permit requirements. When the ordinances of the Cultural 



Resources Office of the Planning and Urban Design Agency (CRO) require a permit for 
items for which this code does not require a permit, applications shall be permitted to be 
taken by the Building Division and processed solely to the Cultural Resources Office. 
Both the Building Commissioner and the Cultural Resources Office Director are 
authorized to place stop work orders. Any appeals or court actions resulting from such 
citations, applications or permits shall have technical and aesthetic testimony from the 
Preservation Board and the staff of the Cultural Resources Office. 

105.1.2 Cultural Resources Office denial. Unless overruled by the Building 
Commissioner as a result of an emergency situation, or the Planning and Urban Design 
Commission, a denial from the Preservation Board shall be the final denial; no further 
notice from the code official shall be required to any person. 

105.2 Work exempt from permit. The following types of construction work, for all 
Groups covered under this Ordinance, unless otherwise noted, shall be considered as 
ordinary repairs or minor work for which a building permit is not required. 

Exceptions: 

1 . A Flood Plain Development Permit is still required to be obtained if the 
site is located in the flood plain areas defined by FEMA. 

2. Ordinary repairs or minor work to residential buildings and structures up 
to four units, which fall under the purview of the Cultural Resource Office 
requiring a "Cultural Resource Office Only" permits. 

01. Tuckpointing, exterior and interior painting, floor sanding and refinishing, 
floor tile or carpeting, replacement of flooring with like material, application 
of wall paper and other wall covering material, moveable cases, counters and 
partitions, and cabinet installation, counter tops and similar finish work; 

02. Plaster patching and/or gypsum board replacement not exceeding 
twenty-five percent (25%) of the total wall or ceiling area of a room or space 
provided the fire rating and moisture resistance is maintained and no 
modifications are made; 

03. Repair or replacement of existing gutters and above grade portions of 
downspouts; 

04. Application of pre-finished aluminum, steel, vinyl or other like materials 
on soffits, fascia boards, rake boards and overhangs; 

05. Replacement or repair of existing windows and frames, whenever no 
modification is made to the opening; installation of storm windows and 
doors, whenever no modification is made to the opening; glazing and glass 
replacement; 

06. Replacement or repair of exterior and/or interior doors and/or frames, 
provided the fire rating, when applicable, is maintained, and no modification 
is made to the opening; 



07. Sidewalks and driveways within property lines; 

08. Exterior ramps, stairs, and/or steps, which are on grade and not more than 
12 inches above grade, not attached to the structure, and within property 
lines; 

09. Paved areas for single family residential use on the same lot as the 
primary structure, without roofs, covers or enclosures; 

10. Concrete patio slabs or wooden patios/decks which rest directly on the 
ground or a rock base, provided that they are not covered by a roof or 
canopy, not supported by any type of permanent foundation and a maximum 
of 12 inches above finished grade; 

11. Miscellaneous site work, landscaping, gardens, shrubbery and planting 
boxes, excavation or fill that does not create a permanent change in property 
elevation of more than 6 inches along property lines, block drainage or create 
erosion or damage to adjacent properties; 

12. Fixed or retractable awnings installed on one and two family residential 
buildings which do not project over property lines, and not over 40 square 
feet in projected area; 

13. Wall paneling of any type when applied directly to existing residential 
room wall surfaces; 

14. Ceiling tile of any type, other than foam plastic, when applied directly to 
existing ceiling surfaces, except when within assembly rooms with more than 
300 occupants, institutional rooms or spaces, mercantile spaces exceeding 
3,000 square feet. Replacement of damaged lay-in acoustical ceiling panels 
of like materials up to twenty-five percent (25%) of the ceiling area in a room 
or space and a maximum of 500 square feet; 

15. Installation of battery-operated smoke detectors within existing single 
family homes or apartments; 

16. Small detached accessory buildings, such as utility/storage/tool sheds, 
cabanas, play houses, etc., 50 square feet in area or less and less than 12 feet 
in height, provided such accessory buildings maintain the setbacks required 
by the Zoning Ordinance. This does not include accessory buildings having 
unique uses such as barbeque and/or smoke houses, storage of fuel or other 
hazardous material having fuel fired equipment, and other uses that present 
an increased fire hazard or nuisance to adjoining property. A permit is 
required for all buildings housing these types of uses exceeding 50 square 
feet in area; 

17. Residential accessory structures such as arbors, garden trellises and other 
minor structures, provided such structures maintain the setbacks required by 
the Zoning Ordinance; 



18. Above-ground swimming pools, hot tubs and spas placed on a slab. Also, 
in-ground swimming pools with less than 24" water depth with a surface area 
of less than 250 square feet. All pools, hot tubs and spas shall maintain the 
setbacks required by the Zoning Ordinance. All pools require a permit from 
the City Health Department; 

19. Roof covering replacement with like material; Replacement of 25% or 
less of the roof sheathing with like material; 

20. New aluminum, steel, fiber cement, hardboard, and vinyl exterior siding 
with no change to existing openings; 

21. Replacement of existing fencing, same height, material and location, 
except when enclosing swimming pools, hot tubs or spas; 

22. Retaining walls 18" or less in height; 

23. Non-dish radio or television antennae 12 feet or less in height, mounted 
on the ground, not in the front yard area, attached to, or on the roof of a 
building. Dish antennas 2 feet in diameter or less installed on grade or on the 
roof, provided such antennae maintain the setbacks required by the Zoning 
Ordinance, and comply with Section 3108.6.1; 

24. All repairs, including smoke or fire damage, termite, wind repairs, etc., to 
a building when the code official determines the work is of a minor cosmetic 
nature and there is no damage or change to any part of the building structure. 
A field inspection is required to determine the nature of the repair; 

25. Resealing and/or restriping of an existing paved parking lot, provided the 
restriping done matches the existing configuration and the number of spaces 
remain the same; 

26. Tents smaller than 1000 square feet, or those used for private family 
events on the same lot as the owner's residence. 

27. Small statues on private property, erected on grade, not attached to or part 
of a building or structure. 

28. Normal backyard playground equipment including basketball goals and 
standards; 

29. Foundations and floor slab repair such as patching/filling of crack of up to 
1/4 inch in walls and 3/8 inch in slabs, waterproofing, etc., including 
underpinning, provided the building is otherwise structurally sound and 
plumb; 

30. Relining, repairing, patching an/or shotcreting existing swimming pool 
walls or floors, provided required minimum water depths under diving 
boards, if present, are maintained. 

31. Ordinary and/or minor repairs to exterior cantilevered balconies. 



stairways and fire escapes such as patching or replacing small areas of treads, 
risers and platform surfaces, repairing and/or replacing small areas of 
handrail and guardrail panels, etc. as long as it does not effect the structural 
components of the exterior cantilevered balcony, stairway or fire escape. 

105.2.1 Emergency repairs. Where equipment replacements and repairs must be 
performed in an emergency situation, the permit application shall be submitted within 
the next working business day to the code official. 

105.2.2 Repairs. Application or notice to the code official is not required for ordinary 
repairs to structures, replacement of lamps or the connection of approved portable 
electrical equipment to approved permanently installed receptacles. Such repairs shall 
not include the cutting away of any wall, partition or portion thereof, the removal or 
cutting of any structural beam or load bearing support, or the removal or change of any 
required means of egress, or rearrangement of parts of a structure affecting the egress 
requirements; nor shall ordinary repairs include addition to, alteration of, replacement or 
relocation of any standpipe, fire suppression or detection system, water supply, sewer, 
drainage, drain leader, gas, soil, waste, vent or similar piping, electric wiring or 
mechanical or other work affecting public health or general safety. 

105.2.3 Public service agencies. A permit shall not be required for the installation, 
alteration or repair of generation, transmission, distribution, metering or other related 
equipment that is under the ownership and control of public service agencies by 
established right. 

105.2.4 Structural damage building repair. Repairs to buildings that are determined by 
the code official to have sustained moderate or serious structural damage due to property 
maintenance neglect, improper alterations, fire, earthquake, wind, flood or other natural 
disasters, shall require a building permit with construction documents prepared, sealed, 
signed and dated by a Missouri licensed design professional. 

105.2.4.1 Condemned for occupancy or condemned for demolition building repair. 
Repairs to buildings that are determined by the code official to be condemned for 
occupancy or condemned for demolition shall require a building permit with 
construction documents prepared, sealed, signed and dated by a Missouri licensed 
design professional. 

105.2.5 Maintenance. All buildings, structures or premises, and all parts thereof, both 
existing and new, shall be maintained in a safe and sanitary condition. All service 
equipment, means of egress, devices and safeguards which are required by this code in a 
building, structure or premises, or which were required by a previous statute in a 
building or structure, when erected, altered or repaired, shall be maintained in good 
working order. 

105.2.6 Owner responsibility. The owner(s) or the owner's agent shall be responsible for 
the safe and sanitary maintenance of the building, structure or premises and its means of 
egress facilities at all times. 

105.3 By whom application is made. Application for a permit shall be made by the 
owner or lessee of the building or structure, or agent of either, or by the Missouri 



licensed design professional employed in connection with the proposed work. The full 
names, addresses and telephone number of the owner, lessee, and applicant shall be 
stated in the application. Every application should have a local contact person listed. 
Demolition and occupancy permit applications, when applied for by anyone other than 
the owner of record, shall be accompanied by a notarized letter of authorization or other 
documentation from the owner of record granting permission to apply. 

105.3.1 Application for permit. To obtain a permit, the applicant shall first file an 
application on a form furnished by the Department of Public Safety, Division of 
Building and Inspection for that purpose. Such application shall: 

1 . Identify and describe the work to be covered by the permit for which the 
application is made. 

2. Describe the land on which the proposed work is to be done by legal 
description, street address or similar description that will readily identify and 
definitely locate the proposed building or work. 

3. Indicate the use and occupancy for which the proposed work is intended. 

4. Be accompanied by construction documents and other information as 
required by Section 106. 

5. State the valuation of the proposed work. 

6. Be signed by the applicant, or the applicant= s authorized agent. 

7. Give such other data and information as required by the code official. 

105.3.2 Action on application. The code official shall examine or cause to be examined 
applications for permits and amendments thereto. If the application or the construction 
documents do not conform to the requirements of all pertinent laws, the code official 
shall reject such application in writing, stating the reasons therefore. If the code official 
is satisfied that the proposed work conforms to the requirements of this code and all City 
of Saint Louis laws and ordinances applicable thereto, the code official shall issue a 
permit. The code official shall rely upon other City agencies to review for compliance 
with their ordinance requirements. 

105.3.2.1 Substantially improved or substantially damaged existing buildings in areas 
prone to flooding. For applications for reconstruction, rehabilitation, addition, or other 
improvement of existing buildings or structures located in an area prone to flooding, the 
code official shall examine or cause to be examined the construction documents and 
shall prepare a finding with regard to the value of the proposed work. For buildings that 
have sustained damage of any origin, the value of the proposed work shall include the 
cost to repair the building or structure to its predamage condition. If the code official 
finds that the value of the proposed work equals or exceeds 50 percent of the market 
value of the building or structure before the damage has occurred or the improvement is 
started, the finding shall be provided to the board of appeals for a determination of 
substantial improvement or substantial damage. Applications determined by the board of 
appeals to constitute substantial improvement or substantial damage shall meet the 



requirements of this code. ^ ^ .'^ ^ i .' .'^ ^ ^ . 

105.3.2 Time limitation of application. An application for a permit for any proposed 
work shall be deemed to have been abandoned six months after date of filing, unless 
such application has been pursued in good faith or a permit has been issued; except that 
the code official is authorized to grant one or more extensions of time for additional 
periods not exceeding ninety days each if the code official deems that there is reasonable 
cause and if a written request is received from the applicant for the extension prior to the 
expiration date. 

105.3.4 Action on application for permit to use explosives. When it is deemed proper, 
safe and advisable, the code official shall, upon receipt of application, issue permits for 
the use of explosives for blasting in connection with demolition, excavation, 
construction or other building operations. Without such permit, the use of explosives for 
the above-mentioned purposes is hereby prohibited. Additional permits shall be required 
under the Fire Prevention Code. 

105.4 Validity of permit. The issuance or granting of a permit shall not be construed to 
be a permit for, or an approval of, any violation of any of the provisions of this code or 
of any other ordinance of the City of Saint Louis. Permits presuming to give authority to 
violate or cancel the provisions of this code or other ordinances shall not be valid. The 
issuance of a permit based on construction documents and other data shall not prevent 
the code official from requiring the correction of errors in the construction documents 
and other data. The code official is also authorized to prevent occupancy or use of a 
structure where in violation of this code or any other ordinance of the City of Saint 
Louis. 

105.5 Expiration. Permits shall be issued for a period of six months unless noted 
otherwise. Permits shall be permitted to be extended for additional six month periods if 
work is progressing and a written request from the owner for the extension is received 
by the code official prior to the expiration of each permit. Any permit issued shall 
become invalid if the authorized work is not commenced within six months after 
issuance of the permit, or if the authorized work is suspended or abandoned for a period 
of six months after the time of commencing the work; except that the code official shall 
be permitted to grant one or more extensions of time for additional periods not 
exceeding six months each if the code official deems that there is reasonable cause, and 
if a written request is received from the owner for the extension prior to the expiration 
date. No permit shall be extended if, after six months from issuance of said permit, no 
work has begun and the Board of Aldermen has passed an ordinance that would make 
all or part of the work thereon illegal or unlawful. 

Exception: Permits for demolition of buildings or structures or repair of buildings or 
structures condemned in accordance with either Section 118 or Section 119, and other 
work specifically identified by the code official, when in the best interests of the public, 
shall become invalid after thirty days unless otherwise approved. The code official shall 
be permitted to grant one or more extensions of time for additional periods not 
exceeding thirty days each after receiving a written request from the owner explaining 
the reasons for failing to commence or for suspending work. 



105.6 Suspension or revocation. The code official is authorized to suspend or revoke a 
permit issued under the provisions of this code whenever the permit is issued in error or 
on the basis of incorrect, inaccurate, or incomplete information, or in violation of any 
ordinance or regulation or any of the provisions of this code. 

105.6.1 Revocation of permits. The code official shall be permitted to revoke a permit or 
approval issued under the provisions of this code in case of any false statement or 
misrepresentation of fact in the application or on the construction documents on which 
the permit or approval was based. The code official shall be permitted to revoke or 
suspend a permit upon discovery of substantial non-compliance with this code or any 
applicable city ordinance. Permits shall be revoked for non-payment of fees. 

105.6.2 Revocation of permits for repeat offenders. The code official shall revoke any 
permit or certificate associated with a building, structure or premises when an owner(s) 
is convicted by a court of competent jurisdiction twice within a twelve month period of 
being in violation of the same code provision on the same building, structure or 
premises. 

105.7 Placement of permit. A true copy of the building permit shall be kept on the site of 
operations, open to inspection during the entire time of prosecution of the work and until 
the completion of the same. 

105.8 Responsibility. It shall be the duty of every person who performs work for the 
installation or repair of building, structure, electrical, gas, mechanical or plumbing 
systems, for which this code is applicable, to comply with this code. 

105.9 Notice of start. At least twenty -four hours notice of start of work under a building 
permit shall be given to the code official. 

105.10 Compliance with permit. All work shall conform to the approved application and 
the approved construction documents for which the permit has been issued and any 
approved amendments to the approved application or the approved construction 
documents. 

SECTION 106 
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS 

106.1 Construction documents. The application for the permit shall be accompanied by 
at least five complete sets of construction drawings, two sets of project specifications, 
two sets of structural calculations, two sets of the geotechnical (soils) report and one set 
of site or building photographs, with sufficient clarity and detailed dimensions to show 
the nature and character of the work to be performed. The minimum size of any sheet 
shall be 82 " x 11" and the maximum size of any sheet shall be 36" x 48". When quality 
of materials is essential for conformity to this code, specific information shall be given 
to establish such quality and this code shall not be cited, or the term "legal" or its 
equivalent be used as a substitute for specific information. Construction documents 
containing the words "not for construction", "preliminary", "review set", or their 
equivalent, shall not be accepted for application. Construction documents marked with 
contractors "take-off" notations shall not be accepted for application. 



All construction documents submitted with an application for a building permit shall be 
prepared by a Missouri licensed design professional as required by Chapter 327 of the 
Revised Statutes of the State of Missouri. All construction documents shall bear an 
original embossed or wet ink seal, original ink signature and the date the documents 
were sealed by the Missouri licensed design professional for each discipline on the first 
sheet of each discipline within each set of construction documents, or on the cover sheet 
of each set of construction documents. 

In addition, all other sheets of the construction documents, other than project 
specifications or calculations, shall bear the original embossed, wet ink, electronic or 
mechanically reproduced seal, signature and date of the Missouri licensed design 
professional. Any addenda or modifications submitted for changes to the construction 
documents shall also bear the original embossed or wet ink seal, original ink signature 
and date the documents were sealed. 

All project specifications, calculations, reports or other documents not considered to be 
construction drawings shall bear an original wet ink or embossed seal, original ink 
signature and the date the documents were signed by the Missouri licensed design 
professional for each discipline on the title or index sheet. 

106.1.1 Information on construction documents. Construction documents shall be drawn 
and dimensioned upon suitable material. Construction documents shall be of sufficient 
clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed and show in 
detail that it will conform to the provisions of this code and relevant laws, ordinances, 
rules and regulations, as determined by the code official. 

106.1.1.1 Fire protection and alarm construction drawings. Construction drawings for 
the fire protection and alarm system(s) shall be submitted to show conformance with this 
code and the construction documents and shall be approved prior to the start of system 
installation. Shop drawings shall contain all information as required by the referenced 
installation standards in Chapter 9. 

106.1.1.2 Manufacturer= s installation instructions. Manufacturer= s installation 
instructions, as required by this code, shall be available on the job site at the time of 
inspection. 

106.1.2 Means of egress. The construction documents shall show in sufficient detail the 
location, construction, size and character of all portions of the means of egress in 
compliance with the provisions of this code. In other than occupancies in Groups R-2, 
R-3, as applicable in Section 101.2, and I-l, the construction documents shall designate 
the number of occupants to be accommodated on every floor, and in all rooms and 
spaces. 

106.1.3 Information for construction in areas prone to flooding. For buildings and 
structures in flood hazard areas as established by Table R301.2(l), construction 
documents shall include: 

1. Delineation of flood hazard areas, floodway boundaries, and flood zones, 
and the design flood elevation, as appropriate; 



2. The elevation of the proposed lowest floor, including basement; in areas of 
shallow flooding (AO zones), the height of the proposed lowest floor, 
including basement, above the highest adjacent grade; 

3 . The elevation of the bottom of the lowest horizontal structural member in 
coastal high hazard areas (V zone); and 

4. If design flood elevations are not included on the community = s Flood 
Insurance Rate Map (FIRM), the code official and the applicant shall obtain 
and reasonably utilize any design flood elevation and floodway data available 
from other sources. 

106.1.4 Exterior wall envelope. Construction documents for all buildings shall describe 
the exterior wall envelope in sufficient detail to determine compliance with this code. 
The construction documents shall provide details of the exterior wall envelope as 
required, including flashing, intersections with dissimilar materials, corners, end details, 
control joints, intersections at roof, eaves, or parapets, means of drainage, water- 
resistive membrane, and details around openings. 

The construction drawings shall include manufacturing installation instructions that 
provide supporting documentation that the proposed penetration and opening details 
described in the construction documents maintain the weather resistance of the exterior 
wall envelope. The supporting documentation shall fully describe the exterior wall 
system which was tested, where applicable, as well as the test procedure used. 

106.2 Site plan. The construction documents submitted with the application for permit 
shall be accompanied by a site plan showing to scale the size and location of new 
construction and existing structures on the site, distances from lot lines, the established 
street grades and the proposed finished grades, and, as applicable, flood hazard areas, 
floodway s, and design flood elevations; and it shall be drawn in accordance with an 
accurate boundary line survey. In the case of demolition, the site plan shall show 
construction to be demolished and the location and size of existing structures and 
construction that are to remain on the site or plot. The code official is authorized to 
waive or modify the requirements for a site plan when the application for permit is for 
alteration or repair or when otherwise warranted. 

106.2.1 Change in site plan. A lot shall not be changed, increased or diminished in area 
from that shown on the official site plan, until a revised site plan is resubmitted showing 
such changes accompanied by proof that the documents have been filed in the Recorder 
of Deeds Office and approved under the Zoning Code of the City of Saint Louis; except 
that such revised site plan will not be required if the change is caused by reason of an 
official street or alley opening, street widening or other public improvement. 

106.3 Examination of documents. The code official shall examine or cause to be 
examined the construction documents for code compliance. 

106.3.1 Approval of construction documents. The code official shall stamp three sets of 
construction documents "APPROVED", and at least one set of such approved 
construction documents shall be retained by the code official and one set shall be kept at 
the building site, open to the inspection of the code official or an authorized 



representative at all reasonable times. If additional "APPROVED" sets are required by 
the applicant, a charge shall be made as listed in Table 108.3.1. 

106.3.2 Previous approvals. This code shall not require changes in the construction 
documents, construction or designated occupancy of a building or structure for which a 
lawful permit has been heretofore issued or otherwise lawfully authorized, and the 
construction of which has been actively prosecuted in good faith within 180 days after 
the effective date of this ordinance and has not been abandoned. When the codes 
adopted by the City of Saint Louis change from one edition to another, the work shall be 
permitted to be completed under the codes in effect when the permit for said work was 
originally issued. 

106.3.2.1 Code transition. Unless requirements imposed by Federal law or State statute 
have changed, permits applied for within six months of the effective date of this 
ordinance shall be permitted to be reviewed and approved under the former building 
code if there is written evidence of a preliminary plan exam review of the project under 
the former code. The cover sheet of the construction documents shall show under which 
code the project was designed. 

106.3.3 Phased approval. The code official is authorized to issue a permit for the 
construction of foundations or any other part of a building or structure before the 
construction documents for the whole building or structure have been submitted, 
provided that adequate information and detailed statements have been filed complying 
with pertinent requirements of this code. The holder of such permit for the foundation or 
other parts of a building or structure shall proceed at the holder= s own risk with the 
building operation and without assurance that a permit for the entire structure will be 
granted. 

106.3.4 Design professional in responsible charge. 

106.3.4.1 General. When it is determined that documents be prepared by a Missouri 
licensed design professional, the code official shall be authorized to require the owner to 
engage and designate on the building permit application a Missouri licensed design 
professional who shall act as the Missouri licensed design professional in responsible 
charge. If the circumstances require, the owner shall designate a substitute Missouri 
licensed design professional in responsible charge who shall perform the duties required 
of the original Missouri licensed design professional in responsible charge. The code 
official shall be notified in writing by the owner if the Missouri licensed design 
professional in responsible charge is changed or is unable to continue to perform the 
duties. 

The Missouri licensed design professional in responsible charge shall be responsible for 
reviewing and coordinating submittal documents prepared by others, including phased 
and deferred submittal items, for compatibility with the design of the building. 

Where structural observation is required by Section 1709, the inspection program shall 
name the individual or firms who are to perform structural observation and describe the 
stages of construction at which structural observation is to occur. See also duties 
specified in Section 1704. 



106.3.4.2 Deferred submittals. For the purposes of this section, deferred submittals are 
defined as those portions of the design that are not submitted at the time of the 
application and that are to be submitted to the code official within a specified period. 

Deferral of any submittal items shall have the prior approval of the code official. The 
Missouri licensed design professional in responsible charge shall list the deferred 
submittals on the construction documents for review by the code official. 

Submittal documents for deferred submittal items shall be submitted to the Missouri 
licensed design professional in responsible charge who shall review them and forward 
them to the code official with a notation indicating that the deferred submittal 
documents have been reviewed and that they have been found to be in general 
conformance with the design of the building. The deferred submittal items shall not be 
installed until their design and submittal documents have been approved by the code 
official. 

106.3.4.3 Engineering details. The code official shall require to be filed adequate details 
of structural, plumbing, mechanical and electrical work, including computations, 
loadings and structural analysis, and other essential technical data. All construction 
documents shall bear an original embossed or wet ink seal, original ink signature and the 
date the documents were sealed by the Missouri licensed design professional responsible 
for the design as required by State Statute. Properly sealed, signed and dated 
calculations shall be permitted to be accepted by the code official as complying with the 
conditions of this code without the need to verify the calculations or their engineering 
analysis. 

106.4 Amended construction documents. Work shall be installed in accordance with the 
approved construction documents, and any changes made during construction that are 
not in compliance with the approved construction documents shall be resubmitted for 
approval as an amended set of construction documents. 

SECTION 107 

TEMPORARY STRUCTURES AND USES 

107.1 General. The code official is authorized to issue a permit for temporary structures 
and temporary uses. Such permits shall be limited as to time of service, but shall not be 
permitted for more than 180 days. The code official is authorized to grant extensions for 
demonstrated cause. 

107.2 Conformance. Temporary structures and uses shall conform to the structural 
strength, fire safety, means of egress, accessibility, light, ventilation and sanitary 
requirements of this code as necessary to insure the public health, safety and general 
welfare. 

107.3 Temporary power. The code official is authorized to give permission to 
temporarily supply and use power in part of an electric installation before such 
installation has been fully completed and the final certificate of completion has been 
issued. The part covered by the temporary certificate shall comply with the requirements 
specified for temporary lighting, heat or power in the City of Saint Louis Electrical 
Code. 



107.4 Termination of approval. The code official is hereby authorized to terminate such 
permit for a temporary structure or use and to order the temporary structure or use to be 
discontinued. 

107.5 Temporary concession trailer. A temporary concession trailer is a concession 
trailer that is in operation and/or service less than one hundred eighty (180) days per 
year. A building permit is required for concession trailers over two hundred (200) square 
feet in area. Concession trailers over two hundred (200) square feet must be placed on 
and anchored to a permanent concrete footing and foundation system. The applicant 
shall furnish a letter of support from the alderman and the neighborhood organization 
where the temporary concession trailer is located. The applicant shall also furnish a 
contract or notarized letter from the primary business and complete an incidental 
occupation waiver in the Zoning Section, Room 400 City Hall. 

Exception: 

Concession trailers less than two hundred (200) square feet in area. A 
temporary concession trailer of wood frame or steel construction 200 
hundred (200) square feet or less in area and twelve (12 ) feet or less in 
height is permitted to be installed above grade in strict accordance with the 
trailer manufacturers instructions and recommendations. 

SECTION 108 
FEES 

108.1 General. No permit, certificate or inspection report, as required by the provisions 
of this code, shall be released or issued until the fees listed in this section have been paid 
to the City of Saint Louis, as collected by the code official or designated representative; 
nor shall an amendment to a permit be released until the additional fees have been paid. 
In collecting said fees, the code official is authorized to accept personal checks as 
payment; however, non-payment by said checking account shall be considered as a 
violation of this code and is cause for suspension or revocation of permits, certificates or 
reports issued or released for such personal check payment. If a permit is suspended or 
revoked for non-payment of a fee, or for insufficient funds, an additional twenty-five 
dollars shall be collected to cover administrative costs. 

108.1.1 Fees other than herein prescribed. The payment of fees listed in this section 
shall not relieve the applicant or holder of any permit or any certificate of occupancy 
from the payment of other fees which shall be prescribed by law or ordinance for water 
taps, sewer connections, plumbing permits, mechanical permits, electrical permits, 
sprinkler permits, fire alarm permits, erection of signs and display structures, or fees for 
inspections or other privileges or requirements, both within and without the jurisdiction 
of the Division of Building and Inspection. 

108.1.2 City of Saint Louis, Department of the President, Board of Public Service 
projects. Building permit fees shall be waived for contractors working in facilities 
located within the city limits, owned and occupied by the City of Saint Louis. Only 
projects which are paid for by the Department of the President, Board of Public Service 
out of general revenue funds and bid and contract let by the Department of the President, 
Board of Public Service, and inspected by the Department of the President, Board of 



Public Service shall be exempt from the payment of fees. This shall not relieve the 
applicant from applying for and obtaining a building permit. These five requirements 
shall apply to building permits only. These requirements shall not apply to Demolition, 
Plumbing, Mechanical, Electrical and Fire Protection Systems permits. Demolition 
permits. Plumbing permits. Mechanical permits. Electrical permits and Fire Protection 
Systems permits shall be applied for and paid for by the appropriate contractor. 

108.2 Schedule of permit fees. Fees for permits for construction shall be as established 
as follows: 

108.2.1 Application fee. An application fee is an administrative charge made for 
processing permit applications or preparing a Certificate of Flood Plain Status or 
conducting a Building Line Survey, and shall be the fee as listed in Table 108.3.1. 

108.2.2 New construction and additions. The building permit fee for new construction 
and additions will be based on the total estimated cost of construction, and shall be 
charged at the rate listed in Table 108.3.1 for new construction and additions. For the 
purpose of determining a fee, total construction costs shall include all costs for normal 
site preparation including grading, excavation and backfill, structural work, interior and 
exterior finishes, plumbing work, mechanical work, electrical work, overhead and profit, 
engineering and architectural fees. The following shall be permitted to be excluded from 
total construction costs: the cost to install sprinkler, standpipe and fire alarm systems; or 
signs. 

108.2.3 Miscellaneous structures and site work. The fee for a permit for, including but 
not limited to, the construction of towers, retaining walls, floating structures, parking 
lots, outdoor pay telephone, fences, awnings, signs, etc. shall be based on the total 
estimated cost of the construction at the rate listed in Table 108.3.1 . 

108.2.4 Alterations and repairs. The fee for a permit for alterations or repairs to a 
building or structure shall be based on the total estimated cost of said alterations or 
repairs and shall be charged at the rate listed in Table 108.3.1. 

108.2.5 Tanks, devices, etc. The fee for a permit for the installation of a tank, device, 
equipment or other structure or facility shall be as listed in Table 108.3.1 . 

108.2.6 Tents, amusement booths. The fee for a permit for the construction, installation 
or erection of a tent or amusement booth shall be as listed in Table 108.3.1. This shall 
include all those for private parties, picnics, carnivals, circuses or traveling exhibitions. 

108.2.7 Moving of buildings. The fee for a permit to move a building or structure from 
one lot to another, or to a new location on the same lot, shall be as listed in Table 
108.3.1. In the event that a building or structure is to be moved from a point within the 
City of Saint Louis to a point outside the city, the fee for the moving permit shall be 
based on the total estimated cost of restoration of the original site to a safe and 
satisfactory condition plus that portion of the moving cost which covers the journey to 
the city limits. In the event that a building or structure is to be moved from the outside 
of the City of Saint Louis to a point inside the city limits, the fee for the moving permit 
shall be based on the total estimated cost of the portion of the journey from the city 
limits to the site of re-erection. 



108.2.7.1 New foundations. Before any building or structure is moved to a new 
foundation, it shall be required, in addition to a moving permit, that a building permit be 
obtained for the construction of said new foundation; the fee for the permit for said 
foundation shall be as listed in accordance with Table 108.3.1. In addition, all additional 
electrical, mechanical and plumbing permits shall be obtained. 

108.2.8 Explosives. The fee for a permit for the use of explosives for blasting in 
connection with demolition, excavation, construction or other building operations, shall 
be as listed in Table 108.3.1. When a blasting operation consists of a series of blasts at 
intervals of distance, such as blasting a trench for the installation of utilities, and the 
extent of the blasting operations exceeds two hundred and fifty feet in length, the fee for 
a permit shall be charged for the first two hundred and fifty feet of the operation with an 
additional fee for each additional two hundred and fifty feet or any part thereof. The fee 
for a permit for the use of explosives shall cover the issuance of the permit and shall 
also cover pre-blasting survey inspection and post-blasting survey inspection of all 
property within two hundred fifty feet of the blasting operation. In addition, a separate 
permit shall be required under the Fire Prevention Code for the transportation, storage or 
use of explosives. 

108.2.9 Amending permits. After a permit has been issued and an amendment is applied 
for, the fee shall be as follows: 

1. For each and every amendment which involves additional work not 
originally applied for to complete the entire project, the fee shall be the 
appropriate fee for the additional work contemplated as usually calculated, 
the fee for the special demolition fund, lead remediation fund plus the 
application fee. These fees shall be as listed in Table 108.3.1 . 

2. For each and every amendment not involving additional work, a minimum 
fee as listed in Table 108.3.1 shall apply even though the project dollar value 
or building volume should remain the same or decrease. To this shall be 
added the application fee. 

108.2.10 Special demolition fund. There shall be an additional fee charged on all 
building permits based on the total estimated cost of construction, and shall be charged 
at the rate listed in Table 108.3.1 for the special demolition fund. 

108.2.11 Lead remediation fund. There shall be an additional fee charged on all building 
permits based on the total estimated cost of construction, and shall be charged at the rate 
listed in Table 108.3.1 for the special lead remediation fund. 

108.2.12 Vacant building registration fee. A semiannual registration fee of two hundred 
dollars shall be charged to the owner of any parcel of residential property improved by a 
residential structure, or commercial property improved by a structure containing 
multiple dwelling units, which is vacant and has been vacant for at least six months, and 
which is violation of this code. This fee is listed in Table 108.3.1 . 

108.2.13 Fee for duplicate copy. Any person requesting a copy of an building permit, 
occupancy permit or certificate of inspection issued under this code, or the holder of any 
permit for similar purpose issued by the code official under any previous code or 



ordinance, can obtain a duplicate or re-issued copy of said permit for a fee of one dollar 
per copy. This fee is listed in Table 108.3.1. 

108.2.14 Fee for occupancy permit. Fees for the issuance of an occupancy permit shall 
be as listed in Table 108.3.1. There shall be no charge for the issuance of the original 
occupancy permit upon completion of construction in accordance with the building 
permit for new buildings or buildings hereafter altered with construction costs exceeding 
thirty thousand dollars. 

108.2.14.1 Fee for temporary or partial occupancy permit. The fee for a temporary or 
partial occupancy permit shall be as listed in Table 108.3.1. 

108.2.15 Fee for changing the name on an occupancy permit. Any person requesting a 
re-issuance of an occupancy permit issued under this code or under any previous code or 
ordinance due to a change of name, can obtain a re-issued copy of said permit for a fee 
of five dollars per copy. This fee is listed in Table 108.3.1 . 

108.2.16 Fee for approving additional sets of construction documents. Any person 
requesting additional sets of approved construction documents issued under this code or 
under any previous code or ordinance shall be charged a fee of one dollar per page. This 
fee is listed in Table 108.3.1. 

108.3 Fee tables. The code official shall cause to be collected all fees as listed in Table 
108.3.1 and elsewhere in this code. 

108.3.1 Fee schedule. Table 108.3.1 contains fees for permits for new construction and 
additions, permits for miscellaneous structures, permits for alterations and repairs to 
existing buildings, tank permits, moving of building permits, demolition permits, 
permits for blasting for demolition purposes, permits for blasting for construction 
purposes, picnics, carnivals and circuses or traveling exhibition permits, tents, 
amusement park devices, addendums to permit, the special demolition fund, lead 
remediation fund, special inspections and occupancy permits. 

108.3.2 Building permit valuations. The applicant for a building permit shall provide a 
total estimated cost of construction for the project at the time of application. For the 
purpose of determining fees, total construction costs shall include all costs for normal 
site preparation including grading, excavation and backfill, structural work, interior and 
exterior finishes, plumbing work, mechanical work and electrical work. The following 
shall be permitted to be excluded from total construction costs: the cost to install 
sprinkler, standpipe and fire alarm systems or signs. 

If, in the opinion of the code official, the valuation is underestimated on the application, 
the permit shall be denied, unless the applicant can show detailed construction estimates 
for the project to meet the approval of the code official. The code official shall be 
permitted to require the submittal of signed and notarized construction contracts when 
the total estimated cost of construction is questioned. Final building permit valuation 
shall be set by the code official. 

Final costs shall be determined by the code official, if necessary, by multiplying the total 
floor area of the project in square feet by an appropriate square foot cost rate, or by 



using the current ICC Building Valuation Data Report for New Construction, Additions, 
Alterations, Repairs or Rehabilitation. 

Table 108.3.1 

BUILDING PERMIT FEES FOR STRUCTURES; BLASTING AND INSPECTIONS 

FEES 



Item 

i ' 


Fee 

i 


Minimum 
Fee 


Section 


Remarks & 
Requirements 


APPLICATION FEE; or 


$25.00 




108.2.1 


An administrative charge 


Building Line Survey 








made for processing 
applications. 


Certificate of Flood 


$ 10.00 


G103.9 




Plain Status 








PERMIT FOR NEW 


$5.00/$1000 


$ 15.00 


108.2.2 


Includes Cultural 


CONSTRUCTION 


of estimated 






Resources Only permits. 


AND ADDITIONS 


cost or 

fraction 

thereof 








MISCELLANEOUS 


$5.00/$1000 


$ 15.00 


108.2.3 


For all structures, 


STRUCTURES 


of estimated 






devices , appurtenances 


PERMIT - Structures 


cost or 






and equipment requiring 


such as towers, retaining 


fraction 






permits & not otherwise 


walls, floating 


thereof 






provided for by this 


structures, parking lots. 








code. 


outdoor pay telephone. 










fences, awnings, signs. 










etc. 










PERMIT FOR 


$5.00/$1000 


$ 15.00 


108.2.4 




ALTERATIONS & 


of estimated 








REPAIRS TO AN 


cost or 








EXISTING BUILDING 

1 


fraction 
thereof 








TANK PERMIT 


$5.00/$1000 


$ 15.00 


108.2.5 


Permits for flammable 


For any purpose except 


of estimated 






and combustible liquids 


flammable and 


cost or 






are required under the 


combustible liquids 


fraction 
thereof 




'- .,-':V'^- "- . 


Fire Code. 


TENT PERMIT 


$35.00 




108.2.6 


See Note a. 


MOVING OF 


$ 1.00/$100 


$ 15.00 


108.2.7 


Estimated cost of moving 


BUILDING PERMIT 


of estimated 






building to new location 


Within City Limits 


cost or 
fraction 






plus cost of restoring 
previous site to a safe 




thereof 






condition. 



To outside City Limits 



$ 1.00/$ 100 
of estimated 
cost or 

fraction 
thereof 



$ 15.00 



Estimated cost of moving 
building to city limits 
plus cost of restoring 
previous site to a safe 
condition. 



From outside City 
Limits to within City 
Limits 



$ 1.00/$ 100 
of estimated 
cost or 

fraction 
thereof 



$ 15.00 



Estimated cost of moving 
building from City 
Limits to a new site. 



Foundation for building 



$5. 00/$ 1000 
of estimated 
cost or 

fraction 
thereof 



$ 15.00 



108.2.7.1 



EXPLOSIVES PERMIT 
Blasting permit for 
trenching 



$ 5.00/250 
lineal feet or 
fraction 
thereof 



$ 100.00 



108.2.8 



For construction, 

excavation or other 
building operation. 



Blasting for Demolition 



$ 100.00 



$100.00 



108.2.8 



Includes pre and post 
blast survey, per 
building/per blast. I 



ADDENDUM TO 

PERMIT 

Amendment which 

involves additional 

dollars in project cost. 



$5. 00/$ 1000 
of estimated 
increased cost 
or fraction 
thereof 



$25.00 



108.2.9 



Amendment which 

involves decrease or no 
increase in project cost. 



$25.00 



$25.00 



J 



SPECIAL 
DEMOLITION FUND 



$2.00/$ 1,000 
of estimated 
cost or 

fraction 
thereof 



108.2.10 



Special fund approved by 
the voters. 



LEAD REMEDIATION 
FUND 



$2.00/$ 1,000 
of estimated 
cost or 

fraction 
thereof 



108.2.11 



Special fund approved by 
Ordinance 64699. I 



VACANT BUILDING 
REGISTRATION FEE 



$200.00 
Semi-annually 



108.2.12 



Special fee established 
by Ordinance 64678. 





DUPLICATE COPY OF 
BUILDING PERMIT, 
OCCUPANCY PERMIT 
OR CERTIFICATE OF 
INSPECTION 


$ 1.00 per 
copy 




108.2.13 






APPLICANT ' 
REQUEST FOR 
OCCUPANCY PERMIT 






108.2.14 
108.2.14.1 


Special Inspection fees 
for occupancy permits. 
This fee is also 
applicable to partial or 
temporary occupancy 
permits. 


' 


Residential. 


$80.00 

$20.00/each 
additional unit 
in same 
structure 






When units are inspected 
on the same site 
inspection. 




Commercial 3,500 sq. ft. 
or less. 


$ 80.00 










Commercial over 3,500 
sq. ft. 


$160.00 










RE-ISSUANCE OF 
OCCUPANCY PERMIT 

DUE TO NAME 
CHANGE 


$ 5.00 per 
copy 




108.2.15 






COST FOR 
APPROVING 
ADDITIONAL SETS 
OF CONSTRUCTION 
DOCUMENTS 


$1.00 per 
page 


1 


108.2.16 






DEMOLITION 
PERMITS-Structure 
volume Less than 
10,000 cu. ft. 


$ 10.00 


$ 10.00 I 


121.1.5 


Based on volume of 
structure exclusive of 
basement or cellars. 




10,000 cu. ft. and over 


$15.00/10,000 
cu.ft. or 
fraction 
thereof 


$ 25.00 




Demolition permits shall 
be issued for a period not 
to exceed thirty days. 




DEMOLITION 
INSPECTION FEE 
Less than 10,000 cu. ft. 


$ 15.00 


$ 15.00 


121.1.5 


Per Site 




10,000 cu. ft. or over 


$ 25.00 


$ 25.00 




Per Site 




Blasting for Demolition 


$ 50.00 


$ 50.00 


108.2.8 


Per Site 



Applicant request 

Emergency and 

Specialty Inspection 



$25.00 
$25.00 



Related to other 
occupancy and use 
permits requested by the 
applicant. 

Charge for inspection 
requested to be made 
beyond normal working 
hours - not to exceed 
$25.00 per requested 
inspection. 



Note a. Tents smaller than 1 ,000 square feet, or for private family events on the same lot 
with the residence are exempt from permit. The use of propane tanks or equipment in 
the tent requires a separate permit and inspection by the Fire Marshal. Tent permit(s) 
and the erection and maintenance of tents for the same lot shall not exceed a total 
maximum of sixty days in any 365 day period. Tent must be supported to withstand 
wind of 20 lbs. per square foot, minimum. Tent must stay ten feet from tent walls to 
buildings and to interior lot lines. Tents for 49 persons or less must have one exit. Tents 
for 50 to 499 persons must have two exits. Tents for 500 to 999 persons must have three 
exits. Emergency lighting shall be permitted to be required. 

Picnic/carnival operated 2 1/2 days or less by a not-for-profit organization, and operated 
on private ground owned by and adjacent to said organization= s facilities, requires no 
permit (except electrical permits shall be required). If not on ground owned by or 
adjacent to said organization= s facilities, picnic or carnival shall require an occupancy 
permit with inspections by building and electrical sections. See occupancy permit fees 
above. Further, zoning approval must be secured before issuance of said occupancy 
permit. Picnics/carnivals operated for any length of time by a for-profit organization on 
private property must secure an occupancy permit and approval from the zoning section. 
BPS permits are required for all picnics/carnivals on city-owned property or any public 
right-of-way in addition to the above requirements. 

108.3.2 Sign fee schedule. Table 108.3.2 contains the basic building fees for signs 
governed by this code. 

Table 108.3.2a 
SIGN PERMIT FEES 



Item 


Fee 


Minimum fee 


Section 


GROUND SIGNS 
Up to 100 square feet 


$ 100.00 


$ 100.00 

fi 


H103.1.1 


Over 100 square feet 


$ 160.00 






ROOF Up to 1 00 square feet 


$ 100.00 


$ 100.00 


H103.1.1 


Over 100 square feet 


$ 160.00 






WALL SIGNS 

Up to 1000 square feet 


$ 100.00 


$100.00 


H103.1.1 1 



Over 100 square feet. : 


$160.00 1 


■ : ■ ■ : ■ 1 




PROJECTING 

Up to 100 square feet 


$ 100.00 


$ 100.00 


H103.1.1 


Over 100 square feet. 


$ 160.00 






SPECIAL OR TEMPORARY 

DISPLAY SIGNS REQUIRING 

PERMITS 

Fees for a special sign shall be the 

same as the one above which it 

most closely resembles. j 




$ 100.00 


H103.1.1 


LETTERING AND/OR 
GRAPHICS ON AWNINGS AND 
CANOPIES 1 


$ 50.00 

1 


$ 50.00 

1 




Note a. When a question arises as to what type of sign is being constructed or placed, it 
shall be designated as that type of sign it most closely resembles as determined by the 
code official. (See also Chapter 29 and the Saint Louis Zoning Ordinance.) 



108.4 Work started surcharge fees schedule. In case any work for which a building 
permit is required by this code is substantially started or proceeded with prior to 
obtaining said permit, the total normal fees applicable shall be increased by the amount 
as listed in Table 108.4. The payment of said surcharge fee shall not relieve any persons 
from fully complying with the requirements of this code for performance or execution of 
the work, nor from other penalties prescribed by law. 

Table 108.4 

SCHEDULE FOR SURCHARGE BUILDING PERMIT FEES 



Building Permit fee 


Surcharge fee 




$ TO $ 50 


$30.00 




$51 TO $200 


$ 90.00 




$ 201 TO $ 500 


$ 240.00 

■ - - - - - . - . - - -=J 




$501 TO $2,000 


$360.00 




$ 2,001 TO $ 10,000 


$480.00 




OVER $ 10,000 


$600.00 





108.5 Demolition work started surcharge fees schedule. In case any work for which a 
demolition permit is required by this code is substantially started or proceeded with 
prior to obtaining said permit, the total normal fees applicable shall be increased by the 
amount as listed in Table 108.5. The payment of said surcharge fee shall not relieve any 
persons from fully complying with the requirements of this code for performance or 
execution of the work, nor from other penalties prescribed by law. 



Table 108.5 



SCHEDULE FOR SURCHARGE 
DEMOLITION PERMIT FEES 





Demolition Permit fee 


Surcharge fee 




$0TO$50 ■ 


$ 100.00 1 




$51 TO $200 


$150.00 




$ 201 TO $ 500 


$300.00 




$ 501 TO $ 2,000 


$ 420.00 




$ 2,001 TO $ 10,000 


$540.00 




OVER $ 10,000 


$ 660.00 



108.6 Related fees. The payment of fees for the construction, alteration, removal or 
demolition for work done in connection with or concurrently with the work authorized 
by a building permit shall not relieve the applicant or holder of the permit from the 
payment of other fees that are prescribed by law. 

108.7 Fees non-refundable. The fee for a permit based upon an estimated cost that is 
higher than later claimed by the applicant shall not be a basis for refund. When 
construction does not occur, or only partially occurs, fees collected are not refundable. 

108.8 Fees waived for disaster related permits. In the event of a tornado, earthquake, 
flood, or any other disaster of such magnitude to activate the City Emergency 
Management Agency, the Building Commissioner is authorized to waive all permit fees 
normally collected by the Division of Building and Inspection for repairs, 
reconstruction, demolition, plumbing, mechanical or electrical work, or any other 
similar permits required by this Division to correct the damage caused by the heretofore 
mentioned disaster. These permit fees shall be permitted to be waived for a period not to 
exceed six months, or as otherwise determined by the Building Commissioner. 

108.9 Compliance with permit. All work shall conform to the approved application and 
the approved construction documents for which the permit has been issued and any 
approved addendum to the approved application or the approved construction 
documents. 

SECTION 109 
INSPECTION 

109.1 General. Construction or work for which a permit is required shall be subject to 
inspection by the code official and such construction or work shall remain accessible 
and exposed for inspection purposes until approved. Approval as a result of an 
inspection shall not be construed to be an approval of a violation of the provisions of 
this code or of other ordinances of the City of Saint Louis. Inspections presuming to 
give authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or of other ordinances shall 
not be valid. It shall be the duty of the permit applicant to cause the work to remain 
accessible and exposed for inspection purposes. Neither the code official not the City of 
Saint Louis shall be liable for expenses entailed in the removal or replacement of any 



material required to allow inspection. '^ ' • '^ ' • ^ 

109.2 Preliminary inspection. Before issuing a permit, the code official is authorized to 
examine or cause to be examined buildings, structures and sites for which an application 
has been filed. 

109.2.1 Notice to begin work. It shall be the responsibility of the holder of a permit to 
notify the code official when work is ready for the various inspections required by the 
terms of the permit or the approved rules. Such notice shall be given within a reasonable 
time before the inspection is desired, but in no event shall the notice be less than the 
working day before. Notice given on a Friday or on a day prior to a legal holiday shall 
not constitute notice for inspection on a Saturday, Sunday or holiday, unless 
arrangements have been made under approved rules for overtime inspection on such 
days. Before giving such notice the holder of the permit shall first test the work and 
satisfy themselves that it conforms to the approved construction documents and the 
requirements of this code. 

109.3 Required inspections. The code official, upon notification, shall make the 
inspections set forth in Sections 109.3.1 through 109.3.11. No work shall be done on any 
part of the building or structure beyond the point indicated in each successive inspection 
without first obtaining the approval of the code official or authorized representative. 
Approval shall be given only after an inspection has been requested and made of each 
successive step in the construction phase and all code requirements or corrections are 
completed, as indicated by each of the inspections required. There shall be a final 
inspection and approval of all buildings completed before occupancy, as described in 
Section 110 of this code. Failure to obtain a final inspection before occupancy will 
constitute a violation of the building code, subject to the penalties as set forth in Section 
Four. Reinforcing steel or structural framework of any part of a building or structure 
shall not be covered or concealed in any manner without first obtaining the approval of 
the code official. The code official, upon notification from a permit holder or agent, in 
accordance with the rules of procedure listed on the permit and posted in the office of 
the code official, shall make the following inspections, and shall either approve that 
section or portion of the construction as completed, or shall notify the permit holder or 
agent that they have failed to comply with the law. 

109.3.1 Footing or foundation inspection. Footing and foundation inspections shall be 
made after excavation for footings are complete and any required reinforcing steel is in 
place. For concrete foundations, any required forms shall be in place prior to inspection. 
Materials for the foundation shall be on the job, except where concrete is ready mixed in 
accordance with ASTM C 94, the concrete need not be on the job. The owner is solely 
responsible for the correct location of the foundation on the site. 

109.3.1.1 Soil inspection. A soil inspection is to be made after excavation for the 
building or structure is complete and trenches for footings, column pads, spread 
footings, or other types of footings are ready for concrete. No concrete is to be poured 
prior to this inspection. 

109.3.1.2 Pier inspection. Where special foundations are required such as drilled and 
poured-in-place concrete piers, driven piles of all types, caissons, and other 



extraordinary types, the code official shall make at least one inspection and more if the 
size of the job warrants it. 

109.3.2 Concrete slab or under-floor inspection. Concrete slab and under-floor 
inspections shall be made after in-slab or under-floor reinforcing steel and building 
service equipment, conduit, piping accessories and other ancillary equipment items are 
in place, but before any concrete is placed or floor sheathing installed, including the 
subfloor. 

109.3.3 Lowest floor elevation. In flood hazard areas, upon placement of the lowest 
floor, including basement, and prior to further vertical construction, the elevation 
certificate required in Section 1612.5 shall be submitted to the code official. 

109.3.4 Frame inspection. Framing inspections shall be made after the roof deck or 
sheathing, all framing, fire blocking and bracing are in place and pipes, chimneys and 
vents to be concealed are complete and the rough electrical, plumbing, heating wires, 
pipes and ducts are approved. 

109.3.5 Lath or gypsum board inspection. Lath and gypsum board inspections shall be 
made after lathing and gypsum board, interior and exterior, is in place, but before any 
plaster is applied or before gypsum board joints and fasteners are taped and finished. 

Exception: Gypsum board that is not part of a fire resistive assembly or a shear 
assembly. 

109.3.5.1 Covering work. It shall be a violation of this code to cover prior to inspection 
any work required to be inspected under the provisions of a permit, the approved rules, 
or this code, regardless of any penalties for such violation. The code official shall be 
permitted to require the holder of the permit to uncover any such work for inspection, 
and the cost of uncovering such work and of replacing the cover after the work has been 
satisfactorily inspected, shall be borne by the holder of the permit. 

109.3.6 Fire-resistant penetrations. Protection of joints and penetrations in 
fire-resistance-rated assemblies shall not be concealed from view until inspected and 
approved. 

109.3.7 Energy efficiency inspections. Inspections shall be made to determine 
compliance with Chapter 13 and shall include, but not be limited to, inspections for: 
envelope insulation R and U value, fenestration U value, duct system R value, and 
HVAC and water heating equipment efficiency. 

109.3.8 Other inspections. In addition to the inspections specified above, the code 
official is authorized to make or require other inspections of any construction work to 
ascertain compliance with the provisions of this code and other laws that are enforced by 
the Department of Public Safety, Division of Building And Inspection. 

109.3.8.1 Approved inspection agencies. The code official shall accept reports of 
approved inspection agencies provided such agencies satisfy the requirements as to 
qualifications and reliability. 



109.3.8.2 Plant inspection. Where required by the provisions of this code or by the 
approved rules, materials or assemblies shall be inspected at the point of manufacture or 
fabrication. 

109.3.8.3 Evaluation and follow-up services. Prior to the approval of a closed 
prefabricated assembly and issuance of a building permit, the code official shall require 
the submittal of an evaluation report of each prefabricated assembly, indicating the 
complete details of the assembly, including a description of the assembly and its 
components, the basis upon which the assembly is being evaluated, test results and 
similar information, and other data as necessary for the code official to determine 
conformance with this code. Acceptable reports shall be permitted to come from: The 
State of Missouri Public Service Commission or ICC Evaluation Services. 

109.3.8.3.1 Evaluation service. The code official shall designate the evaluation service 
of an approved agency as the evaluation agency, and review such agency's evaluation 
report for adequacy and conformance to this code. 

109.3.8.3.2 Follow-up inspection. Except where all assemblies and subassemblies, 
service equipment and accessories are readily accessible for complete inspection at the 
site without disassembly or dismantling, the code official shall conduct the frequency of 
in-plant inspections as necessary to reasonably assure conformance to the approved 
evaluation report, or shall designate an approved independent inspection agency to 
conduct such inspections. The inspection agency shall furnish the code official with the 
follow-up inspection manual and a written report of inspections upon request, and the 
product shall have an identifying label permanently affixed to the product indicating that 
factory inspections have been performed. 

109.3.8.3.3 Test and inspection records. All required tests and inspection records shall 
be accessible to the code official or quality assurance agency at all times during the 
fabrication of the unit or subassembly and the erection of the building; or such records 
as the code official designates shall be filed with the code official. 

109.3.8.3.4 Inspection reports. All inspection reports shall be in writing and shall be 
certified by the licensed authority, or responsible officer of the service, or the individual 
when expert inspection services are accepted. An identifying label or stamp permanently 
fixed to the product indicating that factory inspection has been made shall be accepted in 
lieu of the aforesaid inspection report in writing if the intent or meaning of such 
identifying label or stamp is properly substantiated. 

109.3.9 Special Inspections. For special inspections, see Section 1704. 

109.3.10 Final inspection. The final inspection shall be made after all work required by 
the building permit is completed. 

Upon completion of the building or structure, and before issuance of the occupancy 
permit as required in Section 110, a final inspection shall be made. All violations of the 
approved construction documents and permit shall be noted and the holder of the permit 
shall be notified of the discrepancies. The code official shall be permitted to issue a 
temporary or partial occupancy permit for a specific period of time. Failure to comply 
with the conditions shall cause revocation of the permit. 



109.3.11 Blast survey inspections. When a permit is issued for the use of explosives, the 
code official shall cause to be conducted two survey inspections of all buildings within 
two hundred fifty feet of the blasting, and a third inspection to be made after the 
blasting. These inspections shall indicate any settlement, cracks or other deterioration; 
additional or supplemental detailed survey work shall be permitted to be required by the 
code official. Such inspections or survey work, as required by the code official, must be 
conducted by a private individual or individuals technically competent to do such work 
and acceptable to the code official. Such private surveys shall be conducted at the 
expense of the permit applicant. The additional or supplemental survey work shall be 
permitted to be accepted by the code official in lieu of the pre-blast or post-blast survey 
if the survey(s) has included all areas within two hundred fifty feet of the blasting site 
and contains the details required herein. 

109.4 Inspection agencies. The code official is authorized to accept reports of approved 
inspection agencies, provided such agencies satisfy the requirements as to qualifications 
and reliability. 

109.5 Inspection requests. It shall be the duty of the holder of the building permit or 
their duly authorized agent to notify the code official when work is ready for inspection. 
It shall be the duty of the permit holder to provide access to and means for inspection of 
such work for any inspections that are required by this code. 

109.5.1 Action on notice. Upon receipt of notice that work is ready for inspection, the 
code official shall inspect, or cause to be inspected, the work as soon as reasonably 
practicable. However, failure of the code official to make a prompt inspection shall not 
be deemed justification for covering work without inspection when such work is 
required under the terms of the permit to be inspected before being covered. 

109.6 Approval required. Work shall not be done beyond the point indicated in each 
successive inspection without first obtaining the approval of the code official. The code 
official, upon notification, shall make the requested inspections and shall either indicate 
the portion of the construction that is satisfactory as completed, or shall notify the 
permit holder or an agent of the permit holder wherein the same fails to comply with this 
code. Any portions that do not comply shall be corrected and such portion shall not be 
covered or concealed until authorized by the code official. 

109.7 Periodic inspections. The code official shall, if deemed necessary, make or cause 
to be made such periodic inspections of buildings, structures, devices, appurtenances, 
and uses as are required by and in the intervals prescribed by Table 109.7. In order to 
provide a uniform workload throughout the year, the code official shall be permitted to 
alter the intervals between periodic inspections as required to meet staffing levels. 

Exterior cantilevered balconies, stairways and fire escapes shall be inspected every three 
years by a Missouri licensed design professional. The owner shall submit a report 
bearing the seal, signature and date of a Missouri licensed professional engineer or 
architect to the code official describing the condition and safety of the exterior 
cantilevered balconies, stairways, and fire escapes. This shall apply to all exterior 
cantilevered balconies, stairways, and fire escapes on all buildings regardless of stories 
or height. 



TABLE 109.7 

PERIODIC INSPECTION OF STRUCTURES, DEVICES AND USES 



Item 


Period between 
inspections 


Cornices, Entablatures, Belt Courses, Trim and Similar 
Decorative Features; Maintenance repair and safe condition 
thereof (for such items projecting from the face of buildings). 
See Note a. 


3 years 


Exterior Cantilevered Balconies, Stairways and Fire Escapes. 
See note b. 


3 year 


Other annual permits. Certificates and clearances through 
Board of Public Service action such as Day Care Centers, 
Nursing Homes, Homes for the Ages, Hospitals. See Note c. 


1 year 


Permanent Amusement Devices 


1 year 


Auto Lifts 


1 year 



Note a. Applies to all buildings over 5 stories or 60 feet in height. Owners to submit 
report bearing the Seal of a Missouri licensed Professional Engineer or Architect to the 
code official every three years describing the condition and safety of cornices, 
entablatures, belt courses, etc. The code official shall waive inspection if feature does 
not encroach over City of Saint Louis sidewalk, street or alley. 

Note b. Owners shall submit a report bearing the seal, signature and date of a Missouri 
licensed professional engineer or architect to the code official every three years 
describing the condition and safety of exterior cantilevered balconies, stairways and fire 
escapes. 

Note c. Applies to all other inspections of buildings or uses not otherwise provided for 
in this code or any City ordinance, which are made annually per the Board of Public 
Service Permit, and which are assigned by BPS to the Building Division for permit 
verification, certification, re-certification or clearances. 

109.7.1 Professional inspection. The code official shall require owners to supply 
inspection reports by Missouri licensed design professionals for any building, structure, 
appurtenance, or device when, in the code official's opinion, it is necessary to insure 
proper public safety, health and welfare. 

109.8 Right of entry. The code official shall have the authority to enter at any reasonable 
hour any building, structure or premises in the City of Saint Louis for which a permit 
has been issued but has not received a certificate of occupancy in accordance with 
Section 110 to enforce the provisions of this code or any other code or ordinance of the 
City of Saint Louis. No person shall accompany a code official onto a premises in the 
performance of their duty unless otherwise invited onto said premises by the owner or 
the owner's representative. 

For all other structures or premises, when the code official has reasonable cause to 



believe that a code violation exists, the code official is authorized to enter the building, 
structure or premises at reasonable times to inspect subject to constitutional restrictions 
on unreasonable searches and seizures. If entry is refused or not obtained, the code 
official is authorized to pursue recourse as provided by law. 

109.9 Jurisdictional cooperation. The assistance and cooperation of the Police, Fire, 
Streets, Parks and Health Departments, and all other city officials, shall be available as 
required in the performance of the duties of the code official. 

109.10 Parking. Division of Building and Inspection employees, when on official duty, 
shall be allowed to park, without payment of fees, at any parking meter or contrary to 
posted NO PARKING ZONES. In no event will parking be allowed in front of fire 
plugs, mail boxes, bus stops, wheelchair ramps, nor within disabled parking spaces 
unless vehicle displays a permanent Missouri placard or license plate for the disabled. 

109.10.1 Placards. Each authorized individual shall display one placard, approved by the 
code official, in either the front or rear window of private or city vehicles, to indicate 
that the individual is on official city business and is exempt from parking fees, citations, 
and parking tickets, in accordance with Section 109.10, during normal working hours. 
The Building Commissioner shall not issue such placards to any person not on the 
Division of Building and Inspection payroll. The Building Commissioner shall have the 
authority to request cancellation of parking tickets issued contrary to this ordinance. 

SECTION 110 

CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY 

110.1 Use and occupancy. No building, structure or premises shall be used or occupied, 
and no change in the existing occupancy classification of a building, structure, premise 
or portion thereof shall be made until the code official has issued an occupancy permit 
therefore as provided herein. Issuance of an occupancy permit shall not be construed as 
an approval of a violation of the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the 
jurisdiction. Failure to have an occupancy permit approved and issued by the code 
official is a violation, and both the occupant and owner shall be subject to a penalty, as 
set forth in Section Four. Each day that a violation continues shall constitute a separate 
offense. 

110.1.1 Posting notice. It shall be the duty of the code official to post a notice on any 
building, structure or portion thereof when it is found that an occupancy permit is 
required before any occupancy shall be permitted to occur. This notice shall remain in 
plain sight and removal of same shall constitute a separate offense and shall be subject 
to a penalty as set forth in Section Four. 

110.2 Temporary or partial occupancy permits. Upon the request of an owner or an 
owner's representative, a temporary or partial occupancy permit shall be permitted to be 
issued for a building, structure or premises, provided that no conditions exist which 
endanger life, public safety or welfare. Temporary or partial occupancy permits shall be 
permitted to be subject to conditions. 

110.3 Certificate of substantial completion. Upon the request of the design professional 
of record, the code official shall be permitted to issue a Certificate of Substantial 



Completion for a building, structure or premises before the entire work covered by the 
building permit has been completed, provided there are no conditions existing which 
would endanger public safety, health or welfare. Certificates of Substantial Completion 
shall be permitted to be subject to conditions. The owner can occupy or utilize the work 
or designated portion thereof for the use for which it is intended provided a partial 
occupancy permit has been applied for and issued by the code official. 

110.4 Contents of the occupancy permit. When a building, structure or premises is 
entitled thereto, the code official shall issue an occupancy permit within a reasonable 
period of time. The occupancy permit shall certify compliance with the provisions of 
this code and the purpose for which the building, structure or premises will be used. The 
occupancy permit shall specify the use group in accordance with the provisions of 
Chapter 3; the type of construction as defined in Chapter 6; and any special stipulations 
and conditions of the building permit. Any building, structure or premises for which an 
occupancy permit has been issued shall be permitted to be reinspected to confirm 
compliance with this code and the Zoning Ordinance. 

110.5 By whom application is made. An application for an occupancy permit shall be 
made by the owner of record of the building, structure or premises. If an occupancy 
permit application is made by any person other than the owner of record, a notarized 
letter, or some other proof, must be presented granting permission from the owner of 
record to the applicant to apply for the occupancy permit for the stated use. The full 
names, addresses and telephone numbers of the owner, lessor and applicant shall be 
stated. If the building is owned by a corporation, said notarized permission letter, or 
other proof, shall be signed by an officer or registered agent of that corporation. If the 
applicant for the occupancy permit is a corporation, an officer, registered agent, or other 
responsible person of that corporation shall sign the application stating their position 
with said corporation. 

110.6 Posting of occupancy permit; responsibilities. It shall be the duty or responsibility 
of the operator of every business to display a copy of a legally issued occupancy permit 
pertaining to the actual business in effect on the premises. It shall be the duty of the 
Saint Louis Police Department to enforce the provisions of this section. When the code 
official is informed of or suspects any violation of this code, it shall be the duty of the 
holder of an occupancy permit to allow the code official to inspect the building, 
structure or premises, or any portion thereof. Violation of this section shall result in 
revocation of said occupancy permit, and shall be subject to penalties as set forth in 
Section Four. 

110.7 Occupancy permit application abandonment. Occupancy permit applications shall 
be abandoned sixty days after initial application if, in the opinion of the code official, 
the occupancy permit has not been diligently pursued. 

Exception: Those buildings acquired from Land Reutilization Authority, in which case 
said occupancy permit applications shall be abandoned one hundred eighty days after 
initial application was filed. 

110.8 Revocation. The code official is authorized to, in writing, suspend or revoke an 
occupancy permit or certificate of substantial completion issued under the provisions of 



this code whenever the permit is issued in error, or on the basis of incorrect information 
supplied, or where it is determined that the building or structure or portion thereof is in 
violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of the provisions of this code. 

SECTION 111 
SERVICE UTILITIES 

111.1 Connection of service utilities. No person shall make connections from a utility, 
source of energy, fuel or power to any building or system that is regulated by this code 
for which a permit is required, until released by the code official. 

111.2 Temporary connection. The code official shall have the authority to authorize the 
temporary connection of the building or system to the utility source of energy, fuel or 
power. 

111.3 Authority to disconnect service utilities. The code official shall have the authority 
to authorize the disconnection of utility service to the building, structure or system 
regulated by this code and the codes referenced in case of emergency where necessary to 
eliminate an immediate hazard to life or property. The code official shall notify the 
serving utility, and wherever possible the owner and occupant of the building, structure 
or service system of the decision to disconnect prior to taking such action. If not notified 
prior to disconnecting, the owner or occupant of the building, structure or service system 
shall be notified in writing, as soon as practical thereafter. 

SECTION 112 

BOARD OF BUILDING APPEALS 

112.1 Creation, members and qualifications. There is hereby established a Board of 
Building Appeals consisting of seven members appointed by the Mayor, all of whom 
shall be residents of the City of Saint Louis; at least one of whom shall be a person 
engaged in the real estate business, one a Missouri licensed professional engineer, one a 
Missouri licensed architect, one a building contractor or subcontractor, one a person 
affiliated with the building and construction trades council, and two shall be citizens- 
at-large. There shall be four alternates who shall be permitted to be called when it is 
expected there will not be a quorum present. The alternates shall have all powers, 
protection and stipends as the regular board members in accordance with Civil Service 
provisions. The alternates shall be appointed by the Mayor for four year terms. One 
alternate shall be a Missouri licensed professional engineer or Missouri licensed 
architect; the other alternates shall be citizens-at-large. Alternates shall not make up the 
majority of the Board at any hearing. 

112.1.1 Term of office. New members shall possess the same qualifications as the 
persons in whose place they are appointed. This is an existing board and all current 
appointments shall not be affected by this ordinance. All subsequent appointments shall 
be for a term of four years and shall expire on an anniversary of the date of the original 
term, except appointments to fill vacancies which shall be for the unexpired term. 
Members whose appointment terms have expired shall be permitted to continue to serve 
until reappointed or replaced by a new appointee. 

112.1.2 Procedures. The board shall elect one of its members as chairman who shall 



serve as such during the remainder of the calendar year, and until a successor is elected. 
The board shall from time to time adopt rules and regulations as shall be reasonably 
necessary governing its procedure, and to carry into effect the provisions of this code. 
These rules and regulations shall be available for review at the office of the Secretary to 
the Board during normal working hours. It shall be unlawful for any appellant or 
appellant's representative to contact any member of the board on any matter that is 
pending or scheduled to be heard by the board. If a board member is contacted by an 
appellant on a matter pending before the board, other than during a board hearing, that 
board member must abstain from hearing or voting on the matter, as all testimony must 
be heard "sworn on the record." 

112.1.3 Compensation. The Board of Building Appeals' members shall be compensated 
for services rendered on a per meeting basis, as established by ordinance, and subject to 
budgeted funds availability. 

112.2 Meetings, witnesses, minutes to be kept. Meetings of the board shall be held at the 
call of the chairman, and at such other times as the board by its rules shall be permitted 
to provide. The chairman, or in the chairman's absence, the acting chairman, shall 
administer oaths. The Board shall act by a majority vote, and a quorum shall consist of 
at least four members. The board shall keep minutes of its proceedings showing the vote 
of each member on each question, or if absent or failing to vote, indicating such fact, 
and shall keep records of its examinations of witnesses and other official acts. 
Transcripts of hearings shall be permitted to be kept in the custody of the court reporter, 
and need not be transcribed unless requested. The party requesting the transcripts shall 
pay all costs of such transcripts required, including a file copy for the board, one for the 
Building Division, and one for the board's legal staff. 

112.3 Types of appeals. Any person, firm or corporation aggrieved by a decision of the 
code official. Fire Marshal, or any other board, commission, or other officer exercising 
their powers under this code or any other code or ordinance assigned to the Division of 
Building and Inspection, shall be permitted to file an appeal when the appellant alleges: 

1. That there is an error in an order, requirement, decision, or interpretation 
of the code official. Fire Marshal, or of any other board, commission, or other 
officer in the enforcement of this code; 

2. That the mode, method or manner to be followed in the erection or 
alteration of any building or structure in any specific case before the board is 
equal to or superior to the mode, method or manner required by the 
provisions of this code; 

3 . That the material to be used in this specific case is equal to or superior to 
the materials required by the provisions of this code; 

4. That any other board or commission exercising powers under this code, or 
any other code or ordinance assigned to the Division of Building and 
Inspection, wrongfully interpreted the provisions of the code, or refused to 
grant a license, certificate or permit under the provisions of such code; 

5. That the provisions of Section 3407.1 of this code are applicable. 



Exception. The Board of Building Appeals has no jurisdiction or authority to hear and 
decide appeals on matters covered under the Americans With Disabilities Act, the 
Zoning Ordinance, Cultural Resources Ordinance, or decisions of the Demolition 
Contractor= s Certification Board or the Electrical Contractor= s Board after a hearing 
held by these Boards. 

However, an application for occupancy, alteration or repair of an existing building or 
structure which involves a change of occupancy/ change of use group, whereupon 
accessibility requirements apply, the code official= s determination of change of 
occupancy/ use group shall be allowed to be appealed to the Board of Building Appeals. 

112.3.1 Determination of substantial improvement in areas prone to flooding. When the 
code official provides a finding, the Board of Building Appeals shall determine whether 
the value of the proposed work constitutes a substantial improvement. A substantial 
improvement means any repair, reconstruction, rehabilitation, addition, or improvement 
of a building or structure, the cost of which equals or exceeds 50 percent of the market 
value of the building or structure before the improvement or repair is started. If the 
building or structure has sustained substantial damage, all repairs are considered 
substantial improvements regardless of the actual repair work performed. The term does 
not include: 

1. Improvements to a building or structure required to correct existing health, 
sanitary or safety code violations identified by the code official and which are 
the minimum necessary to assure safe living conditions. 

2. Any alteration of a historic building or structure provided that the 
alteration will not preclude the continued designation as a historic building or 
structure. 

2.1 Listed or preliminarily determined to be eligible for listing in the 
National Register of Historic Places; or 

2.2 Determined by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Interiors as 
contributing to the historical significance of a registered historic district or a 
district preliminarily determined to qualify as an historic district; or 

2.3 Designated as historic under a state or local historic preservation program 
that is approved by the Department of the Interior. 

112.3.2 Criteria for issuance of a variance for areas prone to flooding. A variance shall 
only be issued upon: 

1 . A showing of good and sufficient cause that the unique characteristics of 
the size, configuration or topography of the site render the elevation 
standards inappropriate. 

2. A determination that failure to grant the variance would result in 
exceptional hardship by rendering the lot undevelopable. 

3 . A determination that the granting of a variance will not result in increased 



flood heights, additional threats to public safety, extraordinary public 
expense, nor create nuisances, cause fraud on or victimization of the public, 
or conflict with existing local laws or ordinances. 

4. A determination that the variance is the minimum necessary to afford 
relief, considering the flood hazard. 

5. Submission to the applicant of written notice specifying the difference 
between the design flood elevation and the elevation to which the building is 
to be built, stating that the cost of flood insurance will be commensurate with 
the increased risk resulting from the reduced floor elevation, and stating that 
construction below the design flood elevation increases risks to life and 
property. 

112.4 Filing date. Unless otherwise specified in other sections of this code, appeals shall 
be filed within thirty calendar days after the decision of the code official. Fire Marshal, 
or any other board, commission or other officer exercising their powers under this code, 
or any other code or ordinance assigned to the Division of Building and Inspection, is 
rendered; however, no such appeal shall be taken from any order or ruling wherein 
responsibility lies with the Board of Adjustment, as established by the Zoning 
Ordinance, or with any other board, as established by the Revised Codes of the City of 
Saint Louis. 

Exception: Condemnation appeals shall be filed within ten calendar days of the date on 
the Notice of Condemnation, as described in Section 118.8 of this code. 

112.5 Manner and fee for filing appeals. Appeals shall be taken by filing with the 
Secretary to the Board a notice of appeal on such forms as prescribed by the Board of 
Building Appeals, specifying the grounds thereof, and the secretary shall immediately 
transmit to the board such notice and all papers constituting the record upon which the 
action appealed from is taken. The notice of appeal shall be accompanied by a fee, as 
listed in Table 112.5 of this code. In the event that more than one building, structure or 
premises, owned by the same person, firm or corporation, has been cited for exactly the 
same violation, and the owner has filed an appeal with the board disputing the same 
citation, the appellant shall be permitted to file one appeal covering all said buildings, 
structures or premises, and be charged one appeal fee. The decision rendered by the 
board shall apply to all buildings, structures or premises involved in the appeal. 

TABLE 112.5 

BOARD OF BUILDING APPEALS FEE 



ll — 

Item 


Fee 


Remarks and requirements 


Board of Building 
Appeals Filing Fee 


$150.00 


Upon the submission of an acceptable written 
statement certifying the applicant to be 
indigent, the filing fee shall be waived only 
upon approval from the City Counselor's 
Office. 



112.5.1 Waiver of appeal fees. In the event the Secretary to the Board receives a written 



claim of indigence and a request for a fee waiver, this request shall be referred to the 
City Counselor's Office for approval or denial, and that decision shall be final. A copy 
of that decision shall be kept on file. 

112.5.2 Board hearings; notification. After an appeal has been filed, the Secretary to the 
Board shall place the appeal on a board hearing agenda, and the appellant shall be 
notified in writing by certified mail prescribing the time, date and location of the hearing 
not less than seven days prior to said hearing. Such hearing shall be held within a 
reasonable time after the filing of the notice of appeal, depending on the scheduling of 
other appeals. 

112.6 Appeals to stay proceedings; exceptions. Appeals shall stay all proceedings in 
furtherance of the action appealed from, unless the code official or Fire Marshal 
whichever shall be the case, certifies to the Board of Building Appeals, after the notice 
of appeal has been filed, that by reason of the facts stated in the certificate, a stay would, 
in their opinion, cause imminent peril to life or property. In addition, appeals shall not 
stay all proceedings when there is: unlawful occupancy; a stop work order; or 
construction or demolition without a permit. In such case, proceedings shall not be 
stayed other than by restraining order, which shall be permitted to be granted by the 
Board of Building Appeals on application and on notice to the code official or Fire 
Marshal, or by a court of competent jurisdiction. 

112.7 Jurisdiction of the board. The Board of Building Appeals is hereby empowered to 
hear and decide appeals in all matters described in Section 112.3 

112.7.1 Board decisions; notification. The board shall enter its order and decision after 
hearing, affirming, modifying or reversing the order, requirement, interpretation, ruling 
or decision of the code official in whole or in part. The board shall be permitted to 
require conditions or restrictions as necessary to assure that the activity complies with 
the intent of this code, or as the board deems appropriate. If the appellant fails to appear 
at the prescribed time and location of the hearing, and it has been determined that notice 
of the hearing was received, the appeal shall be dismissed, and the original order, 
requirement, interpretation, ruling or decision of the code official shall be affirmed. A 
final decision, when used in this section, shall mean a decision rendered by the Board of 
Building Appeals. The board shall, upon rendering its final decision, notify the appellant 
of its order and final decision by mail. The appellant shall be deemed to have received 
the final decision three days after the final decision has been deposited in the United 
States mail with proper postage. The board shall forward its order and decision to the 
code official or Fire Marshal, or any other board, commission or officer exercising their 
powers under this code, in writing, and place a copy of the decision in its files. There 
shall be no rehearing or reopening of that file by the board, except where the board has 
required conditions or restrictions and it is to be determined whether the conditions or 
restrictions have been met. No information concerning any decision reached by the 
board shall be made public except to the appellant until that decision has been signed 
and the appellant has first been formally notified. 

112.7.2 Generic decisions. In the event that the Building Commissioner finds that a 
specific decision of the Board of Building Appeals would be helpful in the continued 
administration of this code if it were made to be generically applicable, the Building 



Commissioner shall be permitted to petition the board in writing requesting that the 
decision of a specific case be made generically applicable, in part or in whole, without 
the need for individual appeals, and shall become a part of the policy of the Division of 
Building and Inspection. This request must be made within one hundred eighty calendar 
days of the rendering of the decision. The board shall only affirm or deny such petition. 

112.7.3 Conditional decisions; method of rehearing. When the Board of Building 
Appeals enters a conditional decision modifying or reversing an order of the code 
official, and grants additional time to correct the violation(s), the board shall grant no 
more than ninety days. Additional time shall be permitted to be granted if, in the opinion 
of the code official, sufficient progress is being made to correct the violation(s). In the 
event insufficient progress is being made to correct the violation(s) in the allotted time, 
the case shall be referred back to the Board of Building Appeals to show cause why the 
conditions set by the board have not been met and why the code official's original order 
or decision should not be affirmed. In the event of such referral back to the board, 
notification to the appellant prescribing the time, date and location of said hearing shall 
be the same as that described in Section 112.5.2. 

112.8 Appeals from decisions of the board. Any person(s) jointly or severally aggrieved 
by the decision of the Board of Building Appeals shall be entitled to a judicial review of 
the decision rendered by the Board of Building Appeals as provided in the 
Administrative Procedure and Review Act of the State of Missouri, being Sections 
536.100 - 536.140 of the Revised Statutes of Missouri. 

112.9 Hearing officer: The Board of Building Appeals shall have the right to appoint a 
hearing officer to hear and render a decision on any appeal filed with the Board of 
Building Appeals. 

112.9.1 Qualification. The hearing officer shall be an attorney and on an approved list of 
attorneys who have administrative law experience. The Director of Public Safety shall 
compile and maintain said list. 

112.9.2 Rights and duties. The hearing officer shall have such rights, responsibilities and 
duties as the Board of Building Appeals and the appellants shall have the same rights as 
an appellant appearing before the Board of Building Appeals, including the right to 
appeal pursuant to Missouri= s Administrative Procedure and Review Act. 

SECTION 113 
VIOLATIONS 

113.1 Unlawful acts. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corporation to grade 
for, excavate for, erect, construct, alter, extend, repair, move, remove, demolish, use or 
occupy any building, structure or premises, or equipment regulated by this code, or 
cause same to be done, in conflict with, or in violation of the provisions of this code or 
any decision or order of the Board of Building Appeals. 

113.2 Notice of violation. The code official is authorized to serve a notice of violation or 
order on the owner, as shown in the records of the City of Saint Louis Assessor's Office, 
or person responsible for the grading, excavating, erection, construction, alteration, 
extension, repair, moving, removal, demolition, use or occupancy of a building. 



structure or premises in violation of the provisions of this code, or in violation of a detail 
statement or construction documents approved thereunder, or in violation of a permit or 
certificate issued under the provisions of this code. Such order shall direct the 
discontinuance of the illegal action or condition and the abatement of the violation. Such 
notice shall be permitted to be served by the United States mail. Posting of the premises 
shall also constitute notice. It shall be a violation of this code for any person to remove 
any such notice, lawfully posted pursuant to this code, unless otherwise ordered by the 
code official. 

113.2.1 Investigation of records. Upon the receipt of a written request from the owner of 
the property, or the real estate agent for the property, or the attorney, architect or 
engineer representing the owner of the property, the permit section supervisor shall ask 
the various building division sections for copies of any existing violation letters 
concerning the property. If the request is not on the owner's letterhead, a notarized 
authorization from the owner must be submitted. 

The response letter written by the permit section supervisor shall list any known 
violations and must contain the following statement: "This letter does not certify that 
there are no actual existing violations of the ordinances for which the Division of 
Building and Inspection is responsible. To determine if there are any violations of any 
ordinances, an application for an occupancy permit must be filed in accordance with 
Section 110.5 of this code and the subsequent inspections completed. This letter does 
certify there are no existing letters of violation on record other than those attached 
herein. There will be a twenty-five dollar fee charged for this service. Five working days 
will be allowed to respond to this request." 

113.3 Prosecution of violation. If the notice of violation is not complied with promptly, 
the code official is authorized to request the legal counsel of the City of Saint Louis to 
institute the appropriate proceeding at law or in equity to restrain, correct or abate such 
violation, or to require the removal or termination of the unlawful occupancy of the 
building, structure or premises in violation of the provisions of this code or of the order 
or direction made pursuant thereto. 

113.4 Violation penalties. Any person who violates a provision of this code or fails to 
comply with any of the requirements thereof or who erects, constructs, alters or repairs a 
building or structure in violation of the approved construction documents or directive of 
the code official, or of a permit or certificate issued under the provisions of this code, 
shall be subject to penalties as prescribed in Section Four. 

113.5 Abatement of violation. The imposition of penalties as set forth in Section Four 
shall not preclude the legal officer of the City of Saint Louis from instituting appropriate 
action to prevent unlawful construction or to restrain, correct or abate a violation, or to 
prevent illegal occupancy of a building, structure or premises, or to stop an illegal act, 
conduct business or use of a building or structure on or about any premises. 

SECTION 114 

STOP WORK ORDER 

114.1 Authority. Whenever the code official finds any work regulated by this code being 
performed in a manner contrary to the provisions of this code or in a dangerous or 



unsafe manner, the code official is authorized to issue a stop work order. '^ ' • ^ 

114.2 Issuance. The work order shall be in writing and shall be given to the owner of the 
property involved, or to the owner= s agent, or to the person doing the work. Upon 
issuance of a stop work order, the cited work shall immediately cease. The stop work 
order shall state the reason for the order, and the conditions under which the cited work 
will be permitted to resume. 

114.3 Unlawful continuance. Any person who shall continue any work in or about the 
building, structure or premises after having been served with a stop work order, except 
such work as they are directed to perform to remove a violation or unsafe condition, 
shall, upon conviction thereof, be subject to the penalties as set forth in Section Four. 
Each day that a violation continues shall constitute a separate and distinct offense. 

SECTION 115 

UNSAFE STRUCTURES AND EQUIPMENT 

115.1 Conditions. Structures or existing equipment that are or hereafter become unsafe, 
unsanitary or deficient because of inadequate means of egress, facilities, inadequate light 
and ventilation, or which constitutes a fire hazard, or are otherwise dangerous to human 
life or the public welfare, or which involve illegal or improper occupancy or inadequate 
maintenance, shall be deemed an unsafe condition. Unsafe structures shall be taken 
down and removed or made safe, as the code official deems necessary and as provided 
for in this section. A vacant structure that is not secured against entry shall be deemed 
unsafe. 

115.2 Record. The code official shall cause a report to be filed on an unsafe condition. 
The report shall state the occupancy of the structure and the nature of the unsafe 
condition. 

115.3 Notice. If an unsafe condition is found, the code official shall serve on the owner, 
agent or person in control of the structure, a written notice that describes the condition 
deemed unsafe and specifies the required repairs or improvements to be made to abate 
the unsafe condition, or that requires the unsafe structure to be demolished within a 
stipulated time. Such notice shall require the person thus notified to declare immediately 
to the code official acceptance or rejection of the terms of the order. 

115.4 Method of service. Such notice shall be deemed properly served if a copy thereof 
is (a) delivered to the owner personally; (b) sent by certified or registered mail addressed 
to the owner at the last known address with the return receipt requested; or (c) delivered 
in any other manner as prescribed by local law. If the certified or registered letter is 
returned showing that the letter was not delivered, a copy thereof shall be posted in a 
conspicuous place in or about the structure affected by such notice. Service of such 
notice in the foregoing manner upon the owner= s agent or upon the person responsible 
for the structure shall constitute service of notice upon the owner. 

115.5 Restoration. The structure or equipment determined to be unsafe by the code 
official is permitted to be restored to a safe condition. To the extent that repairs, 
alterations or additions are made or a change of occupancy occurs during the restoration 
of the structure, such repairs, alterations, additions or change of occupancy shall comply 



with the requirements of Section 105.2.2. "^ ' • ^ 

SECTION 116 

PROFESSIONAL ARCHITECTURAL AND ENGINEERING SERVICES 

116.1 Responsibilities. The provisions of this section shall define the construction 
controls required for buildings involving professional architectural or engineering 
services, and delineate the responsibilities of such professional services during 
construction. 

116.1.1 Design. All design for new construction, alteration, repair, expansion, addition 
or modification work involving the practice of professional architecture or engineering, 
as defined by the statutory requirements of the professional licensing laws of the State of 
Missouri, shall be prepared by Missouri licensed design professionals, certified by the 
Missouri Board for Architects, Professional Engineers, Professional Land Surveyors and 
Landscape Architects. All construction documents required for a building permit 
application for such work shall be prepared by or under the direct supervision of a 
Missouri licensed design professional and bear their seal, signature and date in 
accordance with the State's statutes and regulations governing the professional licensing 
and certification of architects, professional engineers and land surveyors. 

116.1.2 Review. The Missouri licensed design professional, whose seal is on the 
approved construction documents, shall be responsible for review of shop drawings and 
samples, as required by the approved construction documents, and approval for 
conformance to the design concept and this code. This review process shall be permitted 
to be contracted by the owner to another Missouri licensed design professional, should 
the original design professional not desire to provide such services. 

116.1.3 Application of seal, signature and date. All construction documents submitted 
with an application for a building permit shall be prepared by a Missouri licensed design 
professional as required by Chapter 327 of the Revised Statutes of the State of Missouri. 
All construction documents shall bear an original embossed or wet ink seal, original ink 
signature and the date the documents were sealed by the Missouri licensed design 
professional for each discipline on the first sheet of each discipline within each set of 
construction documents, or on the cover sheet of each set of construction documents. 

In addition, all other sheets of the construction documents, other than project 
specifications or calculations, shall bear the original embossed, wet ink, electronic or 
mechanically reproduced seal, signature and date of the Missouri licensed design 
professional. Any addenda or modifications submitted for changes to the construction 
documents shall also bear the original embossed or wet ink seal, original ink signature 
and date the documents were sealed. 

All project specifications, calculations, reports or other documents not considered to be 
construction drawings shall bear an original wet ink or embossed seal, original ink 
signature and the date the documents were signed by the Missouri licensed design 
professional for each discipline on the title or index sheet. 

116.1.4 Reproduction of sealed documents. Construction documents sealed by a 
Missouri licensed design professional, shall not be reproduced for anyone, other than the 



owner, without the expressed written permission of Missouri licensed design 
professional who sealed said documents, or as ordered by a court of law. 

116.2 Special professional services. When applications are filed for unusual designs or 
magnitude of construction which require construction document review or inspection 
services beyond the capacity of the code official's staff, or where code reference 
standards in Chapter 35 require special architect or engineer inspections, the code 
official shall be permitted to require the owner to retain a properly qualified Missouri 
licensed design professional to perform the services necessary for code compliance in 
addition to that provided in Section 116.1.2. This project representative shall keep daily 
records and submit reports as required by the code official. Upon completion of the 
work, the Missouri licensed design professional shall file a final report indicating 
whether or not all required inspections were performed and listing pertinent deviations 
from the building code requirements or from the approved construction documents and 
the source of authority for such deviations. 

116.2.1 Building permit requirement. The necessity for special professional services 
shall be determined prior to issuance of the building permit, unless waived to a later date 
by the code official. Refusal by the applicant to provide such services as required by the 
code official shall result in the denial of the permit. 

116.2.2 Fees and costs. All fees and costs related to the performance of special 
inspection services shall be borne by the owner. 

116.2.3 Visits to site. When so directed by the code official, or when required by the 
special inspection provisions of this code, the Missouri licensed design professional 
shall make visits to the site at intervals appropriate to the stage of the construction to 
observe the progress and the quality of the work; to observe construction components 
requiring controlled materials or construction, as specified in Chapter 35, Referenced 
Standards; and to determine if the work is proceeding in accordance with the 
construction documents approved for the building permit. The Missouri licensed design 
professional shall periodically submit reports to the code official showing the results of 
such periodic visits. 

SECTION 117 
WORKMANSHIP 

117.1 General. All work shall be conducted, installed and completed in a neat, 
workmanlike and acceptable manner so as to secure the results intended by this code. 

SECTION 118 
CONDEMNATIONS 

118.1 Notification. If, upon making an inspection and examination, the code official 
finds that a building, structure or premises has one or more of the defects described 
below, the code official shall notify in writing, as provided in Section 118.2, the 
owner(s) of said building, structure or premises, as recorded most recently in the City of 
Saint Louis Assessor's Office, the defects found in said building, structure or premises, 
and shall order them to proceed to properly demolish, repair, and secure or correct all 
conditions causing condemnation of said building, structure or premises within seven 



days. This document is to be known as a Notice of Condemnation. If the conditions have 
not been corrected by the date listed in the notice, the building, structure, premises, or 
portion thereof or appurtenance thereto will be condemned and shall be required to be 
vacated and secured. Possible defects shall be permitted to be one or more of the 
following: 

1 . The building or structure is in a condition which endangers either the lives 
or safety of persons, whether occupants or otherwise, or other property; 

2. The condition of the building or structure by reason of the making of an 
excavation on the lot on which it is located, or any adjoining lot, endangers 
either the lives or safety of persons, whether occupants or otherwise, or other 
property; 

3. The building, structure or premises is a fire hazard for any reason, 
including without limitation: obsolescence, dilapidation, deterioration, 
damage, lack of sufficient fire-resisting qualities, poor sanitation, or faulty 
electrical wiring, gas connections or heating apparatus; 

4. The building or structure lacks safe or adequate facilities for means of 
egress in case of fire or panic; 

5. The building or structure has any one or more of the following conditions: 

A. Improperly distributed loads upon the floors or roof; 

B. Overloaded floors or roofs; 

C. Insufficient strength to be reasonably safe for its actual or 
intended use; 

6. Any portion of the building or structure has been so damaged by fire, 
earthquake, wind, flood, vandalism, malicious mischief, or any other cause, 
that the building or structure is no longer safe or suitable for its actual or 
intended use; 

7. Any interior or exterior portion, member, appurtenance, ornamentation or 
any other component of the building or structure is likely to fall or collapse, 
or become detached or dislodged, and thereby injure persons or damage 
property; 

8. Any portion of the building or structure has racked, warped, buckled or 
settled to such an extent that its walls or other structural portions have 
insufficient resistance to fire, earthquake, wind, flood or similar perils; 

9. Part or all of the building or structure is in danger of collapsing for any 
reason; 

10. The building or structure has exterior walls or other vertical structural 
members which list, lean or buckle; 



11. The building, structure or premises, or any portion thereof is, for any 
reason, unsafe for its actual or intended use; 

12. The building or structure has been so damaged by fire, earthquake, wind, 
flood, vandalism, malicious mischief, or any other cause, or has become so 
dilapidated, deteriorated or decayed as to come within any one or more of the 
following categories: 

A. The building or structure will attract and result in harm to 
children; 

B. The building or structure is, or is likely to become, a harbor for 
vagrants, criminals or immoral persons; 

C. The building or structure enables persons to resort thereto for 
the purpose of committing unlawful or immoral acts; 

13. The building, structure or premises has been constructed, exists, or is 
being maintained in violation of any provisions of this code, or of any law of 
the City of Saint Louis; 

14. The building or structure does not have the strength, fire-resisting 
qualities or weather-resisting qualities required by this code for newly 
constructed buildings of like area, height and occupancy; 

15. The building, structure, or premises is used or intended to be used for 
purposes that are likely to injure the health, safety or welfare of persons who 
occupy or could occupy said building or structure by reason of any one or 
more of the following conditions: 

A. Inadequate maintenance, dilapidation, deterioration, decay or 
damage; 

B. Faulty construction; 

C. Inadequate light, ventilation or sanitation facilities; 

D. The building, structure or premises is being used for any illegal 
purposes; 

16. Any portion of the building or structure has been left remaining on a site 
after its demolition or destruction; 

17. The building or structure is vacant for a period in excess of six months, 
and because of its condition, it is unsafe or unsanitary, or it endangers 
property or the health, morals, safety or welfare of persons; 

18. A building or structure is subject to demolition is the building or structure 
is vacant and has been ordered secure or has been secured by order of the 
code official for a period in excess of twelve months and has been 
condemned for occupancy or has been used in the commission of a crime 



subsequent to being ordered secured or being secured. ' . -^ ^ ^ . 

19. The building or structure is only partly constructed and construction has 
stopped for a period in excess of six months, and because of its condition, 
affects the health, safety and welfare of the adjacent properties. 

20. Any building or storage used for the manufacture or storage of 
methamphetamine, lysergic acid diethylamide, phencyclidine, gamma 
hydroxybutyrate or flunitrazepam. 

118.1.1 Evacuation order; failure to comply. Any person who refuses to leave, interferes 
with the evacuation of other occupants, or continues any operation after having been 
given an evacuation order by the code official, except such person(s) who is directed to 
perform work to remove a violation or unsafe condition, shall be deemed in violation of 
this section whereupon it shall be the duty of the Police Department to immediately 
remove such person from said building, structure or premises and prevent anyone from 
re-entering the building, structure or premises until such time that the Police Department 
shall have been notified by the Building Division that the same is in a safe condition. 
Any person who shall violate this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and subject 
to the penalties as set forth in Section Four. 

118.1.2 Dangerous conditions. Whenever the code official shall find any building, 
structure or premises in such a condition that it presents a safety hazard, but not 
dangerous enough to warrant condemnation and demolition, and repair is relatively 
small in relation to the building as a whole, the code official shall post a sign on the 
premises which reads as follows: 

WARNING 

ALL PERSONS ARE WARNED TO USE EXTREME CAUTION IN OR 
AROUND THESE PREMISES 

Additionally, a letter shall be posted indicating those conditions in violation of this code, 
and a copy of said letter shall be mailed to the owner(s) of said building, structure or 
premises. 

118.2 Service of notice. The notice to the owner(s) of the building, structure or premises 
found by the code official to be in violation of this code, shall be directed to the 
owner(s) of such building, structure or premises, as recorded most recently in the City of 
Saint Louis Assessor's Office. The notice shall be served in one of the following ways: 

1 . Deliver direct to owner(s). 

2. Posting a copy of said notice upon the building, structure or premises. 

3. Mailing a copy of said notice by regular mail, postage prepaid, direct to 
owner(s)= place of business or the address currently recorded in the 
Assessor's Office of the City of St. Louis. 

4. Publication in a newspaper of general circulation in the City of Saint 
Louis. 



118.2.1 Posting copy of notice. In case such building, structure or premises is in the 
occupancy of a tenant(s), in addition to the above notice, it shall be the duty of the code 
official to post a copy of such notice upon said building, structure or premises. It shall be 
a violation of this code for any person to remove any notice or copy thereof, lawfully 
posted pursuant to this code, unless otherwise ordered by the code official. 

118.3 Failure to comply; authority to enter into contracts. If the owner(s) fail to comply 
with the order of the code official by the date indicated in the Notice of Condemnation, 
and in such a manner that can be approved by the code official, then such owner(s) shall 
have violated this code, and the code official shall be permitted to forthwith proceed to 
undertake and complete whatever work is necessary to eliminate the dangerous 
condition. The Building Commissioner shall have the authority to enter into contracts 
with no other review, signature or approval (except for insurance) from any other City 
agency. Such contracts shall be permitted to include, but not be limited to, demolition, 
environmental investigation, remedial work, professional or contractual services. 
Competitive bids shall not be required for emergency situations where there is a danger 
to life or property. The cost of such work performed by the code official, under the 
provisions of Sections 118 or 119 of this code, shall be paid for by the City of Saint 
Louis. The code official shall certify to the Comptroller the cost of such work, including 
the administrative costs incurred by the Division of Building and Inspection in 
performing said work, but in no event shall such administrative costs exceed ten percent 
of the contract price incurred by the Division of Building and Inspection in performing 
such work. The Comptroller, upon certification by the code official of the cost expended 
for said work, shall prepare bills for such work against the owner(s) of said building, 
structure or premises. In case said bills are not paid upon presentation, they shall be 
referred to the City Counselor, who shall proceed to collect same, by suit, or lien if 
necessary, and the amounts when collected shall be credited to a special revolving fund 
for the purposes herein designated. 

118.3.1 Secured buildings. For a building or structure to be "secured" in those cases in 
which securing is specifically required by this code, a covering shall be placed over all 
doors, windows or other openings at the first floor level, and all doors and windows that 
are accessible from any porch, service stair or fire escape, and all basement or cellar 
windows. This cover shall consist of not less than three-eighths inch plywood or other 
such material approved by the code official attached to the framing of all such doors and 
windows by wood screws, or any other material approved by the code official, of a 
minimum length of one and one-half inches, placed not more than twelve inches on 
center. Such plywood or other such material approved by the code official shall be 
painted with a minimum of two coats of exterior grade paint of a brick red or other color 
which is approved by the code official. It shall be the duty and responsibility of the code 
official to re-enter any premises or building or portion thereof that has previously been 
secured and boarded either by the City of Saint Louis or any other party, when, in the 
opinion of the code official, there is reason to believe that there happens to be new or 
additional violations of this code. The code official shall not be held responsible for any 
damage to the building, structure or premises caused by the act of securing. 

118.3.2 Reentry of secured buildings. The occupancy of any building or structure which 
has been ordered secured or has been secured by order of the code official shall be 
prohibited until the owner of said building or structure obtains a certificate of inspection. 



or an occupancy permit from the code official. Work performed on any building or 
structure as a prerequisite to a certificate of inspection shall not be considered 
occupancy of said building or structure. 

118.4 Building not to be rented or leased. No owner, or agent of the owner, of any 
building, structure or premises, after notice from the code official that such building, 
structure or premises is unsafe or dangerous, shall rent or lease the same or any part 
thereof, or collect any rent therefore, until such building, structure or premises has been 
placed in a safe and secure condition. Under Section 118 the code official shall be 
permitted to require an occupancy permit to be issued prior to occupancy or 
re-occupancy. Any person found guilty of violating the provisions of this section shall 
be subject to the penalties as set forth in Section Four regarding fine and imprisonment. 
Each day that a violation continues constitutes a separate and distinct offense. 

118.5 Cost; method of payment; lien; penalty. The code official shall have the authority 
to require any violator of this code to correct, remove or abate any condition caused or 
permitted by them in violation of this code; and the code official shall be permitted to 
correct, remove or abate the same, upon their failure to comply with the requirements of 
this code, when the public interest so requires. For all emergency condemned buildings 
or structures, the code official shall have the authority to receive and publicly open bids 
and award the contract to the lowest qualified bidder meeting the specifications, without 
first sending said contract to the Comptroller. These contracts shall be signed by the 
Building Commissioner and countersigned by the Director of Public Safety, and shall 
have the full effect of a city contract. All costs attending such action in such cases shall 
be paid from the appropriate fund, as provided in Section 118.3 of this code, and then 
collected from the party offending as therein provided. A lien for such costs shall be 
placed against the property whereon such violation was permitted to exist. The cost shall 
also be certified to the Collector of Revenue, or other official collecting real estate taxes, 
who shall cause a special tax bill against the property to be prepared and collected in the 
same manner and procedures as other real estate tax bills. Said special tax bill shall be 
deemed a personal debt against the property owner(s) and shall also be a lien on the 
property until paid. These bills or liens shall not be forgiven except by the City 
Counselor, who shall, in writing, instruct the code official to forgive such bills or liens. 
Further, board-up and demolition bills shall be permitted to be waived when ownership 
of said property, for which the bill or lien was issued, is accepted by Land Reutilization 
Authority, Saint Louis Development Corporation or any other City agency. Any person, 
firm or corporation, who shall refuse or neglect to comply with the provisions of this 
section, or who shall violate any of the provisions thereof, shall be subject to the 
penalties as set forth in Section Four. In addition, any payments deemed to be in arrears 
shall be subject to interest charges at a rate set by the Comptroller. 

118.5.1 Prohibited expenditures. The code official shall not expend any monies for 
demolition of buildings owned by Land Reutilization Authority, Operation Impact, Saint 
Louis Development Corporation, Port Authority or any other governmental agency, 
except in emergency situations where immediate action is required to preserve public 
health, safety and welfare. 

118.6 Vacation of buildings; duties of police; penalty. Upon effecting condemnation of 
any building, structure or premises by the code official, it shall be unlawful for any 



person to enter or remain in or on such building, structure or premises until such time as 
the Police Department shall have been notified in writing by the code official that the 
same is in a safe condition. It shall be the duty of the Police to remove any person from 
such building, structure or premises so condemned and to prevent any person from 
entering same until such time as the Police Department shall have been notified in 
writing by the code official that such building, structure or premises is in compliance 
with this code. The provisions of this section shall not apply to licensed security guards 
or persons directly employed in securing the building, structure or premises, or 
otherwise abating the conditions causing the condemnation. Any violation of this section 
of the code shall be subject to the penalties as set forth in Section Four. 

118.7 Removal of decayed or unsafe trees. Whenever it shall come to the knowledge of 
the Forestry Commissioner that any tree on private property is in such a decayed or 
dangerous condition as to endanger the lives of persons, or is likely to cause immediate 
damage to the property of others, the Forestry Commissioner shall cause said tree to be 
removed or cause such dangerous conditions to be remedied by the owner of the 
property whereon it is situated. The powers and duties of the Forestry Commissioner in 
respect to any such tree, the notice to the owner of the property whereon it is located, the 
cost of its removal or remedying the dangerous condition caused thereby, the lien of 
such cost, the method of its collection, the penalties to be incurred by the owner, and the 
procedure to be followed by the Forestry Commissioner shall, as nearly as practicable, 
be those prescribed by this section in respect to the code official's procedures for 
buildings and other structures which are in a dangerous condition. 

If the Forestry Commissioner cannot secure removal of the dangerous tree by Forestry 
Division forces, or by response of the owner to the Forestry Division notice, the Forestry 
Commissioner shall be permitted to request the assistance of the code official in 
condemning the tree and securing removal after emergency or public bid by private 
contractors, resulting in a City of Saint Louis contract to remove the tree. 

The condemnation, if appealed to the Board of Building Appeals, shall require the 
defense testimony of Forestry Division personnel knowledgeable about trees. 

The Building Division shall be permitted to make available for tree removal contracts on 
private property a sum not to exceed five percent of the first two hundred thousand 
dollars of general fund demolition monies appropriated in a fiscal year, in addition to not 
more than three percent of any appropriated amount over two hundred thousand dollars. 
The Forestry Division will prepare bid specifications, receive, process and award such 
contracts billable to the Building Division demolition account subject to the dollar limits 
above. This procedure is for dead or dangerous trees on private property only and is not 
for encroachments, trimming, pruning or other concerns. 

118.8 Appeal. Any person aggrieved by the decision of the code official, pursuant to 
Sections 118.1 through 118.7 inclusive of this code, shall be permitted to appeal such 
decisions to the Board of Building Appeals within ten calendar days of the date on the 
Notice of Condemnation. The Condemnation Committee of the Board of Building 
Appeals, selected by the chairman, shall hear said appeal and render its decision 
affirming, modifying or reversing the decision of the code official, and to such end, shall 
possess all the powers on appeal granted the code official under Sections 118.1 through 



118.7 inclusive of this code. Such decision shall be subject to the procedures and review 
provided by the Administrative Procedure and Review Act of the State of Missouri. 
Filing of an appeal of any portion of Sections 118.1 through 118.7 of this code does not 
stay any action provided in these sections. 

118.9 Penalties. If the owner(s) fail to repair, demolish, or otherwise comply a building, 
structure or premises, as ordered by the Notice of Condemnation of the code official, 
pursuant to Section 118.2 of this code, either within the seven day period specified in 
Section 118.1, or within ten days after any appeal from said notice, as provided in 
Section 118.8 of this code, is finally adjudicated adversely to said owner(s), then said 
owner(s) shall be guilty of a violation of this section and shall, upon conviction thereof, 
be subject to penalties as set forth in Section Four. Each day that any violation continues 
shall constitute a separate and distinct offense. 

118.10 Responsibility of ownership. 

1 . Disclosure: It shall be unlawful for any seller or grantor to convey, give or 
transfer property to any buyer or grantee without first disclosing in writing to 
the buyer or grantee the existence of all Notices of Condemnation or any 
other violations of this code. The grantor shall keep and make available for 
inspection by the code official such disclosure signed by the grantee for a 
period of one year from the conveyance, gift or transfer. 

2. Liability to prosecution and conviction: Any person shall be permitted to 
be prosecuted and convicted for violation of Section 118.1.1, notwithstanding 
that said person has not been given the notice specified in Section 118.1, 
provided that the building, structure or premises in question had one or more 
of the defects described in Section 118.1 during the period that said person 
was responsible for said building, structure or premises as owner, corporate 
officer, partner or otherwise, and provided further that said prosecution is 
commenced during the one year period after said person ceased to be so 
responsible. 

3. Liability to suit and judgment: Any person shall be permitted to be sued by 
and held liable to the City of Saint Louis, as provided in Section 118.3, for 
funds expended by the City of Saint Louis, pursuant to said section, 
notwithstanding that said person has not been given the notice specified in 
section 118.1, provided that the building, structure or premises in question 
had one or more of the defects described in said section during the period that 
said person was responsible for said building, structure or premises as owner, 
corporate officer, partner or otherwise, and provided further that said suit is 
commenced during the one year period after said person ceased to be so 
responsible. 

Owner(s) are presumed by law to know the conditions of their property, whether or not 
such notice was given. Notices sent to the address of the owner(s) shown on the City of 
Saint Louis Assessors Office records on the date sent, shall constitute legal notice in 
accord with Section 118.2. 

118.11 Dangerous, hazardous, unsanitary or unapproved plumbing, mechanical and 



electrical installations. The code official shall have the authority to seal out of service 
the items listed below, when, in the code official's opinion, any of these items are in an 
unsafe, hazardous or unsanitary condition, or if a Certificate of Inspection has not been 
issued by the code official, or if the installation was made without obtaining the 
necessary permit(s): 

1. Plumbing equipment, fixtures, piping, devices and appurtenances covered 
by the City of Saint Louis Building and Plumbing Codes; 

2. Mechanical equipment, devices and appurtenances covered by the City of 
Saint Louis Building and Mechanical Codes. 

3. Electrical equipment, fixtures, devices, wiring and appurtenances covered 
by the City of Saint Louis Building and Electrical Codes; 

118. ILl Notice of sealing out of service. Before sealing any device out of service, the 
code official, except in cases of emergency, shall serve days written notice upon the 
building owner(s) or occupant(s) by United States mail, stating intention to seal the 
equipment out of service and the reasons therefore. Notice shall be permitted to 
alternately be served by posting upon, or immediately adjacent to, the device proposed 
to be sealed. 

118.11.2 Unlawful to remove or tamper with seal. Any device sealed out of service by 
the code official shall be plainly marked with a sign or tag indicating such sealing, and 
any defacing or removal of the sign or tag, or any tampering with or removal of the seal 
without approval of the code official, or operation of the sealed unit, shall constitute a 
violation of this code and shall subject the violator to the penalties as set forth in Section 
Four. 

118.12 Cancellation of condemnation. The code official shall have authority to cancel 
prior condemnations either for defects, or for occupancy. A condemnation shall be 
permitted to be rescinded by the code official only after, in the official's opinion, all 
necessary repairs are made to such building, structure or premises, or otherwise 
compliance is obtained with the code official's orders to make such building, structure or 
premises safe or occupiable and defects noted have been corrected. 

118.12.1 Notice of cancellation of condemnations. Upon cancellation of a 
condemnation, a notice shall be directed to the owner(s) of the building, structure or 
premises stating that the condemnation has been canceled. The service of such notice 
shall be done in the same manner as provided for in Section 118.2. 

118.13 Vacant building inspection. The code official shall cause to be inspected any 
property that potentially is subject to the registration fee as established in Section 
108.2.12. The inspecting officer shall report his findings and it shall be determined 
whether any such property shall be subject to the registration fee by the city. Within five 
business days of such determination, the code official shall notify by mail the owners of 
property on which the registration fee has been levied at the last known address 
according to the records of the office of the Assessor. The property owner shall have the 
right to appeal the decision of the code official to the municipal court within 30 days of 
such notification. Absent the existence of any valid appeal or request for reconsideration 



the registration fee shall begin to accrue on the beginning of the second calendar quarter 
after the decision of the code official. 

118.13.1 Reconsideration. Should within thirty days of the code official making such 
notification, the property owner complete any improvements to the property that would 
be necessary to revoke the levy of the registration fee, they shall request a reinspection 
of the property and a reconsideration of the levy of the registration fee by the city. If the 
code official revoke the registration fee, no such assessment shall be made and the 
matter shall be considered closed. If the code official affirm the assessment of the 
registration fee, the property owner shall have the right to appeal the reconsideration 
decision to the municipal court within thirty days if such decision. Absent the existence 
of any valid appeal to the municipal court or other court of competent jurisdiction the 
registration fee shall begin to accrue on the beginning of the second calendar quarter 
after the reconsideration decision of the code official. 

118.13.2 Payment and penalties. The code official shall establish procedures for the 
payment of the registration fee and penalties for delinquent payment of such fees. Any 
registration fees which are delinquent for a period of one year shall become a lien on the 
property and shall be subject to foreclosure proceedings in the same manner as 
delinquent real property taxes. The owner of the property against which the assessment 
was originally made shall be able to redeem only by presenting evidence that the 
violations cited by the code official have been cured and presenting payment of all 
registration fees and penalties. Upon bona fide sale of the property to an unrelated party 
said lien shall be considered released and the delinquent registration fee forgiven. 

SECTION 119 
EMERGENCY MEASURES 

119.1 Procedure. When, in the opinion of the code official, a building, structure or 
premises poses an immediate or imminent danger to the public health, safety or welfare, 
as defined in Section 118.1, the code official shall order the immediate evacuation and 
securing of said building, structure or premises, and shall be permitted to order all 
utilities to be disconnected without sending a notice. Each principal entrance shall be 
posted with a notice which reads as follows: 

DANGER 

THIS PREMISES IS UNSAFE AND HAS BEEN CONDEMNED ALL 
PERSONS ARE WARNED TO 

KEEP AWAY 

Any person who refuses to leave, interferes with the evacuation of other occupants, 
occupies or continues any operation after the property has been posted pursuant to this 
section, except such person(s) who is directed to perform work to remove a violation or 
unsafe condition, shall be deemed in violation of this section, and it shall be the duty of 
the Police Department to immediately remove such person(s) from said building, 
structure or premises, and prevent anyone, unless approved by the code official, from 
re-entering the building, structure or premises until such time that the Police Department 
shall have been notified that the same is in a safe condition. The code official assumes 



no responsibility for persons entering upon said property, and said persons proceed at 
their own risk and assume all liability. 

119.2 Temporary safeguards. When, in the opinion of the code official, there is actual 
and immediate danger of collapse or failure of a building or structure or any part thereof 
which would endanger life, the code official shall be permitted to cause the necessary 
work to be done to render such building or structure or part thereof temporarily safe, 
whether or not the legal procedure herein described has been instituted. 

119.3 Closure. When necessary for public safety, the code official shall temporarily 
close sidewalks, streets, buildings, structures and places adjacent to such unsafe 
building, structure or premises, and prohibit the same from being used. 

119.3.1 Catchment enclosures. If, in the opinion of the code official, it is determined that 
there exists an imminent structural hazard, catchment enclosures shall be erected 
protecting adjoining property and the public right-of-way. The cost for such catchment 
enclosures shall be the responsibility of the owner of record immediately adjacent to the 
catchment enclosure, and the recovery of said costs will be as described in Section 119.5 
of this code. 

119.4 Emergency repairs; remedies. For the purpose of this section, the code official 
shall be permitted to employ the necessary labor and materials to perform the required 
work as expeditiously as possible. Further, when it is found that potable water is running 
inside a vacant building or structure, and the owner or the owner's representative cannot 
be contacted, and where severe structural or other damage can thus occur to adjacent 
properties, the Building Commissioner or the Health Commissioner shall be permitted to 
order the Water Division to cease the problem flow by whatever means the Water 
Division finds necessary. The Water Division shall comply with any order issued 
pursuant to this section. 

119.5 Cost of emergency repairs or demolition. Costs incurred in the performance of 
emergency work shall be paid from the Treasury of the City of Saint Louis on 
certification of the code official. The legal counsel of the City of Saint Louis shall 
institute appropriate action against the owner(s) of the premises where the unsafe 
building or structure is or was located for the recovery of such costs plus a ten percent 
administrative fee. If such cost is not collected, a lien shall be requested to be placed 
upon the property by the Comptroller. The costs shall also be certified by the Collector 
of Revenue or other official collecting real estate taxes who shall cause a special tax bill 
against the property to be prepared and collected in the same manner and procedures as 
other real estate tax bills. Said special tax bill shall be deemed a personal debt against 
the property owner(s) and shall also be a lien on the property until paid. 

119.6 Emergency demolition or removal. If, in the opinion of the code official, a 
building, structure, tree or premises, in whole or in part, poses an immediate and 
imminent danger to the public health, safety or welfare, by virtue of its condition or 
conditions in violation of this code, the code official shall be permitted to cause the 
immediate removal of said building, structure or tree without the notice set forth 
elsewhere in this code. Further, the code official shall have the authority to award a sole 
source contract for demolition of said dangerous building, structure or tree. 



119.7 Demolition of party walls; responsibility. When a building or structure on one side 
of a party wall is demolished, the demolition contractor is required to mortar in the floor 
and/or roof joist pockets, and is also responsible for installing missing portions of the 
party wall which were not originally built. The demolition contractor shall remove any 
attachments to the building or structure (plaster, mortar, steps, paneling, etc.). The 
adjacent wall shall have an approved roofing material applied to create a coping for the 
wall. The demolition contractor shall also be responsible for applying an exterior 
spray ed-on sand and tinted cement coating or tuckpointing; these are not the 
responsibility of the owner of the remaining building who relies on structural support 
from the party wall. 

SECTION 120 

CERTIFICATION OF DEMOLITION CONTRACTORS 

120.1 Certificate required. No person, partnership or corporation shall engage in the 
activity of demolishing or wrecking buildings or structures, as defined in Section 203 of 
this code, within the City of Saint Louis, unless such person, if an individual, a person 
who is a partner in a partnership, or an officer of any such corporation, shall first apply 
for and be issued a demolition certificate as a demolition contractor as defined in this 
section. 

Exception: No demolition certificate shall be required for the City of Saint Louis when 
performing demolition or wrecking by force account using employees of the City of 
Saint Louis. 

120.2 Demolition certificate. No person, partnership, corporation, or persons or 
corporations doing business under a fictitious name, whether such name be legally 
registered or not, or corporation doing business in or conducting demolition or wrecking 
activities, as defined in Section 203, shall conduct, or be employed in conjunction with 
demolition, as defined in Section 203, within the City of Saint Louis unless said person, 
a member of the partnership, or an officer of such corporation, or one of the persons or 
any officers of any corporation doing business under a fictitious name has received a 
current demolition certificate of the proper class as herein described, or said person is 
legally employed by a properly certified demolition contractor of the class herein 
described. The Demolition Contractors' Certification Board shall approve the issuance 
of a demolition certificate to any person, partnership or corporation which has 
undertaken to comply with the provisions of the Building Code of the City of Saint 
Louis, and any and all regulations thereunder, and who has proven ability, personnel and 
equipment to provide the public with safe, timely and competent service as a demolition 
contractor within the class of certification for which application has been made. With the 
determination of the person's fitness, the Demolition Contractors' Certification Board 
shall require an examination, either oral or written, and shall call for satisfactory 
experience in the field, in accordance with the standards herein contained. 

The Demolition Contractors' Certification Board shall be permitted to deny, revoke or 
suspend any demolition certificate upon a determination after notice and hearing that the 
demolition contractor: 

1 . Has violated any provision or any obligation imposed by this code or any 



and all regulations thereunder, or has violated any law in the course of their 
dealings as a demolition contractor; or, 

2. Has made a material mis-statement in the application for the demolition 
certificate; or, 

3. Has been guilty of fraudulent or dishonest practices, including but not 
limited to: arson, embezzlement, fraud, theft, failure to complete projects 
before permit expiration, caused damage to abutting property, failed to 
comply with provisions of this certification section; or, 

4. Has demonstrated their incompetency or lack of ability to act as a 
demolition contractor. 

Such demolition revocation or suspension shall be permitted to be appealed to the 
Circuit Court. 

120.2.1 Class I certificate. A demolition certificate to be issued for one year to 
demolition contractors which indicates that the demolition contractor possesses the 
personnel, equipment and ability to perform any demolition activities within the City of 
Saint Louis in accordance with applicable provisions of this code and the laws of the 
City of Saint Louis for demolition of a building or structure or portions thereof. 

120.2.2 Class II certificate. A demolition certificate to be issued for one year to 
demolition contractors which indicates that the demolition contractor possesses the 
personnel, equipment and ability to perform demolition activities within the City of 
Saint Louis in accordance with the applicable provisions of this code and the laws of the 
City of Saint Louis for demolition of a building or structure or portions thereof which do 
not exceed three stories or fifty feet in height, or five thousand square feet in area, or two 
hundred thousand cubic feet in volume. 

120.2.3 Temporary certificate. A temporary certificate is a demolition certificate to be 
issued for either a Class I or Class II certificate, as described above, indicating 
compliance with the requirements for same and demolition activities, as described in 
Section 203 of this code, are to be performed. This certificate shall be issued for a period 
not to exceed six months. 

120.2.4 Special certificate. A person, firm, partnership or corporation shall be permitted 
to be certified as a demolition contractor in the appropriate class with a special 
demolition certificate, if that person, firm, partnership or corporation provides proof of 
appropriate insurance on a per job basis. 

120.3 Demolition contractors certification board. There is hereby established a City of 
Saint Louis Demolition Contractors' Certification Board which shall be composed of the 
Building Commissioner of the City of Saint Louis, or the Building Commissioner's 
authorized representative, and four additional members appointed by the Mayor as 
follows: either the President of the Board of Public Service or the Director of the 
Department of Streets or their authorized representative, a certified general contractor, a 
person engaged in the real estate business and a member of the public at large. 
Appointments of city employees as members of this board shall be during such time as 



the Building Commissioner and either the President of the Board of Public Service or 
the Director of the Department of Streets hold office. All members shall be appointed to 
a two year term. The term of the member-at-large shall expire on the year opposite the 
other members. Three members shall constitute a quorum for meetings of the 
Demolition Contractors' Certification Board, and a simple majority shall rule in 
decisions rendered by this board. The Building Commissioner shall appoint a Building 
Division member to serve as secretary to the board. The Demolition Contractors' 
Certification Board shall be compensated as prescribed by Civil Service provisions for 
such boards and committees. 

120.3.1 Term of office. New members shall possess the same qualifications as the 
persons in whose place they are appointed. This is an existing board and all current 
appointments shall not be affected by this ordinance. All subsequent appointments shall 
be for a term of two years and shall expire on an anniversary of the date of the original 
term, except appointments to fill vacancies which shall be for the unexpired term. 
Members whose appointment terms have expired shall be permitted to continue to serve 
until reappointed or replaced by a new appointee. 

120.3.2 Powers and duties of the board. The Demolition Contractors' Certification 
Board is to conduct itself in such a manner so as to insure, as much as possible, that 
demolition within the City of Saint Louis is performed safely in accordance with the 
laws of the City of Saint Louis governing demolition and demolition contracting, as 
hereinafter set forth: 

1. Administration - The Demolition Contractors' Certification Board shall 
receive applications, administer tests, conduct interviews and hearings, and 
approve, deny, suspend or revoke demolition certificates, as herein described. 
The Demolition Contractors' Certification Board shall be permitted to also 
issue temporary certificates, as described in Section 120.2.3. 

2. Tests - The Demolition Contractors' Certification Board shall prescribe the 
form and content of tests, as described herein, and the form or content of 
demolition certificates, as herein described. 

3. Hearings - The Demolition Contractors' Certification Board shall hold 
hearings and call witnesses pursuant to certificate issuance or rules and 
regulations pending, and shall be permitted to call special hearings related to 
complaints by citizens concerning demolition procedures or rules and 
regulations. 

A. The Demolition Contractors' Certification Board (hereinafter 
referred to as the Demolition Board) shall meet as often as is 
necessary to conduct its business. The Demolition Board will set 
and hold hearings for annual re-certification as required. 

B. The Demolition Board shall meet up to twelve times each year 
for the purpose of testing or re-testing applicants for certification. 

C. For any special session requested and called for by the elected 
chairman of the Demolition Board for any purpose set forth in the 



rules adopted and published by the Demolition Board. ^ "^ ' • " "^ ' • ^ 

D. For the purposes of suspending or revoking any demolition 
certificates previously issued when the code official finds that any 
holder of a demolition certificate has violated any of the 
provisions of this code or any rule or regulation adopted by the 
Demolition Board. The code official shall serve upon the holder of 
the demolition certificate a written notice signed by the code 
official of any findings stating the violation or violations which 
the code official has found the certificate holder to have 
committed, and stating that a hearing will be held before the 
Demolition Board in not less than five days nor more than fifteen 
days. Such written notice shall further state that the purpose of 
such hearing shall be the revocation or suspension of the named 
person's demolition certificate as a demolition contractor. Such 
notice shall state further that the holder of the demolition 
certificate has the right to appear personally at such hearing and to 
be represented by counsel of the holder's choice. The Secretary of 
the Demolition Board shall mail a written notice of the time, date 
and place of any such hearing to the holder of the demolition 
certificate at the last address furnished to the Demolition Board in 
the registration statement required to be filed by Section 120.3.4 
paragraph 1-A. 

4. Adoption of Rules - The Demolition Board shall be permitted to adopt 
rules and regulations consistent with the provisions of this ordinance and the 
laws of the City of Saint Louis related to demolition. Such rules and 
regulations shall be published in the City Journal for two consecutive issues 
prior to becoming effective. 

120.3.3 Tests. In the performance of its powers and duties for the approval, denial, 
revocation or suspension of a demolition certificate, the Demolition Board shall be 
permitted to prescribe oral or written tests or both to establish the applicant's ability and 
knowledge of the laws and regulations of the City of Saint Louis. If tests are 
administered, equivalent testing shall be required of all demolition contractors within the 
same class of certificate. 

120.3.4 Required conditions prior to issuance of demolition certificate. 

1. Filing of registration statement - No Class I or Class II demolition 
certificate or any temporary certificate or special certificate, as specified 
herein, shall be issued to any person, partnership, officer of any corporation, 
or any person doing business under a fictitious name, whether such name be 
legally registered or not, or corporation doing business in or conducting 
wrecking activities as herein defined, unless there is first filed with the 
Demolition Board a certified statement, by any such person, if an individual; 
by all persons who constitute any partnership; by all persons, individuals and 
officers of any corporation doing business under a fictitious name, whether 
such name be legally registered or not, or corporation doing business in or 



conducting demolition or wrecking activities as herein defined; by the 
president and secretary of any corporation, setting forth the following: 

A. All the names and current addresses of all such persons, who 
are individuals or partners of any partnership; all the names and 
current addresses of all persons doing business under a fictitious 
name, whether such name be legally registered or not; the legally 
registered name and address of any corporation doing business, 
together with the date when registered and the number assigned 
by the Secretary of the State; in or conducting demolition or 
wrecking activities, as described in Section 203, stating the date of 
registration with the registration number assigned by the Secretary 
of the State of Missouri, and the written verification by the 
Secretary of State that the corporation is currently in good 
standing and authorized to do business in the State of Missouri. 

2. Filing proof of public liability insurance coverage and required 
endorsements: Prior to the issuance of any demolition certificate as a 
demolition contractor, there must be filed with the Demolition Board the 
following: 

A. A public liability insurance policy, in the minimum amount of 
one hundred thousand dollars, limits payable for injury to and 
including the death of, for any one person; and in the minimum 
amount of three hundred thousand dollars, limits payable for any 
injuries including death to any two or more persons injured in any 
one accident; and in the minimum amount of fifty thousand 
dollars, limits payable to one or more persons for property 
damage at any time by reason of the carelessness or negligence of 
any person or persons holding any demolition certificate, or any 
corporation, any officer of which holds a demolition certificate, 
and all their agents and employees. 

B. As a further condition prior to the issuance of any permit to 
demolish or wreck any building or structure within the City of 
Saint Louis, the Demolition Board shall be permitted to require 
that the minimum liability insurance coverage for bodily injuries, 
including death to one or more persons, and as to property 
damage, as set forth in paragraph 2- A above, be in a greater 
amount as to coverage, where the building or structure or portions 
thereof to be demolished or razed is in excess of three stories or 
fifty feet in height, or five thousand square feet in area, or two 
hundred thousand cubic feet in volume, to such minimum 
coverage as the Demolition Board determines is necessary to 
protect the public and persons and property adjoining said site and 
traveling nearby, in relation to the time when such demolition or 
wrecking operations are being conducted. 

C. All such liability insurance policies required by this ordinance 



shall also contain the following endorsement: "The Insurer shall "^ ' • ^ 
not cancel the coverage afforded by this policy unless the said 
insurer first delivers to the code official written notice of 
cancellation of such policy at least thirty days prior to such date of 
cancellation by either personally delivering such notice of 
cancellation and taking written acknowledgment of such receipt 
from the code official or authorized deputy or by mailing certified 
or registered mail and receiving a signed acknowledgment of 
registered mail and receiving a signed acknowledgment of such 
receipt from the code official or authorized deputy." 

3 . Approval - All such liability insurance policies required by this ordinance 
must be approved by the City Counselor as to form of such policies. 

4. Demolition contracts - The City of Saint Louis Building Division 
demolition contracts are awarded to independent contractors who are not 
direct employees of, nor agents of, the City of Saint Louis. Any damage 
claims that should arise as a result of demolition must be made directly 
against the demolition contractor or the demolition contractor's insurance 
company. The City of Saint Louis shall be held harmless, and so noted on all 
demolition permits issued by the City of Saint Louis. 

120.4 Demolition certificate fees. Certification fees and demolition contractors' 
certificate application fees shall be collected by the City of Saint Louis prior to issuance 
of a demolition certificate, as listed in Table 120.4. All fees required under Section 120.4 
shall be collected by the Office of the Building Commissioner. 

TABLE 120.4 

DEMOLITION CERTIFICATE FEES 



ITEM 


FEE 


DURATION 


REMARKS AND 
REQUIREMENTS j 


Demolition Contractors 
Certification Board 
Certificate Applications 


$ 30.00 






Certification Fees: 








Class I 


200.00 


1 year 




Class II 


90.00 


1 year 




Temporary Certificate 
Applications: 


60.00 






Certification Fees: - j 


y . 1 


' ' 1 


i ' - i ' - 1 ' 


Class I 


120.00 


6 months 


Up to 6 months 


Class II 


30.00 


6 months 


Up to 6 months 



Special Certificate 
Applications: | 


60.00 


1 




Certification Fees: 








Class I 


120.00 




Per job basis 


Class II 


30.00 


' : ■• : 1 


Per job basis . 



120.5 Permits. The code official shall not issue permits to perform demolition or 
wrecking as herein defined to any person, partnership, or corporation, or persons doing 
business under a fictitious name unless said permit applicant holds a current and proper 
class of demolition certificate. 

120.5.1 Suspension of certificate. Any person, including any officer of any corporation, 
holding any demolition certificate found performing demolition or wrecking, as herein 
defined, without proper permits, as prescribed by this code, shall be additionally subject 
to certificate suspension or revocation by the Demolition Board. 

120.6 Standards of qualification and testing. For the purpose of demolition contractor 
certification described herein, the Demolition Board shall qualify and test in accordance 
with the following Standards of Acceptance: 

1. Qualifications: 

A. Class I certificates - Class I demolition contractor applicants, in 
addition to the requirements herein, must show documented proof 
of any one of the following: That said applicant has been: 

a. Safely and legally doing business as a Class II 
demolition contractor for at least five years, and shows 
access to the proper equipment and personnel to 
perform Class I demolition activities; or 

b. Safely and legally doing business in demolition 
contracting for at least three years, involving buildings 
of substantial size being in excess of heights, areas and 
volumes described for a Class II demolition certificate, 
as described in Section B, and shows access to the 
proper equipment and personnel to perform Class I 
demolition activities; or 

c. In receipt of a Class I temporary certificate, and has 
safely and legally performed Class I demolition 
activities within the City of Saint Louis under said 
certificate. 



B. Class II certificates - Class II demolition contractor applicants, 
in addition to the requirements herein, must show documented 
proof of any one of the following: That said applicant has been: 



"^ ' a. Safely and legally doing business in demolition ■^ :^ . 

contracting for at least three years and shows access to 
the equipment and personnel to properly perform Class 
II demolition activities; or 

b. Legally employed by a qualified Class I or Class II 
demolition contractor, as herein described, for at least 
three years, and shows access to the equipment and 
personnel to properly perform Class II demolition 
activities; or 

c. In receipt of a Class II temporary certificate, and has 
safely and legally performed Class II demolition 
activities within the City of Saint Louis under said 
certificate. 

C. Temporary, either class: The Demolition Board, under prior 
test, shall be permitted to reduce the years of experience or years 
doing business as a demolition contractor for temporary class 
certificates, or accept demolition certificates or licensing from 
other cities or administrative review bodies for temporary class 
certificates, when such other license or certificate is predicated 
upon qualifications equivalent to the temporary class certificate 
applied for either of the above, subject to evidence of equipment 
and personnel, as defined in the certificate qualifications for Class 
I or II, as applicable to the temporary class so applied. The 
Demolition Board shall be permitted to issue, at its discretion, 
such temporary class certificates to recently established 
demolition companies or corporations which have filed the proper 
applications and submitted documentation of adequate personnel 
and equipment to perform said demolition activities. 

2. Testing - All tests, as described in Section 120.3.3, shall be designed to 
establish the applicant's knowledge of safety and precaution as it relates to 
demolition activities, and shall involve questions directly oriented to laws 
and regulations of the Building Code of the City of Saint Louis pertinent to 
demolition activities and published demolition safety rules and regulations as 
described herein. 

3. Violations - Any person who shall fail to comply with any of the 
requirements of Section 120 shall be guilty of a violation of this code, and 
shall upon conviction thereof be subject to the penalties as set forth in 
Section Four. Each day that any violation continues shall constitute a separate 
and distinct offense. 

120.7 Appeals. Any person jointly or severally aggrieved by the decision of the 
Demolition Board shall be entitled to a judicial review of the decision rendered by the 
Demolition Contractor= s Certification Board as provided in the Administrative 
Procedure and Review Act of the State of Missouri, being Sections 536.100 - 536.140 of 



the Revised Statutes of Missouri. '^ ' '^ ' • ' '^ ' • ^ 

SECTION 121 

DEMOLITION OF STRUCTURES 

121.1 Wrecking, demolition or razing of buildings or structures. No person, firm or 
corporation shall wreck, demolish or raze a building or other structure within the City of 
Saint Louis without first obtaining a permit for said demolition from the Division of 
Building and Inspection. Such permit shall be issued only to a person, firm or 
corporation certified as a demolition contractor by the City of Saint Louis, except that a 
permit shall be issued to the owner of record of land, or to an agency or division of the 
City of Saint Louis, if such building is not more than one and one-half stories or fifteen 
feet in height and not more than ten thousand cubic feet in volume or one thousand 
square feet in area without a basement. Demolition permit applications, when applied 
for by anyone other than the owner of record, shall be accompanied by a notarized letter 
of authorization or other documentation from the owner of record granting permission to 
apply. 

121.1.1 Bond. Every person, firm or corporation performing the wrecking of any 
building or structure shall provide a performance bond and a payment bond subject to 
the approval of the Comptroller in the sum of an amount equal to the amount of the 
wrecking contract or cost of the wrecking, conditioned upon the requirement that the 
sidewalks, streets or alleys adjacent to the wrecking shall be kept free of all materials 
and debris caused by the wrecking operations; that adjacent safeguards and warnings be 
provided for the public who use the sidewalks, streets or alleys adjacent the wrecking; 
that the sidewalks, streets, alleys, municipal utilities, signs and property be repaired of 
any damage caused by the wrecking operations or vehicles; that the demolition 
contractor shall clean, backfill and grade the wrecking site as required by the code 
official; and further conditioned upon the requirement that the demolition contractor 
comply with the written directions and regulations of the Director of Streets and the 
code official. No bond shall be for less than five thousand dollars. 

The bond herein required shall be written by a person, firm or corporation authorized to 
do bonding business in the State of Missouri and shall be subject to the approval of the 
City Counselor and Comptroller. The bond shall be subject to cancellation only after ten 
days written notice to the Comptroller. 

Any person, firm or corporation who shall fail to comply with this section shall be guilty 
of a violation of this code, and shall, upon conviction thereof, be subject to the penalties 
as set forth in Section Four. 

121.1.2 Signs. A sign made of wood, plywood, masonite or similar material shall be 
displayed at a prominent location at the front of the lot on which the demolition work is 
being done, or on the front of the building being demolished. This sign must be 
displayed prior to commencement and until completion of the demolition work. The 
demolition permit for the site shall be affixed to part of the sign. The sign shall also state 
the name, address and telephone number of such demolition contractor. Such name, 
address and telephone number shall be permanently painted or otherwise reproduced on 
the sign in professionally lettered block letters in a format approved by the Building 



Division not less than 22 " high, in colors contrasting with the sign background. Such 
signs shall not be larger than nine square feet and shall not require a sign permit. 

Any demolition contractor, or employee thereof, performing demolition work who does 
not display such sign commits an offense and shall, upon conviction, be subject to the 
penalties as set forth in Section Four. 

121.1.3 Service connections. Before a building or structure is demolished or removed, 
the owner or agent shall notify all utilities having service connections within the 
building or structure such as water, electric, gas, sewer and other connections. A permit 
to demolish or remove a building or structure shall not be issued until a release is 
obtained from the utilities, stating that their respective service connections and 
appurtenant equipment, such as meters and regulators, have been removed or sealed and 
plugged in a safe manner. 

121.1.4 Vehicles. No demolition permit shall be issued unless the applicant provides the 
code official proof that the vehicle(s) to be used to haul the demolition debris have the 
necessary permits pursuant to Chapter 11.02 of the Revised Code of the City of Saint 
Louis. Enforcement of this section shall be by the Street Department. 

121.1.5 Demolition permit fee. The fee for a demolition permit and inspection for the 
demolition of any building or structure shall be based on the cubic footage as listed in 
Table 108.3.1. 

121.1.6 Demolition work started surcharge fees schedule. In case any work for which a 
demolition permit is required by this code is substantially started or proceeded with 
prior to obtaining said permit, the total normal fees applicable shall be increased by the 
amount as listed in Table 108.5. 

121.2 Lot regulation. Whenever a building or structure has been removed, the premises 
shall be maintained free from all unsafe or hazardous conditions. 

121.2.1 Foundation walls. All foundation walls shall be broken down to at least twelve 
inches (305 mm) below grade and debris must not be larger than three feet (915 mm) in 
width and length. All concrete basement or crawl space slabs shall be broken into 
sections not exceeding eight feet (2,440 mm) in any dimension. Cracks shall be of 
sufficient size to permit drainage. 

121.2.2 Grading and backfilling. All grading and backfilling operations shall be 
conducted in such a manner as to provide clean, uncontaminated soil, rock, sand, gravel, 
concrete, asphaltic concrete, cinder blocks and bricks. Demolition rubble, or any other 
rubble brought in from another site to be used as fill, shall be subject to laboratory 
testing for any contaminants at the discretion of the code official. 

121.2.3 Lot maintenance. Whenever a building or structure has been demolished and no 
building or construction operation has been contemplated or projected, as evidenced by 
the fact that no application for a building permit has been filed with the code official, the 
excavation remaining after such demolition shall be immediately filled, graded and 
maintained in conformity with the existing grade immediately adjacent to such 
excavation, or as directed by the code official. The top six inches of fill shall be clean 



top soil and shall be planted with grass seed and covered with straw. ^ "^ • "^ ^ • ^ 

121.2.4 Improper fill. The code official shall be permitted to require the contractor to 
reopen a completed excavation to determine if proper fill procedures have been 
followed. The cost of reopening shall be borne by the demolition contractor. 

121.2.5 Burial of debris. On any demolition site where there is no basement or below 
grade crawl space, all demolition debris must be removed from the site. Excavation for 
the purpose of burying of debris will not be allowed. 

121.2.6 Open Burning. Open burning shall be allowed for the purpose of providing heat 
for outside employees, as a condition of a demolition permit. The location for any open 
burning shall not be less than 50 feet from any structure, and provisions shall be made to 
prevent the fire from spreading to within 50 feet of any structure. Fire in approved 
containers shall be permitted, provided that such fires are not less than 15 feet from any 
structure. A 55 -gallon drum shall be considered A approved containers." These 
provisions do not preclude provisions from the Air Pollution or Fire Prevention 
ordinances. 

Open burning will be allowed on demolition sites when it is contained within 55-gallon 
drums, attended at all times, all wood and scrap confined to the drum, and a water hose 
and/or fire extinguisher available at all times. Fire drums shall be properly located on the 
so as not to create a nuisance to adjoining property. 

(Ord. 66790 § 3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.040 Section 202.0--Amended. 

Modify Section 202.0, General definitions, by the addition or changing of definitions to 
read as follows: 

CUSTODIAN OF RECORDS. The custodian of records shall be that person 
who directly supervises the particular section within the Division of Building 
and Inspection from which records are being requested. 

LICENSED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An individual who is licensed to 
practice their respective design profession as defined by Chapter 327 of the 
Revised Statutes of the State of Missouri. 

OCCUPANCY PERMIT. The permit issued by the code official which 
certifies that the building or structure has been inspected and has complied 
with the applicable provisions of all City of Saint Louis ordinances, as 
enforced by the Division of Building and Inspection. 

OWNER. Any person, firm or corporation having a legal or equitable interest 
in the property, or their agent, operator or collector of rent, or any other 
person, firm or corporation exercising any care or control of the property; or 
any person, firm or corporation recorded in the official records of the state, 
county, or municipality as holding title to the property; or otherwise having 
control of the property, including the guardian of the estate of any such 



person, and the executive administrator of the estate of such person, if 
ordered to take possession of real property by a court. 

PARKING LOT. Any parcel of land used, in whole or in part, for the parking 
of vehicles for which a charge is or is not be made. Legal off-street parking 
for up to four-family dwellings shall not be considered a parking lot. 

TELEPHONE, OUTDOOR PAY. A telephone for hire located on private 
property, which is not located within a building used for additional purposes 
with controlled access by means of a door or doors that can be locked. 

(Ord. 66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

r 25.0L050 Section 203.0-Added. 

Add Section 203.0 to read as follows: 

SECTION 203.0 DEFINITIONS FOR DEMOLITION PURPOSES ONLY 

BACKFILL. Clean, uncontaminated soil, rock, sand, gravel, concrete, 
asphaltic concrete, cinder blocks and bricks. 

BUILDING. A structure enclosed within exterior walls, fire walls, or party 
walls, built, erected and framed of component parts, designed for the 
housing, shelter, or enclosure and support of individuals, animals or property 
of any kind, which is in excess of one and one-half stories or fifteen feet in 
height or ten thousand cubic feet in volume or one thousand square feet in 
area without a basement. 

DEMOLITION, CLEARING, GRADING OR BACKFILLING. A portion of 
demolition activity in which clearing, grading, or backfilling operations are 
conducted at the demolition site in conjunction with the demolition of the 
building or structure, as herein defined. 

DEMOLITION SALVAGING. A portion of demolition activity which is 
conducted at the demolition site in such a manner as to reuse the existing 
construction materials or fixtures from the building or structure, such as 
brick, lumber, fixtures, steel, ornamental iron or fencing; their removal or 
cleaning, palletizing, stacking, storing or loading onto vehicles for shipment. 

DEMOLITION WRECKING. The removal of all or portions of buildings or 
structures to include: on-site salvaging, on-site loading, and on-site 
backfilling, grading or clearing as herein defined; but does not include: the 
actual hauling of scrap, debris and miscellaneous materials away from the 
demolition site, or the removal of miscellaneous partitions, machinery, 
equipment, plaster, mortar, paint, fixtures, trim or finish, when performed in 
conjunction with building repairs or alteration work; nor does this definition 
include the complete relocation of buildings or structures from one site for 
reassembly at another site. 

DEMOLITION OR WRECKING CONTRACTOR. Any person, firm. 



partnership or group of persons doing business under a fictitious name, 
whether such name be legally registered or not, or corporation doing business 
in or conducting demolition or wrecking activities as herein defined. 

DEMOLITION OR WRECKING CONTRACTOR EMPLOYEE. Any 
person employed by a demolition contractor in conjunction with demolition 
activities, as herein defined. 

STRUCTURE. An assembly of materials forming the construction for 
occupancy or use, including among others: buildings, stadiums, platforms, 
towers, water tanks, trestles, above-grade piers, wharves, open sheds, 
shelters, signs, etc., which exceed fifteen feet in height or one thousand 
square feet in area or ten thousand cubic feet in volume; but not to include: 
tents, temporary reviewing stands, staging or statues less than thirty feet 
(9,144 mm) in height, fences, displays or signs less than thirty feet (10,668) 
in height. 

(Ord. 66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.060 Section 301.2-Added. 

Add Section 301 .2 to read as follows: 

301.2 Application of other laws. The provisions of this chapter shall not be 
deemed to nullify any provisions of the Zoning Ordinance or any other 
statute of the City of Saint Louis pertaining to the location or occupancy of 
buildings, except as specifically required by the provisions of this code. 

Table 302.1.1 
INCIDENTAL USE AREAS 



ROOM OR AREA 


SER\RATIONa 


Furnace room where any piece of equipment 
is over 400,000 Btu per hour input 


1 hour or provide automatic 
fire-extinguishing system 


Rooms with any boiler over 15 psi and 10 
horsepower 


1 hour or provide automatic 
fire-extinguishing system 


Refrigerant machinery rooms 


1 hour or provide automatic 
fire-extinguishing system 


Parking garage (Section 406.2) 

1 


2 hours; or 1 hour and provide automatic 
fire suppression system | 


Hydrogen cut-off rooms 


1-hour fire barrier and floor/ceiling 
assemblies in Group B, F, H, M, S and U 
occupancies, 2-hour fire barriers and 
floor/ceiling assemblies in Group A, E, I 
and R occupancies 



Incinerator rooms 



2 hours and automatic fire suppression 
system l 



Paint shops, not classified as Group H, 
located in occupancies other than Group F 



2 hours; or 1 hour and provide automatic 
fire-extinguishing system 



Laboratories and vocational shops, not 
classified as Group H, located in Group E or 
1-2 occupancies . . 



1 hour or provide 
fire-extinguishing system 



automatic 



Laundry Rooms over 100 square feet (9.3 m5 
) 



1 hour or provide 
fire-extinguishing system 



automatic 



J 



Storage rooms over 100 square feet b,c (9.3 

m5) ■: ;;:-.^ .V-: :;='. :';::;:'. ^V": i/:'- 



1 hour or provide 
fire-extinguishing system 



automatic 



Group 1-3 cells equipped with padded 
surfaces 



1 hour 



Group 1-2 waste and linen collection rooms 



1 hour 



Waste and linen collection rooms over 100 
square feet 



1 hour or provide 
fire-extinguishing system 



automatic 



Stationary lead-acid battery systems having a 
liquid capacity of more than 100 gallons used 
for facility standby power, emergency power 
or uninterrupted power supplies 



1-hour fire barriers and floor/ceiling 
assemblies in Group B, F, H, M, S and U 
occupancies. 2-hour fire barriers and 
floor/ceiling assemblies in Group A, E, I 
and R occupancies I 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m5 , 1 pound per square inch = 6.9 kPa, 
1 British thermal unit = 0.293 watts, 1 horsepower = 746 watts, 
1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

a. Where an automatic fire-extinguishing system is provided, it need only be 
provided in the incidental use room or area. 

b. Basement storage rooms or common areas of Use Group R-2 shall have a 
fire suppression system or a hard wired smoke detection system connected to 
remote horns on the floors above. If the entire building is required to have an 
automatic fire suppression system, this option is not available. 

c. Storage rooms more than fifty square feet (4.7 m5 ) but not more than one 
hundred square feet (9.3 m5 ) in area shall be permitted to substitute a 
hard-wired automatic smoke detection system with smoke partitions for 
automatic sprinklers, unless the entire building is required to be sprinklered 
by other provisions of this code 

(Ord. 66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.070 Section 3 05 .2- Amended. 



' ■ Change Section 305.2 to read as follows: ^ ^ ' • " "^ ' 

305.2 Day care. The use of a building or structure, or portion thereof, for 
educational, supervision or personal care services for more than ten children 
older than 2 1/2 years of age shall be classified as Group E occupancy. 

(Ord. 66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.080 Section 3 08 .2- Amended. 

Change Section 308.2 to read as follows: 

308.2 Group I-l. This occupancy shall include buildings, structures and parts 
thereof housing more than 10 persons, on a 24-hour basis, who, because of 
age, mental disability or other reasons, live in a supervised residential 
environment that provides personal care services. The occupants are capable 
of responding to an emergency situation without personal assistance from 
staff. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Residential board and care facilities 

Assisted living facilities 

Halfway houses 

Group homes 

Congregate care facilities 

Social rehabilitation facilities 

Alcohol and drug centers 

Convalescent facilities. 

A facility such as the above with four or fewer persons shall be classified as a 
Group R-3 or shall comply with the International Residential Code in 
accordance with Section 101 .2. A facility such as above, housing more than 4 
and not more than 10 persons shall be classified as Group R-4. 

(Ord. 66790 § 3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.090 Sections 308.3 and 308 .3.1 --Amended. 

Change Sections 3.08.3 and 308.3.1 to read as follows: 

308.3 Group 1-2. This occupancy shall include buildings and structures used 
for medical, surgical, psychiatric, nursing or custodial care on a 24-hour basis 
of more than ten persons who are not capable of self-preservation. This group 
shall include, but not be limited to the following: 

Hospitals 



Nursing homes ( both intermediate-care facilities and skilled "^ ' 
nursing facilities) 

Mental hospitals 

Detoxification facilities 

A facility such as the above with 10 or fewer persons shall be classified as 
Group R-3 or shall comply with the International Residential Code in 
accordance with Section 101.2. 

308.3.1 Child care facility. A child care facility that provides care on a 
24-hour basis to more than four children 22 years of age or less shall be 
classified as Group 1-2. 

(Ord. 66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.100 Sections 308.5 through 3 08 .5 .2- Amended. 

Change Sections 308.5 thru 308.5.2 to read as follows: 

308.5 Group 1-4, day care facilities. This occupancy shall include buildings 
and structures occupied by persons of any age who receive custodial care for 
less than 24 hours by individuals other than parents or guardians, relatives by 
blood, marriage or adoption, and in a place other than the home of the person 
cared for. A facility such as the above with 10 or fewer persons shall be 
classified as Group R-3 or shall comply with the International Residential 
Code in accordance with Section 101.2. Places of worship during religious 
functions are not included. 

308.5.1 Adult care facility. A facility that provides accommodations for less 
than 24 hours for more than 10 unrelated adults and provides supervision and 
personal care services shall be classified as Group 1-4. 

Exception: A facility where occupants are capable of responding to an 
emergency situation without physical assistance from the staff shall be 
classified as Group A-3 . 

308.5.2 Child care facility. A facility that provides supervision and personal 
care on less than 24-hour basis for more than 10 children 2 1/2 years of age 
or less shall be classified as Group 1-4. 

Exception: A child care facility that provides care for more than 10 but no 
more than 100 children 2 1/2 years of age or less, when the rooms where 
such children are care for are located on the level of exit discharge and each 
of these children care rooms has an exit door directly to the exterior, shall be 
classified as Group E. 

(Ord. 66790 § 3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.110 Section 3 10.1 -Amended. 



Change Section 310.1 to read as follows: ^ ^ ' • " "^ ' 

310.1 Residential Group R. Residential Group R includes, among others, the 
use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for sleeping purposes 
when not classified as an Institution Group I. Residential occupancies shall 
include the following: 

R-1 Residential occupancies where the occupants are primarily 
transient in nature, including: 

Boarding houses (transient) 

Hotels (transient) 

Motels (transient) 

R-2 Residential occupancies containing sleeping units or more 
than two dwelling units where the occupants are primarily 
permanent in nature, including: 

Apartment houses 

Boarding houses (not transient) 

Condominiums 

Convents 

Dormitories 

Fraternities and sororities 

Hotels (nontransient) 

Motels (nontransient) 

Vacation timeshare properties 

R-3 Residential occupancies where the occupants are primarily permanent in 
nature and not classified as R-1, R-2, R-4 or I-l and where buildings do not 
contain more than two dwelling units as applicable in Section 101.2, or adult 
and child care facilities that provide accommodations for 4 or fewer persons 
of any age for less than 24 hours. Adult and child care facilities that are 
within a single-family home are permitted to comply with the International 
Residential Code in accordance with Section 101.2. 

R-4 Residential occupancies shall include buildings arranged for occupancy 
as residential care/ assisted living facilities including more than four but not 
more than 10 occupants, excluding staff. 

Group R-4 occupancies shall meet the requirements for construction as 
defined for Group R-3 except as otherwise provided for in this code or shall 



comply with the International Residential Code in accordance with Section 
101.2. 

(Ord. 66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.120 Section 310.3--Added. 

Add Sections 310.3 to read as follows: 

310.3 Care facilities providing home day care licensed by the State of 
Missouri. Family Child Care Homes providing home day care for more than 
four but not more than 10 unrelated children at any one time are exempt from 
this code if they meet the licensing capacities listed below, possess a valid 
State of Missouri license, are inspected by the Missouri Department of 
Health and the State of Missouri Fire Marshal's Office and meet all 
provisions of the Zoning Ordinance of the City of Saint Louis. 

1 . If there is one adult provider, the family child care home shall 
be allowed to be licensed for up to six children including a 
maximum of three children under age two, or for up to ten 
children including a maximum of two children under age two. If 
only four children are present, all the children shall be permitted 
to be under the age of two. 

2. If the provider has an adult assistant present, the family child 
care home shall be allowed to be licensed for up to ten children 
including a maximum of four children under age two, or for up to 
eight children who shall be permitted to be all under age two. 

3. A family child care home shall be allowed to be licensed at 
maximum capacity for a period of eighteen consecutive hours of 
the twenty-four hour day. For the remaining six hours of the 
twenty-four hour day, care shall be allowed to be provided for 
one-third the licensed capacity of the home. 

If the applicant furnishes a copy of their State of Missouri Family Child Care 
Home License for ten children or less, they shall receive a Home Occupation 
Permit Waiver subject to approval by the Board of Public Service as a 
Conditional Use or the Board of Adjustment as a Variance to the Zoning 
Code. 

If an occupancy permit waiver is issued, the Building Division - Inspection 
Section will not inspect such State Licensed Family Child Care Home, unless 
a Building Code or Zoning Ordinance complaint is received. Zoning 
Ordinance complaints will be investigated by the Building Division; 
however. Building Code complaints will be forwarded to the State of 
Missouri, Department of Health, Bureau of Child Care Safety and Licensure. 
Should seven calendar days elapse without response from the State of 
Missouri, Department of Health, Bureau of Child Care Safety and Licensure, 
the Building Division is empowered to investigate the complaint. 



(Ord. 66790 § 3 (part), 2005.) ^.■:.-.v--"::^.^.:r ^•^--"-. -r^-r 

25.01.130 Section 4 15. 7 .2- Amended. 

Change Section 415.7.2 to read as follows: 

415.7.2 Flammable and combustible liquids. The storage, handling, 
processing and transporting of flammable and combustible liquids shall be in 
accordance with the City of Saint Louis Mechanical and Fire Codes. 

The installation or removal of above-ground and under-ground storage tanks 
shall require a permit issued from the Fire Marshal= s Office, and shall be 
subject to their regulations. Above-ground storage tanks are also subject to 
the requirements of the Zoning Ordinance, and shall require a building permit 
for the construction of their structural support. 

(Ord. 66790 § 3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.140 Section 419-Added. 

Add Section 419 to read as follows: 

SECTION 419 

PARKING LOTS AND OTHER PAVED SURFACES 

419.1 Building permit requirement. A building permit is required for the 
construction or resurfacing of any parking lot. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Restriping an existing parking lot that otherwise complies with 
this ordinance providing the existing stripes are to be repainted. 
The addition or relocation of parking spaces or aisles requires a 
building permit. 

2. Lots or paved areas serving Use Group R-3, detached single 
family. 

3. Paved areas less than 3,000 square feet (278.7 m5 ) for Use 
Group R-3, multiple single family or Use Group R-2. 

4. Pothole and rut repair. 

419.2 Parking lot construction. 

419.2.1 Surface. Parking lots shall be paved and surfaced with concrete, 
bituminous or other approved materials on an appropriately constructed base 
course. 

419.2.2 Access lanes. Access lanes, aisles and parking spaces shall be 
provided in accordance with the Zoning Ordinance of the City of Saint Louis. 



419.2.3 Curb cuts. Parking lots shall be arranged to afford ready means of 
entrance and exit, and separate permits shall be secured for curb cuts from 
the City of Saint Louis Street Department. 

419.2.4 Protection of adjoining property. A curb at least six inches above the 
parking lot surface shall be provided around the perimeter of the parking lot, 
exclusive of driveway areas, to prevent the washing of debris and extraneous 
matter onto the adjoining property or public right-of-way. 

Parking lots shall be provided with concrete wheel stops at least six inches 
above the parking lot surface and placed to prevent the parked vehicle from 
extending over the adjacent property or public right-of-way. Wheel stops 
shall be so positioned such that both wheels of any car parked in the space 
shall contact the wheel stop. All such wheel stops shall be located inside the 
property line, adjacent to the public sidewalk(s), public right-of-way and 
adjacent properties. 

419.2.5 Drainage. Up to three thousand square feet of parking and other 
paved areas shall be permitted to discharge via a driveway to each public or 
private street frontage, and an additional three thousand square feet shall be 
permitted to discharge into a public alley. Areas larger than this must have 
any excess area discharge into interceptor basins, as specified in the City of 
Saint Louis Plumbing Code. 

419.2.6 Striping. The parking spaces shall be clearly striped and marked. 

419.2.6.1 Accessible spaces. Spaces required to be accessible to persons with 
disabilities shall be properly designated both by the appropriate logo painted 
in the space and a sign in front of the space, in accordance with ICC/A 117.1, 
listed in Chapter 35, and in full compliance with Section 1106. 

419.2.7 Parking lot offices. The construction of parking lot offices in excess 
of thirty-five square feet (3 .25 m5 ) shall be in accordance with the Building 
Code. 

419.2.8 Lighting. Parking lots of more than twenty-five parking spaces 
intended for night time use shall have an illumination of not less than 
two-tenths foot candle averaged over the parking surface. Such lights shall be 
so arranged as to direct the light away from adjoining dwellings. Such 
illumination shall be provided during the evening hours of operation of the 
premises that the lot serves. 

Exception: If the parking lot has adequate light available from existing 
sources, the requirements for lighting shall be waived at the option of the 
code official. Lots serving residential dwelling units are not required to 
provide illumination. 

419.2.9 Signs. Each operator of a parking lot charging by the hour or by the 
day shall display in a prominent location a sign clearly visible to motorists 
bearing: 



1 . The name of the operator. 

2. The usual hours of operation. 

3. The highest daily or hourly rate schedule, if applicable. 

4. The highest night or special event rate schedule, if applicable. 

5. The hours an attendant is normally on duty. 

Where a single rate is charged or where a daily or hourly rate is charged, the 
highest rate in each category shall be posted in figures that shall not be less 
than four inches in height. If any nightly or special event rate exceeds the 
hourly or daytime rate, then this rate shall be posted, and the figures for each 
of these rates shall be of the same size as those used to post daily and hourly 
rates. All other parking rates shall be posted legibly in a prominent location. 

Nothing in any ordinance regulating the location of signs shall prohibit the 
erection of a sign which is not internally illuminated, nor exceeds fifteen 
square feet in area, nor five feet in its longest dimension, to comply with the 
above requirement for identification of a parking lot. All such signs shall be 
erected and maintained in accordance with law. 

(Ord. 66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.150 Section 420-Added. 

Add Section 420 to read as follows: 

SECTION 420 
FENCES 

420.1 Requirements. Fences shall be subject to the following requirements: 

1. No fence exceeding forty-eight inches (12199 mm) in height 
shall be erected in front of the building line, as determined by the 
guidelines and requirements set forth in the Zoning Ordinance, 
when constructed for uses in residential zones. Front yard building 
lines for corner lots are also determined by the provisions set forth 
in the Zoning Ordinance. Fencing on a corner lot shall not be 
located within the site distance triangle. 

2. All other fences in residential zones shall be permitted to be 
erected to a height not to exceed eight feet (2438 mm) along side 
or rear interior property lines. 

3. Along alley property lines in residential zones, fences fifty 
percent or less opaque shall be permitted to be erected to a height 
not to exceed ten feet (3048 mm). 

4. No barbed wire fence or fence topped with barbed wire, razor 



ribbon or like material shall be erected for any Use Group in 
residential zones unless approved by the Board of Public Service. 
No strand of barbed wire, razor ribbon or like material on any 
fence shall be closer than seven feet (2134 mm) to the ground. 

5. Fences around swimming pools are subject to the requirements 
described in Section 3109. 

6. The property owner shall be responsible for locating property 
lines as they pertain to location and construction offences. 

7. Two fences of different heights and materials shall be permitted 
to abut each other on a property line, provided each is on its own 
property, and all height regulations are followed. There are no 
provisions as to which side the fence must face. 

8. No electrically charged fences shall be erected in the City of 
Saint Louis. 

9. No fence shall be erected, built or installed in a side or front 
yard beyond the building line where there is no sidewalk and 
where the side or front yard abuts a public street. 

(Ord. 66790 § 3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.160 Table 704.8-Amended. 

Change Table 704.8 to read as follows: 

Table 704.8 

MAXIMUM AREA OF EXTERIOR WALL OPENINGS 





FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE (feet) 


CLASSIFICATION 
OF OPENING 


to 3 e, 
h 


Greater 
than 3 to 5 
b 


Greater 
than 5 to 
10d,f 


Greater 
than 10 to 
15c,d,f 


Greater than 15 

c,f 


Unprotected 


5% 


25% 


35% 


60% 


No Limit 


Protected 


15% 


50% 


75% 


No Limit 


No Limit 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Values given are percentages of the area of the exterior wall. This table 
assumes that the openings are reasonably uniformly distributed. Where 
openings are not reasonably uniformly distributed, the portion of the wall 
utilized to calculate compliance with Table 704.8 shall be approved. 

b. For occupancies in Group R-3, as applicable in Section 101.2, the 
maximum percentage of unprotected and protected exterior wall openings 
shall be 25 percent. 



c. The area of openings in an open parking structure with a fire separation 
distance of greater than 10 feet shall not be limited. 

d. For occupancies in Group H-2 or H-3, unprotected openings shall not be 
permitted for openings with a fire separation distance of 15 feet or less. 

e. For requirements for fire walls for buildings with differing roof heights, 
see Section 705.6.1 

f. The area of unprotected and protected openings is not limited for 
occupancies in Group R-3, as applicable in Section 101.2, with a fire 
separation distance greater than 5 feet. 

g. Buildings whose exterior bearing wall, exterior nonbearing wall and 
exterior structural frame are not required to be fire-resistance rated shall be 
permitted to have unlimited unprotected openings. 

h. Includes accessory buildings to Group R-3 as applicable in Section 101.2. 

(Ord. 66790 § 3 (part), 2005.) 

225.01.170 Section 901. 2-- Amended. 

Change Section 901 .2 to read as follows: 

901.2 Fire protection systems. Fire protection systems shall be installed, 
repaired, operated and maintained in accordance with this code and the 
International Fire Code. 

Any fire protection system for which an exception or reduction to the 
provisions of this code has been granted shall be considered to be a required 
system. 

(Ord. 66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.180 Section 90 1.2.1 -Added. 

Add Section 901 .2.1 to read as follows: 

901.2.1 Nonrequired systems. Any fire protection system or portion thereof 
not required by this code shall be permitted to be furnished and installed for 
partial or complete protection provided that such installed system shall meet 
all applicable requirements of this code. A building permit shall be required 
for fire suppression systems not required by this code. A building permit shall 
not be required for fire detection systems not required by this code. 

Exceptions: 

1 . All High Hazard Use Groups. 

2. When stipulated in a decision of the Board of Building 
Appeals. 



3. When ordered by the Building Commissioner or Fire Marshal. 

4. When the building owner requests approval and an acceptance 
test by the Fire Marshal's Office. 

(Ord. 66790 § 3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.190 Section 903 .2- Amended. 

Add Exception 2. to Section 903.2 to read as follows: 

2. An automatic fire suppression system shall not be required in 
non-combustible elevator equipment rooms, provided these rooms 
are equipped throughout with an automatic fire/heat detection 
system in accordance with Section 907. 

(Ord. 66790 §3 (part), 2005. 

25.01.200 Section 903 .3 .5. 1.1 --Amended. 

Change Section 903.3.5.1.1 to read as follows: 

903.3.5.1.1 Limited area sprinkler systems. Limited area sprinkler system 
attached to domestic service lines shall conform to the following minimum 
requirements. One (1) sprinkler head per fire area when supplied from a one 
inch (25 mm) domestic service. Two (2) sprinkler heads per fire area when 
supplied from a one and one-half inch (38 mm) domestic service. Four (4) 
sprinkler heads per fire area when supplied from a two inch (50 mm) 
domestic service. A fire area shall be a confined area which may contain 
hazardous substances. Limited service sprinklers in anyone (1) building shall 
be limited to a maximum of twenty (20) sprinklers. No sprinkler supply line 
shall be attached to a domestic service before the domestic water meter. 

A backflow preventer is not required on limited area sprinkler systems using 
approved copper or plastic sprinkler piping. 

25.01.210 Section 907 .9. 1.3 -Added. 

Add Section 907.9.1.3 to read as follows: 

907.9.1.3 Visual alarms: Visual alarms shall be provided in all required 
accessible sleeping rooms or suites in Group R-1 occupancies, as well as in 
additional sleeping rooms in suites as part of a fire alarm system. Visual 
alarms are not required to be provided in bathrooms located within the 
sleeping rooms or suites. 

(Ord. 66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.220 Section 1009.1 -Amended. 

Change Section 1009.1 to read as follows: 



1009.1 Stairway width. The width of stairways shall be determined as 
specified in Section 1005.1, but such width shall not be less than 44 inches 
(1118 mm). See Section 1007.3 for accessible means of egress stairways. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Stairways serving buildings having a total occupant load of 50 
or less shall not be less than 36 inches (914 mm) in width. 

2. Spiral stairways as provided for in Section 1009.9. 

3. Aisle stairways complying with Section 1024. 

4. Where a stairway lift is installed on stairways serving 
occupancies in Use Group R-3 or within dwelling units in 
occupancies in Use Group R-2, a clear passage width not less than 
20 inches (508 mm) shall be provided. If the seat and platform can 
be folded when not in use, the distance shall be measured from the 
folded position. 

5. Stairways serving buildings of single-exit construction where 
permitted by Section 1018 shall not be less than 36 inches (914 
mm) in width. 

(Ord. 66790 § 3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.230 Section 1009. 3 --Amended. 

Change Section 1009.3 to read as follows: 

1009.3 Stair treads and risers. Stair riser heights shall be 7 inches (178 mm) 
and 4 inches (102 mm) minimum. Stair tread depths shall be 11 inches (279 
mm) minimum. The riser height shall be measured vertically between the 
leading edges of the adjacent treads. The greater riser height within any flight 
of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 0.375 inch (9.5 mm). The 
tread depth shall be measured horizontally between the vertical plane of the 
foremost projection of adjacent treads and at a right angle to the tread= s 
leading edge. The greatest tread depth within any flight of stairs shall not 
exceed the smallest by more than 0.375 inch (9.5 mm). Winder treads shall 
have a minimum tread depth of 11 inches (279 mm) measured at a right angle 
to the tread= s leading edge at a point 12 inches (305 mm) from the side 
where the treads are narrower and a minimum tread depth of 10 inches (254 
mm). The greatest winder tread depth at the 12-inch (305 mm) walk line 
within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than 0.375 
inch (9.5 mm). 

Exceptions 

1. Circular stairways in accordance with Section 1009.7. 

2. Winders in accordance with Section 1009.8. 



3. Spiral stairways in accordance with Section 1009.9. 

4. Aisle stairs in assembly seating areas where the stair pitch or 
slope is set, for sightline reasons, by the slope of the adjacent 
seating area in accordance with Section 1024.11.2. 

5. In occupancies in Use Group R-3, within dwelling units in 
occupancies in Use Group R-2 and in occupancies in Use Group 
U which are accessory to an occupancy in Use Group R-3, the 
maximum riser height shall be 83 inches (210 mm) and the 
minimum tread shall be 9 inches (229 mm). A 1-inch (25 mm) 
nosing shall be provided on stairways with solid risers. 

6. See the International Existing Building Code for the 
replacement of existing stairways. 

7. Any stairway replacing an existing stairway within a space 
where because of existing construction, the pitch or slope cannot 
be reduced. 

8. Stairways in penal facilities serving guard towers, observation 
stations and control rooms not more than 250 square feet (23 m5 ) 
in area shall be permitted to have risers not exceeding 8 inches 
(203 mm) in height and treads not less than 9 inches (229 mm) in 
depth. 

(Ord. 66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.240 Section 1009.11 -Amended. 

Change Section 1009.11 to read as follows: 

1009.11 Handrails. Stairways shall have handrails on each side. Handrails 
shall be adequate in strength and attachment in accordance with Section 
1607.7. 

Exceptions: 

1. Aisle stairs complying with Section 1024 provided with a 
center handrail need not have additional handrails. 

2. Stairways within dwelling units, spiral stairways and aisle stairs 
serving only on one side are permitted to have a handrail on one 
side only. 

3. Decks, patios and walkways that have a single change in 
elevation where the landing depth on each side of the change of 
elevation is greater than what is required for a landing do not 
require handrails. 

4. In Group R-3 occupancies, a change in elevation consisting of a 



single riser at an entrance or egress door does not require "^ ' 
handrails. 

5. Exterior stairs of five risers or less from grade shall not be 
required to have a handrail. 

6. Stairways with fewer than three risers are not required to have 
handrails where serving a single dwelling unit or where such 
stairways are not an exit access corridor or aisle, exit or exit 
discharge. 

(Ord. 66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

r 25.01.250 Section 1009. 11.1 --Amended. 

Change Section 1009.11.1 to read as follows: 

1009.11.1 Height. Handrail height, measured above stair tread nosing, or 
finish surface of ramp slope, shall be uniform, not less than 34 inches (864 
mm) nor more than 38 inches (965 mm). 

Exception: Handrails that form part of the guard shall have a height not less 
than 36 inches (914 mm) and not more than 42 inches (1,067 mm). Use 
Group R-3 and within units in Use Group R-2 the height shall not be less 
than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more than 42 inches (1 .67 mm). 

(Ord. 66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.260 Section 1009. 12- Amended. 

Change Section 1009.12 to read as follows: 

1009.12 Stairway to roof. In buildings four or more stories in height above 
grade, except those with a roof slope greater than four units vertical in 12 
units horizontal (4:12), access to the roof shall be provided by means of a 
stairway or a ladder and trap door. The ladder shall not be on the exterior of 
the building. Where the roof is used as a roof garden or for other habitable 
purposes, sufficient stairways shall extend to the roof to provide the 
necessary exit facilities from the roof as required for such occupancy. 

(Ord. 66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.270 Section 1012.6-Added. 

Add Section 1012.6 to read a follows: 

1012.6 Retaining walls. Guards shall be provided on retaining walls as 
required by Section 1806.2 of this code. 

(Ord. 66790 § 3 (part), 2005.) 

' 25.01.280 Section 1016.1 -Amended. 



' ■ Change Section 1016.1 by the addition of Exception 5 to read as follows: 

5. In all uses other than Use Groups R-1, R-2 and I-l, a fire resistance rating 
is not required for exit access corridors serving thirty or fewer occupants. 

(Ord. 66790 § 3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.290 Section 1025.1 --Amended. 

Change Section 1025.1 by the addition of Exception 8 to read as follows: 

8. Bars, grilles or security screens on emergency doors and windows in all 
new buildings shall be permitted on the first story and basement provided that 
the dwelling is equipped with an approved hard- wired smoke detection 
system. 

25.01.300 Section 1102-Amended. 

Change definitions in Section 1102 to read as follows: 

ACCESSIBLE. Describes a site, building, facility or portion thereof that 
complies with Chapter 11 of this code and ICC/ANSI A117. 1-1998 
Accessible and Useable Buildings and Facilities, and that can be approached, 
entered and used by a person with a physical disability. 

ACCESSIBLE ROUTE. A continuous unobstructed path connecting all 
accessible elements and spaces in a building or facility which can be 
negotiated by a person with a severe disability, using a wheelchair and which 
is also safe for and useable by people with other disabilities. Interior 
accessible routes include corridors, floors, ramps, elevators, lifts and clear 
floor space at fixtures. Exterior accessible routes include parking, access 
aisles, curb ramps, walks, ramps and lifts. 

DWELLING UNIT OR SLEEPING UNIT, TYPE A. A dwelling unit or 
sleeping unit designed and constructed for accessibility in accordance with 
Section 1002 of the ICC/ANSI A117.1 Accessible and Useable Buildings and 
Facilities. A Type A, accessible dwelling unit has all required knee and toe 
clearances, clear floor space requirements, door openings, turning radius, 
approaches, accessible routes, grab bars and accessible hardware. All 
bathrooms in a Type A (accessible) dwelling unit shall be designed as fully 
accessible. All kitchens in a Type A (accessible) dwelling unit shall be 
designed as fully accessible. 

DWELLING UNIT OR SLEEPING UNIT, TYPE B. A dwelling unit or 
sleeping unit designed and constructed for accessibility in accordance with 
Section 1002 of the ICC/ANSI A117.1 Accessible and Useable Buildings and 
Facilities and is intended to be consistent with technical requirements for fair 
housing required by Federal law. Dwelling units required to be Type B shall 
be permitted to be designed and constructed as Type A units. A Type B 
dwelling unit has all required knee and toe clearances, clear floor space 



requirements, door openings, turning radius, approaches, accessible routes. 
Blocking for grab bars in the bathroom is installed Kitchen cabinets can be 
installed under the sink. Grab bars and kitchen cabinets are removed for a 
person with a disability buying or renting the unit. In Type B (adaptable) 
dwelling units with two (2) or more bathrooms, only one (1) common use 
bathroom shall be designed as fully accessible. 

TECHNICALLY INFEASIBLE. An alteration of a building or a facility that 
has little likelihood of being accomplished because the existing structural 
conditions require the removal or alteration of a load-bearing member that is 
an essential part of the structural frame, or because other existing physical or 
site constraints prohibit modification of addition of elements, spaces or 
features which are in full and strict compliance with the minimum 
requirements for new construction and which are necessary provide 
accessibility. 

(Ord. 66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.310 Section 1103.1.1-Added. 

Add Section 1103.1.1 to read as follows: 

1103.1.1 Unknown Use Group. In cases where the previous Group is 
unknown or not documented, it shall be considered a Change of Use Group, 
and, as such, accessibility requirements shall be enforced. 

(Ord. 66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.320 Sections 1103.3 and 1103.4-Added. 

Add Sections 1103.3 and 1103.4 to read as follows: 

1103.3 Waiver requirements. In order to request a waiver from the 
requirements of Chapter 11: Accessibility, a property owner or design 
professional shall submit a written request to the Commissioner on the 
Disabled, outlining the specific reasons for their request. The Commissioner 
on the Disabled shall consult with the Building Inspector, Plan Review 
Section or other Building Division staff about the property. A 
recommendation shall be made by the Commissioner on the Disabled to the 
Building Commissioner. The Commissioner on the Disabled and Building 
Commissioner shall agree to grant or deny the request for a waiver. The 
property owner or design professional is informed in writing of the decision 
by the Commissioner on the Disabled. This decision is not subject to appeal 
by the Board of Building Appeals. Permits for the renovated or altered 
building shall only be issued contingent upon compliance with the letter of 
agreement. 

1103.4 Waiver criteria. A waiver of accessibility requirements may be 
granted if any or all of the following conditions exist: 



1. It is technically infeasible to achieve accessibility. This term '^ ' 
means that there is little likelihood that an alteration can be 
accomplished because the existing structural conditions require 

the removal of or alteration of a load-bearing member that is 
essential to the structural frame, or because of existing site 
constraints of physical constraints that prohibit achieving 
accessibility. This is determined by the Commissioner on the 
Disabled. 

2. The type of business or work being performed at a property, 
i.e., physically demanding or requiring a high level of strength 
and physical mobility, cannot be reasonably performed by a 
person with a mobility impairment. This is determined by the 
Commissioner on the Disabled. 

3. In an existing multi-floor building with two or more floors, 
where the functions on the second or other floors above grade are 
identical to all the functions on the first floor, vertical accessibility 
can be waived if the first floor is totally accessible. This is 
determined by the Commissioner on the Disabled. 

4. In cases where the previous use group is unknown or 
un-documented and the new use group is similar to the previous 
group, a property owner or design professional shall submit a 
written request for a waiver of the accessibility requirements to 
the Commissioner on the Disabled, outlining the specific reasons 
for the request. 

(Ord. 66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.330 Section 11 04.1 -Amended. 

Change Section 1104.1 to read as follows: 

1104.1 Site arrival points. Accessible routes within the site shall be provided 
from public transportation stops, accessible parking and accessible passenger 
loading zones and public streets or sidewalks to the accessible building 
entrance served. 

Exception: An accessible route shall not be required between site arrival 
points and the building or facility entrance if the only means of access 
between them is a vehicular way not providing for pedestrian access. 

This exception shall be read together with Section 1107.4. The code requires 
an accessible pedestrian route from site arrival points to accessible building 
entrances, unless site impracticality applies. 

(Ord. 66790 § 3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.340 Section 11 07 .4- Amended. 



' ■ Change Section 1107.4 to read as follows: "^ ' • ^ ' ^ ^ ' • " "^ ' 

1107.4 Accessible route. At least one accessible route shall connect 
accessible building or facility entrances with primary entrance of each 
Accessible unit, Type A unit and Type B unit within the building or facility 
and with those exterior and interior spaces that serve the units. 

Exceptions: 

1. If the slope of the finished ground level between accessible 
facilities and buildings exceeds one unit vertical in 12 units 
horizontal (1:12), or where physical barriers prevent the 
installation of an accessible route, a vehicular route with parking 
that complies with Section 1106 at each public or common use 
facility or building is permitted in place of the accessible route. 

2. Exterior decks, patios or balconies that are part of Type B units 
and have impervious surfaces, and that are not more than 4 inches 
(102 mm) below the finished floor level of the adjacent interior 
space of the unit. 

This exception is not applicable to site arrival points for any Type B dwelling 
units because site impracticality is addressed under Section 1107.7. 

(Ord. 66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.350 Section 11 09 .2- Amended. 

Change Section 1109.2 to read as follows: 

1109.2 Toilet and bathing facilities. Toilet rooms and bathing facilities shall 
be accessible. Where a floor level is not required to be connected by an 
accessible route, the only toilet rooms or bathing facilities provided within 
the facility shall not be located on the inaccessible floor. At least one type of 
fixture, element, control or dispenser in each accessible toilet room and 
bathing facility shall be accessible. There shall be no encroachment of doors 
and/or door swing into the required circular or T-shaped wheelchair turning 
spaces. 

Exceptions: 

1. In toilet rooms or bathing facilities accessed only through a private office, 
not for common or public use, and intended for use by a single occupant, any 
of the following alternatives are allowed: 

1.1 Doors are permitted to swing into the clear floor space 
provided the door swing can be reversed to meet the requirements 
inlCCAin.l, 

1.2. The height requirements of the water closet in ICC A117.1 
are not applicable. 



1.3. Grab bars are not required to be installed in a toilet room, "^ ' 
provided that reinforcement has been installed in the walls and 
located so as to permit the installation of such grab bars, and 

1.4. The requirement for height, knee and toe clearance shall not 
apply to a lavatory. 

2. This section is not applicable to toilet and bathing facilities that serve 
dwelling units or sleeping units that are not required to be accessible by 
Section 1107. 

3 . Where multiple single-user toilet rooms or bathing facilities are clustered 
at a single location and contain fixtures in excess of the minimum required 
number of plumbing fixtures, at least 5 percent, but not less than one room 
for each use at each cluster, shall be accessible. 

4. Toilet room facilities that are in excess of those required by the City of 
Saint Louis Plumbing Code and that are designated for use by children in day 
care and primary school occupancies. 

5. Where no more than one urinal is provided in a toilet room or bathing 
facility, the urinal is not required to be accessible. 

6. Toilet rooms that are part of critical-care or intensive-care patient sleeping 
rooms are not required to be accessible. 

(Ord. 66790 § 3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.360 Section 1009 .2. 1.6- Amended. 

Change Section 1009.2.1.6 to read as follows: 

1109.2.1.6 Clear floor space. Where doors swing into a unisex or bathing 
room, there shall be no encroachment of doors and/or door swing into the 
required circular or T-shaped wheelchair turning spaces. 

(Ord. 66790 § 3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.370 Section 1205 .2. 3 -Added. 

Add Section 1205.2.3 to read as follows: 

1205.2.3 Light and ventilation in unfinished basement: Glass in unfinished 
basements shall not be less than two percent (2%) of the floor area served. 
One half (1/2) of this area must be available for unobstructed ventilation with 
screens included. 

(Ord. 66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.380 Section 1406. 3 -Amended. 

Change Exception 3 to Section 1406.3 to read as follows: 



3. Balconies and similar appendages on buildings of Type III, IV and V 
construction, three stories or less above grade, shall be permitted to be of 
Type V construction, and shall not be required to have a fire resistance rating. 

(Ord. 66790 § 3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.390 Section 15 10.1 --Amended. 

Change Section 1510.1 to read as follows: 

1510.1 General. Materials and methods of application used for recovering or 
replacing an existing roof covering shall comply with the requirements of 
Chapter 15. Structural calculations are required when the roof structure 
supporting elements result in a five percent (5%) or more increase in force in 
any of the roof structure supporting elements in accordance with Section 
3403.2, unless the increased force on the structural element is still in 
compliance with the code for new structures. The calculations shall include 
verification of the prevention of ponding instability. 

Exception: Reroofing shall not be required to meet the minimum design slope 
requirement of one-quarter unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent 
slope) in Section 1507 for roofs that provide positive roof drainage. 

(Ord. 66790 § 3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.400 Sections 1510.4.1 and 15 10. 4. 2- Added. 

Add Sections 1510.4.1 and 1510.4.2 to read as follows: 

1510.4.1 Residential, 4 family or less. A permit is required for reroofing 
buildings or structures of four dwelling units or less, which fall within any 
one of the following categories: 

1 . Where more than twenty-five percent of the roof sheathing is 
being replaced. The fastening method must be outlined in detail; 

2. Anytime a supporting joist, rafter, girder, truss member, or any 
other structural support is being replaced, strengthened, scabbed 
or altered by cutting, or is fire damaged. Depending on the 
building size, occupancy, etc., drawings, calculations and 
specifications shall be permitted to be required, each bearing the 
original seal, signature and date of a Missouri licensed design 
professional; 

3 . Where there is a change in roofing material which results in an 
increase in the loads imposed on the roof structure, or which 
results in an increase in the flammability of the roof structure. 
Sealed construction documents shall be permitted to be required; 

4. Buildings in designated city historic districts when the roofing 
is visible from the street; 



' '■ • ^ 5. Buildings located within three hundred feet of a city park or -^ ' 

within three hundred feet of a city historic district where the 
roofing is visible from the park or historic district; 

6. Roofing on a landmark building which is listed on a National 
Register; 

7. Roofing on a local ordinance listed landmark building or on 
property facing a landmark when the roofing is visible from said 
landmark; 

8. Buildings located within a city park or on city-owned property. 

1510.4.2 All others. For buildings or structures of all other Groups and 
Group R-2 greater than four family, the repair of existing roofs and roof 
coverings shall comply with this code, but no more than twenty-five percent 
(25%) of the roof covering of any building or structure shall be removed and 
replaced within any twelve month period unless the entire roof covering is 
made to conform to the requirements for new roofing. 

(Ord. 66790 § 3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.410 Section 1603. 1.3.1 -Added. 

Add Section 1603.1.3.1 to read as follows: 

1603.1.3.1 City of Saint Louis criteria. For purposes of this code the ground 
snow load (Pg) shall be twenty pounds per square foot (psf). 

(Ord. 66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.420 Section 1603. 1.4.1 -Added. 

Add Section 1603.1.4.1 to read as follows: 

1603.1.4.1 City of Saint Louis criteria. For purposes of this code the basic 
wind speed (3 -second gust) shall be ninety miles per hour (40 meters per 
second). 

(Ord. 66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

' 25.01.430 Section 1603. 1.5.1 -Added. 

Add Section 1603.1.5.1 to read as follows: 

1603.1.5.1 City of Saint Louis criteria. For purposes of this code the mapperd 
spectral response accelerations Ss and SI shall be .60g and .18g respectively. 

25.01.440 Section 1607. 14- Added. 

Add Section 1607.14 to read as follows: 



1607.14 Change of occupancy. Any existing structure heretofore approved, in 
which there is not a change of occupancy to an occupancy requiring greater 
floor live loads, is permitted to be continued in use for the originally 
approved live loads, provided that the structure is structurally safe and 
adequate for the proposed occupancy, and the public safety is not endangered 
thereby. If the approved live load is less than required by Section 1606, the 
areas designed for the reduced live load shall be posted with the approved 
load. Placards shall be of an approved design. 

In every building or other structure or part thereof of Use Groups A, B, E, F, 
M, S where there is a change of use or function and in the code official's 
opinion the live load may exceed the existing allowable floor live load, there 
shall be a placard posted indicating the maximum allowed floor live load. 
Structural calculations establishing the maximum allowed floor live load 
shall be prepared by a Missouri licensed professional engineer. All structural 
calculations shall bear an original embossed or wet ink seal, original ink 
signature and the date the structural calculations were sealed by the Missouri 
licensed professional engineer on the first sheet or on the cover sheet of the 
structural calculations. 

The maximum allowed floor live load shall be marked on placards of an 
approved design which shall be supplied and securely affixed by the owner of 
the building, or the owner's authorized agent, in a conspicuous place in each 
space to which they relate. Any placards lost, removed or defaced shall be 
replaced by the owner or the owner's agent. 

(Ord. 66790 § 3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.450 Section 1614.6-Added. 

Add Section 1614.6 to read as follows: 

1614.6 Seismic review board. There is hereby established a Seismic Review 
Board which shall meet on call of the Building Commissioner as Chairman, 
and shall consist of said Commissioner and two other Missouri licensed 
design professionals (an architect and an engineer) in the Division of 
Building and Inspection, who shall be appointed by the Building 
Commissioner. They shall be knowledgeable in seismic design. One of the 
members shall act as secretary. The purpose of the Seismic Review Board is 
to review questions from the Plan Exam Section concerning seismic design 
issues as they pertain to structural alterations to buildings, and questions 
concerning changes of use or occupancy. This Board will not design, but will 
answer questions raised by the Plan Exam staff. Decisions rendered by the 
Seismic Review Board can be appealed to the Board of Building Appeals. 

(Ord. 66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.460 Section 1615.1 --Amended. 

Change Section 1615.1 to read as follows: 



1615.1 General procedure for determining maximum considered earthquake 
and design spectral response accelerations. Ground motion accelerations, 
represented by response spectra and coefficients derived from these spectra, 
shall be determined in accordance with the general procedure of Section 
1615.1, or the site-specific procedure of Section 1615.2. The site-specific 
procedure of Section 1615.2 shall be used for structures on sites classified as 
Site Class F, in accordance with Section 1615.1.1. 

The earthquake spectral response acceleration at short periods (Ss) shall be 
0.60g. The earthquake spectral response acceleration at 1 -second periods 
(Sl)shallbe0.18g. 

The site class shall be determined in accordance with Section 1615.1.1. The 
maximum considered earthquake spectral response acceleration at short 
period and 1-second period adjusted for site class effects, SMS and SMI, 
shall be determined in accordance with Section 1615.1.2. The design spectral 
response accelerations at short period, SDS, and at 1-second period, SDl, 
shall be determined in accordance with Section 1615.4 

(Ord. 66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.470 Section 1615. 1.4- Amended. 

Change Section 1615.1.4 to read as follows: 

1615.1.4 General procedure response sectrum. 

Amend notations for Equation 16-43 9 (used in conjunction with Section 
1615.1.4 General procedure response spectrum.): 

where: 

SDS = The design spectral response at short periods as 
determined in Section 1615.1.3. 

SDl = The design spectral response at 1-second periods as 
determined in Section 1615.1.3. 

T = Functional period (in seconds) of the structure (see Section 
9.5.5.5 of ASCE 7). 

TO = 0.2 SDl/SDS 

TS = SDl/SDS 

(Ord. 66790 § 3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.480 Section 1617.6. 1.1-Amended. 

Change Section 1617.6.1.1 to read as follows: 

1617.6.1 .1 ASCE 7, Table 9.5.5.2. Modify Table 9.5.2.2 as follows: 



1. Bearing wall systems: Ordinary reinforced masonry shear walls "^ ' 
shall use a response spectrum modification coefficient of 22 . 
Light-framed walls sheathed with wood structural panels rated for 
shear resistance or steel sheets shall use a response modification 
coefficient of 62 . Table 1617.6.2 entries for ordinary plain 
prestressed masonry shear walls, intermediate prestressed 
masonry shear walls and special prestressed masonry shear walls 
shall apply. 

2. Building frame systems: Ordinary reinforced masonry 
shearwalls shall use a response modification coefficient of 3. 
Light-framed walls sheathed with wood structural panels rated for 
shear resistance or steel sheets shall use a response modification 
coefficient of 7. Table 1617.2 entries for ordinary plain 
prestressed masonry shear walls, intermediate prestressed 
masonry shear walls and special prestressed masonry shear walls 
shall apply. 

3. Dual systems with intermediate moment frames capable of 
resisting at least 25 percent of prescribed seismic forces. Special 
steel concentrically braced frames shall use a deflection 
amplification factor of 4. 

4. The table column titled Detailing Reference Section in Table 
1617.6.2 shall apply. 

(Ord. 66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.490 Section 161 3. 1.3 -Amended. 

Add Section 1613.1.3 ASCE 7 to read as follows: 

1617.6.1.3 ASCE 7, Section 9.5.2.2.4.3. Modify Section 9.5.2.2.4.3 by 
changing exception to read as follows: 

Exception: Reinforced concrete frame members not designed as part of the 
seismic-force resistant system and slabs shall comply with Section 21.11 of 
Ref. 9.9-1. 

(Ord. 66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.500 Section 1703 .7 .2- Amended. 

Change Section 1703.7.2 to read as follows: 

1703.7.2 Test and inspection records. All required test and inspection records 
shall be accessible to the code official or quality assurance agency at all times 
during the fabrication of the unit or sub-assembly and the erection of the 
building; such records as the code official designates shall be filed in the 
office of the code official. 



(Ord. 66790 § 3 (part), 2005.) ^.■:.-.v--"::^.^.:r ^•^--"-. -r^-r 

25.01.510 Section 1703 .7 .3 --Added. 

Add Section 1703.7.3 to read as follows: 

1703.7.3 Inspection reports. All inspection reports shall be in writing and 
shall be certified by the licensed authority, or responsible officer of the 
service, or the individual when expert inspection services are accepted. An 
identifying label or stamp permanently fixed to the product indicating that 
factory inspection has been made shall be accepted in lieu of the aforesaid 
inspection report in writing if the intent or meaning of such identifying label 
or stamp is properly substantiated. 

(Ord. 66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.520 Sections 1803.7 and 1803 .7.1 -Added. 

Add Section 1803.7 and 1803.7.1 to read as follows: 

1803.7 Hazardous excavations. Should there be an unfenced excavation or 
hole or open basement that endangers the sidewalk, alley or street right- 
of-way, the Street Department is authorized to, without prior notice, fill or 
abate such hazard. Should such excavation, hole or open basement not 
endanger the public right-of-way, but in fact endanger an adjacent building 
footing, or cause an embankment problem, or constitute a public safety 
hazard anywhere on the site, or have accumulated over eighteen inches of 
standing water for more than seven days, which, in the opinion of the Health 
Department, upon certification, constitutes a vector-control problem, the 
Building Commissioner shall be permitted to emergency-hire a contractor to 
fill, or partially fill, that excavation, hole or open basement to mitigate the 
danger. All costs attending such action shall be paid by the owner of said 
property or premises whereon the violation was permitted to exist; said costs 
to be collected as described in Section 119.5. 

1803.7.1 Adjacent to excavations. Every excavation on a site located 5 feet 
(1524 mm) or less from the street lot line shall be enclosed with a barrier not 
less than 6 feet (1829 mm) high. Where located more than 5 feet (1524 mm) 
from the street lot line, a barrier shall be erected when required by the code 
official. Barriers shall be of adequate strength to resist wind pressure as 
specified in Chapter 16 of the Building Code as amended. 

(Ord. 66790 § 3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.530 Section 1804. 1.2- Added. 

Add Section 1804.1.2 to read as follows: 

1804.1.2 Sanitary landfills. No grading, excavation or construction of 
buildings or structures shall be permitted on or above land used or formerly 
used as a sanitary landfill, or above decaying deposits of organic materials. 



unless approved by the code official. The code official shall require a 
comprehensive report on the underlying soils, prepared by a Missouri 
licensed professional engineer. This report shall take proper note of possible 
formation and release of combustible, explosive or toxic vapors or gasses 
emanating from the underlying deposits, and shall contain positive 
construction recommendations for elimination of such hazards. 

(Ord. 66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.540 Section 1805 .2.1 -Amended. 

Change Section 1805.2.1 to read as follows: 

1805.2.1 Frost protection. Except where otherwise protected from frost, 
foundation walls, piers and other permanent supports of buildings and 
structures shall be protected from frost by one or more of the following 
methods: 

1. Extend 30 inches (762 mm) minimum below finished grade; 

2. Constructing in accordance with Section R403.3; 

3. Constructing in accordance with ASCE 32-01; and 

4. Erecting on solid rock. 

Exception: 

Freestanding accessory structures with an area of 200 square feet 
(18.5 m5 ) or less and an eave height of 10 feet (3048 mm) or less 
shall not be required to be protected. 

(Ord. 66790 § 3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.550 Section 1806.2-Added. 

Add Section 1806.2 to read as follows: 

1806.2 Guards. Where retaining walls with difference in grade level on either 
side of the wall in excess of 4 feet (1219 mm) are located closer than 2 feet 
(610 mm) to a walk, path, parking lot or driveway on the high side, such 
retaining wall shall be provided with guards that are constructed in 
accordance with Section 1012 or other approved protective measures. 

(Ord. 66790 § 3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.560 Chapter 27-Deleted. 

Delete Chapter 27 in its entirety. Refer to the City of Saint Louis Electrical Code. (Ord. 
66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.570 Chapter 29--Deleted. 



Delete Chapter 29 in its entirety. Refer to the City of Saint Louis Plumbing Code. (Ord. 
66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.580 Section 3003 .2.1 -Amended. 

Change Section 3003.2.1 to read as follows: 

3001.2 Referenced standards. Except as otherwise provided for in this code, 
the design, construction, installation, alteration, repair and maintenance of 
elevators and conveying systems and their components shall conform to 
Missouri II CSR 40-5.010 through 40-5.150. 

(Ord. 66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.590 Sections 3007 and 3008-Added. 

Add Sections 3007 and 3008 to read as follows: 

SECTION 3007 

CERTIFICATE OF ELEVATOR INSPECTION 

3007.1 Certificate of Elevator Inspection. A valid state operating certificate 
for all non-residential elevating equipment shall be displayed as required by 
MO 11 CSR 40-05. 100. 

3007.2 Definition. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of 
this chapter, have the meanings shown herein: 

RESIDENTIAL ELEVATOR. An elevator that is contained entirely within a 
single dwelling unit. 

SECTION 3008 
AMUSEMENT RIDES 

3008.1 General. All amusement rides must comply with MO 11 CSR 
40-6.010 through 40-6.100. 

Exceptions: 

1. Unpowered, non-mechanical playground equipment including, 
but not limited to: swings, seesaws, stationary spring-mounted 
animal features, rider-propelled merry-go-rounds, climbers, slides 
and trampolines, and 

2. Any single passenger manually, mechanically, or electrically 
operated, coin-actuated ride, which is customarily placed singly, 
or in groups, in a public location and which does not mornally 
require the supervision or services of an operator. 

3008.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of 
this chapter, have the meanings shown herein: 



AMUSEMENT RIDE. Any mechanical device that carries or conveys 
passengers along, around or over a fixed or restricted route or course within a 
defined area for the purpose of giving its passengers amusement, pleasure or 
excitement. 

3008.3 Permits and fees. Permits shall be obtained for all amusement rides 
and air-inflated amusement devices. Missouri State permits and liability 
insurance are required prior to the issuance of amusement ride permits. 
Liability insurance is required prior to the issuance of air-inflated amusement 
device permits. Fees shall be as described in the City of Saint Louis 
Mechanical Code. 

3008.4 Permanent amusement devices. Amusement rides and air-inflated 
amusement devices that are left in place for more than one (1) year must 
annually re-apply and obtain an new permit to continue operation. 

(Ord. 66790 § 3 (part), 2005.) 

25.0L600 Sections 3108.6 and 3 108 .6.1 -Added. 

Add Sections 3108.6 and 3108.6.1 to read as follows: 

3108.6 Permits. The approval of the code official shall be secured for all dish 
antenna structures more than two feet (610 mm) in diameter which are roof 
or ground mounted or attached to any building or structure. A permit is not 
required for any dish antennae not more than two feet (610 mm) in diameter 
erected and maintained on the roof of any building or structure, or erected on 
the ground not in front of the building line. All construction documents 
submitted for application for dish antenna structures erected on the roof of or 
attached to any building or structure shall bear the seal of an Missouri 
licensed professional engineer, and shall be accompanied by structural 
calculations sealed by said engineer. 

3108.6.1 Location. No satellite dish antenna or other similar device shall be 
located in front of the building line of any structure or attached to the street 
side of any structure unless such placement is required to properly access a 
satellite transmission. A satellite dish may not extend more than 36 inches 
(914 mm) above the roof peak. 

Any satellite antenna, or similar device, must be located in the rear yard and 
shall have suitable protective anti-climb fencing. A landscape planting screen 
shall be provided and maintained around the structure and accessory 
attachments. 

Satellite antennas, or similar devices, which are located in a rear yard which 
fronts a public street shall be properly screened from view. Proper screening 
shall be limited to suitable protective anti-climbing fence and a landscape 
planting screen. 

No satellite antenna, or similar device shall be located in any side yard, nor 



shall it be located on the street side of any structure, except as permitted 
above. 

(Ord. 66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.610 Sections 3109.1.1 and 3 109. 1.2- Added. 

Add Sections 3109.1.1 and 3109.1.2 to read as follows: 

3109.1.1 Enforcement. Private above-ground swimming pools shall be under 
the authority of the City of Saint Louis Health Department for permits and 
enforcement. All other pools shall be jointly under the authority of the 
Division of Building and Inspection and the Health Department for permit 
issuance, and under the Health Department for compliance thereafter. 

3109.1.2 Locations. Private swimming pools shall not encroach on any front 
or side yard required by this code or by the governing zoning law, unless in 
accordance with specific rules of the City of Saint Louis. A wall of a 
swimming pool shall not be located less than 6 feet (1829 mm) from any rear 
or side property line or 10 feet (3048 mm) from any street property line. 

(Ord. 66790 § 3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.620 Sections 3110 and 3111-Added. 

Add Sections 3110 and 3111 to read as follows: 

SECTION 3110 
HOUSE NUMBERING 

3110.1 Premises identification. Approved numbers or addresses shall be 
provided for all new buildings in such a position as to be plainly visible and 
legible from the street or road fronting the property. These numbers shall 
contrast with their background. Address numbers shall be Arabic numerals or 
alphabet letters. Numbers shall be a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) high 
with a minimum stroke width of 0.5 inch (12.7 mm). 

If there is an alley, numbers shall also be placed on the alley elevation of the 
premises on which the house, building or structure is located. If there is a 
garage or carport fronting on an alley, house numbers shall also be placed on 
the alley elevation of the garage or carport. 

SECTION 3111 

OUTDOOR PAY TELEPHONES 

3111.1 New outdoor pay telephones. A new outdoor pay telephone shall not 
hereafter be placed, erected, constructed, altered or maintained except as 
provided herein, and until a permit has been issued by the code official. 

Exception: Portable outdoor pay telephones, erected on any private property 
no earlier than five days prior to a temporary special outdoor event, and 



removed no later than five days after the event. ^ ^ ' • " "^ ' 

3111.2 Permit required. No person shall erect, construct, maintain or collect 
any revenue from any new outdoor pay telephone until a permit for said 
outdoor pay telephone has been issued by the code official. An application 
for said permit shall be filed with the code official accompanied by 
construction documents and specifications showing the location, dimensions, 
materials and details of the proposed outdoor pay telephone. Until all the 
provisions relating to such outdoor pay telephone have been complied with 
and the prescribed fee for such permit has been paid to the code official, a 
permit shall not be issued. 

3111.3 Additional application information. All additional application 
information as required to evaluate the new outdoor pay telephone= s 
conformance with the Zoning Ordinance of the City of Saint Louis shall be 
provided. 

3111.4 Permit fees. The permit fee for each outdoor pay telephone shall be at 
the rate listed in Table 108.3.1 for Miscellaneous Structures. 

3111.5 Removal. The code official is authorized to order the removal of any 
outdoor pay telephone that is not maintained or reported in accordance with 
Section 3111.6. 

3111.6 Notification. The code official shall be notified of the location of all 
existing outdoor pay telephones within the City of Saint Louis by all vendors 
doing said business. Failure to provide this information shall be a code 
violation and, in addition to the removal of the telephone by the code official 
under Section 3111.5, the vendor shall be subject to a penalty as set forth in 
Section Four. Each day that a violation continues shall constitute a separate 
offense. 

(Ord. 66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.630 Section 3112-Added. 

Add Section 3112 to read as follows: 

SECTION 3112 

EMERGENCY GUARD BARRICADES 

3112.1 General. When the code official orders emergency barricades due to 
an unsafe building, structure or premises condition, said costs plus a ten 
percent administrative cost shall be certified to the Comptroller of the City of 
Saint Louis. The Comptroller is authorized to place a tax lien against the 
property in the amount of said bill. 

(Ord. 66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.640 Section 3 202. 1.1 -Amended. 



' ■ Change Section 3202.1 .1 to read as follows: 

3202.1.1 Structural support below grade. Any part of a building or structure 
hereafter erected below grade that is necessary for structural support of the 
building or structure shall not project beyond the lot lines, except that the 
footings of street or alley walls, or their supports located at least eight feet 
(2438 mm) below grade, shall not project more than twelve inches (305 mm) 
beyond the lot line. Footings of buildings or structures shall be permitted to 
project up to six inches (153 mm) into streets or alleys regardless of depth. 

(Ord. 66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.650 Section 3 202. 3. 1.1 -Added. 

Add Section 3202.3.1.1 to read as follows: 

3202.3.1.1 Small awning exception. A permit shall not be required for the 
erection, repair, or replacement of fixed awnings less than forty square feet 
(3.7 m5 ) in projected area or retractable awnings less than one hundred and 
fifty square feet (4.6 m5 ) in area, unless they project over public property. 
No such awning, however, shall be installed so as to project over property not 
owned by the premises on which such awning is installed. 

(Ord. 66790 § 3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.660 Section 3202.3.2 amended-Section 3202.3.2.1 added. 

Change Section 3202.3.2 and add Section 3202.3.2.1 to read as follows: 

3202.3.2 Windows, architectural features and mechanical equipment. Where 
the vertical clearance above grade to projecting windows, architectural 
features or mechanical equipment is more than 10 feet (3048 mm), 1 inch (25 
mm) of encroachment is permitted for each additional 1 inch (25 mm) of 
clearance above 10 feet (3048 mm). 

2302.3.2.1 Balconies. Balconies shall be located at least 10 feet (3048 mm) 
above the grade level. 

(Ord. 66790 § 3 (part), 2005.) 

, 25.01.670 Sections 3205.1 through 3206.1-Added. 

Add Sections 3205.1 through 3206.1 to read as follows: 

3205.1 Signs. Projecting signs, including irons and other fixtures, shall not 
extend more than five feet (1 ,524 mm) into the public right-of-way. 

3205.1.1 Signs projecting into streets. Projections shall not be nearer than 
two feet (610 mm) to a curb and not less than ten feet (3,048 mm) above the 
curb or public sidewalk. 



3205.1.2 Signs projecting into alleys. Projections shall not be less than 
sixteen feet (4,877 mm) above an alley. 

3206.1 Special encroachments. All other encroachments shall be considered 
special encroachments where the legal sanction is conveyed by the Board of 
Public Service. These encroachments shall be so constructed as to be readily 
removable without endangering the safety of the building. Inspections shall 
be as set forth in Table 109.7. 

(Ord. 66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.680 Chapter 34-Deleted. 

Delete Chapter 34- Refer to the International Existing Building Code. (Ord. 66790 § 3 
(part), 2005.) 

25.01.690 Chapter 35--Amended. 

Modify Chapter 35 by adding the following: 

(Ord. 66790 § 3 (part), 2005.) 
25.01.700 Section G103.9-Added. 

Add Section G103.9 to read as follows: 

G103.9 Certificate of flood plain status. A Special Inspection of records to 
indicate whether a property is located within the flood plain area as 
designated by the Official Flood Plain Maps provided by FEMA (Federal 
Emergency Management Agency) to the City of St. Louis. This letter does 
not imply that the referenced property will or will not be free from flooding 
or damage. A property not in a Special Flood Hazard Area could be damaged 
by a flood greater than that predicted on the FIRM or from a local drainage 
problem not shown on the map. This letter does not create liability on the 
part of the City, or any officer or employee thereof, for any damage that 
results from reliance on this determination. The fee for this letter shall be as 
listed in Table 112.3.1. 

(Ord. 66790 § 3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.710 Section G201.2-Added. 

Add to Section G201 .2 Definitions: 

FREEBOARD. Freeboard is a factor of safety usually expressed in feet 
above a flood level for purposes of flood plain management. Freeboard tends 
to compensate for the many unknown factors that could contribute to flood 
heights greater than the height calculated for a selected size flood and 
floodway conditions, such as wave action, clogged bridge openings, and the 
hydrological effect of urbanization on the watershed. For purposes of this 
code, freeboard shall be at least one foot (305 mm) above the base flood 



elevation. '^ ' • '^ ' • ' 

(Ord. 66790 § 3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.720 Section HI 01. 2-- Amended. 

Change Section H101.2 to read as follows: 

H101.2 New signs. A new sign shall not hereafter be placed, erected, 
constructed, altered or maintained except as provided herein, and until a 
permit has been issued by the code official. All signs controlled and regulated 
by the Zoning Ordinance of the City of Saint Louis, or this code, shall require 
building permits. 

Exceptions 

1. Ground-mounted political or campaign signs, thirty -two square 
feet (2.97 m5 ) or less in area, erected on any private property no 
earlier than sixty days prior to the primary, and removed within 
thirty days after the general election. Violation of this exception 
will result in a seven day citation letter directed to the owner(s) of 
the property. 

2. Temporary signs announcing the sale of property. 

3. The changing of moveable parts of an approved sign that is 
designed for such changes, or the repainting or repositioning of 
display matter shall not be deemed an alteration. 

(Ord. 66790 §3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.730 Sections H101.3 through H101.5-Added. 

Add Sections H101.3 through H101.5 to read as follows: 

H101.3 Permit required. No person shall erect, construct, or maintain any 
sign described in this chapter until a permit for said sign has been issued by 
the code official. An application for said permit shall be filed with the code 
official accompanied by construction documents and specifications showing 
dimensions, materials and details of the proposed sign. Until all the 
provisions of this chapter relating to such sign have been complied with and 
the prescribed fee for such permit has been paid to the code official, a permit 
shall not be issued. 

H103.1.1 Permit fees. Permit fees for all signs shall be charged at the rate 
listed in Table 108.3.2. 

HI 01. 4 Additional application information. All additional application 
information as required to evaluate the sign's conformance with the Zoning 
Ordinance of the City of Saint Louis shall be provided. 



HI 01. 5 Removal. The code official is authorized to order the removal of any 
sign that is not maintained in accordance with the provisions of this code. 
The removal of any sign, including billboards, shall not require a demolition 
permit, but shall require a building permit to alter the sign by removal, and 
shall not be subject to review by the Cultural Resource Office. 

(Ord. 66790 § 3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01.740 Section HI 14.1 -Amended. 

Change Section HI 14.1 to read as follows: 

HI 14.1 In street or sidewalk area. Portable signs shall not be located on 
public streets or sidewalk areas. Enforcement of this shall be by the Street 
Department. 

(Ord. 66790 § 3 (part), 2005.) 

25.01 .750 Penalty for violation. 

A. Any person who shall violate a provision of this code or shall fail to comply with any 
of the requirements thereof, or who shall erect, construct, alter, extend, repair, remove, 
demolish, use or occupy any building, structure or premises or equipment regulated by 
this code in violation of an approved construction document or directive of the code 
official or the Board of Building Appeals, or of a permit or certificate issued under the 
provisions of this code, and shall, upon conviction thereof, be punished by a fine of not 
more than five hundred dollars, or by imprisonment not exceeding ninety days, or both 
such fine and imprisonment. Each day that a violation continues shall constitute a 
separate and distinct offense. 

B. In addition to any penalty authorized by subsection A of this section, any building, 
structure or premises which is occupied without first securing a valid occupancy permit, 
as required by law, shall be secured by the code official upon the issuance of a second 
summons for such violation. (Ord. 66859 § 1, 2005: Ord. 66790 § 4, 2005.) 

Return to Top of Charter, Code, and Ordinances . 

Return to Title 25 

Return to Code Table of Contents 

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2003 International Building Code® 



First Printing: December 2002 

Second Printing: June 2003 

Third Printing: November 2003 

Fourth Printing: March 2004 



ISBN # 1-892395-56-8 (soft) 

ISBN # 1-892395-55-X (loose-leaf) 

ISBN # 1-892395-79-7 (e-document) 



COPYRIGHT © 2002 

by 

INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL, INC. 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This 2003 International Building Code® is a copyrighted work owned by the International Code Coun- 
cil, Inc. Without advance written permission from the copyright owner, no part of this book may be reproduced, distributed, or trans- 
mitted in any form or by any means, including, without limitation, electronic, optical or mechanical means (by way of example and 
not limitation, photocopying, or recording by or in an information storage retrieval system). For information on permission to copy 
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marks of the International Code Council, Inc. 



PRINTED IN THE U.S.A. 



Internationally, code officials recognize the need for a modem, up-to-date building code addressing the design and installation of 
building systems through requirements emphasizing performance. The International Building Code®, in this 2003 edition, is de- 
signed to meet these needs through model code regulations that safeguard the pubhc health and safety in all conmiunities, large and 
small. 

This comprehensive building code establishes minimum regulations for building systems using prescriptive and perfor- 
mance-related provisions. It is founded on broad-based principles that make possible the use of new materials and new building de- 
signs. This 2003 edition is fully compatible with all the International Codes ("I-Codes") published by the International Code 
Council (ICC), including the ICC Electrical Code, International Energy Conservation Code, International Existing Building Code, 
International Eire Code, International Fuel Gas Code, International Mechanical Code, ICC Performance Code, International 
Plumbing Code, International Private Sewage Disposal Code, International Property Maintenance Code, International Residen- 
tial Code, International Urban-Wildland Interface Code and International Zoning Code. 

The International Building Code provisions provide many benefits, among which is the model code development process that of- 
fers an international forum for building professionals to discuss performance and prescriptive code requirements. This forum pro- 
vides an excellent arena to debate proposed revisions. This model code also encourages international consistency in the application 
of provisions. 

The first edition of the International Building Code (2000) was the culmination of an effort initiated in 1997 by the ICC. This in- 
cluded five drafdng subcommittees appointed by ICC and consisting of representatives of the three statutory members of the Inter- 
national Code Council: Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc. (BOCA), International Conference of 
Building Officials (ICBO) and Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI). The intent was to draft a comprehensive 
set of regulations for building systems consistent with and inclusive of the scope of the existing model codes. Technical content of 
the latest model codes promulgated by BOCA, ICBO and SBCCI was utilized as the basis for the development, followed by public 
hearings in 1997, 1998 and 1999 to consider proposed changes. This 2003 edition presents the code as originally issued, with 
changes approved through the ICC Code Development Process through 2002. A new edition such as this is promulgated every three 
years. 

With the development and publication of the family of International Codes in 2000, the continued development and maintenance 
of the model codes individually promulgated by BOCA C'BOCA National Codes"), ICBO ("Uniform Codes") and SBCCI ("Stan- 
dard Codes") was discontinued. This 2003 International Building Code, as well as its predecessor — the 2000 edition, is intended to 
be the successor building code to those codes previously developed by BOCA, ICBO and SBCCI. 

The development of a single set of comprehensive and coordinated family of International Codes was a significant milestone in 
the development of regulations for the built environment. The timing of this publication mirrors a milestone in the change in struc- 
ture of the model codes, namely, the pending Consolidation of BOCA, ICBO and SBCCI into the ICC. The activities and services 
previously provided by the individual model code organizations will be the responsibility of the Consolidated ICC. 

This code is founded on principles intended to estabhsh provisions consistent with the scope of a building code that adequately 
protects public health, safety and welfare; provisions that do not unnecessarily increase construction costs; provisions that do not re- 
strict the use of new materials, products or methods of construcfion; and provisions that do not give preferential treatment to particu- 
lar types or classes of materials, products or methods of construcfion. 



The International Building Code is available for adoption and use by jurisdictions internationally. Its use within a governmental 
jurisdiction is intended to be accomplished through adoption by reference in accordance with proceedings establishing the jurisdic- 
tion's laws. At the time of adoption, jurisdictions should insert the appropriate information in provisions requiring specific local in- 
formation, such as the name of the adopting jurisdiction. These locations are shown in bracketed words in small capital letters in the 
code and in the sample ordinance. The sample adoption ordinance on page v addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordi- 
nance, including the information required for insertion into the code text. 



Th& International Building Code is kept up to date through the review of proposed changes submitted by code enforcing officials, 
industry representatives, design professionals and other interested parties. Proposed changes are carefully considered through an 
open code development process in which all interested and affected parties may participate. 

2003 DMTEIRMATDODS3AL BODLODWG CODE® ooo 



PREFACE 



The contents of this work are subject to change both through the Code Development Cycles and the governmental body that en- 
acts the code into law. For more information regarding the code development process, contact the Code and Standard Development 
Department of the International Code Council. 

While the development procedure of the International Building Code assures the highest degree of care, ICC and the founding 
members of ICC — BOCA, ICBO, SBCCI — their members and those participating in the development of this code do not accept any 
hability resulting from compUance or noncompliance with the provisions because ICC and its founding members do not have the 
power or authority to police or enforce compliance with the contents of this code. Only the governmental body that enacts the code 
into law has such authority. 

Letter Designations in Front of Section Nymbers 

In each code development cycle, proposed changes to this code are considered at the Code Development Hearing by the Interna- 
tional Building Code Development Committee, whose action constitutes a recommendation to the voting membership for final ac- 
tion on the proposed change. Proposed changes to a code section whose number begins with a letter in brackets are considered by a 
different code development committee. For instance, proposed changes to code sections which have the letter [F] in front (e.g., [F] 
1001 .3), are considered by the International Fire Code Development Committee at the Code Development Hearing. Where this des- 
ignation is applicable to the entire content of a main section of the code, the designation appears at the main section number and title 
and is not repeated at every subsection in that section. 

The content of sections in this code which begin with a letter designation is maintained by another code development committee 
in accordance with the following: [E] = International Energy Conservation Code Development Committee; [EB] = International Ex- 
isting Building Code Development Committee; [EL] = ICC Electrical Code Development Committee; [F] = International Fire Code 
Development Committee; [M] = International Mechanical Code Development Committee; [P] = International Plumbing Code De- 
velopment Committee; [PC] = ICC Performance Code Development Committee; [PM] = International Property Maintenance Code 
Development Committee; [RBE] = International Residential Code Building and Energy Development Committee; [RMP] = Inter- 
national Residential Code Mechanical/Plumbing Development Committee; [UW] = International Urban- Wildland Interface Code 
Development Committee; and [Z] = International Zoning Code Development Committee. 

Marginal IVIarkings 

Solid vertical lines in the margins within the body of the code indicate a technical change from the requirements of the 2000 edi- 
tion. Deletion indicators ( ^ ) are provided in the margin where a paragraph or item has been deleted. 

Chapter 10 user note: Chapter 10 of the code has been reorganized from the 2000 edition as a result of an approved code change 
proposal. This resulted in a renumbering of the chapter from nine sections to 25. The presentation of text predominantly follows that 
of the 2000 edition; however, the section numbers have been revised. Marginal markings are included at each section number but 
have not been included to reflect the subsection renumbering. A comprehensive 2000/2003 Chapter 10 section number cross index 
is posted on the ICC website at www.intlcode.org. 



2003 BNTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



The International Codes are designed and promulgated to be adopted by reference by ordinance. Jurisdictions wishing to adopt the 
2003 International Building Code as an enforceable regulation governing structures and premises should ensure that certain fac- 
tual information is included in the adopting ordinance at the time adoption is being considered by the appropriate governmental 
body. The following sample adoption ordinance addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordinance, including the infor- 
mation required for insertion into the code text. 



SCE FOi 
THE INTERMATiONAL Bi 



An ordinance of the [jyFSnSDnCTiOSVt] adopting the 2003 edition of the International Building Code, regulating and governing the 
conditions and maintenance of all property, buildings and structures; by providing the standards for supplied utilities and facilities 
and other physical things and conditions essential to ensure that structures are safe, sanitary and fit for occupation and use; and the 
condemnation of buildings and structures unfit for human occupancy and use and the demoHtion of such structures in the 

[JdJRfSOIiCTIIOfiSS]; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; repealing Ordinance No. of the 

[JORISODCTDOiS!!] and all other ordinances and parts of the ordinances in conflict therewith. 

The [GOVEKESSBSSSG BODY] of the [JORDSOnCTDOGyS] does ordain as follows: 

Sectiomi loThat a certain document, three (3) copies of which are on file in the office of the [TITLE ©F JORBSOBCTDOiNS'S KEEPER OF 
RECORDS] of {UkME OF JORDSOflCTDOiSi], being marked and designated as the International Building Code, 2003 edition, includ- 
ing Appendix Chapters [FULL m THE APPENODX CHAPTERS BEBES3G ADOPTED] (see International Building Code Section 101.2.1, 
2003 edition), as published by the International Code Council, be and is hereby adopted as the Building Code of the 
[jy RBSDBCTDOiSi], in the State of [STATE iMAME] for regulating and governing the conditions and maintenance of all property, build- 
ings and structures; by providing the standards for supplied utihties and faciUties and other physical things and conditions essential 
to ensure that structures are safe, sanitary and fit for occupation and use; and the condemnation of buildings and structures unfit for 
human occupancy and use and the demolition of such structures as herein provided; providing for the issuance of permits and col- 
lection of fees therefor; and each and all of the regulations, provisions, penalties, conditions and terms of said Building Code on 
file in the office of the [jyRISDDCTDOM] are hereby referred to, adopted, and made a part hereof, as if fully set out in this ordinance, 
with the additions, insertions, deletions and changes, if any, prescribed in Section 2 of this ordinance. 

Sectnom 2, The following sections are hereby revised: 

Section 101.1. Insert: [Umm OF JORDSODCTDOIMI] 

Section 1612.3. Insert: [BS3AME OF JORDSOBCTDOINfl] 

Section 1612.3. Insert: [DATE OF DSSOAQMCE] 

Section 3410.2. Insert: [DATE m OHE LOCATDOM] 

SectloHH 3o That Ordinance No. of [JURDSDiCTDOINS] entitled [FULL m HERE THE COMPLETE TDTLE OF THE ORDilMANCE OR 

ORDiiSSAGSSCES M EFFECT AT THE PRESENT TiME SO THAT THEY WBLL BE REPEALED BY DEFBNBTE MEWTBON] and all other ordi- 
nances or parts of ordinances in conflict herewith are hereby repealed. 

SecMoEH 4o That if any section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this ordinance is, for any reason, held to be unconstitu- 
tional, such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of this ordinance. The [G0¥ERiS3!!NiG BODY] hereby de- 
clares that it would have passed this ordinance, and each section, subsection, clause or phrase thereof, irrespective of the fact that 
any one or more sections, subsections, sentences, clauses and phrases be declared unconstitutional. 

Sectiom So That nothing in this ordinance or in the Building Code hereby adopted shall be construed to affect any suit or proceeding 
impending in any court, or any rights acquired, or Hability incurred, or any cause or causes of action acquired or existing, under any 
act or ordinance hereby repealed as cited in Section 2 of this ordinance; nor shall any just or legal right or remedy of any character 
be lost, impaired or affected by this ordinance. 

Sectioe & That the [JORBSODCTDOisll'S KEEPER OF RECORDS] is hereby ordered and directed to cause this ordinance to be pub- 
lished. (An additional provision may be required to direct the number of times the ordinance is to be pubUshed and to specify that it 
is to be in a newspaper in general circulation. Posting may also be required.) 

SecitiofiTi 7o That this ordinance and the rules, regulations, provisions, requirements, orders and matters established and adopted 
hereby shall take effect and be in full force and effect [TflSViE PERDOD] from and after the date of its final passage and adoption. 

2003 IMTERWATBOSSSAL BUELDEMG CODE® v 



2003 BNTERNATBONAL BUBLDIMG CODE® 



• 



ITI 



1 ADMINISTMATIONo .............. A 

Section 

101 General 1 

102 Applicability 1 

103 Department of Building Safety 2 

104 Duties and Powers of Building Official 2 

105 Permits 3 

106 Construction Documents 5 

107 Temporary Structures and Uses 6 

108 Fees 6 

109 Inspections 7 

1 10 Certificate of Occupancy 7 

1 1 1 Service Utilities 8 

1 12 Board of Appeals 8 

113 Violations 8 

114 Stop Work Order 8 

115 Unsafe Structures and Equipment 9 

CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS ..... .......... U 

Section 

201 General 11 

202 Definitions 11 

CHAPTER 3 USE AND OCCUPANCY 

CLASSIFICATION .............. .23 

Section 

301 General 23 

302 Classification 23 

303 Assembly Group A 24 

304 Business Group B 26 

305 Educational Group E 26 

306 Factory Group F 26 

307 High-Hazard Group H 27 

308 Institutional Group I 34 

309 Mercantile Group M 36 

310 Residential Group R 36 

311 Storage Group S 36 

312 Utility and Miscellaneous Group U 37 



USE AND OCCUPANCY ..........39 

Section 

401 Scope 39 

402 Covered Mall Buildings 39 

403 High-Rise Buildings 41 



404 Atriums 43 

405 Underground Buildings 43 

406 Motor- Vehicle-Related Occupancies 44 

407 Group 1-2 48 

408 Group 1-3 49 

409 Motion Picture Projection Rooms 50 

410 Stages and Platforms 51 

411 Special Amusement Buildings 53 

412 Aircraft- Related Occupancies 54 

413 Combustible Storage 55 

414 Hazardous Materials 56 

415 Groups H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5 59 

416 Application of Flammable Finishes 71 

417 Drying Rooms 72 

418 Organic Coatings 72 

CHAPTER S GENERAL BUILDING 

HEIGHTS AND AREAS .......... .73 

Section 

501 General 73 

502 Definitions 73 

503 General Height and Area Limitations 73 

504 Height Modifications 75 

505 Mezzanines 75 

506 Area Modifications 76 

507 Unlimited Area Buildings 76 

508 Special Provisions 77 

CHAPTER 6 TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION „ „ » _ o §1 
Section 

601 General 81 

602 Construction Classification 81 

603 Combustible Material in Types I and II 

Construction 82 

CHAPTER 7 FmE-=MESISTANCE=MATED 

CONSTRUCTION .85 

Section 

701 General 85 

702 Definitions 85 

703 Fire-Resistance Ratings and Fire Tests 86 

704 Exterior Walls 87 

705 Fire Walls 90 

706 Fire Barriers 92 

707 Shaft Enclosures 93 

708 Fire Partitions 95 



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709 Smoke Barriers 96 

710 Smoke Partitions 96 

711 Horizontal Assemblies 96 

712 Penetrations 97 

713 Fire-resistant Joint Systems 99 

714 Fire-resistance Rating of Structural Members ... 99 

715 Opening Protectives 100 

716 Ducts and Air Transfer Openings 103 

717 Concealed Spaces 107 

718 Fire-resistance Requirements for Plaster 108 

719 Thermal- and Sound-Insulating Materials 109 

720 Prescriptive Fire Resistance 109 

721 Calculated Fire Resistance 110 

CHAPTER 8 INTERIOR FINISHES .....157 

Section 

801 General 157 

802 Definitions 157 

803 Wall and Ceiling Finishes 157 

804 Interior Floor Finish 160 

805 Decorations and Trim 160 

CHAPTER 9 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS o , . 163 
Section 

901 General 163 

902 Definitions 163 

903 Automatic Sprinkler Systems 166 

904 Alternative Automatic 

Fire-Extinguishing Systems 170 

905 Standpipe Systems 171 

906 Portable Fire Extinguishers 173 

907 Fire Alarm and Detection Systems 173 

908 Emergency Alarm Systems 180 

909 Smoke Control Systems 181 

910 Smoke and Heat Vents 189 

911 Fire Command Center 191 

CHAPTER 10 MEANS OF EGRESS, ........... .193 

Section 

1001 Administration 193 

1002 Definitions 193 

1003 General Means of Egress 194 

1004 Occupant Load 195 

1005 Egress Width 196 

1006 Means of Egress Illumination 197 

1007 Accessible Means of Egress 197 

1008 Doors, Gates and Turnstiles 199 

1009 Stairways and Handrails 204 



1010 Ramps 206 

1011 Exit Signs 207 

1012 Guards 208 

1013 Exit Access 209 

1014 Exit and Exit Access Doorways 210 

1015 Exit Access Travel Distance 211 

1016 Corridors 212 

1017 Exits 213 

1018 Number of Exits and Continuity 213 

1019 Vertical Exit Enclosures 214 

1020 Exit Passageways 216 

1021 Horizontal Exits 216 

1022 Exterior Exit Ramps and Stairways 217 

1023 Exit Discharge 217 

1024 Assembly 219 

1025 Emergency Escape and Rescue 223 

CHAPTER 11 ACCESSIBILITY , 225 

Section 

1101 General 225 

1 102 Definitions 225 

1 103 Scoping Requirements 225 

1 104 Accessible Route 226 

1 105 Accessible Entrances 227 

1 106 Parking and Passenger Loading Facilities 228 

1107 Dwelling Units and Sleeping Units 228 

1 108 Special Occupancies 231 

1 109 Other Features and Facilities 233 

1 1 10 Signage 236 

CHAPTER 12 INTERIOR ENVIRONMENT 239 

Section 

1201 General 239 

1202 Definitions 239 

1203 Ventilafion 239 

1204 Temperature Control 240 

1205 Lighfing 240 

1206 Yards or Courts 241 

1207 Sound Transmission 241 

1208 Interior Space Dimensions 241 

1209 Access to Unoccupied Spaces 242 

1210 Surrounding Materials 242 

CHAPTER 13 ENERGY EFFICIENCY 243 

Section 

1301 General 243 



VflJD 



2003 BSSSTERNATiONAL BUILDING CODE® 



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ooooeeeeooooo j&^3 

Section 

1401 General 245 

1402 Definitions 245 

1403 Performance Requirements 245 

1404 Materials 246 

1405 Installation of Wall Coverings 246 

1406 Combustible Materials on the 

Exterior Side of Exterior Walls 250 

1407 Metal Composite Materials (MCM) 251 

CMAPTEM 15 ROOF ASSEMBLIES AND 

ROOFTOP STRUCTUEES. .......253 

Section 

1501 General 253 

1502 Definitions 253 

1503 Weather Protection 253 

1504 Performance Requirements 254 

1505 Fire Classification 254 

1506 Materials 255 

1507 Requirements for Roof Coverings 255 

1508 Roof Insulation 264 

1509 Rooftop Structures 264 

1510 Reroofing 265 

CMAPTEM 16 STRUCTURAL DESIGN ........ .2<87 

Section 

1601 General 267 

1602 Definitions 267 

1603 Construction Documents 269 

1604 General Design Requirements 270 

1605 Load Combinafions 273 

1606 Dead Loads 274 

1607 Live Loads 274 

1608 Snow Loads 279 

1609 Wind Loads 283 

1610 Soil Lateral Load 298 

1611 Rain Loads 298 

1612 Flood Loads 299 

1613 Earthquake Loads Definitions 301 

1614 Earthquake Loads — General 302 

1615 Earthquake Loads — Site Ground Motion 303 

1616 Earthquake Loads — Criteria Selecfion 325 

1617 Earthquake Loads — Minimum Design 

Lateral Force and Related Effects 329 

1618 Dynamic Analysis Procedure for the 

Seismic Design of Buildings 338 

1619 Earthquake Loads Soil-Structure 

Interacdon Effects 338 



1620 Earthquake Loads — Design, Detailing 

Requirements and Structural Component 

Load Effects 338 

1621 Architectural, Mechanical and Electrical 

Component Seismic Design Requirements . . 342 

1622 Nonbuilding Structures Seismic Design 

Requirements 342 

1623 Seismically Isolated Structures 343 

CHAPTER 17 STRUCTURAL TESTS AND 

SPECIAL INSPECTIONS » ........345 

Section 

1701 General 345 

1702 Definitions 345 

1703 Approvals 345 

1704 Special Inspecfions 346 

1705 Quality Assurance for Seismic Resistance 353 

1706 Quality Assurance for Wind Requirements .... 354 

1707 Special Inspections for Seismic Resistance .... 355 

1708 Structural Testing for Seismic Resistance 356 

1709 Structural Observafions 357 

1710 Design Strengths of Materials 357 

1711 Alternative Test Procedure 357 

1712 Test Safe Load 357 

1713 In-Situ Load Tests 358 

1714 Preconstruction Load Tests 358 

1715 Material and Test Standards 359 

CHAPTER m SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS .....3(81 
Section 

1801 General 361 

1802 Foundation and Soils Investigafions 361 

1803 Excavafion, Grading and Fill 362 

1804 Allowable Load-Bearing Values of Soils 363 

1805 Footings and Foundations 364 

1806 Retaining Walls 372 

1807 Dampproofing and Waterproofing 372 

1808 Pier and Pile Foundations 373 

1809 Driven Pile Foundations 378 

1810 Cast-in-Place Concrete Pile Foundations 381 

1811 Composite Piles 384 

1812 Pier Foundations385 

CMAPTEE 19) CONCRETE » . 387 

Section 

1901 General 387 

1902 Definitions 387 

1903 Specifications for Tests and Materials 388 

1904 Durability Requirements 389 



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1905 Concrete Quality, Mixing and Placing 392 

1906 Formwork, Embedded Pipes and 

Construction Joints 394 

1907 Details of Reinforcement 395 

1908 Modifications to ACI 318 397 

1909 Structural Plain Concrete 398 

1910 Seismic Design Provisions 399 

191 1 Minimum Slab Provisions 400 

1912 Anchorage to Concrete — Allowable 

Stress Design 400 

1913 Anchorage to Concrete — Strength Design 401 

1914 Shotcrete 401 

1915 Reinforced Gypsum Concrete 402 

1916 Concrete-Filled Pipe Columns 403 

CHAPTER 20 ALUMINUM ...mS 

Section 

2001 General 405 

2002 Materials 405 

CHAPTER 21 MASONRY „ . . . . , , o » . » , . , . 4§7 

Section 

2101 General 407 

2102 Definitions and Notations 407 

2103 Masonry Construction Materials 410 

2104 Construction 414 

2105 Quality Assurance 416 

2106 Seismic Design 417 

2107 Working Stress Design 418 

2108 Strength Design of Masonry 419 

2109 Empirical Design of Masonry 419 

21 10 Glass Unit Masonry 425 

21 1 1 Masonry Fireplaces 427 

2112 Masonry Heaters 431 

2113 Masonry Chimneys 431 

CHAPTER 22 STEEL ,.,.„...,„ o.. 437 

Section 

2201 General 437 

2202 Definitions and Nomenclature 437 

2203 Identification and Protection of Steel 

for Structural Purposes 437 

2204 Connections 437 

2205 Structural Steel 439 

2206 Steel Joists 439 

2207 Steel Cable Structures 439 

2208 Steel Storage Racks 439 

2209 Cold-Formed Steel 439 

2210 Cold-Formed Steel Light Framed Construction. 440 



221 1 Cold-Formed Steel Light-Framed Shear Walls . 440 

CHAPTER 23 WOOD .445 

Section 

2301 General 445 

2302 Definitions 445 

2303 Minimum Standards and Quality 446 

2304 General Construction Requirements 449 

2305 General Design Requirements for 

LateraLForce-Resisting Systems 457 

2306 Allowable Stress Design 463 

2307 Load and Resistance Factor Design 470 

2308 Conventional Light-Frame Construction 472 

CHAPTER 24 GLASS AND GLAZING 515 

Section 

2401 General 515 

2402 Definifions 515 

2403 General Requirements for Glass 515 

2404 Wind, Snow, Seismic and Dead Loads on Glass .515 

2405 Sloped Glazing and Skylights 523 

2406 Safety Glazing 524 

2407 Glass in Handrails and Guards 526 

2408 Glazing in Athletic Facilifies 526 

2409 Glass in Floors and Sidewalks 526 

CHAPTER 25 GYPSUM BOARD 

AND PLASTER. 529 

Section 

2501 General 529 

2502 Definitions 529 

2503 Inspection 529 

2504 Verfical and Horizontal Assemblies 529 

2505 Shear Wall Construction 529 

2506 Gypsum Board Materials 530 

2507 Lathing and Plastering 530 

2508 Gypsum Construction 530 

2509 Gypsum Board in Showers and 

Water Closets 531 

2510 Lathing and Furring for Cement 

Plaster (Stucco) 532 

251 1 Interior Plaster 532 

2512 Exterior Plaster 533 

2513 Exposed Aggregate Plaster 533 

CHAPTER 26 PLASTIC 535 

Section 

2601 General 535 

2602 Definitions 535 



2003 BNTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



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2603 Foam Plastic Insulation 535 

2604 Interior Finish and Trim 538 

2605 Plastic Veneer 538 

2606 Light- Transmitting Plastics 538 

2607 Light-Transmitting Plastic Wall Panels 539 

2608 Light-Transmitting Plastic Glazing 540 

2609 Light-Transmitting Plastic Roof Panels 540 

2610 Light-Transmitting Plastic Skylight Glazing ... 541 

261 1 Light-Transmitting Plastic Interior Signs 542 

CHAPTER 27 ELECTRICAL ^ .... ^ . o ......... .543 

Section 

2701 General 543 

2702 Emergency and Standby Power Systems 543 

CHAPTER 28 MECHANICAL SYSTEMS .......545 

Section 

2801 General 545 

CHAPTER 29 PLUMBING SYSTEMS » ......... .547 

Section 

2901 General 547 

2902 Minimum Plumbing Facilities 547 

CD ELEVATORS AND 

CONVEYING SYSTEMS SSI 

Section 

3001 General 551 

3002 Hoistway Enclosures 551 

3003 Emergency Operations 551 

3004 Hoistway Venting 552 

3005 Conveying Systems 552 

3006 Machine Rooms 553 

CHAPTER 31 SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION ......555 

Section 

3101 General 555 

3102 Membrane Structures 555 

3103 Temporary Structures 556 

3104 Pedestrian Walkways and Tunnels 556 

3105 Awnings and Canopies 557 

3106 Marquees 558 

3107 Signs 558 

3108 Radio and Television Towers 558 

3109 Swimming Pool Enclosures and Safety Devices 558 



CHAPTER 32 ENCROACHMENTS INTO THE 

PUBLIC RIGHT-OF-WAY ........561 

Section 

3201 General 561 

3202 Encroachments 561 

CHAPTER 33 SAFEGUARDS DURING 

CONSTRUCTION .............. .563 

Section 

3301 General 563 

3302 Construction Safeguards 563 

3303 Demolition 563 

3304 Site Work 563 

3305 Sanitary 563 

3306 Protection of Pedestrians 563 

3307 Protection of Adjoining Property 565 

3308 Temporary Use of Streets, Alleys and 

Public Property 565 

3309 Fire Extinguishers 565 

3310 Exits 565 

33 1 1 Standpipes 565 

3312 Automatic Sprinkler System 566 

CHAPTER 34 EXISTING STRUCTURES „ .......561 

Section 

3401 General 567 

3402 Definitions 567 

3403 Additions, Alterations or Repairs 567 

3404 Fire Escapes 567 

3405 Glass Replacement 568 

3406 Change of Occupancy 568 

3407 Historic Buildings 568 

3408 Moved Structures 568 

3409 Accessibility for Existing Buildings 568 

3410 Compliance Alternatives 570 

CHAPTER 3S REFERENCED STANDARDS . 579 

APPENDIX A EMPLOYEE QUALIFICATIONS . . 597 
Section 

AlOl Building Official Qualifications 597 

A102 Referenced Standards 597 

appen: 

Section 

BlOl General 599 



2003 DNTERiNSATDONAL BOnLDDNG COOE® 



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APPENDIX C GROUP U— AGRICULTURAL 

BUILDINGS o ,,.,.. o o o . . 

Section 

ClOl General 601 

C102 Allowable Height and Area 601 

C103 Mixed Occupancies 601 

C104 Exits 601 

APPENDIX D FIRE DISTRICTS , . , 603 

Section 

DlOl General 603 

D102 Building Restrictions 603 

D103 Changes to Buildings 604 

D104 Buildings Located Partially in the 

Fire District 604 

D105 Exceptions to Restrictions in Fire District 604 

D106 Referenced Standards 605 

APPENDIX E SUPPLEMENTARY ACCESSIBILITY 
REQUIREMENTS ,»..» .,.o ,.,«.. 607 

Section 

ElOl General 607 

E102 Definitions 607 

E103 Accessible Route 607 

E104 Special Occupancies 607 

El 05 Other Features and Facilities 608 

E106 Telephones 608 

E107 Signage 609 

E108 Bus Stops 610 

El 09 Transportation Facilities and Stations 610 

El 10 Airports 611 

El 1 1 Qualified Historic Buildings and Facilities .... 61 1 

El 12 Referenced Standards 612 

APPENDIX F RODENT PROOFING • , 613 

Section 

FlOl General 613 

APPENDIX G FLOOD-RESISTANT 

CONSTRUCTION .............. .615' 

Section 

GlOl Administration 615 

G102 Applicability 615 

G103 Powers and Duties 615 

G104 Permits 616 

G105 Variances 616 

G201 Definitions 617 

G301 Subdivisions 618 

G401 Site Improvement 618 



G501 Manufactured Homes 618 

G601 Recreational Vehicles 618 

G701 Tanks 618 

G702 Referenced Standards 619 

APPENDIX H SIGNS .621 

Section 

HlOl General 621 

H102 Definitions 621 

H103 Location 621 

H104 Identification 621 

H105 Design and Construction 621 

H106 Electrical 622 

H107 Combustible Materials 622 

H108 Animated Devices 622 

H109 Ground Signs 622 

HI 10 Roof Signs 623 

Hill Wall Signs 623 

HI 12 Projecting Signs 623 

HI 13 Marquee Signs 624 

HI 14 Portable Signs 624 

HI 15 Referenced Standards 624 

APPENDIX I PATIO COVERS , 625 

Section 

1101 General 625 

1102 Definitions 625 

1103 Exterior Openings 625 

1104 Structural Provisions 625 

APPENDIX J GRADING 627 

JlOl General 627 

J102 Definitions 627 

J 103 Permits Required 627 

J104 Permit Application and Submittals 627 

J105 Inspections 628 

J106 Excavations 628 

J107 Fills 628 

J108 Setbacks 629 

J109 Drainage and Terracing 629 

JllO Erosion Control 630 

Jill Referenced Standards 630 



.631 



2003 D^TER^SAT30^5AL BUILDING CODE® 



li^iSTR^ 



SECTlOl 
OEWERAL 

1<D1<,1 TStle, These regulations shall be known as the Building 
Code of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], hereinafter referred to as 
"this code." 

Ml>lo2 Scope, The provisions of this code shall apply to the con- 
struction, alteration, movement, enlargement, replacement, re- 
pair, equipment, use and occupancy, location, maintenance, 
removal and demolition of every building or structure or any 
appurtenances connected or attached to such buildings or struc- 
tures. 

ExcepHnomiss 

1 . Detached one- and two-family dwellings and multiple 
single-family dwellings (town houses) not more than 
three stories above grade plane in height with a sepa- 
rate means of egress and their accessory structures 
shall comply with the International Residential Code. 

2. Existing buildings undergoing repair, alterations or 
additions and change of occupancy shall be permitted 
to comply with the International Existing Building 
Code. 

MlolA AppeEdiceSo Provisions in the appendices shall not 
apply unless specifically adopted. 

l([Dlo3 lEtenuto The purpose of this code is to estabhsh the mini- 
mum requirements to safeguard the public health, safety and 
general welfare through structural strength, means of egress fa- 
cilities, stability, sanitation, adequate light and ventilation, en- 
ergy conservation, and safety to life and property from fire and 
other hazards attributed to the built environment and to provide 
safety to fire fighters and emergency responders during emer- 
gency operafions. 

WIA Mefereinced codes. The other codes listed in Sections 
101.4.1 through 101.4.7 and referenced elsewhere in this code 
shall be considered part of the requirements of this code to the 
prescribed extent of each such reference. 

l(Dl,4ol EkctdcaL The provisions of the ICC Electrical 
Code shall apply to the installation of electrical systems, in- 
cluding alterations, repairs, replacement, equipment, appli- 
ances, fixtures, fittings and appurtenances thereto. 

l®lo4o2 GaSo The provisions of the International Fuel Gas 
Code shall apply to the installation of gas piping from the 
point of dehvery, gas appliances and related accessories as 
covered in this code. These requirements apply to gas piping 
systems extending from the point of delivery to the inlet 
connections of appliances and the installation and operation 
of residential and commercial gas appliances and related ac- 
cessories. 

101.4.3 MechaEicai The provisions of the International 
Mechanical Code shall apply to the installation, alterations, 
repairs and replacement of mechanical systems, including 
equipment, appliances, fixtures, fittings and/or appurte- 



nances, including ventilating, heating, cooling, air-condi- 
tioning and refrigeration systems, incinerators and other en- 
ergy-related systems. 

llDl=4o4 Plembmgo The provisions of the International 
Plumbing Code shall apply to the installation, alteration, re- 
pair and replacement of plumbing systems, including equip- 
ment, apphances, fixtures, fittings and appurtenances, and 
where connected to a water or sewage system and all aspects 
of a medical gas system. The provisions of the International 
Private Sewage Disposal Code shall apply to private sewage 
disposal systems. 

lMo4.5 Property malHiteBamce. The provisions of the In- 
ternational Property Maintenance Code shall apply to ex- 
isting structures and premises; equipment and facilities; 
light, ventilation, space heating, sanitation, life and fire 
safety hazards; responsibiUties of owners, operators and oc- 
cupants; and occupancy of existing premises and structures. 

101o4o6 Fire prevemtloE, The provisions of the Interna- 
tional Fire Code shall apply to matters affecting or relating 
to structures, processes and premises from the hazard of fire 
and explosion arising from the storage, handling or use of 
structures, materials or devices; from conditions hazardous 
to life, property or pubhc welfare in the occupancy of struc- 
tures or premises; and from the construction, extension, re- 
pair, alteration or removal of fire suppression and alarm 
systems or fire hazards in the structure or on the premises 
from occupancy or operation. 

101 .4.7 Efliergy. The provisions of the International Energy 
Conservation Code shall apply to all matters governing the 
design and construction of buildings for energy efficiency. 

SECTION 102 



l<D2ol GemieraL Where, in any specific case, different sections 
of this code specify different materials, methods of construc- 
tion or other requirements, the most restrictive shall govern. 
Where there is a conflict between a general requirement and a 
specific requirement, the specific requirement shall be applica- 
ble. 

W22 Oftlier hm%. The provisions of this code shall not be 
deemed to nuUify any provisions of local, state or federal law. 

1%23 Application of ireferesiceSo References to chapter or sec- 
tion numbers, or to provisions not specifically identified by 
number, shall be construed to refer to such chapter, section or 
provision of this code. 

l(Q)2o4 Referenced codes aed standards. The codes and stan- 
dards referenced in this code shall be considered part of the re- 
quirements of this code to the prescribed extent of each such 
reference. Where differences occur between provisions of this 
code and referenced codes and standards, the provisions of this 
code shall apply. 



2003 DESSTERWATflOiSaAL BUflL0BBS3G CODE® 



ADMINISTRATION 



102o5 Partial invalidity. In the event that any part or provision 
of this code is held to be illegal or void, this shall not have the 
effect of making void or illegal any of the other parts or provi- 
sions. 

102.6 Existing structures. The legal occupancy of any struc- 
ture existing on the date of adoption of this code shall be per- 
mitted to continue without change, except as is specifically 
covered in this code, the International Property Maintenance 
Code or the International Fire Code, or as is deemed necessary 
by the building official for the general safety and welfare of the 
occupants and the public. 



SECTION 103 
DEPARTMENT OF BUILDING SAFETY 

103.1 Creation of enforcement agency. The Department of 
Building Safety is hereby created and the official in charge 
thereof shall be known as the building official. 

103.2 Appointment. The building official shall be appointed 
by the chief appointing authority of the jurisdiction. 

103.3 Deputies. In accordance with the prescribed procedures 
of this jurisdiction and with the concurrence of the appointing 
authority, the building official shall have the authority to ap- 
point a deputy building official, the related technical officers, 
inspectors, plan examiners and other employees. Such employ- 
ees shall have powers as delegated by the building official. For 
the maintenance of existing properties, see the International 
Property Maintenance Code. 



SECTION 104 
DUTIES AND POWERS OF BUILDING OFFICIAL 

104.1 General. The building official is hereby authorized and 
directed to enforce the provisions of this code. The building of- 
ficial shall have the authority to render interpretations of this 
code and to adopt policies and procedures in order to clarify the 
appHcation of its provisions. Such interpretations, policies and 
procedures shall be in compliance with the intent and purpose 
of this code. Such policies and procedures shall not have the ef- 
fect of waiving requirements specifically provided for in this 
code. 

104.2 Applications and permits. The building official shall 
receive applications, review construction documents and issue 
permits for the erection, and alteration, demolition and moving 
of buildings and structures, inspect the premises for which such 
permits have been issued and enforce compliance with the pro- 
visions of this code. 

104.3 Notices and orders. The building official shall issue all 
necessary notices or orders to ensure compliance with this 
code. 

104.4 Inspections. The building official shall make all of the 
required inspections, or the building official shall have the au- 
thority to accept reports of inspection by approved agencies or 
individuals. Reports of such inspections shall be in writing and 
be certified by a responsible officer of such approved agency or 
by the responsible individual. The building official is autho- 
rized to engage such expert opinion as deemed necessary to re- 



port upon unusual technical issues that arise, subject to the ap- 
proval of the appointing authority. 

104o5 Mentlflcationo The building official shall carry proper 
identification when inspecting structures or premises in the 
performance of duties under this code. 



i.6 Rnght olT entry. Where it is necessary to make an inspec- 
tion to enforce the provisions of this code, or where the building 
official has reasonable cause to believe that there exists in a 
structure or upon a premises a condition which is contrary to or 
in violation of this code which makes the structure or premises 
unsafe, dangerous or hazardous, the building official is autho- 
rized to enter the structure or premises at reasonable times to in- 
spect or to perform the duties imposed by this code, provided 
that if such structure or premises be occupied that credentials 
be presented to the occupant and entry requested. If such struc- 
ture or premises is unoccupied, the building official shall first 
make a reasonable effort to locate the owner or other person 
having charge or control of the structure or premises and re- 
quest entry. If entry is refused, the building official shall have 
recourse to the remedies provided by law to secure entry. 

104.7 Department records. The building official shall keep 
official records of applications received, permits and certifi- 
cates issued, fees collected, reports of inspections, and notices 
and orders issued. Such records shall be retained in the official 
records for the period required for retention of public records. 

104c8 LlablMty. The building official, member of the board of 
appeals or employee charged with the enforcement of this code, 
while acting for the jurisdiction in good faith and without mal- 
ice in the discharge of the duties required by this code or other 
pertinent law or ordinance, shall not thereby be rendered liable 
personally and is hereby relieved from personal liability for any 
damage accruing to persons or property as a result of any act or 
by reason of an act or omission in the discharge of official du- 
ties. Any suit instituted against an officer or employee because 
of an act performed by that officer or employee in the lawful 
discharge of duties and under the provisions of this code shall 
be defended by legal representative of the jurisdiction until the 
final termination of the proceedings. The building official or 
any subordinate shall not be liable for cost in any action, suit or 
proceeding that is instituted in pursuance of the provisions of 
this code. 

104o9 Approved materials and equipment. Materials, equip- 
ment and devices approved by the building official shall be con- 
structed and installed in accordance with such approval. 

104.9.1 Used materials and equipment. The use of used 
materials which meet the requirements of this code for new 
materials is permitted. Used equipment and devices shall 
not be reused unless approved by the building official. 

104.10 Modifications. Wherever there are practical difficulties 
involved in carrying out the provisions of this code, the build- 
ing official shall have the authority to grant modifications for 
individual cases, upon application of the owner or owner's rep- 
resentative, provided the building official shall first find that 
special individual reason makes the strict letter of this code im- 
practical and the modification is in compliance with the intent 
and purpose of this code and that such modification does not 
lessen health, accessibility, life and fire safety, or structural re- 
quirements. The details of action granting modifications shall 



2003 BfSiTERNATBONAL BUILDBNG CODE® 



ADIi\flBliS3DSTRATD0Iis!l 



be recorded and entered in the files of the department of build- 
ing safety. 

l(D4oll Alllteiriniaiitnve mmMernals, desBgim sumd mettlhKDdls of coe= 
sttrmcltiomi amdl eqwlpinnienilto The provisions of this code are not 
intended to prevent the installation of any material or to pro- 
hibit any design or method of construction not specifically pre- 
scribed by this code, provided that any such alternative has 
been approved. An alternative material, design or method of 
construction shall be approved where the building official finds 
that the proposed design is satisfactory and comphes with the 
intent of the provisions of this code, and that the material, 
method or work offered is, for the purpose intended, at least the 
equivalent of that prescribed in this code in quality, strength, ef- 
fectiveness, fire resistance, durability and safety. 

IMollol Mesearclhi reporttSo Supporting data, where neces- 
sary to assist in the approval of materials or assemblies not 
specifically provided for in this code, shall consist of vaHd 
research reports from approved sources. 

IMJU TesttSo Whenever there is insufficient evidence of 
compUance with the provisions of this code, or evidence that 
a material or method does not conform to the requirements 
of this code, or in order to substanfiate claims for alternative 
materials or methods, the building official shall have the au- 
thority to require tests as evidence of compliance to be made 
at no expense to the jurisdiction. Test methods shall be as 
specified in this code or by other recognized test standards. 
In the absence of recognized and accepted test methods, the 
building official shall approve the testing procedures. Tests 
shall be performed by an approved agency. Reports of such 
tests shall be retained by the building official for the period 
required for retention of public records. 



SECTBON105 

PERMDTS 

IdDSol Meqeiredo Any owner or authorized agent who intends 
to construct, enlarge, alter, repair, move, demoHsh, or change 
the occupancy of a building or structure, or to erect, install, en- 
large, alter, repair, remove, convert or replace any electrical, 
gas, mechanical or plumbing system, the installation of which 
is regulated by this code, or to cause any such work to be done, 
shall first make apphcation to the building official and obtain 
the required permit. 

IdDS.lol Aminiiinal permit In lieu of an individual permit for 
each alteration to an already approved electrical, gas, me- 
chanical or plumbing installation, the building official is au- 
thorized to issue an annual permit upon application therefor 
to any person, firm or corporation regularly employing one 
or more quaUfied tradepersons in the building, structure or 
on the premises owned or operated by the applicant for the 
permit. 

IdSaU Amiiniiuiall permM records. The person to whom an 
annual permit is issued shall keep a detailed record of alter- 
ations made under such annual permit. The building official 
shall have access to such records at all times or such records 
shall be filed with the building official as designated. 

l<II5o2 Work exempft from permito Exemptions from permit 
requirements of this code shall not be deemed to grant authori- 



zation for any work to be done in any manner in violation of the 
provisions of this code or any other laws or ordinances of this 
jurisdiction. Permits shall not be required for the following: 



1. One-story detached accessory structures used as 
tool and storage sheds, playhouses and similar uses, 
provided the floor area does not exceed 120 square 
feet (11.15 m2). 

2. Fences not over 6 feet (1829 mm) high, 

3. Oil derricks. 

4. Retaining walls which are not over 4 feet (1219 mm) 
in height measured from the bottom of the footing to 
the top of the wall, unless supporting a surcharge or 
impounding Class I, II or III-A liquids. 

5. Water tanks supported directiy on grade if the capac- 
ity does not exceed 5 ,000 gallons (18 925 L) and the 
ratio of height to diameter or width does not exceed 
2tol. 

6. Sidewalks and driveways not more than 30 inches 
(762 mm) above grade and not over any basement or 
story below and which are not part of an accessible 
route. 

7. Painting, papering, tihng, carpeting, cabinets, coun- 
ter tops and similar finish work. 

8. Temporary motion picture, television and theater 
stage sets and scenery. 

9. Prefabricated swimming pools accessory to a Group 
R-3 occupancy, as applicable in Section 101.2, 
which are less than 24 inches (610 mm) deep, do not 
exceed 5,000 gallons ( 1 8 925 L) and are installed en- 
tirely above ground. 

1 0. Shade cloth structures constructed for nursery or ag- 
ricultural purposes and not including service sys- 
tems. 

11. Swings and other playground equipment accessory 
to detached one- and two-family dwellings. 

12. Window awnings supported by an exterior wall 
which do not project more than 54 inches (1372 
mm) from the exterior wall and do not require addi- 
tional support of Group R-3, as applicable in Section 
101.2, and Group U occupancies. 

13. Movable cases, counters and partitions not over 5 
feet 9 inches (1753 mm) in height. 

EEecttrkaDs 



MTS sand immnten^ncei Minor repair work, includ- 
ing the replacement of lamps or the connection of ap- 
proved portable electrical equipment to approved 
permanently installed receptacles. 

Radio aisd ttdevisioin Uramismilttieg stsiMomss The provi- 
sions of this code shall not apply to electrical equipment 
used for radio and television transmissions, but do apply 
to equipment and wiring for power supply, the installa- 
tions of towers and antennas. 

Temporary tesltneg systems: A permit shall not be re- 
quired for the installation of any temporary system re- 



2003 BGMTERMATDOWAL BUllLDIIiSaG CODE® 



ADMINISTRATgOIVi 



quired for the testing or servicing of electrical equipment 
or apparatus. 

Gasi 

1. Portable heating appliance. 

2. Replacement of any minor part that does not alter ap- 
proval of equipment or make such equipment unsafe. 

Mechanical: 

1. Portable heating appliance. 

2. Portable ventilation equipment. 

3. Portable cooling unit. 

4. Steam, hot or chilled water piping within any heating 
or cooHng equipment regulated by this code. 

5. Replacement of any part which does not alter its ap- 
proval or make it unsafe. 

6. Portable evaporative cooler. 

7. Self-contained refrigeration system containing 10 
pounds (4.54 kg) or less of refrigerant and actuated by 
motors of 1 horsepower (746 W) or less. 

Plumbiog: 

1 . The stopping of leaks in drains, water, soil, waste or 
vent pipe provided, however, that if any concealed 
trap, drain pipe, water, soil, waste or vent pipe be- 
comes defective and it becomes necessary to remove 
and replace the same with new material, such work 
shall be considered as new work and a permit shall be 
obtained and inspection made as provided in this 
code. 

2. The clearing of stoppages or the repairing of leaks in 
pipes, valves or fixtures, and the removal and reinstal- 
lation of water closets, provided such repairs do not 
involve or require the replacement or rearrangement 
of valves, pipes or fixtures. 

105.2.1 Emergency repairs. Where equipment replace- 
ments and repairs must be performed in an emergency situa- 
tion, the permit application shall be submitted within the 
next working business day to the building official. 

105.2.2 Repairs. Application or notice to the building offi- 
cial is not.required for ordinary repairs to structures, re- 
placement of lamps or the connection of approved portable 
electrical equipment to approved permanently installed re- 
ceptacles. Such repairs shall not include the cutting away of 
any wall, partition or portion thereof, the removal or cutting 
of any structural beam or load-bearing support, or the re- 
moval or change of any required means of egress, or rear- 
rangement of parts of a structure affecting the egress 
requirements; nor shall ordinary repairs include addition to, 
alteration of, replacement or relocation of any standpipe, 
water supply, sewer, drainage, drain leader, gas, soil, waste, 
vent or similar piping, electric wiring or mechanical or other 
work affecting public health or general safety. 

105.2.3 Public service agencies. A permit shall not be re- 
quired for the installation, alteration or repair of generation, 
transmission, distribution or metering or other related 
equipment that is under the ownership and control of pubhc 
service agencies by established right. 



105.3 Application for permit. To obtain a permit, the appli- 
cant shall first file an apphcation therefor in writing on a form 
furnished by the department of building safety for that purpose. 
Such application shall: 

1. Identify and describe the work to be covered by the per- 
mit for which application is made. 

2. Describe the land on which the proposed work is to be 
done by legal description, street address or similar de- 
scription that will readily identify and definitely locate 
the proposed building or work. 

3. Indicate the use and occupancy for which the proposed 
work is intended. 

4. Be accompanied by construction documents and other 
information as required in Section 106.3. 

5. State the valuation of the proposed work. 

6. Be signed by the applicant, or the appHcant's authorized 
agent. 

7. Give such other data and information as required by the 
building official. 

1053.1 Action on application. The building official shall 
examine or cause to be examined appHcations for permits 
and amendments thereto within a reasonable time after fil- 
ing. If the application or the construction documents do not 
conform to the requirements of pertinent laws, the building 
official shall reject such apphcation in writing, stating the 
reasons therefor. If the building official is satisfied that the 
proposed work conforms to the requirements of this code 
and laws and ordinances applicable thereto, the building of- 
ficial shall issue a permit therefor as soon as practicable. 

105.3.2 Time limitation of application. An applicafion for 
a permit for any proposed work shall be deemed to have 
been abandoned 1 80 days after the date of filing, unless such 
apphcation has been pursued in good faith or a permit has 
been issued; except that the building official is authorized to 
grant one or more extensions of time for additional periods 
not exceeding 90 days each. The extension shall be re- 
quested in writing and justifiable cause demonstrated. 

105.4 Validity of permit. The issuance or granting of a permit 
shall not be construed to be a permit for, or an approval of, any 
violation of any of the provisions of this code or of any other or- 
dinance of the jurisdiction. Permits presuming to give authority 
to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or other ordi- 
nances of the jurisdiction shall not be valid. The issuance of a 
permit based on construction documents and other data shall 
not prevent the building official from requiring the correction 
of errors in the construction documents and other data. The 
building official is also authorized to prevent occupancy or use 
of a structure where in violation of this code or of any other or- 
dinances of this jurisdiction. 

105.5 Expiration^ Every permit issued shall become invahd 
unless the work on the site authorized by such permit is com- 
menced within 1 80 days after its issuance, or if the work autho- 
rized on the site by such permit is suspended or abandoned for a 
period of 180 days after the time the work is commenced. The 
building official is authorized to grant, in writing, one or more 
extensions of time, for periods not more than 180 days each. 



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ADMBBSSBSTRATDOW 



The extension shall be requested in writing and justifiable 
cause demonstrated. 

M5M SespeiniSflOHi or revecsiltfloinio The building official is au- 
thorized to suspend or revoke a permit issued under the provi- 
sions of this code wherever the permit is issued in error or on 
the basis of incorrect, inaccurate or incomplete information, or 
in violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of the provi- 
sions of this code. 

10So7 Placemmeet of permSto The building permit or copy shall 
be kept on the site of the work until the completion of the 
project. 



SECTDONIOS 
COMSTRUCTION DQCUMEMTS 

J Sebmnifltoll dociminnieinits. Construction documents, special 
inspection and structural observation programs, and other data 
shall be submitted in one or more sets with each application for 
a permit. The construction documents shall be prepared by a 
registered design professional where required by the statutes of 
the jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed. Where 
special conditions exist, the building official is authorized to re- 
quire additional construction documents to be prepared by a 
registered design professional. 

Exceptnoim: The building official is authorized to waive the 
submission of construction documents and other data not re- 
quired to be prepared by a registered design professional if it 
is found that the nature of the work appUed for is such that 
review of construction documents is not necessary to obtain 
compliance with this code. 

l©6.1ol Irformaitnoini oe comsttiriiflctioini docmmeinittSo Con- 
struction documents shall be dimensioned and drawn upon 
suitable material. Electronic media documents are permit- 
ted to be submitted when approved by the building official. 
Construction documents shall be of sufficient clarity to indi- 
cate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed and 
show in detail that it will conform to the provisions of this 
code and relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations, as 
determined by the building official. 

ICI60I0I0I Fire protectttoim system sihop draiwlinigs. Shop 
drawings for the fire protection system(s) shall be sub- 
mitted to indicate conformance with this code and the 
construction documents and shall be approved prior to 
the start of system installation. Shop drawings shall con- 
tain all information as required by the referenced instal- 
lation standards in Chapter 9. 

106ol,2 Meauis of egress. The construcfion documents shall 
show in sufficient detail the location, construction, size and 
character of all portions of the means of egress in compli- 
ance with the provisions of this code. In other than occupan- 
cies in Groups R-2, R-3, as applicable in Section 101.2, and 
I-l, the construction documents shall designate the number 
of occupants to be accommodated on every floor, and in all 
rooms and spaces. 

106o]lo3 Exterior wai emivellopeo Construction documents 
for all buildings shall describe the exterior wall envelope in 
sufficient detail to determine compliance with this code. 
The construction documents shall provide details of the ex- 



terior wall envelope as required, including flashing, inter- 
sections with dissimilar materials, comers, end details, con- 
trol joints, intersections at roof, eaves or parapets, means of 
drainage, water-resistive membrane and details around 
openings. 

The construction documents shall include manufac- 
turer's installation instructions that provide supporting doc- 
umentation that the proposed penetration and opening 
details described in the construction documents maintain 
the weather resistance of the exterior wall envelope. The 
supporting documentation shall fully describe the exterior 
wall system which was tested, where apphcable, as well as 
the test procedure used. 



•c2 SMe plamio The construction documents submitted with 
the application for permit shall be accompanied by a site plan 
showing to scale the size and location of new construction and 
existing structures on the site, distances from lot lines, the es- 
tabhshed street grades and the proposed finished grades and, as 
applicable, flood hazard areas, floodways, and design flood el- 
evations; and it shall be drawn in accordance with an accurate 
boundary line survey. In the case of demolition, the site plan 
shall show construction to be demolished and the location and 
size of existing structures and construction that are to remain 
on the site or plot. The building official is authorized to waive 
or modify the requirement for a site plan when the application 
for permit is for alteration or repair or when otherwise war- 
ranted. 

l(D6o3 ExaunmBBiatnoEB of docmmiiieetSo The building official shall 
examine or cause to be examined the accompanying construc- 
tion documents and shall ascertain by such examinations 
whether the construction indicated and described is in accor- 
dance with the requirements of this code and other pertinent 
laws or ordinances. 

lO^oSol Appirovall of coMstnictloE docimmeBiSo When the 
building official issues a permit, the construction docu- 
ments shall be approved, in writing or by stamp, as "Re- 
viewed for Code CompUance." One set of construction 
documents so reviewed shall be retained by the building of- 
ficial. The other set shall be returned to the applicant, shall 
be kept at the site of work and shall be open to inspection by 
the building official or a duly authorized representative, 

106o3o2 Prevnoes approvatlSo This code shall not require 
changes in the construction documents, construction or des- 
ignated occupancy of a structure for which a lawful permit 
has been heretofore issued or otherwise lawfully autho- 
rized, and the construction of which has been pursued in 
good faith within 180 days after the effective date of this 
code and has not been abandoned. 

1063,3 Phased approvaiL The building official is autho- 
rized to issue a permit for the construction of foundations or 
any other part of a building or structure before the construc- 
tion documents for the whole building or structure have 
been submitted, provided that adequate information and de- 
tailed statements have been filed complying with pertinent 
requirements of this code. The holder of such permit for the 
foundation or other parts of a building or structure shall pro- 
ceed at the holder's own risk with the building operation and 



2003 iOTERWATIONAL BUBLDDMG CODE® 



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without assurance that a permit for the entire structure will 
be granted. 

106.3.4 Design professional in responsible charge. 

106.3.4.1 General. When it is required that documents 
be prepared by a registered design professional, the 
building official shall be authorized to require the owner 
to engage and designate on the building permit applica- 
tion a registered design professional who shall act as the 
registered design professional in responsible charge. If 
the circumstances require, the owner shall designate a 
substitute registered design professional in responsible 
charge who shall perform the duties required of the origi- 
nal registered design professional in responsible charge. 
The building official shall be notified in writing by the 
owner if the registered design professional in responsible 
charge is changed or is unable to continue to perform the 
duties. 

The registered design professional in responsible 
charge shall be responsible for reviewing and coordinat- 
ing submittal documents prepared by others, including 
phased and deferred submittal items, for compatibihty 
with the design of the building. 

Where structural observation is required by Section 
1709, the inspection program shall name the individual 
or firms who are to perform structural observation and 
describe the stages of construction at which structural 
observation is to occur (see also duties specified in Sec- 
tion 1704). 

106.3.4.2 Deferred submittals. For the purposes of this 
section, deferred submittals are defined as those portions 
of the design that are not submitted at the time of the ap- 
plication and that are to be submitted to the building offi- 
cial within a specified period. 

Deferral of any submittal items shall have the prior ap- 
proval of the building official. The registered design pro- 
fessional in responsible charge shall hst the deferred 
submittals on the construction documents for review by 
the building official. 

Documents for deferred submittal items shall be sub- 
mitted to the registered design professional in responsi- 
ble charge who shall review them and forward them to 
the building official with a notation indicating that the 
deferred submittal documents have been reviewed and 
been found to be in general conformance to the design of 
the building. The deferred submittal items shall not be in- 
stalled until the design and submittal documents have 
been approved by the building official. 

106.4 Amended construction documents. Work shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with the approved construction docu- 
ments, and any changes made during construction that are not 
in compliance with the approved construction documents shall 
be resubmitted for approval as an amended set of construction 
documents. 

106.5 Retention of construction documents. One set of ap- 
proved construction documents shall be retained by the build- 
ing official for a period of not less than 180 days from date of 



completion of the permitted work, or as required by state or lo- 
cal laws. 



TEi 



SECTION 107 
IFORARY STRUCTURES AND USES 



107.1 Geeerai, The building official is authorized to issue a 
permit for temporary structures and temporary uses. Such per- 
mits shall be limited as to time of service, but shall not be per- 
mitted for more than 180 days. The building official is 
authorized to grant extensions for demonstrated cause. 

107.2 Conformance. Temporary structures and uses shall con- 
form to the structural strength, fire safety, means of egress, ac- 
cessibility, light, ventilation and sanitary requirements of this 
code as necessary to ensure the public health, safety and gen- 
eral welfare. 

1073 Temporary power. The building official is authorized to 
give permission to temporarily supply and use power in part of 
an electric installation before such installation has been fully 
completed and the final certificate of completion has been is- 
sued. The part covered by the temporary certificate shall com- 
ply with the requirements specified for temporary lighting, heat 
or power in the ICC Electrical Code. 

107o4 Tennnlmation of approval. The building official is autho- 
rized to terminate such permit for a temporary structure or use 
and to order the temporary structure or use to be discontinued. 



SECTIOi^ 108 

FEES 

108.1 Payment of fees. A permit shall not be valid until the fees 
prescribed by law have been paid, nor shall an amendment to a 
permit be released until the additional fee, if any, has been paid. 



^o2 Schedule of permit fees. On buildings, structures, elec- 
trical, gas, mechanical, and plumbing systems or alterations re- 
quiring a permit, a fee for each permit shall be paid as required, 
in accordance with the schedule as established by the applica- 
ble governing authority. 

108.3 BelMing permit valuations. The apphcant for a permit 
shall provide an estimated permit value at time of application. 
Permit valuations shall include total value of work, including 
materials and labor, for which the permit is being issued, such 
as electrical, gas, mechanical, plumbing equipment and perma- 
nent systems. If, in the opinion of the building official, the valu- 
ation is underestimated on the application, the permit shall be 
denied, unless the applicant can show detailed estimates to 
meet the approval of the building official. Final building permit 
valuation shall be set by the building official. 

108o4 Work commencing before permit Issuance. Any person 
who commences any work on a building, structure, electrical, 
gas, mechanical or plumbing system before obtaining the neces- 
sary permits shall be subject to a fee established by the building 
official that shall be in addition to the required permit fees. 

108.5 Related fees. The payment of the fee for the construc- 
tion, alteration, removal or demolition for work done in 
connection to or concurrently with the work authorized by a 
building permit shall not relieve the applicant or holder of the 



2003 fliMTERNAT80^iAL BUBLDSNG CODE® 



ADMflWDSTRATBOM 



permit from the payment of other fees that are prescribed by 
law. 

1(0)8,6 MefisedSo The building official is authorized to establish 
a refund policy. 



SICTDOW 109 
INSPECTIONS 

l®9ol GeimeraiL Construction or work for which a permit is re- 
quired shall be subject to inspection by the building official and 
such construction or work shall remain accessible and exposed 
for inspection purposes until approved. Approval as a result of 
an inspection shall not be construed to be an approval of a viola- 
tion of the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the 
jurisdiction. Inspections presuming to give authority to violate 
or cancel the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of 
the jurisdiction shall not be valid. It shall be the duty of the per- 
mit applicant to cause the work to remain accessible and ex- 
posed for inspection purposes. Neither the building official nor 
the jurisdiction shall be liable for expense entailed in the re- 
moval or replacement of any material required to allow inspec- 
tion. 

l{I])9o2 PrellmflBary nespectnomio Before issuing a permit, the 
building official is authorized to examine or cause to be exam- 
ined buildings, structures and sites for which an applicafion has 
been filed. 



K3 Required inspectioESo The building official, upon noti- 
fication, shall make the inspections set forth in Sections 
109.3.1 through 109.3.10. 

l(I)9c3ol Footnmig aumd foonEiidattiiom mspecMomio Footing and 
foundation inspections shall be made after excavations for 
footings are complete and any required reinforcing steel is 
in place. For concrete foundations, any required forms shall 
be in place prior to inspection. Materials for the foundation 
shall be on the job, except where concrete is ready mixed in 
accordance with ASTM C 94, the concrete need not be on 
the job. 

109.3.2 Concrete sllalb aimd uninider-ffloor nmispecltioinio Con- 
crete slab and under-floor inspections shall be made after 
in-slab or under-floor reinforcing steel and building service 
equipment, conduit, piping accessories and other ancillary 
equipment items are in place, but before any concrete is 
placed or floor sheathing installed, including the subfloor. 

]109o3o3 Lowest Ooor eflevattnoEo In flood hazard areas, upon 
placement of the lowest floor, including the basement, and 
prior to further vertical construction, the elevation certifica- 
tion required in Section 1612.5 shall be submitted to the 
building official. 

109o3o4 Frame imispectioinio Framing inspections shall be 
made after the roof deck or sheathing, all framing, 
fireblocking and bracing are in place and pipes, chimneys 
and vents to be concealed are complete and the rough elec- 
trical, plumbing, heating wires, pipes and ducts are ap- 
proved. 



any plastering is applied or gypsum board joints and fasten- 
ers are taped and finished. 

ExceptiOE: Gypsum board that is not part of a fire-resis- 
tance-rated assembly or a shear assembly. 

W93o6 Fnre-=-re§i§tonit peme^mtioeso Protection of joints 
and penetrations in fire-resistance-rated assemblies shall 
not be concealed from view until inspected and approved. 



1®93.S Lath ^md gypsem board nmspectiomio Lath and 
gypsum board inspections shall be made after lathing and 
gypsum board, interior and exterior, is in place, but before 



K3ol Energy effideecy imspectionSo Inspections shall 
be made to determine comphance with Chapter 13 and shall 
include, but not be limited to, inspections for; envelope in- 
sulation R and U values, fenestration U value, duct system R 
value, and HVAC and water-heating equipment efficiency. 

I<09o3o§ Other mspectiosiiSo In addition to the inspections 
specified above, the building official is authorized to make 
or require other inspections of any construction work to as- 
certain compliance with the provisions of this code and 
other laws that are enforced by the department of building 
safety. 

109o3o9 Spedal taspectlosis. For special inspections, see 
Section 1704. 

lD9c3ol<ID Fiimal nimspectloiio The final inspection shall be 
made after all work required by the building permit is com- 
pleted. 

W9A lespecMomi agemideSo The building official is authorized 
to accept reports of approved inspection agencies, provided 
such agencies satisfy the requirements as to qualifications and 
reliability. 

l(D9o5 ImspecMom reqanests. It shall be the duty of the holder of 
the building permit or their duly authorized agent to notify the 
building official when work is ready for inspection. It shall be 
the duty of the permit holder to provide access to and means for 
inspections of such work that are required by this code. 

l(D)9o6 Approval reqimiredo Work shall not be done beyond the 
point indicated in each successive inspection without first ob- 
taining the approval of the building official. The building offi- 
cial, upon notification, shall make the requested inspections 
and shall either indicate the portion of the construction that is 
satisfactory as completed, or notify the permit holder or his or 
her agent wherein the same fails to comply with this code. Any 
portions that do not comply shall be corrected and such portion 
shall not be covered or concealed until authorized by the build- 
ing official. 



ECTI0N11 
ATE OF ©C 

llOcl Use aed occepaiBcy. No building or structure shall be 
used or occupied, and no change in the existing occupancy 
classification of a building or structure or portion thereof shall 
be made until the building official has issued a certificate of oc- 
cupancy therefor as provided herein. Issuance of a certificate of 
occupancy shall not be construed as an approval of a violation 
of the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the 
jurisdiction. 

11(D.2 Cerltifflcate Sssiuiedo After the building official inspects 
the building or structure and finds no violations of the provi- 



<-3 



2003 BBVSTERNATllOBSiAL BUiLDDNG CODE® 



ADMINISTRATION 



sions of this code or other laws that are enforced by the depart- 
ment of building safety, the building official shall issue a 
certificate of occupancy that contains the following: 

1 . The building permit number. 

2. The address of the structure. 

3. The name and address of the owner. 

4. A description of that portion of the structure for which 
the certificate is issued. 

5. A statement that the described portion of the structure 
has been inspected for compliance with the require- 
ments of this code for the occupancy and division of oc- 
cupancy and the use for which the proposed occupancy 
is classified. 

6. The name of the building official. 

7. The edition of the code under which the permit was is- 
sued. 

8. The use and occupancy, in accordance with the provi- 
sions of Chapter 3. 

9. The type of construction as defined in Chapter 6. 

10. The design occupant load. 

11. If an automatic sprinkler system is provided, whether 
the sprinkler system is required. 

12. Any special stipulations and conditions of the building 
permit. 

110.3 Temporary occupancy. The building official is autho- 
rized to issue a temporary certificate of occupancy before the 
completion of the entire work covered by the permit, provided 
that such portion or portions shall be occupied safely. The 
building official shall set a time period during which the tempo- 
rary certificate of occupancy is valid. 

110.4 Revocation. The building official is authorized to, in 
writing, suspend or revoke a certificate of occupancy or com- 
pletion issued under the provisions of this code wherever the 
certificate is issued in error, or on the basis of incorrect infor- 
mation supplied, or where it is determined that the building or 
structure or portion thereof is in violation of any ordinance or 
regulation or any of the provisions of this code. 



SECTION 111 
SERVICE UTILITIES 

111.1 Connection of service utilities. No person shall make 
connections from a utility, source of energy, fuel or power to 
any building or system that is regulated by this code for which a 
permit is required, until released by the building official. 

111.2 Temporary connection. The building official shall have 
the authority to authorize the temporary connection of the 
building or system to the utility source of energy, fuel or power. 

111.3 Authority to disconnect service utilities. The building 
official shall have the authority to authorize disconnection of 
utility service to the building, structure or system regulated by 
this code and the codes referenced in case of emergency where 
necessary to eliminate an immediate hazard to life or property. 
The building official shall notify the serving utility, and wher- 
ever possible the owner and occupant of the building, structure 



or service system of the decision to disconnect prior to taking 
such action. If not notified prior to disconnecting, the owner or 
occupant of the building, structure or service system shall be 
notified in writing, as soon as practical thereafter. 



SECTION 112 
BOARD OF APPEALS 

112,1 GeEeraL In order to hear and decide appeals of orders, 
decisions or determinations made by the building official rela- 
tive to the application and interpretation of this code, there shall 
be and is hereby created a board of appeals. The board of ap- 
peals shall be appointed by the governing body and shall hold 
office at its pleasure. The board shall adopt rules of procedure 
for conducting its business. 

112o2 Limitations on auttiority. An application for appeal 
shall be based on a claim that the true intent of this code or the 
rules legally adopted thereunder have been incorrectly inter- 
preted, the provisions of this code do not fully apply or an 
equally good or better form of construction is proposed. The 
board shall have no authority to waive requirements of this 
code. 

112,3 Qualifications. The board of appeals shall consist of 
members who are qualified by experience and training to pass 
on matters pertaining to building construction and are not em- 
ployees of the jurisdiction. 



SECTION 113 
VIOLATIONS 

113.1 Unlawful acts. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm 
or corporation to erect, construct, alter, extend, repair, move, 
remove, demolish or occupy any building, structure or equip- 
ment regulated by this code, or cause same to be done, in con- 
flict with or in violation of any of the provisions of this code. 

113.2 Notice of violation. The building official is authorized to 
serve a notice of violation or order on the person responsible for 
the erection, construcfion, alteration, extension, repair, mov- 
ing, removal, demolition or occupancy of a building or struc- 
ture in violation of the provisions of this code, or in violation of 
a permit or certificate issued under the provisions of this code. 
Such order shall direct the discontinuance of the illegal action 
or condition and the abatement of the violation. 

113.3 ProsecMtlon of violation. If the notice of violation is not 
compUed with promptly, the building official is authorized to 
request the legal counsel of the jurisdiction to institute the ap- 
propriate proceeding at law or in equity to restrain, correct or 
abate such violation, or to require the removal or termination of 
the unlawful occupancy of the building or structure in violation 
of the provisions of this code or of the order or direction made 
pursuant thereto. 

113-4 Violation penalties. Any person who violates a provi- 
sion of this code or fails to comply with any of the requirements 
thereof or who erects, constructs, alters or repairs a building or 
structure in violation of the approved construction documents 
or directive of the building official, or of a permit or certificate 
issued under the provisions of this code, shall be subject to pen- 
alties as prescribed by law. 



2003 BMTERNAT60NAL BUILDING CODE® 



AOIMaBMBSTRATDOW 



•ol AumtlhorDltyo Whenever the building official finds any 
work regulated by this code being performed in a manner either 
contrary to the provisions of this code or dangerous or unsafe, 
the building official is authorized to issue a stop work order. 

11402 Isseamiceo The stop work order shall be in writing and 
shall be given to the owner of the property involved, or to the 
owner's agent, or to the person doing the work. Upon issuance 
of a stop work order, the cited work shall immediately cease. 
The stop work order shall state the reason for the order, and the 
conditions under which the cited work will be permitted to re- 
sume. 

11403 UimflawW comitmiuiainiceo Any person who shall continue 
any work after having been served with a stop work order, ex- 
cept such work as that person is directed to perform to remove a 
violation or unsafe condition, shall be subject to penalties as 
prescribed by law. 



safe condition. To the extent that repairs, alterations or 
additions are made or a change of occupancy occurs during the 
restoration of the structure, such repairs, alterations, additions 
or change of occupancy shall comply with the requirements of 
Section 105.2.2 and Chapter 34. 



SECTION 115 
DNSAFE STRUCTURES AMD I 



^T 



lis J CdDnndDtDOES, Structures or existing equipment that are or 
hereafter become unsafe, insanitary or deficient because of in- 
adequate means of egress facilities, inadequate light and venti- 
lation, or which constitute a fire hazard, or are otherwise 
dangerous to human life or the public welfare, or that involve il- 
legal or improper occupancy or inadequate maintenance, shall 
be deemed an unsafe condition. Unsafe structures shall be 
taken down and removed or made safe, as the building official 
deems necessary and as provided for in this section. A vacant 
structure that is not secured against entry shall be deemed un- 
safe. 

11502 Mecordo The building official shall cause a report to be 
filed on an unsafe condition. The report shall state the occu- 
pancy of the structure and the nature of the unsafe condition. 

11503 Noltiiceo If an unsafe condition is found, the building offi- 
cial shall serve on the owner, agent or person in control of the 
structure, a written notice that describes the condition deemed 
unsafe and specifies the required repairs or improvements to be 
made to abate the unsafe condition, or that requires the unsafe 
structure to be demolished within a stipulated time. Such notice 
shall require the person thus notified to declare immediately to 
the building official acceptance or rejection of the terms of the 
order. 

11504 Metlhod olTservkeo Such notice shall be deemed prop- 
erly served if a copy thereof is (a) delivered to the owner per- 
sonally ; (b) sent by certified or registered mail addressed to the 
owner at the last known address with the^retum receipt re- 
quested; or (c) delivered in any other manner as prescribed by 
local law. If the certified or registered letter is returned showing 
that the letter was not delivered, a copy thereof shall be posted 
in a conspicuous place in or about the structure affected by such 
notice. Service of such notice in the foregoing manner upon the 
owner's agent or upon the person responsible for the structure 
shall constitute service of notice upon the owner. 



llSoS Mestoratnomio The structure or equipment determined to 
be unsafe by the building official is permitted to be restored to a 



2003 DlMTERIf^ATIOWAL BODLDDSVSG CODE® 



10 2003 INTERN ATBONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SECTIOW 201 
OENERAL 

m.l Scopeo Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following 
words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have the 
meanings shown in this chapter. 

2(0) lo2 IsnterctiaHigeatoiMty, Words used in the present tense in- 
clude the future; words stated in the masculine gender include 
the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes the plu- 
ral and the plural, the singular. 

2®lo3 Terms delSiied m ©tSier codeSa Where terms are not de- 
fined in this code and are defined in the International Fuel Gas 
Code, International Fire Code, International Mechanical Code 
or International Plumbing Code, such terms shall have the 
meanings ascribed to them as in those codes. 

2MA Teirimis molt deOimedo Where terms are not defined through 
the methods authorized by this section, such terms shall have 
ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies. 



DEFBNmONS 
ACCESSIBLE, See Section 1102.1. 
ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS, See Section 1002.1. 
ACCESSIBLE ROUTE, See Section 1102.1. 
ACCESSIBLE UNIT, See Section 1102. 

Ef. See Section 2302.1. 



ACTIVE FAULT/ACTIVE FAULT TRACE, See Section 
1613.1. 

ADDITION, An extension or increase in floor area or height of 
a building or structure. 

, See Section 1402.1. 



ADJUSTED SHEAR RESISTANCE, (Steel Construction). 
See Section 2202.1. 

ADJUSTED SHEAR RESISTANCE, (Wood Construction). 
See Section 2302.1. 



See Section 1902.1. 
ITRUCTION, See Section 2102.1. 
Stabilized adobe. See Section 2102.1. 
UestaMIked adobe. See Section 2102.1. 
[F] AEROSOL, See Section 307.2. 

Level 1 aerosol prodecits. See Section 307.2. 

Level 2 aerosol prodMCls, See Section 307.2. 

Level 3 aerosol prodects. See Section 307.2. 

[F] AEROSOL CONTAINER, See Section 307.2. 

AGGREGATE, See Section 1902.1. 

L See Section 1902.1. 



A structure designed and 
constructed to house farm implements, hay, grain, poultry, live- 
stock or other horticultural products. This structure shall not be 
a place of human habitation or a place of employment where 
agricultural products are processed, treated or packaged, nor 
shall it be a place used by the public. 

AIR-INFLATED STRUCTURE, See Section 3102.2. 

AIR=SUPPORTED STRUCTURE, See Section 3102,2. 

Double skliBc See Section 3102.2. 

Smgle §Mb, See Section 3102.2. 

AISLE ACCESSWAY, See Section 1002.1. 

[F] ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE, See Section 
902.1. 

[F] ALARM SIGNAL, See Section 902.1. 

[F] ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE, See Section 
902.1. 

ALLEY, See "Public way." 

ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN, See Section 1602.1. 

ALTERATION, Any construction or renovation to an existing 
structure other than repair or addition. 

ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE, See Section 1002.1. 

, See Section 2102.1. 

, See Section 402.2. 

», See Section 1402.1. 

ANNULAR SPACE, See Section 702.1. 

[F] ANNUNCIATOR, See Section 902.1. 

APPROVED, Acceptable to the building official. 

APPROVED AGENCY, See Section 1702.1. 

APPROVED FABRICATOR, See Section 1702.1. 

APPROVED SOURCE. An independent person, firm or cor- 
poration, approved by the building official, who is competent 
and experienced in the application of engineering principles to 
materials, methods or systems analyses. 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA, See Section 2 102. 1 . 
See Section 2102.1. 
, See Section 2102.1. 
Gross cross-secMoMaB, See Section 2102.1. 
Net cross-sectioimaL See Section 2102.1. 
AREA, BUILDING, See Section 502.1. 
AREA OF REFUGE, See Section 1002.1. 

ARE AWAY, A subsurface space adjacent to a building open at 
the top or protected at the top by a grating or guard. 

See Section 404.1.1. 



43 



2003 lOTERWATDOBSIAL BOiLOIBSIG CODE® 



m 



DEFINITIONS 



ATTACHMENTS, SEISMIC. See Section 1613.1. 

ATTICo The space between the ceiling beams of the top story 
and the roof rafters. 

[F] AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLLiNCE. 
See Section 902.1. 

[F] AUTOMATIC. See Section 902. 1 . 

[F] AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM, 
See Section 902.1. 

[F] AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM, See Section 
902.1. 

[F] AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL, See Section 
902.1 

AWNING. An architectural projection that provides weather 
protection, identity or decoration and is wholly supported by 
the building to which it is attached. An awning is comprised of 
a lightweight, rigid skeleton structure over which a covering is 
attached. 

BACKING. See Section 1402.1. 

BALCONY, EXTERIOR. See Section 1602.1. 

[F] BARRICADE. See Section 307.2. 

Artiflcial barricade. See Section 307.2. 

Natural barricade. See Section 307.2. 
BASE. See Section 1613.1. 
BASE FLOOD. See Section 1612.2. 
BASE FLOOD ELEVATION. See Section 1612.2. 
BASE SHEAR. See Section 1602.1. 

BASIC SEISMIC-FORCE-RESISTING SYSTEMS. See 

Section 1602.1. 

Bearing wall system. See Section 1602.1. 

Building frame system. See Section 1602.1. 

Dual system. See Section 1602.1. 

Inverted pendulum system. See Section 1602.1. 

Moment-resisting frame system. See Section 1602.1. 

Shear wall-frame interactive system. See Section 1602.1 . 

BASEMENT. That portion of a building that is partly or com- 
pletely below grade (see "Story above grade plane" and Sec- 
tions 502.1 and 1612.2). 

BED JOINT. See Section 2102.1. 

BLEACHERS. See Section 1002.1. 

BOARDING HOUSE. See Section 310.2. 

[F] BOILING POINT. See Section 307.2. 

BOND BEAM. See Section 2102.1. 

BOND REINFORCING. See Section 2102.1. 
I BOUNDARY ELEMENT. See Sections 1602.1 and 1613.1. 
I BOUNDARY MEMBERS. See Section 1602.1. 

BRACED WALL LINE. See Section 2302.1. 

BRACED WALL PANEL. See Section 2302.1. 

BRICK. See Section 2102.1. 

Calcium silicate (sand lime brick). See Section 2102.1. 



or stole. See Section 2102.1. 
Concrete, See Section 2102.1. 
BRITTLE. See Section 1613.1. 

BUILDING. Any structure used or intended for supporting or 
sheltering any use or occupancy. 

BUILDING, ENCLOSED. See Section 1609.2. 

BUILDING LINE. The line established by law, beyond which 
a building shall not extend, except as specifically provided by 
law. 

BUILDING, LOW^RISE. See Section 1609.2. 

BUILDING OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated au- 
thority charged with the administration and enforcement of this 
code, or a duly authorized representative. 

BUILDING, OPEN. See Section 1609.2. 

BUILDING, PARTIALLY ENCLOSED. See Section 
1609.2. 

BUILDING, SIMPLE DIAPHRAGM. See Section 1609.2. 

BUILT-UP ROOF COVERING. See Section 1502.1. 

BUTTRESS. See Section 2102.1. 

CABLE-RESTRAINED, AIM-SUPPORTED STRUC- 
TURE. See Section 3102.2. 

CANOPY. An architectural projection that provides weather 
protection, identity or decoration and is supported by the build- 
ing to which it is attached and at the outer end by not less than 
one stanchion. A canopy is comprised of a rigid structure over 
which a covering is attached. 

CANTILEVERED COLUMN SYSTEM. See Section 
1602.1. 

[F] CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. 
See Section 902.1. 

CAST STONE. See Section 2102.1. 

[F] CEILING LIMIT. See Section 902.1. 

CEILING RADIATION DAMPER. See Section 702.1. 

CELL. See Section 2102.1. 

CEMENT PLASTER. See Section 2502.1. 

CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS. See Section 1902.1. 

CERAMIC FIBER BLANKET. See Section 721.1.1. 

CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE. See Section 1702.1. 

CHIMNEY. See Section 2102.1. 

CHIMNEY TYPES. See Section 2102.1. 

Hflgli-heat appMaEce type. See Section 2102.1. 

Low-heat appliance type. See Section 2102.1. 

Masonry type. See Section 2102.1. 

Mediem-heat appliance type. See Section 2102.1. 
CIRCULATION PATH. See Section 1 102.1. 
CLADDING. See "Components and cladding." 
[F] CLEAN AGENT. See Section 902.1. 
CLEANOUT. See Section 2102.1. 
[F] CLOSED SYSTEM. See Section 307.2. 



12 



2003 DMTERNATBOisaAL BUILDING CODE® 



DEFIIMmOiSSS 



See Section 2102.1. 

COLLECTOR, See Sections 1613.1 and 2302.1. 

COLLECTOE ELEMENTSo See Section 1602.1. 

COLUMNo See Section 1902.1. 

COLUMN, MASONMY. See Section 2102.1. 

COMBINATION FIRE/SMOKE DAMPER, See Section 
702.1. 

[F] COMBUSTIBLE DUST, See Section 307.2. 

[F] COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS, See Section 307.2. 

[F] COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID, See Section 307.2. 

Class II, See Section 307.2. 

Class IIIA, See Section 307.2. 
. Class IIIB, See Section 307.2. 

COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL, See Section 
1002.1. 

COMPONENT, See Section 1613.1. 

Componemit eqeipmnieiiiit See Section 1613.1. 

Compoflieirat, IFleMlbko See Section 1613.1. 

CompoHienit, rigM, See Section 1613.1. 

COMPONENTS AND CLADDING, See Section 1609.2. 

COMPOSITE MASONRY, See Section 2102.1. 

[F] COMPRESSED GAS, See Section 307.2. 

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF MASONRY, See Sec- 
tion 2102.1. 

CONCRETE, See Section 1902.1. 

CONCRETE CARBONATE AGGREGATE, See Section 
721.1.1. 

CONCRETE, CELLULAR, See Section 721.1.1. 

CONCRETE, LIGMTWEIGMT AGGREGATE, See Sec- 
tion 721.1.1. 

CONCRETE, PERLITE, See Section 721.1.1. 

CONCRETE, SAND-LIGHTWEIGMT, See Section 
721.1.1. 

CONCRETE, SILICEOUS AGGREGATE, See Section 
721.1.1. 

CONCRETE (F'J, SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE 
STRENGTH OF, See Section 1902.1. 

CONCRETE, VERMICULITE, See Section 721.1.1. 

CONFINED REGION, See Section 1602.1. 

CONNECTOR, See Section 2102.1. 

[F] CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION, See Section 
902.1. 



II, See Section 602.3. 
TlVpe IVo See Section 602.4. 
I V, See Section 602.5. 



[F] CONTINUOUS GAS=DETECTION SYSTEM, See 
Section 415.2. 



rS, Written, graphic and 
pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing the 
design, location and physical characteristics of the elements of 
a project necessary for obtaining a building permit. 

CONSTRUCTION TYFESo See Section 602. 
Type L See Section 602.2. 
Type II, See Section 602.2. 



.See Section 1902.1. 

[F] CONTROL AREA, See Section 307.2. 

CONTROLLED LOW^STRENGTH MATERIAL, A 
self-compacted, cementitious material used primarily as a 
backfill in place of compacted fill. 

CONVENTIONAL LIGMT=FRAME WOOD CON^ 
STRUCTION, See Section 2302.1. 

L See Section 1002.1. 

RESISTANCE, The ability of a material to 
withstand deterioration of its surface or its properties when ex- 
posed to its environment. 

[F] CORROSIVE, See Section 307.2. ^ 

COURT, An open, uncovered space, unobstructed to the sky, 
bounded on three or more sides by exterior building walls or 
other enclosing devices. 

COVER, See Section 2102.1. 

COVERED MALL BUILDING, See Section 402.2. 
CRIPPLE WALL, See Section 2302.1. 
CRYOGENIC FLUID, See Section 307.2. 
DALLE GLASS, See Section 2402.1. 
-See Section 702.1. 
])S, See Section 1602.1. 
DECK, See Section 1602.1. 
DECORATIVE GLASS, See Section 2402.1. 
[F] DEFLAGRATION, See Section 307.2. 
DEFORMABILITY, See Section 1602.1. 

Miglh deformaMMty elemeimt. See Section 1602.1. 
Lnmntted defdJirinniaMlMy ekmemt. See Section 1602.1. 
L(Ow delFormaMlMy elemeimt. See Section 1602.1. 
DEFORMATION, See Section 1602.1. 
Limnited deformaMomi, See Section 1602.1. 
ftflmmalte deforinniatnoini. See Section 1602.1. 

MENT, See Section 1902.1. 
[F] DELUGE SYSTEM, See Section 902.1. 
DESIGN EARTHQUAKE, See Section 1613.1. 
.See Section 1612.2. 
ELEVATION, See Section 1612.2. 
DESIGN STRENGTH, See Section 1602.1. 
DESIGNATED SEISMIC SYSTEM, See Section 1613.1. 
[F] DETACHED STORAGE BUILDING, See Section 307.2. 
DETECTABLE WARNING, See Section 1 102.1. 
[F] DETECTOR^ HEAT, See Section 902.1. 
[F] DETONATION, See Section 307.2. 



2003 BOTERfsaATIONAL ByiLODNG CODE® 



13 



OEFDNITIONS 



DIAPHRAGM. See Sections 1602.1 and 2102.1. 

Diaphragm, blocked. See Sections 1602.1 and 2102.1. 

Diaphragm, boundary. See Section 1602.1. 

Diaphragm, chord. See Section 1602.1. 

Diaphragm, flexible. See Section 1602.1. 

Diaphragm, rigid. See Section 1602.1. 

Diaphragm, unblocked. See Section 2302.1. 
^ DIMENSIONS. See Section 2102.1. 

Actual. See Section 2102.1. 

Nominal. See Section 2102.1. 

Specified. See Section 2102.1. 
DISPENSING. See Section 307.2. 
DISPLACEMENT. See Section 1613.1. 

Design displacement. See Section 1613.1. 

Total design displacement. See Section 1613.1. 

Total maximum displacement. See Section 1613.1. 

DISPLACEMENT RESTRAINT SYSTEM, See Section 
1613.1 

DOOR, BALANCED. See Section 1002.1. 

DORMITORY. See Section 310.2. 

DRAFTSTOP. See Section 702.1. 

DRAG STRUT. See Section 2302.1. 

[F] DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. See 
Section 902.1. 

DRY FLOODPROOFING. See Section 1612.2. 

DURATION OF LOAD. See Section 1602. L 

DWELLING. A building that contains one or two dwelling 
units used, intended or designed to be used, rented, leased, let 
or hired out to be occupied for living purposes. 

DWELLING UNIX See Section 310.2. 

■ DWELLING UNIT OR SLEEPING UNIT, MULTI- 
STORY. See Section 1102. 

DWELLING UNIT OR SLEEPING UNIT, TYPE A. See 
Section 1102. 

DWELLING UNIT OR SLEEPING UNIT, TYPE B. See 
Section 1102. 

EFFECTIVE DAMPING. See Section 1613.1. 

EFFECTIVE EMBEDMENT DEPTH. See Section 
1913.2.2. 

EFFECTIVE HEIGHT. See Section 2102.1. 

EFFECTIVE STIFFNESS. See Section 1613.1. 

EFFECTIVE WIND AREA. See Section 1609.2. 

EGRESS COURT. See Section 1002.1. 

ELEMENT. See Section 1602.1. 

Ductile element. See Section 1602.1. 

Limited ductile element. See Section 1602.1. 

Nonductile element. See Section 1602.1. 
[F] EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 



I 



[F] EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. See Section 
415.2. 

EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. See 
Section 1002.1. 

[F] EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICA= 
TIONS. See Section 902.1. 

EMPLOYEE WORK AREA. See Section 1 102.1. 

EQUIPMENT SUPPORT. See Section 1602.1. 

ESSENTIAL FACILITIES. See Section 1602.1. 

[F] EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. See Section 415.2. 

EXISTING CONSTRUCTION. See Section 1612.2. 

EXISTING STRUCTURE. A structure erected prior to the 
date of adoption of the appropriate code, or one for which a le- 
gal building permit has been issued. 

EXIT. See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT ACCESS. See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT DISCHARGE. See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT DISCHARGE, LEVEL OR See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT ENCLOSURE. See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT PASSAGEWAY. See Section 1002.1. 

EXPANDED VINYL WALL COVERING. See Section 
802.1. 

[F] EXPLOSION. See Section 902.1. 
[F] EXPLOSIVE. See Section 307.2. 
High explosive. See Section 307.2. 
Low explosive. See Section 307.2. 
Mass detonating explosives. See Section 307.2. 
UN/DOTn Class 1 Explosives. See Section 307.2. 

DSvisiofii lol. See Section 307.2. 

Divisioni 1.2. See Section 307.2. 

Divisioe 1.3. See Section 307.2. 

Divisioni 1.4. See Section 307.2. 

Divlsioo 1.5. See Section 307.2. 

DivRsiom 1.6. See Section 307.2. 
EXTERIOR SURFACES. See Section 2502.1. 
EXTERIOR WALL. See Section 1402.1. 
EXTERIOR WALL COVERING. See Section 1402.1. 
EXTERIOR WALL ENVELOPE. See Section 1402.1. 
F RATING. See Section 702.1. 
FABRICATED ITEM. See Section 1702.1. 
[F] FABRICATION AREA. See Section 415.2. 
FACILITY, See Section 1102.1. 
FACTORED LOAD. See Section 1602.1. 
FIBERBOARD. See Section 2302.1. 
[F] FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. See Section 902.1. 
[F] FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 
[F] FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 



14 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



DERNmOMS 



m 



FIRE AMEAo See Section 702.1. 
FIRE BAMMEMo See Section 702.1. 
[F] FIRE COMMAND CENTER. See Section 902.1. 
FIRE DAMPERo See Section 702.1. 
[F] FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATICo See Section 902.1. 
FIRE DOORo See Section 702.1. 
FIRE DOOM ASSEMBLY. See Section 702.1. 
FIRE EXIT HARDWARE. See Section 1002.1. 
FIRE PARTITION, See Section 702.1. 
FIRE PROTECTION RATING, See Section 702.1. 
[F] FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 
FIRE RESISTANCE. See Section 702.1. 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING. See Section 702.1. 
FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEM. See Section 702.1. 
[F] FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS. See Section 902.1. 
FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE. See Section 702.1. 
: WALL. See Section 702.1. 

.SSEMBLY. See Section 702.1.. 
See Section 702.1. 
FIREPLACE. See Section 2102.1. 
FIREPLACE THROAT. See Section 2102.1. 
FIREWORKS. See Section 307.2. 
FIREWORKS, 1.3Go See Section 307.2. 
FIREWORKS, 1.4G. See Section 307.2. 
FLAME RESISTANCE. See Section 802.1. 
FLAME SPREAD. See Section 802.1. 
FLAME SPREAD INDEX. See Section 802.1. 
[F] FLAMMABLE GAS. See Section 307.2. 
[F] FLAMMABLE LIQUEFIED GAS. See Section 307.2. 
[F] FLAMMABLE LIQUID. See Section 307.2. 

Cless lAo See Section 307.2. 

Class IB. See Section 307.2. 

Class IC. See Section 307.2. 

[F] FLAMMABLE MATERIAL. See Section 307.2. 

[F] FLAMMABLE SOLID. See Section 307.2. 

[F] FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. See Section 
415.2. 

[F] FLASH POINT. See Section 307.2. 

FLEXIBLE BUILDINGS AND OTHER STRUCTURES. 
See Section 1609.2. 

FLEXIBLE EQUIPMENT CONNECTIONS. See Section 
1602.1. 



FLEXURAL 
FLOOD OR : 



See Section 1808.1. 
See Section 1612.2. 
■RESISTANT MATERIALS. See Sec- 



FLOOD HAZARD AREA, See Section 1612.2. 

FLOOD HAZARD AREA SUBJECT TO HIGH VELOC- 
ITY WAVE ACTION, See Section 1612.2. 

FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP (FIRM). See Section 
1612.2. 



tion 1612.2. 



f. See Section 1612.2. 

FLOODWAY. See Section 1612.2. 

FLOOR AREA, GROSS. See Section 1002.1. 

FLOOR AREA, NET. See Section 1002.1. 

FLOOR FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. See Section 702.1. 

FLY GALLERY. See Section 410.2. 

[F] FOAM=EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. See Section 
902.1. 

FOAM PLASTIC INSULATION. See Section 2602.1. 

FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING. See Section 
1002.1. 

FOOD COURT. See Section 402.2. 

FRAME. See Section 1602.1. 

Braced frame. See Section 1602.1. 

CoEceetrkally braced frame (CBF). See Section 1602. 1 . 

Ecceimlrkally braced frame (EBF). See Section 1602.1. 

Ordinary coeceMrkally braced iFrame (OCBF), See Sec- 
tion 1602.1. 

Special coHcesitrkally braced frame (SCBF). See Section 

1602.1. 

Momemlt frame. See Section 1602.1. 

[F] GAS CABINET. See Section 415.2. 

[F] GAS ROOM. See Section 415.2. 

GLASS FIBERBOARD. See Section 721.1.1. 

GLUED BUILT-UP MEMBER. See Section 2302.1. 

GRADE FLOOR OPENING. A window or other opening lo- 
cated such that the sill height of the opening is not more than 44 
inches (1118 mm) above or below the finished ground level ad- 
jacent to the opening. 

GRADE (LUMBER). See Section 2302.1. 

GRADE PLANE. See Section 502.1. 

GRANDSTAND. See Section 1002.1. 

GRAVITY LOAD. See Section 1613.1. 

GRIDIRON. See Section 410.2. 

GROSS LEASABLE AREA. See Section 402.2. 

GROUTED MASONRY. See Section 2102.1, 

Groiuited liollow-iiiilt masonryo See Section 2102.1. 

Greeted mefltSwytlie masoery. See Section 2102.1. 

GUARD. See Section 1002.1. 

GYPSUM BOARD. See Section 2502.1. 

GYPSUM PLASTER. See Section 2502.1. 

GYPSUM VENEER PLASTER. See Section 2502.1. 

HABITABLE SPACE. A space in a building for living, sleep- 
ing, eating or cooking. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, closets, halls, 



<^ 



<m 



2003 DNTERNAinOiSSAL BOaLDDNG CODE® 



15 



DERNITIONS 



Storage or utility spaces and similar areas are not considered 
habitable spaces. 

[F] HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS^ See 
Section 902.1. 

[F] HANDLING. See Section 307.2. 

HANDRAIL. See Section 1002.1. 

HARDBOARD. See Section 2302.1. 

HAZARDOUS CONTENTS. See Section 1613.1. 

[F] HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, See Section 307.2. 

[F] HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). 
See Section 415.2. 

HEAD JOINT. See Section 2102.1. 

HEADER (Bonder). See Section 2102.1. 

[F] HEALTH HAZARD. See Section 307.2. 

HEIGHT, BUILDING. See Section 502.1. 

HEIGHT, STORY. See Section 502.1. 

HEIGHT, WALLS. See Section 2102.1. 

HELIPORT. See Section 412.5.2. 

HELISTOP. See Section 412.5.2. 

[F] HIGHLY TOXIC. See Section 307.2. 

HISTORIC BUILDINGS. Buildings that are listed in or eligi- 
ble for listing in the National Register of Historic Places, or 
designated as historic under an appropriate state or local law 
(see Section 3406). 

HORIZONTAL EXIT. See Section 1002.1. 

[F] HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. See Section 415.2. 

[F] HPM ROOM. See Section 415.2. 

HURRICANE-PRONE REGIONS. See Section 1609.2. 

IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH 
(IDLH). See Section 415.2. 

IMPACT LOAD. See Section 1602.1. 

IMPORTANCE FACTOR, /. See Section 1609.2. 

INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. See Section 307.2. 

INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT PLATFORM. See Section 
502.1. 

[F] INITIATING DEVICE. See Section 902,1. 

INSPECTION CERTIFICATE. See Section 1702.1. 

INTENDED TO BE OCCUPIED AS A RESIDENCE. See 
Section 1102. 

INTERIOR FINISH. See Section 802.1. 

INTERIOR FLOOR FINISH. See Section 802.1. 

INTERIOR SURFACES. See Section 2502.1. 

INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH. See Section 
802.1. 

INTERLAYMENT. See Section 1502.1. 

INVERTED PENDULUM-TYPE STRUCTURES. See 
Section 1613.1. 



ISOLATION INTERFACE. See Section 1613.1. 

ISOLATION JOINT. See SecUon 1902.1. 

ISOLATION SYSTEM. See Section 1613.1. 

ISOLATOR UNIT. See Section 1613.1. 

JOINT. See Sections 702.1 and 1602.1. 

JURISDICTION. The governmental unit that has adopted this 
code under due legislative authority. 

LABEL. See Section 1702.1. 

LIGHT=DIFFUSING SYSTEM. See Section 2602.1. 

LIGHT=FMAME CONSTRUCTION. A type of construction 
whose vertical and horizontal structural elements are primarily 
formed by a system of repetitive wood or light gage steel fram- 
ing members. 

LIGHT-TRANSMITTING PLASTIC ROOF PANELS. 
See Section 2602.1. 

LIGHT-TRANSMITTING PLASTIC WALL PANELS. 
See Section 2602.1. 

LIMIT STATE. See Section 1602.1. 

[F] LIQUID. See Section 415.2. 

[F] LIQUID STORAGE ROOM. See Section 415.2. 

[F] LIQUID USE, DISPENSING AND MIXING ROOMS. 
See Section 415.2. 

LISTED. See Section 902.1. 

LIVE LOADS. See Section 1602.1. 

LIVE LOADS (ROOF), See Section 1602.1. 

LOAD. See Section 1613.1. 

Gravity load (W). See Section 1613.1. 

LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN (LRFD). 
See Section 1602.1. 

LOAD FACTOR. See Section 1602.1. 

LOADS. See Section 1602.1. 

LOADS EFFECTS. See Section 1602.1. 

LOT. A portion or parcel of land considered as a unit. 

LOT LINE. A line dividing one lot from another, or from a 
street or any public place. 

[F] LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). See Section 
415.2. 

LOWEST FLOOR. See Section 1612.2. 

MAIN WINDFORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM. See Section 
1609.2. 

MALL. See Section 402.2. 

[F] MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX. See Section 902.1. 

MANUFACTURER'S DESIGNATION. See Section 
1702.1. 

MARK. See Section 1702.1. 

MARQUEE. A permanent roofed structure attached to and 
supported by the building and that projects into the public right- 
of-way. 



16 



2003 IMTERNATIONAL BdJILDING CODE® 



DEFBNmOIMIS 



• See Section 2102.1. 

AsMer masoiniryo See Section 2102.1. 
C©iiirsed asMaro See Section 2102.1. 
Glass miinint masoery. See Section 2102.1. 
Plaira maisomry., See Section 2102.1. 
Mamidom asMaro See Section 2102.1. 
MemfoFced masoiniryo See Section 2102.1. 
Solid masonryo See Section 2102. 1 . 
MASONRY UNIX See Section 2102.1. 
Clay, See Section 2102.1. 
CoEcreteo See Section 2102.1. 
Hollowo See Section 2102.1. 
Solid. See Section 2102.1. 

MAXIMUM CONSroEMED EARTHQUAKE, See Section 
1613.1. 

MEAN DAILY TEMPERATURE, See Section 2102.1. 

MEAN ROOF HEIGHX See Section 1609.2. 

MEANS OF EGRESS, See Section 1002.1. 

MECHANICAL=ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES, 
See Section 406.3.2. 

MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT SCREEN, See Section 
1502.1. 

MEMBRANE^COVERED CAKLE STRUCTURE, See 
Section 3102.2. 

MEMBMANE^COVERED FRAME STRUCTURE, See 
Section 3102.2. 

, See Section 702.1. 

FIRESTOP, See Section 
702.1. 

METAL COMPOSITE MATERIAL (MCM), See Section 
1402. 

METAL COMPOSITE MATERIAL SYSTEM, See Sec- 
tion 1402. 

METAL ROOF PANEL, See Section 1502.1. 

METAL ROOF SHINGLE, See Section 1502.1. 

i:. See Section 502.1. 

See Section 721.1.1. 

MODIFIED BITUMEN ROOF COVERING, See Section 
1502.1. 

See Section 2102.1. 

, SURFACE=BONDING, See Section 2102.1. 

MULTILEVEL ASSEMBLY SEATING, See Section 
1102.1. 

[F] MULTIPLE=STATION ALARM DEVICE, See Section 
902.1. 

[F] MULTIPLE=STATION SMOKE ALARM, See Section 
902.1. 

See Section 2302.1. 

ir^ iL^iw^Zo See Section 2302.1. 
NAILING, FIELD, See Section 2302.1. 



See Section 2302.1. 

Decay reststaet. See Section 2302.1. 

Termite reststaet See Section 2302.1. 

NOMINAL LOADS. See Section 1602.1. 

NOMINAL SIZE (LUMBER), See Section 2302.1. 

NONBUILDING STRUCTURE, See Section 1613.1. 

NONCOMBUSTIBLE MEMBRANE STRUCTURE. See 
Section 3102.2. 

[F] NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (NTP), 
See Section 415.2. 



)SING, See Section 1002.1. 

[F] NUISANCE ALARM, See Section 902.1. 

OCCUPANCY IMPORTANCE FACTOR, See Section 
1613.1. 

OCCUPANT LOAD, See Section 1002.1. 

OCCUPIABLE SPACE, A room or enclosed space designed 
for human occupancy in which individuals congregate for 
amusement, educational or similar purposes or in which occu- 
pants are engaged at labor, and which is equipped with means 
of egress and light and ventilation facilities meeting the re- 
quirements of this code. 

OPEN PARKING GARAGE, See Section 406.3.2. 

[F] OPEN SYSTEM, See Section 307.2. 

OPERATING BUILDING, See Section 307.2. 

[F] ORGANIC PEROXIDE, See Section 307.2. 

Class L See Section 307.2. 

Class II, See Section 307.2. 

Class IIL See Section 307.2. 

Class IV, See Section 307.2. 

Cflass V, See Section 307.2. 

UmdassMed detoimaMe. See Section 307.2. 
OTHER STRUCTURES, See Section 1602.1. 



<-] 



C3 



. Any person, agent, firm or corporation having a le- 
gal or equitable interest in the property. 

[F] OXIDIZER, See Section 307.2. 

Cllass 4, See Section 307.2. 

Class 3, See Section 307.2. 

Class 2, See Section 307.2. 

Class 1, See Section 307.2. 
[F] OXIDIZING GAS, See Section 307.2. 
P=DELTA EFFECT, See Section 1602.1. 
PANEL (PART OF A STRUCTURE). See Section 1602.1. 
PANIC HARDWARE, See Section 1002.1. 
PARTICLEBOARD, See Section 2302.1. 
PEDESTAL, See Section 1902.1. 
PENETRATION FIRESTOP, See Section 702.1. 
PENTHOUSE, See Section 1502.1. 



2003 DNTERMATDOBSIAL BUllLOiWG CODE® 



17 



DEFINITIONS 



PERMIT. An official document or certificate issued by the au- 
thority having jurisdiction which authorizes performance of a 
specified activity. 

PERSONc An individual, heirs, executors, administrators or 
assigns, and also includes a firm, partnership or corporation, its 
or their successors or assigns, or the agent of any of the afore- 
said. 

PERSONAL CARE SERVICE. See Section 310.2. 

[F] PHYSICAL HAZARD. See Section 307.2. 

PIER FOUNDATIONS. See Section 1808.1. 

Belled piers. See Section 1808.1. 
PILE FOUNDATIONS. See Section 1808.1. 

Aoger uncased piles. See Section 1808.1. 

Caisson piles. See Section 1808.1. 

Concrete-filled steel pipe and tuibe piles. See Section 

1808.1. 

Driven uncased piles. See Section 1808.1. 

Enlarged base piles. See Section 1808.1. 

Piles. See Section 1808.1. 

Steel-cased piles. See Section 1808.1. 
PINRAIL, See Section 410.2. 
PLAIN CONCRETE. See Section 1902.1. 
PLAIN REINFORCEMENT. See Section 1902.1. 
PLASTIC, APPROVED. See Section 2602.1. 
PLASTIC GLAZING. See Section 2602.1. 
PLASTIC HINGE. See Section 2102.1. 
PLATFORM. See Section 410.2. 
POSITIVE ROOF DRAINAGE. See Section 1502.1. 
PRECAST CONCRETE. See Section 1902.1. 
PRESERVATIVE-TREATED WOOD. See Section 2302.1. 
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE. See Section 1902.1. 
PRESTRESSED MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

Prestressed masonry shear wall. See Section 2102.1. 

Ordinary plain prestressed masonry shear wall. See Sec- 
tion 2102.1. 

Special prestressed masonry shear wall. See Section 

2102.1. 

Special reinforced masonry shear wall. See Section 

2102.1. 

PRISM. See Section 2102.1. 

PROJECTED AREA. See Section 1913.2.2. 

PROSCENIUM WALL. See Section 410.2. 

PUBLIC ENTRANCE. See Section 1102.1. 

PUBLIC-USE AREAS. See Section 1102.1. 

PUBLIC WAY. See Section 1002.1. 

[F] PYROPHORIC. See Section 307.2. 

[F] PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION. See Section 307.2. 

QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN. A written procedure com- 
plying with the requirements of Section 1705. 



RAMP. See Section 1002.1. 

RAMP-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. See Sec- 
tion 406.3.2. 

[F] RECORD DRAWINGS. See Section 902.1. 

REFERENCE RESISTANCE (D). See Section 2302.1. 

REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An individual 
who is registered or Ucensed to practice their respective design 
profession as defined by the statutory requirements of the pro- 
fessional registration laws of the state or jurisdiction in which 
the project is to be constructed. 

REINFORCED CONCRETE. See Section 1902.1. 

REINFORCED PLASTIC, GLASS FIBER. See Section 
2602.1. 

REINFORCEMENT. See Section 1902.1. 

REPAIR. The reconstruction or renewal of any part of an exist- 
ing building for the purpose of its maintenance. 

REQUIRED STRENGTH. See Sections 1602.1 and2102.1. 

REROOFING. See Section 1502.1. 

RESHORES. See Section 1902.1. 

RESIDENTIAL AIRCRAFT HANGAR. See Section 
412.3.1. 

RESIDENTIAL CARE/ASSISTED LIVING FACIL- 
ITIES. See Section 310.2. 

RESISTANCE FACTOR. See Section 1602.1. 

RESTRICTED ENTRANCE. See Section 1 102.1. 

RETRACTABLE AWNING. See Section 3105.2. 

ROOF ASSEMBLY. See Section 1 502. 1 . 

ROOF COVERING. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF COVERING SYSTEM. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF DECK. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF RECOVER. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF REPAIR. See Section 1 502. 1 . 

ROOF REPLACEMENT. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF VENTILATION. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOFTOP STRUCTURE. See Section 1502.1. 

RUBBLE MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

Comrsed rubble. See Section 2102.1. 

Ramdom rubble. See Section 2102.1. 

Rough or ordinary rubble. See Section 2102.1. 

RUNNING BOND. See Section 2102.1. 

SCISSOR STAIR See Section 1002.1. 

SCUPPER. See Section 1502.1. 

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY. See Section 1613.1. 

SEISMIC-FORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM. See Section 
1613.1. 

SEISMIC FORCES. See Section 1613.1. 

SEISMIC RESPONSE COEFFICIENT. See Section 
1613.1. 



18 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



OEFB^moisas 



SEISMIC USE GROUE See Section 1613.1. 

§ELF=CLOSINGo See Section 702.1. 

SELF-SEMYICE STORAGE FACILITY. See Section 
1102.1. 

[F] SERVICE COMEIDORo See Section 415.2. 

SERVICE ENTRANCE. See Section 1102.1. 

SHAFTo See Section 702.1. 

SHAFT ENCLOSUREo See Section 702.1. 

SHALLOW ANCHORS, See Section 1602.1. 

PANEL. See Section 1602.1. 

WALLo See Sections 1602.1, 1613.1 and 2102.1. 

Detailed plain eiasoery slhear wallL See Section 2102.1. 

Intermediate remforced masoery shear walL See Section 

2102.1. 

Ordinary plain masonry shear walL See Section 2102. 1 . 

Ordinary reinforced masonry shear walL See Section 

2102.1. 

Perforated shear walE, See Section 2302.1. 

Perforated shear wall segment See Section 2302.1. 

Special reinforced masonry shear walL See Section 

2102.1. 

Type I shear walL See Section 2202.1. 

lype II shear waMo See Section 2202.1. 

IVpe II shear wallfl segment See Section 2202.1. 

SHEAR WALL=FRAME INTERACTIVE SYSTEM, See 
Section 1613.1. 

SHELL, See Section 2102.1. 

SHORESo See Section 1902.1. 

SHOTCRETEo See Section 1914.1. 

SINGLE=.PLY MEMBEANEo See Section 1502.1. 

[F] SINGLE=STATION SMOIKE ALARM, See Section 
902.1. 

SITE. See Section 1102.1. 

SITE CLASS. See Section 1613.1. 

SITE COEFFICIENTS. See Section 1613.1. 

SKYLIGHT, UNIT. A factory-assembled, glazed fenestration 
unit, containing one panel of glazing material that allows for 
I natural lighting through an opening in the roof assembly while 
preserving the weather-resistant barrier of the roof. 

SKYLIGHTS AND SLOPED GLAZING. Glass or other 
transparent or translucent glazing material installed at a 
slope of 15 degrees (0.26 rad) or more from vertical. Glazing 
material in skylights, including unit skylights, solariums, 
sunrooms, roofs and sloped walls, are included in this defini- 
tion. 



C2> 



•I 



A room or space in which people sleep, 
which can also include permanent provisions for Hving, eating, 
and either sanitation or kitchen facilities but not both. Such 
rooms and spaces that are also part of a dwelling unit are not 
sleeping units. 

[F] SMOKE ALARM. See Section 902.1. 



, See Section 702.1. 

SMOSCE COMPARTMENT. See Section 702.1. 

SMOKE DAMPER. See Section 702.1. 

[F] SMOKE DETECTOR. See Section 902.1. 

SMOKE^DEVELOPED INDEX. See Section 802.1. 

SMOKE=PROTECTED ASSEMBLY SEATING. See Sec- 
tion 1002.1. 

SMOKEFROOF ENCLOSURE. See Section 902.1. 
[F] SOLID. See Section 415.2. 

L. See Section 1602.1. □ 

h:NT building, see Section 411.2. 
SPECIAL INSPECTION. See Section 1702.1. 

Specflal contiEMOES imispectfiOE, See Section 1702.1. 
Special periodic lospectloini. See Section 1702.1. 
SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD AREA. See Section 1612.2: 

SPECIAL TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT. See Sec- 
tion 1602.1. 

SPECIFIED. See Section 2102.1. 



(f' J. See Section 2102.1. 

ENFORCEMENT. See Section 1902.1. 

SPLICE. See Section 702.1. 

SPRAYED FIRE=RESISTANT MATERIALS, See Section 
1702.1. 



See Section 2102.1. 
STAGE. See Section 410.2. 
See Section 1002.1. 

See Section 1002.1. 

. EXTERIOR. See Section 1002.1. 

., INTERIOR. See Section 1002.1. 

STAIRWAY, SPIRAL. See Section 1002.1. 

[F] STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF. See Section 
902.1. 

Class I system. See Section 902.1. 
Class II system. See Section 902.1. 
Class III system. See Section 902.1. 
[F] STANDPIPE, TYPES OF. See Section 902.1. 
Auitomatic dry. See Section 902.1. 
Automatic wet See Section 902.1. 

I dry. See Section 902.1. 

[wet. See Section 902.1. 
SemSaiiiitomatk dry. See Section 902.1. 

START OF CONSTRUCTION. See Section 1612.2. 

STEEL CONSTRUCTION, COLD=FORMED. See Section 
2202.1. 

STEEL JOIST. See Section 2202.1. 

STEEL MEMBER, STRUCTURAL. See Section 2202.1. 



2003 USSTEeMATBONAL BODLDBNG CODE® 



19 



DEFlNmONS 



STEEP SLOPE, A roof slope greater than two units vertical in 
12 units horizontal (17-percent slope). 

STONE MASONRY, See Section 2102. 1 . 
Ashlar stone masonry. See Section 2102.1. 
Rubble stone masonry. See Section 2102.1. 

[F] STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, See Section 
415.2. 

STORY. That portion of a building included between the upper 
surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or roof next 
above (also see "Basement," "Mezzanine" and Section 502.1). 
It is measured as the vertical distance from top to top of two 
successive tiers of beams or finished floor surfaces and, for the 
topmost story, from the top of the floor finish to the top of the 
ceiling joists or, where there is not a ceiling, to the top of the 
roof rafters. 

STORY ABOVE GRADE PLANE, Any story having its fin- 
ished floor surface entirely above grade plane, except that a 
basement shall be considered as a story above grade plane 
where the finished surface of the floor above the basement is: 

1. More than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade plane; 

2. More than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the finished ground 
level for more than 50 percent of the total building perim- 
eter; or 

3. More than 12 feet (3658 mm) above the finished ground 
level at any point. 

STORY DRIFT RATIO. See Section 1613.1. 

STRENGTH. See Section 2102.1. 

Design strength. See Section 2102.1. 

Nominal strength. See Sections 1602.1 and 2102.1. 

STRENGTH DESIGN, See Section 1602.1. 

STRUCTURAL CONCRETE. See Section 1902.1. 

STRUCTURAL GLUED-LAMINATED TIMBER, See 
Section 2302.1. 

STRUCTURAL OBSERVATION. See Section 1702.1. 

STRUCTURE, That which is built or constructed. 

SUBDIAPHRAGM. See Section 2302.1. 

SUBSTANTIAL DAMAGE. See Section 1612.2. 

SUBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENT. See Section 1612.2. 

[F] SUPERVISING STATION. See Section 902.1. 

[F] SUPERVISORY SERVICE. See Section 902.1. 

[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 

[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. See 
Section 902.1. 

SWIMMING POOLS. See Section 3109.2. 

T RATING. See Section 702.1. 

i TECHNICALLY INFEASIBLE. See Section 3402. 

TENDON. See Section 1902.1. 

TENT. Any structure, enclosure or shelter which is con- 
structed of canvas or pliable material supported in any manner 
except by air or the contents it protects. 



THERMOPLASTIC MATERIAL. See Section 2602.1. 

THERMOSETTING MATERIAL. See Section 2602.1. 

THROUGH PENETRATION. See Section 702.1. 

THROUGH=FENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEM. See 
Section 702.1. 

TIE-DOWN (HOLD-DOWN). See Section 2302.1. 

TIE, LATERAL. See Section 2102,1. 

TIE, WALL. See Section 2102.1. 

TILE. See Section 2102.1. 

TILE, STRUCTURAL CLAY. See Section 2102.1. 

[F] TIRES, BULK STORAGE OE See Section 902.1. 

TORSIONAL FORCE DISTRIBUTION. See Section 
1613.1. 

TOUGHNESS. See Section 1613.1. 

[F] TOXIC. See Section 307.2. 

TREATED WOOD. See Section 2302.1. 

TRIM. See Section 802.1. 

[F] TROUBLE SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 

UNADJUSTED SHEAR RESISTANCE. See Section I 
2202.1. 

UNDERLAYMENT. See Section 1502.1. 

[F] UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIAL. See Section 
307.2. 

Class 4. See Section 307.2. 
Class 3. See Section 307.2. 
Class 2o See Section 307.2. 
Class Ic See Section 307.2. 
[F] USE (MATERIAL). See Section 415.2. 

VAPOR-PERMEABLE MEMBRANE. A material or cover- 
ing having a permeance rating of 5 perms (52.9 xlO'^° kg/Pa • s • m^) 
or greater, when tested in accordance with the dessicant method us- 
ing Procedure A of ASTM E 96. A vapor-permeable material per- 
mits the passage of moisture vapor. 

VAPOR RETARDER. A vapor-resistant material, membrane 
or covering such as foil, plastic sheeting or insulation facing 
having a permeance rating of 1 perm (5.7 x 10' ' kg/Pa ■ s • m^) 
or less, when tested in accordance with the dessicant method 
using Procedure A of ASTM E 96. Vapor retarders limit the 
amount of moisture vapor that passes through a material or wall 
assembly. 

VENEERo See Section 1402.1. 

VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of sup- 
plying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such 
air from, any space. 

[F] VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. 
See Section 902.1. 

WALKWAY, PEDESTRIAN. A walkway used exclusively as 
a pedestrian trafficway. 

WALL, See Section 2102.1. 

Cavity wall. See Section 2102.1. 



20 



2003 SNTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



DEFBNmONS 



Composllte walL See Section 2102.1. 

Dry-stacked, serlTaice-boEidedl walL See Section 2102.1. 

Masoery^bomded follow waflL See Section 2102.1. 

Parapet walL See Section 2102.1. 
WALL, LOAD=BEAMNGo See Section 1602.1. 
WALL, NONLOAD=BEARINGo See Section 1602.1. 
[F] WATEM-MEACTIVE MATERIAL. See Section 307.2. 

Class 3« See Section 307.2. 

Class 2o See Section 307.2. 

Class L See Section 307.2. 
WEATHER-'EXPOSED SUMFACESo See Section 2502.1. 
.See Section 2102.1. 



[F] WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See 
Section 902.1. 

WHEELCHAIR SPACE, See Section 1102.1. 

WHEELCHAIR SPACE CLUSTEMo See Section 1102.1. 

WIND-=BORNE DEBRIS REGIONo See Section 1609.2. 

WIND=RESTRAINT SEISMIC SYSTEM, See Section 
1613. 

WIRE BACKING, See Section 2502.1. 

[F] WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM. See Section 
902.1. 

WOOD SMEAR PANEL. See Section 2302.1. 

WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL. See Section 2302.1. 

Composite pamiels. See Section 2302.1. 

Oriesited strapd board (OSB). See Section 2302.1. 

Plywood. See Section 2302.1. 

[F] WORKSTATION. See Section 415.2. 

WYTHE. See Section 2102.1. 

YARD. An open space, other than a court, unobstructed from 
the ground to the sky, except where specifically provided by 
this code, on the lot on which a building is situated. 

[F] ZONE. See Section 902.1. 



2003 BOTERMATDOiSQAL BODLDBISiG CODE® 21 



22 2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 3 

PANGY CLASSIFil 



SECTDON 301 
GEIMEIRAL 

3®lcl Scope- The provisions of this chapter shall control the 
classification of all buildings and structures as to use and occu- 
pancy. 



SECTION 302 
CLASSIFICATBON 

302,1 GemieiraL Structures or portions of structures shall be 
classified with respect to occupancy in one or more of the 
groups listed below. Structures with multiple uses shall be clas- 
sified according to Section 302.3. Where a structure is pro- 
posed for a purpose which is not specifically provided for in 
this code, such structure shall be classified in the group which 
the occupancy most nearly resembles, according to the fire 
safety and relative hazard involved. 

1. Assembly (see Section 303): Groups A-1, A-2, A-3, 
A-4 and A-5 

2. Business (see Section 304): Group B 

3. Educational (see Section 305): Group E 

4. Factory and Industrial (see Section 306): Groups F-1 

and F-2 

5. High Hazard (see Section 307): Groups H-1, H-2, H-3, 
H-4 and H-5 

6. Institutional (see Section 308): Groups I-l, 1-2, 1-3 and 
1-4 

7. Mercantile (see Section 309): Group M 

8. Residential (see Section 310): Groups R-1, R-2, R-3 as 
applicable in Section 101.2, and R-4 

9. Storage (see Section 311): Groups S-1 and S-2 

10. Utility and Miscellaneous (see Section 312): Group U 

302.1.1 IimcMeniitail use areaiSo Spaces which are incidental 
to the main occupancy shall be separated or protected, or 
both, in accordance with Table 302.1.1 or the building shall 
be classified as a mixed occupancy and comply with Section 
302.3. Areas that are incidental to the main occupancy shall 
be classified in accordance with the main occupancy of the 
portion of the building in which the incidental use area is lo- 
cated. 



tmmi Incidental use areas within and serving a 
dwelling unit are not required to comply with this sec- 
tion. 

3©2o1o1p1 Separatioiio Where Table 302.1.1 requires a 
fire-resistance-rated separation, the incidental use area 
shall be separated from the remainder of the building 
with a fire barrier. Where Table 302. 1 . 1 permits an auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing system without a fire barrier, the 
incidental use area shall be separated by construction ca- 
pable of resisting the passage of smoke. The partitions 



shall extend from the floor to the underside of the 
fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling assembly or fire-resis- 
tance-rated roof/ceiling assembly or to the underside of 
the floor or roof deck above. Doors shall be self-closing 
or automatic-closing upon detection of smoke. Doors 
shall not have air transfer openings and shall not be un- 
dercut in excess of the clearance permitted in accordance 
with NFFA 80. 

TABLE 302.1.1 
Di^CIOENTAL USE AREAS 



ROOiVl OR AREA 


SEPARATION^ 


Furnace room where any piece of 
equipment is over 400,000 Btu per 
hour input 


1 hour or provide automatic 
fire-extinguishing system 


Rooms with any boiler over 15 psi 
and 10 horsepower 


1 hour or provide automatic 
fire-extinguishing system 


Refrigerant machinery rooms 


1 hour or provide automatic 
sprinkler system 


Parking garage (Section 406.2) 


2 hours; or 1 hour and provide 
automatic fire-extinguishing system 


Hydrogen cut-off rooms 


1-hour fire barriers and floor/ceiling 
assemblies in Group B, F, H, M, S 
and U occupancies. 2-hour fire 
barriers and floor/ceiling assemblies 
in Group A, E, I and R occupancies. 


Incinerator rooms 


2 hours and automatic sprinkler 
system 


Paint shops, not classified as Group 
H, located in occupancies other than 
Group F 


2 hours; or 1 hour and provide 
automatic fire-extinguishing system 


Laboratories and vocational shops, 
not classified as Group H, located in 
Group E or 1-2 occupancies 


1 hour or provide automatic 
fire-extinguishing system 


Laundry rooms over 100 square feet 


1 hour or provide automatic 
fire-extinguishing system 


Storage rooms over 100 square feet 


1 hour or provide automatic 
fire-extinguishing system 


Group 1-3 cells equipped with padded 
surfaces 


1 hour 


Group 1-2 waste and linen collection 
rooms 


1 hour 


Waste and linen collection rooms 
over 100 square feet 


1 hour or provide automatic 
fire-extinguishing system 


Stationary lead-acid battery systems 
having a liquid capacity of more than 
100 gallons used for facility standby 
power, emergency power or 
uninterrupted power supplies 


1-hour fire barriers and floor/ceiling 
assemblies in Group B, F, H, M, S 
and U occupancies. 2-hour fire 
barriers and floor/ceiling assemblies 
in Group A, E, I and R occupancies 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^, 1 pound per square inch = 6.9 kPa, 
1 British thermal unit = 0.293 watts, I horsepower = 746 watts, 
1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

a. Where an automatic fire-extinguishing system is provided, it need only be 
provided in the incidental use room or area. 



2003 lliSSTER(N!iATIIONAL BUBLDflNG CODE® 



23 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



302.2 Accessory use areas. A fire barrier shall be required to 
separate accessory use areas classified as Group H in accor- 
dance with Section 302.3.2, and incidental use areas in accor- 
dance with Section 302. 1.1. Any other accessory use area shall 
not be required to be separated by a fire barrier provided the ac- 
cessory use area occupies an area not more than 10 percent of 
the area of the story in which it is located and does not exceed 
the tabular values in Table 503 for the allowable height or area 
for such use. 

302.2,1 Assembly areas. Accessory assembly areas are not 
considered separate occupancies if the floor area is equal to 
or less than 750 square feet (69.7 m^). Assembly areas that 
are accessory to Group E are not considered separate occu- 
pancies. Accessory religious educational rooms and reU- 
gious auditoriums with occupant loads of less than 100 are 
not considered separate occupancies. 

302.3 Mixed occupancies. Where a building is occupied by 
two or more uses not included in the same occupancy classifi- 
cation, the building or portion thereof shall comply with Sec- 
tion 302.3.1 or 302.3.2 or a combination of these sections. 

Exceptions: 

1. Occupancies separated in accordance with Section 

508. 

2. Areas of Group H-2, H-3, H-4 or H-5 occupancies 
shall be separated from any other occupancy in accor- 
dance with Section 302.3.2. 

3. Where required by Table 415.3.2, areas of Group H-1 , 
H-2 or H-3 occupancy shall be located in a separate 
and detached building or structure. 

4. Accessory use areas in accordance with Section 
302.2. 

5. Incidental use areas in accordance with Section 
302.1.1. 

302.3.1 Nonseparated uses. Each portion of the building 
shall be individually classified as to use. The required type 
of construction for the building shall be determined by ap- 
plying the height and area limitations for each of the appli- 
cable occupancies to the entire building. The most 
restrictive type of construction, so determined, shall apply 
to the entire building. All other code requirements shall ap- 
ply to each portion of the building based on the use of that 
space except that the most restrictive appHcable provisions 
of Section 403 and Chapter 9 shall apply to these 
nonseparated uses. Fire separations are not required be- 
tween uses, except as required by other provisions. 

302.3.2 Separated uses. Each portion of the building shall 
be individually classified as to use and shall be completely 
separated from adjacent areas by fire barrier walls or hori- 
zontal assemblies or both having a fire-resistance rating de- 
termined in accordance with Table 302.3.2 for uses being 
separated. Each fire area shall comply with this code based 
on the use of that space. Each fire area shall comply with the 
height limitations based on the use of that space and the type 
of construction classification. In each story, the building 
area shall be such that the sum of the ratios of the floor area 
of each use divided by the allowable area for each use shall 
not exceed one. 



Exception: Except for Group H and 1-2 areas, where the 
building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprin- 
kler system, installed in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1, the fire-resistance ratings in Table 302.3.2 
shall be reduced by 1 hour but to not less than 1 hour and 
to not less than that required for floor construction ac- 
cording to the type of construction. 

302.4 Spaces used for different purposes, A room or space 
that is intended to be occupied at different times for different 
purposes shall comply with all the requirements that are appli- 
cable to each of the purposes for which the room or space will 
be occupied. 



SECTION 303 

ASSEMBLY GROUP A 

303.1 Assembly Group A. Assembly Group A occupancy in- 
cludes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a 
portion thereof, for the gathering together of persons for pur- 
poses such as civic, social or religious functions, recreation, 
food or drink consumption or awaiting transportation. A room 
or space used for assembly purposes by less than 50 persons 
and accessory to another occupancy shall be included as a part 
of that occupancy. Assembly areas with less than 750 square 
feet (69.7 m^) and which are accessory to another occupancy 
according to Section 302.2.1 are not assembly occupancies. 
Assembly occupancies which are accessory to Group E in ac- 
cordance with Section 302.2 are not considered assembly occu- 
pancies. Religious educational rooms and religious 
auditoriums which are accessory to churches in accordance 
with Section 302.2 and which have occupant loads of less than 
100 shall be classified as A-3. 

Assembly occupancies shall include the following: 

A-1 Assembly uses, usually with fixed seating, intended for 
the production and viewing of the performing arts or 
motion pictures including, but not limited to: 

Motion picture theaters 

Symphony and concert halls | 

Television and radio studios admitting an audience 

Theaters 

A-'2 Assembly uses intended for food and/or drink con- 
sumption including, but not limited to: 
Banquet halls 
Night clubs 
Restaurants 
Taverns and bars 

A-3 Assembly uses intended for worship, recreation or 
amusement and other assembly uses not classified else- 
where in Group A including, but not limited to: 

Amusement arcades 

Art galleries 

Bowling alleys 

Churches 

Community halls 

Courtrooms 

Dance halls (not including food or drink consump- 
tion) 

Exhibition halls 



I* 



24 



2003 BNTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



[V9 
Q 

03 



HI 

STB 






£ 
2 

O 
© 





















TABLE 302.3.2 
F^EQOBRED SEPARATDON OF OCCUPANCDES (HOURSf 


















USE 


A-1 


A-2 


A-3 


A-4 


A-5 


B^ 


E 


■ F-1 


F-2 


H-1 


H-2 


H-3 


H-4 


H-5 


0-1 


1-2 


D-3 


[-4 


M^ 


R-1 


R-2 


R-3, R-4 


S-1 


S-2*^ 


U 


A-1 





2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


NP 


4 


3 


2 


4 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 




A-2^ 


_ 


_ 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


NP 


4 


3 


2 


4 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 




A-3 


_ 


_ 


„ 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


NP 


4 


3 


2 


4 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 




A-4 


_ 











2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


NP 


4 


3 


2 


4 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 




A-5 


_ 














2 


2 


3 


2 


NP 


4 


3 


2 


4 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 




B^ 

















— 


2 


3 


2 


NP 


2 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 




E 


_ 




















3 


2 


NP 


4 


3 


2 


3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 




F-1 


























3 


NP 


2 


1 


1 


1 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 




F-2 





























NP 


2 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 




H-1 





. 

























NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


H-2 


_ 


_ 


_ 





_ 





_ 














1 


2 


2 


4 


4 


4 


4 


2 


4 


4 


4 


2 


2 




H-3 






































1 


1 


4 


3 


3 


3 


1 


3 


3 


3 


1 


1 




H-4 









































1 


4 


4 


4 


4 


1 


4 


4 


4 


1 


1 




H-5 












































4 


4 


4 


3 


, 


4 


4 


4 


1 


I 




I-l 














__ 
































2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


4 


3 




1-2 


















































2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 




1-3 





















































2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 




1-4 





















































— 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 




M^ 
































— 





— 





— 





— 


— 


— 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 




R-1 














. 











































2 


2 


3 


2 




R-2 

































































2 


3 


2 




R-3, R-4 



























































— 





— 


3 


2d 


|d 


S-1 





— 





— 





— 














— 





— 





— 





— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3 




S-2^ 










































































U 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^. 
NP = Not permitted. 

a. See exception to Section 302.3.2 for reductions permitted. 

b. Occupancy separation need not be provided for storage areas within Groups B and M if the: 

1. Area is less than 10 percent of the floor area; 

2. Area is provided with an automatic fire-extinguishing system and is less than 3,000 square feet; or 

3. Area is less than 1,000 square feet. 

c. Areas used only for private or pleasure vehicles shall be allowed to reduce separation by 1 hour. 

d. See Section 406. 1 .4. 

e. Commercial kitchens need not be separated from the restaurant seating areas that they serve. 



m 
m 

> 

© 

o 
o 

> 

< 






U1 



> 
O 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



Funeral parlors 

Gymnasiums (without spectator seating) 

Indoor swimming pools (without spectator seating) 

Indoor tennis courts (without spectator seating) 

Lecture halls 

Libraries 

Museums 

Waiting areas in transportation terminals 

Pool and biUiard parlors 

A-4 Assembly uses intended for viewing of indoor sporting 
events and activities with spectator seating including, 
but not limited to: 

Arenas 

Skating rinks 

Swimming pools 

Tennis courts 

A-5 Assembly uses intended for participation in or viewing 
outdoor activities including, but not limited to: 
Amusement park structures 
Bleachers 
Grandstands 
Stadiums 

303.1.1 Nonaccessory assembly use. A building or tenant 
space used for assembly purposes by less than 50 persons 
shall be considered a Group B occupancy. 



SECTION 304 
BUSINESS GROUP B 

304.1 Business Group B. Business Group B occupancy in- 
cludes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a 
portion thereof, for office, professional or service-type transac- 
tions, including storage of records and accounts. Business oc- 
cupancies shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Airport traffic control towers 
Animal hospitals, kennels and pounds 
Banks 

Barber and beauty shops 
Car wash 

Civic administration 
Clinic — outpatient 

Dry cleaning and laundries; pick-up and delivery stations 
and self-service 

Educational occupancies above the 12th grade 
Electronic data processing 
Laboratories; testing and research 
Motor vehicle showrooms 
Post offices 
Print shops 

Professional services (architects, attorneys, dentists, physi- 
cians, engineers, etc.) 
Radio and television stations 
Telephone exchanges 



SECTION 305 
EDUCATIONAL GROUP E 

305ol Educational Group E. Educational Group E occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a 



portion thereof, by six or more persons at any one time for 
educational purposes through the 12th grade. Religious educa- 
tional rooms and reHgious auditoriums, which are accessory to 
churches in accordance with Section 302.2 and have occupant 
loads of less than 100, shall be classified as A-3 occupancies. 

305.2 Day care. The use of a building or structure, or portion 
thereof, for educational, supervision or personal care services 
for more than five children older than l^l^ years of age, shall be 
classified as a Group E occupancy. 



SECTION 306 
FACTORY GROUP F 

306ol Factory Industrial Group E Factory Industrial Group F 
occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or 
structure, or a portion thereof, for assembling, disassembling, 
fabricating, finishing, manufacturing, packaging, repair or pro- 
cessing operations that are not classified as a Group H hazard- | 
ous or Group S storage occupancy. I 

306,2 Factory Industrial F-1 Moderate-Hazard Occu= 

paecy. Factory industrial uses which are not classified as Fac- 
tory Industrial F-2 Low Hazard shall be classified as F-1 
Moderate Hazard and shall include, but not be limited to, the 
following: 

Aircraft 

Appliances 

Athletic equipment 

Automobiles and other motor vehicles 

Bakeries 

Beverages; over 12-percent alcohol content | 

Bicycles 

Boats 

Brooms or brushes 

Business machines 

Cameras and photo equipment 

Canvas or similar fabric 

Carpets and rugs (includes cleaning) 

Clothing 

Construction and agricultural machinery 

Disinfectants 

Dry cleaning and dyeing 

Electric generation plants | 

Electronics 

Engines (including rebuilding) 

Food processing 

Furniture 

Hemp products 

Jute products 

Laundries 

Leather products 

Machinery 

Metals 

Mill work (sash & door) 

Mofion pictures and television filming (without spectators) ] 

Musical instruments 

Optical goods 

Paper mills or products 

Photographic film 

Plastic products 



r 



26 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



ySE mD OCCUFAIMCY CLASSBFiCATIOM 



Printing or publishing 

Recreational vehicles 

Refuse incineration 

Shoes 

Soaps and detergents 

Textiles 

Tobacco 

Trailers 

Upholstering 

Wood; distillation 

Woodworking (cabinet) 

306o3 Factory lEdesltrnai& F=2 Low-Hazaiird Occmpancyo Fac- 
tory industrial uses that involve the fabrication or manufactur- 
ing of noncombustible materials which during finishing, 
packing or processing do not involve a significant fire hazard 
shall be classified as F-2 occupancies and shall include, but not 
be Hmited to, the following: 

Beverages; up to and including 12-percent alcohol content 
Brick and masonry 
Ceramic products 

Foundries 

Glass products 

Gypsum 

Ice 

Metal products (fabrication and assembly) 



HIOH^HAZARD GROUP H 

I [F] 307ol mgh-Msimrd Group tt High-Hazard Group H oc- 
cupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or struc- 
ture, or a portion thereof, that involves the manufacturing, 
processing, generation or storage of materials that constitute a 
physical or health hazard in quantities in excess of those found 
in Tables 307.7(1) and 307.7(2) (see also definition of "Control 
area"). 

[F] 307o2 DefimttnoESo The following words and terms shall, for 
the purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

AEROSOLo A product that is dispensed from an aerosol con- 
tainer by a propellant. 

Aerosol products shall be classified by means of the calcula- 
tion of their chemical heats of combustion and shall be desig- 
nated Level 1, 2 or 3. 

Level 1 aierosofl prodectSo Those with a total chemical heat 
of combustion that is less than or equal to 8,600 British ther- 
mal units per pound (Btu/lb) (20 kJ/g). 

Level 2 aerosol prodECts, Those with a total chemical heat 
of combustion that is greater than 8,600 Btu/lb (20 kJ/g), but 
less than or equal to 13,000 Btu/lb (30 kJ/g). 

Level 3 aerosol prodiiicts= Those with a total chemical heat 
combustion that is greater than 13,000 Btu/lb (30 kJ/g). 



or plastic botties shall be limited to a maximum size of 4 fluid 
ounces (118 ml). 

BARRICADEo A structure that consists of a combination of 
walls, floor and roof, which is designed to withstand the rapid 
release of energy in an explosion and which is fully confined, 
partially vented or fully vented; or other effective method of 
shielding from explosive materials by a natural or artificial bar- 
rier. 

Artiidal bamcaideo An artificial mound or revetment a 
minimum thickness of 3 feet (914 mm). 

Natural toamcadec Natural features of the ground, such as 
hills, or timber of sufficient density that the surrounding ex- 
posures that require protection cannot be seen from the 
magazine or building containing explosives when the trees 
are bare of leaves. 

BOILING POINTo The temperature at which the vapor pres- 
sure of a liquid equals the atmospheric pressure of 14.7 pounds 
per square inch (psi) (101 kPa) gage or 760 mm of mercury. 
Where an accurate boiUng point is unavailable for the material 
in question, or for mixtures which do not have a constant boil- 
ing point, for the purposes of this classification, the 20-percent 
evaporated point of a distillation performed in accordance with 
ASTM D 86 shall be used as the boiling point of the liquid. 

CLOSED SYSTEMo The use of a solid or hquid hazardous 
material involving a closed vessel or system that remains 
closed during normal operations where vapors emitted by the 
product are not liberated outside of the vessel or system and the 
product is not exposed to the atmosphere during normal opera- 
tions; and ail uses of compressed gases. Examples of closed 
systems for solids and liquids include product conveyed 
through a piping system into a closed vessel, system or piece of 
equipment. 

COMBUSTIBLE BUST Finely divided solid material that is 
420 microns or less in diameter and which, when dispersed in 
air in the proper proportions, could be ignited by a flame, spark 
or other source of ignition. Combustible dust will pass through 
a U.S. No. 40 standard sieve. 

COMBUSTIBLE FIBERSo Readily ignitable and free-burn- 
ing fibers, such as cocoa fiber, cloth, cotton, excelsior, hay, 
hemp, henequen, istie, jute, kapok, oakum, rags, sisal, Spanish 
moss, straw, tow, wastepaper, certain synthetic fibers or other 
like materials. 



A metal can or a glass or plastic 
bottle designed to dispense an aerosol. Metal cans shall be lim- 
ited to a maximum size of 33.8 fluid ounces (1,000 ml). Glass 



X A liquid having a closed cup 
flash point at or above 100°F (38°C). Combustible hquids shall 
be subdivided as follows: 

Class IIo Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or above 
lOOT (38°C) and below 140°F (60°C). 

Class IIIAo Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or 
above HOT (60°C) and below 200T (93°C). 

Class IIIB, Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or 
above 200T (93°C). 

The category of combustible liquids does not include com- 
pressed gases or cryogenic fluids. 



2003 DNTERMATDOiSIAL BUDLDBSSflG CODE® 



27 






[F] TABLE 307.7(1) 

IVIAXIMUSVa ALLOWABLE QUAN i 1 tY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARD^' 


j, m, n 




MATERIAL 


CLASS 


GROUP WHEN 

THE MAXIMUM 

ALLOWABLE 

QUANTITY IS 

EXCEEDED 


STORAGE*^ 


USE-CLOSED SYSTEMS*' 


USE-OPEN SYSTEMS" 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Gas 

(cubic feet 

at NTP) 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Gas 

(cubic feet 

at NTP) 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Combustible liquid'^' 


II 
IIIA 
IIIB 


H-2 or H-3 
H-2 or H-3 

N/A 


N/A 


120^'^ 

330^'^ 

13,200^' f 


N/A 


N/A 


120^ 

330^ 

13,200^ 


N/A 


N/A 


30^ 

80^ 

3,300^ 


Combustible fiber 


Loose 
Baled 


H-3 


(100) 
(1,000) 


N/A 


N/A 


(100) 
(1,000) 


N/A 


N/A 


(20) 
(200) 


N/A 


Consumer fireworks (Class 
C, Common) 


1.4G 


H-3 


125d.eJ 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


Cryogenics flammable 


N/A 


H-2 


N/A 


45^ 


N/A 


N/A 


45d 


N/A 


N/A 


10^ 


Cryogenics, oxidizing 


N/A 


H-3 


N/A 


45^ 


N/A 


N/A 


45^^ 


N/A 


N/A 


10^ 


Explosives 


Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 
Division 1.4 
Division 1.4G 
Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 


H-1 
H-l 
H-lor2 
H-3 
H-3 
H-l 
H-l 


ie,g 
ie,g 

5e,g 

50^-8 

125d.e,I 

ie,g 

ld,e,g 


(l)e,g 
(l)e,g 
(5)e.g 
(50)^' 8 
N/A 
(l)e.g 

N/A 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.25S 
0.258 

508 

N/A 
0.258 
N/A 


(0.25)8 
(0.25)8 

(1)8 

(50)8 

N/A 

(0.25)8 

N/A 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.258 
0.258 

18 

N/A 
N/A 
0.258 
N/A 


(0.25)8 
(0.25)8 

(1)8 

N/A 

N/A 

(0.25)8 

N/A 


Flammable gas 


Gaseous 
liquefied 


H-2 


N/A 


N/A 

30d,e 


1,000^'^ 

N/A 


N/A 


N/A 
-30^'^ 


1,000^'^ 

N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


Flammable liquid'^ 


lA 
IB and IC 


H-2 
or H-3 


N/A 


30d.e 

120^1'^ 


N/A 


N/A 


30^ 
120^1 


N/A 


N/A 


lO'^ 

30^ 


Combination flammable 
liquid (lA, IB, IC) 


N/A 


H-2 
or H-3 


N/A 


120^'^'^ 


N/A 


N/A 


120^'^ 


N/A 


N/A 


30d,h 


Flammable solid 


N/A 


H-3 


125^'^ 


N/A 


N/A 


125^ 


N/A 


N/A 


25^ 


N/A 


Organic peroxide 


UD 
I 

II 
III 

IV 
V 


H-l 
H-2 
H-3 
H-3 

N/A 
N/A 


ie,g 
5d,e 
50d,e 

125^'^ 

NL 

NL 


(l)e,g 

(50)^'^ 
(125)^'^ 

NL 

NL 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.258 
1^ 
50^ 
125^ 
N/L 
N/L 


(0.25)8 

(1) 

(50)^ 

(125)^ 

N/L 

N/L 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.258 
1^ 
10^ 
25^ 
NL 
NL 


(0.25)8 
(l)d 
(lO)'^ 
(25)^ 
NL 
NL 


Oxidizer 


4 
3^ 
2 
1 


H-l 
H-2 
H-3 

H-3 


ie,g 
10d,e 

250^'^ 
4,000^'f 


(l)e,g 
(10)^'^ 

(250)^'^ 
(4,000)^'f 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.258 
2d 

. 250^ 
4,000^ 


(0.25)8 

(2)d 
(250)^ 
(4,000)f 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.258 
2d 

50^ 
1,000*^ 


(0.25)8 
(2)d 
(50)^ 

(l,000)f 


Oxidizing gas 


Gaseous 
liquefied 


H-3 


N/A 
N/A 


N/A 

15d,e 


1,500^'^ 

N/A 


N/A 
N/A 


N/A 
15^'^ 


1,500^'^ 

N/A 


N/A 
N/A 


N/A 
N/A 



(continued) 



[F] TABLE 307.7(1)— conSDnued 
WiAXDIft/aOWJ ALLOWABLE QOANTDTY PER COBSSTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS CVaATERDALS POSDE^G A PHYSICAL 



,3, J, m, n 



m 



O 



g 
r 
2 

o 
o 
© 

m 



SVaATERDAL 


CLASS 


GROUP WHEN 

THE iyiAXEMUEVi 

ALLOWABLE 

QUANTDTY IS 

EXCEEDED 


STORAGE'' 


USE-CLOSED SYSTEiViS'' 


USE-OPEiVJ SYSTEWiS'^ 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Gas 
(cubic feet 

at NTP) 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Gas 

(cubic feet 

at NTP) 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Pyrophoric material 


N/A 


H-2 


4e>g 


•(4)e.g 


50^' g 


IS 


(1)^ 


lO^'g 








Unstable (reactive) 


4 
3 
2 
1 


H-1 

H-lorH-2 

H-3 

N/A 


le.g 

5d,e 

NL 


(l)e,g 
(5)^'^ 

(50)^'^ 

NL 


10d>g 

250^^'^ 
N/L 


0.25S 

NL 


(0.25)g 

(1) 
(50)^ 
N/L 


2e.g 

250^'^ 

NL 


0.25^ 

NL 


(0.25)g 

(1)' 
(10)d 

NL 


Water reactive 


3 

2 
1 


H-2 

H-3 

N/A 


5d,e 

NL 


(5)^'^ 

(50)^'^ 

NL 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


5^^ 

NL 


(5)^ 
(50)^ 
NL 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


1^ 

NL 


(1)' 
(10)^ 

NL 



For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.023 m^ 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 
NL = Not Limited; N/A = Not Applicable; UD = Unclassified Detonable 

a. For use of control areas, see Section 414.2. 

b. The aggregate quantity in use and storage shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage. 

c. The quantities of alcoholic beverages in retail and wholesale sales occupancies shall not be limited providing the liquids are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons. In retail and wholesale 
sales occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuffs, consumer or industrial products, and cosmetics containing not more than 50 percent by volume of water-mi scible liquids with the remainder of the solu- 
tions not being flammable, shall not be limited, provided that such materials are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons. 

d. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where Note e also applies, the increase 
for both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

e. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures or safety cans as specified in the International Fire Code. Where Note d 
also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

The permitted quantities shall not be limited in a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 
Permitted only in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 
Containing not more than the maximum allowable quantity per control area of Class lA, IB or IC flammable liquids. 

Inside a building, the maximum capacity of a combustible liquid storage system that is connected to a fuel-oil piping system shall be 660 gallons provided such system conforms to the International Fire Code. 
Quantities in parenthesis indicate quantity units in parenthesis at the head of each column. 

A maximum quantity of 200 pounds of solid or 20 gallons of liquid Class 3 oxidizers is allowed when such materials are necessary for maintenance purposes, operation or sanitation of equipment. Storage contain- 
ers and the manner of storage shall be approved. 

Net weight of the pyrotechnic composition of the fireworks. Where the net weight of the pyrotechnic composition of the fireworks is not known, 25 percent of the gross weight of the fireworks, including packag- 
ing, shall be used. 

m.For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 2703.1.2 of the International Fire Code. 

n. For storage and display quantities in Group M and storage quantities in Group S occupancies complying with Section 414.2.4, see Table 414.2.4. 



1. 



m 

m 

> 

o 
o 
o 






O 

< 

a 

> 

o 
> 

© 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



[F] TABLE 307.7(2) 
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POSING A HEALTH HAZARD^' ^' *=■ ' 



MATERIAL 


STORAGE^ 


USE-CLOSED SYSTEiViS^ 


USE-OPEN SYSTEIVIS** 


Solid pounds®' ^ 


Liquid gallons 
(poundsf-^ 


Gas (cubic feet 

at mpf 


Solid pounds® 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds)® 


Gas (cubic feet 
at NTP)® 


Solid pounds® 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds)® 


Corrosive 


5,000 


500 


SlO^'g 


5,000 


500 


siof-g 


1,000 


100 


Highly toxic 


10 


(loy 


20^ 


10 


(loy 


20^ 


3 


(3)' 


Toxic 


500 


(500)' 


810^ 


500 


(5ooy 


810^ 


125 


(125)' 



For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.028 m^ 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

a. For use of control areas, see Section 414.2. 

b. In retail and wholesale sales occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuffs, consumer or industrial products, and cosmetics, containing not more than 50 
percent by volume of water-miscible liquids and with the remainder of the solutions not being flammable, shall not be limited, provided that such materials are 
packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1 .3 gallons. 

c. For storage and display quantities in Group M and storage quantities in Group S occupancies complying with Section 414.2.4, see Table 414.2.4. 

d. The aggregate quantity in use and storage shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage. 

e. Quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 
Where Note f also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

f. Quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures as specified in the International Fire 
Code. Where Note e also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively, 

g. A single cylinder containing 150 pounds or less of anhydrous ammonia in a single control area in a nonsprinklered building shall be considered a maximum allow- 
able quantity. Two cyUnders, each containing 1 50 pounds or less in a single control area, shall be considered a maximum allowable quantity provided the building 
is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

h. Allowed only when stored in approved exhausted gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures as specified in the International Fire Code. 

i. Quantities in parenthesis indicate quantity units in parenthesis at the head of each column. 

j. For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 2703.1.2 of the International Fire Code. 



COMPRESSED GAS. A material, or mixture of materials 
which: 

1. Is a gas at 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 pounds per square 
inch atmosphere (psia) (101 kPa) of pressure; and 

2. Has a boiling point of 68°F {20°C) or less at 14.7 psia 
(101 kPa) which is either liquefied, nonUquefied or in so- 
lution, except those gases which have no other health- or 
physical-hazard properties are not considered to be com- 
pressed until the pressure in the packaging exceeds 41 
psia (282 kPa) at 68T (20°C). 

The states of a compressed gas are categorized as follows: 

1. Nonliquefied compressed gases are gases, other than 
those in solution, which are in a packaging under the 
charged pressure and are entirely gaseous at a tempera- 
ture of 68 T (20X). 

2. Liquefied compressed gases are gases that, in a packag- 
ing under the charged pressure, are partially liquid at a 
temperature of 68°F (20°C). 

3 . Compressed gases in solution are nonhquefied gases that 
are dissolved in a solvent. 

4. Compressed gas mixtures consist of a mixture of two or 
more compressed gases contained in a packaging, the 
hazard properties of which are represented by the proper- 
ties of the mixture as a whole. 

CONTROL AREA, Spaces within a building that are en- 
closed and bounded by exterior walls, fire walls, fire barriers 
and roofs, or a combination thereof, where quantities of haz- 
ardous materials not exceeding the maximum allowable quan- 
tities per control area are stored, dispensed, used or handled. 

CORROSIVEo A chemical that causes visible destruction of, 
or irreversible alterations in, living tissue by chemical action at 
the point of contact. A chemical shall be considered corrosive 



if, when tested on the intact skin of albino rabbits by the method 
described in DOTn 49 CFR, Part 173.137, such a chemical de- 
stroys or changes irreversibly the structure of the tissue at the 
point of contact following an exposure period of 4 hours. This 
term does not refer to action on inanimate surfaces. 

CRYOGENIC FLUID. A liquid having a boiling point lower 
than -150''F (-101°C) at 14.7 pounds per square inch atmo- 
sphere (psia) (an absolute pressure of 101 kPa). 

DEFLAGRATION. An exothermic reaction, such as the ex- 
tremely rapid oxidation of a flammable dust or vapor in air, in 
which the reaction progresses through the unbumed material at 
a rate less than the velocity of sound. A deflagration can have an 
explosive effect. 

DETACHED BUILDING. A separate single-story building, 
without a basement or crawl space, used for the storage or use 
of hazardous materials and located an approved distance from 
all structures. 

DETONATION. An exothermic reaction characterized by the 
presence of a shock wave in the material which establishes and 
maintains the reaction. The reaction zone progresses through 
the material at a rate greater than the velocity of sound. The 
principal heating mechanism is one of shock compression. Det- 
onations have an explosive effect. 

DISPENSING. The pouring or transferring of any material 
from a container, tank or similar vessel, whereby vapors, dusts, 
fumes, mists or gases are liberated to the atmosphere. 

EXPLOSIVE, Any chemical compound, mixture or device, 
the primary or common purpose of which is to function by ex- 
plosion. The term includes, but is not limited to, dynamite, 
black powder, pellet powder, initiating explosives, detonators, 
safety fuses, squibs, detonating cord, igniter cord, igniters and 
display fireworks, 1.3G (Class B, Special). 



30 



2003 irsaiERNATaONAL BUILDING CODE® 



USE AND OCCyPANCY CLASSDFilCATI0fiS3 



•I 



The term "explosive" includes any material determined to be 
within the scope of USC Title 18: Chapter 40 and also includes 
any material classified as an explosive other than consumer 
fireworks, 1 .4G (Class C, Common) by the hazardous materials 
regulations of DOTn 49 CFR. 

Higli explosflveo Explosive material, such as dynamite, 
which can be caused to detonate by means of a No. 8 test 
blasting cap when unconfined. 

Low expBosflveo Explosive material that will bum or defla- 
grate when ignited. It is characterized by a rate of reaction 
that is less than the speed of sound. Examples of low explo- 
sives include, but are not limited to, black powder; safety 
fuse; igniters; igniter cord; fuse lighters; fireworks, 1.3G 
(Class B, Special) and propellants, 1.3C. 

Mass-detoHisitiinig explosives. Division 1.1, 1.2 and 1.5 ex- 
plosives alone or in combination, or loaded into various 
types of ammunition or containers, most of which can be ex- 
pected to explode virtually instantaneously when a small 
portion is subjected to fire, severe concussion, impact, the 
impulse of an initiating agent or the effect of a considerable 
discharge of energy from without. Materials that react in this 
manner represent a mass explosion hazard. Such an explo- 
sive will normally cause severe structural damage to adja- 
cent objects. Explosive propagation could occur 
immediately to other items of ammunition and explosives 
stored sufficientiy close to and not adequately protected 
from the initially exploding pile with a time interval short 
enough so that two or more quantities must be considered as 
one for quantity-distance purposes. 

UN/DOThh Ckss 1 explosiveso The former classification 
system used by DOTn included the terms "high" and "low" 
explosives as defined herein. The following terms further 
define explosives under the current system applied by DOTn 
for all explosive materials defined as hazard Class 1 materi- 
als. Compatibility group letters are used in concert with the 
division to specify further limitations on each division noted 
(i.e., the letter G identifies the material as a pyrotechnic sub- 
stance or article containing a pyrotechnic substance and 
similar materials). 

Divflsnom lol. Explosives that have a mass explosion haz- 
ard. A mass explosion is one which affects almost the en- 
tire load instantaneously. 

Divisioni 1.2o Explosives that have a projection hazard 
but not a mass explosion hazard. 

DivisDoe l,3o Explosives that have a fire hazard and ei- 
ther a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard or 
both, but not a mass explosion hazard. 

MySsSoe io4. Explosives that pose a minor explosion 
hazard. The explosive effects are largely confined to the 
package and no projection of fragments of appreciable 
size or range is to be expected. An external fire must not 
cause virtually instantaneous explosion of almost the en- 
tire contents of the package. 

DflYisloffl IcSo Very insensitive explosives. This division is 
comprised of substances that have a mass explosion haz- 
ard, but that are so insensitive there is very little probabil- 



ity of initiation or of transition from burning to detona- 
tion under normal conditions of transport. 

Dflvfisflom lo6o Extremely insensitive articles which do not 
have a mass explosion hazard. This division is comprised 
of articles that contain only extremely insensitive deto- 
nating substances and which demonstrate a negligible 
probabihty of accidental initiation or propagation. 



[So Any composition or device for the purpose of 
producing a visible or audible effect for entertainment pur- 
poses by combustion, deflagration or detonation that meets the 
definition of 1.4G fireworks or 1.3G fireworks as set forth 
herein. 



[S9 13Go (Formerly Class B, Special Fireworks.) 
Large fireworks devices, which are explosive materials, in- 
tended for use in fireworks displays and designed to produce 
audible or visible effects by combustion, deflagration or deto- 
nation. Such 1 .3G fireworks include, but are not limited to, fire- 
crackers containing more than 130 milligrams (2 grains) of 
explosive composition, aerial shells containing more than 40 
grams of pyrotechnic composition, and other display pieces 
which exceed the limits for classification as 1.4G fireworks. 
Such 1.3G fireworks are also described as fireworks, 49 CFR 
(172) by the DOTn. 



[S9 lAGo (Formerly Class C, Common Fire- 
works.) Small fireworks devices containing restricted amounts 
of pyrotechnic composition designed primarily to produce vis- 
ible or audible effects by combustion. Such 1.4G fireworks 
which comply with the construction, chemical composition 
and labehng regulations of the DOTn for fireworks, 49 CFR 
(172), and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission 
(CPSC) as set forth in CPSC 16 CFR: Parts 1500 and 1507, are 
not explosive materials for the purpose of this code. 

FLAMMABLE GASo A material that is a gas at 68T (20°C) 
or less at 14.7 pounds per square inch atmosphere (psia) (101 
kPa) of pressure [a material that has a boiling point of 68''F 
(20°C) or less at 14.7 psia (101 kPa)] which: 

1. Is ignitable at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) when in a mixture of 13 
percent or less by volume with air; or 

2. Has a flammable range at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) with air of 
at least 12 percent, regardless of the lower limit. 

The limits specified shall be determined at 14.7 psi ( 101 kPa) of 
pressure and a temperature of 68°F (20°C) in accordance with 

ASTME681. 

FLAMMABLE LIQUEFIED GASo A liquefied compressed 
gas which, under a charged pressure, is partially liquid at a tem- 
perature of 68°F (20°C) and which is flammable. 

FLAMMABLE LIQUID. A liquid having a closed cup flash 
point below 100°F (38°C). Flammable liquids are further cate- 
gorized into a group known as Class I liquids. The Class I cate- 
gory is subdivided as follows: 

Class lA, Liquids having a flash point below 73°F (23°C) 
and a boiling point below 100°F (38°C). 

Class IB, Liquids having a flash point below 73°F (23°C) 
and a boiling point at or above 100°F (38°C). 

Class IC, Liquids having a flash point at or above 73'^F 
(23°C) and below lOOT (38°C). 



2003 BNTEBMATBOi^AL BUDLDDMG CODE® 



31 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



The category of flammable liquids does not include com- 
pressed gases or cryogenic fluids. 

FLAMMABLE MATERL\L, A material capable of being 
readily ignited from common sources of heat or at a temperature 
of600°F(316°C)orless. 

FLAMMABLE SOLID. A solid, other than a blasting agent or 
explosive, that is capable of causing fire through friction, absorp- 
tion or moisture, spontaneous chemical change, or retained heat 
from manufacturing or processing, or which has an ignition tem- 
perature below 212°F (100°C) or which bums so vigorously and 
persistently when ignited as to create a serious hazard. A chemi- 
cal shall be considered a flammable solid as determined in accor- 
dance with the test method of CPSC 16 CFR; Part 1500.44, if it 
ignites and bums with a self-sustained flame at a rate greater than 
0.1 inch (2.5 mm) per second along its major axis. 

FLASH POINT, The minimum temperature in degrees Fahren- 
heit at which a Hquid will give off sufficient vapors to form an ig- 
nitable mixture with air near the surface or in the container, but 
will not sustain combustion. The flash point of a liquid shall be 
determined by appropriate test procedure and apparatus as spec- 
ified in ASTM D 56, ASTM D 93 or ASTM D 3278. 

HANDLING, The deliberate transport by any means to a point 
of storage or use. 

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. Those chemicals or substances 
that are physical hazards or health hazards as defined and classi- 
fied in this section and the International Fire Code, whether the 
materials are in usable or waste condifion. 

HEALTH HAZARD. A classificafion of a chemical for which 
there is statistically significant evidence that acute or chronic 
health effects are capable of occurring in exposed persons. The 
term "health hazard" includes chemicals that are toxic or highly 
toxic, and corrosive. 

HIGHLY TOXIC, A material which produces a lethal dose or 
lethal concentration that falls within any of the following catego- 
ries: 

1. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of 50 
milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight when ad- 
ministered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 and 
300 grams each. 

2. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of 200 
miUigrams or less per kilogram of body weight when ad- 
ministered by continuous contact for 24 hours (or less if 
death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare skin of albino 
rabbits weighing between 2 and 3 kilograms each. 

3. A chemical that has a median lethal concentration (LC50) 
in air of 200 parts per million by volume or less of gas or 
vapor, or 2 miUigrams per Uter or less of mist, fume or 
dust, when administered by continuous inhalation for 1 
hour (or less if death occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats 
weighing between 200 and 300 grams each. 

Mixtures of these materials with ordinary materials, such as 
water, might not warrant classification as highly toxic. While 
this system is basically simple in application, any hazard evalua- 
tion that is required for the precise categorization of this type of 
material shall be performed by experienced, technically compe- 
tent persons. 



INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. Materials that, when 
mixed, have the potential to react in a manner that generates 
heat, fumes, gases or byproducts which are hazardous to life or 
property. 

OPEN SYSTEM, The use of a solid or liquid hazardous mate- 
rial involving a vessel or system that is continuously open to the 
atmosphere during normal operations and where vapors are Hb- 
erated, or the product is exposed to the atmosphere during nor- 
mal operations. Examples of open systems for soHds and 
liquids include dispensing from or into open beakers or con- 
tainers, dip tank and plating tank operations. 

OPERATING BUILDING, A building occupied in conjunc- 
tion with the manufacture, transportation or use of explosive 
materials. Operating buildings are separated from one another 
with the use of intraplant or intrafine distances. 

ORGANIC PEROXIDE. An organic compound that contains 
the bivalent -0-0- structure and which may be considered to be 
a structural derivative of hydrogen peroxide where one or both 
of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by an organic radi- 
cal. Organic peroxides can pose an explosion hazard (detona- 
tion or deflagration) or they can be shock sensitive. They can 
also decompose into various unstable compounds over an ex- 
tended period of time. 

Class lo Those formulations that are capable of deflagration 
but not detonation. 

Class II. Those formulations that bum very rapidly and that 
pose a moderate reactivity hazard. 

Class III. Those formulations that bum rapidly and that 
pose a moderate reactivity hazard. 

Class IVo Those formulations that bum in the same manner 
as ordinary combustibles and that pose a minimal reactivity 
hazard. 

Class V. Those formulations that bum with less intensity 
than ordinary combustibles or do not sustain combustion 
and that pose no reactivity hazard. 

Uodassified detoeabk. Organic peroxides that are capable 
of detonation. These peroxides pose an extremely high ex- 
plosion hazard through rapid explosive decomposition. 

OXIDIZER. A material that readily yields oxygen or other ox- 
idizing gas, or that readily reacts to promote or initiate combus- 
tion of combustible materials. Examples of other oxidizing 
gases include bromine, chlorine and fluorine. 

Class 4. An oxidizer that can undergo an explosive reaction 
due to contamination or exposure to thermal or physical 
shock. Additionally, the oxidizer will enhance the buming 
rate and can cause spontaneous ignition of combustibles. 

Class 3. An oxidizer that will cause a severe increase in the 
burning rate of combustible materials with which it comes 
in contact or that will undergo vigorous self- sustained de- 
composition due to contamination or exposure to heat. 

Class 2. An oxidizer that will cause a moderate increase in 
the buming rate or that causes spontaneous ignition of com- 
bustible materials with which it comes in contact. 

Class 1, An oxidizer whose primary hazard is that it slightiy 
increases the burning rate but which does not cause sponta- 



32 



2003 SNTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



USE AliSiD DCCyPANCY CLASSilFBCATSON 



neous ignition when it comes in contact with combustible 
materials. 

OXIDIZING G ASo A gas that can support and accelerate com- 
bustion of other materials. 

PHYSICAL HAZAEDo A chemical for which there is evi- 
dence that it is a combustible Hquid, compressed gas, cryo- 
genic, explosive, flammable gas, flammable Uquid, flammable 
soHd, organic peroxide, oxidizer, pyrophoric or unstable (reac- 
tive) or water-reactive material. 

PYMOPHOEICo A chemical with an autoignition temperature 
in air, at or below a temperature of 130°F (54.4°C). 

PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION, A chemical mixture 
that produces visible Hght displays or sounds through a 
self-propagating, heat-releasing chemical reaction which is 
initiated by ignition. 

TOXICc A chemical falHng within any of the following catego- 
ries: 

1 . A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of more 
than 50 milligrams per kilogram, but not more than 500 
milligrams per kilogram of body weight when adminis- 
tered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 
grams each. 

2. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of more 
than 200 milligrams per kilogram but not more than 
1 ,000 milligrams per kilogram of body weight when ad- 
ministered by continuous contact for 24 hours (or less if 
death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare skin of albino 
rabbits weighing between 2 and 3 kilograms each. 

3. A chemical that has a median lethal concentration 
(LC50) in air of more than 200 parts per million but not 
more than 2,000 parts per million by volume of gas or va- 
por, or more than 2 milligrams per liter but not more than 
20 miUigrams per liter of mist, fume or dust, when ad- 
ministered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour (or less if 
death occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats weighing be- 
tween 200 and 300 grams each. 

UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIAL, A material, other 
than an explosive, which in the pure state or as commercially 
produced, will vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense 
or become self-reactive and undergo other violent chemical 
changes, including explosion, when exposed to heat, friction or 
shock, or in the absence of an inhibitor, or in the presence of 
contaminants, or in contact with incompatible materials. Un- 
stable (reactive) materials are subdivided as follows: 

Class 4o Materials that in themselves are readily capable of 
detonation or explosive decomposition or explosive reac- 
tion at normal temperatures and pressures. This class in- 
cludes materials that are sensitive to mechanical or localized 
thermal shock at normal temperatures and pressures. 

Class 3o Materials that in themselves are capable of detona- 
tion or of explosive decomposition or explosive reaction but 
which require a strong initiating source or which must be 
heated under confinement before initiation. This class in- 
cludes materials that are sensitive to thermal or mechanical 
shock at elevated temperatures and pressures. 



Class 2o Materials that in themselves are normally unstable 
and readily undergo violent chemical change but do not det- 
onate. This class includes materials that can undergo chemi- 
cal change with rapid release of energy at normal 
temperatures and pressures, and that can undergo violent 
chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures. 

Class lo Materials that in themselves are normally stable but 
which can become unstable at elevated temperatures and 
pressure. 



A material that ex- 
plodes; violently reacts; produces flammable, toxic or other 
hazardous gases; or evolves enough heat to cause self-ignition 
or ignition of nearby combustibles upon exposure to water or 
moisture. Water-reactive materials are subdivided as follows: 

Class 3o Materials that react explosively with water without 
requiring heat or confinement. 

Class 2o Materials that may form potentially explosive mix- 
tures with water. 

Class lo Materials that may react with water with some re- 
lease of energy, but not violently. 

[F] 3€)7o3 HIgh=Hazard Group M-h Buildings and structures 
containing materials that pose a detonaUon hazard shall be 
classified as Group H-1. Such materials shall include, but not 
be limited to, the following: 

Explosives: 

Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 

Exceptions Materials that are used and maintained in 
a form where either confinement or configuration will | 
not elevate the hazard from a mass fire to mass explo- 
sion hazard shall be allowed in H-2 occupancies. 

Division 1.4 

Exception: Articles, including articles packaged for 
shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under 
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms regula- 
tions, or unpackaged articles used in process opera- 
tions that do not propagate a detonation or 
deflagration between articles shall be allowed in H-3 
occupancies. 

Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 

Organic peroxides, unclassified detonable 

Oxidizers, Class 4 

Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 3 detonable and Class 4 

Detonable pyrophoric materials 

[F] 3mA Hlgli-Hazard Groop H-2, Buildings and structures | 
containing materials that pose a deflagration hazard or a hazard 
from accelerated burning shall be classified as Group H-2. 
Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the follow- | 
ing: 

Class I, II or IIIA flammable or combustible liquids which 
are used or stored in normally open containers or systems, or 



2003 iiSiTERNATiOiV3AL BUILDBNG CODE® 



33 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFBCATION 



in closed containers or systems pressurized at more than 15 
psi (103.4 kPa) gage. 

Combustible dusts 

Cryogenic fluids, flammable 

Flammable gases 

Organic peroxides, Class I 

Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally open 
containers or systems, or in closed containers or systems 
pressurized at more than 15 psi (103 kPa) gage 

Pyrophoric liquids, solids and gases, nondetonable 

Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 3, nondetonable 

Water-reactive materials, Class 3 

[F] 307.5 High-Hazard Group H-3. Buildings and structures 
containing materials that readily support combustion or that 
pose a physical hazard shall be classified as Group H-3. Such 
materials shall include, but not be hmited to, the following: 

Class I, II or IIIA flammable or combustible Hquids which 
are used or stored in normally closed containers or systems 
pressurized at less than 15 psi (103.4 kPa) gage. 

Combustible fibers 

Consumer fireworks, 1.4G (Class C Common) 
I Cryogenic fluids, oxidizing 

Flammable solids 

Organic peroxides, Classes II and III 

Oxidizers, Class 2 

Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally closed 
containers or systems pressurized at less than 15 pounds 
per square inch (103 kPa) gauge 

Oxidizing gases 

Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 2 

Water-reactive materials. Class 2 

I [F] 307o6 High-Hazard Group H-4, Buildings and structures 
which contain materials that are health hazards shall be classi- 

Ified as Group H-4. Such materials shall include, but not be lim- 
ited to, the following: 

Corrosives 

Highly toxic materials 

Toxic materials 

[F] 307,7 Group H-5 structures. Semiconductor fabrication 
facihties and comparable research and development areas in 
which hazardous production materials (HPM) are used and the 
aggregate quantity of materials is in excess of those listed in Ta- 
bles 307.7(1) and 307.7(2). Such facilities and areas shall be 
designed and constructed in accordance with Section 415.9. 

[F] 307,8 Multiple hazards. Buildings and structures containing 
a material or materials representing hazards that are classified in 
one or more of Groups H- 1 , H-2, H-3 and H-4 shall conform to the 
code requirements for each of the occupancies so classified. 

[F] 307.9 Exceptions; The following shall not be classified in 
Group H, but shall be classified in the occupancy that they most 
nearly resemble. Hazardous materials in any quantity shall 
conform to the requirements of this code, including Section 
414, and the International Fire Code. 

1 . Buildings and structures that contain not more than the 
maximum allowable quanfifies per control area of haz- 
ardous materials as shown in Tables 307.7(1) and 



307.7(2) provided that such buildings are maintained in 
accordance with the International Fire Code, 

2. Buildings utilizing control areas in accordance with 
Section 414.2 that contain not more than the maximum 
allowable quanfities per control area of hazardous ma- 
terials as shown in Tables 307.7(1) and 307.7(2). 

3. Buildings and structures occupied for the application of 
flammable finishes, provided that such buildings or ar- 
eas conform to the requirements of Section 416 and the i 
International Fire Code. i 

4. Wholesale and retail sales and storage of flammable 
and combustible liquids in mercantile occupancies con- 
forming to the International Fire Code. 

5. Closed systems housing flammable or combustible liq- 
uids or gases utilized for the operation of machinery or 
equipment. 

6. Cleaning establishments that utilize combustible liquid 
solvents having a flash point of 140°F (60°C) or higher 
in closed systems employing equipment Usted by an ap- 
proved testing agency, provided that this occupancy is 
separated from all other areas of the building by 1-hour 
fire-resistance-rated fire barrier walls or horizontal as- 
semblies or both. 

7. Cleaning establishments which utilize a Hquid solvent 
having a flash point at or above 200°F (93°C). 

8. Liquor stores and distributors without bulk storage. 

9. Refrigeration systems. 

10. The storage or utilization of materials for agricultural 
purposes on the premises. 

11. Stationary batteries utilized for facility emergency 
power, uninterrupted power supply or telecommunica- 
tion facilities provided that the batteries are provided 
with safety venting caps and ventilation is provided in 
accordance with the International Mechanical Code. 

12. Corrosives shall not include personal or household 
products in their original packaging used in retail dis- 
play or commonly used building materials. 

1 3 . Buildings and structures occupied for aerosol storage shall 
be classified as Group S-1, provided that such buildings 
conform to the requirements of the International Fire Code. 

14. Display and storage of nonflammable solid and non- 
flammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materi- 
als in quantities not exceeding the maximum allowable 
quantity per control area in Group M or S occupancies 
complying with Section 414.2.4. 

1 5 . The storage of black powder, smokeless propellant and 
small arms primers in Groups M and R-3 and special in- 
dustrial explosive devices in Groups B, F, M and S, pro- 
vided such storage conforms to the quantity limits and 
requirements prescribed in the International Fire Code. 

SECTION 308 

INSTITUTIONAL GROUP 1 

308ol lestfltptnoiial Group L Institutional Group I occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a 
portion thereof, in which people are cared for or live in a super- 



34 



2003 l^8TERNATaONAL BUILDING CODE® 



USE AND OCCUPAIMCY CLASSIFBCATBOifVa 



vised environment, having physical limitations because of 
health or age are harbored for medical treatment or other care or 
treatment, or in which people are detained for penal or correc- 
tional purposes or in which the liberty of the occupants is re- 
stricted. Institutional occupancies shall be classified as Group 
1-1,1-2, 1-3 or 1-4. 



I-l, This occupancy shall include buildings, 
structures or parts thereof housing more than 16 persons, on a 
24-hour basis, who because of age, mental disability or other 
reasons, Hve in a supervised residential environment that pro- 
vides personal care services. The occupants are capable of re- 
sponding to an emergency situation without physical assistance 
from staff. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the 
following: 

Residential board and care facilities 
Assisted living facilities 
Halfway houses 
Group homes 
Congregate care facihties 
Social rehabilitation facihties 
Alcohol and drug centers 
Convalescent facihties 

A facility such as the above with five or fewer persons shall 
be classified as a Group R-3 or shall comply with the Interna- 
tional Residential Code in accordance with Section 101.2. A 
facility such as above, housing at least six and not more than 1 6 
persons, shall be classified as Group R-4. 

3D8o3 Groejp I-2o This occupancy shall include buildings and 
structures used for medical, surgical, psychiatric, nursing or 
custodial care on a 24-hour basis of more than five persons who 
are not capable of self-preservation. This group shall include, 
but not be limited to, the following: 

Hospitals 

Nursing homes (both intermediate-care facilities and skilled 

nursing facilities) 

Mental hospitals 

Detoxification facilities 

A facility such as the above with five or fewer persons shall 
be classified as Group R-3 or shall comply with the Interna- 
tional Residential Code in accordance with Section 101.2. 



^.3ol CMM care facnlfiity, A child care facility that pro- 
vides care on a 24-hour basis to more than five children 2V2 
years of age or less shall be classified as Group 1-2. 

3(D8o4 Groep I[=3o This occupancy shall include buildings and 
structures that are inhabited by more than five persons who are 
under restraint or security. An 1-3 facility is occupied by per- 
sons who are generally incapable of self-preservation due to se- 
curity measures not under the occupants' control. This group 
shall include, but not be Umited to, the following: 

Prisons 
Jails 

Reformatories 
Detention centers 
Correctional centers 
Prerelease centers 



Buildings of Group 1-3 shall be classified as one of the occu- 
pancy conditions indicated in Sections 308.4. 1 through 308.4.5 
(see Section 408.1). 

3§8o41 ComdltiosTi lo This occupancy condition shall in- 
clude buildings in which free movement is allowed from 
sleeping areas, and other spaces where access or occupancy 
is permitted, to the exterior via means of egress without re- 
straint. A Condition 1 facility is permitted to be constructed 
as Group R. 

3WA.2 CoEdltiom 2. This occupancy condition shall in- 
clude buildings in which free movement is allowed from 
sleeping areas and any other occupied smoke compartment 
to one or more other smoke compartments. Egress to the ex- 
terior is impeded by locked exits. 



\o43 CondMoo 3. This occupancy condition shall in- 
clude buildings in which free movement is allowed within 
individual smoke compartments, such as within a residen- 
tial unit comprised of individual sleeping units and group 
activity spaces, where egress is impeded by remote-con- 
trolled release of means of egress from such a smoke com- 
partment to another smoke compartment. 

30So4o4 CoMditiomi 4o This occupancy condition shall in- 
clude buildings in which free movement is restricted from 
an occupied space. Remote-controlled release is provided to 
permit movement from sleeping units, activity spaces and Q 
other occupied areas within the smoke compartment to 
other smoke compartments. 

3CI8.4oS Coeditioim 5, This occupancy condition shall in- 
clude buildings in which free movement is restricted from 
an occupied space. Staff-controlled manual release is pro- 
vided to permit movement from sleeping units, activity 
spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke compart- □ 
ment to other smoke compartments. ^ 

3WS Groimp 1=49 dsiy care fadlltles. This group shall include 
buildings and structures occupied by persons of any age who 
receive custodial care for less than 24 hours by individuals 
other than parents or guardians, relatives by blood, marriage or 
adoption, and in a place other than the home of the person cared 
for. A facility such as the above with five or fewer persons shall 
be classified as a Group R-3 or shall comply with the Interna- 
tional Residential Code in accordance with Section 101.2. 
Places of worship during religious functions are not included. 

308,5p1 Adelt care fecillty, A facility that provides accom- 
modations for less than 24 hours for more than five unre- 
lated adults and provides supervision and personal care 
services shall be classified as Group 1-4. 

ExcepttiOES A facility where occupants are capable of re- 
sponding to an emergency situation without physical as- 
sistance from the staff shall be classified as Group A-3. 

3§8oSo2 Child care facility, A facility that provides supervi- 
sion and personal care on less than a 24-hour basis for more 
than five children 2V2 years of age or less shall be classified 
as Group 1-4. 

Exception: A child day care facility that provides care 
for more than five but no more than 100 children 272 
years or less of age, when the rooms where such children 
are cared for are located on the level of exit discharge and 



2003 IGMTERMATIONAL BUDLDBGSilG CODE® 



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USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



each of these child care rooms has an exit door directly to 
the exterior, shall be classified as Group E. 



SECTION 309 
MERCANTILE GROUP M 

309.1 Mercantile Group M. Mercantile Group M occupancy 
includes, among others, buildings and structures or a portion 
thereof, for the display and sale of merchandise, and involves 
stocks of goods, wares or merchandise incidental to such pur- 
poses and accessible to the public. Mercantile occupancies 
shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Department stores 

Drug stores 

Markets 

Motor fuel-dispensing facilities 

Retail or wholesale stores 

Sales rooms 

309.2 Quantity of hazardous materials. The aggregate quan- 
tity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or 
noncombustible liquid hazardous materials stored or displayed 
in a single control area of a Group M occupancy shall not ex- 
ceed the quantities in Table 414.2.4. 



SECTION 310 
RESIDENTIAL GROUP R 

310.1 Residential Group R. Residential Group R. includes, 
among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion 
thereof, for sleeping purposes when not classified as an Institu- 
tional Group I. Residential occupancies shall include the fol- 
lowing: 

R-1 Residential occupancies where the occupants are pri- 
marily transient in nature, including: 

Boarding houses (transient) 
Hotels (transient) 
Motels (transient) 

R-2 Residential occupancies containing sleeping units or 
more than two dwelling units where the occupants are 
primarily permanent in nature, including: 

Apartment houses 

Boarding houses (not transient) 

Convents 

Dormitories 

Fraternities and sororities 

Monasteries 

Vacation timeshare properties 

Hotels (nontransient) 

Motels (nontransient) 

R=3 Residential occupancies where the occupants are pri- 
marily permanent in nature and not classified as R-1, 
R-2, R-4 or I and where buildings do not contain more 
than two dwelling units as applicable in Section 101.2, 
or adult and child care facilities that provide accommo- 
dations for five or fewer persons of any age for less than 
24 hours. Adult and child care facilities that are within a 
single-family home are permitted to comply with the 



International Residential Code in accordance with Sec- 
tion 101.2. 

R-4 Residential occupancies shall include buildings ar- 
ranged for occupancy as residential care/assisted living 
facilities including more than five but not more than 16 
occupants, excluding staff. 

Group R-4 occupancies shall meet the requirements 
for construction as defined for Group R-3 except as oth- 
erwise provided for in this code or shall comply with 
the International Residential Code in accordance with 
Section 101.2. 

310.2 Definitnons. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, have 
the meanings shown herein. 

BOARDING HOUSE. A building arranged or used for lodg- 
ing for compensation, with or without meals, and not occupied 
as a single-family unit. 

DORMITORY. A space in a building where group sleeping 
accommodations are provided in one room, or in a series of 
closely associated rooms, for persons not members of the same 
family group, under joint occupancy and single management, 
as in college dormitories or fraternity houses. 

DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete, inde- 
pendent living facilities for one or more persons, including per- 
manent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and 
sanitation. 

PERSONAL CARE SERVICE. The care of residents who do 
not require chronic or convalescent medical or nursing care. 
Personal care involves responsibility for the safety of the resi- 
dent while inside the building. 

RESIDENTIAL CARE/ASSISTED LIVING FACIL- 
ITIES, A building or part thereof housing persons, on a 
24-hour basis, who because of age, mental disability or other 
reasons, live in a supervised residential environment which 
provides personal care services. The occupants are capable of 
responding to an emergency situation without physical assis- 
tance from staff. This classification shall include, but not be 
limited to, the following: residential board and care facilities, 
assisted living facilities, halfway houses, group homes, congre- 
gate care facilities, social rehabihtation facilities, alcohol and 
drug abuse centers and convalescent facilities. 



SECTION 311 
STORAGE GROUP S 

311.1 Storage Group S, Storage Group S occupancy includes, 
among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion 
thereof, for storage that is not classified as a hazardous occu- 
pancy. 

311o2 Moderate-hazard storage, Group S-1. Buildings occu- 
pied for storage uses which are not classified as Group S-2 in- 
cluding, but not hmited to, storage of the following: 

Aerosols, Levels 2 and 3 
Aircraft repair hangar 
Bags; cloth, burlap and paper 
Bamboos and rattan 
Baskets 



36 



2003 fiNTERNATfONAL BUILDING CODE® 



USE AiSSO OCCUPASSSCV CLASSflFBCATDON 



W 



Belting; canvas and leather 

Books and paper in rolls or packs 

Boots and shoes 

Buttons, including cloth covered, pearl or bone 

Cardboard and cardboard boxes 

Clothing, woolen wearing apparel 

Cordage 

Furniture 

Furs 

Glues, mucilage, pastes and size 

Grains 

Horns and combs, other than celluloid 

Leather 

Linoleum 

Lumber 

Motor vehicle repair garages complying with the maximum 

allowable quantities of hazardous materials listed in 

Table 307.7(1) (see Section 406.6) 
Photo engravings 
Resihent flooring 
Silks 
Soaps 
Sugar 

Tires, bulk storage of 
Tobacco, cigars, cigarettes and snuff 
Upholstery and mattresses 
Wax candles 

3113 Low-kBz^rd storage, Groop §=2o Includes, among oth- 
ers, buildings used for the storage of noncombustible materials 
such as products on wood pallets or in paper cartons with or 
without single thickness divisions; or in paper wrappings. Such 
products are permitted to have a negligible amount of plastic 
trim, such as knobs, handles or film wrapping. Storage uses 
shall include, but not be limited to, storage of the following: 

Aircraft hangar 

Asbestos 

Beverages up to and including 12-percent alcohol in metal, 

glass or ceramic containers 
Cement in bags 
Chalk and crayons 

Dairy products in nonwaxed coated paper containers 
Dry cell batteries 
Electrical coils 
Electrical motors 
Empty cans 
Food products 

Foods in noncombustible containers 
Fresh fruits and vegetables in nonplastic trays or containers 
Frozen foods 
Glass 

Glass bottles, empty or filled with noncombustible liquids 
Gypsum board 
Inert pigments 
Ivory 
Meats 

Metal cabinets 

Metal desks with plastic tops and trim 
Metal parts 
Metals 
Mirrors 



Oil-filled and other types of distribution transformers 

Parking garages, open or enclosed 

Porcelain and pottery 

Stoves 

Talc and soapstones 

Washers and dryers 



312ol GemeraL Buildings and structures of an accessory char- 
acter and miscellaneous structures not classified in any specific 
occupancy shall be constructed, equipped and maintained to 
conform to the requirements of this code commensurate with 
the fire and Hfe hazard incidental to their occupancy. Group U 
shall include, but not be hmited to, the following: 

Agricultural buildings 

Aircraft hangars, accessory to a one- or two-family 

residence (see Section 412.3) 

Bams 

Carports 

Fences more than 6 feet (1829 mm) high 

Grain silos, accessory to a residential occupancy 

Greenhouses 

Livestock shelters 

Private garages 

Retaining walls 

Sheds 

Stables 

Tanks 

Towers 



2003 INTEREVflATnOMAL BUSLOIIBVIG CODE® 



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38 2003 INTERNATIONAL BUGLDING CODE® 



CHAPTER ^ 



O^ USE AMD OCCUPAi 



ITI 



401.1 Deteikd ese aed ©ccepsmcy reqisSreiMeinillSo In addition 
to the occupancy and construction requirements in this code, 
the provisions of this chapter apply to the special uses and oc- 
cupancies described herein. 



4€)2ol Scopeo The provisions of this section shall apply to build- 
ings or structures defined herein as covered mall buildings not 
exceeding three floor levels at any point nor more than three 
stories above grade. Except as specifically required by this sec- 
tion, covered mall buildings shall meet applicable provisions of 
this code. 

1. Foyers and lobbies of Groups B, R-1 and R-2 are not 
required to comply with this section. 

2. Buildings need not comply with the provisions of this 
section where they totally comply with other applica- 
ble provisions of this code. 

402o2 DeiEitnoMSo The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 



V, An exterior perimeter building of a 
group other than H having direct access to a covered mall build- 
ing but having required means of egress independent of the 
mall. 

COVERED MALL BUILDING, A single building enclosing 
a number of tenants and occupants such as retail stores, drink- 
ing and dining establishments, entertainment and amusement 
facilities, passenger transportation terminals, offices, and other 
similar uses wherein two or more tenants have a main entrance 
into one or more malls. For the purpose of this chapter, anchor 
buildings shall not be considered as a part of the covered mall 
building. 

FOOD COUETo A public seating area located in the mall that 
serves adjacent food preparation tenant spaces. 

GROSS LEASABLE AREA. The total floor area designed 
for tenant occupancy and exclusive use. The area of tenant oc- 
cupancy is measured from the centerlines of joint partitions to 
the outside of the tenant walls. All tenant areas, including areas 
used for storage, shall be included in calculating gross leasable 
area. 

MALLo A roofed or covered common pedestrian area within a 
covered mall building that serves as access for two or more ten- 
ants and not to exceed three levels that are open to each other. 



ilaEo Each covered mall building owner shall pro- 
vide both the building and fire departments with a lease plan 
showing the location of each occupancy and its exits after the 
certificate of occupancy has been issued. No modifications or 
changes in occupancy or use shall be made from that shown on 
the lease plan without prior approval of the building official. 

4^2 A Meaes of egresSo Each tenant space and the covered mall 
building shall be provided with means of egress as required by 
this section and this code. Where there is a conflict between the 
requirements of this code and the requirements of this section, 
the requirements of this section shall apply. 

402c4ol Petermnmisiltioini (Df occupsiniit loado The occupant 
load permitted in any individual tenant space in a covered 
mall building shall be determined as required by this code. 
Means of egress requirements for individual tenant spaces 
shall be based on the occupant load thus determined. 

4(Q)2o4clol Occunpamt formnfllai. In determining required 
means of egress of the mall, the number of occupants for 
whom means of egress are to be provided shall be based 
on gross leasable area of the covered mall building (ex- 
cluding anchor buildings) and the occupant load factor as 
determined by the following equation. 



OLF= (0.00007) (GLA) + 25 
where: 



(EqimaitioE 4-1) 



OLF= The occupant load factor (square feet per per- 
son). 

GLA= The gross leasable area (square feet). 

4mAA2 OLE range. The occupant load factor (OLF) is 
not required to be less than 30 and shall not exceed 50. 

4(0)2o4olo3 Amclhor benMnmigSo The occupant load of an- 
chor buildings opening into the mall shall not be included 
in computing the total number of occupants for the mall. 

4(D)2o4olo4 E(Q)(0(dl courts. The occupant load of a food 
court shall be determined in accordance with Section 
1004. For the purposes of determining the means of 
egress requirements for the mall, the food court occupant 
load shall be added to the occupant load of the covered 
mall building as calculated above. 

4020402 NiBmlbeir ©f meamis ©f egress. Wherever the dis- 
tance of travel to the mall from any location within a tenant 
space used by persons other than employees exceeds 75 feet 
(22 860 mm) or the tenant space exceeds an occupant load of 
50, not less than two means of egress shall be provided. 

4020403 ArraMgenmemits of meaims of egress. Assembly oc- 
cupancies with an occupant load of 500 or more shall be so 
located in the covered mall building that their entrance will 
be immediately adjacent to a principal entrance to the mall 
and shall have not less than one-half of their required means 



2003 INTERMATIIOMAL BUBLDiGVlG CODE® 



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SPECIAL DETAILED REQUBREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



of egress opening directly to the exterior of the covered mall 
building. 

402.43.1 Anchor building means of egress. Required 
means of egress for anchor buildings shall be provided 
independently from the mall means of egress system. 
The occupant load of anchor buildings opening into the 
mall shall not be included in determining means of egress 
requirements for the mall. The path of egress travel of 
malls shall not exit through anchor buildings. Malls ter- 
minating at an anchor building where no other means of 
egress has been provided shall be considered as a 
dead-end mall. 

402.4.4 Distance to exits. Within each individual tenant 
space in a covered mall building, the maximum distance of 
travel from any point to an exit or entrance to the mall shall 
not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). 

The maximum distance of travel from any point within a 
mall to an exit shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). 

402.4.5 Access to exits. Where more than one exit is re- 
quired, they shall be so arranged that it is possible to travel in 
either direction from any point in a mall to separate exits. 
The minimum width of an exit passageway or corridor from 
a mall shall be 66 inches (1676 mm). 

Exception: Dead ends not exceeding a length equal to 
twice the width of the mall measured at the narrowest lo- 
cation within the dead-end portion of the mall. 

402.4.5.1 Exit passageway emclosures. Where exit pas- 
sageway enclosures provide a secondary means of egress 
from a tenant space, doors to the exit passageway enclo- 
sures shall be 1-hour fire doors. Such doors shall be 
self-closing and be so maintained or shall be auto- 
matic-closing by smoke detection. 

402.4.6 Service areas fronting on exit passageways. Me- 
chanical rooms, electrical rooms, building service areas and 
service elevators are permitted to open directly into exit pas- 
sageways provided that the exit passageway is separated 
from such rooms with 1 -hour fire-resistance-rated walls and 
1-hour opening protectives. 

402.5 Mall width. For the purpose of providing required egress, 
malls are permitted to be considered as corridors but need not 
comply with the requirements of Section 1005.1 of this code 
where the width of the mall is as specified in this section. 

402.5,1 Minimum width. The minimum width of the mall 
shall be 20 feet (6096 mm). The mall width shall be suffi- 
cient to accommodate the occupant load served. There shall 
be a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) clear exit width to a 
height of 8 feet (2438 mm) between any projection of a ten- 
ant space bordering the mall and the nearest kiosk, vending 
machine, bench, display opening, food court or other ob- 
struction to means of egress travel. 

402.6 Types of constroction. The area of any covered mall 
building, including anchor buildings, of Type 1, 11, III and IV 
construction, shall not be Umited provided the covered mall 
building and attached anchor buildings and parking garages are 
surrounded on all sides by a permanent open space of not less 
than 60 feet (18 288 mm) and the anchor buildings do not ex- 
ceed three stories in height. The allowable height and area of 



anchor buildings greater than three stores in height shall com- 
ply with Section 503, as modified by Sections 504 and 506. The 
construction type of open parking garages and enclosed park- 
ing garages shall comply with Sections 406.3 and 406.4, re- 
spectively. 

402,7 Fire-resistance-rated separation. Fire-resistance-rated 
separation is not required between tenant spaces and the mall. 
Fire-resistance-rated separation is not required between a food 
court and adjacent tenant spaces or the mall. 

402.7.1 Attached garage. An attached garage for the stor- 
age of passenger vehicles having a capacity of not more than 
nine persons and open parking garages shall be considered 
as a separate building where it is separated from the covered 
mall building by a fire barrier having a fire-resistance rating 
of at least 2 hours. 

Exception: Where an open parking garage or enclosed 
parking garage is separated from the covered mall build- 
ing or anchor building a distance greater than 10 feet 
(3048 mm), the provisions of Table 602 shall apply. Pe- 
destrian walkways and tunnels which attach the open 
parking garage or enclosed parking garage to the covered 
mall building or anchor building shall be constructed in 
accordance with Section 3104. 

402.7.2 Tenant separations. Each tenant space shall be 
separated from other tenant spaces by a fire partition com- 
plying with Section 708. A tenant separation wall is not re- 
quired between any tenant space and the mall. 

402.7.3 Anclior building separation. An anchor building 
shall be separated from the covered mall building by fire 
walls complying with Section 705. 

Exception: Anchor buildings of not more than three sto- 
ries above grade which have an occupancy classification 
of the same uses permitted as tenants of the covered mall 
building shall be separated by 2-hour fire-barriers com- 
plying with Section 706. 

402.7.3.1 Openings between anchor building and 
mall. Except for the separation between Group R-1 
sleeping units and the mall, openings between anchor 
buildings of Type lA, IB, II A and IIB construction and 
the mall need not be protected. 

[F] 402.8 Automatic sprinkler system. The covered mall 
building and buildings connected shall be equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1, which shall comply with the following: 

1. The automatic sprinkler system shall be complete and 
operative throughout occupied space in the covered mall 
building prior to occupancy of any of the tenant spaces. 
Unoccupied tenant spaces shall be similarly protected 
unless provided with approved alternate protection. 

2. Sprinkler protection for the mall shall be independent 
from that provided for tenant spaces or anchors. Where 
tenant spaces are supphed by the same system, they shall 
be independently controlled. 

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be re- 
quired in spaces or areas of open parking garages con- 
structed in accordance with Section 406.2. 



r 



<• 



40 



2003 If^TERNATSONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SPECIIAL DETAiLED REQODREIMEMTS BASED ON USE AMD OCCUPAHCY 



402,8ol Staiidpape system. The covered mall building shall 
be equipped throughout with a standpipe system as required 
by Section 905.3.3. 

4©2c9 Smoke coetroL A smoke control system shall be pro- 
vided where required for atriums in Section 404. 

402ol0 KnoskSo Kiosks and similar structures (temporary or 
permanent) shall meet the following requirements: 

1. Combustible kiosks or other structures shall not be lo- 
cated within the mall unless constructed of any of the fol- 
lowing materials: 

1.1. Fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Sec- 
tion 2303.2. 

1.2. Foam plastics having a maximum heat release 
rate not greater than lOOkW (105 Btu/h) when 
tested in accordance with the exhibit booth proto- 
col in UL 1975. 

1.3. Aluminum composite material (ACM) having a 
flame spread index of not more than 25 and a 
smoke-developed index of not more than 450 
when tested as an assembly in the maximum 
thickness intended for use in accordance with 
ASTM E 84. 

2. Kiosks or similar structures located within the mall shall 
be provided with approved fire suppression and detection 

devices. 

3. The minimum horizontal separation between kiosks or 
groupings thereof and other structures within the mall 
shall be 20 feet (6096 mm). 

4. Each kiosk or similar structure or groupings thereof shall 
have a maximum area of 300 square feet (28 m^). 

4®2,11 Secertty grilks amd doorSo Horizontal sliding or verti- 
cal security grilles or doors that are a part of a required means of 
egress shall conform to the following: 

1 . They shall remain in the full open position during the pe- 
riod of occupancy by the general public. 

2. Doors or grilles shall not be brought to the closed posi- 
tion when there are more than 10 persons occupying 
spaces served by a single exit or 50 persons occupying 
spaces served by more than one exit. 

3. The doors or grilles shall be openable from within with- 
out the use of any special knowledge or effort where the 
space is occupied. 

4. Where two or more exits are required, not more than 
one-half of the exits shall be permitted to include either a 
horizontal shding or vertical rolUng grille or doors. 

402cl2 Sttaiedby power. Covered mall buildings exceeding 
50,000 square feet (4645 m^) shall be provided with standby 
power systems that are capable of operating the emergency 
voice/alarm communication system. 

[F] 402.13 Emergemcy voice/alami commuiniicMioEi system. 
Covered mall buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 
m^) in total floor area shall be provided with an emergency 
voice/alarm communication system. Emergency voice/alarm 
communication systems serving a mall, required or otherwise, 



shall be accessible to the fire department. The system shall be 
provided in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2. 



4 Plastic sigeso Within every store or level and from 
sidewall to sidewall of each tenant space facing the mall, plastic 
signs shall be limited as specified in Sections 402. 14. 1 through 
402.14.5. 

4(])2J4ol Areaio Plastic signs shall not exceed 20 percent of 
the wall area facing the mall. 



4.2 Height and width. Plasfic signs shall not exceed a 
height of 36 inches (914 mm), except if the sign is vertical, 
the height shall not exceed 96 inches (2438 mm) and the 
width shall not exceed 36 inches (914 mm). 

402.14.3 LdjcatnoEi. Plastic signs shall be located a mini- 
mum distance of 1 8 inches (457 mm) from adjacent tenants. 

402.14.4 Plastics other ths^n foamn plaistks. Plastics other 
than foam plasties used in signs shall be light-transmitting □ 
plastics complying with Section 2606.4 or shall have a 
self-ignifion temperature of 650°F (343''C) or greater when 
tested in accordance with ASTM D 1929, and a flame 
spread index not greater than 75 and smoke-developed in- 
dex not greater than 450 when tested in the manner intended 
for use in accordance with ASTM E 84 or meet the accep- 
tance criteria of Secdon 803.2. 1 when tested in accordance 
with NFPA 286. 

4(02. 14.4.1 EiBcasemeot. Edges and backs of plastic 
signs in the mall shall be fully encased in metal. 

4ID2.14.5 Foaim pkstks. Foam plastics used in signs shall 
have flame-retardant characteristics such that the sign has a 
maximum heat-release rate of 150 kilowatts when tested in 
accordance with UL 1975 and the foam plastics shall have 
the physical characteristics specified in this section. Foam 
plastics used in signs installed in accordance with Section 
402. 14 shall not be required to comply with the flame spread 
and smoke-developed indexes specified in Section 2603.3. 

402.14.5.1 Density. The minimum density of foam plas- (1 
tics used in signs shall not be less than 20 pounds per cu- U 
bic foot (pcf) (320 kg/M^). 

4§2o 14,5.2 Thkkeess. The thickness of foam plastic 
signs shall not be greater than V2-inch (12.7 mm). 

4^2A5 Fnre department access to eqeipmeBit. Rooms or ar- 
eas containing controls for air-conditioning systems, automatic 
fire-extinguishing systems or other detection, suppression or 
control elements shall be identified for use by the fire depart- 
ment. 



SECTION 403 
HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS 

403.1 AppMcaMMty. The provisions of this section shall apply 
to buildings having occupied floors located more than 75 feet 
(22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle 
access. 

ExceptnoHi: The provisions of this section shall not apply to 
the following buildings and structures: 

1 . Airport traffic control towers in accordance with Sec- 
tion 412. 



2003 BNTERGVIATDOISiAL BOBLDilSSG CODE® 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED OH USE AND OCCUPANCY 



2. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 
406.3. 

3. Buildings with an occupancy in Group A-5 in accor- 
dance with Section 303.1. 

4. Low-hazard special industrial occupancies in accor- 
dance with Section 503.1.2. 

5. Buildings with an occupancy in Group H-1, H-2 or 
H-3 in accordance with Section 415. 

[F] 403.2 Automatic sprinkler system. Buildings and struc- 
tures shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and a secondary 
water supply where required by Section 903.3.5.2. 

Exception; An automatic sprinkler system shall not be re- 
quired in spaces or areas of: 

1 . Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406. 3 . 

2. Telecommunications equipment buildings used ex- 
clusively for telecommunications equipment, associ- 
ated electrical power distribution equipment, 
batteries and standby engines, provided that those 
spaces or areas are equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic fire detection system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 907.2 and are separated from the remainder of the 
building with fire barriers consisting of 1-hour fire-re- 
sistance-rated walls and 2-hour fire-resistance-rated 
floor/ceiling assemblies. 

403.3 Reduction in fire-resistance rating. The fire-resis- 
tance-rating reductions listed in Sections 403.3.1 and 403.3.2 
shall be allowed in buildings that have sprinkler control valves 
equipped with supervisory initiating devices and water-flow 
initiating devices for each floor. 

403.3.1 Type of construction. The following reductions in 
the minimum construction type allowed in Table 601 shall 
be allowed as provided in Section 403.3: 

1 . Type I A construction shall be allowed to be reduced to 
Type IB. 

2. In other than Groups F-1, M and S-1, Type IB con- 
struction shall be allowed to be reduced to Type IIA. 

3. The height and area limitations of the reduced con- 
struction type shall be allowed to be the same as for 
the original construction type. 

403.3.2 Shaft enclosures. The required fire-resistance rat- 
ing of the fire barrier walls enclosing vertical shafts, other 
than exit enclosures and elevator hoistway enclosures, shall 
be reduced to 1 hour where automatic sprinklers are in- 
stalled within the shafts at the top and at alternate floor lev- 
els. 

403.4 Emergency escape and rescue. Emergency escape and 
rescue openings required by Section 1025 are not required. 

[F] 403,5 Automatic fire detection. Smoke detection shall be 
provided in accordance with Section 907.2.12.1. 

[F] 403.6 Emergency voice/alarm communication systems. 
An emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be 
provided in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2. 

[F] 403.7 Fire department communications system. A 

two-way fire department communications system shall be pro- 



vided for fire department use in accordance with Section 
907.2.12.3. 

[F] 403.8 Fire command. A fire command center complying 
with Section 911 shall be provided in a location approved by 
the fire department. 

403.9 Elevators, Elevator operation and installation shall be in 
accordance with Chapter 30. 

403.10 Standby power. A standby power system complying 
with Section 2702 shall be provided for standby power loads 
specified in Section 403.10.2. 

403.10.1 Special requirements for standby power sys- 
tems. If the standby system is a generator set inside a build- 
ing, the system shall be located in a separate room enclosed 
with 2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire barrier assemblies. 
System supervision with manual start and transfer features 
shall be provided at the fire command center. 

403.10.2 Standby power loads. The following are classi- 
fied as standby power loads: 

1. Power and lighfing for the fire command center re- 
quired by Secfion 403.8; 

2. Electrically powered fire pumps; 

3. Venfilation and automatic fire detection equipment 
for smokeproof enclosures. 

Standby power shall be provided for elevators in accor- 
dance with Secfion 3003. 

403.11 Emergency power systems. An emergency power sys- 
tem complying with Secfion 2702 shall be provided for emer- 
gency power loads specified in Section 403.1 1.1. 

403.11.1 Emergency power loads. The following are clas- 
sified as emergency power loads: 

1 . Exit signs and means of egress illumination required 
by Chapter 10; 

2. Elevator car lighting; 

3. Emergency voice/alarm communications systems; 

4. Automatic fire detection systems; and 

5. Fire alarm systems. g 

403.12 Stairway door operation. Stairway doors other than 
the exit discharge doors shall be permitted to be locked from 
stairway side. Stairway doors that are locked from the stairway 
side shall be capable of being unlocked simultaneously without 
unlatching upon a signal from the fire command center. 

403.12.1 Stairway commenications system. A telephone 
or other two-way communications system connected to an 
approved constantly attended station shall be provided at 
not less than every fifth floor in each required stairway 
where the doors to the stairway are locked. 

403.13 Smokeproof exit enclosures. Every required stairway 
serving floors more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest 
level of fire department vehicle access shall comply with Sec- 
tions 909.20 and 1019.1.8. 

403.14 Seismic considerations. For seismic considerations, 
see Chapter 16. 



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2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SFECDAL DETAILED REQUflREMEWTS BASED OH USE AMD OCCUPAMCV 



SECTION 404 
ATRIUMS 

. GemeraL Vertical openings meeting the requirements of 
this section are not required to be enclosed in other than Group 
H occupancies. 

404oU Deimltnoinio The following word and term shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meaning shown herein. 



•I 



An opening connecting two or more stories 
other than enclosed stairways, elevators, hoist ways, es- 
calators, plumbing, electrical, air-conditioning or other 
equipment, which is closed at the top and not defined as a 
mall. Stories, as used in this definition, do not include 
balconies within assembly groups or mezzanines that 
comply with Section 505. 

4M»2 Useo The floor of the atrium shall not be used for other 
than low fire hazard uses and only approved materials and dec- 
orations in accordance with the International Fire Code shall 
be used in the atrium space. 

ExcepMens The atrium floor area is permitted to be used for 
any approved use where the individual space is provided 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1. 

[F] 4M3 Aetomatk sprmkkr protectloEo An approved auto- 
mafic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the enfire 
building. 

Exceptions s 

1 . That area of a building adjacent to or above the atrium 
need not be sprinklered provided that portion of the 
building is separated from the atrium portion by a 
2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire barrier wall or hori- 
zontal assembly or both. 

2. Where the ceiling of the atrium is more than 55 feet 
(16 764 mm) above the floor, sprinkler protection at 
the ceiling of the atrium is not required. 

4MA Smoke comtroL A smoke control system shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with Section 909. 

ExceptSoBUSS 

1. Smoke control is not required for floor openings 
meeting the requirements of Section 707.2, Exception 
2,7, 8 or 9. 

2. Smoke control is not required for floor openings 
meeting the requirements of Section 1019.1, Excep- 
tion 8 or 9. 

4§4o5 Eedosaare of atrMmSo Atrium spaces shall be separated 
from adjacent spaces by a 1-hour fire barrier wall. 

Exceptlomss 

1. A glass wall forming a smoke partition where auto- 
matic sprinklers are spaced 6 feet (1829 mm) or less 
along both sides of the separation wall, or on the room 
side only if there is not a walkway on the atrium side, 
and between 4 inches and 12 inches (102 mm and 305 
mm) away from the glass and so designed that the en- 
tire surface of the glass is wet upon activation of the 
sprinkler system. The glass shall be installed in a 



gasketed frame so that the framing system deflects 
without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprin- 
kler system operates. 

2. A glass-block wall assembly in accordance with Sec- 
tion 2110 and having a V4-hour fire protection rating. 

3. The adjacent spaces of any three floors of the atrium 
shall not be required to be separated from the atrium 
where such spaces are included in computing the 
atrium volume for the design of the smoke control 
system. 

4ffi4o6 Stasudby power. Equipment required to provide smoke 
control shall be connected to a standby power system in accor- 
dance with Section 909.1 1. 

4®4o7 lEterior SeIsIHo The interior finish of walls and ceiUngs 
of the atrium shall not be less than Class B with no reduction in 
class for sprinkler protection. 

4MM Travel distamiceo In other than the lowest level of the 
atrium, where the required means of egress is through the 
atrium space, the portion of exit access travel distance within 
the atrium space shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). 



UNDERGROUND ByiLDBMGS 

405,1 Gemerai The provisions of this section apply to building 
spaces having a floor level used for human occupancy more 
than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the lowest level of exit dis- 
charge. 

ExcepMoMSS 

1 . One- and two-family dwellings, sprinklered in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.3. 

2. Parking garages with automatic fire suppression sys- 
tems in comphance with Section 405.3. 

3. Fixed guideway transit systems. 

4. Grandstands, bleachers, stadiums, arenas and similar 
facilities. 

5. Where the lowest story is the only story that would 
qualify the building as an underground building and 
has an area not exceeding 1,500 square feet (139 m^) 
and has an occupant load less than 10. 

405o2 CoKistriictioini ireqiasremeBitSo The underground portion 
of the building shall be of Type I construction. 

[F] 4^53 Aiitomatnc sprtniMer system. The highest level of 
exit discharge serving the underground portions of the building 
and all levels below shall be equipped with an automatic sprin- 
kler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 
Water-flow switches and control valves shall be supervised in 
accordance with Section 903.4. 

4115.4 CompartoeEtotloim, Compartmentation shall be in ac- 
cordance with Sections 405.4.1 through 405.4.3. 

405o4ol Nuambeir of compartoemtits. A building having a 
floor level more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) below the lowest 
level of exit discharge shall be divided into a minimum of 
two compartments of approximately equal size. Such 
compartmentation shall extend through the highest level of 



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43 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED OH USE AND OCCUPAISICY 



exit discharge serving the underground portions of the 
building and all levels below. 

Exception: The lowest story need not be compartmented 
where the area does not exceed 1,500 square feet (139 
m^) and has an occupant load of less than 10. 

405.4.2 Smoke barrier penetratloEo The separation be- 
tween the two compartments shall be of minimum 1-hour 
fire barrier wall construction that shall extend from floor 
slab to floor deck above. Openings between the two com- 
partments shall be limited to plumbing and electrical piping 
and conduit penetrations firestopped in accordance with 
Section 712. Doorways shall be protected by fire door as- 
semblies that are automatic-closing by smoke detection in 
accordance with Section 715.3 and shall be provided with 
gasketing and a drop sill to minimize smoke leakage. Where 
provided, each compartment shall have an air supply and an 
exhaust system independent of the other compartments. 

405.4.3 ElevatorSo Where elevators are provided, each 
compartment shall have direct access to an elevator. Where 
an elevator serves more than one compartment, an elevator 
lobby shall be provided and shall be separated from each 
compartment by a 1-hour fire barrier wall. Doors shall be 
gasketed, have a drop sill, and be automatic-closing by 
smoke detection installed in accordance with Section 
907.10. 

405.5 Smoke coiitroll system. A smoke control system shall be 
provided in accordance with Sections 405.5.1 and 405.5.2. 

405.5.1 Control system. A smoke control system is re- 
quired to control the migration of products of combustion in 
accordance with Section 909 and the provisions of this sec- 
tion. Smoke control shall restrict movement of smoke to the 
general area of fire origin and maintain means of egress in a 
usable condition. 

405.5.2 Smoke exhaust system. Where compartmentation 
is required, each compartment shall have an independent 
smoke control system. The system shall be automatically 
activated and capable of manual operation in accordance 
with Section 907.2.18. 

[F] 405.6 Fire alarm systems. A fire alarm system shall be 
provided where required by Section 907.2.19. 

IF] 405.7 Public address. A public address system shall be 
provided where required by Section 907.2.19.1. 

405.8 Meam of egress. Means of egress shall be in accordance 
with Sections 405.8.1 and 405.8.2. 

405.8.1 Number of exits. Each floor level shall be provided 
with a minimum of two exits. Where compartmentation is 
required by Section 405 .4, each compartment shall have a 
minimum of one exit and shall also have an exit access door- 
way into the adjoining compartment. 

405.8.2 Smokeproof enclosure. Every required stairway 
serving floor levels more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below its 
level of exit discharge shall comply with the requirements 
for a smokeproof enclosure as provided in Section 1019.1.8. 

[F] 405.9 Standby power, A standby power system complying 
with Section 2702 shall be provided standby power loads spec- 
ified in Section 405.9.1. 



405o9ol Standby power loads. The following loads are 
classified as standby power loads. 

1. Smoke control system. 

2. Ventilation and automatic fire detecrion equipment 
for smokeproof enclosures. 

3. Fire pumps. 

Standby power shall be provided for elevators in accor- 
dance with Section 3003. 

405,9.2 P!ck=Mp time. The standby power system shall pick 
up its connected loads within 60 seconds of failure of the 
normal power supply. 

[F] 405.10 Emergency power. An emergency power system 
complying with Section 2702 shall be provided for emergency 
power loads specified in Section 405.10.1. 

405, 10,1 Emergency power loads. The following loads are 
classified as emergency power loads: 

1. Emergency voice/alarm communications systems. 

2. Fire alarm systems. 

3. Automatic fire detection systems. 

4. Elevator car Ughting. 

5. Means ofegress and exit sign illumination as required | 
by Chapter 10. 

405.11 Standpipe system. The underground building shall be 
equipped throughout with a standpipe system in accordance 
with Section 905. 



SECTION 406 
■ iiOTOR'-VEHlCLE^RELATED OCCUPANCIES 

406ol Private garages and carports. 

406olol Classification, Buildings or parts of buildings clas- 
sified as Group U occupancies because of the use or charac- 
ter of the occupancy shall not exceed 1,000 square feet (93 
m^) in area or one story in height except as provided in Sec- 
tion 406.1.2. Any building or portion thereof that exceeds 
the lioiitations specified in this section shall be classified in 
the occupancy group other than Group U that it most nearly 
resembles. 



p 



Sol, 2 Area iBcreasCo Group U occupancies used for the 
storage of private or pleasure-type motor vehicles where no 
repair work is done or fuel dispensed are permitted to be 
3,000 square feet (279 m^), when the following provisions 
are met: 

1 . For a mixed occupancy building, the exterior wall and 
opening protection for the Group U portion of the 
building shall be as required for the major occupancy 
of the building. For such mixed occupancy building, 
the allowable floor area of the building shall be as per- 
mitted for the major occupancy contained therein. 

2. For a building containing only a Group U occupancy, 
the exterior wall and opening protection shall be as re- 
quired for a Group R- 1 or R-2 occupancy. 

More than one 3,000-square-foot (279 m^) Group U occu- 
pancy shall be permitted to be in the same building, provided 



44 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BOILDING CODE® 



SPECD^L DETADLED REQUllKEMEI^TS BASED OH USE AMD OCCUPAI^CY 



each 3,000-square-foot (279 m^) area is separated by fire 
walls complying with Section 705. 

4fl6clo3 Garages sundl carports. Carports shall be open on at 
least two sides. Carport floor surfaces shall be of approved 
noncombustible material. Carports not open on at least two 
sides shall be considered a garage and shall comply with the 
provisions of this section for garages. 

ExceptnoES Asphalt surfaces shall be permitted at 
ground level in carports. 

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other 
vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids 
to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway. 

4©6,lo4 SeparaMoEo Separations shall comply with the fol- 
lowing: 

1 . The private garage shall be separated from the dwell- 
ing unit and its attic area by means of a minimum 
V2-inch (12.7 nmi) gypsum board applied to the ga- 
rage side. Garages beneath habitable rooms shall be 
separated from all habitable rooms above by not less 
than Vg-inch Type X gypsum board or equivalent. 
Door openings between a private garage and the 
dwelling unit shall be equipped with either solid wood 
doors, or solid or honeycomb core steel doors not less 
than 1 Vg inches (34.9 mm) thick, or doors in compli- 
ance with Section 715.3.3. Openings from a private 
garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes 
shall not be permitted. 

2. Ducts in a private garage and ducts penetrating the 
walls or ceiUngs separating the dweUing unit from the 
garage shall be constructed of a minimum 0.019-inch 
(0.48 mm) sheet steel and shall have no openings into 
the garage. 

3 . A separation is not required between a Group R-3 and 
U carport provided the carport is entirely open on two 
or more sides and there are not enclosed areas above. 

4(06o2 Parkmg gaiirageSc 

4®6o2ol Classifflcaitnoii, Parking garages shall be classified 
as either open, as defined in Section 406.3, or enclosed and 
shall meet the appropriate criteria in Section 406.4. Also see 
Section 508 for special provisions for parking garages. 

4fl6o2o2 Ckar hengHito The clear height of each floor level in 
vehicle and pedestrian traffic areas shall not be less than 7 
feet (2134 mm). Vehicle and pedestrian areas accommodat- 
ing van-accessible parking required by Section 1 106.5 shall 
conform to ICC Al 17.1. 



)o2o3 GnjiardSo Guards shall be provided in accordance 
with Section 1012 at exterior and interior vertical openings 
on floor and roof areas where vehicles are parked or moved 
and where the vertical distance to the ground or surface di- 
rectly below exceeds 30 inches (762 mm). 

406o2o4 VeMcIe barrlerSo Parking areas shall be provided 
with exterior or interior walls or vehicle barriers, except at 
pedestrian or vehicular accesses, designed in accordance 
with Section 1607.7. Vehicle barriers not less than 2 feet 
(607 mm) high shall be placed at the ends of drive lanes, and 



at the end of parking spaces where the difference in adjacent 
floor elevation is greater than 1 foot (305 mm). 

4(D6o2,5 MammpSo Vehicle ramps shall not serve as an exit ele- 
ment. 



io2o6 Floor suflrface. Parking surfaces shall be of concrete 
or similar noncombustible and nonabsorbent materials. 

Exceptloms Asphalt parking surfaces are permitted at 
ground level. 

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other 
vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids 
to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway. 



Jo2o7 Mixed separatloE, Parking garages shall be sepa- 
rated from other occupancies in accordance with Section 
302.3. 



>o2c8 Special liasards. Connection of a parking garage 
with any room in which there is a fuel-fired appliance shall 
be by means of a vestibule providing a two-doorway separa- 
tion. 

Exceptlom: A single door shall be allowed provided the 
sources of ignition in the appliance are at least 18 inches 
(457 mm) above the floor. 

4CI6o2o9 Atttaclhed to itoomSo Openings from a parking ga- 
rage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall 
not be permitted. 

3 Opem parMimg garageSo 

4§63ol Scopeo Except where specific provisions are made 
in the following subsections, other requirements of this code 
shall apply. 

4C])6o3o2 DeiimntnoeSo The following words and terms shall, 
for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meanings shown herein. 

MECHANICAL=ACCESS OPEN PARKING GA= 
MAGESo Open parking garages employing parking ma- 
chines, lifts, elevators or other mechanical devices for 
vehicles moving from and to street level and in which 
public occupancy is prohibited above the street level. 



. A structure or portion of 
a structure with the openings as described in Section 
406.3.3.1 on two or more sides that is used for the park- 
ing or storage of private motor vehicles as described in 
Section 406.3.4. 

MAMP=ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. 
Open parking garages employing a series of continu- 
ously rising floors or a series of interconnecting ramps 
between floors permitting the movement of vehicles un- 
der their own power from and to the street level. 



6o3o3 ComstracMoinio Open parking garages shall be of 
Type I, II or IV construction. Open parking garages shall 
meet the design requirements of Chapter 16. For vehicle 
barriers, see Section 406.2.4. 



3o3ol OpemrngSo For natural ventilation purposes, 
the exterior side of the structure shall have uniformly dis- 
tributed openings on two or more sides. The area of such 
openings in exterior walls on a tier must be at least 20 



2003 DIMTEeMATIIOiSiAL BOflLDifSSG CODE® 



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SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED OiM USE AMD OCCUPANCY 



percent of the total perimeter wall area of each tier. The 
aggregate length of the openings considered to be pro- 
viding natural ventilation shall constitute a minimum of 
40 percent of the perimeter of the tier. Interior walls shall 
be at least 20 percent open with uniformly distributed 
openings. 

Exceptloii: Openings are not required to be distrib- 
uted over 40 percent of the building perimeter where 
the required openings are uniformly distributed over 
two opposing sides of the building. 

4063.4 Uses, Mixed uses shall be allowed in the same 
building as an open parking garage subject to the provisions 
of Sections 302.3, 402.7.1, 406.3.13, 508.3, 508.4 and 
508.7. 

4063.5 Area and height Area and height of open parking 
garages shall be limited as set forth in Chapter 5 for Group 
S-2 occupancies and as further provided for in Section 
302.3. 

406.3.5.1 Single ese. When the open parking garage is 
used exclusively for the parking or storage of private mo- 
tor vehicles, with no other uses in the building, the area 
and height shall be permitted to comply with Table 
406.3.5, along with increases allowed by Section 
406.3.6. 

Exception: The grade-level tier is permitted to con- 
tain an office, waiting and toilet rooms having a total 
combined area of not more than 1,000 square feet (93 
m^). Such area need not be separated from the open 
parking garage. 

In open parking garages having a spiral or sloping 
floor, the horizontal projection of the structure at any 
cross section shall not exceed the allowable area per 
parking tier. In the case of an open parking garage having 
a continuous spiral floor, each 9 feet 6 inches (2896 mm) 
of height, or portion thereof, shall be considered a tier. 

The clear height of a parking tier shall not be less than 
7 feet (2134 mm), except that a lower clear height is per- 
mitted in mechanical-access open parking garages where 
approved by the building official. 

406.3.6 Area and height increases. The allowable area and 
height of open parking garages shall be increased in accor- 



dance with the provisions of this section. Garages with sides 
open on three-fourths of the building perimeter are permit- 
ted to be increased by 25 percent in area and one tier in 
height. Garages with sides open around the entire building 
perimeter are permitted to be increased 50 percent in area 
and one tier in height. For a side to be considered open under 
the above provisions, the total area of openings along the 
side shall not be less than 50 percent of the interior area of 
the side at each tier, and such openings shall be equally dis- 
tributed along the length of the tier. 

Allowable tier areas in Table 406.3.5 shall be increased 
for open parking garages constructed to heights less than the 
table maximum. The gross tier area of the garage shall not 
exceed that permitted for the higher structure. At least three 
sides of each such larger tier shall have continuous horizon- 
tal openings not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in clear height 
extending for at least 80 percent of the length of the sides, 
and no part of such larger tier shall be more than 200 feet (60 
960 mm) horizontally from such an opening. In addition, 
each such opening shall face a street or yard accessible to a 
street with a width of at least 30 feet (9 144 mm) for the full 
length of the opening, and standpipes shall be provided in 
each such tier. 

Open parking garages of Type IB and II construction, 
with all sides open, shall be unlimited in allowable area 
where the height does not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). For a 
side to be considered open, the total area of openings along 
the side shall not be less than 50 percent of the interior area 
of the side at each tier, and such openings shall be equally 
distributed along the length of the tier. All portions of tiers 
shall be within 200 feet (60 960 mm) horizontally from such 
openings. 

406.3.7 Location on property. Exterior walls and openings 
in exterior walls shall comply with Tables 601 and 602. The 
distance from an adjacent lot line shall be determined in ac- 
cordance with Table 602 and Section 704. 

406.3.8 Means of egress. Where persons other than parking 
attendants are permitted, open parking garages shall meet 
the means of egress requirements of Chapter 10. Where no 
persons other than parking attendants are permitted, there 
shall not be less than two 36-inch- wide (914 mm) exit stair- 
ways. Lifts shall be permitted to be installed for use of em- 



TABLE 406.3.5 

OPEN PARKING GARAGES AREA AMD HEIGHT 



TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 


AREA PER TIER 
(square feet) 


HEIGHT (in tiers) 


Ramp access 


Mechanical access 


Automatic sprinkler system 


No 


Yes 


lA 


Unlimited 


Unlimited 


Unlimited 


Unlimited 


IB 


Unlimited 


12 tiers 


12 tiers 


18 tiers 


IIA 


50,000 


10 tiers 


10 tiers 


15 tiers 


IIB 


50,000 


8 tiers 


8 tiers 


12 tiers 


IV 


50,000 


4 tiers 


4 tiers 


4 tiers 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^ 



46 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SPECiAL OETABLEO REQOBREiVaENTS BASED OH USE AMD OCCUPAIMCY 



ployees only, provided they are completely enclosed by 
noncombustible materials. 

406o3o9 StaedpipeSo Standpipes shall be installed where re- 
quired by the provisions of Chapter 9. 

41)63.10 Sprlekkir systems. Where required by other pro- 
visions or this code, automatic sprinkler systems and 
standpipes shall be installed in accordance with the provi- 
sions of Chapter 9. 

40603011 Esidosore of vertkal opeMmgSo Enclosure shall 
not be required for vertical openings except as specified in 
Section 406.3.8. 

40603012 Veiitiktn([DETio Ventilation, other than the percentage 
of openings specified in Section 406.3.3.1, shall not be re- 
quired. 

406.3ol3 ProMljiMiDiniSc The following uses and alterations 
are not permitted: 

1. Vehicle repair work. 

2. Parking of buses, trucks and similar vehicles. 

3 . Partial or complete closing of required openings in ex- 
terior walls by tarpaulins or any other means. 

4. Dispensing of fuel. 

Enclosed parknimg garages, 

406,4o]l Heights amd areas., Enclosed vehicle parking ga- 
rages and portions thereof that do not meet the definition of 
open parking garages shall be limited to the allowable 
heights and areas specified in Table 503. Roof parking is 
permitted. 

406,4,2 Yentilatioinia A mechanical ventilation system shall 
be provided in accordance with the International Mechani- 
cal Code. 

4^6o5 Motor ffMel-dispeesIeg facilMles^ 

4D6o5,l CoEStrecMom, Motor fuel-dispensing facilities 
shall be constructed in accordance with the International 
Fire Code and this section. 

406,5.2 Camiopies, Canopies under which fuels are dis- 
pensed shall have a clear, unobstructed height of not less 
than 1 3 feet 6 inches (4115 mm) to the lowest projecting ele- 
ment in the vehicle drive-through area. Canopies and their 
supports over pumps shall be of noncombustible materials, 
fire-retardant- treated wood complying with Chapter 23, 
wood of Type IV sizes or of construction providing 1-hour 
fire resistance. Combustible materials used in or on a can- 
opy shall comply with one of the following: 

1. Shielded from the pumps by a noncombustible ele- 
ment of the canopy, or wood of Type IV sizes; 

2. Plastics covered by aluminum facing having a mini- 
mum thickness of 0.010 inch (0.30 mm) or corro- 
sion-resistant steel having a minimum base metal 
thickness of 0.016 inch (0.41 mm). The plastic shall 
have a flame spread index of 25 or less and a 
smoke-developed index of 450 or less when tested in 
the form intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 
84 and a self-ignition temperature of 650°F (343°C) 
or greater when tested in accordance with ASTM D 
1929; or 



3. Panels constructed of light-transmitting plastic mate- 
rials shall be permitted to be installed in canopies 
erected over motor vehicle fuel-dispensing station 
fuel dispensers, provided the panels are located at 
least 10 feet (3048 mm) from any building on the 
same property and face yards or streets not less than 
40 feet (12 192 mm) in width on the other sides. The 
aggregate areas of plastics shall not exceed 1,000 
square feet (93 m^). The maximum area of any indi- 
vidual panel shall not exceed 100 square feet (9.3 m^). 

M6£ Mepanr garages, 

4^6,6,1 General, Repair garages shall be constructed in ac- 
cordance with the International Fire Code and this section. 
This occupancy shall not include motor fuel-dispensing fa- 
cihties, as regulated in Section 406.5. 

406,6,2 Mixed mses. Mixed uses shall be allowed in the 
same building as a repair garage subject to the provisions of 
Section 302.3. 

406o6„3 Veetilsitkini, Repair garages shall be mechanically Q 
ventilated in accordance with the International Mechanical 
Code. The ventilation system shall be controlled at the en- 
trance to the garage. 

4§6o6A Floor sorlTace, Repair garage floors shall be of con- Q 
Crete or similar noncombustible and nonabsorbent materi- 
als. 

Exceptioe: Slip-resistant, nonabsorbent, interior floor 
finishes having a critical radiant flux not more than 0.45 
W/cm2, as determined by NFPA 253, shall be permitted. 



k€.S Heatieg eqelpmemto Heating equipment shall be 
installed in accordance with the International Mechanical 
Code. 

[F] 4(06,6,6 Gas detectloni system. Repair garages used for 
repair of vehicles fueled by nonodorized gases, such as hy- 
drogen and nonodorized LNG, shall be provided with an ap- 
proved flammable gas-detection system. 

[F] 41)6,6,6.1 System deslge. The flammable gas-detec- 
tion system shall be calibrated to the types of fuels or 
gases used by vehicles to be repaired. The gas detection 
system shall be designed to activate when the level of 
flammable gas exceeds 25 percent of the lower explosive 
limit. Gas detection shall also be provided in lubrication 
or chassis repair pits of garages used for repairing 
nonodorized LNG-fueled vehicles. 

[F] 4t)6,6p6o2 OperMloinio Activation of the gas detection 
system shall result in all of the following: 

1 . Initiation of distinct audible and visual alarm sig- 
nals in the repair garage. 

2. Deactivation of all heating systems located in the 
repair garage. 

3. Activation of the mechanical ventilation system, 
where the system is interlocked with gas detection. 

[F] 4([|6,6,6,3 Faitare of the gas detecttifoe system. Fail- 
ure of the gas detection system shall result in the deacti- 
vation of the heating system, activation of the 
mechanical ventilation system when the system is inter- 



O 



2003 EMTERMATBOMAL BODLDllMG CODE® 



47 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



locked with the gas detection system and cause a trouble 
signal to sound in an approved location. 



SECTION 407 
GROUP 1-2 

407.1 General. Occupancies in Group 1-2 shall comply with 
the provisions of this section and other applicable provisions of 
this code. 

407.2 Corridors. Corridors in occupancies in Group 1-2 shall 
be continuous to the exits and separated from other areas in ac- 
cordance with Section 407.3 except spaces conforming to Sec- 
tions 407.2.1 through 407.2.4. 

407.2.1 Spaces of unlimited area. Waiting areas and simi- 
lar spaces constructed as required for corridors shall be per- 

Imitted to be open to a corridor, only where all of the 
following criteria are met: 

1 . The spaces are not occupied for patient sleeping units, 
treatment rooms, hazardous or incidental use areas as 
defined in Section 302.1.1. 

2. The open space is protected by an automatic fire de- 
tection system installed in accordance with Section 
907. 

3. The corridors onto which the spaces open, in the same 
smoke compartment, are protected by an automatic 
fire detection system installed in accordance with 
Section 907, or the smoke compartment in which the 
spaces are located is equipped throughout with 
quick-response sprinklers in accordance with Section 
903.3.2. 

4. The space is arranged so as not to obstruct access to 
the required exits. 

407.2.2 Nurses' stations. Spaces for doctors' and nurses' 

■ charting, communications and related clerical areas shall be 
permitted to be open to the corridor, when such spaces are 
constructed as required for corridors. 

407.2.3 Mental health treatment areas. Areas wherein 
mental health patients who are not capable of self-preserva- 
tion are housed, or group meeting or multipurpose therapeu- 
tic spaces other than incidental use areas as defined in 
Section 302.1.1, under continuous supervision by facility 

I staff, shall be permitted to be open to the corridor, where the 
following criteria are met: 

1. Each area does not exceed 1,500 square feet (140 m^). 

2. The area is located to permit supervision by the facil- 
ity staff. 

3. The area is arranged so as not to obstruct any access to 
the required exits. 

4. The area is equipped with an automatic fire detection 
system installed in accordance with Section 907.2. 

5. Not more than one such space is permitted in any one 
smoke compartment. 

6. The walls and ceilings of the space are constructed as 
required for corridors. 



407.2.4 Gift shops. Gift shops less than 500 square feet 
(46.5 m^) in area shall be permitted to be open to the corridor 
provided the gift shop and storage areas are fully sprinklered 
and storage areas are protected in accordance with Section 
302.1.1. 

407,3 Corridor walls. Corridor walls shall be constructed as 
smoke partitions. 

407.3.1 Corridor doors. Corridor doors, other than those in 
a wall required to be rated by Section 302. 1 . 1 or for the en- 
closure of a vertical opening or an exit, shall not have a re- 
quired fire protection rating and shall not be required to be 
equipped with self-closing or automatic-closing devices, 
but shall provide an effective barrier to limit the transfer of 
smoke and shall be equipped with positive latching. Roller 
latches are not permitted. Other doors shall conform to Sec- 
tion 715.3. 

407.3.2 Locking devices. Locking devices that restrict ac- 
cess to the patient room from the corridor, and that are oper- 
able only by staff from the corridor side, shall not restrict the 
means of egress from the patient room except for patient 
rooms in mental health facilities. 

407o4 Smoke barriers. Smoke barriers shall be provided to 
subdivide every story used by patients for sleeping or treatment 
and to divide other stories with an occupant load of 50 or more 
persons, into at least two smoke compartments. Such stories 
shall be divided into smoke compartments with an area of not 
more than 22,500 square feet (2092 m^) and the travel distance 
from any point in a smoke compartment to a smoke barrier door 
shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). The smoke barrier shall 
be in accordance with Section 709. 

407.4.1 Refuge area. At least 30 net square feet (2.8 m^) per 
patient shall be provided within the aggregate area of corri- 
dors, patient rooms, treatment rooms, lounge or dining areas 
and other low-hazard areas on each side of each smoke bar- 
rier. On floors not housing patients confined to a bed or lit- 
ter, at least 6 net square feet (0.56 m^) per occupant shall be 
provided on each side of each smoke barrier for the total 
number of occupants in adjoining smoke compartments. 

407.4.2 ledependent egress. A means of egress shall be 
provided from each smoke compartment created by smoke 
barriers without having to return through the smoke com- 
partment from which means of egress originated, 

[F] 407.5 Automatic sprinkler system. Smoke compartments 
containing patient sleeping units shall be equipped throughout 
with an automatic fire sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1. The smoke compartments shall be equipped 
with approved quick-response or residential sprinklers in ac- 
cordance with Section 903.3.2. 

[F] 407.6 Automatic fire detection. Corridors in nursing 
homes (both intermediate-care and skilled nursing facilities), 
detoxification faciUties and spaces permitted to be open to cor- 
ridors by Section 407.2 shall be protected by an automatic fire 
detection system installed in accordance with Section 907. 

Exceptions: 

1. Corridor smoke detection is not required where pa- 
tient sleeping units are provided with smoke detectors 
that comply with UL 268. Such detectors shall pro- 



!• 



48 



2003 BNTERNATIOhSAL BUSLDgNG CODE® 



SPECDAL DETAILED REQUBREMENTS BASED OH USE kUB OCCUPANCY 



vide a visual display on the corridor side of each pa- 
tient sleeping unit and an audible and visual alarm at 
the nursing station attending each unit. 

2. Corridor smoke detection is not required where pa- 
tient sleeping unit doors are equipped with automatic 
door-closing devices with integral smoke detectors on 
the unit sides installed in accordance with their listing, 
provided that the integral detectors perform the re- 
quired alerting function. 

4117,7 Secered yardSo Grounds are permitted to be fenced and 
gates therein are permitted to be equipped with locks, provided 
that safe dispersal areas having 30 net square feet (2.8 m^) for 
bed and litter patients and 6 net square feet (0.56 m^) for ambu- 
latory patients and other occupants are located between the 
building and the fence. Such provided safe dispersal areas shall 
not be located less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the building 
they serve. 



SECTION 408 
GROUP 1=3 

4®§J GeeeraBo Occupancies in Group 1-3 shall comply with 
the provisions of this section and other apphcable provisions of 
this code (see Section 308.4). 



1,2 Mixed occepamideSo Portions of buildings with an occu- 
pancy in Group 1-3 that are classified as a different occupancy 
shall meet the applicable requirements of this code for such oc- 
cupancies. Where security operations necessitate the locking 
of required means of egress, provisions shall be made for the re- 
lease of occupants at all times. 

Means of egress from detention and correctional occupancies 
that traverse other use areas shall, as a minimum, conform to re- 
quirements for detention and correctional occupancies. 

Exceptlom: It is permissible to exit through a horizontal exit 
into other contiguous occupancies that do not conform to de- 
tention and correctional occupancy egress provisions but that 
do comply with requirements set forth in the appropriate oc- 
cupancy, as long as the occupancy is not a high-hazard use. 



^,3 Meems of egress. Except as modified or as provided for 
in this section, the provisions of Chapter 10 shall apply. 

408o3ol Door widttlhio Doors to resident sleeping units shall 
have a clear width of not less than 28 inches (711 mm). 

4©83o2 SlndlMg dcDors, Where doors in a means of egress are 
of the horizontal-sliding type, the force to slide the door to its 
fully open position shall not exceed 50 pounds (220 N) with a 
perpendicular force against the door of 50 pounds (220 N). 

408,3,3 Spiral stairs. Spiral stairs that conform to the re- 
quirements of Section 1009.9 are permitted for access to and 
between staff locations. 



Jo3,4 Exit discSnarge, Exits are permitted to discharge 
into a fenced or walled courtyard. Enclosed yards or courts 
shall be of a size to accommodate all occupants, a minimum 
of 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the building with a net area of 
15 square feet (1.4 m^) per person. 



L3o5 Sallyporlts, A sallyport shall be permitted in a 
means of egress where there are provisions for continuous 



and unobstructed passage through the sallyport during an 
emergency egress condition. 

4(l8o3,6 Vertkall exit esiclosores. One of the required verti- 
cal exit enclosures in each building shall be permitted to 
have glazing installed in doors and interior walls at each 
landing level providing access to the enclosure, provided 
that the following conditions are met: 

1. The vertical exit enclosure shall not serve more than 
four floor levels. 

2. Vertical exit enclosure doors shall not be less than 
V4-hour fire doors complying with Section 715.3. 

3. The total area of glazing at each floor level shall not 
exceed 5,000 square inches (3.23 m^) and individual 
panels of glazing shall not exceed 1 ,296 square inches 
(0.84 m2). 

4. The glazing shall be protected on both sides by an au- 
tomatic fire sprinkler system. The sprinkler system 
shall be designed to wet completely the entire surface 
of any glazing affected by fire when actuated. 

5. The glazing shall be in a gasketed frame and installed 
in such a manner that the framing system will deflect 
without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprin- 
kler system operates. 

6. Obstructions, such as curtain rods, drapery traverse 
rods, curtains, drapes or similar materials shall not be 
installed between the automatic sprinklers and the 
glazing. 

L4 L(D)ck§. Egress doors are permitted to be locked in accor- 
dance with the applicable use condition. Doors from an area of 
refuge to the exterior are permitted to be locked with a key in 
lieu of locking methods described in Section 408.4.1. The keys 
to unlock the exterior doors shall be available at all times and 
the locks shall be operable from both sides of the door. 

41)8.4,1 Remote rekase. Remote release of locks on doors 
in a means of egress shall be provided with reliable means of 
operation, remote from the resident living areas, to release 
locks on all required doors. In Occupancy Conditions 3 or 4, 
the arrangement, accessibility and security of the release 
mechanism(s) required for egress shall be such that with the 
minimum available staff at any time, the lock mechanisms 
are capable of being released within 2 minutes. 

ExceptiOHTi^ Provisions for remote locking and unlocking 
of occupied rooms in Occupancy Condition 4 are not re- 
quired provided that not more than 10 locks are neces- 
sary to be unlocked in order to move occupants from one 
smoke compartment to a refuge area within 3 minutes. 
The opening of necessary locks shall be accomplished 
with not more than two separate keys. 

[F] 4®8,4,2 P(o>weir=([Dperated doors smd locks. Power-oper- 
ated sliding doors or power-operated locks for swinging 
doors shall be operable by a manual release mechanism at 
the door, and either emergency power or a remote mechani- 
cal operating release shall be provided. 

Exceptioms Emergency power is not required in faciUties 
with 10 locks or less complying with the exception to 
Section 408.4.1. 



2003 IIMTERP^ATDOMAL BUILDiiSgG CODE® 



SPEC8AL DETASLED REQUIREMENTS BASED OH USE AIMO OCCUPAi^CY 



408.4.3 Redundant operation. Remote release, mechani- 
cally operated sliding doors or remote release, mechanically 
operated locks shall be provided with a mechanically oper- 
ated release mechanism at each door, or shall be provided 
with a redundant remote release control. 

408.4.4 Relock capability. Doors remotely unlocked under 
emergency conditions shall not automatically relock when 
closed unless specific action is taken at the remote location 
to enable doors to relock. 

408.5 Vertical openings. Vertical openings shall be enclosed 
in accordance with Section 707. 

Exception: A floor opening between floor levels of residen- 
tial housing areas is permitted without enclosure protection 
between the levels, provided that both of the following con- 
ditions are met: 

1. The entire normally occupied areas so interconnected 
are open and unobstructed so as to enable observation 
of the areas by supervisory personnel. 

2. Means of egress capacity is sufficient to provide si- 
multaneous egress for all occupants from all intercon- 
nected levels and areas. 

The height difference between the highest and lowest fin- 
ished floor levels shall not exceed 23 feet (7010 mm). Each 
story, considered separately, has at least one-half of its individ- 
ual required means of egress capacity provided by exits leading 
directly out of that story without traversing another story 
within the interconnected area. 

408.6 Smoke barrier. Occupancies in Group 1-3 shall have 
smoke barriers complying with Section 709 to divide every 
story occupied by residents for sleeping, or any other story hav- 
ing an occupant load of 50 or more persons, into at least two 
smoke compartments. 

Exception; Spaces having direct exit to one of the follow- 
ing, provided that the locking arrangement of the doors in- 
volved complies with the requirements for doors at the 
compartment barrier for the use condition involved: 

1 . A public way. 

2. A building separated from the resident housing area 
by a 2-hour fire-resistance-rated assembly or 50 feet 
(15 240 mm) of open space. 

3 . A secured yard or court having a holding space 50 feet 
(15 240 mm) from the housing area that provides 6 
square feet (0.56 m^) or more of refuge area per occu- 
pant, including residents, staff and visitors. 

408.6.1 Smoke compartments. The maximum number of 
residents in any smoke compartment shall be 200. The travel 
distance to a door in a smoke barrier from any room door re- 
quired as exit access shall not exceed 150 feet (45 720 mm). 
The travel distance to a door in a smoke barrier from any 
point in a room shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). 

408.6.2 Refuge area. At least 6 net square feet (0.56 m^) per 
occupant shall be provided on each side of each smoke bar- 
rier for the total number of occupants in adjoining smoke 
compartments. This space shall be readily available wher- 
ever the occupants are moved across the smoke barrier in a 
fire emergency. 



;.6.3 Independent egress. A means of egress shall be 
provided from each smoke compartment created by smoke 
barriers without having to return through the smoke com- 
partment from which means of egress originates. 

408.7 Sebdivision of resident housing areas. Sleeping areas 
and any contiguous day room, group activity space or other 
common spaces where residents are housed shall be separated 
from other spaces in accordance with Sections 408.7. 1 through 
408.7.4. 



1,7.1 Occupancy Conditions 3 and 4. Each sleeping 
area in Occupancy Conditions 3 and 4 shall be separated 
from the adjacent common spaces by a smoke- tight partition 
where the travel distance from the sleeping area through the 
common space to the exit access corridor exceeds 50 feet 
(15 240 mm). 



i7.2 Occupancy Condition 5. Each sleeping area in Oc- 
cupancy Condition 5 shall be separated from adjacent sleep- 
ing areas, corridors and common spaces by a smoke-tight 
partition. Additionally, common spaces shall be separated 
from the exit access corridor by a smoke- tight partition. 



!.7o3 Openings in room face. The aggregate area of 
openings in a soHd sleeping room face in Occupancy Condi- 
tions 2,3,4 and 5 shall not exceed 1 20 square inches (77419 
mm^). The aggregate area shall include all openings includ- 
ing door undercuts, food passes and grilles. Openings shall 
be not more than 36 inches (914 mm) above the floor. In Oc- 
cupancy Condition 5, the openings shall be closeable from 
the room side. 



>o7.4 Smoke-tight doors. Doors in openings in partitions 
required to be smoke tight by Section 408.7 shall be substan- 
tial doors, of construction that will resist the passage of 
smoke. Latches and door closures are not required on cell 
doors. 

408,8 Windowless beildingSo For the purposes of this section, 
a windowless building or portion of a building is one with 
nonopenable windows, windows not readily breakable or with- 
out windows. Windowless buildings shall be provided with an 
engineered smoke control system to provide ventilation (me- 
chanical or natural) in accordance with Section 909 for each 
windowless smoke compartment. 



SECTION 409 
liOTIOiSi PICTURE PROJECTION ROOMS 

409.. 1 GemeraL The provisions of this section shall apply to 
rooms in which ribbon-type cellulose acetate or other safety 
film is utilized in conjunction with electric arc, xenon or other 
light-source projection equipment that develops hazardous 
gases, dust or radiation. Where cellulose nitrate film is utihzed 
or stored, such rooms shall comply with NFPA 40. 



'olol ProjectioE room required. Every motion picture 
machine projecting film as mentioned within the scope of 
this section shall be enclosed in a projection room. Appurte- 
nant electrical equipment, such as rheostats, transformers 
and generators, shall be within the projection room or in an 
adjacent room of equivalent construction. 



50 



2003 BNTERNATaONAL BUfLDING CODE® 



SPECDAL OETADLED REQyDREMEGSgTS BASED OH USE ACsaO ©CCUPAWCY 



4Wc2 CoEstrECttiom ©f projectioe roomSo Every projection 
room shall be of permanent construction consistent with the 
construction requirements for the type of building in which the 
projection room is located. Openings are not required to be pro- 
tected. 

The room shall have a floor area of not less than 80 square 
feet (7.44 m^) for a single machine and at least 40 square feet 
(3.7 m^) for each additional machine. Each motion picture pro- 
jector, floodlight, spothght or similar piece of equipment shall 
have a clear working space of not less than 30 inches by 30 
inches (762 mm by 762 mm) on each side and at the rear 
thereof, but only one such space shall be required between two 
adjacent projectors. The projection room and the rooms appur- 
tenant thereto shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 
inches (2286 mm). The aggregate of openings for projection 
equipment shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of the wall 
between the projection room and the auditorium. Openings 
shall be provided with glass or other approved material, so as to 
close completely the opening. 

4W3 Prajecttiom room aed eqeEpmeet veHitllMMPo Ventila- 
tion shall be provided in accordance with the International Me- 
chanical Code. 

4([])9o3ol ProjecMomi toohhio 



L3olol Sepply eke Each projection room shall be pro- 
vided with adequate air supply inlets so arranged as to 
provide well-distributed air throughout the room. Air in- 
let ducts shall provide an amount of air equivalent to the 
amount of air being exhausted by projection equipment. 
Air is permitted to be taken from the outside; from adja- 
cent spaces within the building, provided the volume and 
infiltration rate is sufficient; or from the building air-con- 
ditioning system, provided it is so arranged as to provide 
sufficient air when other systems are not in operation. 



>o3olo2 Exhaiiiist alto Projection rooms are permitted to 
be exhausted through the lamp exhaust system. The lamp 
exhaust system shall be positively interconnected with 
the lamp so that the lamp will not operate unless there is 
the required airflow. Exhaust air ducts shall terminate at 
the exterior of the building in such a location that the ex- 
haust air cannot be readily recirculated into any air sup- 
ply system. The projection room ventilation system is 
permitted to also serve appurtenant rooms, such as the 
generator and rewind rooms. 

Each projection machine shall be provided with an ex- 
haust duct that will draw air from each lamp and exhaust 
it directly to the outside of the building. The lamp exhaust 
is permitted to serve to exhaust air from the projection 
room to provide room air circulation. Such ducts shall be 
of rigid materials, except for a flexible connector ap- 
proved for the purpose. The projection lamp or projec- 
tion room exhaust system, or both, is permitted to be 
combined but shall not be interconnected with any other 
exhaust or return system, or both, within the building. 

^o4 LigtuMog coeltFoL Provisions shall be made for control of 
the auditorium lighting and the means of egress lighting sys- 
tems of theaters from inside the projection room and from at 
least one other convenient point in the building. 



4ffi9o5 Miscelkinieoiiiis eqaBBprneinit Each projection room shall 
be provided with rewind and film storage facilities. 



SECTION 410 



II ApplncalDnMttyo The provisions of this section shall apply 
to all parts of buildings and structures that contain stages or 
platforms and similar appurtenances as herein defined. 



2 Deimtleinis, The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

FLY GALLERY, A raised floor area above a stage from 
which the movement of scenery and operation of other stage 
effects are controlled. 



> The structural framing over a stage support- 
ing equipment for hanging or flying scenery and other stage 
effects. 



. A rail on or above a stage through which belay- 
ing pins are inserted and to which lines are fastened. 



. A raised area within a building used for wor- 
ship, the presentation of music, plays or other entertain- 
ment; the head table for special guests; the raised area for 
lecturers and speakers; boxing and wresthng rings; the- 
ater-in-the-round stages; and similar purposes wherein 
there are no overhead hanging curtains, drops, scenery or 
stage effects other than lighting and sound. A temporary 
platform is one installed for not more than 30 days. 

PMOSCEMUM WALL. The wall that separates the stage 
from the auditorium or assembly seating area. 

STAGEo A space within a building utihzed for entertain- 
ment or presentations, which includes overhead hanging 
curtains, drops, scenery or stage effects other than lighting 
and sound. Stage area shall be measured to include the entire 
performance area and adjacent backstage and support areas 
not separated from the performance area by fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction. Stage height shall be measured 
from the lowest point on the stage floor to the highest point 
of the roof or floor deck above the stage. 



)o3 StageSo Stage construction shall comply with Sections 
410.3.1 through 410.3.7. 



)o3ol Stage c<Dini§ltrecttIoEiio Stages shall be constructed of 
materials as required for floors for the type of construction 
of the building in which such stages are located. 



must 

1 . Stages of Type IIB or IV construction with a nomi- 
nal 2-inch (51 mm) wood deck, provided that the 
stage is separated from other areas in accordance 
with Section 410.3.4. 

2. In buildings of Type IIA, IIIA and VA construc- 
tion, a fire-resistance-rated floor is not required, 
provided the space below the stage is equipped 
with an automatic fire-extinguishing system in ac- 
cordance with Section 903 or 904. 

3 . In all types of construction, the finished floor shall be 
constructed of wood or approved noncombustible 



2003 DNTERGSlATflOBSiAL (BUBLDilMG CODE® 



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SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED OlSfl USE AND OCCUPAS^CY 



materials. Openings through stage floors shall be 
equipped with tight-fitting, soUd wood trap doors 
with approved safety locks. 

410.3ol.l Stage height and area^ Stage areas shall be 
measured to include the entire performance area and ad- 
jacent backstage and support areas not separated from 
the performance area by fire-resistance-rated construc- 
tion. Stage height shall be measured from the lowest 
point on the stage floor to the highest point of the roof or 
floor deck above the stage. 

410.3.2 Galleries, gridirons, catwalks and pSnralls. 
Beams designed only for the attachment of portable or fixed 
theater equipment, gridirons, galleries and catwalks shall be 
constructed of approved materials consistent with the re- 
quirements for the type of construction of the building; and a 
fire-resistance rating shall not be required. These areas shall 
not be considered to be floors, stories, mezzanines or levels 
in applying this code. 

Exception: Floors of fly galleries and catwalks shall be 
constructed of any approved material 

410.3.3 Exterior stage doors. Where protection of open- 
ings is required, exterior exit doors shall be protected with 
fire doors that comply with Section 715. Exterior openings 
that are located on the stage for means of egress or loading 
and unloading purposes, and that are likely to be open dur- 
ing occupancy of the theater, shall be constructed with vesti- 
bules to prevent air drafts into the auditorium. 

410.3.4 Prosceniiiin wall. Where the stage height is greater 
than 50 feet (15 240 mm), all portions of the stage shall be 
completely separated from the seating area by a proscenium 
wall with not less than a 2-hour fire-resistance rating ex- 
tending continuously from the foundation to the roof. 

410.3.5 Proscenlem curtain. The proscenium opening of 
every stage with a height greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm) 
shall be provided with a curtain of approved material or an 
approved water curtain complying with Section 903.3.1.1. 
The curtain shall be designed and installed to intercept hot 
gases, flames and smoke, and to prevent a glow from a se- 
vere fire on the stage from showing on the auditorium side 
for a period of 20 minutes. The closing of the curtain from 
the full open position shall be effected in less than 30 sec- 
onds, but the last 8 feet (2438 mm) of travel shall require not 
less than 5 seconds. 

410.3.5.1 Activation. The curtain shall be activated by 
rate-of-rise heat detection installed in accordance with 
Section 907.10 operating at a rate of temperature rise of 
15 to 20°F per minute (8 to 1 TC per minute), and by an 
auxiliary manual control. 

410.3.5.2 Fire test, A sample curtain with a minimum of 
two vertical seams shall be subjected to the standard fire 
test specified in ASTM E 1 19 for a period of 30 minutes. 
The curtain shall overlap the furnace edges by an amount 
that is appropriate to seal the top and sides. The curtain 
shall have a bottom pocket containing a minimum of 4 
pounds per hnear foot (58 N/m) of batten. The exposed 
surface of the curtain shall not glow, and flame or smoke 
shall not penetrate the curtain during the test period. Un- 



exposed surface temperature and hose stream test re- 
quirements are not applicable to the proscenium fire 
safety curtain test. 

410.3.503 Smoke test. Curtain fabrics shall have a 
smoke-developed rating of 25 or less when tested in ac- 
cordance with ASTM E 84. 

410.3.504 Tests, The completed proscenium curtain shall 
be subjected to operating tests prior to the issuance of a 
certificate of occupancy. 

410.3.6 Scenery. Combustible materials used in sets and 
scenery shall be rendered flame resistant in accordance with 
Section 805 and the International Fire Code. Foam plastics 
and materials containing foam plastics shall comply with 
Section 2603 and the International Fire Code. 

410.3.7 Stage ventilation. Emergency ventilation shall be 
provided for stages larger than 1,000 square feet (93 m^) in 
floor area, or with a stage height greater than 50 feet (15 240 
n^n). Such ventilation shall comply with Section 410.3.7.1 
or 410.3.7.2. 

410.3.7.1 Roof vents. Two or more vents constructed to 
open automatically by approved heat-activated devices 
and with an aggregate clear opening area of not less than 
5 percent of the area of the stage shall be located near the 
center and above the highest part of the stage area. Sup- 
plemental means shall be provided for manual operation 
of the ventilator. Curbs shall be provided as required for 
skyhghts in Section 2610.2. Vents shall be labeled. 

410.3.7.2 Smoke control. Smoke control in accordance 
with Section 909 shall be provided to maintain the smoke 
layer interface not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the 
highest level of the assembly seating or above the top of 
the proscenium opening where a proscenium wall is pro- 
vided in compliance with Section 410.3.4. 

410.4 Platform constrmction. Permanent platforms shall be 
constructed of materials as required for the type of construction 
of the building in which the permanent platform is located. Per- 
manent platforms are permitted to be constructed of fire-retar- 
dant-treated wood for Type I, II, and IV construction where the 
platforms are not more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the main 
floor, and not more than one-third of the room floor area and not 
more than 3,000 square feet (279 m^) in area. Where the space 
beneath the permanent platform is used for storage or any other 
purpose other than equipment, wiring or plumbing, the floor 
construction shall not be less than I -hour fire-resistance-rated 
construction. Where the space beneath the permanent platform 
is used only for equipment, wiring or plumbing, the underside 
of the permanent platform need not be protected. 

410,4.1 Temporary platforms. Platforms installed for a pe- 
riod of not more than 30 days are permitted to be constructed 
of any materials permitted by the code. The space between 
the floor and the platform above shall only be used for 
plumbing and electrical wiring to platform equipment. 

410.5 Dressing and appurtenant rooms. Dressing and appur- 
tenant rooms shall comply with Sections 410.5.1 through 
410.5.4. 

410.5,1 Separation from stage. Where the stage height is 
greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm), the stage shall be sepa- 



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SPECDAL OETABLED REQOSREyENTS BASED OH USE 



OCCUPAWCY 



rated from dressing rooms, scene docks, property rooms, 
workshops, storerooms and compartments appurtenant to 
the stage and other parts of the building by a fire barrier wall 
and horizontal assemblies, or both, with not less than a 
2-hour fire-resistance rating with approved opening 
protectives. For stage heights of 50 feet (15 240 mm) or less, 
the required stage separation shall be a fire barrier wall and 
horizontal assemblies, or both, with not less a 1 -hour fire-re- 
sistance rating with approved opening protectives. 



L5.2 SeparaMoM from eacli otfiieFc Dressing rooms, 
scene docks, property rooms, workshops, storerooms and 
compartments appurtenant to the stage shall be separated 
from each other by fire barrier wall and horizontal assem- 
blies, or both, with not less than a 1-hour fire-resistance rat- 
ing with approved opening protectives. 

410,5o3 Opeeimg protecltlveSp Openings other than to trunk 
rooms and the necessary doorways at stage level shall not 
connect such rooms with the stage, and such openings shall 
be protected with fire door assemblies that comply with Sec- 
tion 715. 

4WSA Stage exIitSo At least one approved means of egress 
shall be provided from each side of the stage; and from each 
side of the space under the stage. At least one means of es- 
cape shall be provided from each fly gallery and from the 
gridiron. A steel ladder, alternating tread stairway or spiral 
stairway is permitted to be provided from the gridiron to a 
scuttle in the stage roof. 

[F] 4Wo6 AptomMnc sprmkkr systemHo Stages shall be 
equipped with an automatic fire-extinguishing system in accor- 
dance with Chapter 9. The system shall be installed under the 
roof and gridiron, in the tie and fly galleries, in places behind 
the proscenium wall of the stage, and in dressing rooms, 
lounges, workshops and storerooms accessory to such stages. 

ExcepMoimss 

1 . Sprinklers are not required under stage areas less than 
4 feet (1219 mm) in clear height utilized exclusively 
for storage of tables and chairs, provided the con- 
cealed space is separated from the adjacent spaces by 
not less than Vg-inch (15.9 mm) Type X gypsum 
board. 

2. Sprinklers are not required for stages 1,000 square 
feet (93 m^) or less in area and 50 feet (15 240 mm) or 
less in height where curtains, scenery or other com- 
bustible hangings are not retractable vertically. Com- 
bustible hangings shall be limited to a single main 
curtain, borders, legs and a single backdrop. 

[F] 41®o7 StoffidpipeSo Standpipe systems shall be provided in 
accordance with Section 905. 



SECTION 411 

IMySEiiENT 

411cl GemersLL Special amusement buildings having an occu- 
pant load of 50 or more shall comply with the requirements for 
the appropriate Group A occupancy and this section. Amuse- 
ment buildings having an occupant load of less than 50 shall 



comply with the requirements for a Group B occupancy and 
this section. 

EsceptnoEi: Amusement buildings or portions thereof that 
are without walls or a roof and constructed to prevent the ac- 
cumulation of smoke. 

For flammable decorative materials, see the International 
Fire Code. 

411,2 Special ampsememt IbeiMlego A special amusement 
building is any temporary or permanent building or portion 
thereof that is occupied for amusement, entertainment or edu- 
cational purposes and that contains a device or system that con- 
veys passengers or provides a walkway along, around or over a 
course in any direction so arranged that the means of egress 
path is not readily apparent due to visual or audio distractions 
or is intentionally confounded or is not readily available be- 
cause of the nature of the attraction or mode of conveyance 
through the building or structure. 

[F] 411„3 Aetomatic ire detectaoEo Special amusement build- 
ings shall be equipped with an automatic fire detection system 
in accordance with Section 907. 

[F] 411,4 AetomaMc sprmkler sysHemo Special amusement 
buildings shall be equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where 
the special amusement building is temporary, the sprinkler wa- 
ter supply shall be of an approved temporary means. 



MOES Automatic fire sprinklers are not required 
where the total floor area of a temporary special amusement 
building is less than 1,000 square feet (93 m^) and the travel 
distance from any point to an exit is less than 50 feet (15 240 
nrmi). 

[F] 411o5 Alarmo Actuation of a single smoke detector, the au- 
tomatic sprinkler system or other automatic fire detection de- 
vice shall immediately sound an alarm at the building at a 
constandy attended location from which emergency action can 
be initiated including the capability of manual initiation of re- 
quirements in Section 907.2.1 1.2. 

[F] 411o6 Emergemcy voke/aiarmni commiuiiikailoes systeiMo 
An emergency voice/alarm conmiunications system shall be 
provided in accordance with Sections 907.2. 1 1 and 907.2. 1 2.2, 
which is also permitted to serve as a public address system and 
shall be audible throughout the entire special amusement build- 
ing. 

411o7 Exit marklmgo Exit signs shall be installed at the re- 
quired exit or exit access doorways of amusement buildings. 
Approved directional exit markings shall also be provided. 
Where mirrors, mazes or other designs are utihzed that dis- 
guise the path of egress travel such that they are not apparent, 
approved low-level exit signs and directional path markings 
shall be provided and located not more than 8 inches (203 mm) 
above the walking surface and on or near the path of egress 
travel. Such markings shall become visible in an emergency. 
The directional exit marking shall be activated by the automatic 
fire detection system and the automatic sprinkler system in ac- 
cordance with Section 907.2.11.2. 

411.8 Interior Selshc The interior finish shall be Class A in ac- 
cordance with Section 803.1. 



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SECTION 412 
AIRCRAFT-RELATED OCCUPANCIES 

412.1 Airport traffic control towerSo 

412.1.1 General. The provisions of this section shall apply 
to airport traffic control towers not exceeding 1,500 square 
feet ( 140 m^) per floor occupied only for the following uses: 

1 . Airport traffic control cab. 

2. Electrical and mechanical equipment rooms. 

3. Airport terminal radar and electronics rooms. 

4. Office spaces incidental to the tower operation. 

5. Lounges for employees, including sanitary facihties. 

412.1.2 Type of construction. Airport traffic control tow- 
ers shall be constructed to conform to the height and area 
limitations of Table 412.1.2. 

TABLE 41 2.1 .2 

HEIGHT AND AREA LIMITATIONS FOR AIRPORT 

TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWERS 



TYPE OF 
CONSTRUCTION 


HEIGHr 
(feet) 


MAXIMUM AREA 
(square feet) 


lA 


Unlimited 


1,500 


IB 


240 


1,500 


IIA 


100 


1,500 


IIB 


85 


1,500 


IIIA 


65 


1,500 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.093 ml 
a. Height to be measured from grade to cab floor. 

412.1.3 Egress. A minimum of one exit stairway shall be 
pennitted for airport traffic control towers of any height pro- 
vided that the occupant load per floor does not exceed 15. 
The stairway shall conform to the requirements of Section 
1009. The stairway shall be separated from elevators by a 
minimum distance of one-half of the diagonal of the area 
served measured in a straight line. The exit stairway and ele- 
vator hoistway are permitted to be located in the same shaft 
enclosure, provided they are separated from each other by a 
4-hour separation having no openings. Such stairway shall 
be pressurized to a minimum of 0.15 inch of water column 
(43 Pa) and a maximum of 0.35 inch of water column (101 
Pa) in the shaft relative to the building with stairway doors 
closed. Stairways need not extend to the roof as specified in 
Section 1009.12. The provisions of Section 403 do not ap- 
ply. 

Exception: Smokeproof enclosures as set forth in Sec- 
tion 1019.1.8 are not required where required stairways 
are pressurized. 

[F] 412.1.4 Automatic fire detection systems. Airport traf- 
fic control towers shall be provided with an automatic fire 
detection system installed in accordance with Section 
907.2. 

[F] 412.1.5 Standby pov^^er. A standby power system that 
conforms to Section 2702 shall be provided in airport traffic 
control towers more than 65 feet (19 812 mm) in height. 
Power shall be provided to the following equipment: 



1 . Pressurization equipment, mechanical equipment and 
lighting. 

2. Elevator operating equipment. 

3. Fire alarm and smoke detection systems. 

412.1.6 Accessibility. Airport traffic control towers need 
not be accessible as specified in the provisions of Chapter 
11. 

412.2 Aircraft hangar. 

412.2.1 Exterior walls. Exterior walls located less than 30 
feet (9 144 mm) from property lines, lot lines or a public way 
shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than 2 hours. 

412.2.2 Basements. Where hangars have basements, the 
floor over the basement shall be of Type I A construction and 
shall be made tight against seepage of water, oil or vapors. 
There shall be no opening or communicadon between the 
basement and the hangar. Access to the basement shall be 
from outside only. 

412.2.3 Floor surface. Floors shall be graded and drained to 
prevent water or fuel from remaining on the floor. Floor 
drains shall discharge through an oil separator to the sewer 
or to an outside vented sump. 

412.2.4 Heating equipment. Heating equipment shall be 
placed in another room separated by 2-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction. Entrance shall be from the outside 
or by means of a vestibule providing a two-doorway separa- 
tion. 

Exceptions: 

1. Unit heaters suspended at least 10 feet (3048 mm) 
above the upper surface of wings or engine enclo- 
sures of the highest aircraft that are permitted to be 
housed in the hangar and at least 8 feet (2438 mm) 
above the floor in shops, offices and other sections 
of the hangar communicating with storage or ser- 
vice areas. 

2. A single interior door shall be allowed, provided 
the sources of ignition in the appliances are at least 
18 inches (457 mm) above the floor. 

412.2.5 Finishing. The process of "doping," involving use 
of a volatile flammable solvent, or of painting, shall be car- 
ried on in a separate detached building equipped with auto- 
matic fire-exfinguishing equipment in accordance with 
Section 903. 

[F] 412.2,6 Fire suppression. Aircraft hangars shall be pro- 
vided with fire suppression as required in NFPA 409. 

Exception: Group II hangars as defined in NFPA 409 
storing private aircraft without major maintenance or 
overhaul are exempt from foam suppression require- 
ments. 

412.3 Residential aircraft hangars. Residential aircraft han- 
gars as defined in Section 412,3.1 shall comply with Sections 
412.3.2 through 412.3.6. 

412.3,1 Definition. The following word and term shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meaning shown herein. 



54 



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SPECDAL DETAILED BEQUBREi^/iElsaTS BASED OH USE ANID OCCUPAEVaCY 



RESIDENTIAL AMCEAFT HANGAR, An acces- 
sory building less than 2,000 square feet (186 m^) and 20 
feet (6096 mm) in height, constructed on a one- or 
two-family residential property where aircraft are stored. 
Such use will be considered as a residential accessory use 
incidental to the dweUing. 

412c3<.2 Fire sepaiirMlonio A hangar shall not be attached to a 
dwelling unless separated by walls having a fire-resistance 
rating of not less than 1 hour. Such separation shall be con- 
tinuous from the foundation to the underside of the roof and 
unpierced except for doors leading to the dwelling unit. 
Doors into the dwelling unit must be equipped with 
self-closing devices and conform to the requirements of 
Section 715 with at least a 4-inch (102 mm) noncombustible 
raised sill. Openings from a hanger directly into a room used 
for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted. 

412,3 o3 Egress, A hangar shall provide two means of egress. 
One of the doors into the dwelling shall be considered as 
meeting only one of the two means of egress. 

[F] 412,3,4 Smoke detecMomi, Smoke alarms shall be pro- 
vided within the hangar in accordance with Section 
907.2.21. 

412,3,5 iMdepeMdenitt systems. Mechanical and plumbing 
drain, waste and vent (DWV) systems installed within the 
hangar shall be independent of the systems installed within 
the dwelling. Building sewer lines may connect outside the 
structures. 

Exception: Smoke detector wiring and feed for electri- 
cal subpanels in the hangar. 



Igtit amd area limits. Residential aircraft han- 
gars shall not exceed 2,000 square feet (186 m^) in area and 
20 feet (6096 mm) in height. 

412,4 Aircraft palmt Ihamgars, Aircraft painting operations 
where flammable liquids are used in excess of the maximum al- 
lowable quantities per control area listed in Table 307. 7( 1 ) shall 
be conducted in an aircraft paint hangar that complies with the 
provisions of Section 412.4. 

412.4.1 Occiflpasicy group. Aircraft paint hangars shall be 
classified as Group H-2. Aircraft paint hangars shall comply 
with the applicable requirements of this code and the Inter- 
national Fire Code for such occupancy. 

412.4.2 CdDEstr^ctioe, The aircraft paint hangar shall be of 
Type I or II construction. 

412.4.3 Operatioinis, Only those flammable liquids neces- 
sary for painting operations shall be permitted in quantities 
less than the maximum allowable quantities per control area 
in Table 307.7(1). Spray equipment cleaning operations 
shall be conducted in a liquid use, dispensing and mixing 
room. 

412.4.4 Storage, Storage of flammable liquids shall be in a 
liquid storage room. 

412.4.5 Fire ssippresslosi. Aircraft paint hangars shall be 
provided with fire suppression as required in NFPA 409. 

412.4.6 Veetilatioia, Aircraft paint hangars shall be pro- 
vided with ventilation as required in the International Me- 
chanical Code. 



12,5 Heliiports aimd Ihelistops, 

412.5.1 GeaneraL Heliports and helistops may be erected on 
buildings or other locations where they are constructed in 
accordance with this section. 

412.5.2 DefimMoinis, The following words and terms shall, 
for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meanings shown herein. 

HELIPORT, An area of land or water or a structural surface 
that is used, or intended for use, for the landing and taking 
off of helicopters, and any appurtenant areas that are used, 
or intended for use, for heliport buildings and other heliport 
facilities. 

HELISTOE The same as a "Heliport," except that no fuel- 
ing, defueUng, maintenance, repairs or storage of helicop- 
ters is permitted. 

412.5.3 Size, The touchdown or landing area for hehcopters 
of less than 3,500 pounds (1588 kg) shall be a minimum of 
20 feet (6096 mm) in length and width. The touchdown area 
shall be surrounded on all sides by a clear area having a min- 
imum average width at roof level of 15 feet (4572 mm) but 
with no width less than 5 feet (1524 mm). 

412.5.4 Design, Hehcopter landing areas and the supports 
thereof on the roof of a building shall be noncombustible 
construction. Landing areas shall be designed to confine any 
flammable liquid spillage to the landing area itself and pro- 
visions shall be made to drain such spillage away from any 
exit or stairway serving the helicopter landing area or from a 
structure housing such exit or stairway. For structural design 
requirements, see Section 1605.5. 

412.5.5 Meaims ofT egress. The means of egress from heli- 
ports and helistops shall comply with the provisions of 
Chapter 10. Landing areas located on buildings or structures 
shall have two or more means of egress. For landing plat- 
forms or roof areas less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in length, 
or less than 2,000 square feet (187 m^) in area, the second 
means of egress may be a fire escape or ladder leading to the 
floor below. 



412,5,6 Rooftop heliports annd luelistops. Rooftop heU- 
ports and hehstops shall comply with NFPA 418. 



<:-] 



eOiVilBUSTIBLE STORAGE 

413.1 Gemeral, High-piled stock or rack storage in any occu- 
pancy group shall comply with the International Fire Code. 

413.2 Attic^ MEder=ioor aed coEcealed spaces. Attic, un- 
der-floor and concealed spaces used for storage of combustible 
materials shall be protected on the storage side as required for 
1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. Openings shall be 
protected by assemblies that are self-closing and are of 
noncombustible construction or solid wood core not less than 
1 V4 inch (45 mm) in thickness. 

Exceptfloess 

1 . Areas protected by approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems. 

2. Group R-3 and U occupancies. 



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SPECIAL DETAILED REQUSREMENTS BASED QM USE AHB OCCUPANCY 



SECTION 414 
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 

[F] 414.1 General. The provisions of this section shall apply to 
buildings and structures occupied for the manufacturing, pro- 
cessing, dispensing, use or storage of hazardous materials. 

[F] 414JJ Other provisions. Buildings and structures 
with an occupancy in Group H shall also comply with the 
applicable provisions of Section 415 and the International 
Fire Code. 

[F] 414ol.2 Materials. The safe design of hazardous mate- 
rial occupancies is material dependent. Individual material 
requirements are also found in Sections 307 and 415, and in 
the International Mechanical Code and the International 
Fire Code. 

[F] 414,1.2.1 Aerosols. Level 2 and 3 aerosol products 
shall be stored and displayed in accordance with the In- 
ternational Fire Code. See Section 31 1.2 and the Inter- 
national Fire Code for occupancy group requirements. 

[F] 414.1.3 Informatioin required. Separate floor plans 
shall be submitted for buildings and structures with an occu- 
pancy in Group H, identifying the locations of anticipated 
contents and processes so as to reflect the nature of each oc- 
cupied portion of every building and structure. A report 
identifying hazardous materials including, but not limited 
to, materials representing hazards that are classified in 
Group H to be stored or used, shall be submitted and the 
methods of protection from such hazards shall be indicated 
on the construction documents. The opinion and report shall 
be prepared by a qualified person, firm or corporation ap- 
proved by the building official and shall be provided without 
charge to the enforcing agency. 

[F] 414.2 Control areas. Control areas shall be those spaces 
within a building where quantities of hazardous materials not 
exceeding the maximum quantities allowed by this code are 
stored, dispensed, used or handled. 

414,2.1 Construction requirements. Control areas shall 
be separated from each other by not less than a l~hour fire 
barrier constructed in accordance with Chapter 7. 

[F] 414.2.2 Number. The maximum number of control ar- 
eas within a building shall be in accordance with Table 
414.2.2. 

414.2.3 Separation, The required fire-resistance rating for 
fire barrier assemblies shall be in accordance with Table 
414.2.2. The floor construction of the control area, and the 
construction supporting the floor of the control area, shall 
have a minimum 2-hour fire-resistance rating. 

[F] 414.2.4 Hazardous materia! in Group M display and 
storage areas and in Group S storage areas. The aggre- 
gate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or 
noncombustible hquid hazardous materials permitted 
within a single control area of a Group M or S occupancy or 
an outdoor control area is permitted to exceed the maximum 
allowable quantities per control area specified in Tables 
307.7(1) and 307.7(2) without classifying the building or 
use as a Group H occupancy, provided that the materials are 
displayed and stored in accordance with the International 



Fire Code and quantities do not exceed the maximum allow- 
able specified in Table 414.2.4. 

[F] 414o3 Ventilation. Rooms, areas or spaces of Group H in 
which explosive, corrosive, combustible, flammable or 
highly toxic dusts, mists, fumes, vapors or gases are or may be 
emitted due to the processing, use, handling or storage of ma- 
terials shall be mechanically ventilated as required by the In- 
ternational Fire Code and the International Mechanical 
Code. 

Ducts conveying explosives or flammable vapors, fumes or 
dusts shall extend directly to the exterior of the building with- 
out entering other spaces. Exhaust ducts shall not extend into or 
through ducts and plenums. 

Exception: Ducts conveying vapor or fumes having flam- 
mable constituents less than 25 percent of their lower 
flammable limit (LFL) are permitted to pass through other 
spaces. 

Emissions generated at workstafions shall be confined to the 
area in which they are generated as specified in the Interna- 
tional Fire Code and the International Mechanical Code. 

The location of supply and exhaust openings shall be in ac- 
cordance with the International Mechanical Code. Exhaust air 
contaminated by highly toxic material shall be treated in accor- 
dance with the International Fire Code. 

A manual shutoff control for ventilation equipment required 
by this section shall be provided outside the room adjacent to 
the principal access door to the room. The switch shall be of the 
break-glass type and shall be labeled: VENTILATION SYS- 
TEM EMERGENCY SHUTOFF. 

[F] 414.4 Hazardous materlafl systems. Systems involving 
hazardous materials shall be suitable for the intended applica- 
tion. Controls shall be designed to prevent materials from en- 
tering or leaving process or reaction systems at other than the 
intended time, rate or path. Automatic controls, where pro- 
vided, shall be designed to be fail safe. 

[F] 414.S Inside storage, dlspensifig and use. The inside stor- 
age, dispensing and use of hazardous materials in excess of the 
maximum allowable quantities per control area of Tables 
307.7(1) and 307.7(2) shall be in accordance with Sections 
414.5.1 through 414.5.5 of this code and the International Fire 
Code. 

[F] 414o5 J Explosion control. Explosion control shall be 
provided in accordance with the International Fire Code as 
required by Table 414.5.1 where quantities of hazardous 
materials specified in that table exceed the maximum allow- 
able quantities in Table 307.7(1) or where a structure, room 
or space is occupied for purposes involving explosion haz- 
ards as required by Section 415 or the International Fire 
Code. 

[F] 414oSo2 Monitor control equipment. Monitor control 
equipment shall be provided where required by the Interna- 
tional Fire Code. 

[F] 414,53 Automatic Sre detection systems. Group H oc- 
cupancies shall be provided with an automatic fire detection 
system in accordance with Section 907.2. 



56 



2003 DWTERNATBOMIAL BUILDBMG CODE® 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQODREIWflEESITS BASED OH USE AIMIO OCCUPANCY 



[F] TABLE 4t 4.2.2 
DESIGBVl AES3D B^UIWaBER OF COESSTROL AREAS 



FLOOR LEVEL 


PERCENTAGE OF THE iWAXlMUiVa ALLOWABLE 
QOASSITMTV PER CONTROL AREA^ 


MUiViBER OF CONTROL 
AREAS PER FLOOR'' 


FBRE-RESISTANCE RATING 
FOR FBRE BARRIERS M HOURS*= 


Above grade 


Higher than 9 

7-9 

6 

5 
4 
3 
2 
1 


5 

5 
12.5 
12.5 
12.5 
50 
75 
100 


1 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
3 
4 


2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 


Below grade 


1 

2 

Lower than 2 


75 

50 

Not Allowed 


3 

2 

Not Allowed 


1 

1 
Not Allowed 



a. Percentages siiall be of the maximum allowable quantity per control area shown in Tables 307.7(1 ) and 307.7(2), with all increases allowed in the notes to those ta- 
bles. 

b. There shall be a maximum of two control areas per floor in Group M occupancies and in buildings or portions of buildings having Group S occupancies with stor- 
age conditions and quantities in accordance with Section 414.2.4. 

c. Fire barriers shall include walls and floors as necessary to provide separation from other portions of the building. 

[F] TABLE 4M.2.4 

MAXDlWaUiVi ALLOWABLE QUABViTiTY PER DIMOOOR AND OUTDOOR COOTROL AREA M GROUP M AHB S 0CCUPASS9CDES 

MONFLAMSVaABLE SOLBDS AND NON FLAM iV3 ABLE AMD NONCOi^/iBUSTQBLE LIQUIDS "^'^'^ 



CONOmON 


MAXDMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA 


Material^ 


Ciass 


Soiids 
pounds 


Liquids 
gallons 


A, Healtli-liiai^ard materiafls — moiniflammalblle and mioecomlbiiisttbSe solids aod MqniSds 


1 . Corrosives*'' '^ 


Not Applicable 


9,750 


975 


2. Highly toxics 


Not Applicable 


20b, c 


2b, c 


3. Toxics^' '^ 


Not Applicable 


1,000 


100 


Bo PhysicaD-lliaiEard mattedals — ooitiiflainnimable and noncombnst5bIe solids and ISqiiuiids 


1. Oxidizers^' '^ 


4 


Not Allowed 


Not Allowed 


3 


1,1506 


115 


2 


2,250^ 


225 


1 


1 8,000'' J 


1,800''J 


2. Unstable (reactives)''' ^ 


4 


Not Allowed 


Not Allowed 


3 


550 


55 


2 


1,150 


115 


1 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


3. Water (reactives) 


3b, c 


550 


55 


2b, c 


1,150 


115 


1 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 



For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

a. Hazard categories are as specified in the International Fire Code. 

b. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings that are sprinklered in accordance with Section 903.3. 1 . 1 . When Note c also applies, the 
increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

c. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, in accordance with the International Fire Code. When 
Note b also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively, 

d. See Table 414.2.2 for design and number of control areas. 

e. Allowable quantities for other hazardous material categories shall be in accordance with Section 307. 

f. Maximum quantities shall be increased 100 percent in outdoor control areas. 

g. Maximum amounts are permitted to be increased to 2,250 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or pack- 
ager and do not exceed 10 pounds each. 

h. Maximum amounts are permitted to be increased to 4,500 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or pack- 
ager and do not exceed 10 pounds each. 
i. The permitted quantities shall not be limited in a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 
j. Quantities are unlimited in an outdoor control area. 



2003 flNlTERMATDOMAL eUDLDaESSG CODE® 



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SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



[F] TABLE 414.5.1 
EXPLOSION CONTROL REQUIREMENTS^ 



MATERIAL 


CLASS 


EXPLOSION CONTROL METHODS 


Barricade construction 


Explosion (deflagration) venting 

or explosion (deflagration) 

prevention systems'^ 


HAZARD CATEGORY 


Combustible dusts'' 





Not Required 


Required 


Cryogenic flammables 


— 


Not Required 


Required 


Explosives 


Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 
Division 1.4 
Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 


Required 
Required 
Not Required 
Not Required 
Required 
Required 


Not Required 
Not Required 
Required 
Required 
Not Required 
Not Required 


Flammable gas 


Gaseous 
Liquefied 


Not Required 
Not Required 


Required 
Required 


Flammable liquid 


lA^ 


Not Required 
Not Required 


Required 
Required 


Organic peroxides 


U 

I 


Required 
Required 


Not Permitted 
Not Permitted 


Oxidizer liquids and solids 


4 


Required 


Not Permitted 


Pyrophoric gas 


— 


Not Required 


Required 


Unstable (reactive) 


4 

3 Detonable 

3 Nondetonable 


Required 

Required 

Not Required 


Not Permitted 

Not Permitted 

Required 


Water-reactive liquids and solids 


3 
2g 


Not Required 
Not Required 


Required 
Required 


SPECIAL USES 


Acetylene generator rooms 


— 


Not Required 


Required 


Grain processing 





Not Required 


Required 


Liquefied petroleum gas- 
distribution facilities 


— 


Not Required 


Required 


Where explosion hazards exist^ 


Detonation 
Deflagration 


Required 
Not Required 


Not Permitted 
Required 



a. See Section 414.1.3. 

b. See the International Fire Code. 

c. As generated during manufacturing or processing. See definition of "Combustible dust" in Chapter 3. 

d. Storage or use. 

e. In open use or dispensing. 

f . Rooms containing dispensing and use of hazardous materials when an 
materials or as a result of the dispensing or use process. 

g. A method of explosion control shall be provided when Class 2 water- 



explosive environment can occur because of the characteristics or nature of the hazardous 
reactive materials can form potentially explosive mixtures. 



58 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SPECIAL DETADLEO REQUBREMENTS BASED OH USE AMD OCCUPAiVlCY 



# 



[F] 414o5o4 Stamdlby «D)r emergency powero Where mechan- 
ical ventilation, treatment systems, temperature control, 
alarm, detection or other electrically operated systems are 
required, such systems shall be provided with an emergency 
or standby power system in accordance with the ICC Elec- 
trical Code. 

Exceptlioiiis: 

1. Storage areas for Class I and II oxidizers. 

2. Storage areas for Class III, IV and V organic per- 
oxides. 

3. Storage, use and handling areas for highly toxic or 
toxic materials as provided for in the International 
Fire Code. 

4. Standby power for mechanical ventilation, treat- 
ment systems and temperature control systems 
shall not be required where an approved fail-safe 
engineered system is installed. 

[F] 414o5o5 Spni cositr©!, draiimage amd comtommeimto 
Rooms, buildings or areas occupied for the storage of solid 
and liquid hazardous materials shall be provided with a 
means to control spillage and to contain or drain off spillage 
and fire protection water discharged in the storage area 
where required in the International Fire Code. The methods 
of spill control shall be in accordance with the International 
Fire Code. 

[F] 414.6 Outdoor storaigej dnspensleg amd ns^o The outdoor 
storage, dispensing and use of hazardous materials shall be in 
accordance with the International Fire Code. 

[F] 414o6ol WeatBier protectnonio Where weather protection 
is provided for sheltering outdoor hazardous material stor- 
age or use areas, such storage or use shall be considered out- 
door storage or use, provided that all of the following 
conditions are met: 

1. Structure supports and walls shall not obstruct more 
than one side nor more than 25 percent of the perime- 
ter of the storage or use area. 

2. The distance from the structure and the structure sup- 
ports to buildings, lot hnes, pubhc ways or means of 
egress to a public way shall not be less than the dis- 
tance required for an outside hazardous material stor- 
age or use area without weather protection. 

3. The overhead structure shall be of approved 
noncombustible construction with a maximum area of 
1,500 square feet (140 m2). 

Exceptlomi: The increases permitted by Section 506 apply. 

[F] 414,7 Emergemcy siDarmSo Emergency alarms for the de- 
tection and notification of an emergency condition in Group H 
occupancies shall be provided as set forth herein. 

[F] 414 J J StoragSo An approved manual emergency alarm 
system shall be provided in buildings, rooms or areas used 
for storage of hazardous materials. Emergency alarm-initi- 
ating devices shall be installed outside of each interior exit 
or exit access door of storage buildings, rooms or areas. Ac- 
tivation of an emergency alarm-initiating device shall sound 
a local alarm to alert occupants of an emergency situation in- 
volving hazardous materials. 



[F] 414o7,2 Dlspemsmgj ese aed IhaindMEgo Where hazard- 
ous materials having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accor- 
dance with NFPA 704 are transported through corridors or 
exit enclosures, there shall be an emergency telephone sys- 
tem, a local manual alarm station or an approved alarm-ini- 
tiating device at not more than 150-foot (45 720 mm) 
intervals and at each exit and exit access doorway through- 
out the transport route. The signal shall be relayed to an ap- 
proved central, proprietary or remote station service or 
constantly attended on-site location and shall also initiate a 
local audible alarm. 

[F] 414o73 Sppervlsloeo Emergency alarm systems shall 
be supervised by an approved central, proprietary or remote 
station service or shall initiate an audible and visual signal at 
a constantly attended on-site location. 



[F] SECTION 415 
GROUPS H-i, U-2, H=3, H=^4 AND H-=5 

415.1 Scope* The provisions of this section shall apply to the 
storage and use of hazardous materials in excess of the maxi- 
mum allowable quantities per control area listed in Section 
307.9. Buildings and structures with an occupancy in Group H 
shall also comply with the apphcable provisions of Section 414 
and the International Fire Code. 

41So2 Deim!i€)inis. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in the code, have 
the meanings shown herein. 

CONTINUOUS GAS^DETECTION SYSTEM. A gas de- 
tection system where the analytical instrument is maintained in 
continuous operation and sampling is performed without inter- 
ruption. Analysis is allowed to be performed on a cyclical basis 
at intervals not to exceed 30 minutes. 

EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION, An approved loca- 
tion on the premises where signals from emergency equipment 
are received and which is staffed by trained personnel. 

EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE, An appliance or piece of 
equipment that consists of a top, a back and two sides providing 
a means of local exhaust for capturing gases, fumes, vapors and 
mists. Such enclosures include laboratory hoods, exhaust fume 
hoods and similar appliances and equipment used to locally re- 
tain and exhaust the gases, fumes, vapors and mists that could 
be released. Rooms or areas provided with general ventilation, 
in themselves, are not exhausted enclosures. 



RE A. An area within a semiconductor fab- 
rication facility and related research and development areas in 
which there are processes using hazardous production materi- 
als. Such areas are allowed to include ancillary rooms or areas 
such as dressing rooms and offices that are directly related to 
the fabrication area processes. 

FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. The concentration of 
flammable constituents in air that exceed 10 percent of their 
lower flammable limit (LFL). 

GAS CABINET. A fully enclosed, noncombustible enclosure 
used to provide an isolated environment for compressed gas 
cylinders in storage or use. Doors and access ports for exchang- 



2003 BNTCRNATBOMAL BOBLDDiSSG CODE® 



59 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



ing cylinders and accessing pressure-regulating controls are al- 
lowed to be included. 

GAS ROOM, A separately ventilated, fully enclosed room in 
which only compressed gases and associated equipment and 
supplies are stored or used, 

HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). A 
solid, liquid or gas associated with semiconductor manufactur- 
ing that has a degree-of-hazard rating in health, flammability or 
reactivity of Class 3 or 4 as ranked by NFPA 704 and which is 
used directly in research, laboratory or production processes 
that have as their end product materials that are not hazardous. 

HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. An HPM liquid that is de- 
fined as either a Class I flammable Hquid or a Class II or Class 
IIIA combustible liquid. 

HPM ROOM. A room used in conjunction with or serving a 
Group H-5 occupancy, where HPM is stored or used and which 
is classified as a Group H-2, H-3 or H-4 occupancy. 

IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH 
(IDLH). The concentration of air-borne contaminants which 
poses a threat of death, immediate or delayed permanent ad- 
verse health effects, or effects that could prevent escape from 
such an environment. This contaminant concentration level is 
estabhshed by the National Institute of Occupational Safety 
and Health (NIOSH) based on both toxicity and flammability. 
It generally is expressed in parts per million by volume (ppm 
v/v) or milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m^). If adequate data do 
not exist for precise establishment of IDLH concentrations, an 
independent certified industrial hygienist, industrial toxicolo- 
gist, appropriate regulatory agency or other source approved by 
the code official shall make such determination. 

LIQUID. A material that has a melting point that is equal to or 
less than 68 °F (20°C) and a boiling point that is greater than 
68°F (20°C) at 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) 
(101 kPa). When not otherwise identified, the term "liquid" in- 
cludes both flammable and combustible liquids. 

LIQUID STORAGE ROOM, A room classified as a Group 
H-3 occupancy used for the storage of flanmiable or combusti- 
ble Hquids in a closed condition. 

LIQUID USE, DISPENSING AND MIXING ROOMS. 
Rooms in which Class I, II and IIIA flammable or combustible 
liquids are used, dispensed or mixed in open containers. 

LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). The minimum con- 
centration of vapor in air at which propagation of flame will oc- 
cur in the presence of an ignition source. The LFL is sometimes 
referred to as "LEL" or "lower explosive limit." 

NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (NTP). A 
temperature of 70°F (21°C) and a pressure of 1 atmosphere 
[14.7 psia (101 kPa)]. 

SERVICE CORRIDOR. A fully enclosed passage used for 
transporting HPM and purposes other than required means of 

egress. 

SOLID, A material that has a melting point, decomposes or 
sublimes at a temperature greater than 68°F (20^C). 



STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, 

1 . The keeping, retention or leaving of hazardous materials 
in closed containers, tanks, cyhnders or similar vessels, 
or 

2. Vessels supplying operations through closed connec- 
tions to the vessel. 

USE (MATERIAL), Placing a material into action, including 
solids, liquids and gases. 

WORKSTATION. A defined space or an independent principal 
piece of equipment using HPM within a fabrication area where a 
specific function, laboratory procedure or research activity oc- 
curs. Approved or listed hazardous materials storage cabinets, 
flammable hquid storage cabinets or gas cabinets serving a 
workstation are included as part of the workstation. A worksta- 
tion is allowed to contain ventilation equipment, fire protection 
devices, detection devices, electrical devices and other process- 
ing and scientific equipment. 

415.3 Location on property. Group H shall be located on 
property in accordance with the other provisions of this chap- 
ter. In Group H-2 or H-3, not less than 25 percent of the perime- 
ter wall of the occupancy shall be an exterior wall. 

ExceptioMs: 

1. Liquid use, dispensing and mixing rooms having a 
floor area of not more than 500 square feet (46.5 m2) 
need not be located on the outer perimeter of the 
building where they are in accordance with the Inter- 
national Fire Code and NFPA 30. 

2. Liquid storage rooms having a floor area of not more 
than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) need not be located on 
the outer perimeter where they are in accordance with 
the International Fire Code and NFPA 30. 

3. Spray paint booths that comply with the International 
Fire Code need not be located on the outer perimeter. 

415.3.1 Group H minimum distance to lot lines. Regard- 
less of any other provisions, buildings containing Group H 
occupancies shall be set back a minimum distance from lot 
fines as set forth in Items 1 through 4 below. Distances shall 
be measured from the walls enclosing the occupancy to lot 
lines, including those on a public way. Distances to assumed 
property lines drawn for the purposes of determinafion of 
exterior wall and opening protection are not to be used to es- 
tabUsh the minimum distance for separation of buildings on 
sites where explosives are manufactured or used when sepa- 
ration is provided in accordance with the quantity distance 
tables specified for explosive materials in the International 
Fire Code. 

1 . Group H-1 . Not less than 75 feet (22 860 mm) and not 
less than required by the International Fire Code. 

Exceptions^ 

1. Fireworks manufacturing buildings sepa- 
rated in accordance with NFPA 1 124. 



60 



2003 ISSSTERNATSONAL BUSLDJMG CODE® 



SPECBAL DETAILED REQUBREWlEisiTS BASED OM USE AIMO OCCUPANCY 



m 



2. Buildings containing the following materi- 
als when separated in accordance with Table 
415.3.1: 

2.1. Organic peroxides, unclassified de- 
tonable. 

2.2. Unstable reactive materials Class 4. 

2.3. Unstable reactive materials, Class 3 
detonable. 

2.4. Detonable pyrophoric materials. 

2. Group H-2. Not less than 30 feet (9 144 mm) where the 
area of the occupancy exceeds 1,000 square feet (93 
m^) and it is not required to be located in a detached 
building. 

3. Groups H-2 and H-3. Not less than 50 feet (15 240 
nun) where a detached building is required (see Table 
415.3.2). 

4. Groups H-2 and H-3. Occupancies containing materi- 
als with explosive characteristics shall be separated as 
required by the International Fire Code. Where sepa- 
rations are not specified, the distances required shall 
not be less than the distances required by Table 
415.3.1. 



4153,2 Groinp H=l md M-I or H-= 
Where a detached building is required by Table 415.3.2, 
there are no requirements for wall and opening protection 
based on location on property. 

415o4 Special provisncDms for Groep 11=1 occMpanmcieSo Group 
H-1 occupancies shall be in buildings used for no other pur- 
pose, shall not exceed one story in height and be without base- 
ment, crawl spaces or other under-floor spaces. Roofs shall be 
of lightweight construction with suitable thermal insulation to 
prevent sensitive material from reaching its decomposition 
temperature. 

Group H-1 occupancies containing materials which are in 
themselves both physical and health hazards in quantities ex- 
ceeding the maximum allowable quantities per control area in 
Table 307.7.(2) shall comply with requirements for both Group 
H-1 and H-4 occupancies. 

415 AA FIosQirs m storage rooMS» Floors in storage areas for 
organic peroxides, pyrophoric materials and unstable (reac- 
tive) materials shall be of liquid-tight, noncombustible con- 
struction. 

41S,5 Special provlssoms for Gromp H=2 and E=3 occmpae- 
cieSo Group H-2 and H-3 occupancies containing quantities of 
hazardous materials in excess of those set forth in Table 41 5.3.2 
shall be in buildings used for no other purpose, shall not exceed 
one story in height and shall be without basements, crawl 
spaces or other under-floor spaces. 

Group H-2 and H-3 occupancies containing water-reactive 
materials shall be resistant to water penetration. Piping for con- 
veying hquids shall not be over or through areas containing wa- 
ter reactives, unless isolated by approved liquid-tight 
construction. 

Exceptnon: Fire protection piping. 



415<.5ol Floors m storage rooimSo Floors in storage areas for 
organic peroxides, oxidizers, pyrophoric materials, unsta- 
ble (reactive) materials and water-reactive solids and liquids 
shall be of liquid-tight, noncombustible construction. 

415o5o2 Waterproof room. Rooms or areas used for the 
storage of water-reactive solids and liquids shall be con- 
structed in a manner that resists the penetration of water 
through the use of waterproof materials. Piping carrying 
water for other than approved automatic fire sprinkler sys- 
tems shall not be within such rooms or areas. 



Ineat vemtlmgo Smoke and heat vents com- 
plying with Section 910 shall be installed in the following loca- 
tions: 

1. In occupancies classified as Group H-2 or H-3, any of 
which are over 15,000 square feet (1394 m^) in single 
floor area. 

E^^ceptnoES Buildings of noncombustible construc- 
tion containing only noncombustible materials. 

2. In areas of buildings in Group H used for storing Class 2, 
3 and 4 liquid and solid oxidizers. Class 1 and unclassi- 
fied detonable organic peroxides. Class 3 and 4 unstable 
(reactive) materials, or Class 2 or 3 water-reactive mate- 
rials as required for a Class V hazard classification. 

ExceptiOEio Buildings of noncombustible construc- 
tion containing only noncombustible materials. 



415o7 Groep II=-2o Occupancies in Group H-2 shall be con- 
structed in accordance with Sections 415.7.1 through 415.7.4 
and the International Fire Code. 

415,7 J CombiistlMe dusts^ gram processing and stor= 
ageo The provisions of Sections 415.7. 1.1 through 415. 7. 1.5 
shall apply to buildings in which materials that produce 
combustible dusts are stored or handled. Buildings that store 
or handle combustible dusts shall comply with the applica- 
ble provisions of NFFA 61, NFPA 120, NFPA 651, NFPA 
654, NFPA 655, NFPA 664 and NFPA 85, and the Interna- 
tional Fire Code. 

415c7,lol lype of coes^Foctiosn aod Ibeigiit exceptlomis. 
Buildings shall be constructed in compliance with the 
height and area limitations of Table 503 for Group H-2; 
except that where erected of Type I or II construction, the 
heights and areas of grain elevators and similar structures 
shall be unlimited, and where of Type IV construction, 
the maximum height shall be 65 feet (19 812 nun) and 
except further that, in isolated areas, the maximum 
height of Type IV structures shall be increased to 85 feet 
(25 908 mm). 

41So7olo2 Grledlng rooms. Every room or space occu- 
pied for grinding or other operations that produce com- 
bustible dusts shall be enclosed with fire barriers and 
horizontal assemblies or both that have not less than a 
2-hour fire-resistance rating where the area is not more 
than 3,000 square feet (279 m^), and not less than a 
4-hour fire-resistance rating where the area is greater 
than 3,000 square feet (279 m^). 



2003 iNTERiSIATDOiSIAL BODLODIMG CODE® 



611 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



TABLE 415.3.1 
MINIMUM SEPARATION DISTANCES FOR BUILDINGS CONTAINING EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS 


QUANTITY OF EXPLOSIVE MATERIAL" 


MINIMUM DISTANCE (feet) 


Lot lines" and inhabited buildings'" 


Separation of magazines^®-' 


Pounds over 


Pounds not over 


Barricaded^ 


Unbarricaded 


2 


5 


70 


140 


12 


5 


10 


90 


180 


16 


10 


20 


110 


220 


20 


20 


30 


125 


250 


22 


30 


40 


140 


280 


24 


40 


50 


150 


300 


28 


50 


75 


170 


340 


30 


75 


100 


190 


380 


32 


100 


125 


200 


400 


36 


125 


150 


215 


430 


38 


150 


200 


235 


470 


42 


200 


250 


255 


510 


46 


250 


300 


270 


540 


48 


300 


400 


295 


590 


54 


400 


500 


320 


640 


58 


500 


600 


340 


680 


62 


600 


700 


355 


710 


64 


700 


800 


375 


750 


66 


800 


900 


390 


780 


70 


900 


1,000 


400 


800 


72 


1,000 


1,200 


425 


850 


78 


1,200 


1,400 


450 


900 


82 


1,400 


1,600 


470 


940 


86 


1,600 


1,800 


490 


980 


88 


1,800 


2,000 


505 


1,010 


90 


2,000 


2,500 


545 


1,090 


98 


2,500 


3,000 


580 


1,160 


104 


3,000 


4,000 


635 


1,270 


116 


4,000 


5,000 


685 


1,370 


122 


5,000 


6,000 


730 


1,460 


130 


6,000 


7,000 


770 


1,540 


136 


7,000 


8,000 


800 


1,600 


144 


8,000 


9,000 


835 


1,670 


150 


9,000 


10,000 


865 


1,730 


156 


10,000 


12,000 


875 


1,750 


164 


12,000 


14,000 


885 


1,770 


174 


14,000 


16,000 


900 


1,800 


180 


16,000 


18,000 


940 


1,880 


188 


18,000 


20,000 


975 


1,950 


196 



(continued) 



62 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SPECDAL DETAILED REQUaREBViEiMTS BASED OH USE ASMO OCCUPANCY 



TABLE 4153.1— contSimuedl 
[M[[[SiBi\fiUSVB SEPARATfiOS^ DBSTAGVSCES FOR BOBLDBNGS CONTASMBNG EXPLOSIVE SyiATERDALS 







SUiSNDEiUM DDSTAMCE (feet) 


QUAMTDTY OF EXPLOSDVE [ViATERDAL^ 


Lot lines" and inhabited buiBdings'^ 


Separation of magazines^®* 


Pounds over 


Pounds not over 


Barricaded^ 


Unbarricaded 


20,000 


25,000 


1,055 


2,000 


210 


25,000 


30,000 


1,130 


2,000 


224 


30,000 


35,000 


1,205 


2,000 


238 


35,000 


40,000 


1,275 


2,000 


248 


40,000 


45,000 


1,340 


2,000 


258 


45,000 


50,000 


1,400 


2,000 


270 


50,000 


55,000 


1,460 


2,000 


280 


55,000 


60,000 


1,515 


2,000 


290 


60,000 


65,000 


1,565 


2,000 


300 


65,000 


70,000 


1,610 


2,000 


310 


70,000 


75,000 


1,655 


2,000 


320 


75,000 


80,000 


1,695 


2,000 


330 


80,000 


85,000 


1,730 


2,000 


340 


85,000 


90,000 


1,760 


2,000 


350 


90,000 


95,000 


1,790 


2,000 


360 


95,000 


100,000 


1,815 


2,000 


370 


100,000 


110,000 


1,835 


2,000 


390 


110,000 


120,000 


1,855 


2,000 


410 


120,000 


130,000 


1,875 


2,000 


430 


130,000 


140,000 


1,890 


2,000 


450 


140,000 


150,000 


1,900 


2,000 


470 


150,000 


160,000 


1,935 


2,000 


490 


160,000 


170,000 


1,965 


2,000 


510 


170,000 


180,000 


1,990 


2,000 


530 


180,000 


190,000 


2,010 


2,010 


550 


190,000 


200,000 


2,030 


2,030 


570 


200,000 


210,000 


2,055 


2,055 


590 


210,000 


230,000 


2,100 


2,100 


630 


230,000 


250,000 


2,155 


2,155 


670 


250,000 


275,000 


2,215 


2,215 


720 


275,000 


300,000 


2,275 


2,275 


770 



For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. The number of pounds of explosives listed is the number of pounds of trinitrotoluene (TNT) or the equivalent pounds of other explosive. 

b. The distance listed is the distance to lot line, including lot lines at public ways. 

c. For the purpose of this table, an inhabited building is any building on the same property that is regularly occupied by people. Where two or more buildings contain- 
ing explosives or magazines are located on the same property, each building or magazine shall comply with the minimum distances specified from inhabited build- 
ings and, in addition, they shall be separated from each other by not less than the distance shown for "Separation of magazines," except that the quantity of 
explosive materials contained in detonator buildings or magazines shall govern in regard to the spacing of said buildings or magazines from buildings or maga- 
zines, as a group, shall be considered as one building or magazine, and the total quantity of explosive materials stored in such group shall be treated as if the explo- 
sive were in a single building or magazine located on the site of any building or magazine of the group, and shall comply with the minimum distance specified from I 
other magazines or inhabited buildings. 

d. Barricades shall effectively screen the building containing explosives from other buildings, public ways or magazines. Where mounds or revetted walls of earth 
are used for barricades, they shall not be less than 3 feet in thickness. A straight line from the top of any side wall of the building containing explosive materials to 
the eave line of any other building, magazine or a point 12 feet above the centerline of a public way shall pass through the barricades. 

e. Magazine is a building or structure, other than an operating building, approved for storage of explosive materials. Portable or mobile magazines not exceeding 1 20 
square feet (1 1 m^) in area need not comply with the requirements of this code, however, all magazines shall comply with the International Fire Code. 

f . The distance listed is permitted be reduced by 50 percent where approved natural or artificial barriers are provided in accordance with the requirements in Note d. 



2003 BNTERWATIOiMAL BOBLDBNG CODE® 



03 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED OM USE AiMD OCCUPANCY 



TABLE 415.3.2 
REQUIRED DETACHED STORAGE 



DETACHED STORAGE SS REQUIRED WHEN THE QUANTITY OF fVJATERlAL EXCEEDS THAT LDSTED HEREDN 


Material 


Class 


Solids and Liquids (tons)^'' 


Gases (cubic feetf ■'' 


Explosives 


Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 
Division 1.4 
Division 1.4^^ 
Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 

I 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Not Applicable 


Oxidizers 


Class 4 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Unstable (reactives) detonable 


Class 3 or 4 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Oxidizer, liquids and solids 


Class 3 
Class 2 


1,200 
2,000 


Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 


Organic peroxides 


Detonable 
Class I 
Class II 

Class ni 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 

25 
50 


Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 


Unstable (reactives) nondetonable 


Class 3 
Class 2 


1 
25 


2,000 
10,000 


Water reactives 


Class 3 
Class 2 


I 
25 


Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 


Pyrphoric gases 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


2,000 



For SI: 1 ton = 906 kg, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 M^. 

a. For materials that are detonable, the distance to other buildings or lot Hnes shall be as specified in Table 415.3. 1 based on trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalence of the 
material. For materials classified as explosives, see Chapter 33 the International Fire Code. For all other materials, the distance shall be as indicated in Section 
415.3.1. 

b. "Maximum Allowable Quantity" means the maximum allowable quantity per control area set forth in Table 307.7(1). 

c. Limited to Division 1.4 materials and articles, including articles packaged for shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco 
and Firearms (B ATF) regulations or unpackaged articles used in process operations that do not propagate a detonation or deflagration between articles, providing 
the net explosive weight of individual articles does not exceed 1 pound. 



415.7.1.3 Conveyors. Conveyors, chutes, piping and 
similar equipment passing through the enclosures of 
rooms or spaces shall be constructed dirt tight and vapor 
tight, and be of approved noncombustible materials com- 
plying with Chapter 30. 

415.7.1.4 Explosion control. Explosion control shall be 
provided as specified in the International Fire Code, or 
spaces shall be equipped with the equivalent mechanical 
ventilation complying with the International Mechani- 
cal Code. 

415.7.1.5 Grain elevators. Grain elevators, malt houses 
and buildings for similar occupancies shall not be located 
within 30 feet (9144 mm) of interior lot lines or struc- 
tures on the same lot, except where erected along a rail- 
road right-of-way. 

415.7.1.6 Coal pockets. Coal pockets located less than 
30 feet (9144 mm) from interior lot lines or from struc- 
tures on the same lot shall be constructed of not less than 
Type IB construction. Where more than 30 feet (9144 
mm) from interior lot lines, or where erected along a rail- 
road right-of-way, the minimum type of construction of 
such structures not more than 65 feet (19 812 mm) in 
height shall be Type IV. 



415J.2 Flammable and comtoostlble liqelds. The storage, 
handling, processing and transporting of flammable and 
combustible liquids shall be in accordance with the Interna- 
tional Mechanical Code and the International Fire Code, 

415.7.2.1 Mixed occopaecies. Where the storage tank 
area is located in a building of two or more occupancies, 
and the quantity of hquid exceeds the maximum allow- 
able quantity for one control area, the use shall be com- 
pletely separated from adjacent fire areas in accordance 
with the requirements of Section 302.3.2. 

415.7.2.1.1 Helglit exception. Where storage tanks 
are located within only a single-story building, the 
height limitation of Section 503 shall not apply for 
Group H. 

415.7.2.2 Tank protection. Storage tanks shall be 
noncombustible and protected from physical damage. A 
fire barrier wall or horizontal assemblies or both around 
the storage tank(s) shall be permitted as the method of 
protection from physical damage. 

415.7.2.3 Tanks, Storage tanks shall be approved tanks 
conforming to the requirements of the International Fire 
Code, 



64 



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«i 



41So7o2o4 SMppressnoEHo Group H shall be equipped 
throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem, installed in accordance with Section 903. 

415.7o2o5 Leakage coeialEnmeinito A liquid-tight contain- 
ment area compatible with the stored liquid shall be pro- 
vided. The method of spill control, drainage control and 
secondary containment shall be in accordance with the 
International Fire Code. 

EscepMoES Rooms where only double-wall storage 
tanks conforming to Section 415.7.2.3 are used to 
store Class I, II and IIIA flanmiable and combustible 
liquids shall not be required to have a leakage contain- 
ment area. 

41S,7o2<,6 Leakage allarinnio An approved automatic alarm 
shall be provided to indicate a leak in a storage tank and 
room. The alarm shall sound an audible signal, 15 dBa 
above the ambient sound level, at every point of entry 
into the room in which the leaking storage tank is located. 
An approved sign shall be posted on every entry door to 
the tank storage room indicating the potential hazard of 
the interior room environment, or the sign shall state: 
WARNING, WHEN ALARM SOUNDS, THE ENVI- 
RONMENT WITHIN THE ROOM MAY BE HAZ- 
ARDOUS. The leakage alarm shall also be supervised in 
accordance with Chapter 9 to transmit a trouble signal. 



41So7,2 J Taek veimt Storage tank vents for Class I, II or 
IIIA liquids shall terminate to the outdoor air in accor- 
dance with the International Fire Code. 

41So7c2c^ Moomm veinitnlatnonio Storage tank areas storing 
Class I, II or IIIA liquids shall be provided with mechani- 
cal ventilation. The mechanical ventilation system shall 
be in accordance with the International Mechanical 
Code and the International Fire Code, 

41So7o2o9 ExptodoM veimitninig. Where Class I liquids are 
being stored, explosion venting shall be provided in ac- 
cordance with the International Fire Code. 

415o7o2cl(Q) Taelk opemmgs oitSier tttnaini veim^Sa Tank open- 
ings other than vents from tanks inside buildings shall be 
designed to ensure that Uquids or vapor concentrations 
are not released inside the building. 

415c7o3 Laqimefecll petroleum gas=distrntati(0>ini fadMtteSo 
The design and construction of propane, butane, propylene, 
butylene and other liquefied petroleum gas-distribution fa- 
cilities shall conform to the applicable provisions of Sec- 
tions 415.7.3.1 through 415.7.3.5.2. The storage and 
handling of liquefied petroleum gas systems shall conform 
to the International Fire Code. The design and installation 
of piping, equipment and systems that utilize liquefied pe- 
troleum gas shall be in accordance with the International 
Fuel Gas Code. Liquefied petroleum gas-distribution facih- 
ties shall be ventilated in accordance with the International 
Mechanical Code and Section 415.7.3.1. 

415o73,l Air movemeimtc Liquefied petroleum gas- 
distribution facilities shall be provided with air inlets and 
outlets arranged so that air movement across the floor of 
the facility will be uniform. The total area of both inlet 
and outlet openings shall be at least 1 square inch (645 



mm^) for each 1 square foot (0.093 m^) of floor area. The 
bottom of such openings shall not be more than 6 inches 
(152 mm) above the floor. 

415o7.3c2 Coestriactioinio Liquefied petroleum gas-dis- 
tribution facilities shall be constructed in accordance 
with Section 415.7.3.3 for separate buildings, Section 
415.7.3.4 for attached buildings or Section 415.7.3.5 for 
rooms within buildings. 

415o7o3o3 Separate topnldlKngs, Where located in sepa- 
rate buildings, liquefied petroleum gas-distribution facil- 
ities shall be occupied exclusively for that purpose or for 
other purposes having similar hazards. Such buildings 
shall be limited to one story in height and shall conform 
to Sections 415.7.3.3.1 through 415.7.3.3.3. 

415Jo3c3 J Floorso The floor shall not be located be- 
low ground level and any spaces beneath the floor 
shall be solidly filled or shall be unenclosed. 

41S.7o3c3,2 MaternalSo Walls, floors, ceilings, 
columns and roofs shall be constructed of 
noncombustible materials. 

415o7o3o3o3 Explosion venltliigo Explosion venting 
shall be provided in accordance with the International 
Fire Code. 

415o7o3,4 Attaclhed biEiMiegSo Where hquefied petro- 
leum gas-distribution faciUties are located in an attached 
structure, the attached perimeter shall not exceed 50 per- 
cent of the perimeter of the space enclosed and the facil- 
ity shall comply with Sections 415. 7. 3. 3 and 415.7. 3.4.1. 
Where the attached perimeter exceeds 50 percent, such 
facilities shall comply with Section 415.7.3.5. 

415.7o3o4oll Fire separatnoH assembflieSo Separation 
of the attached structures shall be provided by fire bar- 
rier walls and horizontal assemblies, or both, having a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour and shall 
not have openings. Fire barrier walls and horizontal 
assemblies, or both, between attached structures oc- 
cupied only for the storage of LP-gas are permitted to 
have fire doors that comply with Section 715. Such 
fire barrier walls and horizontal assemblies, or both, 
shall be designed to withstand a static pressure of at 
least 100 pounds per square foot (psf) (4788 Pa), ex- 
cept where the building to which the structure is at- 
tached is occupied by operations or processes having 
a similar hazard. 

415o7o3J Mooms wMMm talMmgSo Where liquefied pe- 
troleum gas-distribution facilities are located in rooms 
within buildings, such rooms shall be located in the first 
story above grade plane and shall have at least one exte- Q 
rior wall with sufficient exposed area to provide explo- 
sion venting as required in the International Fire Code. 
The building in which the room is located shall not have a 
basement or unventilated crawl space and the room shall 
comply with Sections 415.7.3.5.1 and 415.7.3.5.2, 

41S.7o3oSol MaterialSo Walls, floors, ceiUngs and 
roofs of such rooms shall be constructed of approved 
noncombustible materials. 



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415.7.3.5,2 Common construction. Walls and 
floor/ceiling assemblies common to the room and to 
the building within which the room is located shall 
have a fire barrier wall and horizontal assembly or 
both of not less than a 1-hour fire-resistance rating 
and without openings. Common walls for rooms oc- 
cupied only for storage of LP-gas are permitted to 
have opening protectives complying with Section 
715. Such walls and ceiling shall be designed to with- 
stand a static pressure of at least 100 psf (4788 Pa). 

Exception: Where the building, within which the 
room is located, is occupied by operations or pro- 
cesses having a similar hazard. 

415.7.4 Dry cleaning plants. The construction and installa- 
tion of dry cleaning plants shall be in accordance with the re- 
quirements of this code, the International Mechanical 
Code, the International Plumbing Code and NFPA 32. Dry 
cleaning solvents and systems shall be classified in accor- 
dance with the International Fire Code, 

415.8 Groups H-3 and H-4. Groups H-3 and H-4 shall be con- 
structed in accordance with the applicable provisions of this 
code and the International Fire Code. 

415.8.1 Gas rooms. When gas rooms are provided, such 
rooms shall be separated from other areas by not less than a 
1-hour fire barrier. 

415.8.2 Floors in storage rooms. Floors in storage areas for 
corrosive hquids and highly toxic or toxic materials shall be 
of liquid-tight, noncombustible construction. 

415.8.3 Separation — highly toxic solids and liquids. 

Highly toxic solids and liquids not stored in approved haz- 
ardous materials storage cabinets shall be isolated from 
other hazardous materials storage by construction having a 
1-hour fire-resistance rating. 

415.9 Group H-5. 

415.9.1 General. In addition to the requirements set forth 
elsewhere in this code. Group H-5 shall comply with the 
provisions of Section 415.9 and the International Fire Code. 

415.9.2 Fabrication areas. 

415.9.2.1 Hazardous materials in fahrication areas. 

415.9.2.1.1 Aggregate quantities. The aggregate 
quantities of hazardous materials stored and used in a 
single fabrication area shall not exceed the quantities 
set forth in Table 415.9.2.1.1. 

Exception: The quantity limitations for any haz- 
ard category in Table 415.9.2.1.1 shall not apply 
where the fabrication area contains quantities of 
hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum 
allowable quantities per control area established 
by Tables 307.7(1) and 307.7(2). 

415.9.2.1.2 Hazardous production materials. The 

maximum quantities of hazardous production materi- 
als stored in a single fabrication area shall not exceed 
the maximum allowable quantities per control area 
established by Tables 307.7(1) and 307.7(2). 



415.9.2.2 Separation. Fabricafion areas, whose sizes are 
hmited by the quantity of hazardous materials allowed 
by Table 415.9.2.1.1, shall be separated from each other, 
from exit access corridors, and from other parts of the 
building by not less than 1-hour fire barriers. 

Exceptions: 

1. Doors within such fire barrier walls, including 
doors to corridors, shall be only self-closing fire 
assemblies having a fire-protection rating of not 
less than V4 hour. 

2. Windows between fabrication areas and exit ac- 
cess corridors are permitted to be fixed glazing 
Hsted and labeled for a fire protection rating of 
at least ^1^ hour in accordance with Section 715. 

415.9.2.3 Location of occupied levels. Occupied levels 
of fabrication areas shall be located at or above the first I 
story above grade plane. 

415.9,2o4 Floors. Except for surfacing, floors within fab- 
rication areas shall be of noncombustible construction. 

Openings through floors of fabrication areas are per- 
mitted to be unprotected where the interconnected levels 
are used solely for mechanical equipment directly related 
to such fabrication areas (see also Section 415.9.2.5). 

Floors forming a part of an occupancy separation shall 
be liquid tight. 

415.9.2.5 Shafts and openings through floors. Elevator 
shafts, vent shafts and other openings through floors 
shall be enclosed when required by Section 707. Me- I 
chanical, duct and piping penetrations within a fabrica- 
tion area shall not extend through more than two floors. 
The annular space around penetrations for cables, cable 
trays, tubing, piping, conduit or ducts shall be sealed at 
the floor level to restrict the movement of air. The fabri- 
cation area, including the areas through which the 
ductwork and piping extend, shall be considered a single 
conditioned environment. 

415.9.2.6 Ventilation. Mechanical exhaust ventilation 
shall be provided throughout the fabrication area at the 
rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square 
foot (0.044 L/S/m^) of floor area. The exhaust air duct 
system of one fabrication area shall not connect to an- 
other duct system outside that fabrication area within the 
building. 

A ventilation system shall be provided to capture and 
exhaust fumes and vapors at workstations. 

Two or more operations at a workstation shall not be 
connected to the same exhaust system where either one 
or the combination of the substances removed could con- 
stitute a fire, explosion or hazardous chemical reaction 
within the exhaust duct system. 

Exhaust ducts penetrating occupancy separations 
shall be contained in a shaft of equivalent fire-resistance 
construction. Exhaust ducts shall not penetrate fire walls. 

Fire dampers shall not be installed in exhaust ducts. 



66 



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TABLE 415.9.2.1.1 
QUANTDTY LIMiTS FOB HAZARDOyS iViATERflALS M A SINGLE FABRICATDOM AREA M GROUP H-5^ 


HAZARD CATEGORY 


SOUDS 
(poynds per sciuare feet) 


LIQUIDS 
(oaDlons per square feet) 


GAS 
(feet^ @ NTP/square feet) 


PMYSICAL-HAZAED MATERIALS 


Combustible dust 


Noteb 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Combustible fiber Loose 

Baled 


Noteb 
Noteb 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Combustible liquid 11 

IIIA 
IIIB 

Combination Class I, II and IIIA 


Not Applicable 


0.01 

0.02 

Not Limited 

0.04 


Not Applicable 


Cryogenic gas Flammable 

Oxidizing 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Notec 
1.25 


Explosives 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Flammable gas Gaseous 

Liquefied 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Noteb 
Notec 


Flammable liquid lA 

IB 
IC 
Combination Class lA, IB and IC 
Combination Class I, II and IIIA 


Not Applicable 


0.0025 
0.025 
0.025 
0.025 
0.04 


Not Applicable 


Flammable solid 


0.001 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Organic peroxide 

Unclassified detonable 

Class I 

Class II 

Class III 

Class IV 

Class V 


Noteb 

Noteb 

0.025 

0.1 

Not Limited 

Not limited 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Oxidizing gas Gaseous 

Liquefied 
Combination of gaseous 
and liquefied 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


1.25 

1.25 

1.25 


Oxidizer Class 4 

Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 

Combination Class 1,2,3 


Noteb 
0.003 
0.003 
0.003 
0.003 


Noteb 
0.003 
0.003 
0.003 
0.003 


Not Applicable 


Pyrophoric material 


Noteb 


0.00125 


Notes c and d 


Unstable reactive Class 4 

Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 


Noteb 

0.025 

0.1 

Not Limited 


Noteb 

0.0025 

0.01 

Not Limited 


Noteb 

Noteb 

Noteb 

Not Limited 


Water reactive Class 3 

Class 2 
Class 1 


Noteb 

0.25 

Not Limited 


0.00125 

0.025 

Not Limited 


Not Applicable 


HEALTM=HAZAMD MATERIALS 


Corrosives 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Highly toxic 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Notec 


Toxics 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Notec 



For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 4.882 kg/m^, 1 gallon per square foot = 0.025 LW, 1 cubic foot @ NTP/square foot = 0.305 M^ @ NTP/m^, 
1 cubic foot = 0.02832 Ml 

a. Hazardous materials within piping shall not be included in the calculated quantities. 

b. Quantity of hazardous materials in a single fabrication shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per conu-ol area in Tables 307.7(1) and 307.7(2). 

c. The aggregate quantity of flammable, pyrophoric, toxic and highly toxic gases shall not exceed 9,000 cubic feet at NTP. 

d. The aggregate quantity of pyrophoric gases in the building shall not exceed the amounts set forth in Table 415.3.2. 



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415.9.2.7 Transporting hazardous production mate- 
rials to fabrication areas. Hazardous production mate- 
rials shall be transported to fabrication areas through 
enclosed piping or tubing systems that comply with Sec- 
tion 415.9.6. 1, through service corridors complying with 
Section 415.9.4, or in exit access corridors as permitted 
in the exception to Section 415.9.3. The handling or 
transporting of hazardous production materials within 
service corridors shall comply with the International 
Fire Code. 

415.9.2.8 Electrical. 

415.9.2.8.1 General. Electrical equipment and de- 
vices within the fabrication area shall comply with the 
ICC Electrical Code. The requirements for hazardous 
locations need not be applied where the average air 
change is at least four times that set forth in Section 
415.9.2.6 and where the number of air changes at any 
location is not less than three times that required by 
Section 415.9.2.6. The use of recirculated air shall be 
permitted. 

415.9.2.8.2 Workstations. Workstations shall not be 
energized without adequate exhaust ventilation. See 
Section 415.9.2.6 for workstation exhaust ventilation 
requirements. 

415.9.3 Exit access corridors. Exit access corridors shall 
comply with Chapter 10 and shall be separated from fabri- 
cation areas as specified in Section 415.9.2.2. Exit access 
corridors shall not contain HPM and shall not be used for 
transporting such materials, except through closed piping 
systems as provided in Section 415.9.6.3. 

Exception; Where existing fabrication areas are altered 
or modified, HPM is allowed to be transported in existing 
exit access corridors, subject to the following conditions: 

1. Corridors. Exit access corridors adjacent to the 
fabrication area where the alteration work is to be 
done shall comply with Section 1016 for a length 
determined as follows: 

1.1. The length of the common wall of the cor- 
ridor and the fabrication area; and 

1 .2. For the distance along the exit access corri- 
dor to the point of entry of HPM into the 
exit access corridor serving that fabrication 
area. 

2. Emergency alarm system. There shall be an emer- 
gency telephone system, a local manual alarm sta- 
tion or other approved alarm-initiating device 
within exit access corridors at not more than 
150-foot (45 720 mm) intervals and at each exit 
and exit access doorway. The signal shall be re- 
layed to an approved central, proprietary or remote 
station service or the emergency control station 
and shall also initiate a local audible alarm. 

3. Pass-throughs. Self-closing doors having a 
fire-protection rating of not less than 1 hour shall 
separate pass-throughs from existing exit access 
corridors. Pass-throughs shall be constructed as re- 
quired for the exit access corridors, and protected 



by an approved automatic fire-extinguishing sys- 
tem. 

415.9.4 Service corridors. 

415.9.4.1 Occupancy. Service corridors shall be classi- 
fied as Group H-5. 

415.9.4.2 Use conditions. Service corridors shall be sep- 
arated from exit access corridors as required by Section 
415.9.2.2. Service corridors shall not be used as a re- 
quired exit access corridor. 

415.9.4.3 Meclianical ventilation. Service corridors 
shall be mechanically ventilated as required by Section 
415.9.2.6 or at not less than six air changes per hour, 
whichever is greater. 

415.9.4.4 Means of egress. The maximum distance of 
travel from any point in a service corridor to an exit, exit | 
access corridor or door into a fabrication area shall not I 
exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). Dead ends shall not exceed 

4 feet (1219 mm) in length. There shall be not less than 
two exits, and not more than one-half of the required | 
means of egress shall require travel into a fabrication | 
area. Doors from service corridors shall swing in the di- 
rection of egress travel and shall be self-closing. I 

415.9.4.5 MiniiBiiim width. The minimum clear width 
of a service corridor shall be 5 feet (1524 mm), or 33 
inches (838 mm) wider than the widest cart or truck used 
in the corridor, whichever is greater. 

415.9.4.6 Emergency alarm system. Emergency alarm 
systems shall be provided in accordance with this section 
and Sections 414.7.1 and 414.7.2. The maximum allow- 
able quantity per control area provisions shall not apply 
to emergency alarm systems required for HPM. 

415.9.4.6.1 Service corridors. An emergency alarm 
system shall be provided in service corridors, with at 
least one alarm device in each service corridor. 

415.9.4.6.2 Exit access corridors and exit enclo- 
sures. Emergency alarms for exit access corridors and 
exit enclosures shall comply with Section 414.7.2. 

415.9.4.6.3 Liqeid storage rooms, HPM rooms and 

gas rooms. Emergency alarms for liquid storage 
rooms, HPM rooms and gas rooms shall comply with 
Section 414.7.1. 

415.9.4.6.4 Alarm-initiating devices. An approved 
emergency telephone system, local alarm manual pull 
stations, or other approved alarm-initiating devices 
are allowed to be used as emergency alarm-initiating 
devices. 

415.9.4.6.5 Alarm signals. Activation of the emer- 
gency alarm system shall sound a local alarm and 
transmit a signal to the emergency control station. 

415.9.5 Storage of hazardous production materials. 

415.9.5.1 General. Storage of HPM in fabrication areas 
shall be within approved or listed storage cabinets or gas 
cabinets, or within a workstation. The storage of hazard- 
ous production materials in quantities greater than those 
hsted in Tables 307.7(1) or 307,7(2) shall be in liquid 



68 



2003 IMTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SPECDAL DETABLED REOUBRECiEESSTS BASED OH USE A^D OCCUPA!V!CY 



storage rooms, HPM rooms or gas rooms as appropriate 
for the materials stored. The storage of other hazardous 
materials shall be in accordance with other applicable 
provisions of this code and the International Fire Code. 

41Sc9oSo2 CoEistmactloEiio 



41So9oSo2J HPM rooms md gm rmms. HPM 
rooms and gas rooms shall be separated from other ar- 
eas by not less than a 2-hour fire barrier where the area 
is 300 square feet (27.9 m^) or more and not less than a 
1-hour fire barrier where the area is less than 300 
square feet (27.9 m^). 

41509050202 Lnqmd storage roomSo Liquid storage 
rooms shall be constructed in accordance with the fol- 
lowing requirements: 

1. Rooms in excess of 500 square feet (46.5 m^) 
shall have at least one exterior door approved 
for fire department access. 

2. Rooms shall be separated from other areas by 
fire barriers having a fire-resistance rating of 
not less than 1-hour for rooms up to 150 square 
feet (13.9 m^) in area and not less than 2 hours 
where the room is more than 150 square feet 
(13.9 m^) in area. 

3. Shelving, racks and wainscoting in such areas 
shall be of noncombustible construction or 
wood of not less than linch (25 mm) nominal 
thickness. 

4. Rooms used for the storage of Class I flamma- 
ble hquids shall not be located in a basement. 

41509050203 FBoorSo Except for surfacing, floors of 
HPM rooms and liquid storage rooms shall be of 
noncombustible liquid-tight construction. Raised 
grating over floors shall be of noncombustible materi- 
als. 

4153o53 LocaMonio Where HPM rooms, liquid storage 
rooms and gas rooms are provided, they shall have at 
least one exterior wall and such wall shall be not less than 
30 feet (9144 mm) from property lines, including prop- 
erty lines adjacent to public ways. 

41S,9o5,4 Expl©§n©ini coisttroL Explosion control shall be 
provided where required by Section 414.5.1. 

4153SS ExitSo Where two exits are required from HPM 
rooms, Hquid storage rooms and gas rooms, one shall be 
directly to the outside of the building. 

415o9oSo6 DooirSo Doors in a fire barrier wall, including 
doors to corridors, shall be self-closing fire assemblies 
having a fire-protection rating of not less than V4 hour. 

415o9oSc7 VeetnllaiMoma Mechanical exhaust ventilation 
shall be provided in liquid storage rooms, HPM rooms 
and gas rooms at the rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per 
minute per square foot (0.044 L/S/m2) of floor area or six 
air changes per hour, whichever is greater, for categories 
of material. 

Exhaust ventilation for gas rooms shall be designed to 
operate at a negative pressure in relation to the surround- 



ing areas and direct the exhaust ventilation to an exhaust 

system. 

415o9o5o8 Emergemcy alarm systemnio An approved 
emergency alarm system shall be provided for HPM 
rooms, hquid storage rooms and gas rooms. 

Emergency alarm-initiating devices shall be installed 
outside of each interior exit door of such rooms. 

Activation of an emergency alarm-initiating device shall 
sound a local alarm and transmit a signal to the emer- 
gency control station. 

An approved emergency telephone system, local alarm 
manual pull stations or other approved alarm-initiating 
devices are allowed to be used as emergency alarm-initi- 
ating devices. 

i5o9o6 Pipieg aed taMinig» 

415 J060I GeeeiraL Hazardous production materials pip- 
ing and tubing shall comply with this section and ANSI 
B31.3. 

415o9c6o2 Sppply plpiiag asud tobiiago 

4153o6o2A HPM InavnBg a HiealtSn-luasard rankling 
of 3 or 4o Systems supplying HPM Hquids or gases 
having a health-hazard ranking of 3 or 4 shall be 
welded throughout, except for connections, to the sys- 
tems that are within a ventilated enclosure if the mate- 
rial is a gas, or an approved method of drainage or 
containment is provided for the connections if the ma- 
terial is a Hquid. 

4I[5o9o6o2.2 LocatloEi Im service corrMorSo Hazard- 
ous production materials supply piping or tubing in 
service corridors shall be exposed to view. 

415o9o6o2o3 Excess flow coetroL Where HPM gases 
or liquids are carried in pressurized piping above 15 
pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (103.4 kPa), ex- 
cess flow control shaH be provided. Where the piping 
originates from within a liquid storage room, HPM 
room or gas room, the excess flow control shall be lo- 
cated within the Hquid storage room, HPM room or 
gas room. Where the piping originates from a bulk 
source, the excess flow control shall be located as 
close to the bulk source as practical. 

415o9o6o3 Enstallatnoiis im exit access corridors astdl 
atoove other occepamcleSo The instaUation of hazardous 
production material piping and tubing within the space 
defined by the walls of exit access corridors and the floor 
or roof above or in concealed spaces above other occu- 
pancies shall be in accordance with Section 415.9.6.2 
and the following conditions: 

1. Automatic sprinklers shaU be installed within the 
space unless the space is less than 6 inches (152 
mm) in the least dimension. 

2. Ventilation not less than six air changes per hour 
shall be provided. The space shall not be used to 
convey air from any other area. 

3. Where the piping or tubing is used to transport 
HPM liquids, a receptor shall be installed below 



<^ 



2003 8^gTERi^ATD0NAL BUOLDiNG CODE® 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED OM USE AHD OCCUPANCY 



such piping or tubing. The receptor shall be de- 
signed to collect any discharge or leakage and 
drain it to an approved location. The 1-hour enclo- 
sure shall not be used as part of the receptor. 

4. HPM supply piping and tubing and HPM nonme- 
taUic waste lines shall be separated from the exit 
access corridor and from occupancies other than 
Group H-5 by construction as required for walls or 
partitions that have a fire protection rating of not 
less than 1 hour. Where gypsum wallboard is used, 
joints on the piping side of the enclosure are not re- 
quired to be taped, provided the joints occur over 
framing members. Access openings into the enclo- 
sure shall be protected by approved fire-resis- 
tance-rated assemblies. 

5. Readily accessible manual or automatic remotely 
activated fail-safe emergency shutoff valves shall 
be installed on piping and tubing other than waste 
lines at the following locations: 

5.1. At branch connections into the fabrication 
area. 

5.2. At entries into exit access corridors. 

Exception: Transverse crossings of the corridors by 
supply piping that is enclosed within a ferrous pipe or 
tube for the width of corridor need not comply with 
Items 1 through 5. 

415,9,6.4 Identiftcation. Piping, tubing and HPM waste lines 
shall be identified in accordance with ANSI A13.1 to indicate 
the material being transported. 

415.9.7 Continuous gas-detection systems. A continuous 
gas-detection system shall be provided for HPM gases when 
the physiological warning properties of the gas are at a 
higher level than the accepted permissible exposure limit 
(PEL) for the gas and for flammable gases in accordance 
with this section. 

415.9.7.1 Where required, A continuous gas-detection 
system shall be provided in the areas identified in Sec- 
tions 415.9.7.1.1 through 415.9.7.1.4. 

415.9.7.1.1 Fabrication areas, A continuous gas-de- 
tection system shall be provided in fabrication areas 
when gas is used in the fabrication area. 

415.9.7.1.2 HPM rooms. A continuous gas-detection 
system shall be provided in HPM rooms when gas is 
used in the room. 

415.9.7.1.3 Gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures 
and gas rooms. A continuous gas-detection system 
shall be provided in gas cabinets and exhausted enclo- 
sures. A continuous gas-detection system shall be 
provided in gas rooms when gases are not located in 
gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures. 

415.9.7.1.4 Exit access corridorso When gases are 
transported in piping placed within the space defined 
by the walls of an exit access corridor, and the floor or 
roof above the exit access corridor, a continuous 



gas-detection system shall be provided where piping 
is located and in the exit access corridor. 

Exception: A continuous gas-detection system is 
not required for occasional transverse crossings of 
the corridors by supply piping that is enclosed in a 
ferrous pipe or tube for the width of the corridor. 

415o9.7.2 Gas-detection system operation. The contin- 
uous gas-detection system shall be capable of monitoring 
the room, area or equipment in which the gas is located at 
or below the PEL or ceiling limit of the gas for which de- 
tection is provided. For flammable gases, the monitoring 
detection threshold level shall be vapor concentrations in 
excess of 20 percent of the lower explosive limit (LEL). 
Monitoring for highly toxic and toxic gases shall also 
comply with the requirements for such material in the In- 
ternational Fire Code. 

415.9o7o2.1 Alarms, The gas detection system shall 
initiate a local alarm and transmit a signal to the emer- 
gency control station when a short-term hazard condi- 
tion is detected. The alarm shall be both visual and 
audible and shall provide warning both inside and out- 
side the area where the gas is detected. The audible 
alarm shall be distinct from all other alarms. 

415,9.7o2o2 Shiitoff of gas supply. The gas detection 
system shall automatically close the shutoff valve at 
the source on gas supply piping and tubing related to 
the system being monitored for which gas is detected 
when a short-term hazard condition is detected. Auto- 
matic closure of shutoff valves shall comply with the 
following: 

1 . Where the gas-detection sampling point initiat- 
ing the gas detection system alarm is within a 
gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure, the shutoff 
valve in the gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure 
for the specific gas detected shall automatically 
close. 

2. Where the gas-detection sampling point initiat- 
ing the gas detection system alarm is within a 
room and compressed gas containers are not in 
gas cabinets or an exhausted enclosure, the 
shutoff valves on all gas lines for the specific 
gas detected shall automatically close. 

3. Where the gas-detection samphng point initiat- 
ing the gas detection system alarm is within a 
piping distribution manifold enclosure, the 
shutoff valve supplying the manifold for the 
compressed gas container of the specific gas de- 
tected shall automatically close. 

Exceptions Where the gas-detection sampling 
point initiating the gas detection system alarm is at 
the use location or within a gas valve enclosure of a 
branch line downstream of a piping distribution 
manifold, the shutoff valve for the branch line lo- 
cated in the piping distribution manifold enclosure 
shall automatically close. 



70 



2003 DNTERISIATBONAL BUSLDBNG CODE® 



SFECDAL DETAILED REQOBREBVaEBSgTS BASED OM USE AHD OCCUPAMCY 



4150908 MannMafl fire alarm system^ An approved manual 
fire alarm system shall be provided throughout buildings 
containing Group H-5. Activation of the alarm system shall 
initiate a local alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency 
control station. The fire alarm system shall be designed and 
installed in accordance with Section 907. 

4150909 Emergeecy comittrofl staitnomio An emergency control 
station shall be provided on the premises at an approved lo- 
cation, outside of the fabrication area and shall be continu- 
ously staffed by trained personnel. The emergency control 
station shall receive signals from emergency equipment and 
alarm and detection systems. Such emergency equipment 
and alarm and detection systems shall include, but not nec- 
essarily be limited to, the following where such equipment 
or systems are required to be provided either in Section 
415.9 or elsewhere in this code: 

1 . Automatic fire sprinkler system alarm and monitoring 
systems. 

2. Manual fire alarm systems. 

3. Emergency alarm systems. 

4. Continuous gas-detection systems. 

5. Smoke detection systems. 

6. Emergency power system. 

415 3.W EmergeEcy power system. An emergency power 
system shall be provided in Group H-5 occupancies where 
required in Section 415.9.10.1. The emergency power sys- 
tem shall be designed to supply power automatically to re- 
quired electrical systems when the normal electrical supply 
system is interrupted. 

415,9,l((Dal Wlhere reqiEiredlc Emergency power shall be 
provided for electrically operated equipment and con- 
nected control circuits for the following systems: 

1. HPM exhaust ventilation systems. 

2. HPM gas cabinet ventilation systems. 

3. HPM exhausted enclosure ventilation systems. 

4. HPM gas room ventilation systems. 

5. HPM gas detection systems. 

6. Emergency alarm systems. 

7. Manual fire alarm systems. 

8. Automatic sprinkler system monitoring and alarm 
systems. 

9. Electrically operated systems required elsewhere 
in this code appHcable to the use, storage or han- 
dling of HPM. 

415o9 JdDol E Aamstt veetllattioini systems. Exhaust venti- 
lation systems are allowed to be designed to operate at 
not less than one-half the normal fan speed on the emer- 
gency power system where it is demonstrated that the 
level of exhaust will maintain a safe atmosphere. 

415c9cll Fnre spdeMer system protectSoe m eAanJist 
dects for MPM, 

415o9ollol Gemierail, Automatic fire sprinkler system 
protection shall be provided in exhaust ducts conveying 
vapors, fumes, mists or dusts generated from HPM in ac- 



cordance with this section and the International 
Mechanical Code. 

41S,9oll,2 Metsillic smd E]ioiicomtastiMe9 monmetallk 
estiamist dmcts. Automatic fire sprinkler system protec- 
tion shall be provided in metalHc and noncombustible, 
nonmetallic exhaust ducts where all of the following 
conditions apply: 

1 . Where the largest cross- sectional diameter is equal 
to or greater than 10 inches (254 mm). 

2. The ducts are within the building. 

3. The ducts are conveying flammable vapors or 
fumes. 

415o9ollo3 Comtastible eommetallk exhaest docts. 
Automatic fire sprinkler system protection shall be pro- 
vided in combustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts where 
the largest cross-sectional diameter of the duct is equal to 
or greater than 10 inches (254 mm). 



1 . Ducts listed or approved for applications with- 
out automatic fire sprinkler system protection. 

2. Ducts not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) in 
length installed below ceihng level. 

41S,9,llc4 Aimtomatic sprmkler locatfiooSo Sprinkler 
systems shall be installed at 12-foot (3658 mm) intervals 
in horizontal ducts and at changes in direction. In vertical 
ducts, sprinklers shall be installed at the top and at alter- 
nate floor levels. 



SECTlOi^ 
3F FLAMi 



lABLE FBMISHES 



416,1 GeeeraL The provisions of this section shall apply to the 
construction, installation and use of buildings and structures, or 
parts thereof, for the spraying of flammable paints, varnishes 
and lacquers or other flammable materials or mixtures or com- 
pounds used for painting, varnishing, staining or similar pur- 
poses. Such construction and equipment shall comply with the D 
International Fire Code. 

416o2 Spray roomSo Spray rooms shall be enclosed with fire 
barrier walls and horizontal assemblies or both with not less 
than a 1-hour fire-resistance rating. Floors shall be water- 
proofed and drained in an approved manner. 

416o2ol SerfaceSo The interior surfaces of spray rooms shall 
be smooth and shall be so constructed to permit the free pas- 
sage of exhaust air from all parts of the interior and to facili- 
tate washing and cleaning, and shall be so designed to 
confine residues within the room. Aluminum shall not be 
used. 

416,3 Sprsiymg spacesc Spraying spaces shall be ventilated 
with an exhaust system to prevent the accumulation of flamma- 
ble mist or vapors in accordance with the International Me- 
chanical Code. Where such spaces are not separately enclosed, 
noncombustible spray curtains shall be provided to restrict the 
spread of flammable vapors. 

416o3ol SerffaiceSo The interior surfaces of spraying spaces 
shall be smooth and continuous without edges, and shall be 



2003 BNTERNATBOiVSAL BOiLDilMG CODE® 



71 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



SO constructed to permit the free passage of exhaust air from 
all parts of the interior and to facilitate washing and clean- 
ing, and shall be so designed to confine residues within the 
spraying space. Aluminum shall not be used. 

416.4 Fire protection. An automatic fire-extinguishing sys- 
tem shall be provided in all spray, dip and immersing spaces 
and storage rooms, and shall be installed in accordance with 
Chapter 9. 



rating of at least 2 hours, and openings in the walls shall be pro- 
tected with approved opening protectives. 



[F] SECTION 417 
DRYING ROOMS 

417.1 General. A drying room or dry kiln installed within a 
building shall be constructed entirely of approved 
noncombustible materials or assemblies of such materials reg- 
ulated by the approved rules or as required in the general and 
specific sections of Chapter 4 for special occupancies and 
where applicable to the general requirements of Chapter 28. 

417.2 Piping clearance. Overhead heating pipes shall have a 
clearance of not less than 2 inches (51 mm) from combustible 
contents in the dryer, 

417.3 Insulation. Where the operating temperature of the 
dryer is 175*^F (79'^C) or more, metal enclosures shall be insu- 
lated from adjacent combustible materials by not less than 12 
inches (305 mm) of airspace, or the metal walls shall be lined 
with V4-inch (6.35 mm) insulating mill board or other approved 
equivalent insulation. 

417.4 Fire protection. Drying rooms designed for high-hazard 
materials and processes, including special occupancies as pro- 
vided for in Chapter 4, shall be protected by an approved auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing system conforming to the provisions 
of Chapter 9. 



[F] SECTION 418 
ORGANIC COATINGS 

418.1 Building features. Manufacturing of organic coatings 
shall be done only in buildings that do not have pits or base- 
ments. 

418.2 Location. Organic coating manufacturing operations 
and operations incidental to or connected therewith shall not be 
located in buildings having other occupancies. 

418.3 Process mills. Mills operating with close clearances and 
that process flammable and heat- sensitive materials, such as 
nitrocellulose, shall be located in a detached building or 
noncombustible structure. 

418.4 Tank storage. Storage areas for flammable and combus- 
tible Uquid tanks inside of structures shall be located at or 

I above grade and shall be separated from the processing area by 
not less than 2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire barriers. 

418.5 Nitrocellulose storage. Nitrocellulose storage shall be 
located on a detached pad or in a separate structure or a room 

I enclosed with no less than 2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire bar- 
riers. 

418.6 Finished products. Storage rooms for finished products 
that are flammable or combustible liquids shall be separated 

I from the processing area by fire barriers having a fire-resistance 



72 



2003 INTERNATIOMAL BUILDING CODE® 



CHAPTER 5 

OEr^ERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AMD AREAI 



GENERAL 

5<D1,1 Scopeo The provisions of this chapter control the height 
and area of structures hereafter erected and additions to exist- 
ing structures. 

[F] 5Mo2 Premises ndeetnflcatnoiiio Approved numbers or ad- 
dresses shall be provided for new buildings in such a position as 
to be clearly visible and legible from the street or roadway 
fronting the property. Letters or numbers shall be a minimum 3 
inches (76 mm) in height and stroke of minimum 0.5 inch (12.7 
mm) of a contrasting color to the background itself. 



INDUSTMAL EQUIPMENT PLATFORM, An unoccu- 
pied, elevated platform in an industrial occupancy used exclu- 
sively for mechanical systems or industrial process equipment, 
including the associated elevated walkways, stairs and ladders 
necessary to access the platform (see Section 505.5). 



An intermediate level or levels between the 
floor and ceiling of any story with an aggregate floor area of not 
more than one-third of the area of the room or space in which 
the level or levels are located (see Section 505). 

STOEYo That portion of a building included between the upper 
surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or roof next 
above (also see "Basement" and "Mezzanine"). 



lECTIONS 502 



5(02ol DeftmitloiiSo The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

AREA, BUILDINGo The area included within surrounding 
exterior walls (or exterior walls and fire walls) exclusive of vent 
shafts and courts. Areas of the building not provided with sur- 
rounding walls shall be included in the building area if such ar- 
eas are included within the horizontal projection of the roof or 
floor above. 

BASEMENTo That portion of a building that is partly or com- 
pletely below grade plane (See "Story above grade plane" in 
Section 202). A basement shall be considered as a story above 
grade plane where the finished surface of the floor above the 
basement is: 

1. More than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade plane; 

2. More than 6 feet ( 1 829 mm) above the finished ground 
level for more than 50 percent of the total building perim- 
eter; or 

3. More than 12 feet (3658 mm) above the finished ground 
level at any point. 

GRADE PLANEc A reference plane representing the average 
of finished ground level adjoining the building at exterior walls. 
Where the finished ground level slopes away from the exterior 
walls, the reference plane shall be established by the lowest 
points within the area between the building and the lot hne or, 
where the lot line is more than 6 feet (1 829 mm) from the build- 
ing, between the building and a point 6 feet ( 1 829 nmi) from the 
building. 

HEIGHT, BUILDINGo The vertical distance from grade 
plane to the average height of the highest roof surface. 

HEIGHT, STOMYo The vertical distance from top to top of 
two successive finished floor surfaces; and, for the topmost 
story, from the top of the floor finish to the top of the ceihng 
joists or, where there is not a ceiling, to the top of the roof raf- 
ters. 



SECTION 503 
GENERAL HEIGHT AND AREA U 

5ll3ol Geeerai The height and area for buildings of different 
construction types shall be governed by the intended use of the 
building and shall not exceed the limits in Table 503 except as 
modified hereafter. Each part of a building included within the 
exterior walls or the exterior walls and fire walls where pro- 
vided shall be permitted to be a separate building. 

503olol BasemeetSo Basements need not be included in the 
total allowable area provided they do not exceed the area 
permitted for a one-story building. 

503ollo2 Special mdustrial occuflpaeckSo Buildings and 
structures designed to house low-hazard industrial pro- 
cesses that require large areas and unusual heights to ac- 
commodate craneways or special machinery and equipment 
including, among others, rolling mills; structural metal fab- 
rication shops and foundries; or the production and distribu- 
tion of electric, gas or steam power, shall be exempt from the 
height and area limitations of Table 503. 

5®3olo3 BMlMlngs em same lotto Two or more buildings on 
the same lot shall be regulated as separate buildings or shall 
be considered as portions of one building if the height of 
each building and the aggregate area of buildings are within 
the limitations of Table 503 as modified by Sections 504 and 
506. The provisions of this code applicable to the aggregate 
building shall be apphcable to each building. 

5§3,lo4 lype I coEStnictloeo Buildings of Type I construc- 
tion permitted to be of unlimited tabular heights and areas 
are not subject to the special requirements that allow unlim- 
ited area buildings in Section 507 or unhmited height in Sec- 
tions 503.1.2 and 504.3 or increased height and areas for 
other types of construcfion. 

50o2 Party wallso Any wall located on a lot Une between adja- 
cent buildings, which is used or adapted for joint service be- 
tween the two buildings, shall be constructed as a fire wall in 
accordance with Section 705, without openings and shall cre- 
ate separate buildings. 



O 



2003 I^STERSVlATIOSSiAL BOILDiNG CODE® 



73 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



TABLE 503 

ALLOWABLE HEIGHT AND BUILDING AREAS 

Height limitations shown as stories and feet above grade piane. 

Area limitations as determined by the definition of "Area, building," per floor. 



GROUP 




TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 


TYPEI 


TYPE II 


TYPE III 


TYPE IV 


TYPEV 1 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


HT 


A 


B 


Hgt(feet) 
Hgt(S) 


UL 


160 


65 


55 


65 


55 


65 


50 


40 


A-1 


S 
A 


UL 

UL 


5 
UL 


3 
15,500 


2 
8,500 


3 
14,000 


2 
8,500 


3 
15,000 


2 
11,500 


1 
5,500 


A-2 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


3 
15,500 


2 
9,500 


3 
14,000 


2 
9,500 


3 
15,000 


2 
11,500 


1 
6,000 


A-3 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


3 
15,500 


2 
9,500 


3 
14,000 


2 
9,500 


3 
15,000 


2 
11,500 


1 
6,000 


A-4 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


3 
15,500 


2 
9,500 


3 
14,000 


2 
9,500 


3 
15,000 


2 
11,500 


1 
6,000 


A-5 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 

UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 
UL 


B 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


n 

UL 


5 
37,500 


4 
23,000 


5 
28,500 


4 
19,000 


5 
36,000 


3 
18,000 


2 
9,000 


E 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


5 
UL 


3 
26,500 


2 
14,500 


3 
23,500 


2 
14,500 


3 
25,500 


1 
18,500 


1 
9,500 


F-1 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


4 
25,000 


2 
15,500 


3 
19,000 


2 
12,000 


4 
33,500 


2 
14,000 


1 
8,500 


F-2 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


5 
37,500 


3 
23,000 


4 
28,500 


3 
18,000 


5 
50,500 


3 
21,000 


2 
13,000 


H-1 


S 
A 


1 
21,000 


1 
16,500 


1 
11,000 


1 
7,000 


1 
9,500 


1 
7,000 


1 
10.500 


1 
7,500 


NP 
NP 


H-2 


S 
A 


UL 
21,000 


3 
16,500 


2 
11,000 


1 
7,000 


2 
9,500 


1 
7,000 


2 
10,500 


1 
7,500 


1 
3,000 


H-3 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


6 
60,000 


4 
26,500 


2 
14,000 


4 
17,500 


2 
13,000 


4 
25,500 


2 
10,000 


1 
5,000 


H-4 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


7 
UL 


5 
37,500 


3 
17,500 


5 
28,500 


3 
17,500 


5 
36,000 


3 
18,000 


2 
6,500 


H-5 


S 

A 


3 
UL 


3 
UL 


3 
37,500 


3 
23,000 


3 
28,500 


3 
19,000 


3 
36,000 


3 
18,000 


2 
9,000 


I-l 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


9 
55,000 


4 
19,000 


3 
10,000 


4 
16,500 


3 
10,000 


4 
18,000 


3 
10,500 


2 
4,500 


1-2 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


4 
UL 


2 
15,000 


1 

11,000 


1 
12,000 


NP 
NP 


1 
12,000 


9,500 


NP 
NP 


1-3 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


4 
UL 


2 
15,000 


1 

10,000 


2 
10,500 


1 
7,500 


2 
12,000 


2 
7,500 


1 
5.000 


1-4 


S 
A 


UL 

UL 


5 
60,500 


3 
26,500 


2 
13,000 


3 
23,500 


2 
13,000 


3 
25,500 


1 
18,500 


1 
9,000 


M 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


4 
21,500 


4 
12,500 


4 
18,500 


4 
12,500 


4 
20,500 


3 
14,000 


1 
9,000 


R-1 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
20,500 


3 
12,000 


2 
7,000 


R-2^ 


S 
A 


UL 

UL 


11 
UL 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
20,500 


3 
12,000 


2 
7,000 


R-3^ 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


4 
UL 


4 
UL 


4 
UL 


4 
UL 


4 
UL 


3 
UL 


3 
UL 


R-4 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
24,000 


4 
16,000 


4 
20,500 


3 
12,000 


2 
7,000 


S-1 


S 
A 


UL 

UL 


11 
48,000 


4 
26,000 


3 
17,500 


3 
26,000 


3 
17,500 


4 
25,500 


3 
14,000 


9,000 


S_2b,c 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
79,000 


5 
39,000 


4 
26,000 


4 
39,000 


4 
26,000 


5 
38,500 


4 
21,000 


2 
13,500 


U^^ 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


5 
35,500 


4 
19,000 


2 
8,500 


3 
14,000 


2 
8,500 


4 
18,000 


2 
9,000 


1 
5,500 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^. 
UL = Unlimited, NP = Not permitted. 

a. As applicable in Section 101.2. 

b. For open parking structures, see Section 406.3. 

c. For private garages, see Section 406.1. 



74 



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GEMEBAL BUILDDNG HEDGMTS AMD AREAS 



5MA Gesieralo The heights permitted by Table 503 shall only 
be increased in accordance with this section. 

Exceptioe: The height of one-story aircraft hangars, air- 
craft paint hangars and buildings used for the manufacturing 
of aircraft shall not be limited if the building is provided 
with an automatic fire-extinguishing system in accordance 
with Chapter 9 and is entirely surrounded by public ways or 
yards not less in width than one and one-half times the 
height of the building. 

5®4o2 Aetomatk sprmkler system lecre^se. Where a build- 
ing is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the value 
specified in Table 503 for maximum height is increased by 20 
feet (6096 mm) and the maximum number of stories is in- 
creased by one story. These increases are permitted in addition 
to the area increase in accordance with Sections 506.2 and 
506.3. For Group R buildings equipped throughout with an ap- 
proved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3. 1 .2, the value specified in Table 503 for maximum height 
is increased by 20 feet (6096 mm) and the maximum number of 
stories is increased by one story, but shall not exceed four sto- 
ries or 60 feet (18 288 mm), respectively. 

Exceptmust 

1. Group 1-2 of Type IIB, III, IV or V construction. 

2. Group H-1, H-2, H-3 or H-5. 

3. Fire-resistance rating substitution in accordance with 
Table 601, Noted. 

5Mo3 Roof strectmreSo Towers, spires, steeples and other roof 
structures shall be constructed of materials consistent with the 
required type of construction of the building except where 
other construction is permitted by Section 1509.2.1. Such 
structures shall not be used for habitation or storage. The struc- 
tures shall be unUmited in height if of noncombustible materi- 
als and shall not extend more than 20 feet (6096 mm) above the 
allowable height if of combustible materials (see Chapter 15 
for additional requirements). 



SECTBOGsg 505 

50501 GesieraL A mezzanine or mezzanines in compliance 
with this section shall be considered a portion of the floor be- 
low. Such mezzanines shall not contribute to either the building 
area or number of stories as regulated by Section 503.1. The 
area of the mezzanine shall be included in determining the fire 
area defined in Section 702. The clear height above and below 
the mezzanine floor construction shall not be less than 7 feet 
(2134 mm). 

50502 Area llmitaiioinio The aggregate area of a mezzanine or 
mezzanines within a room shall not exceed one-third of the area 
of that room or space in which they are located. The enclosed 
portions of rooms shall not be included in a determination of 
the size of the room in which the mezzanine is located. In deter- 
mining the allowable mezzanine area, the area of the mezza- 
nine shall not be included in the area of the room. 



ExceptiOMs The aggregate area of mezzanines in buildings 
and structures of Type I or II construction for special indus- 
trial occupancies in accordance with Section 503.1.2 shall 
not exceed two-thirds of the area of the room. 

5^53 Egress, Each occupant of a mezzanine shall have ac- 
cess to at least two independent means of egress where the 
common path of egress travel exceeds the limitations of Sec- 
tion 1013.3. Where a stairway provides a means of exit access 
from a mezzanine, the maximum travel distance includes the 
distance traveled on the stairway measured in the plane of the 
tread nosing. 

ExcepMoEss 

1 . A single means of egress shall be permitted in accor- 
dance with Section 1014.1. 

2. Accessible means of egress shall be provided in ac- 
cordance with Section 1007. 

5H5a4 OpemmesSo A mezzanine shall be open and unobstructed 
to the room in which such mezzanine is located except for walls 
not more than 42 inches (1067 mm) high, columns and posts. 

Excepttnoes: 

1 . Mezzanines or portions thereof are not required to be 
open to the room in which the mezzanines are located, 
provided that the occupant load of the aggregate area 
of the enclosed space does not exceed 10. 

2. A mezzanine having two or more means of egress is 
not required to be open to the room in which the mez- 
zanine is located, if at least one of the means of egress 
provides direct access to an exit from the mezzanine 
level. 

3. Mezzanines or portions thereof are not required to be 
open to the room in which the mezzanines are located, 
provided that the aggregate floor area of the enclosed 
space does not exceed 10 percent of the mezzanine 
area. 

4. In industrial facilities, mezzanines used for control 
equipment are permitted to be glazed on all sides. 

5. In Group F occupancies of unlimited area, meeting 
the requirements of Section 507.2 or 507.3, mezza- 
nines or portions thereof are not required to be open to 
the room in which the mezzanines are located, pro- 
vided that an approved fire alarm system is installed 
throughout the entire building or structure and notifi- 
cation appliances are installed throughout the mezza- 
nines in accordance with the provisions of NFFA 72. 
In addition, the fire alarm system shall be initiated by | 
automatic sprinkler water flow. 

5^53 lEdmistrial equnpmeEt platforms. Industrial equipment 
platforms in buildings shall not be considered as a portion of 
the floor below. Such equipment platforms shall not contribute 
to either the building area or the number of stories as regulated 
by Section 503 . 1 . The area of the industrial equipment platform 
shall not be included in determining the fire area. Industrial 
equipment platforms shall not be a part of any mezzanine, and 
such platforms and the walkways, stairs and ladders providing 
access to an equipment platform shall not serve as a part of the 
means of egress from the building. 



2003 BNTERNATflONAL BOIILDlfSiG CODE® 



75 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



505.5.1 Area limitations. The aggregate area of all indus- 
trial equipment platforms within a room shall not exceed 
two-thirds of the area of the room in which they occur. 
Where an equipment platform is located in the same room as 
a mezzanine, the area of the mezzanine shall be determined 
by Section 505.2, and the combined aggregate area of the 
equipment platforms and mezzanines shall not exceed 
two-thirds of the room in which they occur. 

505.5.2 Fire suppression. Where located in a building that 
is required to be protected by an automatic sprinkler system, 
industrial equipment platforms shall be fully protected by 
sprinklers above and below the platform, where required by 
the standards referenced in Section 903.3. 

505.5.3 Guards. Equipment platforms shall have guards 
where required by Section 1012.1. 



SECTION 506 

AREA MODIFICATIONS 

506.1 General. The areas limited by Table 503 shall be permit- 
ted to be increased due to frontage {I^ and automatic sprinkler 
system protection (/J in accordance with the following: 

A^^A,+ -^r^ -H '-^^^ (Equation 5=1) 



100 


+ 


100 _ 



where: 

Aa = 
At = 

if = 

Is = 



Allowable area per floor (square feet). 

Tabular area per floor in accordance with Table 503 
(square feet). 

Area increase due to frontage (percent) as calculated 
in accordance with Section 506.2. 

Area increase due to sprinkler protection (percent) as 
calculated in accordance with Section 506.3. 

506.1.1 Basements. A single basement need not be in- 
cluded in the total allowable area provided such basement 
does not exceed the area permitted for a one-story building. 

506.2 Frontage increase. Every building shall adjoin or have 
access to a pubhc way to receive an area increase for frontage. 
Where a building has more than 25 percent of its perimeter on a 
pubhc way or open space having a minimum width of 20 feet 
(6096 mm), the frontage increase shall be determined in accor- 
dance with the following: 



7^-100 



where 



-0.25 



W_ 
30 



(EqMatloii5=2) 



Area increase due to frontage. 

F = Building perimeter which fronts on a pubhc way or 
open space having 20 feet (6096 mm) open minimum 
width (feet). 

P = Perimeter of entire building (feet). 

W = Width of public way or open space (feet) in accor- 
dance with Section 506.2.1. 

506.2.1 Width iimits. ^must be at least 20 feet (6096 mm) 
and the quantity W divided by 30 shall not exceed 1.0. 
Where the value of W varies along the perimeter of the 



building, the calculation performed in accordance with 
Equation 5-2 shall be based on the weighted average of each 
portion of exterior wall and open space where the value of W 
is between 20 and 30 feet (6096 and 9144 mm). 

Exceptloei The quantity W divided by 30 shall be per- 
mitted to not exceed 2.0 when all of the following condi- 
tions exist: 

1 . The building is permitted to be unlimited in area by 
Section 507; and 

2. The only provision preventing unlimited area is 
compliance with the 60-foot (18 288 mm) public 
way or yard requirement, as applicable. 

506o2o2 Open space limits. Such open space shall be either 
on the same lot or dedicated for public use and shall be ac- 
cessed from a street or approved fire lane. 

5063 Aetomatk sprlekler system increase. Where a build- 
ing is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the area 
limitation in Table 503 is permitted to be increased by an addi- 
tional 200 percent (/^ = 200 percent) for multistory buildings 
and an additional 300 percent (/^ = 300 percent) for single-story 
buildings. These increases are permitted in addition to the 
height and story increases in accordance with Section 504.2. 

Exceptnonst 

1. Buildings with an occupancy in Group H-1, H-2 or 

H-3. 

2. Fire-resistance rating substitution in accordance with 
Table 601, Noted. 

506.4 Area determlEation. The maximum area of a building 
with more than one story shall be determined by multiplying 
the allowable area of the first floor (A J, as determined in Sec- 
tion 506.1, by the number of stories as listed below. 

1. For two-story buildings, multiply by 2; 

2. For three-story or higher buildings, multiply by 3; and, 

3. No story shall exceed the allowable area per floor (A J, as 
determined in Section 506.1 for the occupancies on that 
floor. 

Exceptlosis: 

1 . Unlimited area buildings in accordance with Section 
507. 

2. The maximum area of a building equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.2 shall be determined by multi- 
plying the allowable area per floor (A^), as determined 
in Section 506.1 by the number of stories. 



SECTION 507 
MIXED AREA BUILDIMGS 

507ol NomsprmMered, osie storjo The area of a one- story, 
Group F-2 or S-2 building shall not be limited when the build- 
ing is surrounded and adjoined by public ways or yards not less 
than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width. 

50»7.2 Sprmkliered, one story. The area of a one-story, Group 
B, F, M or S building or a one-story Group A-4 building of other 



i» 



• 



76 



2003 GMITERNATiOiMAL BUSLDBMG CODE© 



GECMERAL BODLDB^G HEDGHTS AffSSD AREAS 



« 



•I 



than Type V construction shall not be limited when the building 
is provided with an automatic sprinkler system throughout in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, and is surrounded and ad- 
joined by public ways or yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 
mm) in width. 

1 . Buildings and structures of Type I and II construction 
for rack storage facilities which do not have access by 
the pubhc shall not be Umited in height provided that 
such buildings conform to the requirements of Sec- 
tion 507.1 and NFPA 231 C. 

2. The automatic sprinkler system shall not be required 
in areas occupied for indoor participant sports, such as 
tennis, skating, swimming and equestrian activities, 
in occupancies in Group A-4, provided that: 

2. 1 . Exit doors directly to the outside are provided 
for occupants of the participant sports areas, 
and 

2.2. The building is equipped with a fire alarm sys- 
tem with manual fire alarm boxes installed in 
accordance with Section 907. 

B'^73 Tw€) story. The area of a two-story, Group B, F, M or S 
building shall not be limited when the building is provided with 
an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Secfion 
903 .3 . 1 . 1 throughout, and is surrounded and adjoined by public 
ways or yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width. 

5(0)7,4 Reduced opeim spsiceo The permanent open space of 60 
feet (18 288 mm) required in Sections 507.1, 507.2 and 507.3 
shall be permitted to be reduced to not less than 40 feet (12 192 
mm) provided the following requirements are met: 

1 . The reduced open space shall not be allowed for more 
than 75 percent of the perimeter of the building. 

2. The exterior wall facing the reduced open space shall 
have a minimum fire-resistance rating of 3 hours. 

3. Openings in the exterior wall, facing the reduced open 
space, shall have opening protectives with a fire-resis- 
tance rating of 3 hours. 

5(D)7o5 Group A=3 IbiuinMmgSo The area of a one-story, Group 
A-3 building used as a church, community hall, dance hall, ex- 
hibition hall, gymnasium, lecture hall, indoor swimming pool 
or tennis court of Type I or II construction shall not be limited 
when all of the following criteria are met: 

1 . The building shall not have a stage other than a platform. 

2. The building shall be equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

3 . The assembly floor shall be located at or within 2 1 inches 
(533 mm) of street or grade level and all exits are pro- 
vided with ramps complying with Section 1010.1 to the 
street or grade level. 

4. The building shall be surrounded and adjoined by public 
ways or yards not less than 60 feet (18288 mm) in width. 



5©7o6 Hngti-hasaiFd unse grompSo Group H-2, H-3 and H-4 fire 
areas shall be permitted in unlimited area buildings having oc- 
cupancies in Groups F and S, in accordance with the limitations 
of this section. Fire areas located at the perimeter of the unlim- 
ited area building shall not exceed 10 percent of the area of the 
building nor the area Umitations specified in Table 503 as mod- 
ified by Secfion 506.2, based upon the percentage of the perim- 
eter of the fire area that fronts on a street or other unoccupied 
space. Other fire areas shall not exceed 25 percent of the area 
limitafions specified in Table 503. Fire-resistance-rafing re- 
quirements of fire barrier assemblies shall be in accordance 
with Table 302.3.2. 

50707 Akcraft paimt ha^garo The area of a one-story. Group 
H-2 aircraft paint hangar shall not be Hmited where such air- 
craft paint hangar compHes with the provisions of Secfion 
412.4 and is entirely surrounded by public ways or yards not 
less in width than one and one-half times the height of the 
building. 

50708 Groep E bmnMHEgSc The area of a one-story Group E 
building of Type II, III A or IV construction shall not be limited 
when the following criteria are met: 

1. Each classroom shall have not less than two means of 
egress, with one of the means of egress being a direct exit 
to the outside of the building complying with Secfion 
1017. 

2. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

3. The building is surrounded and adjoined by public ways 
or yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 nrni) in width. 

5%lo9 MotflOE picture UlieMers, In buildings of Type I or II 
construction, the area of one-story motion picture theaters shall 
not be limited when the building is provided with an automatic 
sprinkler system throughout in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1 and is surrounded and adjoined by public ways or 
yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width. 



SECTIOi^ 508 
SPECIAL PRO¥iSIOMS 

508.1 Gemeralo The provisions in this section shall permit the 
use of special conditions that are exempt from, or modify, the 
specific requirements of this chapter regarding the allowable 
heights and areas of buildings based on the occupancy classifi- 
cation and type of construction, provided the special condition 
complies with the provisions specified in this section for such 
condition and other applicable requirements of this code. 

StDSo2 Gr©iinp S=2 eedosed parMmg garage wltln Groep A, B^ 
M or M alboveo A basement and/or the first story above grade 
plane of a building shall be considered as a separate and distinct 
building for the purpose of determining area limitations, conti- 
nuity of fire walls, limitation of number of stories and type of 
construction, when all of the following conditions are met: 

1 . The basement and/or the first story above grade plane is 
of Type I A construction and is separated from the build- 



2003 SNTERNIATIIONAL BUDLDDWG CODE® 



77 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



ing above with a horizontal assembly having a minimum 
3 -hour fire-resistance rating. 

2. Shaft, stairway, ramp or escalator enclosures through the 
horizontal assembly shall have not less than a 2-hour 
fire-resistance rating with opening protectives in accor- 
dance with Table 715.3. 

Exception: Where the enclosure walls below the hor- 
izontal assembly have not less than a 3-hour fire-resis- 
tance rating with opening protectives in accordance 
with Table 715.3, the enclosure walls extending above 
the horizontal assembly shall be permitted to have a 
1-hour fire-resistance rating provided: 

1. The building above the horizontal assembly is 
not required to be of Type I construction; 

2. The enclosure connects less than four stories, 
and 

3. The enclosure opening protectives above the 
horizontal assembly have a minimum 1-hour 
fire protection rating. 

I 3. The building above the horizontal assembly contains 
only Group A having an assembly room with an occu- 
pant load of less than 300, or Group B, M or R. 

I 4. The building below the horizontal assembly is a Group 
S-2 enclosed parking garage, used for the parking and 
storage of private motor vehicles. 

Exceptions: 

1. Entry lobbies, mechanical rooms and similar 
uses incidental to the operation of the building 
shall be permitted. 

2. Group A having an assembly room with an oc- 
cupant load of less than 300, or Group B or M 
shall be permitted in addition to those uses inci- 
dental to the operation of the building (includ- 
ing storage areas), provided that the entire 

■ structure below the horizontal assembly is pro- 

tected throughout by an approved automatic 
sprinkler system. 

5. The maximum building height in feet shall not exceed 
the limits set forth in Table 503 for the least restricfive 
type of construction involved. 

508,3 Group S-2 enclosed parking garage with Group S-2 
open parking garage above. A Group S-2 enclosed parking 
garage located in the basement or first story below a Group S-2 
open parking garage shall be classified as a separate and dis- 
tinct building for the purpose of determining the type of con- 
struction when the following conditions are met: 

1 . The allowable area of the structure shall be such that the 
sum of the ratios of the actual area divided by the allow- 
able area for each separate occupancy shall not exceed 
1.0. 

2. The Group S-2 enclosed parking garage is of Type I or II 
construction and is at least equal to the fire-resistance re- 
quirements of the Group S-2 open parking garage. 

3. The height and the number of the floors above the base- 
ment shall be limited as specified in Table 406.3.5. 



4. The floor assembly separating the Group S-2 enclosed 
parking garage and Group S-2 open parking garage shall 
be protected as required for the floor assembly of the 
Group S-2 enclosed parking garage. Openings between 
the Group S-2 enclosed parking garage and Group S-2 
open parking garage, except exit openings, shall not be 
required to be protected. 

5. The Group S-2 enclosed parking garage is used exclu- 
sively for the parking or storage of private motor vehi- 
cles, but shall be permitted to contain an office, waiting 
room and toilet room having a total area of not more 
than 1,000 square feet (93 m^), and mechanical equip- 
ment rooms incidental to the operation of the building. 

508.4 Parking beneath Group R. Where a maximum 
one-story above grade plane Group S-2 parking garage, en- 
closed or open, or combination thereof, of Type I construction 
or open of Type IV construction, with grade entrance, is pro- 
vided under a building of Group R, the number of stories to be 
used in determining the minimum type of construction shall be 
measured from the floor above such a parking area. The floor 
assembly between the parking garage and the Group R above 
shall comply with the type of construction required for the 
parking garage and shall also provide a fire-resistance rating 
not less than the mixed occupancy separation required in Sec- 
tion 302.3.2. 

508.5 Group R-2 buildings of Type IIIA construction. The 

height limitation for buildings of Type IIIA construction in 
Group R-2 shall be increased to six stories and 75 feet (22 860 
mm) where the first-floor construction above the basement has 
a fire-resistance rating of not less than 3 hours and the floor area 
is subdivided by 2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire walls into ar- 
eas of not more than 3,000 square feet (279 m^). 

508.6 Group R-2 buildings of l^pe IIA construction. The 
height hmitation for buildings of Type IIA construction in 
Group R-2 shall be increased to nine stories and 100 feet (30 
480 mm) where the building is separated by not less than 50 feet 
(15 240 mm) from any other building on the lot and from prop- 
erty lines, the exits are segregated in an area enclosed by a 
2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire wall and the first-floor con- 
struction has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 V2 hours. 

508.7 Open parking garage beneath Groups A, I, B, M and 

R. Open parking garages constructed under Groups A, I, B, M 
and R shall not exceed the height and area limitations permitted 
under Section 406.3. The height and area of the portion of the 
building above the open parking garage shall not exceed the 
limitations in Section 503 for the upper occupancy. The height, 
in both feet and stories, of the portion of the building above the 
open parking garage shall be measured from grade plane and 
shall include both the open parking garage and the portion of 
the building above the parking garage. 

508.7.1 Fire separation. Fire separation assemblies be- 
tween the parking occupancy and the upper occupancy shall 
correspond to the required fire-resistance rating prescribed 
in Table 302.3.2 for the uses involved. The type of construc- 
tion shall apply to each occupancy individually, except that 
structural members, including main bracing within the open 
parking structure, which is necessary to support the upper 
occupancy, shall be protected with the more restrictive 



78 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



GEiMERAL BUILDDi^G HEDGHTS AHD AREAS 



fire-resistance-rated assemblies of the groups involved as 
shown in Table 601. Means of egress for the upper occu- 
pancy shall conform to Chapter 10 and shall be separated 
from the parking occupancy by fire barriers having at least a 
2-hour fire-resistance rating as required by Section 706, 
with self-closing doors complying with Section 715. Means 
of egress from the open parking garage shall comply with 
Section 406.3. 



2003 BNTERi^ATBONAL BUBLODINIG CODE® 



79 



80 2003 IMTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



SECTION 601 
GENERAL 

€MA Scopeo The provisions of this chapter shall control the 
classification of buildings as to type of construction. 



SECTION 602 
CQNSTRUCT80N CLASSIFICATIOM 

6©2ol Geeeralo Buildings and structures erected or to be 
erected, altered or extended in height or area shall be classified 
in one of the five construction types defined in Sections 602.2 
through 602.5. The building elements shall have a fire-resis- 
tance rating not less than that specified in Table 601 and exte- 
rior walls shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than that 
specified in Table 602. 

602,lol Mimmiam re^mremeEnts, A building or portion 
thereof shall not be required to conform to the details of a 
type of construction higher than that type, which meets the 
minimum requirements based on occupancy even though 
certain features of such a building actually conform to a 
higher type of construcfion. 

6®2o2 T^pes I and lie Type I and II construcfion are those types 
of construction in which the building elements listed in Table 
601 are of noncombustible materials. 

6112,3 Type IIIc Type III construcfion is that type of construc- 
tion in which the exterior walls are of noncombustible materi- 
als and the interior building elements are of any material 
permitted by this code. Fire-retardant-treated wood framing 
complying with Secfion 2303.2 shall be permitted within exte- 
rior wall assemblies of a 2-hour rating or less. 

miA lype re Type IV construcfion (Heavy Timber, HT) is 
that type of construction in which the exterior walls are of 
noncombustible materials and the interior building elements 
are of solid or laminated wood without concealed spaces. The 
details of Type IV construction shall comply with the provi- 
sions of this secfion. Fire-retardant-treated wood framing com- 
plying with Section 2303.2 shall be permitted within exterior 
wall assemblies with a 2-hour rating or less. 

602.401 Cotammso Wood columns shall be sawn or glued 
laminated and shall not be less than 8 inches (203 mm), 
nominal, in any dimension where supporting floor loads and 
not less than 6 inches (152 mm) nominal in width and not 
less than 8 inches (203 nmi) nominal in depth where sup- 
porting roof and ceiling loads only. Columns shall be con- 
tinuous or superimposed and connected in an approved 
manner. 

602.402 Floor framleg. Wood beams and girders shall be of 
sawn or glued-laminated timber and shall be not less than 6 
inches (152 mm) nominal in width and not less than 10 
inches (254 mm) nominal in depth. Framed sawn or 
glued-laminated timber arches, which spring from the floor 
line and support floor loads, shall be not less than 8 inches 



(203 nmi) nominal in any dimension. Framed timber trusses 
supporting floor loads shall have members of not less than 8 
inches (203 mm) nominal in any dimension. 

€^2Ao3 Eoof framimgo Wood-frame or glued-laminated 
arches for roof construction, which spring from the floor 
line or from grade and do not support floor loads, shall have 
members not less than 6 inches (152 mm) nominal in width 
and have less than 8 inches (203 mm) nominal in depth for 
the lower half of the height and not less than 6 inches (152 
mm) nominal in depth for the upper half. Framed or glued- 
laminated arches for roof construction that spring from the 
top of walls or wall abutments, framed timber trusses and 
other roof framing, which do not support floor loads, shall 
have members not less than 4 inches (102 mm) nominal in 
width and not less than 6 inches (152 mm) nominal in depth. 
Spaced members shall be permitted to be composed of two 
or more pieces not less than 3 inches (76 mm) nominal in 
thickness where blocked solidly throughout their interven- 
ing spaces or where spaces are tightly closed by a continu- 
ous wood cover plate of not less than 2 inches (5 1 mm) 
nominal in thickness secured to the underside of the mem- 
bers. Splice plates shall be not less than 3 inches (76 mm) 
nominal in thickness. Where protected by approved auto- 
matic sprinklers under the roof deck, framing members 
shall be not less than 3 inches (76 mm) nominal in width. 

6^2 A A FloorSo Floors shall be without concealed spaces. 
Wood floors shall be of sawn or glued-laminated planks, 
splined or tongue-and-groove, of not less than 3 inches (76 
mm) nominal in thickness covered with 1-inch (25 mm) 
nominal dimension tongue-and-groove flooring, laid cross- 
wise or diagonally, or 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) particleboard or 
planks not less than 4 inches (102 mm) nominal in width set 
on edge close together and well spiked and covered with 
1 -inch (25 nrni) nominal dimension flooring or ^ ^/32-inch (12 B 
mm) wood structural panel or 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) 
particleboard. The lumber shall be laid so that no continuous 
line of joints will occur except at points of support. Floors 
shall not extend closer than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) to walls. 
Such 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) space shall be covered by a mold- 
ing fastened to the wall and so arranged that it will not ob- 
struct the swelling or shrinkage movements of the floor. 
Corbeling of masonry walls under the floor shall be permit- 
ted to be used in place of molding. 

602,4.5 Roofs« Roofs shall be without concealed spaces and 
wood roof decks shall be sawn or glued laminated, splined 
or tongue-and-groove plank, not less than 2 inches (5 1 mm) 
thick, 1 Vg-inch-thick (32 mm) wood structural panel (exte- 
rior glue), or of planks not less than 3 inches (76 mm) nomi- 
nal in width, set on edge close together and laid as required 
for floors. Other types of decking shall be permitted to be 
used if providing equivalent fire resistance and structural 
properties. 



2003 iSSSTERSSIATDONIAL BUILDBNG CODE® 



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TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 



602.4.6 Partitions, Partitions shall be of solid wood con- 
struction formed by not less than two layers of 1-inch (25 
mm) matched boards or laminated construction 4 inches 
(102 mm) thick, or of 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construc- 
tion. 

602.4.7 Exterior structural members. Where a horizontal 
separation of 20 feet (6096 mm) or more is provided, wood 
columns and arches conforming to heavy timber sizes shall 
be permitted to be used externally. 

602.5 Type V. Type V construction is that type of construction 
in which the structural elements, exterior walls and interior 
walls are of any materials permitted by this code. 



SECTION 603 

COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL IN TYPE B 

AND II CONSTRUCTION 

603.1 Allowable materials. Combustible materials shall be 
permitted in buildings of Type I or II construction in the follow- 
ing applications and in accordance with Sections 603.1.1 
through 603.1.3: 

1 . Fire-retardant-treated wood shall be permitted in: 

1.1. Nonbearing partitions where the required fire-re- 
sistance rating is 2 hours or less. 

1 .2. Nonbearing exterior walls where no fire rating is 
required. 

1.3. Roof construction as permitted in Table 601, 
Notec, Item 3. 

2. Thermal and acoustical insulafion, other than foam 
plastics, having a flame spread index of not more than 

25. 

Exceptions: 

1. Insulation placed between two layers of 
noncombustible materials without an inter- 
vening airspace shall be allowed to have a 
flame spread index of not more than 100. 

2. Insulation installed between a finished floor 
and solid decking without intervening air- 
space shall be allowed to have a flame spread 
index of not more than 200. 

3. Foam plasties in accordance with Chapter 26. 

4. Roof coverings that have an A, B or C classification. 

5. Interior floor finish and interior finish, trim and mill- 
work such as doors, door frames, window sashes and 
frames. 

6. Where not installed over 15 feet (4572 mm) above 
grade, show windows, nailing or furring strips, wooden 
bulkheads below show windows, their frames, aprons 
and show cases. 



7. Finished flooring applied directly to the floor slab or to 
wood sleepers that are firestopped in accordance with 
Section 717.2.7. 

8. Partifions dividing portions of stores, offices or similar 
places occupied by one tenant only and which do not es- 
tablish a corridor serving an occupant load of 30 or 
more shall be permitted to be constructed of fire-retar- 
dant-treated wood, 1-hour fire-resistance-rated con- 
strucfion or of wood panels or similar light construcfion 
up to 6 feet (1829 mm) in height. 

9. Platforms as permitted in Section 410. 

10. Combustible exterior wall coverings, balconies, bay 
or oriel windows, or similar appendages in accor- 
dance with Chapter 14. 

1 1 . Blocking such as for handrails, millwork, cabinets, and 
window and door frames. 

12. Light-transmitting plashes as permitted by Chapter 26. 

13. Mastics and caulking materials applied to provide flex- 
ible seals between components of exterior wall con- 
struction. 

14. Exterior plastic veneer installed in accordance with 
Section 2605.2. 

15. Nailing or furring strips as permitted by Section 803.4. 

16. Heavy timber as permitted by Note c, Item 2, to Table 
601 and Sections 602.4.7 and 1406.3. 

17. Aggregates, component materials and admixtures as 
permitted by Section 703.2.2. 

18. Sprayed cementitious and mineral fiber fire-resis- 
tance-rated materials installed to comply with Section 
1704.11. 

19. Materials used to protect penetrations in fire-resis- 
tance-rated assemblies in accordance with Section 712. 

20. Materials used to protect joints in fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies in accordance with Section 713. 

21 . Materials allowed in the concealed spaces of buildings 
of Type I and II construction in accordance with Section 
717.5. 

22. Materials exposed within plenums complying with 
Section 602 of the International Mechanical Code. 

603ol.l DuctSo The use of nonmetaUic ducts shall be permit- 
ted when installed in accordance with the limitations of the 
International Mechanical Code. 

603olo2 Pijpmg. The use of combustible piping materials 
shall be permitted when installed in accordance with the 
limitations of the International Mechanical Code and the 
International Plumbing Code. 

603.1.3 Electrical c The use of electrical wiring methods 
with combustible insulation, tubing, raceways and related 
components shall be permitted when installed in accordance 
with the limitations of the ICC Electrical Code. 



82 



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TYPES OF C0SS3STRUCTB0N 



TABLE 601 
FflRE-RESBSTANCE BATCMG REQUIREEVBENTS FOR BUBLDBEMG ELESV3EMTS (hoyrs) 



BUDLDiWG ELEftflENT 


TYPE! 


TYPEii 


TYPE DDi 


TYPE IV 


TYPEV 


A 


B 


Ad 


B 


A^ 


B 


HT 


Ad 


B 


Structural frame^ 

Including columns, girders, trusses 


3^ 


2b 


1 





1 





HT 


1 





Bearing walls 
Exterior^ 
Interior 


3 
3b 


2 
2^ 


1 

1 






2 
1 


2 



2 
1/HT 


1 

I 






Nonbearing walls and partitions 
Exterior 


See Table 602 


Nonbearing walls and partitions 
Interior^ 




















See Section 602.4.6 








Floor construction 

Including supporting beams and joists 


2 


2 


1 





1 





HT 


1 





Roof construction 

Including supporting beams and joists 


1%^ 


P 


F 


O'^ 


P 





HT 


l'^ 






For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. The structural frame shall be considered to be the columns and the girders, beams, trusses and spandrels having direct connections to the columns and bracing 
members designed to carry gravity loads. The members of floor or roof panels which have no connection to the columns shall be considered secondary members 
and not a part of the structural frame. 

b. Roof supports: Fire-resistance ratings of structural frame and bearing walls are permitted to be reduced by 1 hour where supporting a roof only. 

c. 1. Except in Factory-Industrial (F-1), Hazardous (H), Mercantile (M) and Moderate-Hazard Storage (S-1) occupancies, fire protection of structural members 

shall not be required, including protection of roof framing and decking where every part of the roof construction is 20 feet or more above any floor immediately 
below. Fire-retardant-treated wood members shall be allowed to be used for such unprotected members. 

2. In all occupancies, heavy timber shall be allowed where a 1-hour or less fire-resistance rating is required. 

3. In Type I and II construction, fire-retardant-treated wood shall be allowed in buildings including girders and trusses as part of the roof construction when the 
building is: 

i. Two stories or less in height; 
ii. Type II construction over two stories; or 
iii. Type I construction over two stories and the vertical distance from the upper floor to the roof is 20 feet or more. 

d. An approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Secdon 903.3. 1 . 1 shall be allowed to be substituted for 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction, pro- 
vided such system is not otherwise required by other provisions of the code or used for an allowable area increase in accordance with Section 506.3 or an allowable 
height increase in accordance with Secdon 504.2. The 1-hour substitution for the fire resistance of exterior walls shall not be permitted. 

e. Not less than the fire-resistance rating required by other sections of this code. 

f. Not less than the fire-resistance rating based on fire separation distance (see Table 602). 



TABLE 602 
RRE-RESflSTAMCE (RATBMG REQUIREiViEiSSTS FOR EXTERIOR WALLS BASED OH RRE SEPARATBOBM DDSTABvgCE^ 



RRE SEPARATION DISTANCE 
(feet) 


TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 


GROUP H 


GROUP F-1, M, S-1 


GROUP A, B, E, F-2, 1, r", S-2, U 


<5^ 


All 


3 


2 


1 


>5 

<10 


lA 
Others 


3 
2 


2 
1 


1 
1 


>10 
<30 


lA, IB 
IIB, VB 
Others 


2 
1 
1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


>30 


All 












For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Load-bearing exterior walls shall also comply with the fire-resistance rating requirements of Table 601. 

b. Group R-3 and Group U when used as accessory to Group R-3, as applicable in Section 101.2 shall not be required to have a fire-resistance rating where the fire 
separation distance is 3 feet or more. 

c. See Section 503.2 for party walls. 



2003 DIMTERNATIOEViAL BODLDBMG CODE® 



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84 2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



IMEB COi^STRUCT 



SECTIOW 701 
OEMEBAL 

7MA Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
materials and assemblies used for structural fire resistance and 
fire-resistance-rated construction separation of adjacent spaces 
to safeguard against the spread of fire and smoke within a build- 
ing and the spread of fire to or from buildings. 



SECTIOW 702 
DEFINITIONS 

702.1 DefimiitnoESo The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter, and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

ANNULAR SPACEc The opening around the penetrating 
item. 

CEILING RADIATION DAMPER, A Hsted device installed 
in a ceiling membrane of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiUng or 
roof/ceiling assembly to limit automatically the radiative heat 
transfer through an air inlet/outlet opening. 

COMBINATION FIRE/SMOKE DAMPER, A Usted device 
installed in ducts and air transfer openings designed to close au- 
tomatically upon the detection of heat and to also resist the pas- 
sage of air and smoke. The device is installed to operate 
automatically, controlled by a smoke detection system, and 
where required, is capable of being positioned from a remote 
command station. 

PAMPERo See "CeiUng radiation damper," "Combination 
fire/smoke damper," "Fire damper" and "Smoke damper." 

PRAFTSTOPo A material, device or construction installed to 
restrict the movement of air within open spaces of concealed 
areas of building components such as crawl spaces, floor/ceil- 
ing assemblies, roof/ceiling assemblies and attics. 



, The door component of a fire door assembly. 



F RATINGo The time period that the through-penetration 
firestop system Hmits the spread of fire through the penetration 
when tested in accordance with ASTM E 814. 

FIRE AREAo The aggregate floor area enclosed and bounded 
by fire walls, fire barriers, exterior walls or fire-resistance-rated 
horizontal assemblies of a building. 



, A fire-resistance-rated vertical or horizon- 
tal assembly of materials designed to restrict the spread of fire 
in which openings are protected. 

FIRE DAMPER, A listed device, installed in ducts and air 
transfer openings of an air distribution system or smoke con- 
trol system, designed to close automatically upon detection of 
heat, to interrupt migratory airflow, and to restrict the passage 
of flame. Fire dampers are classified for use in either static 
systems that will automatically shut down in the event of a 
fire, or in dynamic systems that continue to operate during a 
fire. A dynamic fire damper is tested and rated for closure un- 
der airflow. 



Any combination of a fire door, 
frame, hardware, and other accessories that together provide a 
specific degree of fire protection to the opening. 



A vertical assembly of materials de- 
signed to restrict the spread of fire in which openings are pro- 
tected. 



The period of time that an 
opening protective assembly will maintain the ability to con- 
fine a fire as determined by tests prescribed in Section 715. Rat- 
ings are stated in hours or minutes. 



RESISTANCE, That property of materials or their as- 
semblies that prevents or retards the passage of excessive heat, 
hot gases or flames under conditions of use. 

FIRE=RESISTANCE RATING, The period of time a build- 
ing element, component or assembly maintains the abihty to 
confine a fire, continues to perform a given structural function, 
or both, as determined by the tests, or the methods based on 
tests, prescribed in Section 703. 

FIRE=RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEM, An assemblage of 
specific materials or products that are designed, tested, and 
fire-resistance rated in accordance with either ASTM E 1966 or 
UL 2079 to resist for a prescribed period of time the passage of 
fire through joints made in or between fire-resistance-rated as- 
sembHes. 



The distance measured 
from the building face to the closest interior lot fine, to the cen- 
terline of a street, alley or public way, or to an imaginary line 
between two buildings on the lot. The distance shall be mea- 
sured at right angles from the face of the wall. 



A fire-resistance-rated wall having protected 
openings, which restricts the spread of fire and extends contin- 
uously from the foundation to or through the roof, with suffi- 
cient structural stabihty under fire conditions to allow collapse 
of construction on either side without collapse of the wall. 

FIRE WINDOW ASSEMBLY, A window constructed and 
glazed to give protection against the passage of fire. 

FIREBLOCHNGo Building materials installed to resist the 
free passage of flame to other areas of the building through con- 
cealed spaces. 



, A combination of a fire 
door, a frame, hardware and other accessories installed in a hor- 
izontal plane, which together provide a specific degree of fire 
protection to a through opening in a fire-resistance-rated floor 
(see Section 712.4.6). 



, The linear opening in or between adjacent fire -resis- 
tance-rated assemblies that is designed to allow independent 
movement of the building in any plane caused by thermal, seis- 
mic, wind or any other loading. 



2003 BNTERnATIOi^AL BUiLDBiSSG CODE® 



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RRE-RESaSTANCE-RATEDCOMSTRUCTilON 



MEMBRANE PENETRATION, An opening made through 
one side (wall, floor or ceiling membrane) of an assembly. 

MEMBRANE-PENETRATION FIRESTOE A material, 
device or construction installed to resist for a prescribed time 
period the passage of flame and heat through openings in a pro- 
tective membrane in order to accommodate cables, cable trays, 
conduit, tubing, pipes or similar items. 

PENETRATION FIRESTOR A through-penetration 
firestop or a membrane-penetration firestop. 

SELF-CLOSING. As applied to a fire door or other opening, 
means equipped with an approved device that will ensure clos- 
ing after having been opened. 

SHAFTo An enclosed space extending through one or more 
stories of a building, connecting vertical openings in succes- 
sive floors, or floors and roof. 

SHAFT ENCLOSUREo The walls or construction forming 
the boundaries of a shaft. 

SMOKE BARRIER. A continuous membrane, either vertical 
or horizontal, such as a wall, floor, or ceiling assembly, that is 
designed and constructed to restrict the movement of smoke. 

SMOKE COMPARTMENT™ A space within a building en- 
closed by smoke barriers on all sides, including the top and bot- 
tom. 

SMOKE DAMPER. A listed device installed in ducts and air 
transfer openings that is designed to resist the passage of air 
and smoke. The device is installed to operate automatically, 
controlled by a smoke detection system, and where required, is 
capable of being positioned from a remote command station. 

SPLICE. The result of a factory and/or field method of joining 
or connecting two or more lengths of a fire-resistant joint sys- 
tem into a continuous entity. 

T RATING. The time period that the penetration firestop sys- 
tem, including the penetrating item, limits the maximum tem- 
perature rise to 325°F (163''C) above its initial temperature 
through the penetration on the nonfire side when tested in ac- 
cordance with ASTM E 814. 

THROUGH PENETRATION. An opening that passes 
through an entire assembly.' 

THROUGH-PENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEM. An 
assemblage of specific materials or products that are designed, 
tested and fire-resistance rated to resist for a prescribed period 
of time the spread of fire through penetrations. The F and T rat- 
ing criteria for penetration firestop systems shall be in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 814. See definitions of "F rating" and "T 
rating." 



SECTION 703 

FIRE-RESiSTAiSiCE RATBMGS AND FIRE TESTS 

703.1 Scope. Materials prescribed herein for fire resistance 
shall conform to the requirements of this chapter. 

703.2 Fire-resistance ratings. The fire-resistance rating of 
building elements shall be determined in accordance with the 
test procedures set forth in ASTM E 1 19 or in accordance with 
Section 703.3. Where materials, systems or devices that have 



not been tested as part of a fire-resistance-rated assembly are 
incorporated into the assembly, sufficient data shall be made 
available to the building official to show that the required 
fire-resistance rafing is not reduced. Materials and methods of 
construction used to protect joints and penetrations in fire-re- 
sistance-rated building elements shall not reduce the required 
fire-resistance rating. 

Exceptiotmi: In determining the fire-resistance rating of exte- 
rior bearing walls, compliance with the ASTM E 119 crite- 
ria for unexposed surface temperature rise and ignition of 
cotton waste due to passage of flame or gases is required 
only for a period of time corresponding to the required 
fire-resistance rating of an exterior nonbearing wall with the 
same fire separation distance, and in a building of the same 
group. When the fire-resistance rating determined in accor- 
dance with this exception exceeds the fire-resistance rating 
determined in accordance with ASTM E 1 19, the fire expo- 
sure time period, water pressure, and application duration 
criteria for the hose stream test of ASTM E 119 shall be 
based upon the fire-resistance rating determined in accor- 
dance with this exception. 

703o2ol NoBsymmetrkal wall coestnictloHio Interior walls 
and partitions of nonsymmetrical construction shall be 
tested with both faces exposed to the furnace, and the as- 
signed fire-resistance rating shall be the shortest duration 
obtained from the two tests conducted in compliance with 
ASTM E 1 19. When evidence is furnished to show that the 
wall was tested with the least fire-resistant side exposed to 
the furnace, subject to acceptance of the building official, 
the wall need not be subjected to tests from the opposite side 
(see Section 704.5 for exterior walls). 

70)3.2o2 Comtastible componeEtSo Combustible aggre- 
gates are permitted in gypsum and portland cement concrete 
mixtures approved for fire-resistance-rated construction. 
Any approved component material or admixture is permit- 
ted in assemblies if the resulting tested assembly meets the 
fire-resistance test requirements of this code. 

7<D3o2.3 Mestramed dassiflcatiofii. Fire-resistance-rated as- 
semblies tested under ASTM E 1 19 shall not be considered 
to be restrained unless evidence satisfactory to the building 
official is furnished by the registered design professional 
showing that the construction qualifies for a restrained clas- 
sification in accordance with ASTM E 1 19. Restrained con- 
struction shall be identified on the plans. 

703 o3 Alteriniative methods for determaEimig fire resistancec 
The application of any of the alternative methods listed in this 
section shall be based on the fire exposure and acceptance crite- 
ria specified in ASTM E 1 19. The required fire resistance of a 
building element shall be permitted to be established by any of 
the following methods or procedures: 

1. Fire-resistance designs documented in approved 
sources. 

2. Prescriptive designs of fire-resistance-rated building ele- 
ments as prescribed in Section 720. 

3. Calculations in accordance with Section 721. 



86 



2003 ENTERMATttOIMAL BUBLDBfSSG CODE® 



FDRE-RESIlSTAMCE=RATEDCOWSTRUCTnOIN3 



4. Engineering analysis based on a comparison of building 
element designs having fire-resistance ratings as deter- 
mined by the test procedures set forth in ASTM E 1 19. 

5. Alternative protection methods as allowed by Section 
104.11. 

7(0)3.4 NoecomtastnMMlty teteo The tests indicated in Sections 
703.4.1 and 703.4.2 shall serve as criteria for acceptance of 
building materials as set forth in Sections 602.2, 602.3 and 
602.4 in Type I, II, III and IV construction. The term 
"noncombustible" does not apply to the flame spread charac- 
teristics of interior finish or trim materials. A material shall not 
be classified as a noncombustible building construcfion mate- 
rial if it is subject to an increase in combustibility or flame 
spread beyond the limitations herein established through the ef- 
fects of age, moisture or other atmospheric conditions. 

7<0)3o4ol ElemeEtory materialSo Materials required to be 
noncombustible shall be tested in accordance with ASTM E 
136. 

7((D3.4o2 Composite materiallSo Materials having a structural 
base of noncombustible material as determined in accor- 
dance with Section 703.4.1 with a surfacing not more than 
0. 1 25 inch (3.18 mm) thick that has a flame spread index not 
greater than 50 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 
shall be acceptable as noncombustible materials. 



Excepttfioims Type V construction shall be allowed for R-3 occu- 
pancies, as apphcable in Section 101.2. 



EXTERIOR WALLS 

ol GesBeraL Exterior walls shall be fire-resistance rated and 
have opening protection as required by this section. 

7(I])4o2 ProjectnoimSc Cornices, eave overhangs, exterior balco- 
nies and similar architectural appendages extending beyond the 
floor area shall conform to the requirements of this section and 
Section 1406. Exterior egress balconies and exterior exit stair- 
ways shall also comply with Sections 1013.5 and 1022.1. Pro- 
jections shall not extend beyond the distance determined by the 
following two methods, whichever results in the lesser projec- 
tion: 

1 . A point one-third the distance to the lot line from an as- 
sumed vertical plane located where protected openings 
are required in accordance with Section 704.8. 

2. More than 12 inches (305 mm) into areas where openings 
are prohibited. 

7(0)4»2ol lYpe I and H coHisttinuicttaoEo Projections from walls 
of Type I or II construction shall be of noncombustible mate- 
rials or combustible materials as allowed by Sections 1406.3 
and 1406.4. 

7Mo2o2 Type III9 EV or V coestrectloinio Projections from 
walls of Type III, IV or V construction shall be of any ap- 
proved material. 

7(D4o2,3 Comtastnlbk projectiomiSc Combustible projec- 
tions located where openings are not permitted or where 
protection of openings is required shall be of at least 1-hour 
fire-resistance-rated construction. Type IV construction or 
as required by Section 1406.3. 



io3 BeMdlegs oim tine same lot. For the purposes of deter- 
mining the required wall and opening protection and roof-cov- 
ering requirements, buildings on the same lot shall be assumed 
to have an imaginary line between them. 

Where a new building is to be erected on the same lot as an ex- 
isting building, the location of the assumed imaginary line with 
relation to the existing building shall be such that the exterior 
wall and opening protection of the existing building meet the 
criteria as set forth in Sections 704.5 and 704.8. 

ExcepltflOES Two or more buildings on the same lot shall ei- 
ther be regulated as separate buildings or shall be considered 
as portions of one building if the aggregate area of such 
buildings is within the limits specified in Chapter 5 for a sin- 
gle building. Where the buildings contain different occu- 
pancy groups or are of different types of construction, the 
area shall be that allowed for the most restrictive occupancy 
or construction. 

704c4 MatterlalSo Exterior walls shall be of materials permitted 
by the building type of construction. 



A,=A-^(AfXFJ 



<-3 



io5 Fnre-resnstaEUce raitmgSo Exterior walls shall be fire-re- 
sistance rated in accordance with Tables 601 and 602. The 
fire-resistance rating of exterior walls with a fire separation dis- 
tance of greater than 5 feet (1524 mm) shall be rated for expo- 
sure to fire from the inside. The fire-resistance rating of exterior 
walls with a fire separation distance of 5 feet (1 524 mm) or less 
shall be rated for exposure to fire from both sides. 

7Mo6 StractmiFal staMIity., The wall shall extend to the height 
required by Section 704. 1 1 and shall have sufficient structural 
stability such that it will remain in place for the duration of time 
indicated by the required fire-resistance rating. 



io7 Umiexposed simirfaice ttempeirsitiiiiireo Where protected 
openings are not limited by Section 704.8, the limitation on the 
rise of temperature on the unexposed surface of exterior walls 
as required by ASTM E 1 19 shall not apply. Where protected 
openings are limited by Section 704.8, the limitation on the rise 
of temperature on the unexposed surface of exterior walls as re- 
quired by ASTM E 1 19 shall not apply provided that a correc- 
tion is made for radiation from the unexposed exterior wall 
surface in accordance with the following formula: 



(E{qieatflO]!i7=l) 



where: 

Ae = Equivalent area of protected openings. 

A = Actual area of protected openings. 

Af = Area of exterior wall surface in the story under consid- 
eration exclusive of openings, on which the tempera- 
ture Hmitations of ASTM E 1 19 for walls are exceeded. 

Feo = An "equivalent opening factor" derived from Figure 
704.7 based on the average temperature of the unex- 
posed wall surface and the fire-resistance rating of the 
wall. 



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For SI: °C = [fF) - 32] / 1.8. 




200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 
Average temperature of unexposed surface (°F) 



FiGURE 704.7 
EQUBVALEMT OPENJNG FACTOR 



704.8 Allowable area of openmgSo The maximum area of un- 
protected or protected openings permitted in an exterior wall in 
any story shall not exceed the values set forth in Table 704.8. 
Where both unprotected and protected openings are located in 
the exterior wall in any story, the total area of the openings shall 
comply with the following formula: 



a a„ 



< 1.0 



(EqeatIoM7-2) 



where: 

A = Actual area of protected openings, or the equivalent 
area of protected openings, A^ (see Section 704.7). 

a = Allowable area of protected openings. 

Au = Actual area of unprotected openings. 

Gu = Allowable area of unprotected openings. 

704.8.1 Automatic sprinkler system. In buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3. 1 . 1, the maximum allowable 
area of unprotected openings in occupancies other than 
Groups H-1, H-2 and H-3 shall be the same as the tabulated 
limitations for protected openings. 

704.8.2 First story. In occupancies other than Group H, un- 
limited unprotected openings are permitted in the first story 
of exterior walls facing a street that have a fire separation 
distance of greater than 15 feet (4572 mm), or facing an un- 
occupied space. The unoccupied space shall be on the same 



lot or dedicated for pubUc use, shall not be less than 30 feet 
(9144 mm) in width, and shall have access from a street by a 
posted fire lane in accordance with the International Fire 
Code. 

704,9 Vertical separattoin of openings. Openings in exterior 
walls in adjacent stories shall be separated vertically to protect 
against fire spread on the exterior of the buildings where the 
openings are within 5 feet (1524 mm) of each other horizon- 
tally and the opening in the lower story is not a protected open- 
ing in accordance with Section 715.4.8. Such openings shall be 
separated vertically at least 3 feet (914 mm) by spandrel gird- 
ers, exterior walls or other similar assemblies that have a 
fire-resistance rating of at least 1 hour or by flame barriers that 
extend horizontally at least 30 inches (762 mm) beyond the ex- 
terior wall. Flame barriers shall also have a fire-resistance rat- 
ing of at least 1 hour. The unexposed surface temperature 
hmitations specified in ASTM E 119 shall not apply to the 
flame barriers or vertical separation unless otherwise required 
by the provisions of this code. 

Exceptions: 

1 . This section shall not apply to buildings that are three 
stories or less in height. 

2. This section shall not apply to buildings equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in ac- 
cordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

3. Open parking garages. ■ 



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TABLE 704.8 
tVSAXIi^UlM AREA OF EXTERIOR WALL OPENINGS^ 



CLASSFICATDON 

OF OPEWDNG 


FDRE SEPARATION DISTANCE (feet) 


to 3e.»i 


Greater 
than 3 to 5^ 


Greater 
thanStolOd* 


Greater 
than10to15'=-'*-* 


Greater 
than15to20<=.* 


Greater 
than 20 to 25^=* 


Greater 
than 25 to 30*='* 


Greater 
than 30 


Unprotected 


Not 
Permitted^ 


Not 
Permitted*^' e 


io%g 


15%s 


25 %s 


45%s 


70%g 


No Limit 


Protected 


Not 
Permitted 


15% 


25% 


45% 


75% 


No Limit 


No Limit 


No Limit 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Values given are percentage of the area of the exterior wall. 

b. For occupancies in Group R-3, as applicable in Section 101 .2, the maximum percentage of unprotected and protected exterior wall openings shall be 25 percent. 

c. The area of openings in an open parking structure with a fire separation distance of greater than 10 feet shall not be limited. 

d. For occupancies in Group H-2 or H-3, unprotected openings shall not be permitted for openings with a fire separation distance of 15 feet or less. 

e. For requirements for fire walls for buildings with differing roof heights, see Section 705.6.1. 

f. The area of unprotected and protected openings is not limited for occupancies in Group R-3, as applicable in Section 101.2, with a fire separation distance greater 
than 5 feet. 

g. Buildings whose exterior bearing wall, exterior nonbearing wall and exterior structural frame are not required to be fire-resistance rated shall be permitted to have 
unlimited unprotected openings. 

h. Includes accessory buildings to Group R-3 as applicable in Section 101.2. 



Q) Vertical exposereo For buildings on the same lot, ap- 
proved protectives shall be provided in every opening that is 
less than 15 feet (4572 mm) vertically above the roof of an ad- 
joining building or adjacent structure that is within a horizontal 
fire separation distance of 15 feet (4572 mm) of the wall in 
which the opening is located. 

ExcepMom: Opening protectives are not required where the 
roof construction has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 
1 hour for a minimum distance of 10 feet (3048 mm) from 
the adjoining building and the entire length and span of the 
supporting elements for the fire-resistance-rated roof as- 
sembly has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. 

7D4 Jl ParapetSo Parapets shall be provided on exterior walls 
of buildings. 

Exceptions: A parapet need not be provided on an exterior 
wall where any of the following conditions exist: 

1 . The wall is not required to be fire-resistance rated in 
accordance with Table 602 because of fire separation 
distance. 

2. The building has an area of not more than 1,000 
square feet (93 m^) on any floor. 

3. Walls that terminate at roofs of not less than 2-hour 
fire-resistance-rated construction or where the roof, 
including the deck and supporting construcfion, is 
constructed entirely of noncombustible materials. 

4. One-hour fire-resistance-rated exterior walls that ter- 
minate at the underside of the roof sheathing, deck or 
slab, provided: 

4.1. Where the roof /ceiling framing elements are 
parallel to the walls, such framing and ele- 
ments supporting such framing shall not be of 
less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated con- 
struction for a width of 4 feet ( 1 220 mm) mea- 
sured from the interior side of the wall for 
Groups R and U and 10 feet (3048 mm) for 
other occupancies. 



4.2. Where roof/ceiUng framing elements are not 
parallel to the wall, the enfire span of such 
framing and elements supporting such fram- 
ing shall not be of less than 1-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction. 

4.3. Openings in the roof shall not be located 
within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the 1-hour fire-re- 
sistance-rated exterior wall for Groups R and 
U and 10 feet (3048 mm) for other occupan- 
cies. 

4.4. The entire building shall be provided with not 
less than a Class B roof covering. 

5. In occupancies of Groups R-2 and R-3 as applicable 
in Section 101.2, both provided with a Class C roof 
covering, the exterior wall shall be permitted to termi- 
nate at the roof sheathing or deck in Type III, IV and V 
construction provided: 

5.1. The roof sheathing or deck is constructed of 
approved noncombustible materials or of 
fire-retardant- treated wood, for a distance of 4 
feet (1220 mm); or 

5.2. The roof is protected with 0.625-inch (15.88 
mm) Type X gypsum board directly beneath 
the underside of the roof sheathing or deck, 
supported by a minimum of nominal 2-inch 
(5 1 mm) ledgers attached to the sides of the 
roof framing members, for a minimum dis- 
tance of 4 feet (1220 mm). 

6. Where the wall is permitted to have at least 25 percent 
of the exterior wall areas containing unprotected 
openings based on fire separafion distance as deter- 
mined in accordance with Secfion 704.8. 



iol Parapet coBstnnctiomo Parapets shall have the 
same fire-resistance rating as that required for the support- 
ing wall, and on any side adjacent to a roof surface, shall 
have noncombustible faces for the uppermost 18 inches 
(457 mm), including counterflashing and coping materials. 



2003 BNTERiSgATBOiMAL BUILDBiSSG CODE® 



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The height of the parapet shall not be less than 30 inches 
(762 mm) above the point where the roof surface and the 
wall intersect. Where the roof slopes toward a parapet at a 
slope greater than two units vertical in 12 units horizontal 
(16.7-percent slope), the parapet shall extend to the same 
height as any portion of the roof within a fire separation dis- 
tance where protection of wall openings is required, but in 
no case shall the height be less than 30 inches (762 mm). 

704.12 Opening protection, Windows required to be pro- 
tected in accordance with Section 704.8, 704.9, or 704.10 shall 
comply with Section 715.4.8. Other openings required to be 
protected with fire doors or shutters in accordance with Sec- 
tions 704.8, 704.9 and 704.10 shall comply with Section 715.3. 

Exception: Fire protective assemblies are not required 
where the building is protected throughout by an automatic 
sprinkler system and the exterior openings are protected by 
an approved water curtain using automatic sprinklers ap- 
proved for that use. The sprinklers and the water curtain 
shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13. 

704,12.1 Unprotected openings. Where protected open- 
ings are not required by Section 704, windows and doors 
shall be constructed of any approved materials. Glazing 
shall conform to the requirements of Chapters 24 and 26. 

704.13 Joints. Joints made in or between exterior walls re- 
quired by this section to have a fire-resistance rating shall com- 
ply with Section 713. 

Exception: Joints in exterior walls that are permitted to 
have unprotected openings. 

704,13.1 Voids. The void created at the intersection of a 
floor/ceiling assembly and an exterior curtain wall assem- 
bly shall be protected in accordance with Section 713.4. 

704.14 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations by air 
ducts and air transfer openings in fire-resistance-rated exterior 
walls required to have protected openings shall comply with 
Section 716. 

Exception: Foundation vents installed in accordance with 
this code are permitted. 



SECTION 705 
FIRE WALLS 

705.1 GeneraL Each portion of a building separated by one or 
more fire walls that comply with the provisions of this section 
shall be considered a separate building. The extent and location 
of such fire walls shall provide a complete separation. Where a 
fire wall also separates groups that are required to be separated 
by a fire barrier wall, the most restrictive requirements of each 
separation shall apply. Fire walls located on lot lines shall also 
comply with Section 503.2. Such fire walls (party walls) shall 
be constructed without openings. 

705.2 Structural stability. Fire walls shall have sufficient 
structural stability under fire conditions to allow collapse of 
construction on either side without collapse of the wall for the 



duration of time indicated by the required fire-resistance rating. 

70503 Materials. Fire walls shall be of any approved 
noncombustible materials. 

Exception; Buildings of Type V construction. 

70504 FIre-resistance rating. Fire walls shall have a fire-resis- 
tance rating of not less than that required by Table 705.4. 

TABLE 705.4 
FDF^E WALL FDRE-RESfSTAfSSCE RATINGS 



GROUP 


FDRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


A,B,E,H-4,1,R-1,R-2,U 


3a 


F-l,H-3^H-5,M,S-l 


3 


H-l,H-2 


4b 


F-2, S-2, R 3, R-4 


2 



a. Walls shall be not less than 2-hour fire-resistance rated where separating 
buildings of Type II or V construction. 

b. For Group H-1, H-2 or H-3 buildings, also see Sections 415.4 and 415.5. 

705o5 Horazomtafl contiiiisliyc Fire walls shall be continuous 
from exterior wall to exterior wall and shall extend at least 1 8 
inches (457 mm) beyond the exterior surface of exterior walls. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Fire walls shall be permitted to terminate at the inte- 
rior surface of combustible exterior sheathing or sid- 
ing provided the exterior wall has a fire-resistance 
rating of at least 1 hour for a horizontal distance of at 
least 4 feet (1220 mm) on both sides of the fire wall. 
Openings within such exterior walls shall be protected 
by fire assemblies having a fire protection rating of 
not less than V4 hour. 

2. Fire walls shall be permitted to terminate at the inte- 
rior surface of noncombustible exterior sheathing, ex- 
terior siding or other noncombustible exterior finishes 
provided the sheathing, siding, or other exterior 
noncombustible finish extends a horizontal distance 
of at least 4 feet (1220 mm) on both sides of the fire 
wall. 

3. Fire walls shall be permitted to terminate at the inte- 
rior surface of noncombustible exterior sheathing 
where the building on each side of the fire wall is pro- 
tected by an automatic sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

705o5ol ExiteFior waDISo Where the fire wall intersects the 
exterior walls, the fire-resistance rating for the exterior 
walls on both sides of the fire wall shall have a 1-hour 
fire-resistance raring with V4-hour opening protection where 
opening protection is required. The fire-resistance rating of 
the exterior wall shall extend a minimum of 4 feet (1220 
mm) on each side of the intersection of the fire wall to exte- 
rior wall. Exterior wall intersections at fire walls that form 
an angle equal to or greater than 180 degrees (3.14 rad) do 
not need exterior wall protection. 

705o5a2 HorizoEital projecting elemeetSo Fire walls shall 
extend to the outer edge of horizontal projecting elements 



90 



2003 ISMTERMATIOISSAL BUILDBNG CODE® 



FiRE-RESDSTANCE-BATEDCOEMSTROCTlON 



such as balconies, roof overhangs, canopies, marquees and 
architectural projections that are within 4 feet (1220 mm) of 
the fire wall. 

1. Horizontal projecting elements without concealed 
spaces provided the exterior wall behind and below 
the projecting element has not less than 1-hour 
fire-resistance-rated construction for a distance 
not less than the depth of the projecting element on 
both sides of the fire wall. Openings within such 
exterior walls shall be protected by fire assembhes 
having a fire protection rating of not less than V4 
hour. 

2. Noncombustible horizontal projecting elements 
with concealed spaces, provided a minimum 
1-hour fire-resistance-rated wall extends through 
the concealed space. The projecting element shall 
be separated from the building by a minimum of 
1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction for a dis- 
tance on each side of the fire wall equal to the depth 
of the projecting element. The wall is not required 
to extend under the projecting element where the 
building exterior wall is not less than 1-hour 
fire-resistance rated for a distance on each side of 
the fire wall equal to the depth of the projecting ele- 
ment. Openings within such exterior walls shall be 
protected by fire assemblies having a fire protec- 
tion rating of not less than % hour. 

3. For combustible horizontal projecting elements 
with concealed spaces, the fire wall need only ex- 
tend through the concealed space to the outer edges 
of the projecting elements. The exterior wall be- 
hind and below the projecting element shall be of 
not less than 1 -hour fire-resistance-rated construc- 
tion for a distance not less than the depth of the pro- 
jecting elements on both sides of the fire wall. 
Openings within such exterior walls shall be pro- 
tected by fire assemblies having a fire-protection 
rating of not less than V4 hour. 

7<II5o6 Vertical comitmiinilty= Fire walls shall extend from the 
foundation to a termination point at least 30 inches (762 mm) 
above both adjacent roofs. 

Exceptiomis: 

1. Stepped buildings in accordance with Section 
705.6.1. 

2. Two-hour fire-resistance-rated walls shall be permit- 
ted to terminate at the underside of the roof sheathing, 
deck or slab provided: 

2.1. The lower roof assembly within 4 feet (1220 
mm) of the wall has not less than a 1-hour 
fire-resistance rating and the entire length and 
span of supporting elemeiits for the rated roof 
assembly has a fire-resistance rating of not 
less than 1 hour. 

2.2. Openings in the roof shall not be located 
within 4 feet (1220 mm) of the fire wall. 



<^ 



Cn 



2.3. Each building shall be provided with not less 
than a Class B roof covering. 

3. Walls shall be permitted to terminate at the underside Q 
of noncombustible roof sheathing, deck, or slabs 
where both buildings are provided with not less than a 
Class B roof covering. Openings in the roof shall not 
be located within 4 feet (1220 mm) of the fire wall. 

4. In buildings of Type III, IV and V construction, walls 
shall be permitted to terminate at the underside of 
combustible roof sheathing or decks provided: 

4. 1 . There are no openings in the roof within 4 feet 
(1220 mm) ofthe fire wall, 

4.2. The roof is covered with a minimum Class B 
roof covering, and 

4.3. The roof sheathing or deck is constructed of 
fire-retardant-treated wood for a distance of 4 
feet (1220 mm) on both sides ofthe wall or the 
roof is protected with Vg inch (15.9 mm) Type 
X gypsum board directiy beneath the under- 
side of the roof sheathing or deck, supported 
by a minimum of 2-inch (5 1 mm) nominal led- 
gers attached to the sides of the roof framing 
members for a minimum distance of 4 feet 
(1220 mm) on both sides of the fire wall. 

5. Buildings located above a parking garage designed in 
accordance with Section 508.2 shall be permitted to 
have the fire walls for the buildings located above the 
parking garage extend from the horizontal separation 
between the parking garage and the buildings. 

7(D5o6 J Stepped taildnngSo Where a fire wall serves as an 
exterior wall for a building and separates buildings having 
different roof levels, such wall shall terminate at a point not 
less than 30 inches (762 mm) above the lower roof level, 
provided the exterior wall for a height of 15 feet (4572 mm) 
above the lower roof is not less than 1-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction from both sides with openings pro- 
tected by assembhes having a ^/4-hour fire protection rating. 

Exceptiosi: Where the fire wall terminates at the under- 
side of the roof sheathing, deck or slab of the lower roof, 
provided: 

1 . The lower roof assembly within 1 feet (3048 mm) 
of the wall has not less than a 1 -hour fire-resistance 
rating and the entire length and span of supporting 
elements for the rated roof assembly has a fire-re- 
sistance rating of not less than 1 hour. 

2. Openings in the lower roof shall not be located 
within 10 feet (3048 nun) of the fire wall. 

705o7 Comtastilble fraiming m fire walls. Adjacent combusti- 
ble members entering into a concrete or masonry fire wall from 
opposite sides shall not have less than a 4-inch (102 mm) dis- 
tance between embedded ends. Where combustible members 
frame into hollow walls or walls of hollow units, hollow spaces 
shall be solidly filled for the full thickness of the wall and for a 
distance not less than 4 inches (102 mm) above, below and be- 
tween the structural members, with noncombustible materials 
approved for fireblocking. 



2003 iWTERMATiONAL BUBLDilNlG CODE® 



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705.8 OpenlsigSo Each opening through a fire wall shall be pro- 
tected in accordance with Section 715.3 and shall not exceed 
120 square feet (1 1 m^). The aggregate width of openings at any 
floor level shall not exceed 25 percent of the length of the wall. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Openings are not permitted in party walls constructed 
in accordance with Section 503.2. 

2. Openings shall not be limited to 120 square feet (11 
m^) where both buildings are equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

705.9 Peeetratlons. Penetrations through fire walls shall com- 
ply with Section 712. 

705.10 Joints, Joints made in or between fire walls shall com- 
ply with Section 713. 

705.11 Ducts and air transfer opeeings. Ducts and air trans- 
fer openings shall not penetrate fire walls. 

Exception: Penetrations by ducts and air transfer openings 
of fire walls that are not on a lot line shall be allowed pro- 
vided the penetrations comply with Sections 712 and 716. 
The size and aggregate width of all openings shall not ex- 
ceed the limitations of Section 705.8. 



SECTION 706 
FIRE BARRiERS 

706.1 General. Fire barriers used for separation of shafts, ex- 
its, exit passageways, horizontal exits or incidental use areas, to 
separate different occupancies, to separate a single occupancy 
into different fire areas, or to separate other areas where a fire 
barrier is required elsewhere in this code or the International 
Fire Code, shall comply with this section. 

706.2 Materials. The walls and floor assemblies shall be of 
materials permitted by the building type of construction. 

7063 Fire-resistance rating. The fire-resistance rating of the 
walls and floor assemblies shall comply with this section. 

7063.1 Shaft enclosMres. The fire-resistance rating of the 
fire barrier separating building areas from a shaft shall com- 
ply with Section 707.4. 

706.3,2 Exit encloseres. The fire-resistance rating of the 
fire barrier separating building areas from an exit shall com- 
ply with Section 1019.1. 

706,33 Exit passageway. The fire-resistance rating of the 
separation between building areas and an exit passageway 
shall comply with Section 1020.1. 

706.3.4 Horizontal exit. The fire-resistance rating of the 
separation between building areas connected by a horizon- 
tal exit shall comply with Section 1021.1. 

706.3.5 Incidental ese areas. The fire barrier separating in- 
cidental use areas shall have a fire-resistance rating of not 
less than that indicated in Table 302.1.1. 

706.3.6 Separation of mixed occupancies. Where the pro- 
visions of Section 302.3.2 are appUcable, the fire barrier 
separating mixed occupancies shall have a fire-resistance 



rating of not less than that indicated in Section 302.3.2 based 
on the occupancies being separated. 

706o3,7 Single-occepancy fire areas. The fire barrier sepa- 
rating a single occupancy into different fire areas shall have 
a fire-resistance rating of not less than that indicated in Table 
706.3.7. 

TABLE 706.3.7 

FlRE-FSESiSTAS^CE RATSfSJG REQUBREMENTS FOR RRE 

BARRBER ASSEMBUES BETWEEN FIRE AREAS 



OCCUPANCY GROUP 


FSRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


H-l,H-2 


4 


F-1,H-3,S-1 


3 


A, B, E, F-2, H-4, H-5, 
I, M, R, S-2 


2 


U 


1 



706.4 Contlennity of Ore barrier walls. Fire barrier walls shall 
extend from the top of the floor/ceiling assembly below to the 
underside of the floor or roof slab or deck above and shall be se- 
curely attached thereto. These walls shall be continuous 
through concealed spaces such as the space above a suspended 
ceiling. The supporting construction for fire barrier walls shall 
be protected to afford the required fire-resistance rating of the 
fire barrier supported except for 1-hour fire-resistance-rated in- 
cidental use area separations as required by Table 302.1.1 in 
buildings of Type IIB, IIIB and VB construction. Hollow verti- 
cal spaces within the fire barrier wall shall be firestopped at ev- 
ery floor level. 

Exceptions: 

1. The maximum required fire-resistance rafing for as- 
semblies supporting fire barriers separating tank stor- 
age as provided for in Section 415.7.2.1 shall be 2 
hours, but not less than required by Table 601 for the 
building construction type. 

2. Shaft enclosure shall be permitted to terminate at a top 
enclosure complying with Section 707.12. 

70605 Horkoimtal ire toarrierso Horizontal fire barriers shall 
be constructed in accordance with Section 711. 

70606 Exterior wallSo Where exterior walls serve as a part of a 
required fire-resistance-rated enclosure, such walls shall com- 
ply with the requirements of Section 704 for exterior walls and 
the fire-resistance-rated enclosure requirements shall not ap- 
ply. 

Exceptlomis Exterior walls required to be fire-resistance 
rated in accordance with Section 1022.6. 

70607 OpemmgSo Openings in a fire barrier wall shall be pro- 
tected in accordance with Secdon 715. Openings shall be lim- 
ited to a maximum aggregate width of 25 percent of the length 
of the wall, and the maximum area of any single opening shall 
not exceed 120 square feet (11 m^). Openings in exit enclosures 
shall also comply with Section 1019.1.1. 

ExceptnoEiss 

1. Openings shall not be limited to 120 square feet (11 
m^) where adjoining fire areas are equipped through- 
out with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1. 



92 



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2. Fire doors serving an exit enclosure. 

3. Openings shall not be limited to 120 square feet (11 
m^) or an aggregate width of 25 percent of the length 
of the wall where the opening protective assembly has 
been tested in accordance with ASTM E 1 19 and has a 
minimum fire-resistance rating not less than the 
fire-resistance rating of the wall. 

7([D6o8 FemelraM^iniSo Penetrations through fire barriers shall 
comply with Section 712. 

706o8ol Prohibited pemetrMiomSo Penetrations into an exit 
enclosure shall only be allowed when permitted by Section 
1019.1.2. 

7(D6o9 JoimltSo Joints made in or between fire barriers shall com- 
ply with Section 713. 



aiir traesfer opemimigs.. Penetrations by 
ducts and air transfer openings shall comply with Sections 712 
and 716. 



SECTIOGVI 707 
SHAFT ENCLOSURES 

IWIA GemeraiL The provisions of this section shall apply to 
vertical shafts where such shafts are required to protect open- 
ings and penetrations through floor/ceiling and roof/ceihng as- 
semblies. 



7ffl7o2 Shaft eecIosiuiFe requniredo Openings through a 
floor/ceiling assembly shall be protected by a shaft enclosure 
complying with this section. 



1 . A shaft enclosure is not required for openings totally 
within an individual residential dwelling unit and 
connecting four stories or less. 

2. A shaft enclosure is not required in a building 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 for an 
escalator opening or stairway which is not a portion 
of the means of egress protected according to Item 
2.1 or 2.2: 

2.1. Where the area of the floor opening between 
stories does not exceed twice the horizontal 
projected area of the escalator or stairway and 
the opening is protected by a draft curtain and 
closely spaced sprinklers in accordance with 
NFFA 13. In other than Groups B and M, this 
application is limited to openings that do not 
connect more than four stories. 

2.2. Where the opening is protected by approved 
power-operated automatic shutters at every 
floor penetrated. The shutters shall be of 
noncombustible construction and have a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than 1.5 
hours. The shutter shall be so constructed as to 
close immediately upon the actuation of a 
smoke detector installed in accordance with 
Section 907.10 and shall completely shut off 
the well opening. Escalators shall cease oper- 



ation when the shutter begins to close. The 
shutter shall operate at a speed of not more 
than 30 feet per minute ( 1 52.4 mm/s) and shall 
be equipped with a sensitive leading edge to 
arrest its progress where in contact with any 
obstacle, and to continue its progress on re- 
lease -therefrom. 

3. A shaft enclosure is not required for penetrations by 
pipe, tube, conduit, wire, cable, and vents protected 
in accordance with Section 712.4. 

4. A shaft enclosure is not required for penetrations by 
ducts protected in accordance with Section 712.4. 
Grease ducts shall be protected in accordance with 
the International Mechanical Code. 

5. A shaft enclosure is not required for floor openings 
complying with the provisions for covered malls or 
atriums. 

6. A shaft enclosure is not required for approved ma- 
sonry chimneys, where annular space protection is 
provided at each floor level in accordance with Sec- 
tion 717.2.5. 

7. In other than Groups 1-2 and 1-3, a shaft enclosure is 
not required for a floor opening that complies with 
the following: 

7.1. Does not connect more than two stories. 

7.2. Is not part of the required means of egress sys- 
tem except as permitted in Section 1019.1. 

7.3. Is not concealed within the building construc- 
tion. 

7.4. Is not open to a corridor in Group I and R oc- 
cupancies. 

7.5. Is not open to a corridor on nonsprinklered 
floors in any occupancy. 

7.6. Is separated from floor openings serving other 
floors by construction conforming to required 
shaft enclosures. 

8. A shaft enclosure is not required for automobile 
ramps in open parking garages and enclosed parking 
garages constructed in accordance with Sections 
406.3 and 406.4, respectively. 

9. A shaft enclosure is not required for floor openings 
between a mezzanine and the floor below. 

1 0. A shaft enclosure is not required for joints protected 
by a fire-resistant joint system in accordance with 
Section 713. 

1 1 . Where permitted by other sections of this code. 

1%13 Materials. The shaft enclosure shall be of materials per- 
mitted by the building type of construction. 

7((D7o4 Fire-reslstainice ratiego Shaft enclosures shall have a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours where connecting 
four stories or more and not less thanl hour where connecting 
less than four stories. The number of stories connected by the 
shaft enclosure shall include any basements but not any mezza- 
nines. Shaft enclosures shall be constructed as fire barriers in 
accordance with Section 706. Shaft enclosures shall have a 



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fire-resistance rating not less than the floor assembly pene- 
trated, but need not exceed 2 hours. 

707o5 Continuity. Shaft enclosure walls shall extend from the 
top of the floor/ceiling assembly below to the underside of the 
floor or roof slab or deck above and shall be securely attached 
thereto. These walls shall be continuous through concealed 
spaces such as the space above a suspended ceihng. The sup- 
porting construction shall be protected to afford the required 
fire- resistance rating of the element supported. Hollow vertical 
spaces within the shaft enclosure construction wall shall be 
firestopped at every floor level. 

7t)7.6 Exterior walls. Where exterior walls serve as a part of a 
required shaft enclosure, such walls shall comply with the re- 
quirements of Section 704 for exterior walls and the fire-resis- 
tance-rated enclosure requirements shall not apply. 

Exception; Exterior walls required to be fire-resistance 
rated in accordance with Section 1022.6. 

707.7 Openings. Openings in a shaft enclosure shall be pro- 
tected in accordance with Section 7 15 as required for fire barri- 
ers. Such openings shall be self-closing or automatic-closing 
by smoke detection. 

707.7.1 Prohibited openings. Openings other than those 
necessary for the purpose of the shaft shall not be permitted 
in shaft enclosures. 

707.8 Penetrations. PenetraUons in a shaft enclosure shall be 
protected in accordance with Section 712 as required for fire 
barriers. 

707.8.1 Prohibited penetrations. Penetrafions other than 
those necessary for the purpose of the shaft shall not be per- 
mitted in shaft enclosures. Ducts shall not penetrate exit 
shaft enclosures. 

Exception.' Duct penetrations as permitted in Section 
1019.1.2. 

707.9 Joints. Joints in a shaft enclosure shall comply with Sec- 
tion 713. 

707.10 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations of a 
shaft enclosure by ducts and air transfer openings shall comply 
with Sections 712 and 716. 

707.11 Enclosure at the bottom. Shafts that do not extend to 
the bottom of the building or structure shall: 

1. Be enclosed at the lowest level with construction of the 
same fire-resistance rafing as the lowest floor through 
which the shaft passes, but not less than the rating re- 
quired for the shaft enclosure; 

2. Terminate in a room having a use related to the purpose 
of the shaft. The room shall be separated from the re- 
mainder of the building by construction having a fire-re- 
sistance rafing and opening protectives at least equal to 
the protection required for the shaft enclosure; or 

3 . Be protected by approved fire dampers installed in accor- 
dance with their listing at the lowest floor level within the 
shaft enclosure. 

Exceptions: 

1. The fire-resistance-rated room separation is not re- 
quired provided there are no openings in or penetra- 



tions of the shaft enclosure to the interior of the build- 
ing except at the bottom. The bottom of the shaft shall 
be closed off around the penetrating items with mate- 
rials permitted by Section 717.3.1 for draftstopping, 
or the room shall be provided with an approved auto- 
matic fire suppression system. 

2. A shaft enclosure containing a refuse chute or laundry 
chute shall not be used for any other purpose and shall 
terminate in a room protected in accordance with Sec- 
tion 707.13.4. 

3 . The fire-resistance-rated room separation and the pro- 
tection at the bottom of the shaft are not required pro- 
vided there are no combustibles in the shaft and there 
are no openings or other penetrations through the 
shaft enclosure to the interior of the building. 

707.12 Enclosure at the top. A shaft enclosure that does not 
extend to the underside of the roof deck of the building shall be 
enclosed at the top with construction of the same fire-resistance 
rating as the topmost floor penetrated by the shaft, but not less 
than the fire-resistance rating required for the shaft enclosure. 

707.13 Refuse and laundry chutes. Refuse and laundry 
chutes, access and termination rooms and incinerator rooms 
shall meet the requirements of Sections 707.13.1 through 
707.13.6. 

Exception: Chutes serving and contained within a single 
dweUing unit. 

707.13.1 Refuse and laundry chute enclosures. A shaft 
enclosure containing a refuse or laundry chute shall not be 
used for any other purpose and shall be enclosed in accor- 
dance with Section 707.4. Openings into the shaft, including 
those from access rooms and termination rooms, shall be 
protected in accordance with this section and Section 715. 
Openings into chutes shall not be located in exit access cor- 
ridors. Opening protectives shall be self-closing or auto- 
matic-closing upon the actuation of a smoke detector 
installed in accordance with Section 907.10, except that 
heat-activated closing devices shall be permitted between 
the shaft and the termination room. 

707.13.2 Materials. A shaft enclosure containing a refuse 
or laundry chute shall be constructed of materials as permit- 
ted by the building type of construction. 

707.13.3 Refuse and laundry chute access rooms. Access 
openings for refuse and laundry chutes shall be located in 
rooms or compartments completely enclosed by construc- 
tion that has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour 
and openings into the access rooms shall be protected by 
opening protectives having a fire protection rating of not 
less than V4 hour and shall be self-closing or automatic-clos- 
ing upon the detection of smoke. 

707.13.4 Termination room. Refuse and laundry chutes 
shall discharge into an enclosed room completely separated 
from the remainder of the building by construction that has a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour and openings 
into the termination room shall be protected by opening 
protectives having a fire protection rating of not less than % 
hour and shall be self-closing or automatic-closing upon the 
detection of smoke. Refuse chutes shall not terminate in an 



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incinerator room. Refuse and laundry rooms that are not 
provided with chutes need only comply with Table 302. 1.1. 

7§7.13o5 lecineraitor room. Incinerator rooms shall com- 
ply with Table 302.1.1. 

7§7ol3o6 Aiitomaitic ire spriekler system. An approved 
automatic fire sprinkler system shall be installed in accor- 
dance with Section 903.2.10.2. 

707,14 Elevator aed dumbwaiter sliaftSo Elevator hoistway 
and dumbwaiter enclosures shall be constructed in accordance 
with Section 707.4 and Chapter 30. 

7tl7ol4ol Elevator iobbyo Elevators opening into a fire-re- 
sistance-rated corridor as required by Section 1016.1 shall 
be provided with an elevator lobby at each floor containing 
such a corridor. The lobby shall separate the elevators from 
the corridor by fire partitions and the required opening pro- 
tection. Elevator lobbies shall have at least one means of 
egress complying with Chapter 10 and other provisions 
within this code. 

Exceptloes^o 

1. In office buildings, separations are not required 
from a street-floor elevator lobby provided the en- 
tire street floor is equipped with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

2. Elevators not required to be located in a shaft in ac- 
cordance with Section 707.2. 

3. Where additional doors are provided in accor- 
dance with Section 3002.6. Such doors shall be 
tested in accordance with UL 1784 without an arti- 
ficial bottom seal. 

4. In other than Group 1-3, and buildings more than 
four stories above the lowest level of fire depart- 
ment vehicle access, lobby separation is not re- 
quired where the building, including the lobby and 
corridors leading to the lobby, is protected by an 
automatic sprinkler system installed throughout in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 



SECTION 708 



7WA Geeeralo The following wall assembhes shall comply 
with this section. 

1 . Walls separating dwelling units in the same building. 

2. Walls separating sleeping units in occupancies in Group 
R-1, hotel occupancies, R-2 and I-l. 

3. Walls separating tenant spaces in covered mall buildings 
as required by Section 402.7.2. 

4. Corridor walls as required by Section 1016.1. 

5. Elevator lobby separation as required by Section 
707.14.1. 

7l]i8o2 MaterlalSo The walls shall be of materials permitted by 
the building type of construction. 

708o3 Fire=reslstaEce raiMgo The fire-resistance rating of the 
walls shall be at least 1 hour. 



ExceptloHiss 

1. Corridor walls as permitted by Table 1016.1. 

2. Dwelling unit and sleeping unit separations in buildings 
of Type IIB, IIIB and VB construction shall have fire-re- 
sistance ratings of not less than '/2 hour in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system 
in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

708.4 CoHitmiiity. Fire partitions shall extend from the top of 
the floor assembly below to the underside of the floor or roof 
slab or deck above or to the fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling 
or roof/ceiling assembly above, and shall be securely attached 
thereto. If the partitions are not continuous to the deck, and 
where constructed of combustible construction, the space be- 
tween the ceiling and the deck above shall be fireblocked or 
draftstopped in accordance with Sections 717.2.1 and 717.3.1 
at the partition line. The supporting construction shall be pro- 
tected to afford the required fire-resistance rating of the wall 
supported, except for tenant and sleeping unit separation walls 
and exit access corridor walls in buildings of Type IIB, IIIB and 
VB construction. 

Exceptioess 

1 . The wall need not be extended into the crawl space be- 
low where the floor above the crawl space has a mini- 
mum 1-hour fire-resistance rating. 

2. Where the room- side fire-resistance-rated membrane 
of the corridor is carried through to the underside of a 
fire-resistance-rated floor or roof above, the ceiling of 
the corridor shall be permitted to be protected by the 
use of ceihng materials as required for a 1-hour 
fire-resistance-rated floor or roof system. 

3. Where the corridor ceiling is constructed as required 
for the corridor walls, the walls shall be permitted to 
terminate at the upper membrane of such ceiling as- 
sembly. 

4. The fire partition separating tenant spaces in a mall, 
complying with Section 402.7.2, is not required to ex- 
tend beyond the underside of a ceiling that is not part 
of a fire-resistance-rated assembly. A wall is not re- 
quired in attic or ceiling spaces above tenant separa- 
tion walls. 

5. Fireblocking or draftstopping is not required at the 
partition line in Group R-2 buildings that do not ex- 
ceed four stories in height provided the attic space is 
subdivided by draftstopping into areas not exceeding 
3,000 square feet (279 m^) or above every two dwell- 
ing units, whichever is smaller. 

6. Fireblocking or draftstopping is not required at the 
partition line in buildings equipped with an automatic 
sprinkler system installed throughout in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 provided that au- 
tomatic sprinklers are installed in combustible 
floor/ceiling and roof/ceihng spaces. 

708o5 Exterior walls. Where exterior walls serve as a part of a 
required fire-resistance-rated enclosure, such walls shall comply 
with the requirements of Section 704 for exterior walls and the 
fire-resistance-rated enclosure requirements shall not apply. 



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70806 Openings. Openings in a fire partition shall be protected 
in accordance with Section 715. 

70807 Penetrations, Penetrations through fire partitions shall 
comply with Section 712. 

708.8 Joints. Joints made in or between fire partitions shall 
comply with Section 713. 

708.9 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations by ducts 
and air transfer openings shall comply with Sections 712 and 
716. 



SECTION 709 
SIWIOKE BARRIERS 

709.1 General. Smoke barriers shall comply with this section. 

709.2 Materials. Smoke barriers shall be of materials permit- 
ted by the building type of construction. 

709.3 Fire- resistance rating, A 1 -hour fire-resistance rating is 
required for smoke barriers. 

Exception: Smoke barriers constructed of minimum 
0.10-inch-thick (2.5 mm) steel in Group 1-3 buildings. 

709.4 Continuity. Smoke barriers shall form an effective 
membrane continuous from outside wall to outside wall and 
from floor slab to floor or roof deck above, including continuity • 
through concealed spaces, such as those found above sus- 
pended ceilings, and interstitial structural and mechanical 
spaces. The supporting construction shall be protected to af- 
ford the required fire-resistance rating of the wall or floor sup- 
ported in buildings of other than Type IIB, IlIB or VB 
construction. 

Exception: Smoke barrier walls are not required in intersti- 
tial spaces where such spaces are designed and constructed 
with ceilings that provide resistance to the passage of fire 
and smoke equivalent to that provided by the smoke barrier 
walls. 

1709.5 Openings, Openings in a smoke barrier shall be pro- 
tected in accordance with Section 715. 

Exception: In Group 1-2, where such doors are installed 
across corridors, a pair of opposite-swinging doors without 
a center mullion shall be installed having vision panels with 
approved fire-resistance-rated glazing materials in ap- 
proved fire-resistance-rated frames, the area of which shall 
not exceed that tested. The doors shall be close fitting within 
operational tolerances, and shall not have undercuts, lou- 
vers or grilles. The doors shall have head and jamb stops, as- 
tragals or rabbets at meeting edges and automatic -closing 
devices. Positive-latching devices are not required. 

709.6 Penetrations. Penetrations through smoke barriers shall 
comply with Section 712. 

709.7 Joints. Joints made in or between smoke barriers shall 
comply with Section 713. 

709.8 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations by ducts 
and air transfer openings shall comply with Sections 712 and 
716. 



SECTION 710 
SMOKE PARTITIONS 

710.1 GeeeraL Smoke partitions installed as required else- 
where in the code shall comply with this section. 

710e2 MaterlalSo The walls shall be of materials permitted by 
the building type of construction. 

71003 Fire-resnstance rating. Unless required elsewhere in the 
code, smoke partitions are not required to have a fire-resistance 
rating. 

71004 Cositliitiity, Smoke partitions shall extend from the floor 
to the underside of the floor or roof deck above or to the under- 
side of the ceiling above where the ceiling membrane is con- 
structed to limit the transfer of smoke. 

710.5 Openings, Windows shall be sealed to resist the free pas- 
sage of smoke or be automatic-closing upon detection of smoke. 
Doors in smoke partitions shall comply with this section. 

710.5.1 Louvers. Doors in smoke partitions shall not in- 
clude louvers. 

710.5.2 Smoke and draft-control doors. Where required 
elsewhere in the code, doors in smoke partitions shall be tested 
in accordance with UL 1784 with an artificial bottom seal in- 
stalled across the full width of the bottom of the door assembly. 
The air leakage rate of the door assembly shall not exceed 3.0 
cubic feet per minute per square foot [ftV(min ft^)] (0.015424 
mVsm^) of door opening at 0. 10 inch (24.9 Pa) of water for both 
the ambient temperature test and the elevated temperature ex- 
posure test. 

710.5.3 Seflf=dosing or automatic-closing doors. Where 
required elsewhere in the code, doors in smoke partitions 
shall be self-closing or automatic-closing in accordance 
with Section 715.3.7.3. 

710.6 Penetrations and joints. The space around penetrating 
items and in joints shall be filled with an approved material to 
limit the free passage of smoke. 

71111,7 Ducts and air transfer openings. Air transfer openings 
in smoke partitions shall be provided with a smoke damper 
complying with Section 716.3.2. 

Exception: Where the installation of a smoke damper will 
interfere with the operation of a required smoke control sys- 
tem in accordance with Section 909, approved alternative 
protection shall be utilized. 



SECTION 711 
HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLIES 

711.1 General. Floor and roof assemblies required to have a 
fire-resistance rating shall comply with this section. 

711.2 Materials, The floor and roof assemblies shall be of ma- 
terials permitted by the building type of construction. 

7113 FIre-resistance ratlngo The fire-resistance rating of 
floor and roof assemblies shall not be less than that required by 
the building type of construction. Where the floor assembly 
separates mixed occupancies, the assembly shall have a fire-re- 
sistance rating of not less than that required by Section 302.3.2 
based on the occupancies being separated. Where the floor as- 



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sembly separates a single occupancy into different fire areas, 
the assembly shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 
that required by Section 706.3.7. Floor assemblies separating 
dwelling units in the same building or sleeping units in occu- 
pancies in Group R-1, hotel occupancies, R-2 and I-l shall be a 
minimum of 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. 

ExcepttoEii Dwelling unit and sleeping unit separations in 
buildings of Type IIB, IIIB, and VB construction shall have 
fire-resistance ratings of not less than V2 hour in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

711.301 Celling pairaels. Where the weight of lay-in ceiHng 
panels, used as part of fire-resistance-rated floor/ceihng or 
roof/ceiling assembhes, is not adequate to resist an upward 
force of 1 lb/ft. 2 (48 Pa), wire or other approved devices shall 
be installed above the panels to prevent vertical displace- 
ment under such upward force. 

711.302 Access doors. Access doors shall be permitted in 
ceilings of fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling and roof/ceil- 
ing assembhes provided such doors are tested in accordance 
with ASTM E 1 19 as horizontal assemblies and labeled by 
an approved agency for such purpose. 

7113,3 UniPsaMe space. In 1-hour fire-resistance-rated 
floor construction, the ceiling membrane is not required to 
be installed over unusable crawl spaces. In 1-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated roof construction, the floor membrane is not re- 
quired to be installed where unusable attic space occurs 
above. 

711o4 Coetmiflity. Assemblies shall be continuous without 
openings, penetrations or joints except as permitted by this sec- 
tion and Sections 707.2, 712.4 and 713. Skyhghts and other 
penetrations through a fire-resistance-rated roof deck are per- 
mitted to be unprotected, provided that the structural integrity 
of the fire-resistance-rated roof construction is maintained. Un- 
protected skyhghts shall not be permitted in roof construction 
required to be fire-resistance rated in accordance with Section 
704.10. The supporting construction shall be protected to af- 
ford the required fire-resistance rating of the horizontal assem- 
bly supported. 

711.5 Pemetratloms, Penetrations through fire-resistance-rated 
horizontal assemblies shall comply with Section 712. 

711.6 Joints, Joints made in or between fire-resistance-rated 
horizontal assemblies shall comply with Section 7 1 3 . The void 
created at the intersection of a floor/ceiUng assembly and an ex- 
terior curtain wall assembly shall be protected in accordance 
with Section 713.4. 

711.7 Ducts aiMd air traesfer opemiisigs, Penetrarions by ducts 
and air transfer openings shall comply with Secfions 712 and 
716. 



SECTION 712 



712.2 iMstallatfloe details. Where sleeves are used, they shall 
be securely fastened to the assembly penetrated. The space be- 
tween the item contained in the sleeve and the sleeve itself and 
any space between the sleeve and the assembly penetrated shall 
be protected in accordance with this section. Insulation and 
coverings on or in the penetradng item shall not penetrate the 
assembly unless the specific material used has been tested as 
part of the assembly in accordance with this secfion. 

712.3 Fnre=resnsta]nice-=rated walls. Penetrations into or 
through fire walls, fire barriers, smoke barrier walls, and fire 
partitions shall comply with this section. 

712,3,1 Through peeetratloES, Through penetrafions of 
fire-resistance-rated walls shall comply with Secfion 
712.3.1.1 or712.3. 1.2. 



712ol Scope. The provisions of this secfion shall govern the 
materials and methods of construcdon used to protect through 
penetrations and membrane penetrations. 



tioms Where the penetrating items are steel, fer- 
rous or copper pipes or steel conduits, the annular space 
between the penetrating item and the fire-resis- 
tance-rated wall shall be permitted to be protected as fol- 
lows: 

1 . In concrete or masonry walls where the penetrat- 
ing item is a maximum 6-inch (152 mm) nominal 
diameter and the opening is a maximum 144 
square inches (0.0929 m^), concrete, grout or mor- 
tar shall be permitted where installed the full thick- 
ness of the wall or the thickness required to 
maintain the fire-resistance rating; or 

2. The material used to fill the annular space shall 
prevent the passage of flame and hot gases suffi- 
cient to ignite cotton waste when subjected to 
ASTM E 1 19 time-temperature fire condifions un- 
der a minimum positive pressure differential of 
O.Ol inch (2.49 Pa) of water at the location of the 
penetration for the time period equivalent to the 
fire-resistance rating of the construction pene- 
trated. 

712.3.1.1 Fnre=resnstaece-rated assemtoMes, Penetra- 
tions shall be installed as tested in an approved fire-resis- 
tance-rated assembly. 

712.3.1.2 Tlhroiinglhi-peinietratfloini iFSrestop systemm. 
Through penetrations shall be protected by an approved 
penetration firestop system installed as tested in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 814 or UL 1479, with a minimum [[ 
positive pressure differential of 0.01 inctf (2.49 Pa) of 
water and shall have an F rating of not less than the re- 
quired fire-resistance rating of the wall penetrated. 

7123,2 Membraime peeetrattosis. Membrane penetrations 
shah comply with Section 712.3.1. Where walls and parti- 
tions are required to have a minimum 1-hour fire-resistance 
rating, recessed fixtures shall be installed such that the re- 
quired fire resistance will not be reduced. 

mus: 

1 . Steel electrical boxes that do not exceed 16 square 
inches (0.0103 m^) in area provided the total area 
of such openings does not exceed 100 square 
inches (0.0645 m^) for any 100 square feet (9.29 
m^) of wall area. OuUet boxes on opposite sides of 
the wall shall be separated as shown: 



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FBRE-RESDSTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



1 . 1 . By a horizontal distance of not less than 24 
inches (610 mm); 

1 .2. By a horizontal distance of not less than the 
depth of the wall cavity where the wall cav- 
ity is filled with cellulose loose fill, 
rockwool or slag mineral wool insulation; 

1.3. By solid fireblocking in accordance with 
Section 717.2.1; 

1 .4. By protecting both outlet boxes with listed 
putty pads; or 

1.5. By other listed materials and methods. 

2. Membrane penetrations for listed electrical outlet 
boxes of any material are permitted provided such 
boxes have been tested for use in fire-resis- 
tance-rated assemblies and are installed in accor- 
dance with the instructions included in the hsting. 
Outlet boxes on opposite sides of the wall shall be 
separated as follows: 

2. 1 . By a horizontal distance of not less than 24 
inches (610 mm); 

2.2. By solid fireblocking in accordance with 
Section 717.2.1; 

2.3. By protecting both outlet boxes with listed 
putty pads; or 

2.4. By other listed materials and methods. 

3. The annular space created by the penetration of a 
fire sprinkler provided it is covered by a metal es- 
cutcheon plate. 

7123.3 Ducts and air transfer opesiingSo Penetrations of 
fire-resistance-rated walls by ducts and air transfer open- 
ings that are not protected with fire dampers shall comply 
with this section. 

7123.4 Dissimilar materBals, Noncombustible penetrating 
items shall not connect to combustible items beyond the 
point of firestopping unless it can be demonstrated that the 
fire-resistance integrity of the wall is maintained. 

712.4 Horlzoetal assemblies. Penetrations of a floor, 
floor/ceiling assembly or the ceiling membrane of a roof/ceil- 
ing assembly shall be protected in accordance with Section 
707. Penetrations permitted by Exceptions 3 and 4 of Section 
707.2 shall comply with Sections 712.4.1 through 712.4.4. 

Exception: Penetrations located within the same room or 
undivided area as floor openings are not required to have a 
shaft enclosure in accordance with Exception 1, 2, 5, 7, 8 or 
9 in Section 707.2. 

712.4.1 Throegh penetrations. Through penetrations of 
fire-resistance-rated horizontal assembhes shall comply 
with Section 712.4.1.1 or 712.4.1.2. 

Exceptions: 

1. Penetrations by steel, ferrous or copper conduits, 
pipes, tubes, vents, concrete, or masonry through a 
single fire-resistance-rated floor assembly where 
the annular space is protected with materials that 
prevent the passage of flame and hot gases suffi- 
cient to ignite cotton waste when subjected to 



ASTM E 1 19 time-temperature fire conditions un- 
der a minimum positive pressure differenfial of 
0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) of water at the location of the 
penetration for the time period equivalent to the 
fire-resistance rating of the construction pene- 
trated. Penetrating items with a maximum 6-inch 
(152 mm) nominal diameter shall not be limited to 
the penetration of a single fire-resistance-rated 
floor assembly provided that the area of the pene- 
tration does not exceed 144 square inches (92 900 
mm^) in any 100 square feet (9.3 m^) of floor area. 

2. Penetrations in a single concrete floor by steel, fer- 
rous or copper conduits, pipes, tubes and vents 
with a maximum 6-inch (152 mm) nominal diame- 
ter provided concrete, grout or mortar is installed 
the full thickness of the floor or the thickness re- 
quired to maintain the fire-resistance rating. The 
penetrating items with a maximum 6-inch (152 
mm) nominal diameter shall not be limited to the 
penetration of a single concrete floor provided that 
the area of the penetration does not exceed 144 
square inches (0.0929 m^). 

3. Electrical outlet boxes of any material are permit- 
ted provided that such boxes are tested for use in 
fire-resistance-rated assemblies and installed in 
accordance with the tested assembly. 

712.4olol Fsre-reslstance-rated assemblies. Penetra- 
tions shall be installed as tested in an approved fire-resis- 
tance-rated assembly. 

712o4,lo2 Throegh-peinetration ffirestop system. 
Through penetrafions shall be protected by an approved 
through-penetration firestop system installed and tested 
in accordance with ASTM E 8 14 or UL 1479, with a min- 
imum positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) 
of water. The system shall have an F rating and a T rating 
of not less than 1 hour but not less than the required rating 
of the floor penetrated. 

ExceptnoB: Floor penetrations contained and located 
within the cavity of a wall do not require a T rating. 

712c4o2 Membrane peoetratioiis. Penetrations of mem- 
branes that are part of a fire-resistance-rated horizontal as- 
sembly shall comply with Section 712.4.1.1 or 712.4.1.2. 
Where floor/ceiling assemblies are required to have a mini- 
mum 1-hour fire-resistance rafing, recessed fixtures shall be 
installed such that the required fire resistance will not be re- 
duced. 

ExcepiioEis: 

1 . Membrane penetrations by steel, ferrous or copper 
conduits, electrical outlet boxes, pipes, tubes, 
vents, concrete, or masonry-penetrating items 
where the annular space is protected either in ac- 
cordance with Section 712.4.1 or to prevent the 
free passage of flame and the products of combus- 
tion. Such penetrations shall not exceed an aggre- 
gate area of 100 square inches (64 500 mm^) in any 
100 square feet (9.3 m^) of ceiling area in assem- 
blies tested without penetrations. 



98 



2003 iMTERMATBONAL BUiLDBNG CODE® 



FDRE-BESDSTAIMCE-RATEOCONSTOyCTflOW 



2. Membrane penetrations by listed electrical outlet 
boxes of any material are permitted provided such 
boxes have been tested for use in fire-resis- 
tance-rated assemblies and are installed in accor- 
dance with the instructions included in the Hsting. 

3. The annular space created by the penetration of a 
fire sprinkler provided it is covered by a metal es- 
cutcheon plate. 



712<,4o3 N(Dini!!re=]re§!staEiice=rated aissemMkSo Penetra- 
tions of horizontal assembhes without a required fire-resis- 
tance rating shall meet the requirements of Section 707 or 
shall comply with Sections 712.4.3.1 through 712.4.3.2. 



712040301 NdDsucoinnibiuisltntok pemietiratninig itemso 
Noncombustible penetrating items that connect not more 
than three stories are permitted provided that the annular 
space is filled with an approved noncombustible material 
to resist the free passage of flame and the products of 
combustion. 

712040302 Pemeltiraitflinig Memms, Penetrating items that con- 
nect not more than two stories are permitted provided 
that the annular space is filled with an approved material 
to resist the free passage of flame and the products of 
combustion. 



' (opeemgSo Penetrations of 
horizontal assembhes by ducts and air transfer openings that 
are not required to have dampers shall comply with this sec- 
tion. Ducts and air transfer openings that are protected with 
dampers shall comply with Section 716. 

712,4oS Dissamlkr maittemllSo Noncombustible penetrating 
items shall not connect to combustible materials beyond the 
point of firestopping unless it can be demonstrated that the 
fire-resistance integrity of the horizontal assembly is main- 
tained. 

712o4c6 Ffloor fflre doors. Floor fire doors used to protect 
openings in fire-resistance-rated floors shall be tested in the 
horizontal posifion in accordance with ASTM E 119, and 
shall achieve a fire-resistance rating not less than the assem- 
bly being penetrated. Floor fire doors shall be labeled by an 
approved agency. 



SECTI0i\g?13 
FDRE-RESDSmNT JOIBVIT SYSTEiiS 

713ol GenneraL Joints installed in or between fire-resis- 
tance-rated walls, floor or floor/ceihng assemblies and roofs or 
roof/ceiling assembhes shall be protected by an approved 
fire-resistant joint system designed to resist the passage of fire 
for a time period not less than the required fire-resistance rating 
of the wall, floor or roof in or between which it is installed. 
Fire-resistant joint systems shall be tested in accordance with 
Section 713.3. The void created at the intersection of a 
floor/ceiling assembly and an exterior curtain wall assembly 
shall be protected in accordance with Section 713.4. 

Exceptnom: Fire-resistant joint systems shall not be required 
for joints in all of the following locations: 

1. Floors within a single dwelUng unit. 



2. Floors where the joint is protected by a shaft enclo- 
sure in accordance with Section 707. 

3. Floors within atriums where the space adjacent to the 
atrium is included in the volume of the atrium for 
smoke control purposes. 

4. Floors within malls. 

5. Floors within open parking structures. 

6. Mezzanine floors. 

7. Walls that are permitted to have unprotected open- 
ings. 

8. Roofs where openings are permitted. 

9. Control joints not exceeding a maximum width of 
0.625 inch (15.9 mm) and tested in accordance with 

ASTM E 119. 

71302 Iimsltaillatnoiiio Fire-resistant joint systems shall be se- 
curely installed in or on the joint for its entire length so as not to 
dislodge, loosen or otherwise impair its abihty to accommo- 
date expected building movements and to resist the passage of 
fire and hot gases. 

71303 Fnre test crMerm, Fire-resistant joint systems shall be 
tested in accordance with the requirements of either ASTM E 
1966 or UL 2079. Nonsymmetrical wall joint systems shall be 
tested with both faces exposed to the furnace, and the assigned 
fire-resistance rating shall be the shortest duration obtained 
from the two tests. When evidence is furnished to show that the 
wall was tested with the least fire-resistant side exposed to the 
furnace, subject to acceptance of the building official, the wall 
need not be subjected to tests from the opposite side. 

ExcepMosTis For exterior walls with a horizontal fire separa- 
tion distance greater than 5 feet (1524 mm), the joint system 
shall be required to be tested for interior fire exposure only. 

71304 Exterior cusrtsiiini wall/fflooir iimtlersecltnoinio Where fire- 
resistance-rated floor or floor/ceihng assemblies are required, 
voids created at the intersection of the exterior curtain wall as- 
sembhes and such floor assembhes shall be sealed with an ap- 
proved material or system to prevent the interior spread of fire, f 
Such material or systems shall be securely installed and capa- L 
ble of preventing the passage of flame and hot gases sufficient 
to ignite cotton waste where subjected to ASTM E 119 
time-temperature fire conditions under a minimum positive 
pressure differential of 0.01 inch of water (2.49 Pa) for the time 
period at least equal to the fire-resistance rating of the floor as- 
sembly. Height and fire-resistance requirements for curtain 
wall spandrels shall comply with Section 704.9. 



RRE^RESISTANCE RATiNQ OF 
STOyCTOKAL MESyiBERS 

714ol EeqmremeetSc The fire-resistance rating of structural 
members and assemblies shall comply with the requirements 
for the type of construction and shall not be less than the rating 
required for the fire-resistance-rated assemblies supported. 

ExceptflOHis Fire barriers and fire partitions as provided in 
Sections 706.4 and 708.4, respectively. 



2003 flIMTERESSATBOMAL BOILOBMG CODE® 



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714.2 Protectioo of structural members. Protection of col- 
umns, girders, trusses, beams, lintels or other structural mem- 
bers that are required to have a fire-resistance rating shall 
comply with this section. 

714.2.1 Individual protection. Columns, girders, trusses, 
beams, Hntels or other structural members that are required 
to have a fire-resistance rating and that support more than 
two floors or one floor and roof, or support a load-bearing 
wall or a nonload-bearing wall more than two stories high, 
shall be individually protected on all sides for the full length 
with materials having the required fire-resistance rating. 
Other structural members required to have a fire-resistance 
rating shall be protected by individual encasement, by a 
membrane or ceiling protection as specified in Section 711, 
or by a combination of both. Columns shall also comply 
with Section 714.2.2. 

714.2.2 Column protection above ceilings. Where col- 
umns require a fire-resistance rating, the entire column, in- 
cluding its connections to beams or girders, shall be 
protected. Where the column extends through a ceiling, fire 
resistance of the column shall be continuous from the top of 
the floor through the ceiUng space to the top of the column. 

714.2.3 Truss protection. The required thickness and con- 
struction of fire-resistance-rated assemblies enclosing 
trusses shall be based on the results of full-scale tests or 
combinations of tests on truss components or on approved 
calculations based on such tests that satisfactorily demon- 
strate that the assembly has the required fire resistance. 

714.2.4 Attachments to structural members. The edges 
of lugs, brackets, rivets and bolt heads attached to structural 
members shall be permitted to extend to within 1 inch (25 
mm) of the surface of the fire protection. 

714.2.5 Reinforcing. Thickness of protection for concrete 
or masonry reinforcement shall be measured to the outside 
of the reinforcement except that stirrups and spiral rein- 
forcement ties are permitted to project not more than 
0.5 -inch (12.7 mm) into the protection. 

714.3 Embedments and enclosures. Pipes, wires, conduits, 
ducts or other service facilities shall not be embedded in the re- 
quired fire protective covering of a structural member that is re- 
quired to be individually encased. 

714.4 Impact protection. Where the fire protective covering 
of a structural member is subject to impact damage from mov- 
ing vehicles, the handhng of merchandise or other activity, the 
fire protective covering shall be protected by comer guards or 
by a substantial jacket of metal or other noncombustible mate- 
rial to a height adequate to provide full protection, but not less 
than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the finished floor. 

714.5 Exterior structural members. Load-bearing structural 
members located within the exterior walls or on the outside of a 
building or structure shall be provided with the highest fire-re- 
sistance rating as determined in accordance with the following: 

1 . As required by Table 60 1 for the type of building element 
based on the type of construction of the building; 

2. As required by Table 601 for exterior bearing walls based 
on the type of construction; and 



3. As required by Table 602 for exterior walls based on the 
fire separation distance. 

714.6 Bottom flange protection. Fire protection is not re- 
quired at the bottom flange of lintels, shelf angles and plates, 
spanning not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) whether part of the 
structural frame or not, and from the bottom flange of lintels, 
shelf angles and plates not part of the structural frame, regard- 
less of span. 

714.7 Seismic isolation systems. Fire-resistance ratings for 
the isolation system shall meet the fire-resistance rating re- 
quired for the columns, walls, or other structural elements in 
which the isolation system is installed in accordance with Table 
601. 

Isolation systems required to have a fire-resistance rating 
shall be protected with approved materials or construction as- 
semblies designed to provide the same degree of fire resistance 
as the structural element in which it is installed when tested in 
accordance with ASTM E 119 (see Section 703.2). 

Such isolation system protection applied to isolator units 
shall be capable of retarding the transfer of heat to the isolator 
unit in such a manner that the required gravity load-carrying ca- 
pacity of the isolator unit will not be impaired after exposure to 
the standard time-temperature curve fire test prescribed in 
ASTM E 1 19 for a duration not less than that required for the 
fire resistance rating of the structure element in which it is in- 
stalled. 

Such isolation system protection apphed to isolator units 
shall be suitably designed and securely installed so as not to 
dislodge, loosen, sustain damage, or otherwise impair its abil- 
ity to accommodate the seismic movements for which the isola- 
tor unit is designed and to maintain its integrity for the purpose 
of providing the required fire-resistance protection. 



SECTION 715 
OPENING PR0TECT8VES 

715.1 General. Opening protectives required by other sections 
of this code shall comply with the provisions of this section. 

715.2 Fire-resistance-rated glazing. Labeled fire-resis- 
tance-rated glazing tested as part of a fire-resistance-rated wall 
assembly in accordance with ASTM E 1 19 shall not be required 
to comply with this section. 

715.3 Fire door aed slmtter assemblies. Approved fire door 
and fire shutter assembUes shall be constructed of any material 
or assembly of component materials that conforms to the test 
requirements of Section 7 15. 3. 1,7 15. 3. 2 or 7 15. 3. 3 and the fire 
protection rating indicated in Table 715.3. Fire door assemblies 
and shutters shall be installed in accordance with the provisions 
of this section and NFPA 80. 

Exceptioms: 

1 . Labeled protective assemblies that conform to the re- 
quirements of this section or UL 10 A, UL 14B and UL 
14C for tin-clad fire door assembUes. 

2. Floor fire doors in accordance with Section 712.4.6. 



100 



2003 BNTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FDRE-RESDSTAB^CE-RATEDCONISTRUCTIION 



TABLE 715.3 
FBRE DOOR AMD FDRE SHUTTER FBRE PROTECTIOESI RATQNGS 



TYPE OF ASSEMBLY 


REQUIRED 

ASSEMBLY 

RATING 

(hours) 


EyjBMDMUM 

FIRE DOOR 
AHD FIRE 
SHUTTER 
ASSEftflBLY 
RATflNG 
(hours) 


Fire walls and fire barriers having a 
required fire-resistance rating greater 
than 1 hour 


4 

3 

2 

IV, 


3 

1% 
1% 


Fire barriers having a required 
fire-resistance rating of 1 hour: 

Shaft, exit enclosure and exit 
passageway wails 

Other fire barriers 


1 

1 


1 


Fire partitions: 
Corridor walls 

Other fire partitions 


1 

0.5 
1 


%' 

V 

% 


Exterior walls 


3 

2 
1 


IV, 



a. Two doors, each with a fire protection rating of 1 '/^ hours, installed on oppo- 
site sides of the same opening in a fire wall, shall be deemed equivalent in 
fire protection rating to one 3 -hour fire door. 

b. For testing requirements, see Section 715.3.3. 



7153 J SMe-Mmiged or pivoted swlngimg doors. 
Side-hinged and pivoted swinging doors shall be tested in 
accordance with NFPA 252 or UL IOC. After 5 minutes into 
the NFPA 252 test, the neutral pressure level in the furnace 
shall be established at 40 inches (1016 mm) or less above the 
sill. 

7153o2 Other types of doorSo Other types of doors, includ- 
ing swinging elevator doors, shall be tested in accordance 
with NFPA 252 or UL lOB. The pressure in the furnace shall 
be maintained as nearly equal to the atmospheric pressure as 
possible. Once established, the pressure shall be maintained 
during the entire test period. 

715,3o3 Door assemblies iim corridors sied smoke Ibarri- 
erso Fire door assemblies required to have a minimum fire 
protection rating of 20 minutes where located in corridor 
walls or smoke barrier walls having a fire-resistance rating 
in accordance with Table 7 15.3 shall be tested in accordance 
with NFPA 252 or UL IOC without the hose stream test. If a 
20-minute fire door assembly contains glazing material, the 
glazing material in the door itself shall have a minimum fire 
protection rating of 20 minutes and be exempt from the hose 
stream test. Glazing material in any other part of the door as- 
sembly, including transom lites and sidehtes, shall be tested 
in accordance with NFPA 257, including the hose stream 
test, in accordance with Section 715.4. Fire door assemblies 
shall also meet the requirements for a smoke- and draft-con- 
trol door assembly tested in accordance with UL 1784 with 
an artificial bottom seal installed across the full width of the 
bottom of the door assembly. The air leakage rate of the door 
assembly shall not exceed 3.0 cfm per square foot (0.01524 
mVsm^) of door opening at 0. 10 inch (24.9 Pa) of water for 



both the ambient temperature and elevated temperature 
tests. Louvers shall be prohibited. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Viewports that require a hole not larger than 1 inch 
(25 mm) in diameter through the door, have at least 
an 0.25-inch-thick (6.4 mm) glass disc and the 
holder is of metal that will not melt out where sub- 
ject to temperatures of 1,700T (927°C). 

2. Corridor door assemblies in occupancies of Group 
1-2 shall be in accordance with Section 407.3.1. 

3. Unprotected openings shall be permitted for corri- 
dors in multitheater complexes where each motion 
picture auditorium has at least one-half of its re- 
quired exit or exit access doorways opening di- 
rectly to the exterior or into an exit passageway. 

715304 Doors in vertical exit emclosiires amid exit passage- 
ways* Fire door assemblies in vertical exit enclosures and exit 
passageways shall have a maximum transmitted temperature 
end point of not more than 450°F (232°C) above ambient at 
the end of 30 minutes of standard fire test exposure. 

Exception; The maximum transmitted temperature end 
point is not required in buildings equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

715c3,4ol Gtennig m doorSc Fire-protection-rated glaz- 
ing in excess of 100 square inches (0.065 m^) shall be 
permitted in fire door assemblies when tested in accor- 
dance with NFPA 252 as components of the door assem- 
blies and not as glass lights, and shall have a maximum 
transmitted temperature end point of 450°F (232°C) in 
accordance with Section 715.3.4. 

Exceptioai: The maximum transmitted temperature 
end point is not required in buildings equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in- 
stalled in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 
903.3.1.2. 

715305 Labeled protective assemblieSo Fire door assem- 
blies shall be labeled by an approved agency. The labels 
shall comply with NFPA 80, and shall be permanently af- 
fixed to the door or frame. 

715,3o5.1 Fnre door labelieg requilremeratSo Fire doors 
shall be labeled showing the name of the manufacturer, 
the name of the third-party inspection agency, the fire 
protection rating and, where required for fire doors in 
exit enclosures by Section 715.3.4, the maximum trans- 
mitted temperature end point. Smoke and draft control 
doors complying with UL 1784 shall be labeled as such. 
Labels shall be approved and permanently affixed. The 
label shall be applied at the factory or location where fab- 
rication and assembly are performed. 

715-3,S,2 Oversized doorSo Oversized fire doors shall 
bear an oversized fire door label by an approved agency 
or shall be provided with a certificate of inspection fur- 
nished by an approved testing agency. When a certificate 
of inspection is furnished by an approved testing agency, 
the certificate shall state that the door conforms to the re- 



2003 BNTERiSIATBOMAL BUBLDDNG CODE® 



■io-fl 



F!RE-RES1STANCE-RATEDC0MSTRUCT10N 



quirements of design, materials and construction, but has 
not been subjected to the fire test. 

7153,5.3 Smoke and draft coetrol door labeling re= 
quirements. Smoke and draft control doors complying 
with UL 1784 shall be labeled in accordance with Sec- 
tion 715.3.5.1 and shall show the letter "S" on the fire rat- 
ing label of the door. This marking shall indicate that the 
door and frame assembly are in compliance when Hsted 
or labeled gasketing is also installed. 

715,3,5.4 Fire door frame labeling requirements. Fire 
door frames shall be labeled showing the names of the 
manufacturer and the third-party inspection agency. 

715.3.6 Glazing material. Fire-protection-rated glazing 
conforming to the opening protection requirements in Sec- 
tion 715.3 shall be permitted in fire door assemblies. 

715.3.6.1 Size limitations. Wired glass used in fire doors 
shall comply with Table 715.4.3. Other fire-protec- 
tion-rated glazing shall comply with the size limitations 
ofNFPASO. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fire-protection-rated glazing in fire doors lo- 
cated in fire walls shall be prohibited except 
that where serving as a horizontal exit, a 
self-closing swinging door shall be permitted to 
have a vision panel of not more than 100 square 
inches (0.065 m^) without a dimension exceed- 
ing 10 inches (254 mm). 

2. Fire-protection-rated glazing shall not be in- 
stalled in fire doors having a 1 Vs-hour fire pro- 
tection rating intended for installation in fire 
barriers, unless the glazing is not more than 100 
square inches (0.065 m^) in area. 

715.3.6.2 Exit and elevator protectives. Approved 
fire-protection-rated glazing used in fire doors in eleva- 
tor and stairway shaft enclosures shall be so located as to 
furnish clear vision of the passageway or approach to the 
elevator or stairway. 

715.3.6.3 Labeling, Fire-protection-rated glazing shall 
bear a label or other identification showing the name of 
the manufacturer, the test standard and the fire protection 
rating. Such label or other identification shall be issued 
by an approved agency and shall be permanently affixed. 

715.3.6.4 Safety glazing. Fire-protection-rated glazing 
installed in fire doors or fire window assemblies in areas 
subject to human impact in hazardous locations shall 
comply with Chapter 24. 

715.3.7 Door dosing. Fire doors shall be self-closing or au- 
tomatic-closing in accordance with this section. 

Exception: Fire doors located in common walls separat- 
ing sleeping units in Group R-1 shall be permitted with- 
out automatic-closing or self-closing devices. 

715.3.7.1 Latch required. Unless otherwise specifically 
permitted, single fire doors and both leaves of pairs of 
side-hinged swinging fire doors shall be provided with 
an active latch bolt that will secure the door when it is 
closed. 



715.3.7o2 Aetomatlc-dosing fire door assemblies. Au- 
tomatic-closing fire door assemblies shall be self-closing 
in accordance with NFPA 80. 

715o3Jo3 Smoke-activated doors. Automatic-closing 
fire doors installed in the following locations shall be au- 
tomatic-closing by the actuation of smoke detectors in- 
stalled in accordance with Section 907.10 or by loss of 
power to the smoke detector or hold-open device. Fire 
doors that are automatic-closing by smoke detection 
shall not have more than a 10-second delay before the 
door starts to close after the smoke detector is actuated. 

1. Doors installed across a corridor. 

2. Doors that protect openings in horizontal exits, ex- 
its or exit access corridors required to be of fire-re- 
sistance-rated construction. 

3. Doors that protect openings in walls required to be 
fire-resistance rated by Table 302.1.1. 

4. Doors installed in smoke barriers in accordance 
with Section 709.5. 

5. Doors installed in fire partitions in accordance 
with Section 708.6. 

6. Doors installed in a fire wall in accordance with 
Section 705.8. 

715.3.7.4 Doors m pedestrian ways. Vertical sliding or 
vertical rolling steel fire doors in openings through which 
pedestrians travel shall be heat activated or activated by 
smoke detectors with alarm verification. 

715.3.8 Swinging fire shutters. Where fire shutters of the 
swinging type are installed in exterior openings, not less 
than one row in every three vertical rows shall be arranged to 
be readily opened from the outside, and shall be identified 
by distinguishing marks or letters not less than 6 inches (152 
mm) high. 

715.3.9 Moiling fire slietters. Where fire shutters of the 
rolling type are installed, such shutters shall include ap- 
proved automatic-closing devices. 

715.4 Fire-protectioEi rated glazing. Glazing in fire window 
assemblies shall be fire protection rated in accordance with this 
section and Table 715.4. Glazing in fire doors shall comply 
with Section 715.3.6. Fire-protection-rated glazing installed as 
an opening protective in fire partitions, smoke barriers and fire 
barriers shall be tested in accordance with and shall meet the 
acceptance criteria of NFPA 257 for a fire protection rating of 
45 minutes. Fire-protection-rated glazing shall also comply 
with NFPA 80. Fire-protection-rated glazing required in accor- 
dance with Section 704. 12 for exterior wall opening protection 
shall be tested in accordance with and shall meet the acceptance 
criteria of NFPA 257 for a fire protection rating as required in 
Section 715.4.8. 

Exceptions s 

1. Wired glass in accordance with Section 715.4.3. 

2. Fire-protection-rated glazing in 0.5 -hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated partitions is permitted to have an 
0.33-hour fire protection rating. 



102 



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FmE-RESlSTASSiCE-RATE0C0GS3STeUCTD0GM 



m 



TABLE 715.4 
RRE WDNDOW ASSEByiBLY FDRE PROTECTBOG^ RATDISJIGS 



TYPE OF ASSEMBLY 


REQUIRED 

ASSEMBLY 

RATBNG 

(hours) 


EViOfSilMUM RRE 

WINDOW 

ASSEMBLY 

RATDNG (hours) 


Interior walls: 
Fire walls 
Fire barriers and fire partitions 

Smoke barriers 


All 
>1 

1 

1 


Npa 

Npa 

% 


Exterior walls 


>1 

1 




Party walls 


All 


Npa 



i 



a. Not permitted except as specified in Section 715.2. 

715.4olTestmg eeder posMve pressiuireo NFFA 257 shall 
evaluate fire-protection-rated glazing under positive pres- 
sure. Within the first 10 minutes of a test, the pressure in the 
furnace shall be adjusted so at least two- thirds of the test 
specimen is above the neutral pressure plane, and the neutral 
pressure plane shall be maintained at that height for the bal- 
ance of the test. 

11SA2 NoEsymmetrical gksiiig systemSo Nonsymmetrical 
fire-protection-rated glazing systems in fire partitions, fire 
barriers or in exterior walls with a fire separation of 5 feet 
( 1 524 mm) or less pursuant to Section 704 shall be tested with 
both faces exposed to the furnace, and the assigned fire pro- 
tection rating shall be the shortest duration obtained from the 
two tests conducted in compUance with NFFA 257. 



115A3 Wired glass. Steel window frame assemblies of 
0.125-inch (3.2 mm) minimum solid section or of not less 
than nominal 0.048-inch-thick (1.2 mm) formed sheet steel 
members fabricated by pressing, mitering, riveting, inter- 
locking or welding and having provision for glazing with 
V4-inch (6.4 mm) wired glass where securely installed in the 
building construction and glazed with V4-inch (6.4 mm) la- 
beled wired glass shall be deemed to meet the requirements 
for a V4-hour fire window assembly. Wired glass panels shall 
conform to the size limitations set forth in Table 715.4.3. 

TABLE 715.4.3 
LBii/3mNG SOZES OF WDRED GLASS PANELS 



OPENING RRE 

PROTECTION 
RATDNG 


MAXDiViUil/i 

AREA 

(square inches) 


[VIAXiGVJUiVa 
HEIGHT 
(inches) 


iV]AXDMUE\/l 
WIDTH 
(inches) 


3 hours 











1 Vs-hour doors in 
exterior walls 











1 and 1 V9 hours 


100 


33 


10 


^U hour 


1,296 


54 


54 


20 minutes 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Fire window 

assemblies 


1,296 


54 


54 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.2 mm^. 

715o4o4 Nosi wired glasSo Glazing other than wired glass in 
fire window assemblies shall be fire-protection-rated glaz- 
ing installed in accordance with and complying with the size 
Hmitations set forth in NFPA 80. 



7150405 Installainoinio Fire-protection-rated glazing shall be 
in the fixed position or be automatic-closing and shall be in- 
stalled in approved frames. 

7150406 Window mefllisoes. Metal muUions that exceed a 
nominal height of 12 feet (3658 mm) shall be protected with 
materials to afford the same fire-resistance rating as re- 
quired for the wall construction in which the protecfive is lo- 
cated. 



7150407 letedor ire wSmidow sissemlbMeSo Fire-protec- 
tion-rated glazing used in fire window assemblies located in 
fire partitions and fire barriers shall be limited to use in as- 
semblies with a maximum fire-resistance rating of 1 hour in 
accordance with this section. 

715o4o7cl Where permlttedo Fire-protection-rated glaz- 
ing shall be limited to fire partitions designed in accor- 
dance with Section 708 and fire barriers utilized in the 
apphcations set forth in Sections 706.3.5 and 706.3.6 
where the fire-resistance rating does not exceed 1 hour. 

715o4o7,2 Ske MmlltaitliDiniSo The total area of windows 
shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of a common wall 
with any room. 

7150408 Exterior ire winidow assemMIeSo Exterior open- 
ings, other than doors, required to be protected by Section 
704.12, where located in a wall required by Table 602 to 
have a fire-resistance rating of greater than 1 hour, shall be 
protected with an assembly having a fire protection rating of 
not less than 1 72 hours. Exterior openings required to be 
protected by Section 704.8, where located in a wall required 
by Table 602 to have a fire-resistance rating of 1 hour, shall 
be protected with an assembly having a fire protection rating 
of not less than V4 hour. Exterior openings required to be 
protected by Section 704.9 or 704. 10 shall be protected with 
an assembly having a fire protection rating of not less than 
V4 hour. Openings in nonfire-resi stance-rated exterior wall 
assemblies that require protection in accordance with Sec- 
tion 704.8, 704.9 or 704. 10 shall have a fire protection rating 
of not less than V4 hour. 



715,4o9 Labelling reqiiirememtSo Fire-protection-rated 
glazing shall bear a label or other identification showing the 
name of the manufacturer, the test standard, and the fire pro- 
tection rating. Such label or identification shall be issued by 
an approved agency and shall be permanently affixed. 



OUCTS AND MU TRANSFER OFiQ^lNOS 

7I60I GemeraL The provisions of this section shall govern the 
protection of ducts and air transfer openings in fire-resis- 
tance-rated assemblies. 

7I60U Pucte ainid air transfer openiogs witlsoiuit damp- 
erso Ducts and air transfer openings that penetrate fire-resis- 
tance-rated assemblies and are not required by this section 
to have dampers shall comply with the requirements of Sec- 
tion 712. 



O 



),2 lEstallatioe, Fire dampers, smoke dampers, combina- 
tion fire/smoke dampers and ceiling dampers located within air 
distribution and smoke control systems shall be installed in ac- 



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FBRE-RESISTANCE-RATEDCOfS!STRyCTiOM 



cordance with the requirements of this section, the manufac- 
turer's installation instructions and listing. 

716.2.1 Smoke control system. Where the installation of a 
fire damper will interfere with the operation of a required 
smoke control system in accordance with Section 909, ap- 
proved alternative protection shall be utilized. 

716.2.2 Hazardous exhaust docts. Fire dampers for haz- 
ardous exhaust duct systems shall comply with the Interna- 
tional Mechanical Code. 

716.3 Damper testing and ratings. Dampers shall be listed 
and bear the label of an approved testing agency indicating 
compliance with the standards in this section. Fire dampers 
shall comply with the requirements of UL 555. Only fire damp- 
ers labeled for use in dynamic systems shall be installed in 
heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems designed to 
operate with fans on during a fire. Smoke dampers shall com- 
ply with the requirements of UL 555S. Combination 
fire/smoke dampers shall comply with the requirements of both 
UL 555 and UL 555S. Ceiling radiation dampers shall comply 
with the requirements of UL 555C. 

716.3.1 Fire protection rating. Fire dampers shall have the 
minimum fire protection rating specified in Table 716.3.1 
for the type of penetration. 

TABLE 716.3.1 
FBRE DAMPER RATBMG 



TYPE OF 
PENETHATaON 


MINIMUM DAMPER RATDNG 
(hours) 


Less than 3-hour fire- 
resistance-rated assemblies 


1.5 


3 -hour or greater fire- 
resistance-rated assembhes 


3 



716.3.1,1 Fire damper aicteatieg deviceo The fire 
damper actuating device shall meet one of the following 
requirements: 

1 . The operating temperature shall be approximately 
50°F (10°C) above the normal temperature within 
the duct system, but not less than 160°F (7 PC). 

2. The operating temperature shall be not more than 
286°F (141°C) where located in a smoke control 
system complying with Section 909. 

3. Where a combination fire/smoke damper is lo- 
cated in a smoke control system complying with 
Section 909, the operating temperature rating shall 
be approximately 50°F (lO^'C) above the maxi- 
mum smoke control system designed operating 
temperature, or a maximum temperature of 350°F 
(177°C). The temperature shall not exceed the UL 
555S degradation test temperature rating for a 
combination fire/smoke damper. 

71632 Smoke damper ratings. Smoke damper leakage 
ratings shall not be less than Class IL Elevated temperature 
ratings shall not be less than 250°F (12rC). 

716o3.2ol Smoke damper acteation metliods. The 
smoke damper shall close upon actuation of a listed 
smoke detector or detectors installed in accordance with 



Section 907.10 and one of the following methods, as ap- 
plicable: 

1 . Where a damper is installed within a duct, a smoke 
detector shall be installed in the duct within 5 feet 
(1524 mm) of the damper with no air outlets or in- 
lets between the detector and the damper. The de- 
tector shall be listed for the air velocity, 
temperature and humidity anticipated at the point 
where it is installed. Other than in mechanical 
smoke control systems, dampers shall be closed 
upon fan shutdown where local smoke detectors 
require a minimum velocity to operate. 

2. Where a damper is installed above smoke barrier 
doors in a smoke barrier, a spot-type detector listed 
for releasing service shall be installed on either 
side of the smoke barrier door opening. 

3. Where a damper is installed within an unducted 
opening in a wall, a spot-type detector listed for re- 
leasing service shall be installed within 5 feet 
(1524 mm) horizontally of the damper. 

4. Where a damper is installed in a corridor wall, the 
damper shall be permitted to be controlled by a 
smoke detection system installed in the corridor. 

5. Where a total-coverage smoke detector system is 
provided within areas served by a heating, ventila- 
tion and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, damp- 
ers shall be permitted to be controlled by the smoke 
detection system. 

716*4 Access asid ideetificaltloe. Fire and smoke dampers 
shall be provided with an approved means of access, large 
enough to permit inspection and maintenance of the damper 
and its operating parts. The access shall not affect the integrity 
of fire-resistance-rated assemblies. The access openings shall 
not reduce the fire-resistance rating of the assembly. Access 
points shall be permanently identified on the exterior by a label 
having letters not less than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) in height read- 
ing: SMOKE DAMPER or FIRE DAMPER. Access doors in 
ducts shall be tight fitting and suitable for the required duct 
construction. 

716o5 Where requnired. Fire dampers, smoke dampers, combi- 
nation fire/smoke dampers and ceiling radiation dampers shall 
be provided at the locations prescribed in this section. Where an 
assembly is required to have both fire dampers and smoke 
dampers, combination fire/smoke dampers or a fire damper and 
a smoke damper shall be required. 

7I60S0I Fire wallSc Ducts and air transfer openings permit- 
ted in fire walls in accordance with Section 705.1 1 shall be 
protected with approved fire dampers installed in accor- 
dance with their listing. 

7I60S.2 Fire barriers. Ducts and air transfer openings in 
fire barriers shall be protected with approved fire dampers 
installed in accordance with their listing. 

ExceptnoMS Fire dampers are not required at penetrations 
of fire barriers where any of the following apply: 

1 . Penetrations are tested in accordance with ASTM 
E 1 19 as part of the fire-resistance-rated assembly. 



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RRE-RESDSTOGSgCE-RATEDCOSSgSTROCTDOCSfl 



2. Ducts are used as part of an approved smoke con- 
trol system in accordance with Section 909. 

3. Such walls are penetrated by ducted HVAC sys- 
tems, have a required fire-resistance rating of 1 
hour or less, are in areas of other than Group H and 
are in buildings equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3. 1.1 or 903.3. 1.2, For the purposes of this ex- 
ception, a ducted HVAC system shall be a duct sys- 
tem for conveying supply, return or exhaust air as 
part of the structure's HVAC system. Such a duct 
system shall be constructed of sheet steel not less 
than 26 gage thickness and shall be continuous 
from the air-handling appliance or equipment to 
the air outlet and inlet terminals. 

716o5o3 Shaft eedosmireSo Ducts and air transfer openings 
shall not penetrate a shaft serving as an exit enclosure except 
as permitted by Section 1019.1.2. 



O 



4 



4 



716,So3ol Feimeltiratnosis rf shaft emicIcDSiiiiireSo Shaft en- 
closures that are permitted to be penetrated by ducts and 
air transfer openings shall be protected with approved 
fire and smoke dampers installed in accordance with 
their listing. 

Exceptnoims: 

1 . Fire dampers are not required at penetrations of 
shafts where: 

1.1. Steel exhaust subducts are extended at 
least 22 inches (559 mm) vertically in 
exhaust shafts, provided there is a con- 
tinuous airflow upward to the outside; • 

1.2. Fenetrafions are tested in accordance 
with ASTM E 119 as part of the rated 
assembly; 

1.3. Ducts are used as part of an approved 
smoke control system designed and in- 
stalled in accordance with Section 909, 
and where the fire damper will interfere 
with the operation of the smoke control 
system; or 

1.4. The penetrations are in parking garage 
exhaust or supply shafts that are sepa- 
rated from other building shafts by not 
less than 2-hour fire-resistance-rated 
construction. 

2. In Group B occupancies, equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1, smoke dampers 
are not required at penetrations of shafts where: 

2.1. Bathroom and toilet room exhaust 
openings with steel exhaust subducts, 
having a wall thickness of at least 0.019 
inches (0.48 mm) that extend at least 22 
inches (559 mm) vertically and the ex- 
haust fan at the upper terminus, pow- 



ered continuously in accordance with 
the provisions of Section 909. 1 1 , main- 
tains airflow upward to the outside; or 

2.2. Ducts are used as part of an approved 
smoke control system, designed and in- 
stalled in accordance with Section 909, 
and where the smoke damper will inter- 
fere with the operation of the smoke 
control system. 

3. Smoke dampers are not required at penetration 
of exhaust or supply shafts in parking garages 
that are separated from other building shafts by 
not less than 2-hour fire-resistance-rated con- 
struction. 

716 Jo4 FSre partnltiosiiSo Duct penetrations in fire partitions 
shall be protected with approved fire dampers installed in 
accordance with their fisting. 



§: In occupancies other than Group H, fire 
dampers are not required where any of the following ap- 
ply: 

1. The partitions are tenant separation and corridor 
walls in buildings equipped throughout with an au- 
tomatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and the duct is 
protected as a through penetration in accordance 
with Section 712. 

2. The duct system is constructed of approved mate- 
rials in accordance with the International Mechan- 
ical Code and the duct penetrating the wall meets 
all of the following minimum requirements: 

2.1. The duct shall not exceed 100 square 
inches (0.06 m^). 

2.2. The duct shall be constructed of steel a 
minimum of 0.0217 inch (0.55 mm) in 
thickness. 

2.3. The duct shall not have openings that com- 
municate the corridor with adjacent spaces 
or rooms. 

2.4. The duct shall be installed above a ceihng. 

2.5. The duct shall not terminate at a wall regis- 
ter in the fire-resistance-rated wall. 

2.6. A minimum 12-inch-long (0.30 m) by 
0.060-inch-thick (1.52 mm) steel sleeve 
shall be centered in each duct opening. The 
sleeve shall be secured to both sides of the 
wall and all four sides of the sleeve with 
minimum 1 '/2-inch by 172-inch by 
0.060-inch (0.038 m by 0.038 m by 1.52 
mm) steel retaining angles. The retaining 
angles shall be secured to the sleeve and the 
wall with No. 10 (M5) screws. The annular 
space between the steel sleeve and wall 
opening shall be filled with rock (mineral) 
wool batting on all sides. 



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716.5.4ol CorrldorSo A listed smoke damper designed to 
resist the passage of smoke shall be provided at each 
point a duct or air transfer opening penetrates a corridor 
enclosure required to have smoke and draft control doors 
in accordance with Section 715.3.3. 

Exceptions: 

1. Smoke dampers are not required where the 
building is equipped throughout with an ap- 
proved smoke control system in accordance 
with Section 909, and smoke dampers are not 
necessary for the operation and control of the 
system. 

2. Smoke dampers are not required in corridor 
penetrations where the duct is constructed of 
steel not less than 0.019-inch (0.48 mm) in 
thickness and there are no openings serving the 
corridor. 

716,5oS Smoke tjarriers- A Hsted smoke damper designed 
to resist the passage of smoke shall be provided at each point 
a duct or air transfer opening penetrates a smoke barrier. 
Smoke dampers and smoke damper actuation methods shall 
comply with Section 716.3.2.1. 

Exception: Smoke dampers are not required where the 
openings in ducts are limited to a single smoke compart- 
ment and the ducts are constructed of steel. 

716.6 Horizootal assemblieSo Penetrations by ducts and air 
transfer openings of a floor, floor/ceiling assembly or the ceil- 
ing membrane of a roof/ceiling assembly shall be protected by 
a shaft enclosure that complies with Section 707 or shall com- 
ply with this section. 

7I606.I Through penetrations. In occupancies other than 
Groups 1-2 and 1-3, a duct and air transfer opening system 
constructed of approved materials in accordance with the 
International Mechanical Code that penetrates a fire-resis- 
tance-rated floor/ceihng assembly that connects not more 
than two stories is permitted without shaft enclosure protec- 
tion provided a fire damper is installed at the floor line. 

Exception: A duct is permitted to penetrate three floors 
or less without a fire damper at each floor provided it 
meets all of the following requirements. 

1 . The duct shall be contained and located within the 
cavity of a wall and shall be constructed of steel not 
less than 0.019 inch (0.48 mm) (26 gage) in thick- 
ness. 

2. The duct shall open into only one dwelling unit or 
sleeping unit and the duct system shall be continu- 
ous from the unit to the exterior of the building. 

3. The duct shall not exceed 4-inch (102 mm) nomi- 
nal diameter and the total area of such ducts shall 
not exceed 100 square inches (0.065 m^) in any 100 
square feet (9.3 m^) of floor area. 

4. The annular space around the duct is protected 
with materials that prevent the passage of flame 
and hot gases sufficient to ignite cotton waste 
where subjected to ASTM E 1 19 time-temperature 



conditions under a minimum positive pressure 
differential of 0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) of water at the lo- 
cation of the penetration for the time period equiv- 
alent to the fire-resistance rating of the 
construction penetrated 

5. Grille openings located in a ceihng of a fire-resis- 
tance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceihng assembly 
shall be protected with a ceiling radiation damper 
in accordance with Section 716.6.2. 

716.6.2 Membrane penetrations. Where duct systems 
constructed of approved materials in accordance with the 
International Mechanical Code penetrate a ceihng of a 
fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly, 
shaft enclosure protection is not required provided an ap- 
proved ceiling radiation damper is installed at the ceiling 
hne. Where a duct is not attached to a diffuser that penetrates 
a ceiling of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceil- 
ing assembly, shaft enclosure protection is not required pro- 
vided an approved ceiling radiation damper is installed at 
the ceiling line. Ceiling radiation dampers shall be tested in 
accordance with UL 555C and constructed in accordance 
with the details listed in a fire-resi stance-rated assembly or 
shall be labeled to function as a heat barrier for air-handUng 
outlet/inlet penetrations in the ceiling of a fire-resis- 
tance-rated assembly. Ceiling radiation dampers shall not be 
required where ASTM E 1 19 fire tests have shown that ceil- 
ing radiation dampers are not necessary in order to maintain 
the fire-resistance rating of the assembly. Ceihng radiation 
dampers shall not be required where exhaust duct penetra- 
tions are protected in accordance with Section 712.4.2, 
where exhaust ducts are located within the cavity of a wall, 
and where exhaust ducts do not pass through another dwell- 
ing unit or tenant space. 

716.6.3 Noiifire=resistaiice-rated assemblies. Duct sys- 
tems constructed of approved materials in accordance with 
the International Mechanical Code that penetrate 
nonfire-resistance-rated floor assembhes and that connect 
not more than two stories are permitted without shaft enclo- 
sure protection provided that the annular space between the 
assembly and the penetrating duct is filled with an approved 
noncombustible material to resist the free passage of flame 
and the products of combustion. Duct systems constructed 
of approved materials in accordance with the International 
Mechanical Code that penetrate nonfire-resistance-rated 
floor assemblies and that connect not more than three stories 
are permitted without shaft enclosure protection provided 
that the annular space between the assembly and the pene- 
trating duct is filled with an approved noncombustible mate- 
rial to resist the free passage of flame and the products of 
combustion, and a fire damper is installed at each floor line. 

Exception: Fire dampers are not required in ducts within 
individual residential dwelling units. 

716.7 Flexible ducts and air connectors. Flexible ducts and 
air connectors shall not pass through any fire-resistance-rated 
assembly. Flexible air connectors shall not pass through any 
wall, floor or ceiling. 



to 



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FDeE-RESiSTAWCE-RATEOCOgyaSTRUCTiOW 



SECTION 717 



717.1 Gemeralo Fireblocking and draftstopping shall be in- 
stalled in combustible concealed locations in accordance with 
this section. Fireblocking shall comply with Section 717.2. 
Draftstopping in floor/ceiling spaces and attic spaces shall 
comply with Sections 717.3 and 717.4, respectively. The per- 
mitted use of combustible materials in concealed spaces of 
noncombustible buildings shall be limited to the applications 
indicated in Section 717.5. 

717.2 Flreblocklego In combustible construction, fireblocking 
shall be installed to cut off concealed draft openings (both ver- 
tical and horizontal) and shall form an effective barrier between 
floors, between a top story and a roof or attic space. 
Fireblocking shall be installed in the locations specified in Sec- 
tions 717.2.2 through 717.2.7. 

717<.2ol FiireMockmg maiedalSc Fireblocking shall consist 
of 2-inch (51 mm) nominal lumber or two thicknesses of 
1-inch (25 mm) nominal lumber with broken lap joints or 
one thickness of 0.719-inch (18.3 mm) wood structural 
panel with joints backed by 0.719-inch (18.3 mm) wood 
structural panel or one thickness of 0.75-inch (19 mm) 
particleboard with joints backed by 0.75-inch (19 mm) 
particleboard. Gypsum board, cement fiber board, batts or 
blankets of mineral wool or glass fiber or other approved 
materials installed in such a manner as to be securely re- 
tained in place shall be permitted as an acceptable fireblock. 
Batts or blankets of mineral or glass fiber or other approved 
nonrigid materials shall be permitted for compliance with 
the 10-foot (3048 nmi) horizontal fireblocking in walls con- 
structed using parallel rows of studs or staggered studs. 
Loose-fill insulation material shall not be used as a fireblock 
unless specifically tested in the form and manner intended 
for use to demonstrate its ability to remain in place and to re- 
tard the spread of fire and hot gases. The integrity of 
fireblocks shall be maintained. 

717,2,lol DoniMe stad walls. Batts or blankets of min- 
eral or glass fiber or other approved nonrigid materials 
shall be allowed as fireblocking in walls constructed us- 
ing parallel rows of studs or staggered studs. 

717,2<,2 CoEceakd wall spaces. Fireblocking shall be pro- 
vided in concealed spaces of stud walls and partitions, in- 
cluding furred spaces, and parallel rows of studs or 
staggered studs, as follows: 

a. Vertically at the ceihng and floor levels. 

b. Horizontally at intervals not exceeding 10 feet (3048 
mm). 

717o2o3 Cosmectl<DE§ toetweeni horkonital amd vertical 
spaces. Fireblocking shall be provided at interconnections 
between concealed vertical stud wall or partition spaces and 
concealed horizontal spaces created by an assembly of floor 
joists or trusses, and between concealed vertical and hori- 
zontal spaces such as occur at soffits, drop ceilings, cove 
ceilings and similar locations. 

717.2.4 StalrwaySo Fireblocking shall be provided in con- 
cealed spaces between stair stringers at the top and bottom 



of the run. Enclosed spaces under stairs shall also comply 
with Section 1019.1.5. 

717o2.S Ceilleg and fflo«Q)r opemmgSo Where annular space 
protection is provided in accordance with Exception 6 of 
Section 707.2, Exception 1 of Section 712.4.2, or Section 
712.4.3, fireblocking shall be installed at openings around 
vents, pipes, ducts, chimneys and fireplaces at ceiling and 
floor levels, with an approved material to resist the free pas- 
sage of flame and the products of combustion. Factory-built 
chimneys and fireplaces shall be fireblocked in accordance 
with UL 103 and UL 127. 

717o2o6 ArchltectaraE trim, Fireblocking shall be installed 
within concealed spaces of exterior wall finish and other ex- 
terior architectural elements where permitted to be of com- 
bustible construction as specified in Section 1406 or where 
erected with combustible frames, at maximum intervals of 
20 feet (6096 mm). If noncontinuous, such elements shall 
have closed ends, with at least 4 inches (102 mm) of separa- 
tion between sections. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fireblocking of cornices is not required in sin- 
gle-family dwellings, as applicable in Section 
101.2. Fireblocking of cornices of a two-family 
dwelling as apphcable in Section 101.2 is required 
only at the line of dwelling unit separation. 

2. Fireblocking shall not be required where installed 
on noncombustible framing and the face of the ex- 
terior wall finish exposed to the concealed space is 
covered by one of the following materials: 

2.1. Aluminum having a minimum thickness of 
0.019 inch (0.5 mm). 

2.2. Corrosion-resistant steel having a base 
metal thickness not less than 0.016 inch 
(0.4 mm) at any point. 

2.3. Other approved noncombustible materials. 

717.2.7 Concealed sleeper spaces. Where wood sleepers 
are used for laying wood flooring on masonry or concrete 
fire-resistance-rated floors, the space between the floor slab 
and the underside of the wood flooring shall be filled with an 
approved material to resist the free passage of flame and 
products of combustion or fireblocked in such a manner that 
there will be no open spaces under the flooring that will ex- 
ceed 100 square feet (9.3 m^) in area and such space shall be 
filled solidly under permanent partifions so that there is no 
communication under the flooring between adjoining 
rooms. 

ExceptloEns: 

1. Fireblocking is not required for slab-on-grade 
floors in gymnasiums. 

2. Fireblocking is required only at the juncture of 
each alternate lane and at the ends of each lane in a 
bowling facility. 

717.3 Draftstoppisig m iOooirs. In combustible construction, 
draftstopping shall be installed to subdivide floor/ceiling as- 
semblies in the locations prescribed in Sections 717.3.2 
through 717.3.3. 



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7173.1 Draftstoppiog materials, Draftstopping materials 
shall not be less than 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board, 
0.375-inch (9.5 mm) wood structural panel, 0.375-inch (9.5 
mm) particleboard or other approved materials adequately 
supported. The integrity of draftstops shall be maintained. 

717.3,2 Groups M-1, R-2, R-3 and R-4. Draftstopping 
shall be provided in floor/ceiling spaces in Group R- 1 build- 
ings, in Group R-2 buildings as appUcable in Section 101.2 
with three or more dwelling units, in Group R-3 buildings as 
applicable in Section 101.2 with two dwelling units and in 
Group R-4 buildings. Draftstopping shall be located above 
and in line with the dwelling unit and sleeping unit separa- 
tions. 

Exceptions: 

1. Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1 .2, pro- 
vided that automatic sprinklers are also installed in 
the combustible concealed spaces. 

717,33 Other groups. In other groups, draftstopping shall 
be installed so that horizontal floor areas do not exceed 
1,000 square feet (93 m^). 

Exception: Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system 
in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

717,4 Draftstopping in attics. In combustible construction, 
draftstopping shall be installed to subdivide attic spaces and 
concealed roof spaces in the locations prescribed in Sections 
717.4.2 and 717.4.3. Ventilation of concealed roof spaces shall 
be maintained in accordance with Section 1203.2. 

717.4.1 Draftstopping materials. Materials utilized for 
draftstopping of attic spaces shall comply with Section 

717.3.L 

717o4.1.1 Openings. Openings in the partitions shall be 
protected by self-closing doors with automatic latches 
constructed as required for the partitions. 

717.4.2 Groups M-1 and R-2. Draftstopping shall be pro- 
vided in attics, mansards, overhangs or other concealed roof 
spaces of Group R-2 buildings with three or more dwelling 
units and in all Group R-1 buildings. Draftstopping shall be 
installed above, and in line with, sleeping unit and dwelling 
unit separation walls that do not extend to the underside of 
the roof sheathing above. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where corridor walls provide a sleeping unit or 
dwelling unit separation, draftstopping shall only 
be required above one of the corridor walls. 



2. Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

3. In occupancies in Group R-2 that do not exceed 
four stories in height, the attic space shall be subdi- 
vided by draftstops into areas not exceeding 3,000 
square feet (279 m^) or above every two dwelling 
units, whichever is smaller. 

4. Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2, pro- 
vided that automatic sprinklers are also installed in 
the combustible concealed spaces. 

717.4,3 Other groups. Draftstopping shall be installed in 
attics and concealed roof spaces, such that any horizontal 
area does not exceed 3,000 square feet (279 m^). 

Exception: Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system 
in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

717.5 CombmstlbHes in concealed spaces in Type I or 11 con- 
struction. Combustibles shall not be permitted in concealed 
spaces of buildings of Type I or II construction. 

Exceptions I 

1. Combustible materials in accordance with Section 
603. 

2. Combustible materials complying with Section 602 
of the International Mechanical Code. 

3. Class A interior finish materials. 

4. Combustible piping within partitions or enclosed 
shafts installed in accordance with the provisions of 
this code. Combustible piping shall be permitted 
within concealed ceiling spaces where installed in ac- 
cordance with the International Mechanical Code 
and the International Plumbing Code. 



SECTION 718 

FlRE^RESaSTANCE REQUiREf\/lENTS 

FOR PLASTER 

718.1 TMckmiess of plaster. The minimum thickness of gyp- 
sum plaster or portland cement plaster used in a fire-resis- 
tance-rated system shall be determined by the prescribed fire 
tests. The plaster thickness shall be measured from the face of 
the lath where apphed to gypsum lath or metal lath. 

718.2 Plaster equivaleets. For fire-resistance purposes, 0.5 
inch (12.7 mm) of unsanded gypsum plaster shall be deemed 
equivalent to 0.75 inch (19.1 mm) of one-to-three gypsum sand 
plaster or 1 inch (25 mm) of portland cement sand plaster. 

718.3 Nosucombiistible ferrlng. In buildings of Type I and II 
construction, plaster shall be applied directly on concrete or 
masonry or on approved noncombustible plastering base and 
furring. 



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FDRE-RESDSTAGVICE-RATEDCOSSISTRyCTiOCVI 



718o4 Doetok reiimirorcemeinit Plaster protection more than 1 
inch (25 mm) in thickness shall be reinforced with an additional 
layer of approved lath embedded at least 0.75 inch (19.1 mm) 
from the outer surface and fixed securely in place. 

Exceptloms Solid plaster partitions or where otherwise de- 
termined by fire tests. 

71§o5 Plastter aifltereatnves for coecrete. In reinforced con- 
crete construction, gypsum plaster or portland cement plaster is 
permitted to be substituted for 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) of the re- 
quired poured concrete protection, except that a minimum 
thickness of 0.375 inch (9.5 mm) of poured concrete shall be 
provided in reinforced concrete floors and 1 inch (25 mm) in re- 
inforced concrete columns in addition to the plaster finish. The 
concrete base shall be prepared in accordance with Section 
2510.7. 



SEOTIOW719 
THERMAL^ AMD SOUND-INSULATING MATERIALS 

719ol GemeraL Insulating materials, including facings such as 
vapor retarders and vapor-permeable membranes, similar cov- 
erings, and all layers of single and multilayer reflective foil in- 
sulations, shall comply with the requirements of this section.. 
Where a flame spread index or a smoke-developed index is 
specified in this section, such index shall be determined in ac- 
cordance with ASTM E 84. Any material that is subject to an 
increase in flame spread index or smoke-developed index be- 
yond the Hmits herein established through the effects of age, 
moisture, or other atmospheric conditions shall not be permit- 
ted. 

1. Fiberboard insulation shall comply with Chapter 23. 

2. Foam plastic insulation shall comply with Chapter 26. 

3. Duct and pipe insulation and duct and pipe coverings 
and linings in plenums shall comply with the Interna- 
tional Mechanical Code, 

719,2 Comceafledl iestalllatnoeo Insulating materials, where 
concealed as installed in buildings of any type of construction, 
shall have a flame spread index of not more than 25 and a 
smoke-developed index of not more than 450. 

Excepttoinis Cellulose loose-fill insulation that is not spray 
applied, complying with the requirements of Section 719.6, 
shall only be required to meet the smoke-developed index of 
not more than 450. 

719o2ol FsicmgSo Where such materials are installed in con- 
cealed spaces in buildings of Type III, IV or V construction, 
the flame spread and smoke-developed limitations do not 
apply to facings, coverings, and layers of reflective foil insu- 
lation that are installed behind and in substantial contact 
with the unexposed surface of the ceiling, wall or floor fin- 
ish. 

719c3 Exposed iHistsiIlflaitn^inio Insulating materials, where ex- 
posed as installed in buildings of any type of construction, shall 



have a flame spread index of not more than 25 and a smoke-de- 
veloped index of not more than 450. 



ttnoims Cellulose loose-fill insulation that is not spray 
applied complying with the requirements of Section 719.6 
shall only be required to meet the smoke-developed index of 
not more than 450. 

719o3ol Attk ffloorSo Exposed insulation materials installed 
on attic floors shall have a critical radiant flux of not less 
than 0.12 watt per square centimeter when tested in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 970. 

71904 L©(D)se=!IM msMlatloHo Loose-fill insulation materials 
that cannot be mounted in the ASTM E 84 apparatus without a 
screen or artificial supports shall comply with the flame spread 
and smoke-developed limits of Sections 719.2 and 719.3 when 
tested in accordance with CANAJLC S 102.2. 

Exceptiomit Cellulose loose-fill insulation shall not be re- 
quired to comply with this test method, provided such insu- 
lation compHes with the requirements of Section 719.6. 

71905 IR(0>(C»lFmsiiiIatfl(D)]iiic The use of combustible roof insulation 
not complying with Sections 719.2 and 719.3 shall be permit- 
ted in any type of construction provided it is covered with ap- 
proved roof coverings directly applied thereto. 

719c(5 CeMimlose loose-fHIl imsekltioinio Cellulose loose-fill insu- 
lation shall comply with CPSC 16 CFR, Part 1209 and CPSC 
16 CFR, Part 1404. Each package of such insulating material 
shall be clearly labeled in accordance with CPSC 16 CFR, Part 
1209 and CPSC 16 CFR, Part 1404. 

719o7 Emisplatlom and coverimg on pipe aed toMmgo Insulation 
and covering on pipe and tubing shall have a flame spread index 
of not more than 25 and a smoke-developed index of not more 
than 450. 



SECTION 720 

FBRERESSSTANCE 



PRESC 

12% A GemeraL The provisions of this section contain prescrip- 
tive details of fire-resistance-rated building elements. The ma- 
terials of construction listed in Tables 720.1(1), 720.1(2), and 
720.1(3) shall be assumed to have the fire-resistance ratings 
prescribed therein. Where materials that change the capacity 
for heat dissipation are incorporated into a fire-resistance-rated 
assembly, fire test results or other substantiating data shall be 
made available to the building official to show that the required 
fire-resistance-rating time period is not reduced. 

TIdDoIIoIl TMckmess ©ff protective covernmgSo The thickness 
of fire-resistant materials required for protection of struc- 
tural members shall be not less than set forth in Table 
720.1(1), except as modified in this section. The figures 
shown shall be the net thickness of the protecting materials 
and shall not include any hollow space in back of the protec- 
tion. 

72(Q)olo2 Unit maLSoery protectiomio Where required, metal 
ties shall be embedded in transverse joints of unit masonry 
for protection of steel columns. Such ties shall be as set forth 
in Table 720.1(1) or be equivalent thereto. 



2003 IMTERNATI0IN3AL BODLDaWG CODE® 



109 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTiOfyS 



72001.3 Reinforcement for cast-m=place concrete col- 
umn protection, Cast-in-place concrete protection for steel 
columns shall be reinforced at the edges of such members 
with wire ties of not less than 0.18 inch (4.6 mm) in diameter 
wound spirally around the columns on a pitch of not more 
than 8 inches (203 mm) or by equivalent reinforcement. 

720.1.4 Plaster application. The finish coat is not required 
for plaster protective coatings where they comply with the 
design mix and thickness requirements of Tables 720.1(1), 
720.1(2) and 720.1(3). 

720.1.5 Bonded prestressed concrete tendons. For mem- 
bers having a single tendon or more than one tendon in- 
stalled with equal concrete cover measured from the nearest 
surface, the cover shall not be less than that set forth in Table 
720.1(1). For members having multiple tendons installed 
with variable concrete cover, the average tendon cover shall 
not be less than that set forth in Table 720.1(1), provided: 

1. The clearance from each tendon to the nearest ex- 
posed surface is used to determine the average cover. 

2. In no case can the clear cover for individual tendons 
be less than one-half of that set forth in Table 
720.1(1). A minimum cover of 0.75 inch (19.1 mm) 
for slabs and 1 inch (25 mm) for beams is required for 
any aggregate concrete. 

3. For the purpose of estabHshing a fire-resistance rat- 
ing, tendons having a clear covering less than that set 
forth in Table 720.1(1) shall not contribute more than 
50 percent of the required ultimate moment capacity 
for members less than 350 square inches (0.226 m^) in 
cross-sectional area and 65 percent for larger mem- 
bers. For structural design purposes, however, ten- 
dons having a reduced cover are assumed to be fully 
effective. 



SECTION 721 
CALCULATED FIRE RESISTANCE 

721.1 GeneraL The provisions of this section contain proce- 
dures by which the fire resistance of specific materials or com- 
binations of materials is established by calculafions. These 
procedures apply only to the information contained in this sec- 
tion and shall not be otherwise used. The calculated fire resis- 
tance of concrete, concrete masonry, and clay masonry 
assemblies shall be permitted in accordance with ACI 
216.1/TMS 0216.1. The calculated fire resistance of steel as- 
semblies shall be permitted in accordance with Chapter 5 of 
ASCE/SFPE 29. 

721,1.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, 
for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meanings shown herein. 



CERAMIC FIBER BLANKET. A mineral wool insula- 
tion material made of alumina-silica fibers and weighing 4 
to 10 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) (64 to 160 kg/m^). 

CONCRETE, CARBONATE AGGREGATE. Concrete 
made with aggregates consisting mainly of calcium or mag- 
nesium carbonate, such as limestone or dolomite, and con- 
taining 40 percent or less quartz, chert, or flint. 

CONCRETE, CELLULAR. A hghtweight insulafing 
concrete made by mixing a preformed foam with portland 
cement slurry and having a dry unit weight of approximately 
30 pcf (480 kg/m^). 

CONCRETE, LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE. Con- 
crete made with aggregates of expanded clay, shale, slag or 
slate or sintered fly ash or any natural Hghtweight aggregate 
meeting ASTM C 330 and possessing equivalent fire-resis- 
tance properties and weighing 85 to 1 15 pcf (1360 to 1840 
kg/m^). 

CONCRETE, PERLITE. A lightweight insulafing con- 
crete having a dry unit weight of approximately 30 pcf (480 
kg/m^) made with perHte concrete aggregate. Perlite aggre- 
gate is produced from a volcanic rock which, when heated, 
expands to form a glass-hke material of cellular structure. 

CONCRETE, SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT. Concrete made 
with a combination of expanded clay, shale, slag, slate, 
sintered fly ash, or any natural hghtweight aggregate meet- 
ing ASTM C 330 and possessing equivalent fire-resistance 
properties and natural sand. Its unit weight is generally be- 
tween 105 and 120 pcf (1680 and 1920 kg/m^). 

CONCRETE, SILICEOUS AGGREGATE. Concrete 
made with normal-weight aggregates consisting mainly of 
silica or compounds other than calcium or magnesium car- 
bonate, which contains more than 40-percent quartz, chert, 
or flint. 

CONCRETE, VERMICULITE. A hghtweight insulafing 
concrete made with vermiculite concrete aggregate which is 
laminated micaceous material produced by expanding the 
ore at high temperatures. When added to a portland cement 
slurry the resulting concrete has a dry unit weight of approx- 
imately 30 pcf (480 kg/m^). 

GLASS FIBERBOARD. Fibrous glass roof insulation 
consisting of inorganic glass fibers formed into rigid boards 
using a binder. The board has a top surface faced with as- 
phalt and kraft reinforced with glass fiber. 

MINERAL BOARD. A rigid felted thermal insulation 
board consisting of either felted mineral fiber or cellular 
beads of expanded aggregate formed into flat rectangular 
units. 



L 



110 



2003 JNTERMATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FieE-RESDSTAIiSflCE--RATEOCOisSSTRUCTiO[Ml 



TABLE 720.1(1) 

EVifllNIDMyM PROTECTDON OF STROCTyRAL PARTS BASED ON TME PERBOOS 

FOR VARIOUS ff^OtVSCOMBUSTBBLE DISSSULATBISIG MATERBALS"^ 



STRUCTURAL 
PARTS TO BE 
PROTECTED 


DTEM 
NUMBER 


INSULATING iViATERSAL USED 


MSNiftflUfiyi THBCKNESS OF 

INSULATING MATERIAL 

FOR THE FOLLOWING 

FIRE-RESBSTANCE 

PERDODS (inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


hour 


1. Steel columns 
and all of 
primary trusses 


1-1.1 


Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete, members 6" x 6" or 
greater (not including sandstone, granite and siliceous gravel).^ 


2V, 


2 


IV, 




1-1.2 


Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete, members 8" x 8" or 
greater (not including sandstone, granite and siliceous gravel).^ 


2 


IV, 


1 




1-1.3 


Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete, members 
12" X 12"or greater (not including sandstone, granite and sihceous gravel).^ 


IV2 


1 


1 




1-1.4 


Siliceous aggregate concrete and concrete excluded in Item 1-1.1, members 6" x 6" 
or greater.^ 


3 


2 


1V2 




1-1.5 


Siliceous aggregate concrete and concrete excluded in Item 1-1.1, members 8" x 8" 
or greater.^ 


27, 


2 


1 




1-1.6 


Siliceous aggregate concrete and concrete excluded in Item 1-1.1, members 
12" X 12" or greater.^ 


2 


1 


1 




1-.2.1 


Clay or shale brick with brick and mortar fill.^ 


3% 


— 


— 


2V4 


1-3.1 


4" hollow clay tile in two 2" layers; V2" mortar between tile and column; %" metal 
mesh 0.046" wire diameter in horizontal joints; tile fill.^ 


4 


— 


— 


— 


1-3.2 


2" hollow clay tile; V4" mortar between tile and column; %"metal mesh 0.046" wire 
diameter in horizontal joints; hmestone concrete fill;'' plastered with ^74" gypsum 
plaster. 


3 


— 


— 


— 


1-3.3 


2" hollow clay tile with outside wire ties 0.08" diameter at each course of tile or Vg" 
metal mesh 0.046" diameter wire in horizontal joints; limestone or trap-rock concrete 
fill' extending 1" outside column on all sides 


— 


— 


3 


— 


1-3.4 


2" hollow clay tile with outside wire ties 0.08" diameter at each course of tile with or 
without concrete fill; %" mortar between tile and column. 


— 


— 


— 


2 


1-4.1 


Cement plaster over metal lath wire tied to ^I^' cold-rolled vertical channels with 
0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 3" to 6" on center. Plaster mixed 
1:2 V2 by volume, cement to sand. 


— 


— 


2V,b 


\ 


1-5.1 


Vermiculite concrete, 1:4 mix by volume over paperbacked wire fabric lath wrapped 
directly around column with additional 2" x 2" 0.065"/0.065" (No. 16/16 B.W. gage) 
wire fabric placed ^//' from outer concrete surface. Wire fabric tied with 0.049" (No. 
18 B.W. gage) wire spaced 6" on center for inner layer and 2" on center for outer 
layer. 


2 


— 


— 




1-6.1 


Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster over metal lath wrapped around column and 
furred 1 V4" from column flanges. Sheets lapped at ends and tied at 6" intervals with 
0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) tie wire. Plaster pushed through to flanges. 


IV2 


1 


— 




1-6.2 


Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster over self-furring metal lath wrapped directly 
around column, lapped 1" and tied at 6" intervals with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) 
wire. 


1% 


1% 


1 


— 


1-6.3 


Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster on metal lath applied to V4" cold-rolled 
channels spaced 24" apart vertically and wrapped flatwise around column. 


IV, 


— 


— 


— 


1-6.4 


Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster over two layers of 72" plain full-length gypsum 
lath applied tight to column flanges. Lath wrapped with 1" hexagonal mesh of No. 20 
gage wire and tied with doubled 0.035" diameter (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 
23" on center. For three-coat work, the plaster mix for the second coat shall not 
exceed 100 pounds of gypsum to 2V2 cubic feet of aggregate for the 3-hour system. 


27, 


2 







(continued) 



2003 IBSSTERNATBONAL BOnLDBSMlG CODE® 



111 



FIRE-RESBSTANOE-RATEDCONSTRUCTiOM 



TABLE 720.1 (I)-Hcooltioyed 

fVaiMfyUM PROTECTIOSSS OF STRUCTURAL PARTS BASED OW TBIV3E PERSODS 

FOR VARBOUS BSSONCOMBOSTIBLE Bi^SULATflMG IVlATERnALS'" 



STRUCTURAL 
PARTS TO BE 
PROTECTED 


BTEM 
NUMBER 


INSULATING MATERBAL USED 


MINIMUM THICKNESS OF 

DNSULATING (MATERIAL 

FOR THE FOLLOWING 

FIRE-RESISTANCE 

PERIODS (inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


1 . Steel columns 
and all of 
primary trusses 
(continued) 


1-6.5 


Perlite or vermiculate gypsum plaster over one layer of V2" plain full-length gypsum 
lath applied tight to column flanges. Lath tied with doubled 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. 
gage) wire ties spaced 23" on center and scratch coat wrapped with 1" hexagonal 
mesh 0.035" (No. 20 B.W. gage) wire fabric. For three-coat work, the plaster mix for 
the second coat shall not exceed 100 pounds of gypsum to 2 V2 cubic feet of 
aggregate. 


— 


2 


— 


— 


1-7.1 


Multiple layers of V2" gypsum wallboard'' adhesively'' secured to column flanges and 
successive layers. Wallboard applied without horizontal joints. Comer edges of each 
layer staggered. Wallboard layer below outer layer secured to column with doubled 
0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) steel wire ties spaced 15" on center. Exposed comers 
taped and treated. 


— 


— 


2 


1 


1-7.2 


Three layers of %" Type X gypsum wallboard. '^ First and second layer held in place 
by Vg" diameter by 1%" long ring shank nails with Vjg" diameter heads spaced 24" 
on center at comers. Middle layer also secured with metal straps at mid-height and 
18" from each end, and by metal comer bead at each comer held by the metal straps. 
Third layer attached to comer bead with 1" long gypsum wallboard screws spaced 
12" on center. 


— 


— 


1% 


— 


1-7.3 


Three layers of ^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard,'^ each layer screw attached to 1%" 
steel studs 0.018" thick (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) at each comer of column. 
Middle layer also secured with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) double-strand steel wire 
ties, 24" on center. Screws are No. 6 by 1" spaced 24" on center for inner layer, No. 6 
by 1 Vg" spaced 12"on center for middle layer and No. 8 by 2V4" spaced 12" on center 
for outer layer. 


— 


1% 


— 




1-8.1 


Wood-fibered gypsum plaster mixed 1 : 1 by weight gypsum-to-sand aggregate 
applied over metal lath. Lath lapped 1" and tied 6" on center at all end, edges and 
spacers with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) steel tie wires. Lath applied over V2" spacers 
made of ^1^' furring channel with 2" legs bent around each comer. Spacers located 1" 
from top and bottom of member and a maximum of 40" on center and wire tied with 
a single strand of 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) steel tie wires. Comer bead tied to the 
lath at 6" on center along each comer to provide plaster thickness. 


— 


— 


1% 


— 


2. Webs or 
flanges of 
steel beams 
and girders 


2-1.1 


Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete (not including 
sandstone, granite and siliceous gravel) with 3" or finer metal mesh placed 1" from 
the finished surface anchored to the top flange and providing not less than 0.025 
square inch of steel area per foot in each direcfion. 


2 


IV2 


1 


1 


2-1.2 


Siliceous aggregate concrete and concrete excluded in Item 2-1.1 with 3" or finer 
metal mesh placed 1" from the finished surface anchored to the top flange and 
providing not less than 0.025 square inch of steel area per foot in each direction. 


2% 


2 


IV. 


1 


2-2.1 


Cement plaster on metal lath attached to %" cold-rolled channels with 0.049" (No. 
18 B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 3" to 6" on center. Plaster mixed 1:2 V2 by volume, 
cement to sand. 


— 


— 


272^ 


% 


2-3.1 


Vermiculite gypsum plaster on a metal lath cage, wire tied to 0.165" diameter (No. 8 
B.W. gage) steel wire hangers wrapped around beam and spaced 16" on center. Metal 
lath ties spaced approximately 5" on center at cage sides and bottom. 


— 


% 


— 


— 



(continued) 



112 



2003 BNTERNATiONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FDRE-RESBSTAiSgCE-eATEOCONSTRUCTDODM 



TABLE 720.1(1)— continued 
MUlWa PROTECTDOisa OF STRUCTURAL PARTS BASED OH TME PERBOOS 
FOR VARBOUS B^OMCOIiBUSTBBLE iSMSULATDiSSG MATERiALS'" 









MlNlMUSVi THICKNESS OF 








INSULATING MATERIAL 








■ FOR THE FOLLOWING 








FIRE-RESISTANCE 


STRUCTURAL 
PARIS TO BE 






PERIODS (inches) 


BTEtyj 




4 


3 


2 


1 


PROTECTED 


NUMBER 


DNSULATBNG MATERIAL USED 


hour 


hour 


hour 


hour 






Two layers of %" Type X gypsum wallboard'^ are attached to U-shaped brackets 














spaced 24" on center. 0.018" thick (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) iVg" deep by 1" 














galvanized steel runner channels are first installed parallel to and on each side of the 














top beam flange to provide a 72" clearance to the flange. The channel runners are 














attached to steel deck or concrete floor construction with approved fasteners spaced 














12" on center. U-shaped brackets are formed from members identical to the channel 














runners. At the bent portion of the U-shaped bracket, the flanges of the channel are 














cut out so that l^/g" deep comer channels can be inserted without attachment parallel 














to each side of the lower flange. 












2-4.1 


As an alternate, 0.021" thick (No. 24 carbon sheet steel gage) 1" x 2" runner and 
comer angles may be used in lieu of channels, and the web cutouts in the U-shaped 
brackets may be omitted. Each angle is attached to the bracket with V2"-long No. 8 
self-drilling screws. The vertical legs of the U-shaped bracket are attached to the 


— 


— 


1V4 


— 


2. Webs or 




mnners with one V2" long No. 8 self-drilling screw. The completed steel framing 












provides a 2^// and 1 72" space between the inner layer of wallboard and the sides 










flanges of 
steel beams 




and bottom of the steel beam, respectively. The inner layer of wallboard is attached 












to the top runners and bottom comer channels or comer angles with 1 V4"-long No. 6 










and girders 




self-drilling screws spaced 16" on center. The outer layer of wallboard is applied 










(continued) 




with lV4"-long No. 6 self-drilling screws spaced 8" on center. The bottom comers are 
reinforced with metal corner beads. 












Three layers of ^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard'^ attached to a steel suspension system 














as described immediately above utilizing the 0.018" thick (No. 25 carbon sheet steel 














gage) 1" X 2" lower comer angles. The framing is located so that a 2^// and 2" space 














is provided between the inner layer of wallboard and the sides and bottom of the 














beam, respectively. The first two layers of wallboard are attached as described 












2-4.2 


inmiediately above. A layer of 0.035" thick (No. 20 B.W. gage) 1" hexagonal 
galvanized wire mesh is applied under the soffit of the middle layer and up the sides 
approximately 2". The mesh is held in position with the No. 6 1 ^"-long screws 
installed in the vertical leg of the bottom comer angles. The outer layer of wallboard 
is attached with No. 6 2V4"-long screws spaced 8" on center. One screw is also 
installed at the mid-depth of the bracket in each layer. Bottom comers are finished as 
described above. 




1^/8 






3. Bonded 




Carbonate, lightweight, sand-lightweight and siliceous^ aggregate concrete 


48 


3g 


2V. 


1% 


pretensioned 




Beams or girders 


Z. /2 


reinforcement 


3-1.1 












in prestressed 








2 


17. 


1 


concrete^ 




SoUd slabs^ 




1 /2 






Carbonate, Ughtweight, sand-hghtweight and siliceous^ aggregate concrete 














Unrestrained members: 












4-1 1 


Solid slabs'' 


— 


2 


IV, 


— 


4. Bonded or 


t-i , 1 


Beams and girders' 










unbonded 




8" wide 




4V, 


2V2 


1% 


post-tensioned 
tendons in 




greater than 12" wide 


3 


2V, 


2 


1% 




Carbonate, Ughtweight, sand-lightweight and siliceous aggregate 










prestressed 




Restrained members:'' 










concrete^' ' 


4-1.2 


Solid slabs'' 
Beams and girders^ 


IV4 


1 


% 


— 






8" wide 


2% 


2 


1% 


— 






greater than 12" wide 


2 


1% 


IV, 


— 



(continued) 



2003 DNTERiSlATIONAL BOBLDIMG COPE® 



113 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 720.1(1)— continued 

MINIMUM PROTECTION OF STRUCTURAL PARTS BASED ON TIME PERIODS 

FOR VARIOUS NONCOMBUSTIBLE INSULATING MATERIALS'" 



STRUCTURAL 
PARTS TO BE 
PROTECTED 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


INSULATING MATERIAL USED 


MINIMUM THICKNESS OF 

INSULATING MATERIAL 

FOR THE FOLLOWING 

FIRE-RESISTANCE 

PERIODS (inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 

hour 


5. Reinforcing 
steel in 
reinforced 
concrete 
columns, beams 
girders and 
trusses 


5-1.1 


Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete, members 12" or 
larger, square or round. (Size limit does not apply to beams and girders monoUthic 
with floors.) 

Siliceous aggregate concrete, members 12" or larger, square or round. (Size limit 
does not apply to beams and girders monolithic with floors.) 


2 




IV, 
IV, 


IV, 
IV, 


6. Reinforcing 
steel in 
reinforced 
concrete joists' 


6-1.1 
6-1.2 


Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete. 
Siliceous aggregate concrete. 




1V4 

IV, 


1 
1 


% 
% 


7. Reinforcing and 
tie rods in floor 
and roof slabs' 


7-1.1 
7-1.2 


Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete. 
Siliceous aggregate concrete. 


1 

l'/4 


1 
1 


1 


\ 
\ 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.2 mm^, 1 cubic foot = 0.0283 m^. 

a. Reentrant parts of protected members to be filled solidly. 

b. Two layers of equal thickness with a -^l^-mch airspace between. 

c. For all of the construction with gypsum wallboard described in Table 720.1 (1 ), gypsum base for veneer plaster of the same size, thickness and core type shall be 
permitted to be substituted for gypsum wallboard, provided attachment is identical to that specified for the wallboard and the joints on the face layer are reinforced, 
and the endre surface is covered with a minimum of '/j^-inch gypsum veneer plaster. 

d. An approved adhesive qualified under ASTM E 1 19. 

e. Where lightweight or sand-lightweight concrete having an oven-dry weight of 1 1 pounds per cubic foot or less is used, the tabulated minimum cover shall be per- 
mitted to be reduced 25 percent, except that in no case shall the cover be less than % inch in slabs or 1 V2 inches in beams or girders. 

f For solid slabs of sihceous aggregate concrete, increase tendon cover 20 percent. 

g. Adequate provisions against spalling shall be provided by U-shaped or hooped stirrups spaced not to exceed the depth of the member with a clear cover of 1 inch. 

h. Prestressed slabs shall have a thickness not less than that required in Table 720.1(3) for the respective fire resistance time period. 

i. Fire coverage and end anchorages shall be as follows: Cover to the prestressing steel at the anchor shall be V2 inch greater than that required away from the anchor. 
Minimum cover to steel-bearing plate shall be 1 inch in beams and ^1^ inch in slabs. 

j. For beam widths between 8 inches and 12 inches, cover thickness shall be permitted to be determined by interpolation. 

k. Interior spans of condnuous slabs, beams and girders shall be permitted to be considered restrained. 

1. For use with concrete slabs having a comparable fire endurance where members are framed into the structure in such a manner as to provide equivalent perfor- 
mance to that of monolithic concrete construction. 

m. Generic fire-resistance ratings (those not designated as PROPRIETARY* in the hsting) in GA 600 shall be accepted as if herein listed. 



114 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FDRE-RESDSTAGSIICE-BATEDCOE^STRUCTIOEM 





TABLE 720.1(2) 
RATED FBRE■RESDSTO(^flCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITSOMS ^'**'P 








MATERIAL 


ITEM 
fMOEVIBER 


CONSTRUCTDON 


MNIMOtVi RNDSHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO-FACEb 

(inches) 


4 hour 


3 hour 


2 hour 


1 hour 


1 . Brick of clay or 
shale 


1-1.1 


Solid brick of clay or shale'' 


6 


4.9 


3.8 


2.7 


1-1.2 


Hollow brick, not filled. 


5.0 


4.3 


3.4 


2.3 


1-1.3 


Hollow brick unit wall, grout or filled with perlite vermiculite or expanded shale 
aggregate. 


6.6 


5.5 


4.4 


3.0 


1-2.1 


4" nominal thick units at least 75 percent solid backed with a hat-shaped metal 
furring channel V/ thick formed from 0.021" sheet metal attached to the brick 
wall on 24" centers with approved fasteners, and ^l{ Type X gypsum wallboard 
attached to the metal furring strips with T'-long Type S screws spaced 8" on 
center. 


— 


— 


5^ 


— 


2. Combination of 
clay brick and 
load-bearing 
hollow clay tile 


2-1.1 


4" solid brick and 4" tile (at least 40 percent solid). 





8 





— 


2-1.2 


4" soUd brick and 8" tile (at least 40 percent solid). 


12 


— 


—- 


— 


3. Concrete 
masonry units 


3-l.lf'g 


Expanded slag or pumice. 


4.7 


4.0 


3.2 


2.1 


3-1.2f'g 


Expanded clay, shale or slate. 


5.1 


4.4 


3.6 


2.6 


3-1.3^ 


Limestone, cinders or air-cooled slag. 


5.9 


5.0 


4.0 


2.7 


3-1.4f'g 


Calcareous or siliceous gravel. 


6.2 


5.3 


4.2 


2.8 


4. Solid concrete^' ' 


4-1.1 


Siliceous aggregate concrete. 


7.0 


6.2 


5.0 


3.5 


Carbonate aggregate concrete. 


6.6 


5.7 


4.6 


3.2 


Sand-lightweight concrete. 


5.4 


4.6 


3.8 


2.7 


Lightweight concrete. 


5.1 


4.4 


3.6 


2.5 


5. Glazed or 
unglazed facing 
tile, 
nonload-bearing 


5-1.1 


One 2" unit cored 15 percent maximum and one 4" unit cored 25 percent 
maximum with %" mortar-filled collar joint. Unit positions reversed in alternate 
courses. 


— 


6% 


— 


~ 


5-1.2 


One T unit cored 15 percent maximum and one 4" unit cored 40 percent 
maximum with V/'mortar-filled collar joint. Unit positions side with V/' gypsum 
plaster. Two wythes tied together every fourth course with No. 22 gage corrugated 
metal ties. 




eu 


— 


— 


5-1.3 


One unit with three cells in wall thickness, cored 29 percent maximum. 








6 





5-1.4 


One 2" unit cored 22 percent maximum and one 4" unit cored 41 percent 
maximum with V/'mortar-filled collar joint. Two wythes tied together every third 
course with 0.030" (No. 22 galvanized sheet steel gage) corrugated metal ties. 


— 


— 


6 


— 


5-1.5 


One 4" unit cored 25 percent maximum with %" gypsum plaster on one side. 








4% 


— 


5-1.6 


One 4" unit with two cells in wall thickness, cored 22 percent maximum. 










4 


5-1.7 


One 4" unit cored 30 percent maximum with ^1^' vermiculite gypsum plaster on 
one side. 


— 


— 


47, 


— 


5-1.8 


One 4" unit cored 39 percent maximum with %" gypsum plaster on one side. 


— 


— 


— 


47, 



(continued) 



2003 DNTERiSgATDOIiSiAL BUBLOIGSIG CODE® 



1115 



FBRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 





TABLE 720.1(2)— continued 
RATED FIRE-RESBSTANCE PERBODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS «-*»'' 


5 








MATERIAL 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CONSTRUCTION 


MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS 

FACE-TO-FACEb 

(inches) 


4 hour 


3 hour 


2 hour 


1 hour 


6. Solid gypsum 
plaster 


6-1.1 


V/' by 0.055" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) vertical cold-rolled channels, 16" 
on center with 2.6-pound flat metal lath applied to one face and tied with 0.049" 
(No. 18 B.W. Gage) wire at 6" spacing. Gypsum plaster each side mixed 1:2 by 
weight, gypsum to sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


2^ 


6-1.2 


%" by 0.055" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) cold-rolled channels 16" on center 
with metal lath applied to one face and tied with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire 
at 6" spacing. Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster each side. For three-coat 
work, the plaster mix for the second coat shall not exceed 100 pounds of gypsum 
to 2V2 cubic feet of aggregate for the 1-hour system. 


— 


— 


2V2^ 


2d 


6-1.3 


V4" by 0.055" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) vertical cold-rolled channels, 16" 
on center with Vg"gypsum lath applied to one face and attached with sheet metal 
clips. Gypsum plaster each side mixed 1:2 by weight, gypsum to sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


2' 


6-2.1 


Studless with V2" full-length plain gypsum lath and gypsum plaster each side. 
Plaster mixed 1:1 for scratch coat and 1:2 for brown coat, by weight, gypsum to 
sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


2d 


6-2.2 


Studless with V2" full-length plain gypsum lath and perlite or vermicuhte gypsum 
plaster each side. 


— 


— 


2V2^ 


2d 


6-2.3 


Studless partition with Vg" rib metal lath installed vertically adjacent edges tied 6" 
on center with No. 18 gage wire ties, gypsum plaster each side mixed 1:2 by 
weight, gypsum to sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


2d 


7. Solid perlite 
and Portland 
cement 


7-1.1 


Perlite mixed in the ratio of 3 cubic feet to 100 pounds of portland cement and 
machine applied to stud side of 1 V2" mesh by 0.058-inch (No. 17 B.W. gage) 
paper-backed woven wire fabric lath wire-tied to 4"-deep steel trussed wireJ studs 
16" on center. Wire ties of 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) galvanized steel wire 6" on 
center vertically. 


— 


— 


3'V 


— 


8. Solid neat 
wood fibered 
gypsum plaster 


8-1.1 


V4" by 0.055-inch (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) cold-rolled channels, 12" on 
center with 2.5-pound flat metal lath applied to one face and tied with 0.049" (No. 
18 B.W. gage) wire at 6" spacing. Neat gypsum plaster applied each side. 


— 


— 


2d 


— 


9. Solid wallboard 
partition 


9-1.1 


One full-length layer V2" Type X gypsum wallboard^ laminated to each side of 1" 
full-length V-edge gypsum coreboard with approved laminating compound. 
Vertical joints of face layer and coreboard staggered at least 3". 


— 


— 


2d 


— 


10. Hollow 

(studless) 
gypsum 
wallboard 
partition 


10-1.1 


One full-length layer of ^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard^ attached to both sides of 
wood or metal top and bottom runners laminated to each side of 1" x 6" 
full-length gypsum coreboard ribs spaced 24" on center with approved laminating 
compound. Ribs centered at vertical joints of face phes and joints staggered 24" 
in opposing faces. Ribs may be recessed 6" from the top and bottom. 


— 


— 


— 


27/ 


10-1.2 


1" regular gypsum V-edge full-length backing board attached to both sides of 
wood or metal top and bottom runners with nails or iVg" dry wall screws at 24" on 
center. Minimum width of rumors l^/g". Face layer of V2" regular full-length 
gypsum wallboard laminated to outer faces of backing board with approved 
laminating compound. 


— 


— 


4%^ 


— 



(continued) 



116 



2003 BNTERNATBONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESiSTANCE-RATEDC0^9STRyCTS01^!] 





TABLE 720.1 (2]H^ont5nyed 
RATED RRE-RESBSTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTmOiSIS «•*»' 


P 








MATERiAL 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CONSTRUCTiON 


svl!^slG\flU[va finished 

THDCKMESS FACE-TO-FACEb 
(inches) 


4 hour 


3 hour 


2 hour 


1 hour 


ll.Noncombustible 
studs — interior 
partition with 
plaster each side 


11-1.1 


3'//' X 0.044" (No. 18 carbon sheet steel gage) steel studs spaced 24" on center. 
Vg" gypsum plaster on metal lath each side mixed 1:2 by weight, gypsum to 
sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


4V 


11-1.2 


3^/' X 0.055" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) approved nailable*" studs spaced 
24" on center, ^/g" neat gypsum wood-fibered plaster each side over ^/g" rib 
metal lath nailed to studs with 6d common nails, 8" on center. Nails driven 1'//' 
and bent over. 


— 


— 


5Vg 


— 


11-1.3 


4" X 0.044" (No. 18 carbon sheet steel gage) channel- shaped steel studs at 16" 
on center. On each side approved resilient clips pressed onto stud flange at 16" 
vertical spacing, '//' pencil rods snapped into or wire tied onto outer loop of 
clips, metal lath wire- tied to pencil rods at 6" intervals, 1" perlite gypsum 
plaster, each side. 


— 


1%' 


— 


— 


11-1.4 


2'/2" X 0.044" (No. 18 carbon sheet steel gage) steel studs spaced 16" on center. 
Wood fibered gypsum plaster mixed 1 : 1 by weight gypsum to sand aggregate 
applied on ^/4-pound metal lath wire tied to studs, each side. V4" plaster applied 
over each face, including finish coat. 


— 


— 


4'V 


— 


12. Wood studs 
interior partition 
with plaster each 
side 


12-1.1'- '^ 


2" X 4" wood studs 16" on center with ^/g" gypsum plaster on metal lath. Lath 
attached by 4d common nails bent over or No. 14 gage by 1 ^//' by ^Z^'' crown 
width staples spaced 6" on center. Plaster mixed 1:1 V2 for scratch coat and 1:3 
for brown coat, by weight, gypsum to sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


5Vg 


12-1.2' 


2" X 4" wood studs 16" on center with metal lath and '^/g" neat wood-fibered 
gypsum plaster each side. Lath attached by 6d common nails, 7" on center. 
Nails driven 1 ^// and bent over. 


— 


— 


5'/2^ 


— 


12-1.3' 


2" X 4" wood studs 16" on center with ^/g" perforated or plain gypsum lath and 
'V gypsum plaster each side. Lath nailed with 1 Vg" by No. 13 gage by '%4" 
head plasterboard blued nails, 4" on center. Plaster mixed 1:2 by weight, 
gypsum to sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


5V4 


12-1.4' 


2" X 4" wood studs 16" on center with Vg" Type X gypsum lath and ^/j" gypsum 
plaster each side. Lath nailed with 1 '/g" by No. 13 gage by '^4" head 
plasterboard blued nails, 5" on center. Plaster mixed 1:2 by weight, gypsum to 
sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


5V4 


13.Noncumbustible 
studs — interior 
partition with 
gypsum 
wallboard each 
side 


13-1.1 


0.018" (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) channel-shaped studs 24" on center 
with one full-length layer of %" Type X gypsum wallboard^ applied vertically 
attached with 1" long No. 6 drywall screws to each stud. Screws are 8" on 
center around the perimeter and 12" on center on the intermediate stud. The 
wallboard may be applied horizontally when attached to 3^/g" studs and the 
horizontal joints are staggered with those on the opposite side. Screws for the 
horizontal applicafion shall be 8" on center at vertical edges and 12" on center 
at intermediate studs. 


— 


— 


— 


2V 


13-1.2 


0.018" (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) channel- shaped studs 25" on center 
with two full-length layers of '73" Type X gypsum wallboard^ applied vertically 
each side. First layer attached with l"-long, No. 6 drywall screws, 8" on center 
around the perimeter and 12" on center on the intermediate stud. Second layer 
applied with vertical joints offset one stud space from first layer using iVg" 
long, No. 6 drywall screws spaced 9" on center along vertical joints, 12" on 
center at intermediate studs and 24" on center along top and bottom runners. 


— 


— 


3%^^ 


— 


13-1.3 


0.055" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) approved nailable metal studs^ 24" on 
center with full-length ^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard^ applied vertically and 
nailed 7" on center with 6d cement-coated common nails. Approved metal 
fastener grips used with nails at vertical butt joints along studs. 


— 


— 


— 


4^/8 



(continued) 



2003 INTERi^ATBOisaAL BOILDBNG CODE® 



117 



FBRE-RESiSTANCE-RATEDCOfSSSTRUCTflOM 





TABLE 720.1(2)— contSnyed 
RATED F!RE-RES§STANCE PERIODS FOR VARBOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS ^'<»'P 








MATERIAL 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CONSTRUCTION 


MDNIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO-FACEb 

(Inches) 


4 hour 


3 hour 


2 hour 


1 hour 


14.Wood 

studs — interior 
partition with 
gypsum 
wallboard 
each side 


14_1 lh,m 


2" X 4" wood studs 16" on center with two layers of Vg" regular gypsum 
wallboard^ each side, 4d cooler" or wallboard" nails at 8" on center first layer, 5d 
cooler" or wallboard" nails at 8" on center second layer with laminating 
compound between layers, joints staggered. First layer apphed full length 
vertically, second layer applied horizontally or vertically 


— 


— 


— 


5 


14-1.2'''" 


T X 4" wood studs 16" on center with two layers V2" regular gypsum wallboard^ 
applied vertically or horizontally each side*", joints staggered. Nail base layer 
with 5d cooler" or wallboard" nails at 8" on center face layer with 8d cooler" or 
wallboard" nails at 8" on center. 


— 


— 


— 


5% 


14-1. 3'- -" 


2" X 4" wood studs 24" on center with Vg" Type X gypsum wallboard'' applied 
vertically or horizontally nailed with 6d cooler" or wallboard" nails at 7" on 
center with end joints on nailing members. Stagger joints each side. 


— 


— 


— 


4% 


14-1.4' 


2" X 4" fire-retardant-treated wood studs spaced 24" on center with one layer of 
%" Type X gypsum wallboard^ applied with face paper grain (long dimension) 
parallel to studs. Wallboard attached with 6d cooler" or wallboard" nails at 7" on 
center. 


— 


— 


— 


4V 


14-1.5''"^ 


2" X 4" wood studs 16" on center with two layers %" Type X gypsum wallboard^ 
each side. Base layers appUed vertically and nailed with 6d cooler" or wallboard" 
nails at 9" on center. Face layer applied vertically or horizontally and nailed with 
8d cooler" or wallboard" nails at 7" on center. For nail-adhesive application, 
base layers are nailed 6" on center. Face layers applied with coating of approved 
wallboard adhesive and nailed 12" on center. 


— 


— 


6 


— 


14-1.6' 


2" X 3" fire-retardant-treated wood studs spaced 24" on center with one layer of 
Vg" Type X gypsum wallboard^ applied with face paper grain (long dimension) 
at right angles to studs. Wallboard attached with 6d cement-coated box nails 
spaced 7" on center. 


— 


— 


— 


3V 


15. Exterior or 
interior walls 


15-1.1''"^ 


Exterior surface with %" drop siding over ^/j' gypsum sheathing on 2" x 4" 
wood studs at 16" on center, interior surface treatment as required for 
1 -hour-rated exterior or interior 2" x 4" wood stud partitions. Gypsum sheathing 
nailed with 1 ^i^^" by No. 1 1 gage by "^/^g" head galvanized nails at 8" on center. 
Siding nailed with 7d galvanized smooth box nails. 


— 


— 


— 


Varies 


15-1.2'''" 


2" X 4" wood studs 16" on center with metal lath and V/' cement plaster on each 
side. Lath attached with 6d common nails 7" on center driven to 1" minimum 
penetration and bent over. Plaster mix 1:4 for scratch coat and 1:5 for brown 
coat, by volume, cement to sand. 





— 


— 


5% 


15-1.3''"^ 


2" X 4" wood studs 16" on center with %" cement plaster (measured from the 
face of studs) on the exterior surface with interior surface treatment as required 
for interior wood stud partitions in this table. Plaster mix 1:4 for scratch coat and 
1:5 for brown coat, by volume, cement to sand. 


— 


— 


— 


Varies 


15-1.4 


3%" No. 16 gage noncombustible studs 16" on center with %" cement plaster 
(measured from the face of the studs) on the exterior surface with interior 
surface treatment as required for interior, nonbearing, noncombustible stud 
partitions in this table. Plaster mix 1:4 for scratch coat and 1:5 for brown coat, 
by volume, cement to sand. 




— 


— 


Varies^ 



(continued) 



ns 



2003 If^TERMATBONAL BUiLDSMG CODE® 



FIRE-RESaSTAWCE-RATEOCOWSTRUCTBON 



TABLE 720.1(2)— cootDBiyed 
RATED FDRE-RESDSTAMCE PERDODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITflOiSaS «'°'P 



MATEROAL 



ITEM 
NUEVIBER 



CONSTROCTlOfS! 



SyjINDEyJOM FBNBSMED 

THBCKNESS FACE-TO-FACEb 

(inches) 



4 hour 3 hour 2 hour 1 hour 



IS-l.S*^ 



2V4" X 3V4" clay face brick with cored holes over V2" gypsum sheathing on 
exterior surface of 2" x 4" wood studs at 16" on center and two layers Vg" Type X 
gypsum wallboard^ on interior surface. Sheathing placed horizontally or vertically 
with vertical joints over studs nailed 6" on center with 1 V/' x No. 1 1 gage by ^/^e" 
head galvanized nails. Inner layer of wallboard placed horizontally or vertically 
and nailed 8" on center with 6d cooler" or wallboard" nails. Outer layer of 
wallboard placed horizontally or vertically and nailed 8" on center with 8d cooler" 
or wallboard" nails. All joints staggered with vertical joints over studs. Outer 
layer joints taped and finished with compound. Nail heads covered with joint 
compound. 0.035 inch (No. 20 galvanized sheet gage) corrugated galvanized steel 
wall ties V/' by d^l^' attached to each stud with two 8d cooler" or wallboard" nails 
every sixth course of bricks. 



10 



15-1.6'-'^ 



2" X 6" fire-retardant- treated wood studs 16" on center. Interior face has two 
layers of ^/g" Type X gypsum with the base layer placed vertically and attached 
with 6d box nails 12" on center. The face layer is placed horizontally and attached 
with 8d box nails 8" on center at joints and 12" on center elsewhere. The exterior 
face has a base layer of %" Type X gypsum sheathing placed vertically with 6d 
box nails 8" on center at joints and 12" on center elsewhere. An approved 
building paper is next applied, followed by self-furred exterior lath attached with 
2'/2", No. 12 gage galvanized roofing nails with a Vg" diameter head and spaced 
6" on center along each stud. Cement plaster consisting of a V2" brown coat is 
then apphed. The scratch coat is mixed in the proportion of 1:3 by weight, cement 
to sand with 10 pounds of hydrated lime and 3 pounds of approved additives or 
admixtures per sack of cement. The brown coat is mixed in the proportion of 1:4 
by weight, cement to sand with the same amounts of hydrated lime and approved 
additives or admixtures used in the scratch coat. 



15. Exterior or 
interior walls 
(continued) 



15-1.7''"^ 



2" X 6" wood studs 16" on center. The exterior face has a layer of ^/g" Type X 
gypsum sheathing placed vertically with 6d box nails 8" on center at joints and 
12" on center elsewhere. An approved building paper is next applied, followed by 
1" by No. 18 gage self-furred exterior lath attached with 8d by 2V2" long 
galvanized roofing nails spaced 6" on center along each stud. Cement plaster 
consisting of a V2" scratch coat, a bonding agent and a V2" brown coat and a 
finish coat is then applied. The scratch coat is mixed in the proportion of 1:3 by 
weight, cement to sand with 10 pounds of hydrated lime and 3 pounds of 
approved additives or admixtures per sack of cement. The brown coat is mixed in 
the proportion of 1 :4 by weight, cement to sand with the same amounts of 
hydrated lime and approved additives or admixtures used in the scratch coat. The 
interior is covered with %" gypsum lath with 1" hexagonal mesh of 0.035 inch 
(No. 20 B.W. gage) woven wire lath furred out Vj^" and 1" perlite or vermiculite 
gypsum plaster. Lath nailed with 1 Vg" by No. 13 gage by '%/' head plasterboard 
glued nails spaced 5" on center. Mesh attached by 1%" by No. 12 gage by %" 
head nails with Vg" furrings, spaced 8" on center. The plaster mix shall not exceed 
100 pounds of gypsum to 2V9 cubic feet of aggregate. 



8V« 



15-1.8''"^ 



2" X 6"wood studs 16" on center. The exterior face has a layer of ^/g" Type X 
gypsum sheathing placed vertically with 6d box nails 8" on center at joints and 
12" on center elsewhere. An approved building paper is next applied, followed by 
1 V2" by No. 17 gage self-furred exterior lath attached with 8d by 2V2" long 
galvanized roofing nails spaced 6" on center along each stud. Cement plaster 
consisting of a 72" scratch coat, and a V2" brown coat is then applied. The plaster 
may be placed by machine. The scratch coat is mixed in the proportion of 1:4 by 
weight, plasdc cement to sand. The brown coat is mixed in the proportion of 1 :5 
by weight, plastic cement to sand. The interior is covered with Vg" gypsum lath 
with 1" hexagonal mesh of No. 20 gage woven wire lath furred out ^Z,/' and 1" 
perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster. Lath nailed with 1 Vg" by No. 13 gage by 
^^54" head plasterboard glued nails spaced 5" on center. Mesh attached by IV4" 
by No. 12 gage by Vg" head nails with Vg" furrings, spaced 8" on center. The 
plaster mix shall not exceed 100 pounds of gypsum to 2V2 cubic feet of aggregate. 



8Vr 



(continued) 



2003 BiVSTERMATIONAL BOOLDDiSgG CODE® 



11£ 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTJON 



TABLE 720.1(2)— continued 
RATED FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS ^'^'P 



MATERIAL 



ITEM 
NUMBER 



CONSTRUCTION 



MINIMUM FINISHED 

THICKNESS FACE-TO-FACEb 

(inches) 



4 hour 3 hour 2 hour 1 hour 



15-1.9 



4" No. 18 gage, nonload-bearing metal studs, 16" on center, with 1" portland 
cement lime plaster [measured from the back side of the V4-pound expanded 
metal lath] on the exterior surface. Interior surface to be covered with 1" of 
gypsum plaster on %-pound expanded metal lath proportioned by weight — 1:2 
for scratch coat, 1:3 for brown, gypsum to sand. Lath on one side of the partition 
fastened to V/' diameter pencil rods supported by No. 20 gage metal clips, 
located 16" on center vertically, on each stud. 3" thick mineral fiber insulating 
batts friction fitted between the studs. 



15-1.10 



Steel studs 0.060" thick, 4" deep or 6" at 16" or 24" centers, with V2" Glass Fiber 
Reinforced Concrete (GFRC) on the exterior surface. GFRC is attached with flex 
anchors at 24" on center, with 5" leg welded to studs with two V2"-long 
flare-bevel welds, and 4" foot attached to the GFRC skin with Vg" thick GFRC 
bonding pads that extend 2V2" beyond the flex anchor foot on both sides. Interior 
surface to have two layers of V2" Type X gypsum wallboard.^ The first layer of 
wallboard to be attached with l"-long Type S buglehead screws spaced 24" on 
center and the second layer is attached with l^/8"-long Type S screws spaced at 
12" on center. Cavity is to be filled with 5" of 4 pcf (nominal) mineral fiber batts. 
GFRC has 1 V2'' returns packed with mineral fiber and caulked on the exterior. 



15-1.11 



15. Exterior or 
interior walls 
(continued) 



Steel studs 0.060" thick, 4" deep or 6" at 16" or 24" centers, respectively, with ^l{' 
Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete (GFRC) on the exterior surface. GFRC is 
attached with flex anchors at 24" on center, with 5" leg welded to studs with two 
'V-long flare-bevel welds, and 4" foot attached to the GFRC skin with %"-thick 
GFRC bonding pads that extend 2'/2" beyond the flex anchor foot on both sides. 
Interior surface to have one layer of ^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard^, attached 
with iV/'-long Type S buglehead screws spaced 12" on center. Cavity is to be 
filled with 5" of 4 pcf (nominal) mineral fiber batts. GFRC has 1 V2" returns 
packed with mineral fiber and caulked on the exterior. 



6V« 



15-1.12^ 



2" X 6" wood studs at 16" with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior and 
exterior sides covered with Vg" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4' wide, applied 
horizontally or vertically with vertical joints over studs, and fastened with 2V4" 
Type S dry wall screws, spaced 12" on center. Cavity filled with ^^l" mineral 
wool insulation. 



6V, 



15-1. 13^^ 



2" X 6" wood studs at 16" with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior and 
exterior sides covered with Vg" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4' wide, applied 
horizontally or vertically with vertical joints over studs, and fastened with 2V4" 
Type S dry wall screws, spaced 7" on center. Cavity to be filled with 5 V2" mineral 
wool insulation minimum 2.58 pcf (nominal). 



6V4 



15-1.14'' 



2" X 4" wood studs at 16" with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior and 
exterior sides covered with %" Type X gypsum wallboard and sheathing, 
respecfively, 4' wide, applied horizontally or vertically with vertical joints over 
studs, and fastened with 2V4" Type S dry wall screws, spaced 12" on center. 
Cavity to be filled with 3 ^l{' mineral wool insulation. 



4V. 



15-1.15'! 



2" X 4" wood studs at 16" with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior 
sides covered with %" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4' wide, apphed horizontally 
unblocked, and fastened with 2V4" Type S dry wall screws, spaced 12" on center, 
wallboard joints covered with paper tape and joint compound, fastener heads 
covered with joint compound. Exterior covered with Vg" wood structural panels 
(oriented strand board), apphed vertically, horizontal joints blocked and fastened 
with 6d common nails (bright) — 12" on center in the field, 6" on center panel 
edges. Cavity to be filled with 3^/2" mineral wool insulafion. Rating established 
for exposure from interior side only. 



4V, 



(continued) 



120 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FDRE-RESDSTANCE-eATEOCOGSaSTRUCTDON 



TABLE 720.11(2)— contiooed 
RMEO FDRE-RESDSTANCE PERDODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS ^'*=*'P 



MATERIAL 


DIEM 
EVIUMBER 


COWSTRUCTDON 


MBNIMUWJ FINISHED 

THBCKhSESS FACE-TO-FACEb 

(inches) 


4 hour 


3 hour 


2 hour 


1 hour 


15. Exterior or 

interior walls 

(continued) 


15-1.16^ 


2" X 6" (51mm x 152 mm) wood studs at 16 " centers with double top plates, single 
bottom plate; interior side covered with Vg" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4' wide, 
applied horizontally or vertically with vertical joints over studs and fastened with 2^1^" 
Type S dry wall screws, spaced 12" on center, wallboard joints covered with paper tape 
and joint compound, fastener heads covered with joint compound, exterior side 
covered with ^/^g" wood structural panels (oriented strand board) fastened with 6d 
common nails (bright) spaced 12" on center in the field and 6" on center along the 
panel edges. Cavity to be filled with 5 V2" mineral wool insulation. Rating established 
from the gypsum-covered side only. 


— 


— 


— 


6'/,6 


15-1. 17^1 


2" X 6" wood studs at 24" centers with double top plates, single bottom plate; 
interior and exterior side covered with two layers of %" Type X gypsum 
wallboard, 4' wide, applied horizontally with vertical joints over studs. Base 
layer fastened with 2'//' Type S dry wall screws, spaced 24" on center, and face 
layer fastened with Type S dry wall screws, spaced 8" on center, wallboard joints 
covered with paper tape and joint compound, fastened heads covered with joint 
compound. Cavity to be filled with 5V2" mineral wool insulation. 


— 


— 


7% 


— 


16. Exterior walls 
rated for fire 
resistance 
from the 
inside only in 
accordance 
with Section 
704.5. 


16-1. 1'l 


2" X 4" wood studs at 16" centers with double top plates, single bottom plate; 
interior side covered with %" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4' wide, applied 
horizontally unblocked, and fastened with 2V4" Type S drywall screws, spaced 
12" on center, wallboard joints covered with paper tape and joint compound, 
fastener heads covered with joint compound. Exterior covered with Vg" wood 
structural panels (oriented strand board), appHed vertically, horizontal joints 
blocked and fastened with 6d common nails (bright) — 12" on center in the field, 
and 6" on center panel edges. Cavity to be filled with 3V2" mineral wool 
insulation. Rating estabhshed for exposure from interior side only. 


— 


— 


— 


A% 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.2 mm^, 1 cubic foot = 0.0283 m^. 

a. Staples with equivalent holding power and penetration shall be permitted to be used as alternate fasteners to nails for attachment to wood framing. 

b. Thickness shown for brick and clay tile are nominal thicknesses unless plastered, in which case thicknesses are net. Thickness shown for concrete masonry and 
clay masonry is equivalent thickness defined in Section 72 1 .3 . 1 for concrete masonry and Section 72 1 .4. 1 . 1 for clay masonry. Where all cells are solid grouted or 
filled with silicone-treated perhte loose-fill insulation; vermiculite loose-fill insulation; or expanded clay, shale or slate hghtweight aggregate, the equivalent 
thickness shall be the thickness of the block or brick using specified dimensions as defined in Chapter 21. Equivalent thickness may also include the thickness of 
applied plaster and lath or gypsum wallboard, where specified. 

c. For units in which the net cross-sectional area of cored brick in any plane parallel to the surface containing the cores is at least 75 percent of the gross cross-sec- 
tional area measured in the same plane. 

d. Shall be used for nonbearing purposes only. 

e. For all of the construction with gypsum wallboard described in this table, gypsum base for veneer plaster of the same size, thickness and core type shall be permit- 
ted to be substituted for gypsum wallboard, provided attachment is identical to that specified for the wallboard, and the joints on the face layer are reinforced and 
the entire surface is covered with a minimum of '/j^-inch gypsum veneer plaster. 

f. The fire-resistance time period for concrete masonry units meeting the equivalent thicknesses required for a 2-hour fire-resistance rating in Item 3, and having a 
thickness of not less than 7% inches is 4 hours when cores which are not grouted are filled with silicone-treated perlite loose-fill insulation; vermiculite loose-fill 
insulation; or expanded clay, shale or slate lightweight aggregate, sand or slag having a maximum particle size of % inch. 

g. The fire-resistance rating of concrete masonry units composed of a combination of aggregate types or where plaster is applied directly to the concrete masonry 
shall be determined in accordance with ACI 216.1/TMS 216. Lightweight aggregates shall have a maximum combined density of 65 pounds per cubic foot. 
See also Note b. The equivalent thickness shall be permitted to include the thickness of cement plaster or 1.5 times the thickness of gypsum plaster applied in ac- 
cordance with the requirements of Chapter 25. 

i. Concrete walls shall be reinforced with horizontal and vertical temperature reinforcement as required by Chapter 19. 

j. Studs are welded truss wire studs with 0.18 inch (No. 7 B.W. gage) flange wire and 0.18 inch (No. 7 B.W. gage) truss wires. 

k. Nailable metal studs consist of two channel studs spot welded back to back with a crimped web forming a nailing groove. 

1. Wood structural panels shall be permitted to be installed between the fire protection and the wood studs on either the interior or exterior side of the wood frame as- 
semblies in this table, provided the length of the fasteners used to attach the fire protection are increased by an amount at least equal to the thickness of the wood 
structural panel. 

m.The design stress of studs shall be reduced to 78 percent of allowable F^ with the maximum not greater than 78 percent of the calculated stress with studs having a 
slendemess ratio l/d of 33. 

n. For properties of cooler or wallboard nails, see ASTM C 5 14, ASTM C 547 or ASTM F 1667. 

o. Generic fire-resistance ratings (those not designated as PROPRIETARY* in the listing) in the GA 600 shall be accepted as if herein listed. 

p. NCMA TEK 5-8, shall be permitted for the design of fire walls. 

q. The design stress of studs shall be equal to a maximum of 100 percent of the allowable F'^ calculated in accordance with Section 2306. 



h. 



2003 flMTE[Riy3ATB0N!AL BODLDDMG CODE® 



121 



RRE-RESISTANCE-RATEDCONSTRUCTIOhS 





TABLE 720.1(3) 
MINIMUM PROTECTBON FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEMS^ 


q 














FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 


ITEM 
NUMBER 


CEILING CONSTRUCTION 


THICKNESS OF FLOOR 

OR ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 


MINIMUM THICKNESS 

OF CEILING 

(inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 

hour 


1. Siliceous 

aggregate concrete 


1-1.1 


Slab (no ceiling required). Minimum cover over 
nonprestressed reinforcement shall not be less than 
% inch.b 


7.0 


6.2 


5.0 


3.5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2. Carbonate 

aggregate concrete 


2-1.1 


6.6 


5.7 


4.6 


3.2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


3. Sand-lightweight concrete 


3-1.1 


5.4 


4.6 


3.8 


2.7 








_ 


_ 


4. Lightweight concrete 


4-1.1 


5.1 


4.4 


3.6 


2.5 


_ 


_ 


__ 




5. Reinforced 
concrete 


5-1.1 


Slab with suspended ceiling of vermiculite gypsum 
plaster over metal lath attached to '^U' cold-rolled 
channels spaced 12" on center. Ceihng located 6" 
minimum below joists. 


3 


2 


— 


— 


1 


% 


— 


— 


5-2.1 


V Type X gypsum wallboard^ attached to 0.018 
inch (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) by %" deep by 
2V8" hat- shaped galvanized steel channels with 
r'-long No. 6 screws. The channels are spaced 24" 
on center, span 35" and are supported along their 
length at 35" intervals by 0.033-inch (No. 21 
galvanized sheet gage) galvanized steel flat strap 
hangers having formed edges that engage the Ups of 
the channel. The strap hangers are attached to the 
side of the concrete joists with V32" by 1 V/' long 
power-driven fasteners. The wallboard is installed 
with the long dimension perpendicular to the 
channels. All end joints occur on channels and 
supplementary channels are installed parallel to the 
main channels, 12" each side, at end joint 
occurrences. The finished ceiling is located 
approximately 12" below the soffit of the floor slab. 


— 


— 


2% 


— 


— 


— 


\ 


— 


6. Steel joists constructed with 
a poured reinforced 
concrete slab on metal lath 
forms or steel form units'*' ^ 


6-1.1 


Gypsum plaster on metal lath attached to the bottom 
cord with single No. 16 gage or doubled No. 18 gage 
wire ties spaced 6" on center. Plaster mixed 1:2 for 
scratch coat, 1:3 for brown coat, by weight, 
gypsum-to-sand aggregate for 2-hour system. For 
3-hour system plaster is neat. 


— 


— 


1% 


2V4 


— 


— 


% 


% 


6-2.1 


Vermiculite gypsum plaster on metal lath attached to 
the bottom chord with single No. 16 gage or doubled 
0.049-inch (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire ties 6" on center. 


— 


2 


— 


— 


— 


% 


— 


— 


6-3.1 


Cement plaster over metal lath attached to the 
bottom chord of joists with single No. 16 gage or 
doubled 0.049-inch (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire ties 
spaced 6" on center. Plaster mixed 1:2 for scratch 
coat, 1:3 for brown coat for 1-hour system and 1:1 
for scratch coat, 1:1 V2 for brown coat for 2-hour 
system, by weight, cement to sand. 


— 


— 


~ 


2 


— 


— 


— 


V 


6-4.1 


Ceiling of Vg" Type X wallboard'^ attached to V{ 
deep by 2%" by 0.021 inch (No. 25 carbon sheet 
steel gage) hat-shaped furring channels 12" on center 
with 1" long No. 6 wallboard screws at 8" on center. 
Channels wire tied to bottom chord of joists with 
doubled 0.049 inch (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire or 
suspended below joists on wire hangers. § 


— 


— 


2V2 


— 


— 


— 


^8 


— 


6-5.1 


Wood-fibered gypsum plaster mixed 1:1 by weight 
gypsum to sand aggregate applied over metal lath. 
Lath tied 6" on center to %" channels spaced I3V2" 
on center. Channels secured to joists at each 
intersection with two strands of 0.049 inch (No. 18 
B.W. gage) galvanized wire. 


— 


— 


1% 


— 


— 


— 


V4 


— 



{continued) 



122 



2003 iNTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



RRE-RESiSTAG^CE=RATEDCOE^STRUCTiOBVS 





TABLE 720.1(3)— continyed 
GVaBGSgiEViyi\/i protection for floor AIS90 ROOF SYSTEIMS^' 


q 














FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTBON 


DTEWl 
NUMBER 


CEDLDNG CONSTRUCTBOSS! 


TH1CK^SESS OF FLOOR 

OR ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 


[\/BiNBMUEVl THICKNESS 

OF CEBLING 

(inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


4 
hour 


3 

hour 


2 
hour 


1 

hour 


7. Reinforced concrete slabs 
and joists with hollow clay 
tile fillers laid end to end in 
rows 2V2" or more apart; 
reinforcement placed 
between rows and concrete 
cast around and over tile. 


7-1.1 


^/g" gypsum plaster on bottom of floor or roof 
construction. 


— 


— 


8h 


— 


— 


— 


\ 


— 


7-1.2 


None 


— 


— 


— 


5V2' 


— 


— 


— 


— 


8. Steel joists constructed with 
a reinforced concrete slab 
on top poured on a V2" 
deep steel deck.^ 


8-1.1 


Vermiculite gypsum plaster on metal lath attached to 
%" cold-rolled channels with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. 
gage) wire ties spaced 6" on center. 


2V2J 


— 


— 


— 


% 


— 


— 


— 


9. 3" deep cellular steel deck 
with concrete slab on top. 
Slab thickness measured to 
top. 


9-1.1 


Suspended ceiling of vermiculite gypsum plaster 
base coat and vermiculite acoustical plaster on metal 
lath attached at 6" intervals to V4" cold-rolled 
channels spaced 12" on center and secured to 1 V2" 
cold-rolled channels spaced 36" on center with 
0.065" (No. 16 B.W. gage) wire. 1 V2" channels 
supported by No. 8 gage wire hangers at 36" on 
center. Beams within envelope and with a 
2V2"airspace between beam soffit and lath have a 
4-hour rating. 


2'/2 


— 


— 


— 


iVs^ 


— 


— 


— 


10. lV2"-deep steel roof deck 
on steel framing. 
Insulation board, 30 pcf 
density, composed of 
wood fibers with cement 
binders of thickness shown 
bonded to deck with 
unified asphalt adhesive. 
Covered with a Class A or 
B roof covering. 


10-1.1 


CeiUng of gypsum plaster on metal lath. Lath 
attached to V furring channels with 0.049" (No. 18 
B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 6" on center. ^1^" 
channel saddle tied to 2" channels with doubled 
0.065" (No. 16 B.W. gage) wire ties. 2" channels 
spaced 36" on center suspended 2" below steel 
framing and saddle-tied with 0.165" (No. 8 B.W. 
gage) wire. Plaster mixed 1:2 by weight, 
gypsum-to-sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


1% 


1 


— 


— 


V 


V 


11.1 V2"-deep steel roof deck 
on steel-framing wood 
fiber insulation board, 17.5 
pcf density on top applied 
over a 15-lb asphalt- 
saturated felt. Class A or B 
roof covering. 


11-1.1 


Ceiling of gypsum plaster on metal lath. Lath 
attached to V/' furring channels with 0.049" (No. 18 
B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 6" on center. %" 
channels saddle tied to 2" channels with doubled 
0.065" (No. 16 B.W. gage) wire ties. 2" channels 
spaced 36" on center suspended 2" below steel 
framing and saddle tied with 0.165" (No. 8 B.W. 
gage) wire. Plaster mixed 1:2 for scratch coat and 
1:3 for brown coat, by weight, gypsum-to-sand 
aggregate for 1-hour system. For 2-hour system, 
plaster mix is 1:2 by weight, gypsum-to-sand 
aggregate. 


~ 


— 


IV2 


1 


— 


— 


V 


V 



(continued) 



2003 iMTERSSBATDOSSSAL BOBLDEiSSG CODE® 



123 



RRE-RESISTANCE»RATED CONSTRUCTION 





TABLE 720.1(3)— contDOued 

tvaifsmiviusi/i protection for floor and roof syste^s^ 


q 














FLOOR OR ROOF 
C0NSTRUCT80N 


BTEWi 
NUMBER 


CEOLBNG CONSTRUCTION 


THBCKNESS OF FLOOR 

OR ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 


MiNIMUM THICKNESS 

OF CEILING 

(inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 

hour 


1 
hour 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


12. 1 V2" deep steel roof deck 
on steel-framing insulation 
of rigid board consisting 
of expanded perlite and 
fibers impregnated with 
integral asphalt 
waterproofing; density 9 to 
12 pcf secured to metal 
roof deck by V2" wide 
ribbons of waterproof, 
cold-process liquid 
adhesive spaced 6" apart. 
Steel joist or hght steel 
construction with metal 
roof deck, insulation, and 
Class A or B built-up roof 
covering.^ 


12-1.1 


Gypsum-vermiculite plaster on metal lath wire tied 
at 6" intervals to ^Z^'' furring channels spaced 12" on 
center and wire tied to 2" runner channels spaced 
32" on center. Runners wire tied to bottom chord of 
steel joists. 


— 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


% 


— 


13. Double wood floor over 
wood joists spaced 16" on 
center."^'" 


13-1.1 


Gypsum plaster over Vg" Type X gypsum lath. Lath 
initially applied with not less than four iVg" by No. 
13 gage by ^^/^" head plasterboard blued nails per 
bearing. Continuous stripping over lath along all 
joist lines. Stripping consists of 3" wide strips of 
metal lath attached by 1 V2" by No. 1 1 gage by 72" 
head roofing nails spaced 6" on center. Alternate 
stripping consists of 3" wide 0.049" diameter wire 
stripping weighing 1 pound per square yard and 
attached by No. 16 gage by 1 V2" by %" crown width 
staples, spaced 4" on center. Where alternate 
stripping is used, the lath nailing may consist of two 
nails at each end and one nail at each intermediate 
bearing. Plaster mixed 1:2 by weight, 
gypsum-to-sand aggregate. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


% 


13-1.2 


Cement or gypsum plaster on metal lath. Lath 
fastened with 1 ^f/ by No. 1 1 gage by Vj^" head 
barbed shank roofing nails spaced 5" on center. 
Plaster mixed 1:2 for scratch coat and 1:3 for brown 
coat, by weight, cement to sand aggregate. 


~ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


% 


13-1.3 


Perlite or vermicuhte gypsum plaster on metal lath 
secured to joists with 1 V2" by No. 1 1 gage by ^/jg" 
head barbed shank roofing nails spaced 5" on center. 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


^8 


13-1.4 


'/2" Type X gypsum wallboard'^ nailed to joists with 
5d cooler^ or wallboard*^ nails at 6" on center. End 
joints of wallboard centered on joists. 


— 


— 


— 


— 




— 


— 


% 


14. Plywood stressed skin 
panels consisting of 
Vg^-thick interior C-D 
(exterior glue) top stressed 
skin on T x 6"nominal 
(minimum) stringers. 
Adjacent panel edges 
joined with 8d common 
wire nails spaced 6" on 
center. Stringers spaced 
12" maximum on center. 


14-1.1 


V2"-thick wood fiberboard weighing 15 to 18 pounds 
per cubic foot installed with long dimension parallel 
to stringers or %" C-D (exterior glue) plywood 
glued and/or nailed to stringers. Nailing to be with 
5d cooler° or wallboard" nails at 12" on center. 
Second layer of Vj" Type X gypsum wallboard^ 
apphed with long dimension perpendicular to joists 
and attached with 8d cooler" or wallboard" nails at 
6" on center at end joints and 8" on center elsewhere. 
Wallboard joints staggered with respect to fiberboard 
joints. 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1 



(continued) 



124 



2003 BOTERMATBOhJAL BUBLD8NG CODE® 



FIRE=RESDSTA1NICE-RATE0C0ES9STRUCTQ0W 





TABLE 720.1(3)— confilooed 
[ViD[MDMyR/a PR0TECTBOM FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEMS^ 


q 














FLOOR OR ROOF 
C0^3STRUCTD0N 


DTEM 
NUMBER 


CEMHG COSSSSTRUCTIOW 


THICKNESS OF FLOOR 

OR ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 


MDNIGVIUM THICKNESS 

OF CEILING 
(inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 

hour 


1 
hour 


15. Vermiculite concrete slab 
proportioned 1:4 (portland 
cement to vermiculite 
aggregate) on a 1 72"-deep 
steel deck supported on 
individually protected steel 
framing. Maximum span 
ofdeck6'-10" where deck 
is less than 0.019 inch 
(No. 26 carbon steel sheet 
gage) or greater. Slab 
reinforced with 4" x 8" 
0.109/0.083" (No. '2/i4 
B.W. gage) welded wire 
mesh. 


15-1.1 


None 


— 


— 


— 


y 


— 


— 


— 


— 


16. Perlite concrete slab 

proportioned 1 :6 (portland 
cement to perlite 
aggregate) on a iV/'-deep 
steel deck supported on 
individually protected steel 
framing. Slab reinforced 
with 4" X 8" 0.109/0.083" 
(No.i2/i4B.W.gage) 
welded wire mesh. 


16-1.1 


None 


— 


— 


— 


3V2J 


— 


— 


— 


— 


17. PerUte concrete slab 

proportioned 1 :6 (portland 
cement to perlite 
aggregate) on a ^/jg^-deep 
steel deck supported by 
steel joists 4' on center. 
Class A or B roof covering 
on top. 


17-1.1 


Perhte gypsum plaster on metal lath wire tied to %" 
furring channels attached with 0.065 -inch (No. 16 
B.W. gage) wire ties to lower chord of joists. 


— 


2P 


2P 


— 


— 


% 


% 


— 


18. Perlite concrete slab 

proportioned 1:6 (portland 
cement to perlite 
aggregate) on 1 V4"-deep 
steel deck supported on 
individually protected steel 
framing. Maximum span 
of deck 6'- 10" where deck 
is less than 0.019" (No. 26 
carbon sheet steel gage) 
and 8'-0" where deck is 
0.019" (No. 26 carbon 
sheet steel gage) or 
greater. Slab reinforced 
with 0.042" (No. 19 B.W. 
gage) hexagonal wire 
mesh. Class A or B roof 
covering on top. 


18-1.1 


None 


— 


2V4P 


2V4P 








— 





(continued) 



2003 HiSITERiSiATIOBSiAL BUILDflMG CODE® 



125 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTBOM 



TABLE 720.1(3)— continued 
MINIMUM PROTECTDON FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEMS^*' 



FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 



ITEM 
NUMBER 



CEILING CONSTRUCTION 



THDCKNESS OF FLOOR OR 

ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 



4 hour 3 hour 2 hour 1 hour 



MINIMUM THICKNESS 

OF CEILING 
(inches) 



4 hour 3 hour 2 hour 1 hour 



19. Floor and beam 

construction consisting 
of 3 "-deep cellular 
steel floor unit 
mounted on steel 
members with 1 :4 
(proportion of portland 
cement to perlite 
aggregate) 

perlite-concrete floor 
slab on top. 



19-1.1 



Suspended envelope ceiling of perlite 
gypsum plaster on metal lath attached to %" 
cold-rolled channels, secured to 1 V2" 
cold-rolled channels spaced 42" on center 
supported by 0.203 inch (No. 6 B.W. gage) 
wire 36" on center. Beams in envelope with 
3" minimum airspace between beam soffit 
and lath have a 4-hour rating. 



2P 



20. Perlite concrete 
proportioned 1:6 
(portland cement to 
perlite aggregate) 
poured to Vg-inch 
thickness above top of 
corrugations of 
iVjg^-deep galvanized 
steel deck maximum 
span 8'-0" for 
0.024-inch (No. 24 
galvanized sheet gage) 
or 6' 0" for 0.019-inch 
(No. 26 galvanized 
sheet gage) with deck 
supported by 
individually protected 
steel framing. 
Approved polystyrene 
foam plastic insulation 
board having a flame 
spread not exceeding 
75 (1" to 4" thickness) 
with vent holes that 
approximate 3 percent 
of the board surface 
area placed on top of 
perUte slurry. A 2' by 
4' insulation board 
contains six 2V4" 
diameter holes. Board 
covered with 27/' 
minimum perlite 
concrete slab. 



20-1.1 



None 



Varies 



(continued) 



126 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FDRE-RESDSTA6VICE-RATE0 COf^STRUCTiOM 
TABLE 720.1(3)— cortSoyed 
MiMIWlUM PROTECTDOfiSI FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEiiS^'^ 



FLOOR OR ROOF 
CONSTRUCTION 


DTEM 
NUMBER 


CEILDNG CONSTRUCTION 


THDCKNESS OF FLOOR OR 

ROOF SLAB 

(inches) 


WJDNDyUM THDCKNESS 

OF CEBLING 

(inches) 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


4 
hour 


3 
hour 


2 
hour 


1 
hour 


(continued) 
20. Slab reinforced with mesh 
consisting of 0.042 inch 
(No. 19B.W. gage) 
galvanized steel wire 
twisted together to form 2" 
hexagons with straight 
0.065 inch (No. 16 B.W. 
gage) galvanized steel wire 
woven into mesh and 
spaced 3". Alternate slab 
reinforcement shall be 
permitted to consist of 4" x 
8", 0.109/0.238-inch (No. 
12/4 B.W. gage), or 2" X 2", 
0.083/0.083-inch (No. 
14/14 B.W. gage) welded 
wire fabric. Class A or B 
roof covering on top. 


20-1.1 


None 


— 


— 


Varies 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


21. Wood joists, floor trusses 
and flat or pitched roof 
trusses spaced a maximum 
24" o.c. with V2" wood 
structural panels with 
exterior glue applied at 
right angles to top of joist 
or top chord of trusses with 
8d nails. The wood 
structural panel thickness 
shall not be less than 
nominal 72" less than 
required by Chapter 23. 


21-1.1 


Base layer Vg" Type X gypsum wallboard applied 
at right angles to joist or truss 24" o.c. with 1 7/' 
Type S or Type W dry wall screws 24" o.c. Face 
layer ^/g" Type X gypsum wallboard or veneer 
base appUed at right angles to joist or truss 
through base layer with iVg" Type S or Type W 
dry wall screws 12" o.c. at joints and intermediate 
joist or truss. Face layer Type G dry wall screws 
placed 2" back on either side of face layer end 
joints, 12" o.c. 


— 


— 


— 


Varies 


— 




— 


l'/4 


22. Steel joists, floor trusses 
and flat or pitched roof 
trusses spaced a maximum 
24" o.c. with V2" wood 
structural panels with 
exterior glue applied at 
right angles to top of joist 
or top chord of trusses with 
No. 8 screws. The wood 
structural panel thickness 
shall not be less than 
nominal '/2" nor less than 
required by Chapter 22. 


22-1.1 


Base layer ^/g" Type X gypsum board applied at 
right angles to steel framing 24" on center with 1" 
Type S dry wall screws spaced 24" on center. Face 
layer ^/g" Type X gypsum board applied at right 
angles to steel framing attached through base layer 
with iVg" Type S dry wall screws 12" on center at 
end joints and intermediate joints and 1 V2" Type G 
dry wall screws 12 inches on center placed 2" back 
on either side of face layer end joints. Joints of the 
face layer are offset 24" from the joints of the base 
layer. 


— 


— 


— 


Varies 


— 






IV4 


23. Wood I-joist (minimum joist 
depth 9V4" with a minimum 
flange depth of iV^^" and a 
minimum flange cross- 
sectional area of 2.3 square 
inches) at 24" o.c. spacing 
with 1x4 (nominal) wood 
furring strip spacer applied 
parallel to and covering the 
bottom of the bottom flange 
of each member, tacked in 
place. 2" mineral fiber 
insulation, 3.5 pcf (nominal) 
installed adjacent to the 
bottom flange of the I-joist 
and supported by the 1 x 4 
furring strip spacer. 


23-1.1 


72" deep single leg resilient channel 16" on center 
(channels doubled at wallboard end joints), placed 
perpendicular to the furring strip and joist and 
attached to each joist by 1%" Type S dry wall 
screws. %" Type C gypsum wallboard applied 
perpendicular to the channel with end joints 
staggered at least 4' and fastened with 1 7g" Type S 
dry wall screws spaced 7" on center. Wallboard 
joints to be taped and covered with joint 
compound. 


— 


— 


~ 


Varies 


— 


— 


— 





2003 agSSTERESSATBONAL BUttLDBMG CODE® 



127 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



Table 720.1(3) Notes. 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 cubic foot = 0.0283 m\ 
1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa = 1 pound per hneal foot = 1.4882 kg/m. 

a. Staples with equivalent holding power and penetration shall be permitted to be used as alternate fasteners to nails for attachment to wood framing. 

b. When the slab is in an unrestrained condition, minimum reinforcement cover shall not be less than 1 Vg inches for 4-hour (sihceous aggregate only); 1 ^1^ inches for 
4- and 3-hour; 1 inch for 2-hour (siliceous aggregate only); and % inch for all other restrained and unrestrained conditions. 

c. For all of the construction with gypsum wallboard described in this table, gypsum base for veneer plaster of the same size, thickness and core type shall be permit- 
ted to be substituted for gypsum wallboard, provided attachment is identical to that specified for the wallboard, and the joints on the face layer are reinforced and 
the entire surface is covered with a minimum of '/,6-inch gypsum veneer plaster. 

d. Slab thickness over steel joists measured at the joists for metal lath form and at the top of the form for steel form units. 

e. (a) The maximum allowable stress level for H-Series joists shall not exceed 22,000 psi. 

(b) The allowable stress for K-Series joists shall not exceed 26,000 psi, the nominal depth of such joist shall not be less than 10 inches and the nominal joist weight 
shall not be less than 5 pounds per hneal foot. 

f. Cement plaster with 15 pounds of hydrated lime and 3 pounds of approved additives or admixtures per bag of cement. 

g. Gypsum wallboard ceilings attached to steel framing shall be permitted to be suspended with 1 V2-inch cold-formed carrying channels spaced 48 inches on center, 
which are suspended with No. 8 SWG galvanized wire hangers spaced 48 inches on center. Cross-furring channels are tied to the carrying channels with No. 18 
SWG galvanized wire hangers spaced 48 inches on center. Cross-furring channels are tied to the carrying channels with No. 18 SWG galvanized wire (double 
strand) and spaced as required for direct attachment to the framing. This alternative is also applicable to those steel framing assemblies recognized under 
Note q. 

h. Six-inch hollow clay tile with 2-inch concrete slab above. 



Four-inch hollow clay tile with lV2-inch concrete slab above. 



j. Thickness measured to bottom of steel form units. 

k. Five-eighths inch of vermicuhte gypsum plaster plus Vj inch of approved vermiculite acoustical plastic. 

1. Furring channels spaced 12 inches on center. 

m. Double wood floor shall be permitted to be either of the following: 

(a) Subfloor of 1-inch nominal boarding, a layer of asbestos paper weighing not less than 14 pounds per 100 square feet and a layer of 1-inch nominal 
tongue-and-groove finished flooring; or 

(b) Subfloor of 1-inch nominal tongue-and-groove boarding or 'Vjj-inch wood structural panels with exterior glue and a layer of 1-inch nominal 
tongue-and-groove finished flooring or ' '^l^j'm^h wood structural panel finish flooring or a layer of Type 1 Grade M- 1 particleboard not less than Vg-inch thick. 

n. The ceiling shall be permitted to be omitted over unusable space, and flooring shall be permitted to be omitted where unusable space occurs above. 

o. For properties of cooler or wallboard nails, see ASTM C 514, ASTM C 547 or ASTM F 1667. 

p. Thickness measured on top of steel deck unit. 

q. Generic fire-resistance ratings (those not designated as PROPRIETARY* in the lisdng) in the GA 600 shall be accepted as if herein listed. 



721.2 Concrete assemMies. The provisions of this section 
contain procedures by which the fire-resistance ratings of con- 
crete assembhes are estabhshed by calculations. 

721.2.1 Concrete walls. Cast-in-place and precast concrete 
walls shall comply with Section 72 1 .2. 1 . 1 . Multiwythe con- 
crete walls shall comply with Section 721.2.1.2. Joints be- 
tween precast panels shall comply with Section 721.2.1.3. 
Concrete walls with gypsum wallboard or plaster finish 
shall comply with Section 721.2.1.4. 

721.2.1.1 Castt-in-place or precast walls. The mini- 
mum equivalent thicknesses of cast-in-place or precast 
concrete walls for fire-resistance ratings of 1 hour to 4 
hours are shown in Table 721 .2. 1 . 1 . For solid walls with 
flat vertical surfaces, the equivalent thickness is the same 
as the actual thickness. The values in Table 721 .2. 1 . 1 ap- 
ply to plain, reinforced or prestressed concrete walls. 

TABLE 721.2.1.1 

MINIMUM EQUIVALENT THICKNESS OF CAST-IN-PLACE 

OR PRECAST CONCRETE WALLS, LOAD-BEARING 

OR NONLOAD-BEARING 



CONCRETE 
TYPE 


MINIMUM SLAB THICKNESS (inches) 
FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING OF 


1-hour 


lV2-hour 


2-hour 


3-hour 


4-hour 


Siliceous 


3.5 


4.3 


5.0 


6.2 


7.0 


Carbonate 


3.2 


4.0 


4.6 


5.7 


6.6 


Sand- 
Lightweight 


2.7 


3.3 


3.8 


4.6 


5.4 


Lightweight 


2.5 


3.1 


3.6 


4.4 


5.1 



72102.1.1.1 Hollow-core precast wall panels. For 
hollow -core precast concrete wall panels in which the 
cores are of constant cross section throughout the 
length, calculation of the equivalent thickness by di- 
viding the net cross-sectional area (the gross cross 
section minus the area of the cores) of the panel by its 
width shall be permitted. 

721.2.1.1.2 Core spaces filled. Where all of the core 
spaces of hollow-core wall panels are filled with 
loose-fill material, such as expanded shale, clay, or 
slag, or vermiculite or perlite, the fire-resistance rat- 
ing of the wall is the same as that of a solid wall of the 
same concrete type and of the same overall thickness. 

721.2.1.1.3 Tapered cross sections. The thickness of 
panels with tapered cross sections shall be that deter- 
mined at a distance It or 6 inches (152 mm), which- 
ever is less, from the point of minimum thickness, 
where Ms the minimum thickness. 

721.2.1.1.4 Ribbed or undulating surfaces. The 

equivalent thickness of panels with ribbed or undulat- 
ing surfaces shall be determined by one of the follow- 
ing expressions: 

For s > 4r, the thickness to be used shall be t 

For s < 2t, the thickness to be used shall be t^ 

For 4t> s> 2/, the thickness to be used shall be 



r + 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



r 



At 



\ 



t -t 
e 



(Equation 7-3) 



128 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FDRE=RESDSTA^CE-RATE0COiSiSTRyCTBOBS3 



where: 

s = Spacing of ribs or undulations. 

t = Minimum thickness. 

te = Equivalent thickness of the panel calculated as 
the net cross-sectional area of the panel divided 
by the width, in which the maximum thickness 
used in the calculation shall not exceed 2t. 

721.2oL2 MMMwytlie walls. For walls that consist of 
two wythes of different types of concrete, the fire-resis- 
tance ratings shall be permitted to be determined from 
Figure 721.2.1.2. 

721o2Ja2ol Two or more wytSieSo The fire-resistance 
rating for wall panels consisting of two or more wythes 
shall be permitted to be determined by the formula: 



R = (R,^'^-^R2^'^ + ...-\-Rj''T' 



where: 



(EqeaMoim 7=4) 



R = The fire endurance of the assembly, minutes. 

i^i, /?2> ^i^d /?„ = The fire endurances of the individual 
wythes, minutes. Values of RJ^-^^ for use in Equation 
7-4 are given in Table 721 .2. 1 .2(1). Calculated fire-re- 
sistance ratings are shown in Table 721.2.1.2(2). 

721,2,lc2=2 JFoam plastic msuIaMoeo The fire-resis- 
tance ratings of precast concrete wall panels consist- 
ing of a layer of foam plastic insulation sandwiched 
between two wythes of concrete shall be permitted to 
be determined by use of Equation 7-4. Foam plastic 
insulation with a total thickness of less than 1 inch (25 
mm) shall be disregarded. The R„ value for thickness 
of foam plastic insulation of 1 inch (25 mm) or 
greater, for use in the calculation, is 5 minutes; there- 
fore/? 0-59 = 2.5. 



uj2 

m 

Oquj 



INSIDE WYTHE 
CARBONATE 



INStDEWYTHE 
SILICEOUS 



UJCO 

12 




THICKNESS OF INSIDE WYTHE, INCHES 



OUTSIDE WYTHE 
CARBONATE 



OUTSIDE WYTHE 
SILICEOUS 




THICKNESS OF INSIDE WYTHE OF SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE, INCHES 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

FBGURE 721.2.1.2 
FDRE-RESBSTAISIICE RATINGS OF 
TWO-WYT[haE COMCRETE WALLS 



721o2.1,3 Jonmte between precast wall paeefls. Joints 
between precast concrete wall panels which are not insu- 
lated as required by this section shall be considered as 
openings in walls. Uninsulated joints shall be included in 
determining the percentage of openings permitted by Ta- 
ble 704.8. Where openings are not permitted or are re- 
quired by this code to be protected, the provisions of this 
section shall be used to determine the amount of joint in- 
sulation required. Insulated joints shall not be considered 



TABLE 721.2.1.2(1) 
VALUES OF R„^-^^ FOR USE M EQOATIOfiSfl 7-4 



TYPE OF MATERIAL 


THICKNESS OF WSATERIAL (inches) 


IV, 


2 


21/, 


3 


31/2 


4 


4V, 


5 


51/2 


6 


6V2 


7 


Siliceous aggregate 
concrete 


5.3 


6.5 


8.1 


9.5 


11.3 


13.0 


14.9 


16.9 


18.8 


20.7 


22.8 


25.1 


Carbonate aggregate 
concrete 


5.5 


7.1 


8.9 


10.4 


12.0 


14.0 


16.2 


18.1 


20.3 


21.9 


24.7 


27.2^ 


Sand-lightweight 
concrete 


6.5 


8.2 


10.5 


12.8 


15.5 


18.1 


20.7 


23.3 


26.0^^ 


Notec 


Notec 


Note c 


Lightweight concrete 


6.6 


8.8 


11.2 


13.7 


16.5 


19.1 


21.9 


24.7 


27.8^ 


Notec 


Notec 


Notec 


Insulating concrete^ 


9.3 


13.3 


16.6 


18.3 


23.1 


26.5^^ 


Notec 


Notec 


Notec 


Notec 


Notec 


Notec 


Airspace^ 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per cubic foot =16.02 kg/w?. 

a. Dry unit weight of 35 pcf or less and consisting of cellular, perlite or vermiculite concrete. 

b. The /?/^^ value for one 7/' to 3 V/' airspace is 3.3. The 7?,,°^^ value for two Vj" to 3 72" airspaces is 6.7. 

c. The fire-resistance rating for this thickness exceeds 4 hours. 



2003 BNTERlvaATGOI^AL BUELDaisSG CODE® 



129 



FBRE-RESBSTAlVSCE-RATEDCONSTRUCTOOfSi 



openings for purposes of determining compliance with 
the allowable percentage of openings in Table 704.8. 

TABLE 721 .2.1.2(2) 
FDRE-RESISTANCE RATBNGS BASED OU R^-^^ 



fl a, MINUTES 


R0.59 


60 
120 
180 
240 


11.20 
16.85 
21.41 
25.37 



a. Based on Equation 7-4. 

721.2olo3 J Ceramic fflber jomt protectnomio Figure 
721.2.1.3.1 shows thicknesses of ceramic fiber blan- 
kets to be used to insulate joints between precast con- 
crete wall panels for various panel thicknesses and for 
joint widths of Vg inch (9.5 mm) and 1 inch (25 nmi) 
for fire-resistance ratings of 1 hour to 4 hours. For 
joint widths between Vg inch (9.5 mm) and 1 inch (25 
mm), the thickness of ceramic fiber blanket is allowed 
to be determined by direct interpolation. Other tested 
and labeled materials are acceptable in place of ce- 
ramic fiber blankets. 

721.2.1,4 Walls with gypsem wallboard or plaster fflini= 
islieSo The fire-resistance rating of cast-in-place or pre- 
cast concrete walls with finishes of gypsum wallboard or 
plaster applied to one or both sides shall be permitted to 
be calculated in accordance with the provisions of this 
section. 

721c2.1,4.1 Noefire-exposed sidco Where the finish 
of gypsum wallboard or plaster is appHed to the side 
of the wall not exposed to fire, the contribution of the 



finish to the total fire-resistance rafing shall be deter- 
mined as follows: The thickness of the finish shall first 
be corrected by multiplying the actual thickness of the 
finish by the applicable factor determined from Table 
721 .2.1 .4(1) based on the type of aggregate in the con- 
crete. The corrected thickness of finish shall then be 
added to the actual or equivalent thickness of concrete 
and fire-resistance rating of the concrete and finish 
determined from Table 721.2.1.1, Figure 721 .2. 1 .2 or 
Table 721.2.1.2(1). 

721.2olA2 Fflre=exposed side. Where gypsum wall- 
board or plaster is appUed to the fire-exposed side of 
the wall, the contribution of the finish to the total 
fu*e-resistance rating shall be determined as follows: 
The time assigned to the finish as established by Table 
721.2.1.4(2) shall be added to the fire-resistance rating 
determined from Table 721.2.1.1 or Figure 721.2.1.2, 
or Table 721.2.1.2(1) for the concrete alone, or to the 
rating determined in Section 721.2.1.4.1 for the con- 
crete and finish on the nonfire-exposed side. 

721.2olo4o3 Nonsymmetrical assemblies. For a wall 
having no finish on one side or different types or 
thicknesses of finish on each side, the calculation pro- 
cedures of Sections 721 .2. 1 .4. 1 and 72 1 .2. 1 .4.2 shall 
be performed twice, assuming either side of the wall 
to be the fire-exposed side. The fire-restance rating of 
the wall shall not exceed the lower of the two values. 

Exceptfloni For an exterior wall with more than 5 
feet (1524 mm) of horizontal separafion, the fire 
shall be assumed to occur on the interior side only. 




3 4 5 6 7 8 

PANEL THICKNESS, INCHES 




For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



r% A SZ ffi 7 Q 

PANEL THICKNESS, INCHES 



LU 



LU 

5 

m 
o 



o 
u. 
O 

CO 
CO 

m 

o 

{- 



1 INCH MAXIMUM REGARDLESS 
OF OPENING RATING 

r CERAMIC FIBER 
BLAN KET _ _ 

1 1 




ESsj ^ 



JOINT 
WIDTH 

CARBONATE OR 

SILICEOUS AGGREGATE 

CONCRETE 

SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT 
■ OR LIGHTWEIGHT 
CONCRETE 



FIGURE 721 .2.1 .3.1 
CERAtVaDC FDBER MMJ PROTECTDOESg 



130 



2003 INTERIVSATIOMIAL BU8LD!NG CODE® 



RRE=eESBSTABSiCE=RATEDCONSTRUCTflOGSi 



TABLE 721.2.1.4(1) 
IViyLTIPLYIlGSlG FACTOR FOR FAMISHES OiVl iMONFDRE-EXPOSED SIDE OF WALL 



TYPE OF FDMDSH APPLIED 
TO MASOMRY WALL 


TYPE OF AGGREGATE USED M CONCRtWb OR CONCRETE RflASOWRY 


Conci'ete: siliceous 

Of carbonate 

Masonry: siliceous or 

calcareous gravel 


Concrete: sand 

lightweight concrete 

Masonry: limestone, 

cinders or unexpected slag 


Concrete: lightweight 

concrete 
Masonry: expanded 
shale, clay or slate 


Concrete: pumice, or 
expanded slag 


Portland cement- sand plaster 


1.00 


0.75^ 


0.75^ 


0.50^ 


Gypsum-sand plaster or gypsum wallboard 


1.25 


1.00 


1.00 


1.00 


Gypsum-vermiculite or perlite plaster 


1.75 


1.50 


1.50 


1.25 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. For Portland cement-sand plaster % inch or less in thickness and applied directly to the masonry on the nonfire-exposed side of the wall, the multiplying factor 
shall be 1.00. 



721o2olo4o4 Mlmmniim conncrete ire^resnstomce rat- 
flHUgo Where finishes applied to one or both sides of a 
concrete wall contribute to the fire-resistance rating, 
the concrete alone shall provide not less than one-half 
of the total required fire-resistance rating. Additionally, 
the contribution to the fire resistance of the finish on the 
nonfire-exposed side of a load-bearing wall shall not 
exceed one-half the contribution of the concrete alone. 

TABLE 721.2.1.4^(2) 

TME ASSflGBMEO TO FQIVSIISH MATERDALS OH 

FSRE-EXPOSED SDDE OF WALL 



FINISHI DESCRDPTDOSSl 


TIME (minute) 


Gypsum wallboard 
Vg inch 
'/2 inch 
% inch 
2 layers of Vg inch 

1 layer % inch, 1 layer V2 inch 

2 layers V2 inch 


10 
15 
20 

25 
35 
40 


Type X gypsum wallboard 
V2 inch 
Vg inch 


25 
40 


Portland cement-sand plaster applied directly 
to concrete masonry 


See Note a 


Portland cement-sand plaster on metal lath 
^/4 inch 
Vg inch 
1 inch 


20 
25 
30 


Gypsum sand plaster on Vg-inch gypsum lath 
V2 inch 
^/g inch 
V4 inch 


35 
40 
50 


Gypsum sand plaster on metal lath 
^/4 inch 
% inch 
1 inch 


50 
60 
80 



For SI: 1 inch == 25.4 mm. 

a. The actual thickness of portland cement-sand plaster, provided it is Vg inch 
or less in thickness, shall be permitted to be included in determining the 
equivalent thickness of the masonry for use in Table 721.3.2. 

721o2olo4o5 Coinicirete ^ODsfees. Finishes on concrete 
walls that are assumed to contribute to the total 
fire-resistance rating of the wall shall comply with the 
. installation requirements of Section 721.3.2.5. 



721o2o2 Concrete loor aod roof skbs. Reinforced and pre- 
stressed floors and roofs shall comply with Section 
721.2.2.1. Multicourse floors and roofs shall comply with 
Sections 721.2.2.2 and 721.2.2.3, respectively. 

721o2a2,l Reimiforced and prestressed floors aed 
roof So The minimum thicknesses of reinforced and pre- 
stressed concrete floor or roof slabs for fire-resistance 
ratings of 1 hour to 4 hours are shown in Table 721.2.2.1. 

TABLE 721 .2.2.1 
Mlfii^il^flyM SLAB THiCKNESS (inches) 



CONCRETE TYPE 


FBRE-RESDSTANCE RATDMG (hour) 


1 


11/, 


2 


3 


4 


Siliceous 


3.5 


4.3 


5.0 


6.2 


7.0 


Carbonate 


3.2 


4.0 


4.6 


5.7 


6.6 


Sand-lightweight 


2.7 


3.3 


3.8 


4.6 


5.4 


Lightweight 


2.5 


3.1 


3.6 


4.4 


5.1 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



721.2.2oU HoIlow=core prestressed slabs. For hol- 
low-core prestressed concrete slabs in which the cores 
are of constant cross section throughout the length, 
the equivalent thickness shall be permitted to be ob- 
tained by dividing the net cross-sectional area of the 
slab including grout in the joints, by its width. 

721.2o2olo2 Slabs witln sloping soffitSo The thickness 
of slabs with sloping soffits (see Figure 721.2.2.1.2) 
shall be determined at a distance 2t or 6 inches (152 
mm), whichever is less, from the point of minimum 
thickness, where t is the minimum thickness. 



DETERMINE THICKNESS HERE 




2t OR 6 INCHES. 
WHICHEVER IS LESS 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FHGURE 721.2.2.1.2 

OETERIVIDffslATION OF SLAB THBCKNESS 

FOR SLOPBIMG SOFFITS 



2003 BNTERNATiONAL BODLOfllSgG CODE® 



131 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



721.2.2.1.3 Slabs with ribbed soffits. The thickness 
of slabs with ribbed or undulating soffits (see Figure 
721 .2.2. 1.3) shall be determined by one of the follow- 
ing expressions, whichever is applicable: 

For s > At, the thickness to be used shall be t 

For s < 2t, the thickness to be used shall be t^ 

For 4r > 5 > 2r, the thickness to be used shall be 



t + 



At 



J 



\ 



t -t 
e 



V 



(Equation 7-5) 



J 



where: 

s = Spacing of ribs or undulations. 

t = Minimum thickness. 

te = Equivalent thickness of the slab calculated as 
the net area of the slab divided by the width, in 
which the maximum thickness used in the cal- 
culation shall not exceed 2t. 



CARBCH^TE BASE 



SILICEOUS BASE 



xz 4 



UIO 1 



b 






^ 


^\^^\^hr. 


■ 


N 


\2hNw N^ 


" 




\lhr. X. >. 


\ 


- 




\ 




12345 12345 

T1HICKNESS OF NORMAL-WEI GHfT CONCRETE BASE SLAB, INCHES 



CARBONATE OVERLAY 



SILICEOUS OVERLAY 




12 3 4 5 

THICKNESS OF SAND-LIGhfTWEIGHT CONCRETE BASE SLAB. INCHES 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



^4j^\zf\zh2F\J' 



FIGURE 721 .2.2.2 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS FOR TWO-COURSE 

CONCRETE FLOORS 



NEGLECT SHADED AREA IN CALCULATION OF EQUIVALENT THICKNESS 



:j 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

FIGURE 721 .2.2.1 .3 
SLABS WITH RIBBED OR UNDULATING SOFFITS 



721.2.2.2 Multkourse floors. The fire-resistance rat- 
ings of floors that consist of a base slab of concrete with a 
topping (overlay) of a different type of concrete shall 
comply with Figure 721.2.2.2. 

721.2.2.3 Multicourse roofs. The fire-resistance ratings 
of roofs which consist of a base slab of concrete with a 
topping (overlay) of an insulating concrete or with an in- 
sulating board and built-up roofing shall comply with 
Figures 721.2.2.3(1) and 721.2.2.3(2). 

721.2.2.3,1 Heat transfer. For the transfer of heat, 
three-ply built-up roofing contributes 10 minutes to 
the fire-resistance rating. The fire-resistance rating 
for concrete assemblies such as those shown in Figure 
721.2.2.3(1) shall be increased by 10 minutes. This 
increase is not apphcable to those shown in Figure 
721.2.2.3(2). 

721.2.2.4 Joints in precast slabs. Joints between adja- 
cent precast concrete slabs need not be considered in cal- 
culating the slab thickness provided that a concrete 
topping at least 1 inch (25 mm) thick is used. Where no 



(c) 



SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT BASE 




4 2 4 2 

THICKNESS OF CONCRETE BASE SLAB, INCHES 



PERLITE CONCRETE 



4 CONCRETE ^ - * 



SILICEOUS BASE SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT BASE 

4| 1 1 i — n 4 




THICKNESS OF CONCRETE BASE SLAB, INCHES 




VERMtCULITE CONCRETE 



SILICEOUS BASE 

-r — T — T 



SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT BASE 
4 



JO 
Ho 




THICKNESS OF CONCRETE BASE SLAB, INCHES 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



FBGURE 721 .2.2.3(1) 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS FOR CONCRETE 

ROOF ASSEMBLIES 



132 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



RBE-RESBSTAWCE-RATEOCOffMSTRUCTIOGSa 



-STANDARD 3-PLY 
BUILT-UP ROOFING 



MINERAL BOARD\W \W^ 



4 CONCRETE ^ ■" 



CARBONATE BASE 

3r 




SILICEOUS BASE SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT BASE 





34 "1234 "123 

THICKNESS OF CONCRETE BASE SLAB, INCHES 



-STANDARD 3-PLY 
BUILD-UP ROOFING 



r/////,QLASS FIBER BOARP////Z 



4 CONCRETE -■ ■* 



CARBONATE BASE 



SILICEOUS BASE 




SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT BASE 

3r 



~\ 3hr.\ 




h-C^ 


d 



3 5 1 3 5 1 3 5 

O THICKNESS OF CONCRETE BASE SLAB, INCHES 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

FIGURE 721 .2.2.3(2) 

FDRE-RESDSTANCE RATBNGS FOR CONCRETE 

ROOF ASSESVaBLBES 

concrete topping is used, joints must be grouted to a 
depth of at least one-third the slab thickness at the joint, 
but not less than 1 inch (25 mm), or the joints must be 
made fire resistant by other approved methods. 

721*2,3 Concrete cover over reneforcemeeHo The mini- 
mum thickness of concrete cover over reinforcement in con- 
crete slabs, reinforced beams and prestressed beams shall 
comply with this section. 

721o2o3ol Slab cover. The minimum thickness of con- 
crete cover to the positive moment reinforcement shall 



comply with Table 721.2.3(1) for reinforced concrete 
and Table 721.2.3(2) for prestressed concrete. These ta- 
bles are applicable for solid or hollow-core one-way or 
two-way slabs with flat undersurfaces. These tables are 
applicable to slabs that are either cast in place or precast. 
For precast prestressed concrete not covered elsewhere, 
the procedures contained in PCI MNL 124 shall be ac- 
ceptable. 

721.2,3«2 Meleforced beam coven The minimum thick- 
ness of concrete cover to the positive moment reinforce- 
ment (bottom steel) for reinforced concrete beams is 
shown in Table 721.2.3(3) for fire-resistance ratings of 1 
hour to 4 hours. 

721o2o3o3 Prestressed beam cover. The minimum thick- 
ness of concrete cover to the positive moment 
prestressing tendons (bottom steel) for restrained and un- 
restrained prestressed concrete beams and stemmed 
units shall comply with the values shown in Tables 
721.2.3(4) and 721.2.3(5) for fire-resistance ratings of 1 
.hour to 4 hours. Values in Table 721.2.3(4) apply to 
beams 8 inches (203 mm) or greater in width. Values in 
Table 721.2.3(5) apply to beams or stems of any width, 
provided the cross-section area is not less than 40 square 
inches (25 806 mm^). In case of differences between the 
values determined from Table 721.2.3(4) or 721.2.3(5), 
it is permitted to use the smaller value. The concrete 
cover shall be calculated in accordance with Section 
721.2.3.3.1. The minimum concrete cover for 
nonprestressed reinforcement in prestressed concrete 
beams shall comply with Section 721.2.3.2. 

721,23o3ol CalcuIatDng concrete cover. The con- 
crete cover for an individual tendon is the minimum 
thickness of concrete between the surface of the ten- 
don and the fire-exposed surface of the beam, except 
that for ungrouped ducts, the assumed cover thick- 
ness is the minimum thickness of concrete between 
the surface of the duct and the fire-exposed surface 
of the beam. For beams in which two or more ten- 
dons are used, the cover is assumed to be the average 
of the minimum cover of the individual tendons. For 
corner tendons (tendons equal distance from the bot- 
tom and side), the minimum cover used in the calcu- 
lation shall be one-half the actual value. For 
stemmed members with two or more prestressing 



TABLE 721 .2.3(1) 
COVER THDCKisaESS FOR REIMFORCED COMCRETE FLOOR OR ROOF SLABS (finches) 



CONCRETE AGGREGATE TYPE 


FORE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


Restrained 


Unrestrained 


1 


1V2 


2 


3 


4 


1 


^\ 


2 


3 


4 


Siliceous 


% 


\ 


% 


% 


% 


\ 


% 


1 


1V4 


1% 


Carbonate 


\ 


% 


% 


\ 


% 


V4 


\ 


% 


l'/4 


IV4 


Sand-lightweight or lightweight 


\ 


% 


% 


% 


\ 


% 


% 


% 


IV4 


IV4 



For SI; 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



2003 BgSiTERiSSATDOisiAL BUBLOiiSiG CODE® 



133 



RRE-RESISTANCE-RATEDCONSTRUCTIOM 



TABLE 721 .2.3(2) 
COVER THICKNESS FQR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE FLOOR OR ROOF SLABS (inches) 



CONCRETE AGGREGATE TYPE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


Restrained 


Unrestrained 


1 


VI, 


2 


3 


4 


1 


11/, 


2 


3 


4 


Siliceous 


'U 


% 


\ 


\ 


% 


iv; 


l'/2 


1^4 


2\ 


2V4 


Carbonate 


% 


% 


% 


% 


'U 


1 


1% 


1% 


2\ 


2'/4 


Sand-lightweight or lightweight 


% 


% 


% 


% 


% 


1 


1% 


1'/, 


2 


2V, 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



TABLE 721 .2.3(3) 

MINIMUM COVER FOR MAIN REINFORCING BARS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS'" 

(APPLICABLE TO ALL TYPES OF STRUCTURAL CONCRETE) 



RESTRAINED OR 
UNRESTRAINED^ 


BEAM WIDTH» 
(Inches) 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


IV, 


2 


3 


4 


Restrained 


5 

7 

>10 








V 


IV/ 


Unrestrained 


5 

7 

>10 




1 


IV4 


1^4 
1 


3 
IV4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Tabulated values for restrained assemblies apply to beams spaced more than 4 feet on center. For restrained beams spaced 4 feet or less on center, minimum cover 
of V4 inch is adequate for ratings of 4 hours or less. 

b. For beam widths between the tabulated values, the minimum cover thickness can be determined by direct interpolation. 

c. The cover for an individual reinforcing bar is the minimum thickness of concrete between the surface of the bar and the fire-exposed surface of the beam. For 
beams in which several bars are used, the cover for comer bars used in the calculation shall be reduced to one-half of the actual value. The cover for an individual 
bar must be not less than one-half of the value given in Table 721.2.3(3) nor less than V4 inch. 



TABLE 721 .2.3(4) 
MINIMUM COVER FOR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BEAMS 8 INCHES OR GREATER IN WIDTH 



RESTRAINED OR 
UNRESTRAINED^ 


CONCRETE 
AGGREGATE TYPE 


BEAM WIDTHS 
(inches) 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


1 


IV, 


2 


3 


4 


Restrained 


Carbonate or siliceous 
Carbonate or siliceous 
Sand lightweight 
Sand lightweight 


8 
>12 

8 
>12 


IV2 
IV2 
IV2 
IV2 


IV, 
1V2 
1V2 
1V2 


l'/2 
l'/2 
17, 
IV, 


1%^ 

IV, 
IV, 
IV, 


2V2'' 
2B 


Unrestrained 


Carbonate or siliceous 
Carbonate or siliceous 
Sand lightweight 
Sand lightweight 


8 
>12 

8 
>12 


l'/2 
IV2 
IV2 
IV2 


1V4 
IV, 
IV2 
1V2 


2V, 

1'// 

2 

1^/8 


5'^ 
2V, 
3V4 

2 


3 
2V, 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Tabulated values for restrained assemblies apply to beams spaced more than 4 feet on center. For restrained beams spaced 4 feet or less on center, minimum cover 
of V4 inch is adequate for 4-hour ratings or less. 

b. For beam widths between 8 inches and 12 inches, minimum cover thickness can be determined by direct interpolation. 

c. Not practical for 8-inch-wide beam but shown for purposes of interpolation. 



134 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



RRE-RESDSTANCE-RATEDGO^STRUCTQOEVa 





TABLE 721 .2.3(5) 
MBD^DGiUft/a COVER FOR PRESTRESSED CO^iCRETE BEAliS OF ALL WIDTHS 




RESTRAONED OR 
UBVSRESTRAINEDa 


CONCRETE 
AGGREGATE TYPE 


BEAM AREAb 
A (square iocihes) 


RRE-RESISTAMCE RATING (hours) 


1 


Vf, 


2 


3 


4 


Restrained 


All 


40 < A < 150 


1% 


IV, 


2 


2V, 


— 


Carbonate or 
siliceous 


150<A<300 


IV, 


IV, 


iv, 


1V4 


2V, 


300 < A 


1V2 


IV, 


l'/2 


17, 


2 


Sand lightweight 


150 < A 


1% 


IV, 


IV2 


17, 


2 


Unrestrained 


All 


40 < A < 150 


2 


2V, 








— 


Carbonate or 
siliceous 


150<A<300 


IV, 


1% 


2% 








300 < A 


IV, 


IV, 


2 


3^ 


4c 


Sand lightweight 


150 < A 


■ IV2 


IV, 


2 


3c 


4^ 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Tabulated values for restrained assemblies apply to beams spaced more than 4 feet on center. For restrained beams spaced 4 feet or less on center, minimum cover 
of V4 inch is adequate for 4-hour ratings or less. 

b. The cross-sectional area of a stem is permitted to include a portion of the area in the flange, provided the width of the flange used in the calculation does not exceed 
three times the average width of the stem. 

c. U-shaped or hooped stirrups spaced not to exceed the depth of the member and having a minimum cover of 1 inch shall be provided. 



tendons located along the vertical centerline of the 
stem, the average cover shall be the distance from the 
bottom of the member to the centroid of the tendons. 
The actual cover for any individual tendon shall not 
be less than one-half the smaller value shown in Ta- 
bles 721.2.3(4) and 721.2.3(5), or 1 inch (25 mm), 
whichever is greater. 

721o2o4 CoEcrele coMminiSo Concrete columns shall com- 
ply with this section. 

TABLE 721 .2.4 
MIIWIiViyBVI DIEiESSllSDON OF C0iS3CRETE COLUMIMS (Eoclhies) 



TYPES OF 
CONCRETE 


FmE-RESDSTANCE RATPG (hours) 


1 


IV, 


2^ 


3a 


4b 


Sihceous 


8 


9 


10 


12 


14 


Carbonate 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


Sand-lightweight 


8 


87, 


9 


IOV2 


12 



For SI: 1 inch = 25 mm. 

a. The minimum dimension is permitted to be reduced to 8 inches for rectangu- 
lar columns with two parallel sides at least 36 inches in length. 

b. The minimum dimension is permitted to be reduced to 10 inches for rectan- 
gular columns with two parallel sides at least 36 inches in length. 

721,2o4,l MnEflmmim smo The minimum overall dimen- 
sions of reinforced concrete columns for fire-resistance 
ratings of 1 hour to 4 hours shall comply with Table 

721.2.4. 

721o2o4o2 MflBimnflm cover for M/C colemniSo The mini- 
mum thickness of concrete cover to the main longitudinal 
reinforcement in columns, regardless of the type of ag- 
gregate used in the concrete, shall not be less than 1 inch 
(25 mm) times the number of hours of required fire resis- 
tance or 2 inches (51 mm), whichever is less. 

72]lo2o4o3 CoMmes talM Smto wallSo The minimum di- 
mensions of Table 721.2.4 do not apply to a reinforced 

2003 BNTERGViATDONAL BUIiLDBfSlG CODE® 



concrete column that is built into a concrete or masonry 
wall provided all of the following are met: 

1 . The fire-resistance rating for the wall is equal to or 
greater than the required rating of the column; 

2. The main longitudinal reinforcing in the column 
has cover not less than that required by Section 
721.2.4.2; and 

3. Openings in the wall are protected in accordance 
with Table 715.4. 

Where openings in the wall are not protected as re- 
quired by Section 715.4, the minimum dimension of col- 
umns required to have a fire-resistance rating of 3 hours 
or less shall be 8 inches (203 mm), and 10 inches (254 
mm) for columns required to have a fire-resistance rating 
of 4 hours, regardless of the type of aggregate used in the 
concrete. 

721o2o4o4 Precast cover emilts for steel coltimims. See 
Section 721.5.1.4. 

721o3 CoEicrete masemiry. The provisions of this section con- 
tain procedures by which the fire-resistance ratings of concrete 
masonry are established by calculations. 

721o3ol EqMvaleimt tMckmesSo The equivalent thickness of 
■concrete masonry construction shall be determined in ac- 
cordance with the provisions of this section. 

721o3olol Concrete masoeiry unit pks SensheSo The 
equivalent thickness of concrete masonry assemblies, 
r^^, shall be computed as the sum of the equivalent thick- 
ness of the concrete masonry unit, 7^, as determined by 
Section 721.3.1.2, 721.3.1.3, or 721.3.1.4, plus the 
equivalent thickness of finishes, T^p determined in accor- 
dance with Section 721.3.2: 



^ ea— ^ e^ ^ ef 



(Equation 7-6) 
135 



FIRE-RESBSTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



r^ = V^/LH- Equivalent thickness of concrete ma- 
sonry unit (inch) (mm). 

where: 

V„ = Net volume of masonry unit (inch^) (mm^). 

L = Specified length of masonry unit (inch) (mm). 

H = Specified height of masonry unit (inch) (mm). 

7213.1.2 Ungrouted or partially grouted coiiistrisc= 
tion. T^ shall be the value obtained for the concrete ma- 
sonry unit determined in accordance with ASTM CI 40. 

721.3.13 Solid grouted construction. The equivalent 
thickness, 7^, of soHd grouted concrete masonry units is 
the actual thickness of the unit. 

721.3.1.4 Airspaces and cells filled with loose-fill ma- 
terial. The equivalent thickness of completely filled hol- 
low concrete masonry is the actual thickness of the unit 
when loose-fill materials are: sand, pea gravel, crushed 
stone, or slag that meet ASTM C 33 requirements; pum- 
ice, scoria, expanded shale, expanded clay, expanded 
slate, expanded slag, expanded fly ash, or cinders that 
comply with ASTM C 331; or perlite or vermicuHte 
meeting the requirements of ASTM C 549 and ASTM C 
516, respectively. 

721.3.2 Concrete masonry walls. The fire-resistance rat- 
ing of walls and partitions constructed of concrete masonry 
units shall be determined from Table 721.3.2. The rating 
shall be based on the equivalent thickness of the masonry 
and type of aggregate used. 

721.3.2.1 Finish on nonfire-exposed side. Where plas- 
ter or gypsum wallboard is applied to the side of the wall 
not exposed to fire, the contribution of the finish to the to- 
tal fire-resistance rating shall be determined as follows: 
The thickness of gypsum wallboard or plaster shall be 
corrected by multiplying the actual thickness of the fin- 
ish by applicable factor determined from Table 
721.2.1.4(1). This corrected thickness of finish shall be 
added to the equivalent thickness of masonry and the 



fire-resistance rating of the masonry and finish deter- 
mined from Table 721.3.2. 

721.3.2.2 Finish on fire-exposed side. Where plaster or 
gypsum wallboard is applied to the fire-exposed side of 
the wall, the contribution of the finish to the total fire-re- 
sistance rating shall be determined as follows: The time 
assigned to the finish as established by Table 
721.2.1.4(2) shall be added to the fire-resistance rating 
determined in Section 721.3.2 for the masonry alone, or 
in Section 721.3.2.1 for the masonry and finish on the 
nonfire-exposed side. 

721.3.2.3 Nonsymmetrical assemblies. For a wall hav- 
ing no finish on one side or having different types or 
thicknesses of finish on each side, the calculation proce- 
dures of this section shall be performed twice, assuming 
either side of the wall to be the fire-exposed side. The 
fire-resistance rating of the wall shall not exceed the 
lower of the two values calculated. 

Exceptions For exterior walls with more than 5 feet 
(1524 mm) of horizontal separation, the fire shall be 
assumed to occur on the interior side only. 

721.3.2.4 Minimum concrete masonry fire-resistance 
rating. Where the finish applied to a concrete masonry 
wall contributes to its fire-resistance rating, the masonry 
alone shall provide not less than one-half the total re- 
quired fire-resistance rating. 

721.3.2.5 Attachment of finishes. Installation of fin- 
ishes shall be as follows: 

1 . Gypsum wallboard and gypsum lath applied to 
concrete masonry or concrete walls shall be se- 
cured to wood or steel furring members spaced not 
more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center (o.c). 

2. Gypsum wallboard shall be installed with the long 
dimension parallel to the furring members and 
shall have all joints finished. 

3. Other aspects of the installation of finishes shall 
comply with the apphcable provisions of Chapters 
7 and 25. 



TABLE 721 .3.2 
MINIMUiVl EQUtVALENT THICKNESS (inches) OF BEARING OR NONBEARING CONCRETE MASONRY WALLS^*'*^'^ 



TYPE OF AGGREGATE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


V2 


\ 


1 


IV4 


11/, 


1^/4 


2 


2V4 


21/, 


2% 


3 


3V4 


31/2 


3^/4 


4 


Pumice or expanded slag 


1.5 


1.9 


2.1 


2.5 


2.7 


3.0 


3.2 


3.4 


3.6 


3.8 


4.0 


4.2 


4.4 


4.5 


4.7 


Expanded shale, clay or slate 


1.8 


2.2 


2.6 


2.9 


3.3 


3.4 


3.6 


3.8 


4.0 


4.2 


4.4 


4.6 


4.8 


4.9 


5.1 


Limestone, cinders or 
unexpanded slag 


1.9 


2.3 


2.7 


3.1 


3.4 


3.7 


4.0 


4.3 


4.5 


4.8 


5.0 


5.2 


5.5 


5.7 


5.9 


Calcareous or siliceous gravel 


2.0 


2.4 


2.8 


3.2 


3.6 


3.9 


4.2 


4.5 


4.8 


5.0 


5.3 


5.5 


5.8 


6.0 


6.2 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Values between those shown in the table can be determined by direct interpolation. 

b. Where combustible members are framed into the wall, the thickness of solid material between the end of each member and the opposite face of the wall, or be- 
tween members set in from opposite sides, shall not be less than 93 percent of the thickness shown in the table. 

c. Requirements of ASTM C 55, ASTM C 73 or ASTM C 90 shall apply. 

d. Minimum required equivalent thickness corresponding to the hourly fire-resistance rating for units with a combination of aggregate shall be determined by linear 
interpolation based on the percent by volume of each aggregate used in manufacture. 



136 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FDRE-RESaSTASSSCE-RATEDCONSTRUCTllON 



721,3,3 Mill tiwy the masoimry wallSo The fire-resistance 
rating of wall assemblies constructed of multiple wythes of 
masonry materials shall be permitted to be based on the 
fire-resistance rating period of each wythe and the continu- 
ous airspace between each wythe in accordance with the fol- 
lowing formula: 



/?^ = (7?,0.59 + 1^^0.59 + 



where: 



(EquaitEOEi 7=7) 



= Fire endurance rating of the assembly 
(hours). 

Rj, R2, ..., Rn = Fire endurance rating of wythes for 1,2, n 
(hours), respectively. 

Aj, A2, ...., A„ = 0.30, factor for each continuous airspace for 
1,2, ...n, respectively, having a depth of V2 
inch (12.7 mm) or more between wythes. 

721<,3o4 Concrete masonry MntelSo Fire-resistance ratings 
for concrete masonry lintels shall be determined based upon 
the nominal thickness of the lintel and the minimum thick- 
ness of concrete masonry or concrete, or any combination 
thereof, covering the main reinforcing bars, as determined ac- 
cording to Table 721.3.4, or by approved alternate methods. 



TABLE 721.3.4 

R/aiNBft/Syil COVER OF LONGBTODBNAL 

REINFORCEIWEISST m FDRE-RESflSTANCE-RATEO 

REINFORCED C0IS3CRETE EiASONRY LINTELS (onclies) 



NOWiDNAL WDDTH 
OF LONTEL (inches) 


FDRE-RESISTANCE RATDNG (hours) 


1 


2 


3 


4 


6 


1% 


2 








8 


IV, 


IV2 


1% 


3 


10 or greater 


1V2 


IV, 


IV, 


1V4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

7213,5 Concrete masonnry coItimmSoThe fire-resistance 
rating of concrete masonry columns shall be determined 
based upon the least plan dimension of the column in accor- 
dance with Table 721 .3.5 or by approved alternate methods. 



TABLE 721 .3.5 

ft/aBNBft/IUM DBMENSQON OF 

COPsSCRETE MASONRY COLUBVINS (Boches) 



FIRE-RESlSTAtSSCE RATDNG (hours) 


1 


2 


3 


4 


8 


10 


12 


14 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

721,4 Clay brick aed tile masoitiryo The provisions of this sec- 
tion contain procedures by which the fire-resistance ratings of 
clay brick and tile masonry are established by calculations. 

721o4,l Masonry walls. The fire-resistance rating of ma- 
sonry walls shall be based upon the equivalent thickness as 
calculated in accordance with this section. The calculation 
shall take into account finishes applied to the wall and 
airspaces between wythes in multiwythe construction. 

721o4olol Eqelvaleiat thkkeess. The fire-resistance rat- 
ings of walls or partitions constructed of solid or hollow 
clay masonry units shall be determined from Table 
72 1 .4. 1 ( 1 ) or 72 1 .4. 1 (2). The equivalent thickness of the 
clay masonry unit shall be determined by Equation 7-8 
when using Table 721.4.1(1). The fire-resistance raring 
determined from Table 721.4.1(1) shall be permitted to 
be used in the calculated fire-resistance rating procedure 
in Section 721.4.2. 



T=VJLH 



where: 



(Equation 7=8) 



T^ = The equivalent thickness of the clay masonry unit 
(inches). 

V^ = The net volume of the clay masonry unit (inch^) . 

L = The specified length of the clay masonry unit 
(inches). 

H = The specified height of the clay masonry unit 
(inches). 

721,41olol Hollow clay lamits. The equivalent thick- 
ness, T^, shall be the value obtained for hollow clay 
units as determined in accordance with ASTM C 67. 



TABLE 721.4.1(1) 
FBRE-RESflSTANICE PERIODS OF CLAY EiASONRY WALLS 



MATERDAL TYPE 


fVilNDIViyWi REQUDRED EQUIVALENT TH8CKNESS FOR FDRE RESlSTANCE«b.<: (inches) 


1 hour 


2 hour 


3 hour 


4 hour 


Solid brick of clay or shale^ 


2.7 


3.8 


4.9 


6.0 


Hollow brick or tile of clay or shale, unfilled 


2.3 


3.4 


4.3 


5.0 


Hollow brick or tile of clay or shale, grouted or filled with 
materials specified in Section 721.4.1.1.3 


3.0 


4.4 


5.5 


6.6 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Equivalent thickness as determined from Section 721.4.1.1. 

b. Calculated fire resistance between the hourly increments listed shall be determined by linear interpolation. 

c. Where combustible members are framed in the wall, the thickness of solid material between the end of each member and the opposite face of the wall, or between 
members set in from opposite sides, shall not be less than 93 percent of the thickness shown. 

d. For units in which the net cross-sectional area of cored brick in any plane parallel to the surface containing the cores is at least 75 percent of the gross cross-sec- 
tional area measured in the same plane. 



2003 fifSITERMATDOfSIAL BUILDING CODE® 



137 



FBRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 721.4.1(2) 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS FOR BEARING STEEL FRAME 

BRICK VENEER WALLS OR PARTITIONS 



WALL OR PARTITION ASSEMBLY 


PLASTER SIDE 
EXPOSED (hours) 


BRICK FACED SIDE 
EXPOSED (hours) 


Outside facing of steel studs: 

V2" wood fiberboard sheathing next to studs, V4" airspace formed with 
^1" X 1 Vg'' wood strips placed over the fiberboard and secured to the studs; 
metal or wire lath nailed to such strips, 3 V4" brick veneer held in place by filling 
V4" airspace between the brick and lath with mortar. Inside facing of studs: V4" 
unsanded gypsum plaster on metal or wire lath attached to V^/' wood strips 
secured to edges of the studs. 


1.5 


4 


Outside facing of steel studs: 

1" insulation board sheathing attached to studs, 1" airspace, and 3V4'' brick 
veneer attached to steel frame with metal ties every 5th course. Inside facing of 
studs: Vg" sanded gypsum plaster (1:2 mix) applied on metal or wire lath 
attached directly to the studs. 


1.5 


4 


Same as above except use Vg" vermicuUte — gypsum plaster or 1" sanded 
gypsum plaster (1:2 mix) applied to metal or wire. 


2 


4 


Outside facing of steel studs: 

V2" gypsum sheathing board, attached to studs, and 3 V4" brick veneer attached 
to steel frame with metal ties every 5th course. Inside facing of studs: V2" 
sanded gypsum plaster (1:2 mix) applied to 72" perforated gypsum lath 
securely attached to studs and having strips of metal lath 3 inches wide applied 
to all horizontal joints of gypsum lath. 


2 


4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

121AAA2 Solid grouted clay units. The equivalent 
thickness of solid grouted clay masonry units shall be 
taken as the actual thickness of the units. 

721.4.1.1,3 Units with filled cores. The equivalent 
thickness of the hollow clay masonry units is the ac- 
tual thickness of the unit when completely filled with 
loose-fill materials of: sand, pea gravel, crushed 
stone, or slag that meet ASTM C 33 requirements; 
pumice, scoria, expanded shale, expanded clay, ex- 
panded slate, expanded slag, expanded fly ash, or cin- 
ders in compliance with ASTM C 33 1 ; or perlite or 
vermiculite meeting the requirements of ASTM C 
549 and ASTM C 516, respectively. 

721.4,1.2 Plaster finishes. Where plaster is applied to 
the wall, the total fire-resistance rating shall be deter- 
mined by the formula: 



721.4.1.3 Multiwythe walls with airspace. Where a 
continuous airspace separates multiple wythes of the 
wall or partition, the total fire-resistance rating shall be 
determined by the formula: 

R = (/?^o.59 + j^^o.59 + _^R0.59 + ^^) 1.7 (Equation 7-10) 



where: 
R 



/?„/?2and/?„ = 



as 



The fire endurance of the assembly 
(hours). 

The fire endurance of the individual 
wythes (hours). 

Coefficient for continuous airspace. 



R = (R0.59+pl^lJ 



(Equation 7-9) 



where: 

R = The fire endurance of the assembly (hours). 
R,^ = The fire endurance ofthe individual wall (hours). 
pi = Coefficient for thickness of plaster. 

Values for R„^-^^ for use in EquaUon 7-9 are given in Ta- 
ble 721.4.1(3). Coefficients for thickness of plaster shall 
be selected from Table 721.4.1(4) based on the actual 
thickness of plaster applied to the wall or partition and 
whether one or two sides of the wall are plastered. 



Values for RJ^^^ for use in Equation 7-10 are given in Ta- 
ble 721.4.1(3). The coefficient for each continuous air- 
space of V2 inch to 3V2 inches (12,7 to 89 mm) separating 
two individual wythes shall be 0.3. 

721.4.1,4 Nonsymmetrical assemblies. For a wall hav- 
ing no finish on one side or having different types or 
thicknesses of finish on each side, the calculation proce- 
dures of this section shall be performed twice, assuming 
either side to be the fire-exposed side ofthe wall. The fire 
resistance of the wall shall not exceed the lower of the 
two values determined. 

Exception: For exterior walls with more than 5 feet 
(1524 mm) of horizontal separation, the fire shall be 
assumed to occur on the interior side only. 



138 



2003 BNTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESDSTANCE-RATEOCOMSTRUCTION 



, 


TABLE 721 A1 (3) 
VALUES OF Hn^-^^ 




/?„0.5S 


R (hours) 


1 


1.0 


2 


1.50 


3 


1.91 


4 


2.27 


TABLE 721.4.1(4) 
COEFFDCBEiSgTS FOR PLASTER, pP 


THBCKNESS OF 

PLASTER (inch) 


ONE SIDE 


TWO SBDE 


\ 


0.3 


0.6 


% 


0.37 


0.75 


% 


0.45 


0.90 



For SI: 1 inch - ISA mm. 

a. Values listed in table are for 1:3 sanded gypsum plaster. 

TABLE 721 .4.1 (5) 
REINFORCED IVaASOBSiRY LIGMTELS 



NOMINAL 

LDNTEL WIDTH 
(inches) 


S\fllNBf\flURfl LONGBTUDINAL REBNFORCEMENT COVER 
FOR FIRE RESISTANCE (inch) 


1 hour 


2 hour 


3 hour 


4 hour 


6 


IV, 


2 


NP 


NP 


8 


VI, 


IV, 


\% 


3 


10 or more 


1V2 


IV, 


IV, 


1^/4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 
NP = Not permitted. 



TABLE 721.4.1(6) 
REINFORCED CLAY B\/aASONRY COLUMSSiS 



COLyE\/lN SDZE 


FBRE-RESflSTANCE RATDNG 
(hour) 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Minimum column dimension (inches) 


8 


10 


12 


14 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

721a4.2 Mmltiwytlhe waSISc The fire-resistance rating for 
walls or partitions consisting of two or more dissimilar 
wythes shall be permitted to be determined by the formula: 

R = (R0.59 + /^^o.59 + ...+/?^o.59) 1.7 (EqaiaMonn 7=11) 

where: 

R = The fire endurance of the assembly 

(hours). 

Rj, R2 and /?„ = The fire endurance of the individual wythes 
(hours). 

Values for R„^-^^ for use in Equation 7-11 are given in Ta- 
ble 721.4.1(3). 

721.4c2ol MoMflwythe walls of dlffereet matedaL For 
walls that consist of two or more wythes of different ma- 
terials (concrete or concrete masonry units) in combina- 
tion with clay masonry units, the fire-resistance rating of 



the different materials shall be permitted to be deter- 
mined from Table 721.2.1.1 for concrete; Table 721.3.2 
for concrete masonry units or Table 721.4.1(1) or 
721.4.1(2) for clay and tile masonry units. 

721.403 Meieforced <d^y masoairy ImltelSo Fire-resistance 
ratings for clay masonry lintels shall be determined based 
on the nominal width of the lintel and the minimum cover- 
ing for the longitudinal reinforcement in accordance with 
Table 721.4.1(5). 

721.404 Memforced clay masonry colirannns. The fire-resis- 
tance ratings shall be determined based on the last plan di- 
mension of the column in accordance with Table 721 .4. 1 (6). 
The minimum cover for longitudinal reinforcement shall be 
2 inches (51 mm). 

721,5 Steel assemMIes. The provisions of this section contain 
procedures by which the fire-resistance ratings of steel assem- 
blies are established by calculations. 

721,5ol Strectaral steel coMmeSo The fire-resistance rat- 
ings of steel columns shall be based on the size of the ele- 
ment and the type of protection provided in accordance with 
this section. 

721, Sold General. These procedures establish a basis 
for determining the fire resistance of column assemblies 
as a function of the thickness of fire-resistant material 
and, the weight, W, and heated perimeter, D, of steel col- 
umns. As used in these sections, Wis the average weight 
of a structural steel column in pounds per linear foot. The 
heated perimeter, D, is the inside perimeter of the fire-re- 
sistant material in inches as illustrated in Figure 
721.5.1(1). 

721o5.1olol MoeIoad=!bearieg protection. The appli- 
cation of these procedures shall be limited to column 
assemblies in which the fire-resistant material is not 
designed to carry any of the load acting on the col- 
umn. 

721.5.1.1.2 EmbedmentSo In the absence of substan- 
tiating fire-endurance test results, ducts, conduit, pip- 
ing, and similar mechanical, electrical, and plumbing 
installations shall not be embedded in any required 
fire-resistant materials. 

721.50101.3 Weiglit=to=perimeter ratio. Table 
721.5.1(1) contains weight-to-heated-perimeter ratios 
(W/D) for both contour and box fire-resistant profiles, 
for the wide flange shapes most often used as columns. 




D=4bf+2d-2tw 



D=2(a+d) 



D=2{bf + d) 



FBGURE 721.5.1(1) 

DETEeSVifliMATIOMI OF THE HEATED PERfliWIETER 

OF STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUi\fliySS 



2003 DNTERisgATDO^IAL BUaLDDfVflG CODE® 



139 



FIRE-RESSSTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 




V' 



S_ gaU 



-No.8x1/2" SHEET STEEL 
SCREWS SPACED 12''o.c. 



5/16" 
MIN. 




SNAP-LOCK PITTSBURGH SEAM 

CORNER JOINT DETAILS (A) 



LAP 



FIGURE 721 .5.1 (2) 

GYPSUM WALLBOARD PROTECTED STRUCTURAL STEEL 

COLUMNS WITH SHEET STEEL COLUMN COVERS 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 305 mm. 

1. Structural steel column, either wide flange or tubular shapes. 

2. Type X gypsum wallboard in accordance with ASTM C 36. For single-layer 
applications, the wallboard shall be applied vertically with no horizontal 
joints. For multiple-layer applications, horizontal joints are permitted at a 
minimum spacing of 8 feet, provided that the joints in successive layers are 
staggered at least 12 inches. The total required thickness of wallboard shall 
be determined on the basis of the specified fire-resistance rating and the 
weight-to-heated-perimeter ratio (W/D) of the column. For fire- resistance 
ratings of 2 hours or less, one of the required layers of gypsum wallboard 
may be applied to the exterior of the sheet steel column covers with 1-inch 
long Type S screws spaced 1 inch from the wallboard edge and 8 inches on 
center. For such installations, 0.0149-inch minimum thickness galvanized 
steel comer beads with 1 72-inch legs shall be attached to the wallboard with 
Type S screws spaced 12 inches on center. 

3. For fire-resistance ratings of 3 hours or less, the column covers shall be fab- 
ricated from 0.0239-inch minimum thickness galvanized or stainless steel. 
For 4-hour fire-resistance ratings, the column covers shall be fabricated 
from 0.0239- inch minimum thickness stainless steel. The column covers 
shall be erected with the Snap Lock or Pittsburgh joint details. 

For fire-resistance ratings of 2 hours or less, column covers fabricated from 
0.0269-inch minimum thickness galvanized or stainless steel shall be permit- 
ted to be erected with lap joints. The lap joints shall be permitted to be located 
anywhere around the perimeter of the column cover. The lap joints shall be se- 
cured with 72-inch-long No. 8 sheet metal screws spaced 12 inches on center. 
The column covers shall be provided with a minimum expansion clearance 
of Vg inch per linear foot between the ends of the cover and any restraining 
construction. 




1 LAYER 



A 
= 5/8" OR 1/2" 




2 LAYERS =1 1/4" OR 1" 





3 LAYERS = 1 7/8" OR 1 1/2" 



4 LAYERS = 2 1/2" OR 2" 



FIGURE 721 .5.1 (3) 

GYPSUM WALLBOARD PROTECTED STRUCTURAL STEEL 

COLUMNS WITH STEEL STUD/SCREW ATTACHMENT SYSTEM 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = -305 mm. 

1. Structural steel column, either wide flange or tubular shapes. 

2. iVg-inch deep studs fabricated from 0.0179-inch minimum thickness galva- 
nized steel with iV,^ or 1 ^i^-inch legs. The length of the steel studs shall be 
72 inch less than the height of the assembly. 

3. Type X gypsum wallboard in accordance with ASTM C 36. For single-layer 
applications, the wallboard shall be applied vertically with no horizontal 
joints. For multiple-layer applications, horizontal joints are permitted at a 
minimum spacing of 8 feet, provided that the joints in successive layers are 
staggered at least 12 inches. The total required thickness of wallboard shall 
be determined on the basis of the specified fire-resistance rating and the 
weight-to-heated-perimeter ratio (W/D) of the column. 

4. Galvanized 0.0149-inch minimum thickness steel corner beads with 
lV2-inch legs attached to the wallboard with 1 -inch-long Type S screws 
spaced 12 inches on center. 

5. No. 18 SWG steel tie wires spaced 24 inches on center. 

6. Sheet metal angles with 2-inch legs fabricated from 0.0221 -inch minimum 
thickness galvanized steel. 

7. Type S screws, 1 inch long, shall be used for attaching the first layer of wall- 
board to the steel studs and the third layer to the sheet metal angles at 24 inches 
on center. Type S screws l^-inch long shall be used for attaching the second 
layer of wallboard to the steel studs and the fourth layer to the sheet metal an- 
gles at 12 inches on center. Type S screws 274 inches long shall be used for at- 
taching the third layer of wallboard to the steel studs at 12 inches on center. 



For different fire-resistant protection profiles or col- 
umn cross sections, the weight-to-heated-perimeter ra- 
tios (W/D) shall be determined in accordance with the 
definitions given in this section. 

721.5,1.2 Gypsum wallboard protection. The fire re- 
sistance of structural steel columns with weight- 
to-heated-perimeter ratios (W/D) less than or equal to 
3.65 and which are protected with Type X gypsum wall- 
board shall be permitted to be determined from the fol- 
lowing expression: 



R = 130 



where: 



h{W/D) 



(Equation 7=12) 



R = Fire resistance (minutes). 

h = Total thickness of gypsum wallboard (inches). 

D = Heated perimeter of the structural steel column 
(inches). 

W = Total weight of the structural steel column and 
gypsum wallboard protection (pounds per lin- 
ear foot). 

W' = W+50hDn44. 

721.5.1.2.1 Attachment. The gypsum wallboard 
shall be supported as illustrated in either Figure 
721.5.1(2) for fire-resistance ratings of 4 hours or 
less, or Figure 721 .5. 1(3) for fire-resistance ratings of 
3 hours or less. 



140 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FDRE=eESISTANCE=eATE0COMSTRUCTB©[\3 



21/2" 



2" 1 7/8" 



1 1/2" 



11/4" 



Hi 

O 

z 

to 



1 1/2 




WEIGHT-TO-HEATED-PERIMETER RATIO (W/D) 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per linear foot/inch = 0.059 kg/m/mm. 

FDGORE 721.5.1(4) 

FBRE RESflSTANCE OF STRUCTURAL STEEL C0LUMBV3S 

PROTECTED WITH VARBOUS THDCECiSiESSES ©F 

TYPE X GYPSUM WALLBOARD 

a. The W/D ratios for typical wide flange columns are listed in Table 721 .5. 1(1 ). For other 
column shapes, the W/D ratios shall be determined in accordance with Section 
720.5.1.1. 

721J Jo2,2 Gypsum wallboard eqenvaikiiit to com^ 
creteo The determination of the fire resistance of 
structural steel columns from Figure 721.5.1(4) is 
permitted for various thicknesses of gypsum wall- 
board as a function of the weight-to-heated-perimeter 
ratio {W/D) of the column. For structural steel col- 
umns with weight-to-heated-perimeter ratios {W/D) 
greater than 3.65, the thickness of gypsum wallboard 
required for specified fire-resistance ratings shall be 
the same as the thickness determined for a W14 x 233 
wide flange shape. 

721o5olo3 Spray=sipplkdl lSre=reslstaiit nmaiternMSo The 
fire resistance of wide-flange structural steel columns 
protected with spray-applied fire-resistant materials, as 
illustrated in Figure 721.5.1(5), shall be permitted to be 
determined from the following expression: 



R = [C,{WID)+C^}h 



(Equjiatl(0>ini 7=13) 



where 
R 



h 
D 

C, 

w 



= Fire resistance (minutes). 

= Thickness of spray-applied fire-resistant 
material (inches). 

= Heated perimeter of the structural steel col- 
umn (inches). 

and C2 = Material-dependent constants. 

= Weight of structural steel column (pounds 
per linear foot). 




FIGURE 721.5.1(5) 

WIDE FLANGE STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUEVINS WBTH 

SPRAY-APPLDED FDRE-RESiSTANT MATERIALS 

721,5.1o3 J Material-depeedemt comstontSc The ma- 
terial-dependent constants, C, and C2, shall be deter- 
mined for specific fire-resistant materials on the basis 
of standard fire endurance tests in accordance with 
Section 703.2. Unless evidence is submitted to the 
building official substantiating a broader application, 
this expression shall be limited to determining the fire 
resistance of structural steel columns with 
weight-to-heated-perimeter rafios {W/D) between the 
largest and smallest columns for which standard 
fire-endurance test results are available. 

721o5ol3o2 SpFay=appIiec! MemtiicaitloEo Spray-ap- 
plied fire-resistant materials shall be identified by 
density and thickness required for a given fire-resis- 
tance rating. 

721pSoio4 Conicrete=pr©te<ct(Edl cc&MminiSo The fire resis- 
tance of structural steel columns protected with concrete, 
as illustrated in Figure 721.5.1(6) (a) and (b), shall be 
permitted to be determined from the following expres- 
sion: 



(Equiatnoss 7=14) 



i? = i?,(l+ 0.03m) 
where: 

R^ = 10 (WD) «-^ + 17 (h>%,o-2) X 
{I -{- 26 {H/p,c,h{L + h)f-^) 

As used in these expressions: 

R = Fire endurance at equilibrium moisture condi- 
tions (minutes). 

R^ = Fire endurance at zero moisture content (min- 
utes). 

= Equilibrium moisture content of the concrete by 
volume (percent). 

= Average weight of the steel column (pounds per 
linear foot). 

= Heated perimeter of the steel column (inches). 

= Thickness of the concrete cover (inches). 

= Ambient temperature thermal conductivity of the 
concrete (Btu/^r ft °F). 

= Ambient temperature thermal capacity of the 
steel column = 0.1 IW (Btu/ ft °F). 

= Concrete density (pounds per cubic foot). 

= Ambient temperature specific heat of concrete 
(Btu/lb °F). 



m 



W = 



D 

h 

K 

H 

Pc 



2003 BNTERINIATDONAL BUDLOIBSIIG CODE® 



141 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTBON 



= Interior dimension of one side of a square con- 
crete box protection (inches). 

721.5.1.4.1 Reentrant space filled. For wide-flange 
steel columns completely encased in concrete with all 
reentrant spaces filled [Figure 7 2 1. 5.1 (6) (c)], the 
thermal capacity of the concrete within the reentrant 
spaces shall be permitted to be added to the thermal 
capacity of the steel column, as follows: 

H=0.llW+ {p,cjl44) (bjd -A,) (Equation 745) 

where: 

bf = Flange width of the steel column (inches). 

d = Depth of the steel column (inches). 

As = Cross-sectional area ofthe steel column (square 
inches). 

721.5.1.4.2 Concrete properties unknown. If spe- 
cific data on the properties of concrete are not avail- 
able, the values given in Table 721.5.1(2) are 
permitted. 

721.5.1.4.3 Minimum concrete cover. For struc- 
tural steel column encased in concrete with all 
reentrant spaces filled, Figure 721.5.1(6)(c) and Ta- 
bles 72 1 .5 . 1 (7) and 72 1 .5 . 1 (8) indicate the thickness 
of concrete cover required for various fire-resistance 
ratings for typical wide-flange sections. The thick- 
nesses of concrete indicated in these tables also ap- 
ply to structural steel columns larger than those 
listed. 

721.5.1.4.4 Minimem precast concrete cover. For 
structural steel columns protected with precast con- 
crete column covers as shown in Figure 
721.5. l(6)(a), Tables 721.5.1(9) and 721.5.1(10) in- 
dicate the thickness of the column covers required 
for various fire-resistance ratings for typical 
wide-flange shapes. The thicknesses of concrete 
given in these tables also apply to structural steel col- 
umns larger than those listed. 

721.5.1.4.5 Masonry protection. The fire resistance 
of structural steel columns protected with concrete 
masonry units or clay masonry units as illustrated in 
Figure 72 1 .5 . 1 (7), shall be permitted to be determined 
from the following expression: 

R = 0.ll (W/Df' -H [0.285 (TJ'/K^^) ] 

[1.0 + 42.7 { (A/d^ T,) I (0.25/7 + T,) } ^-^ ] 

(Equation 7-16) 
where: 

R = Fire-resistance rating of column assembly 
(hours). 

W = Average weight of steel column (pounds per 
foot). 

D = Heated perimeter of steel column (inches) [see 
Figure 721.5.1(7)]. 



Te = Equivalent thickness of concrete or clay ma- 
sonry unit (inches) (see Table 721.3.2 Note a or 
Section 721.4.1). 

K = Thermal conductivity of concrete or clay ma- 
sonry unit (Btu/hr ft T) [see Table 721.5.1(3)]. 

As = Cross-sectional area of steel column (square 
inches). 

dm = Density of the concrete or clay masonry 
unit(pounds per cubic foot). 

p = Inner perimeter of concrete or clay masonry 
protection (inches) [see Figure 721.5.1(7)]. 

721.5.1,4.6 Equivalent concrete masonry thick- 
ness. For structural steel columns protected with con- 
crete masonry, Table 721.5.1(5) gives the equivalent 
thickness of concrete masonry required for various 
fire-resistance ratings for typical column shapes. For 
structural steel columns protected with clay masonry, 
Table 721.5.1(6) gives the equivalent thickness of 
concrete masonry required for various fire-resistance 
ratings for typical column shapes. 



M 






As 



(a) 


(b) 


(c) 


PRECAST 


CONCRETE 


CONCRETE 


CONCRETE 


ENCASED 


ENCASED 


COLUMN 


STRUCTURAL 


WIDE-FLANGE 


COVERS 


TUBE 


SHAPE 



FIGURE 721.5.1(6) 
CONCRETE PROTECTED STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMNS^ 

a. When the inside perimeter of the concrete protection is not square, L shall be taken as 
the average of L, and L,. When the thickness of concrete cover is not constant, h shall be 
taken as the average of /i, and h^. 

b. Joints shall be protected with a minimum 1 inch thickness of ceramic fiber blanket but 
in nocase less than one-half the thickness ofthe column cover (see Section 720.2.1 .3). 



D=2(w+d)+2(w-t^J D = 71 d 

d 



D = 2w + 2d 














D 


DC 


D 


1 
-> 


u 


o 


D 

n 




D 


□ D 


D 






0.25D 






W SHAPE COLUMN STEEL PIPE COLUMN STRUCTURAL TUBE COLUMN 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

FBGURE721.5.1(7) 

COMCRETE OR CLAY MASONRY PROTECTED 

STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMNS 

d = Depth of a wide flange column, outside diameter of pipe column, or 
outside dimension of structural tubing column (inches). 

(^ = Thickness of web of wide flange column (inches). 
w = Width of flange of wide flange column (inches). 



142 



2003 SNTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FDRE-eESSSTAiSICE-RATE0C0NSTRUCT80liS!l 



TABLE 721 .5.1(1) 
W/D RATIOS FOR STEEL COLUMNS 



STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


CONTOUR 
PROFDLE 


BOX 
PROFILE 


STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


CONTOUR 
PROFDLE 


BOX 

PROFILE 


W14 X 233 


2.49 


3.65 


W10X112 


1.78 


2.57 


x211 


2.28 


3.35 


xlOO 


1.61 


2.33 


xl93 


2.10 


3.09 


X 88 


1.43 


2.08 


xl76 


1.93 


2.85 


X 77 


1.26 


1.85 


xl59 


1.75 


2.60 


X 68 


1.13 


1.66 


X 145 


1.61 


2.39 


X 60 


1.00 


1.48 


xl32 


1.52 


2.25 


X 54 


0.91 


1.34 


xl20 


1.39 


2.06 


X 49 


0.83 


1.23 


xl09 


1.27 


1.88 


X 45 


0.87 


1.24 


X 99 


1.16 


1.72 


X 39 


0.76 


1.09 


X 90 


1.06 


1.58 


X 33 


0.65 


0.93 


X 82 


1.20 


1.68 




X 74 


1.09 


1.53 


W8x67 


1.34 


1.94 


X 68 


1.01 


1.41 


x58 


1.18 


1.71 


X 61 


0.91 


1.28 


x48 


0.99S 


1.44 


X 53 


0.89 


1.21 


x40 


0.83 


1.23 


X 48 


0.81 


1.10 


X 35 


0.73 


1.08 


X 43 


0.73 


0.99 


X 31 


0.65 


0.97 




X 28 


0.67 


0.96 


W12X190 


2.46 


3.51 


X 24 


0.58 


0.83 


xl70 


2.22 


3.20 


X 21 


0.57 


0.77 


xl52 


2.01 


2.90 


X 18 


0.49 


0.67 


X 136 


1.82 


2.63 




X 120 


1.62 


2.36 


W6x25 


0.69 


1.00 


xl06 


1.44 


2.11 


x20 


0.56 


0.82 


X 96 


1.32 


1.93 


X 16 


0.57 


0.78 


X 87 


1.20 


1.76 


xl5 


0.42 


0.63 


X 79 


1.10 


1.61 


xl2 


0.43 


0.60 


X 72 


1.00 


1.48 


X 9 


0.33 


0.46 


X 65 


0.91 


1.35 




X 58 


0.91 


1.31 


W5x 19 


0.64 


0.93 


X 53 


0.84 


1.20 


X 16 


0.54 


0.80 


X 50 


0.89 


1.23 




X 45 


0.81 


1.12 


W4xl3 


0.54 


0.79 


X 40 


0.72 


1.00 





For SI: 1 pound per linear foot per inch = 0.059 kg/m/mm. 



2003 BSMTERMATDOGSaAL BODLDIING CODE® 



143 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 721.5.1(2) 
PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE 



PROPERTY 


NORMAL WEIGHT CONCRETE 


STRUCTURAL LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE 


Thermal conductivity (k^) 


0.95 Btu/hr ft °F 


0.35 Btu/hr ft °F 


Specific heat (c^) 


0.20 Btu/lb °F 


0.20 Btu/lb °F 


Density {PJ 


145 Ib/ft^ 


llOlb/ft^ 


Equilibrium (free) moisture content (m) by 
volume 


4% 


5% 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 Ib/ft^ = 16.0185 kg/m^ Btu/hr ft °F = .1.731 W/(m ■ K) 



TABLE 721.5.1(3) 

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF CONCRETE OR CLAY 

MASONRY UNITS 



DENSITY (tf J OF UNITS (ib/ft^) 


THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY (K) OF UNITS (Btu/hr ft T) 


Concrete Masonry Units 


80 


0.207 


85 


0.228 


90 


0.252 


95 


0.278 


100 


0.308 


105 


0.340 


110 


0.376 


115 


0.416 


120 


0.459 


125 


0.508 


130 


0.561 


135 


0.620 


140 


0.685 


145 


0.758 


150 


0.837 


Clay Masonry Units 


120 


1.25 


130 


2.25 



For SI: 1 pound per cubic foot = 16.0185 kg/m^ Btu per hour foot °F =1.731 W/(m • K). 



144 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FIRE-RESSSTAMCE-RATEDCOSSflSTRUCTDOEV] 



TABLE 721.5.1(4) 

WEBGHT-TO-HEATED-PERtSVIETER RATBOS {W/D] 

FOR TYPBCAL WIDE FLA^IGE BEASWS AND GIRDER SHAPES 



STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


CONTOUR 
PROFILE 


BOX 
PROFILE 


STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


CONTOUR 
PROFILE 


BOX 
PROFILE 


W36 X 300 


2.47 


3.33 


X 68 


0.92 


1.21 


x280 


2.31 


3.12 


X 62 


0.92 


1.14 


x260 


2.16 


2.92 


X 55 


0.82 


1.02 


x245 


2.04 


2.76 








x230 


1.92 


2.61 


W21 X 147 


1.83 


2.60 


x210 


1.94 


2.45 


X 132 


1.66 


2.35 


x 194 


1.80 


2.28 


xl22 


1.54 


2.19 


xl82 


1.69 


2.15 


X 111 


1.41 


2.01 


xl70 


1.59 


2.01 


xlOl 


1.29 


1.84 


xl60 


1.50 


1.90 


X 93 


1.38 


1.80 


xl50 


1.41 


1.79 


X 83 


1.24 


1.62 


xl35 


1.28 


1.63 


X 73 


1.10 


1.44 




X 68 


1.03 


1.35 


W33 x241 


2.11 


2.86 


X 62 


0.94 


1.23 


x221 


1.94 


2.64 


X 57 


0.93 


1.17 


x201 


1.78 


2.42 


X 50 


0.83 


1.04 


xl52 


1.51 


1.94 


X 44 


0.73 


0.92 


xl41 


1.41 


1.80 




xl30 


1.31 


1.67 


W18X119 


1.69 


2.42 


xll8 


1.19 


1.53 


xl06 


1.52 


2.18 




X 97 


1.39 


2.01 


W30 x211 


2.00 


2.74 


X 86 


1.24 


1.80 


xl91 


1.82 


2.50 


X 76 


1.11 


1.60 


xl73 


1.66 


2.28 


X 71 


1.21 


1.59 


xl32 


1.45 


1.85 


X 65 


1.11 


1.47 


xl24 


1.37 


1.75 


X 60 


1.03< 


1.36 


X 116 


1.28 


1.65 


■X 55 


0.95 


1.26 


xlOS 


1.20 


1.54 


X 50 


0.87 


1.15 


X 99 


1.10 


1.42 


X 46 


0.86 


1.09 




X 40 


0.75 


0.96 


W27 X 178 


1.85 


2.55 


X 35 


0.66 


0.85 


X 161 


1.68 


2.33 




X 146 


1.53 


2.12 


W16xl00 


1.56 


2.25 


xll4 


1.36 


1.76 


X 89 


1.40 


2.03 


xl02 


1.23 


1.59 


X 77 


1.22 


1.78 


X 94 


1.13 


1.47 


X 67 


1.07 


1.56 


X 84 


1.02 


1.33 


X 57 


1.07 


1.43 




X 50 


0.94 


1.26 




X 45 


0.85 


1.15 


W24X162 


1.85 


2.57 


X 40 


0.76 


1.03 


X 146 


1.68 


2.34 


X 36 


0.69 


0.93 


X 131 


1.52 


2.12 


X 31 


0.65 


0.83 


X 117 


1.36 


1.91 


X 26 


0.55 


0.70 


X 104 


1.22 


1.71 




X 94 


1.26 


1.63 


W14xl32 


1.83 


3.00 


X 84 


1.13 


1.47 


xl20 


1.67 


2.75 


X 76 


1.03 


1.34 


xl09 


1.53 


2.52 



(continued) 



2003 IMTERNATEONAL BOBLDBNG CODE® 



M5 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 721.5.1(4)— continued 

WEIGHT-TO-HEATED-PERIMETER RATIOS {W/D^ 

FOR TYPICAL WIDE FLANGE BEAM AND GIRDER SHAPES 



STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


CONTOUR 
PROFILE 


BOX 
PROFILE 


STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


CONTOUR 
PROFILE 


BOX 
PROFILE 


X 99 


1.39 


2.31 


X 30 


0.79 


1.12 


X 90 


1.27 


2.11 


X 26 


0.69 


0.98 


X 82 


1.41 


2.12 


X 22 


0.59 


0.84 


X 74 


1.28 


1.93 


X 19 


0.59 


0.78 


X 68 


1.19 


1.78 


X 17 


0.54 


0.70 


X 61 


1.07 


1.61 


X 15 


0.48 


0.63 


X 53 


1.03 


1.48 


X 12 


0.38 


0.51 


X 48 


0.94 


1.35 




X 43 


0.85 


1.22 


W8 X 67 


1.61 


2.55 


X 38 


0.79 


1.09 


X 58 


1.41 


2.26 


X 34 


0.71 


0.98 


X 48 


1.18 


1.91 


X 30 


0.63 


0.87 


X 40 


1.00 


1.63 


X 26 


0.61 


0.79 


X 35 


0.88 


1.44 


X 22 


0.52 


0.68 


X 31 


0.79 


1.29 




X 28 


0.80 


1.24 


W12 X 87 


1.44 


2.34 


X 24 


0.69 


1.07 


X 79 


1.32 


2.14 


X 21 


0.66 


0.96 


X 72 


1.20 


1.97 


X 18 


0.57 


0.84 


X 65 


1.09 


1.79 


X 15 


0.54 


0.74 


X 58 


1.08 


1.69 


X 13 


0.47 


0.65 


X 53 


0.99 


1.55 


X 10 


0.37 


0.51 


X 50 


1.04 


1.54 




X 45 


0.95 


1.40 


W6 X 25 


0.82 


1.33 


X 40 


0.85 


1.25 


X 20 


0.67 


1.09 


X 35 


0.79 


1.11 


X 16 


0.66 


0.96 


X 30 


0.69 ' 


0.96 


X 15 


0.51 


0.83 


X 26 


0.60 


0.84 


X 12 


0.51 


0.75 


X 22 


0.61 


0.77 


X 9 


0.39 


0.57 


X 19 


0.53 


0.67 




X 16 


0.45 


0.57 


W5 X 19 


0.76 


1.24 


X 14 


0.40 


0.50 


X 16 


0.65 


1.07 






W10xll2 


2.14 


3.38 


W4 X 13 


0.65 


1.05 


xlOO 


1.93 


3.07 




X 88 


1.7 


2.75 


X 77 


1.52 


2.45 


X 68 


1.35 


2.20 


X 60 


1.20 


1.97 


X 54 


1.09 


1.79 


X 49 


0.99 


1.64 


X 45 


1.03 


1.59 


X 39 


0.94 


1.40 


X 33 


0.77 


1.20 









For SI: Pounds per linear foot per inch = 0.059 kg/m/mm. 



146 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FDRE-RESDSTAISSCE-RATEOCOi^STRyCTiOM 



TABLE 721.5.1(5) 
RRE RESBSTAi^CE OF COIMCRETE iVIASONRY PROTECTED STEEL COLUIWiiSiS 



COLUMN 
SIZE 


CONCRETE 

iWiASONRY DENSITY 

POUNDS PER 

CUBDC FOOT 


MBNIMUE^ REQUORED EQUIVALENT 
THICE<NESS FOR FIRE-RESDSTANCE 

RATING OF CONCRETE. MASONRY 
PROTECTSON ASSEMBLY T^, (inches) 


COLUMN 
SIZE 


CONCRETE 

MASONRY DENSITY 

POUNDS PER 

CUBIC FOOT 


MINiE^/iOM REQUIRED EQUIVALENT 
THICKNESS FOR FlRE-RESflSTANCE 

RATING OF CONCRETE. MASONRY 
PROTECTION ASSEMBLY T^, (inches) 


l-hoyr 


2-hour 


3-hoyr 


4-hoiJiir 


1-hour 


2-hour 


3-hour 


4-hous' 


W14 X 82 


80 


0.74 


1.61 


2.36 


3.04 


W10x68 


80 


0.72 


1.58 


2.33 


3.01 


100 


0.89 


1.85 


2.67 


3.40 


100 


0.87 


1.83 


2.65 


3.38 


110 


0.96 


1.97 


2.81 


3.57 


110 


0.94 


1.95 


2.79 


3.55 


120 


1.03 


2.08 


2.95 


3.73 


120 


1.01 


2.06 


2.94 


3.72 


W14x68 


80 


0.83 


1.70 


2.45 


3.13 


W10x54 


80 


0.88 


1.76 


2.53 


3.21 


100 


0.99 


1.95 


2.76 


3.49 


100 


1.04 


2.01 


2.83 


3.57 


110 


1.06 


2.06 


2.91 


3.66 


110 


1.11 


2.12 


2.98 


3.73 


120 


1.14 


2.18 


3.05 


3.82 


120 


1.19 


2.24 


3.12 


3.90 


W14x53 


80 


0.91 


1.81 


2.58 


3.27 


W10x45 


80 


0.92 


1.83 


2.60 


3.30 


100 


1.07 


2.05 


2.88 


3.62 


100 


1.08 


2.07 


2.90 


3.64 


110 


1.15 


2.17 


3.02 


3.78 


110 


1.16 


2.18 


3.04 


3.80 


120 


1.22 


2.28 


3.16 


3.94 


120 


1.23 


2.29 


3.18 


3.96 


W14x43 


80 


1.01 


1.93 


2.71 


3.41 


W10x33 


80 


1.06 


2.00 


2.79 


3.49 


100 


1.17 


2.17 


3.00 


3.74 


100 


1.22 


2.23 


3.07 


3.81 


110 


1.25 


2.28 


3.14 


3.90 


110 


1.30 


2.34 


3.20 


3.96 


120 


1.32 


2.38 


3.27 


4.05 


120 


1.37 


2.44 


3.33 


4.12 


W12x72 


80 


0.81 


1.66 


2.41 


3.09 


W8x40 


80 


0.94 


1.85 


2.63 


3.33 


100 


0.91 


1.88 


2.70 


3.43 


100 


1.10 


2.10 


2.93 


3.67 


110 


0.99 


1.99 


2.84 


3.60 


110 


1.18 


2.21 


3.07 


3.83 


120 


1.06 


2.10 


2.98 


3.76 


120 


1.25 


2.32 


3.20 


3.99 


W12x58 


80 


0.88 


1.76 


2.52 


3.21 


W8x31 


80 


1.06 


2.00 


2.78 


3.49 


100 


1.04 


2.01 


2.83 


3.56 


100 


1.22 


2.23 


3.07 


3.81 


110 


1.11 


2.12 


2.97 


3.73 


110 


1.29 


2.33 


3.20 


3.97 


120 


1.19 


2.23 


3.11 


3.89 


120 


1.36 


2.44 


3.33 


4.12 


W12 X 50 


80 


0.91 


1.81 


2.58 


3.27 


W8x24 


80 


1.14 


2.09 


2.89 


3.59 


100 


1.07 


2.05 


2.88 


3.62 


100 


1.29 


2.31 


3.16 


3.90 


110 


1.15 


2.17 


3.02 


3.78 


110 


1.36 


2.42 


3.28 


4.05 


120 


1.22 


2.28 


3:i6 


3.94 


120 


1.43 


2.52 


3.41 


4.20 


W12x40 


80 


1.01 


1.94 


2.72 


3.41 


W8xl8 


110 


1.22 


2.20 


3.01 


3.72 


100 


1.17 


2.17 


3.01 


3.75 


100 


1.36 


2.40 


3.25 


4.01 


110 


1.25 


2.28 


3.14 


3.90 


110 


1.42 


2.50 


3.37 


4.14 


120 


1.32 


2.39 


3.27 


4.06 


120 


1.48 


2.59 


3.49 


4.28 



(continued) 



2003 INTERffslATIOESiAL BUILOBNG CODE® 



M7 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 721.5.1(5)— continued 

FIRE RESISTANCE OF CONCRETE MASONRY PROTECTED STEEL COLUMNS 



NOMINAL TUBE 

SIZE 

(inches) 


CONCRETE MASONRY 

DENSITY, POUNDS PER 

CUBIC FOOT 


MINIMUM REQUIRED 
EQUIVALENT THICKNESS 
FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE 
RATING OF CONCRETE. 
MASONRY PROTECTION 
ASSEMBLY 7^, (inches) 


NOMINAL PIPE 

SIZE 

(inches) 


CONCRETE MASONRY 
DENSITY, POUNDS 
PER CUBIC FOOT 


MINIMUM REQUIRED 
EQUIVALENT THICKNESS 
FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE 
RATING OF CONCRETE. 
MASONRY PROTECTION 
ASSEMBLY r^, (inches) 


1-hour 


2-hour 


3-hour 


4-hour 


1-hour 


2-hour 


3-hour 


4-hour 


4 X 4 X V2 wall 
thickness 


80 


0.93 


1.90 


2.71 


3.43 


4 double extra 
strong 0.674 
wall thickness 


80 


0.80 


1.75 


2.56 


3.28 


100 


1.08 


2.13 


2.99 


3.76 


100 


0.95 


1.99 


2.85 


3.62 


110 


1.16 


2.24 


3.13 


3.91 


110 


1.02 


2.10 


2.99 


3.78 


120 


1.22 


2.34 


3.26 


4.06 


120 


1.09 


2.20 


3.12 


3.93 


4x4x^/8 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.05 


2.03 


2.84 


3.57 


4 extra strong 
0.337 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.12 


2.11 


2.93 


3.65 


100 


1.20 


2.25 


3.11 


3.88 


100 


1.26 


2.32 


3.19 


3.95 


110 


1.27 


2.35 


3.24 


4.02 


110 


1.33 


2.42 


3.31 


4.09 


120 


1.34 


2.45 


3.37 


4.17 


120 


1.40 


2.52 


3.43 


4.23 


4 X 4 X 74 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.21 


2.20 


3.01 


3.73 


4 standard 
0.237 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.26 


2.25 


3.07 


3.79 


100 


1.35 


2.40 


3.26 


4.02 


100 


1.40 


2.45 


3.31 


4.07 


110 


1.41 


2.50 


3.38 


4.16 


110 


1.46 


2.55 


3.43 


4.21 


120 


1.48 


2.59 


3.50 


4.30 


120 


1.53 


2.64 


3.54 


4.34 


6 X 6 X V2 wall 
thickness 


80 


0.82 


1.75 


2.54 


3.25 


5 double extra 

strong 0.750 

wall thickness 


80 


0.70 


1.61 


2.40 


3.12 


100 


0.98 


1.99 


2.84 


3.59 


100 


0.85 


1.86 


2.71 


3.47 


110 


1.05 


2.10 


2.98 


3.75 


110 


0.91 


1.97 


2.85 


3.63 


120 


1.12 


2.21 


3.11 


3.91 


120 


0.98 


2.02 


2.99 


3.79 


6 X 6 X % wall 
thickness 


80 


0.96 


1.91 


2.71 


3.42 


5 extra strong 
0.375 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.04 


2.01 


2.83 


3.54 


100 


1.12 


2.14 


3.00 


3.75 


100 


1.19 


2.23 


3.09 


3.85 


110 


1.19 


2.25 


3.13 


3.90 


110 


1.26 


2.34 


3.22 


4.00 


120 


1.26 


2.35 


3.26 


4.05 


120 


1.32 


2.44 


3.34 


4.14 


6 X 6 X '/4 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.14 


2.11 


2.92 


3.63 


5 standard 
0.258 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.20 


2.19 


3.00 


3.72 


100 


1.29 


2.32 


3.18 


3.93 


100 


1.34 


2.39 


3.25 


4.00 


110 


1.36 


2.43 


3.30 


4.08 


110 


1.41 


2.49 


3.37 


4.14 


120 


1.42 


2.52 


3.43 


4.22 


120 


1.47 


2.58 


3.49 


4.28 


8 X 8 X V2 wall 
thickness 


80 


0.77 


1.66 


2.44 


3.13 


6 double extra 

strong 0.864 

wall thickness 


80 


0.59 


1.46 


2.23 


2.92 


100 


0.92 


1.91 


2.75 


3.49 


100 


0.73 


1.71 


2.54 


3.29 


110 


1.00 


2.02 


2.89 


3.66 


110 


0.80 


1.82 


2.69 


3.47 


120 


1.07 


2.14 


3.03 


3.82 


120 


0.86 


1.93 


2.83 


3.63 


8 X 8 X 3/g wall 
thickness 


80 


0.91 


1.84 


2.63 


3.33 


6 extra strong 
0.432 wall 
thickness 


80 


0.94 


1.90 


2.70 


3.42 


100 


1.07 


2.08 


2.92 


3.67 


100 


1.10 


2.13 


2.98 


3.74 


110 


1.14 


2.19 


3.06 


3.83 


110 


1.17 


2.23 


3.11 


3.89 


120 


1.21 


2.29 


3.19 


3.98 


120 


1.24 


2.34 


3.24 


4.04 


8 X 8 X '/4 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.10 


2.06 


2.86 


3.57 


6 standard 
0.280 wall 
thickness 


80 


1.14 


2.12 


2.93 


3.64 


100 


1.25 


2.28 


3.13 


3.87 


100 


1.29 


2.33 


3.19 


3.94 


110 


1.32 


2.38 


3.25 


4.02 


110 


1.36 


2.43 


3.31 


4.08 


120 


1.39 


2.48 


3.38 


4.17 


120 


1.42 


2.53 


3.43 


4.22 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per cubic feet = 16.02 kg/m-^. 

Note: Tabulated values assume 1-inch air gap between masonry and steel section. 



148 



2003 BNTERNATEONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FDRE-RESlSTANCE-RATEOCOi^STRUCTaOGM 



TABLE 721.5.1(6) 
RRE RESiSTAffMCE OF CLAY MASONRY PROTECTED STEEL COLUMNS 



COLUMN SIZE 


CLAY 

iMASONRY 

DENSITY, 

POUNDS PER 

CUBIC FOOT 


MINliVIUEV] REQUIRED EQUIVALENT THICKNESS 

FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING OF CLAY. 
iVIASONRY PROTECTION ASSEIWBLY T., (inches) 


COLUMN SIZE 


CLAY 

MASONRY 

DENSITY, 

POUNDS PER 

CUBIC FOOT 


MINIMUM REQUIRED EQUIVALENT THICKNESS 

FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING OF CLAY 
MASONRY PROTECTION ASSEMBLY T„ (inches) 


1-hour 


2-hour 


3-hour 


4-hour 


1-hour 


2-hour 


3-hour 


4-hour 


W14x82 


120 


1.23 


2.42 


3.41 


4.29 


W10x68 


120 


1.27 


2.46 


3.26 


4.35 


130 


1.40 


2.70 


3.78 


4.74 


130 


1.44 


2.75 


3.83 


4.80 


W14x68 


120 


1.34 


2.54 


3.54 


4.43 


W10x54 


120 


1.40 


2.61 


3.62 


4.51 


130 


1.51 


2.82 


3.91 


4.87 


130 


1.58 


2.89 


3.98 


4.95 


W14x53 


120 


1.43 


2.65 


3.65 


4.54 


W10x45 


120 


1.44 


2.66 


3.67 


4.57 


130 


1.61 


2.93 


4.02 


4.98 


130 


1.62 


2.95 


4.04 


5.01 


W14x43 


120 


1.54 


2.76 


3.77 


4.66 


W10x33 


120 


1.59 


2.82 


3.84 


4.73 


130 


1.72 


3.04 


4.13 


5.09 


130 


1.77 


3.10 


4.20 


5.13 


W12x72 


120 


1.32 


2.52 


3.51 


4.40 


W8x40 


120 


1.47 


2.70 


3.71 


4.61 


130 


1.50 


2.80 


3.88 


4.84 


130 


1.65 


2.98 


4.08 


5.04 


W12x58 


120 


1.40 


2.61 


3.61 


4.50 


W8x31 


120 


1.59 


2.82 


3.84 


4.73 


130 


1.57 


2.89 


3.98 


4.94 


130 


1.77 


3.10 


4.20 


5.17 


W12x50 


120 


1.43 


2.65 


3.66 


4.55 


W8x24 


120 


1.66 


2.90 


3.92 


4.82 


130 


1.61 


2.93 


4.02 


4.99 


1-30 


1.84 


3.18 


4.28 


5.25 


W12x40 


120 


1.54 


2.77 


3.78 


4.67 


W8xl8 


120 


1.75 


3.00 


4.01 


4.91 


130 


1.72 


3.05 


4.14 


5.10 


130 


1.93 


3.27 


4.37 


5.34 


Steel tubing 


SteeB pipe 


Nominal tube size 
(inches) 


Clay masonry 
density, pounds 
per cubic foot 


Minimum required equivalent thickness 

for fire-resistance rating of clay. 
Masonry protection assembly T., (Inches) 


Nominal pipe size 
(inches) 


Clay masonry 

density, pounds 

per cubic foot 


Minimum required equivalent thickness 

for fire-resistance rating of clay. 
Masonry protection assembly T,, (inches) 


1-hour 


2-hour 


3-hour 


4-hour 


1-hour 


2-hour 


3-hour 


4-hour 


4 X 4 X '/2 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.44 


2.72 


3.76 


4.68 


4 double extra 

strong 0.674 

wall thickness 


120 


1.26 


2.55 


3.60 


4.52 


130 


1.62 


3.00 


4.12 


5.11 


130 


1.42 


2.82 


3.96 


4.95 


4x4x^/8 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.56 


2.84 


3.88 


4.78 


4 extra strong 

0.337 
wall thickness 


120 


1.60 


2.89 


3.92 


4.83 


130 


1.74 


3.12 


4.23 


5.21 


130 


1.77 


3.16 


4.28 


5.25 


4 X 4 X V4 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.72 


2.99 


4.02 


4.92 


4 standard 

0.237 

wall thickness 


120 


1.74 


3.02 


4.05 


4.95 


130 


1.89 


3.26 


4.37 


5.34 


130 


1.92 


3.29 


4.40 


5.37 


6 X 6 X V2 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.33 


2.58 


3.62 


4.52 


5 double extra 
strong 0.750 
wall thickness 


120 


1.17 


2.44 


3.48 


4.40 


130 


1.50 


2.86 


3.98 


4.96 


130 


1.33 


2.72 


3.84 


. 4.83 


6 X 6 X % wall 
thickness 


120 


1.48 


2.74 


3.76 


4.67 


5 extra strong 

0.375 
wall thickness 


120 


1.55 


2.82 


3.85 


4.76 


130 


1.65 


3.01 


4.13 


5.10 


130 


1.72 


3.09 


4.21 


5.18 


6 X 6 X ^4 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.66 


2.91 


3.94 


4.84 


5 standard 

0.258 

wall thickness 


120 


1.71 


2.97 


4.00 


4.90 


130 


1.83 


3.19 


4.30 


5.27 


130 


1.88 


3.24 


4.35 


5.32 


8 X 8 X V2 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.27 


2.50 


3.52 


4.42 


6 double extra 
strong 0.864 
wall thickness 


120 


1.04 


2.28 


3.32 


4.23 


130 


1.44 


2.78 


3.89 


4.86 


130 


1.19 


2.60 


3.68 


4.67 


8 X 8 X 3/g wall 
thickness 


120 


1.43 


2.67 


3.69 


4.59 


6 extra strong 

0.432 
wall thickness 


120 


1.45 


2.71 


3.75 


4.65 


130 


1.60 


2.95 


4.05 


5.02 


130 


1.62 


2.99 


4.10 


5.08 


8 X 8 X 74 wall 
thickness 


120 


1.62 


2.87 


3.89 


4.78 


6 standard 

0.280 

wall thickness 


120 


1.65 


2.91 


3.94 


4.84 


130 


1.79 


3.14 


4.24 


5.21 


130 


1.82 


3.19 


4.30 


5.27 



2003 ifSITERNATiONAL BUiLDiiSgG CODE® 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 



TABLE 721.5.1(7) 

MINIMUM COVER (Inch) FOR STEEL COLUMNS 

ENCASED IN NORMAL-WEIGHT CONCRETE^ 

[FIGURE 721 .5.1 (6)(c)] 



STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 



W14x233 



xl76 



xl32 



X 90 



X 61 



X 48 



X 43 



W12xl52 



X 96 



X 65 



X 50 



X 40 



WlOx 88 



X 49 



X 45 



X 39 



X 33 



W8 X 67 



X 58 



X 48 



X 31 



X 21 



X 18 



W6 X 25 



X 20 



X 16 



X 15 



X 9 



FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 



1V, 



IV, 



IV, 



1% 



IV. 



IV, 



2V, 



2V, 



2V, 



3V, 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. The tabulated thicknesses are based upon the assumed properties of nor- 
mal-weight concrete given in Table 721.5.1(2). 



TABLE 721.5.1(8) 

MINIMUM COVER (inch) FOR STEEL COLUMNS 

ENCASED DN STRUCTURAL LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE^ 

[FIGURE 721 .5.1 (6)(c)] 



STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (HOURS) 


1 


IV, 


2 


3 


4 


W14 X 233 


1 


1 


1 


1 


17, 


xl93 


IV, 


X 74 


2 


X 61 


2V, 


X 43 


IV, 


2 


W12x 65 


1 


1 


1 


IV, 


2 


X 53 


2 


2V, 


X 40 


iv. 


W10xU2 


1 


1 


1 


IV, 


2 


X 88 


X 60 


2 


2V, 


X 33 


IV, 


W8 X 35 


1 


1 


IV, 


2 


2V, 


X 28 


3 


X 24 


2V, 


X 18 


IV, 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. The tabulated thicknesses are based upon the assumed properties of struc- 
tural lightweight concrete given in Table 721.5.1(2). 



150 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



RRE-RESBSTANCE-RATEDCONSTRUCTDOIM 



TABLE 721.5.1(9) 

IWaWIEViUy COVER (mch) FOR STEEL COLUiyiliSSS 

ON iSSORBVIAL-WEBGHlT PRECAST COVERS^ 

[FDGyRE72-J.5.1(6)(a)l 



TABLE 721.5.1(10) 

E^BMISVIUM COVER (mch) FOR STEEL COLUMNS 

m STRUCTURAL LIGHTWEiGB^T PRECAST COVERS^ 

[FDGURE721.5.1(6)(a)] 



STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


FDRE-RESISTANCE RATBSSSG (hours) 


1 


1V2 


2 


3 


4 


W14x233 


IV, 


IV, 


IV, 


2V, 


3 


x211 


3V, 


xl76 


2 


xl45 


3 


xl09 


2 


2V, 


X 99 


4 


X 61 


3V, 


X 43 


4V, 


W12X190 


IV, 


IV, 


IV, 


2V, 


3V, 


xl52 


2 


xl20 


3 


4 


X 96 


X 87 


2 


2V, 


3V, 


X 58 


4V, 


X 40 


W10xll2 


IV, 


IV, 


2 


3 


3V, 


X 88 


4 


X 77 


2 


2V, 


X 54 


3V, 


X 33 


4V, 


W8 X 67 


IV, 


IV, 


2 


3 


4 


X 58 


2 


2V, 


3V, 


X 48 


X 28 


4V, 


X 21 


2V, 


3 


X 18 


4 


W6 X 25 


1'/, 


2 


2V, 


3V, 


4V, 


X 20 


2V, 


3 


X 16 


4 


X 12 


2 


X 9 


5 



STRUCTURAL 
SHAPE 


FORE-RESBSTANCE RATDfMG (hours) 


1 


11/2 


2 


3 


4 


W14X233 


IV, 


IV, 


IV, 


2 


2V, 


xl76 


3 


xl45 


2V, 


xl32 


xl09 


X 99 


2 


X 68 


3V, 


X 43 


3 


W12 X 190 


IV, 


IV, 


IV, 


2 


2V, 


xl52 


xl36 


3 


xl06 


2V, 


X 96 


3V, 


X 87 


X 65 


2 


X 40 


3 


W10X112 


IV, 


IV, 


17, 


2 


3 


xlOO 


2V, 


X 88 


X 77 


2 


3V, 


X 60 


X 39 


3 


X 33 


2 


W8 X 67 


IV, 


IV, 


IV, 


2V, 


3 


X 48 


2 ■ 


3 


3V, 


X 35 


X 28 


2 


X 18 


2V, 


4 


W6 X 25 


IV, 


2 


2 


3 


3V, 


X 15 


2V, 


4 


X 9 


3V, 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. The tabulated thicknesses are based upon the assumed properties of nor- 
mal-weight concrete given in Table 721.5.1(2). 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. The tabulated thicknesses are based upon the assumed properties of struc- 
tural lightweight concrete given in Table 721.5.1(2). 



2003 iNTERE^ATBOMAL BUILDBES3G CODE® 



151 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTfOM 



721.5.2 Structural steel beams and girders. The fire-re- 
sistance ratings of steel beams and girders shall be based 
upon the size of the element and the type of protection pro- 
vided in accordance with this section. 



h,= 



(W, /Di)-h0.60 



(Equation 7-17) 




bf 



D = 3bf + 2d-2t^ 



D = 2d + bf 



FIGURE 721.5.2 
DETERMINATION OF THE HEATED PERIMETER 
OF STRUCTURAL STEEL BEAMS AND GIRDERS 



721.5.2.1 Determination of fire resistance. These pro- 
cedures estabhsh a basis for determining resistance of 
structural steel beams and girders which differ in size 
from that specified in approved fire-resistance-rated as- 
semblies as a function of the thickness of fire-resistant 
material and the weight ( W) and heated perimeter (D) of 
the beam or girder. As used in these sections, Wis the av- 
erage weight of a structural steel member in pounds per 
linear foot (plf). The heated perimeter, D, is the inside 
perimeter of the fire-resistant material in inches as illus- 
trated in Figure 721.5.2. 

721.5.2.1.1 Weight-to-heated perimeter. The 
weight- to-heated-perimeter ratios {WD), for both 
contour and box fire-resistant protection profiles, for 
the wide flange shapes most often used as beams or 
girders are given in Table 721.5.1(4). For different 
shapes, the weight- to-heated-perimeter ratios {W/D) 
shall be determined in accordance with the definitions 
given in this section. 

721.5.2.1.2 Beam and girder substitutions. Except 
as provided for in Section 721.5.2.2, structural steel 
beams in approved fire-resistance-rated assembhes 
shall be considered the minimum permissible size. 
Other beam or girder shapes shall be permitted to be 
substituted provided that the weight-to-heated-perim- 
eter ratio {W/D) of the substitute beam is equal to or 
greater than that of the beam specified in the approved 
assembly. 

721.5.2.2 Spray-applied fire-resistant materials. The 
provisions in this section apply to unrestrained structural 
steel beams and girders protected with spray-appUed 
fire-resistance-rated materials. Larger or smaller unre- 
strained beam and girder shapes shall be permitted to be 
substituted for beams specified in approved unrestrained 
or restrained fire-resistance-rated assemblies provided 
that the thickness of the fire-resistant material is adjusted 
in accordance with the following expression: 



where: 



h - Thickness of spray-appUed fire-resistant mate- 
rial in inches. 

W = Weight of the structural steel beam or girder in 
pounds per Hnear foot. 

D - Heated perimeter of the structural steel beam or 
girder in inches. 

Subscript 1 refers to the beam and fire-resistant mate- 
rial thickness in the fire-resistance-rated assembly. 

Subscript 2 refers to the substitute beam or girder and 
the required thickness of fire-resistant material. 

721.5,2.2.1 Minimum thickness. Equation 7-17 is 
limited to beams with a weight-to-heated-perimeter 
ratio {W/D) of 0.37 or greater. The minimum thick- 
ness of fire-resistant material shall not be less than Vg 
inch (9.5 mm). 

721.5,2.3 Structural steel trusses. The fire resistance of 
structural steel trusses protected with fire-resistant mate- 
rials spray applied to each of the individual truss ele- 
ments shall be permitted to be determined in accordance 
with this section. The thickness of the fire-resistant mate- 
rial shall be determined in accordance with Section 
721.5.1.3. The weight-to-heated-perimeter ratio {W/D) 
of truss elements that can be simultaneously exposed to 
fire on all sides shall be determined on the same basis as 
columns, as specified in Section 721.5.1.1. The 
weight-to-heated-perimeter ratio {W/D) of truss ele- 
ments that directly support floor or roof construction 
shall be determined on the same basis as beams and gird- 
ers, as specified in Section 721.5.2.1. 

721.6 Wood assemblies. The provisions of this section contain 
procedures by which the fire-resistance ratings of wood assem- 
blies are estabHshed by calculations. 

721.6.1 General, This section contains procedures for cal- 
culating the fire-resistance ratings of walls, floor/ceiling 
and roof/ceiling assemblies based in part on the standard 
method of testing referenced in Section 703.2. 

721.6.1.1 Maximum fire-resistance rating. Fire-resis- 
tance ratings calculated using the procedures in this sec- 
tion shall be used only for 1-hour rated assemblies. 

721.6.1.2 Dissimilar membranes. Where dissimilar 
membranes are used on a wall assembly, the calculation 
shall be made from the least fire-resistant (weaker) side. 

721.6.2 Walls, floors and roofs. These procedures apply to 
both load-bearing and nonload-bearing assemblies. 

721,6,2.1 Fire-resistance rating of wood frame assem- 
blies. The fire-resistance rating of a wood frame assem- 
bly is equal to the sum of the time assigned to the 
membrane on the fire-exposed side, the time assigned to 
the framing members and the time assigned for addi- 
tional contribution by other protective measures such as 
insulation. The membrane on the unexposed side shall 
not be included in determining the fire resistance of the 
assembly. 



152 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



FBRE-RESDSTAESgCE-RATEDCOIMSTRUCTflON 



721o6c2c2 Tnme asslgeed tto membrsiiiieSo Table 
721.6.2(1) indicates the time assigned to membranes on 
the fire-exposed side. 

721060203 Exterior wMlSo For an exterior wall having 
more than 5 feet (1524 mm) of horizontal separation, the 
wall is assigned a rating dependent on the interior mem- 
brane and the framing as described in Tables 721.6.2(1) 
and 721.6.2(2). The membrane on the outside of the 
nonfire-exposed side of exterior walls having more than 
5 feet (1524 mm) of horizontal separation may consist of 
sheathing, sheathing paper, and siding as described in Ta- 
ble 721.6.2(3). 

721060204 Floors smd roef§o In the case of a floor or roof, 
the standard test provides only for testing for fire expo- 
sure from below. Except as noted in Section 703.3, Item 
5, floor or roof assemblies of wood framing shall have an 
upper membrane consisting of a subfloor and finished 
floor conforming to Table 721.6.2(4) or any other mem- 
brane that has a contribution to fire resistance of at least 
15 minutes in Table 721.6.2(1). 

72Uo2oS AddMnoMl protectloMo Table 721.6.2(5) indi- 
cates the time increments to be added to the fire resis- 
tance where glass fiber, rockwool, slag mineral wool, or 
cellulose insulation is incorporated in the assembly. 

721o6o2o6 Fastennliiigo Fastening of wood frame assem- 
bhes and the fastening of membranes to the wood fram- 
ing members shall be done in accordance with Chapter 

23. 



TABLE 721.6.2(1) 
TiiiE ASStGNED TO WALLBOARD MES\^BRANES^'^'^'^ 


DESCRIPTDOS^ OF Fm^SH 


JME^ (minutes) 


Vg-inch wood structural panel bonded with 
exterior glue 


5 


'V32-inch wood structural panel bonded with 
exterior glue 


10 


^%2~i^^ch wood structural panel bonded with 
exterior glue 


15 


Vg-inch gypsum wallboard 


10 


V2-inch gypsum wallboard 


15 


Vg-inch gypsum wallboard 


30 


V2-inch Type X gypsum wallboard 


25 


%-inch Type X gypsum wallboard 


40 


Double Vg-inch gypsum wallboard 


25 


'/2- + Vg-inch gypsum wallboard 


35 


Double V2-inch gypsum wallboard 


40 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. These values apply only when membranes are installed on framing mem- 
bers which are spaced 16 inches o.c. 

b. Gypsum wallboard installed over framing or furring shall be installed so that 
all edges are supported, except %-inch Type X gypsum wallboard shall be 
permitted to be installed horizontally with the horizontal joints staggered 24 
inches each side and unsupported but finished. 

c. On wood frame floor/ceiling or roof/ceihng assemblies, gypsum board shall 
be installed with the long dimension perpendicular to framing members and 
shall have all joints finished. 

d. The membrane on the unexposed side shall not be included in determining the fire 
resistance of the assembly. Wlien dissimilar membranes are used on a wall as- 
sembly, the calculation shall be made from the least fire-resistant (weaker) side. 

e. The time assigned is not a finished rating. 



TABLE 721 .6.2(2) 
TME ASSHQEVSEO FOR COffMTRaBUTDON OF WOOD FBAiVaE^'*''*^ 



DESCmPTflOW 


TBftflE ASSIGNED TO FRAME (minutes) 


Wood studs 16 inches o.c. 


20 


Wood floor and roof joists 16 inches o.c. 


10 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. This table does not apply to studs or joists spaced more than 16 inches o.c. 

b. All studs shall be nominal 2x4 and all joists shall have a nominal thickness of at least 2 inches. 

c. Allowable spans for joists shall be determined in accordance with Sections 2308.8, 2308.10.2 and 2308.10.3. 

TABLE 721 .6.2(3) 
MEl^BRAiViE^ OH EXTERIOR FACE OF WOOD STUD WALLS 



SHEATHING 


PAPER 


EXTERIOR FiNiSH 


Vg-inch T & G lumber 




Lumber siding 


V, 6- inch exterior glue plywood 


Sheathing paper 


Wood shingles and shakes 


V2-inch gypsum wallboard 




V4-inch wood structural panels — exterior type 


%-inch gypsum wallboard 




V4-inch hardboard 


V2-inch fiberboard 




Metal siding 
Stucco on metal lath 
Masonry veneer 


None 


— 


%-inch exterior-grade wood structural panels 



For SI: 1 pound/cubic feet = 16.0185 kg/m^. 

a. Any combination of sheathing, paper, and exterior finish is permitted. 



2003 DiSITERiSSATBOlygAL BUBLDING CODE® 



153 



FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTBON 



TABLE 721 .6.2(4) 
FLOORING OR ROOFING OVER WOOD FRAMING^ 



ASSEMBLY 


STRUCTURAL MEMBERS 


SUBFLOOR OR ROOF DECK 


FINISHED FLOORING OR ROOFING 


Floor 


Wood 


'V32-inch wood structural panels 
or ' Vi6 inch T & G softwood 


Hardwood or softwood flooring on building paper resilient 
flooring, parquet floor felted-synthetic fiber floor coverings, 
carpeting, or ceramic tile on Vg-inch-thick panel-type 
underlay 

Ceramic tile on 1 '/4-inch mortar bed 


Roof 


Wood 


^V32-inch wood structural panels 
or "/,6 inch T & G softwood 


Finished roofing material with or without insulation 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. This table applies only to wood joist construction. It is not applicable to wood truss construction. 



TABLE 721.6.2(5) 
TflViE ASSIGNED FOR ADDITIONAL PROTECTION 



DESCRIPTION OF ADDITIONAL PROTECTION 


FIRE RESISTANCE (minutes) 


Add to the fire-resistance rating of wood stud walls if the spaces between the studs are 
completely filled with glass fiber mineral wool batts weighing not less than 2 pounds 
per cubic foot (0.6 pound per square foot of wall surface) or rockwool or slag material 
wool batts weighing not less than 3.3 pounds per cubic foot (1 pound per square foot 
of wall surface), or cellulose insulation having a nominal density not less than 2.6 
pounds per cubic foot. 


15 



For SI: 1 pound/cubic foot =16.01 85 kg/m^. 



721.6.3 Design of fire-resistant exposed wood members. 
The fire-resistance rating, in minutes, of timber beams and 
columns with a minimum nominal dimension of 6 inches 
(152 mm) is equal to: 



Beams: 2.54Z/? (4 -2(b/d)) for beams which may be 

exposed to fire on four sides. 

(Equation 7-18) 



2,54Zb (4 '(b/d)) for beams which may be 
exposed to fire on three sides. 

(Equation 7=19) 



Columns: 2.54Z^ (3 -{d/b)) for columns which may be 
exposed to fire on four sides 

(Equation 7-20) 



2.54Z^ (3 -(d/2b)) for columns which may 
be exposed to fire on three sides. 

(Equation 7-21) 



1.60 



1.50 



1.40 



2 1.30 



1.20 



1.10 



1.0 















COLUW 


MS Kel/d < 


L11 








\ 










BEAMS 
Kel/d> 


- COLUM 
11 


VIS ^^ 


X 








\ 




"X 


^-^ 


.^ 






\ 


"^^ 












^s. 


"^ 


^^^ 



40 60 60 70 80 90 100 

LOAD ON MEMBERS AS A PERCENT OF DESIGN LOAD 



where: 



= The breadth (width) of a beam or larger side of a 
column before exposure to fire (inches). 

= The depth of a beam or smaller side of a column be- 
fore exposure to fire (inches). 

= Load factor, based on Figure 720.6.3(1). 



I 



FBGURE 721 .6.3(1) 
LOAD FIGURE 

The effective length factor as noted in Figure 721.6.3(2). 
The unsupported length of columns (inches). 



154 



2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



BUCKLING MODES 



THEORETICAL Kg VALUE 



RECOMMENDED DESIGN Kq 
WHEN IDEAL CONDITIONS 
APPROXIMATED 



END CONDITION CODE 



1 



0.5 



0.65 



¥ 



0.7 



0.80 






^ 



1.0 



1.2 



I 



1.0 



1.0 



U 



2.0 



2.10 



2.0 



2.4 



ROTATION FIXED. TRANSLATION FIXED 

ROTATION FREE, TRANSLATION FIXED 

ROTATION FIXED. TRANSLATION FREE 
ROTATION FREE, TRANSLATION FREE 



FBGURE 721.6.3(2) 
EFFECTDVE LEi\3GTH FACTORS 



72106.301 Eqmttn^im 7=21. Equation 7-21 applies only 
where the unexposed face represents the smaller side of 
the column. If a column is recessed into a wall, its full di- 
mension shall be used for the purpose of these calcula- 
tions. 

72106.302 Alldjwatok loadSo Allowable loads on beams 
and columns are determined using design values given in 

ANSI/AF&PA NDS. 

721,6o3o3 Fastemier protectiomi. Where minimum 1-hour 
fire resistance is required, connectors and fasteners shall 
be protected from fire exposure by 1 V2 inches (38 mm) of 
wood, or Other approved covering or coating for a 1-hour 
rating. Typical details for commonly used fasteners and 
connectors are shown in AITC Technical Note 7. 

111£3A Mmmem skeo Wood members are limited to 
dimensions of 6 inches (152 mm) nominal or greater. 
Glued-laminated timber beams utilize standard laminat- 
ing combinations except that a core lamination is re- 
moved. The tension zone is moved inward and the 
equivalent of an extra nominal 2-inch-thick (51 mm) 
outer tension lamination is added. 

721 o7 Other reference docememitSo Refer to Section 703.3, 
Item 1, and NBS BMS 71 and NBSTRBM-44 for fire-resis- 
tance ratings of materials and assemblies. 



ReE=eESflSTAWCE=RATEOCONSTRyCT80BS3 



2003 BiSlTERi^^ATiOSsaAL BUiLOiNG CODE® 



155 



1 56 2003 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE® 



IMTEraOR FiiSflSHES 



SECTl'OM 801 
OEMERAL 

BdJlol Scope. Provisions of this chapter shall govern the use of 
materials used as interior finishes, trim and decorative materi- 
als. 



cl,l Iraternor imsheSo These provisions shall limit the 
allowable flame spread and smoke development based on 
location and occupancy classification. 



1. Materials having a thickness less than 0.036 inch 
(0.9 mm) applied directly to the surface of walls or 
ceilings. 

2. Exposed portions of structural members comply- 
ing with the requirements for buildings of Type IV 
construction in Section 602.4 shall not be subject 
to interior finish requirements. 

[F] 801. lo2 DecorMive matmals ansd trimo Decorative 
materials and trim shall be restricted by combustibiUty and 
flame resistance in accordance with Section 805. 

801olo3 Applkatonlnty. For buildings in flood hazard areas 
as established in Section 1612.3, interior finishes, trim and 
decorative materials below the design flood elevation shall 
be flood-damage-resistant materials. 

801.2 AppIkatioEio Combustible materials shall be permitted 
to be used as finish for walls, ceihngs, floors and other interior 
surfaces of buildings. 

801o2ol WmdowSc Show windows in the first story of build- 
ings shall be permitted to be of wood or of unprotected metal 
framing. 

801.2.2 Fo^m plaistks. Foam plastics shall not be used as 
interior finish or trim except as provided in Section 2603.7 
or 2604. 



SECTION 802 
DEFlNmOMS 

M2A General. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

EXPANDED VINYL WALL COVEMNGo Wall covering 
consisting of a woven textile backing, an expanded vinyl base 
coat layer and a nonexpanded vinyl skin coat. The expanded 
base coat layer is a homogeneous vinyl layer that contains a 
blowing agent. During processing, the blowing agent decom- 
poses, causing this layer to expand by forming closed cells. The 
total thickness of the wall covering is approximately 0.055 inch 
to 0.070 inch (1.4 mm to 1.78 mm). 

FLAME RESISTANCE. That property of materials or combi- 
nations of component materials that restricts the spread of 
flame in accordance with NFPA 701. 



FLAME SPREAD. The propagation of flame over a surface. 

FLAME SPREAD INDEX. The numerical value assigned to 
a material tested in accordance with ASTM E 84. 

INTERIOR FINISHo Interior finish includes interior wall and 
ceiling finish and interior floor finish. 

INTERIOR FLOOR FINISH. The exposed floor surfaces of 
buildings including coverings applied over a finished floor or 
stair, including risers. 

INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH. The exposed 
interior surfaces of buildings including, but not limited to: fixed 
or movable walls and partitions; columns; ceilings; and interior 
wainscotfing, paneling or other finish applied structurally or 
for decoration, acoustical correction, surface insulation, struc- 
tural fire resistance or similar purposes, but not including trim. 

SMOKE=DEVELOPED INDEX. The numerical value as- 
signed to a material tested in accordance with ASTM E 84. 

TRIM. Picture molds, chair rails, baseboards, handrails, door 
and window frames and similar decorative or protective mate- 
rials used in fixed applications. 



WALL AND CEILING Fli^lSHES 

ol GeimeraL Interior wall and ceiling finishes shall be clas- 
sified in accordance with ASTM E 84. Such interior finish ma- 
terials shall be grouped in the following classes in accordance 
with their flame spread and smoke-developed indexes. 

Class A: Flame spread 0-25; smoke-developed 0-450. 
Class B: Flame spread 26-75; smoke-developed 0-450. 
Class C: Flame spread 76-200; smoke-developed 0-450. 

Exception: Materials, other than textiles, tested in accor- 
dance with Section 803.2. 

8ll3,2o Interior wall or celllEg inlshes other tlisiE textileSc In- 
terior wall or ceiling finishes, other than textiles, shall be per- 
mitted to be tested in accordance with NFPA 286. Finishes 
tested in accordance with NFPA 286 shall comply with Section 
803.2.1. 

80>3<,2ol Acceptaece crlterko During the 40 kW exposure, 
the interior finish shall comply with Item 1 . During the 160 
kW exposure, the interior finish shall comply with Item 2. 
During the entire test, the interior finish shall comply with 
Item 3. 

1 . During the 40kW exposure, flames shall not spread to 
the ceiling. 

2. During the 160 kW exposure, the interior finish shall 
comply with the following: 



2003 BNTERNiATDOWAL BODLOflhSG CODE® 



157 



INTERIOR FfiSltSHES 



2.1. Flame shall not spread to the outer extremity 
of the sample on any wall or ceiling. 

2.2. Flashover, as defined in NFPA 286, shall not 
occur. 

3. The total smoke released throughout the NFPA 286 
test shall not exceed 1,000 m^. 

803.3 Stability. Interior finish materials regulated by this chap- 
ter shall be applied or otherwise fastened in such a manner that 
such materials will not readily become detached where sub- 
jected to room temperatures of 200°F (93°C) for not less than 
30 minutes. 

803.4 Applkatloiio Where these materials are applied on walls, 
ceilings or structural elements required to have a fire-resistance 
rating or to be of noncombustible construction, they shall com- 
ply with the provisions of this section. 

803.4.1 Direct attachment aed furred constrection. 
Where walls and ceilings are required by any provision in 
this code to be of fire-resistance-rated or noncombusdble 
construction, the interior finish material shall be applied di- 
rectly against such construction or to furring strips not ex- 
ceeding 1 .75 inches (44 mm) applied directly against such 
surfaces. The intervening spaces between such furring strips 
shall be filled with inorganic or Class A material or shall be 
fireblocked at a maximum of 8 feet (2438 mm) in any direc- 
tion in accordance with Section 717. 

803.4.2 Set-out coestructloii. Where walls and ceilings are 
required to be of fire-resistance-rated or noncombustible 
construction and walls are set out or ceilings are dropped 
distances greater than specified in Section 803.4.1, Class A 
finish materials shall be used except where interior finish 
materials are protected on both sides by an automatic sprin- 
kler system or attached to noncombustible backing or fur- 
ring strips installed as specified in Section 803.4.1. The 
hangers and assembly members of such dropped ceilings 
that are below the main ceiUng line shall be of 
noncombustible materials, except that in Type III and V 
construction, fire-retardant-treated wood shall be permit- 
ted. The construction of each set-out wall shall be of fire- re- 
sistance-rated construction as required elsewhere in this 
code. 

803.4.3 Heavy timber coestroction. Wall and ceiling fin- 
ishes of all classes as permitted in this chapter that are in- 
stalled directly against the wood decking or planking of 
Type IV construction or to wood furring strips applied di- 
rectiy to the wood decking or planking shall be fireblocked 
as specified in Section 803.4.1. 

803.4.4 Materials. An interior wall or ceiling finish that is 
not more than 0.25 inch (6.4 mm) thick shall be applied di- 
rectly against a noncombustible backing. 

Exceptions: 

1. Class A materials. 

2. Materials where the qualifying tests were made' 
with the material suspended or furred out from the 
noncombustible backing. 



803.5 Interior fimish reqoirements based on group. Interior 
wall and ceiling finish shall have a flame spread index not 
greater than that specified in Table 803.5 for the group and lo- 
cation designated. Interior wall and ceiling finish materials, 
other than textiles, tested in accordance with NFPA 286 and 
meeting the acceptance criteria of Section 803 .2. 1 , shall be per- 
mitted to be used where a Class A classification in accordance 
with ASTM E 84 is required. 

803.6 TexttileSo Where used as interior wall or ceiling finish ma- 
terials, textiles, including materials having woven or 
nonwoven, napped, tufted, looped or similar surface, shall 
comply with the requirements of this section. 

803.6.1 Textile wall coverings. Textile wall coverings shall 
have a Class A flame spread index in accordance with 
ASTM E 84 and be protected by automatic sprinklers in- 
stalled in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 or 
the covering shall meet the criteria of Section 803.6.1.1 or 
803.6.1 .2 when tested in the manner intended for use in ac- 
cordance with NFPA 265 using the product mounting sys- 
tem, including adhesive. 

803,6.1.1 Method A test protocol. During the Method A 
protocol, flame shall not spread to the ceiling during the 
40 kW exposure. During the 150 kW exposure, the textile 
wall covering shall comply with all of the following: 

1 . Flame shall not spread to the outer extremity of the 
sample on the 8-foot by 12-foot (203 mm by 305 
mm) wall. 

2. The specimen shall not bum to the outer extremity 
of the 2-foot- wide (610 mm) samples mounted in 
the comer of the room. 

3. Buming droplets deemed capable of igniting tex- 
tile wall coverings or that burn for 30 seconds or 
more shall not form. 

4. Flashover, as defined in NFPA 265, shall not occur. 

5. The maximum net instantaneous peak heat release 
rate, determined by subtracting the bumer output 
from the maximum heat release rate, does not ex- 
ceed 300 kW. 

803.6 J.2 Method B test protocol. During the Method B 
protocol, flames shall not spread to the ceiling at any time 
during the 40 kW exposure. During the 150 kW expo- 
sure, the textile wall covering shall comply with the fol- 
lowing: 

1 . Flame shall not spread to the outer extremities of 
the samples on the 8-foot by 12-foot (203 mm by 
305 mm) walls. 

2. Flashover, as described in NFPA 265, shall not oc- 
cur. 

80306.2 Textile celMng ftnasti. Where used as a ceiling fin- 
ish, carpet and similar textile materials shall have a Class A 
flame spread index in accordance with ASTM E 84 and be 
protected by automatic sprinklers. 



158 



2003 BNTERNATSONAL BUILDING CODE® 



DMTERBOR FBMESHES 



TABLE 803.5 
IMTERDOIR WALL kUD CEBLI^SG FUMBSH REQUmEIViEESITS BY OCCUPANCY*^ 



GROUP 


sprinklered' 


[MOWSPRIBSJKLERED 


Vertical exits and 
exit passageways^' ^ 


Exit access 
corridors and 
other exitways 


Rooms and 
enclosed spaces^ 


Vertical exits and 
exit passageways^' ^